Powered by Deep Web Technologies
Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "depth precipitable water" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


1

Photometric Investigations of Precipitable Water and Optical Depth Wavelength Exponents in an Urban Area  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A six-channel Volz sunphotometer was used in the St. Louis urban area during Project METROMEX 1976 to monitor aerosol loading and atmospheric precipitable water. A weighted least-square fit of photometric observations to spatially and temporarily ...

Tom Yoksas

1980-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

2

Determination of Precipitable Water from Solar Transmission  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A method of determining precipitable water to within 10% from solar radiometer data has been developed. The method uses a modified Langley technique to obtain the water vapor optical depth, and a model developed at the University of Arizona is ...

K. J. Thome; B. M. Herman; J. A. Reagan

1992-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

3

Precipitable Water Measurements with Sun Photometers  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper presents a brief history of spectroscopic and radiometric methods of remotely sensing precipitable water. We demonstrate a new method of calibrating sun photometers with microwave radiometer data to obtain precipitable water, and a new ...

R. E. Bird; R. L. Hulstrom

1982-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

4

Gulf of Mexico Proved Reserves By Water Depth, 2008  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Gulf of Mexico Proved Reserves and Production by Water Depth 1 Gulf of Mexico Proved Reserves and Production by Water Depth, 2008 . The Gulf of Mexico Federal ...

5

Seasonal Cycles of Precipitation and Precipitable Water and Their Use in Monsoon Onset and Retreat .  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Precipitation (P) and precipitable water (W) are important components of the hydrological cycles in the earth system, and their seasonal cycles are closely related to… (more)

Lu, Er

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

6

Gulf of Mexico Proved Reserves By Water Depth, 2009  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Gulf of Mexico Proved Reserves and Production by Water Depth, 2009 1 Gulf of Mexico Proved Reserves and Production by Water Depth The Gulf of Mexico Federal Offshore region (GOM...

7

Influence of GPS Precipitable Water Vapor Retrievals on Quantitative Precipitation Forecasting in Southern California  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The effects of precipitable water vapor (PWV) retrievals from the Southern California Integrated GPS Network (SCIGN) on quantitative precipitation forecast (QPF) skill are examined over two flood-prone regions of Southern California: Santa ...

Steven Marcus; Jinwon Kim; Toshio Chin; David Danielson; Jayme Laber

2007-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

8

Derived Distributions of Storm Depth and Frequency Conditioned on Monthly Total Precipitation: Adding Value to Historical and Satellite-Derived Estimates of Monthly Precipitation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The stochastic precipitation model in which storms arrive as a Poisson process and have gamma-distributed depths previously has been shown to display useful aggregation properties. Here the disaggregation properties of this model are explored. ...

Guido D. Salvucci; Conghe Song

2000-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

9

A Blended Satellite Total Precipitable Water Product for Operational Forecasting  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Total precipitable water (TPW), the amount of water vapor in a column from the surface of the earth to space, is used by forecasters to predict heavy precipitation. In this paper, a process for blending TPW values retrieved from two satellite ...

Stanley Q. Kidder; Andrew S. Jones

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

10

A Comparison of Total Precipitable Water between Reanalyses and NVAP  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This study compares monthly total precipitable water (TPW) from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Water Vapor Project (NVAP) and reanalyses of the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) (R-1), NCEP–Department ...

Arief Sudradjat; Ralph R. Ferraro; Michael Fiorino

2005-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

11

Optimized Retrievals of Precipitable Water from the VAS “Split Window”  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Precipitable water fields have been retrieved from the VISSR Atmospheric Sounder (VAS) using a radiation transfer model for the differential water vapor absorption between the 11 and 12 ?m “split window” channels. Previous moisture retrievals ...

Dennis Chesters; Wayne D. Robinson; Louis W. Uccellini

1987-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

12

Gulf of Mexico Proved Reserves By Water Depth, 2009  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Gulf of Mexico Proved Reserves and Production by Water Depth, 2009 Gulf of Mexico Proved Reserves and Production by Water Depth, 2009 1 Gulf of Mexico Proved Reserves and Production by Water Depth The Gulf of Mexico Federal Offshore region (GOM Fed) has long been one of the Nation's principal sources of proved reserves. At the end of 2009, the GOM Fed accounted for close to one-fifth of oil proved reserves (second only to Texas) and just over four percent of natural gas proved reserves (the country's seventh largest reporting region). 1 Natural gas proved reserves from the GOM Fed have gradually diminished, both volumetrically and as a percentage of overall U.S. proved reserves. The latter is especially true in recent years as onshore additions (particularly those associated with shale gas activity) have increased considerably. Proved oil reserves from

13

Winter Precipitation Patterns in Arctic Alaska Determined from a Blowing-Snow Model and Snow-Depth Observations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A blowing-snow model (SnowTran-3D) was combined with field measurements of end-of-winter snow depth and density to simulate solid (winter) precipitation, snow transport, and sublimation distributions over a 20?000-km2 arctic Alaska domain. The ...

Glen E. Liston; Matthew Sturm

2002-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

14

West African Monsoon Intraseasonal Variability: A Precipitable Water Perspective  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

West African monsoon intraseasonal variability has important implications for food security and drought early warnings. In the present study, intraseasonal variability over the Sahel is assessed from the perspective of precipitable water, as ...

D. Emmanuel Poan; Romain Roehrig; Fleur Couvreux; Jean-Philippe Lafore

2013-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

15

Assimilation of Satellite Precipitable Water in a Meteorological Forecast Model  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The lack of local humidity observations over a large portion of the globe hinders any improvement of humidity forecasting in meteorological models. However, satellite microwave radiometers routinely provide fields of precipitable water content ...

M. A. Filiberti; L. Eymard; B. Urban

1994-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

16

Total Precipitable Water Measurements from GOES Sounder Derived Product Imagery  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Statistics are compiled comparing calculations of total precipitable water (TPW) as given by GOES sounder derived product imagery (DPI) to that computed from radiosonde data for the 12-month period March 1998–February 1999. In order to ...

John F. Dostalek; Timothy J. Schmit

2001-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

17

Impact of Precipitation on Aerosol Spectral Optical Depth and Retrieved Size Distributions: A Case Study  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A case study is presented on the impact of two isolated, strong thundershowers during a prevailing dry, sunny season on the spectral optical depths and inferred columnar size characteristics of atmospheric aerosols at a tropical station. Results ...

Auromeet Saha; K. Krishna Moorthy

2004-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

18

Estimating Snow Water Equivalent Using Snow Depth Data and Climate Classes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In many practical applications snow depth is known, but snow water equivalent (SWE) is needed as well. Measuring SWE takes 20 times as long as measuring depth, which in part is why depth measurements outnumber SWE measurements worldwide. Here a ...

Matthew Sturm; Brian Taras; Glen E. Liston; Chris Derksen; Tobias Jonas; Jon Lea

2010-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

19

Water Treatment For Wet Electrostatic Precipitators: Conceptual Design  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Pilot testing has shown that replacement of the last field of a small dry electrostatic precipitator (ESP) with a single wet field can significantly reduce outlet particulate emissions from coal-fired power plants. This report summarizes a pilot wet ESP performance test, cost projections from an economic study, and results from a study of the water use and chemistry issues that need to be resolved to make the wet ESP technology an attractive option for electric utilities.

1997-09-25T23:59:59.000Z

20

The Interannual Variability and Trend of Precipitable Water over Southern Greece  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The precipitable water (PW) content was estimated over southern Greece for three atmospheric layers, using 28-yr twice-daily radiosonde measurements of temperature, humidity, and atmospheric pressure. Precipitable water demonstrates considerable ...

P. A. Kassomenos; G. R. McGregor

2006-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "depth precipitable water" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

How Total Precipitable Water Vapor Anomalies Relate to Cloud Vertical Structure  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The NOAA operational total precipitable water (TPW) anomaly product is available to forecasters to display percentage of normal TPW in real time for applications like heavy precipitation forecasts. In this work, the TPW anomaly is compared to ...

John M. Forsythe; Jason B. Dodson; Philip T. Partain; Stanley Q. Kidder; Thomas H. Vonder Haar

2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

22

Orographic Precipitation and Water Vapor Fractionation over the Southern Andes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The climatological nature of orographic precipitation in the southern Andes between 40° and 48°S is investigated primarily using stable isotope data from streamwater. In addition, four precipitation events are examined using balloon soundings and ...

Ronald B. Smith; Jason P. Evans

2007-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

23

Recovery of carboxylic acids from water by precipitation from organic solutions  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Carboxylic acids are recovered from wet organic solutions by reducing the solutions' water content thus causing the acids to precipitate as recoverable crystals.

King, C. Judson (Kensington, CA); Starr, John (Albany, CA)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

24

An Evaluation of Radiometric Products from Fixed-Depth and Continuous In-Water Profile Data from Moderately Complex Waters  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Radiometric products determined from fixed-depth and continuous in-water profile data collected at a coastal site characterized by moderately complex waters were compared to investigate differences and limitations between the two measurement ...

Giuseppe Zibordi; Jean-François Berthon; Davide D’Alimonte

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

25

G-Band Vapor Radiometer Precipitable Water Vapor (GVRPWV) Value-Added Product  

SciTech Connect

The G-Band Vapor Radiometer Precipitable Water Vapor (GVRPWV) value-added product (VAP) computes precipitable water vapor using neural network techniques from data measured by the GVR. The GVR reports time-series measurements of brightness temperatures for four channels located at 183.3 ± 1, 3, 7, and 14 GHz.

Koontz, A; Cadeddu, M

2012-12-05T23:59:59.000Z

26

Water Vapor Transport and the Production of Precipitation in the Eastern Fertile Crescent  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The study presented here attempts to quantify the significance of southerly water vapor fluxes on precipitation occurring in the eastern Fertile Crescent region. The water vapor fluxes were investigated at high temporal and spatial resolution by ...

J. P. Evans; R. B. Smith

2006-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

27

Diurnal Variation of Precipitable Water over a Mountainous Area of Sumatra Island  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Diurnal variations in atmospheric water vapor at Koto Tabang, a mountainous area of Sumatra Island, Indonesia, are studied by analyzing the GPS-derived precipitable water, radiosonde data, and surface meteorological observation data. A permanent ...

Peiming Wu; Jun-Ichi Hamada; Shuichi Mori; Yudi I. Tauhid; Manabu D. Yamanaka; Fujio Kimura

2003-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

28

GPS Meteorology: Direct Estimation of the Absolute Value of Precipitable Water  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A simple approach to estimating vertically integrated atmospheric water vapor, or precipitable water, from Global Positioning System (GPS) radio signals collected by a regional network of ground-based geodetic GPS receiver is illustrated and ...

Jingping Duan; Michael Bevis; Peng Fang; Yehuda Bock; Steven Chiswell; Steven Businger; Christian Rocken; Frederick Solheim; Terasa van Hove; Randolph Ware; Simon McClusky; Thomas A. Herring; Robert W. King

1996-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

29

NVAP and Reanalysis-2 Global Precipitable Water Products : Intercomparison and Variability Studies  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this study similarities and differences between NASA's Water Vapor Project (NVAP) and NCEP–NCAR's reanalysis-2 total precipitable water (TPW) datasets are investigated, along with an assessment of its space–time variability, using simple ...

Geremew G. Amenu; Praveen Kumar

2005-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

30

The Intrusion Depth of Density Currents Flowing into Stratified Water Bodies  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Theory and laboratory experiments are presented describing the depth at which a density current intrudes into a linearly stratified water column, as a function of the entrainment ratio E, the buoyancy flux in the dense current B, and the ...

Mathew Wells; Parthiban Nadarajah

2009-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

31

Wave- and Wind-Driven Flow in Water of Finite Depth  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The authors first derive both Coriolis-induced and viscosity-induced stresses for arbitrary water depth and arbitrary wave direction. Opportunity is taken here to succinctly and rigorously derive the Longuet-Higgins virtual tangential stress due ...

Zhigang Xu; A. J. Bowen

1994-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

32

Springtime Precipitation and Water Vapor Flux over Southeastern South America  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The physical mechanisms associated with precipitation in southeastern South America during spring are investigated using short-term integrations with the regional mesoscale Eta Model. An evaluation of the model’s performance using in situ ...

Ernesto H. Berbery; Estela A. Collini

2000-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

33

NOAA’s 1981–2010 U.S. Climate Normals: Monthly Precipitation, Snowfall, and Snow Depth  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The 1981–2010 “U.S. Climate Normals” released by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration’s (NOAA) National Climatic Data Center include a suite of monthly, seasonal, and annual statistics that are based on precipitation, snowfall, and ...

Imke Durre; Michael F. Squires; Russell S. Vose; Xungang Yin; Anthony Arguez; Scott Applequist

2013-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

34

NOAA’s 1981-2010 U.S. Climate Normals: Monthly Precipitation, Snowfall, and Snow Depth  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The 1981-2010 United States Climate Normals released by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration’s (NOAA’s) National Climatic Data Center (NCDC) include a suite of monthly, seasonal, and annual statistics based on precipitation, ...

Imke Durre; Michael F. Squires; Russell S. Vose; Xungang Yin; Anthony Arguez; Scott Applequist

35

GPS Precipitable Water as a Diagnostic of the North American Monsoon in California and Nevada  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Precipitable water derived from archived global positioning system (GPS) zenith travel-time delays is used to describe the seasonal and interannual variation of the North American monsoon in California and Nevada. A 3-hourly dataset of ...

James D. Means

2013-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

36

Comparison of Precipitable Water Observations in the Near Tropics by GPS, Microwave Radiometer, and Radiosondes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The sensing of precipitable water (PW) using the Global Positioning System (GPS) in the near Tropics is investigated. GPS data acquired from the Central Weather Bureau’s Taipei weather station in Banchao (Taipei), Taiwan, and each of nine ...

Yuei-An Liou; Yu-Tun Teng; Teresa Van Hove; James C. Liljegren

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

37

Remote Sensing of Precipitable Water over the Oceans from Nimbus 7 Microwave Measurements  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Nimbus 7 Scanning Multichannel Microwave Radiometer (SMMR) brightness temperature measurements in the 21 and 18 GHz channels are used to sense the precipitable water in the atmosphere over oceans. The difference in the brightness temperature (T21 ...

C. Prabhakara; H. D. Chang; A. T. C. Chang

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

38

Global Positioning System (GPS) Precipitable Water in Forecasting Lightning at Spaceport Canaveral  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper evaluates the use of precipitable water (PW) from the global positioning system (GPS) in lightning prediction. Additional independent verification of an earlier model is performed. This earlier model used binary logistic regression ...

Kristen Kehrer; Brian Graf; William P. Roeder

2008-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

39

Precipitation and Water Vapor Transport in the Southern Hemisphere with Emphasis on the South American Region  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

December–March climatologies of precipitation and vertically integrated water vapor transport were analyzed and compared to find the main paths by which moisture is fed to high-rainfall regions in the Southern Hemisphere in this season. The ...

Josefina Moraes Arraut; Prakki Satyamurty

2009-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

40

Precipitable Water Estimation from High-Resolution Split Window Radiance Measurements  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A technique that uses the spatial variance of image brightness temperature to derive total column Precipitable water is applied to high-resolution multispectral aircraft scanner data for the 19 June 1986 COHMEX day. The technique has several ...

Gary J. Jedlovec

1990-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "depth precipitable water" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

A Lightning Prediction Index that Utilizes GPS Integrated Precipitable Water Vapor  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The primary weather forecast challenge at the Cape Canaveral Air Station and Kennedy Space Center is lightning. This paper describes a statistical approach that combines integrated precipitable water vapor (IPWV) data from a global positioning ...

Robert A. Mazany; Steven Businger; Seth I. Gutman; William Roeder

2002-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

42

Evaluation of GPS Precipitable Water over Canada and the IGS Network  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Precipitable water (PW) derived from the GPS zenith tropospheric delay (ZTD) is evaluated (as a first step toward variational data assimilation) through comparison with that of collocated radiosondes (RS_PW), operational analyses, and 6-h ...

Godelieve Deblonde; Stephen Macpherson; Yves Mireault; Pierre Héroux

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

43

Observed and Modeled Growing-Season Diurnal Precipitable Water Vapor in South-Central Canada  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

High-temporal-resolution total-column precipitable water vapor (PWV) was measured using a Radiometrics Corporation WVR-1100 Atmospheric Microwave Radiometer (AMR). The AMR was deployed at the University of Manitoba in Winnipeg, Canada, during the ...

John Hanesiak; Mark Melsness; Richard Raddatz

2010-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

44

Integration of Global Positioning System and Scanning Water Vapor Radiometers for Precipitable Water Vapor and Cloud Liquid Path Estimates  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Integration of Global Positioning System and Scanning Integration of Global Positioning System and Scanning Water Vapor Radiometers for Precipitable Water Vapor and Cloud Liquid Path Estimates V. Mattioli and P. Basili Department of Electronic and Information Engineering University of Perugia Perugia, Italy E. R. Westwater Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences University of Colorado National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Environmental Technology Laboratory Boulder, Colorado Introduction In recent years the Global Positioning System (GPS) has proved to be a reliable instrument for measuring precipitable water vapor (PWV) (Bevis et al. 1992), offering an independent source of information on water vapor when compared with microwave radiometers (MWRs), and/or radiosonde

45

Response of Water Vapor and CO2 Fluxes in Semiarid Lands to Seasonal and Intermittent Precipitation Pulses  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Precipitation pulses are important in controlling ecological processes in semiarid ecosystems. The effects of seasonal and intermittent precipitation events on net water vapor and CO2 fluxes were determined for crested wheatgrass (Agropyron ...

Sasha Ivans; Lawrence Hipps; A. Joshua Leffler; Carolyn Y. Ivans

2006-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

46

The Impact of GPS Precipitable Water Assimilation on Mesoscale Model Retrievals of Orographic Rainfall during SALPEX'96  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The potential of GPS precipitable water (PW) to improve mesoscale model retrievals of orographic precipitation is investigated for a prolonged rainfall event observed during the 1996 Southern Alps Experiment (SALPEX'96). The model is the Advanced ...

Mark Falvey; John Beavan

2002-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

47

Using hydrodynamic modeling for estimating flooding and water depths in grand bay, alabama  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper presents a methodology for using hydrodynamic modeling to estimate inundation areas and water depths during a hurricane event. The Environmental Fluid Dynamic Code (EFDC) is used in this research. EFDC is one of the most commonly applied models ... Keywords: EFDC, flooding, grand bay, grid generation, hydrodynamics, inundation, modeling

Vladimir J. Alarcon; William H. McAnally

2012-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

48

Nonlinear Properties of Random Gravity Waves in Water of Finite Depth  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The weakly nonlinear theory for a stationary and homogeneous field of random gravity waves in water of finite depth is developed to the third order. This describes the second-order nonlinearities as a bound wavefield that can be expressed in ...

A. K. Laing

1986-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

49

GPS Meteorology: Mapping Zenith Wet Delays onto Precipitable Water  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Emerging networks of Global Positioning System (GPS) receivers can be used in the remote sensing of atmospheric water vapor. The time-varying zenith wet delay observed at each GPS receiver in a network can be transformed into an estimate of the ...

Michael Bevis; Steven Businger; Steven Chiswell; Thomas A. Herring; Richard A. Anthes; Christian Rocken; Randolph H. Ware

1994-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

50

An Integrated System for the Study of Wind-Wave Source Terms in Finite-Depth Water  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A field experiment to study the spectral balance of the source terms for wind-generated waves in finite water depth was carried out in Lake George, Australia. The measurements were made from a shore-connected platform at varying water depths from ...

Ian R. Young; Michael L. Banner; Mark A. Donelan; Cyril McCormick; Alexander V. Babanin; W. Kendall Melville; Fabrice Veron

2005-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

51

Measurement of Low Amounts of Precipitable Water Vapor Using Ground-Based Millimeterwave Radiometry  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Extremely dry conditions characterized by amounts of precipitable water vapor (PWV) as low as 1–2 mm commonly occur in high-latitude regions during the winter months. While such dry atmospheres carry only a few percent of the latent heat energy ...

Paul E. Racette; Ed R. Westwater; Yong Han; Albin J. Gasiewski; Marian Klein; Domenico Cimini; David C. Jones; Will Manning; Edward J. Kim; James R. Wang; Vladimir Leuski; Peter Kiedron

2005-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

52

Relationships between Water Vapor Path and Precipitation over the Tropical Oceans  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The relationship between water vapor path W and surface precipitation rate P over tropical oceanic regions is analyzed using 4 yr of gridded daily SSM/I satellite microwave radiometer data. A tight monthly mean relationship P (mm day?1) = exp[...

Christopher S. Bretherton; Matthew E. Peters; Larissa E. Back

2004-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

53

Trends in Precipitable Water and Relative Humidity in China: 1979–2005  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Annual and seasonal trends of precipitable water (PW) and relative humidity (RH) at 850, 700, and 500 hPa are studied using the data from 106 radiosonde stations over China during the period 1979–2005. Analysis shows evidence of an increase in PW ...

Baoguo Xie; Qinghong Zhang; Yue Ying

2011-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

54

An Airborne Millimeter-Wave Imaging Radiometer for Cloud, Precipitation, and Atmospheric Water Vapor Studies  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A six-channel airborne total-power Millimeter-wave Imaging Radiometer (MIR) was recently built to provide measurements of atmospheric water vapor, clouds, and precipitation. The instrument is a cross-track scanner that has a 3-dB beamwidth of 3.5°...

P. Racette; R. F. Adler; J. R. Wang; A. J. Gasiewski; D. M. Jakson; D. S. Zacharias

1996-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

55

Results of Sun Photometer–Derived Precipitable Water Content over a Tropical Indian Station  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A compact, hand-held multiband sun photometer (ozone monitor) has been used to measure total precipitable water content (PWC) at the low-latitude tropical station in Pune, India (18°32?N, 73°51?E). Data collected in the daytime (0730–1800 LT) ...

P. Ernest Raj; P. C. S. Devara; R. S. Maheskumar; G. Pandithurai; K. K. Dani; S. K. Saha; S. M. Sonbawne; Y. K. Tiwari

2004-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

56

A Refined Calibration Procedure of Two-Channel Sun Photometers to Measure Atmospheric Precipitable Water at Various Antarctic Sites  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Two-channel sun photometers can be easily employed at Antarctic sites, where harsh environmental conditions prevail, to carry out measurements of precipitable water W. In the very dry air conditions observed in the Antarctic atmosphere, water ...

Claudio Tomasi; Boyan Petkov; Elena Benedetti; Luca Valenziano; Angelo Lupi; Vito Vitale; Ubaldo Bonafé

2008-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

57

Evaluation of the ERS Scatterometer-Derived Soil Water Index to Monitor Water Availability and Precipitation Distribution at Three Different Scales in China  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this paper, the capability of the European Remote Sensing Satellite (ERS) scatterometer-derived soil water index (SWI) data to disclose water availability and precipitation distribution in China is investigated. Monthly averaged SWI data for ...

Deming Zhao; Claudia Kuenzer; Congbin Fu; Wolfgang Wagner

2008-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

58

A Study of the Characteristics and Assimilation of Retrieved MODIS Total Precipitable Water Data in Severe Weather Simulations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This study determined the accuracy and biases associated with retrieved Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) total precipitable water (TPW) data, and it investigated the impact of these data on severe weather simulations using ...

Shu-Hua Chen; Zhan Zhao; Jennifer S. Haase; Aidong Chen; Francois Vandenberghe

2008-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

59

Verification of NWP Model Analyses and Radiosonde Humidity Data with GPS Precipitable Water Vapor Estimates during AMMA  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper assesses the performance of the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts-Integrated Forecast System (ECMWF-IFS) operational analysis and NCEP–NCAR reanalyses I and II over West Africa, using precipitable water vapor (PWV) ...

O. Bock; M. Nuret

2009-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

60

Ground-Based Microwave Radiometric Observations of Precipitable Water Vapor: A Comparison with Ground Truth from Two Radiosonde Observing Systems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Dual-channel microwave radiometric measurements of precipitable water vapor are compared with values determined from two types of radiosondes. The first type is used in conventional soundings taken by the National Weather Service. The second is ...

Ed R. Westwater; Michael J. Falls; Ingrid A. Popa Fotino

1989-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "depth precipitable water" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Ensemble Precipitation and Water-Level Forecasts for Anticipatory Water-System Control  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A method is presented for testing weather forecast products for applications in anticipatory water-system control. The applicability of the ensemble prediction system (EPS) of the ECMWF is tested for flood control in a regional water system in ...

Schalk Jan van Andel; Roland K. Price; Arnold H. Lobbrecht; Frans van Kruiningen; Robert Mureau

2008-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

62

Desalination of brackish ground waters and produced waters using in-situ precipitation.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The need for fresh water has increased exponentially during the last several decades due to the continuous growth of human population and industrial and agricultural activities. Yet existing resources are limited often because of their high salinity. This unfavorable situation requires the development of new, long-term strategies and alternative technologies for desalination of saline waters presently not being used to supply the population growth occurring in arid regions. We have developed a novel environmentally friendly method for desalinating inland brackish waters. This process can be applied to either brackish ground water or produced waters (i.e., coal-bed methane or oil and gas produced waters). Using a set of ion exchange and sorption materials, our process effectively removes anions and cations in separate steps. The ion exchange materials were chosen because of their specific selectivity for ions of interest, and for their ability to work in the temperature and pH regions necessary for cost and energy effectiveness. For anion exchange, we have focused on hydrotalcite (HTC), a layered hydroxide similar to clay in structure. For cation exchange, we have developed an amorphous silica material that has enhanced cation (in particular Na{sup +}) selectivity. In the case of produced waters with high concentrations of Ca{sup 2+}, a lime softening step is included.

Krumhansl, James Lee; Pless, Jason; Nenoff, Tina Maria; Voigt, James A.; Phillips, Mark L. F.; Axness, Marlene; Moore, Diana Lynn; Sattler, Allan Richard

2004-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

63

The Influence of Blowing Snow and Precipitation on Snow Depth Change across the Ross Ice Shelf and Ross Sea Regions of Antarctica  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Measuring snowfall in the polar regions is an issue met with many complications. Across the Antarctic, ground-based precipitation measurements are only available from a sparse network of manned stations or field studies. Measurements from ...

Shelley L. Knuth; Gregory J. Tripoli; Jonathan E. Thom; George A. Weidner

2010-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

64

Association between Winter Precipitation and Water Level Fluctuations in the Great Lakes and Atmospheric Circulation Patterns  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Atmospheric precipitation in the Great Lakes basin, as a major mediating variable between atmospheric circulation and lake levels, is analyzed relative to both. The effect of cumulative winter precipitation on lake levels varies from lake to lake ...

Sergei N. Rodionov

1994-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

65

An Evaluation of Depth Resolution Requirements for Optical Profiling in Coastal Waters  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Wave perturbations induce uncertainties in subsurface quantities determined from the extrapolation of optical measurements taken at different depths. An analysis of these uncertainties was made using data collected in the northern Adriatic Sea ...

Giuseppe Zibordi; Davide D'Alimonte; Jean-François Berthon

2004-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

66

Colorado river basin and climatic change. The sensitivity of streamflow and water supply to variations in temperature and precipitation  

SciTech Connect

Growing international concern about the greenhouse effect has led to increased interest in the regional implications of changes in temperature and precipitation patterns for a wide range of societal and natural systems, including agriculture, sea level, biodiversity, and water resources. The accumulation of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere due to human activities are likely to have significant, though still poorly understood, impacts on water quality and availability. One method developed over the last several years for determining how regional water resources might be affected by climatic change is to develop scenarios of changes in temperature and precipitation and to use hydrologic simulation models to study the impacts of these scenarios on runoff and water supply. In the paper the authors present the results of a multi-year study of the sensitivity of the hydrology and water resources systems in the Colorado River Basin to plausible climatic changes.

Nash, L.L.; Gleick, P.H.

1993-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

67

Influence of the vertical structure of the atmosphere on the seasonal variation of precipitable water and greenhouse effect  

SciTech Connect

By using satellite observations and European Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) analyses, we study the seasonal variations of the precipitable water and the greenhouse effect, defined as the normalized difference between the longwave flux emitted at the surface and that emergent at the top of the atmosphere. Results show a strong systematic influence of the vertical structure of the atmosphere on geographical and seasonal variations of both precipitable water and greenhouse effect. Over ocean, in middle and high latitudes, the seasonal variation of the mean temperature lapse rate in the troposphere leads to large seasonal phase lags between greenhouse effect and precipitable water. By contrast, the seasonal variation of the clear-sky greenhouse effect over tropical oceans is mainly driven by the total atmospheric transmittance and thus by precipitable water variations. Over land, the seasonal variations of the tropospheric lapse rate acts to amplify the radiative impact of water vapor changes, giving a strong seasonal variation of the greenhouse effect. Over tropical land regions, monsoon activity generates a seasonal phase lag between surface temperature and relative humidity variations that gives a seasonal lag of about 2 months between the surface temperature and the clear-sky greenhouse effect. Generally, the cloudiness amplifies clear-sky tendencies. Finally, as an illustration, obtained results are used to evaluate the general circulation model of the Laboratoire de Meteorologie Dynamique.

Bony, S.; Duvel, J.P. [Laboratoire de Meteorologie Dynamique du Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Paris (France)

1994-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

68

Infiltration/ground water linkage in the southwest: Response of shallow ground water to interannual variations of precipitation, Jemez Mountains, New Mexico  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Hydraulic gradients, residence times and the hydrochemistry of shallow ground water are linked to the episodic precipitation and recharge events characteristic of the arid southwest. In this region, the amount of precipitation, and corresponding biomass, is dependant upon altitude with greater frequency and duration in the montane highlands and less in the desert lowlands. Results from a four-year study at the Rio Calaveras research site in the Jemez Mountains of northern New Mexico show a strong correlation between the physical and hydrochemical properties of shallow ground water and variations of seasonal precipitation and infiltration. For example, the water table shows a dramatic response to snowmelt infiltration during years of abundant snow pack (El Nifio) and diminished response during years of reduced snow pack (La Niiia). The chemical structure of shallow ground water is also affected by the precipitation regime, primarily by variations in the flux of reductants (organic carbon) and oxidants (dissolved oxygen) from the vadose zone to the water table. Generally, oxic conditions persist during spring snowmelt infiltration shifting to anoxic conditions as biotic and abiotic processes transform dissolved oxygen. Other redox-sensitive constituents (ferrous iron, manganese, sulfate, nitrate, and nitrite) show increasing and decreasing concentrations as redox fluctuates seasonally and year-to-year. The cycling of these redox sensitive solutes in the subsurface depends upon the character of the aquifer materials, the biomass at the surface, moisture and temperature regime of the vadose zone, and frequency of infiltration events.

Groffman, A. R. (Armand R.)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

69

A strip theory approximation for wave forces on submerged vehicles in finite depth water  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Autonomous Underwater Vehicles (AUV's) are becoming of increasing use in shallow waters for oceanographic data collection, coastal mapping, and military operations such as mine surveillance along enemy coastlines. Currently ...

Rybka Jan A. (Jan Andrzej)

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

70

Influences of Storm-Embedded Orographic Gravity Waves on Cloud Liquid Water and Precipitation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This study illustrates opportunities for much improved orographic quantitative precipitation forecasting, determination of orographic cloud seedability, and flash flood prediction through state-of-the-art remote sensing and numerical modeling of ...

Roger F. Reinking; Jack B. Snider; Janice L. Coen

2000-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

71

Influence of Precipitation Assimilation on a Regional Climate Model’s Surface Water and Energy Budgets  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Initialization of the moisture profiles has been used to overcome the imbalance between analysis schemes and prediction models that generates the so-called spinup problem seen in the hydrological fields. Here precipitation assimilation through ...

Ana M. B. Nunes; John O. Roads

2007-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

72

Australian Winter Storms Experiment (AWSE) I: Supercooled Liquid Water and Precipitation-Enhancement Opportunities  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Some results of the first (1988) Australian Winter Storms Experiment are described. The results shed light on precipitation-enhancement opportunities in winter cyclonic storms interacting with the Great Dividing Range of southeast Australia. The ...

Alexis B. Long; Arlen W. Huggins

1992-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

73

A Wind Tunnel Investigation of Interactions between Supercooled Precipitation-Size Water Drops  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Laboratory experiments were performed to investigate interactions between small (400–900 ?m) precipitation-size drops at temperatures colder than 0°C. The investigation was accomplished by creating a light shower of supercooled drizzle drops in a ...

Robert R. Czys; Jeffrey K. Lew

1999-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

74

Precipitation Water Stable Isotopes in the South Tibetan Plateau: Observations and Modeling  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Measurements of precipitation isotopic composition have been conducted on a daily basis for 1 yr at Bomi, in the southeast Tibetan Plateau, an area affected by the interaction of the southwest monsoon, the westerlies, and Tibetan high pressure ...

