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Sample records for deposition growth cxs

  1. Low-temperature plasma-deposited silicon epitaxial films: Growth...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Low-temperature plasma-deposited silicon epitaxial films: Growth and properties Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Low-temperature plasma-deposited silicon epitaxial films:...

  2. Carbon nanotube forests growth using catalysts from atomic layer deposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Bingan; Zhang, Can; Esconjauregui, Santiago; Xie, Rongsi; Zhong, Guofang; Robertson, John; Bhardwaj, Sunil; Cepek, Cinzia

    2014-04-14

    We have grown carbon nanotubes using Fe and Ni catalyst films deposited by atomic layer deposition. Both metals lead to catalytically active nanoparticles for growing vertically aligned nanotube forests or carbon fibres, depending on the growth conditions and whether the substrate is alumina or silica. The resulting nanotubes have narrow diameter and wall number distributions that are as narrow as those grown from sputtered catalysts. The state of the catalyst is studied by in-situ and ex-situ X-ray photoemission spectroscopy. We demonstrate multi-directional nanotube growth on a porous alumina foam coated with Fe prepared by atomic layer deposition. This deposition technique can be useful for nanotube applications in microelectronics, filter technology, and energy storage.

  3. Growth of graphene underlayers by chemical vapor deposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fabiane, Mopeli; Khamlich, Saleh; Bello, Abdulhakeem; Dangbegnon, Julien; Momodu, Damilola; Manyala, Ncholu; Charlie Johnson, A. T.

    2013-11-15

    We present a simple and very convincing approach to visualizing that subsequent layers of graphene grow between the existing monolayer graphene and the copper catalyst in chemical vapor deposition (CVD). Graphene samples were grown by CVD and then transferred onto glass substrates by the bubbling method in two ways, either direct-transfer (DT) to yield poly (methyl methacrylate) (PMMA)/graphene/glass or (2) inverted transfer (IT) to yield graphene/PMMA/glass. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) were used to reveal surface features for both the DT and IT samples. The results from FE-SEM and AFM topographic analyses of the surfaces revealed the underlayer growth of subsequent layers. The subsequent layers in the IT samples are visualized as 3D structures, where the smaller graphene layers lie above the larger layers stacked in a concentric manner. The results support the formation of the so-called inverted wedding cake stacking in multilayer graphene growth.

  4. Underpotential deposition-mediated layer-by-layer growth of thin films

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wang, Jia Xu; Adzic, Radoslav R.

    2015-05-19

    A method of depositing contiguous, conformal submonolayer-to-multilayer thin films with atomic-level control is described. The process involves the use of underpotential deposition of a first element to mediate the growth of a second material by overpotential deposition. Deposition occurs between a potential positive to the bulk deposition potential for the mediating element where a full monolayer of mediating element forms, and a potential which is less than, or only slightly greater than, the bulk deposition potential of the material to be deposited. By cycling the applied voltage between the bulk deposition potential for the mediating element and the material to be deposited, repeated desorption/adsorption of the mediating element during each potential cycle can be used to precisely control film growth on a layer-by-layer basis. This process is especially suitable for the formation of a catalytically active layer on core-shell particles for use in energy conversion devices such as fuel cells.

  5. Computer modeling of Y-Ba-Cu-O thin film deposition and growth

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burmester, C.; Gronsky, R. ); Wille, L. . Dept. of Physics)

    1991-07-01

    The deposition and growth of epitaxial thin films of YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7} are modeled by means of Monte Carlo simulations of the deposition and diffusion of Y, Ba, and Cu oxide particles. This complements existing experimental characterization techniques to allow the study of kinetic phenomena expected to play a dominant role in the inherently non-equilibrium thin film deposition process. Surface morphologies and defect structures obtained in the simulated films are found to closely resemble those observed experimentally. A systematic study of the effects of deposition rate and substrate temperature during in-situ film fabrication reveals that the kinetics of film growth can readily dominate the structural formation of the thin film. 16 refs., 4 figs.

  6. Growth of epitaxial silicon at low temperatures using hot-wire chemical vapor deposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thiesen, J.; Iwaniczko, E.; Jones, K.M.; Mahan, A.; Crandall, R.

    1999-08-01

    We demonstrate epitaxial silicon growth of 8 {Angstrom}/s at temperatures as low as 195&hthinsp;{degree}C, using hot-wire chemical vapor deposition. Characterization by transmission electron microscopy shows epitaxial layers of Si. We briefly discuss various aspects of the process parameter space. Finally, we consider differences in the chemical kinetics of this process when compared to other epitaxial deposition techniques. {copyright} {ital 1999 American Institute of Physics.}

  7. Low-temperature plasma-deposited silicon epitaxial films: Growth and properties

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Demaurex, Bénédicte; Bartlome, Richard; Seif, Johannes P.; Geissbühler, Jonas; Alexander, Duncan T. L.; Jeangros, Quentin; Ballif, Christophe; De Wolf, Stefaan

    2014-08-05

    Low-temperature (≤ 180 °C) epitaxial growth yields precise thickness, doping, and thermal-budget control, which enables advanced-design semiconductor devices. In this paper, we use plasma-ehanced chemical vapor deposition to grow homo-epitaxial layers and study the different growth modes on crystalline silicon substrates. In particular, we determine the conditions leading to epitaxial growth in light of a model that depends only on the silane concentration in the plasma and the mean free path length of surface adatoms. For such growth, we show that the presence of a persistent defective interface layer between the crystalline silicon substrate and the epitaxial layer stems not only from the growth conditions but also from unintentional contamination of the reactor. As a result of our findings, we determine the plasma conditions to grow high-quality bulk epitaxial films and propose a two-step growth process to obtain device-grade material.

  8. Nucleation and growth of ZnO on PMMA by low-temperature atomic layer deposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Napari, Mari Malm, Jari; Lehto, Roope; Julin, Jaakko; Arstila, Kai; Sajavaara, Timo; Lahtinen, Manu

    2015-01-15

    ZnO films were grown by atomic layer deposition at 35?C on poly(methyl methacrylate) substrates using diethylzinc and water precursors. The film growth, morphology, and crystallinity were studied using Rutherford backscattering spectrometry, time-of-flight elastic recoil detection analysis, atomic force microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and x-ray diffraction. The uniform film growth was reached after several hundreds of deposition cycles, preceded by the precursor penetration into the porous bulk and island-type growth. After the full surface coverage, the ZnO films were stoichiometric, and consisted of large grains (diameter 30?nm) with a film surface roughness up to 6?nm (RMS). The introduction of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} seed layer enhanced the initial ZnO growth substantially and changed the surface morphology as well as the crystallinity of the deposited ZnO films. Furthermore, the water contact angles of the ZnO films were measured, and upon ultraviolet illumination, the ZnO films on all the substrates became hydrophilic, independent of the film crystallinity.

  9. Continuous growth of single-wall carbon nanotubes using chemical vapor deposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grigorian, Leonid; Hornyak, Louis; Dillon, Anne C; Heben, Michael J

    2014-09-23

    The invention relates to a chemical vapor deposition process for the continuous growth of a carbon single-wall nanotube where a carbon-containing gas composition is contacted with a porous membrane and decomposed in the presence of a catalyst to grow single-wall carbon nanotube material. A pressure differential exists across the porous membrane such that the pressure on one side of the membrane is less than that on the other side of the membrane. The single-wall carbon nanotube growth may occur predominately on the low-pressure side of the membrane or, in a different embodiment of the invention, may occur predominately in between the catalyst and the membrane. The invention also relates to an apparatus used with the carbon vapor deposition process.

  10. Continuous growth of single-wall carbon nanotubes using chemical vapor deposition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grigorian, Leonid; Hornyak, Louis; Dillon, Anne C; Heben, Michael J

    2008-10-07

    The invention relates to a chemical vapor deposition process for the continuous growth of a carbon single-wall nanotube where a carbon-containing gas composition is contacted with a porous membrane and decomposed in the presence of a catalyst to grow single-wall carbon nanotube material. A pressure differential exists across the porous membrane such that the pressure on one side of the membrane is less than that on the other side of the membrane. The single-wall carbon nanotube growth may occur predominately on the low-pressure side of the membrane or, in a different embodiment of the invention, may occur predominately in between the catalyst and the membrane. The invention also relates to an apparatus used with the carbon vapor deposition process.

  11. Growth of highly oriented carbon nanotubes by plasma-enhanced hot filament chemical vapor deposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huang, Z.P.; Xu, J.W.; Ren, Z.F.; Wang, J.H.; Siegal, M.P.; Provencio, P.N.

    1998-12-01

    Highly oriented, multiwalled carbon nanotubes were grown on polished polycrystalline and single crystal nickel substrates by plasma enhanced hot filament chemical vapor deposition at temperatures below 666 {degree}C. The carbon nanotubes range from 10 to 500 nm in diameter and 0.1 to 50 {mu}m in length depending on growth conditions. Acetylene is used as the carbon source for the growth of the carbon nanotubes and ammonia is used for dilution gas and catalysis. The plasma intensity, acetylene to ammonia gas ratio, and their flow rates, etc. affect the diameters and uniformity of the carbon nanotubes. {copyright} {ital 1998 American Institute of Physics.}

  12. Large-Area Growth of Turbostratic Graphene on Ni(111) via Physical Vapor Deposition

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Garlow, Joseph A.; Barrett, Lawrence K.; Wu, Lijun; Kisslinger, Kim; Zhu, Yimei; Pulecio, Javier F.

    2016-01-29

    Single-layer graphene has demonstrated remarkable electronic properties that are strongly influenced by interfacial bonding and break down for the lowest energy configuration of stacked graphene layers (AB Bernal). Multilayer graphene with relative rotations between carbon layers, known as turbostratic graphene, can effectively decouple the electronic states of adjacent layers, preserving properties similar to that of SLG. While the growth of AB Bernal graphene through chemical vapor deposition has been widely reported, we investigate the growth of turbostratic graphene on heteroepitaxial Ni(111) thin films utilizing physical vapor deposition. By varying the carbon deposition temperature between 800–1100°C, we report an increase inmore » the graphene quality concomitant with a transition in the size of uniform thickness graphene, ranging from nanocrystallites to thousands of square microns. Combination Raman modes of as-grown graphene within the frequency range of 1650 cm₋1 to 2300 cm₋1, along with features of the Raman 2D mode, were employed as signatures of turbostratic graphene. Bilayer and multilayer graphene were directly identified from areas that exhibited Raman characteristics of turbostratic graphene using high-resolution TEM imaging. Lastly, Raman maps of the pertinent modes reveal large regions of turbostratic graphene on Ni(111) thin films at a deposition temperature of 1100°C.« less

  13. Growth evolution of AlN films on silicon (111) substrates by pulsed laser deposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Haiyan; Wang, Wenliang; Yang, Weijia; Zhou, Shizhong; Lin, Zhiting; Li, Guoqiang

    2015-05-14

    AlN films with various thicknesses have been grown on Si(111) substrates by pulsed laser deposition (PLD). The surface morphology and structural property of the as-grown AlN films have been investigated carefully to comprehensively explore the epitaxial behavior. The ∼2 nm-thick AlN film initially grown on Si substrate exhibits an atomically flat surface with a root-mean-square surface roughness of 0.23 nm. As the thickness increases, AlN grains gradually grow larger, causing a relatively rough surface. The surface morphology of ∼120 nm-thick AlN film indicates that AlN islands coalesce together and eventually form AlN layers. The decreasing growth rate from 240 to 180 nm/h is a direct evidence that the growth mode of AlN films grown on Si substrates by PLD changes from the islands growth to the layer growth. The evolution of AlN films throughout the growth is studied deeply, and its corresponding growth mechanism is hence proposed. These results are instructional for the growth of high-quality nitride films on Si substrates by PLD, and of great interest for the fabrication of AlN-based devices.

  14. Dynamic Characterization of Dendrite Deposition and Growth in Li-Surface by Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hernandez-Maya, R; Rosas, O; Saunders, J; Castaneda, H

    2015-01-13

    The evolution of dendrite formation is characterized by DC and AC electrochemical techniques. Interfacial mechanisms for lithium deposition are described and quantified by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) between a lithium electrode and a graphite electrode. The initiation and growth of dendrites in the lithium surface due to the cathodic polarization conditions following anodic dissolution emulate long term cycling process occurring in the lithium electrodes. The dendrite initiation at the lithium/organic electrolyte interface is proposed to be performed through a combination of layering and interfacial reactions during different cathodic conditions. The growth is proposed to be performed by surface geometrical deposition. In this work, we use EIS in galvanostatic mode to assess the initiation and growth stages of dendrites by the accumulation of precipitates formed under different current conditions. The lithium/organic solvent experimental system using frequency domain techniques is validated by the theoretical approach using a deterministic model that accounts for the faradaic processes at the interface assuming a coverage fraction of the electrodic surface affected by the dendritic growth. (C) 2015 The Electrochemical Society. All rights reserved.

  15. Low-temperature plasma-deposited silicon epitaxial films: Growth and properties

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Demaurex, Bénédicte; Bartlome, Richard; Seif, Johannes P.; Geissbühler, Jonas; Alexander, Duncan T. L.; Jeangros, Quentin; Ballif, Christophe; De Wolf, Stefaan

    2014-08-05

    Low-temperature (≤ 180 °C) epitaxial growth yields precise thickness, doping, and thermal-budget control, which enables advanced-design semiconductor devices. In this paper, we use plasma-ehanced chemical vapor deposition to grow homo-epitaxial layers and study the different growth modes on crystalline silicon substrates. In particular, we determine the conditions leading to epitaxial growth in light of a model that depends only on the silane concentration in the plasma and the mean free path length of surface adatoms. For such growth, we show that the presence of a persistent defective interface layer between the crystalline silicon substrate and the epitaxial layer stems notmore » only from the growth conditions but also from unintentional contamination of the reactor. As a result of our findings, we determine the plasma conditions to grow high-quality bulk epitaxial films and propose a two-step growth process to obtain device-grade material.« less

  16. Cooperative Island Growth of Large Area Single-Crystal Graphene by Chemical Vapor Deposition on Cu

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Regmi, Murari [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Rouleau, Christopher [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Puretzky, Alexander A [ORNL; Ivanov, Ilia N [ORNL; Geohegan, David B [ORNL; Chen, Jihua [ORNL; Eastman, Jeffrey [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL); Eres, Gyula [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    We describe a two-step approach for suppressing nucleation of graphene on Cu using chemical vapor deposition. In the first step, as received Cu foils are oxidized in air at temperatures up to 500 C to remove surface impurities and to induce the regrowth of Cu grains during subsequent annealing in H2 flow at 1040 C prior to graphene growth. In the second step, transient reactant cooling is performed by using a brief Ar pulse at the onset of growth to induce collisional deactivation of the carbon growth species. The combination of these two steps results in a three orders of magnitude reduction in the graphene nucleation density, enabling the growth of millimeter-size single crystal graphene grains. A kinetic model shows that suppressing nucleation promotes a cooperative island growth mode that favors the formation of large area single crystal graphene, and it is accompanied by a roughly 3 orders of magnitude increase in the reactive sticking probability of methane compared to that in random nucleation growth.

