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Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "depth precipitable water" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


1

A statistical study of the depth of precipitable water in western Texas and eastern New Mexico  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

on the followi ig pages follow the style of the Journal of AppLied Meteomologi. . . 1. 5 MEAN PRECIPITATION MEAN PRECIPITABLE WATER N IJI I. O Z / / 0. 0 J F M A M J J A S 0 N D FIG. I. PRECIPITABLE WATER AND PRECIPITA- TION VS Tl ME OF YEA R ( EL.... 2 14 1. 6 2. 0 3. 0 4. 0 5. 0 10 20 30 40 50 100 200 500 RETURN PERIOD T (YEARS) FIG. 4. A PLOT OF DEPTH OF PRECITI TABLE WATER vs RETURN PERIOD FOR EL PASO, TEXAS. 39 where n a =? x (?) and Y n X =X-o f x o n (32) The theoretical...

Baker, Samuel Erick

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

2

Total Precipitable Water  

SciTech Connect

The simulation was performed on 64K cores of Intrepid, running at 0.25 simulated-years-per-day and taking 25 million core-hours. This is the first simulation using both the CAM5 physics and the highly scalable spectral element dynamical core. The animation of Total Precipitable Water clearly shows hurricanes developing in the Atlantic and Pacific.

None

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

3

Latent heating contribution from precipitation systems with different sizes, depths and intensities in the tropics  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Latent Heating (LH) from precipitation systems with different sizes, depths and convective intensities are quantified with 15 years of LH retrievals from Version 7 Precipitation Radar (PR) products of the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM)...

Chuntao Liu; Shoichi Shige; Yukari N. Takayabu; Edward Zipser

4

Depth and controls of Ca-rhodochrosite precipitation in bioturbated sediments of the Eastern Equatorial Pacific,  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Depth and controls of Ca-rhodochrosite precipitation in bioturbated sediments of the Eastern Road, Moss Landing, CA 95039-9647, USA ABSTRACT The occurrence of early diagenetic Ca-rhodochrosite [(Mn,Ca)CO3] is reported in association with `griotte'-type nodular limestones from basinal settings

Gilli, Adrian

5

Cloud and Aerosol Properties, Precipitable Water, and Profiles of Temperature and Water Vapor from MODIS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Cloud and Aerosol Properties, Precipitable Water, and Profiles of Temperature and Water Vapor from such as cloud mask, atmos- pheric profiles, aerosol properties, total precipitable water, and cloud properties vapor amount, aerosol particles, and the subsequently formed clouds [9]. Barnes et al. [2] provide

Sheridan, Jennifer

6

Gulf of Mexico Proved Reserves By Water Depth, 2009  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Gulf of Mexico Proved Reserves and Production by Water Depth, 2009 Gulf of Mexico Proved Reserves and Production by Water Depth, 2009 1 Gulf of Mexico Proved Reserves and Production by Water Depth The Gulf of Mexico Federal Offshore region (GOM Fed) has long been one of the Nation's principal sources of proved reserves. At the end of 2009, the GOM Fed accounted for close to one-fifth of oil proved reserves (second only to Texas) and just over four percent of natural gas proved reserves (the country's seventh largest reporting region). 1 Natural gas proved reserves from the GOM Fed have gradually diminished, both volumetrically and as a percentage of overall U.S. proved reserves. The latter is especially true in recent years as onshore additions (particularly those associated with shale gas activity) have increased considerably. Proved oil reserves from

7

Wave-current interaction in water of finite depth  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this thesis, the nonlinear interaction of waves and current in water of finite depth is studied. Wind is not included. In the first part, a 2D theory for the wave effect on a turbulent current over rough or smooth bottom ...

Huang, Zhenhua, 1967-

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

8

Halite depositional facies in a solar salt pond: A key to interpreting physical energy and water depth in ancient deposits  

SciTech Connect

Subaqueous deposits of aragonite, gypsum, and halite are accumulating in shallow solar salt ponds constructed in the Pekelmeer, a sea-level salina on Bonaire, Netherlands Antilles. Several halite facies are deposited in the crystallizer ponds in response to difference in water depth and wave energy. Cumulate halite, which originates as floating rafts, is present only along the protected, upwind margins of ponds where low-energy conditions foster their formation and preservation. Cornet crystals with peculiar mushroom- and mortarboard-shaped caps precipitate in centimetre-deep brine sheets within a couple of metres of the upwind or low-energy margins. Downwind from these margins, cornet and chevron halite precipitate on the pond floors in water depths ranging from a few centimetres to {approximately} 60 cm. Halite pisoids with radial-concentric structure are precipitated in the swash zone along downwind high-energy shorelines where they form pebbly beaches. This study suggests that primary halite facies are energy and/or depth dependent and that some primary features, if preserved in ancient halite deposits, can be used to infer physical energy conditions, subenvironments such as low- to high-energy shorelines, and extremely shallow water depths in ancient evaporite basins.

Handford, C.R. (ARCO Oil and Gas Co., Plano, TX (USA))

1990-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

9

Seismic evidence of negligible water carried below 400-km depth in subducting lithosphere  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... .1038/nature09401 Seismic evidence of negligible water carried below 400-km depth in subducting lithosphereHarry W.Green IIH W

Harry W. Green II; Wang-Ping Chen; Michael R. Brudzinski

2010-10-03T23:59:59.000Z

10

G-Band Vapor Radiometer Precipitable Water Vapor (GVRPWV) Value-Added Product  

SciTech Connect

The G-Band Vapor Radiometer Precipitable Water Vapor (GVRPWV) value-added product (VAP) computes precipitable water vapor using neural network techniques from data measured by the GVR. The GVR reports time-series measurements of brightness temperatures for four channels located at 183.3 ± 1, 3, 7, and 14 GHz.

Koontz, A; Cadeddu, M

2012-12-05T23:59:59.000Z

11

CHARACTERISATION OF AGED HDPE PIPES FROM DRINKING WATER DISTRIBUTION: INVESTIGATION OF CRACK DEPTH BY NOL RING  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

CHARACTERISATION OF AGED HDPE PIPES FROM DRINKING WATER DISTRIBUTION: INVESTIGATION OF CRACK DEPTH are used for the transport of drinking water. However, disinfectants in water seem to have a strong impact for the distribution of drinking water. HDPE pipes are exposed to an internal pressure due to water flow. Furthermore

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

12

Acid precipitation and surface-water vulnerability on the western slope of the high colorado rockies  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Precipitation and surface waters in a high-elevation watershed on the western slope of the Colorado Rockies were studied over a three-year...?1 in the former and 100 to 900 ?eq L?1 in the latter.

John Harts; Greg P. Lockett; Richard A. Schneider…

1985-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

13

Drought and Precipitation Monitoring for Enhanced Integrated Water Resources Management in the Caribbean  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Drought and Precipitation Monitoring for Enhanced Integrated Water Resources Management for water resource management in Jamaica, Grenada and Guyana. A key element to ensuring the success for Water Resources Management, McGill University, Macdonald Campus, 21111 Lakeshore Rd., Ste. Anne de

Barthelat, Francois

14

Taphonomic Trends Along a Forereef Slope: Lee Stocking Island, Bahamas. I. Location and Water Depth  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...contribution focuses on the influence of EOD and water depth. The dimension of time...locations were selected to be representative of EOD depth ranges. The location and transect...the influence of dissolution was much more EOD specific. Dissolution was highest in Codakia...

W. RUSSELL CALLENDER; GEORGE M. STAFF; KARLA M. PARSONS-HUBBARD; ERIC N. POWELL; GILBERT T. ROWE; SALLY E. WALKER; CARLTON E. BRETT; ANNE RAYMOND; DONNA D. CARLSON; SUZANNE WHITE; ELIZABETH A. HEISE

15

Shear wave seismic velocity profiling and depth to water table earthquake site  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

..................................................................................................... 6 Summary of seismic refraction/reflection methodsShear wave seismic velocity profiling and depth to water table ­ earthquake site response measurements for Valley County, Idaho Lee M. Liberty and Gabriel M. Gribler, Boise State University Center

Barrash, Warren

16

Limiting Gravity Waves in Water of Finite Depth  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Consequently the accuracy even of recent solutions on modern computers can be improved upon, except at the deep-water end of the...This term is now supplemented by a second term, proposed by Grant in a study of the flow near the crest. Solutions comprising...

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

17

Integration of Global Positioning System and Scanning Water Vapor Radiometers for Precipitable Water Vapor and Cloud Liquid Path Estimates  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Integration of Global Positioning System and Scanning Integration of Global Positioning System and Scanning Water Vapor Radiometers for Precipitable Water Vapor and Cloud Liquid Path Estimates V. Mattioli and P. Basili Department of Electronic and Information Engineering University of Perugia Perugia, Italy E. R. Westwater Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences University of Colorado National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Environmental Technology Laboratory Boulder, Colorado Introduction In recent years the Global Positioning System (GPS) has proved to be a reliable instrument for measuring precipitable water vapor (PWV) (Bevis et al. 1992), offering an independent source of information on water vapor when compared with microwave radiometers (MWRs), and/or radiosonde

18

The impact of water depth on safety and environmental performance in offshore oil and gas production  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This paper reports on an empirical analysis of company-reported incidents on oil and gas production platforms in the Gulf of Mexico between 1996 and 2010. During these years, there was a dramatic increase in the water depths at which offshore oil and gas is extracted. Controlling for platform characteristics such as age, quantity of oil and gas produced, and number of producing wells, we find that incidents (such as blowouts, injuries, and oil spills) are positively correlated with deeper water. Controlling for these and other characteristics, for an average platform, each 100 feet of added depth increases the probability of a company-reported incident by 8.5%. While further research into the causal connections between water depth and platform risks is warranted, this study highlights the potential value of increased monitoring of deeper water platforms.

Lucija Muehlenbachs; Mark A. Cohen; Todd Gerarden

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

19

Feasibility of the Application of a Spar-type Wind Turbine at a Moderate Water Depth  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The feasibility of the application of a spar-type wind turbine at a moderate water depth is studied in this paper. In the oil and gas industries, spar-type offshore platforms are widely applied in deep water. The same idea is used in offshore wind technology to present the Hywind concept based on a catenary moored spar in deep water. The draft of the spar limits the application of spar-type wind turbines in shallow water. However, it is possible to design spar-type wind turbines for moderate water depths. The present article studies the feasibility and performance of such a design. A spar-type wind turbine at a moderate water depth called “ShortSpar” is introduced in the present article. A catenary moored spar-type support structure is applied as a base for the 5-MW NREL land-based turbine. The power performance, structural integrity and dynamic responses of a 5-MW catenary moored spar-type wind turbine in deep water (DeepSpar) have previously been studied. In the present article, the responses of the spar-type wind turbines, ShortSpar and DeepSpar, are compared. The HAWC2 code is used to carry out the coupled aero-hydro-servo-elastic analyses. Different environmental conditions are used to compare the responses. A dynamic link library (DLL) is used to feed the mooring forces at each time step into the HAWC2 code. The force-displacement relationships are obtained from the Simo-Riflex code. The comparison of the responses of ShortSpar and DeepSpar in different load cases indicates the feasibility of implementation of spar-type wind turbine in moderate water depths. The results show that the spar-type wind turbine at a moderate water depth exhibits good performance, and its responses are reasonable compared with those associated with a spar-type wind turbine in deep water. The total mass (the structural mass plus the ballast) of ShortSpar is 35% less than the mass of DeepSpar, while the statistical characteristics of the generated power are almost the same for both spars. This mass reduction for ShortSpar helps to achieve a more cost-effective solution for floating wind turbines at a moderate water depth.

Madjid Karimirad; Torgeir Moan

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

20

Time-to-Detect Trends in Precipitable Water Vapor with Varying Measurement Error  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This study determined the theoretical time-to-detect (TTD) global climate model (GCM) precipitable water vapor (PWV) 100-yr trends when realistic measurement errors are considered. Global trends ranged from 0.055 to 0.072 mm yr?1 and varied ...

Jacola Roman; Robert Knuteson; Steve Ackerman

2014-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "depth precipitable water" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Kinetics of metal-arsenate precipitate formation at the goethite-water interface  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

GEOC 25 Kinetics of metal-arsenate precipitate formation at the goethite-water interface Markus mg goethite L-1 (ppm). Sorption in the 1000ppm suspensions was rapid with Zn (II) sorption increasing thereafter beyond 500hrs. Initial EXAFS experiments of the 1000ppm goethite suspension system showed

Sparks, Donald L.

22

Unravelling the influence of water depth and wave energy on the facies diversity of shelf carbonates  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Unravelling the influence of water depth and wave energy on the facies diversity of shelf their production is tied to light and wave energy, carbonate sediments are most effectively produced in shallow processes of storm and wave reworking influence the seabed through submarine erosion and sediment

Purkis, Sam

23

Purification of a Water Extract of Chinese Sweet Tea Plant (Rubus suavissimus S. Lee) by Alcohol Precipitation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Purification of a Water Extract of Chinese Sweet Tea Plant (Rubus suavissimus S. Lee) by Alcohol Precipitation ... To purify this water extract for potential elevated bioactivity, an alcohol precipitation (AP) consisting of gradient regimens was applied, and its resultants were examined through colorimetric and HPLC analyses. ... Prior to performing alcohol precipitation of the aqueous extract samples, various extract-to-water ratios ranging from 1:4 w/v to 1:8 w/v were tested to determine the amount of precipitant (thus the reciprocal amount of the purified extract) caused by extract solubility itself. ...

Gar Yee Koh; Guixin Chou; Zhijun Liu

2009-05-06T23:59:59.000Z

24

Geochemical and isotopic results for groundwater, drainage waters, snowmelt, permafrost, precipitation in Barrow, Alaska (USA) 2012-2013  

DOE Data Explorer (OSTI)

Data include a large suite of analytes (geochemical and isotopic) for samples collected in Barrow, Alaska (2012-2013). Sample types are indicated, and include soil pore waters, drainage waters, snowmelt, precipitation, and permafrost samples.

Wilson, Cathy; Newman, Brent; Heikoop, Jeff

25

Detecting long-term trend in precipitable water over the Tibetan Plateau by synthesis of station and MODIS observations  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Long-term trend in precipitable water (PW) is an important component of climate change assessments for the Tibetan Plateau (TP). PW products from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) are able to provide good spatial coverage of PW ...

Ning Lu; Kevin E. Trenberth; Jun Qin; Kun Yang; Ling Yao

26

Affinity precipitation using thermo-responsive, water-soluble polymers as matrix; synthetic studies toward the ageliferins  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

AFFINITY PRECIPITATION USING THERMO-RESPONSIVE, WATER- SOLUBLE POLYMERS AS MATRIX; SYNTHETIC STUDIES TOWARD THE AGELIFERINS A Thesis by MIN ZHOU Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment... of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 2003 Major Subject: Chemistry AFFINITY PRECIPITATION USING THERMO-RESPONSIVE, WATER- SOLUBLE POLYMERS AS MATRIX; SYNTHETIC STUDIES TOWARD THE AGELIFERINS A Thesis by MIN ZHOU Submitted to Texas A...

Zhou, Min

2005-02-17T23:59:59.000Z

27

Free-surface hydrodynamics of a submerged prolate spheroid in finite water depth based on the method of multipole expansions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......particular, we employ the following fundamental relation that expresses any exterior...Also, it appears that the water depth does not affect considerably the degree needed...M. Abramowitz and I. A. Stegun, Handbook of Mathematical Functions (Dover Publications......

Ioannis K. Chatjigeorgiou; Touvia Miloh

2014-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

28

Offshore oil: Investigating production parameters of fields of varying size, location and water depth  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract This paper derives empirical estimates of field depletion level, depletion rate, decline rate and characteristic time intervals in offshore oil production based on a global field-by-field database containing 603 offshore oil fields. Statistical distributions as well as arithmetic and weighted averages of production parameters are derived for different categories of fields specified by size, location and water depth. A significant tendency of small fields having higher depletion and decline rates is found. Similarly, OECD countries generally have higher rates compared to non-OECD countries. Trends related to water depth are not clearly distinguishable and require additional investigation of time related aspects. Resulting spreads in derived parameter estimates are found to be well described by positively skewed probability distributions. Also, in line with theory, a strong correlation between depletion and decline rate is found. According to the study, the net share of global offshore production from smaller and deeper fields is increasing. A continuation of these trends would likely have implications for future aggregate offshore production behaviour, most notably, increasing global aggregate decline rates.

David Sällh; Henrik Wachtmeister; Xu Tang; Mikael Höök

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

29

Short-range precipitation forecasts using assimilation of simulated satellite water vapor profiles and column cloud liquid water amounts  

SciTech Connect

These observing system simulation experiments investigate the assimilation of satellite-observed water vapor and cloud liquid water data in the initialization of a limited-area primitive equations model with the goal of improving short-range precipitation forecasts. The assimilation procedure presented includes two aspects: specification of an initial cloud liquid water vertical distribution and diabatic initialization. The satellite data is simulated for the next generation of polar-orbiting satellite instruments, the Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit (AMSU) and the High-Resolution Infrared Sounder (HIRS), which are scheduled to be launched on the NOAA-K satellite in the mid-1990s. Based on cloud-top height and total column cloud liquid water amounts simulated for satellite data a diagnostic method is used to specify an initial cloud water vertical distribution and to modify the initial moisture distribution in cloudy areas. Using a diabatic initialization procedure, the associated latent heating profiles are directly assimilated into the numerical model. The initial heating is estimated by time averaging the latent heat release from convective and large-scale condensation during the early forecast stage after insertion of satellite-observed temperature, water vapor, and cloud water formation.

Wu, X.; Diak, G.R.; Hayden, C.M.; Young, J.A. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)] [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)

1995-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

30

Desalination of brackish ground waters and produced waters using in-situ precipitation.  

SciTech Connect

The need for fresh water has increased exponentially during the last several decades due to the continuous growth of human population and industrial and agricultural activities. Yet existing resources are limited often because of their high salinity. This unfavorable situation requires the development of new, long-term strategies and alternative technologies for desalination of saline waters presently not being used to supply the population growth occurring in arid regions. We have developed a novel environmentally friendly method for desalinating inland brackish waters. This process can be applied to either brackish ground water or produced waters (i.e., coal-bed methane or oil and gas produced waters). Using a set of ion exchange and sorption materials, our process effectively removes anions and cations in separate steps. The ion exchange materials were chosen because of their specific selectivity for ions of interest, and for their ability to work in the temperature and pH regions necessary for cost and energy effectiveness. For anion exchange, we have focused on hydrotalcite (HTC), a layered hydroxide similar to clay in structure. For cation exchange, we have developed an amorphous silica material that has enhanced cation (in particular Na{sup +}) selectivity. In the case of produced waters with high concentrations of Ca{sup 2+}, a lime softening step is included.

Krumhansl, James Lee; Pless, Jason; Nenoff, Tina Maria; Voigt, James A.; Phillips, Mark L. F.; Axness, Marlene; Moore, Diana Lynn; Sattler, Allan Richard

2004-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

31

Stability of gravity-capillary waves generated by a moving pressure disturbance in water of finite depth  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Stability of gravity-capillary waves generated by a moving pressure disturbance in water of finite pressure distribution moving with constant speed U in water of finite depth h . Localized solitary waves can only exist in subcritical flows where the Froude number F = U/(gh)1/2

32

Preprocessing issues associated with multiple attenuation in water depths of less than 150 meters: ISMA and predictive deconvolution  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. In order to study these challenges associated with acquisition and processing of shallow-water data, synthetic seismic data for 150, 75 and 25 m water depths were generated using a fully elastic, finite difference algorithm. The direct wave was removed...

Walsh, Jeffrey Robert

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

33

Effects of nitrate and water on the oxygen isotopic analysis of barium sulfate precipitated from  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

on an anion-exchange resin such as IRA-4005 before being precipitated as BaSO4. Isotopic analyses of O (d18 O by (1) ion chromatographic separation of SO4 2S from NO3 S , (2) increasing the salinity- ing H2O and NO3 S . These procedures are demonstrated for SO4 2S isotopic reference materials

34

Water Vapor Transport and the Production of Precipitation in the Eastern Fertile Crescent  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of the Persian Gulf, etc.) may have a relatively strong affect on the total precipitation falling in the Fertile is the Mediterranean, and to the south is the Persian Gulf. While it has been generally accepted that the area sensitivity to changes in the condition of the Persian Gulf relative to the Mediterranean Sea. This may have

Evans, Jason

35

A strip theory approximation for wave forces on submerged vehicles in finite depth water  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Autonomous Underwater Vehicles (AUV's) are becoming of increasing use in shallow waters for oceanographic data collection, coastal mapping, and military operations such as mine surveillance along enemy coastlines. Currently ...

Rybka Jan A. (Jan Andrzej)

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

36

Precipitation Trends and Water Consumption Related to Population in the Southwestern United States, 1930–83  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The possible effects of climatic fluctuations on renewable water supplies in the western United States was examined, especially as it is impacted by the growth of population and water consumption in recent decades.

Henry F. Diaz; Ronald L. Holle; Joe W. Thorn Jr.

1985-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

37

Formation of Metal?Arsenate Precipitates at the Goethite?Water Interface  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Above surface saturation, Zn was increasingly complexed by AsO4, gradually forming an adamite-like [Zn2(AsO4)OH] surface precipitate on goethite. ... Spectra of the homogeneous zinc?arsenate precipitate (HZAP), adamite [Zn2(AsO4)(OH)], scorodite (FeAsO4·2H2O), ojuelaite [ZnFe3+2(AsO4)2(OH)2·4H2O] (all obtained from Excalibur) and aqueous Na2HAsO4 and ZnCl2 reference standards were collected in transmission mode. ... The FEFF 7.02 code (31) was used to calculate theoretical phase and amplitude functions of As?O, As?Fe, As?Zn, and Zn?O, Zn?As, Zn?Fe, and Zn?Zn scattering paths using input files based on the structural refinement of scorodite (FeAsO4·2H2O), ojuelaite [ZnFe3+2(AsO4)(OH)2·4H2O], mapimite [Zn2Fe3(AsO4)3(OH)4·10H2O], adamite [Zn2(AsO4)OH], and franklinite (ZnFe2O4). ...

Markus Gräfe; Maarten Nachtegaal; Donald L. Sparks

2004-10-26T23:59:59.000Z

38

Monitoring of Precipitable Water Vapor and Cloud Liquid Path from Scanning Microwave Radiometers During the 2003 Cloudiness Inter-Comparison Experiment  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Monitoring of Precipitable Water Vapor and Cloud Liquid Monitoring of Precipitable Water Vapor and Cloud Liquid Path from Scanning Microwave Radiometers During the 2003 Cloudiness Inter-Comparison Experiment V. Mattioli Department of Electronic and Information Engineering University of Perugia Perugia, Italy E. R. Westwater Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences University of Colorado National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Environmental Technology Laboratory Boulder, Colorado V. Morris Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Richland, Washington Introduction Ground-based microwave radiometers (MWR) are widely used to measure atmospheric precipitable water vapor (PWV) and cloud liquid path (CLP). Comparisons of PWV derived from MWRs with water vapor retrievals from instruments like radiosondes, Global Positioning System (GPS) and Raman

39

Assessment of precipitable water vapor derived from ground-based BeiDou observations with Precise Point Positioning approach  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Precipitable water vapor (PWV) estimation from Global Positioning System (GPS) has been extensively studied and used for meteorological applications. However PWV estimation using the emerging BeiDou Navigation Satellite System (BDS) is very limited. In this paper the PWV estimation strategy and the evaluation of the results inferred from ground-based BDS observations using Precise Point Positioning (PPP) method are presented. BDS and GPS data from 10 stations distributed in the Asia–Pacific and West Indian Ocean regions during the year 2013 are processed using the PANDA (Position and Navigation Data Analyst) software package. The BDS-PWV and GPS-PWV are derived from the BDS-only and GPS-only observations, respectively. The PPP positioning differences between BDS-only and GPS-only show a standard deviation (STD) Indian Ocean regions and that BDS alone can be used for PWV estimation with an accuracy comparable to GPS.

Min Li; Wenwen Li; Chuang Shi; Qile Zhao; Xing Su; Lizhong Qu; Zhizhao Liu

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

40

Oxygen- and Hydrogen-Isotopic Ratios of Water in Precipitation: Beyond Paleothermometry  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...of water can be used to test Earth-system models focused on the hydrologic cycle...of the hydrologic cycles of Earth-system models that include appropriate isotopic...testing hydrologic cycles in Earth system models; this direction will be most...

Richard B. Alley; Kurt M. Cuffey

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "depth precipitable water" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Aerosol Impacts on California Winter Clouds and Precipitation during CalWater 2011: Local Pollution versus Long-Range Transported Dust  

SciTech Connect

Mineral dust aerosols often observed over California in winter and spring, associated with long-range transport from Asia and Sahara, have been linked to enhanced precipitation based on observations. Local anthropogenic pollution, on the other hand, was shown in previous observational and modeling studies to reduce precipitation. Here we incorporate recent developments in ice nucleation parameterizations to link aerosols with ice crystal formation in a spectral-bin cloud microphysical model coupled with the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model, to examine the relative and combined impacts of dust and local pollution particles on cloud properties and precipitation type and intensity. Simulations are carried out for two cloud cases with contrasting meteorology and cloud dynamics that occurred on February 16 (FEB16) and March 02 (MAR02) from the CalWater 2011 field campaign. In both cases, observations show the presence of dust and biological particles in a relative pristine environment. The simulated cloud microphysical properties and precipitation show reasonable agreement with aircraft and surface measurements. Model sensitivity experiments indicate that in the pristine environment, the dust and biological aerosol layers increase the accumulated precipitation by 10-20% from the Central Valley to the Sierra Nevada Mountains for both FEB16 and MAR02 due to a ~40% increase in snow formation, validating the observational hypothesis. Model results show that local pollution increases precipitation over the windward slope of the mountains by few percent due to increased snow formation when dust is present but reduces precipitation by 5-8% if dust is removed on FEB16. The effects of local pollution on cloud microphysics and precipitation strongly depend on meteorology including the strength of the Sierra Barrier Jet, and cloud dynamics. This study further underscores the importance of the interactions between local pollution, dust, and environmental conditions for assessing aerosol effects on cold season precipitation in California.

Fan, Jiwen; Leung, Lai-Yung R.; DeMott, Paul J.; Comstock, Jennifer M.; Singh, Balwinder; Rosenfeld, Daniel; Tomlinson, Jason M.; White, Allen B.; Prather, Kimberly; Minnis, Patrick; Ayers, J. K.; Min, Qilong

2014-01-03T23:59:59.000Z

42

A New Algorithm for Finding Mixed Layer Depths with Applications to Argo Data and Subantarctic Mode Water Formation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A new hybrid method for finding the mixed layer depth (MLD) of individual ocean profiles models the general shape of each profile, searches for physical features in the profile, and calculates threshold and gradient MLDs to assemble a suite of ...

James Holte; Lynne Talley

2009-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

43

THE DESIGN AND APPLICATION OF NETWORK OF GROUND-BASED GPS WATER VAPOR MONITORING STATIONS TO IMPROVE PRECIPITATION  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

TO IMPROVE PRECIPITATION PREDICTION IN THE GREATER BEIJING METROPOLITAN AREA Chao-Lin Zhang a, * , Ying.O. Box 3000, Boulder, CO, 80307-3000, U.S.A (kuo, braunj)@ucar.edu c Beijing Information Resources, Prediction, Application, Design, Monitoring, ABSTRACT: In the Greater Beijing metropolitan area of North

44

Design of a Shadowband Spectral Radiometer for the Retrieval of Thin Cloud Optical Depth, Liquid Water Path, and the Effective Radius  

SciTech Connect

The design and operation of a Thin-Cloud Rotating Shadowband Radiometer (TCRSR) described here was used to measure the radiative intensity of the solar aureole and enable the simultaneous retrieval of cloud optical depth, drop effective radius, and liquid water path. The instrument consists of photodiode sensors positioned beneath two narrow metal bands that occult the sun by moving alternately from horizon to horizon. Measurements from the narrowband 415-nm channel were used to demonstrate a retrieval of the cloud properties of interest. With the proven operation of the relatively inexpensive TCRSR instrument, its usefulness for retrieving aerosol properties under cloud-free skies and for ship-based observations is discussed.

Bartholomew M. J.; Reynolds, R. M.; Vogelmann, A. M.; Min, Q.; Edwards, R.; Smith, S.

2011-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

45

Catalytic behavior of ternary Cu/ZnO/Al2O3 systems prepared by homogeneous precipitation in water-gas shift reaction  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Ternary Cu/ZnO/Al2O3 catalysts have been prepared by homogeneous precipitation (hp) using urea hydrolysis and tested for the water-gas shift reaction. The Cu/Zn ratio was fixed at 1/1, and the effects of the Al addition on the precipitation procedure, the precursor structure and the catalytic activity have been studied. The precipitation proceeded stepwise; Cu(II) nitrate was first hydrolyzed, followed by the hydrolysis of Zn(II) nitrate, but the final compounds consist mainly of aurichalcite. It is likely that amorophous Cu(OH)2 formed first was converted to aurichalcite via a dissolution-reprecipitation mechanism assisted by Zn(II). A significant leaching of Cu took place with increasing Al content during the precipitation at 90 °C. The Cu leaching was effectively suppressed by lowering the temperature to 80 °C, but resulting in a slight decrease in the catalytic activity. In the hp-catalyst precursors, aurichalcite was always observed as the main component, whereas hydrotalcite and malachite appeared with increasing Al component. The catalytic activity increased by the addition of 5 mol% of Al and decreased with further addition of Al. The activity apparently depended on the Cu metal surface area on the catalyst, but the turn over frequency calculated based on the surface Cu metal significantly varied depending on the Al content. Moreover, the intensity of the reduction peak around 225 °C assigned to Cu2+ ? Cu+ in the TPR well correlated with the catalytic activity. It is suggested that Cu/Zn bimetallic aurichalcite has an important role as the catalyst precursor and the reduction–oxidation between Cu+ and Cu0 plays in the catalytic mechanism of the shift reaction.

Ikuo Atake; Kazufumi Nishida; Dalin Li; Tetsuya Shishido; Yasunori Oumi; Tsuneji Sano; Katsuomi Takehira

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

46

Precipitation over South America during the Last Glacial Maximum: An analysis of the "amount effect"ť with a water isotope-enabled general circulation model  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Precipitation over South America during the Last GlacialPrecipitation over South America during the Last Glacialand subtropical regions of South America also suggest

Lee, Jung-Eun; Johnson, Kathleen; Fung, Inez

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

47

Design and preparation of high-surface-area Cu/ZnO/Al2O3 catalysts using a modified co-precipitation method for the water-gas shift reaction  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Highly dispersed Cu/ZnO/Al2O3 catalysts were prepared by modifying a conventional co-precipitation method. By manipulating the preparation conditions, in this case solvent, precipitating temperature, and pH, a Cu surface area of 45.5 ± 1.7 m2/g was prepared, which was much greater than the surface area of 11.4–31.7 m2/g obtained by the conventional co-precipitation method and seemed to be the largest Cu surface area ever reported in the literature. The preparation of catalysts with a high Cu surface area was attributed to the formation of aurichalcite, a complex containing Cu and Zn. The catalysts prepared by the modified co-precipitation method were used for a water-gas shift reaction, exhibiting higher catalytic activity compared to those prepared by the conventional co-precipitation method.

Adeline Budiman; Muhammad Ridwan; Sung Min Kim; Jae-Wook Choi; Chang Won Yoon; Jeong-Myeong Ha; Dong Jin Suh; Young-Woong Suh

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

48

Temperature and Water Depth Monitoring Within Chum Salmon Spawning Habitat Below Bonneville Dam : Annual Report October 2007-September 2008  

SciTech Connect

The overall goal of the project described in this report is to provide a sound scientific basis for operation of the Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS) in ways that will effectively protect and enhance chum salmon populations - a species listed in March 1999 as threatened under the Endangered Species Act of 1973 (ESA). The study objective during fiscal year 2008 was to provide real-time data on Ives Island area water temperature and water surface elevations from the onset of chum salmon spawning through the end of chum salmon emergence. Sampling locations included areas where riverbed temperatures were elevated, potentially influencing alevin development and emergence timing. In these locations, hydrosystem operation caused large, frequent changes in river discharge that affected salmon habitat by dewatering redds and altering egg pocket temperatures. The 2008 objective was accomplished using temperature and water-level sensors deployed inside piezometers. Sensors were integrated with a radio telemetry system such that real-time data could be downloaded remotely and posted hourly on the Internet. During our overall monitoring period (October 2007 through June 2008), mean temperature in chum spawning areas was nearly 2 C warmer within the riverbed than in the overlying river. During chum salmon spawning (mid-November 2007 through December2007), mean riverbed temperature in the Ives Island area was 14.5 C, more than 5 C higher than in the river, where mean temperature was 9.4 C. During the incubation period (January 2008 through mid-May 2008), riverbed temperature was approximately 3 C greater than in the overlying river (10.5 C and 7.2 C, respectively). Chum salmon preferentially select spawning locations where riverbed temperatures are elevated; consequently the incubation time of alevin is shortened before they emerge in the spring.

Arntzen, E.V. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory

2009-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

49

Water-gas shift reaction over Cu/ZnO and Cu/ZnO/Al2O3 catalysts prepared by homogeneous precipitation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Both binary Cu/ZnO and ternary Cu/ZnO/Al2O3 catalysts were prepared by homogeneous precipitation (hp) using urea hydrolysis. The structure and the activity for the water-gas shift reaction of these catalysts were studied compared with those prepared by coprecipitation (cp). The binary precursors contained hydroxycarbonates such as malachite and aurichalcite phases, whereas the ternary precursors were composed of hydrotalcite, malachite and aurichalcite phases depending on the metal composition. After thermal decomposition, both catalysts contained apparently CuO and ZnO as crystalline phase. No phase derived from Al was observed, since the amount of Al was small as 10 at.% in the ternary catalysts. After reduction pretreatment with hydrogen, the catalysts were tested for the shift reaction between 150 and 300 °C. The activity of hp-catalysts was higher than that of cp-catalysts; binary hp-Cu/ZnO showed higher activity than ternary hp-Cu/ZnO/Al2O3 catalysts none the less the surface area was larger for the latter than for the former. The activity apparently depended on the surface area of Cu metal formed on the surface of hp-catalysts and a good correlation was observed between the Cu metal particle size and the activation energy of the shift reaction. However, more precise evaluation of the activity based on turn-over frequency strongly suggested the formation of Cu+ species as the active sites at the boundary between Cu metal particles and ZnO particles. Even after the pre-reduction at the high temperature, 250 °C, hp-Cu/ZnO catalyst showed no significant deactivation as well as no detectable sintering of the Cu metal particles during 50 h of the reaction, indicating that the hp-preparation method afforded the Cu catalysts with high sustainability in the shift reaction.

Tetsuya Shishido; Manabu Yamamoto; Dalin Li; Yan Tian; Hiroyuki Morioka; Masahide Honda; Tsuneji Sano; Katsuomi Takehira

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

50

Completion strategy includes clay and precipitate control  

SciTech Connect

This article describes the conditions which are necessary for a successful oil well completion in the Mississippi and Cherokee zones of South Central Kansas. Topics considered include paraffin precipitation, clay swelling and migration, and iron precipitation. Clays in these zones are sensitive to water-base treating fluids and tend to swell and migrate to the well bore, thereby causing permeability damage. The presence of iron in the Mississippi and Cherokee formations has been indicated by cuttings, core samples, and connate water samples.

Sandy, T.; Gardner, G.R.

1985-05-06T23:59:59.000Z

51

Sequential precipitation of a new goethite-calcite nanocomposite and its1 possible application in the removal of toxic ions from polluted water2  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

neutralise acidic wastewater by slight calcite dissolution, enhancing the removal of heavy20 metals (e.g. Cu: Goethite; Calcite; Nanocomposite; Precipitation; Removal; Metalloids;1 Heavy metals2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 a major role in the fate and transport of several6 metalloids and heavy metal trace elements and organic

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

52

Precipitate stability in Zircaloy-2  

SciTech Connect

As a follow-up to previous work on Zircaloy-4, irradiated Zircaloy-2 was studied both with and without post-irradiation annealing. The Zircaloy-2 samples were taken from a BWR water-rod at locations with fluences of 2.9 {times} 10{sup 21}, 7.7 {times} 10{sup 21}, and 12.0 {times} 10{sup 21} n/cm{sup 2} (E > 1 MeV), all having irradiation temperatures of 288{degree}C. Material from these samples demonstrated irradiation induced phenomena quite similar to Zircaloy-4, including the gradual amorphization and dissolution of Zr(Cr, FE){sub 2} precipitates and the development of {bar c}-component dislocations. Zr{sub 2} (Fe,Ni) precipitates in the Zircaloy-2 did not show signs of amorphization, but show a small degree of Fe depletion with increasing fluence. The depletion of iron was reversed upon post-irradiation annealing at 575 to 750{degree}C in both types of precipitates. Post-irradiation annealing caused intergranular precipitates to form. At 575{degree}C, both intergranular Zr{sub 2} (Fe,Ni) and Zr(Cr,Fe){sub 2} were found, while at 625 and 6675{degree}C, only the latter appeared. This is probably a consequence of the faster ripening of Zr{sub 2} (Fe,Ni). No intergranular precipitates were found after 1 hour at 750{degree}C, which is probably due to their dissolution during ripening. 29 refs., 21 figs., 4 tabs.

Kruger, R.M. (General Electric Co., San Jose, CA (USA))

1990-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

54

Effect of rooting depth, plant density and planting date on maize (Zea mays L.) yield and water use efficiency in semi-arid Zimbabwe: Modelling with AquaCrop  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Under low and poorly distributed rainfall higher food production can be achieved by increasing crop water use efficiency (WUE) through optimum soil fertility management and selection of deep-rooting cultivars, appropriate plant density and planting dates. We explored AquaCrop's applicability in selecting adaptive practices for improving maize yield and WUE under rainfed smallholder farming in semi-arid Zimbabwe. AquaCrop was first tested using field measurements without calibration. The model was subsequently applied to estimate the effect of effective rooting depth (ERD), plant density and planting date on maize yield. Simulations were done with daily rainfall data for 25 seasons. During model testing AquaCrop simulated canopy cover development well and simulated biomass accumulation showed good agreement with measured values. The model overestimated soil water, and observed final biomass and grain yield were 96 and 92% of simulated values, respectively. Model application showed that increasing ERD from 0.40 m at 32,500 plants ha?1 to 0.60 m at 44,400 plants ha?1 increased grain yield from 6.0 to 7.8 t ha?1, biomass water use efficiency by 20.5%, grain water use efficiency by 23.6% and transpiration water use efficiency by 26.8%. At 0.60 and 0.80 m ERD and 44,400 plants ha?1, biomass and grain yield, and WUE, were similar. Drainage below the rootzone was ?40% of non-productive water losses in normal and wet seasons whilst soil evaporation contributed 47% in dry seasons at 0.80 m ERD. To improve yield and WUE, we recommend: incorporation of deep-rooting legumes, deeper-rooting cultivars (?0.60 m effective rooting depth) and practices that improve ERD, a plant density of 44,400 plants ha?1; and practices that reduce soil evaporation e.g. mulching and addition of organic fertilisers to improve soils’ available water capacity and enhance response to mineral fertilisers. Further research should include field testing of results from this study with farmers.

Innocent Wadzanayi Nyakudya; Leo Stroosnijder

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

55

precipitation | OpenEI  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

precipitation precipitation Dataset Summary Description This dataset, made available by the UK Department of Energy and Climate Change (DECC), presents summer and winter precipitation for England and Wales, and the percent change from the baseline (1961 - 1990 average). The original source of the data is the Hadley Centre. Source UK Department of Energy and Climate Change (DECC) Date Released March 12th, 2010 (4 years ago) Date Updated Unknown Keywords climate change precipitation UK Data application/vnd.ms-excel icon 1 Excel file: Precipitation, 1874 - 2009 (xls, 68.1 KiB) Quality Metrics Level of Review Some Review Comment (Does not have "National Statistics" status) Temporal and Spatial Coverage Frequency Time Period 1874 - 2009 License License Other or unspecified, see optional comment below

56

E-Print Network 3.0 - agua precipitable pwv Sample Search Results  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Physics 3 An Analysis of Cloud Cover and Water Vapor for the ALMA Project Summary: that a verification (validation) of the satellite-derived precipitable water vapor (PWV)...

57

Determination of leaf area index of loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) and its relationship to site water balance across a large precipitation gradient in East Texas  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

was estimated using the Thornthwaite and Mather (1957) model to predict potential and actual evapotranspiration and moisture deficit. LAI and site water balance were estimated in both 1994 and 1995. 1 hypothesized that LAI would be positively correlated...

Hebert, Mark Thomas

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

58

Atmospheric Water Vapor Pressure over Land Surfaces: A Generic Algorithm with Data Input Limited to Air Temperature, Precipitation and Geographic Location  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A lack of information for surface water vapor pressure (WVP) represents a major impediment to model-assisted ecosystem analysis for understanding plant-environment interactions or for projecting biospheric re...