Jing Gao; V. Masson-Delmotte; T. Yao; L. Tian; C. Risi; G. Hoffmann

2011-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

75

Synoptic disturbances found in precipitable water fields north of equatorial Africa  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The origin and structure of tropical synoptic scale aphics. precipitable water (PWI anomalies estimated from TOVS satellite observations are analyzed as they propagate eastward across northern Africa during MAM 1988. Previous studies, accomplished by Mackey (1996), determined the location and season for the strongest and most coherent 3 to 8 day filtered PW signal. NCEP/NCAR reanalysis (2.50 resolution) provides data for a use study analysis of seven prominent anomalous PW events during the period. Six case wind field composite analysis is accomplished with both actual winds and reduced shear winds (zonal mean removed at each latitude band). Case study analysis revealed a doppler shifted propagating Rossby Wave (k = 6, c =-5 m/sec) at 500hPa and 250hPa that moved onto the west African coast imbedded within a mean zonal flow of approximately 17 m/sec. The wave then moved east across the continent at approximately 12 m/sec near 20ON. The wave's associated cusp-like feature adverts deep tropical moisture northward, resulting in Mackey's PW anomaly. Analysis of potential vorticity, specific humidity, temperature, and wind field composites at 850hPa, 500hPa and 250hPa fit well within the range of Rossby wave structure. Descriptive statistical analysis established confidence intervals for the composites at two resolutions within the localized grid (20OW to 40oE 00 to 30ON). A sample structure of the anomalies is displayed for each variable found to be statistically significant. The strongest correlation between observed PW and analyzed specific humidity and temperature is observed at 500mb and 250mb. Composite analysis of specific humidity and the appropriate standard deviation field supports this finding. PW amounts much greater than the climate mean state over the Gulf of Guinea are found within the PW anomaly structure, indicating an additional moisture source, possibly convection enhanced by the wave passage. 850mb upward vertical motion is also found to be slightly enhanced due to the anomalous flow associated with the wave passage. An empirical model is provided showing a four stage development of the PW anomalies during the five primary days of their life cycle and days prior.

Patla, Jason Eddy

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

76

The Validation of AIRS Retrievals of Integrated Precipitable Water Vapor Using Measurements from a Network of Ground-Based GPS Receivers over the Contiguous United States  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A robust and easily implemented verification procedure based on the column-integrated precipitable water (IPW) vapor estimates derived from a network of ground-based global positioning system (GPS) receivers has been used to assess the quality of ...

M. K. Rama Varma Raja; Seth I. Gutman; James G. Yoe; Larry M. McMillin; Jiang Zhao

2008-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

77

MWRRET Value-Added Product: The Retrieval of Liquid Water Path and Precipitable Water Vapor from Microwave Radiometer (MWR) Data Sets (Revision 2)  

SciTech Connect

This report provides a short description of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility microwave radiometer (MWR) Retrieval (MWRRET) value-added product (VAP) algorithm. This algorithm utilizes a complementary physical retrieval method and applies brightness temperature offsets to reduce spurious liquid water path (LWP) bias in clear skies resulting in significantly improved precipitable water vapor (PWV) and LWP retrievals. We present a general overview of the technique, input parameters, output products, and describe data quality checks. A more complete discussion of the theory and results is given in Turner et al. (2007b).

Gaustad, KL; Turner, DD; McFarlane, SA

2011-07-25T23:59:59.000Z

78

Precipitation Trends and Water Consumption Related to Population in the Southwestern United States, 1930–83  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The possible effects of climatic fluctuations on renewable water supplies in the western United States was examined, especially as it is impacted by the growth of population and water consumption in recent decades.

Henry F. Diaz; Ronald L. Holle; Joe W. Thorn Jr.

1985-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

79

Monitoring of Precipitable Water Vapor and Cloud Liquid Path from Scanning Microwave Radiometers During the 2003 Cloudiness Inter-Comparison Experiment  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Monitoring of Precipitable Water Vapor and Cloud Liquid Monitoring of Precipitable Water Vapor and Cloud Liquid Path from Scanning Microwave Radiometers During the 2003 Cloudiness Inter-Comparison Experiment V. Mattioli Department of Electronic and Information Engineering University of Perugia Perugia, Italy E. R. Westwater Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences University of Colorado National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Environmental Technology Laboratory Boulder, Colorado V. Morris Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Richland, Washington Introduction Ground-based microwave radiometers (MWR) are widely used to measure atmospheric precipitable water vapor (PWV) and cloud liquid path (CLP). Comparisons of PWV derived from MWRs with water vapor retrievals from instruments like radiosondes, Global Positioning System (GPS) and Raman

80

Active probing of cloud multiple scattering, optical depth, vertical thickness, and liquid water content using wide-angle imaging LIDAR.  

SciTech Connect

At most optical wavelengths, laser light in a cloud lidar experiment is not absorbed but merely scattered out of the beam, eventually escaping the cloud via multiple scattering. There is much information available in this light scattered far from the input beam, information ignored by traditional 'on-beam' lidar. Monitoring these off-beam returns in a fully space- and time-resolved manner is the essence of our unique instrument, Wide Angle Imaging Lidar (WAIL). In effect, WAIL produces wide-field (60-degree full-angle) 'movies' of the scattering process and records the cloud's radiative Green functions. A direct data product of WAIL is the distribution of photon path lengths resulting from multiple scattering in the cloud. Following insights from diffusion theory, we can use the measured Green functions to infer the physical thickness and optical depth of the cloud layer, and, from there, estimate the volume-averaged liquid water content. WAIL is notable in that it is applicable to optically thick clouds, a regime in which traditional lidar is reduced to ceilometry. Here we present recent WAIL data oti various clouds and discuss the extension of WAIL to full diurnal monitoring by means of an ultra-narrow magneto-optic atomic line filter for daytime measurements.

Love, Steven P.; Davis, A. B. (Anthony B.); Rohde, C. A. (Charles A.); Tellier, L. L. (Larry L.); Ho, Cheng,

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "depth precipitable water" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

GNSS Precipitable Water Vapor from an Amazonian Rain Forest Flux Tower  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Understanding the complex interactions between water vapor fields and deep convection on the mesoscale requires observational networks with high spatial (kilometers) and temporal (minutes) resolution. In the equatorial tropics, where deep ...

David K. Adams; Rui M. S. Fernandes; Jair M. F. Maia

2011-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

82

Improved Daytime Column-Integrated Precipitable Water Vapor from Vaisala Radiosonde Humidity Sensors  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Accurate water vapor profiles from radiosondes are essential for long-term climate prediction, weather prediction, validation of remote sensing retrievals, and other applications. The Vaisala RS80, RS90, and RS92 radiosondes are among the more ...

K. E. Cady-Pereira; M. W. Shephard; D. D. Turner; E. J. Mlawer; S. A. Clough; T. J. Wagner

2008-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

83

Statistical Retrieval of Humidity Profiles from Precipitable Water Vapor and Surface Measurements of Humidity and Temperature  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A new method is presented of statistical retrieval of humidity profiles based on measurements of surface temperature ?1, surface dewpoint ?2, and integrated water vapor ?3. In this method the retrieved values of humidity depend nonlinearly on ...

Viatcheslav V. Tatarskii; Maia S. Tatarskaia; Ed R. Westwater

1996-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

84

Comparison of artificial neural network and combined models in estimating spatial distribution of snow depth and snow water equivalent in Samsami basin of Iran  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Snow water equivalent (SWE) is a key parameter in hydrological cycle, and information on regional SWE is required for various hydrological and meteorological applications, as well as for hydropower production and flood forecasting. This study compares ... Keywords: Artificial neural network, Combined methods, Snow depth, Spatial distribution

Hossein Tabari; S. Marofi; H. Zare Abyaneh; M. R. Sharifi

2010-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

85

Illinois Precipitation Research: A Focus on Cloud and Precipitation Modification  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

At the heart of the 40-year atmospheric research endeavors of the Illinois State Water Survey have been studies to understand precipitation processes in order to learn how precipitation is modified purposefully and accidentally, and to measure ...

Stanley A. Changnon; Robert R. Czys; Robert W. Scott; Nancy E. Westcott

1991-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

86

A New Algorithm for Finding Mixed Layer Depths with Applications to Argo Data and Subantarctic Mode Water Formation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A new hybrid method for finding the mixed layer depth (MLD) of individual ocean profiles models the general shape of each profile, searches for physical features in the profile, and calculates threshold and gradient MLDs to assemble a suite of ...

James Holte; Lynne Talley

2009-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

87

Optical Depth Measurements of Aerosol Cloud, and Water Vapor Using Sun Photometers during FIRE Cirrus IFO II  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Optical depths in the visible to infrared spectral region were obtained from solar extinction measurements with two sun photometers during the First ISCCP Regional Experiment Phase II Cirrus Intensive Field Observation in Kansas.

Masataka Shiobara; James D. Spinhirne; Akihiro Uchiyama; Shoji Asano

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

88

Hydrate Precipitation, Calcination and Environment  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Mar 13, 2012 ... Kinetics of Boehmite Precipitation from Supersaturated Sodium Aluminates Solutions with Ethanol-Water Solvent: Wang Zhi1; Xu Rongguang1; ...

89

Modeling the Atmospheric Response to Irrigation in the Great Plains. Part II: The Precipitation of Irrigated Water and Changes in Precipitation Recycling  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The rapid expansion of irrigation in the Great Plains since World War II has resulted in significant water table declines, threatening the long-term sustainability of the Ogallala Aquifer. As discussed in Part I of this paper, the Weather Research ...

Keith J. Harding; Peter K. Snyder

2012-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

90

ARM - Measurement - Precipitable water  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Instruments ETA : Eta Model Runs ECMWF : European Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasts Model Data RUC : Rapid Update Cycle Model Data WPDN : Wind Profiler Demo Network...

91

Design of a Shadowband Spectral Radiometer for the Retrieval of Thin Cloud Optical Depth, Liquid Water Path, and the Effective Radius  

SciTech Connect

The design and operation of a Thin-Cloud Rotating Shadowband Radiometer (TCRSR) described here was used to measure the radiative intensity of the solar aureole and enable the simultaneous retrieval of cloud optical depth, drop effective radius, and liquid water path. The instrument consists of photodiode sensors positioned beneath two narrow metal bands that occult the sun by moving alternately from horizon to horizon. Measurements from the narrowband 415-nm channel were used to demonstrate a retrieval of the cloud properties of interest. With the proven operation of the relatively inexpensive TCRSR instrument, its usefulness for retrieving aerosol properties under cloud-free skies and for ship-based observations is discussed.

Bartholomew M. J.; Reynolds, R. M.; Vogelmann, A. M.; Min, Q.; Edwards, R.; Smith, S.

2011-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

92

Temperature and Water Depth Monitoring Within Chum Salmon Spawning Habitat Below Bonneville Dam : Annual Report October 2007-September 2008  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The overall goal of the project described in this report is to provide a sound scientific basis for operation of the Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS) in ways that will effectively protect and enhance chum salmon populations - a species listed in March 1999 as threatened under the Endangered Species Act of 1973 (ESA). The study objective during fiscal year 2008 was to provide real-time data on Ives Island area water temperature and water surface elevations from the onset of chum salmon spawning through the end of chum salmon emergence. Sampling locations included areas where riverbed temperatures were elevated, potentially influencing alevin development and emergence timing. In these locations, hydrosystem operation caused large, frequent changes in river discharge that affected salmon habitat by dewatering redds and altering egg pocket temperatures. The 2008 objective was accomplished using temperature and water-level sensors deployed inside piezometers. Sensors were integrated with a radio telemetry system such that real-time data could be downloaded remotely and posted hourly on the Internet. During our overall monitoring period (October 2007 through June 2008), mean temperature in chum spawning areas was nearly 2 C warmer within the riverbed than in the overlying river. During chum salmon spawning (mid-November 2007 through December2007), mean riverbed temperature in the Ives Island area was 14.5 C, more than 5 C higher than in the river, where mean temperature was 9.4 C. During the incubation period (January 2008 through mid-May 2008), riverbed temperature was approximately 3 C greater than in the overlying river (10.5 C and 7.2 C, respectively). Chum salmon preferentially select spawning locations where riverbed temperatures are elevated; consequently the incubation time of alevin is shortened before they emerge in the spring.

Arntzen, E.V. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory

2009-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

93

Simulation of Water Sources and Precipitation Recycling for the MacKenzie, Mississippi, and Amazon River Basins  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An atmospheric general circulation model simulation for 1948–97 of the water budgets for the MacKenzie, Mississippi, and Amazon River basins is presented. In addition to the water budget, passive tracers are included to identify the geographic ...

Michael G. Bosilovich; Jiun-Dar Chern

2006-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

94

Simulation of Seasonal Snowcover Based on Air Temperature and Precipitation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A simulation is performed for the time variation in depth of seasonal snow with variable air temperature and precipitation in Japan. Processes of snow densification and snowmelt are considered for snow depth calculation. The using parameters are ...

Hideaki Motoyama

1990-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

95

Estimation of Continental Precipitation Recycling  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The total amount of water that precipitates on large continental regions is supplied by two mechanisms: 1) advection from the surrounding areas external to the region and 2) evaporation and transpiration from the land surface within the region. ...

Kaye L. Brubaker; Dara Entekhabi; P. S. Eagleson

1993-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

96

Precipitating clouds  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

or virga An multiple sensor based approach to provide water phase as well as ice phase properties Measurements - MWR - MPL or Raman lidar - MMCR The approach Water...

97

A Feasibility Study for Simultaneous Estimates of Water Vapor and Precipitation Parameters Using a Three-Frequency Radar  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The radar return powers from a three-frequency radar, with center frequency at 22.235 GHz and upper and lower frequencies chosen with equal water vapor absorption coefficients, can be used to estimate water vapor density and parameters of the ...

R. Meneghini; L. Liao; L. Tian

2005-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

98

Validation of Precipitable Water Vapor within the NCEP/DOE Reanalysis Using Global GPS Observations from One Decade  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In contrast to previous studies validating numerical weather prediction (NWP) models using observations from the global positioning system (GPS), this paper focuses on the validation of seasonal and interannual variations in the water vapor. The ...

Sibylle Vey; Reinhard Dietrich; Axel Rülke; Mathias Fritsche; Peter Steigenberger; Markus Rothacher

2010-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

99

Monitoring Precipitable Water and Surface Wind over the Gulf of Mexico from Microwave and VAS Satellite Imagery  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Spatial and temporal changes of atmospheric water vapor and surface wind speeds are investigated for a period following an intrusion of cold continental air over the Gulf of Mexico, during the Gulf of Mexico Experiment (GUFMEX) in March 1988. ...

Robert M. Rabin; Lynn A. McMurdie; Christopher M. Hayden; Gary S. Wade

1991-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

100

Layered Precipitable Water from the Infrared VAS Sounder during a Return-Flow Event over the Gulf of Mexico  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Spatial and temporal changes in the vertical distribution of atmospheric water vapor are investigated during a period following the intrusion of cold continental air over the Gulf of Mexico, during the Gulf of Mexico Experiment (GUFMEX) in ...

Robert M. Rabin; Lynn A. McMurdie; Christopher M. Hayden; Gary S. Wade

1992-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "depth precipitable water" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Simulation of the Stable Water Isotopes in Precipitation over South America: Comparing Regional to Global Circulation Models  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A simulation of the stable water isotope cycle over South America by the regional circulation model REMOiso is discussed. The performance of the regional model, with a resolution of 0.5° (55 km), is compared to simulations by the global ...

Christophe Sturm; Georg Hoffmann; Bärbel Langmann

2007-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

102

Design of a Shadowband Spectral Radiometer for the Retrieval of Thin Cloud Optical Depth, Liquid Water Path, and the Effective Radius  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The design and operation of a Thin-Cloud Rotating Shadowband Radiometer (TCRSR) described here was used to measure the radiative intensity of the solar aureole and enable the simultaneous retrieval of cloud optical depth, drop effective radius, ...

M. J. Bartholomew; R. M. Reynolds; A. M. Vogelmann; Q. Min; R. Edwards; S. Smith

2011-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

103

The Hotplate Precipitation Gauge  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A new instrument designed to measure precipitation, the “hotplate precipitation gauge,” is described. The instrument consists of a heated thin disk that provides a reliable, low-maintenance method to measure precipitation rate every minute ...

Roy M. Rasmussen; John Hallett; Rick Purcell; Scott D. Landolt; Jeff Cole

2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

104

Depth and temporal variations in water quality of the Snake River Plain aquifer in well USGS-59 near the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory  

SciTech Connect

In-situ measurements of the specific conductance and temperature of ground water in the Snake River Plain aquifer were collected in observation well USGS-59 near the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. These parameters were monitored at various depths in the aquifer from October 1994 to August 1995. The specific conductance of ground water in well USGS-59, as measured in the borehole, ranged from about 450 to 900 {micro}S/cm at standard temperature (25 C). The pumping cycle of the production wells at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant causes changes in borehole circulation patterns, and as a result the specific conductance of ground water at some depths in the well varies by up to 50% over a period of about 14 hours. However, these variations were not observed at all depths, or during each pumping cycle. The temperature of ground water in the well was typically between 12.8 and 13.8 C. The results of this study indicate that temporal variations in specific conductance of the ground water at this location are caused by an external stress on the aquifer--pumping of a production well approximately 4,000 feet away. These variations are believed to result from vertical stratification of water quality in the aquifer and a subsequent change in intrawell flow related to pumping. When sampling techniques that do not induce a stress on the aquifer (i.e., thief sampling) are used, knowledge of external stresses on the system at the time of sampling may aid in the interpretation of geochemical data.

Frederick, D.B. [Idaho INEL Oversight Program, Boise, ID (United States); Johnson, G.S. [Univ. of Idaho, Moscow, ID (United States). Dept. of Geology and Geological Engineering

1997-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

105

The Influence of Land Surface Moisture Retention on Precipitation Statistics  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The retention of precipitation water in land surface reservoirs damps higher frequencies of evaporation variability and can thereby influence the feedback of evaporation on precipitation. The extent of this influence is examined in a series of ...

Randal D. Koster; Max J. Suarez

1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

106

Estimates of Thunderstorm Precipitation Efficiency from Field Measurements in CCOPE  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The precipitation efficiency (the ratio of surface rainfall to water vapor inflow) of a small sample of thunderstorms observed in the Cooperative Convective Precipitation Experiment is calculated using surface and cloud-base airflow and moisture ...

J. C. Fankhauser

1988-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

107

PRECIPITATION OF PLUTONOUS PEROXIDE  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A precipitation process for recovering plutonium values contained in an aqueous solution is described. In the process for precipitating plutonium as plutonous peroxide, hydroxylamine or hydrazine is added to the plutoniumcontaining solution prior to the addition of peroxide to precipitate plutonium. The addition of hydroxylamine or hydrazine increases the amount of plutonium precipitated as plutonous peroxide. (AEC)

Barrick, J.G.; Manion, J.P.

1961-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

108

Precipitation over Concave Terrain  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Many topographic barriers are comprised of a series of concave or convex ridges that modulate the intensity and distribution of precipitation over mountainous areas. In this model-based idealized study, stratiform precipitation associated with ...

Qingfang Jiang

2006-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

109

Coordinated changes in photosynthesis, water relations and leaf nutritional traits of canopy trees along a precipitation gradient in lowland tropical forest  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Coordinated changes in photosynthesis, water relations andstrategy to maximize photosynthesis when water is availablehave higher rates of photosynthesis per unit leaf mass (P

Santiago, L S

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

110

Estimating the Spatial Distribution of Precipitation in Iceland Using a Linear Model of Orographic Precipitation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A linear model of orographic precipitation that includes airflow dynamics, condensed water advection, and downslope evaporation is adapted for Iceland. The model is driven using coarse-resolution 40-yr reanalysis data from the European Centre for ...

Philippe Crochet; Tómas Jóhannesson; Trausti Jónsson; Oddur Sigurđsson; Helgi Björnsson; Finnur Pálsson; Idar Barstad

2007-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

111

Gibbsite Precipitation Inhibitors  

Gibbsite Precipitation Inhibitors 3 Mission Drivers There are high concentrations of aluminum as gibbsite or boehmite in Hanford High Level Waste

112

Influence of Soil Moisture on the Asian and African Monsoons. Part I: Mean Monsoon and Daily Precipitation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Soil moisture responds to precipitation variability but also affects precipitation through evaporation. This two-way interaction has often been referred to as a positive feedback, since the water added to the land surface during a precipitation ...

H. Douville; F. Chauvin; H. Broqua

2001-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

113

Uncertainties in Precipitation and Their Impacts on Runoff Estimates  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Water balance calculations are becoming increasingly important for earth-system studies. Precipitation is one of the most critical input variables for such calculations because it is the immediate source of water for the land surface hydrological ...

Balázs M. Fekete; Charles J. Vörösmarty; John O. Roads; Cort J. Willmott

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

114

Precipitator Performance Estimation Procedure  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Increased availability of data to use with an existing computer model makes it possible for utilities to calculate electrostatic precipitator performance without access to industry databases. This report examines the accuracy of the model and develops procedures to make it a more useful tool for troubleshooting precipitator performance and for selecting the size of a new unit.

1986-12-22T23:59:59.000Z

115

precipitation | OpenEI  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

precipitation precipitation Dataset Summary Description This dataset, made available by the UK Department of Energy and Climate Change (DECC), presents summer and winter precipitation for England and Wales, and the percent change from the baseline (1961 - 1990 average). The original source of the data is the Hadley Centre. Source UK Department of Energy and Climate Change (DECC) Date Released March 12th, 2010 (4 years ago) Date Updated Unknown Keywords climate change precipitation UK Data application/vnd.ms-excel icon 1 Excel file: Precipitation, 1874 - 2009 (xls, 68.1 KiB) Quality Metrics Level of Review Some Review Comment (Does not have "National Statistics" status) Temporal and Spatial Coverage Frequency Time Period 1874 - 2009 License License Other or unspecified, see optional comment below

116

CDIAC Precipitation Data Sets  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Precipitation Precipitation CDIAC Climate Holdings Containing Precipitation Data Global Data Sets Data Set Name Investigators Data Type/Format Period of Record Global Historical Climatology Network (GHCN); Vs. 1 (CDIAC NDP-041) R.S. Vose et al. Stations data; monthly totals Varies by station; through 1990 Global Historical Climatology Network (GHCN); Vs. 2 (Note: the above link takes you to NOAA's National Climatic Data Center website.) R.S. Vose et al. Station data; monthly totals Varies by station; some through most recent month A Computer-Based Atlas of Global Instrumental Climate Data (CDIAC DB-1003) R.S. Bradley et al. Monthly, seasonal, and annual anomaly maps of precipitation 1851 - 1989 Regional Data Sets Data Set Name Investigators Data Type/Format Period of Record

117

Total instantaneous energy transport in polychromatic fluid gravity waves at finite depth  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The total instantaneous energy transport can be found for polychromatic waves when using the deep water approximation. Expanding this theory to waves in waters of finite depth

J. Engström; J. Isberg; M. Eriksson; M. Leijon

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

118

acre feet (af) -A quantity of volume of water that covers one acre to a depth of one foot; equal to 43,560 cubic feet or 325,851 gallons.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

it is not hydrostatically connected. per capita water use - Water produced by or introduced into the system of a water of a fluid into, through, or from a porous medium. self-produced water - Water supply (usually from wells) developed and used by an individual or entity. Also called self-produced water. self-supplied water - Water

Lund, Jay R.

119

Diurnal to Annual Precipitation Sensitivity to Convective and Land Surface Schemes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Precipitation’s diurnal to annual variance distribution and atmospheric water cycle component interactions are examined globally for sensitivity to convective and land surface schemes. The main regional features of statistics identified in ...

Alex C. Ruane; John O. Roads

2008-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

120

Evaluation of Satellite-Based and Reanalysis Precipitation Data in the Tropical Pacific  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Global precipitation monitoring is essential for understanding the earth’s water and energy cycle. Therefore, usage of satellite-based precipitation data is necessary where in situ data are rare. In addition, atmospheric-model-based reanalysis ...

Uwe Pfeifroth; Richard Mueller; Bodo Ahrens

2013-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "depth precipitable water" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Frequency of Precipitation across the Northern U.S. Corn Belt  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Knowledge of the frequency of precipitation events can aid in managing water resources, but little is known concerning the regional variability in the frequency of daily precipitation events in the northern U.S. Corn Belt. The frequency ...

B. S. Sharratt; J. Zandlo; G. Spoden

2001-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

122

ARM - Measurement - Precipitation  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

govMeasurementsPrecipitation govMeasurementsPrecipitation ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Precipitation All liquid or solid phase aqueous particles that originate in the atmosphere and fall to the earth's surface. Categories Atmospheric State Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the following instruments. Refer to the datastream (netcdf) file headers of each instrument for a list of all available measurements, including those recorded for diagnostic or quality assurance purposes. ARM Instruments CO2FLX : Carbon Dioxide Flux Measurement Systems DISDROMETER : Impact Disdrometer LDIS : Laser Disdrometer MWRHF : Microwave Radiometer - High Frequency

123

URANIUM PRECIPITATION PROCESS  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for the recovery of uranium from sulfuric acid solutions is described. In the present process, sulfuric acid is added to the uranium bearing solution to bring the pH to between 1 and 1.8, preferably to about 1.4, and aluminum metal is then used as a reducing agent to convert hexavalent uranium to the tetravalent state. As the reaction proceeds, the pH rises amd a selective precipitation of uranium occurs resulting in a high grade precipitate. This process is an improvement over the process using metallic iron, in that metallic aluminum reacts less readily than metallic iron with sulfuric acid, thus avoiding consumption of the reducing agent and a raising of the pH without accomplishing the desired reduction of the hexavalent uranium in the solution. Another disadvantage to the use of iron is that positive ferric ions will precipitate with negative phosphate and arsenate ions at the pH range employed.

Thunaes, A.; Brown, E.A.; Smith, H.W.; Simard, R.

1957-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

124

How Does Solar Attenuation Depth Affect the Ocean Mixed Layer? Water Turbidity and Atmospheric Forcing Impacts on the Simulation of Seasonal Mixed Layer Variability in the Turbid Black Sea  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A fine-resolution (?3.2 km) Hybrid Coordinate Ocean Model (HYCOM) is used to investigate the impact of solar radiation attenuation with depth on the predictions of monthly mean sea surface height (SSH), mixed layer depth (MLD), buoyancy and heat ...

A. Birol Kara; Alan J. Wallcraft; Harley E. Hurlburt

2005-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

125

How Are Spring Snow Conditions in Central Canada Related to Early Warm-Season Precipitation?  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The response of the warm-season atmosphere to antecedent snow anomalies has long been an area of study. This paper explores how the spring snow depth relates to subsequent precipitation in central Canada using ground observations, reanalysis ...

Hua Su; Robert E. Dickinson; Kirsten L. Findell; Benjamin R. Lintner

2013-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

126

Radar Reflectivity–Based Estimates of Mixed Layer Depth  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This study investigates the potential for estimating mixed layer depth by taking advantage of the radial gradients in the radar reflectivity field produced by the large vertical gradients in water vapor mixing ratio that are characteristic of the ...

P. L. Heinselman; P. L. Spencer; K. L. Elmore; D. J. Stensrud; R. M. Hluchan; P. C. Burke

2009-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

127

Autonomous Depth Adjustment for Underwater Sensor Networks: Design and Applications  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

To fully understand the ocean environment requires sensing the full water column. Utilizing a depth adjustment system on an underwater sensor network provides this while also improving global sensing and communications. ...

Detweiler, Carrick

128

Electrostatic Precipitator Reference Manual  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This manual reviews the history of electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) and the theory on which they are based. The chemical and physical properties of fly ash are detailed, and practical guidelines for the selection of ESP design and size are presented. Special attention is given to operating and performance problem diagnostics, and trends in the design and application of ESPs are discussed.

1982-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

129

Precipitator Layup Report  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

EPRI members faced with the need to lay up (temporarily shut down) coal-fired units for extended periods of time because of the current economic downturn have requested guidance on the methods and techniques necessary for protecting electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) and their associated auxiliaries from corrosion damage and other degradation, both mechanical and electrical, during such layups.

2010-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

130

Property:Depth(m) | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Depth(m) Depth(m) Jump to: navigation, search This is a property of type String. Pages using the property "Depth(m)" Showing 25 pages using this property. (previous 25) (next 25) 1 1.5-ft Wave Flume Facility + 0.9 + 10-ft Wave Flume Facility + 1.5 + 11-ft Wave Flume Facility + 1.8 + 2 2-ft Flume Facility + 1.8 + 3 3-ft Wave Flume Facility + 0.9 + 5 5-ft Wave Flume Facility + 1.5 + 6 6-ft Wave Flume Facility + 1.8 + A Alden Large Flume + 3.0 + Alden Small Flume + 1.8 + Alden Tow Tank + 1.2 + Alden Wave Basin + 1.2 + B Breakwater Research Facility + 0.8 + Bucknell Hydraulic Flume + 0.6 + C Carderock 2-ft Variable Pressure Cavitation Water Tunnel + 0.6 + Carderock 3-ft Variable Pressure Cavitation Water Tunnel + 0.7 + Carderock Circulating Water Channel + 2.7 +

131

Sources of Sahel Precipitation for Simulated Drought and Rainy Seasons  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The sources of sub-Saharan precipitation are studied using diagnostic procedures integrated into the code of the GISS climate model. Water vapor evaporating from defined source region is “tagged,” allowing the determination of the relative ...

Leonard M. Druyan; Randal D. Koster

1989-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

132

A Finite-Depth Wind-Wave Model. Part I: Model Description  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A parametric windsea model for arbitrary water depths is presented. The model is derived from a conservation of energy flux formulation and includes shoaling, refraction, dissipation by bottom friction, as well as finite-depth modifications of ...

Hans C. Graber; Ole S. Madsen

1988-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

133

Influence of Linear Depth Variation on Poincaré, Kelvin, and Rossby Waves  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Exact solutions to the linearized shallow-water equations in a channel with linear depth variation and a mean flow are obtained in terms of confluent hypergeometric functions. These solutions are the generalization to finite s (depth variation ...

A. N. Staniforth; R. T. Williams; B. Neta

1993-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

134

Precipitation hardening austenitic superalloys  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Precipitation hardening, austenitic type superalloys are described. These alloys contain 0.5 to 1.5 weight percent silicon in combination with about 0.05 to 0.5 weight percent of a post irradiation ductility enhancing agent selected from the group of hafnium, yttrium, lanthanum and scandium, alone or in combination with each other. In addition, when hafnium or yttrium are selected, reductions in irradiation induced swelling have been noted.

Korenko, Michael K. (Wexford, PA)

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

135

Water  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Laws Envirosearch Institutional Controls NEPA Activities RCRA RQ*Calculator Water HSS Logo Water Laws Overview of water-related legislation affecting DOE sites Clean...

136

Co-precipitation synthesis and sintering of yttrium aluminum garnet (YAG) powders: the eect of precipitant  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Vacuum sintering was performed in a furnace heated by a tungsten-mesh heater (Model M60-3X8-WW-23, Nemus co-precipitated from a mixed solution of aluminum and yttrium nitrates using ammonia water of ammonia water produced a hydroxide pre- cursor with an approximate composition of Al(OH)3 .0.3[Y2(OH)5(NO3

Lee, Jong-Heun

137

On Rayleigh Optical Depth Calculations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Many different techniques are used for the calculation of Rayleigh optical depth in the atmosphere. In some cases differences among these techniques can be important, especially in the UV region of the spectrum and under clean atmospheric ...

Barry A. Bodhaine; Norman B. Wood; Ellsworth G. Dutton; James R. Slusser

1999-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

138

Reading Comprehension - The Water Cycle  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

three phases that water can be found in are atom, molecule, compound solids, liquids, and gas . During condensation precipitation evaporation , water turns...

139

DISSOLUTION OF LANTHANUM FLUORIDE PRECIPITATES  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A plutonium separatory ore concentration procedure involving the use of a fluoride type of carrier is presented. An improvement is given in the derivation step in the process for plutonium recovery by carrier precipitation of plutonium values from solution with a lanthanum fluoride carrier precipitate and subsequent derivation from the resulting plutonium bearing carrier precipitate of an aqueous acidic plutonium-containing solution. The carrier precipitate is contacted with a concentrated aqueous solution of potassium carbonate to effect dissolution therein of at least a part of the precipitate, including the plutonium values. Any remaining precipitate is separated from the resulting solution and dissolves in an aqueous solution containing at least 20% by weight of potassium carbonate. The reacting solutions are combined, and an alkali metal hydroxide added to a concentration of at least 2N to precipitate lanthanum hydroxide concomitantly carrying plutonium values.

Fries, B.A.

1959-11-10T23:59:59.000Z

140

Biologically produced acid precipitable polymeric lignin  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A water soluble, acid precipitable polymeric degraded lignin (APPL), having a molecular weight of at least 12,000 daltons, and comprising, by percentage of total weight, at least three times the number of phenolic hydroxyl groups and carboxylic acid groups present in native lignin. The APPL may be modified by chemical oxidation and reduction to increase its phenolic hydroxyl content and reduce the number of its antioxidant inhibitory side chains, thereby improving antioxidant properties.

Crawford, Don L. (Moscow, ID); Pometto, III, Anthony L. (Moscow, ID)

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "depth precipitable water" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Global Fields of Soil Moisture and Land Surface Evapotranspiration Derived from Observed Precipitation and Surface Air Temperature  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The global fields of normal monthly soil moisture and land surface evapotranspiration are derived with a simple water budget model that has precipitation and potential evapotranspiration as inputs. The precipitation is observed and the potential ...

