National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for depth precipitable water

  1. Solid precipitation on a tropical glacier in Bolivia measured with an ultrasonic depth gauge

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Berthier, Etienne

    Solid precipitation on a tropical glacier in Bolivia measured with an ultrasonic depth gauge Jean effect produces precipitation at midday in the Andean valleys and in the afternoon in the high mountains the main source of melting energy. INDEX TERMS: 3354 Meteorology and Atmospheric Dynamics: Precipitation

  2. Gulf of Mexico Proved Reserves By Water Depth, 2009

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Gulf of Mexico Proved Reserves and Production by Water Depth, 2009 1 Gulf of Mexico Proved Reserves and Production by Water Depth The Gulf of Mexico Federal Offshore region (GOM...

  3. Species-specific phenological responses to winter temperature and precipitation in a water-limited ecosystem

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mazer, SJ; Gerst, KL; Matthews, ER; Evenden, A

    2015-01-01

    to winter temperature and precipitation in a water-limitedthe timing and magnitude of precipitation (i.e. , larger butof monthly and annual precipitation (PPT, mm), mean monthly

  4. Estimation of precipitable water from surface observations 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kahan, Archie Marion

    1959-01-01

    This dissertation examines the causes of variations in tropical cyclone precipitation (TCP) and the relationship between TCP and river discharge in Texas. The dissertation has three major objectives: 1) investigate the ...

  5. University of Oregon: GPS-based Precipitable Water Vapor (PWV)

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Vignola, F.; Andreas, A.

    2013-08-22

    A partnership with the University of Oregon and U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to collect Precipitable Water Vapor (PWV) data to compliment existing resource assessment data collection by the university.

  6. University of Oregon: GPS-based Precipitable Water Vapor (PWV)

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Vignola, F.; Andreas, A.

    A partnership with the University of Oregon and U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to collect Precipitable Water Vapor (PWV) data to compliment existing resource assessment data collection by the university.

  7. Precipitable water structure in tropical systems as estimated from TOVS 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hatfield, Eric

    1994-01-01

    The spatial and temporal structures of precipitable water (pW) in tropical systems are estimated using TIROS Operational Vertical Sounder (TOVS) radiances over ten cool seasons and two entire years. Statistical regression ...

  8. 7 Predictive Risk Mapping of Water Table Depths in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Camara, Gilberto

    73 7 Predictive Risk Mapping of Water Table Depths in a Brazilian Cerrado Area R. L. Manzione, M extend from the northern margins of the Amazon rain for- ests to outliers on the southern borders metabolize throughout the year, drawing on soil water reserves, and can withstand short-lived fires. contents

  9. Wave-current interaction in water of finite depth

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Huang, Zhenhua, 1967-

    2004-01-01

    In this thesis, the nonlinear interaction of waves and current in water of finite depth is studied. Wind is not included. In the first part, a 2D theory for the wave effect on a turbulent current over rough or smooth bottom ...

  10. Species-specific phenological responses to winter temperature and precipitation in a water-limited ecosystem

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mazer, SJ; Gerst, KL; Gerst, KL; Matthews, ER; Matthews, ER; Evenden, A

    2015-01-01

    and precipitation in a water-limited ecosystem S USAN J. Mand precipitation in a water-limited ecosystem. Ecosphere 6(information is available from water-limited ecosystems. In

  11. Plant Water Use in Owens Valley, CA: Understanding the Influence of Climate and Depth to Groundwater

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pataki, Diane E

    2008-01-01

    plant responses to water stress, plant chemical composition,Phreatophytes (Geological Survey Water-Supply Paper 1423).T. E. Dawson. 2006. Depth of water acquisition by invading

  12. CRIRES Science Verification Proposal Determining the atmospheric precipitable water vapour content

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liske, Jochen

    CRIRES Science Verification Proposal Determining the atmospheric precipitable water vapour content the precipitable water vapour (PWV) content over Paranal by determining the equivalent widths of 7 carefully. Scientific Case: Atmospheric precipitable water vapour (PWV) is one of the crucial parameters in infrared (IR

  13. GPS precipitable water measurements used in the analysis of California and Nevada climate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Means, James Douglas

    2011-01-01

    Remote-Sensing Of Atmospheric Water-Vapor Using The GlobalWet Delays Onto Precipitable Water, Journal of AppliedRivers, Floods and the Water Resources of California, Water,

  14. Precipitation suppression by anthropogenic air pollution: major loss of water resources where we need them most

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Daniel, Rosenfeld

    Precipitation suppression by anthropogenic air pollution: major loss of water resources where we inferences of air pollution suppressing precipitation lead us to investigate historical climate records of precipitation in locations that are dominated by clouds that are most susceptible to the detrimental impacts

  15. Recovery of carboxylic acids from water by precipitation from organic solutions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    King, C. Judson (Kensington, CA); Starr, John (Albany, CA)

    1992-01-01

    Carboxylic acids are recovered from wet organic solutions by reducing the solutions' water content thus causing the acids to precipitate as recoverable crystals.

  16. Constraining water table depth simulations in a land surface model using estimated baseflow

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lo, MH; Yeh, PJF; Famiglietti, JS

    2008-01-01

    northeastern Kansas. Adv Water Resour 2002;25:221–38. [68]ing between runoff and soil water storage and differentcycles of base?ow and water table depth show signif- icant

  17. G-Band Vapor Radiometer Precipitable Water Vapor (GVRPWV) Value-Added Product

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koontz, A; Cadeddu, M

    2012-12-05

    The G-Band Vapor Radiometer Precipitable Water Vapor (GVRPWV) value-added product (VAP) computes precipitable water vapor using neural network techniques from data measured by the GVR. The GVR reports time-series measurements of brightness temperatures for four channels located at 183.3 ± 1, 3, 7, and 14 GHz.

  18. Risk assessment and evaluation of the conductor setting depth in shallow water, Gulf of Mexico 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tu, Yong B.

    2006-08-16

    Factors related to operations of a well that impact drilling uncertainties in the shallow water region of the Gulf of Mexico (GOM) can be directly linked to the site specific issues; such as water depth and local geological ...

  19. Critical analysis of atmospheric turbidity and precipitable water at five Canadian stations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Garrison, J.; Gueymard, C.

    1997-12-31

    Global and diffuse radiation and surface meteorological measurements at Edmonton, Montreal, Port Hardy, Toronto and Winnipeg for the years 1977--1984 are analyzed to yield estimates of atmospheric precipitable water and turbidity. Three methods of estimating the precipitable water and two methods of estimating the turbidity are used and compared. Measurements of pyranometer response as a function of zenith angle are used to correct the global radiation measurements. Turbidity is corrected for the effect of circumsolar radiation included in the direct radiation obtained from the global and diffuse radiation measurements. A comparison with earlier precipitable water and turbidity results is included.

  20. Borehole sounding device with sealed depth and water level sensors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Skalski, Joseph C.; Henke, Michael D.

    2005-08-02

    A borehole device having proximal and distal ends comprises an enclosure at the proximal end for accepting an aircraft cable containing a plurality of insulated conductors from a remote position. A water sensing enclosure is sealingly attached to the enclosure and contains means for detecting water, and sending a signal on the cable to the remote position indicating water has been detected. A bottom sensing enclosure is sealingly attached to the water sensing enclosure for determining when the borehole device encounters borehole bottom and sends a signal on the cable to the remote position indicating that borehole bottom has been encountered.

  1. A climatology of tropical synoptic scale behavior from TOVS-estimated precipitable water 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mackey, Morgan Douglas

    1996-01-01

    Tropical synoptic scale behavior is examined using 3 to 8 day filtered precipitable water (PW) estimated from TOVS operational satellite observations for 24 three-month seasons. Zonally-oriented tropical convergence zones ...

  2. Influences of Precipitation on Water Mass Transformation and Deep Convection MICHAEL A. SPALL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Influences of Precipitation on Water Mass Transformation and Deep Convection MICHAEL A. SPALL for the temperature and salinity anomalies of deep convective water masses, making explicit their dependence on both on water mass transformation and the strength of the meridional over- turning circulation in marginal seas

  3. Water wave packets over variable depth R. H. J. Grimshaw and S. Y. Annenkov

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Water wave packets over variable depth R. H. J. Grimshaw and S. Y. Annenkov Department to describe how a water wave packet will deform and eventually be destroyed as it propagates shoreward from deep to shallow water. It is well-known that in the framework of the usual nonlinear Schrodinger

  4. Novel Precipitated Zirconia-Based DGT Technique for High-Resolution Imaging of Oxyanions in Waters and Sediments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ma, Lena

    Novel Precipitated Zirconia-Based DGT Technique for High- Resolution Imaging of Oxyanions in Waters binding layer was synthesized to meet these requirements by in situ precipitation of zirconia into a precast hydrogel. The particle diameter 0.2 m of zirconia in this precipitated gel was uniform

  5. Kinetics of metal-arsenate precipitate formation at the goethite-water interface

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sparks, Donald L.

    GEOC 25 Kinetics of metal-arsenate precipitate formation at the goethite-water interface Markus-term sorption kinetics of 0.25mM Zn (II) and As (V) were investigated in pH 7 suspensions of 10, 100, and 1000 of Metals in Terrestrial and Aquatic Systems Division of Geochemistry The 227th ACS National Meeting

  6. Unravelling the influence of water depth and wave energy on the facies diversity of shelf carbonates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Purkis, Sam

    Unravelling the influence of water depth and wave energy on the facies diversity of shelf their production is tied to light and wave energy, carbonate sediments are most effectively produced in shallow energy regime to be reliable indicators of facies type when considered in isolation. Consid- ered

  7. Geochemical and isotopic results for groundwater, drainage waters, snowmelt, permafrost, precipitation in Barrow, Alaska (USA) 2012-2013

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Wilson, Cathy; Newman, Brent; Heikoop, Jeff

    2012-07-18

    Data include a large suite of analytes (geochemical and isotopic) for samples collected in Barrow, Alaska (2012-2013). Sample types are indicated, and include soil pore waters, drainage waters, snowmelt, precipitation, and permafrost samples.

  8. Geochemical and isotopic results for groundwater, drainage waters, snowmelt, permafrost, precipitation in Barrow, Alaska (USA) 2012-2013

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Wilson, Cathy; Newman, Brent; Heikoop, Jeff

    Data include a large suite of analytes (geochemical and isotopic) for samples collected in Barrow, Alaska (2012-2013). Sample types are indicated, and include soil pore waters, drainage waters, snowmelt, precipitation, and permafrost samples.

  9. Precipitation of water from aqueous mixtures with addition of hydrophilic ions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ryuichi Okamoto; Akira Onuki

    2010-01-21

    We examine phase separation in aqueous mixtures at fixed amounts of hydrophilic monovalent ions. When water is the minority component, preferential solvation can stabilize water domains enriched with ions. This ion-induced precipitation occurs in wide ranges of the temperature and the average composition where the solvent would be in one-phase states without ions. The volume fraction of such water domains is decreased to zero as the interaction parameter $\\chi$ (dependent on the temperature) is decreased toward a critical value for each average composition.

  10. Assessing surface water consumption using remotely-sensed groundwater, evapotranspiration, and precipitation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anderson, Ray G; Lo, Min-Hui; Famiglietti, James S

    2012-01-01

    in satellite-based precipitation measurements, Geophys. Res.and A. Y. Hou (2010), Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM)2005), Eval- uation of precipitation estimates from PRISM

  11. High Recovery Desalination of Brackish Water by Chemically-Enhanced Seeded Precipitation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCool, Brian Carey

    2012-01-01

    Improved compact accelerated precipitation softening (CAPS).Using Interstage Calcium Precipitation. Desalination, 2012.Enhanced Seeded Precipitation,” Desalination, 264, 256-267 (

  12. Airborne Sun photometer measurements of aerosol optical depth and columnar water vapor during the Puerto Rico Dust Experiment and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Christopher, Sundar A.

    Airborne Sun photometer measurements of aerosol optical depth and columnar water vapor during to within 0.004­0.030 with coincident data obtained with an AERONET Sun/ sky radiometer located on Cabras Dynamics: Remote sensing; KEYWORDS: PRIDE, airborne Sun photometer, aerosol optical depth, columnar water

  13. Formation of Metal-Arsenate Precipitates at the Goethite-Water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sparks, Donald L.

    , * M A A R T E N N A C H T E G A A L , A N D D O N A L D L . S P A R K S Environmental Soil ChemistryFormation of Metal-Arsenate Precipitates at the Goethite-Water Interface M A R K U S G R A¨ F E-5). Aqueous concentrations of As in mine drainage range between 5 and 7000 µg L-1 and in isolated cases

  14. Aerosol impacts on California winter clouds and precipitation during CalWater 2011: local pollution versus long-range transported dust

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2014-01-01

    California winter clouds and precipitation during CalWater 2011 mountain barrier. Together with the weak vertical transport,

  15. Meteorological Tables for Determination of Precipitable Water, Temperatures and Pressures Aloft for a Saturated Pseudoadiabatic Atmosphere -- in the Metric System 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eihle, W. O.; Powers, R. J.; Clark, R.A.

    1968-01-01

    The hydrometeorologist is often confronted with the problem of determination of precipitable water in the atmosphere based on surface dewpoints and the assumption of a saturated atmosphere with a pseudoadiabatic lapse rate. ...

  16. Importance of wet precipitation as a removal and transport process for atmospheric water soluble carbonyls

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Matsunaga, SN; Guenther, AB; Izawa, Y; Wiedinmyer, C; Greenberg, JP; Kawamura, K

    2007-01-01

    et al. , 2001). Wet precipitation samples contain almost alldeposition rate due to the precipitation Yield mg C m 2 h 1Importance of wet precipitation as a removal and transport

  17. PRACTICAL SNOW DEPTH SAMPLING AROUND SIX SNOW TELEMETRY (SNOTEL) STATIONS IN COLORADO AND WYOMING, UNITED STATES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anderson, Charles W.

    THESIS PRACTICAL SNOW DEPTH SAMPLING AROUND SIX SNOW TELEMETRY (SNOTEL) STATIONS IN COLORADO Laituri Mazdak Arabi #12;ii ABSTRACT PRACTICAL SNOW DEPTH SAMPLING AROUND SIX SNOW TELEMETRY (SNOTEL. These stations measure snow depth (SD), snow water equivalent (SWE), air temperature and precipitation. To assess

  18. Preprocessing issues associated with multiple attenuation in water depths of less than 150 meters: ISMA and predictive deconvolution 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Walsh, Jeffrey Robert

    2001-01-01

    Over the past three decades, marine exploration has been essentially limited to water depths within the 200-500 m range. With most reservoirs in this range depleting, exploration is moving towards very shallow water, less than 100 m, as well...

  19. High Recovery Desalination of Brackish Water by Chemically-Enhanced Seeded Precipitation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCool, Brian Carey

    2012-01-01

    for quality water supply and waste water disposal.disposal. Management of agricultural drainage water quality,brine disposal) at the optimal recovery a . AD Water Quality

  20. Plant Water Use in Owens Valley, CA: Understanding the Influence of Climate and Depth to Groundwater

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pataki, Diane E

    2008-01-01

    J.R. Ehleringer. 2006. Water extraction times for plant andstems were sampled for water extraction and stable isotopeCA). Following the water extraction, roots were removed from

  1. Water wave packets over variable depth R. H. J. Grimshaw and S. Y. Annenkov

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    deep to shallow water. It is well-known that in the framework of the usual nonlinear Schrodinger equation, a wave packet can only exist in deep water, more precisely when kh > 1.363 where k water kh 1.363, depending on the sign of the initial value in deep water

  2. Correlation between water-vapor transport from the Gulf of Mexico and precipitation in the eastern United States 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wright, John Vinson

    1973-01-01

    CORRELATION BETWEEN WATER-V'POR TRANSPORT FROM THE GULF OF MEXICO AND PR CIPITATION IN THE EASTERN UNITED STATES A Thesis John Vinson Wright, Jr. Subiaitted to the Gw. . duate College ot Texas A&M University in parti ' fulfillment... of the reourres, ent for the degre oi MASTER OF SCIENCE May 197B Ma]or Sub]ect: Meteorology CORRELATION BETWEEN WATER-VAPOR TRANSPORT FROM THE GULF OF MEXICO AND PRECIPITATION IN THE EASTERN UNITED STATFS A Thesis by John Vinson Wright, Jr. Approved ac...

  3. Assessing surface water consumption using remotely-sensed groundwater, evapotranspiration, and precipitation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anderson, Ray G; Lo, Min-Hui; Famiglietti, James S

    2012-01-01

    Fernandez (2010), The surface water and ocean topographyObserving terrestrial surface water and oceanic submesoscaleof trends in streamflow and water availability in a changing

  4. CHARACTERISATION OF AGED HDPE PIPES FROM DRINKING WATER DISTRIBUTION: INVESTIGATION OF CRACK DEPTH BY NOL RING

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    BY NOL RING TESTS UNDER CREEP LOADING C. Devilliers 1), 2), 3) , L. Laiarinandrasana 1) , B. Fayolle 2. KEYWORDS HDPE pipes, Nol Ring creep test, ageing effects, fracture mechanism, crack depth ratio, aged layer loading than a monotonic tensile loading. It is to be noticed that the Nol Ring test subjected to a creep

  5. Tsunami and acoustic-gravity waves in water of constant depth

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hendin, Gali; Stiassnie, Michael

    2013-08-15

    A study of wave radiation by a rather general bottom displacement, in a compressible ocean of otherwise constant depth, is carried out within the framework of a three-dimensional linear theory. Simple analytic expressions for the flow field, at large distance from the disturbance, are derived. Realistic numerical examples indicate that the Acoustic-Gravity waves, which significantly precede the Tsunami, are expected to leave a measurable signature on bottom-pressure records that should be considered for early detection of Tsunami.

  6. Assessing surface water consumption using remotely-sensed groundwater, evapotranspiration, and precipitation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anderson, Ray G; Lo, Min-Hui; Famiglietti, James S

    2012-01-01

    model of land surface water and energy fluxes for generalin our water balance. One is a daily, 0.05 ET energy balance

  7. MMA Memo. No. 238 Precipitable Water at KP ---1993--1998

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Groppi, Christopher

    of each water molecule (mw = 18 amu), P 0 is the water vapor partial pressure at the surface, H is in K. Note that if you have a surface water vapor partial pressure measurement in hPa (a common is equal to the surface water vapor partial pressure in hPa (because T 0 is always ¸ 250­310 K

  8. A strip theory approximation for wave forces on submerged vehicles in finite depth water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rybka Jan A. (Jan Andrzej)

    2005-01-01

    Autonomous Underwater Vehicles (AUV's) are becoming of increasing use in shallow waters for oceanographic data collection, coastal mapping, and military operations such as mine surveillance along enemy coastlines. Currently ...

  9. High Recovery Desalination of Brackish Water by Chemically-Enhanced Seeded Precipitation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCool, Brian Carey

    2012-01-01

    Water. Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research, 2009.BWRO). Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research, 2005.Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research, 2009. 48(13):

  10. High Recovery Desalination of Brackish Water by Chemically-Enhanced Seeded Precipitation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCool, Brian Carey

    2012-01-01

    intermediate chemical demineralization. Journal of Membraneintermediate concentrate demineralization for water recoveryseeds are added for demineralization prior to SRO. The CESP

  11. Relationship of salinity and depth to the water table on Tamarix spp. (Saltcedar) growth and water use. 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schmidt, Kurtiss Michael

    2004-09-30

    Saltcedar is an invasive shrub that has moved into western United States riparian areas and is continuing to spread. Saltcedar is a phreatophyte that can utilize a saturated water table for moisture once established and ...

  12. High Recovery Desalination of Brackish Water by Chemically-Enhanced Seeded Precipitation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCool, Brian Carey

    2012-01-01

    water management: (1) direct disposal (no desalination), (2)recovery (62% for RO). Direct disposal of AD brackish watervarious methods for direct brine disposal such as thermal

  13. Modeled Interactive Effects of Precipitation, temperature, and [CO2] on Ecosystem Carbon and Water Dynamics in Different Climatic Zones

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Luo, Yiqi [University of Oklahoma; Gerten, Dieter [Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research, Potsdam, Germany; Le Maire, Guerric [Laboratoire des Sciences du Climat et de l'Environement, France; Parton, William [University of Colorado, Fort Collins; Weng, Ensheng [University of Oklahoma, Norman; Zhou, Xuhuui [University of Oklahoma; Keough, Cindy [University of Colorado, Fort Collins; Beier, Claus [Riso National Laboratory, Roskilde, Denmark; Ciais, Philippe [Laboratoire des Sciences du Climat et de l'Environement, France; Cramer, Wolfgang [Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research, Potsdam, Germany; Dukes, Jeff [University of Massachusetts, Boston; Emmett, Bridget [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Bangor, Gwynedd, United Kingdom; Hanson, Paul J [ORNL; Knapp, Alan [Colorado State University, Fort Collins; Linder, Sune [Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Upsalla, Sweden; Nepstad, Daniel [Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution (WHOI), Woods Hole, MA; Rustad, Lindsey [USDA Forest Service

    2008-01-01

    Interactive effects of multiple global change factors on ecosystem processes are complex. It is relatively expensive to explore those interactions in manipulative experiments. We conducted a modeling analysis to identify potentially important interactions and to stimulate hypothesis formulation for experimental research. Four models were used to quantify interactive effects of climate warming (T), altered precipitation amounts [doubled (DP) and halved (HP)] and seasonality (SP, moving precipitation in July and August to January and February to create summer drought), and elevated [CO2] (C) on net primary production (NPP), heterotrophic respiration (Rh), net ecosystem production (NEP), transpiration, and runoff.We examined those responses in seven ecosystems, including forests, grasslands, and heathlands in different climate zones. The modeling analysis showed that none of the threeway interactions among T, C, and altered precipitation was substantial for either carbon or water processes, nor consistent among the seven ecosystems. However, two-way interactive effects on NPP, Rh, and NEP were generally positive (i.e. amplification of one factor s effect by the other factor) between T and C or between T and DP. A negative interaction (i.e. depression of one factor s effect by the other factor) occurred for simulated NPP between T and HP. The interactive effects on runoff were positive between T and HP. Four pairs of two-way interactive effects on plant transpiration were positive and two pairs negative. In addition, wet sites generally had smaller relative changes in NPP, Rh, runoff, and transpiration but larger absolute changes in NEP than dry sites in response to the treatments. The modeling results suggest new hypotheses to be tested in multifactor global change experiments. Likewise, more experimental evidence is needed for the further improvement of ecosystem models in order to adequately simulate complex interactive processes.

  14. High Recovery Desalination of Brackish Water by Chemically-Enhanced Seeded Precipitation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCool, Brian Carey

    2012-01-01

    organic contaminants by lime softening. Water Research,of alkaline material (e.g. , lime) and gypsum powder intothe alkaline material (e.g. , lime) to form a slurry. 4. The

  15. Modelled effects of precipitation on ecosystem carbon and water dynamics in different climatic zones

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dukes, Jeffrey

    for Sustainable Energy, Biosystems Department, Building BIO-309, Frederiksborgvej 399, 4000 Roskilde, Denmark, kCent, ORCHIDEE, TECO), we explored effects of potential P changes on water limitation and net primary production

  16. Aerosol Impacts on California Winter Clouds and Precipitation during CalWater 2011: Local Pollution versus Long-Range Transported Dust

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fan, Jiwen; Leung, Lai-Yung R.; DeMott, Paul J.; Comstock, Jennifer M.; Singh, Balwinder; Rosenfeld, Daniel; Tomlinson, Jason M.; White, Allen B.; Prather, Kimberly; Minnis, Patrick; Ayers, J. K.; Min, Qilong

    2014-01-03

    Mineral dust aerosols often observed over California in winter and spring, associated with long-range transport from Asia and Sahara, have been linked to enhanced precipitation based on observations. Local anthropogenic pollution, on the other hand, was shown in previous observational and modeling studies to reduce precipitation. Here we incorporate recent developments in ice nucleation parameterizations to link aerosols with ice crystal formation in a spectral-bin cloud microphysical model coupled with the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model, to examine the relative and combined impacts of dust and local pollution particles on cloud properties and precipitation type and intensity. Simulations are carried out for two cloud cases with contrasting meteorology and cloud dynamics that occurred on February 16 (FEB16) and March 02 (MAR02) from the CalWater 2011 field campaign. In both cases, observations show the presence of dust and biological particles in a relative pristine environment. The simulated cloud microphysical properties and precipitation show reasonable agreement with aircraft and surface measurements. Model sensitivity experiments indicate that in the pristine environment, the dust and biological aerosol layers increase the accumulated precipitation by 10-20% from the Central Valley to the Sierra Nevada Mountains for both FEB16 and MAR02 due to a ~40% increase in snow formation, validating the observational hypothesis. Model results show that local pollution increases precipitation over the windward slope of the mountains by few percent due to increased snow formation when dust is present but reduces precipitation by 5-8% if dust is removed on FEB16. The effects of local pollution on cloud microphysics and precipitation strongly depend on meteorology including the strength of the Sierra Barrier Jet, and cloud dynamics. This study further underscores the importance of the interactions between local pollution, dust, and environmental conditions for assessing aerosol effects on cold season precipitation in California.

  17. Precipitation over South America during the Last Glacial Maximum: An analysis of the "amount effect"ť with a water isotope-enabled general circulation model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Jung-Eun; Johnson, Kathleen; Fung, Inez

    2009-01-01

    Modeling d 18 O in precipitation over the tropical Americas:2007), Millennial-scale precipitation changes in southernStable isotopes in precipitation, Tellus, 16, 436 – Fedorov,

  18. ARM - Measurement - Precipitable water

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Comments?govInstrumentsnoaacrnBarrow, Alaska Outreach Home Roomparticlecontentnumber

  19. Improving parameter estimation and water table depth simulation in a land surface model using GRACE water storage and estimated base flow data

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lo, Min-Hui; Famiglietti, James S; Yeh, P. J.-F.; Syed, T. H

    2010-01-01

    spatially variable water and energy balance processes, Waterdistributed land surface water and energy balance model, J.

  20. Improving parameter estimation and water table depth simulation in a land surface model using GRACE water storage and estimated base flow data

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lo, Min-Hui; Famiglietti, James S; Yeh, P. J.-F.; Syed, T. H

    2010-01-01

    variations of river water storage from a multiple satellite2007), Estimating ground water storage changes in theAnalysis of terrestrial water storage changes from GRACE and

  1. Sequential precipitation of a new goethitecalcite nanocomposite and its possible application in the removal of toxic ions from polluted water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vandoeuvre-lčs-Nancy, France h i g h l i g h t s " A simple and innovative synthesis route for goethite a c t This study proposes a simple and innovative synthesis route for a goethite­calcite nanocompositeSequential precipitation of a new goethite­calcite nanocomposite and its possible application

  2. Improving parameter estimation and water table depth simulation in a land surface model using GRACE water storage and estimated base flow data

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lo, Min-Hui; Famiglietti, James S; Yeh, P. J.-F.; Syed, T. H

    2010-01-01

    model using GRACE water storage and estimated base flow data,model using GRACE water storage and estimated base flow datawith esti- mated base flow data in the model calibration.

  3. Stability of gravity-capillary waves generated by a moving pressure disturbance in water of finite depth

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stability of gravity-capillary waves generated by a moving pressure disturbance in water of finite In previous work, we investigated two-dimensional steady gravity-capillary waves generated by a localized-capillary, depression wave, elevation wave, fKdV, stability 1 Introduction Two-dimensional surface waves generated

  4. Life Cycle Water Consumption and Water Resource Assessment for Utility-Scale Geothermal Systems: An In-Depth Analysis of Historical and Forthcoming EGS Projects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clark, Corrie E.; Harto, Christopher B.; Schroeder, Jenna N.; Martino, Louis E.; Horner, Robert M.

    2013-11-05

    This report is the third in a series of reports sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy Geothermal Technologies Program in which a range of water-related issues surrounding geothermal power production are evaluated. The first report made an initial attempt at quantifying the life cycle fresh water requirements of geothermal power-generating systems and explored operational and environmental concerns related to the geochemical composition of geothermal fluids. The initial analysis of life cycle fresh water consumption of geothermal power-generating systems identified that operational water requirements consumed the vast majority of water across the life cycle. However, it relied upon limited operational water consumption data and did not account for belowground operational losses for enhanced geothermal systems (EGSs). A second report presented an initial assessment of fresh water demand for future growth in utility-scale geothermal power generation. The current analysis builds upon this work to improve life cycle fresh water consumption estimates and incorporates regional water availability into the resource assessment to improve the identification of areas where future growth in geothermal electricity generation may encounter water challenges. This report is divided into nine chapters. Chapter 1 gives the background of the project and its purpose, which is to assess the water consumption of geothermal technologies and identify areas where water availability may present a challenge to utility-scale geothermal development. Water consumption refers to the water that is withdrawn from a resource such as a river, lake, or nongeothermal aquifer that is not returned to that resource. The geothermal electricity generation technologies evaluated in this study include conventional hydrothermal flash and binary systems, as well as EGSs that rely on engineering a productive reservoir where heat exists, but where water availability or permeability may be limited. Chapter 2 describes the approach and methods for this work and identifies the four power plant scenarios evaluated: a 20-MW EGS binary plant, a 50-MW EGS binary plant, a 10-MW hydrothermal binary plant, and a 50-MW hydrothermal flash plant. The methods focus on (1) the collection of data to improve estimation of EGS stimulation volumes, aboveground operational consumption for all geothermal technologies, and belowground operational consumption for EGS; and (2) the mapping of the geothermal and water resources of the western United States to assist in the identification of potential water challenges to geothermal growth. Chapters 3 and 4 present the water requirements for the power plant life cycle. Chapter 3 presents the results of the current data collection effort, and Chapter 4 presents the normalized volume of fresh water consumed at each life cycle stage per lifetime energy output for the power plant scenarios evaluated. Over the life cycle of a geothermal power plant, from construction through 30 years of operation, the majority of water is consumed by plant operations. For the EGS binary scenarios, where dry cooling was assumed, belowground operational water loss is the greatest contributor depending upon the physical and operational conditions of the reservoir. Total life cycle water consumption requirements for air-cooled EGS binary scenarios vary between 0.22 and 1.85 gal/kWh, depending upon the extent of belowground operational water consumption. The air-cooled hydrothermal binary and flash plants experience far less fresh water consumption over the life cycle, at 0.04 gal/kWh. Fresh water requirements associated with air- cooled binary operations are primarily from aboveground water needs, including dust control, maintenance, and domestic use. Although wet-cooled hydrothermal flash systems require water for cooling, these plants generally rely upon the geofluid, fluid from the geothermal reservoir, which typically has high salinity and total dissolved solids concentration and is much warmer than normal groundwater sources, for their cooling water needs; thus,

  5. Life Cycle Water Consumption and Water Resource Assessment for Utility-Scale Geothermal Systems: An In-Depth Analysis of Historical and Forthcoming EGS Projects

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Schroeder, Jenna N.

    2013-08-31

    This report is the third in a series of reports sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy Geothermal Technologies Program in which a range of water-related issues surrounding geothermal power production are evaluated. The first report made an initial attempt at quantifying the life cycle fresh water requirements of geothermal power-generating systems and explored operational and environmental concerns related to the geochemical composition of geothermal fluids. The initial analysis of life cycle fresh water consumption of geothermal power-generating systems identified that operational water requirements consumed the vast majority of water across the life cycle. However, it relied upon limited operational water consumption data and did not account for belowground operational losses for enhanced geothermal systems (EGSs). A second report presented an initial assessment of fresh water demand for future growth in utility-scale geothermal power generation. The current analysis builds upon this work to improve life cycle fresh water consumption estimates and incorporates regional water availability into the resource assessment to improve the identification of areas where future growth in geothermal electricity generation may encounter water challenges.

  6. Life Cycle Water Consumption and Water Resource Assessment for Utility-Scale Geothermal Systems: An In-Depth Analysis of Historical and Forthcoming EGS Projects

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Schroeder, Jenna N.

    This report is the third in a series of reports sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy Geothermal Technologies Program in which a range of water-related issues surrounding geothermal power production are evaluated. The first report made an initial attempt at quantifying the life cycle fresh water requirements of geothermal power-generating systems and explored operational and environmental concerns related to the geochemical composition of geothermal fluids. The initial analysis of life cycle fresh water consumption of geothermal power-generating systems identified that operational water requirements consumed the vast majority of water across the life cycle. However, it relied upon limited operational water consumption data and did not account for belowground operational losses for enhanced geothermal systems (EGSs). A second report presented an initial assessment of fresh water demand for future growth in utility-scale geothermal power generation. The current analysis builds upon this work to improve life cycle fresh water consumption estimates and incorporates regional water availability into the resource assessment to improve the identification of areas where future growth in geothermal electricity generation may encounter water challenges.

  7. Research Article Multivariate Interpolation of Precipitation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mitasova, Helena

    Research Article Multivariate Interpolation of Precipitation Using Regularized Spline with Tension to interpolate daily and annual mean precipitation in regions with complex terrain. Tension, smoothing the spatial model of precipitation in terms of its predictive error, spatial pattern and water balance. 1

  8. Performance of Evapotranspirative Covers Under Enhanced Precipitation: Preliminary Data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David C. Anderson, Lloyd T. Desotell, David B. Hudson, Gregory J. Shott, Vefa Yucel

    2007-02-01

    Since January 2001, drainage lysimeter studies have been conducted at Yucca Flat, on the Nevada Test Site, in support of an evapotranspirative cover design. Yucca Flat has an arid climate with average precipitation of 16.5 cm annually. The facility consists of six drainage lysimeters 3 m in diameter, 2.4 m deep, and backfilled with a single layer of native soil. The bottom of each lysimeter is sealed and equipped with a small drain that enables direct measurement of saturated drainage. Each lysimeter has eight time-domain reflectometer probes to measure moisture content-depth profiles paired with eight heat-dissipation probes to measure soil-water potential depth profiles. Sensors are connected to dataloggers which are remotely accessed via a phone line. The six lysimeters have three different surface treatments: two are bare-soil; two were revegetated with native species (primarily shadscale, winterfat, ephedra, and Indian rice grass); and two were allowed to revegetate naturally with such species as Russian thistle, halogeton, tumblemustard and cheatgrass. Beginning in October 2003, one half of the paired cover treatments (one bare soil, one invader species, and one native species) were irrigated with an amount of water equal to two times the natural precipitation to achieve a three times natural precipitation treatment. From October 2003 through December 2005, all lysimeters received 52.8 cm precipitation, and the four irrigated lysimeters received an extra 105.6 cm of irrigation. No drainage has occurred from any of the nonirrigated lysimeters, but moisture has accumulated at the bottom of the bare-soil lysimeter and the native-plant lysimeter. All irrigated lysimeters had some drainage. The irrigated baresoil lysimeter had 48.3 cm of drainage or 26.4 percent of the combined precipitation and applied irrigation for the entire monitoring record. The irrigated invader species lysimeter had 5.8 cm of drainage, about 3.2 percent of the combined precipitation and applied irrigation. An irrigation valve failure caused an additional 50.8 cm of irrigation to be applied to the irrigated native plant lysimeter. There has been 29.3 cm of drainage from this lysimeter, which is 11.5 percent of the total applied water. Approximately 40 percent of the drainage from the irrigated native plant lysimeter occurred within four weeks of the valve failure.