  17. Growth of Highly-Oriented Carbon Nanotubes by Plasma-Enhanced Hot Filament Chemical Vapor Deposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huang, Z.P.; Provencio, P.N.; Ren, Z.F.; Siegal, M.P.; Wang, J.H.; Xu, J.W.

    1998-10-11

    Highly-oriented, multi-walled carbon nanotubes were grown on polished polycrystalline and single crystal nickel substrates by plasma enhanced hot filament chemical vapor deposition at temperatures below 666"C. The carbon nanotubes range from 10 to 500 nm in diameter and 0.1 to 50 pm in length depending on growth conditions. Acetylene is used as the carbon source for the growth of the carbon nanotubes and ammonia is used for dilution gas and catalysis. The plasma intensity, acetylene to ammonia gas ratio and their flow rates, etc. affect the diameters and uniformity of the carbon nanotubes. In summary, we synthesized large-area highly-oriented carbon nanotubes at temperatures below 666C by plasma-enhanced hot filament chemical vapor deposition. Acetylene gas is used to provide carbon for nanotube growth and ammonia gas is used for dilution and catalysis. Plasma intensity is critical in determining the nanotube aspect ratios (diameter and length), and range of both site and height distributions within a given film.

  18. Growth of homo-epitaxial silicon at low temperatures using hot wire chemical vapor deposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thiesen, J.; Jones, K.M.; Matson, R.; Reedy, R.; Crandall, R.; Iwaniczko, E.; Mahan, H.

    1999-12-13

    The authors report on the first known growth of high-quality epitaxial Si via the hot wire chemical vapor deposition (HWCVD) method. This method yields device-quality epitaxial Si at the comparatively low temperatures of 195 to 450 C, and relatively high growth rates of 3 to 20 {angstrom}/sec. Layers up to 4,500-{angstrom} thick have been grown. These epitaxial layers have been characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), indicating large regions of nearly perfect atomic registration. Electron channeling patterns (ECPs) generated on a scanning electron microscope (SEM) have been used to characterize as well as optimize the growth process. Electron beam induced current (EBIC) characterization has also been performed, indicating defect densities as low as 5 x 104/cm{sup 2}. Secondary ion beam mass spectrometry (SIMS) data shows that these layers have reasonable impurity levels within the constraints of the current deposition system. Both n and p-type layers were grown, and p/n diodes have been fabricated.

  19. Coalescence-controlled and coalescence-free growth regimes during deposition of pulsed metal vapor fluxes on insulating surfaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    L, B.; Mnger, E. P.; Sarakinos, K.

    2015-04-07

    The morphology and physical properties of thin films deposited by vapor condensation on solid surfaces are predominantly set by the processes of island nucleation, growth, and coalescence. When deposition is performed using pulsed vapor fluxes, three distinct nucleation regimes are known to exist depending on the temporal profile of the flux. These regimes can be accessed by tuning deposition conditions; however, their effect on film microstructure becomes marginal when coalescence sets in and erases morphological features obtained during nucleation. By preventing coalescence from being completed, these nucleation regimes can be used to control microstructure evolution and thus access a larger palette of film morphological features. Recently, we derived the quantitative criterion to stop coalescence during continuous metal vapor flux deposition on insulating surfaceswhich typically yields 3-dimensional growthby describing analytically the competition between island growth by atomic incorporation and the coalescence rate of islands [L et al., Appl. Phys. Lett. 105, 163107 (2014)]. Here, we develop the analytical framework for entering a coalescence-free growth regime for metal vapor deposition on insulating substrates using pulsed vapor fluxes, showing that there exist three distinct criteria for suppressing coalescence that correspond to the three nucleation regimes of pulsed vapor flux deposition. The theoretical framework developed herein is substantiated by kinetic Monte Carlo growth simulations. Our findings highlight the possibility of using atomistic nucleation theory for pulsed vapor deposition to control morphology of thin films beyond the point of island density saturation.

  20. Varying cadmium telluride growth temperature during deposition to increase solar cell reliability

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Albin, David S.; Johnson, James Neil; Zhao, Yu; Korevaar, Bastiaan Arie

    2016-04-26

    A method for forming thin films or layers of cadmium telluride (CdTe) for use in photovoltaic modules or solar cells. The method includes varying the substrate temperature during the growth of the CdTe layer by preheating a substrate (e.g., a substrate with a cadmium sulfide (CdS) heterojunction or layer) suspended over a CdTe source to remove moisture to a relatively low preheat temperature. Then, the method includes directly heating only the CdTe source, which in turn indirectly heats the substrate upon which the CdTe is deposited. The method improves the resulting CdTe solar cell reliability. The resulting microstructure exhibits a distinct grain size distribution such that the initial region is composed of smaller grains than the bulk region portion of the deposited CdTe. Resulting devices exhibit a behavior suggesting a more n-like CdTe material near the CdS heterojunction than devices grown with substrate temperatures held constant during CdTe deposition.

  1. Fundamental studies of the mechanisms of slag deposit formation: Studies on initiation, growth and sintering in the formation of utility boiler deposits: Topical technical report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tangsathitkulchai, M.; Austin, L.G.

    1986-03-01

    Three laboratory-scale devices were utilized to investigate the mechanisms of the initiation, growth and sintering process involved in the formation of boiler deposits. Sticking apparatus investigations were conducted to study deposit initiation by comparing the adhesion behavior of the ash drops on four types of steel-based heat exchanger materials under the conditions found in a utility boiler and an entrained slagging gasifier. In addition, the adhesion behavior of the ash drops on a reduced steel surface were investigated. All the ash drops studied in this investigation were produced from bituminous coals.

  2. Controlling single and few-layer graphene crystals growth in a solid carbon source based chemical vapor deposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Papon, Remi; Sharma, Subash; Shinde, Sachin M.; Vishwakarma, Riteshkumar; Tanemura, Masaki [Department of Frontier Materials, Nagoya Institute of Technology, Gokiso-cho, Showa-ku, Nagoya 466-8555 (Japan); Kalita, Golap, E-mail: kalita.golap@nitech.ac.jp [Department of Frontier Materials, Nagoya Institute of Technology, Gokiso-cho, Showa-ku, Nagoya 466-8555 (Japan); Center for Fostering Young and Innovative Researchers, Nagoya Institute of Technology, Gokiso-cho, Showa-ku, Nagoya, 466-8555 (Japan)

    2014-09-29

    Here, we reveal the growth process of single and few-layer graphene crystals in the solid carbon source based chemical vapor deposition (CVD) technique. Nucleation and growth of graphene crystals on a polycrystalline Cu foil are significantly affected by the injection of carbon atoms with pyrolysis rate of the carbon source. We observe micron length ribbons like growth front as well as saturated growth edges of graphene crystals depending on growth conditions. Controlling the pyrolysis rate of carbon source, monolayer and few-layer crystals and corresponding continuous films are obtained. In a controlled process, we observed growth of large monolayer graphene crystals, which interconnect and merge together to form a continuous film. On the other hand, adlayer growth is observed with an increased pyrolysis rate, resulting few-layer graphene crystal structure and merged continuous film. The understanding of monolayer and few-layer crystals growth in the developed CVD process can be significant to grow graphene with controlled layer numbers.

  3. Underpotential Deposition-Mediated Layer-by-Layer Growth of Thin...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    First a monolayer of a sacrificial base metal such as copper or lead is deposited onto a ... Description This invention utilizes copper underpotential deposition (UPD) potential ...

  4. In situ spectroscopic ellipsometry growth studies on the Al-doped ZnO films deposited by remote plasma-enhanced metalorganic chemical vapor deposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Volintiru, I.; Creatore, M.; Sanden, M. C. M. van de

    2008-02-01

    In situ spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE) was applied to study the pyramidlike and pillarlike growth of Al doped ZnO (AZO) films deposited by means of remote plasma-enhanced metalorganic chemical vapor deposition for transparent conductive oxide applications. Real time SE studies in the visible region allowed discerning between the two growth modes by addressing the time evolution of the bulk and surface roughness layer thickness. While the pillarlike mode is characterized by a constant growth rate, a slower rate in the initial stage (up to 150-200 nm film thickness), compared to the bulk, is observed for the growth of pyramidlike AZO films. The two modes differ also in terms of surface roughness development: a saturation behavior is observed for film thickness above 150-200 nm in the case of the pyramidlike films, while a slow linear increase with film thickness characterizes the pillarlike mode. By extending the SE analysis of the AZO films to the near infrared region, valuable information about the in grain properties could be extracted: excellent in grain mobility values, i.e., larger than 100 and 50 cm{sup 2}/V s, are determined for the pyramidlike and pillarlike AZO layers, respectively. The comparison between the outcome of the in situ real time SE studies and the ex situ electrical and chemical characterization highlights the limitations in the electron transport occurring in both types of films and allows one to address routes toward further improvement in AZO conductivity.

  5. Initial growth, refractive index, and crystallinity of thermal and plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposition AlN films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Van Bui, Hao Wiggers, Frank B.; Gupta, Anubha; Nguyen, Minh D.; Aarnink, Antonius A. I.; Jong, Michel P. de; Kovalgin, Alexey Y.

    2015-01-01

    The authors have studied and compared the initial growth and properties of AlN films deposited on Si(111) by thermal and plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposition (ALD) using trimethylaluminum and either ammonia or a N{sub 2}-H{sub 2} mixture as precursors. In-situ spectroscopic ellipsometry was employed to monitor the growth and measure the refractive index of the films during the deposition. The authors found that an incubation stage only occurred for thermal ALD. The linear growth for plasma-enhanced ALD (PEALD) started instantly from the beginning due to the higher nuclei density provided by the presence of plasma. The authors observed the evolution of the refractive index of AlN during the growth, which showed a rapid increase up to a thickness of about 30?nm followed by a saturation. Below this thickness, higher refractive index values were obtained for AlN films grown by PEALD, whereas above that the refractive index was slightly higher for thermal ALD films. X-ray diffraction characterization showed a wurtzite crystalline structure with a (101{sup }0) preferential orientation obtained for all the layers with a slightly better crystallinity for films grown by PEALD.

  6. Thermal stability of sputter-deposited 330 austenitic stainless-steel thin films with nanoscale growth twins

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, X.; Misra, A.; Wang, H.; Swadener, J.G.; Lima, A.L.; Hundley, M.F.; Hoagland, R.G.

    2005-12-05

    We have explored the thermal stability of nanoscale growth twins in sputter-deposited 330 stainless-steel (SS) films by vacuum annealing up to 500 deg. C. In spite of an average twin spacing of only 4 nm in the as-deposited films, no detectable variation in the twin spacing or orientation of twin interfaces was observed after annealing. An increase in the average columnar grain size was observed after annealing. The hardness of 330 SS films increases after annealing, from 7 GPa for as-deposited films to around 8 GPa for annealed films, while the electrical resistivity decreases slightly after annealing. The changes in mechanical and electrical properties after annealing are interpreted in terms of the corresponding changes in the residual stress and microstructure of the films.

  7. Growth direction of oblique angle electron beam deposited silicon monoxide thin films identified by optical second-harmonic generation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vejling Andersen, Søren; Lund Trolle, Mads; Pedersen, Kjeld

    2013-12-02

    Oblique angle deposited (OAD) silicon monoxide (SiO) thin films forming tilted columnar structures have been characterized by second-harmonic generation. It was found that OAD SiO leads to a rotationally anisotropic second-harmonic response, depending on the optical angle of incidence. A model for the observed dependence of the second-harmonic signal on optical angle of incidence allows extraction of the growth direction of OAD films. The optically determined growth directions show convincing agreement with cross-sectional scanning electron microscopy images. In addition to a powerful characterization tool, these results demonstrate the possibilities for designing nonlinear optical devices through SiO OAD.

  8. Low Temperature, Self-nucleated Growth of Indium Tin Oxide Nanostructures by Pulsed Laser Deposition in Argon

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tan, S. S.; Lee, W. K.; Kee, Y. Y.; Wong, H. Y.; Tou, T. Y.

    2011-03-30

    Indium tin oxide (ITO) nanostructures were successfully deposited on glass substrate by pulsed laser ablation in argon gas at 250 deg. C. Microstructural changes were observed in the argon gas pressure between 30 to 50 mTorr. The as-grown, nanostructured ITO exhibit In{sub 2}O{sub 3} bixbyite structure orientated at <111> direction. At the initial stage of growth, there was a large number of nucleation sites detected which eventually evolved into needle-like branches. The presence of spheres at the tip of these branches indicates that these nanostructured ITO were likely governed by vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) growth mechanism.

  9. Low temperature junction growth using hot-wire chemical vapor deposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Qi; Page, Matthew; Iwaniczko, Eugene; Wang, Tihu; Yan, Yanfa

    2014-02-04

    A system and a process for forming a semi-conductor device, and solar cells (10) formed thereby. The process includes preparing a substrate (12) for deposition of a junction layer (14); forming the junction layer (14) on the substrate (12) using hot wire chemical vapor deposition; and, finishing the semi-conductor device.