Y. Mintz; G. K. Walker

1993-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

142

Dilution physics modeling: Dissolution/precipitation chemistry  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report documents progress made to date on integrating dilution/precipitation chemistry and new physical models into the TEMPEST thermal-hydraulics computer code. Implementation of dissolution/precipitation chemistry models is necessary for predicting nonhomogeneous, time-dependent, physical/chemical behavior of tank wastes with and without a variety of possible engineered remediation and mitigation activities. Such behavior includes chemical reactions, gas retention, solids resuspension, solids dissolution and generation, solids settling/rising, and convective motion of physical and chemical species. Thus this model development is important from the standpoint of predicting the consequences of various engineered activities, such as mitigation by dilution, retrieval, or pretreatment, that can affect safe operations. The integration of a dissolution/precipitation chemistry module allows the various phase species concentrations to enter into the physical calculations that affect the TEMPEST hydrodynamic flow calculations. The yield strength model of non-Newtonian sludge correlates yield to a power function of solids concentration. Likewise, shear stress is concentration-dependent, and the dissolution/precipitation chemistry calculations develop the species concentration evolution that produces fluid flow resistance changes. Dilution of waste with pure water, molar concentrations of sodium hydroxide, and other chemical streams can be analyzed for the reactive species changes and hydrodynamic flow characteristics.

Onishi, Y.; Reid, H.C.; Trent, D.S.

1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

143

ARM - Measurement - Cloud optical depth  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

optical depth optical depth ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Cloud optical depth Amount of light cloud droplets or ice particles prevent from passing through a column of atmosphere. Categories Cloud Properties Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the following instruments. Refer to the datastream (netcdf) file headers of each instrument for a list of all available measurements, including those recorded for diagnostic or quality assurance purposes. External Instruments GOES : Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites Field Campaign Instruments EC-CONVAIR580-BULK : Environment Canada Convair 580 Bulk Parameters GOES : Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites

144

ARM - Measurement - Aerosol optical depth  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

depth depth ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Aerosol optical depth A measure of how much light aerosols prevent from passing through a column of atmosphere. Categories Aerosols Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the following instruments. Refer to the datastream (netcdf) file headers of each instrument for a list of all available measurements, including those recorded for diagnostic or quality assurance purposes. ARM Instruments HSRL : High Spectral Resolution Lidar MPL : Micropulse Lidar MFRSR : Multifilter Rotating Shadowband Radiometer NIMFR : Normal Incidence Multifilter Radiometer Field Campaign Instruments AOS-PMFOV : Acoustical Optical Spectrometer-Photometer with Multiple

145

BNL | Aerosol, Cloud, Precipitation Interactions  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Cloud-Aerosol-Precipitation Interactions Cloud-Aerosol-Precipitation Interactions Atmospheric aerosols exert important "indirect effects" on clouds and climate by serving as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) and ice nuclei that affect cloud radiative and microphysical properties. For example, an increase in CCN increases the number concentration of droplets enhances cloud albedo, and suppresses precipitation that alters cloud coverage and lifetime. However, in the case of moist and strong convective clouds, increasing aerosols may increase precipitation and enhance storm development. Although aerosol-induced indirect effects on climate are believed to have a significant impact on global climate change, estimating their impact continues to be one of the most uncertain climate forcings.

146

Contribution of Changes in Sea Surface Temperature and Aerosol Loading to the Decreasing Precipitation Trend in Southern China  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The effects of increasing sea surface temperature (SST) and aerosol loading in a drought region in Southern China are studied using aerosol optical depth (AOD), low-level cloud cover (LCC), visibility, and precipitation from observed surface data;...

Yanjie Cheng; Ulrike Lohmann; Junhua Zhang; Yunfeng Luo; Zuoting Liu; Glen Lesins

2005-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

147

Dynamic Modeling of the Spatial Distribution of Precipitation in Remote Mountainous Areas  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Precipitation in remote mountainous areas dominates the water balance of many water-short areas of the globe, such as western North America. The inaccessibility of such environments prevents adequate measurement of the spatial distribution of ...

Ana P. Barros; Dennis P. Lettenmaier

1993-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

148

in situ Calcite Precipitation for Contaminant Immobilization  

SciTech Connect

in situ Calcite Precipitation for Contaminant Immobilization Yoshiko Fujita (Yoshiko.fujita@inl.gov) (Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls, Idaho, USA) Robert W. Smith (University of Idaho-Idaho Falls, Idaho Falls, Idaho, USA) Subsurface radionuclide and trace metal contaminants throughout the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) complex pose one of DOE’s greatest challenges for long-term stewardship. One promising stabilization mechanism for divalent trace ions, such as the short-lived radionuclide strontium-90, is co-precipitation in calcite. Calcite, a common mineral in the arid western U.S., can form solid solutions with trace metals. The rate of trace metal incorporation is susceptible to manipulation using either abiotic or biotic means. We have previously demonstrated that increasing the calcite precipitation rate by stimulating the activity of urea hydrolyzing microorganisms can result in significantly enhanced Sr uptake. Urea hydrolysis causes the acceleration of calcium carbonate precipitation (and trace metal co-precipitation) by increasing pH and alkalinity, and also by liberating the reactive cations from the aquifer matrix via exchange reactions involving the ammonium ion derived from urea: H2NCONH2 + 3H2O ? 2NH4+ + HCO3- + OH- urea hydrolysis >X:2Ca + 2NH4+ ? 2>X:NH4 + Ca2+ ion exchange Ca2+ + HCO3- + OH- ? CaCO3(s) + H2O calcite precipitation where >X: is a cation exchange site on the aquifer matrix. This contaminant immobilization approach has several attractive features. Urea hydrolysis is catalyzed by the urease enzyme, which is produced by many indigenous subsurface microorganisms. Addition of foreign microbes is unnecessary. In turn the involvement of the native microbes and the consequent in situ generation of reactive components in the aqueous phase (e.g., carbonate and Ca or Sr) can allow dissemination of the reaction over a larger volume and/or farther away from an amendment injection point, as compared to direct addition of the reactants at a well (which can lead to clogging). A final particularly attractive characteristic of this approach is its long-term sustainability; the remediation scheme is geared toward environments that are already saturated with respect to calcite, and in such systems the bulk of any newly precipitated calcite will remain stable once engineered manipulations cease. This means that the co-precipitated contaminants will be effectively sequestered over the long term. We are currently conducting integrated field, laboratory, and computational research to evaluate a) the relationships between urea hydrolysis rate, calcite precipitation rate, and trace metal partitioning under environmentally relevant conditions; and b) the coupling between flow/flux manipulations and calcite precipitate distribution and metal uptake. We are also assessing the application of geophysical and molecular biological tools to monitor the relevant chemical and physical processes. The primary emphasis is on field-scale processes, with the laboratory and modeling activities designed specifically to support the field studies. Field experiments are being conducted in perched water (vadose zone) at the Vadose Zone Research Park (VZRP) at the Idaho National Laboratory; the VZRP provides an uncontaminated setting that is an analog of the 90Sr-contaminated vadose zone at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center. A summary of results to date will be presented.

Yoshiko Fujita; Robert W. Smith

2009-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

149

Understanding Fault Characteristics And Sediment Depth For Geothermal  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Understanding Fault Characteristics And Sediment Depth For Geothermal Understanding Fault Characteristics And Sediment Depth For Geothermal Exploration Using 3D Gravity Inversion In Walker Valley, Nevada Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Conference Paper: Understanding Fault Characteristics And Sediment Depth For Geothermal Exploration Using 3D Gravity Inversion In Walker Valley, Nevada Details Activities (2) Areas (1) Regions (0) Abstract: The Southern Walker Lake Basin, situated in the Walker Lake structural domain, consists of primarily E-W directed extension along N-NNW striking normal faults. Water well drilling on the eastern slopes of the Wassuk Range, west of the city of Hawthorne, Nevada showed elevated temperatures. Two recent drill holes reaching downhole depths of more than 4000 ft give some insight to the geologic picture, but more information

150

Origin of Precipitation and Dynamic Organization in Wavelike Precipitation Bands  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Wavelike parallel precipitation bands, embedded in a layer of cirrus clouds, were studied with a vertically pointing millimetric Doppler radar. Their mean dimensions were 17 km between bands, a 50 km band length and a 6 km band width. Their ...

Richard Auria; Bernard Campistron

1987-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

151

A Precipitation Climatology of 5-Day Periods  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A precipitation climatology has been developed for the relative frequencies of zero, one, or two or more days with measurable precipitation within 5-day periods. In addition, the distribution of precipitation amounts is given for the one wet day ...

E. S. Epstein; A. G. Barnston

1990-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

152

Precipitation Patterns in West Africa  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A regional precipitation analysis from a total of 813 recording stations in 11 West African countries for the drought period 1968–75 is presented. Results illustrate the severity and extent of meteorological drought which prevailed throughout the ...

Raymond P. Motha; Sharon K. Leduc; Louis T. Steyaert; Clarence M. Sakamoto; Norton D. Strommen

1980-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

153

Tropical Influences on California Precipitation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Atmospheric circulation anomalies and hydrologic processes associated with California wet and dry events were examined during Northern Hemisphere winter. The precipitation anomaly over the west coast of North America shows a north–south three-...

Kingtse C. Mo; R. Wayne Higgins

1998-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

154

High-Strength Alloys; Precipitation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Mar 1, 2011 ... Precipitation Hardenable Mg-Ca-Al Alloys: J. Jayaraj1; C.L. Mendis1; T. Ohkubo1 ; K. Oh-ishi1; K. Hono1; 1National Institute for Materials ...

155

Some Statistics of Instantaneous Precipitation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Known sources of data from arrays of instantaneous precipitation intensity recorders in southern Germany, east-central Illinois, northeastern Illinois, central Florida, and Hilo, Hawaii are obtained. These data are analyzed for line averages of ...

Douglas M. A. Jones; Wayne M. Wendland

1984-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

156

Teleconnections with Tropical Precipitation Surges  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Precipitation surges in the equatorial Pacific “dry zone” (as delineated in a study by Doberitz) reveal statistically significant teleconnections with midlatitude tropospheric flow patterns during all seasons. These connections are strongest, ...

Elmar R. Reiter

1983-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

157

Annual grassland resource pools and fluxes: sensitivity to precipitation  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Annual grassland resource pools and fluxes: sensitivity to precipitation Annual grassland resource pools and fluxes: sensitivity to precipitation and dry periods on two contrasting soils Title Annual grassland resource pools and fluxes: sensitivity to precipitation and dry periods on two contrasting soils Publication Type Journal Article Year of Publication 2012 Authors Sudderth, Erika A., Samuel B. St. Clair, Sarah A. Placella, Stéphanie M. Swarbreck, Cristina Castanha, Donald J. Herman, Marc L. Fischer, Markus Kleber, Erik B. Sudderth, Margaret S. Torn, Mary K. Firestone, Gary L. Andersen, and David D. Ackerly Journal Ecosphere Volume 3 Issue 8 Keywords Avena barbata, Bayesian ANOVA, carbon, climate change, dry periods, Grassland, nitrogen, phenology, precipitation, soil type, water Abstract In ecosystems throughout the world climate models project increased variability in precipitation patterns that may strongly affect the above- and below-ground processes that control carbon, water, and nutrient cycles. Uncertainty about how plant and soil processes respond to wet and dry periods at different times in the growing season is a barrier to understanding how changing rainfall patterns will affect ecosystem function in annual grasslands. We used mesocosm systems to test the sensitivity to mid- and late-season dry periods of twenty response variables related to nitrogen, carbon, and water cycling in Avena barbata monocultures. We compared the responses of individual variables and of grassland systems under low and high cumulative rain treatments and between two contrasting soil types.

158

The atmospheric energy constraint on global-mean precipitation change  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

CMIP5 models robustly predict that the rate of increase in global-mean precipitation with global-mean surface temperature increase is much less than the rate of increase of water vapor. The goal of this paper is to explain in detail the mechanisms ...

Angeline G. Pendergrass; Dennis L. Hartmann

159

Effect of Cooling Rate From Solution Treatment on Precipitation ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

of practical large size forging, such as furnace cooling, air cooling, oil quench and water quench. .... of y (3 y 'I and y '- y ” co-precipitates is agreed well with the TTH diagram. The “on .... groups, because of either the increase of total amount of.

160

Dimension Characteristics and Precipitation Efficiency of Cumulonimbus Clouds in the Region Far South from the Mei-Yu Front over the Eastern Asian Continent  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Dimension characteristics in precipitation properties of cumulonimbus clouds are basic parameters in understanding the vertical transport of water vapor in the atmosphere. In this study, the dimension characteristics and precipitation efficiency ...

Yukari Shusse; Kazuhisa Tsuboki

2006-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "depth precipitable water" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Human activities recognition using depth images  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We present a new method to classify human activities by leveraging on the cues available from depth images alone. Towards this end, we propose a descriptor which couples depth and spatial information of the segmented body to describe a human pose. Unique ... Keywords: depth image segmentation, human activity detection

Raj Gupta; Alex Yong-Sang Chia; Deepu Rajan

2013-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

162

Global Oceanic Precipitation from the MSU during 1979—91 and Comparisons to Other Climatologies  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Oceanic precipitation is estimated on a 2.5° grid for the period 1979–1991 from Microwave Sounding Unit (MSU) channels 1, 2, and 3 data gathered by seven separate TIROS-N satellites. Precipitation is diagnosed when cloud water and rainwater-...

Roy W. Spencer

1993-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

163

Timber Mountain Precipitation Monitoring Station  

SciTech Connect

A precipitation monitoring station was placed on the west flank of Timber Mountain during the year 2010. It is located in an isolated highland area near the western border of the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS), south of Pahute Mesa. The cost of the equipment, permitting, and installation was provided by the Environmental Monitoring Systems Initiative (EMSI) project. Data collection, analysis, and maintenance of the station during fiscal year 2011 was funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration, Nevada Site Office Environmental Restoration, Soils Activity. The station is located near the western headwaters of Forty Mile Wash on the Nevada Test and Training Range (NTTR). Overland flows from precipitation events that occur in the Timber Mountain high elevation area cross several of the contaminated Soils project CAU (Corrective Action Unit) sites located in the Forty Mile Wash watershed. Rain-on-snow events in the early winter and spring around Timber Mountain have contributed to several significant flow events in Forty Mile Wash. The data from the new precipitation gauge at Timber Mountain will provide important information for determining runoff response to precipitation events in this area of the NNSS. Timber Mountain is also a groundwater recharge area, and estimation of recharge from precipitation was important for the EMSI project in determining groundwater flowpaths and designing effective groundwater monitoring for Yucca Mountain. Recharge estimation additionally provides benefit to the Underground Test Area Sub-project analysis of groundwater flow direction and velocity from nuclear test areas on Pahute Mesa. Additionally, this site provides data that has been used during wild fire events and provided a singular monitoring location of the extreme precipitation events during December 2010 (see data section for more details). This letter report provides a summary of the site location, equipment, and data collected in fiscal year 2011.

Lyles Brad,McCurdy Greg,Chapman Jenny,Miller Julianne

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

164

Uterine caliper and depth gauge  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A uterine caliper and sound consisting of an elongated body having outwardly biased resilient caliper wings and a spring-loaded slidable cervical stop. A slide on the body is operatively connected to the wings by a monofilament and operates with respect to a first scale on the body as a width indicator. A rod extending longitudinally on the body is connected to the cervical stop and cooperates with a second scale on the body as a depth indicator. The instrument can be positioned to measure the distance from the outer cervical ostium to the fundus, as read on said second scale. The wings may be allowed to open by moving the slide, and when the wings engage the utero-tubal junctions, the width may be read on said first scale. By adjustment of the caliper wings the instrument may be retracted until the resistance of the inner ostium of the cervix is felt, enabling the length of the cervical canal to be read directly by the position of the longitudinal indicator rod with respect to said second scale. The instrument may be employed to measure the width of the uterine cavity at any position between the inner ostium of the cervix and the fundus.

King, Loyd L. (Benton City, WA); Wheeler, Robert G. (Richland, WA); Fish, Thomas M. (Kennewick, WA)

1977-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

165

Moored Observations of Precipitation Temperature  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Direct observations of precipitation temperature were made from a surface buoy deployed for four months in the western Pacific warm pool. The observed rain droplet temperatures are equal to the wet-bulb temperature to within the measured wet-bulb ...

Steven P. Anderson; Alan Hinton; Robert A. Weller

1998-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

166

Predicting Hurricane Landfall Precipitation: Optimistic and Pessimistic Views from the Symposium on Precipitation Extremes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Symposium on Precipitation Extremes was one of two special symposia organized for the American Meteorological Society national meeting. This symposium was organized into sessions on winter precipitation, summer precipitation, and hurricane-...

Russell L. Elsberry

2002-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

167

Trends in Total Precipitation and Frequency of Daily Precipitation Extremes over China  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Based on a newly developed daily precipitation dataset of 740 stations in China and more robust trend detection techniques, trends in annual and seasonal total precipitation and in extreme daily precipitation, defined as those larger than its ...

Panmao Zhai; Xuebin Zhang; Hui Wan; Xiaohua Pan

2005-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

168

The Version-2 Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP) Monthly Precipitation Analysis (1979–Present)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP) Version-2 Monthly Precipitation Analysis is described. This globally complete, monthly analysis of surface precipitation at 2.5° latitude × 2.5° longitude resolution is available from January ...

Robert F. Adler; George J. Huffman; Alfred Chang; Ralph Ferraro; Ping-Ping Xie; John Janowiak; Bruno Rudolf; Udo Schneider; Scott Curtis; David Bolvin; Arnold Gruber; Joel Susskind; Philip Arkin; Eric Nelkin

2003-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

169

Estimating Large-Scale Precipitation Minus Evapotranspiration from GRACE Satellite Gravity Measurements  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Currently, observations of key components of the earth's large-scale water and energy budgets are sparse or even nonexistent. One key component, precipitation minus evapotranspiration (P ? ET), remains largely unmeasured due to the absence of ...

Sean Swenson; John Wahr

2006-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

170

Comparing tropical precipitation simulated by the Met Office NWP and climate models with satellite observations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Forecasts of precipitation and water vapor made by the UK Met Office global Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP) model are evaluated using products from satellite observations of Special Sensor Microwave Imager/Sounder (SSMIS) and Tropical Rainfall ...

Chunlei Liu; Richard P. Allan; Malcolm Brooks; Sean Milton

171

Assessment of Operationally-Issued Long Range Precipitation Outlooks for Illinois  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

As a result of a 1980–81 drought, statistically derived outlooks of monthly and seasonal precipitation began to be issued to Illinois officials who were making management decisions relating to water supplies and agricultural activities. Outlooks ...

Stanley A. Changnon Jr.; Chin-Fei Hsu

1985-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

172

Impact of Rossby wave breaking on U.S. west coast winter precipitation during ENSO events  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This study demonstrates that water vapor transport and precipitation are largely modulated by the intensity of the subtropical jet, transient eddies, and the location of wave breaking events during the different phases of ENSO. Clear differences ...

Ju-Mee Ryoo; Yohai Kaspi; Darryn W. Waugh; George N. Kiladis; Duane E. Waliser; Eric J. Fetzer; Jinwon Kim

173

Moisture Transport Diagnosis of a Wintertime Precipitation Event in the Mackenzie River Basin  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Wintertime precipitation events in the Mackenzie River basin (MRB) play an important role in the hydrology of the region because they contribute substantially to water storage prior to the spring runoff maximum. The Mesoscale Compressible ...

Gary M. Lackmann; John R. Gyakum; Robert Benoit

1998-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

174

Integration of Climate and Weather Information for Improving 15-Day-Ahead Accumulated Precipitation Forecasts  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Skillful medium-range weather forecasts are critical for water resources planning and management. This study aims to improve 15-day-ahead accumulated precipitation forecasts by combining biweekly weather and disaggregated climate forecasts. A ...

Hui Wang; A. Sankarasubramanian; Ranji S. Ranjithan

2013-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

175

The Topographically Forced Diurnal Circulations of Western Washington State and Their Influence on Precipitation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Western Washington State is a region where both land-water and topographic contrasts result in diurnal circulations that produce significant diurnal variations in parameters such as wind speed and direction, cloudiness and precipitation. These ...

Clifford Mass

1982-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

176

Large-Eddy Simulations of Strongly Precipitating, Shallow, Stratocumulus-Topped Boundary Layers  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Large-eddy simulations that incorporate a size-resolving representation of cloud water are used to study the effect of heavy drizzle on PBL structure. Simulated surface precipitation rates average about 1 mm day?1. Heavily drizzling simulations ...

Bjorn Stevens; William R. Cotton; Graham Feingold; Chin-Hoh Moeng

1998-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

177

Role of Antecedent Land Surface Conditions in Warm Season Precipitation over Northwestern Mexico  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The role of antecedent land surface conditions including precipitation (P), surface skin temperature (Ts), soil moisture (Sm), and snow water equivalent (SWE) anomalies on the onset and intensity of the monsoon during the 1950–99 period in the ...

Chunmei Zhu; Tereza Cavazos; Dennis P. Lettenmaier

2007-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

178

CONCENTRATION OF Pu USING AN IODATE PRECIPITATE  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method is given for separating plutonium from lanthanum in a lanthanum fluoride carrier precipitation process for the recovery of plutonium values from an aqueous solution. The carrier precipitation process includes the steps of forming a lanthanum fluoride precipi- . tate, thereby carrying plutonium out of solution, metathesizing the fluoride precipitate to a hydroxide precipitate, and then dissolving the hydroxide precipitate in nitric acid. In accordance with the invention, the nitric acid solution, which contains plutonium and lanthanum, is made 0.05 to 0.15 molar in potassium iodate. thereby precipitating plutonium as plutonous iodate and the plutonous iodate is separated from the lanthanum- containing supernatant solution.

Fries, B.A.

1960-02-23T23:59:59.000Z

179

Assessing the Radiative Impact of Clouds of Low Optical Depth  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

the Radiative Impact of Clouds of the Radiative Impact of Clouds of Low Optical Depth W. O'Hirok and P. Ricchiazzi Institute for Computational Earth System Science University of California Santa Barbara, California C. Gautier Department of Geography and Institute for Computational Earth System Science University of California Santa Barbara, California Introduction Analysis from the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP) reveals that the global mean cloud optical depth is surprisingly low (i.e., Ď„ = 3.8). While this value is probably dominated by extensive fields of cirrus, the average for liquid water clouds is also likely smaller than expected. It is in this regime (Ď„ <10) where remote measurements of cloud optical thickness or liquid water path (LWP)

180

Bottom Stress in Wind-Driven Depth-Averaged Coastal Flows  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The relationship between depth-averaged velocity and bottom stress for purely wind-driven flows in unstratified coastal waters is examined using a one-dimensional (vertically resolving) current model. Results indicate that conventional drag laws ...

Harry L. Jenter; Ole Secher Madsen

1989-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "depth precipitable water" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Mapping the Interior of Nanocrystals in Depth  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

of Nanocrystals in Depth Complex, three-dimensional images of the interior of a nanocrystal have, for the first time, been obtained by researchers employing a new technique:...

182

Extending Depth of Field via Multifocus Fusion.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??In digital imaging systems, due to the nature of the optics involved, the depth of field is constricted in the field of view. Parts of… (more)

Hariharan, Harishwaran

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

183

Membrane-based wet electrostatic precipitation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Emissions of fine particulate matter, PM2.5, in both primary and secondary form, are difficult to capture in typical dry electrostatic precipitators (ESPs). Wet (or waterbased) ESPs are well suited for collection of acid aerosols and fine particulates because of greater corona power and virtually no re-entrainment. However, field disruptions because of spraying (misting) of water, formation of dry spots (channeling), and collector surface corrosion limit the applicability of current wet ESPs in the control of secondary PM2.5. Researchers at Ohio University have patented novel membrane collection surfaces to address these problems. Water-based cleaning in membrane collectors made of corrosion-resistant fibers is facilitated by capillary action between the fibers, maintaining an even distribution of water. This paper presents collection efficiency results of lab-scale and pilot-scale testing at First Energy's Bruce Mansfield Plant for the membrane-based wet ESP. The data indicate that a membrane wet ESP was more effective at collecting fine particulates, acid aerosols, and oxidized mercury than the metal-plate wet ESP, even with {approximately}15% less collecting area. 15 refs., 7 figs., 6 tabs.

David J. Bayless; Liming Shi; Gregory Kremer; Ben J. Stuart; James Reynolds; John Caine [Ohio University, Athens, OH (US). Ohio Coal Research Center

2005-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

184

The Accuracy of United States Precipitation Data  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Precipitation measurements in the United States (as well as all other countries) are adversely affected by the gauge undercatch bias of point precipitation measurements. When these measurements are used to obtain areas averages, particularly in ...

Pavel Ya Groisman; David R. Legates

1994-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

185

Evaluation of LFM-2 Quantitative Precipitation Forecasts  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The results of a near real time experiment designed to assess the state of the art of quantitative precipitation forecasting skill of the operational NMC LFM-2 are described. All available LFM-2 quantitative precipitation forecasts were verified ...

Lance F. Bosart

1980-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

186

Predictability of Precipitation Patterns: An Operational Approach  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Predictability, defined as the ability to forecast precipitation over an area by Lagrangian persistence, is studied for 11 radar precipitation patterns. After a time ranging between 40 and 112 min, depending on individual cases, all forecast ...

I. Zawadzki; J. Morneau; R. Laprise

1994-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

187

The Environmental Influence on Tropical Cyclone Precipitation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The intensity, spatial, and temporal changes in precipitation were examined in three North Atlantic hurricanes during 1989 (Dean, Gabrielle, and Hugo) using precipitation estimates made from Special Sensor Microwave/Imager (SSM/I) measurements. ...

Edward B. Rodgers; Jong-Jin Baik; Harold F. Pierce

1994-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

188

Response of Tropical Precipitation to Global Warming  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Using high-resolution cloud-resolving simulations with different CO2 concentrations, local precipitation fluxes are found to obey Clausius–Clapeyron (CC) scaling. Previous studies of the effect of CO2 concentration on precipitation extremes have ...

David M. Romps

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

189

Precipitation Trends on the Canadian Prairies  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Canadian prairies are a major producer of grain, much of which is produced under rain-fed agriculture. The amount and timing of precipitation are critical to grain production. Information on the precipitation trend is therefore vital to this ...

O. O. Akinremi; S. M. McGinn; H. W. Cutforth

1999-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

190

Survey of Wet Electrostatic Precipitators  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Wet electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) have found application since they were first installed for sulfuric acid collection on a smelter and patented by Dr. Frederick Cottrell in 1907–1908. Power generation applications typically use dry ESPs for collection of coal fly ash in nonsaturated flue gas streams. This report summarizes the physical installations, specifications, operating environments, and operational experience of wet ESPs currently operating in the United States on power generation ...

2012-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

191

Precipitation Behavior in AEREX(TM) 350  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The precipitates are examined in the scanning electron microscope. In addition, the relationship between the microstructure and mechanical properties are ...

192

Electrostatic Precipitator Guidelines, Volumes 1-3  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In summarizing the latest information on electrostatic precipitator technologies, these three volumes make up a central utility reference source. Plant engineers and operators will find in it detailed guidelines for preparing precipitator design specifications, for planning and conducting operations and maintenance programs, and for troubleshooting problem precipitators.

1987-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

193

In-Drift Precipitates/Salts Analysis  

SciTech Connect

As directed by a written development plan (CRWMS M&O 1999a), an analysis of the effects of salts and precipitates on the repository chemical environment is to be developed and documented in an Analyses/Model Report (AMR). The purpose of this analysis is to assist Performance Assessment Operations (PAO) and the Engineered Barrier Performance Department in modeling the geochemical environment within a repository drift, thus allowing PAO to provide a more detailed and complete in-drift geochemical model abstraction and to answer the key technical issues (KTI) raised in the NRC Issue Resolution Status Report (IRSR) for the Evolution of the Near Field Environment (NFE) Revision 2 (NRC 1999). The purpose of this ICN is to qualify and document qualification of the AMR's technical products. The scope of this document is to develop a model of the processes that govern salt precipitation and dissolution and resulting water composition in the Engineered Barrier System (EBS). This model is developed to serve as a basis for the in-drift geochemical modeling work performed by PAO and is to be used in subsequent PAO analyses including the EBS physical and chemical model abstraction effort. However, the concepts may also apply to some near and far field geochemical processes and can have conceptual application within the unsaturated zone and saturated zone transport modeling efforts. The intended use of the model developed in this report is to estimate, within an appropriate level of confidence, the pH, chloride concentration, and ionic strength of water on the drip shield or other location within the drift during the post-closure period. These estimates are based on evaporative processes that are subject to a broad range of potential environmental conditions and are independent of the presence or absence of backfill. An additional intended use is to estimate the environmental conditions required for complete vaporization of water. The presence and composition of liquid water in the drift (i.e., pH, chloride concentration, and ionic strength) are potentially important to corrosion and radionuclide transport calculations performed by PAO.

P. Mariner

2001-01-10T23:59:59.000Z

194

Atmospheric Water Vapor over China  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Chinese radiosonde data from 1970 to 1990 are relatively homogeneous in time and are used to examine the climatology, trends, and variability of China’s atmospheric water vapor content. The climatological distribution of precipitable water (PW) ...

Panmao Zhai; Robert E. Eskridge

1997-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

195

Recommended Practice: Defense-in-Depth  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Report # INL/EXT-06-11478 Report # INL/EXT-06-11478 Control Systems Cyber Security: Defense in Depth Strategies May 2006 Prepared by Idaho National Laboratory Recommended Best Practice: Defense in Depth 2 Table of Contents Keywords............................................................................................................................. 3 Introduction......................................................................................................................... 3 Background ......................................................................................................................... 3 Overview of Contemporary Control System Architectures................................................. 4 Security Challenges in Control Systems .............................................................................

196

Guidelines for Upgrading Electrostatic Precipitator Performance: Electrostatic Precipitator Upgrade Options  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This guide, the second volume of a two-volume set, presents an analytical procedure to evaluate cost-effective options for enhancing the performance of an existing electrostatic precipitator (ESP) when the performance of the ESP, even after optimization, is not satisfactory. The guide focuses on ESPs that require significant improvements (more than $20/kW) to achieve their emissions goals. The first volume of this report, published in September 1999, treated low-cost options that could be used to optimiz...

1999-12-13T23:59:59.000Z

197

Dynamics of precipitation pattern formation at geothermal hot springs  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We formulate and model the dynamics of spatial patterns arising during the precipitation of calcium carbonate from a supersaturated shallow water flow. The model describes the formation of travertine deposits at geothermal hot springs and rimstone dams of calcite in caves. We find explicit solutions for travertine domes at low flow rates, identify the linear instabilities which generate dam and pond formation on sloped substrates, and present simulations of statistical landscape evolution.

Nigel Goldenfeld; Pak Yuen Chan; John Veysey

2006-01-13T23:59:59.000Z

198

Revisiting the Thermocline Depth in the Equatorial Pacific  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The thermocline depth is defined as the depth of the maximum vertical temperature gradient. In the equatorial Pacific, the depth of 20°C isotherm is widely used to represent the thermocline depth. This work proposes that under the circumstance of ...

Haijun Yang; Fuyao Wang

2009-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

199

METATHESIS OF PLUTONIUM CARRIER LANTHANUM FLUORIDE PRECIPITATE WITH AN ALKALI  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A plutonium fluoride precipitate is converted to plutonium hydroxide by digesting the precipitate with an aqueous alkali metal hydroxide solution.

Duffield, R.B.

1960-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

200

Practical Conversion of Pressure to Depth  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A conversion formula between pressure and depth is obtained employing the recently adopted equation of state for seawater (Millero et al., 1980). Assuming the ocean of uniform salinity 35 NSU and temperature 0°C the following equation is proposed,...

Peter M. Saunders

1981-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "depth precipitable water" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

The Underway Conductivity–Temperature–Depth Instrument  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The development of the Underway Conductivity–Temperature–Depth (UCTD) instrument is motivated by the desire for inexpensive profiles of temperature and salinity from underway vessels, including volunteer observing ships (VOSs) and research ...

Daniel L. Rudnick; Jochen Klinke

2007-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

202

Precipitation and soil impacts on partitioning of subsurface moisture in Avena barbata: Observations from a greenhouse experiment  

SciTech Connect

The primary objective of this study was to assess the impact of two grassland soils and precipitation regimes on soil-moisture dynamics. We set up an experiment in a greenhouse, and monitored soil moisture dynamics in mesocosms planted with Avena barbata, an annual species found in California grasslands. By repeating the precipitation input at regular intervals, we were able to observe plant manipulation of soil moisture during well-defined periods during the growing season. We found that the amount of water partitioned to evapotranspiration, seepage, and soil storage varied among different growth stages. Further, both soil type and precipitation regimes had a significant impact on redistributing soil moisture. Whereas in the low-precipitation treatments most water was released to the atmosphere as evapotranspiration, major losses from the high-precipitation treatment occurred as gravity drainage. Observations from this study emphasize the importance of understanding intra-seasonal relationships between vegetation, soil, and water.

Salve, R.; Torn, M.S.