  9. Sequential precipitation of a new goethite-calcite nanocomposite and its1 possible application in the removal of toxic ions from polluted water2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    for a goethite-calcite2 nanocomposite. This synthesis is summarized by three sequential precipitation reactions1 Sequential precipitation of a new goethite-calcite nanocomposite and its1 possible application.1016/j.cej.2012.10.050 #12;2 Abstract1 This study proposes a simple and innovative synthesis route

  10. *Corresponding author.Email contacts: nenes@its.caltech.edu, assim@chemeng.ntua.gr Simulation of Airlift Pumps for Moderate-Depth Water Wells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nenes, Athanasios

    -27, Athens, Greece Abstract A model is developed which simulates water airlift pumps. The water flow rate can be predicted for a given airlift system, or, the required air flow can be estimated for a desired water flow for applications such as pumping corrosive fluids and in geothermal wells, [1]. It is also used for pumping

  11. Flood or Drought: How Do Aerosols Affect Precipitation?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Daniel, Rosenfeld

    Flood or Drought: How Do Aerosols Affect Precipitation? Daniel Rosenfeld,1 * Ulrike Lohmann,2 and the initiation of precipitation. Large concentrations of human-made aerosols have been reported to both decrease hand, heavily polluted clouds evaporate much of their water before precipitation can occur, if they can

  12. PRECIPITATION DOWNSCALING: METHODOLOGIES AND

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Foufoula-Georgiou, Efi

    PRECIPITATION DOWNSCALING: METHODOLOGIES AND HYDROLOGIC APPLICATIONS Efi Foufoula-Georgiou St/or other information. #12;PREMISES OF STATISTICAL DOWNSCALING Precipitation exhibits space-time variability) There is a substantial evidence to suggest that despite the very complex patterns of precipitation

  13. Geometrical Characterization of Precipitation Patterns

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    AghaKouchak, Amir; Nasrollahi, Nasrin; Li, Jingjing; Imam, Bisher; Sorooshian, Soroosh

    2011-01-01

    ing quantitative precipitation forecast. J. Geophys. Res. ,in satellite-based precipitation estimates. J. Geophys.Application to multi-sensor precipitation estimates. Hydrol.

  14. ORIENTATION RELATIONSHIPS IN PRECIPITATION SYSTEMS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dahmen, U.

    2013-01-01

    ORIENTATION RELATIONSHIPS IN PRECIPITATION SYSTEMS U. DahmenOrientation Relationships in Precipitation Systems U. Dahmenorientation relationships in precipitation systems b~c/hcp a

  15. The Effects of Great Plains Irrigation on the Surface Energy Balance, Regional Circulation, and Precipitation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Huber, David B.; Brunsell, Nathaniel A.; Mechem, David B.

    2014-05-05

    Irrigation provides a needed source of water in regions of low precipitation. Adding water to a region that would otherwise see little natural precipitation alters the partitioning of surface energy fluxes, the evolution ...

  16. PRECIPITATION AND TEMPERATURE CHANGES AND THEIR EFFECT ON GROUNDWATER ALONG THE KONA COAST OF HAWAII

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anderson, Charles W.

    THESIS PRECIPITATION AND TEMPERATURE CHANGES AND THEIR EFFECT ON GROUNDWATER ALONG THE KONA COAST;Copyright by Sharla Ann Stevenson 2015 All Rights Reserved #12;ii ABSTRACT PRECIPITATION AND TEMPERATURE-depth analysis of changes in precipitation and temperature occurring during the time since the park

  17. Spatial predictive distribution for precipitation based on numerical weather predictions (NWP)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Steinsland, Ingelin

    for precipitation based on NWP #12;Motivation, hydro power production How much water comes when? With uncertainty

  18. Classi cation Precipitation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Langford, John

    on future inputs #12; rain snow 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 Precipitation Temperature Unknown Function Samples Training Sample #12; rain snow 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4 Precipitation Temperature Learned Function (Classifier) guess 1 guess 2 guess 3 #12; rain snow 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 Precipitation Temperature Future

  19. Long-term Water Balance Monitoring of Engineered Covers for Waste Containment Robert C. Reedy1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Scanlon, Bridget R.

    was excavated to a depth of approximately 3.5 m and sequentially backfilled in nominal 0.15-m lifts with soil. The two designs are separated at the ground surface by a drainage ridgeline and in the subsurface components of the water balance include precipitation, surface runoff, lateral drainage from the asphalt

  20. Determination of leaf area index of loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) and its relationship to site water balance across a large precipitation gradient in East Texas 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hebert, Mark Thomas

    1996-01-01

    was estimated using the Thornthwaite and Mather (1957) model to predict potential and actual evapotranspiration and moisture deficit. LAI and site water balance were estimated in both 1994 and 1995. 1 hypothesized that LAI would be positively correlated...

  1. Precipitation HMM Recalls on BNT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nuel, Gregory

    Precipitation HMM Recalls on BNT Results Exact Belief Propagation in Bayesian Networks: from to Algorithms #12;Precipitation HMM Recalls on BNT Results Outline 1 Precipitation HMM Definition Marginal to Algorithms #12;Precipitation HMM Recalls on BNT Results Definition Marginal Distributions Recursions

  2. Global energy and global precipitation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1 Global energy and global precipitation or Why doesn't precipitation increase as Clausias expect precipitation to increase at the same rate. · Rest of this brief talk is to show you why Heat Flux (S) 20 W/m2 Atmospheric heating from precipitation LP Atmosphere has small heat capacity. So

  3. Intermediate depth burial of classified transuranic wastes in arid alluvium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cochran, J.R. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Environmental Risk and Decision Analysis Dept.; Crowe, B.M. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States). Geologic Integration Group; Di Sanza, F. [Dept. of Energy, Las Vegas, NV (United States). Nevada Operations Office

    1999-04-01

    Intermediate depth disposal operations were conducted by the US Department of Energy (DOE) at the DOE`s Nevada Test Site (NTS) from 1984 through 1989. These operations emplaced high-specific activity low-level wastes (LLW) and limited quantities of classified transuranic (TRU) wastes in 37 m (120-ft) deep, Greater Confinement Disposal (GCD) boreholes. The GCD boreholes are 3 m (10 ft) in diameter and founded in a thick sequence of arid alluvium. The bottom 15 m (50 ft) of each borehole was used for waste emplacement and the upper 21 m (70 ft) was backfilled with native alluvium. The bottom of each GCD borehole is almost 200 m (650 ft) above the water table. The GCD boreholes are located in one of the most arid portions of the US, with an average precipitation of 13 cm (5 inches) per year. The limited precipitation, coupled with generally warm temperatures and low humidities results in a hydrologic system dominated by evapotranspiration. The US Environmental Protection Agency`s (EPA`s) 40 CFR 191 defines the requirements for protection of human health from disposed TRU wastes. This EPA standard sets a number of requirements, including probabilistic limits on the cumulative releases of radionuclides to the accessible environment for 10,000 years. The DOE Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV) has contracted with Sandia National Laboratories (Sandia) to conduct a performance assessment (PA) to determine if the TRU wastes emplaced in the GCD boreholes complies with the EPA`s 40 CFR 191 requirements. This paper describes DOE`s actions undertaken to evaluate whether the TRU wastes in the GCD boreholes will, or will not, endanger human health. Based on preliminary modeling, the TRU wastes in the GCD boreholes meet the EPA`s requirements, and are, therefore, protective of human health.

  4. Variable depth core sampler

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bourgeois, P.M.; Reger, R.J.

    1996-02-20

    A variable depth core sampler apparatus is described comprising a first circular hole saw member, having longitudinal sections that collapses to form a point and capture a sample, and a second circular hole saw member residing inside said first hole saw member to support the longitudinal sections of said first hole saw member and prevent them from collapsing to form a point. The second hole saw member may be raised and lowered inside said first hole saw member. 7 figs.

  5. Variable depth core sampler

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bourgeois, Peter M. (Hamburg, NY); Reger, Robert J. (Grand Island, NY)

    1996-01-01

    A variable depth core sampler apparatus comprising a first circular hole saw member, having longitudinal sections that collapses to form a point and capture a sample, and a second circular hole saw member residing inside said first hole saw member to support the longitudinal sections of said first hole saw member and prevent them from collapsing to form a point. The second hole saw member may be raised and lowered inside said first hole saw member.

  6. Precipitation scavenging, dry deposition, and resuspension. Volume 1: precipitation scavenging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pruppacher, H.R.; Semonin, R.G.; Slinn, W.G.N.

    1983-01-01

    Papers are presented under the headings: cloud studies, precipitation chemistry, plume studies, gas scavenging, microphysics and models.

  7. National Aeronautics and Space Administration Global Precipitation Measurement

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Waliser, Duane E.

    cycle describes how water evaporates from Earth's surfaces, rises into the atmosphere, cools-- continuously circulates through one of Earth's most powerful systems: the water cycle. Water flows endlessly, melting, evaporation, sublimation and deposition. By measuring the profile of precipitation as it falls

  8. The Square Root Depth Wave Equations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Colin C. Cotter; Darryl D. Holm; James R. Percival

    2009-12-11

    We introduce a set of coupled equations for multilayer water waves that removes the ill-posedness of the multilayer Green-Naghdi (MGN) equations in the presence of shear. The new well-posed equations are Hamiltonian and in the absence of imposed background shear they retain the same travelling wave solutions as MGN. We call the new model the Square Root Depth equations, from the modified form of their kinetic energy of vertical motion. Our numerical results show how the Square Root Depth equations model the effects of multilayer wave propagation and interaction, with and without shear.

  9. Precipitation hardening austenitic superalloys

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Korenko, Michael K. (Wexford, PA)

    1985-01-01

    Precipitation hardening, austenitic type superalloys are described. These alloys contain 0.5 to 1.5 weight percent silicon in combination with about 0.05 to 0.5 weight percent of a post irradiation ductility enhancing agent selected from the group of hafnium, yttrium, lanthanum and scandium, alone or in combination with each other. In addition, when hafnium or yttrium are selected, reductions in irradiation induced swelling have been noted.

  10. Precipitation and Temperature Effects on Populations of Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae): Implications for Range Expansion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Juliano, Steven A.

    ARTICLE Precipitation and Temperature Effects on Populations of Aedes albopictus (Diptera and precipitation regime encountered over the life cycle of Aedes albopictus (Skuse) affects populations. Caged precipitation regimes: (1) low ßuctuation regime - water within the containers was allowed to evaporate to 90

  11. Precipitation Change Effects Evaluated For Seven Ecosystems With Distinctive Vegetation and Hydrology

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Post, Wilfred M.

    Precipitation Change Effects Evaluated For Seven Ecosystems With Distinctive Vegetation and Hydrology Contact: Paul J. Hanson hansonpj@ornl.gov 865-574-5361 Doubled Precipitation Contact: Paul JCent, ORCHIDEE, TECO), were used to explored effects of potential precipitation changes (P) on water limitation

  12. Critical phenomena in atmospheric precipitation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Loss, Daniel

    LETTERS Critical phenomena in atmospheric precipitation OLE PETERS1,2,3 * AND J. DAVID NEELIN3 1 convection and precipitation (the order parameter)--with correlated regions on scales of tens to hundreds the climatological mean by an order of magnitude or more. Moist convection and the accompanying precipitation have

  13. PRECIPITATION AT ARMAGH OBSERVATORY 18381997

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    PRECIPITATION AT ARMAGH OBSERVATORY 1838­1997 C.J. Butler, A.D.S. Coughlin and D.T. Fee ABSTRACT the longest in the British Isles. Here we present the monthly mean daily precipitation recorded at Armagh with the compilation and calibration of one such body of data, namely the precipitation recorded at Armagh Observatory

  14. Modeling microbially induced calcite precipitation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cirpka, Olaf Arie

    Modeling microbially induced calcite precipitation Erlangen, November 27th 2014 Johannes Hommel and storage uses require separation. sealing of leakage pathways is important sealing = mineral precipitation Induced Calcite Precipitation (MICP) is investigated as sealing technology. It is used as an exemplary

  15. Impacts of precipitation seasonality and ecosystem types on evapotranspiration in the Yukon River Basin, Alaska

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yuan, Wenping; Liu, Shuguang; Liu, Heping; Randerson, James T; Yu, Guirui; Tieszen, Larry L

    2010-01-01

    of shoot water potential and vapor pressure difference, Treeterm average. [ 24 ] The vapor pressure deficit (VPD) wasb) precipitation, (c) vapor pressure deficit (VPD), and (d)

  16. IN-DEPTH REPORT: Environmental

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    in local policy debates about fracking. This In-depth Report from Science for Environment Policy explores

  17. Improved leaching practices save water, reduce drainage problems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Coats, W J

    2014-01-01

    of capac- ity. A 2-inch water application depth is typicalsystems. Our seasonal applied water depths ranged toward thethe crop. Excess applied water or rainfall beyond that

  18. Evaluation of precipitates used in strainer head loss testing : Part I. chemically generated precipitates.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bahn, C. B.; Kasza, K. E.; Shack, W. J.; Natesan, K.; Klein, P.; Nuclear Engineering Division

    2009-12-01

    The purpose of the current program was to evaluate the properties of chemical precipitates proposed by industry that have been used in sump strainer head loss testing. Specific precipitates that were evaluated included aluminum oxyhydroxide (AlOOH) and sodium aluminum silicate (SAS) prepared according to the procedures in WCAP-16530-NP, along with precipitates formed from injecting chemicals into the test loop according to the procedure used by one sump strainer test vendor for U.S. pressurized water reactors. The settling rates of the surrogate precipitates are strongly dependent on their particle size and are reasonably consistent with those expected from Stokes Law or colloid aggregation models. Head loss tests showed that AlOOH and SAS surrogates are quite effective in increasing the head loss across a perforated pump inlet strainer that has an accumulated fibrous debris bed. The characteristics of aluminum hydroxide precipitate using sodium aluminate were dependent on whether it was formed in high-purity or ordinary tap water and whether excess silicate was present or not.

  19. Biologically produced acid precipitable polymeric lignin

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Crawford, Don L. (Moscow, ID); Pometto, III, Anthony L. (Moscow, ID)

    1984-01-01

    A water soluble, acid precipitable polymeric degraded lignin (APPL), having a molecular weight of at least 12,000 daltons, and comprising, by percentage of total weight, at least three times the number of phenolic hydroxyl groups and carboxylic acid groups present in native lignin. The APPL may be modified by chemical oxidation and reduction to increase its phenolic hydroxyl content and reduce the number of its antioxidant inhibitory side chains, thereby improving antioxidant properties.

  20. ARM - Word Seek: Precipitation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home Room News Publications Traditional Knowledge Kiosks Barrow, Alaska Tropical WesternWillPrecipitation

  1. ARM - Measurement - Precipitation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Comments?govInstrumentsnoaacrnBarrow, Alaska Outreach Home RoomparticlecontentnumbergovMeasurementsPrecipitation

  2. The physical basis for increases in precipitation extremes in simulations of 21st-century climate change

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    O'Gorman, Paul Ambrose

    Global warming is expected to lead to a large increase in atmospheric water vapor content and to changes in the hydrological cycle, which include an intensification of precipitation extremes. The intensity of precipitation ...

  3. Dilution physics modeling: Dissolution/precipitation chemistry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Onishi, Y.; Reid, H.C.; Trent, D.S.

    1995-09-01

    This report documents progress made to date on integrating dilution/precipitation chemistry and new physical models into the TEMPEST thermal-hydraulics computer code. Implementation of dissolution/precipitation chemistry models is necessary for predicting nonhomogeneous, time-dependent, physical/chemical behavior of tank wastes with and without a variety of possible engineered remediation and mitigation activities. Such behavior includes chemical reactions, gas retention, solids resuspension, solids dissolution and generation, solids settling/rising, and convective motion of physical and chemical species. Thus this model development is important from the standpoint of predicting the consequences of various engineered activities, such as mitigation by dilution, retrieval, or pretreatment, that can affect safe operations. The integration of a dissolution/precipitation chemistry module allows the various phase species concentrations to enter into the physical calculations that affect the TEMPEST hydrodynamic flow calculations. The yield strength model of non-Newtonian sludge correlates yield to a power function of solids concentration. Likewise, shear stress is concentration-dependent, and the dissolution/precipitation chemistry calculations develop the species concentration evolution that produces fluid flow resistance changes. Dilution of waste with pure water, molar concentrations of sodium hydroxide, and other chemical streams can be analyzed for the reactive species changes and hydrodynamic flow characteristics.

  4. Precipitation extremes under climate change

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    O'Gorman, Paul A

    2015-01-01

    The response of precipitation extremes to climate change is considered using results from theory, modeling, and observations, with a focus on the physical factors that control the response. Observations and simulations with climate models show that precipitation extremes intensify in response to a warming climate. However, the sensitivity of precipitation extremes to warming remains uncertain when convection is important, and it may be higher in the tropics than the extratropics. Several physical contributions govern the response of precipitation extremes. The thermodynamic contribution is robust and well understood, but theoretical understanding of the microphysical and dynamical contributions is still being developed. Orographic precipitation extremes and snowfall extremes respond differently from other precipitation extremes and require particular attention. Outstanding research challenges include the influence of mesoscale convective organization, the dependence on the duration considered, and the need to...

  5. Effects of Irrigation on Great Plains and Midwest Precipitation Processes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Huber, David Benjamin

    2010-11-18

    B. Huber, David B. Mechem, and Nathaniel A. Brunsell Outline •Historical and Conceptual Review •Description of Modeling Approach l•Resu ts •Conclusion Historical Changes in Precipitation Climatological Precipitation Differences (1971 – 2000 minus 1901 – 1930) Source: PRISM Climate Group Irrigation... moisture in the lower atmosphere increases Th id i ddhdb h l llj• e evapotranspirated water s advected northward y t e ow level et •Humid air is lifted over higher sensible heat areas by deep convective updrafts •Precipitation events become more intense •Moisture...

  6. Complex motion of precipitation bands

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lagzi, I; Rácz, Z; Lagzi, Istvan; Papai, Peter; Racz, Zoltan

    2006-01-01

    Formation and dynamics of an Al(OH)_3 precipitation ring is studied by diffusing NaOH into a gel containing AlCl_3. Limited feeding of the outer electrolyte (NaOH) is found to yield an intricate ring-dynamics which involves stopping and reversal of the direction of motion of the precipitation ring, and evolution into stationary multi-ring structures. A model of the ring-dynamics is developed by combining a phase separation scenario for the precipitation with the redissolution (complex formation) of the precipitate in the excess of the outer electrolyte.

  7. Analysis of Proper Depth for Gaining Seawater Heat

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    and seawater temperatures near the city. · It is impossible to get deep sea water for Busan area, since according to the season, while that of deep sea water is constant. Point 1 207 Area 0.00 5.00 10.00 15.00 20 the maximum sea water depth around Busan is about 150m. · It will be a good option to use surface layer water

  8. in situ Calcite Precipitation for Contaminant Immobilization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yoshiko Fujita; Robert W. Smith

    2009-08-01

    in situ Calcite Precipitation for Contaminant Immobilization Yoshiko Fujita (Yoshiko.fujita@inl.gov) (Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls, Idaho, USA) Robert W. Smith (University of Idaho-Idaho Falls, Idaho Falls, Idaho, USA) Subsurface radionuclide and trace metal contaminants throughout the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) complex pose one of DOE’s greatest challenges for long-term stewardship. One promising stabilization mechanism for divalent trace ions, such as the short-lived radionuclide strontium-90, is co-precipitation in calcite. Calcite, a common mineral in the arid western U.S., can form solid solutions with trace metals. The rate of trace metal incorporation is susceptible to manipulation using either abiotic or biotic means. We have previously demonstrated that increasing the calcite precipitation rate by stimulating the activity of urea hydrolyzing microorganisms can result in significantly enhanced Sr uptake. Urea hydrolysis causes the acceleration of calcium carbonate precipitation (and trace metal co-precipitation) by increasing pH and alkalinity, and also by liberating the reactive cations from the aquifer matrix via exchange reactions involving the ammonium ion derived from urea: H2NCONH2 + 3H2O ? 2NH4+ + HCO3- + OH- urea hydrolysis >X:2Ca + 2NH4+ ? 2>X:NH4 + Ca2+ ion exchange Ca2+ + HCO3- + OH- ? CaCO3(s) + H2O calcite precipitation where >X: is a cation exchange site on the aquifer matrix. This contaminant immobilization approach has several attractive features. Urea hydrolysis is catalyzed by the urease enzyme, which is produced by many indigenous subsurface microorganisms. Addition of foreign microbes is unnecessary. In turn the involvement of the native microbes and the consequent in situ generation of reactive components in the aqueous phase (e.g., carbonate and Ca or Sr) can allow dissemination of the reaction over a larger volume and/or farther away from an amendment injection point, as compared to direct addition of the reactants at a well (which can lead to clogging). A final particularly attractive characteristic of this approach is its long-term sustainability; the remediation scheme is geared toward environments that are already saturated with respect to calcite, and in such systems the bulk of any newly precipitated calcite will remain stable once engineered manipulations cease. This means that the co-precipitated contaminants will be effectively sequestered over the long term. We are currently conducting integrated field, laboratory, and computational research to evaluate a) the relationships between urea hydrolysis rate, calcite precipitation rate, and trace metal partitioning under environmentally relevant conditions; and b) the coupling between flow/flux manipulations and calcite precipitate distribution and metal uptake. We are also assessing the application of geophysical and molecular biological tools to monitor the relevant chemical and physical processes. The primary emphasis is on field-scale processes, with the laboratory and modeling activities designed specifically to support the field studies. Field experiments are being conducted in perched water (vadose zone) at the Vadose Zone Research Park (VZRP) at the Idaho National Laboratory; the VZRP provides an uncontaminated setting that is an analog of the 90Sr-contaminated vadose zone at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center. A summary of results to date will be presented.

  9. B \\~ \\ I. t;: 1I~ Y, L. D I I lor JI I a An Economical Storage Precipitation Gage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    B \\~ \\ I·. t;: 1I~ Y, L. D I I lor JI I a An Economical Storage Precipitation Gage RAYMOND D precipitation gage,based o n one originally designed by the California Department of Water Resources. The cone 0 f precipitation are obtained by stick measure- ment. Five complete cones cost $120. The amount

  10. Precipitation in aqueous mixtures with addition of a strongly hydrophilic or hydrophobic solute Ryuichi Okamoto and Akira Onuki

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Precipitation in aqueous mixtures with addition of a strongly hydrophilic or hydrophobic solute ions, preferential solvation can stabilize water domains enriched with ions. This precipitation occurs the mixture solvent would be in a one-phase state without solute. The volume fraction of precipitated domains

  11. PRE-PRECIPITATION PHENOMENA AT GRAIN BOUNDARIES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Briceno-Valero, J.

    2010-01-01

    13820 DE82 0 1 2 7 9 4 PRE-PRECIPITATION PHENOMENA AT GRAINof any evidence suggesting precipitation has occurred. Theand grain boundary precipitation have shown (1) that there

  12. REGULAR ARTICLE Warming and increased precipitation frequency

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Neher, Deborah A.

    REGULAR ARTICLE Warming and increased precipitation frequency on the Colorado Plateau: implications in temperature and precipitation are expected to influence ecosystem processes worldwide. Despite their globally how increased temperature and frequency of summertime precipitation affect the contributions of crust

  13. PRECIPITATION-STRENGTHENED AUSTENITIC FE-MN-TI ALLOYS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chiang, K.-M.

    2010-01-01

    combined with the high PRECIPITATION-STRENGTHENED AUSTENITICMORPHOLOGY OF LAVES PHASE PRECIPITATION", •••. PRECIPITATECOLD WORK ON PRECIPITATION"",. , •• " , . , . " " , . , L~

  14. The MINIS Balloon Campaign: Duskside Relativistic Electron Precipitation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sample, John Glen

    2013-01-01

    Energetic electron precipitation during substorm injectionenergetic electron precipitation fluxes into the atmosphere,modeling of microburst precipitation Geophys Res. Lett. ,

  15. Evaluation of Global Monsoon Precipitation Changes based on Five Reanalysis Datasets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lin, Renping; Zhou, Tianjun; Qian, Yun

    2014-02-01

    With the motivation to identify whether or not a reasonably simulated atmospheric circulation would necessarily lead to a successful reproduction of monsoon precipitation, the performances of five sets of reanalysis data (NCEP2, ERA40, JRA25, ERA-Interim and MERRA) in reproducing the climatology, interannual variation and long-term trend of global monsoon (GM) precipitation are comprehensively evaluated. In order to better understand the variability and long-term trend of GM precipitation, we also examined the major components of water budget, including evaporation, water vapor convergence and the change in local water vapor storage, based on five reanalysis datasets. The results show that all five reanalysis data reasonably reproduce the climatology of GM precipitation. The ERA-Interim (NCEP2) shows the highest (lowest) skill among the five datasets. The observed GM precipitation shows an increasing tendency during 1979-2001 along with a strong interannual variability, which is reasonably reproduced by the five sets of reanalysis data. The observed increasing trend of GM precipitation is dominated by the contribution from the North African, North American and Australian monsoons. All five data fail in reproducing the increasing tendency of North African monsoon precipitation. The wind convergence term in water budget equation dominate the GM precipitation variation, indicating a consistency between the GM precipitation and the seasonal change of prevailing wind.

  16. Stable isotopic study of precipitation and spring discharge on the Nevada Test Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ingraham, N.L.; Jacobson, R.L.; Hess, J.W.; Lyles, B.F. . Water Resources Center Nevada Univ., Reno, NV . Water Resources Center)

    1990-07-01

    Precipitation was collected in southern Nevada (on the Nevada Test Site) on a semi-regular monthly basis at 41 locations for six years for stable isotopic analysis. The precipitation record shows two time-based regimes. For the first three years of collection, the precipitation was highly variable with several large events and several dry periods. During the last three years of collection, the precipitation was much more even with no large events. However, there is no correlation between the variability in the amount of precipitation and the stable isotopic composition of precipitation. In addition, the oxygen isotope composition and discharge of two springs, Whiterock Spring and Cane Spring, issuing from perched water tables, were monitored for five years in a similar time frame as for the precipitation. 17 refs., 42 figs., 3 tabs.

  17. Localized precipitation and runoff on Mars

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kite, Edwin S; Rafkin, Scot; Manga, Michael; Dietrich, William E

    2010-01-01

    We use the Mars Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (MRAMS) to simulate lake storms on Mars, finding that intense localized precipitation will occur for lake size >=10^3 km^2. Mars has a low-density atmosphere, so deep convection can be triggered by small amounts of latent heat release. In our reference simulation, the buoyant plume lifts vapor above condensation level, forming a 20km-high optically-thick cloud. Ice grains grow to 200 microns radius and fall near (or in) the lake at mean rates up to 1.5 mm/hr water equivalent (maximum rates up to 6 mm/hr water equivalent). Because atmospheric temperatures outside the surface layer are always well below 273K, supersaturation and condensation begin at low altitudes above lakes on Mars. In contrast to Earth lake-effect storms, lake storms on Mars involve continuous precipitation, and their vertical velocities and plume heights exceed those of tropical thunderstorms on Earth. Convection does not reach above the planetary boundary layer for lakes O(10^2) mbar. In...

  18. Examinations of Oxidation and Sulfidation of Grain Boundaries in Alloy 600 Exposed to Simulated Pressurized Water Reactor Primary Water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schreiber, Daniel K.; Olszta, Matthew J.; Saxey, David W.; Kruska, Karen; Moore, K. L.; Lozano-Perez, Sergio; Bruemmer, Stephen M.

    2013-06-01

    High-resolution characterizations of intergranular attack in alloy 600 (Ni-17Cr-9Fe) exposed to 325 °C simulated pressurized water reactor (PWR) primary water have been conducted using a combination of scanning electron microscopy, NanoSIMS, analytical transmission electron microscopy and atom probe tomography. The intergranular attack exhibited a two-stage microstructure that consisted of continuous corrosion/oxidation to a depth of ~200 nm from the surface followed by discrete Cr-rich sulfides to a further depth of ~500 nm. The continuous oxidation region contained primarily nanocrystalline MO-structure oxide particles and ended at Ni-rich, Cr-depleted grain boundaries with spaced CrS precipitates. Three-dimensional characterization of the sulfidized region using site-specific atom probe tomography revealed extraordinary grain boundary composition changes, including total depletion of Cr across a several nm wide dealloyed zone as a result of grain boundary migration.

  19. Daily Precipitation Grids for South America

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Robeson, Scott M.

    W Daily Precipitation Grids for South America --SCOTT M. ROBESON AND LESLIE A. ENSOR Indiana precipitation databases, such as that of Liebmann and Allured (2005, hereafter LA2005). Precipitation this important region has received limited attention with regard to precipitation data- bases (Cook et al. 2003

  20. Resolution of prestack depth migration Ludek Klimes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cerveny, Vlastislav

    Resolution of prestack depth migration Ludek Klimes Department of Geophysics, Faculty inversion, seismic anisotropy. 1. Introduction A general formulation of prestack depth migration based numerical methods (Claerbout, 1971) is considered in this paper. A common­shot prestack depth migration

  1. U.S.DOE Global Monthly Station Temperature and Precipitation, 1738-1980

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    The global monthly station temperature and precipitation data from the U.S. Department of Energy, a dataset hosted at, covers the time period from January, 1738 to December, 1980. The air temperature and precipitation levels are platform observations from ground and water surfaces. The data are maintained in the Research Data Archive at the National Center for Atmospheric Research.

  2. Rotating drum variable depth sampler

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nance, Thomas A. (Aiken, SC); Steeper, Timothy J. (Trenton, SC)

    2008-07-01

    A sampling device for collecting depth-specific samples in silt, sludge and granular media has three chambers separated by a pair of iris valves. Rotation of the middle chamber closes the valves and isolates a sample in a middle chamber.

  3. Portable liquid collection electrostatic precipitator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carlson, Duane C.; DeGange, John J.; Halverson, Justin E.

    2005-10-18

    A portable liquid collection electrostatic collection precipitator for analyzing air is provided which is a relatively small, self-contained device. The device has a tubular collection electrode, a reservoir for a liquid, and a pump. The pump pumps the liquid into the collection electrode such that the liquid flows down the exterior of the collection electrode and is recirculated to the reservoir. An air intake is provided such that air to be analyzed flows through an ionization section to ionize analytes in the air, and then flows near the collection electrode where ionized analytes are collected. A portable power source is connected to the air intake and the collection electrode. Ionizable constituents in the air are ionized, attracted to the collection electrode, and precipitated in the liquid. The precipitator may also have an analyzer for the liquid and may have a transceiver allowing remote operation and data collection.

  4. Timber Mountain Precipitation Monitoring Station

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lyles, Brad; McCurdy, Greg; Chapman, Jenny; Miller, Julianne

    2012-01-01

    A precipitation monitoring station was placed on the west flank of Timber Mountain during the year 2010. It is located in an isolated highland area near the western border of the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS), south of Pahute Mesa. The cost of the equipment, permitting, and installation was provided by the Environmental Monitoring Systems Initiative (EMSI) project. Data collection, analysis, and maintenance of the station during fiscal year 2011 was funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration, Nevada Site Office Environmental Restoration, Soils Activity. The station is located near the western headwaters of Forty Mile Wash on the Nevada Test and Training Range (NTTR). Overland flows from precipitation events that occur in the Timber Mountain high elevation area cross several of the contaminated Soils project CAU (Corrective Action Unit) sites located in the Forty Mile Wash watershed. Rain-on-snow events in the early winter and spring around Timber Mountain have contributed to several significant flow events in Forty Mile Wash. The data from the new precipitation gauge at Timber Mountain will provide important information for determining runoff response to precipitation events in this area of the NNSS. Timber Mountain is also a groundwater recharge area, and estimation of recharge from precipitation was important for the EMSI project in determining groundwater flowpaths and designing effective groundwater monitoring for Yucca Mountain. Recharge estimation additionally provides benefit to the Underground Test Area Sub-project analysis of groundwater flow direction and velocity from nuclear test areas on Pahute Mesa. Additionally, this site provides data that has been used during wild fire events and provided a singular monitoring location of the extreme precipitation events during December 2010 (see data section for more details). This letter report provides a summary of the site location, equipment, and data collected in fiscal year 2011.

  5. APPENDIX III III.1 Precipitation Daily Totals Preceding Precipitation Events-----------------------------------------III-2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Julien, Pierre Y.

    APPENDIX III III.1 Precipitation Daily Totals Preceding Precipitation Events-----------------------------------------III-2 Figure III.1.1 Precipitation daily totals preceding the a) calibration and b) and c) validationPRECIPITATION DAILY TOTALS PRECEDING PRECIPITATION EVENTS 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 9/19/819/21/819/23/819/25/819/27

  6. Precipitation scavenging, dry deposition, and resuspension. Volume 1. Precipitation scavenging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pruppacher, H.R.; Semonin, R.G.; Slinn, W.G.N. (eds.)

    1983-01-01

    These two volumes contain papers prepared for and presented at the Fourth International Conference on Precipitation Scavenging, Dry Deposition, and Resuspension (the Chamberlain Meeting) held during 29 November to 3 December, 1982 in Santa Monica, California. Papers presented are abstracted separately.

  7. Ultrasonic material hardness depth measurement

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Good, Morris S. (Richland, WA); Schuster, George J. (Kennewick, WA); Skorpik, James R. (Kennewick, WA)

    1997-01-01

    The invention is an ultrasonic surface hardness depth measurement apparatus and method permitting rapid determination of hardness depth of shafts, rods, tubes and other cylindrical parts. The apparatus of the invention has a part handler, sensor, ultrasonic electronics component, computer, computer instruction sets, and may include a display screen. The part handler has a vessel filled with a couplant, and a part rotator for rotating a cylindrical metal part with respect to the sensor. The part handler further has a surface follower upon which the sensor is mounted, thereby maintaining a constant distance between the sensor and the exterior surface of the cylindrical metal part. The sensor is mounted so that a front surface of the sensor is within the vessel with couplant between the front surface of the sensor and the part.

  8. Ultrasonic material hardness depth measurement

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Good, M.S.; Schuster, G.J.; Skorpik, J.R.

    1997-07-08

    The invention is an ultrasonic surface hardness depth measurement apparatus and method permitting rapid determination of hardness depth of shafts, rods, tubes and other cylindrical parts. The apparatus of the invention has a part handler, sensor, ultrasonic electronics component, computer, computer instruction sets, and may include a display screen. The part handler has a vessel filled with a couplant, and a part rotator for rotating a cylindrical metal part with respect to the sensor. The part handler further has a surface follower upon which the sensor is mounted, thereby maintaining a constant distance between the sensor and the exterior surface of the cylindrical metal part. The sensor is mounted so that a front surface of the sensor is within the vessel with couplant between the front surface of the sensor and the part. 12 figs.

  9. A STUDY OF PRECIPITATION IN INTERSTITIAL ALLOYS. I. PRECIPITATION SEQUENCE IN Ta-C ALLOYS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dahmen, U.

    2010-01-01

    Acta Meta11urgica A STUDY OF PRECIPITATION IN INTERSTITIALALLOYS. I. PRECIPITATION SEQUENCE IN Ta-C ALLOYS U. Dahmen,ENG-48 y A Study of Precipitation in Interstitial Alloys. I.

  10. DEC03t933 OSTl STREAMFLOW AND SELECTED PRECIPITATION DATA FOR...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    DEC03t933 OSTl STREAMFLOW AND SELECTED PRECIPITATION DATA FOR YUCCA MOUNTAIN AND VICINITY, NYE COUNTY, NEVADA, WATER YEARS 1983-85 By Marilyn E. Pabst, David A. Beck, Patrick A....