  10. Growth mechanism and optical properties of Ti thin films deposited onto fluorine-doped tin oxide glass substrate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Einollahzadeh-Samadi, Motahareh; Dariani, Reza S.

    2015-03-15

    In this work, a detailed study of the influence of the thickness on the morphological and optical properties of titanium (Ti) thin films deposited onto rough fluorine-doped tin oxide glass by d.c. magnetron sputtering is carried out. The films were characterized by several methods for composition, crystallinity, morphology, and optical properties. Regardless of the deposition time, all the studied Ti films of 400, 1500, 2000, and 2500?nm in thickness were single crystalline in the ?-Ti phase and also very similar to each other with respect to composition. Using the atomic force microscopy (AFM) technique, the authors analyzed the roughness evolution of the Ti films characteristics as a function of the film thickness. By applying the dynamic scaling theory to the AFM images, a steady growth roughness exponent ??=?0.72??0.02 and a dynamic growth roughness exponent ??=?0.22??0.02 were determined. The value of ? and ? are consistent with nonlinear growth model incorporating random deposition with surface diffusion. Finally, measuring the reflection spectra of the samples by a spectrophotometer in the spectral range of 3001100?nm allowed us to investigate the optical properties. The authors observed the increments of the reflection of Ti films with thickness, which by employing the effective medium approximation theory showed an increase in thickness followed by an increase in the volume fraction of metal.

  11. Hot-Wire Chemical Vapor Deposition (HWCVD) technologies: Rapid, controllable growth of epitaxial silicon films

    Energy Innovation Portal (Marketing Summaries) [EERE]

    2013-12-27

    NREL scientists have discovered a unique way to quickly grow epitaxial Si using hot-wire chemical vapor deposition (HWCVD), which holds the potential to greatly decrease costs within the manufacturing of Si substrates.  With NREL’s HWCVD technology, Si material use and costs are dramatically reduced with scalable manufacturing and lower deposition temperatures.  NREL’s unique HWCVD technique can easily be integrated into existing manufacturing processes, allowing...

  12. Heteroepitaxial growth of highly conductive metal oxide RuO{sub 2} thin films by pulsed laser deposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jia, Q.X.; Wu, X.D.; Foltyn, S.R.; Findikoglu, A.T.; Tiwari, P.; Zheng, J.P.; Jow, T.R.

    1995-09-18

    Highly conductive ruthenium oxide (RuO{sub 2}) has been epitaxially grown on LaAlO{sub 3} substrates by pulsed laser deposition. The RuO{sub 2} film is ({ital h}00) oriented normal to the substrate surface. The heteroepitaxial growth of RuO{sub 2} on LaAlO{sub 3} is demonstrated by the strong in-plane orientation of thin films with respect to the major axes of the substrate. High crystallinity of RuO{sub 2} thin films is also determined from Rutherford backscattering channeling measurements. Electrical measurements on the RuO{sub 2} thin films demonstrate a quite low room-temperature resistivity of 35{plus_minus}2 {mu}{Omega} cm at deposition temperatures of above 500 {degree}C. {copyright} {ital 1995} {ital American} {ital Institute} {ital of} {ital Physics}.

  13. Effects of polymethylmethacrylate-transfer residues on the growth of organic semiconductor molecules on chemical vapor deposited graphene

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kratzer, Markus Teichert, Christian; Bayer, Bernhard C.; Kidambi, Piran R.; Matkovi?, Aleksandar; Gaji?, Rado; Cabrero-Vilatela, Andrea; Weatherup, Robert S.; Hofmann, Stephan

    2015-03-09

    Scalably grown and transferred graphene is a highly promising material for organic electronic applications, but controlled interfacing of graphene thereby remains a key challenge. Here, we study the growth characteristics of the important organic semiconductor molecule para-hexaphenyl (6P) on chemical vapor deposited graphene that has been transferred with polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) onto oxidized Si wafer supports. A particular focus is on the influence of PMMA residual contamination, which we systematically reduce by H{sub 2} annealing prior to 6P deposition. We find that 6P grows in a flat-lying needle-type morphology, surprisingly independent of the level of PMMA residue and of graphene defects. Wrinkles in the graphene typically act as preferential nucleation centers. Residual PMMA does however limit the length of the resulting 6P needles by restricting molecular diffusion/attachment. We discuss the implications for organic device fabrication, with particular regard to contamination and defect tolerance.

  14. Rapid low-temperature epitaxial growth using a hot-element assisted chemical vapor deposition process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Iwancizko, Eugene; Jones, Kim M.; Crandall, Richard S.; Nelson, Brent P.; Mahan, Archie Harvin

    2001-01-01

    The invention provides a process for depositing an epitaxial layer on a crystalline substrate, comprising the steps of providing a chamber having an element capable of heating, introducing the substrate into the chamber, heating the element at a temperature sufficient to decompose a source gas, passing the source gas in contact with the element; and forming an epitaxial layer on the substrate.

  15. Nucleation and growth of MgO atomic layer deposition: A real-time spectroscopic ellipsometry study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Han; Fu, Kan

    2013-11-15

    The atomic layer deposition (ALD) of MgO thin films from bis(cyclopentadienyl) magnesium and H{sub 2}O was studied using in-situ real-time spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE), ex-situ x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and grazing-incidence x-ray diffraction. It is found that the initial growth is not linear during the first ten cycles, and magnesium silicate forms spontaneously on the SiO{sub 2}/Si substrates at 250 C. Submonolayer sensitivity of SE is demonstrated by the analysis of each half-cycle and self-limiting adsorption, revealing characteristic features of hetero- and homo-MgO ALD processes.

  16. Effect of enhanced C{sub 2} growth chemistry on nanodiamond film deposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Teii, Kungen; Ikeda, Tomohiro

    2007-03-12

    A route to high-purity nanocrystalline diamond films from C{sub 2} dimers and related mechanisms have been investigated by enhancing C{sub 2} growth chemistry in Ar-rich microwave plasmas. Efficient C{sub 2} production by direct dissociation from acetylene causes the micro- to nanocrystal transition with a low threshold Ar concentration of {approx}70% and produces films of {approx}20 nm grains with a distinct visible-Raman peak of diamond. C{sub 2} grows nanodiamond on diamond surfaces but rarely initiates nucleation on foreign surfaces. The phase purity can be improved by increasing the dominance of nanodiamond growth from C{sub 2} over nondiamond growth from CH{sub x}(x=0-3) and large radicals.

  17. Simplified models of growth, defect formation, and thermal conductivity in diamond chemical vapor deposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Coltrin, M.E.; Dandy, D.S.

    1996-04-01

    A simplified surface reaction mechanism is presented for the CVD of diamond thin films. The mechanism also accounts for formation of point defects in the diamond lattice, an alternate, undesirable reaction pathway. Both methyl radicals and atomic C are considered as growth precursors. While not rigorous in all details, the mechanism is useful in describing the CVD diamond process over a wide range of reaction conditions. It should find utility in reactor modeling studies, for example in optimizing diamond growth rate while minimizing defect formation. This report also presents a simple model relating the diamond point-defect density to the thermal conductivity of the material.

  18. Temperature cycling vapor deposition HgI.sub.2 crystal growth

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schieber, Michael M.; Beinglass, Israel; Dishon, Giora

    1977-01-01

    A method and horizontal furnace for vapor phase growth of HgI.sub.2 crystals which utilizes controlled axial and radial airflow to maintain the desired temperature gradients. The ampoule containing the source material is rotated while axial and radial air tubes are moved in opposite directions during crystal growth to maintain a desired distance and associated temperature gradient with respect to the growing crystal, whereby the crystal interface can advance in all directions, i.e., radial and axial according to the crystallographic structure of the crystal. Crystals grown by this method are particularly applicable for use as room-temperature nuclear radiation detectors.

  19. Epitaxial growth of aligned AlGalnN nanowires by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Han, Jung; Su, Jie

    2008-08-05

    Highly ordered and aligned epitaxy of III-Nitride nanowires is demonstrated in this work. <1010> M-axis is identified as a preferential nanowire growth direction through a detailed study of GaN/AlN trunk/branch nanostructures by transmission electron microscopy. Crystallographic selectivity can be used to achieve spatial and orientational control of nanowire growth. Vertically aligned (Al)GaN nanowires are prepared on M-plane AlN substrates. Horizontally ordered nanowires, extending from the M-plane sidewalls of GaN hexagonal mesas or islands demonstrate new opportunities for self-aligned nanowire devices, interconnects, and networks.

  20. Graphene layer growth on silicon substrates with nickel film by pulse arc plasma deposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fujita, K.; Banno, K.; Aryal, H. R.; Egawa, T.

    2012-10-15

    Carbon layer has been grown on a Ni/SiO{sub 2}/Si(111) substrate under high vacuum pressure by pulse arc plasma deposition. From the results of Raman spectroscopy for the sample, it is found that graphene was formed by ex-situ annealing of sample grown at room temperature. Furthermore, for the sample grown at high temperature, graphene formation was shown and optimum temperature was around 1000 Degree-Sign C. Transmission electron microscopy observation of the sample suggests that the graphene was grown from step site caused by grain of Ni film. The results show that the pulse arc plasma technique has the possibility for acquiring homogenous graphene layer with controlled layer thickness.

  1. Low-temperature growth and orientational control in RuO{sub 2} thin films by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bai, G.R.; Wang, A.; Foster, C.M.; Vetrone, J.; Patel, J.; Wu, X.

    1996-08-01

    For growth temperatures in the range of 275 C to 425 C, highly conductive RuO{sub 2} thin films with either (110)- or (101)-textured orientations have been grown by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) on both SiO{sub 2}/Si(001) and Pt/Ti/SiO{sub 2}/Si(001) substrates. Both the growth temperature and growth rate were used to control the type and degree of orientational texture of the RuO{sub 2} films. In the upper part of this growth temperature range ({approximately} 350 C) and at a low growth rate (< 30 {angstrom}/min.), the RuO{sub 2} films favored a (110)-textured. In contrast, at the lower part of this growth temperature range ({approximately} 300 C) and at a high growth rate (> 30 {angstrom}/min.), the RuO{sub 2} films favored a (101)-textured. In contrast, a higher growth temperatures (> 425 C) always produced randomly-oriented polycrystalline films. For either of these low-temperature growth processes, the films produced were crack-free, well-adhered to the substrates, and had smooth, specular surfaces. Atomic force microscopy showed that the films had a dense microstructure with an average grain size of 50--80 nm and a rms. surface roughness of {approximately} 3--10 nm. Four-probe electrical transport measurements showed that the films were highly conductive with resistivities of 34--40 {micro}{Omega}-cm ({at} 25 C).

  2. Growth behavior and properties of atomic layer deposited tin oxide on silicon from novel tin(II)acetylacetonate precursor and ozone

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kannan Selvaraj, Sathees; Feinerman, Alan; Takoudis, Christos G.

    2014-01-15

    In this work, a novel liquid tin(II) precursor, tin(II)acetylacetonate [Sn(acac){sub 2}], was used to deposit tin oxide films on Si(100) substrate, using a custom-built hot wall atomic layer deposition (ALD) reactor. Three different oxidizers, water, oxygen, and ozone, were tried. Resulting growth rates were studied as a function of precursor dosage, oxidizer dosage, reactor temperature, and number of ALD cycles. The film growth rate was found to be 0.1??0.01?nm/cycle within the wide ALD temperature window of 175300?C using ozone; no film growth was observed with water or oxygen. Characterization methods were used to study the composition, interface quality, crystallinity, microstructure, refractive index, surface morphology, and resistivity of the resulting films. X-ray photoelectron spectra showed the formation of a clean SnO{sub x}Si interface. The resistivity of the SnO{sub x} films was calculated to be 0.3?? cm. Results of this work demonstrate the possibility of introducing Sn(acac){sub 2} as tin precursor to deposit conducting ALD SnO{sub x} thin films on a silicon surface, with clean interface and no formation of undesired SiO{sub 2} or other interfacial reaction products, for transparent conducting oxide applications.

  3. Stoichiometric growth of SrTiO3 films by sequential pulsed laser deposition from SrO and TiO2 targets

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Herklotz, A; Dorr, Kathrin; Biegalski, Michael D

    2015-01-01

    We report the growth of stoichiometric SrTiO3 films by sequential pulsed laser deposition from SrO and TiO2 targets. In-situ reflection high-energy electron diffraction is used to control the growth and achieve films with excellent structural quality. The growth shows similarities to the case of molecular beam epitaxy of SrTiO3 from Sr and Ti sources. In order to further demonstrate the capability of the approach, we grow artificial Srn+1TinO3n+1 Ruddlesden-Popper phases with n = 2 and 3. Our result has potential to be extendable to other perovskite-type oxides, enabling one to grow epitaxial films with improved structural quality and electronic functionality.

  4. Evolution of the electrical and structural properties during the growth of Al doped ZnO films by remote plasma-enhanced metalorganic chemical vapor deposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Volintiru, I.; Creatore, M.; Kniknie, B. J.; Spee, C. I. M. A.; Sanden, M. C. M. van de

    2007-08-15

    Al-doped zinc oxide (AZO) films were deposited by means of remote plasma-enhanced metalorganic chemical vapor deposition from oxygen/diethylzinc/trimethylaluminum mixtures. The electrical, structural (crystallinity and morphology), and chemical properties of the deposited films were investigated using Hall, four point probe, x-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), electron recoil detection (ERD), Rutherford backscattering (RBS), and time of flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS), respectively. We found that the working pressure plays an important role in controlling the sheet resistance R{sub s} and roughness development during film growth. At 1.5 mbar the AZO films are highly conductive (R{sub s}<6 {omega}/{open_square} for a film thickness above 1200 nm) and very rough (>4% of the film thickness), however, they are characterized by a large sheet resistance gradient with increasing film thickness. By decreasing the pressure from 1.5 to 0.38 mbar, the gradient is significantly reduced and the films become smoother, but the sheet resistance increases (R{sub s}{approx_equal}100 {omega}/{open_square} for a film thickness of 1000 nm). The sheet resistance gradient and the surface roughness development correlate with the grain size evolution, as determined from the AFM and SEM analyses, indicating the transition from pyramid-like at 1.5 mbar to pillar-like growth mode at 0.38 mbar. The change in plasma chemistry/growth precursors caused by the variation in pressure leads to different concentration and activation efficiency of Al dopant in the zinc oxide films. On the basis of the experimental evidence, a valid route for further improving the conductivity of the AZO film is found, i.e., increasing the grain size at the initial stage of film growth.