2011-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

203

Fuzzy logic approach for spatially variable nitrogen fertilization of corn based on soil, crop and precipitation information  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A fuzzy Inference System (FIS) was developed to generate recommendations for spatially variable applications of nitrogen (N) fertilizer using soil, plant and precipitation information. Experiments were conducted over three seasons (2005-2007) to assess ... Keywords: fuzzy inference systems, nitrogen sufficiency index, precipitations, soil electrical conductivity, variable nitrogen fertilization, water supply

Yacine Bouroubi; Nicolas Tremblay; Philippe Vigneault; Carl Bélec; Bernard Panneton; Serge Guillaume

2011-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

204

METHOD FOR REMOVING CONTAMINATION FROM PRECIPITATES  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An improvement in the bismuth phosphate carrier precipitation process is presented for the recovery and purification of plutonium. When plutonium, in the tetravalent state, is carried on a bismuth phosphate precipitate, amounts of centain of the fission products are carried along with the plutonium. The improvement consists in washing such fission product contaminated preeipitates with an aqueous solution of ammonium hydrogen fluoride. since this solution has been found to be uniquely effective in washing fission production contamination from the bismuth phosphate precipitate.

Stahl, G.W.

1959-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

205

Caustic Precipitation of Plutonium and Uranium with Gadolinium as a Neutron Poison  

SciTech Connect

The caustic precipitation of plutonium (Pu) and uranium (U) from Pu and U-containing waste solutions has been investigated to determine whether gadolinium (Gd) could be used as a neutron poison for precipitation with greater than a fissile mass containing both Pu and enriched U. Precipitation experiments were performed using both process solution samples and simulant solutions with a range of 2.6-5.16 g/L U and 0-4.3:1 U:Pu. Analyses were performed on solutions at intermediate pH to determine the partitioning of elements for accident scenarios. When both Pu and U were present in the solution, precipitation began at pH 4.5 and by pH 7, 99% of Pu and U had precipitated. When complete neutralization was achieved at pH > 14 with 1.2 M excess OH{sup -}, greater than 99% of Pu, U, and Gd had precipitated. At pH > 14, the particles sizes were larger and the distribution was a single mode. The ratio of hydrogen:fissile atoms in the precipitate was determined after both settling and centrifuging and indicates that sufficient water was associated with the precipitates to provide the needed neutron moderation for Gd to prevent a criticality in solutions containing up to 4.3:1 U:Pu and up to 5.16 g/L U.

VISSER, ANN E.; BRONIKOWSKI, MICHAEL G.; RUDISILL, TRACY S.

2005-10-18T23:59:59.000Z

206

Caustic Precipitation of Plutonium and Uranium with Gadolinium as a Neutron Poison  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The caustic precipitation of plutonium (Pu) and uranium (U) from Pu and U containing waste solutions has been investigated to determine whether gadolinium (Gd) could be used as a neutron poison for precipitation with greater than a fissile mass containing both Pu and enriched U. Precipitation experiments were performed using both actual samples and simulant solutions with a range of 2.6-5.16 g/L U and 0-4.3 to 1 U to Pu. Analyses were performed on solutions at intermediate pH to determine the partitioning of elements for accident scenarios. When both Pu and U were present in the solution, precipitation began at pH 4.5 and by pH 7, 99 percent of Pu and U had precipitated. When complete neutralization was achieved at pH greater than 14 with 1.2 M excess OH-, greater than 99 percent of Pu, U, and Gd had precipitated. At pH greater than 14, the particles sizes were larger and the distribution was a single mode. The ratio of hydrogen to fissile atoms in the precipitate was determined after both settling and centrifuging and indicates that sufficient water was associated with the precipitates to provide the needed neutron moderation for Gd to prevent a criticality in solutions containing up to 4.3 to 1 U to Pu and up to 5.16 g/L U.

ANN, VISSER

2005-04-14T23:59:59.000Z

207

Spatial Water Balance in Texas  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Water availability is critical to the economy in the state of Texas. Numerous reservoirs and conveyance structures have been constructed across the State to meet the water supply needs of farmers, municipalities, industries, and power generating facilities. Despite this extensive water management system, water supply remains a concern because of increasing populations and uncertainties about climate stability. The rainfall map of Texas shown in Figure 1.1 clearly shows that water management is a spatial problem. The State as a whole receives about 711 mm year-1 of rainfall, while the area of the State east of the 100th meridian receives 890 mm year-1 and the area west of the 100th meridian receives only 457 mm year-1. In addition to water supply concerns, the assessment of non-point source pollution is another important issue that is largely dependent on the spatial distribution of runoff. Although, the focus of this report is not to address water supply or pollution issues directly, an improved understanding of the spatial water balance - the partitioning of precipitation between evaporation, runoff, and groundwater recharge at different points in space - will directly benefit those who wish to assess water resource availability and non-point source pollution potential across the State. The goal of this study was to gain an improved understanding of the stocks of water in different components (air, soil, water bodies) of the hydrologic cycle and the fluxes between these components. A basic approach for determining stocks and fluxes involves the calculation of a water balance. A water balance, applied to a particular control volume, is an application of the law of conservation of mass which states that matter cannot be created or destroyed. To achieve a balance, the rate of change of storage of water within the control volume must be equal to the difference between its rates of inflow and outflow across the control surface. In this study, three independent water balance models were constructed to model different components of the hydrologic cycle - an atmospheric water balance, a soil-water balance, and a surface water balance. These models were constructed using a geographic information system (GIS). A GIS provides a framework for storing and manipulating spatial data and facilitates modeling on control volumes of various sizes and shapes. In all three cases, the choice of modeling unit was driven by the resolution and characteristics of the input data. The control volumes for the atmospheric, soil, and surface water balance models respectively are (1) an imaginary column confined horizontally by the boundary of Texas and extending to the 300 mb pressure level, (2) 0.5° cells with a depth equal to the plant-extractable water capacity of the soil, and (3) 166 gaged watersheds of differing sizes and shapes. Neither the atmospheric nor the surface water balance involve any simulation of physical processes and are simply mass balances based on empirical data. The soil-water balance does attempt to simulate evaporation from the soil through the use of a soil-moisture extraction function. Both the atmospheric and soil-water balance models are time-varying models, while the surface water balance model is steady-state and uses an empirical relationship to estimate mean annual runoff and evaporation in ungaged areas. One advantage of making three independent water balance calculations is that checks for consistency can be made among the three models. For example, all three models yield an estimate of actual evapotranspiration which is a difficult quantity to estimate, particularly at the regional scale. Previous studies at the scale of Texas have estimated only evaporation from open water surfaces and potential evapotranspiration from the land surface (TDWR, 1983; Dugas and Ainsworth, 1983).

Reed, Seann; Maidment, David; Patoux, Jerome

1994-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

208

Investigation of Solution Combustion Synthesis and Precipitation ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Presentation Title, Investigation of Solution Combustion Synthesis and Precipitation Synthesis Conditions on TiO2 and ZnO Nanopowder Characteristics

209

Carbon Nano Tubes (CNT) / Aragonite Precipitated Calcium ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Presentation Title, Carbon Nano Tubes (CNT) / Aragonite Precipitated Calcium ... Porous Rare-Earth Containing NbTiAl-Based High-entropy Materials Used for ...

210

Method for Removing Precipitates in Biofuel  

ORNL 2010-G00619/jcn UT-B ID 200902314 Method for Removing Precipitates in Biofuel Technology Summary At ORNL the application of ultrasonic energy, or ...

211

Kinetics of Boehmite Precipitation from Supersaturated Sodium ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This work presents the effects of mass ratio of ethanol and temperature on the precipitation rate and phase compositions of alumina hydrate. The ratio of AlOOH  ...

212

Creep resistant, precipitation-dispersion-strengthened ...  

An iron-based, corrosion-resistant, precipitation strengthened, martensitic steel essentially free of delta ferrite for use at high temperatures has a ...

213

Reading Comprehension - The Water Cycle  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

The Water Cycle The Water Cycle Evaporation, Condensation and Precipitation The _________ moon sun water clouds evaporates _________ fish oceans rain water from lakes and oceans. As the air rises, it cools. The water vapor condenses into tiny droplets of _________ evaporation clouds water sunshine . The droplets crowd together and form a _________ cloud lake storm precipitation . Wind blows the _________ rain sun droplet cloud towards the land. The tiny droplets join together and fall as precipitation to the _________ river lake ground cloud . The water soaks into the ground and collects in _________ rivers and lakes oceans and clouds jars and cups plants and animals . The _________ storm cycle river house that never ends has started again! A water cycle diagram. Use the diagram to identify the different parts of the water cycle:

214

Comparison of precipitation derived from the ECMWF operational forecast model and satellite precipitation data sets.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Precipitation is an important component of the climate system and the accurate representation of the diurnal rainfall cycle is a key test of model performance. Although the modelling of precipitation in the cooler mid-latitudes has improved, in ...

Chris Kidd; Erin Dawkins; George Huffman

215

Performance of the Precipitation Occurrence Sensor System as a Precipitation Gauge  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Precipitation Occurrence Sensor System (POSS) is a small X-band Doppler radar originally developed by the Meteorological Service of Canada for reporting the occurrence, type, and intensity of precipitation from Automated Weather Observing ...

B. E. Sheppard; P. I. Joe

2008-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

216

Flotation process for removal of precipitates from electrochemical chromate reduction unit  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This invention is an improved form of a conventional electrochemical process for removing hexavalent chromium or other metal-ion contaminants from cooling-tower blowdown water. In the conventional process, the contaminant is reduced and precipitated at an iron anode, thus forming a mixed precipitate of iron and chromium hydroxides, while hydrogen being evolved copiously at a cathode is vented from the electrochemical cell. In the conventional process, subsequent separation of the fine precipitate has proved to be difficult and inefficient. In accordance with this invention, the electrochemical operation is conducted in a novel manner permitting a much more efficient and less expensive precipitate-recovery operation. That is, the electrochemical operation is conducted under an evolved-hydrogen partial pressure exceeding atmospheric pressure. As a result, most of the evolved hydrogen is entrained as bubbles in the blowdown in the cell. The resulting hydrogen-rich blowdown is introduced to a vented chamber, where the entrained hydrogen combines with the precipitate to form a froth which can be separated by conventional techniques. In addition to the hydrogen, two materials present in most blowdown act as flotation promoters for the precipitate. These are (1) air, with which the blowdown water becomes saturated in the course of normal cooling-tower operation, and (2) surfactants which commonly are added to cooling-tower recirculating-water systems to inhibit the growth of certain organisms or prevent the deposition of insoluble particulates.

DeMonbrun, James R. (Knoxville, TN); Schmitt, Charles R. (Oak Ridge, TN); Williams, Everett H. (Oak Ridge, TN)

1976-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

217

Moisture Vertical Structure, Column Water Vapor, and Tropical Deep Convection  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The vertical structure of the relationship between water vapor and precipitation is analyzed in 5 yr of radiosonde and precipitation gauge data from the Nauru Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) site. The first vertical principal component of ...

Christopher E. Holloway; J. David Neelin

2009-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

218

Water Vapor Tracers as Diagnostics of the Regional Hydrologic Cycle  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Numerous studies suggest that local feedback of surface evaporation on precipitation, known recycling, is a significant source of water for precipitation. Quantitative results on the exact amount of recycling have been difficult to obtain in view ...

Michael G. Bosilovich; Siegfried D. Schubert

2002-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

219

Assessing groundwater storage changes using RS-based evapotranspiration and precipitation at a large semi-arid basin scale  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We present a method, which uses remote sensing based evapotranspiration and precipitation estimates with improved accuracies under semi-arid conditions to quantify a spatially distributed water balance, for analyzing groundwater storage changes ...

Mustafa Gokmen; Zoltan Vekerdy; Maciek W. Lubczynski; Joris Timmermans; Okke Batelaan; Wouter Verhoef

220

Assessing Groundwater Storage Changes Using Remote Sensing–Based Evapotranspiration and Precipitation at a Large Semiarid Basin Scale  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A method is presented that uses remote sensing (RS)-based evapotranspiration (ET) and precipitation estimates with improved accuracies under semiarid conditions to quantify a spatially distributed water balance, for analyzing groundwater storage ...

Mustafa Gokmen; Zoltan Vekerdy; Maciek W. Lubczynski; Joris Timmermans; Okke Batelaan; Wouter Verhoef

2013-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "depth precipitable water" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

Western U.S. Extreme Precipitation Events and Their Relation to ENSO and PDO in CCSM4  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Water resources and management over the western United States are heavily impacted by both local climate variability and the teleconnected responses of precipitation to the El Nińo–Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and Pacific decadal oscillation (PDO). ...

Michael J. DeFlorio; David W. Pierce; Daniel R. Cayan; Arthur J. Miller

2013-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

222

Aluminosilicate Precipitation Impact on Uranium  

SciTech Connect

Experiments have been conducted to examine the fate of uranium during the formation of sodium aluminosilicate (NAS) when wastes containing high aluminate concentrations are mixed with wastes of high silicate concentration. Testing was conducted at varying degrees of uranium saturation. Testing examined typical tank conditions, e.g., stagnant, slightly elevated temperature (50 C). The results showed that under sub-saturated conditions uranium is not removed from solution to any large extent in both simulant testing and actual tank waste testing. This aspect was not thoroughly understood prior to this work and was necessary to avoid criticality issues when actual tank wastes were aggregated. There are data supporting a small removal due to sorption of uranium on sites in the NAS. Above the solubility limit the data are clear that a reduction in uranium concentration occurs concomitant with the formation of aluminosilicate. This uranium precipitation is fairly rapid and ceases when uranium reaches its solubility limit. At the solubility limit, it appears that uranium is not affected, but further testing might be warranted.

WILMARTH, WILLIAM

2006-03-10T23:59:59.000Z

223

Snow Depth on Arctic Sea Ice  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Snow depth and density were measured at Soviet drifting stations on multiyear Arctic sea ice. Measurements were made daily at fixed stakes at the weather station and once- or thrice-monthly at 10-m intervals on a line beginning about 500 m from ...

Stephen G. Warren; Ignatius G. Rigor; Norbert Untersteiner; Vladimir F. Radionov; Nikolay N. Bryazgin; Yevgeniy I. Aleksandrov; Roger Colony

1999-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

224

Depth estimation for ranking query optimization  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A relational ranking query uses a scoring function to limit the results of a conventional query to a small number of the most relevant answers. The increasing popularity of this query paradigm has led to the introduction of specialized rank join operators ... Keywords: DEEP, Data statistics, Depth estimation, Query optimization, Relational ranking query, Top-k

Karl Schnaitter; Joshua Spiegel; Neoklis Polyzotis

2009-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

225

REMOVAL OF FISSION PRODUCTS FROM WATER  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process is given for precipitating fission products from a body of water having a pH of above 6.5. Calcium permanganate and ferrous sulfate are added in a molar ratio of l: 3, whereby a mixed precipitate of manganese dioxide, ferric hydroxide and calcium sulfate is formed; the precipitate carries the fisston products and settles to the bottom of the body of water. (AEC)

Rosinski, J.

1961-12-19T23:59:59.000Z

226

Microsoft Word - defense_in_depth_fanning.doc  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Energy Engineering and Systems Analysis What is Defense in Depth? Defense in Depth is a safety philosophy that guides the design, construction, inspection, operation, and...

227

Intensity, duration, and frequency of precipitation extremes under 21st-century warming scenarios  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Recent research on the projection of precipitation extremes has either focused on conceptual physical mechanisms that generate heavy precipitation or rigorous statistical methods that extrapolate tail behavior. However, informing both climate prediction and impact assessment requires concurrent physically and statistically oriented analysis. A combined examination of climate model simulations and observation-based reanalysis data sets suggests more intense and frequent precipitation extremes under 21st-century warming scenarios. Utilization of statistical extreme value theory and resampling-based uncertainty quantification combined with consideration of the Clausius-Clapeyron relationship reveals consistently intensifying trends for precipitation extremes at a global-average scale. However, regional and decadal analyses reveal specific discrepancies in the physical mechanisms governing precipitation extremes, as well as their statistical trends, especially in the tropics. The intensifying trend of precipitation extremes has quantifiable impacts on intensity-duration-frequency curves, which in turn have direct implications for hydraulic engineering design and water-resources management. The larger uncertainties at regional and decadal scales suggest the need for caution during regional-scale adaptation or preparedness decisions. Future research needs to explore the possibility of uncertainty reduction through higher resolution global climate models, statistical or dynamical downscaling, as well as improved understanding of precipitation extremes processes.

Kao, Shih-Chieh [ORNL; Ganguly, Auroop R [ORNL

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

228

Spectroscopic ellipsometry of electrochemical precipitation and oxidation  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Spectroscopic ellipsometry of electrochemical precipitation and oxidation Spectroscopic ellipsometry of electrochemical precipitation and oxidation of nickel hydroxide films Title Spectroscopic ellipsometry of electrochemical precipitation and oxidation of nickel hydroxide films Publication Type Journal Article Year of Publication 1998 Authors Kong, Fanping, Robert Kostecki, Frank R. McLarnon, and Rolf H. Muller Journal Thin Solid Films Volume 313-314 Pagination 775-780 Keywords effective medium approximation, electrochemical precipitation, inhomogeneous films, nickel hydroxide, spectroscopic ellipsometry Abstract In situ spectroscopic ellipsometry was used to investigate the electrochemical precipitation of nickel hydroxide films. By use of optical models for inhomogeneous films it was found that a specific precipitation current density produced the most compact and homogeneous film structures. The density of nickel hydroxide films was derived to be 1.25-1.50 g/cm3. The redox behavior of precipitated nickel hydroxide films was studied with an effective-medium optical model. Incomplete conversion to nickel oxyhydroxide and a reduction in film thickness were found during the oxidation cycle.

229

EVALUATION OF FROST HEAVE ON WASTE TRANSFER LINES WITH SHALLOW DEPTHS IN DST (DOUBLE SHELL TANK) FARMS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The purpose of this document is to evaluate the effect of frost heave on waste transfer lines with shallow depths in DST farms. Because of the insulation, well compacted sandy material around waste transfer lines, the type of sandy and gravel soil, and relatively low precipitation at Hanford site, it is concluded that waste transfer lines with one foot of soil covers (sandy cushion material and insulation) are not expected to undergo frost heave damaging effects.

HAQ MA

2009-05-12T23:59:59.000Z

230

Microwave Permittivity, Permeability, and Penetration Depth of Pyrite  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Differential Characterization of Ikperejere Iron shale and Iron Sandstone Deposit · Direct Precipitation of ... High Temperature Exposure of Oil Well Cements.

231

Method and apparatus for recovering geopressured methane gas from ocean depths  

SciTech Connect

A suggested method for recovering the estimated 50,000 trillion CF of methane that is dissolved in areas of the Gulf of Mexico at depths of 15,000 ft involves liberating the methane molecules by means of an electrolytic process. Electrodes lowered to the desired depth and insulated from the overlying saltwater establish an electrical circuit with the methane-laden water acting as the electrolyte. The a-c current density causes dissociation of the water molecules, freeing the methane gas, which rises to the ocean surface. A tent-like structure lying on the surface traps the gas for transfer to a storage facility.

Carpenter, N.

1982-08-24T23:59:59.000Z

232

Skill, Correction, and Downscaling of GCM-Simulated Precipitation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The ability of general circulation models (GCMs) to correctly simulate precipitation is usually assessed by comparing simulated mean precipitation with observed climatologies. However, to what extent the skill in simulating average precipitation ...

Jonathan M. Eden; Martin Widmann; David Grawe; Sebastian Rast

2012-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

233

The Diurnal Variation of Precipitation in California and Nevada  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The diurnal variation of precipitation across California and Nevada has been studied by means of a harmonic analysis of 35 years of hourly precipitation data for 347 stations, and a regional probability of precipitation analysis for grouped ...

Michael G. Landin; Lance F. Bosart

1989-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

234

The Effects of Precipitation on Cloud Droplet Measurement Devices  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Aircraft in situ observations of precipitation during the Rain in Cumulus over the Ocean (RICO) field project are used to study and parameterize the effects of precipitation on cloud probes. Specifically, the effects of precipitation on the ...

Brad Baker; Qixu Mo; R. Paul Lawson; Darren O’Connor; Alexei Korolev

2009-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

235

Evaluation of Precipitation Products for Global Hydrological Prediction  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Accurate precipitation data are critical for hydrologic prediction, yet outside the developed world in situ networks are so sparse as to make alternative methods of precipitation estimation essential. Several such alternative precipitation ...

Nathalie Voisin; Andrew W. Wood; Dennis P. Lettenmaier

2008-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

236

A Bias-Corrected Precipitation Climatology for China  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper presents the results of bias corrections of Chinese standard precipitation gauge (CSPG) measurements for wind-induced undercatch, a trace amount of precipitation, and wetting loss. Long-term daily data of precipitation, temperature, ...

Baisheng Ye; Daqing Yang; Yongjian Ding; Tianding Han; Toshio Koike

2004-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

237

Stochastic Simulation Methods for Precipitation and Streamflow Time Series  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

One major acknowledged challenge in daily precipitation is the inability to model extreme events in the spectrum of events. These extreme events are rare but may cause large losses. How to realistically simulate extreme behavior of daily precipitation is necessary and important. To that end, a hybrid probability distribution is developed. The logic of this distribution is to simulate the low to moderate values by an exponential distribution and extremes by a generalized Pareto distribution. Compared with alternatives, the developed hybrid distribution is capable of simulating the entire range of precipitation amount and is much easier to use. The hybrid distribution is then used to construct a bivariate discrete-continuous mixed distribution, which is used for building a daily precipitation generator. The developed generator can successfully reproduce extreme events. Compared with other widely used generators, the most important advantage of the developed generator is that it is apt at extrapolating values significantly beyond the upper range of observed data. The major challenge in monthly streamflow simulation is referred to the underrepresentation of inter-annual variability. The inter-annual variability is often related with sustained droughts or periods of high flows. Preserving inter-annual variability is thus of particular importance for the long-term management of water resources systems. To that end, variables conveying such inter-annual signals should be used as covariates. This requires models that must be flexible at incorporating as many covariates as necessary. Keeping this point in mind, a joint conditional density estimation network is developed. Therein, the joint distribution of streamflows of two adjacent months is assumed to follow a specific parametric family. Parameters of the distribution are estimated by an artificial neural network. Due to the seasonal concentration of precipitation or the joint effect of rainfall and snowmelt, monthly streamflow distribution sometimes may exhibit a bimodal shape. To reproduce bimodality, nonparametric models are often preferred. However, the simulated sequences from existing nonparametric models represent too close a resemblance to historical record. To address this issue, while retaining typical merits of nonparametric models, a multi-model regression-sampling algorithm with a few weak assumptions is developed. Collecting hydrometric data is the first step for building hydrologic models, and for planning, design, operation, and management of water resource systems. In this dissertation, an entropy-theory-based criterion, termed maximum information minimum redundancy, is proposed for hydrometric monitoring network evaluation and design. Compared with existing similar approaches, the criterion is apt at finding stations with high information content, and locating independent stations.

Li, Chao

2013-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

238

Mobile Variable Depth Sampling System Design Study  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A design study is presented for a mobile, variable depth sampling system (MVDSS) that will support the treatment and immobilization of Hanford LAW and HLW. The sampler can be deployed in a 4-inch tank riser and has a design that is based on requirements identified in the Level 2 Specification (latest revision). The waste feed sequence for the MVDSS is based on Phase 1, Case 3S6 waste feed sequence. Technical information is also presented that supports the design study.

BOGER, R.M.

2000-08-25T23:59:59.000Z

239

Hydraulic frac sets Rockies depth record  

SciTech Connect

A depth record for massive hydraulic fracture in the Rocky Mt. region was set April 22 with the treatment of a central Wyoming gas well. The No. 1-29 Moneta Hills Well was treated through perforations at 19,838 to 19,874 ft and 20,064 to 20,100 ft. Soon after, another well in the Madden Deep Field was subject to hydraulic fracture through perforations a

Not Available

1980-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

240

Statistical Relationships between Topography and Precipitation Patterns  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Statistical relationships between topography and the spatial distribution of mean annual precipitation are developed for ten distinct mountainous regions. These relationships are derived through linear bivariate and multivariate analyses, using ...

Alan Basist; Gerald D. Bell; Vernon Meentemeyer

1994-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "depth precipitable water" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

The Environment of Precipitating Shallow Cumulus Convection  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Quantitative estimates of precipitation in a typical undisturbed trade wind region are derived from 2 months of radar reflectivity data and compared to the meteorological environment determined from soundings, surface flux, and airborne-lidar ...

Louise Nuijens; Bjorn Stevens; A. Pier Siebesma

2009-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

242

Estimates of Characteristic Times for Precipitation Scavenging  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We address the problem of using climatological data to estimate residence times in the atmosphere of particles subjected to precipitation scavenging. Basic parameters are the scavenging coefficient ?, the rainfall intensity R and the length of ...

Henning Rodhe; Jan Grandell

1981-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

243

Predictability of Seasonal Precipitation Using Joint Probabilities  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper tests whether seasonal mean precipitation is predictable using a new method that estimates and analyzes joint probabilities. The new estimation method is to partition the globe into boxes, pool all data within the box to estimate a ...

M. Tugrul Yilmaz; Timothy DelSole

2010-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

244

Interannual Variations of Tropical Precipitation Patterns  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Seasonal and annual precipitation anomalies, normalized with respect to the standard deviations, are computed for stations between 30°S and 30°N. It is established that the annual anomalies are normally distributed. Spatially averaged anomalies ...

Till Stoeckenius

1981-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

245

Precipitation from Space: Advancing Earth System Science  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Advances to space-based observing systems and data processing techniques have made precipitation datasets quickly and easily available via various data portals and widely used in Earth sciences. The increasingly lengthy time span of space-based ...

Paul A. Kucera; Elizabeth E. Ebert; F. Joseph Turk; Vincenzo Levizzani; Dalia Kirschbaum; Francisco J. Tapiador; Alexander Loew; M. Borsche

2013-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

246

Wakasa Bay: An AMSR Precipitation Validation Campaign  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The “Wakasa Bay Experiment” was conducted in order to refine error models for oceanic precipitation from the Advanced Microwave Sounding Radiometer-Earth Observing System (AMSR-E) measurements and to develop algorithms for snowfall. The NASA P-3 ...

Elena S. Lobl; Kazumasa Aonashi; Masataka Murakami; Brian Griffith; Christian Kummerow; Guosheng Liu; Thomas Wilheit

2007-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

247

Radar Backscattering by Inhomogeneous Precipitation Particles  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Calculations of radar backscattering by inhomogeneous precipitation particles require values of the dielectric function of two-component mixtures. Four such dielectric functions are critically examined and their relative merits are weighed. ...

Craig F. Bohren; Louis J. Battan

1980-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

248

Initial Precipitation Formation in Warm Florida Cumulus  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The microphysical processes that lead to the development of precipitation in small, warm cumulus are examined using data from the Small Cumulus Microphysics Study near Cape Canaveral, Florida. Aircraft measurements are used to determine the ...

Neil F. Laird; Harry T. Ochs III; Robert M. Rauber; L. Jay Miller

2000-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

249

Causes of Robust Seasonal Land Precipitation Changes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Historical simulations from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 5 (CMIP5) archive are used to calculate the zonal mean change in seasonal land precipitation for the second half of the twentieth century in response to a range of ...

Debbie Polson; Gabriele C. Hegerl; Xuebin Zhang; Timothy J. Osborn

250

Quantifying Precipitation Suppression Due to Air Pollution  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Urban air pollution and industrial air pollution have been shown qualitatively to suppress rain and snow. Here, precipitation losses over topographical barriers downwind of major coastal urban areas in California and in the land of Israel that ...

Amir Givati; Daniel Rosenfeld

2004-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

251

Improved Reconstruction of Global Precipitation since 1900  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An improved land–ocean global monthly precipitation anomaly reconstruction is developed for the period beginning in 1900. Reconstructions use the available historical data and statistics developed from the modern satellite-sampled period to ...

Thomas M. Smith; Phillip A. Arkin; Li Ren; Samuel S. P. Shen

2012-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

252

Specification of United States Summer Season Precipitation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The specification of summer season precipitation in the contiguous United States from summer season fields of 700 mb height, sea level pressure (SLP) and Pacific sea surface temperature (SST) was carried out using stepwise multiple linear ...

John R. Lanzante; Robert P. Harnack

1982-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

253

Precipitation at Ocean Weather Station “P"  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper examines the 27-yr record of precipitation measurements at Ocean Weather Station “P” (50°N, 145°W). The credibility of the rainfall observations is assessed, and the testing of certain extraordinary features of the fall and winter ...

M. A. Jenkins; W. C. Wong; K. Higuchi; J. L. Knox

1994-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

254

Precipitation Growth Trajectories in a CCOPE Storm  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The growth trajectories of precipitation particles that attain diameters from 0.5 to 2.0 cm are modeled within the wind field of a small, relatively steady-state, southeastern Montana thunderstorm. The trajectories are calculated backwards, from ...

Charles A. Knight; Kevin R. Knupp

1986-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

255

The Tropical Precipitation Response to Orbital Precession  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Orbital precession changes the seasonal distribution of insolation at a given latitude but not the annual mean. Hence, the correlation of paleoclimate proxies of annual-mean precipitation with orbital precession implies a nonlinear rectification ...

Timothy M. Merlis; Tapio Schneider; Simona Bordoni; Ian Eisenman

2013-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

256

Hypothesis Tests for Evaluating Numerical Precipitation Forecasts  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

When evaluating differences between competing precipitation forecasts, formal hypothesis testing is rarely performed. This may be due to the difficulty in applying common tests given the spatial correlation of and non-normality of errors. ...

Thomas M. Hamill

1999-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

257

The Severe Thunderstorm Electrification and Precipitation Study  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

During May–July 2000, the Severe Thunderstorm Electrification and Precipitation Study (STEPS) occurred in the High Plains, near the Colorado–Kansas border. STEPS aimed to achieve a better understanding of the interactions between kinematics, ...

Timothy J. Lang; L. Jay Miller; Morris Weisman; Steven A. Rutledge; Llyle J. Barker III; V. N. Bringi; V. Chandrasekar; Andrew Detwiler; Nolan Doesken; John Helsdon; Charles Knight; Paul Krehbiel; Walter A. Lyons; Don Macgorman; Erik Rasmussen; William Rison; W. David Rust; Ronald J. Thomas

2004-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

258

Environmental Influence on Typhoon Bobbie's Precipitation Distribution  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The distribution and intensity of tropical cyclone precipitation has been known to have a large influence on the intensification and maintenance of the system. Therefore, monitoring the tropical cyclone convective rainband cycle and the large-...

Edward B. Rodgers; Harold F. Pierce

1995-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

259

Calibration of Probabilistic Quantitative Precipitation Forecasts  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

From 1 August 1990 to 31 July 1995, the Weather Service Forecast Office in Pittsburgh prepared 6159 probabilistic quantitative precipitation forecasts. Forecasts were made twice a day for 24-h periods beginning at 0000 and 1200 UTC for two river ...

Roman Krzysztofowicz; Ashley A. Sigrest

1999-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

260

Probabilistic Quantitative Precipitation Forecasts for River Basins  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A methodology has been formulated to aid a field forecaster in preparing probabilistic quantitative precipitation forecasts (QPFs) for river basins. The format of probabilistic QPF is designed to meet three requirements: (i) it is compatible with ...

Roman Krzysztofowicz; William J. Drzal; Theresa Rossi Drake; James C. Weyman; Louis A. Giordano

1993-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "depth precipitable water" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

A Bayesian Quantitative Precipitation Nowcast Scheme  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Very short-period quantitative precipitation forecast (QPF) or nowcast schemes provide deterministic output that fails to convey explicit measures of the uncertainty in the forecast. Presented here is a forecast methodology based upon a Bayesian ...

Neil I. Fox; Christopher K. Wikle

2005-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

262

Quantifying Southern Oscillation-Precipitation Relationships  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A series of earlier studies has identified regions of the world in which precipitation appears to have a consistent relationship with the Southern Oscillation (SO). In this paper, the authors attempt to quantify this relationship based on shifts ...

Chester F. Ropelewski; Michael S. Halpert

1996-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

263

Optimization of Heat Recovery from the Precipitation Circuit  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

For this reason, plate heat exchangers are used both at inlet to Precipitation and in between precipitation stages at Vedanta Aluminium's Lanjigarh alumina ...

264

Precipitation in a lead calcium tin anode  

SciTech Connect

Samples from a hot rolled sheet of a tin and calcium bearing lead alloy were solution heat treated at 300 Degree-Sign C and cooled down to room temperature at different rates; these samples were left at room temperature to study natural precipitation of CaSn{sub 3} particles. The samples were aged for 45 days before analysing their microstructure, which was carried out in a scanning electron microscope using secondary and backscattered electron detectors. Selected X-ray spectra analyses were conducted to verify the nature of the precipitates. Images were taken at different magnifications in both modes of observation to locate the precipitates and record their position within the images and calculate the distance between them. Differential scanning calorimeter analyses were conducted on selected samples. It was found that the mechanical properties of the material correlate with the minimum average distance between precipitates, which is related to the average cooling rate from solution heat treatment. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The distance between precipitates in a lead alloy is recorded. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The relationship between the distance and the cooling rate is established. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer It is found that the strengthening of the alloy depends on the distance between precipitates.