  11. Characterization of extreme precipitation within atmospheric river events over California

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Jeon, S.; Prabhat,; Byna, S.; Gu, J.; Collins, W. D.; Wehner, M. F.

    2015-11-17

    Atmospheric rivers (ARs) are large, spatially coherent weather systems with high concentrations of elevated water vapor. These systems often cause severe downpours and flooding over the western coastal United States – and with the availability of more atmospheric moisture in the future under global warming we expect ARs to play an important role as potential causes of extreme precipitation changes. Therefore, we aim to investigate changes in extreme precipitation properties correlated with AR events in a warmer climate, which are large-scale meteorological patterns affecting the weather and climate of California. We have recently developed the TECA (Toolkit for Extrememore »Climate Analysis) software for automatically identifying and tracking features in climate data sets. Specifically, we can now identify ARs that make landfall on the western coast of North America. Based on this detection procedure, we can investigate the impact of ARs by exploring the spatial extent of AR precipitation using climate model (CMIP5) simulations and characterize spatial patterns of dependence for future projections between AR precipitation extremes under climate change within the statistical framework. Our results show that AR events in the future RCP (Representative Concentration Pathway)8.5 scenario (2076–2100) tend to produce heavier rainfall with higher frequency and longer days than events from the historical run (1981–2005). We also find that the dependence between extreme precipitation events has a shorter spatial range, within localized areas in California, under the high future emissions scenario than under the historical run.« less

  12. Phase field model for precipitates in crystals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    She, Minggang

    2008-01-01

    Oxygen precipitate caused by oxygen supersaturation is the most common and important defects in Czochralski (CZ) silicon. The presence of oxygen precipitate in silicon wafer has both harmful and beneficial effects on the ...

  13. Thermodvnamics Thermodynamics of Wax Precipitation in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Firoozabadi, Abbas

    Thermodvnamics Thermodynamics of Wax Precipitation in Petroleum Mixtures C. Lira-Galeana and A, Berkeley, CIA 94720 A thermodynamic pamework is developed for calculating wax precipitation in petroleum that precipitated wax consists of several solid phases; each solid phase is described as a pure component

  14. Causal Electron Precipitation in Geospace Weather

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lotko, William

    607080 18 Causal Electron Precipitation in Geospace Weather A Proposal submitted by Dartmouth;NSF: National Space Causal Electron Precipitation in Geospace Weather: W. Lotko, PI Weather Program and global characteristics of electron precipitation influence the magnetosphere-iono- sphere (MI

  15. Computationally Efficient Model for Dopant Precipitation Kinetics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dunham, Scott

    Computationally Efficient Model for Dopant Precipitation Kinetics Iuval Clejan and Scott T. Dunham and precipitates. Dopant deactivation is typically modeled using a steady­state solid solubility or clustering such as dopant activation/deactivation, it is essential to consider the fact that precipitation involves a range

  16. Changes in precipitation characteristics and extremes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Allan, Richard P.

    Changes in precipitation characteristics and extremes Comparing Mediterranean to change Swiss characteristics Comparing Mediterranean to north-western European precipitation Master Thesis April 2012 Author precipitation 502) dvogel@student.ethz.ch Dr Richard Allan (University of Reading) Prof Dr Martin Wild (ETH

  17. Modelling of Precipitation in Superalloys Aikaterini Plati

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cambridge, University of

    Modelling of Precipitation in Superalloys Aikaterini Plati St. John's College A dissertation, and the size dis- tribution of phase. A review is made on previous attempts to model precipitation. All the proposed models failed to predict the nucleation and growth of the fine secondary precipitates in alloys

  18. Orographic Precipitation in Potentially Unstable Alpine Storms

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Houze Jr., Robert A.

    Orographic Precipitation in Potentially Unstable Alpine Storms: MAP IOPs 2b, 3, and 5 Socorro, ICAM/MAP Meeting, Brig, Switzerland, 19-23 May. See Following Pages #12;Orographic Precipitation ahead of strong baroclinic troughs. This pattern is commonly associated with large precipitation amounts

  19. A Nonhomogeneous Hidden Markov Model for Precipitation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Washington at Seattle, University of

    A Nonhomogeneous Hidden Markov Model for Precipitation S. P. Charles James P. Hughes Peter Guttorp for Precipitation James P. Hughes1 Peter Guttorp2 Stephen P. Charles3 September 22, 1997 1Dept. of Biostatistics A stochastic model for relating precipitation occurrences at multiple rain gauge stations to broad

  20. Daily Precipitation Statistics: An Intercomparison between

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zeng, Ning

    Daily Precipitation Statistics: An Intercomparison between NCEP Reanalyses and Observations Vernon-2010. Resolution T382 (~0.3x0.3 degrees). #12;R1, R2, CFSR: Comparison to OI Station-based Precipitation Analyses station-based daily precipitation analysis data set (1979-2006). · The high-resolution reanalysis (CFSR

  1. Climate Change Effects on California Precipitation and Soil Moisture

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Berg, Neil

    2015-01-01

    Low Precipitation of the 2013/14 California2 Increased Precipitation Extremes Over California Under1 Twenty-first Century Precipitation Changes over the Los

  2. Systematic and random error components in satellite precipitation data sets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    AghaKouchak, Amir; Mehran, Ali; Norouzi, Hamidreza; Behrangi, Ali

    2012-01-01

    in satellite-based precipitation estimates, J. Geophys.Evaluating high-resolution precipitation products, Bull. Am.retrieved extreme precipitation rates across the central

  3. On the complex conductivity signatures of calcite precipitation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wu, Yuxin

    2010-01-01

    induced sulfide precipitation, Journal of GeophysicalMicrobial Carbonate precipitation as a soil improvement2005), Effect of precipitation on low frequency electrical

  4. Copper precipitation in cobalt-alloyed precipitation-hardened stainless steel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Medvedeva, Julia E.

    Copper precipitation in cobalt-alloyed precipitation-hardened stainless steel Arpana S. Murthy-strength stainless steel was investigated using three-dimen- sional atom probe tomography. A decrease in copper; Stainless steels; First-principle electron theory; Casting; Precipitation Precipitation-hardened (PH) steels

  5. Capabilities of satellite precipitation datasets to estimate heavy precipitation rates at different temporal accumulations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    AghaKouchak, Amir

    Capabilities of satellite precipitation datasets to estimate heavy precipitation rates at different as alternative sources of precipitation information has been argued in numerous studies. Future developments in satellite precipitation algorithms as well as utilization of satellite data in operational applications rely

  6. OROGRAPHIC PRECIPITATION Precipitation that has been generated or modified by topography, typically through the forcing of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Roe, Gerard

    OROGRAPHIC PRECIPITATION Precipitation that has been generated or modified by topography, typically rainfall). Orographic effects on precipitation are also responsible for some of the planet's sharpest perpendicular to the prevailing winds, precipitation is greatly enhanced on the windward side and suppressed

  7. Arid site water balance: evapotranspiration modeling and measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gee, G.W.; Kirkham, R.R.

    1984-09-01

    In order to evaluate the magnitude of radionuclide transport at an aird site, a field and modeling study was conducted to measure and predict water movement under vegetated and bare soil conditions. Significant quantities of water were found to move below the roo of a shallow-rooted grass-covered area during wet years at the Hanford site. The unsaturated water flow model, UNSAT-1D, was resonably successful in simulating the transient behavior of the water balance at this site. The effects of layered soils on water balance were demonstrated using the model. Models used to evaluate water balance in arid regions should not rely on annual averages and assume that all precipitation is removed by evapotranspiration. The potential for drainage at arid sites exists under conditions where shallow rooted plants grow on coarse textured soils. This condition was observed at our study site at Hanford. Neutron probe data collected on a cheatgrass community at the Hanford site during a wet year indicated that over 5 cm of water drained below the 3.5-m depth. The unsaturated water flow model, UNSAT-1D, predicted water drainage of about 5 cm (single layer, 10 months) and 3.5 cm (two layers, 12 months) for the same time period. Additional field measurements of hydraulic conductivity will likely improve the drainage estimate made by UNSAT-1D. Additional information describing cheatgrass growth and water use at the grass site could improve model predictions of sink terms and subsequent calculations of water storage within the rooting zone. In arid areas where the major part of the annual precipitation occurs during months with low average potential evapotranspiration and where soils are vegetated but are coarse textured and well drained, significant drainage can occur. 31 references, 18 figures, 1 table.

  8. FORESTS AND WATER. effects of forest

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    FORESTS AND WATER. effects of forest management on floods, sedimentation, and water supply HENRY FOREST SERVICE GENERAL TECHNICAL REPORT PSW- 18I1976 #12;CONTENTS Page Introduction ................................ 6 Water Inputs .........................................6 Precipitation Measurement

  9. Dynamics of precipitation pattern formation at geothermal hot springs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nigel Goldenfeld; Pak Yuen Chan; John Veysey

    2006-05-26

    We formulate and model the dynamics of spatial patterns arising during the precipitation of calcium carbonate from a supersaturated shallow water flow. The model describes the formation of travertine deposits at geothermal hot springs and rimstone dams of calcite in caves. We find explicit solutions for travertine domes at low flow rates, identify the linear instabilities which generate dam and pond formation on sloped substrates, and present simulations of statistical landscape evolution.

  10. Decoupled elastic prestack depth migration Alexander Druzhinin*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Edinburgh, University of

    Decoupled elastic prestack depth migration $ Alexander Druzhinin* British Geological Survey of the formula for common-shot or common-receiver amplitude-preserving elastic prestack depth migration (Pre to enhance strongly polarized wave modes prior to prestack depth migration (PreSDM) (e.g. Dillon et al., 1988

  11. Resolution of prestack depth migration Ludek Klimes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cerveny, Vlastislav

    Resolution of prestack depth migration Ludek Klimes Department of Geophysics, Faculty of a general 3­D common­shot elastic prestack depth migration in a heterogeneous anisotropic medium is studied. Geophys. AS CR, Prague 457 #12;L. Klimes 1. INTRODUCTION A general formulation of prestack depth migration

  12. Effects of alteration product precipitation on glass dissolution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Strachan, Denis M.; Neeway, James J.

    2014-04-02

    Silicate glasses dissolve in water at a rate dependent on the solution concentration of orthosilicic acid (H4SiO4). In general, higher [H4SiO4] leads to lower dissolution rates. It has often been observed that the precipitation of certain silica-bearing alteration products can cause the dissolution of the glass to increase, even after the rate has decreased significantly. However, it has also been observed that in the concentrations of these silica-bearing solution species do not significantly decrease while other elements continue to be released. In this study, we have used the Geochemist’s Workbench code to investigate the relationship between glass dissolution rates and the precipitation rate of a silica-bearing alteration product, analcime (Na(AlSi2O6)?H2O). In this initial study and to simplify the calculations, we suppressed all alteration products except analcime, gibbsite (Al(OH)3), and amorphous silica. The ‘cross affinity’ code option allowed us to account for the fact that glass is a thermodynamically unstable solid with respect to its alteration products in contact with water. The cross-affinity option in the Geochemist’s Workbench geochemical code allowed us to substitute the amorphous silica equilibrium-constant matrix for the glass equilibrium-constant matrix. In this article, we present the results of our calculations of the glass dissolution rate at different values for the analcime precipitation rate constant and the effects of varying the glass dissolution rate constant at a constant analcime precipitation rate constant. In all cases, our results indicate that the glass dissolution rate controls the rate of analcime precipitation in the long term. Our results, compared in general terms with experiments, show the importance of the gel layer that forms during glass alteration. The meaning of these results pertinent to long-term glass durability is discussed.

  13. The Precipitation Characteristics of ISCCP Tropical Weather States DONGMIN LEE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kang, In-Sik

    The Precipitation Characteristics of ISCCP Tropical Weather States DONGMIN LEE GESTAR, University The authors examine the daytime precipitation characteristics of the International Satellite Cloud Climatology precipitation dataset used is the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Multisatellite Precipitation

  14. Precipitation and soil impacts on partitioning of subsurface moisture in Avena barbata: Observations from a greenhouse experiment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Salve, R.; Torn, M.S.

    2011-03-01

    The primary objective of this study was to assess the impact of two grassland soils and precipitation regimes on soil-moisture dynamics. We set up an experiment in a greenhouse, and monitored soil moisture dynamics in mesocosms planted with Avena barbata, an annual species found in California grasslands. By repeating the precipitation input at regular intervals, we were able to observe plant manipulation of soil moisture during well-defined periods during the growing season. We found that the amount of water partitioned to evapotranspiration, seepage, and soil storage varied among different growth stages. Further, both soil type and precipitation regimes had a significant impact on redistributing soil moisture. Whereas in the low-precipitation treatments most water was released to the atmosphere as evapotranspiration, major losses from the high-precipitation treatment occurred as gravity drainage. Observations from this study emphasize the importance of understanding intra-seasonal relationships between vegetation, soil, and water.

  15. Radioactivity in Precipitation: Methods and Observations from...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Radioactivity in Precipitation: Methods & Observations from Savannah River Site Dennis Jackson P.E. & Timothy Jannik - Savannah River National Laboratory Teresa Eddy - Savannah...

  16. Hyperspectral Aerosol Optical Depths from TCAP Flights

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shinozuka, Yohei; Johnson, Roy R.; Flynn, Connor J.; Russell, P. B.; Schmid, Beat; Redemann, Jens; Dunagan, Stephen; Kluzek, Celine D.; Hubbe, John M.; Segal-Rosenheimer, Michal; Livingston, J. M.; Eck, T.; Wagener, Richard; Gregory, L.; Chand, Duli; Berg, Larry K.; Rogers, Ray; Ferrare, R. A.; Hair, John; Hostetler, Chris A.; Burton, S. P.

    2013-11-13

    4STAR (Spectrometer for Sky-Scanning, Sun-Tracking Atmospheric Research), the world’s first hyperspectral airborne tracking sunphotometer, acquired aerosol optical depths (AOD) at 1 Hz during all July 2012 flights of the Two Column Aerosol Project (TCAP). Root-mean square differences from AERONET ground-based observations were 0.01 at wavelengths between 500-1020 nm, 0.02 at 380 and 1640 nm and 0.03 at 440 nm in four clear-sky fly-over events, and similar in ground side-by-side comparisons. Changes in the above-aircraft AOD across 3-km-deep spirals were typically consistent with integrals of coincident in situ (on DOE Gulfstream 1 with 4STAR) and lidar (on NASA B200) extinction measurements within 0.01, 0.03, 0.01, 0.02, 0.02, 0.02 at 355, 450, 532, 550, 700, 1064 nm, respectively, despite atmospheric variations and combined measurement uncertainties. Finer vertical differentials of the 4STAR measurements matched the in situ ambient extinction profile within 14% for one homogeneous column. For the AOD observed between 350-1660 nm, excluding strong water vapor and oxygen absorption bands, estimated uncertainties were ~0.01 and dominated by (then) unpredictable throughput changes, up to +/-0.8%, of the fiber optic rotary joint. The favorable intercomparisons herald 4STAR’s spatially-resolved high-frequency hyperspectral products as a reliable tool for climate studies and satellite validation.

  17. Depth Profiling Of Small Molecule Ingress Into Planar and Cylindrical Materials Using NRA and PIXE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, Richard W.; Massingham, Gary; Clough, Anthony S. [Department of Physics, University of Surrey, Guildford, Surrey, GU2 7XH (United Kingdom)

    2003-08-26

    The use of a 3He ion micro-beam technique to study the ingress/diffusion of water into a planar fibre optic grade glass and a cylindrical drug-release polymer is described. One-dimensional concentration profiles showing the depth of water ingress were produced. The depth of penetration of water into the glass was measured by fitting a gaussian function to the concentration profile. The ingress of water into the drug-release polymer was found to be Fickian and a cylindrical diffusion model used to obtain a diffusion coefficient.

  18. Very high resolution precipitation climatologies from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission precipitation radar

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nesbitt, Steve

    Very high resolution precipitation climatologies from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission precipitation radar Stephen W. Nesbitt1 and Alison M. Anders2 Received 4 March 2009; revised 6 July 2009 of topography and precipitation, a tropics-wide (±36° latitude) high resolution (0.1°) ten year (1998

  19. Gulf of Mexico Proved Reserves By Water Depth, 2009

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming Dry Natural GasNatural GasEIA lowerslong4,Guide to Complete EIAGulf of

  20. Intensity, duration, and frequency of precipitation extremes under 21st-century warming scenarios

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kao, Shih-Chieh [ORNL; Ganguly, Auroop R [ORNL

    2011-01-01

    Recent research on the projection of precipitation extremes has either focused on conceptual physical mechanisms that generate heavy precipitation or rigorous statistical methods that extrapolate tail behavior. However, informing both climate prediction and impact assessment requires concurrent physically and statistically oriented analysis. A combined examination of climate model simulations and observation-based reanalysis data sets suggests more intense and frequent precipitation extremes under 21st-century warming scenarios. Utilization of statistical extreme value theory and resampling-based uncertainty quantification combined with consideration of the Clausius-Clapeyron relationship reveals consistently intensifying trends for precipitation extremes at a global-average scale. However, regional and decadal analyses reveal specific discrepancies in the physical mechanisms governing precipitation extremes, as well as their statistical trends, especially in the tropics. The intensifying trend of precipitation extremes has quantifiable impacts on intensity-duration-frequency curves, which in turn have direct implications for hydraulic engineering design and water-resources management. The larger uncertainties at regional and decadal scales suggest the need for caution during regional-scale adaptation or preparedness decisions. Future research needs to explore the possibility of uncertainty reduction through higher resolution global climate models, statistical or dynamical downscaling, as well as improved understanding of precipitation extremes processes.

  1. Using the depth-velocity-size diagram to interpret equilibrium bed configurations in river flows

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Southard, J.B. (Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (USA))

    1990-05-01

    Data from flume studies that report equilibrium bed configuration as well as water temperature, flow depth, flow velocity, and sediment size were used to develop the best approximation to the relationships among the various bed phases (ripples, dunes, lower regime plane bed, upper regime plane bed, and antidunes) in a three-axis graph (depth-velocity-size diagram) with dimensionless measures of mean flow depth, mean flow velocity, and sediment size along the axis. Relationships are shown in a series of depth-velocity and velocity-size sections through the diagram. Boundaries between bed-phase stability fields are drawn as surfaces that minimize, misplacement of data points. A large subset of the data, for which reliable values of bed shear stress are reported, was also used to represent the stability relationships in a graph of dimensionless boundary shear stress against dimensionless sediment size, but with results less useful for fluvial flow interpretation. The diagram covers about one order of magnitude in flow depth. To be useful for river flows, the diagram must be extrapolated in flow depth by about one more order of magnitude, but this is not a serious problem for approximate work. The depth-velocity-size diagram permits prediction of equilibrium bed configuration in river flows when the approximate flow depth and mean flow velocity are known. Because the diagram is essentially dimensionless, the effect of water temperature (via the fluid viscosity) on the bed configuration is easily accounted for by use of the diagram.

  2. PRECIPITATION The images above use daily precipitation statistics from NWS COOP, CoCoRaHS, and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Collett Jr., Jeffrey L.

    PRECIPITATION The images above use daily precipitation statistics from NWS COOP, CoCoRaHS, and CoAgMet stations. From top to bottom, and left to right: most recent 7-days of accumulated precipitation in inches; current month-to-date accumulated precipitation in inches; last month's precipitation as a percent

  3. Precipitation and Snowpack Figure 1: Month to Date Precipitation (1-23 January 2011). Figure 2: 7 Day Precipitation (17-23 January 11).

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Collett Jr., Jeffrey L.

    Precipitation and Snowpack Figure 1: Month to Date Precipitation (1-23 January 2011). Figure 2: 7 Day Precipitation (17-23 January 11). Much of the high country in the Upper Colorado River Basin (UCRB.00" for January to date (Figure 1). Over the past seven days, however (Figure 2), precipitation has been

  4. Control of electrode depth in electroslag remelting

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Melgaard, David K. (Albuquerque, NM); Shelmidine, Gregory J. (Tijeras, NM); Damkroger, Brian K. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2002-01-01

    A method of and apparatus for controlling an electroslag remelting furnace by driving the electrode at a nominal speed based upon melting rate and geometry while making minor proportional adjustments based on a measured metric of the electrode immersion depth. Electrode drive speed is increased if a measured metric of electrode immersion depth differs from a set point by a predetermined amount, indicating that the tip is too close to the surface of a slag pool. Impedance spikes are monitored to adjust the set point for the metric of electrode immersion depth based upon one or more properties of the impedance spikes.

  5. Modelling simultaneous precipitation reactions in austenitic stainless steels.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cambridge, University of

    Modelling simultaneous precipitation reactions in austenitic stainless steels. T. Sourmail and H. K developed for simultaneous precipitation reactions in austenitic stainless steels, taking into account for important phases in creep-resistant austenitic stainless steels. 1 Introduction Precipitation phenomena

  6. Reese/Doering 4/2004 TCA PRECIPITATION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Doering, Tamara

    Reese/Doering 4/2004 TCA PRECIPITATION OVERVIEW This is a standard method for precipitating protein-PAGE). It may also be used to precipitate a very dilute or low abundance sample, in which case a carrier protein

  7. PRECIPITATION HARDENING IN Fe-Ni BASE AUSTENITIC ALLOYS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chang, K.-M.

    2010-01-01

    and H. J. Beattie: "Precipitation Processes in Steels," p.and S. Floreen: "Precipitation from Iron-Base Alloys," G. R.Element Content and Precipitation Behavior of Alloys Ingot

  8. Precipitation amount and intensity measurements with the Ott Pluvio

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wauben, Wiel

    Precipitation amount and intensity measurements with the Ott Pluvio Wiel Wauben Instrumental Department, INSA-IO, KNMI August 26, 2004 #12;#12;Precipitation amount and intensity measurements................................................................................... 1 2. Precipitation sensors................................................................... 5 2

  9. Precipitation Research at UMN: Multiscale variability and Uncertainty in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Foufoula-Georgiou, Efi

    Precipitation Research at UMN: Multiscale variability and Uncertainty in Rainfall Estimation Developing nonparametric schemes for merging multisensor precipitation products Gupta, R., V. Venugopal and E. Foufoula-Georgiou, A methodology for merging multisensor precipitation estimates based on expectation

  10. Seepage from a special class of a curved channel with drainage layer at shallow depth

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chahar, B. R.

    solution corresponding to the water table below the top of the drainage layer has also been deduced from is below the top of the drainage layer then the seepage is much more than that in homogeneous medium with drainage layer at shallow depth, Water Resour. Res., 45, W09423, doi:10.1029/2009WR007899. 1. Introduction

  11. Changes in auditory sensitivity with depth in a free-diving California sea lion (Zalophus californianus)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reichmuth, Colleen

    of sound energy, because of the air­ water barrier at the tympanic membrane, where theoretically, almost tanks, and may not accurately represent the auditory functioning of free-ranging animals, especially if hearing sensitivity changes with water depth. Underwater auditory thresholds were determined

  12. Response of South American ecosystems to precipitation variability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ganguly, Auroop R [ORNL; Erickson III, David J [ORNL; Bras, Rafael L [ORNL

    2009-12-01

    The Ecosystem Demography Model 2 is a dynamic ecosystem model and land surface energy balance model. ED2 discretizes landscapes of particular terrain and meteorology into fractional areas of unique disturbance history. Each fraction, defined by a shared vertical soil column and canopy air space, contains a stratum of plant groups unique in functional type, size and number density. The result is a vertically distributed representation of energy transfer and plant dynamics (mortality, productivity, recruitment, disturbance, resource competition, etc) that successfully approximates the behaviour of individual-based vegetation models. In previous exercises simulating Amazonian land surface dynamics with ED2, it was observed that when using grid averaged precipitation as an external forcing the resulting water balance typically over-estimated leaf interception and leaf evaporation while under estimating through-fall and transpiration. To investigate this result, two scenario were conducted in which land surface biophysics and ecosystem demography over the Northern portion of South America are simulated over {approx}200 years: (1) ED2 is forced with grid averaged values taken from the ERA40 reanalysis meteorological dataset; (2) ED2 is forced with ERA40 reanalysis, but with its precipitation re-sampled to reflect statistical qualities of point precipitation found at rain gauge stations in the region. The findings in this study suggest that the equilibrium moisture states and vegetation demography are co-dependent and show sensitivity to temporal variability in precipitation. These sensitivities will need to be accounted for in future projections of coupled climate-ecosystem changes in South America.

  13. Estimating tropical cyclone precipitation risk in Texas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhu, Laiyin

    This paper uses a new rainfall algorithm to simulate the long-term tropical cyclone precipitation (TCP) climatology in Texas based on synthetic tropical cyclones generated from National Center for Atmospheric Research/National ...

  14. Modelling Precipitation of Carbides in Martensitic Steels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yamasaki, Shingo

    The purpose of this work was to model carbide precipitation in steels of a quaternary system which includes two substitutional elements. The work focuses on secondary hardening steels which are used for high-strength components, where hydrogen...

  15. Processing NPP Bottoms by Ferrocyanide Precipitation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Savkin, A. E.; Slastennikov Y. T.; Sinyakin O. G.

    2002-02-25

    The purpose of work is a laboratory test of a technological scheme for cleaning bottoms from radionuclides by use of ozonization, ferrocyanide precipitation, filtration and selective sorption. At carrying out the ferrocyanide precipitation after ozonization, the specific activity of bottoms by Cs{sup 137} is reduced in 100-500 times. It has been demonstrated that the efficiency of ferrocyanide precipitation depends on the quality of consequent filtration. Pore sizes of a filter has been determined to be less than 0.2 {micro}m for complete separation of ferrocyanide residue. The comparison of two technological schemes for cleaning bottoms from radionuclides, characterized by presence of the ferrocyanide precipitation stage has been performed. Application of the proposed schemes allows reducing volumes of radioactive waste in many times.

  16. Minimizing Biases in Radar Precipitation Estimates 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McRoberts, Douglas B

    2014-12-08

    The demand for real-time drought information in recent years led to the development of a suite of objective drought indicators that relies on the high-resolution Stage IV precipitation estimates that are produced each day ...

  17. Testing Competing High-Resolution Precipitation Forecasts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gilleland, Eric

    Testing Competing High-Resolution Precipitation Forecasts Eric Gilleland Research Prediction Comparison Test D1 D2 D = D1 ­ D2 copyright NCAR 2013 Loss Differential Field #12;Spatial Prediction Comparison Test Introduced by Hering and Genton

  18. ARIMA Models versus Gene Expression Programming In Precipitation Modeling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fernandez, Thomas

    ARIMA Models versus Gene Expression Programming In Precipitation Modeling ALINA BRBULESCU and ELENA, Precipitation 1 Introduction Time series are ubiquitous in the real world. They are usually generated

  19. A METHOD FOR AIRCRAFT ICING DIAGNOSIS IN PRECIPITATION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fabry, Frederic

    A METHOD FOR AIRCRAFT ICING DIAGNOSIS IN PRECIPITATION François A. Turcotte Department precipitation event and its microphysics was simulated using a high resolution three-dimensional kinematic cloud

  20. Development and application of new methods to retrieve vertical structure of precipitation above the ARM CART sites from MMCR measurementsĂ?Âť

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dr. Sergey Matrosov

    2010-12-15

    The main objective of this project was to develop, validate and apply remote sensing methods to retrieve vertical profiles of precipitation over the DOE ARM CART sites using currently available remote sensors. While the ARM Program invested very heavily into developments of remote sensing methods and instruments for water vapor and non-precipitating cloud parameter retrievals, precipitation retrievals and studies lagged behind. Precipitation, however, is a crucial part of the water cycle, and without detailed information on rainfall and snowfall, significant improvements in the atmospheric models of different scales (i.e., one of the ARM Program's main goals) is difficult to achieve. Characterization of the vertical atmospheric column above the CART sites is also incomplete without detailed precipitation information, so developments of remote sensing methods for retrievals of parameters in precipitating cloud condition was essential. Providing modelers with retrieval results was also one of the key objectives of this research project.

  1. Precipitates Suppress Mobility Of Metals in Soil and Water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sparks, Donald L.

    concern. Excessive amounts of metals accumulating in soils can be toxic to humans, animals, and plants ­ levels that are potentially toxic to humans, animals, and plants. Predicting the movement of environ Competitive Grants Program. To be placed on the mailing list for this publication or to receive additional

  2. The Effects of Secondary Mineral Precipitates on 90Sr Mobility at the Hanford Site, USA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Um, Wooyong; Wang, Guohui; Serne, R. Jeffrey

    2013-06-03

    The effects of secondary precipitates on 90Sr transport at the Hanford Site were investigated using quartz column experiments with simulated caustic tank waste leachates (STWL). Significantly enhanced retardation of Sr transport was observed in the column contacted with STWL due to Sr sorption and co-precipitation with neo-formed nitratecancrinite. However, the column results also suggest that neo-formed secondary precipitates could behave like native mobile colloids that can enhance Sr transport. Initially immobilized Sr within secondary precipitates could remobilize given a change in the porewater background conditions. The mobility of the neo-formed Sr-bearing precipitates increased with increased solution flow rate. In the field, porewater contents and flow rates can be changed by snowmelt (or storm water) events or artificial infiltration. The increased porewater flow rate caused by these events could affect the mobility of 90Sr-containing secondary precipitates, which can be a potential source for facilitated Sr transport in Hanford Site subsurface environments.

  3. Effects of Aerosols on Autumn Precipitation over Mid-Eastern China

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Siyu; Huang, J.; Qian, Yun; Ge, Jinming; Su, Jing

    2014-09-20

    Long-term observational data indicated a decreasing trend for the amount of autumn precipitation (i.e. 54.3 mm per decade) over Mid-Eastern China, especially after 1980s (~ 5.6% per decade). To examine the cause of the decreasing trend, the mechanisms associated with the change of autumn precipitation were investigated from the perspective of water vapor transportation, atmospheric stability and cloud microphysics. Results show that the decrease of convective available potential energy (i.e. 12.81 J kg-1/ decade) and change of cloud microphysics, which were closely related to the increase of aerosol loading during the past twenty years, were the two primary factors responsible for the decrease of autumn precipitation. Ours results showed that increased aerosol could enhance the atmospheric stability thus weaken the convection. Meanwhile, more aerosols also led to a significant decline of raindrop concentration and to a delay of raindrop formation because of smaller size of cloud droplets. Thus, increased aerosols produced by air pollution could be one of the major reasons for the decrease of autumn precipitation. Furthermore, we found that the aerosol effects on precipitation in autumn was more significant than in other seasons, partly due to the relatively more stable synoptic system in autumn. The impact of large-scale circulation dominated in autumn and the dynamic influence on precipitation was more important than the thermodynamic activity.

  4. Estimating Annual Precipitation in the Fenner Basin of the Eastern Mojave Desert, California

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davisson, M.L.; Rose, T.P.

    2000-05-15

    Metropolitan Water District (MWD) of southern California and Cadiz Inc. investigated the feasibility of storing Colorado River water in groundwater aquifers of the eastern Mojave Desert as a future drought mitigation strategy. This culminated in the public release of the Cadiz Groundwater Storage and Dry-Year Supply program Draft EIR, which included pilot percolation studies, groundwater modeling, and precipitation/runoff analysis in the Fenner groundwater basin, which overlies the proposed storage site. The project proposes to store and withdrawal Colorado River water over a 50-year period, but will not exceed the natural replenishment rates of the groundwater basin. Several independent analyses were conducted to estimate the rates of natural groundwater replenishment to the Fenner Groundwater Basin which was included in the Draft EIR. The US Geologic Survey, Water Resources Division (WRD) officially submitted comments during public review and concluded that the natural groundwater replenishment rates calculated for the Draft EIR were too high. In the WRD review, they provided a much lower recharge calculation based on a Maxey-Eakin estimation approach. This approach estimates annual precipitation over an entire basin as a function of elevation, followed by calibration against annual recharge rates. Previous attempts to create precipitation-elevation functions in western Nevada have been difficult and result in large uncertainty. In the WRD data analysis, the effect of geographic scale on the precipitation-elevation function was overlooked. This contributed to an erroneous Maxey-Eakin recharge estimate.

  5. Revisiting diagenesis on the Ontong-Java plateau: Evidence for authigenic crust precipitation in Globorotalia tumida

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Branson, Oscar; Read, Elizabeth; Redfern, Simon; Rau, Christoph; Elderfield, Henry

    2015-10-16

    origin, driven by the simultaneous dissolution of high-Mg chamber calcite and precipitation of low-Mg crust from the resulting modified pore-water solution. While the breadth of the study is limited by the nature of the techniques, the observation of both...

  6. ADVANCED CONCEPTS ON REMOTE SENSING OF PRECIPITATION AT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Foufoula-Georgiou, Efi

    ADVANCED CONCEPTS ON REMOTE SENSING OF PRECIPITATION AT MULTIPLE SCALES by SorooSh SorooShian, amirTs Workshop on remoTe sensing of precipiTATion AT mulTiple scAles what: 50 participants from precipitation of remote sensing of precipitation whEn: 15­17 March 2010 whErE: University of California, Irvine Overview

  7. EVALUATION OF FROST HEAVE ON WASTE TRANSFER LINES WITH SHALLOW DEPTHS IN DST (DOUBLE SHELL TANK) FARMS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    HAQ MA

    2009-05-12

    The purpose of this document is to evaluate the effect of frost heave on waste transfer lines with shallow depths in DST farms. Because of the insulation, well compacted sandy material around waste transfer lines, the type of sandy and gravel soil, and relatively low precipitation at Hanford site, it is concluded that waste transfer lines with one foot of soil covers (sandy cushion material and insulation) are not expected to undergo frost heave damaging effects.

  8. Structure Profile by a Model of Precipitation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Zhenggang

    2009-01-01

    The organizational structure of a network is investigated with a simulated precipitation model which does not make use of prior knowledge about the community structure of the network. The result is presented as a structure profile through which various definitions of communities can be applied for specific applications. The simulated precipitation model performs the grouping of nodes so that nodes belonging to the same 'community' automatically aggregate, thereby revealing regions of the adjacency matrix with denser interconnections. The process is analogous to massive particles precipitating towards the lower potential layer. Without loss of the infrastructure information, a community structure profile of a network can be obtained as the ground state of the Hamiltonian. The method is also applicable to directed and weighted networks.

  9. Determining Nighttime Atmospheric Optical Depth Using Mars Exploration Rover Images 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bean, Keri Marie

    2013-07-22

    was compared to the expected flux to give nighttime optical depth values. The observed nighttime optical depth was consistently similar to the daytime optical depth values on both an individual image and sol-averaged basis. Recommendations are made going...

  10. Global longterm passive microwave satellitebased retrievals of vegetation optical depth

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Evans, Jason

    Global longterm passive microwave satellitebased retrievals of vegetation optical depth Yi Y. Liu,1 optical depth (VOD) retrievals from three satellitebased passive microwave instruments were merged longterm passive microwave satellitebased retrievals of vegetation optical depth, Geophys. Res. Lett., 38

  11. Influence of planting depth on landscape establishment of container-grown trees 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bryan, Donita Lynn

    2009-05-15

    .4 Effect of Planting Depth on Total Chlorophyll Concentration (A), Net Photosynthetic (Pn) Activity (B), and Pre-dawn Stem Water Potential (C) of Lacebark Elm (Ulmus parvifolia Jacq.) after 200 d in 10.8 L Containers... Depth on Pre-dawn Stem Water Potential in Lacebark Elm (Ulmus parvifolia Jacq.) When Initially Transplanted (10.8 L) 5 cm Above Soil Grade (A), at Soil Grade (B), or 5 cm Below Soil Grade (C) . 85 4.10 Effect of Date on Relative Growth Rate...