  5. Effects of growth temperature on the properties of InGaN channel heterostructures grown by pulsed metal organic chemical vapor deposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Yachao; Zhou, Xiaowei; Xu, Shengrui; Wang, Zhizhe; Chen, Zhibin; Zhang, Jinfeng; Zhang, Jincheng E-mail: xd-zhangyachao@163.com; Hao, Yue E-mail: xd-zhangyachao@163.com

    2015-12-15

    Pulsed metal organic chemical vapor deposition (P-MOCVD) is introduced into the growth of high quality InGaN channel heterostructures. The effects of InGaN channel growth temperature on the structural and transport properties of the heterostructures are investigated in detail. High resolution x-ray diffraction (HRXRD) and Photoluminescence (PL) spectra indicate that the quality of InGaN channel strongly depends on the growth temperature. Meanwhile, the atomic force microscopy (AFM) results show that the interface morphology between the InGaN channel and the barrier layer also relies on the growth temperature. Since the variation of material properties of InGaN channel has a significant influence on the electrical properties of InAlN/InGaN heterostructures, the optimal transport properties can be achieved by adjusting the growth temperature. A very high two dimension electron gas (2DEG) density of 1.92 × 10{sup 13} cm{sup −2} and Hall electron mobility of 1025 cm{sup 2}/(V⋅s) at room temperature are obtained at the optimal growth temperature around 740 °C. The excellent transport properties in our work indicate that the heterostructure with InGaN channel is a promising candidate for the microwave power devices, and the results in this paper will be instructive for further study of the InGaN channel heterostructures.

  6. The influence of charge effect on the growth of hydrogenated amorphous silicon by the hot-wire chemical vapor deposition technique

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Q.; Nelson, B.P.; Iwaniczko, E.; Mahan, A.H.; Crandall, R.S.; Benner, J.

    1998-09-01

    The authors observe at lower substrate temperatures that the scatter in the dark conductivity on hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) films grown on insulating substrates (e.g., Corning 7059 glass) by the hot-wire chemical vapor deposition technique (HWCVD) can be five orders of magnitude or more. This is especially true at deposition temperatures below 350 C. However, when the authors grow the same materials on substrates with a conductive grid, virtually all of their films have acceptable dark conductivity (< 5 {times} 10{sup {minus}10} S/cm) at all deposition temperatures below 425 C. This is in contrast to only about 20% of the materials grown in this same temperature range on insulating substrates having an acceptable dark conductivity. The authors estimated an average energy of 5 eV electrons reaching the growing surface in vacuum, and did additional experiments to see the influence of both the electron flux and the energy of the electrons on the film growth. Although these effects do not seem to be important for growing a-Si:H by HWCVD on conductive substrates, they help better understand the important parameters for a-Si:H growth, and thus, to optimize these parameters in other applications of HWCVD technology.

  7. Growth, microstructure, and field-emission properties of synthesized diamond film on adamantane-coated silicon substrate by microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tiwari, Rajanish N.; Chang Li

    2010-05-15

    Diamond nucleation on unscratched Si surface is great importance for its growth, and detailed understanding of this process is therefore desired for many applications. The pretreatment of the substrate surface may influence the initial growth period. In this study, diamond films have been synthesized on adamantane-coated crystalline silicon {l_brace}100{r_brace} substrate by microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition from a gaseous mixture of methane and hydrogen gases without the application of a bias voltage to the substrates. Prior to adamantane coating, the Si substrates were not pretreated such as abraded/scratched. The substrate temperature was {approx}530 deg. C during diamond deposition. The deposited films are characterized by scanning electron microscopy, Raman spectrometry, x-ray diffraction, and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. These measurements provide definitive evidence for high-crystalline quality diamond film, which is synthesized on a SiC rather than clean Si substrate. Characterization through atomic force microscope allows establishing fine quality criteria of the film according to the grain size of nanodiamond along with SiC. The diamond films exhibit a low-threshold (55 V/{mu}m) and high current-density (1.6 mA/cm{sup 2}) field-emission (FE) display. The possible mechanism of formation of diamond films and their FE properties have been demonstrated.

  8. Growth of selective tungsten films on self-aligned CoSi/sub 2/ by low pressure chemical vapor deposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    van der Putte, P.; Sadana, D.K.; Broadbent, E.K.; Morgan, A.E.

    1986-12-22

    The selective deposition of tungsten films onto CoSi/sub 2/ and onto Co by low pressure chemical vapor deposition and their material properties have been investigated with Auger electron spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and Rutherford backscattering. When using WF/sub 6/ and H/sub 2/, uniformly thick tungsten films can be deposited onto CoSi/sub 2/ without substrate alteration. In patterned structures, however, void formation was found at the perimeters of CoSi/sub 2/ contacts to silicon, indicating encroachment of WF/sub 6/ down the edge of the silicide-Si interface. In WF/sub 6/ and Ar, the film thickness was limited to 10 nm and some Si was locally consumed from the upper part of the CoSi/sub 2/ film. Transmission electron diffraction showed evidence of Co/sub 2/Si formation in these areas.

  9. Effects of pressure, temperature, and hydrogen during graphene growth on SiC(0001) using propane-hydrogen chemical vapor deposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michon, A.; Vezian, S.; Roudon, E.; Lefebvre, D.; Portail, M.; Zielinski, M.; Chassagne, T.

    2013-05-28

    Graphene growth from a propane flow in a hydrogen environment (propane-hydrogen chemical vapor deposition (CVD)) on SiC differentiates from other growth methods in that it offers the possibility to obtain various graphene structures on the Si-face depending on growth conditions. The different structures include the (6{radical}3 Multiplication-Sign 6{radical}3)-R30 Degree-Sign reconstruction of the graphene/SiC interface, which is commonly observed on the Si-face, but also the rotational disorder which is generally observed on the C-face. In this work, growth mechanisms leading to the formation of the different structures are studied and discussed. For that purpose, we have grown graphene on SiC(0001) (Si-face) using propane-hydrogen CVD at various pressure and temperature and studied these samples extensively by means of low energy electron diffraction and atomic force microscopy. Pressure and temperature conditions leading to the formation of the different structures are identified and plotted in a pressure-temperature diagram. This diagram, together with other characterizations (X-ray photoemission and scanning tunneling microscopy), is the basis of further discussions on the carbon supply mechanisms and on the kinetics effects. The entire work underlines the important role of hydrogen during growth and its effects on the final graphene structure.

  10. ENHANCED GROWTH RATE AND SILANE UTILIZATION IN AMORPHOUS SILICON AND NANOCRYSTALLINE-SILICON SOLAR CELL DEPOSITION VIA GAS PHASE ADDITIVES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ridgeway, R.G.; Hegedus, S.S.; Podraza, N.J.

    2012-08-31

    Air Products set out to investigate the impact of additives on the deposition rate of both µCSi and αSi-H films. One criterion for additives was that they could be used in conventional PECVD processing, which would require sufficient vapor pressure to deliver material to the process chamber at the required flow rates. The flow rate required would depend on the size of the substrate onto which silicon films were being deposited, potentially ranging from 200 mm diameter wafers to the 5.7 m2 glass substrates used in GEN 8.5 flat-panel display tools. In choosing higher-order silanes, both disilane and trisilane had sufficient vapor pressure to withdraw gas at the required flow rates of up to 120 sccm. This report presents results obtained from testing at Air Products’ electronic technology laboratories, located in Allentown, PA, which focused on developing processes on a commercial IC reactor using silane and mixtures of silane plus additives. These processes were deployed to compare deposition rates and film properties with and without additives, with a goal of maximizing the deposition rate while maintaining or improving film properties.

  11. Direct growth of few-layer graphene on 6H-SiC and 3C-SiC/Si via propane chemical vapor deposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michon, A.; Vezian, S.; Portail, M.; Ouerghi, A.; Zielinski, M.; Chassagne, T.

    2010-10-25

    We propose to grow graphene on SiC by a direct carbon feeding through propane flow in a chemical vapor deposition reactor. X-ray photoemission and low energy electron diffraction show that propane allows to grow few-layer graphene (FLG) on 6H-SiC(0001). Surprisingly, FLG grown on (0001) face presents a rotational disorder similar to that observed for FLG obtained by annealing on (000-1) face. Thanks to a reduced growth temperature with respect to the classical SiC annealing method, we have also grown FLG/3C-SiC/Si(111) in a single growth sequence. This opens the way for large-scale production of graphene-based devices on silicon substrate.

  12. Fermi level control of compensating point defects during metalorganic chemical vapor deposition growth of Si-doped AlGaN

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bryan, Z; Bryan, I; Gaddy, BE; Reddy, P; Hussey, L; Bobea, M; Guo, W; Hoffmann, M; Kirste, R; Tweedie, J; Gerhold, M; Irving, DL; Sitar, Z; Collazo, R

    2014-12-01

    A Fermi-level control scheme for point defect management using above-bandgap UV illumination during growth is presented. We propose an extension to the analogy between the Fermi level and the electrochemical potential such that the electrochemical potential of a charged defect in a material with steady-state populations of free charge carriers may be expressed in terms of the quasi-Fermi levels. A series of highly Si-doped Al0.65Ga0.35N films grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition with and without UV illumination showed that samples grown under UV illumination had increased free carrier concentration, free carrier mobility, and reduced midgap photoluminescence all indicating a reduction in compensating point defects. (c) 2014 AIP Publishing LLC.

  13. Effects of laser energy fluence on the onset and growth of the Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities and its influence on the topography of the Fe thin film grown in pulsed laser deposition facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mahmood, S. [National Institute of Education, Nanyang Technological University, 1 Nanyang Walk, Singapore 637616 (Singapore); Department of Physics, University of Karachi, Karachi 75270 (Pakistan); Rawat, R. S.; Wang, Y.; Lee, S.; Tan, T. L.; Springham, S. V.; Lee, P. [National Institute of Education, Nanyang Technological University, 1 Nanyang Walk, Singapore 637616 (Singapore); Zakaullah, M. [Department of Physics, Quaid-i-Azam University, 45320 Islamabad (Pakistan)

    2012-10-15

    The effect of laser energy fluence on the onset and growth of Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) instabilities in laser induced Fe plasma is investigated using time-resolved fast gated imaging. The snow plow and shock wave models are fitted to the experimental results and used to estimate the ablation parameters and the density of gas atoms that interact with the ablated species. It is observed that RT instability develops during the interface deceleration stage and grows for a considerable time for higher laser energy fluence. The effects of RT instabilities formation on the surface topography of the Fe thin films grown in pulsed laser deposition system are investigated (i) using different laser energy fluences for the same wavelength of laser radiation and (ii) using different laser wavelengths keeping the energy fluence fixed. It is concluded that the deposition achieved under turbulent condition leads to less smooth deposition surfaces with bigger sized particle agglomerates or network.

  14. InGaN/GaN multi-quantum well and LED growth on wafer-bonded sapphire-on-polycrystalline AlN substrates by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Crawford, Mary Hagerott; Olson, S. M.; Banas, M.; Park, Y. -B.; Ladous, C.; Russell, Michael J.; Thaler, Gerald; Zahler, J. M.; Pinnington, T.; Koleske, Daniel David; Atwater, Harry A.

    2008-06-01

    We report growth of InGaN/GaN multi-quantum well (MQW) and LED structures on a novel composite substrate designed to eliminate the coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) mismatch problems which impact GaN growth on bulk sapphire. To form the composite substrate, a thin sapphire layer is wafer-bonded to a polycrystalline aluminum nitride (P-AlN) support substrate. The sapphire layer provides the epitaxial template for the growth; however, the thermo-mechanical properties of the composite substrate are determined by the P-AlN. Using these substrates, thermal stresses associated with temperature changes during growth should be reduced an order of magnitude compared to films grown on bulk sapphire, based on published CTE data. In order to test the suitability of the substrates for GaN LED growth, test structures were grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) using standard process conditions for GaN growth on sapphire. Bulk sapphire substrates were included as control samples in all growth runs. In situ reflectance monitoring was used to compare the growth dynamics for the different substrates. The material quality of the films as judged by X-ray diffraction (XRD), photoluminescence and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was similar for the composite substrate and the sapphire control samples. Electroluminescence was obtained from the LED structure grown on a P-AlN composite substrate, with a similar peak wavelength and peak width to the control samples. XRD and Raman spectroscopy results confirm that the residual strain in GaN films grown on the composite substrates is dramatically reduced compared to growth on bulk sapphire substrates.

  15. Method of deposition by molecular beam epitaxy

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chalmers, Scott A.; Killeen, Kevin P.; Lear, Kevin L.

    1995-01-01

    A method is described for reproducibly controlling layer thickness and varying layer composition in an MBE deposition process. In particular, the present invention includes epitaxially depositing a plurality of layers of material on a substrate with a plurality of growth cycles whereby the average of the instantaneous growth rates for each growth cycle and from one growth cycle to the next remains substantially constant as a function of time.

  16. Method of deposition by molecular beam epitaxy

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chalmers, S.A.; Killeen, K.P.; Lear, K.L.

    1995-01-10

    A method is described for reproducibly controlling layer thickness and varying layer composition in an MBE deposition process. In particular, the present invention includes epitaxially depositing a plurality of layers of material on a substrate with a plurality of growth cycles whereby the average of the instantaneous growth rates for each growth cycle and from one growth cycle to the next remains substantially constant as a function of time. 9 figures.

  17. Simultaneous catalyst deposition and growth of aligned carbon nanotubes on SiO{sub 2}/Si substrates by radio frequency magnetron sputtering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scalese, S.; Scuderi, V.; Privitera, V.; Pennisi, A.; Simone, F.