Perez-Gonzalez, Francisco A., E-mail: fco.aurelio@inbox.com [Facultad de Ingenieria Mecanica y Electrica, Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon (Mexico); Centro de Innovacion, Investigacion y Desarrollo en Ingenieria y Tecnologia, Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon (Mexico); Camurri, Carlos G., E-mail: ccamurri@udec.cl [Departamento de Ingenieria de Materiales, Universidad de Concepcion (Chile); Carrasco, Claudia A., E-mail: ccarrascoc@udec.cl [Departamento de Ingenieria de Materiales, Universidad de Concepcion (Chile); Colas, Rafael, E-mail: rafael.colas@uanl.edu.mx [Facultad de Ingenieria Mecanica y Electrica, Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon (Mexico); Centro de Innovacion, Investigacion y Desarrollo en Ingenieria y Tecnologia, Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon (Mexico)

2012-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

265

Development and application of new methods to retrieve vertical structure of precipitation above the ARM CART sites from MMCR measurementsĂ?Âť  

SciTech Connect

The main objective of this project was to develop, validate and apply remote sensing methods to retrieve vertical profiles of precipitation over the DOE ARM CART sites using currently available remote sensors. While the ARM Program invested very heavily into developments of remote sensing methods and instruments for water vapor and non-precipitating cloud parameter retrievals, precipitation retrievals and studies lagged behind. Precipitation, however, is a crucial part of the water cycle, and without detailed information on rainfall and snowfall, significant improvements in the atmospheric models of different scales (i.e., one of the ARM Program's main goals) is difficult to achieve. Characterization of the vertical atmospheric column above the CART sites is also incomplete without detailed precipitation information, so developments of remote sensing methods for retrievals of parameters in precipitating cloud condition was essential. Providing modelers with retrieval results was also one of the key objectives of this research project.

Dr. Sergey Matrosov

2010-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

266

The Use of L-Moments in the Determination of Regional Precipitation Climates  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

As part of a national study of water management during periods of drought, the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers is underwriting the preparation of a national drought atlas. One of the variables being analyzed for the atlas is precipitation. A ...

Nathaniel B. Guttman

1993-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

267

Homogeneous Precipitation of Nickel Hydroxide Powders  

SciTech Connect

Precipitation and characterization of nickel hydroxide powders were investigated. A comprehensive precipitation model incorporating the metal ion hydrolysis, complexation and precipitation reactions was developed for the production of the powders with urea precipitation method. Model predictions on Ni{sup 2+} precipitation rate were confirmed with precipitation experiments carried out at 90 C. Experimental data and model predictions were in remarkable agreement. Uncertainty in the solubility product data of nickel hydroxides was found to be the large contributor to the error. There were demonstrable compositional variations across the particle cross-sections and the growth mechanism was determined to be the aggregation of primary crystallites. This implied that there is a change in the intercalate chemistry of the primary crystallites with digestion time. Predicted changes in the concentrations of simple and complex ions in the solution support the proposed mechanism. The comprehensive set of hydrolysis reactions used in the model described above allows the investigation of other systems provided that accurate reaction constants are available. the fact that transition metal ions like Ni{sup 2+} form strong complexes with ammonia presents a challenge in the full recovery of the Ni{sup 2+}. On the other hand, presence of Al{sup 3+} facilitates the complete precipitation of Ni{sup 2+} in about 3 hours of digestion. A challenge in their predictive modeling studies had been the fact that simultaneous incorporation of more than one metal ion necessitates a different approach than just using the equilibrium constants of hydrolysis, complexation and precipitation reactions. Another limitation of using equilibrium constants is that the nucleation stage of digestion, which is controlled mainly by kinetics, is not fully justified. A new program released by IBM Almaden Research Center (Chemical Kinetics Simulator{trademark}, Version 1.01) lets the user change the order of kinetic components of a reaction which was set to stoichiometric constant with which the species appear in the reaction in KINSIM by default. For instance, in the case of LDH precipitation, the new program allows to change the order of species in the reactions associated with Al{sup 3+} and let the Ni{sup 2+} reactions take over. This could be carried on iteratively until a good fit between the experimental data and the predictions were observed. However for such studies availability of accurate equilibrium constants (especially for the solubility products for the solid phase) is a prerequisite.

Bora Mavis

2003-12-12T23:59:59.000Z

268

Electrical Resistivity Imaging for Unknown Bridge Foundation Depth Determination  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Unknown bridge foundations pose a significant safety risk due to stream scour and erosion. Records from older structures may be non-existent, incomplete, or incorrect. Nondestructive and inexpensive geophysical methods have been identified as suitable to investigate unknown bridge foundations. The objective of the present study is to apply advanced 2D electrical resistivity imaging (ERI) in order to identify depth of unknown bridge foundations. A survey procedure is carried out in mixed terrain water and land environments with rough topography. A conventional resistivity survey procedure is used with the electrodes installed on the stream banks. However, some electrodes must be adapted for underwater use. Tests were conducted in one laboratory experimentation and at five field experimentations located at three roadway bridges, a geotechnical test site, and a railway bridge. The first experimentation was at the bridges with the smallest foundations, later working up in size to larger drilled shafts and spread footings. Both known to unknown foundations were investigated. The geotechnical test site is used as an experimental site for 2D and 3D ERI. The data acquisition is carried out along 2D profile with a linear array in the dipole-dipole configuration. The data collections have been carried out using electrodes deployed directly across smaller foundations. Electrodes are deployed in proximity to larger foundations to image them from the side. The 2D ERI can detect the presence of a bridge foundation but is unable to resolve its precise shape and depth. Increasing the spatial extent of the foundation permits better image of its shape and depth. Using electrode < 1 m to detect a slender foundation < 1 m in diameter is not feasible. The 2D ERI method that has been widely used for land surface surveys presently can be adapted effectively in water-covered environments. The method is the most appropriate geophysical method for determination of unknown bridge foundations. Fully 3D ERI method at bridge sites is labor intensive, time consuming, and does not add enough value over 2D ERI to make it worthwhile.

Arjwech, Rungroj

2011-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

269

Accurate hydrogen depth profiling by reflection elastic recoil detection analysis  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A technique to convert reflection elastic recoil detection analysis spectra to depth profiles, the channel-depth conversion, was introduced by Verda, et al [1]. But the channel-depth conversion does not correct for energy spread, the unwanted broadening in the energy of the spectra, which can lead to errors in depth profiling. A work in progress introduces a technique that corrects for energy spread in elastic recoil detection analysis spectra, the energy spread correction [2]. Together, the energy spread correction and the channel-depth conversion comprise an accurate and convenient hydrogen depth profiling method.

Verda, R. D. (Raymond D.); Tesmer, Joseph R.; Nastasi, Michael Anthony,; Bower, R. W. (Robert W.)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

270

LLNL scientists find precipitation, global warming link  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

4 4 For immediate release: 11/11/2013 | NR-13-11-04 Lawrence Livermore scientists have found that observed changes in global precipitation are directly affected by human activities. LLNL scientists find precipitation, global warming link Anne M Stark, LLNL, (925) 422-9799, stark8@llnl.gov LIVERMORE, Calif. -- The rain in Spain may lie mainly on the plain, but the location and intensity of that rain is changing not only in Spain but around the globe. A new study by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory scientists shows that observed changes in global (ocean and land) precipitation are directly affected by human activities and cannot be explained by natural variability alone. The research appears in the Nov. 11 online edition of the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.

271

Depth through Breadth: Addressing the Grand Challenges of ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Materialization of Manganese by Selective Precipitation from Used Battery · Materials ... The Challenge of Allocation in LCA: The Case of Open-Loop Recycling.

272

Influence of variable topsoil replacement depths on soil chemical parameters within a coal mine in northeastern Wyoming, USA  

SciTech Connect

Uniform topsoil replacement depths on coal mine reclaimed areas have been mandated by USA federal and state regulations; however, soils of the premine landscape are not naturally uniform in depth and vary in physical, chemical, and biological characteristics. In addition, uniform topsoil depths may actually hinder the development of diverse reclaimed plant communities. We studied the effect of varying topsoil replacement depth treatments (15, 30, and 56 cm) on soil and backfill pH, electrolytic conductivity (EC), and sodium adsorption ratio (SAR) within a reclaimed coal mine study area. Backfill material (also known as spoil) at this site did not possess levels of pH, EC, and SAR that were detrimental to plant growth. There was only a slight reduction in pH, EC, and SAR within the upper 15 cm depth in the reclaimed topsoil treatments with a general increase of EC and SAR in the lower portion of the replaced soil profile. Some downward movement of soluble salts within the reclaimed treatments was evident despite low precipitation. For examples, SAR in the 0-15 cm depth over all reclaimed treatments was lower in 2002 than 2000-2001, and the 0-30 cm portion of the reclaimed soil profile had reduced pH and EC, while the 30-60 cm portion had increased EC and SAR. It is anticipated that soil quality differences in terms of pH, EC, and SAR between topsoil depth treatments will be enhanced with time. Comparison of the reclaimed area to the native reference areas suggested numerous depth differences as a result of homogeneity of the replaced topsoil vs. undisturbed soil profiles.

Schladweiler, B.K.; Vance, G.F.; Legg, D.E.; Munn, L.C.; Haroian, R. [University of Wyoming, Laramie, WY (US). Dept. of Renewable Resources

2004-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

273

Assessing a Satellite-Era Perspective of the Global Water Cycle  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The capability of a global data compilation, largely satellite based, is assessed to depict the global atmospheric water cycle’s mean state and variability. Monthly global precipitation estimates from the Global Precipitation Climatology Project (...

C. Adam Schlosser; Paul R. Houser

2007-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

274

Defence-In-Depth: Application firewalls in a defence-in-depth design  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

It is well known and accepted by most security professionals that defence-in-depth is an important security principle: the age-old saying of ''don't put all your eggs in one basket'' applies just as much here as elsewhere. The wise assume that any part ...

Paul Byrne

2006-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

275

Distillate in Depth – The Supply, Demand, and Price Picture  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Distillate in Depth – The Supply, Demand, and Price Picture John Hackworth Joanne Shore Energy Information Administration ... In Response to Price, ...

276

Long-term impacts of aerosols on vertical development of cloud and precipitation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Aerosols alter cloud density and the radiative balance of the atmosphere. This leads to changes in cloud microphysics and atmospheric stability, which can either suppress or foster the development of clouds and precipitation. The net effect is largely unknown, but depends on meteorological conditions and aerosol properties. Here, we examine the long-term impact of aerosols on the vertical development of clouds and rainfall frequencies, using a 10-year dataset of aerosol, cloud and meteorological variables collected in the Southern Great Plains in the United States. We show that cloud-top height and thickness increase with aerosol concentration measured near the ground in mixed-phase clouds-which contain both liquid water and ice-that have a warm, low base. We attribute the effect, which is most significant in summer, to an aerosol-induced invigoration of upward winds. In contrast, we find no change in cloud-top height and precipitation with aerosol concentration in clouds with no ice or cool bases. We further show that precipitation frequency and rain rate are altered by aerosols. Rain increases with aerosol concentration in deep clouds that have a high liquid-water content, but declines in clouds that have a low liquid-water content. Simulations using a cloud-resolving model confirm these observations. Our findings provide unprecedented insights of the long-term net impacts of aerosols on clouds and precipitation.

Li Z.; Liu Y.; Niu, F.; Fan, J.; Rosenfeld, D.; Ding, Y.

2011-11-13T23:59:59.000Z

277

Soft computing techniques in ensemble precipitation nowcast  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This study presented various soft computing techniques for forecasting the hourly precipitations during tropical cyclones. The purpose of the current study is to present a concise and synthesized documentation of the current level of skill of various ... Keywords: Forecast, Machine learning, Rainfall, Skill score

Chih-Chiang Wei

2013-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

278

A Method to Determine Precipitation Types  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A method to diagnose surface precipitation types is suggested. Most cases of freezing rain and ice pellets occur with a layer warmer than 0°C extending above a surface-based layer of air colder than 0°C. The procedure uses predictors proportional ...

Pierre Bourgouin

2000-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

279

RECOVERY OF PLUTONIUM BY CARRIER PRECIPITATION  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The recovery of plutonium from an aqueous nitric acid Zr-containing solution of 0.2 to 1N acidity is accomplished by adding fluoride anions (1.5 to 5 mg/l), and precipitating the Pu with an excess of H/sub 2/0/sub 2/ at 53 to 65 deg C. (AEC)

Goeckermann, R.H.

1961-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

280

Weekly Precipitation Cycles along the Northeast Corridor?  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Twenty years of precipitation data from seven cities along or near the east coast of the United States from the northern mid-Atlantic region to northern New England have been analyzed to determine if there are any weekly cycles in either daily ...

Mark P. DeLisi; Alan M. Cope; Jason K. Franklin

2001-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "depth precipitable water" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

The Isotopic Composition of Cyclonic Precipitation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The deuterium/hydrogen ratios ?D of sequential samples of precipitation at Palisades, New York were measured during four separate storms during January 1978. The values ranged from a low of ?177‰ to a high of ?30‰. For each of the storms there ...

Stanley David Gedzelman; James R. Lawrence

1982-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

282

Causes of Robust Seasonal Land Precipitation Changes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Historical simulations from phase 5 of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5) archive are used to calculate the zonal-mean change in seasonal land precipitation for the second half of the twentieth century in response to a range of ...

Debbie Polson; Gabriele C. Hegerl; Xuebin Zhang; Timothy J. Osborn

2013-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

283

A Nonhomogeneous Hidden Markov Model for Precipitation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

patterns called weather states". The weather states are assumed to follow a Markov chain in which-level pressure. Precipitation is assumed to be conditionally temporally independent given the weather state. In developing hydrologic models re- searchers use information on temperature, solar radiation and other climatic

Washington at Seattle, University of

284

Superconductor precursor mixtures made by precipitation method  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Method and apparatus for preparing highly pure homogeneous precursor powder mixtures for metal oxide superconductive ceramics. The mixes are prepared by instantaneous precipitation from stoichiometric solutions of metal salts such as nitrates at controlled pH's within the 9 to 12 range, by addition of solutions of non-complexing pyrolyzable cations, such as alkyammonium and carbonate ions.

Bunker, Bruce C. (Albuquerque, NM); Lamppa, Diana L. (Albuquerque, NM); Voigt, James A. (Albuquerque, NM)

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

285

Investigation of Neptunium Precipitator Cleanout Options  

SciTech Connect

Oxalate precipitation followed by filtration is used to prepare plutonium oxalate. Historically, plutonium oxalate has tended to accumulate in the precipitation tanks. These solids are periodically removed by flushing with concentrated (64 percent) nitric acid. The same precipitation tanks will now be used in the processing of neptunium. Literature values indicate that neptunium oxalate may not be as soluble as plutonium oxalate in nitric acid. Although a wide variety of options is available to improve neptunium oxalate solubility for precipitator flushing, most of these options are not practical for use. Many of these options require the use of incompatible or difficult to handle chemicals. Other options would require expensive equipment modifications or are likely to lead to product contamination. Based on review of literature and experimental results, the two best options for flushing the precipitator are (1) 64 percent nitric acid and (2) addition of sodium permanganate follow ed by sodium nitrite. Nitric acid is the easiest option to implement. It is already used in the facility and will not lead to product contamination. Experimental results indicate that neptunium oxalate can be dissolved in concentrated nitric acid (64 percent) at 60 degree C to a concentration of 2.6 to 5.6 grams of Np/liter after at least three hours of heating. A lower concentration (1.1 grams of Np/liter) was measured at 60 degree C after less than two hours of heating. These concentrations are acceptable for flushing if precipitator holdup is low (approximately 100-250 grams), but a second method is required for effective flushing if precipitator holdup is high (approximately 2 kilograms). The most effective method for obtaining higher neptunium concentrations is the use of sodium permanganate followed by the addition of sodium nitrite. There is concern that residual manganese from these flushes could impact product purity. Gas generation during permanganate addition is also a concern. Experimental results indicate that a solubility of at least 40 grams of Np/liter can be obtained using permanganate at ambient temperature, although it is expected that even higher neptunium concentrations can be achieved.

Hill, B.C.

2003-09-08T23:59:59.000Z

286

Steady states and linear stability analysis of precipitation pattern formation at geothermal hot springs  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A dynamical theory of geophysical precipitation pattern formation is presented and applied to irreversible calcium carbonate (travertine) deposition. Specific systems studied here are the terraces and domes observed at geothermal hot springs, such as those at Yellowstone National Park, and speleothems, particularly stalactites and stalagmites. The theory couples the precipitation front dynamics with shallow water flow, including corrections for turbulent drag and curvature effects. In the absence of capillarity and with a laminar flow profile, the theory predicts a one-parameter family of steady state solutions to the moving boundary problem describing the precipitation front. These shapes match well the measured shapes near the vent at the top of observed travertine domes. Closer to the base of the dome, the solutions deviate from observations, and circular symmetry is broken by a fluting pattern, which we show is associated with capillary forces causing thin film break-up. We relate our model to that recent...

Chan, Pak Yuen

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

287

Innovative Water Management Technology to Reduce Environmental Impacts of Produced Water  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Clemson University with Chevron as an industry partner developed and applied treatment technology using constructed wetland systems to decrease targeted constituents in simulated and actual produced waters to achieve reuse criteria and discharge limits. Pilot-scale and demonstration constructed wetland treatment system (CWTS) experiments led to design strategies for treating a variety of constituents of concern (COCs) in produced waters including divalent metals, metalloids, oil and grease, and ammonia. Targeted biogeochemical pathways for treatment of COCs in pilot-scale CWTS experiments included divalent metal sulfide precipitation through dissimilatory sulfate reduction, metal precipitation through oxidation, reduction of selenite to insoluble elemental selenium, aerobic biodegradation of oil, nitrification of ammonia to nitrate, denitrification of nitrate to nitrogen gas, separation of oil using an oilwater separator, and sorption of ammonia to zeolite. Treatment performance results indicated that CWTSs can be designed and built to promote specific environmental and geochemical conditions in order for targeted biogeochemical pathways to operate. The demonstration system successfully achieved consistent removal extents even while inflow concentrations of COCs in the produced water differed by orders of magnitude. Design strategies used in the pilot-scale and demonstration CWTSs to promote specific conditions that can be applied to designing full-scale CWTSs include plant and soil selection, water-depth selection, addition of amendments, and hydraulic retention time (HRT). These strategies allow conditions within a CWTS to be modified to achieve ranges necessary for the preferred biogeochemical treatment pathways. In the case of renovating a produced water containing COCs that require different biogeochemical pathways for treatment, a CWTS can be designed with sequential cells that promote different conditions. For example, the pilot-scale CWTS for post-reverse osmosis produced water was designed to promote oxidizing conditions within the first wetland cell for nitrification of ammonia, and the subsequent three cells were designed to promote reducing conditions for denitrification of nitrate. By incorporating multiple wetland cells in a CWTS, the conditions within each cell can be modified for removal of specific COCs. In addition, a CWTS designed with multiple cells allows for convenient sample collection points so that biogeochemical conditions of individual cells can be monitored and performance evaluated. Removal rate coefficients determined from the pilot-scale CWTS experiments and confirmed by the demonstration system can be used to calculate HRTs required to treat COCs in full-scale CWTSs. The calculated HRTs can then be used to determine the surface area or ?footprint? of a full-size CWTS for a given inflow rate of produced water.

Castle, James; Rodgers, John; Alley, Bethany; Beebe, Alex; Coffey, Ruthanne; Jurinko, Kristen; Pardue, Michael; Ritter, Tina; Spacil, Michael

2013-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

288

Innovative Water Management Technology to Reduce Environment Impacts of Produced Water  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Clemson University with Chevron as an industry partner developed and applied treatment technology using constructed wetland systems to decrease targeted constituents in simulated and actual produced waters to achieve reuse criteria and discharge limits. Pilot-scale and demonstration constructed wetland treatment system (CWTS) experiments led to design strategies for treating a variety of constituents of concern (COCs) in produced waters including divalent metals, metalloids, oil and grease, and ammonia. Targeted biogeochemical pathways for treatment of COCs in pilot-scale CWTS experiments included divalent metal sulfide precipitation through dissimilatory sulfate reduction, metal precipitation through oxidation, reduction of selenite to insoluble elemental selenium, aerobic biodegradation of oil, nitrification of ammonia to nitrate, denitrification of nitrate to nitrogen gas, separation of oil using an oilwater separator, and sorption of ammonia to zeolite. Treatment performance results indicated that CWTSs can be designed and built to promote specific environmental and geochemical conditions in order for targeted biogeochemical pathways to operate. The demonstration system successfully achieved consistent removal extents even while inflow concentrations of COCs in the produced water differed by orders of magnitude. Design strategies used in the pilot-scale and demonstration CWTSs to promote specific conditions that can be applied to designing full-scale CWTSs include plant and soil selection, water-depth selection, addition of amendments, and hydraulic retention time (HRT). These strategies allow conditions within a CWTS to be modified to achieve ranges necessary for the preferred biogeochemical treatment pathways. In the case of renovating a produced water containing COCs that require different biogeochemical pathways for treatment, a CWTS can be designed with sequential cells that promote different conditions. For example, the pilot-scale CWTS for post-reverse osmosis produced water was designed to promote oxidizing conditions within the first wetland cell for nitrification of ammonia, and the subsequent three cells were designed to promote reducing conditions for denitrification of nitrate. By incorporating multiple wetland cells in a CWTS, the conditions within each cell can be modified for removal of specific COCs. In addition, a CWTS designed with multiple cells allows for convenient sample collection points so that biogeochemical conditions of individual cells can be monitored and performance evaluated. Removal rate coefficients determined from the pilot-scale CWTS experiments and confirmed by the demonstration system can be used to calculate HRTs required to treat COCs in full-scale CWTSs. The calculated HRTs can then be used to determine the surface area or ?footprint? of a full-size CWTS for a given inflow rate of produced water.

Castle, James; Rodgers, John; Alley, Bethany; Coffey, Ruthanne; Jurinko, Kristen; Pardue, Michael; Ritter, Tina; Spacil, Michael

2013-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

289

Water softening process  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This invention involves an improved process for softening hard water which comprises selectively precipitaing CaCO.sub.3 to form a thin layer thereof, increasing the pH of said water to precipitate magnesium as magnesium hydroxide and then filtering the resultant slurry through said layer. The CaCO.sub.3 layer serves as a thin permeable layer which has particularly useful application in cross-flow filtration applications.

Sheppard, John D. (Oak Ridge, TN); Thomas, David G. (Oak Ridge, TN)

1976-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

290

Determination of Rainfall with the ESOC Precipitation Index  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A validation of the ESOC (European Space 0Perations Centre) Precipitation Index (EPI) is carried out by comparing satellite data with observed rainfall in five African countries to determine the ability of estimating accumulated precipitation ...

Olli M. Turpeinen; Azzouz Abidi; Wahid Belhouane

1987-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

291

Understanding Prediction Skill of Seasonal Mean Precipitation over the Tropics  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The connection between the local SST and precipitation (SST–P) correlation and the prediction skill of precipitation on a seasonal time scale is investigated based on seasonal hindcasts from the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) ...

Arun Kumar; Mingyue Chen; Wanqiu Wang

2013-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

292

Tropical Convection and Precipitation Regimes in the Western United States  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The authors have documented the relationship between tropical convection and precipitation regimes in the western United States. Circulation patterns associated with precipitation regimes are described and physical mechanisms are proposed. ...

Kingtse C. Mo; R. W. Higgins

1998-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

293

Modulation of Caribbean Precipitation by the Madden–Julian Oscillation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Based on 12 years of daily satellite precipitation data and reanalysis winds, intraseasonal (30–90 days) variability in Caribbean precipitation is linked to phases of the Madden–Julian oscillation (MJO). Intraseasonal variability is largest ...

Elinor R. Martin; Courtney Schumacher

2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

294

On the Conditional Distribution of Daily Precipitation Amounts  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Possible conditional dependence of the distribution of daily precipitation amounts on the occurrence of precipitation on the preceding day is examined. Test results based on 25 years of data at 30 stations in the conterminous United States show ...

Edwin H. Chin; John F. Miller

1980-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

295

Storm Morphology and Rainfall Characteristics of TRMM Precipitation Features  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Precipitation Radar (PR), TRMM Microwave Imager (TMI), and Visible and Infrared Scanner (VIRS) observations within the Precipitation Feature (PF) database have been analyzed to examine regional ...

Stephen W. Nesbitt; Robert Cifelli; Steven A. Rutledge

2006-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

296

Stochastic versus Dynamical Downscaling of Ensemble Precipitation Forecasts  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The assessment of hydrometeorological risk in small basins requires the availability of skillful, high-resolution quantitative precipitation forecasts to predict the probability of occurrence of severe, localized precipitation events. Large-scale ...

Elisa Brussolo; Jost von Hardenberg; Nicola Rebora

2009-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

297

Canadian Precipitation Patterns Associated with the Southern Oscillation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Precipitation responses over Canada associated with the two extreme phases of the Southern Oscillation (SO), namely El Nińo and La Nińa, are identified. Using the best available precipitation data from 1911 to 1994, both the spatial and temporal ...

Amir Shabbar; Barrie Bonsal; Madhav Khandekar

1997-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

298

Adjusting Satellite Precipitation Data to Facilitate Hydrologic Modeling  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Significant concern has been expressed regarding the ability of satellite-based precipitation products such as the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Multisatellite Precipitation ...

Kenneth J. Tobin; Marvin E. Bennett

2010-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

299

Exploratory Analysis of Precipitation Events with Implications for Stochastic Modeling  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The use of a concept called a precipitation “event” to obtain information regarding certain statistical properties of precipitation time series at a particular location and for a specific application (e.g., for modeling erosion) is described. ...

Barbara G. Brown; Richard W. Katz; Allan H. Murphy

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

300

Central-West Argentina Summer Precipitation Variability and Atmospheric Teleconnections  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The interannual-to-multidecadal variability of central-west Argentina (CWA) summer (October–March) precipitation and associated tropospheric circulation are studied in the period 1900–2010. Precipitation shows significant quasi cycles with periods ...

Eduardo A. Agosta; Rosa H. Compagnucci

2012-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "depth precipitable water" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Evaluation of Passive Microwave Precipitation Algorithms in Wintertime Midlatitude Situations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The second intercomparison project of the Global Precipitation Climatology Project examined the estimation of midlatitude, cool-season precipitation. As part of that effort, the authors report here on the results of two microwave techniques the ...

Andrew J. Negri; Eric J. Nelkin; Robert F. Adler; George J. Huffman; Christian Kummerow

1995-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

302

Correction of Global Precipitation Products for Orographic Effects  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Underestimation of precipitation in topographically complex regions plagues most gauge-based gridded precipitation datasets. Gauge locations are usually in or near population centers, which tend to lie at low elevations relative to the ...

Jennifer C. Adam; Elizabeth A. Clark; Dennis P. Lettenmaier; Eric F. Wood

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

303

Changes in Intense Precipitation over the Central United States  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In examining intense precipitation over the central United States, the authors consider only days with precipitation when the daily total is above 12.7 mm and focus only on these days and multiday events constructed from such consecutive ...

Pavel Ya. Groisman; Richard W. Knight; Thomas R. Karl

2012-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

304

A Screening Methodology for Passive Microwave Precipitation Retrieval Algorithms  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The success of any passive microwave precipitation retrieval algorithm relies on the proper identification of rain areas and the elimination of surface areas that produce a signature similar to that of precipitation. A discussion on the impact of ...

Ralph R. Ferraro; Eric A. Smith; Wesley Berg; George J. Huffman

1998-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

305

Regional Precipitation Trends: Distinguishing Natural Variability from Anthropogenic Forcing  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this study, the nature and causes for observed regional precipitation trends during 1977–2006 are diagnosed. It is found that major features of regional trends in annual precipitation during 1977–2006 are consistent with an atmospheric ...

Martin Hoerling; Jon Eischeid; Judith Perlwitz

2010-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

306

Observed Trends in Summertime Precipitation over the Southwestern United States  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this paper, the authors evaluate the significance of multidecadal trends in seasonal-mean summertime precipitation and precipitation characteristics over the southwestern United States using stochastic, chain-dependent daily rainfall models. ...

Bruce T. Anderson; Jingyun Wang; Guido Salvucci; Suchi Gopal; Shafiqul Islam

2010-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

307

Quantitative Precipitation Forecast Techniques for Use in Hydrologic Forecasting  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Quantitative hydrologic forecasting usually requires knowledge of the spatial and temporal distribution of precipitation. First, it is important to accurately measure the precipitation falling over a particular watershed of interest. Second, ...

Konstantine P. Georgakakos; Michael D. Hudlow

1984-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

308

Diurnal Variability of Precipitation in the Northeastern United States  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The diurnal and semidiurnal variations of precipitation over the northeastern United States (New England, New York, New Jersey and Pennsylvania) are investigated using 25 years of hourly precipitation data for 271 stations. The hourly data were ...

Michael G. Landin; Lance F. Bosart

1985-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

309

A Ground Validation Network for the Global Precipitation Measurement Mission  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A prototype Validation Network (VN) is currently operating as part of the Ground Validation System for NASA’s Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) mission. The VN supports precipitation retrieval algorithm development in the GPM prelaunch era. ...

Mathew R. Schwaller; K. Robert Morris

2011-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

310

PRECIPITATION METHOD FOR THE SEPARATION OF PLUTONIUM AND RARE EARTHS  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method of purifying plutonium is given. Tetravalent plutonium is precipitated with thorium pyrophosphate, the plutonium is oxidized to the tetravalent state, and then impurities are precipitated with thorium pyrophosphate.

Thompson, S.G.

1960-04-26T23:59:59.000Z

311

Decadal Variability of Precipitation over Western North America  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Decadal (>7- yr period) variations of precipitation over western North America account for 20%–50% of the variance of annual precipitation. Spatially, the decadal variability is broken into several regional [O(1000 km)] components. These decadal ...

Daniel R. Cayan; Michael D. Dettinger; Henry F. Diaz; Nicholas E. Graham

1998-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

312

Deep Convection and “First Echoes” within Anvil Precipitation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The development of convective cells within anvil precipitation, in a region of moderate convective activity that might be called a small mesoscale convective system, is described and discussed. The presence of precipitation-sized hydrometeors in ...

Charles A. Knight; L. Jay Miller; William D. Hall

2004-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

313

Short-Range Ensemble Forecasts of Precipitation Type  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Short-range ensemble forecasting is extended to a critical winter weather problem: forecasting precipitation type. Forecast soundings from the operational NCEP Short-Range Ensemble Forecast system are combined with five precipitation-type ...

Matthew S. Wandishin; Michael E. Baldwin; Steven L. Mullen; John V. Cortinas Jr.

2005-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

314

Mechanisms for Global Warming Impacts on Precipitation Frequency and Intensity  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Global warming mechanisms that cause changes in frequency and intensity of precipitation in the tropics are examined in climate model simulations. Under global warming, tropical precipitation tends to be more frequent and intense for heavy ...

Chia Chou; Chao-An Chen; Pei-Hua Tan; Kuan Ting Chen

2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

315

Sensitivity of Monthly Convective Precipitation to Environmental Conditions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Identifying dynamical and physical mechanisms controlling variability of convective precipitation is critical for predicting intraseasonal and longer-term changes in warm-season precipitation and convectively driven large-scale circulations. On a ...

Boksoon Myoung; John W. Nielsen-Gammon

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

316

Precipitation Recycling: Moisture Sources over Europe using ERA-40 Data  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Atmospheric moisture within a region is supplied by both local evaporation and advected from external sources. The contribution of local evaporation in a region to the precipitation in the same region is defined as “precipitation recycling.” ...

B. Bisselink; A. J. Dolman

2008-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

317

An Improved Operational System for Forecasting Precipitation Type  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A Model Output Statistics system for forecasting the conditional probability of precipitation type (PoPT) became operational within the National Weather Service in September 1978. Forecasts are provided for three precipitation type categories: ...

Joseph R. Bocchieri; George J. Maglaras

1983-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

318

An Automated Radar Technique for the Identification of Tropical Precipitation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A radar-based automated technique for the identification of tropical precipitation was developed to improve quantitative precipitation estimation during extreme rainfall events. The technique uses vertical profiles of reflectivity to identify the ...

Xiaoyong Xu; Kenneth Howard; Jian Zhang

2008-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

319

Estimating Monthly Precipitation Reconstruction Uncertainty Beginning in 1900  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Uncertainty estimates are computed for a statistical reconstruction of global monthly precipitation that was developed in an earlier publication. The reconstruction combined the use of spatial correlations with gauge precipitation and correlations ...

Thomas M. Smith; Samuel S. P. Shen; Li Ren; Phillip A. Arkin

2013-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

320

Inferences of Predictability Associated with Warm Season Precipitation Episodes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Herein preliminary findings are reported from a radar-based climatology of warm season precipitation “episodes.” Episodes are defined as time–space clusters of heavy precipitation that often result from sequences of organized convection such as ...

R. E. Carbone; J. D. Tuttle; D. A. Ahijevych; S. B. Trier

2002-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "depth precipitable water" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

Orographic Precipitation and Oregon’s Climate Transition  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Oregon’s sharp east–west climate transition was investigated using a linear model of orographic precipitation and four datasets: (a) interpolated annual rain gauge data, (b) satellite-derived precipitation proxies (vegetation and brightness ...

Ronald B. Smith; Idar Barstad; Laurent Bonneau

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

322

Stochastic Precipitation Generation Based on a Multivariate Autoregression Model  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The problem of stochastic precipitation generation has long been of interest. A good generator should produce time series with statistical properties to match those of the real precipitation. Here, a multivariate autoregression model designed to ...

Oleg V. Makhnin; Devon L. McAllister

2009-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

323

Partially Coherent Backscatter in Radar Observations of Precipitation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Classical radar theory only considers incoherent backscatter from precipitation. Can precipitation generate coherent scatter as well? Until now, the accepted answer has been no, because hydrometeors are distributed sparsely in space (relative to ...