  12. High volume, multiple use, portable precipitator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carlson, Duane C. (N. Augusta, SC)

    2011-10-25

    A portable high air volume electrostatic collection precipitator for analyzing air is provided which is a relatively small, self-contained device. The device has a collection electrode adapted to carry a variety of collecting media. An air intake is provided such that air to be analyzed flows through an ionization section with a transversely positioned ionization wire to ionize analytes in the air, and then flows over the collection electrode where ionized analytes are collected. Air flow is maintained at but below turbulent flow, Ionizable constituents in the air are ionized, attracted to the collection electrode, and precipitated in the selected medium which can be removed for analysis.

  13. Helices in the wake of precipitation fronts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shibi Thomas; Istvan Lagzi; Ferenc Molnar Jr; Zoltan Racz

    2013-08-30

    A theoretical study of the emergence of helices in the wake of precipitation fronts is presented. The precipitation dynamics is described by the Cahn-Hilliard equation and the fronts are obtained by quenching the system into a linearly unstable state. Confining the process onto the surface of a cylinder and using the pulled-front formalism, our analytical calculations show that there are front solutions that propagate into the unstable state and leave behind a helical structure. We find that helical patterns emerge only if the radius of the cylinder R is larger than a critical value R>R_c, in agreement with recent experiments.

  14. Exploring Virtual Depth for Automotive Instrument Cluster

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Exploring Virtual Depth for Automotive Instrument Cluster Concepts Nora Broy1,2,3 , Benedikt Zierer instrument cluster. Permission to make digital or hard copies of part or all of this work for personal more pronounced as auto-stereoscopic displays become available for the car. For instance, H¨akkil¨a et

  15. Long-term impacts of aerosols on vertical development of cloud and precipitation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li Z.; Liu Y.; Niu, F.; Fan, J.; Rosenfeld, D.; Ding, Y.

    2011-11-13

    Aerosols alter cloud density and the radiative balance of the atmosphere. This leads to changes in cloud microphysics and atmospheric stability, which can either suppress or foster the development of clouds and precipitation. The net effect is largely unknown, but depends on meteorological conditions and aerosol properties. Here, we examine the long-term impact of aerosols on the vertical development of clouds and rainfall frequencies, using a 10-year dataset of aerosol, cloud and meteorological variables collected in the Southern Great Plains in the United States. We show that cloud-top height and thickness increase with aerosol concentration measured near the ground in mixed-phase clouds-which contain both liquid water and ice-that have a warm, low base. We attribute the effect, which is most significant in summer, to an aerosol-induced invigoration of upward winds. In contrast, we find no change in cloud-top height and precipitation with aerosol concentration in clouds with no ice or cool bases. We further show that precipitation frequency and rain rate are altered by aerosols. Rain increases with aerosol concentration in deep clouds that have a high liquid-water content, but declines in clouds that have a low liquid-water content. Simulations using a cloud-resolving model confirm these observations. Our findings provide unprecedented insights of the long-term net impacts of aerosols on clouds and precipitation.

  16. Drinking Water Problems: Iron and Manganese 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dozier, Monty; McFarland, Mark L.

    2004-02-20

    /filtration system. In this system, air is pulled in and mixed with the passing stream of water. The air-saturated water then enters a precipitator/aerator vessel where air separates from the water. The water then flows through a fil- ter where various filter media...) Oxidizing filter?manganese greensand or zeolite (use with 10...

  17. Modelling Precipitation of Carbides in Martensitic Steels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cambridge, University of

    Modelling Precipitation of Carbides in Martensitic Steels Shingo Yamasaki Darwin College appreciate Dr S. Aihara and Mr T. Tarui at Nippon Steel Corporation for giving me the opportunity to study at Nippon Steel Corporation. I am indebted to grants from the Personnel Division of Nippon Steel Corporation

  18. Quantifying precipitation suppression due to air Pollution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Zhanqing

    Quantifying precipitation suppression due to air Pollution First author: Amir Givati The Hebrew January 2004 #12;ABSTRACT: Urban and industrial air pollution has been shown qualitatively to suppress. The evidence suggests that air pollution aerosols that are incorporated in orographic clouds slow down cloud

  19. Superconductor precursor mixtures made by precipitation method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bunker, Bruce C. (Albuquerque, NM); Lamppa, Diana L. (Albuquerque, NM); Voigt, James A. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1989-01-01

    Method and apparatus for preparing highly pure homogeneous precursor powder mixtures for metal oxide superconductive ceramics. The mixes are prepared by instantaneous precipitation from stoichiometric solutions of metal salts such as nitrates at controlled pH's within the 9 to 12 range, by addition of solutions of non-complexing pyrolyzable cations, such as alkyammonium and carbonate ions.

  20. Quiet Time Precipitation Patterns of Energetic Particles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kallenrode, May-Britt

    in some of the most important parameters that de- pend on solar activity - Kp index, global average Solar Wind Speed and Particle Fluxes 9 4 Precipitation Patterns 11 4.1 Global Average Flux a potential hazard. This is evidenced by an especially strong solar storm on September 1-2, 1859, which

  1. pre-acts -6th annual international conference of Territorial Intelligence -caENTI October 2008 1 SUSTAINABLE WATER MANAGEMENT METHODS IN HUNGARY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    a useful sustainable water management model based on the rainwater harvesting practices. Key words: Rainwater, sustainable water management, drinking water, rainwater harvesting, cistern, precipitation practical way to meet our everyday water needs is rainwater harvesting. Practically, this water is free

  2. Steady states and linear stability analysis of precipitation pattern formation at geothermal hot springs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chan, Pak Yuen

    2007-01-01

    A dynamical theory of geophysical precipitation pattern formation is presented and applied to irreversible calcium carbonate (travertine) deposition. Specific systems studied here are the terraces and domes observed at geothermal hot springs, such as those at Yellowstone National Park, and speleothems, particularly stalactites and stalagmites. The theory couples the precipitation front dynamics with shallow water flow, including corrections for turbulent drag and curvature effects. In the absence of capillarity and with a laminar flow profile, the theory predicts a one-parameter family of steady state solutions to the moving boundary problem describing the precipitation front. These shapes match well the measured shapes near the vent at the top of observed travertine domes. Closer to the base of the dome, the solutions deviate from observations, and circular symmetry is broken by a fluting pattern, which we show is associated with capillary forces causing thin film break-up. We relate our model to that recent...

  3. Gaussian packet prestack depth migration. Part 2: Optimized Gaussian packets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cerveny, Vlastislav

    Gaussian packet prestack depth migration. Part 2: Optimized Gaussian packets V#19;aclav Bucha packet prestack depth migration consists of four basic steps: (a) preparation of a velocity model su to the Gaussian packet prestack depth migration. Keywords Gaussian packets, Gaussian beams, prestack depth

  4. The depth of the tropical Pacific Ocean's warm surface layer shrank during the last three

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yanik, Mehmet Fatih

    The depth of the tropical Pacific Ocean's warm surface layer shrank during the last three decades Pacific Ocean, off an island in Palau. They analysed the ratio of nitrogen and carbon isotopes.1029/2010GL044867 (2010) OceanOgraphy Cold water rising in the Pacific DrUg DeVeLOpMenT Worm surgery on a chip

  5. Aerosol control on depth of warm rain in convective clouds Mahen Konwar,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Daniel, Rosenfeld

    Aerosol control on depth of warm rain in convective clouds Mahen Konwar,1 R. S. Maheskumar,1 J. R effective radius (re) increased with distance above cloud base (D). Warm rain became detectable, i.e., rain water content >0.01 g/Kg, at the tops of growing convective clouds when re exceeded 12 mm. The re

  6. Innovative Water Management Technology to Reduce Environmental Impacts of Produced Water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Castle, James; Rodgers, John; Alley, Bethany; Beebe, Alex; Coffey, Ruthanne; Jurinko, Kristen; Pardue, Michael; Ritter, Tina; Spacil, Michael

    2013-05-15

    Clemson University with Chevron as an industry partner developed and applied treatment technology using constructed wetland systems to decrease targeted constituents in simulated and actual produced waters to achieve reuse criteria and discharge limits. Pilot-scale and demonstration constructed wetland treatment system (CWTS) experiments led to design strategies for treating a variety of constituents of concern (COCs) in produced waters including divalent metals, metalloids, oil and grease, and ammonia. Targeted biogeochemical pathways for treatment of COCs in pilot-scale CWTS experiments included divalent metal sulfide precipitation through dissimilatory sulfate reduction, metal precipitation through oxidation, reduction of selenite to insoluble elemental selenium, aerobic biodegradation of oil, nitrification of ammonia to nitrate, denitrification of nitrate to nitrogen gas, separation of oil using an oilwater separator, and sorption of ammonia to zeolite. Treatment performance results indicated that CWTSs can be designed and built to promote specific environmental and geochemical conditions in order for targeted biogeochemical pathways to operate. The demonstration system successfully achieved consistent removal extents even while inflow concentrations of COCs in the produced water differed by orders of magnitude. Design strategies used in the pilot-scale and demonstration CWTSs to promote specific conditions that can be applied to designing full-scale CWTSs include plant and soil selection, water-depth selection, addition of amendments, and hydraulic retention time (HRT). These strategies allow conditions within a CWTS to be modified to achieve ranges necessary for the preferred biogeochemical treatment pathways. In the case of renovating a produced water containing COCs that require different biogeochemical pathways for treatment, a CWTS can be designed with sequential cells that promote different conditions. For example, the pilot-scale CWTS for post-reverse osmosis produced water was designed to promote oxidizing conditions within the first wetland cell for nitrification of ammonia, and the subsequent three cells were designed to promote reducing conditions for denitrification of nitrate. By incorporating multiple wetland cells in a CWTS, the conditions within each cell can be modified for removal of specific COCs. In addition, a CWTS designed with multiple cells allows for convenient sample collection points so that biogeochemical conditions of individual cells can be monitored and performance evaluated. Removal rate coefficients determined from the pilot-scale CWTS experiments and confirmed by the demonstration system can be used to calculate HRTs required to treat COCs in full-scale CWTSs. The calculated HRTs can then be used to determine the surface area or ?footprint? of a full-size CWTS for a given inflow rate of produced water.

  7. Innovative Water Management Technology to Reduce Environment Impacts of Produced Water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Castle, James; Rodgers, John; Alley, Bethany; Coffey, Ruthanne; Jurinko, Kristen; Pardue, Michael; Ritter, Tina; Spacil, Michael

    2013-05-15

    Clemson University with Chevron as an industry partner developed and applied treatment technology using constructed wetland systems to decrease targeted constituents in simulated and actual produced waters to achieve reuse criteria and discharge limits. Pilot-scale and demonstration constructed wetland treatment system (CWTS) experiments led to design strategies for treating a variety of constituents of concern (COCs) in produced waters including divalent metals, metalloids, oil and grease, and ammonia. Targeted biogeochemical pathways for treatment of COCs in pilot-scale CWTS experiments included divalent metal sulfide precipitation through dissimilatory sulfate reduction, metal precipitation through oxidation, reduction of selenite to insoluble elemental selenium, aerobic biodegradation of oil, nitrification of ammonia to nitrate, denitrification of nitrate to nitrogen gas, separation of oil using an oilwater separator, and sorption of ammonia to zeolite. Treatment performance results indicated that CWTSs can be designed and built to promote specific environmental and geochemical conditions in order for targeted biogeochemical pathways to operate. The demonstration system successfully achieved consistent removal extents even while inflow concentrations of COCs in the produced water differed by orders of magnitude. Design strategies used in the pilot-scale and demonstration CWTSs to promote specific conditions that can be applied to designing full-scale CWTSs include plant and soil selection, water-depth selection, addition of amendments, and hydraulic retention time (HRT). These strategies allow conditions within a CWTS to be modified to achieve ranges necessary for the preferred biogeochemical treatment pathways. In the case of renovating a produced water containing COCs that require different biogeochemical pathways for treatment, a CWTS can be designed with sequential cells that promote different conditions. For example, the pilot-scale CWTS for post-reverse osmosis produced water was designed to promote oxidizing conditions within the first wetland cell for nitrification of ammonia, and the subsequent three cells were designed to promote reducing conditions for denitrification of nitrate. By incorporating multiple wetland cells in a CWTS, the conditions within each cell can be modified for removal of specific COCs. In addition, a CWTS designed with multiple cells allows for convenient sample collection points so that biogeochemical conditions of individual cells can be monitored and performance evaluated. Removal rate coefficients determined from the pilot-scale CWTS experiments and confirmed by the demonstration system can be used to calculate HRTs required to treat COCs in full-scale CWTSs. The calculated HRTs can then be used to determine the surface area or ?footprint? of a full-size CWTS for a given inflow rate of produced water.

  8. Carbon and Water Cycling in a Texas Hill Country Woodland 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kamps, Ray Herbert

    2014-12-11

    -dominant species partition the scarce water resource under varying annual precipitation patterns. Eddy covariance and dendrochronology techniques were used to investigate carbon and water cycling from 2004 to 2012 in this setting. Essential information...

  9. Sensitivity of tropical precipitation extremes to climate change

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    O'Gorman, Paul Ambrose

    Precipitation extremes increase in intensity over many regions of the globe in simulations of a warming climate1, 2, 3. The rate of increase of precipitation extremes in the extratropics is consistent across global climate ...

  10. Reduction of tropical land region precipitation variability via transpiration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Jung-Eun

    Tropical rainforests are known to exhibit low intraseasonal precipitation variability compared with oceanic areas with similar mean precipitation in observations and models. In the present study, the potential role of ...

  11. A critical analysis of bulk precipitation recycling models

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fitzmaurice, Jean Anne

    2007-01-01

    Precipitation recycling is the contribution of local land evaporation to the precipitation of a region. The significant local evaporative contribution to rainfall in many continental regions highlights the potential ...

  12. Diurnal Precipitation Variations in South-Central New Mexico

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tucker, Donna F.

    1993-07-01

    Orographic forcing of diurnal precipitation variations in south-central New Mexico is examined. Harmonic analysis reveals a strong diurnal cycle in precipitation frequency at all stations studied. In addition, relatively ...

  13. Characterization of uncertainty in remotely-sensed precipitation estimates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alemohammad, Seyed Hamed

    2015-01-01

    Satellite-derived retrievals of precipitation have increased in availability and improved in quality over the last decade. There are now several satellites in orbit with instruments capable of precipitation retrieval with ...

  14. Caribbean Precipitation in Observations and IPCC AR4 Models 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Martin, Elinor Ruth

    2012-10-19

    Caribbean precipitation and mechanisms related to precipitation in the region. Not only were errors seen in the annual mean, with CMIP models underestimating both rainfall and sea surface temperature (SST) and AMIP models overestimating rainfall, the annual...

  15. Future precipitation changes and their implications for tropical peatlands

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yang, Zong-Liang

    Future precipitation changes and their implications for tropical peatlands Wenhong Li,1 Robert E. Dickinson, R. Fu, G.-Y. Niu, Z.-L. Yang, and J. G. Canadell (2007), Future precipitation changes

  16. precipitation frequency & intensity in instantaneous and aggregated data

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kuang, Zhiming

    precipitation frequency & intensity in instantaneous and aggregated data Michela Biasutti1, Sandra - Ocean Implications (and a suggestion for model diagnostics) Outline #12;4 Minute-by-minute precipitation

  17. A Comparison of Nonlinear Water Wave Models Kurt M. Berger

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ­Luke). In both water of finite-depth and in the deep-water limit the steady state effect of the decaying pressure, by introducing scales for each variable. In the deep-water limit, the origin of the vertical axis is shifted both the finite-depth and deep-water cases, but restrict our attention to the one-dimensional version

  18. Precipitation-Regulated Star Formation in Galaxies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Voit, G Mark; O'Shea, Brian W; Donahue, Megan

    2015-01-01

    Galaxy growth depends critically on the interplay between radiative cooling of cosmic gas and the resulting energetic feedback that cooling triggers. This interplay has proven exceedingly difficult to model, even with large supercomputer simulations, because of its complexity. Nevertheless, real galaxies are observed to obey simple scaling relations among their primary observable characteristics. Here we show that a generic emergent property of the interplay between cooling and feedback can explain the observed scaling relationships between a galaxy's stellar mass, its total mass, and its chemical enrichment level, as well as the relationship between the average orbital velocity of its stars and the mass of its central black hole. These relationships naturally result from any feedback mechanism that strongly heats a galaxy's circumgalactic gas in response to precipitation of colder clouds out of that gas, because feedback then suspends the gas in a marginally precipitating state.

  19. Chemical composition of interstitial waters from the Japan Sea, ODP Leg 128

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sturz, A. ); Von Breymann, M.; Dunbar, R. )

    1990-06-01

    During ODP Leg 128, interstitial waters were recovered from Oki Ridge (Site 798) and Kita-Yamato Trough (Site 799) sediment, Sea of Japan. Interstitial water chemical composition reflects diagenetic processes. Evidence indicating organic matter degradation processes includes sulfate depletion, high ammonium concentrations, and shallow maxima of dissolved phosphate. Rapid alkalinity increases in the uppermost sections of the sediments are accompanied by decreases in dissolved calcium, reflecting inorganic calcite precipitation. Authigenic dolomitization results in changes in slopes of the Mg/Ca molar ratios with depth. The opal-A/opal-CT transition is documented by the concentration depth profiles of dissolved silica and lithium. Dolomitization precedes the opal-A/opal-CT transition at both sites. Kita-Yamato Trough sediments show an abrupt change in the compositional character of the pore fluids below 435 mbsf, which coincides with the occurrence of low porosity and high bulk density layers composed of dolomite and opal-CT. These layers impede to some extent diffusional communication with the overlying interstitial waters. The interstitial waters in sediments below 435 mbsf have chloride concentrations of 504-515 mM, significantly lower than that of modern day Japan Sea water (540 mM). The presence of low chloride waters within Miocene age sediments may indicate: (1) diagenetic reactions that involve the release of exchangeable and structural bound water from clay minerals and/or opal-A, (2) Miocene connate brackish lake water, (3) phase separation of hydrothermal fluids associated with rifting, (4) potential effects of clay membrane filtration in a high pressure zone.

  20. Capacitance studies of cobalt oxide films formed via electrochemical precipitation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weidner, John W.

    Capacitance studies of cobalt oxide films formed via electrochemical precipitation Venkat prepared by electrochemically precipitating the hydroxide and heating it in air to form Co3O4, it is desirable to study the generality of the electrochemical precipitation technique as a means of fab- ricating

  1. AEROSOL-PRECIPITATION INTERACTIONS IN THE SOUTHERN APPALACHIAN MOUNTAINS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    AEROSOL-PRECIPITATION INTERACTIONS IN THE SOUTHERN APPALACHIAN MOUNTAINS A Thesis by GINGER MARIE of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF ARTS May 2011 Department of Geography and Planning #12;AEROSOL-PRECIPITATION and Graduate Studies #12;Copyright by Ginger Marie Kelly 2011 All Rights Reserved #12;iv ABSTRACT AEROSOL-PRECIPITATION

  2. PRICING PRECIPITATION BASED DERIVATIVES RENE CARMONA AND PAVEL DIKO

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carmona, Rene

    PRICING PRECIPITATION BASED DERIVATIVES REN´E CARMONA AND PAVEL DIKO ABSTRACT. We consider the problem of pricing a derivative contract written on the precipitation at a specific location during of the underlying precipitation. Our model is based on pulse Poisson process models widely used in hydrology. We

  3. TECHNICAL BRIEF Mass spectrometry-based immuno-precipitation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lamond, Angus I.

    TECHNICAL BRIEF Mass spectrometry-based immuno-precipitation proteomics ­ The user's guide Sara ten Revised: December 7, 2010 Accepted: December 10, 2010 Immuno-precipitation (IP) experiments using MS but not described in the form of protocols. Keywords: Cell biology / Cumulative analysis / Immuno-precipitation

  4. Influences of soil moisture and vegetation on convective precipitation forecasts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Robock, Alan

    Influences of soil moisture and vegetation on convective precipitation forecasts over the United and vegetation on 30 h convective precipitation forecasts using the Weather Research and Forecasting model over, the complete removal of vegetation produced substantially less precipitation, while conversion to forest led

  5. Precipitation amount and intensity measurements using a windscreen

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wauben, Wiel

    Precipitation amount and intensity measurements using a windscreen Wiel Wauben Instrumental Department, INSA-IO, KNMI June 21, 2004 #12;#12;Precipitation amount and intensity measurements using................................................................................... 1 2. Precipitation gauge and measurement setup............................ 3 2.1. KNMI electronic

  6. ULF Waves Associated with Enhanced Subauroral Proton Precipitation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Berkeley, University of

    ULF Waves Associated with Enhanced Subauroral Proton Precipitation Thomas J. Immel, S. B. Mende, H Abstract. Several types of sub-auroral proton precipitation events have been identified using and solar wind conditions and the mechanism driving the precipitation has often been assumed

  7. Modelling precipitation of niobium carbide in austenite: multicomponent diffusion, capillarity,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cambridge, University of

    Modelling precipitation of niobium carbide in austenite: multicomponent diffusion, capillarity for the overall transformation kinetics of niobium carbide precipitation in austenite that takes into account the precipitation and coarsening reactions to be treated in a single model. The model is compared with published

  8. Stochastic precipitation generation based on a multivariate autoregression model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Borchers, Brian

    Stochastic precipitation generation based on a multivariate autoregression model Oleg V. Makhnin of stochastic precipitation generation has long been of interest. A good generator should produce time series with statistical properties to match those of the real precipitation. Here, we present a multivariate

  9. Tubular precipitation and redox gradients on a bubbling template

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goldstein, Raymond E.

    Tubular precipitation and redox gradients on a bubbling template David A. Stone* and Raymond E) Tubular structures created by precipitation abound in nature, from chimneys at hydrothermal vents to soda oxides precipitate on the surface of bubbles that linger at the tube rim and then detach, leaving behind

  10. SPATIOTEMPORAL MODELS IN THE ESTIMATION OF AREA PRECIPITATION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lisbon, University of

    SPATIOTEMPORAL MODELS IN THE ESTIMATION OF AREA PRECIPITATION Eduardo Severino and Teresa Alpuim University of Lisbon, Portugal SUMMARY Since area precipitation measurements are difficult to obtain because of the large spatial and time variability of the precipitation field, the development of statistical methods

  11. Precipitation event distribution in Central Argentina: spatial and temporal patterns

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nacional de San Luis, Universidad

    Precipitation event distribution in Central Argentina: spatial and temporal patterns Patricio N, C1417DSE Buenos Aires, Argentina ABSTRACT The annual amount of precipitation inputs received, these inputs have to escape runoff, favoured by large and less frequent precipitation events, and evaporation

  12. Precipitation distributions for explicit versus parameterized convection in a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wirosoetisno, Djoko

    Precipitation distributions for explicit versus parameterized convection in a large-domain high.J. and Lister, G.M.S. (2012) Precipitation distributions for explicit versus parameterized convection in a large. Meteorol. Soc. 138: 1692­1708, October 2012 A Precipitation distributions for explicit versus parametrized

  13. Energetic ion precipitation at Titan T. E. Cravens,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Berkeley, University of

    Energetic ion precipitation at Titan T. E. Cravens,1 I. P. Robertson,1 S. A. Ledvina,2 D. Mitchell observed in Saturn's outer magnetosphere and can precipitate into Titan's atmosphere where they deposit energy, ionize, and drive ionospheric chemistry. Ion production rates caused by this precipitation

  14. Precipitation and Northern Hemisphere regimes Christoph C. Raiblea,*, Ute Lukschb

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Raible, Christoph C.

    Precipitation and Northern Hemisphere regimes Christoph C. Raiblea,*, Ute Lukschb , Klaus-correlations between the precipitation in the tropical and subtropical western Atlantic illustrate the changes of the Hadley cell with El Nin~o/Southern Oscillation (ENSO).The precipitation anomaly pattern in the north

  15. ORIGINAL PAPER Winter westerly disturbance dynamics and precipitation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jones, Charles

    ORIGINAL PAPER Winter westerly disturbance dynamics and precipitation in the western Himalaya, allowing for a comprehensive study of the factors that relate WWD to orographic precipitation of disturbances, the state of the background environ- ment during their propagation, and precipitation totals

  16. Precipitation hydrometeor type relative to the mesoscale airflow in mature

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Houze Jr., Robert A.

    Precipitation hydrometeor type relative to the mesoscale airflow in mature oceanic deep convection systems whose contiguous precipitation spans at least ~100 km in one direction [Houze 2004]. These cloud systems are composed of small, intensely precipitating convective regions and expansive stratiform regions

  17. Appendix to regridding NCDCs meteorological data 1 PRECIPITATION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Washington at Seattle, University of

    10 Appendix to regridding NCDCs meteorological data 1 PRECIPITATION 1.1 cmb_prcp.dly Daily precipitation file downloaded directly from Earthinfo CDs. One year is on one line although you can not see.2 cmb_prcp.sta Precipitation station file downloaded from Earthinfo CDs MT|24|2827|EUREKA RS Prcp|771

  18. AGCM Precipitation Biases in the Tropical Atlantic M. BIASUTTI

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Biasutti, Michela

    AGCM Precipitation Biases in the Tropical Atlantic M. BIASUTTI Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory precipitation in the Southern Hemisphere in boreal spring and in the Caribbean region in boreal summer precipitation maximum does not occur there. This is the case even though these GCMs accurately place the maximum

  19. ORIGINAL PAPER An improved reconstruction of MayJune precipitation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grissino-Mayer, Henri D.

    ORIGINAL PAPER An improved reconstruction of May­June precipitation using tree-ring data from developed a high quality reconstruction of May­June precipitation for the interior region of southwest- ern . Tree ring . Precipitation reconstruction . Black pine . Volcanic eruption . Turkey Introduction

  20. Impact of anthropogenic absorbing aerosols on clouds and precipitation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Impact of anthropogenic absorbing aerosols on clouds and precipitation: A review of recent and precipitation: A review of recent progresses Chien Wang Massachusetts Institute of Technology, E19-439K, 77 atmospheric circulation, and hence clouds and precipitation. Recent studies have suggested that the changes

  1. IMPACT OF AEROSOLS ON CONVECTIVE CLOUDS AND PRECIPITATION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zeng, Ning

    IMPACT OF AEROSOLS ON CONVECTIVE CLOUDS AND PRECIPITATION Wei-Kuo Tao,1 Jen-Ping Chen,2 Zhanqing Li effects on clouds could further extend to precipitation, both through the formation of cloud particles mechan- isms behind these effects, in particular, the ones connected to precipitation, are not yet well

  2. ORIGINAL PAPER Global warming impact on the dominant precipitation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Evans, Jason

    ORIGINAL PAPER Global warming impact on the dominant precipitation processes in the Middle East a good job of simulating the precipitation for most of the domain, though it performs relatively poorly. The results also show widespread decreases in precipitation over the eastern Mediterranean and Turkey

  3. LOCALIZED PRECIPITATION, LAKE-EFFECT STORMS, AND EROSION ON MARS.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    LOCALIZED PRECIPITATION, LAKE-EFFECT STORMS, AND EROSION ON MARS. Edwin. S. Kite*, Earth], this hypothesis has never been modeled. We report numerical tests of localized precipitation using MRAMS ephemeral lakes. For a given vapor injection rate or lake surface temperature, localized precipitation

  4. Precipitation processes in the Middle East , R. Smitha

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Evans, Jason

    Precipitation processes in the Middle East J. Evansa , R. Smitha and R.Oglesbyb a Dept. Geology and topography in generating precipitation in the Middle East. The model is run for five years (1990 thru 1994 that exhibit precipitation regimes disparate from one-another are identified and examined. The models ability

  5. The sensitivity of hillslope bedrock erosion to precipitation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Amundson, Ronald

    The sensitivity of hillslope bedrock erosion to precipitation Justine J. Owen,1 * Ronald Amundson,1) through their dependence on soil thickness, and precipitation is an important control on soil formation. Surprisingly though, compilations of hillslope denudation rates suggest little precipitation sensitivity

  6. PRECIPITATION OF RADIATION BELT ELECTRONS BY LIGHTNING-GENERATED

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    PRECIPITATION OF RADIATION BELT ELECTRONS BY LIGHTNING-GENERATED MAGNETOSPHERICALLY REFLECTING-order model to estimate the L-shell dependence of the precipitation flux of energetic electrons driven by MR L-shell extent) peak in the precipitation signature can result due to the focusing of the whistler

  7. Precipitation controls Sahel greening trend Thomas Hickler,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ardö, Jonas

    Precipitation controls Sahel greening trend Thomas Hickler,1 Lars Eklundh,1 Jonathan W. Seaquist,2 variability between 1982 and 1998. Changes in precipitation were identified as the primary driver. Smith, J. Ardo¨, L. Olsoon, M. T. Sykes, and M. Sjo¨stro¨m (2005), Precipitation controls Sahel greening

  8. Urgent need for a common metric to make precipitation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dukes, Jeffrey

    Letters Urgent need for a common metric to make precipitation manipulation experiments comparable of altered precipitation patterns, by contrast, have received far less atten- tion. The results of precipitation manipulation experiments were only recently synthesized for the first time (Wu et al., 2011

  9. Trends of extreme precipitation in eastern China and their possible causes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2015-01-01

    in different-class precipitation over eastern China un- derwet and dry season precipitation. Nature Geoscience, 6, 263–to the orographic precipitation in the Qinling Mountains.

  10. Potential remediation approach for uranium-contaminated groundwaters through potassium uranyl vanadate precipitation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tokunaga, T.K.

    2010-01-01

    and secondary phase precipitation in aqueous suspension.Potassium Uranyl Vanadate Precipitation Tetsu K. Tokunaga,uranium (U) through precipitation under oxidizing conditions

  11. Impacts of precipitation seasonality and ecosystem types on evapotranspiration in the Yukon River Basin, Alaska

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yuan, Wenping; Liu, Shuguang; Liu, Heping; Randerson, James T; Yu, Guirui; Tieszen, Larry L

    2010-01-01

    and K. Tan (2005), Precipitation patterns alter growth ofobserved global land precipitation variations during 1900 –and changes in global precipitation patterns: What do we

  12. Geophysical monitoring and reactive transport modeling of ureolytically-driven calcium carbonate precipitation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wu, Y.

    2012-01-01

    P. , Microbial Carbonate precipitation as a soil improvementTo Enhance Calcite Precipitation . Environ. Sci. Technol.Calcium Carbonate Precipitation by Ureolytic Subsurfface

  13. Precipitation response to land subsurface hydrologic processes in atmospheric general circulation model simulations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lo, Min-Hui; Famiglietti, James S

    2011-01-01

    LO AND FAMIGLIETTI: PRECIPITATION RESPONSE TO LAND PROCESSES2006), Regional tropical precipitation change mechanisms inrobustness of tropical precipitation asymmetry, J. Clim. ,

  14. An analysis of winter precipitation in the northeast and a winter weather precipitation type forecasting tool for New York City 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gordon, Christopher James

    1999-01-01

    Winter storms produce a wide array of precipitation types across the northeast United States. Immense problems are created for all parts of today's society when the precipitation falls in the form of snow or freezing rain. ...

  15. Wax precipitation for gas condensate fluids was studied in detail with a thermodynamic model. It was found that the precipitated

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Firoozabadi, Abbas

    Summary Wax precipitation for gas condensate fluids was studied in detail with a thermodynamic model. It was found that the precipitated wax phase can exhibit retrograde phenomena similar of precipitated wax may first increase, then decrease, then increase again. The effect of pressure on wax

  16. Soil temperature, soil moisture and thaw depth, Barrow, Alaska, Ver. 1

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Sloan, V.L.; J.A. Liebig; M.S. Hahn; J.B. Curtis; J.D. Brooks; A. Rogers; C.M. Iversen; R.J. Norby

    2014-01-10

    This dataset consists of field measurements of soil properties made during 2012 and 2013 in areas A-D of Intensive Site 1 at the Next-Generation Ecosystem Experiments (NGEE) Arctic site near Barrow, Alaska. Included are i) weekly measurements of thaw depth, soil moisture, presence and depth of standing water, and soil temperature made during the 2012 and 2013 growing seasons (June - September) and ii) half-hourly measurements of soil temperature logged continuously during the period June 2012 to September 2013.

  17. Soil temperature, soil moisture and thaw depth, Barrow, Alaska, Ver. 1

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Sloan, V.L.; J.A. Liebig; M.S. Hahn; J.B. Curtis; J.D. Brooks; A. Rogers; C.M. Iversen; R.J. Norby

    This dataset consists of field measurements of soil properties made during 2012 and 2013 in areas A-D of Intensive Site 1 at the Next-Generation Ecosystem Experiments (NGEE) Arctic site near Barrow, Alaska. Included are i) weekly measurements of thaw depth, soil moisture, presence and depth of standing water, and soil temperature made during the 2012 and 2013 growing seasons (June - September) and ii) half-hourly measurements of soil temperature logged continuously during the period June 2012 to September 2013.

  18. Ocean General Circula-on near 1000 m depth

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lherminier, Pascale

    currents near 1000 m depth · Eddy Kine-c Energy near 1000 m depth · Seasonal hemisphere), Kuroshio, Oyashio, East Kamchatka, Alaska Stream, Gulf Stream, Labrador, East and West Greenland (northern hemisphere). · Alternate zonal bands

  19. Precipitation Characteristics in Eighteen Coupled Climate Models National Center for Atmospheric Research,* Boulder, Colorado

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dai, Aiguo

    Precipitation Characteristics in Eighteen Coupled Climate Models AIGUO DAI National Center) ABSTRACT Monthly and 3-hourly precipitation data from twentieth-century climate simulations by the newest-related variability, convective versus stratiform precipitation ratio, precipitation frequency and intensity

  20. Kirchhoff prestack depth migration in simple models of various anisotropy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cerveny, Vlastislav

    Kirchhoff prestack depth migration in simple models of various anisotropy V´aclav Bucha Department Republic, E-mail: bucha@seis.karlov.mff.cuni.cz Summary We apply the Kirchhoff prestack depth migration anisotropy and monoclinic anisotropy. We test Kirchhoff prestack depth migration in two ways: a

  1. Kirchhoff prestack depth migration in 3-D simple models

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cerveny, Vlastislav

    Kirchhoff prestack depth migration in 3-D simple models: comparison of triclinic anisotropy depth migration to calculate migrated sections in 3-D simple anisotropic homogeneous velocity models interface. The anisotropy in the upper layer is triclinic. We apply Kirch- hoff prestack depth migration

  2. Methods Note/ Net Recharge vs. Depth to Groundwater

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Szilagyi, Jozsef

    Methods Note/ Net Recharge vs. Depth to Groundwater Relationship in the Platte River Valley rates were correlated with depth to groundwater (d) values in the wide alluvial valley of the Platte soils with a shallow groundwater table. The transition depth (dt) between negative and positive values

  3. Disordered amorphous calcium carbonate from direct precipitation

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Farhadi Khouzani, Masoud; Chevrier, Daniel M.; Güttlein, Patricia; Hauser, Karin; Zhang, Peng; Hedin, Niklas; Gebauer, Denis

    2015-06-01

    Amorphous calcium carbonate (ACC) is known to play a prominent role in biomineralization. Different studies on the structure of biogenic ACCs have illustrated that they can have distinct short-range orders. However, the origin of so-called proto-structures in synthetic and additive-free ACCs is not well understood. In the current work, ACC has been synthesised in iso-propanolic media by direct precipitation from ionic precursors, and analysed utilising a range of different techniques. The data suggest that this additive-free type of ACC does not resemble clear proto-structural motifs relating to any crystalline polymorph. This can be explained by the undefined pH value inmore »iso-propanolic media, and the virtually instantaneous precipitation. Altogether, this work suggests that aqueous systems and pathways involving pre-nucleation clusters are required for the generation of clear proto-structural features in ACC. Experiments on the ACC-to-crystalline transformation in solution with and without ethanol highlight that polymorph selection is under kinetic control, while the presence of ethanol can control dissolution re-crystallisation pathways.« less

  4. PRECIPITATION The images above use daily precipitation statistics fromNWS COOP, CoCoRaHS, and CoAgMet

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Collett Jr., Jeffrey L.