X. Yin

1999-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

59

CDIAC Precipitation Data Sets  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Precipitation Precipitation CDIAC Climate Holdings Containing Precipitation Data Global Data Sets Data Set Name Investigators Data Type/Format Period of Record Global Historical Climatology Network (GHCN); Vs. 1 (CDIAC NDP-041) R.S. Vose et al. Stations data; monthly totals Varies by station; through 1990 Global Historical Climatology Network (GHCN); Vs. 2 (Note: the above link takes you to NOAA's National Climatic Data Center website.) R.S. Vose et al. Station data; monthly totals Varies by station; some through most recent month A Computer-Based Atlas of Global Instrumental Climate Data (CDIAC DB-1003) R.S. Bradley et al. Monthly, seasonal, and annual anomaly maps of precipitation 1851 - 1989 Regional Data Sets Data Set Name Investigators Data Type/Format Period of Record

60

ARM - Measurement - Precipitation  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

govMeasurementsPrecipitation govMeasurementsPrecipitation ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Precipitation All liquid or solid phase aqueous particles that originate in the atmosphere and fall to the earth's surface. Categories Atmospheric State Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the following instruments. Refer to the datastream (netcdf) file headers of each instrument for a list of all available measurements, including those recorded for diagnostic or quality assurance purposes. ARM Instruments CO2FLX : Carbon Dioxide Flux Measurement Systems DISDROMETER : Impact Disdrometer LDIS : Laser Disdrometer MWRHF : Microwave Radiometer - High Frequency

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "depth precipitable water" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Depth dependence of ambient noise in the northeastern Pacific Ocean  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Omnidirectional ambient noise levels were measured at two deep?water locations in the northeastern Pacific Ocean.Hydrophones were positioned throughout the water column at depths ranging from about 200 m below the surface to about 150 m above the sea bottom. Analyses of the data over the frequencies from 15 to 800 Hz show that at low frequencies the noise levels decrease with increasing depth. The decrease with depth is greater below the critical depth than it is in the sound channel. These low?frequency noise levels and their depth dependence are independent of the wind speed. At higher frequencies the noise levels and the depth dependence are controlled by the wind?generated noise. At low wind speeds there is a decrease in levels below the critical depth but above this depth both increases and decreases in levels with depth were noted. At these high frequencies during high wind speeds the noise levels not only rise but also fill the water column to the extent that there is little decrease in level with increasing depth even for the region below the critical depth.

Gerald B. Morris

1978-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

62

Variable depth core sampler  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A variable depth core sampler apparatus comprising a first circular hole saw member, having longitudinal sections that collapses to form a point and capture a sample, and a second circular hole saw member residing inside said first hole saw member to support the longitudinal sections of said first hole saw member and prevent them from collapsing to form a point. The second hole saw member may be raised and lowered inside said first hole saw member.

Bourgeois, Peter M. (Hamburg, NY); Reger, Robert J. (Grand Island, NY)

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

63

Variable depth core sampler  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A variable depth core sampler apparatus is described comprising a first circular hole saw member, having longitudinal sections that collapses to form a point and capture a sample, and a second circular hole saw member residing inside said first hole saw member to support the longitudinal sections of said first hole saw member and prevent them from collapsing to form a point. The second hole saw member may be raised and lowered inside said first hole saw member. 7 figs.

Bourgeois, P.M.; Reger, R.J.

1996-02-20T23:59:59.000Z

64

Lagrangian investigation of the precipitation efficiency of convective clouds  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The precipitation efficiency of cumulus-congestus clouds is investigated with a new Lagrangian particle framework for large-eddy simulations. The framework is designed to track particles representative of individual water molecules. A Monte-Carlo ...

Wolfgang Langhans; Kyongmin Yeo; David M. Romps

65

Precipitation processes in the Middle East , R. Smitha  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

in the north, the Mediterranean in the west and the Red Sea and Persian Gulf in the south, experience a reduced upslope seasonal precipitation. The Red Sea and Persian Gulf, while acting as powerful sources of water

Evans, Jason

66

Mineral Precipitation Upgradient from a Zero-Valent Iron Permeable...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Precipitation Upgradient from a Zero-Valent Iron Permeable Reactive Barrier."Ground Water Monitoring and Remediation 28(3):56-64. doi:10.1111j.1745-6592.2008.00203.x Authors:...

67

Precipitation scavenging, dry deposition, and resuspension. Volume 1: precipitation scavenging  

SciTech Connect

Papers are presented under the headings: cloud studies, precipitation chemistry, plume studies, gas scavenging, microphysics and models.

Pruppacher, H.R.; Semonin, R.G.; Slinn, W.G.N.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

68

Reductive atmosphere of supercritical water with RuO2 resulting in TcO2 colloid: Spectroscopic, morphological and crystallographic study on solutions and precipitates in Hastelloy C-22  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In order to study the complicated behavior of technetium observed under various conditions of supercritical water (SCW), i.e. quantitative transfer to solid phase, strong adsorption onto the metal surface, or efficient dissolution from the metal surface, solutions and precipitates prepared in reactors made of Hastelloy C-22 in contact with the SCW containing technetium solutions were studied by absorption spectroscopy, TEM, EDX and electron diffraction. Under SCW with or without H2O2, NiCr2O4 and NiMoO4 was produced as the scales (corrosion products) of Hastelloy C-22. Under SCW with RuO2 the formation of colloidal structure comprised of ruthenium metal and TcO2, which may be named as “Tc-Ru-Colloid”, were observed. It is worthy of note that the formation of TcO42? from pertechnatate TcO4? (+0.596 V) and the disproportionation of TcO42? is plausible at present in spite of the moderate reductive atmosphere (?0.533 to +0.114 V) estimated from the observation (the existence of TcO2 and the absence of NiMoO4) by TEM and electron diffraction.

T. Yamamura; K. Yubuta; I. Satoh; Y. Yoshida; Y. Shiokawa; T. Sekine; W. Sugiyama; K.-C. Park; H. Tomiyasu

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

69

The Global Precipitation Measurement Mission  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Precipitation affects many aspects of our everyday life. It is the primary source of freshwater and has significant socioeconomic impacts resulting from natural hazards such as hurricanes, floods, droughts, and landslides. Fundamentally, precipitation is ...

Arthur Y. Hou; Ramesh K. Kakar; Steven Neeck; Ardeshir A. Azarbarzin; Christian D. Kummerow; Masahiro Kojima; Riko Oki; Kenji Nakamura; Toshio Iguchi

2014-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

70

NOTES ON NEUTRON DEPTH PROFILING  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

NOTES ON NEUTRON DEPTH PROFILING by J.K. Shultis Department of Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering College of Engineering Kansas State University Manhattan, Kansas 66506 Dec. 2003 #12;Notes on Neutron Depth Profiling J. Kenneth Shultis December 2003 1 Introduction The purpose of neutron depth profiling

Shultis, J. Kenneth

71

Precipitation scavenging models: Sensitivities, tests, and applications  

SciTech Connect

Multiphase'' atmospheric-chemistry models can be described as atmospheric-pollutant simulations that explicitly differentiate between physical phases in the atmosphere (.e.g., gas, cloud water, rain water, snow,...), and directly compute chemical transport and transformation behavior between and within each of these individual phases. Initially formulated for specific application to precipitation-scavenging analysis, many attributes of these models have become incorporated into the more general atmospheric-chemisty codes as well. During the past few years, several of these multiphase precipitation-scavenging models have been developed to the point where they can be applied, in a moderately straightforward fashion, by members of the extended atmospheric sciences community. This presentation provides a brief overview of several aspects of a number of these models, including their structure, their application, their sensitivities and uncertainty levels, their evaluation against field measurements, and their availability.

Hales, J.M.

1991-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

72

Precipitation scavenging models: Sensitivities, tests, and applications  

SciTech Connect

``Multiphase`` atmospheric-chemistry models can be described as atmospheric-pollutant simulations that explicitly differentiate between physical phases in the atmosphere (.e.g., gas, cloud water, rain water, snow,...), and directly compute chemical transport and transformation behavior between and within each of these individual phases. Initially formulated for specific application to precipitation-scavenging analysis, many attributes of these models have become incorporated into the more general atmospheric-chemisty codes as well. During the past few years, several of these multiphase precipitation-scavenging models have been developed to the point where they can be applied, in a moderately straightforward fashion, by members of the extended atmospheric sciences community. This presentation provides a brief overview of several aspects of a number of these models, including their structure, their application, their sensitivities and uncertainty levels, their evaluation against field measurements, and their availability.

Hales, J.M.

1991-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

73

Biologically produced acid precipitable polymeric lignin  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A water soluble, acid precipitable polymeric degraded lignin (APPL), having a molecular weight of at least 12,000 daltons, and comprising, by percentage of total weight, at least three times the number of phenolic hydroxyl groups and carboxylic acid groups present in native lignin. The APPL may be modified by chemical oxidation and reduction to increase its phenolic hydroxyl content and reduce the number of its antioxidant inhibitory side chains, thereby improving antioxidant properties.

Crawford, Don L. (Moscow, ID); Pometto, III, Anthony L. (Moscow, ID)

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

74

The physical basis for increases in precipitation extremes in simulations of 21st-century climate change  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Global warming is expected to lead to a large increase in atmospheric water vapor content and to changes in the hydrological cycle, which include an intensification of precipitation extremes. The intensity of precipitation ...

O'Gorman, Paul Ambrose

75

Property:Depth(m) | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Depth(m) Depth(m) Jump to: navigation, search This is a property of type String. Pages using the property "Depth(m)" Showing 25 pages using this property. (previous 25) (next 25) 1 1.5-ft Wave Flume Facility + 0.9 + 10-ft Wave Flume Facility + 1.5 + 11-ft Wave Flume Facility + 1.8 + 2 2-ft Flume Facility + 1.8 + 3 3-ft Wave Flume Facility + 0.9 + 5 5-ft Wave Flume Facility + 1.5 + 6 6-ft Wave Flume Facility + 1.8 + A Alden Large Flume + 3.0 + Alden Small Flume + 1.8 + Alden Tow Tank + 1.2 + Alden Wave Basin + 1.2 + B Breakwater Research Facility + 0.8 + Bucknell Hydraulic Flume + 0.6 + C Carderock 2-ft Variable Pressure Cavitation Water Tunnel + 0.6 + Carderock 3-ft Variable Pressure Cavitation Water Tunnel + 0.7 + Carderock Circulating Water Channel + 2.7 +

76

New depths with mobile rig  

SciTech Connect

Magee-Poole Drilling Company, a drilling contractor operating out of the south Texas drilling center of Alice, claims it operates the largest mobile drilling rig in the world. That is, it's the only wheel mounted portable rig that drills to 16,000 feet with 4 1/2-inch drill pipe - at least 3000 feet deeper than the previous mobile drilling rig ratings. The unit is designated the Ingersoll-Rand 1500 Series. What's more significant, according to co-owner Don Magee, is that the rig's portability gets the rotary table turning to the right sooner; it drills more footage per year. It rigs up in 1 1/2 days versus 3 to 4 days for a conventional skid type rig normally used at these depths. The unit's compact arrangement, with more components combined into single loads, makes possible its higher mobility. A conventional skid rig might require 25 to 30 truckloads to move the rig components, mud system, fuel and water tank, houses for utilities, storage and crew change, generators, and drill pipe. The new rig moves in anywhere from four to nine loads less. Further, the rig components weigh less without sacrificing durability.

Not Available

1982-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

77

PRECIPITATES FROM AUTOCLAVED SEAWATER  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

the Division of Water Supply and Pollution Con- trol, U.S. ... a few days at room temperature, the sea- .... Supply and Pollution Control Research Grant WP-.

2000-01-08T23:59:59.000Z

78

IN-SITU CHEMICAL STABILIZATION OF METALS AND RADIONUCLIDES THROUGH ENHANCED ANAEROBIC REDUCTIVE PRECIPITATION  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this NETL sponsored bench-scale study was to demonstrate the efficacy of enhanced anaerobic reductive precipitation (EARP) technology for precipitating uranium using samples from contaminated groundwater at the Fernald Closure Project (FCP) in Cincinnati, Ohio. EARP enhances the natural biological reactions in the groundwater through addition of food grade substrates (typically molasses) to drive the oxidative-reductive potential of the groundwater to a lower, more reduced state, thereby precipitating uranium from solution. In order for this in-situ technology to be successful in the long term, the precipitated uranium must not be re-dissolved at an unacceptable rate once groundwater geochemical conditions return to their pretreatment, aerobic state. The approach for this study is based on the premise that redissolution of precipitated uranium will be slowed by several mechanisms including the presence of iron sulfide precipitates and coatings, and sorption onto fresh iron oxides. A bench-scale study of the technology was performed using columns packed with site soil and subjected to a continuous flow of uranium-contaminated site groundwater (476 {micro}g/L). The ''treated'' column received a steady stream of dilute food grade molasses injected into the contaminated influent. Upon attainment of a consistently reducing environment and demonstrated removal of uranium, an iron sulfate amendment was added along with the molasses in the influent solution. After a month long period of iron addition, the treatments were halted, and uncontaminated, aerobic, unamended water was introduced to the treated column to assess rebound of uranium concentrations. In the first two months of treatment, the uranium concentration in the treated column decreased to the clean-up level (30 {micro}g/L) or below, and remained there for the remainder of the treatment period. A brief period of resolubilization of uranium was observed as the treated column returned to aerobic conditions, but the concentration later returned to below the clean-up level. Speciation analysis was conducted on soil collected from the treated column after rebound testing. The experimental results show that: (a) The mass of uranium resolubilized in more than four months of column testing was much lower than the amount precipitated. (b) The majority of the uranium was precipitated in the first few inches of the treated column. The majority of the uranium precipitated was associated with iron oxides or in other immobile/sequestered phases. It is important to contrast this result with the results reported by Bryan (2003) who shows that most of the uranium associated with contaminated aquifer solids at Fernald under the existing natural attenuation/pump and treat with reinjection conditions is carbonate bound. Carbonate bound forms are traditionally seen as fairly mobile, but may not be under a calcite/dolomite saturated condition. Fernald is currently conducting further studies to investigate the mobility of the carbonate bound forms. (c) Though reoxidation concentrations from the bench-scale column exceeded 30 {micro}g/L for a time, they later returned to below this value. Effluent concentrations from the treated column are expected to over predict full-scale concentrations for reasons discussed in depth in the text. Finally, these results must be viewed in light of the site's ongoing pump-and-treat with reinjection system. There is reason to believe that although the pump-and-treat technology is currently effectively controlling the uranium plume and reducing the groundwater concentration, it may not be able to reach the treatment standard of 30 {micro}g/L within an economical operating lifetime and then maintain that concentration without rebound. This study suggests that Enhanced Anaerobic Reductive Precipitation can change the speciation and thus reduce the mobility of uranium at the site and expedite closure.

Christopher C. Lutes; Angela Frizzell, PG; Todd A. Thornton; James M. Harrington

2003-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

79

BNL | Aerosol, Cloud, Precipitation Interactions  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Cloud-Aerosol-Precipitation Interactions Cloud-Aerosol-Precipitation Interactions Atmospheric aerosols exert important "indirect effects" on clouds and climate by serving as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) and ice nuclei that affect cloud radiative and microphysical properties. For example, an increase in CCN increases the number concentration of droplets enhances cloud albedo, and suppresses precipitation that alters cloud coverage and lifetime. However, in the case of moist and strong convective clouds, increasing aerosols may increase precipitation and enhance storm development. Although aerosol-induced indirect effects on climate are believed to have a significant impact on global climate change, estimating their impact continues to be one of the most uncertain climate forcings.

80

Mapping Indigenous Depth of Place  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

AMERICAN INDIAN CULTURE AND RESEARCH JOURNAL 32:3 (2008) 107–126 107 Mapping Indigenous Depth of Place MARGARET WICKENS PEARCE AND RENEE PUALANI LOUIS INTRODUCTION Indigenous communities have successfully used Western geospatial technolo- gies (GT... of geog- raphy at Ohio University in Athens, Ohio. Renee Pualani Louis is Hawaiian and recently completed her doctorate in geography at the University of Hawai‘i at MaŻnoa, Honolulu, Hawai‘i. Published as M. Pearce and R. Louis. Mapping Indigenous depth...

Pearce, Margaret Wickens; Louis, Renee Pualani

2008-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "depth precipitable water" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Annual grassland resource pools and fluxes: sensitivity to precipitation  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Annual grassland resource pools and fluxes: sensitivity to precipitation Annual grassland resource pools and fluxes: sensitivity to precipitation and dry periods on two contrasting soils Title Annual grassland resource pools and fluxes: sensitivity to precipitation and dry periods on two contrasting soils Publication Type Journal Article Year of Publication 2012 Authors Sudderth, Erika A., Samuel B. St. Clair, Sarah A. Placella, Stéphanie M. Swarbreck, Cristina Castanha, Donald J. Herman, Marc L. Fischer, Markus Kleber, Erik B. Sudderth, Margaret S. Torn, Mary K. Firestone, Gary L. Andersen, and David D. Ackerly Journal Ecosphere Volume 3 Issue 8 Keywords Avena barbata, Bayesian ANOVA, carbon, climate change, dry periods, Grassland, nitrogen, phenology, precipitation, soil type, water Abstract In ecosystems throughout the world climate models project increased variability in precipitation patterns that may strongly affect the above- and below-ground processes that control carbon, water, and nutrient cycles. Uncertainty about how plant and soil processes respond to wet and dry periods at different times in the growing season is a barrier to understanding how changing rainfall patterns will affect ecosystem function in annual grasslands. We used mesocosm systems to test the sensitivity to mid- and late-season dry periods of twenty response variables related to nitrogen, carbon, and water cycling in Avena barbata monocultures. We compared the responses of individual variables and of grassland systems under low and high cumulative rain treatments and between two contrasting soil types.

82

ARM - Measurement - Aerosol optical depth  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

depth depth ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Aerosol optical depth A measure of how much light aerosols prevent from passing through a column of atmosphere. Categories Aerosols Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the following instruments. Refer to the datastream (netcdf) file headers of each instrument for a list of all available measurements, including those recorded for diagnostic or quality assurance purposes. ARM Instruments HSRL : High Spectral Resolution Lidar MPL : Micropulse Lidar MFRSR : Multifilter Rotating Shadowband Radiometer NIMFR : Normal Incidence Multifilter Radiometer Field Campaign Instruments AOS-PMFOV : Acoustical Optical Spectrometer-Photometer with Multiple

83

ARM - Measurement - Cloud optical depth  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

optical depth optical depth ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Cloud optical depth Amount of light cloud droplets or ice particles prevent from passing through a column of atmosphere. Categories Cloud Properties Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the following instruments. Refer to the datastream (netcdf) file headers of each instrument for a list of all available measurements, including those recorded for diagnostic or quality assurance purposes. External Instruments GOES : Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites Field Campaign Instruments EC-CONVAIR580-BULK : Environment Canada Convair 580 Bulk Parameters GOES : Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites

84

National Aeronautics and Space Administration Global Precipitation Measurement  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

credits: Marty Bahamonde/FEMA, Darin Leach/USDA, Jocelyn Augustino/FEMA, Matt and Kim Rudge This graphic and condenses to form clouds, and falls again to the surface as precipitation. About 75 percent of the energy condenses into clouds latent heat is released--warming the atmosphere. Conversely, when liquid water

Waliser, Duane E.

85

Affinity Purification of Plasmid DNA by Temperature-Triggered Precipitation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Affinity Purification of Plasmid DNA by Temperature-Triggered Precipitation Jan Kostal, Ashok purification method, which takes advantage of the DNA- binding affinity and specificity of the bacterial increasing the temper- ature, ELP undergoes a reversible phase transition from water-soluble forms

Chen, Wilfred

86

Impact of Convective Organization on the Response of Tropical Precipitation Extremes to Warming  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Impact of Convective Organization on the Response of Tropical Precipitation Extremes to Warming extremes to warming in organized convection is ex- amined using a cloud-resolving model. Vertical shear, the fractional increase of precipitation extremes is similar to that of surface water vapor, which

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

87

Timber Mountain Precipitation Monitoring Station  

SciTech Connect

A precipitation monitoring station was placed on the west flank of Timber Mountain during the year 2010. It is located in an isolated highland area near the western border of the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS), south of Pahute Mesa. The cost of the equipment, permitting, and installation was provided by the Environmental Monitoring Systems Initiative (EMSI) project. Data collection, analysis, and maintenance of the station during fiscal year 2011 was funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration, Nevada Site Office Environmental Restoration, Soils Activity. The station is located near the western headwaters of Forty Mile Wash on the Nevada Test and Training Range (NTTR). Overland flows from precipitation events that occur in the Timber Mountain high elevation area cross several of the contaminated Soils project CAU (Corrective Action Unit) sites located in the Forty Mile Wash watershed. Rain-on-snow events in the early winter and spring around Timber Mountain have contributed to several significant flow events in Forty Mile Wash. The data from the new precipitation gauge at Timber Mountain will provide important information for determining runoff response to precipitation events in this area of the NNSS. Timber Mountain is also a groundwater recharge area, and estimation of recharge from precipitation was important for the EMSI project in determining groundwater flowpaths and designing effective groundwater monitoring for Yucca Mountain. Recharge estimation additionally provides benefit to the Underground Test Area Sub-project analysis of groundwater flow direction and velocity from nuclear test areas on Pahute Mesa. Additionally, this site provides data that has been used during wild fire events and provided a singular monitoring location of the extreme precipitation events during December 2010 (see data section for more details). This letter report provides a summary of the site location, equipment, and data collected in fiscal year 2011.

Lyles Brad,McCurdy Greg,Chapman Jenny,Miller Julianne

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

88

Precipitation scavenging, dry deposition, and resuspension. Volume 1. Precipitation scavenging  

SciTech Connect

These two volumes contain papers prepared for and presented at the Fourth International Conference on Precipitation Scavenging, Dry Deposition, and Resuspension (the Chamberlain Meeting) held during 29 November to 3 December, 1982 in Santa Monica, California. Papers presented are abstracted separately.

Pruppacher, H.R.; Semonin, R.G.; Slinn, W.G.N. (eds.)

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

89

Understanding Fault Characteristics And Sediment Depth For Geothermal  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Understanding Fault Characteristics And Sediment Depth For Geothermal Understanding Fault Characteristics And Sediment Depth For Geothermal Exploration Using 3D Gravity Inversion In Walker Valley, Nevada Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Conference Paper: Understanding Fault Characteristics And Sediment Depth For Geothermal Exploration Using 3D Gravity Inversion In Walker Valley, Nevada Details Activities (2) Areas (1) Regions (0) Abstract: The Southern Walker Lake Basin, situated in the Walker Lake structural domain, consists of primarily E-W directed extension along N-NNW striking normal faults. Water well drilling on the eastern slopes of the Wassuk Range, west of the city of Hawthorne, Nevada showed elevated temperatures. Two recent drill holes reaching downhole depths of more than 4000 ft give some insight to the geologic picture, but more information

90

Ultrasonic material hardness depth measurement  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The invention is an ultrasonic surface hardness depth measurement apparatus and method permitting rapid determination of hardness depth of shafts, rods, tubes and other cylindrical parts. The apparatus of the invention has a part handler, sensor, ultrasonic electronics component, computer, computer instruction sets, and may include a display screen. The part handler has a vessel filled with a couplant, and a part rotator for rotating a cylindrical metal part with respect to the sensor. The part handler further has a surface follower upon which the sensor is mounted, thereby maintaining a constant distance between the sensor and the exterior surface of the cylindrical metal part. The sensor is mounted so that a front surface of the sensor is within the vessel with couplant between the front surface of the sensor and the part.

Good, Morris S. (Richland, WA); Schuster, George J. (Kennewick, WA); Skorpik, James R. (Kennewick, WA)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

91

Anisotropic poststack depth migration, eastern Venezuela  

SciTech Connect

It is known that in areas with significant shale content, the isotropic assumption in depth migration is not correct, and this can lead to incorrect depth positioning if not properly accounted for. In this paper, we performed isotropic and anisotropic poststack depth migrations on a dataset from Eastern Venezuela to study the influence of anisotropy over the depth migration process. When interval velocities derived from surface seismic are compared with those velocities from check shots, significant differences are observed specially for depths associated with a thick sequence of shales identified in the area. These differences in interval velocities are used to obtain estimations of the anisotropic constants used in the anisotropic depth migration process. The anisotropic depth-migrated section allows to position correctly in depth known geological markers identified in well logs, while the results in the isotropic depth-migration show some mismatch with the depths obtained from well-log information.

Uzcategui, O.J.; Mujica, D.L.

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

92

Carbide Precipitation in Steel Weld Metals  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Carbide Precipitation in Steel Weld Metals www.msm.cam.ac.uk/phase-trans #12 diffusion into austenite Carbon diffusion into austenite and carbide precipitation in ferrite Carbide precipitation from austenite CASE 2: elimination of carbides #12;#12;#12;0.110.090.070.050.03 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1

Cambridge, University of

93

Modeling Asphaltene Precipitation in Reservoir Simulation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The primary goal of this study was to simulate the effects of asphaltene precipitation on miscible-gas flooding. ... We simulated three different cases to investigate the effect of asphaltene precipitation on oil production for different rock fabrics. ... (7) The simplified algorithm for asphaltene precipitation gives simulation results in agreement with simulations using the pseudo-multiphase algorithm and saves significant computational time. ...

Xiangjun Qin; Peng Wang; Kamy Sepehrnoori; Gary A. Pope

2000-06-28T23:59:59.000Z

94

Depth to bedrock using gravimetry in the Reno and Carson City, Nevada, basins Robert E. Abbott and John N. Louie  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of geothermal wells, and one wildcat oil well. Depths in Carson City are consistent with depths from existing needed to model ground motion in the Mexico City basin. Frankel and Vidale (1992) used water well depth shaking at the surface. Poor existing gravity and well-data coverage of the basins below the rapidly

95

Precipitation kinetics in ultra-high lime softening  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. The second model used the crystal growth rate as an alternate measure of supersaturation. The growth rate obtained from a settling procedure correlated well with values for silica removal rates for experiments grouped by pH and recycie conditions... of precipitation processes specific applications to lime soFtening and silica removal can be addressed. Mechanisms oF silica raawal. Many of the processes studied for specific removal of silica From industrial water have relied on adsorption...

Peacock, Edward Dale

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

96

Assessing the Radiative Impact of Clouds of Low Optical Depth  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

the Radiative Impact of Clouds of the Radiative Impact of Clouds of Low Optical Depth W. O'Hirok and P. Ricchiazzi Institute for Computational Earth System Science University of California Santa Barbara, California C. Gautier Department of Geography and Institute for Computational Earth System Science University of California Santa Barbara, California Introduction Analysis from the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP) reveals that the global mean cloud optical depth is surprisingly low (i.e., Ď„ = 3.8). While this value is probably dominated by extensive fields of cirrus, the average for liquid water clouds is also likely smaller than expected. It is in this regime (Ď„ <10) where remote measurements of cloud optical thickness or liquid water path (LWP)

97

Precipitation and soil impacts on partitioning of subsurface moisture in Avena barbata: Observations from a greenhouse experiment  

SciTech Connect

The primary objective of this study was to assess the impact of two grassland soils and precipitation regimes on soil-moisture dynamics. We set up an experiment in a greenhouse, and monitored soil moisture dynamics in mesocosms planted with Avena barbata, an annual species found in California grasslands. By repeating the precipitation input at regular intervals, we were able to observe plant manipulation of soil moisture during well-defined periods during the growing season. We found that the amount of water partitioned to evapotranspiration, seepage, and soil storage varied among different growth stages. Further, both soil type and precipitation regimes had a significant impact on redistributing soil moisture. Whereas in the low-precipitation treatments most water was released to the atmosphere as evapotranspiration, major losses from the high-precipitation treatment occurred as gravity drainage. Observations from this study emphasize the importance of understanding intra-seasonal relationships between vegetation, soil, and water.

Salve, R.; Torn, M.S.

2011-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

98

H. Douville D. Salas-Me lia S. Tyteca On the tropical origin of uncertainties in the global land precipitation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. 2005). Global warming also leads to a systematic increase in total precipitable water, soH. Douville � D. Salas-Me´ lia � S. Tyteca On the tropical origin of uncertainties in the global land precipitation response to global warming Received: 17 August 2005 / Accepted: 25 October 2005

Ribes, Aurélien

99

Generated using version 3.2 of the official AMS LATEX template The Response of Orographic Precipitation over Idealized1  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

supply.28 About 26% of the world's population lives within mountains or their foothills, and over 40 diagnostic model reveals the primary factors modifying the21 mean orographic precipitation intensity #12;1. Introduction27 Orographic precipitation replenishes a large fraction of the world's fresh water

100

Hyperspectral Aerosol Optical Depths from TCAP Flights  

SciTech Connect

4STAR (Spectrometer for Sky-Scanning, Sun-Tracking Atmospheric Research), the world’s first hyperspectral airborne tracking sunphotometer, acquired aerosol optical depths (AOD) at 1 Hz during all July 2012 flights of the Two Column Aerosol Project (TCAP). Root-mean square differences from AERONET ground-based observations were 0.01 at wavelengths between 500-1020 nm, 0.02 at 380 and 1640 nm and 0.03 at 440 nm in four clear-sky fly-over events, and similar in ground side-by-side comparisons. Changes in the above-aircraft AOD across 3-km-deep spirals were typically consistent with integrals of coincident in situ (on DOE Gulfstream 1 with 4STAR) and lidar (on NASA B200) extinction measurements within 0.01, 0.03, 0.01, 0.02, 0.02, 0.02 at 355, 450, 532, 550, 700, 1064 nm, respectively, despite atmospheric variations and combined measurement uncertainties. Finer vertical differentials of the 4STAR measurements matched the in situ ambient extinction profile within 14% for one homogeneous column. For the AOD observed between 350-1660 nm, excluding strong water vapor and oxygen absorption bands, estimated uncertainties were ~0.01 and dominated by (then) unpredictable throughput changes, up to +/-0.8%, of the fiber optic rotary joint. The favorable intercomparisons herald 4STAR’s spatially-resolved high-frequency hyperspectral products as a reliable tool for climate studies and satellite validation.

Shinozuka, Yohei; Johnson, Roy R.; Flynn, Connor J.; Russell, P. B.; Schmid, Beat; Redemann, Jens; Dunagan, Stephen; Kluzek, Celine D.; Hubbe, John M.; Segal-Rosenheimer, Michal; Livingston, J. M.; Eck, T.; Wagener, Richard; Gregory, L.; Chand, Duli; Berg, Larry K.; Rogers, Ray; Ferrare, R. A.; Hair, John; Hostetler, Chris A.; Burton, S. P.

2013-11-13T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "depth precipitable water" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Mixing-induced calcite precipitation and dissolution kinetics in micromodel experiments.  

SciTech Connect

Dissolved CO2 from geological CO2 sequestration may react with dissolved minerals in fractured rocks or confined aquifers and cause mineral precipitation. The overall rate of reaction can be limited by diffusive or dispersive mixing, and mineral precipitation can block pores and further hinder these processes. Mixing-induced calcite precipitation experiments were performed by injecting solutions containing CaCl2 and Na2CO3 through two separate inlets of a micromodel (1-cm x 2-cm x 40-microns); transverse dispersion caused the two solutions to mix along the center of the micromodel, resulting in calcite precipitation. The amount of calcite precipitation initially increased to a maximum and then decreased to a steady state value. Fluorescent microscopy and imaging techniques were used to visualize calcite precipitation, and the corresponding effects on the flow field. Experimental micromodel results were evaluated with pore-scale simulations using a 2-D Lattice-Boltzmann code for water flow and a finite volume code for reactive transport. The reactive transport model included the impact of pH upon carbonate speciation and calcite dissolution. We found that proper estimation of the effective diffusion coefficient and the reaction surface area is necessary to adequately simulate precipitation and dissolution rates. The effective diffusion coefficient was decreased in grid cells where calcite precipitated, and keeping track of reactive surface over time played a significant role in predicting reaction patterns. Our results may improve understanding of the fundamental physicochemical processes during CO2 sequestration in geologic formations.

Valocchi, Albert J.; Dewers, Thomas A.; Dehoff, Karl; Yoon, Hongkyu; Werth, Charles J.

2010-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

102

Ocean Currents Produced by Evaporation and Precipitation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

1 September 1933 research-article Ocean Currents Produced by Evaporation and Precipitation G. R. Goldsbrough The Royal Society is collaborating with JSTOR to digitize, preserve...

1933-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

103

Reading Comprehension - The Water Cycle  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

The Water Cycle The Water Cycle Evaporation, Condensation and Precipitation The _________ moon sun water clouds evaporates _________ fish oceans rain water from lakes and oceans. As the air rises, it cools. The water vapor condenses into tiny droplets of _________ evaporation clouds water sunshine . The droplets crowd together and form a _________ cloud lake storm precipitation . Wind blows the _________ rain sun droplet cloud towards the land. The tiny droplets join together and fall as precipitation to the _________ river lake ground cloud . The water soaks into the ground and collects in _________ rivers and lakes oceans and clouds jars and cups plants and animals . The _________ storm cycle river house that never ends has started again! A water cycle diagram. Use the diagram to identify the different parts of the water cycle:

104

Precipitation Forecasting with Gamma Distribution Models for Gridded Precipitation Events in Eastern Oklahoma and Northwest Arkansas  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

An elegant and easy to implement probabilistic quantitative precipitation forecasting model that can be used to estimate the probability of exceedance (POE) is presented. The model was built using precipitation data collected across eastern ...

Steven A. Amburn; Andrew S.I.D. Lang; Michael A. Buonaiuto

105

On the Dependence of Winter Precipitation Types on Temperature, Precipitation Rate, and Associated Features  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The phase of precipitation formed within the atmosphere is highly dependent on the vertical temperature profile through which it falls. In particular, several precipitation types can form in an environment with a melting layer aloft and a ...

Julie M. Thériault; Ronald E. Stewart; William Henson

2010-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

106

Method for Removing Precipitates in Biofuel  

At ORNL the application of ultrasonic energy, or sonication, has been shown to successfully remove or prevent the formation of 50–90% of the precipitates in biofuels. Precipitates can plug filters as biodiesel is transported from one location to another, and often cannot be detected by visual inspection....

2010-12-08T23:59:59.000Z

107

Dissolution of ordered precipitates under ion irradiation  

SciTech Connect

The stability of the ordered {gamma}{prime} precipitates under 300-keV Ni{sup +} irradiation was investigated between room temperature and 623 K. The two competing mechanisms of destabilization by cascade producing irradiation, i.e. disordering and dissolution of the {gamma}{prime} precipitates in Nimonic PE16 alloy, has been studied separately by electron microscopy and field-ion microscopy with atom probe. At high temperatures, the precipitates are stable. At intermediate temperatures, the precipitates dissolve by ballistic mixing into the matrix, but the interface is restored by the radiation-enhanced atomic jumps. The order in the precipitates remains stable. At low temperatures, the precipitates are dissolved by atomic mixing. The dissolution proceeds in a diffusional manner with a diffusion coefficient normalized by the displacement rate D/K = 0.75 nm{sup 2}dpa{sup {minus}1}. The precipitates become disordered by a fluence of 0.1 dpa, whereas precipitate dissolution needs much higher fluences.

Camus, E.; Bourdeau, F.; Abromeit, C.; Wanderka, N.; Wollenberger, H. [Hahn-Meitner-Institut Berlin GmbH (Germany)

1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

108

Thermodvnamics Thermodynamics of Wax Precipitation in  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Thermodvnamics Thermodynamics of Wax Precipitation in Petroleum Mixtures C. Lira-Galeana and A, Berkeley, CIA 94720 A thermodynamic pamework is developed for calculating wax precipitation in petroleum only recently have attempts been made to develop a thermodynamic description. Published methods

Firoozabadi, Abbas

109

Recommended Practice: Defense-in-Depth  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Report # INL/EXT-06-11478 Report # INL/EXT-06-11478 Control Systems Cyber Security: Defense in Depth Strategies May 2006 Prepared by Idaho National Laboratory Recommended Best Practice: Defense in Depth 2 Table of Contents Keywords............................................................................................................................. 3 Introduction......................................................................................................................... 3 Background ......................................................................................................................... 3 Overview of Contemporary Control System Architectures................................................. 4 Security Challenges in Control Systems .............................................................................

110

Comparison of water use patterns by B?o?u?t?e?l?o?u?a? c?u?r?t?i?p?e?n?d?u?l?a? and H?i?l?a?r?i?a? b?e?l?a?n?g?e?r?i? in response to small rainfall events  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

-1989 weekly mean and 1990 precipitation for May-September at the Texas Agricultural Experiment Station near Sonora, Texas 20 2a Mean percent volumetric soil water at 76 mm and 203 mm depths for B. curtipendula and H. belangeri lysimeters on the Edwards... Plateau, Texas during May 31 ? June 7, 1990 21 2b Mean percent total volumetric soil water for B. curtipendula and H. belangeri lysimeters on the Edwards Plateau, Texas during May 31 June 7, 1990 21 3a Mean percent volumetric soil water at 76 mm and 203...

Norman, Arnold Jackson

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

111

SUBJECT INDEX advection, pore water, A:3031  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, A:29 Atlantic Ocean, hydrothermal processes, B2:1­12 Azimuthal Resistivity Imager, Site 395A, A:4 calcium pore water, A:31 vs. depth, A:32 caliper logs, vs. depth, A:18; B2:10 carbonate content. depth, A:31, 33 computed gamma ray logs, vs. depth, A:19 crust, oceanic, off-axis hydrothermal processes

112

In-Drift Precipitates/Salts Model  

SciTech Connect

As directed by ''Technical Work Plan For: Engineered Barrier System Department Modeling and Testing FY03 Work Activities'' (BSC 2003 [165601]), the In-Drift Precipitates/Salts (IDPS) model is developed and refined to predict the aqueous geochemical effects of evaporation in the proposed repository. The purpose of this work is to provide a model for describing and predicting the postclosure effects of evaporation and deliquescence on the chemical composition of water within the proposed Engineered Barrier System (EBS). Application of this model is to be documented elsewhere for the Total System Performance Assessment License Application (TSPA-LA). The principal application of this model is to be documented in REV 02 of ''Engineered Barrier System: Physical and Chemical Environment Model'' (BSC 2003 [165601]). The scope of this document is to develop, describe, and validate the IDPS model. This model is a quasi-equilibrium model. All reactions proceed to equilibrium except for several suppressed minerals in the thermodynamic database not expected to form under the proposed repository conditions within the modeling timeframe. In this revision, upgrades to the EQ3/6 code (Version 8.0) and Pitzer thermodynamic database improve the applicable range of the model. These new additions allow equilibrium and reaction-path modeling of evaporation to highly concentrated brines for potential water compositions of the system Na-K-H-Mg-Ca-Al-Cl-F-NO{sub 3}-SO{sub 4}-Br-CO{sub 3}-SiO{sub 2}-CO{sub 2}-O{sub 2}-H{sub 2}O at temperatures in the range of 0 C to 125 C, pressures in the atmospheric range, and relative humidity in the range of 0 to 100 percent. This system applies to oxidizing conditions only, and therefore limits the model to applications involving oxidizing conditions. A number of thermodynamic parameters in the Pitzer database have values that have not been determined or verified for the entire temperature range. In these cases, the known values are used to approximate the values for the rest of the temperature range. Although such treatment contributes to uncertainty in model outputs, the model validation test cases indicate that the model, with its associated uncertainty, is valid for its intended use. The intended use of this model is to estimate and tabulate, within an appropriate level of confidence, the effects of evaporation, deliquescence, and potential environmental conditions on the pH, ionic strength, and chemical compositions of water and minerals on the drip shield or other location within the drift during the postclosure period.

P. Mariner

2003-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

113

Spectroscopic ellipsometry of electrochemical precipitation and oxidation  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Spectroscopic ellipsometry of electrochemical precipitation and oxidation Spectroscopic ellipsometry of electrochemical precipitation and oxidation of nickel hydroxide films Title Spectroscopic ellipsometry of electrochemical precipitation and oxidation of nickel hydroxide films Publication Type Journal Article Year of Publication 1998 Authors Kong, Fanping, Robert Kostecki, Frank R. McLarnon, and Rolf H. Muller Journal Thin Solid Films Volume 313-314 Pagination 775-780 Keywords effective medium approximation, electrochemical precipitation, inhomogeneous films, nickel hydroxide, spectroscopic ellipsometry Abstract In situ spectroscopic ellipsometry was used to investigate the electrochemical precipitation of nickel hydroxide films. By use of optical models for inhomogeneous films it was found that a specific precipitation current density produced the most compact and homogeneous film structures. The density of nickel hydroxide films was derived to be 1.25-1.50 g/cm3. The redox behavior of precipitated nickel hydroxide films was studied with an effective-medium optical model. Incomplete conversion to nickel oxyhydroxide and a reduction in film thickness were found during the oxidation cycle.