A. R. Jameson; A. B. Kostinski

2010-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

324

Optimally Merging Precipitation to Minimize Land Surface Modeling Errors  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper introduces a new method to improve land surface model skill by merging different available precipitation datasets, given that an accurate land surface parameter ground truth is available. Precipitation datasets are merged with the ...

M. Tugrul Yilmaz; Paul Houser; Roshan Shrestha; Valentine G. Anantharaj

2010-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

325

Diurnal Variations of Warm-Season Precipitation over Northern China  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This study examines the diurnal variations of the warm-season precipitation over northern China using the high-resolution precipitation products obtained from the Climate Prediction Center’s morphing technique (CMORPH) during May–August of 2003–...

Huizhong He; Fuqing Zhang

2010-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

326

Spatial and Temporal Characteristics of Heavy Precipitation Events over Canada  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Spatial and temporal characteristics of heavy precipitation events over Canada (excluding the high Arctic) are examined for the period 1900–98. In southern Canada, about 71% of total precipitation comes from rainfall events. In northern Canada, ...

Xuebin Zhang; W. D. Hogg; Éva Mekis

2001-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

327

The Global Precipitation Climatology Project: First Algorithm Intercomparison Project  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP) was established by the World Climate Research Programme to produce global analyses of area- and time-averaged precipitation for use in climate research. To achieve the required spatial coverage, ...

Phillip A. Arkin; Pingping Xie

1994-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

328

Diurnal Precipitation Variations in South-Central New Mexico  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Orographic forcing of diurnal precipitation variations in south-central New Mexico is examined. Harmonic analysis reveals a strong diurnal cycle in precipitation frequency at all stations studied. In addition, relatively high amplitudes in the ...

Donna F. Tucker

1993-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

329

Spatial and Temporal Variability of Monthly Precipitation in Texas  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Monthly precipitation at 46 stations located throughout the state of Texas was examined over a continuous 62-year period from 1923 to 1984. Precipitation data were subjected to spectral, empirical orthogonal function (EOF) and correlation ...

Steven W. Lyons

1990-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

330

Global estimation of precipitation using opaque microwave bands  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This thesis describes the use of opaque microwave bands for global estimation of precipitation rate. An algorithm was developed for estimating instantaneous precipitation rate for the Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit (AMSU) ...

Chen, Frederick Wey-Min, 1975-

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

331

Automatic control and management of electrostatic precipitator  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The efficient operation of an electrostatic precipitator (ESP) in practice depends upon many variables, such as charging method, particle size, gas flow, temperature, dust resistivity, etc. With the air pollution control requirements becoming increasingly stringent, it is essential to closely monitor and accurately control the key parameters of an ESP control system. The efficient functioning of an ESP normally means minimizing power consumption and maximizing dust collection. Several control strategies can be adopted to meet this broad requirement. In this paper, a distributed control technique of an ESP, which uses the actual dust emission and boiler load as feedback inputs has been explained. The Electrostatic Precipitator Management System, which is a system designed by Bharat Heavy Electricals Ltd., Hyderabad, India, to meet the above control strategies using the distributed architecture to achieve efficient ESP operation is also described.

Durga Prasad, N.V.P.R.; Lakshminarayana, T.; Narasimham, J.R.K.; Verman, T.M.; Krishnam Raju, C.S.R. [Bharat Heavy Electricals Ltd., Hyderabad (India). Programmable Control Systems Lab.

1999-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

332

Advanced Electrostatic Precipitator (ESP) Power Supplies Update  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Manufacturers of new, high-frequency power supplies for electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) have continued to push the development of this technology steadily forward since the last EPRI report on the subject was published. The capacity of these new power supplies continues to grow and the reliability issues identified in the early applications are being steadily resolved. This report contains a description of the technology behind the new power supplies and an update on recent applications and future pla...

2006-03-27T23:59:59.000Z

333

Precipitate Phases in Several High Temperature Shape Memory ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

About this Abstract. Meeting, Materials Science & Technology 2011. Symposium, Shape Memory Alloys. Presentation Title, Precipitate Phases in Several High ...

334

A Modeling Tool for the Precipitation Simulations of Superalloys ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

simulate the complicated precipitations and microstructure .... The kinetic simulation employs three models to treat three ..... Thermochemistry 26, 175 (

335

Thermodynamic modeling for organic solid precipitation  

SciTech Connect

A generalized predictive model which is based on thermodynamic principle for solid-liquid phase equilibrium has been developed for organic solid precipitation. The model takes into account the effects of temperature, composition, and activity coefficient on the solubility of wax and asphaltenes in organic solutions. The solid-liquid equilibrium K-value is expressed as a function of the heat of melting, melting point temperature, solubility parameter, and the molar volume of each component in the solution. All these parameters have been correlated with molecular weight. Thus, the model can be applied to crude oil systems. The model has been tested with experimental data for wax formation and asphaltene precipitation. The predicted wax appearance temperature is very close to the measured temperature. The model not only can match the measured asphaltene solubility data but also can be used to predict the solubility of asphaltene in organic solvents or crude oils. The model assumes that asphaltenes are dissolved in oil in a true liquid state, not in colloidal suspension, and the precipitation-dissolution process is reversible by changing thermodynamic conditions. The model is thermodynamically consistent and has no ambiguous assumptions.

Chung, T.H.

1992-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

336

Theory for growth of spherical precipitates with capillarity effects  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

precipitation in power plant steels,1,2 there is no analytical solution for the growth of a sphereTheory for growth of spherical precipitates with capillarity effects P. E. J. Rivera-Dõ�az-del-Castillo and H. K. D. H. Bhadeshia Analytical solutions are presented for the growth of spherical precipitates

Cambridge, University of

337

The Precipitation Anomaly Classification: A Method for Monitoring Regional Precipitation Deficiency and Excess on a Global Scale  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An objective method to identify and track significant global precipitation anomalies on time scales of a month or longer is presented. The technique requires current observations of monthly precipitation amounts for each station and long term (20 ...

J. E. Janowiak; C. F. Ropelewski; M. S. Halpert

1986-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

338

Orographic Enhancement of Precipitation over Low Mountain Ranges. Part II: Simulations of Heavy Precipitation Events over Southwest Germany  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A diagnostic precipitation model that combines linear theory of hydrostatic flow with parameterized microphysics is applied to several stratiform heavy precipitation events over the low mountain ranges of southwestern Germany. Model-simulated ...

Michael Kunz; Christoph Kottmeier

2006-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

339

The TRMM Multisatellite Precipitation Analysis (TMPA): Quasi-Global, Multiyear, Combined-Sensor Precipitation Estimates at Fine Scales  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Multisatellite Precipitation Analysis (TMPA) provides a calibration-based sequential scheme for combining precipitation estimates from multiple satellites, as well as gauge analyses where feasible, ...

George J. Huffman; David T. Bolvin; Eric J. Nelkin; David B. Wolff; Robert F. Adler; Guojun Gu; Yang Hong; Kenneth P. Bowman; Erich F. Stocker

2007-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

340

Water Well Data Elements Well Header Tab Page  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Water producing from Lithologic formation from which water is produced. at depth Top of water producing formation (ft) to Base of water producing formation (ft) Static water level Static water level below casingWater Well Data Elements Well Header Tab Page: This list contains location and identification

Frank, Thomas D.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "depth precipitable water" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Transmission of Solar Radiation by Clouds over Snow and Ice Surfaces: A Parameterization in Terms of Optical Depth, Solar Zenith Angle, and Surface Albedo  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A multilevel spectral radiative transfer model is used to develop simple but accurate parameterizations for cloud transmittance as a function of cloud optical depth, solar zenith angle, and surface albedo, for use over snow, ice, and water ...

Melanie F. Fitzpatrick; Richard E. Brandt; Stephen G. Warren

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

342

Instrumenting Wildlife Water Developments to Collect Hydrometeorological Data in Remote Western U.S. Catchments  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In the arid western United States, wildlife water developments, or “guzzlers,” are important water sources for wildlife, and consist of impermeable roof structures designed to intercept precipitation and small tanks for storing water. Guzzlers are ...

Nicholas Grant; Laurel Saito; Mark Weltz; Mark Walker; Christopher Daly; Kelley Stewart; Christo Morris

2013-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

343

Average Depth of Crude Oil and Natural Gas Wells  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

-No Data Reported; --= Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Notes: Average depth may ...

344

Flexible finite-element modeling of global geomagnetic depth sounding  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Modeling in 2D and 3D for Geomagnetic Depth Sounding (31, 16610. Banks, R. , 1969: Geomagnetic variations and the1997: Introduction to geomagnetic fields. Cambridge Univ Pr.

Ribaudo, Joseph Thomas

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

345

Control Systems Cyber Security: Defense in Depth Strategies ...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

and direction for developing 'defense-in-depth' strategies for organizations that use control system networks while maintaining a multi-tier information architecture. Control...

346

Fractal Distribution of Snow Depth from Lidar Data  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Snowpack properties vary dramatically over a wide range of spatial scales, from crystal microstructure to regional snow climates. The driving forces of wind, energy balance, and precipitation interact with topography and vegetation to dominate ...

Jeffrey S. Deems; Steven R. Fassnacht; Kelly J. Elder

2006-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

347

Comparison of soy protein concentrates produced by membrane filtration and acid precipitation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The recovery of proteins using ultrafiltration (UF) process is an attractive alternative compared to conventional acid precipitation method. The mild processing condition, which leads to less protein denaturation, may be one of major virtues of this method. This research was directed to identify such assumptions of the products. Three soy protein concentrates were obtained in this study. Full-fat soybean flour and hexane-defatted soybean flour were dispersed into distilled water (1:8) at 60?C, respectively. A series of operations including pH adjustment (8.0), agitation (250 rpm, 30 min), sonication (40 dB, 20 min), homogenization (3 min), and centrifugation (3,000 x g, 15 min) were followed. For the membrane processing, the ultrafiltration cartridge used molecular weight cut-off 100,000 daltons. Acid-precipitated protein (at pH 4.5) was produced from hexane-defatted soybean flour following the identical procedures as above. Protein content of the membrane-processed product from full-fat soybean flour was 63.5% and that of the acid precipitated product was 71.9%. All samples were comparable in their functional properties. Nitrogen solubility at pH 7.0 was exhibited better in the protein produced by membrane filtration than the protein produced by acid precipitation due to protein denaturation. Also the membrane-processed soy protein showed good heat coagulation, emulsifying stability, and foaming stability. Amino acid patterns were similar to the typical one of soy proteins. However, relatively low lysine, threonine and valine contents in the acid-precipitated protein were noteworthy. The sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) patterns were almost comparable among samples. In appearance, the acid-precipitated protein was light and slightly greenish tint.

Kim, Hyun Jung

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

348

Dworshak Dam Impacts Assessment and Fisheries Investigation: Kokanee Depth Distribution in Dworshak Reservoir and Implications Toward Minimizing Entrainment, 1994 Annual Report.  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The authors measured the day and night depth distribution of kokanee Oncorhynchus nerka kennerlyi directly upstream of Dworshak Dam from October 1993 to December 1994 using split-beam hydroacoustics. At night most kokanee (70%) were distributed in a diffuse layer about 10 m thick. The depth of the layer varied with the season and ranged from 30 to 40 m deep during winter and from 15 to 25 m deep during summer. Nighttime depth of the kokanee layer during summer roughly corresponded to a zone where water temperatures ranged from 7 C to 12 C. Daytime kokanee distribution was much different with kokanee located in dense schools. Most kokanee (70%) were found in a 5--15 m thick layer during summer. Daytime depth distribution was also shallowest during fall and deepest during winter. Dworshak Dam has structures which can be used for selective water withdrawal and can function in depth ranges that will avoid the kokanee layer. Temperature constraints limit the use of selective withdrawal during the spring, summer, and fall, but in the winter, water is nearly isothermal and the full range of selector gate depths may be utilized. From October 1993 to February 1994, selector gates were positioned to withdraw water from above the kokanee layer. The discharge pattern also changed with more water being released during May and July, and less water being released during fall and winter. A combination of these two changes is thought to have increased kokanee densities to a record high of 69 adults/ha.

Maiolie, Melo; Elam, Steve

1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

349

Modeling of asphaltene and wax precipitation  

SciTech Connect

This research project was designed to focus on the development of a predictive technique for organic deposition during gas injection for petroleum EOR. A thermodynamic model has been developed to describe the effects of temperature, pressure, and composition on asphaltene precipitation. The proposed model combines regular solution theory with Flory-Huggins polymer solutions theory to predict maximum volume fractions of asphaltene dissolved in oil. The model requires evaluation of vapor-liquid equilibria, first using an equation of state followed by calculations of asphaltene solubility in the liquid-phase. A state-of-the-art technique for C{sub 7+} fraction characterization was employed in developing this model. The preliminary model developed in this work was able to predict qualitatively the trends of the effects of temperature, pressure, and composition. Since the mechanism of paraffinic wax deposition is different from that of asphaltene deposition, another thermodynamic model based on the solid-liquid solution theory was developed to predict the wax formation. This model is simple and can predict the wax appearance temperature with reasonable accuracy. Accompanying the modeling work, experimental studies were conducted to investigate the solubility of asphaltene in oil land solvents and to examine the effects of oil composition, CO{sub 2}, and solvent on asphaltene precipitation and its properties. This research focused on the solubility reversibility of asphaltene in oil and the precipitation caused by CO{sub 2} injection at simulated reservoir temperature and pressure conditions. These experiments have provided many observations about the properties of asphaltenes for further improvement of the model, but more detailed information about the properties of asphaltenes in solution is needed for the development of more reliable asphaltene characterization techniques. 50 refs., 8 figs., 7 tabs.

Chung, F.; Sarathi, P.; Jones, R.

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

350

Neptunium_Oxide_Precipitation_Kinetics_AJohnsen  

SciTech Connect

We evaluate the proposed NpO{sub 2}{sup +}(aq)-NpO{sub 2}(cr) reduction-precipitation system at elevated temperatures to obtain primary information on the effects of temperature, ionic strength, O{sub 2} and CO{sub 2}. Experiments conducted on unfiltered solutions at 10{sup -4} M NpO{sub 2}{sup +}(aq), neutral pH, and 200 C indicated that solution colloids strongly affect precipitation kinetics. Subsequent experiments on filtered solutions at 200, 212, and 225 C showed consistent and distinctive temperature-dependent behavior at reaction times {le} 800 hours. At longer times, the 200 C experiments showed unexpected dissolution of neptunium solids, but experiments at 212 C and 225 C demonstrated quasi steady-state neptunium concentrations of 3 x 10{sup -6} M and 6 x 10{sup -6} M, respectively. Solids from a representative experiment analyzed by X-ray diffraction were consistent with NpO{sub 2}(cr). A 200 C experiment with a NaCl concentration of 0.05 M showed a dramatic increase in the rate of neptunium loss. A 200 C experiment in an argon atmosphere resulted in nearly complete loss of aqueous neptunium. Previously proposed NpO{sub 2}{sup +}(aq)-NpO{sub 2}(cr) reduction-precipitation mechanisms in the literature specified a 1:1 ratio of neptunium loss and H{sup +} production in solution over time. However, all experiments demonstrated ratios of approximately 0.4 to 0.5. Carbonate equilibria can account for only about 40% of this discrepancy, leaving an unexpected deficit in H+ production that suggests that additional chemical processes are occurring.

Johnsen, A M; Roberts, K E; Prussin, S G

2012-06-08T23:59:59.000Z

351

Electrode immersion depth determination and control in electroslag remelting furnace  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An apparatus and method for controlling an electroslag remelting furnace comprising adjusting electrode drive speed by an amount proportional to a difference between a metric of electrode immersion and a set point, monitoring impedance or voltage, and calculating the metric of electrode immersion depth based upon a predetermined characterization of electrode immersion depth as a function of impedance or voltage.

Melgaard, David K. (Albuquerque, NM); Beaman, Joseph J. (Austin, TX); Shelmidine, Gregory J. (Tijeras, NM)

2007-02-20T23:59:59.000Z

352

Property:AvgReservoirDepth | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

AvgReservoirDepth AvgReservoirDepth Jump to: navigation, search Property Name AvgReservoirDepth Property Type Quantity Description Average depth to reservoir Use this type to express a quantity of length. The default unit is the meter (m). Acceptable units (and their conversions) are: Meters - 1 m, meter, meters Meter, Meters, METER, METERS Kilometers - 0.001 km, kilometer, kilometers, Kilometer, Kilometers, KILOMETERS, KILOMETERS Miles - 0.000621371 mi, mile, miles, Mile, Miles, MILE, MILES Feet - 3.28084 ft, foot, feet, Foot, Feet, FOOT, FEET Yards - 1.09361 yd, yard, yards, Yard, Yards, YARD, YARDS Pages using the property "AvgReservoirDepth" Showing 24 pages using this property. A Amedee Geothermal Area + 213 m0.213 km 0.132 mi 698.819 ft 232.939 yd + B Beowawe Hot Springs Geothermal Area + 850 m0.85 km

353

pH Adjustment of Power Plant Cooling Water with Flue Gas/ Fly ...  

The discovery represents a cost-effective way to utilize materials indigenous to fossil fuel burning power platns to control mineral precipitation is cooling water.

354

Parametric testing of coal electrostatic precipitator performance  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The effect of internal geometry, electrode type, and operating conditions on the performance of a coal electrostatic precipitator (ESP) has been analyzed by means of an extensive parametric testing program. Tests under different conditions of plate spacing, discharge electrodes, gas velocity, and energization wave form have been performed using two extreme coal types, with very high and low resistivity ashes, respectively. The study was made by means of a pilot installation operating with a flue gas slipstream drawn upstream of a power plant ESP. The experimental plant includes a specifically designed pilot ESP, able to admit an internal modification of plate spacing and electrode type. The ESP is equipped with a microprocessor controlled power supply which can generate both continuous and intermittent rectified current. The measured sensitivity of the precipitation process to the dust properties, filter configuration, electrode type, and energization method is presented, covering both the ESP efficiency evolution and the associated power consumption. The results of this work allow to extract practical conclusions about specification of ESP design and size for a given application, and assess the conditions in which use of wide plate spacing, new electrode geometries, or intermittent current are actually advantageous. 11 refs., 6 figs., 5 tabs.

Canadas, L.; Navarrete, B.; Ollero, P.; Salvador, L. [Universidad de Sevilla (Spain)

1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

355

Report on the Depth Requirements for a Massive Detector at Homestake  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This report provides the technical justification for locating a large detector underground in a US based Deep Underground Science and Engineering Laboratory. A large detector with a fiducial mass in the mega-ton scale will most likely be a multipurpose facility. The main physics justification for such a device is detection of accelerator generated neutrinos, nucleon decay, and natural sources of neutrinos such as solar, atmospheric and supernova neutrinos. In addition to the physics justification there are practical issues regarding the existing infrastructure at Homestake, and the stress characteristics of the Homestake rock formations. The depth requirements associated with the various physics processes are reported for water Cherenkov and liquid argon detector technologies. While some of these physics processes can be adequately studied at shallower depths, none of them require a depth greater than 4300 mwe which corresponds to the 4850 ft level at Homestake. It is very important to note that the scale of the planned detector is such that even for accelerator neutrino detection (which allows one to use the accelerator duty factor to eliminate cosmics) a minimum depth is needed to reduce risk of contamination from cosmic rays. After consideration of the science and the practical issues regarding the Homestake site, we strongly recommend that the geotechnical studies be commenced at the 4850ft level in a timely manner.

Adam Bernstein; Mary Bishai; Edward Blucher; David B. Cline; Milind V. Diwan; Bonnie Fleming; Maury Goodman; Zbigniew J. Hladysz; Richard Kadel; Edward Kearns; Joshua Klein; Kenneth Lande; Francesco Lanni; David Lissauer; Steve Marks; Robert McKeown; William Morse; Regina Rameika; William M. Roggenthen; Kate Scholberg; Michael Smy; Henry Sobel; James Stewart; Gregory Sullivan; Robert Svoboda; Mark Vagins; Brett Viren; Christopher Walter; Robert Zwaska

2009-07-23T23:59:59.000Z

356

Steady states and linear stability analysis of precipitation pattern formation at geothermal hot springs  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A dynamical theory of geophysical precipitation pattern formation is presented and applied to irreversible calcium carbonate (travertine) deposition. Specific systems studied here are the terraces and domes observed at geothermal hot springs, such as those at Yellowstone National Park, and speleothems, particularly stalactites and stalagmites. The theory couples the precipitation front dynamics with shallow water flow, including corrections for turbulent drag and curvature effects. In the absence of capillarity and with a laminar flow profile, the theory predicts a one-parameter family of steady state solutions to the moving boundary problem describing the precipitation front. These shapes match well the measured shapes near the vent at the top of observed travertine domes. Closer to the base of the dome, the solutions deviate from observations, and circular symmetry is broken by a fluting pattern, which we show is associated with capillary forces causing thin film break-up. We relate our model to that recently proposed for stalactite growth, and calculate the linear stability spectrum of both travertine domes and stalactites. Lastly, we apply the theory to the problem of precipitation pattern formation arising from turbulent flow down an inclined plane, and identify a linear instability that underlies scale-invariant travertine terrace formation at geothermal hot springs.

Pak Yuen Chan; Nigel Goldenfeld

2007-06-21T23:59:59.000Z

357

Microphysical and Dynamical Influences on Cirrus Cloud Optical Depth Distributions  

SciTech Connect

Cirrus cloud inhomogeneity occurs at scales greater than the cirrus radiative smoothing scale ({approx}100 m), but less than typical global climate model (GCM) resolutions ({approx}300 km). Therefore, calculating cirrus radiative impacts in GCMs requires an optical depth distribution parameterization. Radiative transfer calculations are sensitive to optical depth distribution assumptions (Fu et al. 2000; Carlin et al. 2002). Using raman lidar observations, we quantify cirrus timescales and optical depth distributions at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Southern Great Plains (SGP) site in Lamont, OK (USA). We demonstrate the sensitivity of outgoing longwave radiation (OLR) calculations to assumed optical depth distributions and to the temporal resolution of optical depth measurements. Recent work has highlighted the importance of dynamics and nucleation for cirrus evolution (Haag and Karcher 2004; Karcher and Strom 2003). We need to understand the main controls on cirrus optical depth distributions to incorporate cirrus variability into model radiative transfer calculations. With an explicit ice microphysics parcel model, we aim to understand the influence of ice nucleation mechanism and imposed dynamics on cirrus optical depth distributions.

Kay, J.; Baker, M.; Hegg, D.

2005-03-18T23:59:59.000Z

358

Uranium and Aluminosilicate Surface Precipitation Tests  

SciTech Connect

The 2H evaporator at the Savannah River Site has been used to treat an aluminum-rich waste stream from canyon operations and a silicon-rich waste stream from the Defense Waste Processing Facility. The formation of aluminosilicate scale in the evaporator has caused significant operational problems. Because uranium has been found to accumulate in the aluminosilicate solids, the scale deposition has introduced criticality concerns as well. The objective of the tests described in this report is to determine possible causes of the uranium incorporation in the evaporator scale materials. The scope of this task is to perform laboratory experiments with simulant solutions to determine if (1) uranium can be deposited on the surfaces of various sodium aluminosilicate (NAS) forms and (2) aluminosilicates can form on the surfaces of uranium-containing solids. Batch experiments with simulant solutions of three types were conducted: (1) contact of uranium solutions/sols with NAS coatings on stainless steel surfaces, (2) contact of uranium solutions with NAS particles, and (3) contact of precipitated uranium-containing particles with solutions containing aluminum and silicon. The results show that uranium can be incorporated in NAS solids through encapsulation in bulk agglomerated NAS particles of different phases (amorphous, zeolite A, sodalite, and cancrinite) as well as through heterogeneous deposition on the surfaces of NAS coatings (amorphous and cancrinite) grown on stainless steel. The results also indicate that NAS particles can grow on the surfaces of precipitated uranium solids. Particularly notable for evaporator operations is the finding that uranium solids can form on existing NAS scale, including cancrinite solids. If NAS scale is present, and uranium is in sufficient concentration in solution to precipitate, a portion of the uranium can be expected to become associated with the scale. The data obtained to date on uranium-NAS affinity are qualitative. A necessary next step is to quantitatively determine the amounts of uranium that may be incorporated into NAS scale solids under differing conditions e.g., varying silicon/aluminum ratio, uranium concentration, temperature, and deposition time.

Hu, M.Z.

2002-11-27T23:59:59.000Z

359

State-of-the-Art Electrostatic Precipitator Power Supplies  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

New electrostatic precipitator (ESP) power supply controls are available that can significantly enhance the performance of precipitators. These controls are capable of intermittent energization and bad corona detection, as well as ESP data archiving and performance troubleshooting. Furthermore, a new generation of power supplies for electrostatic precipitators is now on the market. These new high frequency supplies are smaller and lighter than the 60 hertz transformer – rectifier power supplies the...

2003-10-28T23:59:59.000Z

360

Daily Temperature and Precipitation Data for 518 Russian Meteorologica...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

and precipitation values are contained in 518 station files in the Russiastations directory with names of the form "XXXXX.txt", with "XXXXX" representing World...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "depth precipitable water" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

Deformation Mechanisms and Precipitate Structure in Ni-Base ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Differential Characterization of Ikperejere Iron shale and Iron Sandstone Deposit · Direct Precipitation of Sr-doped LaP3O9 Thin Film Electrolytes for ...

362

An Integrated CALPHAD Tool for Modeling Precipitation Kinetics ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Presentation Title, An Integrated CALPHAD Tool for Modeling Precipitation Kinetics and Accelerating Materials Design. Author(s), Qing Chen, Herng-Jeng Jou, ...

363

Precipitates in Long Term Aging Al 5083 Alloy  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Presentation Title, Precipitates in Long Term Aging Al 5083 Alloy. Author(s), Gaosong Yi. On-Site Speaker (Planned), Gaosong Yi. Abstract Scope, Al 5083 alloy ...

364

Factors Affecting the Resistivity of Recovery Boiler Precipitator Ash.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) are commonly used to control particulate emissions from recovery boilers in the kraft pulping process. The electrical resistivity of entrained particulates is… (more)

Sretenovic, Ivan

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

365

Summer and Winter Precipitation in England and Wales: 1874 -...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

and Wales: 1874 - 2009 This dataset, made available by the UK Department of Energy and Climate Change (DECC), presents summer and winter precipitation for England and Wales, and...

366

ATOMIC STRUCTURE OF PRECIPITATES IN A Mg-Re SYSTEM ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Jul 20, 2012 ... ATOMIC STRUCTURE OF PRECIPITATES IN A Mg-Re SYSTEM ... Though the age hardening response in Mg-Nd is established for a long time ...

367

Evolution of Size and Morphology of gamma' Precipitates in UDIMET ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

nucleation bursts during continuous cooling from the solution annealed state .... ( EELS) and X-ray dispersive spectroscopy (EDX) are used for the precipitate ...

368

Ensemble-Based Data Assimilation for Estimation of River Depths  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A method is presented for estimating bathymetry in a river, based on observations of depth-averaged velocity during steady flow. The estimator minimizes a cost function that combines known information in the form of a prior estimate and measured ...

Greg Wilson; H. Tuba Özkan-Haller

2012-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

369

Property:FirstWellDepth | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

FirstWellDepth FirstWellDepth Jump to: navigation, search Property Name FirstWellDepth Property Type Quantity Use this type to express a quantity of length. The default unit is the meter (m). Acceptable units (and their conversions) are: Meters - 1 m, meter, meters Meter, Meters, METER, METERS Kilometers - 0.001 km, kilometer, kilometers, Kilometer, Kilometers, KILOMETERS, KILOMETERS Miles - 0.000621371 mi, mile, miles, Mile, Miles, MILE, MILES Feet - 3.28084 ft, foot, feet, Foot, Feet, FOOT, FEET Yards - 1.09361 yd, yard, yards, Yard, Yards, YARD, YARDS Pages using the property "FirstWellDepth" Showing 5 pages using this property. B Blue Mountain Geothermal Area + 672 m0.672 km 0.418 mi 2,204.724 ft 734.906 yd + K Kilauea East Rift Geothermal Area + 1,968 m1.968 km

370

Global Datasets of Rooting Zone Depth Inferred from Inverse Methods  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Two inverse methods are applied to a land surface model to infer global patterns of the hydrologically active depth of the vegetation's rooting zone. The first method is based on the assumption that vegetation is optimally adapted to its ...

Axel Kleidon

2004-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

371

Non-contact system for measuring tillage depth  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A microprocessor-based non-contact ultrasonic sensor for tillage depth was evaluated. The sensor was tested on concrete, grass, wheat stubble, lightly disked wheat stubble (semi-stubble) and disked surfaces. The grass surface gave a higher variation ...

M. Yasin; R. D. Grisso; G. M. Lackas

1992-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

372

Method and apparatus to measure the depth of skin burns  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A new device for measuring the depth of surface tissue burns based on the rate at which the skin temperature responds to a sudden differential temperature stimulus. This technique can be performed without physical contact with the burned tissue. In one implementation, time-dependent surface temperature data is taken from subsequent frames of a video signal from an infrared-sensitive video camera. When a thermal transient is created, e.g., by turning off a heat lamp directed at the skin surface, the following time-dependent surface temperature data can be used to determine the skin burn depth. Imaging and non-imaging versions of this device can be implemented, thereby enabling laboratory-quality skin burn depth imagers for hospitals as well as hand-held skin burn depth sensors the size of a small pocket flashlight for field use and triage.

Dickey, Fred M. (Albuquerque, NM); Holswade, Scott C. (Albuquerque, NM)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

373

Estimating Mixed Layer Depth from Oceanic Profile Data  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Estimates of mixed layer depth are important to a wide variety of oceanic investigations including upper-ocean productivity, air–sea exchange processes, and long-term climate change. In the absence of direct turbulent dissipation measurements, ...

Richard E. Thomson; Isaac V. Fine

2003-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

374

Evaluation of Boundary Layer Depth Estimates at Summit Station, Greenland  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Boundary layer conditions in polar regions have been shown to have a significant impact on the levels of trace gases in the lower atmosphere. The ability to properly describe boundary layer characteristics (e.g., stability, depth, and variations ...

B. Van Dam; D. Helmig; W. Neff; L. Kramer

2013-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

375

Depth-resolved cathodoluminescence spectroscopy of silicon supersaturated with sulfur  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We investigate the luminescence of Si supersaturated with S (Si:S) using depth-resolved cathodoluminescence spectroscopy and secondary ion mass spectroscopy as the S concentration is varied over 2 orders of magnitude ...

Fabbri, Filippo

376

Instrumentation and Technique for Deducing Cloud Optical Depth  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The feasibility of using a photodiode radiometer to infer optical depth of thin clouds from solar intensity measurements is examined. Data were collected by a photodiode radiometer which measured incident radiation at angular fields of view of 2, ...

R. A. Raschke; S. K. Cox

1983-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

377

Colour videos with depth : acquisition, processing and evaluation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. Declaration This dissertation is the result of my own work and includes nothing which is the outcome of work done in collaboration except where specifically indicated in the text. This dissertation does not exceed the regulation length of 60 000 words... -step pipeline that aligns the video streams, efficiently removes and fills invalid and noisy geometry, and finally uses a spatiotemporal filter to increase the spatial resolution of the depth data and strongly reduce depth measurement noise. I show...

Richardt, Christian

2012-03-06T23:59:59.000Z

378

Prediction of regional seasonal fluctuations in precipitation based on chaos theory  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In the past decade, the combined effect of flood and drought resulted in the loss of thousands of lives and billions of dollars. Prediction of regional precipitation is important for a multitude of reasons. However, the evolution of climate is highly sensitive to initial conditions, or chaotic, so practical long term prediction of precipitation in time is impossible. Adding to the difficulty, the climate system is non-stationary; with the energy available to move water and air as tracked by global surface air temperature (GSAT) increasing over the last several decades. Neither purely empirical autoregression, nor global circulation models (GCM) are sufficiently accurate. Here I use statistical methods motivated by chaos theory to predict seasonal fluctuations in regional and local precipitation with high correlation. The change in GSAT is accommodated using special runs of a global climate model to build an initial set of predictive models, while ground data is used to train, combine, and calibrate them. In examples I show seasonal prediction of precipitation in a few geographical regions with high statistical significance. In one region were precipitation rose near the 4 sigma level above the mean, the correlation was above 0.8. Also, I examine one region over longer time and tentatively identifying a tight coupling between GSAT and patterns of climate anomalies, with implications for attribution. This demonstration of invertability of the climate patterns to identify parameters of the climate system holds promise for allowing statistical evaluation of parameterizations of climate models. I expect these methods may be applicable both to a number of other measures of climate and weather as well as other high dimensional chaotic systems.

M. LuValle

2013-10-09T23:59:59.000Z

379

Guidelines for Upgrading Electrostatic Precipitator Performance: Volume 1: Optimizing an Existing Electrostatic Precipitator  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The first of a two-volume set, this guide presents a systematic procedure to optimize a chronically under-performing electrostatic precipitator (ESP) without conducting a major upgrade. The guide focuses on ESPs that require only moderate improvements (less than $10-$20/kW) to achieve their emissions goals. The second volume of this report, which will appear at the end of 1999, will cover more extensive upgrades, as well as flue gas conditioning.