    PRECIPITATION The images above use daily precipitation statistics fromNWS COOP, CoCoRaHS, and CoAgMet stations. Fromtop to bottom, and left to right: most recent 7-days of accumulated precipitation in inches; current month-to-date accumulated precipitation in inches; last month's precipitation as a percent

  5. Steady states and linear stability analysis of precipitation pattern formation at geothermal hot springs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pak Yuen Chan; Nigel Goldenfeld

    2007-08-22

    A dynamical theory of geophysical precipitation pattern formation is presented and applied to irreversible calcium carbonate (travertine) deposition. Specific systems studied here are the terraces and domes observed at geothermal hot springs, such as those at Yellowstone National Park, and speleothems, particularly stalactites and stalagmites. The theory couples the precipitation front dynamics with shallow water flow, including corrections for turbulent drag and curvature effects. In the absence of capillarity and with a laminar flow profile, the theory predicts a one-parameter family of steady state solutions to the moving boundary problem describing the precipitation front. These shapes match well the measured shapes near the vent at the top of observed travertine domes. Closer to the base of the dome, the solutions deviate from observations, and circular symmetry is broken by a fluting pattern, which we show is associated with capillary forces causing thin film break-up. We relate our model to that recently proposed for stalactite growth, and calculate the linear stability spectrum of both travertine domes and stalactites. Lastly, we apply the theory to the problem of precipitation pattern formation arising from turbulent flow down an inclined plane, and identify a linear instability that underlies scale-invariant travertine terrace formation at geothermal hot springs.

  6. Chemical and isotopic variations of precipitation in the Los Alamos Region, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adams, A.I.; Goff, F.; Counce, D.

    1995-02-01

    Precipitation collectors were installed at 14 locations on the Pajarito Plateau and surrounding areas to study variations in chemistry, stable isotopes and tritium for the years 1990 to 1993. The volume of precipitation was measured and samples were collected and analyzed every three to four months. All precipitation samples contain <2.50 mg/kg Cl and have pH values ranging from 5.4 to 6.7. The stable isotope ({delta}D/{delta}{sup 18}O) results record seasonal variations in precipitation as the weather patterns shift from sources in the Pacific Ocean to sources in the Gulf of Mexico. The stable isotope results also show isotopic variations due to elevation differences among the collection points. The tritium contents ({sup 3}H) in rain samples vary from 6.54 T.U. to 141 T.U. Contouring of high tritium values (e.g. >20 T.U.) from each collection period clearly shows that Laboratory activities release some tritium to the atmosphere. The effect of these releases are well below the limits set by the Environmental Protection Agency for drinking water (about 6200 T.U.). The magnitude of the releases is apparently greatest during the summer months. However, anomalous tritium values are detected as far north as Espahola, New Mexico for many collection periods. Tritium releases by the Laboratory are not constant; thus, the actual amount of tritium in each release has been diluted in the composite samples of our three to four month collection periods.

  7. Long-term impacts of aerosols on the vertical development of clouds and precipitation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Zhanqing; Niu, F.; Fan, Jiwen; Liu, Yangang; Rosenfeld, Daniel; Ding, Yanni

    2011-12-01

    Aerosol has complex effects on clouds and precipitation that may augment or offset each other contingent upon a variety of variables. As a result, its long-term impact on climate is largely unknown. Using 10 years of the US Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) measurements, strong aerosol effects of climatologically significance are detected. With increasing total aerosol number concentration (condensation nucleus, CN) measured near the ground, both cloud top height and precipitation change systematically for mix-phase clouds of warm-base (cloud base <1km) and cold-top (above the freezing level), but not for pure liquid and ice clouds. Cloud thickness can increase systematically with the CN concentration by up to a factor of 2. The response of precipitation to CN depends on cloud liquid water path (LWP). As CN increases, rain occurs more frequently for high LWP but less frequently for low LWP. Such strong signals of aerosol long-term impact on cloud and precipitation have not been reported and have significant implications for climate change studies, especially concerning regional and global climate change induced by pollution.

  8. Wake angle for surface gravity waves on a finite depth fluid

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pethiyagoda, Ravindra; Moroney, Timothy J

    2015-01-01

    Linear water wave theory suggests that wave patterns caused by a steadily moving disturbance are contained within a wedge whose half-angle depends on the depth-based Froude number $F_H$. For the problem of flow past an axisymmetric pressure distribution in a finite-depth channel, we report on the apparent angle of the wake, which is the angle of maximum peaks. For moderately deep channels, the dependence of the apparent wake angle on the Froude number is very different to the wedge angle, and varies smoothly as $F_H$ passes through the critical value $F_H=1$. For shallow water, the two angles tend to follow each other more closely, which leads to very large apparent wake angles for certain regimes.

  9. Desert dust suppressing precipitation: A possible desertification feedback loop

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Daniel, Rosenfeld

    Desert dust suppressing precipitation: A possible desertification feedback loop Daniel Rosenfeld of land use exposing the topsoil can initiate such a desertification feedback process. Satellite

  10. Microbial Activity and Precipitation at Solution-Solution Mixing...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    in a volumetrically significant space and to understand the physiological health of the cells that are responsible for the calcite precipitation. The specific...

  11. 3/4/14 12:16 PMNIDIS Drought and Water Assessment Page 1 of 13http://climate.colostate.edu/~drought/current_assessment.php

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Collett Jr., Jeffrey L.

    year precipitation through February. Below normal water year #12;3/4/14 12:16 PMNIDIS Drought and Water Resources Conservation Service's SNOTEL water-year- to-date precipitation percentile rankings. The top right below show accumulated snow water equivalent in inches (green) compared to average (blue) and last year

  12. 2007 Water Resources Advisory Panel By Jessica Harder

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nebraska-Lincoln, University of

    the potential benefits with the negative ramifications of tree harvesting, and ultimately will result in a basin. Maximizing the effectiveness of precipitation can substantially increase the availability of water and water2007 Water Resources Advisory Panel Update By Jessica Harder The Water Resources Advisory Panel

  13. JP4.21 GLOBAL WARMING EFFECTS ON GREAT LAKES WATER: MORE PRECIPITATION BUT LESS WATER?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    develop. Because of the large thermal capacity of the oceans, the situation in which more energy contrasting results derived from different methods for determining the effect of global warming on Great Lakes is proportional to the net amount of energy they have available to go into the latent heat of evaporation

  14. DECAY OF SOLUTIONS TO A WATER WAVE MODEL WITH A ...

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2009-07-15

    Dutykh and F. Dias have introduced a system which models water waves in a fluid layer of finite depth under the influence of viscous effects. The model.

  15. On the complex conductivity signatures of calcite precipitation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu, Yuxin; Hubbard, Susan; Williams, Kenneth Hurst; Ajo-Franklin, Jonathan

    2009-11-01

    Calcite is a mineral phase that frequently precipitates during subsurface remediation or geotechnical engineering processes. This precipitation can lead to changes in the overall behavior of the system, such as flow alternation and soil strengthening. Because induced calcite precipitation is typically quite variable in space and time, monitoring its distribution in the subsurface is a challenge. In this research, we conducted a laboratory column experiment to investigate the potential of complex conductivity as a mean to remotely monitor calcite precipitation. Calcite precipitation was induced in a glass bead (3 mm) packed column through abiotic mixing of CaCl{sub 2} and Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} solutions. The experiment continued for 12 days with a constant precipitation rate of {approx}0.6 milimole/d. Visual observations and scanning electron microscopy imaging revealed two distinct phases of precipitation: an earlier phase dominated by well distributed, discrete precipitates and a later phase characterized by localized precipitate aggregation and associated pore clogging. Complex conductivity measurements exhibited polarization signals that were characteristic of both phases of calcite precipitation, with the precipitation volume and crystal size controlling the overall polarization magnitude and relaxation time constant. We attribute the observed responses to polarization at the electrical double layer surrounding calcite crystals. Our experiment illustrates the potential of electrical methods for characterizing the distribution and aggregation state of nonconductive minerals like calcite. Advancing our ability to quantify geochemical transformations using such noninvasive methods is expected to facilitate our understanding of complex processes associated with natural subsurface systems as well as processes induced through engineered treatments (such as environmental remediation and carbon sequestration).

  16. Control Systems Cyber Security: Defense in Depth Strategies ...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Cyber Security: Defense in Depth Strategies More Documents & Publications Good Practice Guide on Firewall Deployment for SCADA and Process Control Networks Mitigations for...

  17. Bouguer gravity anomalies, depth to bedrock, and shallow temperature...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Bouguer gravity anomalies, depth to bedrock, and shallow temperature in the Humboldt House geothermal area, Pershing County, Nevada Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference...

  18. Turbid water Clear water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jaffe, Jules

    Turbid water Clear water pixel position cameraresponsecameraresponse pixel position ABSTRACT: A new underwater laser scanning system, providing microbathymetric information in coastal waters is described the backscatter component resulting in enhanced performance in turbid waters. The system is expected to provide

  19. Asphaltene Precipitation in Crude Oils: Theory and Experiments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wu, Jianzhong

    Asphaltene Precipitation in Crude Oils: Theory and Experiments Eduardo Buenrostro.interscience.wiley.com). The precipitation of asphaltenes in two Mexican crude oils was measured using a combination of high- and tank-oil type of samples of the same crude oils. For the oils investigated, compositional data

  20. Predicting Nickel Precipitate Formation in Contaminated Soils. (3717)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sparks, Donald L.

    Predicting Nickel Precipitate Formation in Contaminated Soils. (3717) Authors: E. Peltier* - Univ in contaminated soils plays a crucial role in determining the long term fate of toxic metal pollutants speciation in laboratory contaminated soils with thermodynamic and kinetic analyses of precipitate stability

  1. Oil recovery improvement through profile modification by thermal precipitation. Final report, October 1, 1991--August 27, 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reis, J.C.

    1994-04-01

    The objective of this research project has been to investigate the potential for using temperature-dependent (thermal) precipitation of chemicals to reduce the porosity and permeability of porous rocks. The method consists of injecting hot water that is saturated in a chemical that will precipitate upon cooling. Through this process, the permeability of thief zones in oil reservoirs could be reduced, allowing improved recovery by secondary and tertiary recovery processes. The chemical literature was reviewed for environmentally safe chemicals that have a suitable temperature-dependent solubility for the thermal precipitation process. Four suitable chemicals were identified: boron oxide, potassium carbonate, sodium borate, and potassium chloride. An experimental apparatus was constructed to test the thermal precipitation process at high temperatures and pressures. Data was collected with clastic Berea sandstone cores using two chemicals: potassium carbonate and sodium borate. Data was also collected with limestone cores using potassium carbonate. The porosities and permeabilities were measured before and after being treated by the thermal precipitation process. A theoretical study of the process was also conducted. A model for predicting the fractional reduction in porosity was developed that is based on the temperature-dependent solubility of the chemical used. An empirical model that predicts the fractional reduction in permeability in terms of the fractional reduction in porosity was then developed for Berea sandstone. Existing theoretical models for estimating the permeability of porous media were tested against the measured data. The existing models, including the widely-used Carman-Kozeny equation, underpredicted the reduction in permeability for the thermal precipitation process. This study has shown that the thermal precipitation process has considerable potential for the controlled reduction in porosity and permeability in geologic formations.

  2. Iron and Manganese in Potable Water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Young, Clifford Caudy

    1911-06-01

    and wash once or twice Toy decantation; dissolve the Iron in the same beaker in wViich original precipitation was made and re-precipitate with UH4 OH. Care should he taken to have plenty of ammonium salts present. The second precipitation is fil­ tered... nitrate solution containing two grams of the salt per liter. Lead Peroxide Method. The reaction employed in this method is that known a3 the Volhard Treadwell reaction. Sufficient quantity of the water to yield one-tenth to one milligram of Manganese...

  3. Precipitation and Air Pollution at Mountain and Plain Stations in Northern China: Insights Gained from Observations and Modeling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guo, Jianping; Deng, Minjun; Fan, Jiwen; Li, Zhanqing; Chen, Qian; Zhai, Panmao; Dai, Zhijian; Li, Xiaowen

    2014-04-27

    We analyzed 40 year data sets of daily average visibility (a proxy for surface aerosol concentration) and hourly precipitation at seven weather stations, including three stations located on the Taihang Mountains, during the summertime in northern China. There was no significant trend in summertime total precipitation at almost all stations. However, light rain decreased, whereas heavy rain increased as visibility decreased over the period studied. The decrease in light rain was seen in both orographic-forced shallow clouds and mesoscale stratiform clouds. The consistent trends in observed changes in visibility, precipitation, and orographic factor appear to be a testimony to the effects of aerosols. The potential impact of large-scale environmental factors, such as precipitable water, convective available potential energy, and vertical wind shear, on precipitation was investigated. No direct links were found. To validate our observational hypothesis about aerosol effects, Weather Research and Forecasting model simulations with spectral-bin microphysics at the cloud-resolving scale were conducted. Model results confirmed the role of aerosol indirect effects in reducing the light rain amount and frequency in the mountainous area for both orographic-forced shallow clouds and mesoscale stratiform clouds and in eliciting a different response in the neighboring plains. The opposite response of light rain to the increase in pollution when there is no terrain included in the model suggests that orography is likely a significant factor contributing to the opposite trends in light rain seen in mountainous and plain areas.

  4. The ultra-high lime with aluminum process for removing chloride from recirculating cooling water 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Abdel-wahab, Ahmed Ibraheem Ali

    2004-09-30

    Chloride is a deleterious ionic species in cooling water systems because it is important in promoting corrosion. Chloride can be removed from cooling water by precipitation as calcium chloroaluminate using ultra-high lime with aluminum process (UHLA...

  5. OPTIMUM UTILIZATION OF GROUND WATER IN KOBO VALLEY, EASTERN AMHARA, ETHIOPIA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    the overall water table depth due to pumping. Water table depth will not be depleted if irrigation follows and the yield of cereals in the rainy periods. Irrigation from ground water could enable farmers to cultivate more than once a year. Since pumping has an effect on the ground water resources availability

  6. Report on the Depth Requirements for a Massive Detector at Homestake

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Adam Bernstein; Mary Bishai; Edward Blucher; David B. Cline; Milind V. Diwan; Bonnie Fleming; Maury Goodman; Zbigniew J. Hladysz; Richard Kadel; Edward Kearns; Joshua Klein; Kenneth Lande; Francesco Lanni; David Lissauer; Steve Marks; Robert McKeown; William Morse; Regina Rameika; William M. Roggenthen; Kate Scholberg; Michael Smy; Henry Sobel; James Stewart; Gregory Sullivan; Robert Svoboda; Mark Vagins; Brett Viren; Christopher Walter; Robert Zwaska

    2009-08-09

    This report provides the technical justification for locating a large detector underground in a US based Deep Underground Science and Engineering Laboratory. A large detector with a fiducial mass in the mega-ton scale will most likely be a multipurpose facility. The main physics justification for such a device is detection of accelerator generated neutrinos, nucleon decay, and natural sources of neutrinos such as solar, atmospheric and supernova neutrinos. In addition to the physics justification there are practical issues regarding the existing infrastructure at Homestake, and the stress characteristics of the Homestake rock formations. The depth requirements associated with the various physics processes are reported for water Cherenkov and liquid argon detector technologies. While some of these physics processes can be adequately studied at shallower depths, none of them require a depth greater than 4300 mwe which corresponds to the 4850 ft level at Homestake. It is very important to note that the scale of the planned detector is such that even for accelerator neutrino detection (which allows one to use the accelerator duty factor to eliminate cosmics) a minimum depth is needed to reduce risk of contamination from cosmic rays. After consideration of the science and the practical issues regarding the Homestake site, we strongly recommend that the geotechnical studies be commenced at the 4850ft level in a timely manner.

  7. Real Time Head Pose Estimation from Consumer Depth Cameras

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wolberg, George

    for estimating location and orientation of a person's head, from depth data acquired by a low quality device. OurReal Time Head Pose Estimation from Consumer Depth Cameras Gabriele Fanelli1 , Thibaut Weise2 and the variance of the head position and orientation. We evaluate three different approaches to jointly take

  8. Instrument for Determining Depth of Dehydration of Frozen Fish

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    . This report describes the design, construction, and operation of a de- hydration depth gauge to measure the degree of dehydration in frozen seafoods. Design The dehydration depth gauge adopts the principle was modified by using a heavier gauge blade having a narrow cutting edge extending I mm below the plane's flat

  9. Electrode immersion depth determination and control in electroslag remelting furnace

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Melgaard, David K. (Albuquerque, NM); Beaman, Joseph J. (Austin, TX); Shelmidine, Gregory J. (Tijeras, NM)

    2007-02-20

    An apparatus and method for controlling an electroslag remelting furnace comprising adjusting electrode drive speed by an amount proportional to a difference between a metric of electrode immersion and a set point, monitoring impedance or voltage, and calculating the metric of electrode immersion depth based upon a predetermined characterization of electrode immersion depth as a function of impedance or voltage.

  10. Imaging wave-penetrable objects in a finite depth ocean

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zou, Jun

    Imaging wave-penetrable objects in a finite depth ocean Keji Liu Yongzhi Xu Jun Zou Abstract. We- penetrable inhomogeneous medium in a 3D finite depth ocean. The method is based on a scat- tering analysis extend the direct sampling method proposed in [13] to image a wave- penetrable inhomogeneous medium

  11. Examination of the relationship of river water to occurrences of bottom water with reduced oxygen concentrations in the northern Gulf of Mexico 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Belabbassi, Leila

    2007-04-25

    and only in water depths between 10 and 60 m. Four regions in the northern Gulf show considerable differences in the occurrence of low-oxygen waters. Lowoxygen waters are observed almost exclusively in regions subject to large riverine influences...

  12. Spectroscopic studies of U(VI) sorption at the kaolinite-water interface. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thompson, H.A.; Parks, G.A.; Brown, G.E. Jr.

    1994-06-01

    Efficient use of U as a resource and safe handling, recycling and disposal of U-containing wastes require an understanding of the factors controlling the fate of U, where fate refers to the destination of U, typically expressed as an environmental medium or a process phase. The sorption process constitutes a change in elemental fate. Partitioning of an element from solution to a solid phase, or sorption, can be divided into three broad categories: adsorption, surface precipitation, and absorption. Extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS), a type of X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS), offers the possibility for distinguishing among different modes of sorption by characterizing the atomic environment of the sorbing element. In this study, the authors use EXAFS to determine the structure of U(VI) sorption complexes at the kaolinite-water interface. In Chapter One, they present an overview of selected aspects of U structural chemistry as a basis for considering the structural environment of U at the solid-water interface. To evaluate the utility of XAS for characterization of the structural environment of U(VI) at the solid-water interface, they have carried out an in-depth analysis of XAS data from U(VI)-containing solid and solution model compounds, which they describe in Chapter Two. In Chapter three, they consider sorption of U by kaolinite as a means of effecting the removal of U from surface collection pond waters on the Rocky Flats Plant site in northern Colorado.

  13. California Wintertime Precipitation in Regional and Global Climate Models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Caldwell, P M

    2009-04-27

    In this paper, wintertime precipitation from a variety of observational datasets, regional climate models (RCMs), and general circulation models (GCMs) is averaged over the state of California (CA) and compared. Several averaging methodologies are considered and all are found to give similar values when model grid spacing is less than 3{sup o}. This suggests that CA is a reasonable size for regional intercomparisons using modern GCMs. Results show that reanalysis-forced RCMs tend to significantly overpredict CA precipitation. This appears to be due mainly to overprediction of extreme events; RCM precipitation frequency is generally underpredicted. Overprediction is also reflected in wintertime precipitation variability, which tends to be too high for RCMs on both daily and interannual scales. Wintertime precipitation in most (but not all) GCMs is underestimated. This is in contrast to previous studies based on global blended gauge/satellite observations which are shown here to underestimate precipitation relative to higher-resolution gauge-only datasets. Several GCMs provide reasonable daily precipitation distributions, a trait which doesn't seem tied to model resolution. GCM daily and interannual variability is generally underpredicted.

  14. Best Management Practice #4: Water-Efficient Landscaping

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Traditional landscapes require supplemental water to thrive in most locations. Kentucky bluegrass, for example, is native to regions that receive in excess of 40 inches per year of precipitation,...

  15. Shallow Water Waves and Solitary Waves Willy Hereman

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hereman, Willy A.M.

    . Water Wave Experiments and Observations VII. Future Directions VIII. Bibliography Glossary Deep water A surface wave is said to be in deep water if its wavelength is much shorter than the local water depthShallow Water Waves and Solitary Waves Willy Hereman Department of Mathematical and Computer

  16. Precipitation in aqueous mixtures with addition of strongly hydrophilic or hydrophobic solute

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ryuichi Okamoto; Akira Onuki

    2010-10-09

    We examine phase separation in aqueous mixtures due to preferential solvation with a low-density solute (hydrophilic ions or hydrophobic particles). For hydrophilic ions, preferential solvation can stabilize water domains enriched with ions. This precipitation occurs in wide ranges of the temperature and the average composition above a critical solute density $n_p$, where the mixture solvent would be in a one-phase state without solute. The volume fraction of precipitated domains tends to zero as the average solute density $\\bar n$ is decreased to $n_p$ or as the interaction parameter $\\chi$ is decreased to a critical value $\\chi_p$. If we start with one-phase states with ${\\bar n}>n_p$ or $\\chi>\\chi_p$, precipitation proceeds via homogeneous nucleation or via heterogeneous nucleation, for example, around suspended colloids. In the latter case, colliod particles are wrapped by thick wetting layers. We also predict a first-order prewetting transition for $\\bar n$ or $\\chi$ slightly below $n_p$ or $\\chi_p$.

  17. 663 900 1000 1100 1200 3514 Annual precipitation (mm)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Beckage, Brian

    663 900 1000 1100 1200 3514 Annual precipitation (mm) -72.6 -71.5 -70.3 -69.2 -68.1 42 precipitation (mm) -72.6 -71.5 -70.3 -69.2 -68.1 42.143.144.245.346.4 Longitude (degree) Latitude(degree) (b) Baseline (1961-1990) 663 900 1000 1100 1200 3514 Annual precipitation (mm) -72.6 -71.5 -70.3 -69.2 -68.1 42

  18. Geophysical monitoring and reactive transport modeling of ureolytically-driven calcium carbonate precipitation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu, Y.; Ajo-Franklin, J.B.; Spycher, N.; Hubbard, S.S.; Zhang, G.; Williams, K.H.; Taylor, J.; Fujita, Y.; Smith, R.

    2011-07-15

    Ureolytically-driven calcium carbonate precipitation is the basis for a promising in-situ remediation method for sequestration of divalent radionuclide and trace metal ions. It has also been proposed for use in geotechnical engineering for soil strengthening applications. Monitoring the occurrence, spatial distribution, and temporal evolution of calcium carbonate precipitation in the subsurface is critical for evaluating the performance of this technology and for developing the predictive models needed for engineering application. In this study, we conducted laboratory column experiments using natural sediment and groundwater to evaluate the utility of geophysical (complex resistivity and seismic) sensing methods, dynamic synchrotron x-ray computed tomography (micro-CT), and reactive transport modeling for tracking ureolytically-driven calcium carbonate precipitation processes under site relevant conditions. Reactive transport modeling with TOUGHREACT successfully simulated the changes of the major chemical components during urea hydrolysis. Even at the relatively low level of urea hydrolysis observed in the experiments, the simulations predicted an enhanced calcium carbonate precipitation rate that was 3-4 times greater than the baseline level. Reactive transport modeling results, geophysical monitoring data and micro-CT imaging correlated well with reaction processes validated by geochemical data. In particular, increases in ionic strength of the pore fluid during urea hydrolysis predicted by geochemical modeling were successfully captured by electrical conductivity measurements and confirmed by geochemical data. The low level of urea hydrolysis and calcium carbonate precipitation suggested by the model and geochemical data was corroborated by minor changes in seismic P-wave velocity measurements and micro-CT imaging; the latter provided direct evidence of sparsely distributed calcium carbonate precipitation. Ion exchange processes promoted through NH{sub 4}{sup +} production during urea hydrolysis were incorporated in the model and captured critical changes in the major metal species. The electrical phase increases were potentially due to ion exchange processes that modified charge structure at mineral/water interfaces. Our study revealed the potential of geophysical monitoring for geochemical changes during urea hydrolysis and the advantages of combining multiple approaches to understand complex biogeochemical processes in the subsurface.

  19. Exchange flow between open water and floating vegetation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Xueyan

    This study describes the exchange flow between a region with open water and a region with a partial-depth porous obstruction, which represents the thermally-driven exchange that occurs between open water and floating ...

  20. Characterization of precipitation product errors across the United States using multiplicative triple collocation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stoffelen, A.

    Validation of precipitation estimates from various products is a challenging problem, since the true precipitation is unknown. However, with the increased availability of precipitation estimates from a wide range of ...

  1. SPATIALLY PENALIZED REGRESSION FOR DEPENDENCE ANALYSIS OF RARE EVENTS: A STUDY IN PRECIPITATION EXTREMES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Obradovic, Zoran

    SPATIALLY PENALIZED REGRESSION FOR DEPENDENCE ANALYSIS OF RARE EVENTS: A STUDY IN PRECIPITATION, USA ABSTRACT Discovery of dependence structure between precipitation extremes and other climate can be different for different locations. Secondly, the dependence structure between the precipitation

  2. Modelling precipitation sequences in power plant steels Part 2 -Application of kinetic theory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cambridge, University of

    Modelling precipitation sequences in power plant steels Part 2 - Application of kinetic theory J. D to predictthevastdifferencesin precipitation kineticsreportedin thepublishedliteraturefor powerplant steels.By implication, the precipitate phases usually present are metastable. Indeed,it is well establishedthat thereis

  3. Calcite precipitation dominates the electrical signatures of zero valent iron columns under simulated field conditions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wu, Yuxin

    2009-01-01

    S. , 1998. Reductive precipitation of uranium(VI) by zero-W. , 2003. Predicting the precipitation of mineral phases inT.M. , 1999. Mineral precipitation and porosity losses in

  4. MICROSTRUCTURE AND PROPERTIES OF A15 SUPERCONDUCTORS FORMED BY DIRECT PRECIPITATION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hong, M.

    2010-01-01

    early stage of the precipitation process. c C c S. Fooer, E.FORMED BT DIRECT PRECIPITATION M. Hong, D. R. D l e c d e ron the details of the precipitation process, which determine

  5. DIRECT SOLID-STATE PRECIPITATION PROCESSED A-15 (Nb3Al) SUPERCONDUCTING MATERIAL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hong, M.

    2010-01-01

    Letters DIRECT SOLID-STATE PRECIPITATION PROCESSED A-15 (Nb48 DIRECT SOLID-STATE PRECIPITATION PROCESSED A-IS (Nb Al)ABSTRACT A "solid~state precipitation" process was used to

  6. Population variation affects interactions between two California salt marsh plant species more than precipitation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Noto, AE; Shurin, JB

    2015-01-01

    significant effect of precipitation and interaction betweenpresence but not by precipitation. J. carnosa plantsS) Competition (C) Precipitation (P) S × P S × C C  × P S × 

  7. Precipitation climatology over India: validation with observations and reanalysis datasets and spatial trends

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2015-01-01

    long-term daily gridded precipitation dataset for asia based10.1007/s00382-015-2597-y Precipitation climatology over DP (2012) Urban precipitation extremes: how reliable are

  8. Diurnal Precipitation Regimes in the Global Tropics* KAZUYOSHI KIKUCHI AND BIN WANG

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Bin

    Diurnal Precipitation Regimes in the Global Tropics* KAZUYOSHI KIKUCHI AND BIN WANG Department tropical precipitation are documented by using two complementary Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM, and phase propagation characteristics of the diurnal precipitation. The oceanic regime is characterized

  9. Combined effects of precipitation and nitrogen deposition on native and invasive winter annual production in California deserts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rao, Leela E.; Allen, Edith B.

    2010-01-01

    E R Combined eVects of precipitation and nitrogen depositionN deposition and precipitation regimes altered as aby November–December precipitation. Biomass exceeded the

  10. Precipitation over eastern South America and the South AtlanticSea surface temperature during neutral ENSO periods

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jones, Charles

    2015-01-01

    2003) GPCP pentad precipitation analyses: an experimentalconvec- tion and increase precipitation over eastern SouthAmerica. Keywords SST Precipitation South Atlantic Dipole

  11. Response to comments by Yuan Wang on “Trends of extreme precipitation in Eastern China and their possible causes”

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2015-01-01

    dependence of global precipitation extremes. Geo- phys. Res.2015: Trends of extreme precipitation in eastern China andon convective clouds and precipitation. Rev. Geophys. , 50,

  12. Precipitation and soil impacts on partitioning of subsurface moisture in Avena barbata: Observations from a greenhouse experiment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Salve, R.

    2011-01-01

    responsiveness to variation in precipitation and nitrogen is2007, , Intra-seasonal precipitation patterns and above-to Potential Changes in Precipitation, BioScience, 53: 941-

  13. Orogenic Propagating Precipitation Systems over the United States in a Global Climate Model with Embedded Explicit Convection

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pritchard, Michael S; Moncrieff, Mitchell W; Somerville, Richard C. J

    2011-01-01

    with warm season precipitation epi- sodes. J. Atmos. Sci. ,2007: Con- vective precipitation variability as a tool forof the diurnal cycle of precipitation over the United States

  14. Effects on precipitation, clouds, and temperature from long-range transport of idealized aerosol plumes in WRF-Chem simulations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhao, Zhan; Pritchard, Michael S; Russell, Lynn M

    2012-01-01

    on intense convective precipitation in the northeastern US,aerosols on regional precipitation over East Asia, J.of aerosols on surface precipitation from clouds: An attempt

  15. Seasonality of westerly moisture transport in the East Asian summer monsoon and its implications for interpreting precipitation ?18O

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2015-01-01

    origin of continental precipitation, Geophys. Res. Lett. ,Network of Isotopes in Precipitation, The GNIP Database.gauge-corrected, global precipitation, Int. J. Climatol. ,

  16. The role of precipitation size distributions in km-scale NWP simulations of intense precipitation: Evaluation of cloud properties and surface precipitation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Van Weverberg K.; Vogelmann A.; van Lipzig, N. P. M.; Delobbec, L.

    2012-04-01

    We investigate the sensitivity of simulated cloud properties and surface precipitation to assumptions regarding the size distributions of the precipitating hydrometeors in a one-moment bulk microphysics scheme. Three sensitivity experiments were applied to two composites of 15 convective and 15 frontal stratiform intense precipitation events observed in a coastal midlatitude region (Belgium), which were evaluated against satellite-retrieved cloud properties and radar-rain-gauge derived surface precipitation. It is found that the cloud optical thickness distribution was well captured by all experiments, although a significant underestimation of cloudiness occurred in the convective composite. The cloud-top-pressure distribution was improved most by more realistic snow size distributions (including a temperature-dependent intercept parameter and non-spherical snow for the calculation of the slope parameter), due to increased snow depositional growth at high altitudes. Surface precipitation was far less sensitive to whether graupel or hail was chosen as the rimed ice species, as compared to previous idealized experiments. This smaller difference in sensitivity could be explained by the stronger updraught velocities and higher freezing levels in the idealized experiments compared to typical coastal midlatitude environmental conditions.

  17. Exact analytical solutions of continuity equation for electron beams precipitating in Coulomb collisions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dobranskis, R. R.; Zharkova, V. V., E-mail: valentina.zharkova@northumbria.ac.uk [Department of Mathematics and Information Sciences, University of Northumbria, Newcastle upon Tyne NE1 2XP (United Kingdom)

    2014-06-10

    The original continuity equation (CE) used for the interpretation of the power law energy spectra of beam electrons in flares was written and solved for an electron beam flux while ignoring an additional free term with an electron density. In order to remedy this omission, the original CE for electron flux, considering beam's energy losses in Coulomb collisions, was first differentiated by the two independent variables: depth and energy leading to partial differential equation for an electron beam density instead of flux with the additional free term. The analytical solution of this partial differential continuity equation (PDCE) is obtained by using the method of characteristics. This solution is further used to derive analytical expressions for mean electron spectra for Coulomb collisions and to carry out numeric calculations of hard X-ray (HXR) photon spectra for beams with different parameters. The solutions revealed a significant departure of electron densities at lower energies from the original results derived from the CE for the flux obtained for Coulomb collisions. This departure is caused by the additional exponential term that appeared in the updated solutions for electron differential density leading to its faster decrease at lower energies (below 100 keV) with every precipitation depth similar to the results obtained with numerical Fokker-Planck solutions. The effects of these updated solutions for electron densities on mean electron spectra and HXR photon spectra are also discussed.

  18. Water Resources Water Quality and Water Treatment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sohoni, Milind

    Water Resources TD 603 Lecture 1: Water Quality and Water Treatment CTARA Indian Institute of Technology, Bombay 2nd November, 2011 #12;OVERVIEW Water Quality WATER TREATMENT PLANTS WATER TREATMENT PLANTS WATER TREATMENT PLANTS WATER TRE OVERVIEW OF THE LECTURE 1. Water Distribution Schemes Hand Pump

  19. Insights into Structure and Stratigraphy of the Northern Gulf of Mexico from 2D Pre-Stack Depth Migration Imaging of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Connors, Christopher D.

    Insights into Structure and Stratigraphy of the Northern Gulf of Mexico from 2D Pre-Stack Depth of Mexico because the onshore shelf margins and linked deep water systems can be seen in continuous sec water of the northwestern Gulf of Mexico and displays distinct, large-scale structural styles and salt

  20. Deformation mechanisms in a precipitation-strengthened ferritic...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    by ordered (Ni,Fe)AlB2-type precipitates is a candidate material for ultra-supercritical steam turbine applications above 923 K. Despite earlier success in improving its...

  1. Short-term precipitation nowcasting for composite radar rainfall fields

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Van Horne, Matthew P. (Matthew Philip), 1980-

    2003-01-01

    Precipitation nowcasting at very short lead times is a difficult and important earth science goal. The implications of nowcasting extend into aviation, flood forecasting and other areas. Using correlation analysis for the ...

  2. Aerosol-Cloud interactions : a new perspective in precipitation enhancement

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gunturu, Udaya Bhaskar

    2010-01-01

    Increased industrialization and human activity modified the atmospheric aerosol composition and size-distribution during the last several decades. This has affected the structure and evolution of clouds, and precipitation ...

  3. Validation of an improved computer algorithm for precipitation echo classification 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Amrhein, Edward Thomas

    2001-01-01

    A validation of an improved radar reflectivity partitioning scheme was performed using radar data collected for three separate precipitation systems in Central Texas. The improved algorithm was compared to a previously ...