114

Vertical Spatial Sensitivity and Exploration Depth of Low-Induction-Number Electromagnetic-Induction Instruments  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...overestimates of d e and poor estimates of layer thickness and composition, water content, or depth to interfaces such as the water...agricultural fields with GPR and EMI to identify offsite movement of agrochemicals. J. Appl. Geophys. 47:251-259. georef;2007029067...

James B. Callegary; Ty P. A. Ferré; R. W. Groom

115

Immobilization of metals using apatite minerals: Precipitation or sorption?  

SciTech Connect

Metals can be immobilized into stable phosphate phases (apatite minerals) in contaminated soils, sediments and groundwater. Most affected by this treatment are Pb, Zn, Cr, Cu, Cd, Ni, U, Ba, Cs, St, Pu, and all other lanthanides and actinides. The reaction can be nearly irreversible under subsurface conditions. Mine tailing soils from the Bunker Hill Mining District containing 0.4 wt% Pb, Zn and Cd, were treated using various apatites, and modelled using MINTEQA2. Under subsurface conditions, the metal-apatite phases were predicted to be the most stable for Pb, and only moderately stable for Zn and Cd. In column experiments on untreated and apatite-treated soils using vadose zone water, leachates from untreated Bunker Hill soils contained hundreds to thousands of mgkg{sup -1} (ppm) Pb, Zn and Cd, but leachates from apatite-treated Bunker Hill soils showed concentrations below the ICP/MS detection limits of 1 {mu}g kg{sup -1}. SEM and XRD indicated precipitation of Pb-hydropyromorphite that accounted for most of the Pb removal, but no Cd or Zn phosphate minerals appeared. A minor amount of otavite was precipitated, but most of the Cd and Zn were removed in such a way as to produce no XRD patterns. Either sorption dominated Cd and Zn removal or X-ray amorphous materials precipitated. pH had no effect on Pb removal, but significantly affected Cd and Zn.

Wright, J. [NESTT, Richland, WA (United States); Conca, J. [Washington State Univ., Richland, WA (United States); Moody, T. [Bechtel Hanford, Richland, WA (United States)] [and others

1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

116

High-resolution subsurface water-ice distributions on Mars  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... Theoretical models indicate that water ice is stable in the shallow subsurface (depths of water-ice table that steadily increases in depth with decreasing latitude. More detailed modelling has ...

Joshua L. Bandfield

2007-05-03T23:59:59.000Z

117

Cathode depth sensing in CZT detectors  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Measuring the depth of interaction in thick Cadmium-Zinc-Telluride (CZT) detectors allows improved imaging and spectroscopy for hard X-ray imaging above 100 keV. The Energetic X-ray Imaging Survey Telescope (EXIST) will employ relatively thick (5 - 10 mm) CZT detectors, which are required to perform the broad energy-band sky survey. Interaction depth information is needed to correct events to the detector "focal plane" for correct imaging and can be used to improve the energy resolution of the detector at high energies by allowing event-based corrections for incomplete charge collection. Background rejection is also improved by allowing low energy events from the rear and sides of the detector to be rejected. We present experimental results of interaction depth sensing in a 5 mm thick pixellated Au-contact IMARAD CZT detector. The depth sensing was done by making simultaneous measurements of cathode and anode signals, where the interaction depth at a given energy is proportional to the ratio of cathode/anode signals. We demonstrate how a simple empirical formula describing the event distributions in the cathode/anode signal space can dramatically improve the energy resolution. We also estimate the energy and depth resolution of the detector as a function of the energy and the interaction depth. We also show a depth-sensing prototype system currently under development for EXIST in which cathode signals from 8, 16 or 32 crystals can be read-out by a small multi-channel ASIC board that is vertically edge-mounted on the cathode electrode along every second CZT crystal boundary. This allows CZT crystals to be tiled contiguously with minimum impact on throughput of incoming photons. The robust packaging is crucial in EXIST, which will employ very large area imaging CZT detector arrays.

J. Hong; E. C. Bellm; J. E. Grindlay; T. Narita

2003-10-16T23:59:59.000Z

118

Precipitation Banding in Idealized Baroclinic Waves  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Moist idealized baroclinic-wave simulations show the development of precipitation bands from a zonally uniform initial midlatitude jet. For a frictionless lower boundary, and with no latent-heat release or surface heat and moisture fluxes, warm ...

Jesse Norris; Geraint Vaughan; David M. Schultz

2014-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

119

Testing Competing High-Resolution Precipitation Forecasts  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Testing Competing High-Resolution Precipitation Forecasts Eric Gilleland Research Prediction Comparison Test D1 D2 D = D1 ­ D2 copyright NCAR 2013 Loss Differential Field #12;Spatial Prediction Comparison Test Introduced by Hering and Genton

Gilleland, Eric

120

The Environment of Precipitating Shallow Cumulus Convection  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Quantitative estimates of precipitation in a typical undisturbed trade wind region are derived from 2 months of radar reflectivity data and compared to the meteorological environment determined from soundings, surface flux, and airborne-lidar ...

Louise Nuijens; Bjorn Stevens; A. Pier Siebesma

2009-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "depth precipitable water" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Advanced Concepts on Remote Sensing of Precipitation at Multiple Scales  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of satellite-based global precipitation data in weather andvarious satellite series have provided valuable weathersatellite precipitation research community, instru- ment development teams, military weather

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

122

An analysis of winter precipitation in the northeast and a winter weather precipitation type forecasting tool for New York City  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

are produced. The hourly precipitation-type climatologist present the probabilities for particular precipitation types (frozen, freezing, rain, and mixed) for 2F? temperature intervals from 8F? to 44F?. The synoptic precipitation-type climatologist provide...

Gordon, Christopher James

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

123

Precipitable water structure in tropical systems as estimated from TOVS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and OLR . . . 28 67 85 6. Annual and semi-annual cycle effect estimates for selected areas . . . 89 LIST OF FIGURES Figure Page 1. PW fields from three models for 8 Feb 1988. Contour intervals are. 5 cm. . 34 2. PW fields from three models for 10... Feb 1988. Contour intervals are. 5 cm. 35 3. PW field for 9 Jan 1988. Contour intervals are . 5 cm. . 37 4. OLR field for 9 Jan 1988. Contour intervals are 25 Wm-2. . . . 38 5. PW fields from three models for 15 Aug 1990. Contour intervals are . 5...

Hatfield, Eric

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

124

Carbon gas fluxes from a brown-water and a clear-water lake in the ...  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

48.7 mg m-2) and water color (100 vs. 20 mg Pt L-1) throughout an open-water period when summer precipitation doubled, using both floating chambers and ...

125

A shallow-water system for sampling macrobenthic infauna  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Oct 1, 1973 ... of materials between water and sediments. ... water estuarine areas penetrated to a depth of 2O- .... pelled by a 7 hp outboard motor, which.

1999-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

126

Absolute Approximation of Tukey Depth: Theory and Experiments  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Absolute Approximation of Tukey Depth: Theory and Experiments Dan Chen School of Computer Science¨ur Theoretische Informatik Abstract A Monte Carlo approximation algorithm for the Tukey depth problem in high. Keywords: Tukey depth, computational geometry 1. Introduction Tukey depth is also known as location depth

Morin, Pat

127

Mineral Precipitation Upgradient from a Zero-Valent Iron Permeable Reactive Barrier  

SciTech Connect

Core samples taken from a zero-valent iron permeable reactive barrier (ZVI PRB) at Cornhusker Army Ammunition Plant, Nebraska, were analyzed for physical and chemical characteristics. Precipitates containing iron and sulfide were present at much higher concentrations in native aquifer materials just upgradient of the PRB than in the PRB itself. Sulfur mass balance on core solids coupled with trends in ground water sulfate concentrations indicates that the average ground water flow after 20 months of PRB operation was approximately twenty fold less than the regional ground water velocity. Transport and reaction modeling of the aquifer PRB interface suggests that, at the calculated velocity, both iron and hydrogen could diffuse upgradient against ground water flow and thereby contribute to precipitation in the native aquifer materials. The initial hydraulic conductivity (K) of the native materials is less than that of the PRB and, given the observed precipitation in the upgradient native materials, it is likely that K reduction occurred upgradient to rather than within the PRB. Although not directly implicated, guar gum used during installation of the PRB is believed to have played a role in the precipitation and flow reduction processes by enhancing microbial activity.

Johnson, R. L.; Thoms, R. B.; Johnson, R. O.; Nurmi, J. T.; Tratnyek, Paul G.

2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

128

Regional trends and local variability in monsoon precipitation in the northern Chihuahuan Desert, USA  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, monsoon precipitation can affect changes to the land surface, vege- tation communities and ecosystem throughout the 20th century and continues to affect the biotic and abiotic components of southwestern US ecology locally and regionally (Snyder and Tartowski, 2006). In many water-driven ecosystems, vegetation

129

Estimating Annual Precipitation in the Fenner Basin of the Eastern Mojave Desert, California  

SciTech Connect

Metropolitan Water District (MWD) of southern California and Cadiz Inc. investigated the feasibility of storing Colorado River water in groundwater aquifers of the eastern Mojave Desert as a future drought mitigation strategy. This culminated in the public release of the Cadiz Groundwater Storage and Dry-Year Supply program Draft EIR, which included pilot percolation studies, groundwater modeling, and precipitation/runoff analysis in the Fenner groundwater basin, which overlies the proposed storage site. The project proposes to store and withdrawal Colorado River water over a 50-year period, but will not exceed the natural replenishment rates of the groundwater basin. Several independent analyses were conducted to estimate the rates of natural groundwater replenishment to the Fenner Groundwater Basin which was included in the Draft EIR. The US Geologic Survey, Water Resources Division (WRD) officially submitted comments during public review and concluded that the natural groundwater replenishment rates calculated for the Draft EIR were too high. In the WRD review, they provided a much lower recharge calculation based on a Maxey-Eakin estimation approach. This approach estimates annual precipitation over an entire basin as a function of elevation, followed by calibration against annual recharge rates. Previous attempts to create precipitation-elevation functions in western Nevada have been difficult and result in large uncertainty. In the WRD data analysis, the effect of geographic scale on the precipitation-elevation function was overlooked. This contributed to an erroneous Maxey-Eakin recharge estimate.

Davisson, M.L.; Rose, T.P.

2000-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

130

Effects of alteration product precipitation on glass dissolution  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Understanding the mechanisms that control the durability of nuclear waste glass is paramount if reliable models are to be constructed so that the glass dissolution rate in a given geological repository can be calculated. Presently, it is agreed that (boro)silicate glasses dissolve in water at a rate dependent on the solution concentration of orthosilicic acid (H4SiO4) with higher [H4SiO4] leading to lower dissolution rates. Once the reaction has slowed as a result of the buildup of H4SiO4, another increase in the rate has been observed that corresponds to the precipitation of certain silica-bearing alteration products. However, it has also been observed that the concentration of silica-bearing solution species does not significantly decrease, indicating saturation, while other glass tracer elements concentrations continue to increase, indicating that the glass is still dissolving. In this study, we have used the Geochemist’s Workbench code to investigate the relationship between glass dissolution rates and the precipitation rate of a representative zeolitic silica-bearing alteration product, analcime [Na(AlSi2O6)?H2O]. To simplify the calculations, we suppressed all alteration products except analcime, gibbsite (Al(OH)3), and amorphous silica. The pseudo-equilibrium-constant matrix for amorphous silica was substituted for the glass pseudo-equilibrium-constant matrix because it has been shown that silicate glasses act as a silica-only solid with respect to kinetic considerations. In this article, we present the results of our calculations of the glass dissolution rate at different values for the analcime precipitation rate constant and the effects of varying the glass dissolution rate constant at a constant analcime precipitation rate constant. From the simulations we conclude, firstly, that the rate of glass dissolution is dependent on the kinetics of formation of the zeolitic phase. Therefore, the kinetics of secondary phase formation is an important parameter that should be taken into account in future glass dissolution modeling efforts. Secondly, the results indicate that, in the absence of a gel layer, the glass dissolution rate controls the rate of analcime precipitation in the long term. The meaning of these results pertinent to long-term glass durability is discussed.

Denis M. Strachan; James J. Neeway

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

131

Precipitation of petroleum sulfonates by magnesium ions  

SciTech Connect

The precipitation of petroleum sulfonates was accomplished by the addition of magnesium ions. The magnesium tolerance, defined as the total magnesium concentration at which 5% of the total sulfonate was precipitated, was determined in aqueous solution for 20 commercial petroleum sulfonates. The magnesium tolerances ranged from essentially zero up to 2300 ppM of magnesium. The level of magnesium tolerated increases as the average equivalent weight of the sulfonate decreases. The precipitate formed during the reaction includes a high percentage of sodium sulfonate as well as magnesium sulfonate. All of the samples were prepared to contain 3% active sulfonate, and the reaction temperature was 30/sup 0/C. The precipitate was removed by centrifuging and filtering. The amount of unreacted sulfonate remaining in the filtrate was determined indirectly by measuring the magnesium and sodium remaining in the filtrate. The viscosities of the filtrates were found to change as the amount of magnesium added was increased. The viscosity goes through at least one maximum before rapid precipitation of sulfonate occurs. 5 figures, 2 tables.

French, T.R.; Collins, A.G.

1980-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

132

Determining Nighttime Atmospheric Optical Depth Using Mars Exploration Rover Images  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

was compared to the expected flux to give nighttime optical depth values. The observed nighttime optical depth was consistently similar to the daytime optical depth values on both an individual image and sol-averaged basis. Recommendations are made going...

Bean, Keri Marie

2013-07-22T23:59:59.000Z

133

LLNL scientists find precipitation, global warming link  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

4 4 For immediate release: 11/11/2013 | NR-13-11-04 Lawrence Livermore scientists have found that observed changes in global precipitation are directly affected by human activities. LLNL scientists find precipitation, global warming link Anne M Stark, LLNL, (925) 422-9799, stark8@llnl.gov LIVERMORE, Calif. -- The rain in Spain may lie mainly on the plain, but the location and intensity of that rain is changing not only in Spain but around the globe. A new study by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory scientists shows that observed changes in global (ocean and land) precipitation are directly affected by human activities and cannot be explained by natural variability alone. The research appears in the Nov. 11 online edition of the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.

134

PublicationsmailagreementNo.40014024 maximum depth  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and a video camera to complete installation of the world's first regional cabled ocean observatory. NEPTUNE- tion systems that--using power and the internet--provide continuous, long-term monitoring of oceanPublicationsmailagreementNo.40014024 THE 2.7km maximum depth beneath the ocean surface of neptune

Pedersen, Tom

135

High volume, multiple use, portable precipitator  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A portable high air volume electrostatic collection precipitator for analyzing air is provided which is a relatively small, self-contained device. The device has a collection electrode adapted to carry a variety of collecting media. An air intake is provided such that air to be analyzed flows through an ionization section with a transversely positioned ionization wire to ionize analytes in the air, and then flows over the collection electrode where ionized analytes are collected. Air flow is maintained at but below turbulent flow, Ionizable constituents in the air are ionized, attracted to the collection electrode, and precipitated in the selected medium which can be removed for analysis.

Carlson, Duane C. (N. Augusta, SC)

2011-10-25T23:59:59.000Z

136

Cloud Properties and Precipitation Formation Processes Observed  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of spring time precipitation that develops in the Riyadh, Saudi Arabia region. · What are the cloud properties for developing cloud in the Riyadh, Saudi Arabia region. Research Objective #12;#12;Quality is based on calibration conducted by Kelly bosch and Dennis Afseth at Weather Modification Inc. (WMI) on 22

Delene, David J.

137

Superconductor precursor mixtures made by precipitation method  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Method and apparatus for preparing highly pure homogeneous precursor powder mixtures for metal oxide superconductive ceramics. The mixes are prepared by instantaneous precipitation from stoichiometric solutions of metal salts such as nitrates at controlled pH's within the 9 to 12 range, by addition of solutions of non-complexing pyrolyzable cations, such as alkyammonium and carbonate ions.

Bunker, Bruce C. (Albuquerque, NM); Lamppa, Diana L. (Albuquerque, NM); Voigt, James A. (Albuquerque, NM)

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

138

Diurnal Precipitation Regimes in the Global Tropics  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Diurnal variations of the global tropical precipitation are documented by using two complementary Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) datasets (3B42 and 3G68) for 1998–2006 in an attempt to provide a unified view of the diurnal cycle and a ...

Kazuyoshi Kikuchi; Bin Wang

2008-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

139

The Annual Cycle of East African Precipitation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

East African precipitation is characterized by a dry annual mean climatology compared to other deep tropical land areas and a bimodal annual cycle with the major rainy season during March–May (MAM, often called the “long rains”) and the second ...

Wenchang Yang; Richard Seager; Mark A. Cane; Bradfield Lyon

140

Fast neutron background measurements at shallow depths  

SciTech Connect

We report on measurements of the neutron backgrounds for neutrino experiments at shallow depth (such as the proposed San Onofre neutrino oscillation experiment). A detector capable of pulse-shape discrimination measured the flux of fast neutrons at 20 mwe depth in the Stanford Underground Facility to be (1.07 {+-} 0.30) X 10{sup -6} cm{sup -2} s{sup -1}. An experiment, situated in the Tendon Gallery of the San Onofre Unit 2 reactor. studied spallation neutrons from muons traversing Pb and Cu. An underground experiment in the SUF, employing a detector filled with Gd-loaded liquid scintillator, is measuring the neutron production rate and multiplicity for muon spallation in low-A material (hydrocarbon-based liquid scintillator).

Chen, M.; Hertenberger, R.; Novikov, V. [Inst. of Nuclear Research, Moscow (Russian Federation); Dougherty, B.

1993-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "depth precipitable water" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Prediction of regional seasonal fluctuations in precipitation based on chaos theory  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In the past decade, the combined effect of flood and drought resulted in the loss of thousands of lives and billions of dollars. Multi season ahead prediction of regional precipitation extremes could significantly reduce losses. However, the evolution of climate is highly sensitive to initial conditions, or chaotic, so practical long term prediction of precipitation in time is impossible. Adding to the difficulty, the climate system is non-stationary; with the energy available to move water and air as tracked by global average surface temperature (GAST) increasing over the last several decades2. Neither purely empirical autoregression, nor global circulation models (GCM) are sufficiently accurate. Here I use statistical methods motivated by chaos theory to predict seasonal fluctuations in regional and local precipitation with high correlation. The change in GAST is accommodated using special runs of a global circulation model to build an initial set of predictive models, while ground data is used to train, co...

LuValle, M

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

142

Rapid optical method for logging dust concentration versus depth in glacial ice  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

to a cable that can lower the device down a 3-in. 7.5-cm borehole filled with butyl acetate. LED photons to the attenuation by particles.6 The AMANDA collaboration recently completed a large observatory, buried in deep a hot-water drilling tech- nique, they melted cylindrical holes down to depths of 2000 m in which were

Price, P. Buford

143

Innovative Water Management Technology to Reduce Environment Impacts of Produced Water  

SciTech Connect

Clemson University with Chevron as an industry partner developed and applied treatment technology using constructed wetland systems to decrease targeted constituents in simulated and actual produced waters to achieve reuse criteria and discharge limits. Pilot-scale and demonstration constructed wetland treatment system (CWTS) experiments led to design strategies for treating a variety of constituents of concern (COCs) in produced waters including divalent metals, metalloids, oil and grease, and ammonia. Targeted biogeochemical pathways for treatment of COCs in pilot-scale CWTS experiments included divalent metal sulfide precipitation through dissimilatory sulfate reduction, metal precipitation through oxidation, reduction of selenite to insoluble elemental selenium, aerobic biodegradation of oil, nitrification of ammonia to nitrate, denitrification of nitrate to nitrogen gas, separation of oil using an oilwater separator, and sorption of ammonia to zeolite. Treatment performance results indicated that CWTSs can be designed and built to promote specific environmental and geochemical conditions in order for targeted biogeochemical pathways to operate. The demonstration system successfully achieved consistent removal extents even while inflow concentrations of COCs in the produced water differed by orders of magnitude. Design strategies used in the pilot-scale and demonstration CWTSs to promote specific conditions that can be applied to designing full-scale CWTSs include plant and soil selection, water-depth selection, addition of amendments, and hydraulic retention time (HRT). These strategies allow conditions within a CWTS to be modified to achieve ranges necessary for the preferred biogeochemical treatment pathways. In the case of renovating a produced water containing COCs that require different biogeochemical pathways for treatment, a CWTS can be designed with sequential cells that promote different conditions. For example, the pilot-scale CWTS for post-reverse osmosis produced water was designed to promote oxidizing conditions within the first wetland cell for nitrification of ammonia, and the subsequent three cells were designed to promote reducing conditions for denitrification of nitrate. By incorporating multiple wetland cells in a CWTS, the conditions within each cell can be modified for removal of specific COCs. In addition, a CWTS designed with multiple cells allows for convenient sample collection points so that biogeochemical conditions of individual cells can be monitored and performance evaluated. Removal rate coefficients determined from the pilot-scale CWTS experiments and confirmed by the demonstration system can be used to calculate HRTs required to treat COCs in full-scale CWTSs. The calculated HRTs can then be used to determine the surface area or ?footprint? of a full-size CWTS for a given inflow rate of produced water.

Castle, James; Rodgers, John; Alley, Bethany; Coffey, Ruthanne; Jurinko, Kristen; Pardue, Michael; Ritter, Tina; Spacil, Michael

2013-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

144

Innovative Water Management Technology to Reduce Environmental Impacts of Produced Water  

SciTech Connect

Clemson University with Chevron as an industry partner developed and applied treatment technology using constructed wetland systems to decrease targeted constituents in simulated and actual produced waters to achieve reuse criteria and discharge limits. Pilot-scale and demonstration constructed wetland treatment system (CWTS) experiments led to design strategies for treating a variety of constituents of concern (COCs) in produced waters including divalent metals, metalloids, oil and grease, and ammonia. Targeted biogeochemical pathways for treatment of COCs in pilot-scale CWTS experiments included divalent metal sulfide precipitation through dissimilatory sulfate reduction, metal precipitation through oxidation, reduction of selenite to insoluble elemental selenium, aerobic biodegradation of oil, nitrification of ammonia to nitrate, denitrification of nitrate to nitrogen gas, separation of oil using an oilwater separator, and sorption of ammonia to zeolite. Treatment performance results indicated that CWTSs can be designed and built to promote specific environmental and geochemical conditions in order for targeted biogeochemical pathways to operate. The demonstration system successfully achieved consistent removal extents even while inflow concentrations of COCs in the produced water differed by orders of magnitude. Design strategies used in the pilot-scale and demonstration CWTSs to promote specific conditions that can be applied to designing full-scale CWTSs include plant and soil selection, water-depth selection, addition of amendments, and hydraulic retention time (HRT). These strategies allow conditions within a CWTS to be modified to achieve ranges necessary for the preferred biogeochemical treatment pathways. In the case of renovating a produced water containing COCs that require different biogeochemical pathways for treatment, a CWTS can be designed with sequential cells that promote different conditions. For example, the pilot-scale CWTS for post-reverse osmosis produced water was designed to promote oxidizing conditions within the first wetland cell for nitrification of ammonia, and the subsequent three cells were designed to promote reducing conditions for denitrification of nitrate. By incorporating multiple wetland cells in a CWTS, the conditions within each cell can be modified for removal of specific COCs. In addition, a CWTS designed with multiple cells allows for convenient sample collection points so that biogeochemical conditions of individual cells can be monitored and performance evaluated. Removal rate coefficients determined from the pilot-scale CWTS experiments and confirmed by the demonstration system can be used to calculate HRTs required to treat COCs in full-scale CWTSs. The calculated HRTs can then be used to determine the surface area or ?footprint? of a full-size CWTS for a given inflow rate of produced water.

Castle, James; Rodgers, John; Alley, Bethany; Beebe, Alex; Coffey, Ruthanne; Jurinko, Kristen; Pardue, Michael; Ritter, Tina; Spacil, Michael

2013-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

145

A SIMPLE WATER MANOMETER FOR RECORDING INTESTINAL ACTIVITY  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...MEDICINE A SIMPLE WATER MANOMETER FOR RECORDING...purification by prolonged electrodialysis and repeated precipitations...strongly after this treatment. In spite of lengthy electrodialysis, it still contains...very soluble in water, forming a slightly...

STEPHEN KROP; TED A. LOOMIS

1945-08-10T23:59:59.000Z

146

Error Analysis of Satellite Precipitation Products in Mountainous Basins  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Accurate quantitative precipitation estimation over mountainous basins is of great importance because of their susceptibility to hazards such as flash floods, shallow landslides, and debris flows, triggered by heavy precipitation events (HPEs). In ...

Yiwen Mei; Emmanouil N. Anagnostou; Efthymios I. Nikolopoulos; Marco Borga

2014-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

147

The precipitation sequence in Al-Mg-Si alloys  

SciTech Connect

Fine-scale precipitation that occurs during age hardening of Al alloy 6061 has been studied using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), atom probe field ion microscopy (APFIM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). It was found that the precipitation sequence is: independent clusters of Mg and Si atoms {yields} co-clusters that contain Mg and Si atoms {yields} small precipitates of unknown structure {yields} {beta}{double_prime} needle-shaped precipitates {yields} B{prime} lath-shaped precipitates and {beta}{prime} rod-shaped precipitates. A new structure is proposed for the {beta}{double_prime} precipitate. It was found that the Mg:Si ratio in the intermediate precipitates and co-clusters was close to 1:1.

Edwards, G.A.; Dunlop, G.L. [Univ. of Queensland, Brisbane, Queensland (Australia)] [Univ. of Queensland, Brisbane, Queensland (Australia); Stiller, K. [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Gothenburg (Sweden)] [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Gothenburg (Sweden); Couper, M.J. [Comalco Research Centre, Thomastown, Victoria (Australia)] [Comalco Research Centre, Thomastown, Victoria (Australia)

1998-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

148

Diurnal Precipitation Variations in South-Central New Mexico  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Orographic forcing of diurnal precipitation variations in south-central New Mexico is examined. Harmonic analysis reveals a strong diurnal cycle in precipitation frequency at all stations studied. In addition, relatively high amplitudes in the ...

Donna F. Tucker

1993-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

149

Diurnal Variations of Warm-Season Precipitation over Northern China  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This study examines the diurnal variations of the warm-season precipitation over northern China using the high-resolution precipitation products obtained from the Climate Prediction Center’s morphing technique (CMORPH) during May–August of 2003–...

Huizhong He; Fuqing Zhang

2010-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

150

A Micro-Alloyed Ferritic Steel Strengthened by Nanoscale Precipitates...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

and the interior of grains. The dual precipitate structure of finely dispersive TiC precipitates in the matrix and coarse M23C6 at grain boundaries provides combined...

151

Diurnal variation of tropical precipitation using five years TRMM data  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Microwave Imager (TMI) and Precipitation Radar (PR) data are used in this study to reveal diurnal variations of precipitation over the Tropics (30?S ? 30?N) from January, 1998...

Wu, Qiaoyan

2004-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

152

A critical analysis of bulk precipitation recycling models  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Precipitation recycling is the contribution of local land evaporation to the precipitation of a region. The significant local evaporative contribution to rainfall in many continental regions highlights the potential ...

Fitzmaurice, Jean Anne

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

153

Reduction of tropical land region precipitation variability via transpiration  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Tropical rainforests are known to exhibit low intraseasonal precipitation variability compared with oceanic areas with similar mean precipitation in observations and models. In the present study, the potential role of ...

Lee, Jung-Eun

154

Performance of Quality Assurance Procedures on Daily Precipitation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The search for precipitation quality control (QC) methods has proven difficult. The high spatial and temporal variability associated with precipitation data causes high uncertainty and edge creep when regression-based approaches are applied. ...

Jinsheng You; Kenneth G. Hubbard; Saralees Nadarajah; Kenneth E. Kunkel

2007-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

155

Global estimation of precipitation using opaque microwave bands  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This thesis describes the use of opaque microwave bands for global estimation of precipitation rate. An algorithm was developed for estimating instantaneous precipitation rate for the Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit (AMSU) ...

Chen, Frederick Wey-Min, 1975-

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

156

Sensitivity of tropical precipitation extremes to climate change  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Precipitation extremes increase in intensity over many regions of the globe in simulations of a warming climate1, 2, 3. The rate of increase of precipitation extremes in the extratropics is consistent across global climate ...

O'Gorman, Paul Ambrose

157

Defect- and Strain-enhanced Cavity Formation and Au Precipitation...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Defect- and Strain-enhanced Cavity Formation and Au Precipitation at nano-crystalline ZrO2SiO2Si Interfaces . Defect- and Strain-enhanced Cavity Formation and Au Precipitation at...

158

Augmenting Satellite Precipitation Estimation with Lightning Information  

SciTech Connect

We have used lightning information to augment the Precipitation Estimation from Remotely Sensed Imagery using an Artificial Neural Network - Cloud Classification System (PERSIANN-CCS). Co-located lightning data are used to segregate cloud patches, segmented from GOES-12 infrared data, into either electrified (EL) or non-electrified (NEL) patches. A set of features is extracted separately for the EL and NEL cloud patches. The features for the EL cloud patches include new features based on the lightning information. The cloud patches are classified and clustered using self-organizing maps (SOM). Then brightness temperature and rain rate (T-R) relationships are derived for the different clusters. Rain rates are estimated for the cloud patches based on their representative T-R relationship. The Equitable Threat Score (ETS) for daily precipitation estimates is improved by almost 12% for the winter season. In the summer, no significant improvements in ETS are noted.

Mahrooghy, Majid [Mississippi State University (MSU); Anantharaj, Valentine G [ORNL; Younan, Nicolas H. [Mississippi State University (MSU); Petersen, Walter A. [NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, AL; Hsu, Kuo-Lin [University of California, Irvine; Behrangi, Ali [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA; Aanstoos, James [Mississippi State University (MSU)

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

159

Thermodynamic modeling for organic solid precipitation  

SciTech Connect

A generalized predictive model which is based on thermodynamic principle for solid-liquid phase equilibrium has been developed for organic solid precipitation. The model takes into account the effects of temperature, composition, and activity coefficient on the solubility of wax and asphaltenes in organic solutions. The solid-liquid equilibrium K-value is expressed as a function of the heat of melting, melting point temperature, solubility parameter, and the molar volume of each component in the solution. All these parameters have been correlated with molecular weight. Thus, the model can be applied to crude oil systems. The model has been tested with experimental data for wax formation and asphaltene precipitation. The predicted wax appearance temperature is very close to the measured temperature. The model not only can match the measured asphaltene solubility data but also can be used to predict the solubility of asphaltene in organic solvents or crude oils. The model assumes that asphaltenes are dissolved in oil in a true liquid state, not in colloidal suspension, and the precipitation-dissolution process is reversible by changing thermodynamic conditions. The model is thermodynamically consistent and has no ambiguous assumptions.

Chung, T.H.

1992-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

160

Winter Precipitation Microphysics Characterized by Polarimetric Radar and Video Disdrometer  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

are dependent on the type of precipitation that reaches the surface. Winter storms such as freezing rain precipitation not having the mixed phase. There are also some studies that focus on various winter precipitation types. Trapp et al (2001) used a polarimetric radar to observe a winter storm event with snow and mixed-phase

Droegemeier, Kelvin K.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "depth precipitable water" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Kaolinite dissolution and precipitation kinetics at 22oC and pH 4  

SciTech Connect

Dissolution and precipitation rates of low defect Georgia kaolinite (KGa-1b) as a function of Gibbs free energy of reaction (or reaction affinity) were measured at 22 C and pH 4 in continuously stirred flowthrough reactors. Steady state dissolution experiments showed slightly incongruent dissolution, with a Si/Al ratio of about 1.12 that is attributed to the re-adsorption of Al on to the kaolinite surface. No inhibition of the kaolinite dissolution rate was apparent when dissolved aluminum was varied from 0 and 60 {micro}M. The relationship between dissolution rates and the reaction affinity can be described well by a Transition State Theory (TST) rate formulation with a Temkin coefficient of 2 R{sub diss} (mol/m{sup 2}s) = 1.15 x 10{sup -13} [1-exp(-{Delta}G/2RT)]. Stopping of flow in a close to equilibrium dissolution experiment yielded a solubility constant for kaolinite at 22 C of 10{sup 7.57}. Experiments on the precipitation kinetics of kaolinite showed a more complex behavior. One conducted using kaolinite seed that had previously undergone extensive dissolution under far from equilibrium conditions for 5 months showed a quasi-steady state precipitation rate for 105 hours that was compatible with the TST expression above. After this initial period, however, precipitation rates decreased by an order of magnitude, and like other precipitation experiments conducted at higher supersaturation and without kaolinite seed subjected to extensive prior dissolution, could not be described with the TST law. The initial quasi-steady state rate is interpreted as growth on activated sites created by the dissolution process, but this reversible growth mechanism could not be maintained once these sites were filled. Long-term precipitation rates showed a linear dependence on solution saturation state that is generally consistent with a two dimensional nucleation growth mechanism following the equation R{sub ppt}(mol/m{sup 2}s) = 3.38 x 10{sup -14} exp[- 181776/T{sup 2} 1n{Omega}]. Further analysis using Synchrotron Scanning Transmission X-ray Microscopy (STXM) in Total Electron Yield (TEY) mode of the material from the precipitation experiments showed spectra for newly precipitated material compatible with kaolinite. An idealized set of reactive transport simulations of the chemical weathering of albite to kaolinite using rate laws from HELLMANN and TISSERAND (2006) and this study respectively indicate that while pore waters are likely to be close to equilibrium with respect to kaolinite at pH 4, significant kaolinite supersaturation may occur at higher pH if its precipitation rate is pH dependent.

Steefel, Carl; Yang, L.; Steefel, C.I.

2008-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

162

Seasonal Variations of Snow Depth on Mars  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...rises above the CO2 condensation temperature, and...and has a lower atmospheric pressure, and as...observations of atmospheric water vapor during some...to be a locus of atmospheric CO2 condensation (12, 25, 26...

David E. Smith; Maria T. Zuber; Gregory A. Neumann

2001-12-07T23:59:59.000Z

163

Global Patterns of Groundwater Table Depth  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...case study from a crystalline-rock watershed in southern India...E. Ingebritsen S. E. , Permeability of the continental crust: Implications...with exponentially decreasing permeability and porosity . Water Resour. Res. 46...

Y. Fan; H. Li; G. Miguez-Macho

2013-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

164

Soil temperature, soil moisture and thaw depth, Barrow, Alaska, Ver. 1  

SciTech Connect

This dataset consists of field measurements of soil properties made during 2012 and 2013 in areas A-D of Intensive Site 1 at the Next-Generation Ecosystem Experiments (NGEE) Arctic site near Barrow, Alaska. Included are i) weekly measurements of thaw depth, soil moisture, presence and depth of standing water, and soil temperature made during the 2012 and 2013 growing seasons (June - September) and ii) half-hourly measurements of soil temperature logged continuously during the period June 2012 to September 2013.

Sloan, V.L.; J.A. Liebig; M.S. Hahn; J.B. Curtis; J.D. Brooks; A. Rogers; C.M. Iversen; R.J. Norby

2014-01-10T23:59:59.000Z

165

Depth profiling ambient noise in the deep ocean  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

al. , 2005). The vertical profile of wind speed over the seavertical directionality…………… Depth-dependence of wind speedVertical noise directional density function versus depth. 93 Measured and acoustically estimated wind speeds.

Barclay, David Readshaw

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

166

Neptunium_Oxide_Precipitation_Kinetics_AJohnsen  

SciTech Connect

We evaluate the proposed NpO{sub 2}{sup +}(aq)-NpO{sub 2}(cr) reduction-precipitation system at elevated temperatures to obtain primary information on the effects of temperature, ionic strength, O{sub 2} and CO{sub 2}. Experiments conducted on unfiltered solutions at 10{sup -4} M NpO{sub 2}{sup +}(aq), neutral pH, and 200 C indicated that solution colloids strongly affect precipitation kinetics. Subsequent experiments on filtered solutions at 200, 212, and 225 C showed consistent and distinctive temperature-dependent behavior at reaction times {le} 800 hours. At longer times, the 200 C experiments showed unexpected dissolution of neptunium solids, but experiments at 212 C and 225 C demonstrated quasi steady-state neptunium concentrations of 3 x 10{sup -6} M and 6 x 10{sup -6} M, respectively. Solids from a representative experiment analyzed by X-ray diffraction were consistent with NpO{sub 2}(cr). A 200 C experiment with a NaCl concentration of 0.05 M showed a dramatic increase in the rate of neptunium loss. A 200 C experiment in an argon atmosphere resulted in nearly complete loss of aqueous neptunium. Previously proposed NpO{sub 2}{sup +}(aq)-NpO{sub 2}(cr) reduction-precipitation mechanisms in the literature specified a 1:1 ratio of neptunium loss and H{sup +} production in solution over time. However, all experiments demonstrated ratios of approximately 0.4 to 0.5. Carbonate equilibria can account for only about 40% of this discrepancy, leaving an unexpected deficit in H+ production that suggests that additional chemical processes are occurring.

Johnsen, A M; Roberts, K E; Prussin, S G

2012-06-08T23:59:59.000Z

167

Methods for predicting wax precipitation and deposition  

SciTech Connect

Removal of wax from wells and flowlines can account for significant additional operating costs. To evaluate these potential costs, the operating conditions that allow waxes to precipitate in the wellbore must be identified, and deposition rates must be estimated to determine the costs associated with removal of wax deposits. Presented in this paper are laboratory and analytic methods that can be used to estimate both the critical operating conditions and the deposition rates. The laboratory tests and analysis presented may be used to characterize any type of oil.

Weingarten, J.S.; Euchner, J.A.

1988-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

168

Output-Sensitive Algorithms for Tukey Depth and Related Problems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Output-Sensitive Algorithms for Tukey Depth and Related Problems David Bremner University of New de Bruxelles Pat Morin Carleton University Abstract The Tukey depth (Tukey 1975) of a point p halfspace that contains p. Algorithms for computing the Tukey depth of a point in various dimensions

Morin, Pat

169

Iron Chloride Precipitation of Viruses from Seawater Revision: 25 Mar 2014 Tucson Marine Phage Lab Page 1 of 5  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

waters using iron- based flocculation and large-pore-size filtration, followed by resuspension of virus- containing precipitates in a pH 6 buffer. This Fe-based virus flocculation, filtration and resuspension in the resuspension buffer. Particles lose infectivity if resuspended with ascorbic acid in the buffer. PCR inhibition

Sullivan, Matthew B.

170

Development of a methodology to evaluate probable maximum precipitation (PMP) under changing climate conditions: Application to southern Quebec, Canada  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Summary Climate change (CC) needs to be accounted for in the estimation of probable maximum floods (PMFs). However, there does not exist a unique way to estimate \\{PMFs\\} and, furthermore the challenge in estimating them is that they should neither be underestimated for safety reasons nor overestimated for economical ones. By estimating \\{PMFs\\} without accounting for CC, the risk of underestimation could be high for Quebec, Canada, since future climate simulations indicate that in all likelihood extreme precipitation events will intensify. In this paper, simulation outputs from the Canadian Regional Climate Model (CRCM) are used to develop a methodology to estimate probable maximum precipitations (PMPs) while accounting for changing climate conditions for the southern region of the Province of Quebec, Canada. The Kénogami and Yamaska watersheds are herein of particular interest, since dam failures could lead to major downstream impacts. Precipitable water (w) represents one of the key variables in the estimation process of PMPs. Results of stationary tests indicate that CC will not only affect precipitation and temperature but also the monthly maximum precipitable water, wmax, and the ensuing maximization ratio used for the estimation of PMPs. An up-to-date computational method is developed to maximize w using a non-stationary frequency analysis, and then calculate the maximization ratios. The ratios estimated this way are deemed reliable since they rarely exceed threshold values set for Quebec, and, therefore, provide consistent PMP estimates. The results show an overall significant increase of the \\{PMPs\\} throughout the current century compared to the recent past.

Alain N. Rousseau; Iris M. Klein; Daphné Freudiger; Patrick Gagnon; Anne Frigon; Claudie Ratté-Fortin

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

171

Implications of the UHECRs penetration depth measurements  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The simple interpretation of PAO's UHECRs' penetration depth measurements suggests a transition at the energy range $1.1 - 35 \\cdot 10^{18} $ eV from protons to heavier nuclei. A detailed comparison of this data with air shower simulations reveals strong restrictions on the amount of light nuclei (protons and He) in the observed flux. We find a robust upper bound on the observed proton fraction of the UHECRs flux and we rule out a composition dominated by protons and He. Acceleration and propagation effects lead to an observed composition that is different from the one at the source. Using a simple toy model that take into account these effects, we show that the observations requires an extreme metallicity at the sources with metals to protons mass ratio of 1:1, a ratio that is larger by a factor of a hundred than the solar abundance. This composition imposes an almost impossible constraint on all current astrophysical models for UHECRs accelerators. This may provide a first hint towards new physics that emerges at $\\sim 100$ TeV and leads to a larger proton cross section at these energies.