1999-09-28T23:59:59.000Z

380

Multiphase Reactive Transport modeling of Stable Isotope Fractionation of Infiltrating Unsaturated Zone Pore Water and Vapor Using TOUGHREACT  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Numerical simulations of transport and isotope fractionation provide a method to quantitatively interpret vadose zone pore water stable isotope depth profiles based on soil properties, climatic conditions, and infiltration. We incorporate the temperature-dependent equilibration of stable isotopic species between water and water vapor, and their differing diffusive transport properties into the thermodynamic database of the reactive transport code TOUGHREACT. These simulations are used to illustrate the evolution of stable isotope profiles in semiarid regions where recharge during wet seasons disturbs the drying profile traditionally associated with vadose zone pore waters. Alternating wet and dry seasons lead to annual fluctuations in moisture content, capillary pressure, and stable isotope compositions in the vadose zone. Periodic infiltration models capture the effects of seasonal increases in precipitation and predict stable isotope profiles that are distinct from those observed under drying (zero infiltration) conditions. After infiltration, evaporation causes a shift to higher 18O and D values, which are preserved in the deeper pore waters. The magnitude of the isotopic composition shift preserved in deep vadose zone pore waters varies inversely with the rate of infiltration.

Singleton, Michael J.; Sonnenthal, Eric L.; Conrad, Mark E.; DePaolo, Donald J.

2003-08-28T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "depth precipitable water" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

On the complex conductivity signatures of calcite precipitation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Calcite is a mineral phase that frequently precipitates during subsurface remediation or geotechnical engineering processes. This precipitation can lead to changes in the overall behavior of the system, such as flow alternation and soil strengthening. Because induced calcite precipitation is typically quite variable in space and time, monitoring its distribution in the subsurface is a challenge. In this research, we conducted a laboratory column experiment to investigate the potential of complex conductivity as a mean to remotely monitor calcite precipitation. Calcite precipitation was induced in a glass bead (3 mm) packed column through abiotic mixing of CaCl{sub 2} and Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} solutions. The experiment continued for 12 days with a constant precipitation rate of {approx}0.6 milimole/d. Visual observations and scanning electron microscopy imaging revealed two distinct phases of precipitation: an earlier phase dominated by well distributed, discrete precipitates and a later phase characterized by localized precipitate aggregation and associated pore clogging. Complex conductivity measurements exhibited polarization signals that were characteristic of both phases of calcite precipitation, with the precipitation volume and crystal size controlling the overall polarization magnitude and relaxation time constant. We attribute the observed responses to polarization at the electrical double layer surrounding calcite crystals. Our experiment illustrates the potential of electrical methods for characterizing the distribution and aggregation state of nonconductive minerals like calcite. Advancing our ability to quantify geochemical transformations using such noninvasive methods is expected to facilitate our understanding of complex processes associated with natural subsurface systems as well as processes induced through engineered treatments (such as environmental remediation and carbon sequestration).

Wu, Yuxin; Hubbard, Susan; Williams, Kenneth Hurst; Ajo-Franklin, Jonathan

2009-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

382

Research on the Morphology of Precipitation and Runoff in Texas  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This project has consisted of two distinct phases: (1) equipment modification and installation with associated collection and (2) analyses of data plus development of hydrologic techniques. Errors inherent in the utilization of radar as a hydrologic sensor are discussed. It is shown that errors in the measurement of in-cloud liquid water content can be as much as 100 per cent. Similar results will be obtained in the measurement of rainfall rates by weather radar. It is demonstrated that radar can be used quite effectively in the synthesis of hydrographs. In particular, the feasibility of using radar in streamflow forecasting has been tested for the Little Washita River in Oklahoma. The results were very encouraging. Techniques for hydrograph synthesis are discussed. These have been combined with a stochastic model (which incorporates a sixth-order Markov chain) for rainfall-runoff simulation. The proposed model has been tested thoroughly and appears to hold promise as a forecasting tool. A study was made of Hurricane Beulah which produced extremely heavy precipitation in south Texas and fostered an unprecedented number of tornadoes. The injection of dry air into the area northeast of the parent cyclone was apparently responsible for the extreme instability and development of a large number of tornadoes in that region.

Clark, R.A.

1969-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

383

Detecting vegetation-precipitation feedbacks in mid-Holocene North Africa from two climate models  

SciTech Connect

Using two climate-vegetation model simulations from the Fast Ocean Atmosphere Model (FOAM) and the Community Climate System Model (CCSM, version 2), we investigate vegetation-precipitation feedbacks across North Africa during the mid-Holocene. From mid-Holocene snapshot runs of FOAM and CCSM2, we detect a negative feedback at the annual timescale with our statistical analysis. Using the Monte- Carlo bootstrap method, the annual negative feedback is further confirmed to be significant in both simulations. Additional analysis shows that this negative interaction is partially caused by the competition between evaporation and transpiration in North African grasslands. Furthermore, we find the feedbacks decrease with increasing timescales, and change signs from positive to negative at increasing timescales in FOAM. The proposed mechanism for this sign switch is associated with the different persistent timescales of upper and lower soil water contents, and their interactions with vegetation and atmospheric precipitation.

Wang, Yi; Notaro, Michael; Liu, Zhengyu; Gallimore, Robert; Levis, Samuel; Kutzbach, John E.

2008-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

384

Precipitation and Cloud Structure in Midlatitude Cyclones  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Composite mean fields and probability distribution functions (PDFs) of rain rate, cloud type and cover, cloud-top temperature, surface wind velocity, and water vapor path (WVP) are constructed using satellite observations of midlatitude cyclones ...

Paul R. Field; Robert Wood

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

385

Modification of Precipitation from Warm Clouds—A Review  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This review is begun with a brief summary of the current status of our understanding of the physics of precipitation in warm clouds. The impact of warm-cloud precipitation processes on the evolution of the ice phase in supercooled clouds also is ...

William R. Cotton

1982-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

386

An Improved Gridded Historical Daily Precipitation Analysis for Brazil  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A gauge-only precipitation data quality control and analysis system has been developed for monitoring precipitation at NOAA’s Climate Prediction Center (CPC). Over the past 10 yr the system has been used to develop and deliver many different ...

Viviane B. S. Silva; Vernon E. Kousky; Wei Shi; R. Wayne Higgins

2007-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

387

Predicting Nickel Precipitate Formation in Contaminated Soils. (3717)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Predicting Nickel Precipitate Formation in Contaminated Soils. (3717) Authors: E. Peltier* - Univ in contaminated soils plays a crucial role in determining the long term fate of toxic metal pollutants speciation in laboratory contaminated soils with thermodynamic and kinetic analyses of precipitate stability

Sparks, Donald L.

388

13 - Aging Effects on the ?´ and ?" Precipitates of Inconel 718 ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Finally a double-aging at 720 şC, 8 h/FC at 57 şC/h down to 620 şC, 8 h/AC to precipitate both ?´ and ?"? phases. The precipitation of both ?´ and ?" phases were ...

389

A Model to Predict the Probability of Precipitation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A model to predict the probability of a specific amount of accumulated precipitation at a point in an area of extended convective precipitation has been developed. The model has been used in conjunction with a large-scale numerical forecast model ...

Ulla Hammarstrand

1980-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

390

The Measurement of Precipitation with Synthetic Aperture Radar  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The radar equation for the measurement of precipitation by SAR is identical to that for a conventional radar. The achievable synthetic beamwidth, ?s, is proportional to ?v/U, the ratio of the spread of the precipitation Doppler spectrum to the ...

David Atlas; Richard K. Moore

1987-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

391

Electrostatic precipitators vs. fabric filters: A symposium and debate  

SciTech Connect

Nine papers were presented at the Electrostatic Precipitators vs. Fabric Filters: A Symposium and Debate held March 22, 1994 at the Sheraton Crystal City Hotel in Arlington, Virginia. The Symposium was intended to take a frank look at the comparative advantages of electrostatic precipitators and fabric filters. A separate abstract was prepared for each paper for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

392

SEPARATION OF FISSION PRODUCTS FROM PLUTONIUM BY PRECIPITATION  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Fission product separation from hexavalent plutonium by bismuth phosphate precipitation of the fission products is described. The precipitation, according to this invention, is improved by coprecipitating ceric and zirconium phosphates (0.05 to 2.5 grams/liter) with the bismuth phosphate.

Seaborg, G.T.; Thompson, S.G.; Davidson, N.R.

1959-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

393

Are Precipitation Levels Getting Higher? Statistical Evidence for the Netherlands  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

One of the possible consequences of global warming is that there will be more days with precipitation throughout the year, and also that the level of precipitation will be higher. In this paper a detailed statistical analysis of a century of ...

Alex J. Koning; Philip Hans Franses

2005-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

394

Report on the Depth Requirements for a Massive Detector at Homestake  

SciTech Connect

This report provides the technical justification for locating a large detector underground in a US based Deep Underground Science and Engineering Laboratory. A large detector with a fiducial mass greater than 100 kTon will most likely be a multipurpose facility. The main physics justification for such a device is detection of accelerator generated neutrinos, nucleon decay, and natural sources of neutrinos such as solar, atmospheric and supernova neutrinos. The requirement on the depth of this detector will be guided by the rate of signals from these sources and the rate of backgrounds from cosmic rays over a very wide range of energies (from solar neutrino energies of 5 MeV to high energies in the range of hundreds of GeV). For the present report, we have examined the depth requirement for a large water Cherenkov detector and a liquid argon time projection chamber. There has been extensive previous experience with underground water Cherenkov detectors such as IMB, Kamioka, and most recently, Super-Kamiokande which has a fiducial mass of 22 kTon and a total mass of 50 kTon at a depth of 2700 meters-water-equivalent in a mountain. Projections for signal and background capability for a larger and deeper(or shallower) detectors of this type can be scaled from these previous detectors. The liquid argon time projection chamber has the advantage of being a very fine-grained tracking detector, which should provide enhanced capability for background rejection. We have based background rejection on reasonable estimates of track and energy resolution, and in some cases scaled background rates from measurements in water. In the current work we have taken the approach that the depth should be sufficient to suppress the cosmogenic background below predicted signal rates for either of the above two technologies. Nevertheless, it is also clear that the underground facility that we are examining must have a long life and will most likely be used either for future novel uses of the currently planned detectors or new technologies. Therefore the depth requirement also needs to be made on the basis of sound judgment regarding possible future use. In particular, the depth should be sufficient for any possible future use of these cavities or the level which will be developed for these large structures.Along with these physics justifications there are practical issues regarding the existing infrastructure at Homestake and also the stress characteristics of the Homestake rock formations. In this report we will examine the various depth choices at Homestake from the point of view of the particle and nuclear physics signatures of interest. We also have sufficient information about the existing infrastructure and the rock characteristics to narrow the choice of levels for the development of large cavities with long lifetimes. We make general remarks on desirable ground conditions for such large cavities and then make recommendations on how to start examining these levels to make a final choice. In the appendix we have outlined the initial requirements for the detectors. These requirements will undergo refinement during the course of the design. Finally, we strongly recommend that the geotechnical studies be commenced at the 4850 ft level, which we find to be the most suitable, in a timely manner.

Kadel, Richard W.; Bernstein, Adam; Blucher, Edward; Cline, David B.; Diwan, Milind V.; Fleming, Bonnie; Kearns, Edward; Klein, Joshua; Lande, Kenneth; Lanni, Francesco; Lissauer, David; McKeown, Robert; Morse, William; Rameika, Regina; Scholberg, Kate; Smy, Michael; Sobel, Henry; Sullivan, Gregory; Svoboda, Robert; Vagins, Mark; Walter, Christopher; Zwaska, Robert

2008-12-23T23:59:59.000Z

395

Phase-Field Modeling of Solute Precipitation and Dissolution  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A phase-field approach to the dynamics of liquid-solid interfaces that evolve due to precipitation and/or dissolution is presented. For the purpose of illustration and comparison with other methods, phase field simulations were carried out assuming first order reaction (dissolution/precipitation) kinetics. In contrast to solidification processes controlled by a temperature field that is continuous across the solid/liquid interface (with a discontinuous temperature gradient) precipitation/dissolution is controlled by a solute concentration field that is discontinuous at the solid/liquid interface. The sharp-interface asymptotic analysis of the phase-field equations for solidification [Karma and Rappel, Phys. Rev. E57 (1998) 4342] has been modified for precipitation/dissolution processes to demonstrate that the phase-field equations converge to the proper sharp-interface limit. The mathematical model has been validated for a one-dimensional precipitation/dissolution problem by comparison with the analytical solution.

Zhijie Xu; Paul Meakin

2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

396

Electrostatic precipitation of condensed acid mist  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This project addresses the acid mist that is formed by condensation of sulfuric acid vapor in flue gas from coal-fired utility boilers. An acid mist can be formed whenever the flue gas temperature approaches the prevailing acid dew point. This commonly occurs when the gas is subjected to rapid adiabatic cooling in a wet scrubber system for flue gas desulfurization. Acid mists can also sometimes result from unexpected temperature excursions caused by air inleakage, load cycling, and start-up operations. A wet electrostatic precipitator (WESP) is the best control option for acid mist. The mist would blind a fabric filter and attack glass fiber fabrics. A wet ESP is required because the acid would quickly corrode the plates in a conventional dry ESP. The wet ESP also offers the advantages of no rapping reentrainment and no sensitivity to fly ash resistivity. Therefore, this program has been structured around the use of a compact, wet ESP to control acid mist emissions. 7 refs.

Not Available

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

397

Depth profiling of tritium by neutron time-of-flight  

SciTech Connect

A method was developed to measure the depth profile of tritium implanted or absorbed in materials. The sample to be analyzed is bombarded with a pulsed proton beam and the energy of neutrons produced by the T(p,n) reaction is measured by the time-of-flight technique. From the neutron energy the depth in the target of the T atoms may be inferred. A sensitivity of 0.1 at. percent T or greater is possible. The technique is non-destructive and may be used with thick or radioactive host materials. Samples up to 20 $mu$m in thickness may be profiled with resolution limited by straggling of the proton beam for depths greater than 1 $mu$m. Deuterium depth profiling has been demonstrated using the D(d,n) reaction. The technique has been used to observe the behavior of an implantation spike of T produced by a 400 keV T$sup +$ beam stopping at a depth of 3 $mu$m in 11 $mu$m thick layers of Ti and TiH. The presence of H in the Ti lattice is observed to inhibit the diffusion of T through the lattice. Effects of the total hydrogen concentration (H + T) being forced above stoichiometry at the implantation site are suggested by the shapes of the implanation spikes. (auth)

Davis, J.C.; Anderson, J.D.; Lefevre, H.W.

1975-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

398

Simulated Water Table and Soil Moisture Climatology Over North America  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We demonstrate the link between two terrestrial water reservoirs: the root-zone soil moisture and the groundwater, and contribute our simulated climatologic water table depth and soil moisture fields over North America to the community. Because ...

Gonzalo Miguez-Macho; Haibin Li; Ying Fan

2008-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

399

Viscous Sublayer Below a Wind-Disturbed Water Surface  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Drift currents immediately below the water surface were systematically measured in a circulating wind-wave tank. The results confirmed the existence of a viscous sublayer at the air–water interface, with the current varying linearly with depth ...

Jin Wu

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

400

Exchange flow between open water and floating vegetation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This study describes the exchange flow between a region with open water and a region with a partial-depth porous obstruction, which represents the thermally-driven exchange that occurs between open water and floating ...

Zhang, Xueyan

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "depth precipitable water" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

Influence of Land Cover Change on Regional Water Cycles in Eastern Siberia  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This study evaluated the effect of recent eastern Siberian land surface changes, such as water surface expansion, on water-energy fluxes and precipitation and focused on land surface parameters using a three-dimensional atmospheric model [the ...

Ryuhei Yoshida; Masahiro Sawada; Takeshi Yamazaki; Takeshi Ohta; Tetsuya Hiyama

2013-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

402

On the Relationship between Water Vapor over the Oceans and Sea Surface Temperature  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Monthly mean precipitable water data obtained from passive microwave radiometry (SMMR) are correlated with NMC-blended sea surface temperature data. It is shown that the monthly mean water vapor content of the atmosphere above the oceans can ...

Graeme L. Stephens

1990-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

403

A Comparison of in Situ, Reanalysis, and Satellite Water Budgets over the Upper Colorado River Basin  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Using in situ, reanalysis, and satellite-derived datasets, surface and atmospheric water budgets of the Upper Colorado River basin are analyzed. All datasets capture the seasonal cycle for each water budget component. For precipitation, all ...

Rebecca A. Smith; Christian D. Kummerow

2013-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

404

Automated Retrievals of Water Vapor and Aerosol Profiles from an Operational Raman Lidar  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Automated routines have been developed to derive water vapor mixing ratio, relative humidity, aerosol extinction and backscatter coefficient, and linear depolarization profiles, as well as total precipitable water vapor and aerosol optical ...

D. D. Turner; R. A. Ferrare; L. A. Heilman Brasseur; W. F. Feltz; T. P. Tooman

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

405

Results of Year-Round Remotely Sensed Integrated Water Vapor by Ground-Based Microwave Radiometry  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Based on two years of measurements with a time resolution of 1 min, some climatological findings on precipitable water vapor (PWV) and cloud liquid water (CLW) in central Europe are given. A weak diurnal cycle is apparent. The mean overall ...

J. Güldner; D. Spänkuch

1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

406

Inexpensive Near-IR Sun Photometer for Measuring Total Column Water Vapor  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An inexpensive two-channel near-IR sun photometer for measuring total atmospheric column water vapor (precipitable water) has been developed for use by the Global Learning and Observations to Benefit the Environment (GLOBE) environmental science ...

David R. Brooks; Forrest M. Mims III; Richard Roettger

2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

407

Seasonal Variations in the Vertically Integrated Water Vapor Transport Fields over the Southern Hemisphere  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Seasonal mean fields of precipitable water and the zonal and meridional components of the vertically integrated atmospheric water vapor transport fields are calculated from five years of Southern Hemisphere data (1 September 1973 through 31 ...

David A. Howarth

1983-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

408

pH Adjustment of Power Plant Cooling Water with Flue Gas/Fly Ash  

to fossil fuel burning power plants to control mineral precipitation in cooling water. Flue gas, which is 10% CO2, could be diverted into a plant’s cooling water

409

Heat Flow At Standard Depth | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

source source History View New Pages Recent Changes All Special Pages Semantic Search/Querying Get Involved Help Apps Datasets Community Login | Sign Up Search Page Edit History Facebook icon Twitter icon » Heat Flow At Standard Depth Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Journal Article: Heat Flow At Standard Depth Details Activities (2) Areas (1) Regions (0) Abstract: Secular and long-term periodic changes in surface temperature cause perturbations to the geothermal gradient which may be significant to depths of at least 1000 m, and major corrections are required to determine absolute values of heat flow from the Earth's interior. However, detailed climatic models remain contentious and estimates of error in geothermal gradients differ widely. Consequently, regions of anomalous heat flow which

410

ARM - Evaluation Product - Aerosol Optical Depths from SASHE  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

ProductsAerosol Optical Depths from SASHE ProductsAerosol Optical Depths from SASHE Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Evaluation Product : Aerosol Optical Depths from SASHE Site(s) PVC SGP General Description The Shortwave Array Spectroradiometer Hemispheric (SASHE) is a ground-based instrument that measures both direct and diffuse shortwave irradiance. In this regard, the instrument is similar to the multifilter rotating shadowband radiometer (MFRSR)-an instrument that has been in the ARM Facility stable for more than 15 years. However, the two instruments differ significantly in wavelength resolution and range. In particular, the SASHE provides hyperspectral measurements from about 350 nm to 1700 nm at a wavelength resolution from 1 to several nanometers, while the MFRSR only

411

Depth recovery using an adaptive color-guided auto-regressive model  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper proposes an adaptive color-guided auto-regressive (AR) model for high quality depth recovery from low quality measurements captured by depth cameras. We formulate the depth recovery task into a minimization of AR prediction errors subject ... Keywords: AR model, depth camera, depth recovery, nonlocal filtering

Jingyu Yang; Xinchen Ye; Kun Li; Chunping Hou

2012-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

412

Report on the Depth Requirements for a Massive Detector at Homestake  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report provides the technical justification for locating a large detector underground in a US based Deep Underground Science and Engineering Laboratory. A large detector with a fiducial mass greater than 100 kTon will most likely be a multipurpose facility. The main physics justification for such a device is detection of accelerator generated neutrinos, nucleon decay, and natural sources of neutrinos such as solar, atmospheric and supernova neutrinos. The requirement on the depth of this detector will be guided by the rate of signals from these sources and the rate of backgrounds from cosmic rays over a very wide range of energies (from solar neutrino energies of 5 MeV to high energies in the range of tens of GeV). For the present report, we have examined the depth requirement for a large water Cherenkov detector and a liquid argon time projection chamber. There has been extensive previous experience with underground water Cherenkov detectors such as IMB, Kamioka, and most recently, Super-Kamiokande which has a fiducial mass of 22 kTon and a total mass of 50 kTon at a depth of 2700 meters-water-equivalent. Projections for signal and background capability for a larger and deeper (or shallower) detectors of this type can be scaled from these previous detectors. The liquid argon time projection chamber has the advantage of being a very fine-grained tracking detector, which provides enhanced capability for background rejection. In the current work we have taken the approach that the depth should be sufficient to suppress the cosmogenic background below predicted signal rates for either of the above two technologies. Nevertheless, it is also clear that the underground facility that we are examining must have a long life and will most likely be used either for future novel uses of the currently planned detectors or new technologies. Therefore the depth requirement also needs to be made on the basis of sound judgment regarding possible future use. In particular, the depth should be sufficient for any possible future use of these cavities or the level which will be developed for these large structures. Along with these physics justifications there are practical issues regarding the existing infrastructure at Homestake and also the stress characteristics of the Homestake rock formations. In this report we will examine the various depth choices at Homestake from the point of view of the particle and nuclear physics signatures of interest. We also have sufficient information about the existing infrastructure and the rock characteristics to narrow the choice of levels for the development of large cavities with long lifetimes. We make general remarks on desirable ground conditions for such large cavities and then make recommendations on how to start examining these levels to make a final choice. In the appendix we have outlined the initial requirements for the detectors. These requirements will undergo refinement during the course of the design. Finally, we strongly recommend that the geotechnical studies be commenced at the 4850 ft level, which we find to be the most suitable, in a timely manner.

Bernstein,A.; Blucher, E.; Cline, D. B.; Diwan, M. V.; Fleming, b.; Kadel, R.; Kearns, E.; Klein, J.; Lande, K.; Lanni, F.; Lissauer, D.; McKeown, R.; Morse, W.; Radeika, R.; Scholberg, K.; Smy, M.; Sobel, H.; Sullivan, G.; Svoboda, R.; Vagins, M.; Walter, C.; Zwaska, R.

2008-12-22T23:59:59.000Z

413

The Water Budget of the Kuparuk River Basin, Alaska  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A water budget study that considers precipitation, river runoff, evapotranspiration, and soil moisture for the Kuparuk River basin on the North Slope of Alaska is presented. Numerical simulations of hydrologic processes using the NASA Catchment-...

Stephen J. Déry; Marc Stieglitz; Ĺsa K. Rennermalm; Eric F. Wood

2005-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

414

Simulating Continental Surface Waters: An Application to Holocene Northern Africa  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A model (SWAM) to predict surface waters (lakes and wetlands) on the scale of atmospheric general circulation models is developed. SWAM is based on a linear reservoir hydrologic model and is driven by runoff, precipitation, evaporation, ...

Michael T. Coe

1997-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

415

A Neglected Water Resource: The Camanchaca of South America  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Many parts of the world are currently suffering water shortages. Few areas, however, have as little precipitation and groundwater available to alleviate the problem as does the northern coast of Chile. The historical background of the attempts to ...

Robert S. Schemenauer; Humberto Fuenzalida; Pilar Cereceda

1988-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

416

Cloud Liquid Water and Ice Content Retrieval by Multiwavelength Radar  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Cloud liquid water and ice content retrieval in precipitating clouds by the differential attenuation method using a dual-wavelength radar, as a function of the wavelength pair, is first discussed. In the presence of non-Rayleigh scatterers, ...

Nicolas Gaussiat; Henri Sauvageot; Anthony J. Illingworth

2003-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

417

Geophysical monitoring and reactive transport modeling of ureolytically-driven calcium carbonate precipitation  

SciTech Connect

Ureolytically-driven calcium carbonate precipitation is the basis for a promising in-situ remediation method for sequestration of divalent radionuclide and trace metal ions. It has also been proposed for use in geotechnical engineering for soil strengthening applications. Monitoring the occurrence, spatial distribution, and temporal evolution of calcium carbonate precipitation in the subsurface is critical for evaluating the performance of this technology and for developing the predictive models needed for engineering application. In this study, we conducted laboratory column experiments using natural sediment and groundwater to evaluate the utility of geophysical (complex resistivity and seismic) sensing methods, dynamic synchrotron x-ray computed tomography (micro-CT), and reactive transport modeling for tracking ureolytically-driven calcium carbonate precipitation processes under site relevant conditions. Reactive transport modeling with TOUGHREACT successfully simulated the changes of the major chemical components during urea hydrolysis. Even at the relatively low level of urea hydrolysis observed in the experiments, the simulations predicted an enhanced calcium carbonate precipitation rate that was 3-4 times greater than the baseline level. Reactive transport modeling results, geophysical monitoring data and micro-CT imaging correlated well with reaction processes validated by geochemical data. In particular, increases in ionic strength of the pore fluid during urea hydrolysis predicted by geochemical modeling were successfully captured by electrical conductivity measurements and confirmed by geochemical data. The low level of urea hydrolysis and calcium carbonate precipitation suggested by the model and geochemical data was corroborated by minor changes in seismic P-wave velocity measurements and micro-CT imaging; the latter provided direct evidence of sparsely distributed calcium carbonate precipitation. Ion exchange processes promoted through NH{sub 4}{sup +} production during urea hydrolysis were incorporated in the model and captured critical changes in the major metal species. The electrical phase increases were potentially due to ion exchange processes that modified charge structure at mineral/water interfaces. Our study revealed the potential of geophysical monitoring for geochemical changes during urea hydrolysis and the advantages of combining multiple approaches to understand complex biogeochemical processes in the subsurface.

Wu, Y.; Ajo-Franklin, J.B.; Spycher, N.; Hubbard, S.S.; Zhang, G.; Williams, K.H.; Taylor, J.; Fujita, Y.; Smith, R.

2011-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

418

Geophysical Monitoring and Reactive Transport Modeling of Ureolytically-Driven Calcium Carbonate Precipitation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Ureolytically-driven calcium carbonate precipitation is the basis for a promising in-situ remediation method for sequestration of divalent radionuclide and trace metal ions. It has also been proposed for use in geotechnical engineering for soil strengthening applications. Monitoring the occurrence, spatial distribution, and temporal evolution of calcium carbonate precipitation in the subsurface is critical for evaluating the performance of this technology and for developing the predictive models needed for engineering application. In this study, we conducted laboratory column experiments using natural sediment and groundwater to evaluate the utility of geophysical (complex resistivity and seismic) sensing methods, dynamic synchrotron x-ray computed tomography (micro-CT), and reactive transport modeling for tracking ureolytically-driven calcium carbonate precipitation processes under site relevant conditions. Reactive transport modeling with TOUGHREACT successfully simulated the changes of the major chemical components during urea hydrolysis. Even at the relatively low level of urea hydrolysis observed in the experiments, the simulations predicted an enhanced calcium carbonate precipitation rate that was 3-4 times greater than the baseline level. Reactive transport modeling results, geophysical monitoring data and micro-CT imaging correlated well with reaction processes validated by geochemical data. In particular, increases in ionic strength of the pore fluid during urea hydrolysis predicted by geochemical modeling were successfully captured by electrical conductivity measurements and confirmed by geochemical data. The low level of urea hydrolysis and calcium carbonate precipitation suggested by the model and geochemical data was corroborated by minor changes in seismic P-wave velocity measurements and micro-CT imaging; the latter provided direct evidence of sparsely distributed calcium carbonate precipitation. Ion exchange processes promoted through NH4+ production during urea hydrolysis were incorporated in the model and captured critical changes in the major metal species. The electrical phase increases were potentially due to ion exchange processes that modified charge structure at mineral/water interfaces. Our study revealed the potential of geophysical monitoring for geochemical changes during urea hydrolysis and the advantages of combining multiple approaches to understand complex biogeochemical processes in the subsurface.

Yuxin Wu; Jonathan B. Ajo-Franklin; Nicolas Spycher; Susan S. Hubbard; Guoxiang Zhang; Kenneth H. Williams; Joanna Taylor; Yoshiko Fujita; Robert Smith

2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

419

Analyzing ENSO Teleconnections in CMIP Models as a Measure of Model Fidelity in Simulating Precipitation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The accurate representation of precipitation is a recurring issue in climate models. El Nińo–Southern Oscillation (ENSO) precipitation teleconnections provide a test bed for comparison of modeled to observed precipitation. The simulation quality ...

Baird Langenbrunner; J. David Neelin

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

420

Observed Scaling in Clouds and Precipitation and Scale Incognizance in Regional to Global Atmospheric Models  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We use observations of robust scaling behavior in clouds and precipitation to derive constraints on how partitioning of precipitation should change with model resolution. Our analysis indicates that 90–99% of stratiform precipitation should occur ...

Travis A. O’Brien; Fuyu Li; William D. Collins; Sara A. Rauscher; Todd D. Ringler; Mark Taylor; Samson M. Hagos; L. Ruby Leung

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "depth precipitable water" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

On the Decline of Wintertime Precipitation in the Snowy Mountains of Southeastern Australia  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Data from a precipitation gauge network in the Snowy Mountains of southeastern Australia have been analyzed to produce a new climatology of wintertime precipitation and airmass history for the region in the period 1990–2009. Precipitation amounts ...

Thomas H. Chubb; Steven T. Siems; Michael J. Manton

2011-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

422

Mapping Weather-Type Influence on Senegal Precipitation Based on a Spatial–Temporal Statistical Model  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Senegal is particularly vulnerable to precipitation variability. To investigate the influence of large-scale circulation on local-scale precipitation, a full spatial–statistical description of precipitation occurrence and amount for Senegal is ...

Henning W. Rust; Mathieu Vrac; Benjamin Sultan; Matthieu Lengaigne

2013-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

423

Evaluation of GSMaP Precipitation Estimates over the Contiguous United States  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Precipitation estimates from the Global Satellite Mapping of Precipitation (GSMaP) project are evaluated over the contiguous United States (CONUS) for the period of 2005–06. GSMaP combines precipitation retrievals from the Tropical Rainfall ...

Yudong Tian; Christa D. Peters-Lidard; Robert F. Adler; Takuji Kubota; Tomoo Ushio

2010-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

424

A Model of Intense Downdrafts Driven by the Melting and Evaporation of Precipitation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A ono-dimensioral time-dependent model of a downdraft driven by the melting and evaporation of precipitation and precipitation loading is formulated. Equations for particle melting, particle evaporation, particle concentration, precipitation ...

R. C. Srivastava

1987-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

425

Mapping Weather-Type Influence on Senegal Precipitation Based on a Spatial-Temporal Statistical Model  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Senegal is particularly vulnerable to precipitation variability. To investigate the inuence of large scaled circulation on local scale precipitation, we develop a full spatial statistical description of precipitation occurrence and amount for ...

Henning W. Rust; Mathieu Vrac; Benjamin Sultan; Matthieu Lengaigne

426

A Possible Constraint on Regional Precipitation Intensity Changes under Global Warming  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Changes in daily precipitation versus intensity under a global warming scenario in two regional climate simulations of the United States show a well-recognized feature of more intense precipitation. More important, by resolving the precipitation ...

W. J. Gutowski Jr.; E. S. Takle; K. A. Kozak; J. C. Patton; R. W. Arritt; J. H. Christensen

2007-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

427

6-Hour to 1-Year Variance of Five Global Precipitation Sets  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Three-hourly time series of precipitation from three high-resolution precipitation products [Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) algorithm 3B-42, the Climate Prediction Center’s morphing method (CMORPH), and the Precipitation Estimation ...

Alex C. Ruane; John O. Roads

2007-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

428

Impact Of Cumulus Initialization on the Spinup of Precipitation Forecasts in the Tropics  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In order to ameliorate the precipitation spinup problem (prediction models’ inability to produce realistic precipitation rates at the beginning of the forecast period), the impact of a tropical initialization procedure on precipitation forecasts ...

Akira Kasahara; Arthur P. Mizzi; Leo J. Donner

1992-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

429

The Ocean general circulation near 1000 m depth  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The mean Ocean circulation near 1000 m depth is estimated with a 100 km resolution from the Argo float displacements collected before January 1 2010. After a thorough validation, the 400 000 or so displacements found in the [950, 1150] dbar layer ...

Michel Ollitrault; Alain Colin de Verdičre

430

Trap-depth determination from residual gas collisions  

SciTech Connect

We present a method for determining the depth of an atomic or molecular trap of any type. This method relies on a measurement of the trap loss rate induced by collisions with background gas particles. Given a fixed gas composition, the loss rate uniquely determines the trap depth. Because of the ''soft'' long-range nature of the van der Waals interaction, these collisions transfer kinetic energy to trapped particles across a broad range of energy scales, from room temperature to the microkelvin energy scale. The resulting loss rate therefore exhibits a significant variation over an enormous range of trap depths, making this technique a powerful diagnostic with a large dynamic range. We present trap depth measurements of a Rb magneto-optical trap using this method and a different technique that relies on measurements of loss rates during optical excitation of colliding atoms to a repulsive molecular state. The main advantage of the method presented here is its large dynamic range and applicability to traps of any type requiring only knowledge of the background gas density and the interaction potential between the trapped and background gas particles.