  4. Tropical cyclone precipitation risk in the Southern United States

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shedd, Sandra Michael

    2015-01-01

    This thesis works to evaluate the new rainfall algorithm that is used to simulate longterm tropical cyclone precipitation (TCP) climatology throughout the southeastern United States. The TCP climatology is based on a fleet ...

  5. Stochastic Simulation Methods for Precipitation and Streamflow Time Series 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Chao

    2013-04-30

    One major acknowledged challenge in daily precipitation is the inability to model extreme events in the spectrum of events. These extreme events are rare but may cause large losses. How to realistically simulate extreme ...

  6. Mesoscale predictability of an extreme warm-season precipitation event 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Odins, Andrew Michael

    2005-02-17

    During the period of June 29 through July 6, 2002, an extreme precipitation event occurred over Texas, resulting in catastrophic flooding. Operational forecasts performed poorly, neither predicting the copious amounts of ...

  7. Arsenic cycling within the water column of a small lake receiving contaminated ground-water discharge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ford, Robert G.; Wilkin, Richard T.; Hernandez, Gina (EPA); (ECO)

    2008-09-18

    The fate of arsenic discharged from contaminated ground water to a small, shallow lake at a hazardous waste site was examined to understand the role of iron (hydr)oxide precipitation-dissolution processes within the water column. Field and laboratory observations indicate that arsenic solubility was controlled, in part, by the extent of ferrous iron oxidation-precipitation and arsenic sorption occurring near the lake chemocline. Laboratory experiments were conducted using site-derived water to assess the impact of these coupled processes on the removal of dissolved arsenic from the water column. The measured concentration of organic carbon from epilimnetic and hypolimnetic water sampled from the lake was approximately 1.3 mM and 17.0 mM, respectively. Experiments conducted with these samples along with synthetic controls containing no organic carbon demonstrated that observed rates of formation and crystallinity of the precipitated iron (hydr)oxide were dependent on the concentration of organic carbon in the lake water. Increasing dissolved organic matter concentration did not significantly interfere with ferrous iron oxidation, but inhibited iron (hydr)oxide precipitation and subsequent sorption of arsenic. For experiments using water sampled from the lake hypolimnion there was a strong relationship between the fraction of precipitated iron and the fraction of sorbed arsenic. Laboratory- and field-derived iron (hydr)oxide precipitates were characterized to evaluate mineralogy and arsenic distribution. In-situ suspended solids and precipitates formed in laboratory experiments using hypolimnetic water were identified as poorly crystalline 2-line ferrihydrite. These solids were readily dissolved in the presence of dithionite indicating that elevated dissolved iron and arsenic observed in the hypolimnion resulted, in part, from in-situ reductive dissolution of settling 2-line ferrihydrite near the sediment-water interface. These observations support the contention that the levels of dissolved arsenic observed in the shallow lake can be attributed to ground-water discharge and internal recycling of arsenic within the water column. The efficiency of the process resulting in iron (hydr)oxide precipitation and arsenic sorption limits the downgradient export of arsenic derived from ground-water discharge.

  8. Radiation-induced instability of MnS precipitates and its possible consequences on irradiation-induced stress corrosion cracking of austenitic stainless steels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chung, H.M.; Sanecki, J.E.; Garner, F.A.

    1996-12-01

    Irradiation-assisted stress corrosion cracking (IASCC) is a significant materials issue for the light water reactor (LWR) industry and may also pose a problem for fusion power reactors that will use water as coolant. A new metallurgical process is proposed that involves the radiation-induced release into solution of minor impurity elements not usually thought to participate in IASCC. MnS-type precipitates, which contain most of the sulfur in stainless steels, are thought to be unstable under irradiation. First, Mn transmutes strongly to Fe in thermalized neutron spectra. Second, cascade-induced disordering and the inverse Kirkendall effect operating at the incoherent interfaces of MnS precipitates are thought to act as a pump to export Mn from the precipitate into the alloy matrix. Both of these processes will most likely allow sulfur, which is known to exert a deleterious influence on intergranular cracking, to re-enter the matrix. To test this hypothesis, compositions of MnS-type precipitates contained in several unirradiated and irradiated heats of Type 304, 316, and 348 stainless steels (SSs) were analyzed by Auger electron spectroscopy. Evidence is presented that shows a progressive compositional modification of MnS precipitates as exposure to neutrons increases in boiling water reactors. As the fluence increases, the Mn level in MnS decreases, whereas the Fe level increases. The S level also decreases relative to the combined level of Mn and Fe. MnS precipitates were also found to be a reservoir of other deleterious impurities such as F and O which could be also released due to radiation-induced instability of the precipitates.

  9. 3/18/14 1:17 PMNIDIS Drought and Water Assessment Page 1 of 14http://climate.colostate.edu/~drought/current_assessment.php

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Collett Jr., Jeffrey L.

    below normal moisture through much of the valley bottom in February. Water Year Precipitation (Oct and Baca counties saw less than 50% of their normal water year precipitation through February. Below normal. The top right image shows sub-basin averaged snow water equivalent accumulations as a percent of average

  10. 3/11/14 2:53 PMNIDIS Drought and Water Assessment Page 1 of 15http://climate.colostate.edu/~drought/current_assessment.php

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Collett Jr., Jeffrey L.

    below normal moisture through much of the valley bottom in February. Water Year Precipitation (Oct February. Below normal water year precipitation predominates much of the lower Arkansas valley. SNOTEL AND SNOWPACK The top left image shows the Natural Resources Conservation Service's SNOTEL water-year- to

  11. Precipitation kinetics in ultra-high lime softening 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peacock, Edward Dale

    1986-01-01

    PRECIPITATION KINETICS IN ULTRA-HIGH LIME SOFTENING A Thesis EDWARD DALE PEACOCK Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas ABM University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August l986 Major... Subject: Civil Engineering PRECIPITATION KINETICS IN ULTRA-HIGH LIME SOFTENING A Thesis by EDWARD DALE PEACOCK Approved as to style and content by: Bill Batchelor (Chair of Commi e) T D. eynol s (Member) Michael T. Lo necker (Member) Donald Mc...

  12. An automatic control system for a laboratory precipitation process 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Burnett, Mary Alice

    1986-01-01

    AN AUTOMATIC CONTROL SYSTEM FOR A LABORATORY PRECIPITATION PROCESS A Thesis by MARY ALICE BURNETT Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A 8 M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May... 1986 Major Subject: Civil Engineering AN AUTOMATIC CONTROL SYSTEM FOR A LABORATORY PRECIPITATION PROCESS A Thesis MARY ALICE BURNETT Approved as to style and content by: Bill Batchelor (Chairman of Committee) Donald L. Reddell (Member) J...

  13. Inducing Mineral Precipitation in Groundwater by Addition of Phosphate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Karen E. Wright; Yoshiko Fujita; Thomas Hartmann; Mark Conrad

    2011-10-01

    Induced precipitation of phosphate minerals to scavenge trace metals and radionuclides from groundwater is a potential remediation approach for contaminated aquifers. Phosphate minerals can sequester trace elements by primary mineral formation, solid solution formation and/or adsorption, and they are poorly soluble under many environmental conditions, making them attractive for long-term sustainable remediation. The success of such engineered schemes will depend on the particular mineral phases generated, their rates of formation, and their long term stability. The purpose of this study was to examine the precipitation of calcium phosphate minerals under conditions representative of a natural groundwater. Because microorganisms are present in groundwater, and because some proposed schemes for induced phosphate mineral precipitation rely on the stimulation of native groundwater populations, we also tested the effect of bacterial cells (initial densities of 105 and 107 ml-1) within the precipitation medium. We also tested the effect of a trace mixture of propionic, isovaleric, formic and butyric acids (total concentration 0.035 mM). The experiments showed that the general progression of mineral precipitation was similar under all of the conditions, with initial formation of amorphous calcium carbonate, and transformation to poorly crystalline hydroxyapatite (HAP) by the end of the week-long experiments. The presence of the bacterial cells appeared to delay precipitation, although by the end of 7 days the overall extent of precipitation was similar for all of the treatments. The stoichiometry of the final precipitates as well as results of Rietveld refinement of x-ray diffraction data indicated that the treatments including organic acids and bacterial cells resulted in increased distortion of the HAP crystal lattice, with the higher concentration of cells resulting in the greatest distortion. Uptake of Sr into the phosphate minerals was decreased in the treatments with cells and organic acids, compared to the control. The results of the experiments enable a greater understanding of the challenges associated with phosphate-based remediation schemes for contaminated environments.

  14. Petropolises: A Quest for Soft Infrastructure as Water-Based Urbanisms of the Floating Frontier City

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Murdoch, Thomas; Bhatia, Neeraj

    2014-01-01

    Oil Boat takes on oil, water, and drilling fluid to ballastSoft Infrastructure as Water-Based Urbanisms of the Floatingfor oil operations in waters with depths greater than 2,000

  15. Could the Earth's surface Ultraviolet irradiance be blamed for the global warming? (II) ----Ozone layer depth reconstruction via HEWV effect

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Jilong; Zheng, Yujun

    2014-01-01

    It is suggested by Chen {\\it et al.} that the Earth's surface Ultraviolet irradiance ($280-400$ nm) could influence the Earth's surface temperature variation by "Highly Excited Water Vapor" (HEWV) effect. In this manuscript, we reconstruct the developing history of the ozone layer depth variation from 1860 to 2011 based on the HEWV effect. It is shown that the reconstructed ozone layer depth variation correlates with the observational variation from 1958 to 2005 very well ($R=0.8422$, $P>99.9\\%$). From this reconstruction, we may limit the spectra band of the surface Ultraviolet irradiance referred in HEWV effect to Ultraviolet B ($280-320$ nm).

  16. Computation of Texture and Stereoscopic Depth in Humans

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fahle, Manfred

    1989-10-01

    The computation of texture and of stereoscopic depth is limited by a number of factors in the design of the optical front-end and subsequent processing stages in humans and machines. A number of limiting factors in ...

  17. Aerosol Optical Depth Value-Added Product Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koontz, A; Hodges, G; Barnard, J; Flynn, C; Michalsky, J

    2013-03-17

    This document describes the process applied to retrieve aerosol optical depth (AOD) from multifilter rotating shadowband radiometers (MFRSR) and normal incidence multifilter radiometers (NIMFR) operated at the ARM Climate Research Facility’s ground-based facilities.

  18. In-Depth Temperature Profiles in Pyrolyzing Wood 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reszka, Pedro

    The move towards performance-based design of the fire resistance of structures requires more accurate design methods. An important variable in the fire performance of timber structures is the in-depth temperature distribution, as wood is weakened...

  19. Method and apparatus to measure the depth of skin burns

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dickey, Fred M. (Albuquerque, NM); Holswade, Scott C. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2002-01-01

    A new device for measuring the depth of surface tissue burns based on the rate at which the skin temperature responds to a sudden differential temperature stimulus. This technique can be performed without physical contact with the burned tissue. In one implementation, time-dependent surface temperature data is taken from subsequent frames of a video signal from an infrared-sensitive video camera. When a thermal transient is created, e.g., by turning off a heat lamp directed at the skin surface, the following time-dependent surface temperature data can be used to determine the skin burn depth. Imaging and non-imaging versions of this device can be implemented, thereby enabling laboratory-quality skin burn depth imagers for hospitals as well as hand-held skin burn depth sensors the size of a small pocket flashlight for field use and triage.

  20. Chemical characteristics of waters in Karst Formations at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shevenell, L.A. [Univ. of Nevada, Reno, NV (United States). Nevada Bureau of Mines and Geology

    1994-11-01

    Several waste disposal sites are located adjacent to or on a karst aquifer composed of the Cambrian Maynardville Limestone (Cmn) and the Cambrian Copper Ridge Dolomite (Ccr) at the U.S. Department of Energy Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant in Oak Ridge, TN. Highly variable chemical characteristics (i.e., hardness) can indicate that the portion of the aquifer tapped by a particular well is subject to a significant quick-flow component where recharge to the system is rapid and water levels and water quality change rapidly in response to precipitation events. Water zones in wells at the Y-12 Plant that exhibit quick-flow behavior (i.e., high hydraulic conductivity) are identified based on their geochemical characteristics and variability in geochemical parameters, and observations made during drilling of the wells. The chemical data used in this study consist of between one and 20 chemical analyses for each of 102 wells and multipart monitoring zones. Of these 102 water zones, 10 were consistently undersaturated with respect to calcite suggesting active dissolution. Repeat sampling of water zones shows that both supersaturation and undersaturation with respect to dolomite occurs in 46 water zones. Twelve of the zones had partial pressure of CO{sub 2} near atmospheric values suggesting limited interaction between recharge waters and the gases and solids in the vadose zone and aquifer, and hence, relatively short residence times. The preliminary data suggest that the Cmn is composed of a complicated network of interconnected, perhaps anastomosing, cavities. The degree of interconnection between the identified cavities is yet to be determined, although it is expected that there is a significant vertical and lateral interconnection between the cavities located at shallow depths in the Cnm throughout Bear Creek Valley and the Y-12 Plant area.

  1. Case depth verification of hardened samples with Barkhausen noise sweeps

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Santa-aho, Suvi; Vippola, Minnamari; Lepistö, Toivo [Tampere University of Technology, Department of Materials Science, P.O. Box 589, 33101 Tampere (Finland); Hakanen, Merja [Stresstech Oy, Tikkutehtaantie 1, 40800 Vaajakoski (Finland); Sorsa, Aki; Leiviskä, Kauko [University of Oulu, Control Engineering Laboratory, P.O. Box 4300, FIN-90014 University of Oulu (Finland)

    2014-02-18

    An interesting topic of recent Barkhausen noise (BN) method studies is the application of the method to case depth evaluation of hardened components. The utilization of BN method for this purpose is based on the difference in the magnetic properties between the hardened case and the soft core. Thus, the detection of case depth with BN can be achieved. The measurements typically have been carried out by using low magnetizing frequencies which have deeper penetration to the ferromagnetic samples than the conventional BN measurement. However, the penetration depth is limited due to eddy current damping of the signal. We introduce here a newly found sweep measurement concept for the case depth evaluation. In this study sweep measurements were carried out with various magnetizing frequencies and magnetizing voltages to detect the effect of different frequency and voltage and their correspondence to the actual case depth values verified from destructive characterization. Also a BN measurement device that has an implemented sweep analysis option was utilised. The samples were either induction or case-hardened samples and sample geometry contained both rod samples and gear axle samples with different case depth values. Samples were also further characterized with Xray diffraction to study the residual stress state of the surface. The detailed data processing revealed that also other calculated features than the maximum slope division of the 1st derivative of the BN signal could hold the information about the case depth value of the samples. The sweep method was able to arrange the axles into correct order according to the case depth value even though the axles were used.

  2. Method of treating waste water

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Deininger, James P. (Colorado Springs, CO); Chatfield, Linda K. (Colorado Springs, CO)

    1995-01-01

    A process of treating water to remove metal ion contaminants contained therein, said metal ion contaminants selected from the group consisting of metals in Groups 8, 1b, 2b, 4a, 5a, or 6a of the periodic table, lanthanide metals, and actinide metals including transuranic element metals, by adjusting the pH of a metal ion contaminant-containing water source to within the range of about 6.5 to about 14.0, admixing the water source with a mixture of an alkali or alkaline earth ferrate and a water soluble salt, e.g., a zirconium salt, in an amount sufficient to form a precipitate within the water source, the amount the mixture of ferrate and water soluble salt effective to reduce the metal ion contaminant concentration in the water source, permitting the precipitate in the admixture to separate and thereby yield a supernatant liquid having a reduced metal ion contaminant concentration, and separating the supernatant liquid having the reduced metal ion contaminant concentration from the admixture is provided. A composition of matter including an alkali or alkaline earth ferrate and a water soluble salt, e.g., a zirconium salt, is also provided.

  3. Water Clean Water Clean

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ishida, Yuko

    Keep Our Water Clean Keep Our Water Clean Home and garden pesticides and fertilizers are polluting residues wash into gutters, storm drains, and streams by rain,garden watering,or cleaning up drinking water. Follow these tips to keep our rivers, creeks, and oceans clean. What can you do to protect

  4. Water, water everywhere,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eberhard, Marc O.

    1 Water, water everywhere, but is it safe to drink? An Inquiry-based unit investigating the journey of your drinking water from source to tap of drinking water will contain different contaminants, based on surrounding land uses (guided inquiry activity

  5. Water Resources Forests & Water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Water Resources Forests & Water More than half of the nation's freshwater supply originates on forestland. Healthy and sustainable forests can help ensure a continuous supply of clean and abundant water. Not only does forestland provide the cleanest water of any land use, it also helps absorb rainfall

  6. USING NEXRAD AND RAIN GAUGE PRECIPITATION DATA FOR HYDROLOGIC CALIBRATION OF SWAT IN A NORTHEASTERN WATERSHED

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sexton, Aisha M.; Sadeghi, Ali M.; Zhang, Xuesong; Srinivasan, Ragahvan; Shirmohammadi, Adel

    2010-05-10

    The value of watershed?scale, hydrologic and water quality models to ecosystem management is increasingly evident as more programs adopt these tools to evaluate the effectiveness of different management scenarios and their impact on the environment. Quality of precipitation data is critical for appropriate application of watershed models. In small watersheds, where no dense rain gauge network is available, modelers are faced with a dilemma to choose between different data sets. In this study, we used the German Branch (GB) watershed (~50 km2), which is included in the USDA Conservation Effects Assessment Project (CEAP), to examine the implications of using surface rain gauge and next?generation radar (NEXRAD) precipitation data sets on the performance of the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT). The GB watershed is located in the Coastal Plain of Maryland on the eastern shore of Chesapeake Bay. Stream flow estimation results using surface rain gauge data seem to indicate the importance of using rain gauges within the same direction as the storm pattern with respect to the watershed. In the absence of a spatially representative network of rain gauges within the watershed, NEXRAD data produced good estimates of stream flow at the outlet of the watershed. Three NEXRAD datasets, including (1)*non?corrected (NC), (2) bias?corrected (BC), and (3) inverse distance weighted (IDW) corrected NEXRAD data, were produced. Nash?Sutcliffe efficiency coefficients for daily stream flow simulation using these three NEXRAD data ranged from 0.46 to 0.58 during calibration and from 0.68 to 0.76 during validation. Overall, correcting NEXRAD with rain gauge data is promising to produce better hydrologic modeling results. Given the multiple precipitation datasets and corresponding simulations, we explored the combination of the multiple simulations using Bayesian model averaging.

  7. Report on the Depth Requirements for a Massive Detector at Homestake

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kadel, Richard W.; Bernstein, Adam; Blucher, Edward; Cline, David B.; Diwan, Milind V.; Fleming, Bonnie; Kearns, Edward; Klein, Joshua; Lande, Kenneth; Lanni, Francesco; Lissauer, David; McKeown, Robert; Morse, William; Rameika, Regina; Scholberg, Kate; Smy, Michael; Sobel, Henry; Sullivan, Gregory; Svoboda, Robert; Vagins, Mark; Walter, Christopher; Zwaska, Robert

    2008-12-23

    This report provides the technical justification for locating a large detector underground in a US based Deep Underground Science and Engineering Laboratory. A large detector with a fiducial mass greater than 100 kTon will most likely be a multipurpose facility. The main physics justification for such a device is detection of accelerator generated neutrinos, nucleon decay, and natural sources of neutrinos such as solar, atmospheric and supernova neutrinos. The requirement on the depth of this detector will be guided by the rate of signals from these sources and the rate of backgrounds from cosmic rays over a very wide range of energies (from solar neutrino energies of 5 MeV to high energies in the range of hundreds of GeV). For the present report, we have examined the depth requirement for a large water Cherenkov detector and a liquid argon time projection chamber. There has been extensive previous experience with underground water Cherenkov detectors such as IMB, Kamioka, and most recently, Super-Kamiokande which has a fiducial mass of 22 kTon and a total mass of 50 kTon at a depth of 2700 meters-water-equivalent in a mountain. Projections for signal and background capability for a larger and deeper(or shallower) detectors of this type can be scaled from these previous detectors. The liquid argon time projection chamber has the advantage of being a very fine-grained tracking detector, which should provide enhanced capability for background rejection. We have based background rejection on reasonable estimates of track and energy resolution, and in some cases scaled background rates from measurements in water. In the current work we have taken the approach that the depth should be sufficient to suppress the cosmogenic background below predicted signal rates for either of the above two technologies. Nevertheless, it is also clear that the underground facility that we are examining must have a long life and will most likely be used either for future novel uses of the currently planned detectors or new technologies. Therefore the depth requirement also needs to be made on the basis of sound judgment regarding possible future use. In particular, the depth should be sufficient for any possible future use of these cavities or the level which will be developed for these large structures.Along with these physics justifications there are practical issues regarding the existing infrastructure at Homestake and also the stress characteristics of the Homestake rock formations. In this report we will examine the various depth choices at Homestake from the point of view of the particle and nuclear physics signatures of interest. We also have sufficient information about the existing infrastructure and the rock characteristics to narrow the choice of levels for the development of large cavities with long lifetimes. We make general remarks on desirable ground conditions for such large cavities and then make recommendations on how to start examining these levels to make a final choice. In the appendix we have outlined the initial requirements for the detectors. These requirements will undergo refinement during the course of the design. Finally, we strongly recommend that the geotechnical studies be commenced at the 4850 ft level, which we find to be the most suitable, in a timely manner.

  8. Ground-water hydrology of the Panther Junction area of Big Bend National Park, Texas 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gibson, John Lawrence

    1983-01-01

    . Hydrogeologic investigation of the study area included eval- uation of precipitation, recharge, discharge, aquifer geometry, storage reserve, and hydraulic properties of the aquifer. Accumulated departure from mean annual orecipitation at. the Panther... the surface. The effective uniform depth of precipitation on the mountain slopes is 15. 86 in/yr. Green Gulch is believed to be the primary recharge zone for the Aguja aquifer, and the eastern slope of the Chisos Mountains is the major recharge zone...

  9. Variability in Labrador Sea Water formation Variabiliteit in the formatie van Labrador Zee Water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stoffelen, Ad

    deep convection takes place. Deep convection is vertical mixing of water over a large depth is the only way in which the water in the deep ocean is exposed to the atmosphere, and the only rapid interaction between water in the deep ocean and in the surface layer. Deep convection is a typical winter

  10. General Technical Report PSW-GTR-243 Relationship Between Precipitation and Tree

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    General Technical Report PSW-GTR-243 148 Relationship Between Precipitation and Tree Mortality to precipitation. Many environmental factors influence the severity of disease epidemics. Precipitation data from Humboldt County. Higher levels of precipitation during the 2 years prior to observed mortality appeared

  11. PRECIPITATION HARDENING IN ALUMINUM ALLOY 6022 W.F. Miao and D.E. Laughlin

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Laughlin, David E.

    PRECIPITATION HARDENING IN ALUMINUM ALLOY 6022 W.F. Miao and D.E. Laughlin Department of Materials on a precipitation hardening process. The precipitation sequence in the Al-Mg-Si alloys is generally accepted [1-shaped precipitates (circular cross sections) along 100 Al, having a hexagonal crystal structure with a 0.705 nm and c

  12. New conjunctive CubeSat and balloon measurements to quantify rapid energetic electron precipitation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Xinlin

    New conjunctive CubeSat and balloon measurements to quantify rapid energetic electron precipitation precipitation into the atmosphere can contribute significant losses to the outer radiation belt. In particular, rapid narrow precipitation features termed precipitation bands have been hypothesized to be an integral

  13. PHYSICAL REVIEW E 88, 022141 (2013) Helices in the wake of precipitation fronts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rácz, Zoltán

    2013-01-01

    PHYSICAL REVIEW E 88, 022141 (2013) Helices in the wake of precipitation fronts Shibi Thomas,1 of the emergence of helices in the wake of precipitation fronts is presented. The precipitation dynamics studies [7,8] in which helical precipitation patterns were observed in the wake of moving reaction

  14. Method of treating waste water

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Deininger, J. Paul (Colorado Springs, CO); Chatfield, Linda K. (Colorado Springs, CO)

    1991-01-01

    A process of treating water to remove transuranic elements contained therein by adjusting the pH of a transuranic element-containing water source to within the range of about 6.5 to about 14.0, admixing the water source with an alkali or alkaline earth ferrate in an amount sufficient to form a precipitate within the water source, the amount of ferrate effective to reduce the transuranic element concentration in the water source, permitting the precipitate in the admixture to separate and thereby yield a supernatant liquid having a reduced transuranic element concentration, and separating the supernatant liquid having the reduced transuranic element concentration from the admixture is provided. Additionally, a water soluble salt, e.g., a zirconium salt, can be added with the alkali or alkaline earth ferrate in the process to provide greater removal efficiencies. A composition of matter including an alkali or alkaline earth ferrate and a water soluble salt, e.g., a zirconium salt, is also provided.

  15. WATER-TRAPPED WORLDS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Menou, Kristen [Department of Astronomy, Columbia University, 550 West 120th Street, New York, NY 10027 (United States)

    2013-09-01

    Although tidally locked habitable planets orbiting nearby M-dwarf stars are among the best astronomical targets to search for extrasolar life, they may also be deficient in volatiles and water. Climate models for this class of planets show atmospheric transport of water from the dayside to the nightside, where it is precipitated as snow and trapped as ice. Since ice only slowly flows back to the dayside upon accumulation, the resulting hydrological cycle can trap a large amount of water in the form of nightside ice. Using ice sheet dynamical and thermodynamical constraints, I illustrate how planets with less than about a quarter the Earth's oceans could trap most of their surface water on the nightside. This would leave their dayside, where habitable conditions are met, potentially dry. The amount and distribution of residual liquid water on the dayside depend on a variety of geophysical factors, including the efficiency of rock weathering at regulating atmospheric CO{sub 2} as dayside ocean basins dry up. Water-trapped worlds with dry daysides may offer similar advantages as land planets for habitability, by contrast with worlds where more abundant water freely flows around the globe.

  16. Report on the Depth Requirements for a Massive Detector at Homestake

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bernstein,A.; Blucher, E.; Cline, D. B.; Diwan, M. V.; Fleming, b.; Kadel, R.; Kearns, E.; Klein, J.; Lande, K.; Lanni, F.; Lissauer, D.; McKeown, R.; Morse, W.; Radeika, R.; Scholberg, K.; Smy, M.; Sobel, H.; Sullivan, G.; Svoboda, R.; Vagins, M.; Walter, C.; Zwaska, R.

    2008-12-22

    This report provides the technical justification for locating a large detector underground in a US based Deep Underground Science and Engineering Laboratory. A large detector with a fiducial mass greater than 100 kTon will most likely be a multipurpose facility. The main physics justification for such a device is detection of accelerator generated neutrinos, nucleon decay, and natural sources of neutrinos such as solar, atmospheric and supernova neutrinos. The requirement on the depth of this detector will be guided by the rate of signals from these sources and the rate of backgrounds from cosmic rays over a very wide range of energies (from solar neutrino energies of 5 MeV to high energies in the range of tens of GeV). For the present report, we have examined the depth requirement for a large water Cherenkov detector and a liquid argon time projection chamber. There has been extensive previous experience with underground water Cherenkov detectors such as IMB, Kamioka, and most recently, Super-Kamiokande which has a fiducial mass of 22 kTon and a total mass of 50 kTon at a depth of 2700 meters-water-equivalent. Projections for signal and background capability for a larger and deeper (or shallower) detectors of this type can be scaled from these previous detectors. The liquid argon time projection chamber has the advantage of being a very fine-grained tracking detector, which provides enhanced capability for background rejection. In the current work we have taken the approach that the depth should be sufficient to suppress the cosmogenic background below predicted signal rates for either of the above two technologies. Nevertheless, it is also clear that the underground facility that we are examining must have a long life and will most likely be used either for future novel uses of the currently planned detectors or new technologies. Therefore the depth requirement also needs to be made on the basis of sound judgment regarding possible future use. In particular, the depth should be sufficient for any possible future use of these cavities or the level which will be developed for these large structures. Along with these physics justifications there are practical issues regarding the existing infrastructure at Homestake and also the stress characteristics of the Homestake rock formations. In this report we will examine the various depth choices at Homestake from the point of view of the particle and nuclear physics signatures of interest. We also have sufficient information about the existing infrastructure and the rock characteristics to narrow the choice of levels for the development of large cavities with long lifetimes. We make general remarks on desirable ground conditions for such large cavities and then make recommendations on how to start examining these levels to make a final choice. In the appendix we have outlined the initial requirements for the detectors. These requirements will undergo refinement during the course of the design. Finally, we strongly recommend that the geotechnical studies be commenced at the 4850 ft level, which we find to be the most suitable, in a timely manner.

  17. Measuring depth profiles of residual stress with Raman spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Enloe, W.S.; Sparks, R.G.; Paesler, M.A.

    1988-12-01

    Knowledge of the variation of residual stress is a very important factor in understanding the properties of machined surfaces. The nature of the residual stress can determine a part`s susceptibility to wear deformation, and cracking. Raman spectroscopy is known to be a very useful technique for measuring residual stress in many materials. These measurements are routinely made with a lateral resolution of 1{mu}m and an accuracy of 0.1 kbar. The variation of stress with depth; however, has not received much attention in the past. A novel technique has been developed that allows quantitative measurement of the variation of the residual stress with depth with an accuracy of 10nm in the z direction. Qualitative techniques for determining whether the stress is varying with depth are presented. It is also demonstrated that when the stress is changing over the volume sampled, errors can be introduced if the variation of the stress with depth is ignored. Computer aided data analysis is used to determine the depth dependence of the residual stress.

  18. On the El Nino Teleconnection to Spring Precipitation in Europe

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Van Oldenborgh, G J; Tank, A K; Oldenborgh, Geert Jan van; Burgers, Gerrit; Tank, Albert Klein

    1998-01-01

    In a statistical analysis of more than a century of data we find a strong connection between strong warm El Nino winter events and high spring precipitation in a band from Southern England eastwards into Asia. This relationship is an extension of the connection mentioned by Kiladis and Diaz (1989), and much stronger than the winter season teleconnection that has been the subject of other studies. Linear correlation coefficients between DJF NINO3 indices and MAM precipitation are higher than r=0.3 for individual stations, and as high as r=0.49 for an index of precipitation anomalies around 50N from 5W to 35E. The lagged correlation suggests that south-east Asian surface temperature anomalies may act as intermediate variables.

  19. Laboratory-scale evaluations of alternative plutonium precipitation methods

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martella, L.L.; Saba, M.T.; Campbell, G.K.

    1984-02-08

    Plutonium(III), (IV), and (VI) carbonate; plutonium(III) fluoride; plutonium(III) and (IV) oxalate; and plutonium(IV) and (VI) hydroxide precipitation methods were evaluated for conversion of plutonium nitrate anion-exchange eluate to a solid, and compared with the current plutonium peroxide precipitation method used at Rocky Flats. Plutonium(III) and (IV) oxalate, plutonium(III) fluoride, and plutonium(IV) hydroxide precipitations were the most effective of the alternative conversion methods tested because of the larger particle-size formation, faster filtration rates, and the low plutonium loss to the filtrate. These were found to be as efficient as, and in some cases more efficient than, the peroxide method. 18 references, 14 figures, 3 tables.

  20. WATER AND ENERGY BALANCE ESTIMATION IN PUERTO RICO USING SATELLITE REMOTE SENSING

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gilbes, Fernando

    WATER AND ENERGY BALANCE ESTIMATION IN PUERTO RICO USING SATELLITE REMOTE SENSING Eric. W Management of water resources relies on estimates of the hydrologic water balance within defined and/or similar land use. Components of the water balance include precipitation, actual

  1. Peakons arising as particle paths beneath small-amplitude water waves

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Delia Ionescu-Kruse

    2011-06-20

    We present a new kind of particle path in constant vorticity water of finite depth, within the framework of small-amplitude waves.

  2. Experimental investigation on the chemical precipitation generation under the loss of coolant accident of nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, C. H.; Sung, J. J. [Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co., Ltd., 25-1, Jang-dong, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon, 305-343 (Korea, Republic of); Chung, Y. W. [FNC Technology Co., Ltd., Seoul National Univ., Bldg. 135-301, Gwanakro 599, Gwanak-gu, Seoul, 151-742 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-07-01

    The PWR containment buildings are designed to facilitate core cooling in the event of a Loss of Coolant Accident (LOCA). The cooling process requires water discharged from the break and containment spray to be collected in a sump for recirculation. The containment sump contains screens to protect the components of the Emergency Core Cooling System (ECCS) and Containment Spray System (CSS) from debris. Since the containment materials may dissolve or corrode when exposed to the reactor coolant and spray solutions, various chemical precipitations can be generated in a post-LOCA environment. These chemical precipitations may become another source of debris loading to be considered in sump screen performance and downstream effects. In this study, new experimental methodology to predict the type and quantity of chemical precipitations has been developed. To generate the plant-specific chemical precipitation in a post-LOCA environment, the plant specific chemical condition of the recirculation sump during post-LOCA is simulated with the experimental reactor for the chemical effect. The plant-specific containment materials are used in the present experiment such as glass fibers, concrete blocks, aluminum specimens, and chemical reagent - boric acid, spray additives or buffering chemicals (sodium hydroxide, Tri-Sodium Phosphate (TSP), or others). The inside temperature of the reactor is controlled to simulate the plant-specific temperature profile of the recirculation sump. The total amount of aluminum released from aluminum specimens is evaluated by ICP-AES analysis to determine the amount of AlOOH and NaAlSi{sub 3}O{sub 8} which induce very adverse effect on the head loss across the sump screens. The amount of these precipitations generated in the present experimental study is compared with the results of WCAP-16530-NP-A. (authors)

  3. Monte Carlo study of the depth-dependent fluence perturbation in parallel-plate ionization chambers in electron beams

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zink, K.; Czarnecki, D.; Voigts-Rhetz, P. von; Looe, H. K.; Harder, D.

    2014-11-01

    Purpose: The electron fluence inside a parallel-plate ionization chamber positioned in a water phantom and exposed to a clinical electron beam deviates from the unperturbed fluence in water in absence of the chamber. One reason for the fluence perturbation is the well-known “inscattering effect,” whose physical cause is the lack of electron scattering in the gas-filled cavity. Correction factors determined to correct for this effect have long been recommended. However, more recent Monte Carlo calculations have led to some doubt about the range of validity of these corrections. Therefore, the aim of the present study is to reanalyze the development of the fluence perturbation with depth and to review the function of the guard rings. Methods: Spatially resolved Monte Carlo simulations of the dose profiles within gas-filled cavities with various radii in clinical electron beams have been performed in order to determine the radial variation of the fluence perturbation in a coin-shaped cavity, to study the influences of the radius of the collecting electrode and of the width of the guard ring upon the indicated value of the ionization chamber formed by the cavity, and to investigate the development of the perturbation as a function of the depth in an electron-irradiated phantom. The simulations were performed for a primary electron energy of 6 MeV. Results: The Monte Carlo simulations clearly demonstrated a surprisingly large in- and outward electron transport across the lateral cavity boundary. This results in a strong influence of the depth-dependent development of the electron field in the surrounding medium upon the chamber reading. In the buildup region of the depth-dose curve, the in–out balance of the electron fluence is positive and shows the well-known dose oscillation near the cavity/water boundary. At the depth of the dose maximum the in–out balance is equilibrated, and in the falling part of the depth-dose curve it is negative, as shown here the first time. The influences of both the collecting electrode radius and the width of the guard ring are reflecting the deep radial penetration of the electron transport processes into the gas-filled cavities and the need for appropriate corrections of the chamber reading. New values for these corrections have been established in two forms, one converting the indicated value into the absorbed dose to water in the front plane of the chamber, the other converting it into the absorbed dose to water at the depth of the effective point of measurement of the chamber. In the Appendix, the in–out imbalance of electron transport across the lateral cavity boundary is demonstrated in the approximation of classical small-angle multiple scattering theory. Conclusions: The in–out electron transport imbalance at the lateral boundaries of parallel-plate chambers in electron beams has been studied with Monte Carlo simulation over a range of depth in water, and new correction factors, covering all depths and implementing the effective point of measurement concept, have been developed.