Nimrod Shaham; Tsvi Piran

2012-04-06T23:59:59.000Z

172

Carbide precipitation in gamma-TiAl alloys  

SciTech Connect

Carbide precipitation in gamma-TiAl is observed and found to involve the formation of coherent, rod-shaped perovskite precipitates as a metastable transition phase. At temperatures above 750 deg C, the formation of plate-shaped H-phase particles on dislocations and grain boundaries is accompanied by dissolution of the perovskite precipitate dispersions. This temperature regime includes possible service temperatures for gamma-TiAl-based alloys. 10 refs.

Chen, S.; Beaven, P.A.; Wagner, R. (GKSS-Forschungszentrum Geesthacht GmbH, (Germany))

1992-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

173

Water quality Water quantity  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

01-1 · Water quality · Water quantity · Remediation strategies MinE 422: Water Resources: Younger, Banwart and Hedin. 2002. Mine Water. Hydrology, Pollution, Remediation. Impacts of mining on water mining ­ Often the largest long term issue ­ Water quality affected, surface/ground water pollution

Boisvert, Jeff

174

Water quality Water quantity  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

· Water quality · Water quantity · Remediation strategies MinE 422: Water Resources: Younger, Banwart and Hedin. 2002. Mine Water. Hydrology, Pollution, Remediation. Impacts of mining on water mining ­ Often the largest long term issue ­ Water quality affected, surface/ground water pollution

Boisvert, Jeff

175

Transport-controlled kinetics of dissolution and precipitation...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Transport-controlled kinetics of dissolution and precipitation in the sediments under alkaline and saline conditions . Transport-controlled kinetics of dissolution and...

176

ARM - Field Campaign - ARM Cloud Aerosol Precipitation Experiment...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

receives precipitation predominantly during the cold season when storms approach from the Pacific Ocean. The snowpack that accumulates during winter storms provides about 70-90% of...

177

Changes in concurrent monthly precipitation and temperature extremes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

changes in daily climate extremes of temperature J. Geophys.Bayesian spatial modeling of extreme precipitation returnand Mearns L 2000 Climate extremes: observations, modeling,

Hao, Zengchao; AghaKouchak, Amir; Phillips, Thomas J

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

178

Joint probability analysis of precipitation and streamflow extremes.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??This thesis focuses on evaluation of joint occurrence of extreme precipitation and streamflow events at several hydrologic structures in South Florida. An analysis of twelve… (more)

Lin, Chia-hung.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

179

Recovery of SIMS depth profiles with account for nonstationary effects  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract In this work we consider a method of accounting for the nonstationary effects in recovery of SIMS depth profiles. The depth resolution function (DRF) is described by Hofmann's nonstationary MRI (mixing-roughness-information depth) model using the depth-dependent parameters. The effects in question include the nonstationary atomic mixing and development of surface roughness. A mathematical description of the nonstationary depth profiling process by the Fredholm integral equation of the first kind is proposed. The inverse problem is solved using an algorithm based on the Tikhonov regularization method. The proposed nonstationary recovery method is tested on both model and real structures. The development of surface roughness in SIMS depth profiling of the real structure was observed. Grazing incidence x-ray reflectometry (XRR) technique was used to verify the results of SIMS profiles restoration for periodic structure containing thin Ge layers in the Si matrix. The advantages of the proposed recovery algorithm to allow for the nonstationary effects are shown.

Pavel Andreevich Yunin; Yurii Nikolaevich Drozdov; Mikhail Nikolaevich Drozdov; Dmitry Vladimirovich Yurasov

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

180

Silica microparticles precipitation by two processes using supercritical fluids  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Silica microspheres are of great interest for several applications in areas such as medicine, biochemistry, colloidal chemistry and aerosol research. In this work, the sol–gel method was used to obtain such microparticles in two different ways. One of the methods applied was supercritical reaction; a high temperature process using ethanol as a supercritical fluid (SCF reaction). Another approach to obtaining silica microparticles was Supercritical AntiSolvent (SAS) process, as a low temperature process, using supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2). A tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) and water solution (1:4 molar ratio) was dissolved in ethanol and then pumped into an autoclave at 100 bar and 523 K for the SCF reaction process, and at 120 bar and 313 K in the case of the SAS process. All the experiments led to a successful precipitation of silica microparticles, in the micrometer range. In all cases spherical morphology and no agglomeration was found. Furthermore, the main textural characteristics of such powders were obtained by nitrogen physisorption experiments. Results reveal spherical microparticles with nanopores smaller than 1 nm in size when using supercritical ethanol, and bulky microparticles with smooth surfaces when using scCO2.

A. Montes; M.D. Gordillo; C. Pereyra; N. de la Rosa-Fox; E.J. Martínez de la Ossa

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "depth precipitable water" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

THE RESILIENCE OF UPLAND-OAK FOREST CANOPY TREES TO CHRONIC AND ACUTE PRECIPITATION MANIPULATIONS  

SciTech Connect

Implications of chronic ( 33 percent) and acute (-100 percent) precipitation change were evaluated for trees of upland-oak forests of the eastern United States. Chronic manipulations have been conducted since 1993, and acute manipulations of dominant canopy trees (Quercus prinus; Liriodendron tulipifera) were initiated in 2003. Through 12 years of chronic manipulations tree growth remained unaffected by natural or induced rainfall deficits even though severe drought conditions dramatically reduced canopy function in some years. The resilience of canopy trees to chronic-change was the result of a disconnect between tree growth phenology and late-season drought occurrence. Acute precipitation exclusion from the largest canopy trees also produced limited growth reductions from 2003 through 2005. Elimination of lateral root water sources for the acute treatment trees, via trenching midway through the 2004 growing-season, forced the conclusion that deep rooting was a key mechanism for large-tree resilience to severe drought.

Hanson, Paul J [ORNL; Tschaplinski, Timothy J [ORNL; Wullschleger, Stan D [ORNL; Todd Jr, Donald E [ORNL; Auge, Robert M. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK)

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

182

Detecting vegetation-precipitation feedbacks in mid-Holocene North Africa from two climate models  

SciTech Connect

Using two climate-vegetation model simulations from the Fast Ocean Atmosphere Model (FOAM) and the Community Climate System Model (CCSM, version 2), we investigate vegetation-precipitation feedbacks across North Africa during the mid-Holocene. From mid-Holocene snapshot runs of FOAM and CCSM2, we detect a negative feedback at the annual timescale with our statistical analysis. Using the Monte- Carlo bootstrap method, the annual negative feedback is further confirmed to be significant in both simulations. Additional analysis shows that this negative interaction is partially caused by the competition between evaporation and transpiration in North African grasslands. Furthermore, we find the feedbacks decrease with increasing timescales, and change signs from positive to negative at increasing timescales in FOAM. The proposed mechanism for this sign switch is associated with the different persistent timescales of upper and lower soil water contents, and their interactions with vegetation and atmospheric precipitation.

Wang, Yi; Notaro, Michael; Liu, Zhengyu; Gallimore, Robert; Levis, Samuel; Kutzbach, John E.

2008-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

183

Test plan for evaluating the operational performance of the prototype nested, fixed-depth fluidic sampler  

SciTech Connect

The PHMC will provide Low Activity Wastes (LAW) tank wastes for final treatment by a privatization contractor from two double-shell feed tanks, 241-AP-102 and 241-AP-104. Concerns about the inability of the baseline ''grab'' sampling to provide large volume samples within time constraints has led to the development of a nested, fixed-depth sampling system. This sampling system will provide large volume, representative samples without the environmental, radiation exposure, and sample volume impacts of the current base-line ''grab'' sampling method. A plan has been developed for the cold testing of this nested, fixed-depth sampling system with simulant materials. The sampling system will fill the 500-ml bottles and provide inner packaging to interface with the Hanford Sites cask shipping systems (PAS-1 and/or ''safe-send''). The sampling system will provide a waste stream that will be used for on-line, real-time measurements with an at-tank analysis system. The cold tests evaluate the performance and ability to provide samples that are representative of the tanks' content within a 95 percent confidence interval, to sample while mixing pumps are operating, to provide large sample volumes (1-15 liters) within a short time interval, to sample supernatant wastes with over 25 wt% solids content, to recover from precipitation- and settling-based plugging, and the potential to operate over the 20-year expected time span of the privatization contract.

REICH, F.R.

1999-05-18T23:59:59.000Z

184

Defense-in-Depth, How Department of Energy Implements Radiation...  

Office of Environmental Management (EM)

is implemented using a defense-in-depth approach taking into account the combination of natural and engineered barriers, performance objectives, long-term risk assessments,...

185

Advanced Technology Vehicle Lab Benchmarking - Level 2 (in-depth...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Evaluation Meeting vss031rask2012o.pdf More Documents & Publications Advanced Technology Vehicle Lab Benchmarking - Level 2 (in-depth) Advanced Technology Vehicle Lab...

186

Are Cluster Ion Analysis Beams Good Choices for Hydrogen Depth...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Cluster Ion Analysis Beams Good Choices for Hydrogen Depth Profiling Using Time-of-Flight Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry? Are Cluster Ion Analysis Beams Good Choices for Hydrogen...

187

Control Systems Cyber Security: Defense in Depth Strategies ...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

that use control system networks while maintaining a multi-tier information architecture. Control Systems Cyber Security: Defense in Depth Strategies More Documents &...

188

BOUDREAU, BERNARD P. Mean mixed depth of sediments: The ...  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

bioturbation. Bioturbation is the mixing of surficial sediments as a re- sult of the activity .... that the mixed depth is limited by the increasing energy costs of deeper

2000-10-17T23:59:59.000Z

189

An Improved Gridded Historical Daily Precipitation Analysis for Brazil  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A gauge-only precipitation data quality control and analysis system has been developed for monitoring precipitation at NOAA’s Climate Prediction Center (CPC). Over the past 10 yr the system has been used to develop and deliver many different ...

Viviane B. S. Silva; Vernon E. Kousky; Wei Shi; R. Wayne Higgins

2007-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

190

Modelling precipitation of niobium carbide in austenite: multicomponent diffusion, capillarity,  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Modelling precipitation of niobium carbide in austenite: multicomponent diffusion, capillarity, and coarsening N. Fujita and H. K. D. H. Bhadeshia The growth of niobium carbide in austenite involves for the overall transformation kinetics of niobium carbide precipitation in austenite that takes into account

Cambridge, University of

191

Nano-precipitation in hot-pressed silicon carbide  

SciTech Connect

Heat treatments at 1300 degrees C, 1400 degrees C, 1500 degrees C, and 1600 degrees C in Ar were found to produce nanoscale precipitates in hot-pressed silicon carbide containing aluminum, boron, and carbon sintering additives (ABC-SiC). The precipitates were studied by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and nano-probe energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (nEDS). The precipitates were plate-like in shape, with a thickness, length and separation of only a few nanometers, and their size coarsened with increasing annealing temperature, accompanied by reduced number density. The distribution of the precipitates was uniform inside the SiC grains, but depleted zones were observed in the vicinity of the SiC grain boundaries. A coherent orientation relationship between the precipitates and the SiC matrix was found. Combined high-resolution electron microscopy, computer simulation, and nEDS identified an Al4C3-based structure and composition for the nano-precipitates. Most Al ions in SiC lattice exsolved as precipitates during the annealing at 1400 to 1500 degrees C. Formation mechanism and possible influences of the nanoscale precipitates on mechanical properties are discussed.

Zhang, Xiao Feng; Sixta, Mark E.; Chen, Da; De Jonghe, Lutgard C.

2000-05-16T23:59:59.000Z

192

Methods for verifying satellite precipitation estimates Elizabeth E. Ebert  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1 Methods for verifying satellite precipitation estimates Elizabeth E. Ebert Bureau of Meteorology, Melbourne, Australia Introduction Satellite precipitation estimates are widely used to measure global rainfall on monthly timescales for climate studies (e.g., Huffman et al., 1997). Near real time satellite

Ebert, Beth

193

An analysis of radar estimated precipitation to rain gauge measurements  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

the surface. These levels included 1.0 1.5@ 2.0 @ 2.5 km, and 3.0 km. Radar precipitation estimates were calculated at each 1.4 2 level using Z = 30ORand Z = 25OR" . The precipitation amounts, as measured by both the gauges and the radar,were used...

Gleason, Byron Edward

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

194

The NCE recovery boiler precipitator: Mill experience and design implications  

SciTech Connect

Operating and design experiences are discussed. Topics covered include: test results of the flue gas parameters of volume, temperature losses, and inlet dust loadings; summary of main precipitator design data; operator experiences with various precipitator systems, such as wet bottom, dry bottom, and performance results; and findings of a corrosion study.

Henderson, J.S.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

195

Seasonal Forecasting of Extreme Wind and Precipitation Frequencies in Europe  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Seasonal Forecasting of Extreme Wind and Precipitation Frequencies in Europe Matthew J. Swann;Abstract Flood and wind damage to property and livelihoods resulting from extreme precipitation events variability of these extreme events can be closely related to the large-scale atmospheric circulation

Feigon, Brooke

196

Water resources data, Kentucky. Water year 1991  

SciTech Connect

Water resources data for the 1991 water year for Kentucky consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams and lakes; and water-levels of wells. This report includes daily discharge records for 115 stream-gaging stations. It also includes water-quality data for 38 stations sampled at regular intervals. Also published are 13 daily temperature and 8 specific conductance records, and 85 miscellaneous temperature and specific conductance determinations for the gaging stations. Suspended-sediment data for 12 stations (of which 5 are daily) are also published. Ground-water levels are published for 23 recording and 117 partial sites. Precipitation data at a regular interval is published for 1 site. Additional water data were collected at various sites not involved in the systematic data-collection program and are published as miscellaneous measurement and analyses. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the US Geological Survey and cooperation State and Federal agencies in Kentucky.

McClain, D.L.; Byrd, F.D.; Brown, A.C.

1991-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

197

A New Approach to Tracing Particulates from Produced Water  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

in comparison with three suggest that the heavy metals in produced water may be more toxic than originally of buoyant particles com- prised of heavy metal precipitates sequestered onto oil droplets that were is diluted with seawater. These precipitates are more toxic than the dissolved fraction, can flocculate

Taggart, Christopher

198

March 30th, 2010 -Assessment of current water conditions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and in some parts of western Colorado. Snow pack and water year to date precipitation remain below average 2010 #12;Month-to-Date Precipitation 1-28 March 2010 #12;Upper Colorado River Basin #12;Green River;Upper Colorado above Kremmling #12;Basin Snowpack: 76% #12;San Juan Basin #12;Basin Snowpack: 98% #12

199

Chemical Depth Profiling from Neutron Reflectometry  

SciTech Connect

The material profile of a thin film can be analyzed by placing the film on a substrate and by sending a neutron beam onto it at various angles of incidence. Technically, the scattering length density of the film needs to be determined as a function of depth. A reflectometer is used to measure the amount of reflection (reflectivity) as a function of the angle of incidence. Mathematically, this is equivalent to sending the neutron beam onto the film at every energy but at a fixed angle of incidence. The film profile needs to be recovered from the measured reflectivity data. Unfortunately, the unique recovery is impossible, and many distinct unrelated profiles may correspond to the same reflectivity data. In our DOE/EPSCoR sponsored research, we have developed an analytical method to uniquely recover the profile of a thin film from the measured reflectivity data. We have shown that by taking reflectivity measurements with two different substrates, one can uniquely determine the film profile. Previously, it was known that one could uniquely recover the profile by taking reflectivity measurements with three different substrates, and our findings indicate that the same goal can be accomplished by using fewer measurements. At Mississippi State University we started an informal weekly seminar (called ''the reflectometry meeting'') at to attract various undergraduate and graduate students into the field. There were about 3 undergraduate students, 6 graduate students, and 2 faculty members attending these seminars. The PI has collaborated with Dr. Norm Berk at National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) on various aspects of neutron reflectometry, from which various interesting problems of theoretical and practical importance have arisen. One of these problems is closely related to the important mathematical problem known as analytic extrapolation. Under appropriate conditions (known to hold in neutron reflectometry), the reflection data taken in a finite interval of neutron energies uniquely determines the data at all energies. Even though the uniqueness is assured mathematically, there are currently no available methods for analytic extrapolation. Currently, we are working on this problem as it arises in neutron reflectometry and looking for mathematical and numerical methods to extrapolate reflection data to higher and lower neutron energies. A solution to this problem is expected to have a big impact not only in neutron reflectometry, but in many areas of physics and engineering. The PI has collaborated with Prof. Paul Sacks of Iowa State University, Prof. Daniil Sarkissian of Mississippi State University, and Prof. Levon Babadzanjanz of St. Petersburg State University, Russia on mathematical and numerical aspects of neutron reflectometry. These researchers jointly worked with the PI towards the preparation of numerical routines to extract the film profile from the reflection data. We have prepared a Mathematica interface running Fortran 95 algorithms to produce reflection data from a given profile. These Fortran 95 algorithms have been prepared by updating and modifying Prof. Sacks' Fortran 77 routine and by updating Dr. Gian Felcher's (of Argonne National Laboratory) Fortran 77 routine. We are also preparing similar algorithms written in Mathematica so that they can be used without needing Fortran. We are also working towards preparing algorithms in Fortran 95 and in Mathematica to produce the film profile from the given sets of reflectivity data.

Tuncay Aktosun

2006-03-21T23:59:59.000Z

200

IMPROVED BOUSSINESQ-TYPE EQUATIONS FOR HIGHLY-VARIABLE DEPTH  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

IMPROVED BOUSSINESQ-TYPE EQUATIONS FOR HIGHLY-VARIABLE DEPTH JUAN CARLOS MU~NOZ GRAJALES AND ANDR´E NACHBIN Abstract. Intermediate depth, Boussinesq-type modeling is used to generalize previously known are extended from the analysis of KdV-type models to include the improved Boussinesq systems in contrast

Nachbin, André

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "depth precipitable water" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Depth, and Motion inVision CMSC 436/636  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, perceived depth related #12;Head Motion Parallax Bruce and Green 90, p. 231. Kinetic Depth Effect Bruce displacement) #12;Structure from Motion Bruce and Green 90, pg. 328. #12;Image Segmentation Discontinuities Representation techniques parameters #12;Experimental Findings Control necessary for development Held

Rheingans, Penny

202

Project of Aerosol Optical Depth Change in South America  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

AerosolDepth Brazil Bolivia French Guiana Suriname Guyana Venezuela Colombia Ecuador Peru Chile Argentina Suriname Guyana Venezuela Colombia Ecuador Peru Chile Argentina Paraguay Uruguay #12;Statistics of Aerosol M ean D ec 01 to 06 Mean Month AerosolDepth Brazil Bolivia French Guiana Suriname Guyana Venezuela

Frank, Thomas D.

203

SEU sensitive depth in a submicron SRAM technology  

SciTech Connect

This work determines experimentally and by simulation the SEU sensitive depth in a 0.6 {micro}m SRAM technology. A good correlation is obtained between the two studies in the case of heavy ions deposing energy close to the critical energy. Other simulation results complete the first investigation by studying the minimum sensitive depth for ions deposing higher energies (at greater LET).

Detcheverry, C.; Bruguier, G.; Palau, J.M.; Gasiot, J. [Univ. Montpellier II (France)] [Univ. Montpellier II (France); Ecoffet, R. [CNES, Toulouse (France)] [CNES, Toulouse (France); Duzellier, S. [DERTS, Toulouse (France)] [DERTS, Toulouse (France); Barak, J.; Lifshitz, Y. [Soreq NRC, Yahvne (Israel)] [Soreq NRC, Yahvne (Israel)

1998-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

204

On depth and deep points: a calculus Ivan Mizera  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of Tukey's median) plays a fundamental role similar to that of linear functions in the mathematical (1929) and Chamberlin (1933). For multivariate location, the proposal of Tukey (1975) was developed halfspace or Tukey's depth; for other brands of depth in multivariate location see Liu, Parelius and Singh

Mizera, Ivan

205

Animal Environmental Systems Goal: Colorado State University will enhance its focus, depth, and integration in undergraduate education, graduate education,  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of environmental management systems for air and water quality protection related to animal production systems are to develop new approaches for animal environmental system research management to be more cohesive and moreAnimal Environmental Systems Goal: Colorado State University will enhance its focus, depth

206

Property:AvgReservoirDepth | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

AvgReservoirDepth AvgReservoirDepth Jump to: navigation, search Property Name AvgReservoirDepth Property Type Quantity Description Average depth to reservoir Use this type to express a quantity of length. The default unit is the meter (m). Acceptable units (and their conversions) are: Meters - 1 m, meter, meters Meter, Meters, METER, METERS Kilometers - 0.001 km, kilometer, kilometers, Kilometer, Kilometers, KILOMETERS, KILOMETERS Miles - 0.000621371 mi, mile, miles, Mile, Miles, MILE, MILES Feet - 3.28084 ft, foot, feet, Foot, Feet, FOOT, FEET Yards - 1.09361 yd, yard, yards, Yard, Yards, YARD, YARDS Pages using the property "AvgReservoirDepth" Showing 24 pages using this property. A Amedee Geothermal Area + 213 m0.213 km 0.132 mi 698.819 ft 232.939 yd + B Beowawe Hot Springs Geothermal Area + 850 m0.85 km

207

Stable water isotopes across a transect of the Southern Alps, New Zealand  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Stable water isotope concentrations were obtained from samples of stream water at 29 sites in a west-east transect across the Southern Alps of New Zealand where westerly conditions dominate the precipitation regime. The samples were taken from ...

Tim Kerr; MS Srinivasan; Jeremy Rutherford

208

Inexpensive Near-IR Sun Photometer for Measuring Total Column Water Vapor  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

An inexpensive two-channel near-IR sun photometer for measuring total atmospheric column water vapor (precipitable water) has been developed for use by the Global Learning and Observations to Benefit the Environment (GLOBE) environmental science ...

David R. Brooks; Forrest M. Mims III; Richard Roettger

2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

209

Water, water everywhere  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... available water resources, either locally or globally, are by no means exhausted. At present desalination -- the removal of salt from sea water or brackish water -- is very ... or brackish water -- is very expensive, mainly because it consumes so much energy. Desalination provides less than 0.2 per cent of all the water used in the world ...

Philip Ball

2000-01-27T23:59:59.000Z

210

California Wintertime Precipitation in Regional and Global Climate Models  

SciTech Connect

In this paper, wintertime precipitation from a variety of observational datasets, regional climate models (RCMs), and general circulation models (GCMs) is averaged over the state of California (CA) and compared. Several averaging methodologies are considered and all are found to give similar values when model grid spacing is less than 3{sup o}. This suggests that CA is a reasonable size for regional intercomparisons using modern GCMs. Results show that reanalysis-forced RCMs tend to significantly overpredict CA precipitation. This appears to be due mainly to overprediction of extreme events; RCM precipitation frequency is generally underpredicted. Overprediction is also reflected in wintertime precipitation variability, which tends to be too high for RCMs on both daily and interannual scales. Wintertime precipitation in most (but not all) GCMs is underestimated. This is in contrast to previous studies based on global blended gauge/satellite observations which are shown here to underestimate precipitation relative to higher-resolution gauge-only datasets. Several GCMs provide reasonable daily precipitation distributions, a trait which doesn't seem tied to model resolution. GCM daily and interannual variability is generally underpredicted.

Caldwell, P M

2009-04-27T23:59:59.000Z

211

Best Management Practice #4: Water-Efficient Landscaping  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Traditional landscapes require supplemental water to thrive in most locations. Kentucky bluegrass, for example, is native to regions that receive in excess of 40 inches per year of precipitation,...

212

Contour Charts of SOFAR Speed and Axis Depth in the Pacific Ocean  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Sound speeds calculated from the physical properties of sea water as measured at hydrographic stations were used to construct contour charts of SOFAR?speed and SOFAR?axis depth for the Pacific Ocean. Wilson's formula was used for the calculation of speed. Data were averaged for 1° squares plotted and smooth contours were drawn manually. Speeds averaged along great?circle paths are compared with those measured for explosions. The charts show steep gradients along the Antarctic convergence and at the convergence of the Oyashio and Kuroshio extension. The region of highest speed as well as greatest axis depth was that extending eastward from Australia to about the 150°W. The charts are used in a program for calculating source coordinates of earthquakeT phases.

Rockne H. Johnson; Roger A. Norris

1967-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

213

Geophysical monitoring and reactive transport modeling of ureolytically-driven calcium carbonate precipitation  

SciTech Connect

Ureolytically-driven calcium carbonate precipitation is the basis for a promising in-situ remediation method for sequestration of divalent radionuclide and trace metal ions. It has also been proposed for use in geotechnical engineering for soil strengthening applications. Monitoring the occurrence, spatial distribution, and temporal evolution of calcium carbonate precipitation in the subsurface is critical for evaluating the performance of this technology and for developing the predictive models needed for engineering application. In this study, we conducted laboratory column experiments using natural sediment and groundwater to evaluate the utility of geophysical (complex resistivity and seismic) sensing methods, dynamic synchrotron x-ray computed tomography (micro-CT), and reactive transport modeling for tracking ureolytically-driven calcium carbonate precipitation processes under site relevant conditions. Reactive transport modeling with TOUGHREACT successfully simulated the changes of the major chemical components during urea hydrolysis. Even at the relatively low level of urea hydrolysis observed in the experiments, the simulations predicted an enhanced calcium carbonate precipitation rate that was 3-4 times greater than the baseline level. Reactive transport modeling results, geophysical monitoring data and micro-CT imaging correlated well with reaction processes validated by geochemical data. In particular, increases in ionic strength of the pore fluid during urea hydrolysis predicted by geochemical modeling were successfully captured by electrical conductivity measurements and confirmed by geochemical data. The low level of urea hydrolysis and calcium carbonate precipitation suggested by the model and geochemical data was corroborated by minor changes in seismic P-wave velocity measurements and micro-CT imaging; the latter provided direct evidence of sparsely distributed calcium carbonate precipitation. Ion exchange processes promoted through NH{sub 4}{sup +} production during urea hydrolysis were incorporated in the model and captured critical changes in the major metal species. The electrical phase increases were potentially due to ion exchange processes that modified charge structure at mineral/water interfaces. Our study revealed the potential of geophysical monitoring for geochemical changes during urea hydrolysis and the advantages of combining multiple approaches to understand complex biogeochemical processes in the subsurface.

Wu, Y.; Ajo-Franklin, J.B.; Spycher, N.; Hubbard, S.S.; Zhang, G.; Williams, K.H.; Taylor, J.; Fujita, Y.; Smith, R.

2011-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

214

Water Resources Water Quality and Water Treatment  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Water Resources TD 603 Lecture 1: Water Quality and Water Treatment CTARA Indian Institute of Technology, Bombay 2nd November, 2011 #12;OVERVIEW Water Quality WATER TREATMENT PLANTS WATER TREATMENT PLANTS WATER TREATMENT PLANTS WATER TRE OVERVIEW OF THE LECTURE 1. Water Distribution Schemes Hand Pump

Sohoni, Milind

215

A Multidisciplinary Investigation of the Intermediate Depths of the Atlantic Ocean: AAIW delta^13C Variability During the Younger Dryas and Lithoherms in the Straits of Florida  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A transect of cores ranging from 798 m to 1585 m water depth in the South Atlantic Ocean document the relative intermediate water mass nutrient geometry and stable isotopic variability of AAIW during the Younger Dryas cooling event. The data reveal...

Brookshire, Brian

2012-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

216

Understanding the thermal evolution of deep-water continental margins  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... exploration risks are potentially much higher. The bulk of major hydrocarbon fields located in shallow-water depths (that is, up to 200 m) have probably been located, if one ... Over the past ten years, there has been a relentless drive to explore ever-increasing water depths. This drive has been stimulated by an engineering technology that has allowed us ...

Nicky White; Mark Thompson; Tony Barwise

2003-11-20T23:59:59.000Z

217

ARM - Evaluation Product - Quantitative Precipitation Estimates (QPE) from  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

ProductsQuantitative Precipitation Estimates (QPE) ProductsQuantitative Precipitation Estimates (QPE) from the CSAPR Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Evaluation Product : Quantitative Precipitation Estimates (QPE) from the CSAPR Site(s) SGP TWP General Description Precipitation rates from cloud systems can give a fundamental insight into the processes occurring in-cloud. While rain gauges and disdrometers can give information at a single point, remote sensors such as radars can provide rainfall information over a defined area. The QPE value-added product (VAP) takes the Corrected Moments in Antenna Coordinates VAP and maps the Rain_rate_A field onto a Cartesian grid at the surface. This field is the rain rate as determined using the specific attenuation (A, dBZ/km) due to two-way liquid attenuation after Ryzhkov et

218

A unified approach to asphaltene precipitation: Laboratory measurement and modeling  

SciTech Connect

A unified approach to evaluation of asphaltene precipitation based on laboratory measurement and modeling is presented. This approach uses an organic deposition cell (ODC) for measuring asphaltene-dropout onset conditions. Asphaltene precipitation was detected by changes in optical fluorescence, electrical conductance, and visual observation. A series of experiments measured the effects of changing pressure,m temperature, and composition on asphaltene precipitation. A fully compositional vapor/liquid/solid (V/L/S) mathematical model completed by analysis by matching the experimental results. The authors then used the model to forecast asphaltene precipitation under a variety of production scenarios, including response to gas-lift operations,and to evaluate the possible location of a tar mat.

MacMillan, D.J.; Tackett, J.E. Jr.; Jessee, M.A.; Monger-McClure, T.G. [Marathon Oil Co., Littleton, CO (United States)

1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

219

Precipitation Recycling in the Indian Subcontinent during Summer Monsoon  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The Indian summer monsoon rainfall is dominated by oceanic sources of moisture. However, land surface processes also have a significant role in the generation of precipitation within the Indian subcontinent. Evapotranspiration over a region ...

Amey Pathak; Subimal Ghosh; Praveen Kumar

2014-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

220

Enhancement of satellite precipitation estimation via unsupervised dimensionality reduction  

SciTech Connect

A methodology to enhance Satellite Precipitation Estimation (SPE) using unsupervised dimensionality reduction (UDR) techniques is developed. This enhanced technique is an extension to the Precipitation Estimation from Remotely Sensed Imagery using an Artificial Neural Network (PERSIANN) and Cloud Classification System (CCS) method (PERSIANN-CCS) enriched using wavelet features combined with dimensionality reduction. Cloud-top brightness temperature measurements from Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES-12) are used for precipitation estimation at 4 km 4 km spatial resolutions every 30 min. The study area in the continental United States covers parts of Louisiana, Arkansas, Kansas, Tennessee, Mississippi, and Alabama. Based on quantitative measures, root mean square error (RMSE) and Heidke skill score (HSS), the results show that the UDR techniques can improve the precipitation estimation accuracy. In addition, ICA is shown to have better performance than other UDR techniques; and in some cases, it achieves 10% improvement in the HSS.

Mahrooghy, Majid [Mississippi State University (MSU); Younan, Nicolas H. [Mississippi State University (MSU); Anantharaj, Valentine G [ORNL; Aanstoos, James [Mississippi State University (MSU)

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "depth precipitable water" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

Variability of the Australian Monsoon and Precipitation Trends at Darwin  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

An atmospheric classification for northwestern Australia is used to define periods of monsoon activity and investigate the interannual and intraseasonal variability of the Australian monsoon, as well as long-term precipitation trends at Darwin. ...

Stuart Evans; Roger Marchand; Thomas Ackerman

2014-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

222

Frequency Modes of Monsoon Precipitation in Arizona and New Mexico  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The interannual and intraseasonal variability of the North American monsoon is of great interest because a large proportion of the annual precipitation for Arizona and New Mexico arrives during the summer monsoon. Forty-one years of daily monsoon ...

Anne W. Nolin; Eileen A. Hall-McKim

2006-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

223

Modifying cellulose fibers by adsorption/precipitation of xylan  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Xylan was precipitated on bleached and unbleached softwood ... more detailed information of the distribution of adsorbed xylan on cellulosic surfaces. The adsorption step was carried out at ... the beating degree...

Albrecht Miletzky; Manuel Punz; Armin Zankel; Sandra Schlader…

2014-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

224

Ensemble typhoon quantitative precipitation forecasts model in Taiwan  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In this study, an ensemble typhoon quantitative precipitation forecast (ETQPF) model was developed to provide typhoon rainfall forecasts for Taiwan. The ETQPF rainfall forecast is obtained by averaging the pick-out cases, which are screened at a ...

Jing-Shan Hong; Chin-Tzu Fong; Ling-Feng Hsiao; Yi-Chiang Yu; Chian-You Tzeng

225

Copper gettering by aluminum precipitates in aluminum-implanted silicon  

SciTech Connect

Copper in Si is shown to be strongly gettered by Al-rich precipitates formed by implanting Al to supersaturation and followed by annealing. At temperatures ranging from 600 to 800 C a layer containing Al precipitates is found to getter Cu from Cu silicide located on the opposite side of a 0.25-mm Si wafer, indicating a substantially lower chemical potential for the Cu in the molten-A1 phase. Cu gettering proceeds rapidly until an atomic ratio of approximately 2 Cu atoms to 1 Al atom is reached in the precipitated Al region, after which the gettering process slows. Redistribution of Cu from one Al-rich layer to another at low Cu concentrations demonstrates that a segregation-type gettering mechanism is operating. Cu gettering occurs primarily in the region containing the precipitated Al rather than the region where the Al is entirely substitutional.

PETERSEN,GARY A.; MYERS JR.,SAMUEL M.

2000-03-20T23:59:59.000Z

226

Merging Cloud and Precipitation Radar Data Provides a Better  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Merging Cloud and Precipitation Radar Data Provides a Better View of Tropical Rain Clouds For original submission and image(s), see ARM Research Highlights http:www.arm.gov...

227

Aerosol-Cloud interactions : a new perspective in precipitation enhancement  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Increased industrialization and human activity modified the atmospheric aerosol composition and size-distribution during the last several decades. This has affected the structure and evolution of clouds, and precipitation ...

Gunturu, Udaya Bhaskar

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

228

Stochastic Simulation Methods for Precipitation and Streamflow Time Series  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

One major acknowledged challenge in daily precipitation is the inability to model extreme events in the spectrum of events. These extreme events are rare but may cause large losses. How to realistically simulate extreme behavior of daily...

Li, Chao

2013-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

229

Observed Global Precipitation Variability During the 20th Century  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of warming and other regional-scale features, including changes in wind patterns, precipitation and some aspects of extremes and of ice. n The models used in AR4 were judged to have improved representation

Anisimov, Mikhail

230

E-Print Network 3.0 - affects regional precipitation Sample Search...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Summary: of precipitation trends over the two regions, as they are also directly affected by the South Asian monsoon... Regional summer precipitation events in Asia and their...

231

Inducing Mineral Precipitation in Groundwater by Addition of Phosphate  

SciTech Connect

Induced precipitation of phosphate minerals to scavenge trace metals and radionuclides from groundwater is a potential remediation approach for contaminated aquifers. Phosphate minerals can sequester trace elements by primary mineral formation, solid solution formation and/or adsorption, and they are poorly soluble under many environmental conditions, making them attractive for long-term sustainable remediation. The success of such engineered schemes will depend on the particular mineral phases generated, their rates of formation, and their long term stability. The purpose of this study was to examine the precipitation of calcium phosphate minerals under conditions representative of a natural groundwater. Because microorganisms are present in groundwater, and because some proposed schemes for induced phosphate mineral precipitation rely on the stimulation of native groundwater populations, we also tested the effect of bacterial cells (initial densities of 105 and 107 ml-1) within the precipitation medium. We also tested the effect of a trace mixture of propionic, isovaleric, formic and butyric acids (total concentration 0.035 mM). The experiments showed that the general progression of mineral precipitation was similar under all of the conditions, with initial formation of amorphous calcium carbonate, and transformation to poorly crystalline hydroxyapatite (HAP) by the end of the week-long experiments. The presence of the bacterial cells appeared to delay precipitation, although by the end of 7 days the overall extent of precipitation was similar for all of the treatments. The stoichiometry of the final precipitates as well as results of Rietveld refinement of x-ray diffraction data indicated that the treatments including organic acids and bacterial cells resulted in increased distortion of the HAP crystal lattice, with the higher concentration of cells resulting in the greatest distortion. Uptake of Sr into the phosphate minerals was decreased in the treatments with cells and organic acids, compared to the control. The results of the experiments enable a greater understanding of the challenges associated with phosphate-based remediation schemes for contaminated environments.

Karen E. Wright; Yoshiko Fujita; Thomas Hartmann; Mark Conrad

2011-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

232

Extended depth secondary recovery: more coal for the 80's  

SciTech Connect

There are a variety of surface mining techniques presently in use which are physically or economically unable to recover all of the coal available. A new technique known as extended depth secondary recovery is presently available in the form of the Thin Seam Miner, which is able to recover 80-85% of this otherwise lost coal, to depths of 220 feet. Extended depth secondary recovery began with the auger, which has enjoyed moderate success, despite major drawbacks. Punch mining, longwall and shortwall technologies and the push-button miner all attempted to economically remine areas, with very little success. The Thin Seam Miner, on the other hand, not only recovers 80-85% of the coal in place to depths of 220 feet, but is environmentally sound, economically feasible, safe, and adapted to mine under all the seam conditions and grades of coal found in Appalachia.

Shearer, L.K.

1982-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

233

Method and apparatus to measure the depth of skin burns  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A new device for measuring the depth of surface tissue burns based on the rate at which the skin temperature responds to a sudden differential temperature stimulus. This technique can be performed without physical contact with the burned tissue. In one implementation, time-dependent surface temperature data is taken from subsequent frames of a video signal from an infrared-sensitive video camera. When a thermal transient is created, e.g., by turning off a heat lamp directed at the skin surface, the following time-dependent surface temperature data can be used to determine the skin burn depth. Imaging and non-imaging versions of this device can be implemented, thereby enabling laboratory-quality skin burn depth imagers for hospitals as well as hand-held skin burn depth sensors the size of a small pocket flashlight for field use and triage.

Dickey, Fred M. (Albuquerque, NM); Holswade, Scott C. (Albuquerque, NM)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

234

Understanding Fault Characteristics And Sediment Depth For Geothermal...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Fault Characteristics And Sediment Depth For Geothermal Exploration Using 3D Gravity Inversion In Walker Valley, Nevada Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to...

235

Depth-resolved cathodoluminescence spectroscopy of silicon supersaturated with sulfur  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We investigate the luminescence of Si supersaturated with S (Si:S) using depth-resolved cathodoluminescence spectroscopy and secondary ion mass spectroscopy as the S concentration is varied over 2 orders of magnitude ...

Fabbri, Filippo

236

Next Generation Nuclear Plant Defense-in-Depth Approach  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this paper is to (1) document the definition of defense-in-depth and the pproach that will be used to assure that its principles are satisfied for the NGNP project and (2) identify the specific questions proposed for preapplication discussions with the NRC. Defense-in-depth is a safety philosophy in which multiple lines of defense and conservative design and evaluation methods are applied to assure the safety of the public. The philosophy is also intended to deliver a design that is tolerant to uncertainties in knowledge of plant behavior, component reliability or operator performance that might compromise safety. This paper includes a review of the regulatory foundation for defense-in-depth, a definition of defense-in-depth that is appropriate for advanced reactor designs based on High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor (HTGR) technology, and an explanation of how this safety philosophy is achieved in the NGNP.

Edward G. Wallace; Karl N. Fleming; Edward M. Burns

2009-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

237

Molecular Depth Profiling of Sucrose Films: A Comparative Study...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Cs and O Ions. Abstract: Time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) depth profiling of sucrose thin films were investigated using 10 keV C60+, 20 keV...

238

Property:FirstWellDepth | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

FirstWellDepth FirstWellDepth Jump to: navigation, search Property Name FirstWellDepth Property Type Quantity Use this type to express a quantity of length. The default unit is the meter (m). Acceptable units (and their conversions) are: Meters - 1 m, meter, meters Meter, Meters, METER, METERS Kilometers - 0.001 km, kilometer, kilometers, Kilometer, Kilometers, KILOMETERS, KILOMETERS Miles - 0.000621371 mi, mile, miles, Mile, Miles, MILE, MILES Feet - 3.28084 ft, foot, feet, Foot, Feet, FOOT, FEET Yards - 1.09361 yd, yard, yards, Yard, Yards, YARD, YARDS Pages using the property "FirstWellDepth" Showing 5 pages using this property. B Blue Mountain Geothermal Area + 672 m0.672 km 0.418 mi 2,204.724 ft 734.906 yd + K Kilauea East Rift Geothermal Area + 1,968 m1.968 km

239

PHOSPHATE MANAGEMENT: FY2010 RESULTS OF PHOSPHATE PRECIPITATION TESTS  

SciTech Connect

The Phosphate Management program seeks to develop treatment options for caustic phosphate solutions resulting from the caustic leaching of the bismuth phosphate sludge. The SRNL subtask investigated the precipitation of phosphate salts from caustic solutions through addition of fluoride and by crystallization. The scoping tests examined the: precipitation of phosphate by the addition of sodium fluoride to form the sodium fluorophosphate double salt, Na{sub 7}F(PO{sub 4}){sub 2} {center_dot} 19H{sub 2}O, crystallization of phosphate by reducing the temperature of saturated phosphate solutions, and combinations of precipitation and crystallization. A simplified leachate simulant was used in the study produced by dissolving sodium phosphate in 1 M to 3.5 M sodium hydroxide solutions. The results show that all three processes; precipitation with sodium fluoride, crystallization, and combined precipitation/crystallization can be effective for removing large amounts of phosphate from solution. The combined process of precipitation/crystallization showed >90% removal of phosphate at all hydroxide concentrations when cooling a non-saturated phosphate solution from 65 C to 25 C. Based on the measured solubility of sodium phosphate, pH adjustment/caustic addition will also remove large amounts of phosphate from solution (>80%). For all three processes, the phosphate concentration in the caustic solution must be managed to keep the phosphate from becoming too concentrated and thereby potentially forming a solid mass of sodium phosphate after an effective phosphate removal process.