    2007-12-01

    Radio frequency magnetron sputtering has been used for the synthesis of aligned carbon nanotubes (CNTs) on a SiO{sub 2}/Si substrate, with simultaneous in situ catalyst deposition. This method allows the use of substrates without the need of a surface predeposition of catalytic particles. In particular, among the metals considered, we observed the formation of CNTs using W or Ni as catalysts. Only in the case of Ni did we find that the CNTs are aligned along the target-substrate direction, unlike the randomly oriented CNTs observed when W was used as catalyst. Scanning and transmission electron microscopies show that the catalytic Ni nanoparticle is found mostly on the tip of the obtained bamboolike CNTs, while W nanoparticles are encapsulated inside hollow nanotubes, at different points along their length. We ascribe not only the observed structural differences to the size of the W and Ni particles but also to a different diffusion behavior of C in the two kinds of metallic clusters.

  18. Deposited films with improved microstructures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Patten, James W.; Moss, Ronald W.; McClanahan, Edwin D.

    1984-01-01

    Methods for improving microstructures of line-of-sight deposited films are described. Columnar growth defects ordinarily produced by geometrical shadowing during deposition of such films are eliminated without resorting to post-deposition thermal or mechanical treatments. The native, as-deposited coating qualities, including homogeneity, fine grain size, and high coating-to-substrate adherence, can thus be retained. The preferred method includes the steps of emitting material from a source toward a substrate to deposit a coating non-uniformly on the substrate surface, removing a portion of the coating uniformly over the surface, again depositing material onto the surface, but from a different direction, and repeating the foregoing steps. The quality of line-of-sight deposited films such as those produced by sputtering, progressively deteriorates as the angle of incidence between the flux and the surface becomes increasingly acute. Depositing non-uniformly, so that the coating becomes progressively thinner as quality deteriorates, followed by uniformly removing some of the coating, such as by resputtering, eliminates the poor quality portions, leaving only high quality portions of the coating. Subsequently sputtering from a different direction applies a high quality coating to other regions of the surface. Such steps can be performed either simultaneously or sequentially to apply coatings of a uniformly high quality, closed microstructure to three-dimensional or large planar surfaces.

  19. Hydrocarbon and Deposit Morphology Effects on EGR Cooler Deposit...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    and Deposit Morphology Effects on EGR Cooler Deposit Stability and Removal Hydrocarbon and Deposit Morphology Effects on EGR Cooler Deposit Stability and Removal This paper reports ...

  20. Success Story: Chrome Deposit Corporation | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Chrome Deposit Corporation Success Story: Chrome Deposit Corporation This case study describes how Chrome Deposit Corporation was able to reduce plant-wide energy use, minimize its environmental impact, and improve energy management practices amidst ongoing growth. Success Story: Chrome Deposit Corporation (February 2011) (1.7 MB) More Documents & Publications Energy Exchange 2015 Speaker Biographies Energy Storage Systems 2012 Peer Review Presentations - Poster Session 2 (Day 2): University

  1. Deposition head for laser

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lewis, Gary K. (Los Alamos, NM); Less, Richard M. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1999-01-01

    A deposition head for use as a part of apparatus for forming articles from materials in particulate form in which the materials are melted by a laser beam and deposited at points along a tool path to form an article of the desired shape and dimensions. The deposition head delivers the laser beam and powder to a deposition zone, which is formed at the tip of the deposition head. A controller comprised of a digital computer directs movement of the deposition zone along the tool path and provides control signals to adjust apparatus functions, such as the speed at which the deposition head moves along the tool path.

  2. direct_deposit_111609

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    PROTECT YOUR BANKING INFORMATION: DO NOT complete this form until you are ready to submit it to the Payroll Department. DIRECT DEPOSIT REQUEST Directions: 1. Provide required information neatly, legibly; 2. If Checking Account Direct Deposit, include a voided check. a. DO NOT submit a deposit slip! 3. If Savings Account Direct Deposit, include a copy of savings card. 4. Sign this form; 5. Inter-office mail it to Craft Payroll at "P238." DIRECT DEPOSITION AUTHORIZATION I hereby

  3. Photobiomolecular deposition of metallic particles and films

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hu, Zhong-Cheng

    2005-02-08

    The method of the invention is based on the unique electron-carrying function of a photocatalytic unit such as the photosynthesis system I (PSI) reaction center of the protein-chlorophyll complex isolated from chloroplasts. The method employs a photo-biomolecular metal deposition technique for precisely controlled nucleation and growth of metallic clusters/particles, e.g., platinum, palladium, and their alloys, etc., as well as for thin-film formation above the surface of a solid substrate. The photochemically mediated technique offers numerous advantages over traditional deposition methods including quantitative atom deposition control, high energy efficiency, and mild operating condition requirements.

  4. Zinc deposition in acid electrolytes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McBreen, J.; Gannon, E.

    1981-01-01

    In the past decade, two aqueous zinc/halogen batteries, the zinc/chlorine, and the zinc/bromine systems, have been considered for load-leveling and vehicular applications. Even though considerable progress has been made in engineering these batteries, several problems related to the zinc electrode have yet to be solved. These are related to the growth of dendritic zinc and a maldistribution of the zinc deposit that can occur during cycling. Both problems are exacerbated by recharge of the battery after partial discharge of the zinc deposit. A survey of the literature indicates that a more desireable zinc morphology can be achieved by use of inorganic additives, fluorinated surfactants, and A-C modulation of the charging current. In this investigation, the deposition of zinc from zinc bromide and zinc chloride electrolytes was investigated under conditions that precluded dendrite growth. The techniques used were cyclic voltammetry, the potential step technique and scanning electron microscopy. The variables investigated were the substrate (zinc and dense graphite), electrolyte pH, inorganic additives (Pb/sup + +/ and Bi/sup 3 +/) and A-V modulation of the charging potential by superimposed square waves.

  5. Plant growth promoting rhizobacterium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Doktycz, Mitchel John; Pelletier, Dale A.; Schadt, Christopher Warren; Tuskan, Gerald A.; Weston, David

    2015-08-11

    The present invention is directed to the Pseudomonas fluorescens strain GM30 deposited under ATCC Accession No. PTA-13340, compositions containing the GM30 strain, and methods of using the GM30 strain to enhance plant growth and/or enhance plant resistance to pathogens.

  6. Vapor-deposited porous films for energy conversion

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jankowski, Alan F.; Hayes, Jeffrey P.; Morse, Jeffrey D.

    2005-07-05

    Metallic films are grown with a "spongelike" morphology in the as-deposited condition using planar magnetron sputtering. The morphology of the deposit is characterized by metallic continuity in three dimensions with continuous and open porosity on the submicron scale. The stabilization of the spongelike morphology is found over a limited range of the sputter deposition parameters, that is, of working gas pressure and substrate temperature. This spongelike morphology is an extension of the features as generally represented in the classic zone models of growth for physical vapor deposits. Nickel coatings were deposited with working gas pressures up 4 Pa and for substrate temperatures up to 1000 K. The morphology of the deposits is examined in plan and in cross section views with scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The parametric range of gas pressure and substrate temperature (relative to absolute melt point) under which the spongelike metal deposits are produced appear universal for other metals including gold, silver, and aluminum.

  7. Plasma deposited diamond-like carbon films for large neutralarrays

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, I.G.; Blakely, E.A.; Bjornstad, K.A.; Galvin, J.E.; Monteiro, O.R.; Sangyuenyongpipat, S.

    2004-07-15

    To understand how large systems of neurons communicate, we need to develop methods for growing patterned networks of large numbers of neurons. We have found that diamond-like carbon thin films formed by energetic deposition from a filtered vacuum arc carbon plasma can serve as ''neuron friendly'' substrates for the growth of large neural arrays. Lithographic masks can be used to form patterns of diamond-like carbon, and regions of selective neuronal attachment can form patterned neural arrays. In the work described here, we used glass microscope slides as substrates on which diamond-like carbon was deposited. PC-12 rat neurons were then cultured on the treated substrates and cell growth monitored. Neuron growth showed excellent contrast, with prolific growth on the treated surfaces and very low growth on the untreated surfaces. Here we describe the vacuum arc plasma deposition technique employed, and summarize results demonstrating that the approach can be used to form large patterns of neurons.

  8. Radionuclide deposition control

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brehm, William F.; McGuire, Joseph C.

    1980-01-01

    The deposition of radionuclides manganese-54, cobalt-58 and cobalt-60 from liquid sodium coolant is controlled by providing surfaces of nickel or high nickel alloys to extract the radionuclides from the liquid sodium, and by providing surfaces of tungsten, molybdenum or tantalum to prevent or retard radionuclide deposition.

  9. Solution deposition assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Roussillon, Yann; Scholz, Jeremy H; Shelton, Addison; Green, Geoff T; Utthachoo, Piyaphant

    2014-01-21

    Methods and devices are provided for improved deposition systems. In one embodiment of the present invention, a deposition system is provided for use with a solution and a substrate. The system comprises of a solution deposition apparatus; at least one heating chamber, at least one assembly for holding a solution over the substrate; and a substrate curling apparatus for curling at least one edge of the substrate to define a zone capable of containing a volume of the solution over the substrate. In another embodiment of the present invention, a deposition system for use with a substrate, the system comprising a solution deposition apparatus; at heating chamber; and at least assembly for holding solution over the substrate to allow for a depth of at least about 0.5 microns to 10 mm.

  10. GaSb molecular beam epitaxial growth on p-InP(001) and passivation with in situ deposited Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} gate oxide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Merckling, C.; Brammertz, G.; Hoffmann, T. Y.; Caymax, M.; Dekoster, J.; Sun, X.; Alian, A.; Heyns, M.; Afanas'ev, V. V.

    2011-04-01

    The integration of high carrier mobility materials into future CMOS generations is presently being studied in order to increase drive current capability and to decrease power consumption in future generation CMOS devices. If III-V materials are the candidates of choice for n-type channel devices, antimonide-based semiconductors present high hole mobility and could be used for p-type channel devices. In this work we first demonstrate the heteroepitaxy of fully relaxed GaSb epilayers on InP(001) substrates. In a second part, the properties of the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/GaSb interface have been studied by in situ deposition of an Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} high-{kappa} gate dielectric. The interface is abrupt without any substantial interfacial layer, and is characterized by high conduction and valence band offsets. Finally, MOS capacitors show well-behaved C-V with relatively low D{sub it} along the bandgap, these results point out an efficient electrical passivation of the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/GaSb interface.

  11. CNEEC - Atomic Layer Deposition Tutorial by Stacey Bent

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Atomic Layer Deposition

  12. Atomic layer deposition of nanoporous biomaterials.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Narayan, R. J.; Adiga, S. P.; Pellin, M. J.; Curtiss, L. A.; Stafslien, S.; Chisholm, B.; Monteiro-Riviere, N. A.; Brigmon, R. L.; Elam, J. W.; Univ. of North Carolina; North Carolina State Univ.; Eastman Kodak Co.; North Dakota State Univ.; SRL

    2010-03-01

    Due to its chemical stability, uniform pore size, and high pore density, nanoporous alumina is being investigated for use in biosensing, drug delivery, hemodialysis, and other medical applications. In recent work, we have examined the use of atomic layer deposition for coating the surfaces of nanoporous alumina membranes. Zinc oxide coatings were deposited on nanoporous alumina membranes using atomic layer deposition. The zinc oxide-coated nanoporous alumina membranes demonstrated antimicrobial activity against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus bacteria. These results suggest that atomic layer deposition is an attractive technique for modifying the surfaces of nanoporous alumina membranes and other nanostructured biomaterials. Nanoporous alumina, also known as anodic aluminum oxide (AAO), is a nanomaterial that exhibits several unusual properties, including high pore densities, straight pores, small pore sizes, and uniform pore sizes. In 1953, Keller et al. showed that anodizing aluminum in acid electrolytes results in a thick layer of nearly cylindrical pores, which are arranged in a close-packed hexagonal cell structure. More recently, Matsuda & Fukuda demonstrated preparation of highly ordered platinum and gold nanohole arrays using a replication process. In this study, a negative structure of nanoporous alumina was initially fabricated and a positive structure of a nanoporous metal was subsequently fabricated. Over the past fifteen years, nanoporous alumina membranes have been used as templates for growth of a variety of nanostructured materials, including nanotubes, nanowires, nanorods, and nanoporous membranes.

  13. Growth evolution of AlN films on silicon (111) substrates by...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    substrates by pulsed laser deposition Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Growth evolution of AlN films on silicon (111) substrates by pulsed laser deposition AlN films ...

  14. Ultrashort pulse laser deposition of thin films

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Perry, Michael D.; Banks, Paul S.; Stuart, Brent C.

    2002-01-01

    Short pulse PLD is a viable technique of producing high quality films with properties very close to that of crystalline diamond. The plasma generated using femtosecond lasers is composed of single atom ions with no clusters producing films with high Sp.sup.3 /Sp.sup.2 ratios. Using a high average power femtosecond laser system, the present invention dramatically increases deposition rates to up to 25 .mu.m/hr (which exceeds many CVD processes) while growing particulate-free films. In the present invention, deposition rates is a function of laser wavelength, laser fluence, laser spot size, and target/substrate separation. The relevant laser parameters are shown to ensure particulate-free growth, and characterizations of the films grown are made using several diagnostic techniques including electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) and Raman spectroscopy.

  15. Methods for making deposited films with improved microstructures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Patten, James W.; Moss, Ronald W.; McClanahan, Edwin D.