  4. TEX-A-SYST: Reducing the Risk of Ground Water Contamination by Improving Well-Head Management and Conditions 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harris, Bill L.; Hoffman, D.; Mazac Jr., F. J.

    1997-08-29

    The condition of a water well and its proximity to contamination sources determine the risk it poses to ground water. Topics covered include well location, well construction, well age and type, well depth, well maintenance, water testing...

  5. Noise Analysis and Synthesis for 3D Laser Depth Scanners

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Martin, Ralph R.

    Noise Analysis and Synthesis for 3D Laser Depth Scanners Xianfang Sun a,b,, Paul L. Rosin a , Ralph the noise present in range data measured by a Konica Minolta Vivid 910 scanner, in order to better characterise real scanner noise. Methods for denoising 3D mesh data have often assumed the noise to be Gaussian

  6. Continuous Snow Depth, Intensive Site 1, Barrow, Alaska

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Bob Busey; Larry Hinzman; Vladimir Romanovsky; William Cable

    Continuous Snow depth data are being collected at several points within four intensive study areas in Barrow, Alaska. These data are being collected to better understand the energy dynamics above the active layer and permafrost. They complement in-situ snow and soil measurements at this location. The data could also be used as supporting measurements for other research and modeling activities.

  7. Electrical Resistivity Imaging for Unknown Bridge Foundation Depth Determination 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arjwech, Rungroj

    2012-02-14

    as suitable to investigate unknown bridge foundations. The objective of the present study is to apply advanced 2D electrical resistivity imaging (ERI) in order to identify depth of unknown bridge foundations. A survey procedure is carried out in mixed terrain...

  8. Depth Energy Image for Gait Symmetry Quantification Caroline Rougier1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mignotte, Max

    Depth Energy Image for Gait Symmetry Quantification Caroline Rougier1 , Edouard Auvinet1 , Jean´erationnelle, Universit´e de Montr´eal, Canada {rougierc, auvinet, meunier, mignotte}@iro.umontreal.ca 2 Centre de recherche du Centre Hospitalier de l'Universit´e de Montr´eal, ETS, Canada jacques

  9. Continuous Snow Depth, Intensive Site 1, Barrow, Alaska

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Bob Busey; Larry Hinzman; Vladimir Romanovsky; William Cable

    2014-11-06

    Continuous Snow depth data are being collected at several points within four intensive study areas in Barrow, Alaska. These data are being collected to better understand the energy dynamics above the active layer and permafrost. They complement in-situ snow and soil measurements at this location. The data could also be used as supporting measurements for other research and modeling activities.

  10. Lower Bounds on Interactive Compressibility by Constant-Depth Circuits

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Edinburgh, University of

    Lower Bounds on Interactive Compressibility by Constant-Depth Circuits Arkadev Chattopadhyay to prove the first lower bounds on general probabilistic multi-round instance compression. We show, and strengthens results of Dubrov and Ishai [DI06]. We also show that a similar lower bound holds for Majority. We

  11. Dual-depth adapted irreducible formal multizeta values Leila Schneps

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schneps, Leila

    , and the relations between them. Consider the following diagram, in which the four top spaces are Hopf algebras the double shuffle Lie algebra, equipped with the standard weight grading and depth filtration; we write ds = n3dsn and denote the filtration by ds1 ds2 · · ·. The double shuffle Lie algebra is dual

  12. NIDIS Weekly Climate, Water Drought Assessment Summary

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Collett Jr., Jeffrey L.

    to the already above average conditions present in these areas. Water year precipitation percentile rankings are in good condition at the majority of mountainous locations, with the exception of the Sangre de Cristo rankings range from 7 ­ 27. #12;Streamflow Seven day average discharge conditions across the UCRB

  13. The Nature of Zn Precipitates Formed in the Presence of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sparks, Donald L.

    D D O N A L D L . S P A R K S Department of Plant and Soil Sciences, University of Delaware, NewarkThe Nature of Zn Precipitates Formed in the Presence of Pyrophyllite R O B E R T G . F O R D * A N

  14. The Environment of Precipitating Shallow Cumulus LOUISE NUIJENS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haak, Hein

    of precipitation are presented from two months of radar reflectiv- ity data, collected by the ground-based SPol%. These estimates are based on subsets of TRMM data for which the majority of radar echoes (that span at least 750 m. of Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences, University of California Los Angeles, CA, USA A.PIER SIEBESMA Royal

  15. VICARIOUS CALIBRATION OF GLOBAL PRECIPITATION MEASUREMENT MICROWAVE RADIOMETERS1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ruf, Christopher

    VICARIOUS CALIBRATION OF GLOBAL PRECIPITATION MEASUREMENT MICROWAVE RADIOMETERS1 Darren Mc of the TMI, WindSat, SSM/I F13 and SSM/I F14 microwave radiometers using data from the GPM Inter Terms-- Microwave radiometry, Calibration 1. INTRODUCTION The primary goal of NASA's Global

  16. Reduction of tropical land region precipitation variability via transpiration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gentine, Pierre

    plants through open stomata: this process (transpiration) cools the plant and facilitates transportReduction of tropical land region precipitation variability via transpiration Jung-Eun Lee,1 in observations and models. In the present study, the potential role of transpiration for this difference

  17. Preparation of Lead Zirconate by Homogeneous Precipitation and Calcination

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tas, A. Cuneyt

    University, Ankara 06531, Turkey Antiferroelectric PbZrO3 has been synthesized by homoge- neous precipitation (Merck, Darmstadt, Germany), whereas the zirconium source was 99% pure ZrCl4 (Merck, Darmstadt, Germany stock solutions. Reagent-grade urea (CH4N2O, 99.5% Riedel-De Haen AG, Germany) was used as the precip

  18. Traveling water waves with point vortices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kristoffer Varholm

    2015-03-20

    We construct small-amplitude solitary traveling gravity-capillary water waves with a finite number of point vortices along a vertical line, on finite depth. This is done using a local bifurcation argument. The properties of the resulting waves are also examined: We find that they depend significantly on the position of the point vortices in the water column.

  19. Steady water waves with multiple critical layers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mats Ehrnström; Joachim Escher; Erik Wahlén

    2011-04-01

    We construct small-amplitude periodic water waves with multiple critical layers. In addition to waves with arbitrarily many critical layers and a single crest in each period, two-dimensional sets of waves with several crests and troughs in each period are found. The setting is that of steady two-dimensional finite-depth gravity water waves with vorticity.

  20. PbO networks composed of single crystalline nanosheets synthesized by a facile chemical precipitation method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Samberg, Joshua P. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, North Carolina State University, 911 Partners Way, Engineering Building I, Raleigh, NC 27695-7907 (United States); Kajbafvala, Amir, E-mail: amir.kajbafvala@gmail.com [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, North Carolina State University, 911 Partners Way, Engineering Building I, Raleigh, NC 27695-7907 (United States); Koolivand, Amir [Department of Chemistry, North Carolina State University, 2620 Yarbrough Drive, Raleigh, NC 27695 (United States)

    2014-03-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Synthesis of PbO networks through a simple chemical precipitation route. • The synthesis method is rapid and low-cost. • Each network is composed of single crystalline PbO nanosheets. • A possible growth mechanism is proposed for synthesized PbO networks. - Abstract: For the field of energy storage, nanostructured lead oxide (PbO) shows immense potential for increased specific energy and deep discharge for lead acid battery technologies. In this work, PbO networks composed of single crystalline nanosheets were synthesized utilizing a simple, low cost and rapid chemical precipitation method. The PbO networks were prepared in a single reaction vessel from starting reagents of lead acetate dehydrate, ammonium hydroxide and deionized water. Lead acetate dehydrate was chosen as a reagent, as opposed to lead nitrate, to eliminate the possibility of nitrate contamination of the final product. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis, high resolution scanning electron microscopy (HRSEM) and high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) analysis were used to characterize the synthesized PbO networks. The reproducible method described herein synthesized pure ?-PbO (massicot) powders, with no byproducts. A possible formation mechanism for these PbO networks is proposed. The growth is found to proceed predominately in the ?1 1 1? and ?2 0 0? directions while being limited in the ?0 1 1? direction.

  1. Precipitation in 18 wt% Ni maraging steel of grade 350

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tewari, R.; Mazumder, S.; Batra, I.S.; Dey, G.K.; Banerjee, S.

    2000-03-14

    The evolution of precipitates in maraging steel of grade 350 was studied using the complementary techniques of small angle X-ray scattering (SACS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). These investigations revealed that ageing the steel at 703 K involved a rhombohedral distortion of the supersaturated b.c.c. martensite accompanied by the appearance of diffuse {omega}-like structures. This was followed by the appearance of well-defined {omega} particles containing chemical order. At the ageing temperature of 783 K, Ni{sub 3}(Ti,Mo) precipitates were the first to appear with a growth exponent of 1/3. The values of the Pored exponent obtained from the SAXS profiles indicated that the {omega} particles, formed below 723 K, had diffuse interfaces up to an ageing time of 48 h. On the other hand, Ni{sub 3}(Ti,Mo) precipitates, formed above 723 K, developed sharp interfaces in just about an hour. Also, the steel exhibited scaling in phase separation both at 703 and 783 K, but only during the early stages. Through this study it was established that at temperatures of ageing less than 723 K, evolution of {omega} particles takes place through the collapse of the unstable b.c.c. lattice and, at temperatures above 723 K, precipitation of A{sub 3}B type of phases through the mechanism of clustering and ordering of atomic species. Sharp interfaces develop rather quickly when the mechanism of precipitation involves development and amplification of a concentration wave along as in the nucleation of Ni{sub 3}(Ti,Mo) at 783 K than when an interplay of both the displacement and concentration waves is required as in the evolution of {omega} at 703 K. These results indicate towards the possibility of existence of two separate time-temperature-transformation (TTT) curves, one for the evolution of {omega}-phase and another for nucleation and growth of Ni{sub 3}(Ti,Mo).

  2. Climate Change Effects on California Precipitation and Soil Moisture

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Berg, Neil

    2015-01-01

    soil moisture, water year-average 2 meter air temperature (soil moisture, water year-average 2 meter air temperature (air temperature (“T2 dry ssn ”, unit ? C) changes for all 10 water

  3. Process for removing metals from water

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Napier, J.M.; Hancher, C.M.; Hackett, G.D.

    1987-06-29

    A process for removing metals from water including the steps of prefiltering solids from the water, adjusting the pH to between about 2 and 3, reducing the amount of dissolved oxygen in the water, increasing the pH to between about 6 and 8, adding water-soluble sulfide to precipitate insoluble sulfide- and hydroxide-forming metals, adding a containing floc, and postfiltering the resultant solution. The postfiltered solution may optionally be eluted through an ion exchange resin to remove residual metal ions. 2 tabs.

  4. Cosmogenic Backgrounds in Borexino at 3800 m water-equivalent depth

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    G. Bellini; J. Benziger; D. Bick; G. Bonfini; D. Bravo; M. Buizza Avanzini; B. Caccianiga; L. Cadonati; F. Calaprice; P. Cavalcante; A. Chavarria; A. Chepurnov; D. D'Angelo; S. Davini; A. Derbin; A. Empl; A. Etenko; K. Fomenko; D. Franco; C. Galbiati; S. Gazzana; C. Ghiano; M. Giammarchi; M. Göger-Neff; A. Goretti; L. Grandi; C. Hagner; E. Hungerford; Aldo Ianni; Andrea Ianni; V. Kobychev; D. Korablev; G. Korga; D. Kryn; M. Laubenstein; T. Lewke; E. Litvinovich; B. Loer; P. Lombardi; F. Lombardi; L. Ludhova; G. Lukyanchenko; I. Machulin; S. Manecki; W. Maneschg; G. Manuzio; Q. Meindl; E. Meroni; L. Miramonti; M. Misiaszek; R. Möllenberg; P. Mosteiro; V. Muratova; L. Oberauer; M. Obolensky; F. Ortica; K. Otis; M. Pallavicini; L. Papp; L. Perasso; S. Perasso; A. Pocar; G. Ranucci; A. Razeto; A. Re; A. Romani; N. Rossi; R. Saldanha; C. Salvo; S. Schönert; H. Simgen; M. Skorokhvatov; O. Smirnov; A. Sotnikov; S. Sukhotin; Y. Suvorov; R. Tartaglia; G. Testera; D. Vignaud; R. B. Vogelaar; F. von Feilitzsch; J. Winter; M. Wojcik; A. Wright; M. Wurm; J. Xu; O. Zaimidoroga; S. Zavatarelli; G. Zuzel

    2013-07-03

    The solar neutrino experiment Borexino, which is located in the Gran Sasso underground laboratories, is in a unique position to study muon-induced backgrounds in an organic liquid scintillator. In this study, a large sample of cosmic muons is identified and tracked by a muon veto detector external to the liquid scintillator, and by the specific light patterns observed when muons cross the scintillator volume. The yield of muon-induced neutrons is found to be Yn =(3.10+-0.11)10-4 n/({\\mu} (g/cm2)). The distance profile between the parent muon track and the neutron capture point has the average value {\\lambda} = (81.5 +- 2.7)cm. Additionally the yields of a number of cosmogenic radioisotopes are measured for 12N, 12B, 8He, 9C, 9Li, 8B, 6He, 8Li, 11Be, 10C and 11C. All results are compared with Monte Carlo simulation predictions using the Fluka and Geant4 packages. General agreement between data and simulation is observed for the cosmogenic production yields with a few exceptions, the most prominent case being 11C yield for which both codes return about 50% lower values. The predicted {\\mu}-n distance profile and the neutron multiplicity distribution are found to be overall consistent with data.

  5. Cosmic-muon flux and annual modulation in Borexino at 3800 m water-equivalent depth

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    G. Bellini; J. Benziger; D. Bick; G. Bonfini; D. Bravo; M. Buizza Avanzini; B. Caccianiga; L. Cadonati; F. Calaprice; C. Carraro; P. Cavalcante; A. Chavarria; A. Chepurnov; D. D'Angelo; S. Davini; A. Derbin; A. Etenko; F. von Feilitzsch; K. Fomenko; D. Franco; C. Galbiati; S. Gazzana; C. Ghiano; M. Giammarchi; M. Goeger-Neff; A. Goretti; L. Grandi; E. Guardincerri; C. Hagner; S. Hardy; Aldo Ianni; Andrea Ianni; D. Korablev; G. Korga; Y. Koshio; D. Kryn; M. Laubenstein; T. Lewke; E. Litvinovich; B. Loer; F. Lombardi; P. Lombardi; L. Ludhova; I. Machulin; S. Manecki; W. Maneschg; G. Manuzio; Q. Meindl; E. Meroni; L. Miramonti; M. Misiaszek; D. Montanari; P. Mosteiro; V. Muratova; L. Oberauer; M. Obolensky; F. Ortica; K. Otis; M. Pallavicini; L. Papp; L. Perasso; S. Perasso; A. Pocar; R. S. Raghavan; G. Ranucci; A. Razeto; A. Re; A. Romani; A. Sabelnikov; R. Saldanha; C. Salvo; S. Schönert; H. Simgen; M. Skorokhvatov; O. Smirnov; A. Sotnikov; S. Sukhotin; Y. Suvorov; R. Tartaglia; G. Testera; D. Vignaud; R. B. Vogelaar; J. Winter; M. Wojcik; A. Wright; M. Wurm; J. Xu; O. Zaimidoroga; S. Zavatarelli; G. Zuzel

    2012-11-22

    We have measured the muon flux at the underground Gran Sasso National Laboratory (3800 m w.e.) to be (3.41 \\pm 0.01) \\times 10-4m-2s-1 using four years of Borexino data. A modulation of this signal is observed with a period of (366\\pm3) days and a relative amplitude of (1.29 \\pm 0.07)%. The measured phase is (179 \\pm 6) days, corresponding to a maximum on the 28th of June. Using the most complete atmospheric data models available, muon rate fluctuations are shown to be positively correlated with atmospheric temperature, with an effective coefficient {\\alpha}T = 0.93 \\pm 0.04. This result represents the most precise study of the muon flux modulation for this site and is in good agreement with expectations.

  6. Plant Water Use in Owens Valley, CA: Understanding the Influence of Climate and Depth to Groundwater

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pataki, Diane E

    2008-01-01

    Chalk Bluffs north of the town of Bishop; 2) an intermediate, mixed grass-shrub community near the Owens River

  7. Plant Water Use in Owens Valley, CA: Understanding the Influence of Climate and Depth to Groundwater

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pataki, Diane E

    2008-01-01

    between sampling dates. Leachate was stored at 4°C untilsample (Billings, 2006). Leachate samples were obtained on

  8. Unravelling the influence of water depth and wave energy on the facies diversity of shelf carbonates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Purkis, Sam

    - bau, 1984; Immenhauser, 2009). In the so-called © 2014 The Authors. Sedimentology © 2014 International Association of Sedimentologists 541 Sedimentology (2015) 62, 541­565 doi: 10.1111/sed.12110 #12;`T

  9. ARM - Routine AAF Clouds with Low Optical Water Depths (CLOWD) Optical

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Comments?govInstrumentsnoaacrnBarrow, Alaska OutreachCalendarPress ReleasesHighlightsNotableRadiative Observations

  10. Precipitation induced stream flow: An event based chemical andisotopic study of a small stream in the Great Plains region of theUSA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Machavaram, Madhav V.; Whittemore, Donald O.; Conrad, Mark E.; Miller, Norman L.

    2005-03-22

    A small stream in the Great Plains of USA was sampled tounderstand the streamflow components following intense precipitation andthe influence of water storage structures in the drainage basin.Precipitation, stream, ponds, ground-water and soil moisture were sampledfor determination of isotopic (D, 18O) and chemical (Cl, SO4) compositionbefore and after two intense rain events. Following the first stormevent, flow at the downstream locations was generated primarily throughshallow subsurface flow and runoff whereas in the headwaters region --where a pond is located in the stream channel -- shallow ground-water andpond outflow contributed to the flow. The distinct isotopic signatures ofprecipitation and the evaporated pond water allowed separation of theevent water from the other sources that contributed to the flow.Similarly, variations in the Cl and SO4 concentrations helped identifythe relative contributions of ground-water and soil moisture to thestream flow. The relationship between deuterium excess and Cl or SO4content reveals that the early contributions from a rain event tostreamflow depend upon the antecedent climatic conditions and theposition along the stream channel within the watershed. The design ofthis study, in which data from several locations within a watershed werecollected, shows that in small streams changes in relative contributionsfrom ground water and soil moisture complicate hydrograph separation,with surface-water bodies providing additional complexity. It alsodemonstrates the usefulness of combined chemical and isotopic methods inhydrologic investigations, especially the utility of the deuterium excessparameter in quantifying the relative contributions of various sourcecomponents to the stream flow.

  11. RFID tag modification for full depth backscatter modulation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Scott, Jeffrey Wayne [Pasco, WA; Pratt, Richard M [Richland, WA

    2010-07-20

    A modulated backscatter radio frequency identification device includes a diode detector configured to selectively modulate a reply signal onto an incoming continuous wave; communications circuitry configured to provide a modulation control signal to the diode detector, the diode detector being configured to modulate the reply signal in response to be modulation control signal; and circuitry configured to increase impedance change at the diode detector which would otherwise not occur because the diode detector rectifies the incoming continuous wave while modulating the reply signal, whereby reducing the rectified signal increases modulation depth by removing the reverse bias effects on impedance changes. Methods of improving depth of modulation in a modulated backscatter radio frequency identification device are also provided.

  12. Water Quality

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Water Quality Water Quality We protect water quality through stormwater control measures and an extensive network of monitoring wells and stations encompassing groundwater, surface...

  13. A depth-derived Pleistocene age model: Uncertainty estimates, sedimentation variability, and nonlinear climate change

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wunsch, Carl

    A depth-derived Pleistocene age model: Uncertainty estimates, sedimentation variability. To avoid biasing this ``depth-derived'' age estimate, the depth scale is first corrected for the effects sediment accumulation rates are estimated and modeled as an autocorrelated stochastic process. Depth-derived

  14. Mineral-Surfactant Interactions for Minimum Reagents Precipitation and Adsorption for Improved Oil Recovery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    P. Somasundaran

    2008-09-20

    Chemical EOR can be an effective method for increasing oil recovery and reducing the amount of produced water; however, reservoir fluids are chemically complex and may react adversely to the polymers and surfactants injected into the reservoir. While a major goal is to alter rock wettability and interfacial tension between oil and water, rock-fluid and fluid-fluid interactions must be understood and controlled to minimize reagent loss, maximize recovery and mitigate costly failures. The overall objective of this project was to elucidate the mechanisms of interactions between polymers/surfactants and the mineral surfaces responsible for determining the chemical loss due to adsorption and precipitation in EOR processes. The role of dissolved inorganic species that are dependent on the mineralogy is investigated with respect to their effects on adsorption. Adsorption, wettability and interfacial tension are studied with the aim to control chemical losses, the ultimate goal being to devise schemes to develop guidelines for surfactant and polymer selection in EOR. The adsorption behavior of mixed polymer/surfactant and surfactant/surfactant systems on typical reservoir minerals (quartz, alumina, calcite, dolomite, kaolinite, gypsum, pyrite, etc.) was correlated to their molecular structures, intermolecular interactions and the solution conditions such as pH and/or salinity. Predictive models as well as general guidelines for the use of polymer/surfactant surfactant/surfactant system in EOR have been developed The following tasks have been completed under the scope of the project: (1) Mineral characterization, in terms of SEM, BET, size, surface charge, and point zero charge. (2) Study of the interactions among typical reservoir minerals (quartz, alumina, calcite, dolomite, kaolinite, gypsum, pyrite, etc.) and surfactants and/or polymers in terms of adsorption properties that include both macroscopic (adsorption density, wettability) and microscopic (orientation/conformation of the adsorbed layers), as well as precipitation/abstraction characteristics. (3) Investigation of the role of dissolved species, especially multivalent ions, on interactions between reservoir minerals and surfactants and/or polymers leading to surfactant precipitation or activated adsorption. (4) Solution behavior tests--surface tension, interaction, ultra filtration, and other tests. (5) Surfactant-mineral interactions relative to adsorption, wettability, and electrophoresis. (6) Work on the effects of multivalent ions, pH, temperature, salinity, and mixing ratio on the adsorption. Developments of adsorption models to explain interactions between surfactants/polymers/minerals. (7) General guidelines for the use of certain surfactants, polymers and their mixtures in micelle flooding processes.

  15. Water softening using microbial desalination cell technology Kristen S. Brastad a,b

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    softening process in the U.S. is based on ion ex- change, which requires charged polymer resin beads known as lime softening, adds lime to hard water to precipitate calcium ions as calcium carbonate

  16. Enhancing the Effectiveness of Carbon Dioxide Flooding by Managing Asphaltene Precipitation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Deo, Milind D.

    2002-02-21

    Objectives of this project was to understand asphaltene precipitation in General and carbon dioxide induced precipitation in particular. To this effect, thermodynamic and kinetic experiments with the Rangely crude oil were conducted and thermodynamic and reservoir models were developed.

  17. Geostatistical Mapping of Mountain Precipitation Incorporating Autosearched Effects of Terrain and Climatic Characteristics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Texas at San Antonio, University of

    Geostatistical Mapping of Mountain Precipitation Incorporating Autosearched Effects of Terrain 2004, in final form 30 March 2005) ABSTRACT Hydrologic and ecologic studies in mountainous terrain mountain precipitation using only precipi- tation gauge data. The ASOADeK model considers both

  18. Characteristics of warm season precipitating storms in the Arkansas–Red River basin

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tucker, Donna F.; Li, Xingong

    2009-07-16

    [1] Analysis of a multisensor precipitation product enables us to extract the precipitation from individual storms in the Arkansas–Red River drainage basin over a period of 11 years. We examine the year-to-year and ...

  19. The relation of the vegetation on the Texas Range Station to soils, precipitation, and grazing 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas, Gerald Waylett

    1954-01-01

    Precipitation is an important element in the hydrological cycle. To predict and simulate large-scale precipitation, Global Circulation Models (GCMs) are widely used. However, their grid scale is too big to apply to local ...

  20. Scaling of Precipitation Extremes over a Wide Range of Climates Simulated with an Idealized GCM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    O'Gorman, Paul Ambrose

    Extremes of precipitation are examined in a wide range of climates simulated with an idealized aquaplanet GCM. The high percentiles of daily precipitation increase as the climate warms. Their fractional rate of increase ...

  1. Intensification of precipitation extremes with warming in a cloud resolving model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Muller, Caroline

    A cloud-resolving model is used to investigate the effect of warming on high percentiles of precipitation (precipitation extremes) in the idealized setting of radiative-convective equilibrium. While this idealized setting ...

  2. Sorption and Precipitation of Co(II) in Hanford Sediments and...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Sorption and Precipitation of Co(II) in Hanford Sediments and Alkaline Aluminate Solutions Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Sorption and Precipitation of Co(II) in...

  3. Kinetic Precipitation of Solution-Phase Polyoxomolybdate Followed by Transmission Electron Microscopy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cammers, Arthur

    Kinetic Precipitation of Solution-Phase Polyoxomolybdate Followed by Transmission Electron} keplerate after three days revealed large species (r=20±30 nm) in the co- precipitate, whereas {Mo132

  4. phate co-precipitation to introduce the DNA into cultured cells--was not effi-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Capecchi, Mario R.

    phate co-precipitation to introduce the DNA into cultured cells--was not effi- cient to the DNA­calcium phosphate co-precipitate. Using a similar selection scheme, I sought to determine whether

  5. Analysis of Precipitation Using Satellite Observations and Comparisons with Global Climate Models 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Murthi, Aditya

    2011-08-08

    In this study, the space-time relationship of precipitation fields is examined by testing the Taylor's "frozen field" hypothesis (TH). Specifically, the hypothesis supposes that if a spatio-temporal precipitation field ...

  6. Interannual variability of summer precipitation in Texas and its implication to summer drought 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Myoung, Boksoon

    2009-05-15

    Since Texas normally receives most of its precipitation in the warm season, precipitation deficits in summertime may bring serious agricultural and hydrological disasters. While the underlying physical processes of summer ...

  7. Incorporating Precipitation-Induced Variation in Annual Forage Production Into Economic Analyses of Range Improvement Practices. 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hamilton, W.T.; Conner, J.R.; Stuth, J.W.; McBryde, G.L.; Vega, A.J

    1986-01-01

    This thesis described a morphing-based precipitation verification strategy inspired by Keil and Craig. This strategy is based on an optical flow algorithm to morph the image (field) of the forecast precipitation into an ...

  8. Modeling water waves beyond perturbations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Clamond, Didier

    2015-01-01

    In this chapter, we illustrate the advantage of variational principles for modeling water waves from an elementary practical viewpoint. The method is based on a `relaxed' variational principle, i.e., on a Lagrangian involving as many variables as possible, and imposing some suitable subordinate constraints. This approach allows the construction of approximations without necessarily relying on a small parameter. This is illustrated via simple examples, namely the Serre equations in shallow water, a generalization of the Klein-Gordon equation in deep water and how to unify these equations in arbitrary depth. The chapter ends with a discussion and caution on how this approach should be used in practice.

  9. Analytical expressions for transient specific yield and shallow water table drainage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nachabe, Mahmood H.

    between water table fluctuations and released volumes holds for a deep water table aquiferAnalytical expressions for transient specific yield and shallow water table drainage Mahmood H and depth to water table. The expressions allow the user to convert observations of water table fluctuations

  10. Future credible precipitation occurrences in Los Alamos, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abeele, W.V.

    1980-09-01

    I have studied many factors thought to have influenced past climatic change. Because they might recur, they are possible suspects for future climatic alterations. Most of these factors are totally unpredictable; therefore, they cast a shadow on the validity of derived climatic predictions. Changes in atmospheric conditions and in continental surfaces, variations in solar radiation, and in the earth's orbit around the sun are among the influential mechanisms investigated. Even when models are set up that include the above parameters, their reliability will depend on unpredictable variables totally alien to the model (like volcanic eruptions). Based on climatic records, however, maximum precipitation amounts have been calculated for different probability levels. These seem to correspond well to past precipitation occurrences, derived from tree ring indices. The link between tree ring indices and local climate has been established through regression analysis.

  11. Characteristics of Interconnected Delta-Hydride Precipitates in Zr

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    L.J. Carroll; M.R. Tonks; T.M. Lillo; B.S. Fromm; DC Haggard; T.C. Morris; W.D. Swank; T.L. Trowbridge; M.C. Carroll

    2014-09-01

    Characterization of extended delta-ZrH1.66 structures in unalloyed zirconium by electron backscatter diffraction analysis confirms that they consist of many interconnected precipitates of multiple, but distinctly related, orientations. The expected orientation relationship of (0001)a-Zr//(111)delta-ZrH1.66 is confirmed between the hydride and one of the surrounding a-Zr matrix grains. The delta-ZrH1.66 precipitates do not extend in a discrete crystalline orientation, but are regularly divided by 60° type {111} twins in which adjacent delta-ZrH1.66 grains share a {111} plane. The observed matching of the close-packed FCC planes of impinging or twinned hydrides within an interconnected structure enables the minimization of the overall interfacial energy through successive nucleation and growth events and twinning.

  12. Assessment of operating parameter variation on electrostatic precipitator performance 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gunn, Roam Anthony

    1974-01-01

    , and the treatment and disposal of collected materials such as flyash from coal-fired power generating plants. ~Ca ital ~Char es. Capital charges general'ly include the costs incurred from property taxes, insurance premiums on plant facilities and other.... Summary of field results of SO flyash conditioning. 5. Sulfur conditioning of flyash 6. Sodium conditioning of flyash 7. Gallatin steam plant economic data 8. Precipitator related costs, 1960 to 1969 26 27 29 35 36 9. Overall costs...

  13. Investigating Water 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Howard Jr., Ronald A.

    2002-01-02

    This 3-ring binder contains teaching plans for 12 lessons on topics such as "Water in Our Daily Lives," "The Water Cycle," "Amazing Aquifers," "Water and Soil," "Aquatic Ecosystems," and "Water Wise Use." Accompanying each lesson plan are activity...

  14. Uranium Speciation As a Function of Depth in Contaminated Hanford...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    PLUMES; PONDS; SEDIMENTS; SILICATE MINERALS; SODIUM; SPECTRA; SPECTROSCOPY; SURFACE COATING; URANIUM; URANIUM MINERALS; WASTES; WATER TABLES Word Cloud More Like This Full Text...

  15. ARBUSCULAR MYCORRHIZAL COLONIZATION OF LARREA TRIDENTATA AND AMBROSIA DUMOSA ROOTS VARIES WITH PRECIPITATION AND SEASON IN THE MOJAVE DESERT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    M. E. APPLE; C. I. THEE; V. L. SMITH-LONGOZO; C. R. COGAR; C. E. WELLS; R. S. NOWAK

    2004-01-01

    The percentage of fine roots colonized by arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi varied with season and with species in the co-dominant shrubs Lurreu tridentutu and Ambrosia dumosu at a site adjacent to the Nevada Desert FACE (Free-Air CO{sub 2} Enrichment) Facility (NDFF) in the Mojave Desert. We excavated downward and outward from the shrub bases in both species to collect and examine fine roots (< 1.0 mm diameter) at monthly intervals throughout 2001 and from October 2002 to September 2003. Fungal structures became visible in cleared roots stained with trypan blue. We quantified the percent colonization of roots by AM fungi via the line intercept method. In both years and for both species, colonization was highest in fall, relatively low in spring when root growth began, increased in late spring, and decreased during summer drought periods. Increases in colonization during summer and fall reflect corresponding increases in precipitation. Spring mycorrhizal colonization is low despite peaks in soil water availability and precipitation, indicating that precipitation is not the only factor influencing mycorrhizal colonization. Because the spring decrease in mycorrhizal colonization occurs when these shrubs initiate a major flush of fine root growth, other phenological events such as competing demands for carbon by fine root initiation, early season shoot growth, and flowering may reduce carbon availability to the fungus, and hence decrease colonization. Another possibility is that root growth exceeds the rate of mycorrhizal colonization.

  16. Transuranic/Strontium Precipitation and Filtration of Hanford Complexant Waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nash, C.A.

    2001-01-31

    A crossflow filtration campaign to remove entrained solids and precipitated solids from Hanford Tank 241-AN-102 Envelope C was completed. A 0.61 m (2-foot) long, 0.0095 m (3/8 inches) internal diameter, 0.1 micron pore size Mott crossflow filter tube was used. An Envelope C (241-AN-102) sample containing entrained solids was then successfully pretreated for removal of strontium-90 and transuranic activity. The 1.2-liter sample was caustic adjusted, strontium and permanganate precipitated, and crossflow filtered in a bench scale demonstration. Filtration fluxes for the precipitate ranged from 2.93 to 8.80 m{sup 3}/(m{sup 2}day) [0.05 to 0.15 gpm/ft{sup 2}]. Transmembrane pressures were in the range of 2.06 to 4.83 bar [30 to 70 psid] and crossflow velocities were in the range of 2.8 to 4.6 m/s [9 to 15 ft/s]. The filtrate product was decontaminated for strontium by a factor of 30 (1.7 uCi/ml at 5.8 M sodium). This work provides important confirmation of the new process to achieve both acceptable filterability and decontamination for Envelope C wastes to be treated by the Hanford River Protection Project (RPP).

  17. A TEST OF THE PRECIPITATION AMOUNT AND INTENSITY MEASUREMENTS WITH THE OTT PLUVIO

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wauben, Wiel

    A TEST OF THE PRECIPITATION AMOUNT AND INTENSITY MEASUREMENTS WITH THE OTT PLUVIO Wiel M.F. Wauben precipitation sensor of Ott has been tested at KNMI in order to find out whether it is a suitable candidate for replacing the current operational KNMI precipitation gauge. Tests performed at the calibration facilities

  18. Frequency Modes of Monsoon Precipitation in Arizona and New Mexico ANNE W. NOLIN

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kurapov, Alexander

    Frequency Modes of Monsoon Precipitation in Arizona and New Mexico ANNE W. NOLIN Department proportion of the annual precipitation for Arizona and New Mexico arrives during the summer monsoon. Forty-one years of daily monsoon season precipitation data for Arizona and New Mexico were studied using wavelet

  19. New insights to cloud seeding for enhancing precipitation and for hail suppression Daniel Rosenfeld

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Daniel, Rosenfeld

    New insights to cloud seeding for enhancing precipitation and for hail suppression Daniel Rosenfeld microphysical observations of the impacts of aerosols on cloud microstructure and precipitation forming- forming processes to the role of aerosols in the rate of conversion of cloud droplets into precipitation

  20. Precipitation of interstitial iron in multicrystalline silicon AnYao Liu1, a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Precipitation of interstitial iron in multicrystalline silicon AnYao Liu1, a and Daniel Macdonald1, multicrystalline silicon, precipitation, supersaturation, spatial distribution Abstract The internal gettering of iron in silicon via iron precipitation at low processing temperatures is known to improve solar cell

  1. Precipitation of iron in multicrystalline silicon during annealing A. Y. Liu and Daniel Macdonald

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Precipitation of iron in multicrystalline silicon during annealing A. Y. Liu and Daniel Macdonald.203.43.22 On: Tue, 18 Mar 2014 02:19:30 #12;Precipitation of iron in multicrystalline silicon during annealing 2014) In this paper, the precipitation kinetics of iron in multicrystalline silicon during moderate

  2. Precipitation patterns with polygonal boundaries between electrolytes Changwei Pan,a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Epstein, Irving R.