Hay, M.; King, W.

2011-04-04T23:59:59.000Z

240

Extracellular iron-sulfur precipitates from growth of Desulfovibrio desulfuricans  

SciTech Connect

The authors have examined extracellular iron-bearing precipitates resulting from the growth of Desulfovibrio desulfuricans in a basal medium with lactate as the carbon source and ferrous sulfate. Black precipitates were obtained when D. desulfuricans was grown with an excess of FeSO{sub 4}. When D. desulfuricans was grown under conditions with low amounts of FeSO{sub 4}, brown precipitates were obtained. The precipitates were characterized by iron K-edge XAFS (X-ray absorption fine structure), {sup 57}Fe Moessbauer-effect spectroscopy, and powder X-ray diffraction. Both were noncrystalline and nonmagnetic (at room temperature) solids containing high-spin Fe(III). The spectroscopic data for the black precipitates indicate the formation of an iron-sulfur phase with 6 nearest S neighbors about Fe at an average distance of 2.24(1) {angstrom}, whereas the brown precipitates are an iron-oxygen-sulfur phase with 6 nearest O neighbors about Fe at an average distance of 1.95(1) {angstrom}.

Antonio, M. R.; Tischler, M. L.; Witzcak, D.

1999-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "depth precipitable water" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Precipitation in 9Ni-12Cr-2Cu maraging steels  

SciTech Connect

Two maraging steels with the compositions 9Ni-12Cr-2Cu-4Mo (wt%) and 9Ni-12Cr-2Cu and with small additions of Al and Ti were investigated using atom probe field ion microscopy. Tomographic atom probe investigations were performed to clarify the spatial distribution of elements in and close to the precipitates. Materials heat treated at 475 C for 5, 25 min, 1, 2, 4 and 400 h were analyzed. Precipitates in the Mo-rich material were observed already after 5 min of aging, while in the material without MO, precipitation started later. In both materials precipitation begins with the formation of Cu-rich particles which work as nucleation sites for a Ni-rich phase of type Ni{sub 3}(Ti,Al). A Mo-rich phase was detected in the Mo-rich steel after 2 h of aging. The distribution of alloying elements in the precipitates, their role in the precipitation process, and the mechanism of hardening in the two materials are discussed.

Stiller, K.; Haettestrand, M. [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden). Dept. of Physics] [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden). Dept. of Physics; Danoix, F. [Univ. de Rouen, Mont Saint Aignan (France). Lab. de Microscopie Ionique] [Univ. de Rouen, Mont Saint Aignan (France). Lab. de Microscopie Ionique

1998-11-02T23:59:59.000Z

242

Am/Cm Oxalate Precipitation and Washing Demonstration  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this report is to discuss the findings of the Am/Cm Oxalate Precipitation and Washing Demonstration carried out at TNX during December 1995. This demonstration consisted of two steps: oxalate precipitation and precipitate washing. The first step reacted Am/Cm stimulant solution with oxalic acid resulting in the formation of insoluble lanthanide oxalates and soluble metal oxalates. The second step consisted of washing the precipitate with equal volumes of a nitric acid/oxalic acid solution to remove unwanted cations (miscellaneous metals) from the slurry. Quantitative results consist of: the solubility of the metallic impurities and lanthanide oxalates under process conditions, the settling rate of the oxalates, the specific volume of the oxalate precipitate, and the minimum distance the solution transfer jet can be place from the oxalate solids to prevent entrainment. Finally, discussion of how to decrease lanthanide losses is presented in terms of transfer jet location, initial nitric acid concentration, and wash nitric acid concentration. Solubilizing the precipitate and adjusting the nitric acid concentration prior to vitrification were not performed in this demonstration.

Beck, S.B.

1996-06-11T23:59:59.000Z

243

Prediction of sinkage depth of footings on soft marine sediments  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

instability on the side walls of the cavity. Footing size and sinkage depth of prototype footings are expected to have a significant effect on side- wall instability. (6) Tests in a geotechnical centrifuge are recommended as one means of studying gravity... instability on the side walls of the cavity. Footing size and sinkage depth of prototype footings are expected to have a significant effect on side- wall instability. (6) Tests in a geotechnical centrifuge are recommended as one means of studying gravity...

Yen, Shihchieh

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

244

Case depth verification of hardened samples with Barkhausen noise sweeps  

SciTech Connect

An interesting topic of recent Barkhausen noise (BN) method studies is the application of the method to case depth evaluation of hardened components. The utilization of BN method for this purpose is based on the difference in the magnetic properties between the hardened case and the soft core. Thus, the detection of case depth with BN can be achieved. The measurements typically have been carried out by using low magnetizing frequencies which have deeper penetration to the ferromagnetic samples than the conventional BN measurement. However, the penetration depth is limited due to eddy current damping of the signal. We introduce here a newly found sweep measurement concept for the case depth evaluation. In this study sweep measurements were carried out with various magnetizing frequencies and magnetizing voltages to detect the effect of different frequency and voltage and their correspondence to the actual case depth values verified from destructive characterization. Also a BN measurement device that has an implemented sweep analysis option was utilised. The samples were either induction or case-hardened samples and sample geometry contained both rod samples and gear axle samples with different case depth values. Samples were also further characterized with Xray diffraction to study the residual stress state of the surface. The detailed data processing revealed that also other calculated features than the maximum slope division of the 1st derivative of the BN signal could hold the information about the case depth value of the samples. The sweep method was able to arrange the axles into correct order according to the case depth value even though the axles were used.

Santa-aho, Suvi; Vippola, Minnamari; Lepistö, Toivo [Tampere University of Technology, Department of Materials Science, P.O. Box 589, 33101 Tampere (Finland); Hakanen, Merja [Stresstech Oy, Tikkutehtaantie 1, 40800 Vaajakoski (Finland); Sorsa, Aki; Leiviskä, Kauko [University of Oulu, Control Engineering Laboratory, P.O. Box 4300, FIN-90014 University of Oulu (Finland)

2014-02-18T23:59:59.000Z

245

Chemical characteristics of waters in Karst Formations at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant  

SciTech Connect

Several waste disposal sites are located adjacent to or on a karst aquifer composed of the Cambrian Maynardville Limestone (Cmn) and the Cambrian Copper Ridge Dolomite (Ccr) at the U.S. Department of Energy Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant in Oak Ridge, TN. Highly variable chemical characteristics (i.e., hardness) can indicate that the portion of the aquifer tapped by a particular well is subject to a significant quick-flow component where recharge to the system is rapid and water levels and water quality change rapidly in response to precipitation events. Water zones in wells at the Y-12 Plant that exhibit quick-flow behavior (i.e., high hydraulic conductivity) are identified based on their geochemical characteristics and variability in geochemical parameters, and observations made during drilling of the wells. The chemical data used in this study consist of between one and 20 chemical analyses for each of 102 wells and multipart monitoring zones. Of these 102 water zones, 10 were consistently undersaturated with respect to calcite suggesting active dissolution. Repeat sampling of water zones shows that both supersaturation and undersaturation with respect to dolomite occurs in 46 water zones. Twelve of the zones had partial pressure of CO{sub 2} near atmospheric values suggesting limited interaction between recharge waters and the gases and solids in the vadose zone and aquifer, and hence, relatively short residence times. The preliminary data suggest that the Cmn is composed of a complicated network of interconnected, perhaps anastomosing, cavities. The degree of interconnection between the identified cavities is yet to be determined, although it is expected that there is a significant vertical and lateral interconnection between the cavities located at shallow depths in the Cnm throughout Bear Creek Valley and the Y-12 Plant area.

Shevenell, L.A. [Univ. of Nevada, Reno, NV (United States). Nevada Bureau of Mines and Geology

1994-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

246

Method of treating waste water  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process of treating water to remove metal ion contaminants contained therein, said metal ion contaminants selected from the group consisting of metals in Groups 8, 1b, 2b, 4a, 5a, or 6a of the periodic table, lanthanide metals, and actinide metals including transuranic element metals, by adjusting the pH of a metal ion contaminant-containing water source to within the range of about 6.5 to about 14.0, admixing the water source with a mixture of an alkali or alkaline earth ferrate and a water soluble salt, e.g., a zirconium salt, in an amount sufficient to form a precipitate within the water source, the amount the mixture of ferrate and water soluble salt effective to reduce the metal ion contaminant concentration in the water source, permitting the precipitate in the admixture to separate and thereby yield a supernatant liquid having a reduced metal ion contaminant concentration, and separating the supernatant liquid having the reduced metal ion contaminant concentration from the admixture is provided. A composition of matter including an alkali or alkaline earth ferrate and a water soluble salt, e.g., a zirconium salt, is also provided.

Deininger, James P. (Colorado Springs, CO); Chatfield, Linda K. (Colorado Springs, CO)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

247

Report on the Depth Requirements for a Massive Detector at Homestake  

SciTech Connect

This report provides the technical justification for locating a large detector underground in a US based Deep Underground Science and Engineering Laboratory. A large detector with a fiducial mass greater than 100 kTon will most likely be a multipurpose facility. The main physics justification for such a device is detection of accelerator generated neutrinos, nucleon decay, and natural sources of neutrinos such as solar, atmospheric and supernova neutrinos. The requirement on the depth of this detector will be guided by the rate of signals from these sources and the rate of backgrounds from cosmic rays over a very wide range of energies (from solar neutrino energies of 5 MeV to high energies in the range of hundreds of GeV). For the present report, we have examined the depth requirement for a large water Cherenkov detector and a liquid argon time projection chamber. There has been extensive previous experience with underground water Cherenkov detectors such as IMB, Kamioka, and most recently, Super-Kamiokande which has a fiducial mass of 22 kTon and a total mass of 50 kTon at a depth of 2700 meters-water-equivalent in a mountain. Projections for signal and background capability for a larger and deeper(or shallower) detectors of this type can be scaled from these previous detectors. The liquid argon time projection chamber has the advantage of being a very fine-grained tracking detector, which should provide enhanced capability for background rejection. We have based background rejection on reasonable estimates of track and energy resolution, and in some cases scaled background rates from measurements in water. In the current work we have taken the approach that the depth should be sufficient to suppress the cosmogenic background below predicted signal rates for either of the above two technologies. Nevertheless, it is also clear that the underground facility that we are examining must have a long life and will most likely be used either for future novel uses of the currently planned detectors or new technologies. Therefore the depth requirement also needs to be made on the basis of sound judgment regarding possible future use. In particular, the depth should be sufficient for any possible future use of these cavities or the level which will be developed for these large structures.Along with these physics justifications there are practical issues regarding the existing infrastructure at Homestake and also the stress characteristics of the Homestake rock formations. In this report we will examine the various depth choices at Homestake from the point of view of the particle and nuclear physics signatures of interest. We also have sufficient information about the existing infrastructure and the rock characteristics to narrow the choice of levels for the development of large cavities with long lifetimes. We make general remarks on desirable ground conditions for such large cavities and then make recommendations on how to start examining these levels to make a final choice. In the appendix we have outlined the initial requirements for the detectors. These requirements will undergo refinement during the course of the design. Finally, we strongly recommend that the geotechnical studies be commenced at the 4850 ft level, which we find to be the most suitable, in a timely manner.

Kadel, Richard W.; Bernstein, Adam; Blucher, Edward; Cline, David B.; Diwan, Milind V.; Fleming, Bonnie; Kearns, Edward; Klein, Joshua; Lande, Kenneth; Lanni, Francesco; Lissauer, David; McKeown, Robert; Morse, William; Rameika, Regina; Scholberg, Kate; Smy, Michael; Sobel, Henry; Sullivan, Gregory; Svoboda, Robert; Vagins, Mark; Walter, Christopher; Zwaska, Robert

2008-12-23T23:59:59.000Z

248

Data Qualification Report: Precipitation Chloride Data for Use on the Yucca Mountain Project  

SciTech Connect

The data covered by this qualification report have been cited in analysis/model reports (AMRs) to support the Site Recommendation in determining the suitability of Yucca Mountain as a repository for high level nuclear waste. Those analyses cited both qualified and unqualified hydrochemical data. This report evaluates unqualified precipitation chloride data based on the pedigree of the data and within the context of supporting analyses on the Yucca Mountain Project (YMP). The following AMRs use the unqualified chloride data considered in this report: (1) AMR S0040, ''Geochemical and Isotopic Constraints on Groundwater Flow Directions, Mixing and Recharge at Yucca Mountain'' (ANL-NBS-HS-000021) (Kwicklis 2000)--an analysis of groundwater recharge rates, flow directions and velocities, and mixing proportions of water from different source areas based on groundwater geochemical and isotopic data. (2) AMR U0085, ''Analysis of Geochemical Data for the Unsaturated Zone'' (ANL-NBS-HS-000017) (Fabryka-Martin 2000)--identifies fluid geochemical parameters for the unsaturated zone, local precipitation, and surface water; discusses the occurrence and origins of fracture minerals; and presents a thermal history of the unsaturated zone. These data are being evaluated for inclusion in technical products to include AMRs and Process Modeling Reports (PMRs) that support the Site Recommendation and that may also be used to support the License Application. A finding that the precipitation chloride data are qualified means that the data are adequate for generalized use and can be appropriately used in a wide variety of applications, so long as consideration is given to limitations on the accuracy, precision and representativeness of the data for an intended use in a technical product.

C. Wilson

2000-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

249

NETL: Water-Energy Interface - Power Plant Water Management  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Application of Pulsed Electrical Fields for Advanced Cooling in Coal-Fired Power Plants Application of Pulsed Electrical Fields for Advanced Cooling in Coal-Fired Power Plants Drexel University is conducting research with the overall objective of developing technologies to reduce freshwater consumption at coal-fired power plants. The goal of this research is to develop a scale-prevention technology based on a novel filtration method and an integrated system of physical water treatment in an effort to reduce the amount of water needed for cooling tower blowdown. This objective is being pursued under two coordinated, National Energy Technology Laboratory sponsored research and development projects. In both projects, pulsed electrical fields are employed to promote the precipitation and removal of mineral deposits from power plant cooling water, thereby allowing the water to be recirculated for longer periods of time before fresh makeup water has to be introduced into the cooling water system.

250

Global Precipitation Measurement Cold Season Precipitation Experiment (GCPEx): For Measurement Sake Let it Snow  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

As a component of the Earth's hydrologic cycle, and especially at higher latitudes, falling snow creates snowpack accumulation that in turn provides a large proportion of the fresh water resources required by many communities throughout the world. To ...

Gail Skofronick-Jackson; David Hudak; Walter Petersen; Stephen W. Nesbitt; V. Chandrasekar; Stephen Durden; Kirstin J. Gleicher; Gwo-Jong Huang; Paul Joe; Pavlos Kollias; Kimberly A. Reed; Mathew R. Schwaller; Ronald Stewart; Simone Tanelli; Ali Tokay; James R. Wang; Mengistu Wolde

251

Multi-scale Hydrologic Applications of the Latest Satellite Precipitation Products in the Yangtze River Basin using a Distributed Hydrologic Model  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The present study aims to evaluate three global satellite precipitation products (3B42 V7, 3B42 RT and CMORPH) during 2003-2012 for multi-scale hydrologic applications, including annual water budgeting, monthly and daily streamflow simulation, and ...

Zhe Li; Dawen Yang; Bing Gao; Yang Jiao; Yang Hong; Tao Xu

252

Cesium cobaltdicarbollide-solubility, precipitation, and reactivity in basic aqueous solution  

SciTech Connect

The title compound, Cs{sup +}[Co((3)-1,2-C{sub 2}B{sub 9}H{sub 11}){sub 2}]{sup {minus}}(CsCDC), was precipitated with a NaCDC solution from solutions containing CsCl. The reaction was followed by measuring loss of light intensity as the precipitate formed. The [Cs{sup +}] and [CDC{sup {minus}}] at the point of precipitation were estimated and approximate values of the K{sub sp} for CsCDC determined at room temperature: 8 {times} 10{sup {minus}6} (water), 7 {times} 10{sup {minus}6} (1 M NaOH), and 2 {times} 10{sup {minus}6} (5M NaCl/0.1 M KOH/1.0 M NaOH). In some cases, NaCDC precipitated from solution when added to the latter salt solution. For the medium, 5 M NaNO{sub 3}/0.1 M KOH/1.0 M NaOH a four-fold excess of NaCDC was added to a 10mM Cs{sup +} solution at 40{degrees}C and the [CDC{sup {minus}}] measured spectrophotometrically. Only CsCDC precipitated, and a K{sub sp} of 3.9 {times} 10{sup {minus}6} was determined. The solubilities of CsCDC were measured in NaNO{sub 3} and NaCl solutions at 30{sub C} as a function of the Na salt concentration. Reaction of the CDC{sup {minus}} with OH{sup {minus}} slowly produces B(OH{sub 4}{sup {minus}}, H{sub 2}, and CoO(OH). Reaction of 22 {mu}M CsCDC with 1M NaOH has a first order rate constant at 56{degrees}C of 8.8 {times} 10{sup {minus}7} s{sup {minus}1}, while that for 14 mM NaCDC is 7.2 {times} 10{sup {minus}7} s {sup {minus}1}. Activation energy for the reaction is 110 kJ.

McCabe, D.J.; Fanning, J.C.; Hugg, L.A.; Smith, W.A.; Terrell, A.S.; Yasinsac, L.; Todd, L.J.; Jasper, S.A. Jr.

1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

253

Report on the Depth Requirements for a Massive Detector at Homestake  

SciTech Connect

This report provides the technical justification for locating a large detector underground in a US based Deep Underground Science and Engineering Laboratory. A large detector with a fiducial mass greater than 100 kTon will most likely be a multipurpose facility. The main physics justification for such a device is detection of accelerator generated neutrinos, nucleon decay, and natural sources of neutrinos such as solar, atmospheric and supernova neutrinos. The requirement on the depth of this detector will be guided by the rate of signals from these sources and the rate of backgrounds from cosmic rays over a very wide range of energies (from solar neutrino energies of 5 MeV to high energies in the range of tens of GeV). For the present report, we have examined the depth requirement for a large water Cherenkov detector and a liquid argon time projection chamber. There has been extensive previous experience with underground water Cherenkov detectors such as IMB, Kamioka, and most recently, Super-Kamiokande which has a fiducial mass of 22 kTon and a total mass of 50 kTon at a depth of 2700 meters-water-equivalent. Projections for signal and background capability for a larger and deeper (or shallower) detectors of this type can be scaled from these previous detectors. The liquid argon time projection chamber has the advantage of being a very fine-grained tracking detector, which provides enhanced capability for background rejection. In the current work we have taken the approach that the depth should be sufficient to suppress the cosmogenic background below predicted signal rates for either of the above two technologies. Nevertheless, it is also clear that the underground facility that we are examining must have a long life and will most likely be used either for future novel uses of the currently planned detectors or new technologies. Therefore the depth requirement also needs to be made on the basis of sound judgment regarding possible future use. In particular, the depth should be sufficient for any possible future use of these cavities or the level which will be developed for these large structures. Along with these physics justifications there are practical issues regarding the existing infrastructure at Homestake and also the stress characteristics of the Homestake rock formations. In this report we will examine the various depth choices at Homestake from the point of view of the particle and nuclear physics signatures of interest. We also have sufficient information about the existing infrastructure and the rock characteristics to narrow the choice of levels for the development of large cavities with long lifetimes. We make general remarks on desirable ground conditions for such large cavities and then make recommendations on how to start examining these levels to make a final choice. In the appendix we have outlined the initial requirements for the detectors. These requirements will undergo refinement during the course of the design. Finally, we strongly recommend that the geotechnical studies be commenced at the 4850 ft level, which we find to be the most suitable, in a timely manner.

Bernstein,A.; Blucher, E.; Cline, D. B.; Diwan, M. V.; Fleming, b.; Kadel, R.; Kearns, E.; Klein, J.; Lande, K.; Lanni, F.; Lissauer, D.; McKeown, R.; Morse, W.; Radeika, R.; Scholberg, K.; Smy, M.; Sobel, H.; Sullivan, G.; Svoboda, R.; Vagins, M.; Walter, C.; Zwaska, R.

2008-12-22T23:59:59.000Z

254

Measuring depth profiles of residual stress with Raman spectroscopy  

SciTech Connect

Knowledge of the variation of residual stress is a very important factor in understanding the properties of machined surfaces. The nature of the residual stress can determine a part`s susceptibility to wear deformation, and cracking. Raman spectroscopy is known to be a very useful technique for measuring residual stress in many materials. These measurements are routinely made with a lateral resolution of 1{mu}m and an accuracy of 0.1 kbar. The variation of stress with depth; however, has not received much attention in the past. A novel technique has been developed that allows quantitative measurement of the variation of the residual stress with depth with an accuracy of 10nm in the z direction. Qualitative techniques for determining whether the stress is varying with depth are presented. It is also demonstrated that when the stress is changing over the volume sampled, errors can be introduced if the variation of the stress with depth is ignored. Computer aided data analysis is used to determine the depth dependence of the residual stress.

Enloe, W.S.; Sparks, R.G.; Paesler, M.A.

1988-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

255

Water Efficiency  

Energy Savers (EERE)

Wheeler - Water Savers, LLC * fwheeler@watersaversllc.com Topics * Performance contracting analysis * Water industry terms * Federal reduction goals * Water balance * Water...

256

Method of treating waste water  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process of treating water to remove transuranic elements contained therein by adjusting the pH of a transuranic element-containing water source to within the range of about 6.5 to about 14.0, admixing the water source with an alkali or alkaline earth ferrate in an amount sufficient to form a precipitate within the water source, the amount of ferrate effective to reduce the transuranic element concentration in the water source, permitting the precipitate in the admixture to separate and thereby yield a supernatant liquid having a reduced transuranic element concentration, and separating the supernatant liquid having the reduced transuranic element concentration from the admixture is provided. Additionally, a water soluble salt, e.g., a zirconium salt, can be added with the alkali or alkaline earth ferrate in the process to provide greater removal efficiencies. A composition of matter including an alkali or alkaline earth ferrate and a water soluble salt, e.g., a zirconium salt, is also provided.

Deininger, J. Paul (Colorado Springs, CO); Chatfield, Linda K. (Colorado Springs, CO)

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

257

Investigation on precipitation in Zircaloy-2 fuel cladding tube  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Morphology of the precipitates and kinetics of precipitation in ? quenched Zircaloy-2 has been investigated using small-angle X-ray scattering, wide-angle X-ray scattering and transmission electron microscopy. Wide-angle X-ray scattering and transmission electron microscopy investigations indicate the existence of two types of intermetallic precipitates, namely, tetragonal Zr2(Fe,Ni) and hexagonal Zr(Fe,Cr)2. Porod exponents estimated from small-angle X-ray scattering profiles have been found to be less than four. These observations have been explained in terms of the existence of precipitates with two different morphologies, spherical and non-spherical (plate-like), which was also confirmed by transmission electron microscopy. The precipitate size distribution for the virgin specimen shifts towards the smaller radius side after ? quenching and starts growing gradually towards the higher radius side with increase in aging time due to nucleation and growth. Phase separation is accompanied by dynamical scaling behaviour for different aging time.

D Sen; S Mazumder; R Tewari; P.K De; H Amenitsch; S Bernstorff

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

258

Surface-Induced Nickel Hydroxide Precipitation in the Presence of Citrate and Salicylate  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

). These identified the Ni hydroxide precipitates with diffuse reflectance spec- LDH phases consist of brucite

Sparks, Donald L.

259

Cone Depth and the Center Vertex Theorem Gary L. Miller Todd Phillips Don Sheehy  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Abstract We generalize the Tukey depth to use cones instead of halfspaces. We prove a generalization of the most enduring definitions of data depth is the Tukey depth, also known as the half-space depth. The Tukey depth of a point p relative to a point set S is defined as the minimum number of points on one

Miller, Gary L.

260

ARM - Evaluation Product - Aerosol Optical Depths from SASHE  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

ProductsAerosol Optical Depths from SASHE ProductsAerosol Optical Depths from SASHE Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Evaluation Product : Aerosol Optical Depths from SASHE Site(s) PVC SGP General Description The Shortwave Array Spectroradiometer Hemispheric (SASHE) is a ground-based instrument that measures both direct and diffuse shortwave irradiance. In this regard, the instrument is similar to the multifilter rotating shadowband radiometer (MFRSR)-an instrument that has been in the ARM Facility stable for more than 15 years. However, the two instruments differ significantly in wavelength resolution and range. In particular, the SASHE provides hyperspectral measurements from about 350 nm to 1700 nm at a wavelength resolution from 1 to several nanometers, while the MFRSR only

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "depth precipitable water" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Heat Flow At Standard Depth | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

source source History View New Pages Recent Changes All Special Pages Semantic Search/Querying Get Involved Help Apps Datasets Community Login | Sign Up Search Page Edit History Facebook icon Twitter icon » Heat Flow At Standard Depth Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Journal Article: Heat Flow At Standard Depth Details Activities (2) Areas (1) Regions (0) Abstract: Secular and long-term periodic changes in surface temperature cause perturbations to the geothermal gradient which may be significant to depths of at least 1000 m, and major corrections are required to determine absolute values of heat flow from the Earth's interior. However, detailed climatic models remain contentious and estimates of error in geothermal gradients differ widely. Consequently, regions of anomalous heat flow which

262

Penetration depth scaling for impact into wet granular packings  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present experimental measurements of penetration depths for the impact of spheres into wetted granular media. We observe that the penetration depth in the liquid saturated case scales with projectile density, size, and drop height in a fashion consistent with the scaling observed in the dry case, but that penetration depths into saturated packings tend to be smaller. This result suggests that, for the range of impact energies observed, the stopping force is set by static contact forces between grains within the bed, and that the presence of liquid serves, primarily, to enhance these contact forces. The enhancement to the stopping force has a complicated dependence on liquid fraction, accompanied by a change in the drop-height dependence, that must be the consequence of accompanying changes in the conformation of the liquid phase in the interstices.

Theodore A. Brzinski III; Jorin Schug; Kelly Mao; Douglas J. Durian

2015-01-25T23:59:59.000Z

263

Cloud and Precipitation Fields Around Darwin in the Transition Season  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

and Precipitation Fields Around Darwin and Precipitation Fields Around Darwin in the Transition Season P. T. May Bureau of Meteorology Research Centre Melbourne, 3001, Victoria, Australia Introduction An interesting, and very relevant question, for the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program is how cloud characteristics and their seasonal and diurnal variation changes across the tropics. In particular, how does he cloud field around the new SRCS site compare with nearby regions. Thus, the aim of this study is to look at the characteristics of clouds and precipitation in the area around Darwin and to compare the cloud statistics estimated from geostationary meteorological satellite (GMS) satellite data with other nearby regions. Towards this end, GMS satellite imagery and radar data from

264

Peakons arising as particle paths beneath small-amplitude water waves  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present a new kind of particle path in constant vorticity water of finite depth, within the framework of small-amplitude waves.

Delia Ionescu-Kruse

2011-06-20T23:59:59.000Z

265

Nano {gamma}'/{gamma}'' composite precipitates in Alloy 718  

SciTech Connect

Nanoscale composite precipitates of Alloy 718 have been investigated with both high-resolution scanning transmission electron microscopy and phase field modeling. Chemical analysis via energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy allowed for the differentiation of {gamma}' and {gamma}'' particles, which is not otherwise possible through traditional Z-contrast methods. Phase field modeling was applied to determine the stress distribution and elastic interaction around and between the particles, respectively, and it was determined that a composite particle (of both {gamma}' and {gamma}'') has an elastic energy that is significantly lower than, for example, single {gamma}' and {gamma}'' precipitates which are non-interacting.

Phillips, P. J. [Department of Physics, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60607 (United States); McAllister, D.; Gao, Y.; Lv, D.; Williams, R. E. A.; Wang, Y.; Mills, M. J. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210 (United States); Peterson, B. [Honeywell Aerospace, Phoenix, Arizona 85034 (United States)

2012-05-21T23:59:59.000Z

266

An Investigation of Hydrogen Depth Profiling Using ToF-SIMS....  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Investigation of Hydrogen Depth Profiling Using ToF-SIMS. An Investigation of Hydrogen Depth Profiling Using ToF-SIMS. Abstract: Hydrogen depth distributions in silicon, zinc oxide...

267

Does footprint depth correlate with foot motion and pressure?  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...correlations found across the foot by Hatala et al. [11], D'Aout...and in the heel and mid-foot, when depth was compared with...difference in the predictive power of peak pressure and the PT...applied by the trackmaker's foot during print formation is the...

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

268

Continuous Snow Depth, Intensive Site 1, Barrow, Alaska  

SciTech Connect

Continuous Snow depth data are being collected at several points within four intensive study areas in Barrow, Alaska. These data are being collected to better understand the energy dynamics above the active layer and permafrost. They complement in-situ snow and soil measurements at this location. The data could also be used as supporting measurements for other research and modeling activities.

Cable, William; Romanovsky, Vladimir; Hinzman, Larry; Busey, Bob

2014-11-06T23:59:59.000Z

269

Steady periodic waves bifurcating for fixed-depth rotational flows  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

-current interactions [29, 37] or flows generated by wind-shear [30] (see [6] for a comprehensive discussion than the mass-flux. It is important to note that fixing the mass-flux p0 does not fix the depth d

270

Human Activities Recognition with RGB-Depth Camera using HMM  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. In this paper, we propose a method to detect fall using a system made up of RGB-Depth cameras. The major benefit. An evaluation has been conducted within a real smart environment with 26 subjects which were performing any]), Gaussian Mixture Model [6], least median of squares [1], occupancy grid [5]. Then the second stage

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

271

Parameterised structured light imaging for depth edge detection  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, [amin, amax], from the projector/camera', `width of horizontal stripes, w', and `minimum detectable depth difference, rmin'. As can be seen in Fig. 1a, amax and rmin are given as the input parameters of [amin, amax] are guaranteed to be detected. However, awkwardly enough, amin is found at a later step

California at Santa Barbara, University of

272

WaveCurrent Interactions in Finite Depth JEROME A. SMITH  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Wave­Current Interactions in Finite Depth JEROME A. SMITH Scripps Institution of Oceanography, La (Longuet-Higgins 1969; Hasselmann 1971; Garrett and Smith 1976; and many others). In particular, Hassel) changes in wave momentum that absorb some of the radiation stress gradients. Garrett and Smith (1976

Smith, Jerome A.

273

Correction to “Hyperspectral Aerosol Optical Depths from TCAP Flights”  

SciTech Connect

In the paper “Hyperspectral aerosol optical depths from TCAP flights” by Y. Shinozuka et al. (Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, 118, doi:10.1002/2013JD020596, 2013), Tables 1 and 2 were published with the column heads out of order. Tables 1 and 2 are published correctly here. The publisher regrets the error.

Shinozuka, Yohei; Johnson, Roy R.; Flynn, Connor J.; Russell, P. B.; Schmid, Beat; Redemann, Jens; Dunagan, Stephen; Kluzek, Celine D.; Hubbe, John M.; Segal-Rosenheimer, Michal; Livingston, J. M.; Eck, T.; Wagener, Richard; Gregory, L.; Chand, Duli; Berg, Larry K.; Rogers, Ray; Ferrare, R. A.; Hair, John; Hostetler, Chris A.; Burton, S. P.

2014-02-16T23:59:59.000Z

274

Continuous Snow Depth, Intensive Site 1, Barrow, Alaska  

DOE Data Explorer (OSTI)

Continuous Snow depth data are being collected at several points within four intensive study areas in Barrow, Alaska. These data are being collected to better understand the energy dynamics above the active layer and permafrost. They complement in-situ snow and soil measurements at this location. The data could also be used as supporting measurements for other research and modeling activities.

Cable, William; Romanovsky, Vladimir; Hinzman, Larry; Busey, Bob

275

Dynamics and energy balance of the Hadly circulation and the tropical precipitation zones: Significance of the distribution of evaporation  

SciTech Connect

A series of numerical experiments is performed using a general circulation model with an idealistic ocean-covered boundary condition. The meridional structure of the Hadley circulation system, which is a combined structure of the Hadley circulation and the tropical precipitation zone, is examined from the standpoints of the water vapor and the energy budgets. Although the prescribed SST distribution has a broad peak centered at the equator, the distribution of the precipitation has two peaks straddling the equator. The distribution of the evaporation rate is an important factor in the formation of this structure. The evaporation rate is smaller near the equator than in the subtropics because of its dependence upon the wind speed. If this dependence is removed, the latitudinal distribution of evaporation becomes flat and the precipitation concentrates at the equator to form a single band structure. Qualitatively similar results are obtained in experiments with an axisymmetric two-dimensional model without the effect of disturbances. The net supply of the moist static energy must balance with the divergence of the meridional transport of moist static energy. A small fractional change in the evaporation rate causes a large change in the net energy supply and thus results in a strong modification of the meridional structure of the system. A strong positive feedback between the strength of the Hadley circulation and the latitudinal concentration of the precipitation provides the high sensitivity of the Hadley circulation system to the distribution of the evaporation, which is the principal energy source of the system. A set of comparative experiments with different cumulus parameterization schemes is performed. It is shown that the difference in the vertical stratification significantly modifies the energy budget of the Hadley circulation system and causes a large difference in the distribution of precipitation. 27 refs., 21 figs.

Numaguti, A. (National Institute for Environmental Studies, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan))

1993-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

276

Defluoridation study for Boise geothermal water  

SciTech Connect

Methods of removing fluorides from water are reviewed and recommendations are made for treating geothermal water used by the Boise Geothermal Project, Boise, Idaho. The Boise geothermal water except for its high fluoride content would be high quality, suitable for primary drinking water. Fluoride ranges from about 15 to 25 mg/l in water from various wells in the Boise region where the Project plans to obtain hot water. Four techniques for removing fluorides from water have been studied extensively during the past 15 years or so. Electrodialysis and reverse osmosis are useful in reducing total dissolved solids from brackish water, but are nonspecific and are too expensive for treatment of the Boise geothermal water. Selective precipitation is a widely used technique for treating water, but would also prove expensive for the Boise geothermal water because of the relatively high solubility of fluoride salts and consequently high concentration (and cost) of precipitants required to reduce the fluorides to an acceptable level. Ion-exchange separation using activated alumina as the exchange medium appears to be the most promising technique and we recommend that some laboratory and pilot studies be conducted to establish suitability and operating boundaries.

Rigdon, L.

1980-06-03T23:59:59.000Z

277

Daily Cycle of Precipitation over the Northern Coast of Brazil  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The daily cycle of precipitation (DCP) in the austral autumn on the northern coast of Brazil (NCB) is examined in detail. The Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission 3B42 dataset was used to obtain the DCP, and the intradaily variability was measured ...

Sheila Santana de Barros Brito; Marcos Daisuke Oyama

2014-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

278

Spatial variability of summer precipitation related to the  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

to the observed diurnal patterns of precipitation over the central U.S. #12;Shading ­ meridional wind speed (Shading denotes meridional wind speed) P winds #12; Air temperature (shading; K) and zonal temperature #12;Convective P frequency Vertical wind in the model Moisture convergence at 850 hPa Vertical

Yang, Zong-Liang

279

Nitrate-Cancrinite Precipitation on Quartz Sand in Simulated Hanford  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Nitrate-Cancrinite Precipitation on Quartz Sand in Simulated Hanford Tank Solutions B A R R Y R . B minerals at the U.S. Department of Energy's Hanford site in Washington. Nitrate-cancrinite began's (DOE) Hanford Site in southeast Washington since the late 1950s (1). To predict the fate

Illinois at Chicago, University of

280

Land surface feedbacks on spring precipitation in the Netherlands  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In this paper the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model is used to investigate the sensitivity of precipitation to soil moisture and urban areas in the Netherlands. We analyze the average output of a four day event from 10-13 May 1999 for ...

Emma E. Daniels; Ronald W.A. Hutjes; Geert Lenderink; Reinder J. Ronda; Albert A.M. Holtslag

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "depth precipitable water" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

Evaporation Minus Precipitation and Density Fluxes for the North Atlantic  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Estimates of evaporation (E) over the North Atlantic Ocean by Bunker have been combined with estimates of precipitation (P) by Dorman and Bourke to produce new annual and seasonal maps of E–P and surface density flux. Although uncertainties about ...

Raymond W. Schmitt; Philip S. Bogden; Clive E. Dorman

1989-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

282

Flood or Drought: How Do Aerosols Affect Precipitation?  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...atmosphere occurs by release of latent heat...clouds (7). The fraction of radiation...smoke from forest fires was observed to suppress rainfall...precipitation particles that release the latent heat...The additional release of latent heat...the cloud droplets airborne when strong updrafts thrust them...

Daniel Rosenfeld; Ulrike Lohmann; Graciela B. Raga; Colin D. O'Dowd; Markku Kulmala; Sandro Fuzzi; Anni Reissell; Meinrat O. Andreae

2008-09-05T23:59:59.000Z

283

Capacitance studies of cobalt oxide films formed via electrochemical precipitation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

prepared by electrochemically precipitating the hydroxide and heating it in air to form Co3O4 the need to identify more suitable materials. One promising route is the use of transi- tion metal oxides to batteries, are referred to as Faradaic or pseudocapacitors. However, the high cost of these materials has

Weidner, John W.

284

Inhibition of Aluminum Oxyhydroxide Precipitation with Citric Acid  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Inhibition of Aluminum Oxyhydroxide Precipitation with Citric Acid Daniel M. Dabbs, Usha as an agent for increasing the solubility of aluminum oxyhydroxides in aqueous solutions of high (>2.47 mol/mol) hydroxide-to-aluminum ratios. Conversely, citric acid also colloidally stabilizes particles in aqueous

Aksay, Ilhan A.

285

Joint probability of precipitation and discharge deficits in the Netherlands  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Joint probability of precipitation and discharge deficits in the Netherlands Jules J. Beersma and T. Adri Buishand Royal Netherlands Meteorological Institute, De Bilt, The Netherlands Received 14 April] The Netherlands are situated at the downstream end of the Rhine River. A large part of the country can be supplied

Beersma, Jules

286

Spectroscopic Evidence for Uranium Bearing Precipitates in Vadose Zone  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Spectroscopic Evidence for Uranium Bearing Precipitates in Vadose Zone Sediments at the Hanford 300, Advanced Light Source, One Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, California 94720, United States Geological Survey Northwest Laboratory, Richland, Washington 99352 Uranium (U) solid-state speciation in vadose zone sediments

287

STATISTICS OF PRECIPITATION EXTREMES: QUANTIFYING CONFIDENCE IN TRENDS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1 STATISTICS OF PRECIPITATION EXTREMES: QUANTIFYING CONFIDENCE IN TRENDS Rick Katz Institute of the validity of this analysis." -- Emil Gumbel #12;3 Outline (1) Introduction (2) Extreme Value Analysis under Stationarity: Classical Approach (3) Extreme Value Analysis under Stationarity: Modern Approach (4) Extreme

Katz, Richard

288

Removing dissolved inorganic contaminants from water  

SciTech Connect

This article describes the physicochemical treatment processes typically used to remove the more common inorganic contaminants from water and wastewater. These are precipitation, coprecipitation, adsorption, ion exchange, membrane separations by reverse osmosis and electrodialysis, and combinations of these processes. The general criteria for process selection are discussed, and the processes and their typical applications are described.

Clifford, D.; Subramonian, S.; Sorg, T.J.

1986-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

289

A design-for-environment study for plating processes -- Evaluations of wastewater precipitation and separation technologies  

SciTech Connect

A wastewater pollution prevention study was performed for two plating processes. This study included wastewater precipitation process analysis, and evaluation of separation and recycling alternatives. The pollution prevention opportunity assessment goals are: to reduce and reuse wastewater, to develop a design-for-environment plating process, and to conduct a material life-cycle analysis (LCA) for selected materials and with well-defined boundary. From an analysis of coordination chemistry and a series of precipitation process tests, it was found that treatment with optimized pH and mixing rate, proper coprecipitants (such as iron salts), and chemical dosages were needed to dissociate metal ions from the chelated complexes (Cu-EDTA) in the wastewater. In this study, reverse osmosis and ion exchange, separation/recycling technologies were also evaluated. A water reclamation project with these two technologies was implemented. The analysis indicated, that with recycling systems, 33% of the wastewater could be reclaimed and more than 90% of reduction of copper in wastewater was achieved. With the LCA, a greener approach was implemented to reduce the wasted parts disposal problems.