    1982-01-01

    Methods for improving microstructures of line-of-sight deposited films are described. Columnar growth defects ordinarily produced by geometrical shadowing during deposition of such films are eliminated without resorting to post-deposition thermal or mechanical treatments. The native, as-deposited coating qualities, including homogeneity, fine grain size, and high coating-to-substrate adherence, can thus be retained. The preferred method includes the steps of emitting material from a source toward a substrate to deposit a coating non-uniformly on the substrate surface, removing a portion of the coating uniformly over the surface, again depositing material onto the surface, but from a different direction, and repeating the foregoing steps. The quality of line-of-sight deposited films such as those produced by sputtering, progressively deteriorates as the angle of incidence between the flux and the surface becomes increasingly acute. Depositing non-uniformly, so that the coating becomes progressively thinner as quality deteriorates, followed by uniformly removing some of the coating, such as by resputtering, eliminates the poor quality portions, leaving only high quality portions of the coating. Subsequently sputtering from a different direction applies a high quality coating to other regions of the surface. Such steps can be performed either simultaneously or sequentially to apply coatings of a uniformly high quality, closed microstructure to three-dimensional or larger planar surfaces.

  16. Multi-chamber deposition system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jacobson, Richard L.; Jeffrey, Frank R.; Westerberg, Roger K.

    1989-06-27

    A system for the simultaneous deposition of different coatings onto a thin web within a large volume vacuum chamber is disclosed which chamber is provided with a plurality of deposition chambers in which the different layers are deposited onto the film as its moves from a supply roll to a finished take-up roll of coated web. The deposition chambers provided within the large vacuum chamber are provided with separate seals which minimize back diffusion of any dopant gas from adjacent deposition chambers.

  17. Multi-chamber deposition system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jacobson, Richard L.; Jeffrey, Frank R.; Westerberg, Roger K.

    1989-10-17

    A system for the simultaneous deposition of different coatings onto a thin web within a large volume vacuum chamber is disclosed which chamber is provided with a plurality of deposition chambers in which the different layers are deposited onto the film as its moves from a supply roll to a finished take-up roll of coated web. The deposition chambers provided within the large vacuum chamber are provided with separate seals which minimize back diffusion of any dopant gas from adjacent deposition chambers.

  18. Deposition System Controller

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2005-10-01

    This software is a complete thin film deposition controller. The software takes as its input a script file that dictates enablinig/disabling of sputtering power supplies, pause times, velocities and distances to move a substrate. An emulator has been created and built into the software package that can debug in advance any deposition script and decide if there is an overrun condition, accidental infinite look, and can estimate a time for completion. All necessary process variablesmore » are data logged and recorded for later inspection. This emulator currently interfaces to a Parker-Compumotor SX6 stepper moror indexer, but the software is written in such a way that it is easily modifiable for interface to othe brand and models of motor drivers. Other process I/O variables may be easily added. The software uses any multifunction DAQ card from National Instruments via their free NIDAQ API package, but again, the software is written such that othe brand DAQ cards may be used.« less

  19. ZrN coatings deposited by high power impulse magnetron sputtering and cathodic arc techniques

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Purandare, Yashodhan Ehiasarian, Arutiun; Hovsepian, Papken; Santana, Antonio

    2014-05-15

    Zirconium nitride (ZrN) coatings were deposited on 1??m finish high speed steel and 316L stainless steel test coupons. Cathodic Arc (CA) and High Power Impulse Magnetron Sputtering (HIPIMS) + Unbalanced Magnetron Sputtering (UBM) techniques were utilized to deposit coatings. CA plasmas are known to be rich in metal and gas ions of the depositing species as well as macroparticles (droplets) emitted from the arc sports. Combining HIPIMS technique with UBM in the same deposition process facilitated increased ion bombardment on the depositing species during coating growth maintaining high deposition rate. Prior to coating deposition, substrates were pretreated with Zr{sup +} rich plasma, for both arc deposited and HIPIMS deposited coatings, which led to a very high scratch adhesion value (L{sub C2}) of 100 N. Characterization results revealed the overall thickness of the coatings in the range of 2.5??m with hardness in the range of 3040?GPa depending on the deposition technique. Cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy and tribological experiments such as dry sliding wear tests and corrosion studies have been utilized to study the effects of ion bombardment on the structure and properties of these coatings. In all the cases, HIPIMS assisted UBM deposited coating fared equal or better than the arc deposited coatings, the reasons being discussed in this paper. Thus H+U coatings provide a good alternative to arc deposited where smooth, dense coatings are required and macrodroplets cannot be tolerated.

  20. OLEDWORKS DEVELOPS INNOVATIVE HIGH-PERFORMANCE DEPOSITION TECHNOLOGY TO REDUCE MANUFACTURING COST OF OLED LIGHTING

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The high manufacturing cost of OLED lighting is a major barrier to the growth of the emerging OLED lighting industry. OLEDWorks is developing high-performance deposition technology that addresses...

  1. Dislocation confinement in the growth of Na flux GaN on metalorganic...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Dislocation confinement in the growth of Na flux GaN on metalorganic chemical vapor deposition-GaN Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Dislocation confinement in the growth ...

  2. Momentum Deposition in Curvilinear Coordinates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cleveland, Mathew Allen; Lowrie, Robert Byron; Rockefeller, Gabriel M.; Thompson, Kelly Glen; Wollaber, Allan Benton

    2015-08-03

    The momentum imparted into a material by thermal radiation deposition is an important physical process in astrophysics and inertial confinement fusion (ICF) simulations. In recent work we presented a new method of evaluating momentum deposition that relies on the combination of a time-averaged approximation and a numerical integration scheme. This approach robustly and efficiently evaluates the momentum deposition in spherical geometry. Future work will look to extend this approach to 2D cylindrical geometries.

  3. Biocompatible Coating (Parylene) Deposition System

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Metal Containing Diamond-Like Carbon Deposition System Varshni Singh and Jost Goettert Center for Advanced Microstructures & Devices, Louisiana State University, 6980 Jefferson Hwy., Baton Rouge, LA-70806 Summary CAMD/LSU received funds from the Board of Regents' Enhancement Program for modifying and upgrading of a diamond like carbon (DLC) deposition system. This included a magnetron with shield, DC power supply and pulsing unit, mass flow controllers and in-situ thin film deposition

  4. Hydroquinone-ZnO nano-laminate deposited by molecular-atomic layer deposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huang, Jie; Lucero, Antonio T.; Cheng, Lanxia; Kim, Jiyoung; Hwang, Hyeon Jun; Ha, Min-Woo

    2015-03-23

    In this study, we have deposited organic-inorganic hybrid semiconducting hydroquinone (HQ)/zinc oxide (ZnO) superlattices using molecular-atomic layer deposition, which enables accurate control of film thickness, excellent uniformity, and sharp interfaces at a low deposition temperature (150 °C). Self-limiting growth of organic layers is observed for the HQ precursor on ZnO surface. Nano-laminates were prepared by varying the number of HQ to ZnO cycles in order to investigate the physical and electrical effects of different HQ to ZnO ratios. It is indicated that the addition of HQ layer results in enhanced mobility and reduced carrier concentration. The highest Hall mobility of approximately 2.3 cm{sup 2}/V·s and the lowest n-type carrier concentration of approximately 1.0 × 10{sup 18}/cm{sup 3} were achieved with the organic-inorganic superlattice deposited with a ratio of 10 ZnO cycles to 1 HQ cycle. This study offers an approach to tune the electrical transport characteristics of ALD ZnO matrix thin films using an organic dopant. Moreover, with organic embedment, this nano-laminate material may be useful for flexible electronics.

  5. Carbonate Deposition | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Alteration Products Carbonate deposits come in many forms and sometimes develop into spectacular colorful terraces such as these at Mammoth Hot Springs in Yellowstone National...

  6. Atomic and molecular layer deposition for surface modification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vh-Nissi, Mika; Sievnen, Jenni; Salo, Erkki; Heikkil, Pirjo; Kentt, Eija; Johansson, Leena-Sisko; Koskinen, Jorma T.; Harlin, Ali

    2014-06-01

    Atomic and molecular layer deposition (ALD and MLD, respectively) techniques are based on repeated cycles of gassolid surface reactions. A partial monolayer of atoms or molecules is deposited to the surface during a single deposition cycle, enabling tailored film composition in principle down to molecular resolution on ideal surfaces. Typically ALD/MLD has been used for applications where uniform and pinhole free thin film is a necessity even on 3D surfaces. However, thin even non-uniform atomic and molecular deposited layers can also be used to tailor the surface characteristics of different non-ideal substrates. For example, print quality of inkjet printing on polymer films and penetration of water into porous nonwovens can be adjusted with low-temperature deposited metal oxide. In addition, adhesion of extrusion coated biopolymer to inorganic oxides can be improved with a hybrid layer based on lactic acid. - Graphical abstract: Print quality of a polylactide film surface modified with atomic layer deposition prior to inkjet printing (360 dpi) with an aqueous ink. Number of printed dots illustrated as a function of 0, 5, 15 and 25 deposition cycles of trimethylaluminum and water. - Highlights: ALD/MLD can be used to adjust surface characteristics of films and fiber materials. Hydrophobicity after few deposition cycles of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} due to e.g. complex formation. Same effect on cellulosic fabrics observed with low temperature deposited TiO{sub 2}. Different film growth and oxidation potential with different precursors. Hybrid layer on inorganic layer can be used to improve adhesion of polymer melt.

  7. Variable temperature semiconductor film deposition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Li, Xiaonan; Sheldon, Peter

    1998-01-01

    A method of depositing a semiconductor material on a substrate. The method sequentially comprises (a) providing the semiconductor material in a depositable state such as a vapor for deposition on the substrate; (b) depositing the semiconductor material on the substrate while heating the substrate to a first temperature sufficient to cause the semiconductor material to form a first film layer having a first grain size; (c) continually depositing the semiconductor material on the substrate while cooling the substrate to a second temperature sufficient to cause the semiconductor material to form a second film layer deposited on the first film layer and having a second grain size smaller than the first grain size; and (d) raising the substrate temperature, while either continuing or not continuing to deposit semiconductor material to form a third film layer, to thereby anneal the film layers into a single layer having favorable efficiency characteristics in photovoltaic applications. A preferred semiconductor material is cadmium telluride deposited on a glass/tin oxide substrate already having thereon a film layer of cadmium sulfide.

  8. Variable temperature semiconductor film deposition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Li, X.; Sheldon, P.

    1998-01-27

    A method of depositing a semiconductor material on a substrate is disclosed. The method sequentially comprises (a) providing the semiconductor material in a depositable state such as a vapor for deposition on the substrate; (b) depositing the semiconductor material on the substrate while heating the substrate to a first temperature sufficient to cause the semiconductor material to form a first film layer having a first grain size; (c) continually depositing the semiconductor material on the substrate while cooling the substrate to a second temperature sufficient to cause the semiconductor material to form a second film layer deposited on the first film layer and having a second grain size smaller than the first grain size; and (d) raising the substrate temperature, while either continuing or not continuing to deposit semiconductor material to form a third film layer, to thereby anneal the film layers into a single layer having favorable efficiency characteristics in photovoltaic applications. A preferred semiconductor material is cadmium telluride deposited on a glass/tin oxide substrate already having thereon a film layer of cadmium sulfide.

  9. Atomic Layer Deposition of L-Alanine Polypeptide

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Fu, Yaqin; Li, Binsong; Jiang, Ying-Bing; Dunphy, Darren R.; Tsai, Andy; Tam, Siu-Yue; Fan, Hongyou Y.; Zhang, Hongxia; Rogers, David; Rempe, Susan; et al

    2014-10-30

    L-Alanine polypeptide thin films were synthesized via atomic layer deposition (ALD). Rather, instead of using an amino acid monomer as the precursor, an L-alanine amino acid derivatized with a protecting group was used to prevent self-polymerization, increase the vapor pressure, and allow linear cycle-by-cycle growth emblematic of ALD. Moreover, the successful deposition of a conformal polypeptide film has been confirmed by FTIR, TEM, and Mass Spectrometry, and the ALD process has been extended to polyvaline.

  10. Direct Deposit Form | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Direct Deposit Form Direct Deposit Form Direct Deposit Form (66.61 KB) More Documents & Publications Employee In-Processing Forms Agreement for Minority Financial Institutions Participation in the Bank Deposit Financial Assistance Program Agreement for Minority Financial Institutions Participation in the Bank Deposit Financial Assistance Program

  11. Analysis of gallium arsenide deposition in a horizontal chemical vapor deposition reactor using massively parallel computations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Salinger, A.G.; Shadid, J.N.; Hutchinson, S.A.

    1998-01-01

    A numerical analysis of the deposition of gallium from trimethylgallium (TMG) and arsine in a horizontal CVD reactor with tilted susceptor and a three inch diameter rotating substrate is performed. The three-dimensional model includes complete coupling between fluid mechanics, heat transfer, and species transport, and is solved using an unstructured finite element discretization on a massively parallel computer. The effects of three operating parameters (the disk rotation rate, inlet TMG fraction, and inlet velocity) and two design parameters (the tilt angle of the reactor base and the reactor width) on the growth rate and uniformity are presented. The nonlinear dependence of the growth rate uniformity on the key operating parameters is discussed in detail. Efficient and robust algorithms for massively parallel reacting flow simulations, as incorporated into our analysis code MPSalsa, make detailed analysis of this complicated system feasible.