    Precipitation patterns with polygonal boundaries between electrolytes Changwei Pan,a Qingyu Gao to dislocations, but instead yield concentric precipitation rings. A simple model of nucleation growth enables us in a banded deposition of precipitation. This phenomenon has attracted the attention of scientists in many

  3. Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles synthesis from tailings by ultrasonic chemical co-precipitation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Volinsky, Alex A.

    Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles synthesis from tailings by ultrasonic chemical co-precipitation Shen online xxxx Keywords: Fe3O4 nanoparticles Ultrasonic-assisted chemical co-precipitation Surfaces Magnetic-assisted chemical co- precipitation utilizing high purity iron separated from iron ore tailings by acidic leaching

  4. Precipitation and mechanical properties of supersaturated Al-Zn-Mg alloys processed by severe plastic deformation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gubicza, Jenő

    Precipitation and mechanical properties of supersaturated Al-Zn-Mg alloys processed by severe density, precipitation. Abstract. Supersaturated Al-4.8Zn-1.2Mg-0.14Zr and Al-5.7Zn-1.9Mg-0.35Cu (wt distribution and the characteristic parameters of the dislocation structure of both Al matrix and precipitates

  5. Comparison of Various Precipitation Downscaling Methods for the Simulation of Streamflow in a Rainshadow River Basin*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Salathé Jr., Eric P.

    Comparison of Various Precipitation Downscaling Methods for the Simulation of Streamflow simulations of precipitation from climate models lack sufficient resolution and contain large biases that make, the effectiveness of several methods to downscale large-scale precipitation is examined. To facilitate comparisons

  6. New Observations of Precipitation Initiation in Warm Cumulus Clouds JENNIFER D. SMALL AND PATRICK Y. CHUANG

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chuang, Patrick Y.

    New Observations of Precipitation Initiation in Warm Cumulus Clouds JENNIFER D. SMALL AND PATRICK Y) to initiate precipitation (termed collision­coalescence initiators or CCIs) are found preferentially at cloud locally enhances collision­coalescence rates. 1. Introduction The initiation of precipitation in warm

  7. CRYSTAL PRECIPITATION AND DISSOLUTION IN A THIN STRIP T.L. VAN NOORDEN

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eindhoven, Technische Universiteit

    CRYSTAL PRECIPITATION AND DISSOLUTION IN A THIN STRIP T.L. VAN NOORDEN Abstract. A two-dimensional micro-scale model for crystal dissolution and precipitation in a porous medium is presented. The local dissolution and precipitation in a porous medium. The microscopic model that serves as the starting point

  8. Towards understanding dominant processes in complex dynamical systems: Case of precipitation extremes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Obradovic, Zoran

    Towards understanding dominant processes in complex dynamical systems: Case of precipitation.obradovic@temple.edu ABSTRACT Complex dynamical systems like precipitation extremes under climate variability or change to characterize the effect of dominant processes on precipitation extremes, annually and seasonally, and from

  9. Regional summer precipitation events in Asia and their changes in the past decades

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Qian, Weihong

    Regional summer precipitation events in Asia and their changes in the past decades Cai Yao,1 Song; accepted 11 June 2008; published 4 September 2008. [1] A recently derived data set of daily precipitation is used to study the summer precipitation events over Asia and their changes in the decades of 1978

  10. PHANTOM PRECIPITATION AND OTHER PROBLEMS IN TRMM Matthew Miller and Sandra Yuter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yuter, Sandra

    PHANTOM PRECIPITATION AND OTHER PROBLEMS IN TRMM PRODUCTS Matthew Miller and Sandra Yuter North) satellite carries two instruments to measure precipitation: the TRMM Microwave Imager (TMI) and the Precipitation Radar (PR). Examination of instantaneous orbit data from TMI and PR reveals several problems

  11. Coarsening of precipitation patterns in a moving reaction-diffusion front A. Volford,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rácz, Zoltán

    Coarsening of precipitation patterns in a moving reaction-diffusion front A. Volford,1 I. Lagzi,2 November 2009 Precipitation patterns emerging in a two-dimensional moving front are investigated on the example of NaOH diffusing into a gel containing AlCl3. The time evolution of the precipitate Al OH 3 can

  12. Disentangling the Multiple Sources of Large-Scale Variability in Australian Wintertime Precipitation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sherwood, Steven

    Precipitation PENELOPE MAHER AND STEVEN C. SHERWOOD Climate Change Research Centre and ARC Centre of Excellence received 25 October 2013, in final form 4 March 2014) ABSTRACT Precipitation is influenced by multiple large-scale natural processes. Many of these large-scale precipitation ``drivers'' are not independent

  13. Macroweather precipitation variability up to global and1 centennial scales2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lovejoy, Shaun

    1 Macroweather precipitation variability up to global and1 centennial scales2 3 M. I. P. de Lima1 Lima (iplima@uc.pt )10 11 12 #12;2 Abstract13 14 The study of precipitation has revealed the existence. In the macroweather regime,18 atmospheric fields including precipitation have unique scaling properties characterized

  14. SPATIAL PRECIPITATION TRENDS AND EFFECTS OF CLIMATE CHANGE ON THE HAWAI'IAN HUALALAI AQUIFER

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anderson, Charles W.

    THESIS SPATIAL PRECIPITATION TRENDS AND EFFECTS OF CLIMATE CHANGE ON THE HAWAI'IAN HUALALAI AQUIFER;Copyright by Alyssa Danielle Hendricks 2015 All Rights Reserved #12;ii ABSTRACT SPATIAL PRECIPITATION TRENDS and understood spatially and temporally at a multitude of scales, trends in precipitation are less understood

  15. Metal precipitation at grain boundaries in silicon: Dependence on grain boundary character and dislocation decoration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Metal precipitation at grain boundaries in silicon: Dependence on grain boundary character are combined to determine the dependence of metal silicide precipitate formation on grain boundary character and microstructure in multicrystalline silicon mc-Si . Metal silicide precipitate decoration is observed to increase

  16. Holocene precipitation seasonality captured by a dual hydrogen and oxygen isotope approach at Steel Lake, Minnesota

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hu, Feng Sheng

    Holocene precipitation seasonality captured by a dual hydrogen and oxygen isotope approach at SteelMenocal Keywords: seasonal precipitation middle Holocene oxygen isotopes hydrogen isotopes forest­prairie boundary midcontinental North America. However, neither the climatic driver nor the seasonal character of precipitation

  17. 3 Carbide Precipitation Carbides are largely responsible for the commercial failure of many of the early

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cambridge, University of

    3 Carbide Precipitation Carbides are largely responsible for the commercial failure of many are discussed in Chapter 10; the purpose here is to deal with the nature and extent of carbide precipitation the carbides precipitate from austenite which is enriched in carbon; upper bainitic ferrite itself is free from

  18. Hydride precipitation kinetics in Zircaloy-4 studied using synchrotron X-ray diffraction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Motta, Arthur T.

    Hydride precipitation kinetics in Zircaloy-4 studied using synchrotron X-ray diffraction Olivier F fuel cladding and precipitate as brittle hydride particles, which may reduce cladding ductility. Dissolved hydrogen responds to temperature gradients, resulting in transport and precipitation into cold

  19. Propagating Precipitation Waves: Experiments and Modeling Mark R. Tinsley,* Darrell Collison, and Kenneth Showalter*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Showalter, Kenneth

    Propagating Precipitation Waves: Experiments and Modeling Mark R. Tinsley,* Darrell Collison Virginia 26506-6045, United States ABSTRACT: Traveling precipitation waves, including counterrotating spiral waves, are observed in the precipitation reaction of AlCl3 with NaOH [Volford, A.; et al. Langmuir

  20. Towards Long-lead Forecasting of Extreme Flood Events: A Data Mining Framework for Precipitation Cluster

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ding, Wei

    Towards Long-lead Forecasting of Extreme Flood Events: A Data Mining Framework for Precipitation of precipitation events occurring over from several days to several weeks. Though precise short- term forecasting of precipitation clusters can be attempted by identifying persistent atmospheric regimes that are conducive

  1. A nonparametric wet/dry spell model for resampling daily precipitation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tarboton, David

    A nonparametric wet/dry spell model for resampling daily precipitation Upmanu Lall Department precipitation at a site. The model considers alternating sequences of wet and dry days in a given season, wet spell length, precipitation amount, and wet spell length given prior to dry spell length

  2. A probabilistic approach to the prediction of area weather events, applied to precipitation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schmidt, Volker

    A probabilistic approach to the prediction of area weather events, applied to precipitation Bjoern in the context of estimating the probability of the meteorological event `occurrence of precipitation'. We treat roughly be interpreted as precipitation cells. The germ-grain model is completely characterized

  3. Precipitation Characteristics of the South American Monsoon System Derived from Multiple Datasets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bookhagen, Bodo

    Precipitation Characteristics of the South American Monsoon System Derived from Multiple Datasets and is characterized by pronounced seasonality in precipitation during the austral summer. This study compares several statistical properties of daily gridded precipitation from different data (1998­2008): 1) Physical Sci- ences

  4. Contrasting trait responses in plant communities to experimental and geographic variation in precipitation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kraft, Nathan

    in precipitation Brody Sandel1,2 , Leah J. Goldstein3 , Nathan J.B. Kraft1,4 , Jordan G. Okie5 , Michal I. Shuldman: climate change, experiments, functional ecology, plant communities, plant functional traits, precipitation. Summary · Patterns of precipitation are likely to change significantly in the coming century

  5. Helicoidal precipitation patterns in silica and agarose gels Shibi Thomas a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rácz, Zoltán

    Helicoidal precipitation patterns in silica and agarose gels Shibi Thomas a , George Varghese b patterns grown in agarose and silica gels were studied using reaction­diffusion­precipitation processes a complex interplay among the unstable precipitation modes, the motion of the reaction front, and the noise

  6. Coupling Between Precipitation and Contact-Line Dynamics: Multiring Stains and Stick-Slip Motion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chang, Hsueh-Chia

    Coupling Between Precipitation and Contact-Line Dynamics: Multiring Stains and Stick-Slip Motion after depinning and is repinned at an internal precipitate ring that determines the location of the next and precipitation dynamics hence control this unsteady drop motion. DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.100.044503 PACS numbers

  7. Precipitation microstructure of ultrafine-grained Al-Zn-Mg alloys processed by severe plastic deformation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gubicza, Jenő

    Precipitation microstructure of ultrafine-grained Al-Zn-Mg alloys processed by severe plastic analysis, supersaturated AlZnMg alloys, dislocation density, precipitation. Abstract. Supersaturated Al-4 of the dislocation structure of both Al matrix and precipitates were determined by X-ray diffraction line profile

  8. Running Head: Correlation of Microbial Communities with Caclium Carbonate1 (Travertine) Mineral Precipitation2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goldenfeld, Nigel

    Precipitation2 3 4 Correlation of Microbial Communities with Calcium Carbonate (Travertine)5 Mineral Precipitation at Mammoth Hot Springs, Yellowstone National Park, USA6 George T. Bonheyo1, 3 , Jorge Frias-Lopez1 of changing environmental conditions and associated calcium carbonate mineral18 precipitation along the spring

  9. CRYSTAL PRECIPITATION AND DISSOLUTION IN A POROUS MEDIUM: EFFECTIVE EQUATIONS AND NUMERICAL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eindhoven, Technische Universiteit

    CRYSTAL PRECIPITATION AND DISSOLUTION IN A POROUS MEDIUM: EFFECTIVE EQUATIONS AND NUMERICAL expansions to derive a macroscopic law for crystal dissolution and precipitation in a porous medium and precipitation, are of practical importance in many physical, biological and chemical applications. Macroscopic

  10. Energetic electron precipitation and the NO abundance in the upper atmosphere: A direct

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Řstgaard, Nikolai

    Energetic electron precipitation and the NO abundance in the upper atmosphere: A direct comparison precipitating energetic electrons. The comparisons are done for the beginning of a geomagnetic storm event on 2 of the NO g-band. Since a significant part of the electron precipitation takes place during the night

  11. Changes in upper mesospheric and lower thermospheric temperatures caused by energetic particle precipitation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bergen, Universitetet i

    precipitation H. Nesse Tyssřy,1,2 J. Stadsnes,2 M. Sřrbř,2 C. J. Mertens,3 and D. S. Evans4 Received 10 March precipitation is performed on the basis of data from the Thermosphere Ionosphere Mesosphere Energetics precipitation can be obtained close in time to the SABER (Sounding of the Atmosphere using Broadband Emission

  12. Spatio-temporal precipitation modeling based on time-varying regressions Oleg Makhnin

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Borchers, Brian

    Spatio-temporal precipitation modeling based on time-varying regressions Oleg Makhnin Department on monthly precipitation data from gauge measurements. The model accounts for orographic effects in northern New Mexico. We assess spatio-temporal variability and also trace the dependence of precipitation

  13. Evidence of enhanced precipitation due to irrigation over the Great Plains of the United States

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Robock, Alan

    Evidence of enhanced precipitation due to irrigation over the Great Plains of the United States of the local hydrological cycle has enhanced the regional precipitation. We examined station and gridded precipitation observations for the warm season months over and downwind of the Ogallala over the 20th century

  14. Transition metal co-precipitation mechanisms in silicon T. Buonassisi a,*, M. Heuer a,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Transition metal co-precipitation mechanisms in silicon T. Buonassisi a,*, M. Heuer a,1 , A Available online 18 September 2007 Abstract Formation mechanisms of precipitates containing multiple by synchrotron-based X-ray microprobe techniques. Precipitates formed at low (655 °C) and high (1200 °C

  15. GLOBAL SCALE ELECTRON PRECIPITATION DURING SUBSTORM EXPANSIONS N. stgaard, J. Stadsnes, J. Bjordal, E. Thorsen

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Řstgaard, Nikolai

    GLOBAL SCALE ELECTRON PRECIPITATION DURING SUBSTORM EXPANSIONS N. Řstgaard, J. Stadsnes, J. Bjordal of the patterns of electron precipitation through imaging of the atmospheric X-ray bremsstrahlung and the auroral energy (multi-keV) electron precipitation. During the substorm expansion phase, clear time delays occur

  16. Precipitation sensitivity to autoconversion rate in a Numerical Weather Prediction model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marsham, John

    1 Precipitation sensitivity to autoconversion rate in a Numerical Weather Prediction model Céline;2 Summary Aerosols are known to significantly affect cloud and precipitation patterns and intensity. The impact of changing cloud droplet number concentration (CDNC), on cloud and precipitation evolution can

  17. Casein precipitation equilibria in the presence of calcium ions and phosphates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Velev, Orlin D.

    Casein precipitation equilibria in the presence of calcium ions and phosphates C. Guo a , B induced aggregation and precipitation equilibria of b-casein were studied in the presence or absence. The precipitation curves are in good agreement with the model, showing the expected larger induction region

  18. Copper Precipitation Hardened, High Strength, Weldable Steel by Semyon Vaynman 1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Copper Precipitation Hardened, High Strength, Weldable Steel by Semyon Vaynman 1 , Morris E. Fine 1 strength was achieved by copper precipitation hardening. The steel was designed to be air cooled from hot through precipitation hardening. Ni was added to prevent hot- shortness during hot rolling. Nb and Ti were

  19. COMMUNICATIONS Precipitation of -SiC in Si1 yCy alloys

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kolodzey, James

    COMMUNICATIONS Precipitation of -SiC in Si1 yCy alloys C. Guedj,a) M. W. Dashiell, L. Kulik in intensity while another mode due to incoherent silicon carbide precipitates appeared at 810 cm 1 . For lower is a precursor to SiC precipitation. Theoretical calculations based on the anharmonic Keating model predict

  20. Localized precipitation and runoff on Mars Edwin S. Kite,1,2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Localized precipitation and runoff on Mars Edwin S. Kite,1,2 Timothy I. Michaels,3 Scot Rafkin,3) to simulate lake storms on Mars, finding that intense localized precipitation will occur for lake size 103 km2 on Mars involve continuous precipitation, and their vertical velocities and plume heights exceed those

  1. Precipitation Response to the Gulf Stream in an Atmospheric GCM* AKIRA KUWANO-YOSHIDA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xie, Shang-Ping

    Precipitation Response to the Gulf Stream in an Atmospheric GCM* AKIRA KUWANO-YOSHIDA Earth The precipitation response to sea surface temperature (SST) gradients associated with the Gulf Stream a narrow band of precipitation, surface convergence, and evaporation that closely follows the Gulf Stream

  2. Electron precipitation from EMIC waves: a case study from 31 May1 Mark A. Clilverd1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Otago, University of

    Electron precipitation from EMIC waves: a case study from 31 May1 20132 3 Mark A. Clilverd1-incident electron precipitation by a20 network of ground-based Antarctic Arctic Radiation-belt Dynamic Deposition POES detected 30-80 keV proton24 precipitation drifting westwards at locations that were consistent

  3. PII S0016-7037(99)00084-8 Dissolved sulfide distributions in the water column and sediment pore waters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    van Geen, Alexander

    increasing with sediment depth to 400 M at 10 cm. Decreases in water-column nitrate below the sill depth indicate nitrate consumption ( 55 to 137 mole m 2 h 1 ) similar to nearby Santa Monica Basin. Peaks in pore and Huested, 1991; Rosenthal et al., 1995; Helz et al., 1996; Piper and Isaacs, 1996). Cadmium and molybdenum

  4. 30.-DEEP-WATER OYSTER CULTURE. BP HENRY C. ROWE.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    30.-DEEP-WATER OYSTER CULTURE. BP HENRY C. ROWE. It is conceded,I think, that the oyster-growersof Ckmnecticut have taken the lead in the artificial propagation and cultivation of oysters in deep water; by deep water I mean a depth of from 30 to 75 feet. It is but twenty years since the commencement

  5. HAS 222d Introduction to Energy and Environment: Life Under the Pale Sun Water as Commons 28.v.09

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    HAS 222d Introduction to Energy and Environment: Life Under the Pale Sun Water as Commons 28.v.09 developed and yet uses only 969 liters water daily per person. For 6.7B people, this much water is 6700 km3/year. ­ global water cycle ~ evaporation and precipitation =0.5x106 = 0.5M km3/yr ~ 16 Sverdrups

  6. EUROBRISA products documentation This page (http://eurobrisa.cptec.inpe.br/) presents 1-month lead South America precipitation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    South America precipitation forecasts and verification products for three month seasons. For example surface temperatures as predictor variables for precipitation over South America. For example, the observed sea surface temperature in the previous December is used as predictor for precipitation

  7. Asian summer monsoon precipitation recorded by stalagmite oxygen isotopic composition in the western Loess Plateau during AD1875-2003 and its linkage with ocean-atmosphere system

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2008-01-01

    Indian Ocean monsoon precipitation from a spe- temperature165 ? 178[doi] sent-day precipitation: data and modeling. Jtopic composition of precipitation in Chian. Geochimica ( in

  8. ENVIR 202B: Earth, Air, Water: the Human Context Winter 2003 Essay #3, WATER

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ENVIR 202B: Earth, Air, Water: the Human Context Winter 2003 Essay #3, WATER Draft version due://www.pmel.noaa.gov/tsunami-hazard/) . Use examples from Indonesia and Hawaii to explore how the shape of the depth profile affects and the ecosystem. W5 - GROUNDWATER FLOW ­ AQUIFERS AND POLLUTION Chapter 5 of McNeill discusses "The history

  9. Quartz cementation inhibited by crestal oil charge: Miller deep water sandstone,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haszeldine, Stuart

    Quartz cementation inhibited by crestal oil charge: Miller deep water sandstone, UK North Sea A. M cement continued to precipitate in the water zone of the reservoir up to the present day. KEYWORDS: quartz cementation, Miller deep water sandstone, North Sea, diagenetic quartz. The Miller Field

  10. 1. The 600 pound pumpkin had 99% water. This implies that it had 594 pounds of water. Let x be the weight of the pumpkin after it loses water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    MacDonald, John

    1. The 600 pound pumpkin had 99% water. This implies that it had 594 pounds of water. Let x be the weight of the pumpkin after it loses water and has 98.5% percent water. Then, we have that 1.5% of x = 6 surface in Beti's cup and hb be the depth after half of Alphonse's cup's contents have been transferred

  11. Trimodal steady water waves

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mats Ehrnström; Erik Wahlén

    2013-10-31

    We construct three-dimensional families of small-amplitude gravity-driven rotational steady water waves on finite depth. The solutions contain counter-currents and multiple crests in each minimal period. Each such wave generically is a combination of three different Fourier modes, giving rise to a rich and complex variety of wave patterns. The bifurcation argument is based on a blow-up technique, taking advantage of three parameters associated with the vorticity distribution, the strength of the background stream, and the period of the wave.

  12. Average Depth of Crude Oil and Natural Gas Wells

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming Dry Natural Gas ReservesAlabamaAboutTotal Energy GlossaryDepth of Crude

  13. Irradiation-induced nano-voids in strained tin precipitates in silicon

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gaiduk, P. I., E-mail: gaiduk@phys.au.dk [Department of Physics and Astronomy/iNANO, Aarhus University, Gustav Wieds Vej 14, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark); Department of Physical Electronics and Nanotechnology, Belarusian State University, prosp. Nezavisimosti, 4, 220030 Minsk (Belarus); Lundsgaard Hansen, J., E-mail: johnlh@phys.au.dk; Nylandsted Larsen, A., E-mail: anl@phys.au.dk [Department of Physics and Astronomy/iNANO, Aarhus University, Gustav Wieds Vej 14, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark)

    2014-04-14

    We report on self-assembling of spherically shaped voids in nanometer size strained Sn precipitates after irradiation with He{sup +} ions in different conditions. It is found that high-temperature irradiation induces vacancies which are collected by compressively strained Sn precipitates enhancing of out-diffusion of Sn atoms from the precipitates. Nano-voids formation takes place simultaneously with a ?- to ?-phase transformation in the Sn precipitates. Post-irradiation thermal treatment leads to the removal of voids and a backward transformation of the Sn phase to ?-phase. Strain-enhanced separation of point defects along with vacancy assisted Sn out-diffusion and precipitate dissolution are discussed.

  14. Precipitation of sigma and chi phases in ?-ferrite of Type 316FR weld metals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chun, Eun Joon; Baba, Hayato; Nishimoto, Kazutoshi; Saida, Kazuyoshi

    2013-12-15

    The decomposition behavior and kinetics of ?-ferrite are examined using aging treatments between 873 and 1073 K for Type 316FR stainless steel weld metals with different solidification modes (316FR AF, 316FR FA). The dominant precipitates are sigma, chi, and secondary austenite nucleated at ?-ferrite/austenite interfaces or in the interior of the ferrite grains. These precipitates consume all the ferrite during isothermal aging in both 316FR AF and FA weld metals. Differences in the precipitation behavior (precipitation initiation time and precipitation speed) between weld metals can be explained by i) the degree of Cr and Mo microsegregation within ?-ferrite or austenite near ferrite and ii) the nucleation sites induced due to the solidification mode (AF or FA), such as the ferrite amount. For both weld materials, a Johnson–Mehl-type equation can express the precipitation behavior of the sigma + chi phases and quantitatively predict the behavior at the service-exposure temperatures of a fast breed reactor. - Highlights: • Precipitation of ? and ? phase in Type 316FR welds (two solidification modes) • Different precipitation behaviors: precipitation initiation time and growth speed • Johnson-Mehl–type equation is the most applicable to the precipitation behaviors • Precipitation behaviors are predicted under service conditions of FBRs.

  15. DOE/SC-ARM/TR-122 G-Band Vapor Radiometer Precipitable Water

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration would like submit theCovalent Bonding Low-Cost2 DOE HQSiteo n n e v i2 ARM Climate16233752502

  16. Assessing surface water consumption using remotely-sensed groundwater, evapotranspiration, and precipitation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anderson, Ray G; Lo, Min-Hui; Famiglietti, James S

    2012-01-01

    Sac refer to San Joaquin/Tulare Lake and Sacramento basins,and the normally closed Tulare Lake basin. The Valley’smento and San Joaquin/Tulare Lake portions of the Valley (

  17. High Recovery Desalination of Brackish Water by Chemically-Enhanced Seeded Precipitation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCool, Brian Carey

    2012-01-01

    distillation for seawater desalination and waste waterof a seawater reverse osmosis plant. Desalination, 2005.seawater RO systems -- process design and economics. Desalination,

  18. High Recovery Desalination of Brackish Water by Chemically-Enhanced Seeded Precipitation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCool, Brian Carey

    2012-01-01

    continuous production of concentrate generated by RO desalination. The major components of a proposed continuous CESP process

  19. Synoptic disturbances found in precipitable water fields north of equatorial Africa 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Patla, Jason Eddy

    1998-01-01

    by Mackey (1996), determined the location and season for the strongest and most coherent 3 to 8 day filtered PW signal. NCEP/NCAR reanalysis (2.50 resolution) provides data for a use study analysis of seven prominent anomalous PW events during the period...

  20. Nanoparticles with photoinduced precipitation for the extraction of pollutants from water and soil

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brandl, Ferdinand

    Nanotechnology may offer fast and effective solutions for environmental clean-up. Herein, amphiphilic diblock copolymers are used to develop a platform of photosensitive core-shell nanoparticles. Irradiation with ultraviolet ...

  1. High Recovery Desalination of Brackish Water by Chemically-Enhanced Seeded Precipitation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCool, Brian Carey

    2012-01-01

    crystallization, process optimization and RO plant control,”crystallization, process optimization and RO plant control,”crystallization, process optimization and RO plant control,

  2. High Recovery Desalination of Brackish Water by Chemically-Enhanced Seeded Precipitation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCool, Brian Carey

    2012-01-01

    a 0.2-µm pleated MF cartridges (Filter Klear 08PT Series,mode. 1. Place the 5 µm MF cartridge in the filter housingall tubing. Place the MF cartridge effluent tube so that it

  3. Assessing surface water consumption using remotely-sensed groundwater, evapotranspiration, and precipitation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anderson, Ray G; Lo, Min-Hui; Famiglietti, James S

    2012-01-01

    Energy Balance ALgorithm (SEBAL) run using 250 m and 1 km observations with automatic pixel selec- tion, dynamic wind

  4. High Recovery Desalination of Brackish Water by Chemically-Enhanced Seeded Precipitation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCool, Brian Carey

    2012-01-01

    CM 3559, 3 hp, 3450 rpm, Baldor Reliance Motor, Sea RecoveryCM 3559, 3 hp, 3450 rpm, Baldor Reliance Motor, Sea Recovery

  5. GPS meteorology: An investigation of ocean-based precipitable water estimates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Businger, Steven

    PW is that reflected solar radiation from the ocean surface is required, making the measurements% globally [Li et al., 2003], therefore, an alternative method of ocean PW estimation is needed. Microwave instruments, such as the Special Sensor Microwave/Imager, Special Sensor Microwave Imager Sounder

  6. High Recovery Desalination of Brackish Water by Chemically-Enhanced Seeded Precipitation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCool, Brian Carey

    2012-01-01

    I. Softening by NaOH. Desalination, 1997. 113(1): p. 65-71.desupersaturation unit. Desalination, 1999. 124(1-3): p. 51-softening (CAPS). Desalination, 2001. 139(1-3): p. 155-159.

  7. Modeled interactive effects of precipitation, temperature, and [CO2] on ecosystem carbon and water dynamics in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dukes, Jeffrey

    , Fort Collins, CO 80523, USA, }Biosystems Department, Ris National Laboratory for Sustainable Energy, Technical University of Denmark, Building BIO-309, Frederiksborgvej 399, 4000 Roskilde, Denmark, k), and elevated [CO2] (C) on net primary production (NPP), heterotrophic respiration (Rh), net ecosystem

  8. Water Heaters and Hot Water Distribution Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lutz, Jim

    2012-01-01

    LBNL collected water and waste water tariffs in Californiastate. Current water and waste water tariffs for these areaswas based on water and waste water tariffs in California

  9. Campbell penetration depth in Fe-based superconductors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Prommapan, Plegchart

    2011-08-15

    A 'true' critical current density, j{sub c}, as opposite to commonly measured relaxed persistent (Bean) current, j{sub B}, was extracted from the Campbell penetration depth, {lambda}{sub c}(T,H) measured in single crystals of LiFeAs, and optimally electron-doped Ba(Fe{sub 0.954}Ni{sub 0.046}){sub 2}As{sub 2} (FeNi122). In LiFeAs, the effective pinning potential is nonparabolic, which follows from the magnetic field - dependent Labusch parameter {alpha}. At the equilibrium (upon field - cooling), {alpha}(H) is non-monotonic, but it is monotonic at a finite gradient of the vortex density. This behavior leads to a faster magnetic relaxation at the lower fields and provides a natural dynamic explanation for the fishtail (second peak) effect. We also find the evidence for strong pinning at the lower fields.The inferred field dependence of the pinning potential is consistent with the evolution from strong pinning, through collective pinning, and eventually to a disordered vortex lattice. The value of j{sub c}(2 K) {approx_equal} 1.22 x 10{sup 6} A/cm{sup 2} provide an upper estimate of the current carrying capability of LiFeAs. Overall, vortex behavior of almost isotropic, fully-gapped LiFeAs is very similar to highly anisotropic d-wave cuprate superconductors, the similarity that requires further studies in order to understand unconventional superconductivity in cuprates and pnictides. In addition to LiFeAs, we also report the magnetic penetration depth in BaFe{sub 2}As{sub 2} based superconductors including irradiation of FeNi122. In unirradiated FeNi122, the maximum critical current value is, j{sub c}(2K) {approx_equal} 3.3 x 10{sup 6} A/cm{sup 2}. The magnetic-dependent feature was observed near the transition temperature in FeTe{sub 0.53}Se{sub 0.47} and irradiated FeNi122. Because of this feature, further studies are required in order to properly calibrate the Campbell penetration depth. Finally, we detected the crossing between the magnetic penetration depth and London penetration depth in optimally hold-doped Ba{sub 0.6}K{sub 0.4}Fe{sub 2}As{sub 2} (BaK122) and isovalent doped BaFe{sub 2}(As{sub 0.7}P{sub 0.3}){sub 2} (BaP122). These phenomena probably coincide with anomalous Meissner effect reported in pnicitde superconductors [Prozorov et al. (2010b)] however more studies are needed in order to clarify this.

  10. Simplified Method for Estimating Future Scour Depth at Existing Bridges 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    V Govindasamy, Anand

    2010-07-14

    Bridge scour is the term which describes the erosion of soil surrounding a bridge foundation due to water. Bridge scour can cause the reduction of the load carrying capacity of bridge foundations, excessive foundation ...

  11. Understanding Fault Characteristics And Sediment Depth For Geothermal...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    of primarily E-W directed extension along N-NNW striking normal faults. Water well drilling on the eastern slopes of the Wassuk Range, west of the city of Hawthorne, Nevada...

  12. Method and apparatus for welding precipitation hardenable materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Murray, Jr., Holt (Hopewell, NJ); Harris, Ian D. (Dublin, OH); Ratka, John O. (Cleveland Heights, OH); Spiegelberg, William D. (Parma, OH)

    1994-01-01

    A method for welding together members consisting of precipitation age hardened materials includes the steps of selecting a weld filler material that has substantially the same composition as the materials being joined, and an age hardening characteristic temperature age threshold below that of the aging kinetic temperature range of the materials being joined, whereby after welding the members together, the resulting weld and heat affected zone (HAZ) are heat treated at a temperature below that of the kinetic temperature range of the materials joined, for obtaining substantially the same mechanical characteristics for the weld and HAZ, as for the parent material of the members joined.

  13. Method and apparatus for welding precipitation hardenable materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Murray, H. Jr.; Harris, I.D.; Ratka, J.O.; Spiegelberg, W.D.

    1994-06-28

    A method for welding together members consisting of precipitation age hardened materials includes the steps of selecting a weld filler material that has substantially the same composition as the materials being joined, and an age hardening characteristic temperature age threshold below that of the aging kinetic temperature range of the materials being joined, whereby after welding the members together, the resulting weld and heat affected zone (HAZ) are heat treated at a temperature below that of the kinetic temperature range of the materials joined, for obtaining substantially the same mechanical characteristics for the weld and HAZ, as for the parent material of the members joined. 5 figures.

  14. Activation studies with promoted precipitated iron Fischer-Tropsch catalysts 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Manne, Rama Krishna

    1991-01-01

    . 11&/258iOs) in fixed-bed reactors to complete the study initiated in this laboratory. Different reduction procedures ivere folloived in each test, namely Hs reduction at 2SO'C with a linear velocity of 150 cm/s and syngas (Hs/CO = 2:1) reduction... for Hs reduction compared to syngas reduction. Four tests ivere done in fixed-bed reactors ivith a promoted precipitated iron catalvst (100Fe/0. 3Cu/O. SII), prepared in our laboratory. Three different activation procedures were employed. Unlike ivith...

  15. Integration of Global Positioning System and Scanning Water Vapor Radiometers for Precipitable Water Vapor and Cloud Liquid Path Estimates

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration would likeUniverseIMPACT EVALUATION PLANIs gravity aOverviewISM IntegratedIntegratingIntegration

  16. Water Intoxication

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lingampalli, Nithya

    2013-01-01

    2008, May 14). Too much water raises seizure risk in babies.id=4844 9. Schoenly, Lorry. “Water Intoxication and Inmates:article/246650- overview>. 13. Water intoxication alert. (

  17. Vertically Loaded Anchor: Drag Coefficient, Fall Velocity, and Penetration Depth using Laboratory Measurements 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cenac, William

    2011-08-08

    The offshore oilfield industry is continuously developing unique and break-through technologies and systems to extract hydrocarbons from ever increasing ocean depths. Due to the extreme depths being explored presently, large anchors are being...

  18. A Convex Hull Peeling Depth Approach to Nonparametric Massive Multivariate Data

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wolfe, Patrick J.

    A Convex Hull Peeling Depth Approach to Nonparametric Massive Multivariate Data Analysis) and Multivariate Data Analysis Definitions on CHP Data Depth (Ordering Multivariate Data) Quantiles and Density with CHP Multivariate Median Skewness and Kurtosis of a Multivariate Distribution Outlier Detection

  19. Seismic evidence for thermal runaway during intermediate-depth earthquake rupture

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barrett, Sarah A.

    Intermediate-depth earthquakes occur at depths where temperatures and pressures exceed those at which brittle failure is expected. There are two leading candidates for the physical mechanism behind these earthquakes: ...

  20. Retrievals of cloud optical depth and effective radius from Thin-Cloud Rotating Shadowband Radiometer measurements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Retrievals of cloud optical depth and effective radius from Thin-Cloud Rotating Shadowband December 2011. [1] A Thin-Cloud Rotating Shadowband Radiometer (TCRSR) was developed and deployed) through an optically thin cloud (optical depth