Chang, L.Y. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States)

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

290

Treatment of effluents arising from a material characterization laboratory, using chemical precipitation and reverse osmosis processes  

SciTech Connect

Owing to the restrictions imposed by the Regulations, mainly in the field of effluent release into a water body, it`s necessary to use a set of technologies that will help meeting the standards established by these regulations. Taking into account what was exposed above, a process for treating the effluents arising from a Material Characterization Laboratory, that will characterize nuclear materials is proposed in this paper. The process proposed uses chemical precipitation for removing chemicals which can be removed by this means (Chromium, Calcium and Sulfate for instance), and reverse osmosis process to purify the filtrate from precipitation process. The reverse osmosis process is used to remove dissolved chemicals (Nitrates and Chlorides). A synthetic solution with a COD of 8000 mg/l was used to simulate the treatment process. After treatment was finished, a purified stream, which represents 90 % of the intake stream have presented a COD of less then 10 mg/l, showing that this process can be utilized to minimize the impact caused to the environment. The characterization of all streams involved in the treatment process as well as the process description is presented in this paper.

Bello, S.M.G.; Mierzwa, J.C. [Cidade Universitaria, Sao Paulo (Brazil)

1995-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

291

Effect of prior-deformation on the stability of the intermetallic precipitate in Zircaloy-2  

SciTech Connect

Zircaloy-2 is commonly used for cladding tubes in boiling water reactors (BWR`s). The high fluence of neutron irradiation causes microstructural changes which affect corrosion, mechanical properties and irradiation growth. Here, both stress-relieved (SR) and recrystallized (RX) samples irradiated near 300 C to fluences between 1 and 9 {times} 10{sup 21} n/cm{sup 2} (E>1MeV) were examined using analytical scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM). The aim was to extend their knowledge or irradiation effects on microstructure by examining the effect of prior-cold-work on the dissolution of intermetallic precipitates in Zircaloy-2. Resulting from prior mechanical deformation and fast neutron irradiation, SR samples contain a high density of -component, mixed line dislocations and ``black dot`` damage. On the other hand, RX samples contain mostly ``black dot`` damage. Pure -dislocations are detected in the high fluence samples in RX materials. For identical irradiation conditions, different degrees of amorphization and dissolution are observed in RX and SR samples. Also, preferential diffusion of solute is observed to occur along -dislocations. These results are discussed in terms of possible interactions between irradiation produced defects, precipitates and solutes.

Huang, P.Y.; Adamson, R.B. [GE Nuclear Energy, Pleasanton, CA (United States). Vallecitos Nuclear Center

1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

292

NETL: Water-Energy Interface - Power Plant Water Management  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Reduction of Water Use in Wet FGD Systems – USR Group, Inc. Reduction of Water Use in Wet FGD Systems – USR Group, Inc. The project team demonstrates the use of regenerative heat exchange to reduce flue gas temperature and minimize evaporative water consumption in wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems on coal-fired boilers. Most water consumption in coal-fired power plants occurs due to evaporative water losses. For example, a 500-megawatt (MW) power plant will loose approximately 5,000 - 6,000 gallons per minute (gpm) to evaporation and 500 gpm in the wet FGD system. Installation of regenerative reheat on FGD systems is expected to reduce water consumption to one half of water consumption using conventional FGD technology. Electrostatic Precipitator Researchers are conducting pilot-scale tests of regenerative heat exchange to determine the reduction in FGD water consumption that can be achieved and assessing the resulting impact on air pollution control (APC) systems. The project team consists of URS Group, Inc. as the prime contractor, the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), Southern Company, Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA), and Mitsubishi Heavy Industries (MHI). The team is conducting an analysis of the improvement in the performance of the APC systems and the resulting reduction in capital and operating costs. The tests are intended to determine the impact of operation at cooler flue gas temperatures on FGD water consumption, electrostatic precipitator (ESP) particulate removal (see Figure 1), SO3 removal, and Hg removal. Additionally, tests are conducted to assess the potential negative impact of excessive corrosion rates in the regenerative heat exchanger.

293

Cosmogenic Backgrounds in Borexino at 3800 m water-equivalent depth  

SciTech Connect

The solar neutrino experiment Borexino, which is located in the Gran Sasso underground laboratories, is in a unique position to study muon-induced backgrounds in an organic liquid scintillator. In this study, a large sample of cosmic muons is identified and tracked by a muon veto detector external to the liquid scintillator, and by the specific light patterns observed when muons cross the scintillator volume. The yield of muon-induced neutrons is found to be Y{sub n} = (3.10±0.11)·10{sup ?4} n/(?·(g/cm{sup 2})). The distance profile between the parent muon track and the neutron capture point has the average value ? = (81.5±2.7) cm. Additionally the yields of a number of cosmogenic radioisotopes are measured for {sup 12}N, {sup 12}B, {sup 8}He, {sup 9}C, {sup 9}Li, {sup 8}B, {sup 6}He, {sup 8}Li, {sup 11}Be, {sup 10}C and {sup 11}C. All results are compared with Monte Carlo simulation predictions using the FLUKA and GEANT4 packages. General agreement between data and simulation is observed for the cosmogenic production yields with a few exceptions, the most prominent case being {sup 11}C yield for which both codes return about 50% lower values. The predicted ?-n distance profile and the neutron multiplicity distribution are found to be overall consistent with data.

Bellini, G.; Avanzini, M. Buizza; Caccianiga, B.; D'Angelo, D. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universitŕ degli Studi e INFN, Milano 20133 (Italy); Benziger, J. [Chemical Engineering Department, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Bick, D. [University of Hamburg, Hamburg (Germany); Bonfini, G.; Cavalcante, P.; Fomenko, K. [INFN Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso, Assergi 67010 (Italy); Bravo, D. [Physics Department, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, VA 24061 (United States); Cadonati, L. [Physics Department, University of Massachusetts, Amherst 01003 (United States); Calaprice, F.; Chavarria, A.; Galbiati, C. [Physics Department, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Chepurnov, A. [Lomonosov Moscow State University Skobeltsyn Institute of Nuclear Physics, Moscow 119234 (Russian Federation); Davini, S.; Empl, A. [Department of Physics, University of Houston, Houston, TX 77204 (United States); Derbin, A. [St. Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute, Gatchina 188350 (Russian Federation); Etenko, A. [NRC Kurchatov Institute, Moscow 123182 (Russian Federation); Franco, D., E-mail: spokeperson-borex@lngs.infn.it [APC, Univ. Paris Diderot, CNRS/IN2P3, CEA/Irfu, Obs. de Paris, Sorbonne Paris Cité (France); and others

2013-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

294

Risk assessment and evaluation of the conductor setting depth in shallow water, Gulf of Mexico  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

theories and their explanations have been proposed and many predictive methods have been advocated via technical journals. In this section, the basic formation pressure and stress concepts will be introduced and analyzed for both hydrostatic and non... environment of the GOM. 2.3 Stress The depositional environments are the basis for formation stresses and along with the earth?s gravitational forces, stress fields were developed around the globe. There are many possibilities which lead...

Tu, Yong B.

2006-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

295

Process for removing metals from water  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process for removing metals from water including the steps of prefiltering solids from the water, adjusting the pH to between about 2 and 3, reducing the amount of dissolved oxygen in the water, increasing the pH to between about 6 and 8, adding water-soluble sulfide to precipitate insoluble sulfide- and hydroxide-forming metals, adding a containing floc, and postfiltering the resultant solution. The postfiltered solution may optionally be eluted through an ion exchange resin to remove residual metal ions. 2 tabs.

Napier, J.M.; Hancher, C.M.; Hackett, G.D.

1987-06-29T23:59:59.000Z

296

11/12/13 11:57 AMNIDIS Drought and Water Assessment Page 1 of 13http://climate.colostate.edu/%7Edrought/current_assessment.php  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Edrought/current_assessment.php PRECIPITATION The images above use daily precipitation statistics from NWS:57 AMNIDIS Drought and Water Assessment Page 2 of 13http://climate.colostate.edu/%7Edrought/current_assessment.php;11/12/13 11:57 AMNIDIS Drought and Water Assessment Page 3 of 13http://climate.colostate.edu/%7Edrought/current_assessment.php

297

Best Management Practice: Water-Efficient Landscaping | Department of  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Landscaping Landscaping Best Management Practice: Water-Efficient Landscaping October 7, 2013 - 3:09pm Addthis Traditional landscapes require supplemental water to thrive in most locations. Kentucky bluegrass, for example, is native to regions that receive in excess of 40 inches per year of precipitation, but it is commonly planted in areas across the country that receive much less precipitation. Overview Two facets exist for outdoor water use efficiency: Designing a landscape that requires minimal supplemental water. Designing, installing, and maintaining an irrigation system that applies the appropriate amount of supplemental water in an efficient manner (see BMP #5). This BMP addresses only water efficient landscaping. BMP #5 provides specific information on water efficient irrigation. Irrigation is

298

Eight-year Climatology of Dust Optical Depth on Mars  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We have produced a multiannual climatology of airborne dust from Martian year 24 to 31 using multiple datasets of retrieved or estimated column optical depths. The datasets are based on observations of the Martian atmosphere from April 1999 to July 2013 made by different orbiting instruments: the Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES) aboard Mars Global Surveyor, the Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) aboard Mars Odyssey, and the Mars Climate Sounder (MCS) aboard Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO). The procedure we have adopted consists of gridding the available retrievals of column dust optical depth (CDOD) from TES and THEMIS nadir observations, as well as the estimates of this quantity from MCS limb observations. Our gridding method calculates averages and uncertainties on a regularly spaced, but possibly incomplete, spatio-temporal grid, using an iterative procedure weighted in space, time, and retrieval uncertainty. In order to evaluate strengths and weaknesses of the resulting gridded maps, we validat...

Montabone, L; Millour, E; Wilson, R J; Lewis, S R; Cantor, B A; Kass, D; Kleinboehl, A; Lemmon, M; Smith, M D; Wolff, M J

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

299

Drilling/producing depths; Two records and a revision  

SciTech Connect

This paper reports that record depths for natural gas or oil well drilling or producing continue to be rare occurrences, although one or two still come in each year. Records fell in Texas Railroad Commission (RRC) District 9 and in the California area of the Minerals Management Service (MMS) Pacific Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) in 1990. Deep drilling and production has traditionally been defined as well depths greater than 15,000 ft. Smith Tool reported that 9.4% of all active rotary rigs were dedicated to targets below 15,000 ft at the beginning of 1991. Deep rigs had dropped to 8.1% by year-end 1991, but remained above the 1989 and 1990 levels of 8.4 and 7.6%, respectively. In 1988 about 11% of active rigs were drilling deep at any given time.

Not Available

1992-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

300

Concentration and precipitation of NaCl and KCl from salt cake leach solutions by electrodialysis  

SciTech Connect

Electrodialysis was investigated for cost-effective recovery of salt from salt cake leach solutions. (Salt cake is a waste stream generated by the aluminum industry during treatment of aluminum drosses and scrap.) We used a pilot-scale electrodialysis stack of 5 membrane pairs, each with an effective area of 0.02 m{sup 2}. The diluate stream contained synthetic NaCl, KCl,mixtures of NaCl and KCl, and actual salt cake leach solutions (mainly NaCl and KCl, with small amounts of MgCl{sub 2}). We concentrated and precipitated NaCl and KCl salts from the concentrate steam when the initial diluate stream concentration was 21.5 to 28.8 wt% NaCl and KCl. We found that water transferring through the membranes was a significant factor in overall efficiency of salt recovery by electrodialysis.

Sreenivasarao, K; Patsiogiannis, F.; Hryn, J.N.

1997-02-09T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "depth precipitable water" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Mineralogic investigation into occurrence of high uranium well waters in upstate South Carolina, USA  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

High levels of U (up to 5570 ?g/L) have been discovered in well waters near Simpsonville, South Carolina, USA. In order to characterize the mineralogical source of the U and possible structural controls on its presence, a deep (214 m) well was cored adjacent to one of the enriched wells. The highest gamma-ray emissions in the recovered core occur in coarse biotite granite at a depth just below 52 m. A slickenlined fault plane at 48.6 m and narrow pegmatite layers at depths of 113, 203 and 207 m also yield high gamma-ray counts. Thin sections were made from the above materials and along several subvertical healed fractures. Uraninite and coffinite are the principal U-rich minerals in the core. Other U-bearing minerals include thorite and thorogummite, monazite, zircon and allanite. Primary uraninite occurs in the biotite granite and in pegmatite layers. Secondary coffinite is present as tiny (<5 ?m) crystals dispersed along fractures in the granite and pegmatites. Coffinite also occurs along the slickenlined fault plane, where it is associated with calcite and calcic zeolite and also replaces allanite. Coffinite lacks radiogenic Pb, hence is considerably younger than the uraninite. Dissolution of partially oxidized Ca-rich uraninite occurring in the surficial biotite granite (or secondary coffinite in fracture zones) is likely the main source for the current high levels of U in nearby area wells. The high-U well waters have a carbonate signature, consistent with pervasive calcite vein mineralization in the core. Aqueous speciation calculations suggest U transport as an uranyl (U6+) hydroxyl-carbonate complex. Later reduction resulted in secondary precipitation along fractures as a U4+ mineral (i.e., coffinite).

Richard Warner; Jason Meadows; Scott Sojda; Van Price; Tom Temples; Yuji Arai; Chris Fleisher; Bruce Crawford; Peter Stone

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

302

Joint Depth Estimation and Camera Shake Removal from Single Blurry Image Ming-Hsuan Yang1  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. While depth information is critical in blur removal, the blur im- age provides an additional cueJoint Depth Estimation and Camera Shake Removal from Single Blurry Image Zhe Hu1 Li Xu2 Ming contain depth information which can be exploited. We propose to jointly estimate scene depth and remove

Yang, Ming-Hsuan

303

An Optimal Randomized Algorithm for Maximum Tukey Depth Timothy M. Chan  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

An Optimal Randomized Algorithm for Maximum Tukey Depth Timothy M. Chan Abstract We present the first optimal algorithm to compute the maximum Tukey depth (also known as location or halfspace depth , the Tukey depth of a point q IRd is defined as: min{|P | : over all halfspaces containing q}. We

Chan, Timothy M.

304

Spatial association between the locations of roots and water flow paths in highly structured soil  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Considerable evidence exists that the majority of low tension water flow through highly structured clayey soil occurs in a small fraction of total pore space and that the flow paths converge as depth increases. In structured clayey soils, water...

Gardiner, Nathan Thomas

2005-02-17T23:59:59.000Z

305

Stochastic Model Output Statistics for Bias Correcting and Downscaling Precipitation Including Extremes  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Precipitation is highly variable in space and time; hence, rain gauge time series generally exhibit additional random small-scale variability compared to area averages. Therefore, differences between daily precipitation statistics simulated by ...

Geraldine Wong; Douglas Maraun; Mathieu Vrac; Martin Widmann; Jonathan M. Eden; Thomas Kent

2014-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

306

BMA Probabilistic Quantitative Precipitation Forecasting over the Huaihe Basin Using TIGGE Multimodel Ensemble Forecasts  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Bayesian model averaging (BMA) probability quantitative precipitation forecast (PQPF) models were established by calibrating their parameters using 1–7-day ensemble forecasts of 24-h accumulated precipitation, and observations from 43 ...

Jianguo Liu; Zhenghui Xie

2014-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

307

Intensification of precipitation extremes with warming in a cloud resolving model  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A cloud-resolving model is used to investigate the effect of warming on high percentiles of precipitation (precipitation extremes) in the idealized setting of radiative-convective equilibrium. While this idealized setting ...

Muller, Caroline

308

Predictions of extreme precipitation and sea–level rise under climate change  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...relevant to river and coastal flooding: changes in extreme precipitation...relevant to river and coastal flooding: changes in extreme precipitation...Altitude Climate Computer Simulation Disasters Ecosystem Environmental...ses-surface temperature (SST) simulation, while these are not needed...

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

309

Assessment of SCaMPR and NEXRAD Q2 Precipitation Estimates Using Oklahoma Mesonet Observations  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Although satellite precipitation estimates provide valuable information for weather and flood forecasts, infrared (IR) brightness temperature (BT)-based algorithms often produce large errors for precipitation detection and estimation during deep ...

Ronald Stenz; Xiquan Dong; Baike Xi; Robert J. Kuligowski

2014-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

310

A census of precipitation features in the tropics using TRMM: radar, ice scattering, and lightning observations  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The observation of precipitation in the tropics has been greatly enhanced trough the launch of the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellite n 1997. TRMM'S ability to continuously and simultaneously observe precipitation processes...

Nesbitt, Stephen William

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

311

Large-Scale Precipitation Variability over Northwest China Inferred from Tree Rings  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A preliminary study of a point-by-point spatial precipitation reconstruction for northwestern (NW) China is explored, based on a tree-ring network of 132 chronologies. Precipitation variations during the past ~200–400 yr (the common reconstruction ...

Keyan Fang; Xiaohua Gou; Fahu Chen; Edward Cook; Jinbao Li; Brendan Buckley; Rosanne D’Arrigo

2011-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

312

Evaluation of Precipitation from Numerical Weather Prediction Models and Satellites Using Values Retrieved from Radars  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Precipitation is evaluated from two weather prediction models and satellites, taking radar-retrieved values as a reference. The domain is over the central and eastern United States, with hourly accumulated precipitation over 21 days for the ...

Slavko Vasi?; Charles A. Lin; Isztar Zawadzki; Olivier Bousquet; Diane Chaumont

2007-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

313

Heavy Daily Precipitation Frequency over the Contiguous United States: Sources of Climatic Variability and Seasonal Predictability  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

By matching large-scale patterns in climate fields with patterns in observed station precipitation, this work explores seasonal predictability of precipitation in the contiguous United States for all seasons. Although it is shown that total ...

Alexander Gershunov; Daniel R. Cayan

2003-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

314

Diurnal Cycle of Precipitation in the Tropics Simulated in a Global Cloud-Resolving Model  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This study analyzes the diurnal cycle of precipitation simulated in a global cloud-resolving model (GCRM) named the Nonhydrostatic Icosahedral Atmospheric Model (NICAM). A 30-day integration of NICAM successfully simulates the precipitation ...

Tomonori Sato; Hiroaki Miura; Masaki Satoh; Yukari N. Takayabu; Yuqing Wang

2009-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

315

Structure Analysis of a Precipitate Phase in an Ni-Rich High...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Analysis of a Precipitate Phase in an Ni-Rich High Temperature NiTiHf Shape Memory Alloy. Structure Analysis of a Precipitate Phase in an Ni-Rich High Temperature NiTiHf Shape...

316

Scaling of Precipitation Extremes over a Wide Range of Climates Simulated with an Idealized GCM  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Extremes of precipitation are examined in a wide range of climates simulated with an idealized aquaplanet GCM. The high percentiles of daily precipitation increase as the climate warms. Their fractional rate of increase ...

O'Gorman, Paul Ambrose

317

Permeability Reduction Due to Precipitation of Quartz under Nonisothermal Conditions  

SciTech Connect

Many problems concerning the origin and exploitation of geothermal reservoirs demonstrate the need for models of reactive-solute transport. Of particular interest to us is the coupling between dissolution/precipitation reactions and transient-flow behavior. In an effort to account for observed flow-rate reductions during experiments on samples of granite held in a temperature gradient (summarized at this meeting in 1981 by Moore and others), we examine the effect of quartz precipitation on fluid flow. Our results confirm earlier inerences that reactions responsible for porosity reduction were affected by kinetic factors. Although our results show substantial flow-rate reductions, we are unable to reproduce measured silica concentrations of the outlet fluid by considering the behavior of silica phases without regard for that of the feldspars and micas.

Keith, Laura A.; Delaney, Paul T.; Moore, Diane E.

1983-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

318

Future credible precipitation occurrences in Los Alamos, New Mexico  

SciTech Connect

I have studied many factors thought to have influenced past climatic change. Because they might recur, they are possible suspects for future climatic alterations. Most of these factors are totally unpredictable; therefore, they cast a shadow on the validity of derived climatic predictions. Changes in atmospheric conditions and in continental surfaces, variations in solar radiation, and in the earth's orbit around the sun are among the influential mechanisms investigated. Even when models are set up that include the above parameters, their reliability will depend on unpredictable variables totally alien to the model (like volcanic eruptions). Based on climatic records, however, maximum precipitation amounts have been calculated for different probability levels. These seem to correspond well to past precipitation occurrences, derived from tree ring indices. The link between tree ring indices and local climate has been established through regression analysis.

Abeele, W.V.

1980-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

319

On the Mechanism of Scrapie Prion Precipitation with Phosphotungstate Anions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

To measure the efficacy of each component of PTA, increasing concentrations of PW11, WO4, and mixtures thereof were used to precipitate PrPSc from brain homogenates of scrapie prion-infected mice. ... Interaction of POMs and sarkosyl with brain homogenates promoted the formation of fibrillar PrPSc aggregates prior to centrifugation, likely through the separation of lipids like GM1 from PrPSc. ...

Dana J. Levine; Jan Stoehr; Lillian E. Falese; Julian Ollesch; Holger Wille; Stanley B. Prusiner; Jeffrey R. Long

2014-11-25T23:59:59.000Z

320

Distribution, formation, and seasonal variability of Okhotsk Sea Mode Water  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

in the deep Ohkotsk Sea of dense shelf water (DSW) produced in the Okhotsk Sea polynyas. Isopycnal analysis to depths greater than 200 m, in the southern Kuril Basin also produces freezing water with density greater of ventilation at 26.7­27.0 sq is dense shelf water (DSW) produced by brine rejection in coastal polynyas during

Talley, Lynne D.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "depth precipitable water" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

An impending water crisis in Canada's western prairie provinces  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...snow has remained on the ground and the maximum depths...more than half of the water they currently do...weather, snowpack, and water quality and quantity...inexpensive, or timely remediation. Major societies in the past have faced extended water shortages, often...

D. W. Schindler; W. F. Donahue

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

322

The deep water gas charged accumulator and its possible replacements  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

not be affected by the increasing hydrostatic pressure of water as a function of water depth. Springs and heavy weights will be discussed as two options to replace nitrogen in accumulators. Efficient deep water accumulators would reduce the number of accumulators...

Mir Rajabi, Mehdi

2006-04-12T23:59:59.000Z

323

LETTER doi:10.1038/nature11784 Divergent global precipitation changes induced by  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and the spatial distribution of precipitation is complex, our approach relies on millennial simulations with ECHO-G

324

Precipitation of boron in silicon on high-dose implantation  

SciTech Connect

Precipitation of boron implanted in silicon with a dose of 1 x 10{sup 16} cm{sup -2} is studied in relation to the concentration of substitutional boron C{sub B{sub 0}} introduced before implantation and before subsequent annealing at 900 deg. C. It is shown that C{sub B{sub 0}} = 2.5 x 10{sup 20} cm{sup -3} is the critical concentration, at which the formation of precipitates is independent of the concentration of point defects introduced by implantation (far from or close to the mean projected range R{sub p}) and constitutes the prevailing channel of deactivation of boron. At lower concentrations C{sub B{sub 0}} close to the equilibrium concentration, precipitation is observed only far from R{sub p}, in the regions of reduced concentrations of point defects. At the same time, in the region of R{sub p} with a high concentration of point defects, most boron atoms are drawn into clustering with intrinsic interstitial atoms with the formation of dislocation loops and, thus, become electrically inactive as well.

Feklistov, K. V., E-mail: kos@thermo.isp.nsc.ru; Fedina, L. I.; Cherkov, A. G. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Semiconductor Physics, Siberian Division (Russian Federation)

2010-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

325

Nickel Solubility and Precipitation in Soils: A Thermodynamic Study  

SciTech Connect

The formation of mixed-metal-Al layered double hydroxide (LDH) phases similar to hydrotalcite has been identified as a significant mechanism for immobilization of trace metals in some environmental systems. These precipitate phases become increasingly stable as they age, and their formation may therefore be an important pathway for sequestration of toxic metals in contaminated soils. However, the lack of thermodynamic data for LDH phases makes it difficult to model their behavior in natural systems. In this work, enthalpies of formation for Ni LDH phases with nitrate and sulfate interlayers were determined and compared to recently published data on carbonate interlayer LDHs. Differences in the identity of the anion interlayer resulted in substantial changes in the enthalpies of formation of the LDH phases, in the order of increasing enthalpy carbonateprecipitates. Both mechanical mixture and solid-solution models could be used to predict the thermodynamic properties of the LDH phases. Modeling results based on these thermodynamic data indicated that the formation of LDH phases on soil mineral substrates decreased Ni solubility compared to Ni(OH)2 over pH 5-9 when soluble Al is present in the soil substrate. Over time, both of these precipitate phases will transform to more stable Ni phyllosilicates.

Peltier,E.; Allada, R.; Navrotsky, A.; Sparks, D.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

326

ARBUSCULAR MYCORRHIZAL COLONIZATION OF LARREA TRIDENTATA AND AMBROSIA DUMOSA ROOTS VARIES WITH PRECIPITATION AND SEASON IN THE MOJAVE DESERT  

SciTech Connect

The percentage of fine roots colonized by arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi varied with season and with species in the co-dominant shrubs Lurreu tridentutu and Ambrosia dumosu at a site adjacent to the Nevada Desert FACE (Free-Air CO{sub 2} Enrichment) Facility (NDFF) in the Mojave Desert. We excavated downward and outward from the shrub bases in both species to collect and examine fine roots (< 1.0 mm diameter) at monthly intervals throughout 2001 and from October 2002 to September 2003. Fungal structures became visible in cleared roots stained with trypan blue. We quantified the percent colonization of roots by AM fungi via the line intercept method. In both years and for both species, colonization was highest in fall, relatively low in spring when root growth began, increased in late spring, and decreased during summer drought periods. Increases in colonization during summer and fall reflect corresponding increases in precipitation. Spring mycorrhizal colonization is low despite peaks in soil water availability and precipitation, indicating that precipitation is not the only factor influencing mycorrhizal colonization. Because the spring decrease in mycorrhizal colonization occurs when these shrubs initiate a major flush of fine root growth, other phenological events such as competing demands for carbon by fine root initiation, early season shoot growth, and flowering may reduce carbon availability to the fungus, and hence decrease colonization. Another possibility is that root growth exceeds the rate of mycorrhizal colonization.

M. E. APPLE; C. I. THEE; V. L. SMITH-LONGOZO; C. R. COGAR; C. E. WELLS; R. S. NOWAK

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

327

Isolating Effects of Water Table Dynamics, Terrain, and Soil Moisture Heterogeneity on the Atmospheric Boundary Layer Using Coupled Models  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

depth (PBLD), (b) vertical wind speed (w), (c) latent heatdepth (PBLD), (b) vertical wind speed (w), (c) latent heatdepth (PBLD) and (b) vertical wind speed (w) versus water

Rihani, Jehan

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

328

Effect of Resins and DBSA on Asphaltene Precipitation from Petroleum Fluids  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Effect of Resins and DBSA on Asphaltene Precipitation from Petroleum Fluids Lamia Goual and Abbas different petroleum fluids. Various resins are added to three different petroleum fluids to measure of precipitation. However, addition of resins to a petroleum fluid increases the amount of precipitated asphaltenes

Firoozabadi, Abbas

329

Increase of global monsoon area and precipitation under global warming: A robust signal?  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

) and the global monsoon total precipitation (GMP) have increased during 1979­2008 [Hsu et al., 2011; Wang et alIncrease of global monsoon area and precipitation under global warming: A robust signal? Pang of people around the world. The global monsoon precipitation had an increasing trend over the past three

Li, Tim

330

7 Physical Model of Carbide Precipitation 2 7.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Contents 7 Physical Model of Carbide Precipitation 2 7.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 1 #12;Chapter 7 Physical Model of Carbide Precipitation 7.1 Introduction If the austempering process is held for prolonged periods of time precipitation of carbides from retained austenite occurs

Cambridge, University of

331

Metal precipitation at grain boundaries in silicon: Dependence on grain boundary character and dislocation decoration  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

are combined to determine the dependence of metal silicide precipitate formation on grain boundary character and microstructure in multicrystalline silicon mc-Si . Metal silicide precipitate decoration is observed to increase the local metal silicide precipitate concentrations at various types of grain boundaries, identifying clear

332

Cloud-Top Temperatures for Precipitating Winter Clouds JAY W. HANNA  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1 Cloud-Top Temperatures for Precipitating Winter Clouds JAY W. HANNA NOAA/NESDIS Satellite for each precipitation type, as well as light, moderate and heavy snow and rain. The light the cloud microphysics in producing precipitation. For example, ice will only nucleate from the vapor phase

Schultz, David

333

Winter Precipitation Microphysics Characterized by Polarimetric Radar and Video Disdrometer Observations in Central Oklahoma  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

the microphysics of winter storms with different types of precipitation. In general, warm rain events are studied. (2007) used polarimetric radar observations for winter precipitation not having the mixed phaseWinter Precipitation Microphysics Characterized by Polarimetric Radar and Video Disdrometer

Xue, Ming

334

Evidence for Pacific-modulated precipitation variability during the late Holocene from the southwestern USA  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Evidence for Pacific-modulated precipitation variability during the late Holocene from-term, high-resolution, absolutely dateable proxies for precipitation in continental interiors. Here we show that late Holocene precipitation variability in the southwestern United States has been caused by changes

Asmerom, Yemane

335

The robust dynamical contribution to precipitation extremes in idealized warming simulations  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The robust dynamical contribution to precipitation extremes in idealized warming simulations across shift under climate warming on the distribution of precipitation extremes and the associated sensitivity in the frequency of the most extreme categories of the precipitation events at the poleward side of the midlatitude

Chen, Gang

336

Wave runup on cylinders subject to deep water random waves  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

was measured close to the test cylinders are analyzed. These data on wave runup in deepwater random waves were generated at similar water depths with significant wave heights and spectral peak periods. Statistical parameters, zero crossing analysis...

Indrebo, Ann Kristin

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

337

Incursion of the Pacific Ocean Water into the Indian Ocean  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Using the data collected during the International Indian Ocean Expedition, maps showing the distribution of depth ... became clear that low-salinity water from the Pacific intrudes into the western Indian Ocean t...

G S Sharma; A D Gouveia…

1978-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

338

Chapter 3 - Principles of Water Purification  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract This chapter describes the principles of water purification. An important point to observe is the difference between purifying drinking water and purifying water optimal for life of organisms. In the former case, it is important that organisms, prokaryotes and protists, are effectively killed in the water treatment. In the latter instance, the purified water must allow all organisms to live. Chlorination and other treatments that are used to purify drinking water are toxic to all organisms. Water treatment first mechanically removes large objects, whereafter much of the organic material is biodegraded via digestion by anaerobic and aerobic bacteria. When wastes are biodegraded, production of biogas and heat occurs. A final step in wastewater treatment involves the removal of certain compounds, such as phosphorus by precipitation as, for example, insoluble iron phosphate, and of some metals by hyperaccumulating plants.

Mikko Nikinmaa

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

339

EUROBRISA products documentation This page (http://eurobrisa.cptec.inpe.br/) presents 1-month lead South America precipitation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

South America precipitation forecasts and verification products for three month seasons. For example surface temperatures as predictor variables for precipitation over South America. For example

340

EUROBRISA products documentation This page (http://eurobrisa.cptec.inpe.br/) presents 1-month lead South America precipitation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

South America precipitation forecasts and verification products for three month seasons. For example Pacific and Atlantic sea surface temperatures as predictor variables for precipitation over South America

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "depth precipitable water" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Reducing Phosphorus in Dairy Effluent Wastewater through Flocculation and Precipitation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. Dissolved reactive and total phosphorus loads from agricultural and forested basins to surface waters in Finland. Aqua Fennica 21:127-136. 21. Rout, D., R. Verma, and S. Agarwal. 1999. Polyelectrolyte treatment ? An approach for water quality...

Bragg, A.

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

342

Synoptic disturbances found in precipitable water fields north of equatorial Africa  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. Six case wind field composite analysis is accomplished with both actual winds and reduced shear winds (zonal mean removed at each latitude band). Case study analysis revealed a doppler shifted propagating Rossby Wave (k = 6, c =-5 m/sec) at 500h...

Patla, Jason Eddy

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

343

Precipitable water and dew point temperature relationship during the Indian summer monsoon  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Two years of contrasting monsoon rainfall over the Indian subcontinent are studied with reference to (a ... and (b) the correlation between the dew point temperature at a particular level and the ... that the max...

Subroto Sinha; Sushanta K. Sinha

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

344

GPS precipitable water measurements used in the analysis of California and Nevada climate  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

primarily located in the Imperial Valley-Salton Sink area,the Central and Imperial Valleys. Figure 39. Mean spring (are found in the Imperial Valley, moisture has increased

Means, James Douglas

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

345

A climatology of tropical synoptic scale behavior from TOVS-estimated precipitable water  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

(1972) studied ITCZ behavior and fluctuations in the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans and concluded that the ITCZ remains north of the equator in both oceans, regardless of season. For his day, he determined that the best tools to study this phenomenon... meridional circulation when the zonal Hadley circulation is weak. Madden and Julian (1972) documented a 40-50 day oscillation in station pressure and upper air data throughout the Indian and Pacific Oceans. They determined that this eastward...

Mackey, Morgan Douglas

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

346

Effect of rapid precipitation of dissolved Mn in river water on estuarine Mn distributions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... concentrations (passing a 0.45 ?? pore-sized membrane filter) were determined using the flameless atomic absorption procedure of McArthur6 and the weight of suspended particulate material (dried at ...

A. W. MORRIS; A. J. BALE

1979-05-24T23:59:59.000Z

347

Formation of Metal-Arsenate Precipitates at the Goethite-Water  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. Above surface saturation, Zn was increasingly complexed by AsO4, gradually forming an adamite-like [Zn2

Sparks, Donald L.

348

Average Depth of Crude Oil and Natural Gas Wells  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Depth of Crude Oil and Natural Gas Wells Depth of Crude Oil and Natural Gas Wells (Feet per Well) Period: Annual Download Series History Download Series History Definitions, Sources & Notes Definitions, Sources & Notes 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 View History Exploratory and Development Wells 5,426 5,547 5,508 5,613 6,064 5,964 1949-2008 Crude Oil 4,783 4,829 4,836 4,846 5,111 5,094 1949-2008 Natural Gas 5,616 5,757 5,777 5,961 6,522 6,500 1949-2008 Dry Holes 5,744 5,848 5,405 5,382 5,578 5,540 1949-2008 Exploratory Wells 6,744 6,579 6,272 6,187 6,247 6,322 1949-2008 Crude Oil 6,950 8,136 8,011 7,448 7,537 7,778 1949-2008 Natural Gas 6,589 5,948 5,732 5,770 5,901 5,899 1949-2008 Dry Holes 6,809 6,924 6,437 6,340 6,307 6,232 1949-2008

349

Magnetic Flares and the Observed Optical Depth in Seyfert Galaxies  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We here consider the pressure equilibrium during an intense magnetic flare above the surface of a cold accretion disk. Under the assumption that the heating source for the plasma trapped within the flaring region is an influx of energy transported inwards with a group velocity close to $c$, e.g., by magnetohydrodynamic waves, this pressure equilibrium can constrain the Thomson optical depth $\\tau_T$ to be of order unity. We suggest that this may be the reason why $\\tau_T\\sim 1$ in Seyfert Galaxies. We also consider whether current data can distinguish between the spectrum produced by a single X-ray emitting region with $\\tau_T\\sim 1$ and that formed by many different flares spanning a range of $\\tau_T$. We find that the current observations do not yet have the required energy resolution to permit such a differentiation. Thus, it is possible that the entire X-ray/$\\gamma$-ray spectrum of Seyfert Galaxies is produced by many independent magnetic flares with an optical depth $0.5<\\tau_T<2$.

Sergei Nayakshin; Fulvio Melia

1997-05-30T23:59:59.000Z

350

Campbell penetration depth in Fe-based superconductors  

SciTech Connect

A 'true' critical current density, j{sub c}, as opposite to commonly measured relaxed persistent (Bean) current, j{sub B}, was extracted from the Campbell penetration depth, {lambda}{sub c}(T,H) measured in single crystals of LiFeAs, and optimally electron-doped Ba(Fe{sub 0.954}Ni{sub 0.046}){sub 2}As{sub 2} (FeNi122). In LiFeAs, the effective pinning potential is nonparabolic, which follows from the magnetic field - dependent Labusch parameter {alpha}. At the equilibrium (upon field - cooling), {alpha}(H) is non-monotonic, but it is monotonic at a finite gradient of the vortex density. This behavior leads to a faster magnetic relaxation at the lower fields and provides a natural dynamic explanation for the fishtail (second peak) effect. We also find the evidence for strong pinning at the lower fields.The inferred field dependence of the pinning potential is consistent with the evolution from strong pinning, through collective pinning, and eventually to a disordered vortex lattice. The value of j{sub c}(2 K) {approx_equal} 1.22 x 10{sup 6} A/cm{sup 2} provide an upper estimate of the current carrying capability of LiFeAs. Overall, vortex behavior of almost isotropic, fully-gapped LiFeAs is very similar to highly anisotropic d-wave cuprate superconductors, the similarity that requires further studies in order to understand unconventional superconductivity in cuprates and pnictides. In addition to LiFeAs, we also report the magnetic penetration depth in BaFe{sub 2}As{sub 2} based superconductors including irradiation of FeNi122. In unirradiated FeNi122, the maximum critical current value is, j{sub c}(2K) {approx_equal} 3.3 x 10{sup 6} A/cm{sup 2}. The magnetic-dependent feature was observed near the transition temperature in FeTe{sub 0.53}Se{sub 0.47} and irradiated FeNi122. Because of this feature, further studies are required in order to properly calibrate the Campbell penetration depth. Finally, we detected the crossing between the magnetic penetration depth and London penetration depth in optimally hold-doped Ba{sub 0.6}K{sub 0.4}Fe{sub 2}As{sub 2} (BaK122) and isovalent doped BaFe{sub 2}(As{sub 0.7}P{sub 0.3}){sub 2} (BaP122). These phenomena probably coincide with anomalous Meissner effect reported in pnicitde superconductors [Prozorov et al. (2010b)] however more studies are needed in order to clarify this.

Prommapan, Plegchart

2011-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

351

The effects of post-condensation exchange on the isotopic composition of water in1 the atmosphere2  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

-condensation exchange (PCE) on the isotopic3 composition of water in the atmosphere. PCE was found to universally of precipitation.5 At low latitudes, local PCE with fresh vapor at the surface enriches precipitation in heavy6 isotopes, particularly during light rainfall. When rainfall is heavy, PCE tends to deplete7 vapor

Field, Robert

352

Simplified Method for Estimating Future Scour Depth at Existing Bridges  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Bridge scour is the term which describes the erosion of soil surrounding a bridge foundation due to water. Bridge scour can cause the reduction of the load carrying capacity of bridge foundations, excessive foundation settlements, and damage...

V Govindasamy, Anand

2010-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

353

VARIABLE DEPTH KDV EQUATIONS AND GENERALIZATIONS TO MORE NONLINEAR REGIMES  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

used in coastal oceanography, including: shallow-water equations, Boussinesq systems, Kadomtsev [21], the only member of the wider family of BBM-type equations [4] that is integrable and relevant

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

354

water from the CO  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

water from the CO water from the CO 2 stream and then compresses the dry CO 2 to a supercritical phase. The compressed CO 2 then travels through a 1 mile- long pipeline to the wellhead where it is injected into the Mt. Simon Sandstone at a depth of about 7,000 feet. November 21, 2011, http:// www.netl.doe.gov/publications/press/2011/111121_co2_injection. html. Fossil Energy Techline, "Midwest Has Potential to Store Hundreds of Years of CO 2 Emissions." Injection field tests conducted by the Midwest Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership (MRCSP) indicate that their region has the geologic potential to store hundreds of years of regional carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emissions primarily in deep saline formations. The MRCSP Phase II field tests included seven small-scale field validation tests: three

355

Method and apparatus for welding precipitation hardenable materials  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for welding together members consisting of precipitation age hardened materials includes the steps of selecting a weld filler material that has substantially the same composition as the materials being joined, and an age hardening characteristic temperature age threshold below that of the aging kinetic temperature range of the materials being joined, whereby after welding the members together, the resulting weld and heat affected zone (HAZ) are heat treated at a temperature below that of the kinetic temperature range of the materials joined, for obtaining substantially the same mechanical characteristics for the weld and HAZ, as for the parent material of the members joined. 5 figures.

Murray, H. Jr.; Harris, I.D.; Ratka, J.O.; Spiegelberg, W.D.