  12. Particle deposition in ventilation ducts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sippola, Mark R.

    2002-09-01

    Exposure to airborne particles is detrimental to human health and indoor exposures dominate total exposures for most people. The accidental or intentional release of aerosolized chemical and biological agents within or near a building can lead to exposures of building occupants to hazardous agents and costly building remediation. Particle deposition in heating, ventilation and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems may significantly influence exposures to particles indoors, diminish HVAC performance and lead to secondary pollutant release within buildings. This dissertation advances the understanding of particle behavior in HVAC systems and the fates of indoor particles by means of experiments and modeling. Laboratory experiments were conducted to quantify particle deposition rates in horizontal ventilation ducts using real HVAC materials. Particle deposition experiments were conducted in steel and internally insulated ducts at air speeds typically found in ventilation ducts, 2-9 m/s. Behaviors of monodisperse particles with diameters in the size range 1-16 {micro}m were investigated. Deposition rates were measured in straight ducts with a fully developed turbulent flow profile, straight ducts with a developing turbulent flow profile, in duct bends and at S-connector pieces located at duct junctions. In straight ducts with fully developed turbulence, experiments showed deposition rates to be highest at duct floors, intermediate at duct walls, and lowest at duct ceilings. Deposition rates to a given surface increased with an increase in particle size or air speed. Deposition was much higher in internally insulated ducts than in uninsulated steel ducts. In most cases, deposition in straight ducts with developing turbulence, in duct bends and at S-connectors at duct junctions was higher than in straight ducts with fully developed turbulence. Measured deposition rates were generally higher than predicted by published models. A model incorporating empirical equations based on

  13. Evolution of crystal structure during the initial stages of ZnO atomic layer deposition

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Boichot, R.; Tian, L.; Richard, M. -I.; Crisci, A.; Chaker, A.; Cantelli, V.; Coindeau, S.; Lay, S.; Ouled, T.; Guichet, C.; et al

    2016-01-05

    In this study, a complementary suite of in situ synchrotron X-ray techniques is used to investigate both structural and chemical evolution during ZnO growth by atomic layer deposition. Focusing on the first 10 cycles of growth, we observe that the structure formed during the coalescence stage largely determines the overall microstructure of the film. Furthermore, by comparing ZnO growth on silicon with a native oxide with that on Al2O3(001), we find that even with lattice-mismatched substrates and low deposition temperatures, the crystalline texture of the films depend strongly on the nature of the interfacial bonds.

  14. The NSLS-II Multilayer Laue Lens Deposition System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Conley, R.; Bouet, N.; Biancarosa, J.; Shen, Q.; Boas, L.; Feraca, J.; Rosenbaum, L.

    2009-08-02

    The NSLS-II[1] program has a requirement for an unprecedented level of x-ray nanofocusing and has selected the wedged multilayer Laue lens[2,3] (MLL) as the optic of choice to meet this goal. In order to fabricate the MLL a deposition system is required that is capable of depositing depth-graded and laterally-graded multilayers with precise thickness control over many thousands of layers, with total film growth in one run up to 100?m thick or greater. This machine design expounds on the positive features of a rotary deposition system[4] constructed previously for MLLs and will contain multiple stationary, horizontally-oriented magnetron sources where a transport will move a substrate back and forth in a linear fashion over shaped apertures at well-defined velocities to affect a multilayer coating.

  15. MACCS2/Deposition Velocity Workshop

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    The Department of Energy’s Chief of Nuclear Safety hosted a MACCS2/Deposition Velocity Workshop on June 5-6, 2012, in Germantown, Maryland. Approximately 70 participants attended. The purpose of...

  16. Mask-Assisted Seeded Growth of Segmented Metallic Heteronanostructures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Crane, Cameron C.; Tao, Jing; Wang, Feng; Zhu, Yimei; Chen, Jingyi

    2014-12-04

    Controlling the deposition of exotic metals in the seeded growth of multi-metal nanostructures is challenging. This work describes a seeded growth method assisted by a mask for synthesis of segmented binary or ternary metal nanostructures. Silica is used as a mask to partially block the surface of a seed and a second metal is subsequently deposited on the exposed area, forming a bimetallic heterodimer. The initial demonstration was carried out on a Au seed, followed by deposition of Pd or Pt on the seed. It was found that Pd tends to spread out laterally on the seed while Pt inclines to grow vertically into branched topology on Au. Without removal of the SiO₂ mask, Pt could be further deposited on the unblocked Pd of the Pd-Au dimer to form a Pt-Pd-Au trimer. The mask-assisted seeded growth provides a general strategy to construct segmented metallic nanoarchitectures.

  17. Mask-Assisted Seeded Growth of Segmented Metallic Heteronanostructures

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Crane, Cameron C.; Tao, Jing; Wang, Feng; Zhu, Yimei; Chen, Jingyi

    2014-12-04

    Controlling the deposition of exotic metals in the seeded growth of multi-metal nanostructures is challenging. This work describes a seeded growth method assisted by a mask for synthesis of segmented binary or ternary metal nanostructures. Silica is used as a mask to partially block the surface of a seed and a second metal is subsequently deposited on the exposed area, forming a bimetallic heterodimer. The initial demonstration was carried out on a Au seed, followed by deposition of Pd or Pt on the seed. It was found that Pd tends to spread out laterally on the seed while Pt inclinesmore » to grow vertically into branched topology on Au. Without removal of the SiO₂ mask, Pt could be further deposited on the unblocked Pd of the Pd-Au dimer to form a Pt-Pd-Au trimer. The mask-assisted seeded growth provides a general strategy to construct segmented metallic nanoarchitectures.« less

  18. Mask-Assisted Seeded Growth of Segmented Metallic Heteronanostructures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Crane, Cameron C.; Tao, Jing; Wang, Feng; Zhu, Yimei; Chen, Jingyi

    2014-12-04

    Controlling the deposition of exotic metals in the seeded growth of multi-metal nanostructures is challenging. This work describes a seeded growth method assisted by a mask for synthesis of segmented binary or ternary metal nanostructures. Silica is used as a mask to partially block the surface of a seed and a second metal is subsequently deposited on the exposed area, forming a bimetallic heterodimer. The initial demonstration was carried out on a Au seed, followed by deposition of Pd or Pt on the seed. It was found that Pd tends to spread out laterally on the seed while Pt inclines to grow vertically into branched topology on Au. Without removal of the SiO? mask, Pt could be further deposited on the unblocked Pd of the Pd-Au dimer to form a Pt-Pd-Au trimer. The mask-assisted seeded growth provides a general strategy to construct segmented metallic nanoarchitectures.

  19. Chemical enhancement of surface deposition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Patch, K.D.; Morgan, D.T.

    1997-07-29

    A method and apparatus are disclosed for increasing the deposition of ions onto a surface, such as the adsorption of uranium ions on the detecting surface of a radionuclide detector. The method includes the step of exposing the surface to a complexing agent, such as a phosphate ion solution, which has an affinity for the dissolved species to be deposited on the surface. This provides, for example, enhanced sensitivity of the radionuclide detector. 16 figs.

  20. Vapor deposition of hardened niobium

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Blocher, Jr., John M.; Veigel, Neil D.; Landrigan, Richard B.

    1983-04-19

    A method of coating ceramic nuclear fuel particles containing a major amount of an actinide ceramic in which the particles are placed in a fluidized bed maintained at ca. 800.degree. to ca. 900.degree. C., and niobium pentachloride vapor and carbon tetrachloride vapor are led into the bed, whereby niobium metal is deposited on the particles and carbon is deposited interstitially within the niobium. Coating apparatus used in the method is also disclosed.

  1. Chemical enhancement of surface deposition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Patch, Keith D.; Morgan, Dean T.

    1997-07-29

    A method and apparatus for increasing the deposition of ions onto a surface, such as the adsorption of uranium ions on the detecting surface of a radionuclide detector. The method includes the step of exposing the surface to a complexing agent, such as a phosphate ion solution, which has an affinity for the dissolved species to be deposited on the surface. This provides, for example, enhanced sensitivity of the radionuclide detector.

  2. On the dry deposition of submicron particles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wesely, M. L.

    1999-10-08

    The air-surface exchange of particles can have a strong role in determining the amount, size, and chemical composition of particles in the troposphere. Here the authors consider only dry processes (deposition processes not directly aided by precipitation) and mostly address particles less than about 2 {micro}m in diameter (often referred to as submicron particles because most of such particles are less than 1 {micro}m in diameter). The processes that control the dry exchange of particulate material between the atmosphere and the surface of the Earth are numerous, highly varied, and sometimes poorly understood. As a result, determining which of the surface processes to parameterize or simulate in modeling the tropospheric mass budget of a particulate substance can be a significant challenge. Dry deposition, for example, can be controlled by a combination of Brownian diffusion, impaction, interception, and gravitational settling, depending on the size of the particles, the roughness of the surface on both micrometeorological and microscopic scales, the geometrical structure of vegetative canopies, and other surface characteristics such as wetness. Particles can be added to the lower atmosphere by resuspension from land surfaces and sea spray. The roles of rapid gas-to-particle conversion and growth or shrinkage of particles as a result of water condensation or evaporation in the lower few meters of the atmosphere can also have a significant impact on particle concentrations in the lower atmosphere. Here, a few micrometeorological observations and inferences on particle air-surface exchange are briefly addressed.

  3. Molecular layer deposition of alucone films using trimethylaluminum and hydroquinone

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Choudhury, Devika; Sarkar, Shaibal K.; Mahuli, Neha

    2015-01-01

    A hybrid organicinorganic polymer film grown by molecular layer deposition (MLD) is demonstrated here. Sequential exposures of trimethylaluminum [Al(CH{sub 3}){sub 3}] and hydroquinone [C{sub 6}H{sub 4}(OH){sub 2}] are used to deposit the polymeric films, which is a representative of a class of aluminum oxide polymers known as alucones. In-situ quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) studies are employed to determine the growth characteristics. An average growth rate of 4.1 per cycle at 150?C is obtained by QCM and subsequently verified with x-ray reflectivity measurements. Surface chemistry during each MLD-half cycle is studied in depth by in-situ Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) vibration spectroscopy. Self limiting nature of the reaction is confirmed from both QCM and FTIR measurements. The conformal nature of the deposit, typical for atomic layer deposition and MLD, is verified with transmission electron microscopy imaging. Secondary ion mass spectroscopy measurements confirm the uniform elemental distribution along the depth of the films.

  4. An Optimized Nanoparticle Separator Enabled by Electron Beam Induced Deposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fowlkes, Jason Davidson [ORNL; Doktycz, Mitchel John [ORNL; Rack, P. D. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK)

    2010-01-01

    Size based separations technologies will inevitably benefit from advances in nanotechnology. Direct write nanofabrication provides a useful mechanism to deposit/etch nanoscale elements in environments otherwise inaccessible to conventional nanofabrication techniques. Here, electron beam induced deposition (EBID) was used to deposit an array of nanoscale features in a 3D environment with minimal material proximity effects outside the beam interaction region (BIR). Specifically, the membrane component of a nanoparticle separator was fabricated by depositing a linear array of sharply tipped nanopillars, with a singular pitch, designed for sub 50nm nanoparticle permeability. The nanopillar membrane was used in a dual capacity to control the flow of nanoparticles in the transaxial direction of the array while facilitating the sealing of the cellular sized compartment in the paraxial direction. An optimized growth recipe resulted which (1) maximized the growth efficiency of the membrane (which minimizes proximity effects), (2) preserved the fidelity of spacing between nanopillars (which maximizes the size based gating quality of the membrane) while (3) maintaining sharp nanopillar apexes for impaling an optically transparent polymeric lid critical for device sealing.

  5. Role of nucleation in nanodiamond film growth

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lifshitz, Y.; Lee, C.H.; Wu, Y.; Zhang, W.J.; Bello, I.; Lee, S.T.

    2006-06-12

    Nanodiamond films were deposited using different microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition schemes following several nucleation pretreatment methods. The nucleation efficiency and the films structure were investigated using scanning and transmission electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy. C{sub 2} dimer growth (CH{sub 4} and H{sub 2} in 90% Ar) cannot nucleate diamond and works only on existing diamond surfaces. The methyl radical process (up to 20% CH{sub 4} in H{sub 2}) allows some nucleation probability on appropriate substrates. Prolonged bias enhanced nucleation initiates both diamond nucleation and growth. C{sub 2} dimer growth results in pure nanodiamond free of amorphous carbon, while prolonged bias enhanced nucleation forms an amorphous carbon/nanodiamond composite.

  6. Methods of electrophoretic deposition for functionally graded...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Methods of electrophoretic deposition for functionally graded porous nanostructures and ... and depositing the material onto surfaces of the particles of the impurity to form ...

  7. Property transformation of graphene with Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} films deposited directly by atomic layer deposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zheng, Li; Cao, Duo; Wang, Zhongjian; Xia, Chao [State Key Laboratory of Functional Materials for Informatics, SIMIT, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200050 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Cheng, Xinhong, E-mail: xh-cheng@mail.sim.ac.cn; Yu, Yuehui [State Key Laboratory of Functional Materials for Informatics, SIMIT, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200050 (China); Shen, Dashen [University of Alabama in Huntsville, Huntsville, Alabama 35899 (United States)

    2014-01-13

    Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} films are deposited directly onto graphene by H{sub 2}O-based atomic layer deposition (ALD), and the films are pinhole-free and continuously cover the graphene surface. The growth process of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} films does not introduce any detective defects in graphene, suppresses the hysteresis effect and tunes the graphene doping to n-type. The self-cleaning of ALD growth process, together with the physically absorbed H{sub 2}O and oxygen-deficient ALD environment consumes OH{sup ?} bonds, suppresses the p-doping of graphene, shifts Dirac point to negative gate bias and enhances the electron mobility.

  8. Quantitative study on the chemical solution deposition of zinc oxysulfide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reinisch, Michael; Perkins, Craig L.; Steirer, K. Xerxes

    2015-11-21

    Zinc Oxysulfide (ZnOS) has demonstrated potential in the last decade to replace CdS as a buffer layer material since it is a wide-band-gap semiconductor with performance advantages over CdS (Eg = 2.4 eV) in the near UV-range for solar energy conversion. However, questions remain on the growth mechanisms of chemical bath deposited ZnOS. In this study, a detailed model is employed to calculate solubility diagrams that describe simple conditions for complex speciation control using only ammonium hydroxide without additional base. For these conditions, ZnOS is deposited via aqueous solution deposition on a quartz crystal microbalance in a continuous flow cell. Data is used to analyze the growth rate dependence on temperature and also to elucidate the effects of dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) when used as a co-solvent. Activation energies (EA) of ZnOS are calculated for different flow rates and solution compositions. As a result, the measured EA relationships are affected by changes in the primary growth mechanism when DMSO is included.