Van Dongen, J.; Zhu, C.; Clement, D.; Dufour, G.; Madison, K. W. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia, 6224 Agricultural Road, Vancouver, British Columbia, V6T 1Z1 (Canada); Booth, J. L. [Physics Department, British Columbia Institute of Technology, 3700 Willingdon Avenue, Burnaby, British Columbia, V5G 3H2 (Canada)

2011-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

431

Computational depth complexity of measurement-based quantum computation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We prove that one-way quantum computations have the same computational power as quantum circuits with unbounded fan-out. It demonstrates that the one-way model is not only one of the most promising models of physical realisation, but also a very powerful model of quantum computation. It confirms and completes previous results which have pointed out, for some specific problems, a depth separation between the one-way model and the quantum circuit model. Since one-way model has the same computational power as unbounded quantum fan-out circuits, the quantum Fourier transform can be approximated in constant depth in the one-way model, and thus the factorisation can be done by a polytime probabilistic classical algorithm which has access to a constant-depth one-way quantum computer. The extra power of the one-way model, comparing with the quantum circuit model, comes from its classical-quantum hybrid nature. We show that this extra power is reduced to the capability to perform unbounded classical parity gates in constant depth.

Dan E. Browne; Elham Kashefi; Simon Perdrix

2009-09-25T23:59:59.000Z

432

Inferring Optical Depth of Broken Clouds from Landsat Data  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Optical depths ?pp for broken, shallow clouds over ocean were inferred from Landsat cloud reflectances Rcld (0.83 ?m) with horizontal resolution of 28.5 m. The values ?pp were obtained by applying an inverse, homogeneous, plane-parallel radiance ...

Howard W. Barker; Damin Liu

1995-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

433

Interactions in the air: adding further depth to interactive tabletops  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Although interactive surfaces have many unique and compelling qualities, the interactions they support are by their very nature bound to the display surface. In this paper we present a technique for users to seamlessly switch between interacting on the ... Keywords: 3D, 3D graphics, computer vision, depth-sensing cameras, holoscreen, interactive surfaces, surfaces, switchable diffusers, tabletop

Otmar Hilliges; Shahram Izadi; Andrew D. Wilson; Steve Hodges; Armando Garcia-Mendoza; Andreas Butz

2009-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

434

Evaluation of Co-precipitation Processes for the Synthesis of Mixed-Oxide Fuel Feedstock Materials  

SciTech Connect

The focus of this report is the evaluation of various co-precipitation processes for use in the synthesis of mixed oxide feedstock powders for the Ceramic Fuels Technology Area within the Fuels Cycle R&D (FCR&D) Program's Advanced Fuels Campaign. The evaluation will include a comparison with standard mechanical mixing of dry powders and as well as other co-conversion methods. The end result will be the down selection of a preferred sequence of co-precipitation process for the preparation of nuclear fuel feedstock materials to be used for comparison with other feedstock preparation methods. A review of the literature was done to identify potential nitrate-to-oxide co-conversion processes which have been applied to mixtures of uranium and plutonium to achieve recycle fuel homogeneity. Recent studies have begun to study the options for co-converting all of the plutonium and neptunium recovered from used nuclear fuels, together with appropriate portions of recovered uranium to produce the desired mixed oxide recycle fuel. The addition of recycled uranium will help reduce the safeguard attractiveness level and improve proliferation resistance of the recycled fuel. The inclusion of neptunium is primarily driven by its chemical similarity to plutonium, thus enabling a simple quick path to recycle. For recycle fuel to thermal-spectrum light water reactors (LWRs), the uranium concentration can be {approx}90% (wt.), and for fast spectrum reactors, the uranium concentration can typically exceed 70% (wt.). However, some of the co-conversion/recycle fuel fabrication processes being developed utilize a two-step process to reach the desired uranium concentration. In these processes, a 50-50 'master-mix' MOX powder is produced by the co-conversion process, and the uranium concentration is adjusted to the desired level for MOX fuel recycle by powder blending (milling) the 'master-mix' with depleted uranium oxide. In general, parameters that must be controlled for co-precipitation processes include (1) feed solution concentration adjustment, (2) precipitant concentration and addition methods, (3) pH, temperature, mixing method and time, (4) valence adjustment, (5) solid precipitate separation from the filtrate 'mother liquor,' generally by means of centrifugation or filtration, and (6) temperatures and times for drying, calcination, and reduction of the MOX product powder. Also a recovery step is necessary because of low, but finite solubility of the U/TRU metals in the mother liquor. The recovery step usually involves destruction of the residual precipitant and disposal of by-product wastes. Direct denitrations of U/TRU require fewer steps, but must utilize various methods to enable production of MOX with product characteristics that are acceptable for recycle fuel fabrication. The three co-precipitation processes considered for evaluation are (1) the ammonia co-precipitation process being developed in Russia, (2) the oxalate co-precipitation process, being developed in France, and (3) the ammonium-uranyl-plutonyl-carbonate (AUPuC) process being developed in Germany. Two direct denitration processes are presented for comparison: (1) the 'Microwave Heating (MH)' automated multi-batch process developed in Japan and (2) the 'Modified Direct Denitration (MDD)' continuous process being developed in the USA. Brief comparative descriptions of the U/TRU co-conversion processes are described. More complete details are provided in the references.

Collins, Emory D [ORNL; Voit, Stewart L [ORNL; Vedder, Raymond James [ORNL

2011-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

435

Depth enhancement techniques for the in situ vitrification process  

SciTech Connect

In-situ vitrification (ISV) is a process by which electrical energy is supplied to a soil/waste matrix. The resulting Joule heat raises the temperature of the soil/waste matrix, producing a pool of molten soil. Since its inception, there have been many successful applications of the technology to both staged and actual waste sites. However, there has been some difficulty in extending the attainable treatment melt depth to levels greater than 5 m. Results obtained from application of two novel approaches for extending the ultimate treatment depth attainable with in-situ vitrification (ISV) are presented. In the first, the electrode design is modified to concentrate the Joule heat energy delivered to the soil/waste matrix in the lower region of the target melt zone. This electrode design has been dubbed the hot-tip electrode. Results obtained from both computational and experimental investigations of this design concept indicate that some benefit toward ISV depth enhancement was realized with these hot-tip electrodes. A second, alternative approach to extending process depth with ISV involves initiating the melt at depth and propagating it in either vertical direction (e.g., downward, upward, or both) to treat the target waste zone. A series of engineering-scale experiments have been conducted to assess the benefits of this approach. The results from these tests indicate that ISV may be effectively initiated and sustained using this subsurface start-up technique. A survey of these experiments and the associated results are presented herein, together with brief discussion of some considerations regarding setup and implementation of this subsurface start-up technique.

Lowery, P.S.; Luey, J.; Seiler, D.K.; Tixier, J.S. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Timmerman, C.L. [Geosafe Corp., Richland, WA (United States)

1994-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

436

Soil microbial community response to precipitation change in a semi-arid ecosystem  

SciTech Connect

Microbial communities regulate many belowground carbon cycling processes; thus, the impact of climate change on the struc- ture and function of soil microbial communities could, in turn, impact the release or storage of carbon in soils. Here we used a large-scale precipitation manipulation ( 18%, 50%, or ambient) in a pi on-juniper woodland (Pinus edulis-Juniperus mono- sperma) to investigate how changes in precipitation amounts altered soil microbial communities as well as what role seasonal variation in rainfall and plant composition played in the microbial community response. Seasonal variability in precipitation had a larger role in determining the composition of soil microbial communities in 2008 than the direct effect of the experimental precipitation treatments. Bacterial and fungal communities in the dry, relatively moisture-limited premonsoon season were compositionally distinct from communities in the monsoon season, when soil moisture levels and periodicity varied more widely across treatments. Fungal abundance in the drought plots during the dry premonsoon season was particularly low and was 4.7 times greater upon soil wet-up in the monsoon season, suggesting that soil fungi were water limited in the driest plots, which may result in a decrease in fungal degradation of carbon substrates. Additionally, we found that both bacterial and fungal communities beneath pi on pine and juniper were distinct, suggesting that microbial functions beneath these trees are different. We conclude that predicting the response of microbial communities to climate change is highly dependent on seasonal dynam- ics, background climatic variability, and the composition of the associated aboveground community.

Cregger, Melissa [ORNL; Schadt, Christopher Warren [ORNL; McDowell, Nathan [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Pockman, William [University of New Mexico, Albuquerque; Classen, Aimee T [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK)

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

437

Simulated Convective Lines with Leading Precipitation. Part I: Governing Dynamics  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This article, the first of two describing a study in which the authors used idealized numerical simulations to investigate convective lines with leading precipitation, addresses the dynamics governing the systems' structures and individual air ...

Matthew D. Parker; Richard H. Johnson

2004-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

438

Issues Regarding the Assimilation of Cloud and Precipitation Data  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The assimilation of observations indicative of quantitative cloud and precipitation characteristics is desirable for improving weather forecasts. For many fundamental reasons, it is a more difficult problem than the assimilation of conventional ...

Ronald M. Errico; Peter Bauer; Jean-François Mahfouf

2007-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

439

Regional Simulation of Summertime Precipitation over the Southwestern United States  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Using results taken from a finescale (25 km), regional modeling simulation for the summer of 1999, along with contemporaneous daily surface observations, synoptic variations in summertime precipitation over the southwestern United States are ...

Bruce T. Anderson; John O. Roads

2002-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

440

Precipitation Nowcasting by a Spectral-Based Nonlinear Stochastic Model  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A novel rainfall nowcasting method based on the combination of an empirical nonlinear transformation of measured precipitation fields and the stochastic evolution in spectral space of the transformed fields is introduced. The power spectrum and ...

Sabino Metta; Jost von Hardenberg; Luca Ferraris; Nicola Rebora; Antonello Provenzale

2009-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "depth precipitable water" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

Sea Surface Temperature–Precipitation Relationship in Different Reanalyses  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The focus of this investigation is how the relationship at intraseasonal time scales between sea surface temperature and precipitation (SST–P) varies among different reanalyses. The motivation for this work was spurred by a recent report that ...

Arun Kumar; Li Zhang; Wanqiu Wang

2013-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

442

Radar Observations and Simulation of the Melting Layer of Precipitation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The melting layer in precipitation is physically modeled and compared with high resolution Doppler radar data. The model includes a new formulation of the dielectric properties and can handle all ice particles with densities ranging from pure ...

Wim Klaassen

1988-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

443

Skill in Precipitation Forecasting in the National Weather Service  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

All known long-term records of forecasting performance for different types of precipitation forecasts in the National Weather Service were examined for relative skill and secular trends in skill. The largest upward trends were achieved by local ...

Jerome P. Charba; William H. Klein

1980-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

444

Impact of Atmospheric Moisture Storage on Precipitation Recycling  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Computations of precipitation recycling using analytical models are generally performed under the assumption of negligible change in moisture storage in the atmospheric column. Because the moisture storage term is nonnegligible at smaller time ...

Francina Dominguez; Praveen Kumar; Xin-Zhong Liang; Mingfang Ting

2006-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

445

A Global View of Large-Scale Precipitation Variability  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Observational studies and model experiments make abundantly clear the need for a global perspective in order to understand the nature and causes of persistent regional precipitation anomalies. Rainfall in the deep tropics is particularly ...

Eugene M. Rasmusson; Phillip A. Arkin

1993-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

446

Radar-Observed Characteristics of Precipitating Systems during NAME 2004  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A multiradar network, operated in the southern Gulf of California (GoC) region during the 2004 North American Monsoon Experiment, is used to analyze the spatial and temporal variabilities of local precipitation. Based on the initial findings of ...

Timothy J. Lang; David A. Ahijevych; Stephen W. Nesbitt; Richard E. Carbone; Steven A. Rutledge; Robert Cifelli

2007-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

447

The 1993 Midwest Extreme Precipitation in Historical and Probabilistic Perspective  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Extreme rainfall amounts that resulted in severe flooding during the spring and summer of 1993 along the Missouri and Mississippi Rivers are examined from a historical and probabilistic viewpoint. Long-term average precipitation amounts and the ...

Nathaniel B. Guttman; J. R. M. Hosking; James R. Wallis

1994-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

448

Precipitation Efficiency of Warm-Season Midwestern Mesoscale Convective Systems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The precipitation efficiencies for mesoscale convective systems (MCS) over the central United States are calculated. During July–September 2000 and June–September 2001, 24 MCS for which sufficient data were available occurred over or near ...

Patrick Market; Stacy Allen; Roderick Scofield; Robert Kuligowski; Arnold Gruber

2003-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

449

ARM - Evaluation Product - Quantitative Precipitation Estimates (QPE) from  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

ProductsQuantitative Precipitation Estimates (QPE) ProductsQuantitative Precipitation Estimates (QPE) from the CSAPR Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Evaluation Product : Quantitative Precipitation Estimates (QPE) from the CSAPR Site(s) SGP TWP General Description Precipitation rates from cloud systems can give a fundamental insight into the processes occurring in-cloud. While rain gauges and disdrometers can give information at a single point, remote sensors such as radars can provide rainfall information over a defined area. The QPE value-added product (VAP) takes the Corrected Moments in Antenna Coordinates VAP and maps the Rain_rate_A field onto a Cartesian grid at the surface. This field is the rain rate as determined using the specific attenuation (A, dBZ/km) due to two-way liquid attenuation after Ryzhkov et

450

Multiscale Analysis of the Summertime Precipitation over the Central Andes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Precipitation over the central Andes in South America exhibits a marked annual march, with most of the rainfall concentrated during the austral summer season (December–February), when the atmospheric circulation favors the uplifting of moist air ...

RenéD. Garreaud

1999-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

451

Impact of Urban Effects on Precipitation in High Latitudes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This numerical study examines the impact of urban growth and release of aerosols, moisture, and heat on precipitation for Fairbanks, Alaska, a remote city at high latitude. The remote location allows atmospheric changes to be attributed to the ...

Nicole Mölders; Mark A. Olson

2004-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

452

Probabilistic Predictions of Precipitation Using the ECMWF Ensemble Prediction System  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The forecast skill of the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts Ensemble Prediction System (EPS) in predicting precipitation probabilities is discussed. Four seasons are analyzed in detail using signal detection theory and ...

R. Buizza; A. Hollingsworth; F. Lalaurette; A. Ghelli

1999-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

453

The Variability of Wintertime Precipitation in the Region of California  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Rotated principal component (RPC) analysis, subject to the varimax criterion and including area weighting, is applied to a 58-yr record (1931–88) of monthly- and seasonal-mean Climatic Division precipitation anomalies for the contiguous United ...

Todd P. Mitchell; Warren Blier

1997-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

454

California Wintertime Precipitation Bias in Regional and Global Climate Models  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this paper, wintertime precipitation from a variety of observational datasets, regional climate models (RCMs), and general circulation models (GCMs) is averaged over the state of California and compared. Several averaging methodologies are ...

Peter Caldwell

2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

455

Arctic Precipitation and Evaporation: Model Results and Observational Estimates  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Observational estimates of precipitation and evaporation over the Arctic Ocean and its terrestrial watersheds are compared with corresponding values from the climate model simulations of the Atmospheric Model Intercomparison Project (AMIP). ...

John E. Walsh; Vladimir Kattsov; Diane Portis; Valentin Meleshko

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

456

A Bulk Microphysics Parameterization with Multiple Ice Precipitation Categories  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A single-moment bulk microphysics scheme with multiple ice precipitation categories is described. It has 2 liquid hydrometeor categories (cloud droplets and rain) and 10 ice categories that are characterized by habit, size, and density—two ice ...

Jerry M. Straka; Edward R. Mansell

2005-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

457

Effects of Vertical Wind Shear on Tropical Cyclone Precipitation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The response of the precipitation field for tropical cyclones in relation to the surrounding environmental vertical wind shear has been investigated using 20 000 snapshots of passive-microwave satellite rain rates. Composites of mean rain rates, ...

Matthew T. Wingo; Daniel J. Cecil

2010-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

458

The Isotopic Composition of Precipitation from Two Extratropical Cyclones  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Precipitation samples were collected at stations in the Eastern United States for two extratropical cyclones during the Genesis of Atlantic Lows Experiment (GALE) of 1986 and analyzed for their ?18O values. They represent the first synoptic-scale ...

Stanley David Gedzelman; James R. Lawrence

1990-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

459

Effects of Coalescence Efficiencies on the Formation of Precipitation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A closed parcel model which simulates condensation, collection and breakup was used to evaluate the effects of recently measured collection efficiencies on precipitation development. Computations were made using theoretical collision efficiencies ...

Harry T. Ochs III; Kenneth V. Beard

1985-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

460

TRMM Radar Observations of Shallow Precipitation over the Tropical Oceans  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Observations from the precipitation radar aboard the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission satellite provide the first opportunity to map vertical structure properties of rain over the entire Tropics and subtropics. Storm height histograms reveal a ...

David A. Short; Kenji Nakamura

2000-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "depth precipitable water" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


461

Automatic Monitoring of the Amount of Deposited Precipitation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An automatic device for measurement of the amount (weight) of deposited precipitation developed at the Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, is described. Examples of measurements of various types of ...

J. Fišák; J. Chum; J. Vojta; K. Bart??ková

2013-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

462

Empirically Downscaled Multimodel Ensemble Temperature and Precipitation Scenarios for Norway  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A number of different global climate model scenarios are used in order to infer local climate scenarios for various locations in Norway. Results from empirically downscaled multimodel ensembles of temperature and precipitation for the period 2000–...

Rasmus E. Benestad

2002-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

463

A Probabilistic Forecast Approach for Daily Precipitation Totals  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Commonly, postprocessing techniques are employed to calibrate a model forecast. Here, a probabilistic postprocessor is presented that provides calibrated probability and quantile forecasts of precipitation on the local scale. The forecasts are ...

Petra Friederichs; Andreas Hense

2008-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

464

Climatology of Lake-Effect Precipitation Events over Lake Champlain  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This study provides the first long-term climatological analysis of lake-effect precipitation events that developed in relation to a small lake (having a surface area of ?1500 km2). The frequency and environmental conditions favorable for Lake ...

Neil F. Laird; Jared Desrochers; Melissa Payer

2009-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

465

Multiscale Mountain Waves Influencing a Major Orographic Precipitation Event  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This study combines high-resolution mesoscale model simulations and comprehensive airborne Doppler radar observations to identify kinematic structures influencing the production and mesoscale distribution of precipitation and microphysical ...

Matthew F. Garvert; Bradley Smull; Cliff Mass

2007-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

466

The Form of Cyclonic Precipitation and Its Thermal Impact  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A two-dimensional, parameterized kinematic cloud microphysics model is described and used to simulate the form of cyclonic precipitation and its thermal impact in three idealized situations. The first situation represents a strong, warm, or ...

Stanley David Gedzelman; Robert Arnold

1993-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

467

Probabilistic models of maximum precipitation for designing sewerage  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Pluviographic measurement results from the IMGW Wroc?aw-Strachowice meteorological station from years 1960-2009 constitute the basis for this paper. While conducting the statistical analysis of precipitation occurrence frequency own criterion of ...

Andrzej Kotowski; Bartosz Ka?mierczak

468

Precipitation Types in the Transition Region of Winter Storms  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Winter storms often produce snow, freezing rain, and ice pellets. The characteristics and formation of these forms of precipitation as well as their location within storms are reviewed. Phenomena such as accretion and fog can be related to this ...

Ronald E. Stewart

1992-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

469

Lightning during Two Central U.S. Winter Precipitation Events  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Network-detected cloud-to-ground lightning coincident with mainly frozen precipitation (freezing rain, sleet, snow) was studied over the central United States during two outbreaks of arctic air in January 1994. During the first event, the ratio ...

Ronald L. Holle; Andrew I. Watson

1996-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

470

Precipitation and Temperature Forecast Performance at the Weather Prediction Center  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The role of the human forecaster in improving upon the accuracy of numerical weather prediction is explored using multi-year verification of human-generated short-range precipitation forecasts and medium-range maximum temperature forecasts from ...

David R. Novak; Christopher Bailey; Keith Brill; Patrick Burke; Wallace Hogsett; Robert Rausch; Michael Schichtel

471

Enhancement of satellite precipitation estimation via unsupervised dimensionality reduction  

SciTech Connect

A methodology to enhance Satellite Precipitation Estimation (SPE) using unsupervised dimensionality reduction (UDR) techniques is developed. This enhanced technique is an extension to the Precipitation Estimation from Remotely Sensed Imagery using an Artificial Neural Network (PERSIANN) and Cloud Classification System (CCS) method (PERSIANN-CCS) enriched using wavelet features combined with dimensionality reduction. Cloud-top brightness temperature measurements from Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES-12) are used for precipitation estimation at 4 km 4 km spatial resolutions every 30 min. The study area in the continental United States covers parts of Louisiana, Arkansas, Kansas, Tennessee, Mississippi, and Alabama. Based on quantitative measures, root mean square error (RMSE) and Heidke skill score (HSS), the results show that the UDR techniques can improve the precipitation estimation accuracy. In addition, ICA is shown to have better performance than other UDR techniques; and in some cases, it achieves 10% improvement in the HSS.

Mahrooghy, Majid [Mississippi State University (MSU); Younan, Nicolas H. [Mississippi State University (MSU); Anantharaj, Valentine G [ORNL; Aanstoos, James [Mississippi State University (MSU)

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

472

Correcting Microwave Precipitation Retrievals for near-Surface Evaporation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper compares two methods for correcting passive or active microwave surface precipitation estimates based on hydrometeors sensed aloft that may evaporate before landing. These corrections were derived using two years ...

Surussavadee, Chinnawat

473

Diurnally Asymmetric Trends of Temperature, Humidity, and Precipitation in Taiwan  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this work, 45 years (1961–2005) of hourly meteorological data in Taiwan, including temperature, humidity, and precipitation, have been analyzed with emphasis on their diurnal asymmetries. A long-term decreasing trend for relative humidity (RH) ...

Chein-Jung Shiu; Shaw Chen Liu; Jen-Ping Chen

2009-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

474

Mechanisms of Global Warming Impacts on Regional Tropical Precipitation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Mechanisms that determine the tropical precipitation anomalies under global warming are examined in an intermediate atmospheric model coupled with a simple land surface and a mixed layer ocean. To compensate for the warm tropospheric temperature, ...

Chia Chou; J. David Neelin

2004-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

475

Neural network microwave precipitation retrievals and modeling results  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We describe a simulation methodology used to develop and validate precipitation retrieval algorithms for current and future passive microwave sounders with emphasis on the NPOESS (National Polar-orbiting Operational ...

Leslie, R. Vincent

476

Acid Leaching of Nickel Laterites with Jarosite Precipitation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Presentation Title, Acid Leaching of Nickel Laterites with Jarosite Precipitation ... shortly after the development of the jarosite process for iron control in zinc refining. ... The Recycling of Cobalt from Alloy Scrap, Spent Batteries or Catalysts and ...

477

Elevation-Dependent Trends in Precipitation Observed during NAME  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Radar data from the 2004 North American Monsoon Experiment (NAME) enhanced observing period were used to investigate diurnal trends and vertical structure of precipitating features relative to local terrain. Two-dimensional composites of ...

Angela K. Rowe; Steven A. Rutledge; Timothy J. Lang; Paul E. Ciesielski; Stephen M. Saleeby

2008-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

478

Overland Precipitation Estimation from TRMM Passive Microwave Observations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Procedures for passive microwave precipitation estimation over land are investigated based on a large database of Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) observations. The procedures include components for rain area delineation, convective/...

Mircea Grecu; Emmanouil N. Anagnostou

2001-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

479

Precipitates and Mechanical Properties in Modified 718 Alloys  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

y '/y ” structure was obtained in one alloy and a compact y '/y ” structure in the ... by the size and spacing of the non-compact y '/y ” precipitates being more ...

480

BASIC PEROXIDE PRECIPITATION METHOD OF SEPARATING PLUTONIUM FROM CONTAMINANTS  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process is described for the separation from each other of uranyl values, tetravalent plutonium values and fission products contained in an aqueous acidic solution. First the pH of the solution is adjusted to between 2.5 and 8 and hydrogen peroxide is then added to the solution causing precipitation of uranium peroxide which carries any plutonium values present, while the fission products remain in solution. Separation of the uranium and plutonium values is then effected by dissolving the peroxide precipitate in an acidic solution and incorporating a second carrier precipitate, selective for plutonium. The plutonium values are thus carried from the solution while the uranium remains flissolved. The second carrier precipitate may be selected from among the group consisting of rare earth fluorides, and oxalates, zirconium phosphate, and bismuth lihosphate.

Seaborg, G.T.; Perlman, I.

1959-02-10T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "depth precipitable water" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


481

On the “Best” Temperature and Precipitation Normals: The Illinois Situation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Historical (1901–79) temperature and precipitation data for four Illinois stations were used to determine the frequency with which summer and winter averages for periods of various length (i.e., different climatic normals) are closest to the ...

Peter J. Lamb; Stanley A. Changnon Jr.

1981-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

482

Precipitation of heterogeneous nanostructures: Metal nanoparticles and dielectric nanocrystallites  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Heterogeneous precipitation of nanocrystallites of metallic Bi and anatase was observed in CaO-Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3}-B{sub 2}O{sub 3}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-TiO{sub 2} glass-ceramics. Addition of AlN reduced the Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3} to Bi metal nanoparticles, which were uniformly dispersed in the glass. After heat-treatment of the Bi-precipitated glass around the glass transition temperature, nanocrystalline anatase precipitated out without aggregation of the Bi metal particles. It was found that the anatase nanocrystal size was affected by the distance between a nanocrystal and a precipitated Bi nanoparticle. The glass-ceramic produced is a functional material containing a random dispersion of different types of nanoparticles with different dielectric constants.

Masai, Hirokazu; Takahashi, Yoshihiro; Fujiwara, Takumi [Department of Applied Physics, Tohoku University, 6-6-05, Aoba, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8579 (Japan); Tokuda, Yomei; Yoko, Toshinobu [Institute for Chemical Research, Kyoto University, Gokasyo, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan)

2010-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

483

Mechanisms by Which Surface Drying Perturbs Tropical Precipitation Fields  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The observed precipitation climatology in austral summer has a pronounced longitudinal gradient across Africa and South America. A low-resolution general circulation model (GCM) with a simple continent centered on the equator is used to ...

Kerry H. Cook

1994-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

484

Spatial Distribution of Precipitation Seasonality in the United States  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A detailed, long term portrait of the seasonality of precipitation over the United States is developed using a 90 year climate division record. Selected decadal maps of seasonality are also presented, and their variability over time considered. ...

Peter L. Finkelstein; Lawrence E. Truppi

1991-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

485

Effects of Precipitation on UHF Wind Profiler Measurements  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Horizontal winds in the presence of precipitation were measured routinely with a UHF (405 MHz) Wind Profiler. The profiler had five beam-pointing positions so independent measurements of horizontal winds could be compared to determine relative ...

D. B. Wuertz; B. L. Weber; R. G. Strauch; A. S. Frisch; C. G. Little; D. A. Merritt; K. P. Moran; D. C. Welsh

1988-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

486

RESEARCH CAMPAIGN: The Convective and Orographically Induced Precipitation Study  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The international field campaign called the Convective and Orographically-induced Precipitation Study (COPS) took place from June to August 2007 in southwestern Germany/eastern France. The overarching goal of COPS is to advance the quality of ...

Volker Wulfmeyer; Andreas Behrendt; Hans-Stefan Bauer; Christoph Kottmeier; Ulrich Corsmeier; Alan Blyth; George Craig; Ulrich Schumann; Martin Hagen; Susanne Crewell; Paolo Di Girolamo; Cyrille Flamant; Mark Miller; Andrea Montani; Stephen Mobbs; Evelyne Richard; Mathias W. Rotach; Marco Arpagaus; Herman Russchenberg; Peter Schlüssel; Marianne König; Volker Gärtner; Reinhold Steinacker; Manfred Dorninger; David D. Turner; Tammy Weckwerth; Andreas Hense; Clemens Simmer

2008-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

487

The WGNE Assessment of Short-term Quantitative Precipitation Forecasts  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Twenty-four-hour and 48-h quantitative precipitation forecasts (QPFs) from 11 operational numerical weather prediction models have been verified for a 4-yr period against rain gauge observations over the United States, Germany, and Australia to ...

Elizabeth E. Ebert; Ulrich Damrath; Werner Wergen; Michael E. Baldwin

2003-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

488

Spatial Coherence of Monthly Precipitation in the United States  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Factor analysis and an orthogonal rotation to the varimax criterion are used to identify the synoptic-scale regions of the United States over which monthly precipitation amounts show the greatest spatial coherence. The regions are consistent with ...

John E. Walsh; Michael B. Richman; David W. Allen

1982-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

489

Subpolar High Anomaly Preconditioning Precipitation over South America  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The mechanisms associated with the intraseasonal variability of precipitation over South America during the spring season are investigated with emphasis on the influence of a quasi-stationary anomalous circulation over the southeastern South ...

Silvina A. Solman; Isidoro Orlanski

2010-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

490

Adjustment of GCM Precipitation Intensity over the United States  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A regression equation is developed to adjust the simulated monthly averaged intensity of hourly precipitation over the continental United States using air temperature at the first model level (about 80 m above ground) simulated by a revised ...

Mingxuan Chen; Xubin Zeng; Robert E. Dickinson

1998-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

491

An Improved Modeling Scheme for Freezing Precipitation Forecasts  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

To improve forecasts of various weather elements (snow, rain, and freezing precipitation) in numerical weather prediction models, a new mixed-phase cloud scheme has been developed. The scheme is based on a single prognostic equation for total ...

André Tremblay; Anna Glazer

2000-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

492

Soil Moisture Feedbacks to Precipitation in Southern Africa  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The effects of increased soil moisture on wet season (October–March) precipitation in southern Africa are investigated using the Community Climate System Model version 3 (CCSM3). In the CTRL case, soil moisture is allowed to interact dynamically ...

Benjamin I. Cook; Gordon B. Bonan; Samuel Levis

2006-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

493

Orographic Precipitation in the Tropics: Experiments in Dominica  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The “natural laboratory” of mountainous Dominica (15°N) in the trade wind belt is used to study the physics of tropical orographic precipitation in its purest form, unforced by weather disturbances or by the diurnal cycle of solar heating. A ...

R. B. Smith; P. Schafer; D. J. Kirshbaum; E. Regina

2009-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

494

Regional Extreme Monthly Precipitation Simulated by NARCCAP RCMs  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper analyzes the ability of the North American Regional Climate Change Assessment Program (NARCCAP) ensemble of regional climate models to simulate extreme monthly precipitation and its supporting circulation for regions of North America, ...

William J. Gutowski Jr.; Raymond W. Arritt; Sho Kawazoe; David M. Flory; Eugene S. Takle; Sébastien Biner; Daniel Caya; Richard G. Jones; René Laprise; L. Ruby Leung; Linda O. Mearns; Wilfran Moufouma-Okia; Ana M. B. Nunes; Yun Qian; John O. Roads; Lisa C. Sloan; Mark A. Snyder

2010-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

495

Parameterizing Subgrid Orographic Precipitation and Surface Cover in Climate Models  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Previous development of the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory’s regional climate model has focused on representing orographic precipitation using a subgrid parameterization where subgrid variations of surface elevation are aggregated to a ...

L. R. Leung; S. J. Ghan

1998-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

496

A 3-GHz Profiler for Precipitating Cloud Studies  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A 3-GHz profiler has been developed by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration’s Aeronomy Laboratory to observe the evolution and vertical structure of precipitating cloud systems. The profiler is very portable, robust, and relatively ...

Warner L. Ecklund; Christopher R. Williams; Paul E. Johnston; Kenneth S. Gage

1999-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

497

Mesoscale Predictability of an Extreme Warm-Season Precipitation Event  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A mesoscale model is used to investigate the mesoscale predictability of an extreme precipitation event over central Texas on 29 June 2002 that lasted through 7 July 2002. Both the intrinsic and practical aspects of warm-season predictability, ...

Fuqing Zhang; Andrew M. Odins; John W. Nielsen-Gammon

2006-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

498

Consensus Clustering of U.S. Temperature and Precipitation Data  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A “consensus clustering” strategy is applied to long-term temperature and precipitation time series data for the purpose of delineating climate zones of the conterminous United States in a “data-driven” (as opposed to “rule-driven”) fashion. ...

Robert G. Fovell

1997-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

499

A Low-Precipitation Cumulonimbus along the Dryline in Colorado  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An unusual low-precipitation cumulonimbus that developed in northeastern Colorado is photographically documented in some detail. The storm produced at least 12 funnels, mostly at midlevels on the north side of the main updraft. The base of the ...

Eugene W. McCaul Jr.; David O. Blanchard

1990-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

500

ARM - Field Campaign - Azores: Clouds, Aerosol and Precipitation...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

to Clouds, Aerosol and Precipitation in the Marine Boundary Layer (CAP-MBL) 2010.01.01, Wood, AMF Comments? We would love to hear from you Send us a note below or call us at...