1994-06-28T23:59:59.000Z

356

Method and apparatus for welding precipitation hardenable materials  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for welding together members consisting of precipitation age hardened materials includes the steps of selecting a weld filler material that has substantially the same composition as the materials being joined, and an age hardening characteristic temperature age threshold below that of the aging kinetic temperature range of the materials being joined, whereby after welding the members together, the resulting weld and heat affected zone (HAZ) are heat treated at a temperature below that of the kinetic temperature range of the materials joined, for obtaining substantially the same mechanical characteristics for the weld and HAZ, as for the parent material of the members joined.

Murray, Jr., Holt (Hopewell, NJ); Harris, Ian D. (Dublin, OH); Ratka, John O. (Cleveland Heights, OH); Spiegelberg, William D. (Parma, OH)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

357

Water Electrolysis  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In this chapter, water electrolysis technology and its applications for nuclear hydrogen ... of the chapter, a general classification of water electrolysis systems is given, the fundamentals of water electrolysis

Greg F. Naterer; Ibrahim Dincer…

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

358

Water Intoxication  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

2008, May 14). Too much water raises seizure risk in babies.id=4844 9. Schoenly, Lorry. “Water Intoxication and Inmates:article/246650- overview>. 13. Water intoxication alert. (

Lingampalli, Nithya

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

359

Nested, fixed-depth fluidic sampler supplementary testing - AEAT doc 2926-2-002  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the results of cold testing, completed by AEAT, as part of the proof-of-principle testing for a proposed nested, fixed-depth fluidic sampling system. This sampling system will provide waste samples from the PHMC feed tank to support the privatization contract with BNFL. Proof-of-principle tests were completed with 2 wt% and 10 wt% sand/water and 25 wt% kaolin clay/water simulants with a test setup that spanned the 24 ft to 57 ft height required in the feed tank. The tests demonstrated that the system could pump and sample waste materials with low and with high solids content. In addition, the tests demonstrated a need for some design upgrades to the sampling system, as there was material loss when the sample bottle was removed from the sampling needle. These were complementary tests, completed as part of an EM-50 Tank Focus Area (TFA) to develop a sampling system for validating LAW and HLW waste batches for the Privatization Contract.

REICH, F.R.

1999-03-11T23:59:59.000Z

360

Vertically Loaded Anchor: Drag Coefficient, Fall Velocity, and Penetration Depth using Laboratory Measurements  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The offshore oilfield industry is continuously developing unique and break-through technologies and systems to extract hydrocarbons from ever increasing ocean depths. Due to the extreme depths being explored presently, large anchors are being...

Cenac, William

2011-08-08T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "depth precipitable water" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

E-Print Network 3.0 - adjustable penetration depth Sample Search...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

2002; 54:365398 (DOI: 10.1002nme.427) Summary: data with the help of ash X-ray, e.g. penetration depth, rate of rod consumption, mass e ciency... conguration is the depth of...

362

Taking Oil and Gas Exploration to New Depths | GE Global Research  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Taking Oil and Gas Exploration to New Depths Taking Oil and Gas Exploration to New Depths Oliver Astley 2014.11.12 The challenges of offshore, deep sea drilling are, in a word,...

363

Control Systems Cyber Security:Defense in Depth Strategies  

SciTech Connect

Information infrastructures across many public and private domains share several common attributes regarding IT deployments and data communications. This is particularly true in the control systems domain. A majority of the systems use robust architectures to enhance business and reduce costs by increasing the integration of external, business, and control system networks. However, multi-network integration strategies often lead to vulnerabilities that greatly reduce the security of an organization, and can expose mission-critical control systems to cyber threats. This document provides guidance and direction for developing ‘defense-in-depth’ strategies for organizations that use control system networks while maintaining a multi-tier information architecture that requires: Maintenance of various field devices, telemetry collection, and/or industrial-level process systems Access to facilities via remote data link or modem Public facing services for customer or corporate operations A robust business environment that requires connections among the control system domain, the external Internet, and other peer organizations.

David Kuipers; Mark Fabro

2006-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

364

Arsenite sorption and co-precipitation with calcite  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Sorption of As(III) by calcite was investigated as a function of As(III) concentration, time and pH. The sorption isotherm, i.e. the log As(III) vs. log [As(OH)3 degrees / Assat] plot is S-shaped and has been modelled on an extended version of the surface precipitation model. At low concentrations, As(OH)3 degrees is adsorbed by complexation to surface Ca surface sites, as previously described by the X-ray standing wave technique. The inflexion point of the isotherm, where As(OH)3 degrees is limited by the amount of surface sites (ST), yields 6 sites nm-2 in good agreement with crystallographic data. Beyond this value, the amount of sorbed arsenic increases linearly with solution concentration, up to the saturation of arsenic with respect to the precipitation of CaHAsO3(s). The solid solutions formed in this concentration range were examined by X-ray and neutron diffraction. The doped calcite lattice parameters increase with arsenic content while c/a ratio remains constant. Our results made on bulk calcite on...

Roman-Ross, Gabriela; Turrillas, Xavier; Fernandez-Martinez, Alejandro; Charlet, Laurent

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

365

Primal--Dual Algorithms for Data Depth David Bremner, Komei Fukuda, and Vera Rosta  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

as the generalization of the median of S by Tukey. The computation of the halfspace depth of a point is equivalent as multivariate generalizations of ranks to complement classical multivariate analysis, by Tukey (1974), Oja (1983 out that the halfspace depth of Tukey and the regression depth of Rousseeuw and Hu­ bert have all

Bremner, David

366

Investigation of the Large-Scale Atmospheric Moisture Field over the Midwestern United States in Relation to Summer Precipitation. Part II: Recycling of Local Evapotranspiration and Association with Soil Moisture and Crop Yields  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The relative contributions of locally evapotranspired (i.e., recycled) moisture versus externally advected water vapor for the growing-season precipitation of the U.S. Corn Belt and surrounding areas (1.23 × 106 km2) are estimated in this paper. ...

Abraham Zangvil; Diane H. Portis; Peter J. Lamb

2004-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

367

ARM - Evaluation Product - MWR Retrievals of Cloud Liquid Water and Water  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

ProductsMWR Retrievals of Cloud Liquid Water and ProductsMWR Retrievals of Cloud Liquid Water and Water Vapor Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Evaluation Product : MWR Retrievals of Cloud Liquid Water and Water Vapor 2005.02.01 - 2011.04.25 Site(s) FKB GRW HFE NIM PYE SBS General Description A new algorithm is being developed for the ARM Program to derive liquid water path (LWP) and precipitable water vapor (PWV) from the 2-channel (23.8 and 31.4 GHz) microwave radiometers (MWRs) deployed at ARM climate research facilities. This algorithm utilizes the "monoRTM" radiative transfer model (http://rtweb.aer.com), a combination of both an advanced statistical and physical-iterative retrieval, and brightness temperature offsets applied before the retrieval is performed. This allows perhaps the

368

Entrainment of trace-metal-enriched Atlantic-shelf water in the inflow to the Mediterranean Sea  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... by modified Co-APDC (cobalt-ammonium pyrrolidinedithiocarbamate) co-precipitation5, and analysed by graphite furnace flameless atomic absorption. Cd is enriched in Atlantic surface waters on the Spanish shelf outside ...

Alexander van Geen; Paula Rosener; Edward Boyle

1988-02-04T23:59:59.000Z

369

Global Evaluation of the ISBA-TRIP Continental Hydrological System. Part I: Comparison to GRACE Terrestrial Water Storage Estimates  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In earth system models, the partitioning of precipitation among the variations of continental water storage climate system sim- ulated by earth system models (ESMs). The continental freshwater reservoirs represent

Ribes, Aurélien

370

Layer inflow into precipitating convection over the western tropical Pacific  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and the relativecoarseness of the TOGA COARE soundings.The available input data from the mesoscale model consist of three wind components(u, v and w), temperature, pressure, water vapour, rain water, cloud water and cloudice. The last two quantities, by de? nition, have zero... by linear interpolation of the hourly supplied MM5 data, to the right-hand side of the u, v, w, temperature, pressure and water vapour equations in a narrowzone near the lateral boundaries. The forcing is strongest at the boundary and decreasesto a ? fth...

Mechem, David B.; Houze, Robert A. Jr.; Chen, Shuyi S.

2002-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

371

Late Holocene Radiocarbon Variability in Northwest Atlantic Slope Waters  

SciTech Connect

Deep-sea gorgonian corals secrete a 2-part skeleton of calcite, derived from dissolved inorganic carbon at depth, and gorgonin, derived from recently fixed and exported particulate organic matter. Radiocarbon contents of the calcite and gorgonin provide direct measures of seawater radiocarbon at depth and in the overlying surface waters, respectively. Using specimens collected from Northwest Atlantic slope waters, we generated radiocarbon records for surface and upper intermediate water layers spanning the pre- and post bomb-{sup 14}C eras. In Labrador Slope Water (LSW), convective mixing homogenizes the pre-bomb {Delta}{sup 14}C signature (-67 {+-} 4{per_thousand}) to at least 1000 m depth. Surface water bomb-{sup 14}C signals were lagged and damped (peaking at {approx} +45{per_thousand} in the early 1980s) relative to other regions of the northwest Atlantic, and intermediate water signals were damped further. Off southwest Nova Scotia, the vertical gradient in {Delta}{sup 14}C is much stronger. In surface water, pre-bomb {Delta}{sup 14}C averaged -75 {+-} 5{per_thousand}. At 250-475 m depth, prebomb {Delta}{sup 14}C oscillated quasi-decadally between -80 and -100{per_thousand}, likely reflecting interannual variability in the presence of Labrador Slope Water vs. Warm Slope Water (WSW). Finally, subfossil corals reveal no systematic changes in vertical {Delta}{sup 14}C gradients over the last 1200 years.

Sherwood, O; Edinger, E; Guilderson, T P; Ghaleb, B; Risk, M J; Scott, D B

2008-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

372

Earthquakes With Normal Focal Depths-Tables/Graphs  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...seismoaraphs are in operation at the observatory...Mountain area are fairly cold. In the rugged area...Hallo Lagoon are in operation. Vol. XXI EARTHQUAKE...ionosphere specialists, a weather man, three glaciologists...comfortably at 70 by oil heaters. The men slapt two...every type. Hot and cold running water ware...

373

Diving depths and energy requirements of king penguins  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...require a serious swimming effort by the penguins...of the body water pool (Table 1). The...expend-ed half as much energy per time as P6...the birds were in energy balance during this...12. The average energy content of squid...the assimilation efficiency is 80 percent [J...

GL Kooyman; RW Davis; JP Croxall; DP Costa

1982-08-20T23:59:59.000Z

374

Marketing water  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

management, water conservation programs Story by Kathy Wythe tx H2O | pg. 17 public information programs and materials that increase awareness about regional water issues. The company recently opened the TecH2O, a water resource learning center...tx H2O | pg. 16 W ith rapid population growth and the memory of the worst drought in 50 years, cities and groups are promoting programs that educate their constituents about water quality, water conservation, and landscape management. Many...

Wythe, Kathy

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

375

Water desalination: An imperative measure for water security in Egypt  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Water Desalination is an indispensable industry for the most of the Arab countries. In the last four decades, the number and capacities of desalination units have increased dramatically (45% Multi-Stage Flash (MSF) and 42% Reverse Osmosis (RO) of world capacity); especially in the Gulf States. Almost all available conventional water resources in Egypt - represented by the Nile water, renewable groundwater, and some scant annual precipitation- have been exhausted. Further development measures require review of current water allocations in order to raise efficiencies and protect against pollution, in addition to exploring new options of non-conventional water resources to narrow the gap between water supply and demand. These measures are the pillars of Egypt's integrated water policy and have been clearly postulated in its National Water Resources Plan 2017. The objective of this paper is to study and investigate water desalination as a solution for water scarcity in Egypt. Moreover, the present work demonstrates the significance of seawater desalination for national development in Egypt. At present, Egypt is encouraging, not only the public sector but also the private sector, to apply modern technologies for desalination, which historically started with Distillation then Electrodyalisis and followed by RO. The great achievements in desalination technology have now moved the costs for desalting in many applications from the realm of "expensive" to "competitive". Current technology is feasible for tourist villages in the north coast and the Red Sea, due to its far distances from conventional sources that makes the cost of water conveyance very high and subject to pollution problems. The results indicated that, in spite of research and developments, still the energy requirement and membrane know-how are limiting factors. Thus, Egypt's future vision is non-traditional in the field of desalination. It is based on a real breakthrough towards the use of renewable energy, namely, solar energy to be harnessed for operating high compression pumps needed for reverse osmosis modular systems. The reasons are obvious, since Egypt has great potential of brackish water wells, immense amounts of solar radiation in remote areas and future integrated development projects are located at a distance from the Nile water. This trend is what Egypt is focusing on as a prospective future for wide applications of desalination. Finally, this research concluded that, the water desalination as a conventional water resource should be considered as an imperative measure for water security in Egypt. The future use of such resource for different purposes will largely depend on the rate of improvement in the technologies used for desalination and the cost of needed power.

Alaa El-Sadek

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

376

Method of precipitating uranium from an aqueous solution and/or sediment  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for precipitating uranium from an aqueous solution and/or sediment comprising uranium and/or vanadium is presented. The method includes precipitating uranium as a uranyl vanadate through mixing an aqueous solution and/or sediment comprising uranium and/or vanadium and a solution comprising a monovalent or divalent cation to form the corresponding cation uranyl vanadate precipitate. The method also provides a pathway for extraction of uranium and vanadium from an aqueous solution and/or sediment.

Tokunaga, Tetsu K; Kim, Yongman; Wan, Jiamin

2013-08-20T23:59:59.000Z

377

Investigation of Microphysical Parameters within Winter and Summer Type Precipitation Events over Mountainous [Complex] Terrain  

SciTech Connect

In this study we investigate complex terrain effects on precipitation with RAMS for both in winter and summer cases from a microphysical perspective. We consider a two dimensional east-west topographic cross section in New Mexico representative of the Jemez mountains on the west and the Sangre de Cristo mountains on the east. Located between these two ranges is the Rio Grande Valley. In these two dimensional experiments, variations in DSDs are considered to simulate total precipitation that closely duplicate observed precipitation.

Stalker, James R.; Bossert, James E.

1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

378

Spectroscopic Analysis of Impurity Precipitates in CdS Films  

SciTech Connect

Impurities in cadmium sulfide (CdS) films are a concern in the fabrication of copper (indium, gallium) diselenide (CIGS) and cadmium telluride (CdTe) photovoltaic devices. Devices incorporating chemical-bath-deposited (CBD) CdS are comparable in quality to devices incorporating purer CdS films grown using vacuum deposition techniques, despite the higher impurity concentrations typically observed in the CBD CdS films. In this paper, we summarize and review the results of Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), Auger, electron microprobe, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic (XPS) analyses of the impurities in CBD CdS films. We show that these impurities differ as a function of substrate type and film deposition conditions. We also show that some of these impurities exist as 10{sup 2} micron-scale precipitates.

Webb, J. D.; Keane, J.; Ribelin, R.; Gedvilas, L.; Swartzlander, A.; Ramanathan, K.; Albin, D. S.; Noufi, R.

1999-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

379

A stochastic technique for synthesis of hourly precipitation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

STATES DURING SIX PFRIODS WHEN THE LAST PERIOD IS DRY t-5 t-4 State t-3 During T 11M t-2 t-1 D D D D W W W W D D W W D D W W D W D W D W D W D W D W D W D W 19 fearures and of the daily precipitation record of the... 124 10 80 TABLE 5 FREQUENCIES OF 2-HR SEQUENCES State During Hour (t) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 136, 330 338 311 198 171 138 65 38 52 30 2 3 416 220 142 68 30 380 170 189 102 50 21 7 6 42 8 7 4 3 9 2 4 0 5 Zl 7 4J 9 209 146 112 29...

Huddle, John Paul

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

380

The Dynamics of Platinum Precipitation in an Ion Exchange Membrane  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Microscopy of polymer electrolyte membranes that have undergone operation under fuel cell conditions, have revealed a well defined band of platinum in the membrane. Here, we propose a physics based model that captures the mechanism of platinum precipitation in the polymer electrolyte membrane. While platinum is observed throughout the membrane, the preferential growth of platinum at the band of platinum is dependent on the electrochemical potential distribution in the membrane. In this paper, the location of the platinum band is calculated as a function of the gas concentration at the cathode and anode, gas diffusion coefficients and solubility constants of the gases in the membrane, which are functions of relative humidity. Under H2/N2 conditions the platinum band is located near the cathode-membrane interface, as the oxygen concentration in the cathode gas stream increases and/or the hydrogen concentration in the anode gas stream decreases, the band moves towards the anode. The model developed in this paper...

Burlatsky, S F; Atrazhev, V V; Dmitriev, D V; Kuzminyh, N Y; Erikhman, N S

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "depth precipitable water" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Calibrations of filter radiometers for determination of atmospheric optical depth  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Atmospheric optical depths are determined by relating ground-based measurements of direct solar radiation to the extraterrestrial value, I0, that a filter radiometer would read outside the atmosphere. Usually I0 is determined by the Langley extrapolation technique from a high-altitude site, where clear and highly stable atmospheric conditions may be found. Alternatively, I0 can be measured in situ from a stratospheric balloon experiment. We have employed both methods and found agreement to better than 1 %. Filter radiometers tend to change over time, especially when used operationally outdoors. Absolute calibrations in the laboratory are used to monitor the radiometric stability of filter radiometers at the Physikalisch-Meteorologisches Observatorium Davos (PMOD/WRC, Switzerland). A spectral calibration facility based on a calibrated trap detector from the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB, Germany) is used to relate the filter radiometer to an accurate and long-term traceable standard. An FEL-lamp-based standard, previously used for several years, was compared with the new trap standard via a filter radiometer at four wavelengths between 368 nm and 862 nm and revealed a systematic difference of the order of 5 %. The link between radiometric and I0 calibration is the value of the extraterrestrial solar spectrum at the filter radiometer wavelengths which can be determined from these two calibrations and compared with published values.

Ch Wehrli

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

382

Carbon isotope discrimination, radial growth, and NDVI share spatiotemporal responses to precipitation in Aleppo pine  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A common pattern in Aleppo pine ? 13 C responses to both spatial and temporal variability in precipitation was observed, with a...

Jorge del Castillo; Jordi Voltas; Juan Pedro Ferrio

2014-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

383

Aerosol-Cloud-Precipitation Interactions in the Trade Wind Boundary Layer.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??This dissertation includes an overview of aerosol, cloud, and precipitation properties associated with shallow marine cumulus clouds observed during the Barbados Aerosol Cloud Experiment (BACEX,… (more)

Jung, Eunsil

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

384

Observed Scaling in Clouds and Precipitation and Scale Incognizance in Regional to Global Atmospheric Models  

SciTech Connect

We use observations of robust scaling behavior in clouds and precipitation to derive constraints on how partitioning of precipitation should change with model resolution. Our analysis indicates that 90-99% of stratiform precipitation should occur in clouds that are resolvable by contemporary climate models (e.g., with 200 km or finer grid spacing). Furthermore, this resolved fraction of stratiform precipitation should increase sharply with resolution, such that effectively all stratiform precipitation should be resolvable above scales of ~50 km. We show that the Community Atmosphere Model (CAM) and the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model also exhibit the robust cloud and precipitation scaling behavior that is present in observations, yet the resolved fraction of stratiform precipitation actually decreases with increasing model resolution. A suite of experiments with multiple dynamical cores provides strong evidence that this `scale-incognizant' behavior originates in one of the CAM4 parameterizations. An additional set of sensitivity experiments rules out both convection parameterizations, and by a process of elimination these results implicate the stratiform cloud and precipitation parameterization. Tests with the CAM5 physics package show improvements in the resolution-dependence of resolved cloud fraction and resolved stratiform precipitation fraction.

O'Brien, Travis A.; Li, Fuyu; Collins, William D.; Rauscher, Sara; Ringler, Todd; Taylor, Mark; Hagos, Samson M.; Leung, Lai-Yung R.

2013-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

385

E-Print Network 3.0 - air pollution precipitation Sample Search...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Search Powered by Explorit Topic List Advanced Search Sample search results for: air pollution precipitation Page: << < 1 2 3 4 5 > >> 1 Air Pollution Physics and...

386

Modeling of asphaltene precipitation and deposition tendency using the PC-SAFT equation of state.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Asphaltene precipitation and deposition can occur at different stages during petroleum production causing reservoir formation damage and plugging of pipeline and production equipment. Even though… (more)

Gonzalez Rodriguez, Doris Lucia

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

387

Influences of climate variability and change on precipitation characteristics and extremes.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??This study focuses on two main broad areas of active research on climate: climate variability and climate change and their implications on regional precipitation characteristics.… (more)

Goly, Aneesh.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

388

Future projections of daily precipitation and its extremes in simulations of 21st century climate change.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The current generation of climate models in the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) is used to assess the future changes in daily precipitation… (more)

Yin, Lei

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

389

Arctic daily temperature and precipitation extremes: Observed and simulated physical behavior.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??ARCTIC DAILY TEMPERATURE AND PRECIPITATION EXTREMES: OBSERVED AND SIMULATED PHYSICAL BEHAVIOR Justin M. Glisan Department of Geological and Atmospheric Sciences, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa… (more)

Glisan, Justin Michael

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

390

An Evaluation of MWR Retrievals of Liquid Water Path  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Evaluation of MWR Retrievals Evaluation of MWR Retrievals of Liquid Water Path and Precipitable Water Vapor R. T. Marchand and T. P. Ackerman Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Richland, Washington Introduction This paper offers some observations on the quality of Microwave Radiometer (MWR) retrievals of precipitable water vapor (PWV) and liquid water path (LWP). The paper shows case study comparisons between the standard "statistical" approach and those obtained using an iterative solution of the microwave radiative transfer equations. These examples show how improvements in the retrieval of LWP can be obtained by using an iterative approach, but that possible improvements are limited by the accuracy of the forward model absorption coefficients and errors in the brightness temperature measurements. Each of these effects limits the

391

Phosphorus reduction in dairy effluent through flocculation and precipitation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Phosphorus (P) is a pollutant in freshwater systems because it promotes eutrophication. The dairies in the North Bosque and its water body segments import more P than they export. Dairies accumulate P-rich effluent in lagoons and use...

Bragg, Amanda Leann

2005-02-17T23:59:59.000Z

392

Uranyl Precipitation by Pseudomonas aeruginosa via Controlled Polyphosphate Metabolism  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...coli indicates that the ability to turn over polyphosphate reserves was more important for metal resistance than simply the ability...1021-1022. 12 Glombitza, F. 2001. Treatment of acid lignite mine flooding water by means of microbial sulfate reduction...

Neil Renninger; Roger Knopp; Heino Nitsche; Douglas S. Clark; Jay D. Keasling

2004-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

393

Terrestrial Water Relations & Climate ChangeTerrestrial Water Relations & Climate Change Jeffrey M Warren, Ph.D.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

warmermore frequent and longer lasting in a future warmer climate" "...precipitation intensity is projected Report "...very likely that heat waves will be more intense, more frequent and longer lasting in a future carbon gain. Leaf water loss Hubbard et al. 2001 #12;9 belowground processesbelowground processes

Gray, Matthew

394

Water-Rock interaction in the Long Valley Caldera (USA)  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Water-rock interactions within the main thermal aquifer in the Long Valley Caldera are evaluated using water chemistry data from a new suite of samples. The results reflect the impact of increased geothermal production and major CO2 loss, which appears to drive calcite precipitation in the aquifer. The study provides qualitative information on the rates of mineral reactions and the response times of chemical geothermometers to declining temperatures.

W.C. Evans; S. Hurwitz; D. Bergfeld; J. Lewicki; M.A. Huebner; C.F. Williams; S.T. Brown

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

395

ARM - Evaluation Product - MicroPulse LIDAR Cloud Optical Depth (MPLCOD)  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

ProductsMicroPulse LIDAR Cloud Optical Depth ProductsMicroPulse LIDAR Cloud Optical Depth (MPLCOD) Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Evaluation Product : MicroPulse LIDAR Cloud Optical Depth (MPLCOD) 1999.05.01 - 2004.05.14 Site(s) SGP General Description The MPLCOD VAP retrieves the column cloud visible optical depth using LIDAR derived backscatter from the MPLNOR (Micro Pulse Lidar Normalized Backscatter) and radiosonde thermodynamic profiles. The optical depth retrieval is derived following Comstock et al. (2001), which retrieves visible optical depth and layer average backscatter-to-extinction ratio (k) at the lidar wavelength for each backscatter profile. Data Information Data Directory Contacts Principal Investigator Jennifer Comstock (509) 372-424

396

An In-depth Investigation of an Aluminum Chloride Retarded Mud Acid System on Sandstone Reservoirs  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Sandstone acidizing using mud acid is a quick and complex process where dissolution and precipitation occur simultaneously. Retarded mud acids are less reactive with the rock reducing the reaction rate hence increased penetration into the formation...

Aneto, Nnenna

2012-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

397

Intercode Comparisons for Simulating Water Balance in an Engineered Cover Scanlon, Bridget R.,1  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

to evaluate proposed cover designs for waste containment facilities and remediation sites and to estimate long-term the various codes was in the partitioning of precipitation into evaporation and soil water storage is irrigation, R0 is runoff, ET is evapotranspiration, D is drainage, and S is change in soil water storage

Scanlon, Bridget R.

398

Characterization of Soil Water Content Variability and Soil Texture using GPR Groundwave Techniques  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

measurements. Precipitation and irrigation were both shown to increase the spatial variability of water content the soil water content is well character- ized across a field. In addition to crop yield, the quality JEEG, September 2010, Volume 15, Issue 3, pp. 93­110 #12;of some crops, such as wine grapes, partially

Hubbard, Susan

399

Formation Damage due to Iron Precipitation in Acidizing Operations and Evaluating GLDA as a Chelating Agent  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Iron control during acidizing plays a key role in the success of matrix treatment. Ferric ion precipitates in the formation once the acid is spent and the pH exceeds 1-2. Precipitation of iron (III) within the formation can cause formation damage...

Mittal, Rohit

2012-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

400

The Response of Orographic Precipitation over Idealized Midlatitude Mountains Due to Global Increases in CO2  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

precipitation replenishes a large fraction of the world's freshwater supply. About 26% of the world's population model reveals the primary factors modifying the mean orographic precipitation intensity are variations; Liepert and Previdi 2009). Constraints on the global energy budget do not apply to local regions

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "depth precipitable water" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

Transition metal co-precipitation mechanisms in silicon T. Buonassisi a,*, M. Heuer a,1  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

-temperature annealing, co-localized single-metal silicide phases are observed, consistent with classical models, upon supersaturation, precipitate into their solid equilibrium metal silicide phase (e.g., FeSi2 [6Transition metal co-precipitation mechanisms in silicon T. Buonassisi a,*, M. Heuer a,1 , A

402

A comparison between raw EPS output, (modied) BMA and extended LR using ECMWF EPS precipitation reforecasts  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A comparison between raw EPS output, (modied) BMA and extended LR using ECMWF EPS precipitation (EPS). 2. Data sets, statistical methods and predictand denitions The data sets used in this study [1 and precipitation data from a reforecasting exper- iment with the ECMWF EPS system. Figure 1: BMA-tted pdf of 24-h

Schmeits, Maurice

403

Statistical Characteristics of Daily Precipitation: Comparisons of Gridded and Point Datasets  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Statistical Characteristics of Daily Precipitation: Comparisons of Gridded and Point Datasets Gauge Dataset (URD) and those of its nearest (rain gauge) station. To further examine differences between the two datasets, return periods of daily precipitation were calculated over a region encompassing

Roy Chowdhury, Rinku

404

The role of sea ice in the temperature-precipitation feedback of glacial cycles  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

precipitation over the ice sheets. The insulating effect of the sea ice on the hydrological cycle is foundThe role of sea ice in the temperature-precipitation feedback of glacial cycles Hezi Gildor · Yosef climate history can shed some light. Sea ice is a key player in the climate system and in the hydrological

Tziperman, Eli

405

The role of sea ice in the temperature-precipitation feedback of glacial cycles  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

to an increase in snow precipitation over the ice sheets. The insulating effect of the sea iceThe role of sea ice in the temperature-precipitation feedback of glacial cycles Hezi Gildor · Yosef unsatisfactory, yet upon which past climate history can shed some light. Sea ice is a key player in the climate

Tziperman, Eli

406

Role of Surface Precipitation in Copper Sorption by the Hydrous Oxides of Iron and Aluminum  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Role of Surface Precipitation in Copper Sorption by the Hydrous Oxides of Iron and Aluminum K. G precipitation; sorption; isotherms; X-ray diffraction; hydrous iron oxide; hydrous aluminum oxide; copper. INTRODUCTION Hydrous oxides of iron (HFO) and aluminum (HAO) are important mineral components of natural

Chorover, Jon

407

A Dual-Polarization Radar Hydrometeor Classification Algorithm for Winter Precipitation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

associated with winter storm precipitation type, accumulation, and timing is a major forecasting, safetyA Dual-Polarization Radar Hydrometeor Classification Algorithm for Winter Precipitation ELIZABETH J The purpose of this study is to demonstrate the use of polarimetric observations in a radar-based winter

Collett Jr., Jeffrey L.

408

A dual-polarization radar hydrometeor classification algorithm for winter precipitation1 Elizabeth J. Thompson*1  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

uncertainty associated with winter storm precipitation type, accumulation and36 timing is a paramount1 A dual-polarization radar hydrometeor classification algorithm for winter precipitation1 2 winter hydrometeor types (except sleet and freezing rain) based solely on polarimetric data, with29

Rutledge, Steven

409

Kinetics of Ni Sorption in Soils: Roles of Soil Organic Matter and Ni Precipitation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Kinetics of Ni Sorption in Soils: Roles of Soil Organic Matter and Ni Precipitation Zhenqing Shi, Lawrence, Kansas 66045-7609, United States *S Supporting Information ABSTRACT: The kinetics of Ni sorption) precipitates using both experimental studies and kinetic modeling. Batch sorption kinetic experiments were

Sparks, Donald L.

410

Relationship between the boreal spring Hadley circulation and the summer precipitation in the Yangtze River valley  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Relationship between the boreal spring Hadley circulation and the summer precipitation; accepted 22 May 2006; published 26 August 2006. [1] The connection between the boreal spring Hadley Hadley circulation and the summer precipitation in the Yangtze River valley, J. Geophys. Res., 111, D

411

Reduction of tropical land region precipitation variability via transpiration Jung-Eun Lee1*  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA, USA 2. Department of Environmental Sciences, Rutgers, The State exhibit low intraseasonal precipitation variability despite high annual-mean precipitation. Analyzing simulations of the NCAR atmospheric model coupled to the Community Land Model with and without transpiration

Neelin, J. David

412

3 Carbide Precipitation Carbides are largely responsible for the commercial failure of many of the early  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

.1. Transition carbides, such as and the various orthorhombic forms listed in Table 3.1, only form because Precipitation 64 Table 3.1 Carbides in bainite or in tempered bainite. Fe, M/C is the ratio of metal to car- bon3 Carbide Precipitation Carbides are largely responsible for the commercial failure of many

Cambridge, University of

413

Homogeneity of precipitation series in the Netherlands and their trends in the past century  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1 Homogeneity of precipitation series in the Netherlands and their trends in the past century T. A. Buishand, G. De Martino, J.N. Spreeuw and T. Brandsma Royal Netherlands Meteorological Institute (KNMI), De Bilt, The Netherlands ABSTRACT: The historical daily precipitation observations for the Netherlands

Brandsma, Theo

414

Changes in winter precipitation extremes for the western United States under a warmer climate as simulated  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Changes in winter precipitation extremes for the western United States under a warmer climate find a consistent and statistically significant increase in the intensity of future extreme winter consistently show an increase in the intensity of extreme winter precipitation with the multi-model mean

Castro, Christopher L.

415

Changes in daily temperature and precipitation extremes in central and south Asia  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Changes in daily temperature and precipitation extremes in central and south Asia A. M. G. Klein in indices of climate extremes are studied on the basis of daily series of temperature and precipitation, the indices of temperature extremes indicate warming of both the cold tail and the warm tail

Klein Tank, Albert

416

Spatially Penalized Regression for Extremes Dependence Analysis and Prediction: Case of Precipitation Extremes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Spatially Penalized Regression for Extremes Dependence Analysis and Prediction: Case of Precipitation Extremes Debasish Das1,2 , Auroop R. Ganguly1 , Snigdhansu Chatterjee3 , Vipin Kumar4 , Zoran@cs.umn.edu, zoran.obradovic@temple.edu. ABSTRACT The inability to predict precipitation extremes under non

Obradovic, Zoran

417

Changes in Temperature and Precipitation Extremes in the IPCC Ensemble of Global Coupled Model Simulations  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Changes in Temperature and Precipitation Extremes in the IPCC Ensemble of Global Coupled Model September 2006) ABSTRACT Temperature and precipitation extremes and their potential future changes on Climate Change (IPCC) diagnostic exercise for the Fourth Assessment Report (AR4). Climate extremes

418

Computing a Maximal Depth Point in the Plane Stefan Langerman # William Steiger +  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

], [7],[10],[11]. One of the more familiar ones was proposed by John Tukey [12], a natural extension to d > 1 of the notion in (1). Given a set S = {P 1 , . . . , Pn} of n points in R d , the Tukey depth is a point µ of maximal depth, and we write # # = #(S) for the Tukey depth of a median. For integer k > 0 let

Langerman, Stefan

419

Temporary Waters  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Temporary waters are lakes, ponds, streams, seeps, microhabitats, and other areas that hold water periodically and then dry. They occur across the globe, at all latitudes, and in all biomes, wherever water can collect long enough for aquatic life to develop. These waters are numerous, mostly small, and easily studied. Their biological communities are diverse, have much among-site variation, often include endemic species, and differ from those in permanent waters, contributing to regional biodiversity. Organisms survive through species-specific behavioral, physiological, and life-history adaptations. Community composition and structure change in response to environmental variations. Temporary waters are highly productive and their food webs are relatively simple. For all of these reasons, temporary waters lend themselves to surveys and experimental manipulations designed to test hypotheses about biological adaptation, population regulation, evolutionary processes, community composition and structure, and ecosystem functioning. In many parts of the world, most temporary waters have been lost. The conservation and restoration of vulnerable temporary waters is a major thrust of applied ecology. Also important are applications of ecological understanding to the control of disease vectors, especially pathogen-transmitting mosquitoes, from temporary water habitats. This article describes temporary waters, examines their biota and adaptations, and summarizes key questions about their ecology.

E.A. Colburn

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

420

Water Bugs  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Bugs Bugs Nature Bulletin No. 221-A March 12, 1966 Forest Preserve District of Cook County Seymour Simon, President Roland F. Eisenbeis, Supt. of Conservation WATER BUGS It is fascinating to lie in a boat or on a log at the edge of the water and watch the drama that unfolds among the small water animals. Among the star performers in small streams and ponds are the Water Bugs. These are aquatic members of that large group of insects called the "true bugs", most of which live on land. Moreover, unlike many other types of water insects, they do not have gills but get their oxygen directly from the air. Those that do go beneath the surface usually carry an oxygen supply with them in the form of a shiny glistening sheath of air imprisoned among a covering of fine waterproof hairs. The common water insect known to small boys at the "Whirligig Bug" is not a water bug but a beetle.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "depth precipitable water" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

FeP precipitates in hydride?vapor phase epitaxially grown InP:Fe  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Fe?doped InP was grown by hydride?vapor phase epitaxy.Doping levels up to 8×1018 cm?3 were determined by secondary ion mass spectrometry. Additionally performed photoluminescence measurements revealed a homogeneous distribution of electrically active Fe atoms. From microstructural investigations by analytical transmission electron microscopy spherical?shaped precipitates were detected in plan?view samples. These precipitates with diameters up to 13 nm are homogeneously arranged in the epilayer. For conglomerates of precipitates a distinct enrichment with Fe and P was measured by a comparative energy dispersive x?ray analysis. The lattice plane distances of the precipitates were deduced from the electron diffraction patterns and from high?resolution electron micrographs. A comparison with calculated values for different Fe–P alloys indicates that the precipitates consist mainly of orthorhombic FeP.

M. Luysberg; R. Göbel; H. Janning

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

422

Self-organization via elastic interaction between precipitates in thin layers  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The present paper is concerned with the solution of the problem of a finite coherent precipitate in an elastic isotropic and homogeneous layer. The positive hydrostatic pressure in the matrix near a dilating precipitate is deduced by comparing the displacements in a layer to those in an infinite solid. The positive hydrostatic pressure gives rise to an attractive elastic interaction between like particles that increases monotonically with decreasing interparticle distance. The attractive interaction is maximal when the particles become of equal size and it increases as they grow closer to the free surfaces. The correlations that result from the elastic interaction in the thin layers generate a tendency toward clustering of equal-sized particles. The self-energy of an isolated precipitate decreases rapidly as it grows closer to the free surfaces favoring, at the advanced stages of the precipitation, precipitate coalescence rather than clustering.

R. Shneck; A. Brokman; M. P. Dariel

1992-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

423

High-energy x-ray diffractometer for nondestructive strain depth profile measurement  

SciTech Connect

We describe a lab-based high-energy x-ray diffraction system and a new approach to nondestructively measuring strain profiles in polycrystalline samples. This technique utilizes the tungsten K{sub ?1} characteristic radiation from a standard industrial x-ray tube. We introduce a simulation model that is used to determine strain values from data collected with this system. Examples of depth profiling are shown for shot peened aluminum and titanium samples. Profiles to 1 mm depth in aluminum and 300 ?m depth in titanium with a depth resolution of 20 ?m are presented.

Al-Shorman, M. Y. [Department of Physics, Yarmouk University, 21163 Irbid (Jordan)] [Department of Physics, Yarmouk University, 21163 Irbid (Jordan); Jensen, T. C.; Gray, J. N. [Center for Nondestructive Evaluation, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa 50011 (United States)] [Center for Nondestructive Evaluation, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa 50011 (United States)

2013-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

424

A new high luminosity UHV orange type magnetic spectrometer used for depth selective Mössbauer spectroscopy  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

For Auger Electron Spectroscopy (AES) a combination with an electrostatic retardation field around the sample will provide an even higher resolution. For depth selective conversion electron Mössbauer spectroscopy...

B. Stahl; R. Gellert; G. Klingelhöfer…

1997-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

425

Drazen, Jeffrey C., and Brad A. Seibel. Depth-related trends in ...  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

constant levels of enzymatic activity in the brains and hearts of fishes regardless of depth (Childress and Somero. 1979; Sullivan and Somero 1980; Siebenaller ...

2007-08-13T23:59:59.000Z

426

Effect of speckles on the depth sensitivity of laser Doppler perfusion imaging  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A theoretical model is presented and experimentally validated that allows the prediction of the effect of speckles on the depth sensitivity of laser Doppler perfusion imaging. It is...

Rajan, V; Varghese, B; van Leeuwen, T G; Steenbergen, W

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

427

A depth-16 circuit for the AES S-box joan@imada.sdu.dk  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

metric (gate count, depth, energy consumption, etc.). In practice, no known techniques can reliably find. Department of Mathematics and Computer Science, University of Southern Denmark. Partially sup- ported

428

UNL WATER CENTER WATER CURRENT  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

INSIDE UNL WATER CENTER WATER CURRENT PROTECTING NEBRASKAĂ­S WATER RESOURCES THROUGH RESEARCH with a vision, thereĂ­s an untapped market using resources right under our feet,Ă® the University of Nebraska outdoors in India, Bangladesh, China and Viet- nam. Thousands of them have been grown to harvest

Nebraska-Lincoln, University of

429

Atomic mechanisms of. gamma. ' precipitate plate growth in the Al-Ag system  

SciTech Connect

Energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy results that the precipitates have the composition Ag/sub 2/Al. High-resolution electron microscopy of ..gamma..' precipitates in both <110>//<1120> and <111>//<0001> orientations shows that all interfaces of the precipitate are largely coherent with the matrix and are faceted along low-energy (111) and (110) matrix plans, due to the influence of surface and elastic strain energies on the transformation. Further comparison between experimental and calculated high-resolution images of the precipitate/matrix interface and of Shockley partial dislocation ledges on the precipitate faces demonstrates that both thickening and lengthening of ..gamma..' precipitate plates occurs by the passage of the Shockley partial dislocations along alternate (111) matrix planes by a terrace-ledge-kink mechanism. These images and electron diffraction information also indicate that the ..gamma..' precipitates are ordered, where the A-planes in the precipitate contain nearly pure Ag and the B-planes have the composition Al/sub 2/Ag, and that the limiting reaction in the growth process is the substitutional diffusion of Ag cross kinks in the Shockley partial dislocations, which terminate in the Ag-rich A-planes. The terraces between ledges are atomically flat and ledges are uniformly stepped-down from the centers to the edges of isolated precipitates. Convergent-beam electron diffraction (CBED) analyses of ..gamma..' precipitates indicate that they have the space group P6/sub 3//mmc. Effect of specimen thickness on symmetry determinations by CBED was also examined for an ..cap alpha..-titanium sample. Results show that the symmetries observed in CBED patterns from thin specimens may be due to the limited thickness of the specimen, rather than to the actual space group of the material.

Howe, J.M.

1985-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

430

Carderock Circulating Water Channel | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Circulating Water Channel Circulating Water Channel Jump to: navigation, search Basic Specifications Facility Name Carderock Circulating Water Channel Overseeing Organization United States Naval Surface Warfare Center Hydrodynamic Testing Facility Type Channel Length(m) 18.3 Beam(m) 6.7 Depth(m) 2.7 Water Type Freshwater Cost(per day) Contact POC Special Physical Features The Circulating Water Channel is a vertical plane, open to the atmosphere test section with a free surface in a closed recirculating water circuit, variable speed, rectangular cross-sectional shape facility. There are 10 large viewing windows on either side of the test section at different elevations and 9 in the bottom; movable bridge spans the test section for ease and versatility in mounting models, rigging bridge is capable of taking towing loads at any one of numerous points up to 35,584 N

431

water pipeline gallery  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

water pipeline gallery, water pipeline drift; water pipeline tunnel (US) ? Wasserleitungsrohrstollen m

2014-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

432

Impact of natural and anthropogenic aerosols on stratocumulus and precipitation in the Southeast Pacific: A regional modeling study using WRF-Chem  

SciTech Connect

Cloud-system resolving simulations with the chemistry version of the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF-Chem) model are used to quantify the impacts of regional anthropogenic and oceanic emissions on changes in aerosol properties, cloud macro- and microphysics, and cloud radiative forcing over the Southeast Pacific (SEP) during the VAMOS Ocean-Cloud-Atmosphere-Land Study Regional Experiment (VOCALS-REx) (15 Oct–Nov 16, 2008). The effects of oceanic aerosols on cloud properties, precipitation, and the shortwave forcing counteract those of anthropogenic aerosols. Despite the relatively small changes in Na concentrations (2-12%) from regional oceanic emissions, their net effect (direct and indirect) on the surface shortwave forcing is opposite and comparable or even larger in magnitude compared to those of regional anthropogenic emissions over the SEP. Two distinct regions are identified in the VOCALS-REx domain. The near-coast polluted region is characterized with strong droplet activation suppression of small particles by sea-salt particles, the more important role of the first than the second indirect effect, low surface precipitation rate, and low aerosol-cloud interaction strength associated with anthropogenic emissions. The relatively clean remote region is characterized with large contributions of Cloud Condensation Nuclei (CCN, number concentration denoted by NCCN) and droplet number concentrations (Nd) from non-local sources (lateral boundaries), a significant amount of surface precipitation, and high aerosol-cloud interactions under a scenario of five-fold increase in anthropogenic emissions. In the clean region, cloud properties have high sensitivity (e.g., 13% increase in cloud-top height and a 9% surface albedo increase) to the moderate increase in CCN concentration (?Nccn = 13 cm-3; 25%) produced by a five-fold increase in regional anthropogenic emissions. The increased anthropogenic aerosols reduce the precipitation amount over the relatively clean remote ocean. The reduction of precipitation (as a cloud water sink) more than doubles the wet scavenging timescale, resulting in an increased aerosol lifetime in the marine boundary layer. Therefore, the aerosol impacts on precipitation are amplified by the positive feedback of precipitation on aerosol. The positive feedback ultimately alters the cloud micro- and macro-properties, leading to strong aerosol-cloud-precipitation interactions. The higher sensitivity of clouds to anthropogenic aerosols over this region is also related to a 16% entrainment rate increase due to anthropogenic aerosols. The simulated aerosol-cloud-precipitation interactions are stronger at night over the clean marine region, while during the day, solar heating results in more frequent decoupling, thinner clouds, reduced precipitation, and reduced sensitivity to anthropogenic emissions. The simulated high sensitivity to the increased anthropogenic emissions over the clean region suggests that the perturbation of the clean marine environment with anthropogenic aerosols may have a larger effect on climate than that of already polluted marine environments.

Yang, Qing; Gustafson, William I.; Fast, Jerome D.; Wang, Hailong; Easter, Richard C.; Wang, Minghuai; Ghan, Steven J.; Berg, Larry K.; Leung, Lai-Yung R.; Morrison, H.

2012-09-28T23:59:59.000Z

433

Ground Water Ground Sky Sky Water Vegetation Ground Vegetation Water  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Bear Snow Vegetation RhinoWater Vegetation Ground Water Ground Sky Sky Rhino Water Vegetation Ground Vegetation Water Rhino Water Vegetation Ground Rhino Water Rhino Water Ground Ground Vegetation Water Rhino Vegetation Rhino Vegetation Ground Rhino Vegetation Ground Sky Rhino Vegetation Ground Sky

Chen, Tsuhan

434

In-Tank Precipitation Facility (ITP) and H-Tank Farm (HTF) geotechnical report, WSRC-TR-95-0057, Revision 0, Volume 6  

SciTech Connect

The SRS/ITP Soil Evaluation Testing Program was developed and performed to investigate the behavior of the soil deposits at the Savannah River Site`s In-Tank Precipitation facility under dynamic loading. There were two distinct soil deposits involved in the current testing program: the Tobacco Road formation (sampled at depths between 28 and 100 feet at the site) and the Santee formation (sampled from depths between 170 and 180 feet). The Tobacco Road samples consisted of clayey sands (typically {open_quotes}SC{close_quotes} by the Unified Soil Classification System), yellow to reddish-brown in color with fine to medium sized sand particles. The Santee samples were also clayey sands, but nearly white in color. The two types of cyclic triaxial tests performed at the U.C. Berkeley Geotechnical Laboratories as part of this testing program were (a) traditional liquefaction tests and (b) low-amplitude cyclic tests designed to provide information on threshold strains for these specimens. This report describes the results of both the liquefaction testing component of the study, which was limited to the soils from the Tobacco Road formation, and the low-amplitude testing of both Tobacco Road and Santee specimens. Additional information was obtained from some of the specimens by (a) measuring the volumetric strains of many of the specimens when drainage (and reconsolidation) was permitted following liquefaction, or (b) determining the residual stress-strain behavior of other specimens subjected to monotonic loading immediately following liquefaction. This document is Volume 6 of the In-Tank Precipitation Facility (ITP) and H-Tank Farm (HTF) Geotechnical Report, and contains laboratory test results.

NONE

1995-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

435

Radiochemical Analyses of Water Samples from Selected Streams  

Office of Legacy Management (LM)

> > : , - ' and Precipitation Collected in - Connection with Calibration-Test Flaring of Gas From Test Well, - I August 15-October 13, 197,0,, Project Rulison-8, 197 1 HGS 9 DISCLAIMER Portions of this document may be illegible in electronic image products. Images are produced from the best available original document. UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR GEOLOGICAL SURVEY Federal center, Denver, Colorado 80225 RADIOCHEMICAL ANALYSES OF WATER SAMPLES FROM SELECTED STREAMS AND PRECIPITATION COLLECTED IN CONNECTION WITH CALIBRATION-TEST FLARING OF GAS FROM TEST WELL, AUGUST.15-OCTDBER 13, 1970 PROJECT RULISON Hans C. Claassen and Paul T. Voegeli, Sr. CONTENTS Page Introduction..................... ................................... 1 Results.

436

Reusing Water  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Reusing Water Reusing Water Reusing Water Millions of gallons of industrial wastewater is recycled at LANL by virtue of a long-term strategy to treat wastewater rather than discharging it into the environment. April 12, 2012 Water from cooling the supercomputer is release to maintain a healthy wetland. Contact Environmental Communication & Public Involvement P.O. Box 1663 MS M996 Los Alamos, NM 87545 (505) 667-0216 Email We reuse the same water up to six times before releasing it back into the environment cleaner than when it was pumped. How many times does LANL reuse water? Wastewater is generated from some of the facilities responsible for the Lab's biggest missions, such as the cooling towers of the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center, one of the Lab's premier science research

437

Stability of steady gravity waves generated by a moving localised pressure disturbance in water of  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

disturbance in water of finite depth. The steady waves take the form of a downstream wavetrain for subcritical and , the subcritical solutions were wavetrains solutions similar to those found in deep water, and became dragStability of steady gravity waves generated by a moving localised pressure disturbance in water

438

Effects of Woody Vegetation Removal on Soil Water Dynamics in a South Texas Shrubland  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

removal on various soil textures we studied changes in soil water, rooting depth, and the role of water redistribution by woody vegetation. Woody vegetation was removed using common methods of cut-stump and roller chop across three soil types. Soil water...

Mattox, April Marie

2013-07-30T23:59:59.000Z

439

Evaluation of precipitates used in strainer head loss testing : Part II. precipitates by in-situ aluminum alloy corrosion.  

SciTech Connect

Vertical loop head loss tests were performed with 6061 and 1100 aluminum (Al) alloy plates immersed in borated solution at pH = 9.3 at room temperature and 60 C. The results suggest that the potential for corrosion of an Al alloy to result in increased head loss across a glass fiber bed may depend on its microstructure, i.e., the size distribution and number density of intermetallic particles that are present in Al matrix and FeSiAl ternary compounds, as well as its Al release rate. Per unit mass of Al removed from solution, the WCAP-16530 aluminum hydroxide (Al(OH){sub 3}) surrogate was more effective in increasing head loss than the Al(OH)3 precipitates formed in situ by corrosion of Al alloy. However, in choosing a representative amount of surrogate for plant specific testing, consideration should be given to the potential for additional head losses due to intermetallic particles and the apparent reduction in the effective solubility of Al(OH){sub 3} when intermetallic particles are present.

Bahn, C.; Kasza, K. E.; Shack, W. J.; Natesan, K. (Nuclear Engineering Division)

2011-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

440

Water Management  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Water Management This department applies multi-disciplinary science and technology-based modeling to assess complex environmental systems. It integrates ecology, anthropology, and...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "depth precipitable water" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

Intra-event trends in stable isotopes: Exploring mid-latitude precipitation using a vertically-pointing micro rain radar  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Annual, monthly and daily analyses of stable isotopes in precipitation are commonly made worldwide, yet only a few studies have explored the variations occurring on short timescales within individual precipitation events, particularly at mid-...

Catherine L. Muller; Andy Baker; Ian J. Fairchild; Chris Kidd; Ian Boomer

442

Computation of the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) and Its Use to Assess Drought Occurrences in Cameroon over Recent Decades  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The standardized precipitation index (SPI) is computed and analyzed using 55 years of precipitation data recorded in 24 observation stations in Cameroon along with University of East Anglia Climate Research Unit (CRU) spatialized data. Four ...

Guy Merlin Guenang; F. Mkankam Kamga

2014-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

443

WRF-SBM simulations of melting layer structure in mixed-phase precipitation events observed during LPVEx  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Two mixed-phase precipitation events were observed on 21 September and 20 October 2010 over the southern part of Finland during the Light Precipitation Validation Experiment (LPVEx). These events have been simulated using the Weather Research and ...

Takamichi Iguchi; Toshihisa Matsui; Wei-Kuo Tao; Alexander P. Khain; Vaughan T. J. Phillips; Chris Kidd; Tristan L’Ecuyer; Scott A. Braun; Arthur Hou

444

Multidecadal Variations in the Relationship between the NAO and Winter Precipitation in the Hindu Kush–Karakoram  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Winter precipitation over the Hindu Kush–Karakoram (HKK) range in the western Himalayas is generated by westerly perturbations whose dynamics is affected by the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO). Larger precipitation is typically recorded during ...

Luca Filippi; Elisa Palazzi; Jost von Hardenberg; Antonello Provenzale

2014-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

445

A 10-Year Survey of Extreme Rainfall Events in the Central and Eastern United States Using Gridded Multisensor Precipitation Analyses  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Extreme rainfall events in the central and eastern United States during 2002–11 were identified using NCEP stage-IV precipitation analyses. Precipitation amounts were compared against established 50- and 100-yr recurrence interval thresholds for 1-...

Stephanie N. Stevenson; Russ S. Schumacher

2014-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

446

Evaluation of Biases in JRA-25/JCDAS Precipitation and Their Impact on the Global Terrestrial Carbon Balance  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This study evaluates a modeled precipitation field and examines how its bias affects the modeling of the regional and global terrestrial carbon cycle. Spatial and temporal variations in precipitation produced by the Japanese 25-yr reanalysis (JRA-...

Makoto Saito; Akihiko Ito; Shamil Maksyutov

2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

447

From Low-Cost Depth Sensors to CAD: Cross-Domain 3D Shape Retrieval via  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

applications for 3D shape retrieval, such as high-quality 3D scanning, manipulation and printing. NoteFrom Low-Cost Depth Sensors to CAD: Cross-Domain 3D Shape Retrieval via Regression Tree Fields Yan@us.ibm.com Abstract. The recent advances of low-cost and mobile depth sensors dramatically extend the potential of 3D

Chang, Shih-Fu

448

Total Sediment Load from SEMEP Using Depth-Integrated Concentration Measurements  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Total Sediment Load from SEMEP Using Depth-Integrated Concentration Measurements Seema C. Shah sediment load calculations on the basis of depth-integrated sediment concentration measurements for channels with significant sediment transport in suspension. The series expansion of the modified Einstein

Julien, Pierre Y.

449

Discussion of "Location-Scale Depth" by I. Mizera and C. H. Muller  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

the distance from zi (or any monotonic function of the distance) recovers the classical no- tion of Tukey depth to Tukey depth in hyperbolic space School of Information & Computer Science, Univ. of California, Irvine. By standard techniques for modeling hyperbolic space in Euclidean spaces, all the previous machinery of Tukey

Eppstein, David

450

Ecient computation of location depth contours by methods of computational geometry  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, and the center of the deepest contour is called the Tukey median. The only available implemented algorithms for the depth contours and the Tukey median are slow, which limits their usefulness. In this paper we describe practice. Keywords: Bagplot, Bivariate Median, Graphical Display, Robust Estimation, Tukey Depth 1

Souvaine, Diane

451

Depth of cure and compressive strength of dental composites cured with blue light emitting diodes (LEDs)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Depth of cure and compressive strength of dental composites cured with blue light emitting diodes with either a light emitting diode (LED) based light curing unit (LCU) or a conventional halogen LCU do reserved. Keywords: Blue light emitting diodes; Light curing unit; Composites; Irradiance; Spectrum; Depth

Ashworth, Stephen H.

452

Stream-bed scour, egg burial depths, and the influence of salmonid spawning on bed surface  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Stream-bed scour, egg burial depths, and the influence of salmonid spawning on bed surface mobility-Hames, and Thomas P. Quinn Abstract: Bed scour, egg pocket depths, and alteration of stream-bed surfaces by spawning chum salmon (Onchorhynchus keta) were measured in two Pacific Northwest gravel-bedded streams. Close

Montgomery, David R.

453

Method for determining depth and shape of a sub-surface conductive object  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The depth to and size of an underground object may be determined by sweeping a controlled source audio magnetotelluric (CSAMT) signal and locating a peak response when the receiver spans the edge of the object. The depth of the object is one quarter wavelength in the subsurface media of the frequency of the peak. 3 figures.

Lee, D.O.; Montoya, P.C.; Wayland, Jr.

1984-06-27T23:59:59.000Z

454

Facilitated Strontium Transport by Remobilization of Strontium-Containing Secondary Precipitates in Hanford Site Subsurface  

SciTech Connect

Significantly enhanced immobilization of radionuclides (such as 90Sr and 137Cs) due to adsorption and coprecipitation with neo-formed colloid-sized secondary precipitates has been reported at the U.S. Department of Energy’s Hanford Site. However, the stability of these secondary precipitates containing radionuclides in the subsurface under changeable field conditions is not clear. Here, the authors tested the remobilization possibility of Sr containing secondary precipitates (nitrate-cancrinite) in the subsurface using saturated column experiments under different geochemical and flow conditions. The columns were packed with quartz sand that contained secondary precipitates (nitrate-cancrinite containing Sr), and leached using colloid-free solutions under different flow rates, varying pH, and ionic strength conditions. The results indicate remobilization of the neo-formed secondary precipitates could be possible given a change of background conditions. The remobility of the neo formed precipitates increased with the rise in the leaching solution flow rate and pH (in a range of pH 4 to 11), as well as with decreasing solution ionic strength. The increased mobility of Sr-containing secondary precipitates with changing background conditions can be a potential source for additional radionuclide transport in Hanford Site subsurface environments.

Wang, Guohui; Um, Wooyong

2013-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

455

Static Recrystallization and Precipitation Behavior of a Weathering Steel Microalloyed with Vanadium  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The static recrystallization (SRX) and precipitation behavior of a weathering steel microalloyed with vanadium were investigated through double-pass compression tests under controlled conditions using the MMS-300 thermal-mechanical simulator. The deformation temperatures ranged from 800 °C to 1000 °C, and the inter-pass time from 1 s to 500 s. The simulation results showed that SRX occurred after 5–10 s at the first compression deformation. The softening fraction of SRX was found to increase with increasing the deformation temperature and the pre-strain. However, the softening fraction scarcely changed during the process of strain-induced precipitation. In addition, the kinetics of SRX was described by the Avrami equation, and the Avrami exponent appeared to be closely associated with the deformation temperature. The microstructure evolution was investigated at the initiation and completion of recrystallization. The amount and distribution of the precipitates were analyzed. The relationship between the driving force of SRX and the pinning force of precipitation was discussed. Besides, the recrystallization inhibition was detected at the early stage of precipitation, and the pinning forces were found to be of a magnitude comparable to the driving force. Moreover, the pinning forces were found to increase with the degree of precipitation and reach a peak at the intermediate stage of precipitation, and finally reduce as the particles coarsened.

Hongyan Wu; Linxiu Du; Zhengrong Ai; Xianghua Liu

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

456

Ground penetrating radar characterization of wood piles and the water table in Back Bay, Boston  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Ground penetrating radar (GPR) surveys are performed to determine the depth to the water table and the tops of wood piles beneath a residential structure at 122 Beacon Street in Back Bay, Boston. The area of Boston known ...

LeFrançois, Suzanne O'Neil, 1980-

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

457

E-Print Network 3.0 - atlantic slope waters Sample Search Results  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

the southern South Atlantic the high... long as the pressure does not vary. If a water parcel moves to a different depth, the slope and value... Atlantic. The continuity of this...

458

Trace metal cycling in the surface water of the South China Sea ...  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

ABSTRACT: We deployed floating traps in the surface waters of the South China Sea on four occasions at depths of 30 m, 100 m, and 160 m from 2006 to 2007 ...

459

A Comparison of Cirrus Cloud Visible Optical Depth Derived from Lidar  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Comparison of Cirrus Cloud Visible Optical Depth Derived from Lidar Comparison of Cirrus Cloud Visible Optical Depth Derived from Lidar Lo, Chaomei Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Comstock, Jennifer Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Flynn, Connor Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Category: Cloud Properties Optically thin clouds (e.g. optical depth < 3) can have a significant impact on radiative heating in the atmosphere, particularly in the cold upper troposphere. Currently, there is no value-added product (VAP) in the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program archive that produces thin cloud optical depth, particularly at the Tropical Western Pacific and North Slope of Alaska sites. A VAP is under development to obtain the cirrus cloud visible optical depth from the MPLNOR (Micro Pulse Lidar Normalized

460

Ground-water levels and tritium concentrations at the Maxey Flats low-level radioactive-waste-disposal site near Morehead, Kentucky, June 1984 to April 1989. Water - resources investigation  

SciTech Connect

The report, one in a series of reports by the USGS, summarizes ground-water level and tritium data that were collected by the USGS from June 1984 through April 1989. The report also describes the occurrence and distribution of tritium in water from selected wells. Data for ground-water levels in wells and disposal tranches and the concentrations of tritium in water from monitoring wells at the site are presented. Precipitation data were collected in conjunction with the water-level data to relate precipitation to ground-water recharge. Specific conductance data, routinely determined for ground-water samples, also were collected to compare changes in specific conductance to changes in tritium concentrations. All data are stored locally on the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water Information System (NWIS).

Wilson, K.S.; Lyons, B.E.

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "depth precipitable water" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


461

Solution and precipitation hardening in carbon-doped two-phase {gamma}-titanium aluminides  

SciTech Connect

A two-phase titanium aluminide alloy was systematically doped with carbon to improve its high temperature strength. Solid solutions and precipitates of carbon were formed by different thermal treatments. A fine dispersion of perovskite precipitates was found to be very effective for improving the high temperature strength and creep resistance of the material. The strengthening mechanisms were characterized by flow stresses and activation parameters. The investigations were accompanied by electron microscope observation of the defect structure which was generated during deformation. Special attention was paid on the interaction mechanisms of perfect and twinning dislocations with the carbide precipitates.

Appel, F.; Christoph, U.; Wagner, R. [GKSS Research Center, Geesthacht (Germany). Inst. for Materials Research

1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

462

Zircaloy-2 secondary phase precipitate analysis by X-ray microspectroscopy  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Secondary phase precipitates of a Zircaloy sample have been characterised by X-ray microspectroscopy. In Zircaloy-2 X-ray microscopy reveals pictures with a 40 nm resolution identifying Fe, Cr and to a lower occurrence Ni phases up to size of the micrometer. Analysis by X-ray spectroscopy defines the structure of specific secondary phase precipitates. The feasibility tests demonstrate that the characterisation of Fe and Cr can be performed on 100 nm size phases allowing the analysis of the Fe or Cr atoms environment in these secondary phase precipitates.

C. Degueldre; J. Raabe; G. Kuri; S. Abolhassani

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

463

Interstitial-phase precipitation in iron-base alloys: a comparative study  

SciTech Connect

Recent developments have elucidated the atomistic mechanisms of precipitation of interstitial elements in simple alloy systems. However, in the more technologically important iron base alloys, interstitial phase precipitation is generally not well understood. The present experimental study was therefore designed to test the applicability of these concepts to more complex ferrous alloys. Hence, a comparative study was made of interstitial phase precipitation in ferritic Fe-Si-C and in austenitic phosphorus-containing Fe-Cr-Ni steels. These systems were subjected to a variety of quench-age thermal treatments, and the microstructural development was subsequently characterized by transmission electron microscopy.

Pelton, A.R.

1982-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

464

Influence of Mg2+ on CaCO3 precipitation during subsurface reactive transport in a homogeneous silicon-etched pore network  

SciTech Connect

Calcium carbonate (CaCO3) geochemical reactions exert a fundamental control on the evolution of porosity and permeability in shallow-to-deep subsurface siliciclastic and limestone rock reservoirs. As a result, these carbonate water-rock interactions play a critically important role in research on groundwater remediation, geological carbon sequestration, and hydrocarbon exploration. A study was undertaken to determine the effects of Mg2+ concentration on CaCO3 crystal morphology, precipitation rate, and porosity occlusion under flow and mixing conditions similar to those in subsurface aquifers.

Boyd, Victoria; Yoon, Hongkyu; Zhang, Changyong; Oostrom, Martinus; Hess, Nancy J.; Fouke, Bruce W.; Valocchi, Albert J.; Werth, Charles J.

2014-05-19T23:59:59.000Z

465

Cloud top microphysics as a tool for precipitation measurements Daniel Rosenfeld, Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Jerusalem, Israel  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Cloud top microphysics as a tool for precipitation measurements Daniel Rosenfeld, Hebrew University of the electromagnetic radiation that is scattered and emitted from the clouds, precipitation and the underlying surface with the cloud and precipitation particles strongly depends on their composition and size distribution

Daniel, Rosenfeld

466

SpatialIntensity Variations in Extreme Precipitation in the Contiguous United States and the MaddenJulian Oscillation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

(MJO) are investigated. Daily gridded precipitation is used to define two types of contiguous regionsSpatial­Intensity Variations in Extreme Precipitation in the Contiguous United States form 23 January 2012) ABSTRACT The spatial­intensity variability of extreme precipitation over

California at Santa Barbara, University of

467

Luminescence intensity in coral skeletons from Mona Island in the Caribbean Sea and its link to precipitation and wind speed  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...and its link to precipitation and wind speed Johan Nyberg 1 Present address...proxy of precipitation and (trade) wind speed. In order to find wavelength pairs...records of regional precipitation and wind speed. In the coral skeleton as well...

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

468

Luminescence intensity in coral skeletons from Mona Island in the Caribbean Sea and its link to precipitation and wind speed  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Precipitation and wind speed in combination may thus...well as turbidity and light availability. The negative...con- trolled by wind speed, precipitation and run-off...precipitation and wind speed may control some environmental...as freshwater supply, light availability and/or...

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

469

Uses of chloride/bromide ratios in studies of potable water  

SciTech Connect

In natural ground water systems, both chlorine and bromine occur primarily as monovalent anions, chloride and bromide. Although dissolution or precipitation of halite, biological activity in the root zone, anion sorption, and exchange can affect chloride/bromide ratios in some settings, movement of the ions in potable ground water is most often conservative. Atmospheric precipitation will generally have mass ratios between 50 and 150; shallow ground water, between 100 and 200; domestic sewage, between 300 and 600; water affected by dissolution of halite, between 1,000 and 10,000; and summer runoff from urban streets, between 10 and 100. These, and other distinctive elemental ratios, are useful in the reconstruction of the origin and movement of ground water, as illustrated by case studies investigating sources of salinity in ground water from Alberta, Kansas, and Arizona, and infiltration rates and pathways at Yucca Mountain, Nevada.

Davis, S.N. [Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States). Dept. of Hydrology and Water Resources; Whittemore, D.O. [Univ. of Kansas, Lawrence, KS (United States). Kansas Geological Survey; Fabryka-Martin, J. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

1998-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

470

10/7/2014 NIDIS Drought and Water Assessment http://climate.colostate.edu/~drought/current_assessment.php 1/14  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

10/7/2014 NIDIS Drought and Water Assessment http://climate.colostate.edu/~drought/current_assessment.php and Water Assessment http://climate.colostate.edu/~drought/current_assessment.php 2/14 precipitation. #12;10/7/2014 NIDIS Drought and Water Assessment http://climate.colostate.edu/~drought/current_assessment.php

471

Muon-induced neutron and pion production in an organic liquid scintillator at a shallow depth  

SciTech Connect

The production of fast neutrons and pions by inelastic interactions of cosmic-ray muons in an organic liquid scintillator has been investigated. A detector filled with 190 liters of a 0.09% gadolinium-loaded liquid scintillator was installed in the Stanford Underground Facility, at an underground depth of approximately 20 meters water equivalent. The detector served as the target material for hadron production. Our measurements find a single-neutron production yield of (4.3{plus_minus}0.3{plus_minus}0.8){times}10{sup {minus}5} neutrons per muon g/cm{sup 2} and a double-neutron production yield of (1.6{plus_minus}0.2{plus_minus}0.5){times}10{sup {minus}5} double neutrons per muon g/cm{sup 2}. We measured a {pi}{sup +} production yield of (3.5{plus_minus}0.2{plus_minus}0.7){times}10{sup {minus}6} pions per muon g/cm{sup 2}. Nearly all the {pi}{sup +} produced were accompanied by neutrons. These yields were dependent on the energy threshold of the muon trigger, revealing an enhancement associated with hadronic showers initiated by muons. The production yield due to nonshowering muons was lower: 2{times}10{sup {minus}5} neutrons per muon g/cm{sup 2}, with a single-to-double neutron multiplicity ratio of roughly 4:1. The nonshowering muon {pi}{sup +} production probability was 2.5{times}10{sup {minus}6} pions per muon g/cm{sup 2}, with about half of these nonshowering {pi}{sup +} events accompanied by neutrons.

Hertenberger, R.; Chen, M. [Norman Bridge Laboratory of Physics, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California 91125 (United States)] [Norman Bridge Laboratory of Physics, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California 91125 (United States); Dougherty, B.L. [Department of Physics, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States)] [Department of Physics, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States)

1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

472

North Atlantic Oscillation influence and weather types associated with winter total and extreme precipitation events in Spain  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

An analysis of winter intensity and frequency of precipitation is presented, based on 102 daily precipitation stations over Spain and the Balearic Islands for the 1997–2006 decade. Precipitation stations have been merged in the eight different regions which compose the analyzed area by the use of an EOF analysis. NAO influence on the intensity and frequency of precipitation of each region is described in terms of mean precipitation, mean rain frequency, the number of extreme events, changes in the precipitation distribution and the prevalent synoptic configuration. Results indicate a non-stationary response; NAO signal being more evident in mid–late winter. Strong regional differences in the response to NAO are also found, which vary according to the specific character of the precipitation under analysis. Thus, NAO exerts a clear effect on the intensity of total and extreme precipitation rates in northern and westernmost Spanish regions, whereas the frequency of precipitation is clearly affected by NAO in central and southwestern areas. While the correlation between NAO and precipitation is negative for most of the analyzed area, two regions reveal positive responses to NAO in total precipitation occurrence and intensity for specific months. Further analyses reveal asymmetric responses to opposite phases of NAO in the precipitation distributions of some regions. The complex regional relationship between NAO and precipitation is also revealed through the modulation of the former in the preferred Circulation Weather Types associated to precipitation in each region. This spatially non-homogeneous NAO signal stresses the need of caution when employing Iberian precipitation as a proxy for NAO.

S. Queralt; E. Hernández; D. Barriopedro; D. Gallego; P. Ribera; C. Casanova

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

473

Water levels in the Yucca Mountain area, Nevada, 1995  

SciTech Connect

Water levels were monitored in 28 wells in the Yucca Mountain area, Nevada, during 1995. Seventeen wells representing 18 depth intervals were monitored periodically, generally on a monthly basis, 2 wells representing 3 depth intervals were monitored hourly, and 9 wells representing 15 depth intervals were monitored both periodically and hourly. All wells monitor water levels in Tertiary volcanic rocks except one that monitors water levels in Paleozoic carbonate rocks. Water levels were measured using calibrated steel tapes, a multiconductor cable unit, and/or pressure transducers. Mean water-level altitudes in the Tertiary volcanic rocks ranged from about 728 to about 1,034 meters above sea level during 1995. The mean water-level altitude in the well monitoring the Paleozoic carbonate rocks was about 753 meters above sea level during 1995. Mean water level altitudes were only an average of about 0.01 meters higher than 1994 mean water level altitudes. A single-well aquifer test was conducted on well UE-25 WT{number_sign}12 during August and September 1995. Well USW 0-2 was also pumped during October and November 1995, in preparation for single-well aquifer test at that well. All data were acquired in accordance with a quality-assurance program to support the reliability of the data.

Graves, R.P.; Goemaat, R.L.

1998-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

474

Model for Simulation of Hydride Precipitation in Zr-Based Used Fuel  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

for Simulation of Hydride Precipitation in Zr-Based Used Fuel for Simulation of Hydride Precipitation in Zr-Based Used Fuel Claddings: A Status Report on Current Model Capabilities Model for Simulation of Hydride Precipitation in Zr-Based Used Fuel Claddings: A Status Report on Current Model Capabilities The report demonstrates a meso-scale, microstructural evolution model for simulation of zirconium hydride precipitation in the cladding of used fuels during long-term dry-storage. While the Zr-based claddings (regarded as a barrier for containment of radioactive fission products and fuel) are manufactured free of any hydrogen, they absorb hydrogen during service in the reactor. The amount of hydrogen that the cladding picks up is primarily a function of the exact chemistry and microstructure of the claddings and reactor operating conditions, time-temperature history, and

475

Projected Changes in Temperature and Precipitation Extremes in China by the CMIP5 Multimodel Ensembles  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This paper presents projected changes in temperature and precipitation extremes in China by the end of the twenty-first century based on the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 5 (CMIP5) simulations. The temporal changes and their spatial ...

Botao Zhou; Qiuzi Han Wen; Ying Xu; Lianchun Song; Xuebin Zhang

2014-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

476

Role of Convective Entrainment in Spatial Distributions of and Temporal Variations in Precipitation over Tropical Oceans  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The authors demonstrate that an appropriate treatment of convective entrainment is essential for determining spatial distributions of and temporal variations in precipitation. Four numerical experiments are performed using atmospheric models with ...

Nagio Hirota; Yukari N. Takayabu; Masahiro Watanabe; Masahide Kimoto; Minoru Chikira

2014-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

477

SHORT-TERM PRECIPITATION AND TEMPERATURE TRENDS ALONG AN ELEVATION GRADIENT IN NORTHEASTERN PUERTO RICO  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

As is true of many tropical regions, Northeastern Puerto Rico is an ecologically sensitive area with biological life that is highly elevation-dependent on precipitation and temperature. Climate change has the potential to increase the risk of ...

Ashley E. Van Beusekom; Grizelle González; Maria M. Rivera

478

Statistical Downscaling Multimodel Forecasts for Seasonal Precipitation and Surface Temperature over the Southeastern United States  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This study compared two types of approaches to downscale seasonal precipitation (P) and 2-m air temperature (T2M) forecasts from the North American Multimodel Ensemble (NMME) over the states of Alabama, Georgia, and Florida in the southeastern ...

Di Tian; Christopher J. Martinez; Wendy D. Graham; Syewoon Hwang

2014-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

479

Monosoonal precipitation responses of shrubs in a cold desert community on the Colorado Plateau  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

South-eastern Utah forms a northern border for the region currently influenced by the Arizona monosoonal system, which feeds moisture and summer precipitation into western North America. One major consequence pre...

Guanghui Lin; Susan L. Phillips; James R. Ehleringer

480

Distributed quantitative precipitation forecasts combining information from radar and numerical weather prediction model outputs  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Applications of distributed Quantitative Precipitation Forecasts (QPF) range from flood forecasting to transportation. Obtaining QPF is acknowledged to be one of the most challenging areas in hydrology and meteorology. ...

Ganguly, Auroop Ratan

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "depth precipitable water" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


481

Determination of Asphaltenes in Crude Oil and Petroleum Products by the on Column Precipitation Method  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Determination of Asphaltenes in Crude Oil and Petroleum Products by the on Column Precipitation Method ... An improved analytical method for the determination of asphaltene content in crude oils and petroleum products was developed. ... Composition of heavy petroleums. ...

Estrella Rogel; Cesar Ovalles; Michael E. Moir; John F. Schabron

2009-08-14T23:59:59.000Z

482

Spatiotemporal Mapping of Temperature and Precipitation for the Development of a Multidecadal Climatic Dataset for Wisconsin  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Results from the generation of a multidecadal gridded climatic dataset for 57 yr (1950–2006) of daily and monthly precipitation (PTotal), maximum temperature (Tmax), and minimum temperature (Tmin) are presented for the important agricultural and ...

Shawn P. Serbin; Christopher J. Kucharik

2009-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

483

Extreme Precipitation in an Atmosphere General Circulation Model: Impact of Horizontal and Vertical Model Resolution  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

To investigate the influence of atmospheric model resolution on the representation of daily precipitation extremes, ensemble simulations with the atmospheric general circulation model ECHAM5 at different horizontal (T213 to T31) and vertical (L31 ...

Claudia Volosciuk; Douglas Maraun; Vladimir A. Semenov; Wonsun Park

484

Machine Learning Enhancement of Storm-Scale Ensemble Probabilistic Quantitative Precipitation Forecasts  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Machine Learning Enhancement of Storm-Scale Ensemble Probabilistic Quantitative Precipitation uncertainty. Machine learning methods can produce calibrated probabilistic forecasts from the raw ensemble and machine learning are working to address these challenges. Numerical weather prediction (NWP) models

Xue, Ming

485

Inventory of Precipitation Triggered Landslides in the Winter of 2013 in Zagreb (Croatia, Europe)  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The subject of this paper is inventory of precipitation induced landslides in Zagreb in the period of extreme weather conditions in the winter of 2013. Long-lasting heavy rainfall and a thick snow cover trigge...

Sanja Bernat; Snježana Mihali? Arbanas…

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

486

The tropical precipitation response to Andes topography and ocean heat fluxes in an aquaplanet model  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This aquaplanet modeling study using AM2.1 examines how ocean energy transport and topography influence the location of tropical precipitation. Adding realistic Andes topography regionally displaces tropical rainfall from the equator into the ...

Elizabeth A. Maroon; Dargan M. W. Frierson; David S. Battisti

487

Evolution of Mesoscale Precipitation Band Environments within the Comma Head of Northeast U.S. Cyclones  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This paper explores the mesoscale forcing and stability evolution of intense precipitation bands in the comma head sector of extratropical cyclones using the 32-km North American Regional Reanalysis, hourly 20-km Rapid Update Cycle analyses, and ...

David R. Novak; Brian A. Colle; Anantha R. Aiyyer

2010-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

488

Mountain Precipitation and Hydrology in the Middle East Ronald. B. Smith*, Jason Evans*, Robert Oglesby**  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

in the Middle East because of the surrounding dry climates of the Mediterranean zone, and deserts of Saudi of these areas have a winter/spring maximum in precipitation associated with upslope winds in baroclinic weather

Evans, Jason

489

A Study of Aerosol Impacts on Clouds and Precipitation Development in a Large Winter Cyclone  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Aerosols influence cloud and precipitation development in complex ways due to myriad feedbacks at a variety of scales from individual clouds through entire storm systems. This paper describes the implementation, testing, and results of a newly ...

Gregory Thompson; Trude Eidhammer

2014-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

490

Relationships among Lightning, Precipitation, and Hydrometeor Characteristics over the North Pacific Ocean  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Lightning data from the Pacific Lightning Detection Network (PacNet) and Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS) on the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellite were compared with TRMM precipitation radar products and latent heating and ...

Antti T. Pessi; Steven Businger

2009-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

491

Stratiform and Convective Precipitation Observed by Multiple Radars during the DYNAMO/AMIE Experiment  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In this study, methods of convective/stratiform precipitation classification and surface rain-rate estimation based on the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program (ARM) cloud radar measurements were developed and evaluated. Simultaneous and ...

Min Deng; Pavlos Kollias; Zhe Feng; Chidong Zhang; Charles N. Long; Heike Kalesse; Arunchandra Chandra; Vickal V. Kumar; Alain Protat

2014-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

492

Interdecadal changes in summertime tropical cyclone precipitation over Southeast China during 1960–2009  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This study examines the changes in tropical cyclone (TC) precipitation and the associated contributing factors over Southeast China during 1960–2009. Climatologically, TC rainfall accounts for approximately 20–40% of the total rainfall over ...

Richard C. Y. Li; Wen Zhou

493

Global precipitation retrieval algorithm trained for SSMIS using a numerical weather prediction model: Design and evaluation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper presents and evaluates a global precipitation retrieval algorithm for the Special Sensor Microwave Imager/Sounder (SSMIS). It is based on those developed earlier for the Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit (AMSU) ...

Surussavadee, Chinnawat

494

Trends in Daily Temperature and Precipitation Extremes for the Southeastern United States: 1948-2012  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Spatial and temporal trends in temperature and precipitation extremes were investigated for the period 1948 to 2012 across the southeastern United States using 27 previously defined indices. Results show that region-wide warming in extreme minimum ...

Emily J. Powell; Barry D. Keim

495

Geostatistical Mapping of Mountain Precipitation Incorporating Autosearched Effects of Terrain and Climatic Characteristics  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Hydrologic and ecologic studies in mountainous terrain are sensitive to the temporal and spatial distribution of precipitation. In this study a geostatistical model, Auto-Searched Orographic and Atmospheric Effects Detrended Kriging (ASOADeK), is ...

Huade Guan; John L. Wilson; Oleg Makhnin

2005-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

496

On the Feasibility of Precisely Measuring the Properties of a Precipitating Cloud with a Weather Radar  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this paper the results of an investigation are presented that are concerned with the feasibility of employing a weather radar to make precise measurements of the properties of a precipitating cloud. A schematic cloud is proposed as a model...

Runnels, R.C.

497

E-Print Network 3.0 - advanced precipitation radar Sample Search...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

2, 2730, 2008 www.adv-sci-res.net2272008 Summary: of precipitation data obtained from satellite and weather radar imagery requires validation with use of classic... radar and...

498

Toward a better integration of biological data from precipitation manipulation experiments  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

into Earth system models Nicholas G. Smith1 , Vikki L. Rodgers2 , Edward R. Brzostek3 , Andrew Kulmatiski4 The biological responses to precipitation within the terrestrial components of Earth system models, or land

499

Method for inhibiting silica precipitation and scaling in geothermal flow systems  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for inhibiting silica scaling and precipitation in geothermal flow systems by on-line injection of low concentrations of cationic nitrogen-containing compounds, particularly polymeric imines, polymeric amines, and quaternary ammonium compounds is described.

Harrar, J.E.; Lorensen, L.E.; Locke, F.E.

1980-06-13T23:59:59.000Z

500

Calibrated Precipitation Forecasts for a Limited-Area Ensemble Forecast System Using Reforecasts  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The calibration of numerical weather forecasts using reforecasts has been shown to increase the skill of weather predictions. Here, the precipitation forecasts from the Consortium for Small Scale Modeling Limited Area Ensemble Prediction System (...

Felix Fundel; Andre Walser; Mark A. Liniger; Christoph Frei; Christof Appenzeller

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z