  9. Quantitative study on the chemical solution deposition of zinc oxysulfide

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Reinisch, Michael; Perkins, Craig L.; Steirer, K. Xerxes

    2015-11-21

    Zinc Oxysulfide (ZnOS) has demonstrated potential in the last decade to replace CdS as a buffer layer material since it is a wide-band-gap semiconductor with performance advantages over CdS (Eg = 2.4 eV) in the near UV-range for solar energy conversion. However, questions remain on the growth mechanisms of chemical bath deposited ZnOS. In this study, a detailed model is employed to calculate solubility diagrams that describe simple conditions for complex speciation control using only ammonium hydroxide without additional base. For these conditions, ZnOS is deposited via aqueous solution deposition on a quartz crystal microbalance in a continuous flow cell.more » Data is used to analyze the growth rate dependence on temperature and also to elucidate the effects of dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) when used as a co-solvent. Activation energies (EA) of ZnOS are calculated for different flow rates and solution compositions. As a result, the measured EA relationships are affected by changes in the primary growth mechanism when DMSO is included.« less

  10. Electron microscopy study of direct laser deposited IN718

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ding, R.G.; Huang, Z.W.; Li, H.Y.; Mitchell, I.; Baxter, G.; Bowen, P.

    2015-08-15

    The microstructure of direct laser deposited (DLD) IN718 has been investigated in detail using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The results confirm that the dendrite core microstructure can be linked to the cooling rate experienced during the deposition. A ~ 100 μm wide δ partially dissolved region in the IN718 substrate was observed close to the substrate/deposit boundary. In the deposited IN718, γ/Laves eutectic constituent is the predominant minor microconstituent. Irregular and regular (small) (Nb,Ti)C carbides and a mixture of the carbides and Laves were observed. Most M{sub 3}B{sub 2} borides were nucleated around a (Nb,Ti)C carbide. Needles of δ phase precipitated from the Laves phase were also observed. A complex constituent (of Laves, δ, α-Cr, γ″, and γ matrix) is reported in IN718 for the first time. The formation of α-Cr particles could be related to Cr rejection during the formation and growth of Cr-depleted δ phase. - Highlights: • Secondary phases in IN718 deposits were identified using electron diffraction and EDS. • MC, M{sub 3}B{sub 2}, γ/Laves eutectic and γ/NbC/Laves eutectic were observed. • Needle-like δ phases were precipitated from the Laves phase. • A complex constituent (Laves, δ, α-Cr, γ″ and γ) was reported for the first time.

  11. TULSA UNIVERSITY PARAFFIN DEPOSITION PROJECTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cem Sarica; Michael Volk

    2004-06-01

    As oil and gas production moves to deeper and colder water, subsea multiphase production systems become critical for economic feasibility. It will also become increasingly imperative to adequately identify the conditions for paraffin precipitation and predict paraffin deposition rates to optimize the design and operation of these multi-phase production systems. Although several oil companies have paraffin deposition predictive capabilities for single-phase oil flow, these predictive capabilities are not suitable for the multiphase flow conditions encountered in most flowlines and wellbores. For deepwater applications in the Gulf of Mexico, it is likely that multiphase production streams consisting of crude oil, produced water and gas will be transported in a single multiphase pipeline to minimize capital cost and complexity at the mudline. Existing single-phase (crude oil) paraffin deposition predictive tools are clearly inadequate to accurately design these pipelines, because they do not account for the second and third phases, namely, produced water and gas. The objective of this program is to utilize the current test facilities at The University of Tulsa, as well as member company expertise, to accomplish the following: enhance our understanding of paraffin deposition in single and two-phase (gas-oil) flows; conduct focused experiments to better understand various aspects of deposition physics; and, utilize knowledge gained from experimental modeling studies to enhance the computer programs developed in the previous JIP for predicting paraffin deposition in single and two-phase flow environments. These refined computer models will then be tested against field data from member company pipelines.

  12. Vapor deposition of thin films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, D.C.; Pattillo, S.G.; Laia, J.R. Jr.; Sattelberger, A.P.

    1990-10-05

    A highly pure thin metal film having a nanocrystalline structure and a process of preparing such highly pure thin metal films of, e.g., rhodium, iridium, molybdenum, tungsten, rhenium, platinum, or palladium by plasma assisted chemical vapor deposition of, e.g., rhodium(allyl){sub 3}, iridium(allyl){sub 3}, molybdenum(allyl){sub 4}, tungsten(allyl){sub 4}, rhenium (allyl){sub 4}, platinum(allyl){sub 2}, or palladium(allyl){sub 2} are disclosed. Additionally, a general process of reducing the carbon content of a metallic film prepared from one or more organometallic precursor compounds by plasma assisted chemical vapor deposition is disclosed.

  13. Vapor deposition of thin films

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Smith, David C. (Los Alamos, NM); Pattillo, Stevan G. (Los Alamos, NM); Laia, Jr., Joseph R. (Los Alamos, NM); Sattelberger, Alfred P. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1992-01-01

    A highly pure thin metal film having a nanocrystalline structure and a process of preparing such highly pure thin metal films of, e.g., rhodium, iridium, molybdenum, tungsten, rhenium, platinum, or palladium by plasma assisted chemical vapor deposition of, e.g., rhodium(allyl).sub.3, iridium(allyl).sub.3, molybdenum(allyl).sub.4, tungsten(allyl).sub.4, rhenium(allyl).sub.4, platinum(allyl).sub.2, or palladium(allyl).sub.2 are disclosed. Additionally, a general process of reducing the carbon content of a metallic film prepared from one or more organometallic precursor compounds by plasma assisted chemical vapor deposition is disclosed.

  14. Fluidized bed deposition of diamond

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Laia, Jr., Joseph R.; Carroll, David W.; Trkula, Mitchell; Anderson, Wallace E.; Valone, Steven M.

    1998-01-01

    A process for coating a substrate with diamond or diamond-like material including maintaining a substrate within a bed of particles capable of being fluidized, the particles having substantially uniform dimensions and the substrate characterized as having different dimensions than the bed particles, fluidizing the bed of particles, and depositing a coating of diamond or diamond-like material upon the substrate by chemical vapor deposition of a carbon-containing precursor gas mixture, the precursor gas mixture introduced into the fluidized bed under conditions resulting in excitation mechanisms sufficient to form the diamond coating.

  15. CHEMICAL SOLUTION DEPOSITION BASED OXIDE BUFFERS AND YBCO COATED CONDUCTORS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paranthaman, Mariappan Parans

    2011-01-01

    We have reviewed briefly the growth of buffer and high temperature superconducting oxide thin films using a chemical solution deposition (CSD) method. In the Rolling-Assisted Biaxially Textured Substrates (RABiTS) process, developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, utilizes the thermo mechanical processing to obtain the flexible, biaxially oriented copper, nickel or nickel-alloy substrates. Buffers and Rare Earth Barium Copper Oxide (REBCO) superconductors have been deposited epitaxially on the textured nickel alloy substrates. The starting substrate serves as a template for the REBCO layer, which has substantially fewer weak links. Buffer layers play a major role in fabricating the second generation REBCO wire technology. The main purpose of the buffer layers is to provide a smooth, continuous and chemically inert surface for the growth of the REBCO film, while transferring the texture from the substrate to the superconductor layer. To achieve this, the buffer layers need to be epitaxial to the substrate, i.e. they have to nucleate and grow in the same bi-axial texture provided by the textured metal foil. The most commonly used RABiTS multi-layer architectures consist of a starting template of biaxially textured Ni-5 at.% W (Ni-W) substrate with a seed (first) layer of Yttrium Oxide (Y2O3), a barrier (second) layer of Yttria Stabilized Zirconia (YSZ), and a Cerium Oxide (CeO2) cap (third) layer. These three buffer layers are generally deposited using physical vapor deposition (PVD) techniques such as reactive sputtering. On top of the PVD template, REBCO film is then grown by a chemical solution deposition. This article reviews in detail about the list of oxide buffers and superconductor REBCO films grown epitaxially on single crystal and/or biaxially textured Ni-W substrates using a CSD method.

  16. Dendrite-Free Li Deposition Using Trace-Amounts of Water as an Electrolyte

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Additive - Joint Center for Energy Storage Research April 25, 2015, Research Highlights Dendrite-Free Li Deposition Using Trace-Amounts of Water as an Electrolyte Additive Dendrite growth leads to low CE and safety issues of Li anode. Trace amount of water enables dendrite-free Li deposition. Scientific Achievement Residual water (H2O) present in nonaqueous electrolytes has been widely regarded as a detrimental factor for lithium (Li) batteries. However, dendrite-free Li film can be obtained

  17. Deposition > Complex Oxides > Research > The Energy Materials Center at

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Cornell Complex Oxides In This Section Combinatorial Analysis Nanoparticles Nanostructured Systems Deposition Deposition Veeco GEN10 MBE system dedicated to the growth of oxide heterostructures being installed in Duffield Lab at Cornell Researchers in the Schlom Group are now working with the latest generation of research MBE systems, the Veeco GEN10, configured specifically for oxides. This system is now fully installed and operational. Veeco is the world's largest supplier of MBE equipment

  18. Atomic layer deposition of aluminum sulfide thin films using trimethylaluminum and hydrogen sulfide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sinha, Soumyadeep; Sarkar, Shaibal K.; Mahuli, Neha

    2015-01-15

    Sequential exposures of trimethylaluminum and hydrogen sulfide are used to deposit aluminum sulfide thin films by atomic layer deposition (ALD) in the temperature ranging from 100 to 200?C. Growth rate of 1.3 per ALD cycle is achieved by in-situ quartz crystal microbalance measurements. It is found that the growth rate per ALD cycle is highly dependent on the purging time between the two precursors. Increased purge time results in higher growth rate. Surface limited chemistry during each ALD half cycle is studied by in-situ Fourier transformed infrared vibration spectroscopy. Time of flight secondary ion-mass spectroscopy measurement is used to confirm elemental composition of the deposited films.

  19. Stoichiometry control of complex oxides by sequential pulsed-laser deposition from binary-oxide targets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Herklotz, A.; Dörr, Kathrin; Ward, T. Z.; Eres, G.; Christen, H. M.; Biegalski, Michael D.

    2015-04-03

    In this paper, to have precise atomic layer control over interfaces, we examine the growth of complex oxides through the sequential deposition from binary targets by pulsed laser deposition. In situ reflection high-energy electron diffraction (RHEED) is used to control the growth and achieve films with excellent structural quality. The growth from binary oxide targets is fundamentally different from single target growth modes and shows more similarities to shuttered growth by molecular beam epitaxy. The RHEED intensity oscillations of non-stoichiometric growth are consistent with a model of island growth and accumulation of excess material on the surface that can be utilized to determine the correct stoichiometry for growth. Correct monolayer doses can be determined through an envelope frequency in the RHEED intensity oscillations. In order to demonstrate the ability of this growth technique to create complex heterostructures, the artificial n = 2 and 3 Sr n +1Ti n O3 n +1 Ruddlesden-Popper phases are grown with good long-range order. Finally, this method enables the precise unit-cell level control over the structure of perovskite-type oxides, and thus the growth of complex materials with improved structural quality and electronic functionality.

  20. Vacuum vapor deposition gun assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zeren, Joseph D.

    1985-01-01

    A vapor deposition gun assembly includes a hollow body having a cylindrical outer surface and an end plate for holding an adjustable heat sink, a hot hollow cathode gun, two magnets for steering the plasma from the gun into a crucible on the heat sink, and a shutter for selectively covering and uncovering the crucible.

  1. Reducing dislocations in semiconductors utilizing repeated thermal cycling during multistage epitaxial growth

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fan, John C. C.; Tsaur, Bor-Yeu; Gale, Ronald P.; Davis, Frances M.

    1992-02-25

    Dislocation densities are reduced in growing semiconductors from the vapor phase by employing a technique of interrupting growth, cooling the layer so far deposited, and then repeating the process until a high quality active top layer is achieved. The method of interrupted growth, coupled with thermal cycling, permits dislocations to be trapped in the initial stages of epitaxial growth.

  2. Reducing dislocations in semiconductors utilizing repeated thermal cycling during multistage epitaxial growth

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fan, John C. C.; Tsaur, Bor-Yeu; Gale, Ronald P.; Davis, Frances M.

    1986-12-30

    Dislocation densities are reduced in growing semiconductors from the vapor phase by employing a technique of interrupting growth, cooling the layer so far deposited, and then repeating the process until a high quality active top layer is achieved. The method of interrupted growth, coupled with thermal cycling, permits dislocations to be trapped in the initial stages of epitaxial growth.

  3. Cadmium zinc sulfide by solution growth

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chen, Wen S.

    1992-05-12

    A process for depositing thin layers of a II-VI compound cadmium zinc sulfide (CdZnS) by an aqueous solution growth technique with quality suitable for high efficiency photovoltaic or other devices which can benefit from the band edge shift resulting from the inclusion of Zn in the sulfide. A first solution comprising CdCl.sub.2 2.5H.sub.2 O, NH.sub.4 Cl, NH.sub.4 OH and ZnCl.sub.2, and a second solution comprising thiourea ((NH.sub.2).sub.2 CS) are combined and placed in a deposition cell, along with a substrate to form a thin i.e. 10 nm film of CdZnS on the substrate. This process can be sequentially repeated with to achieve deposition of independent multiple layers having different Zn concentrations.

  4. Direct growth of graphene on Si(111)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thanh Trung, Pham Joucken, Frdric; Colomer, Jean-Franois; Robert, Sporken; Campos-Delgado, Jessica; Raskin, Jean-Pierre; Hackens, Benot; Santos, Cristiane N.

    2014-06-14

    Due to the need of integrated circuit in the current silicon technology, the formation of graphene on Si wafer is highly desirable, but is still a challenge for the scientific community. In this context, we report the direct growth of graphene on Si(111) wafer under appropriate conditions using an electron beam evaporator. The structural quality of the material is investigated in detail by reflection high energy electron diffraction, Auger electron spectroscopy, X-ray photoemission spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, high resolution scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, and scanning tunneling microscopy. Our experimental results confirm that the quality of graphene is strongly dependent on the growth time during carbon atoms deposition.

  5. Deposition

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Reporting Company 866.488.DEPO www.CapitalReportingCompany.com 1 DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY 1 2 PROPOSED CHANGES FOR DOE PART 810 3 ASSISTANCE TO FOREIGN NUCLEAR ACTIVITIES 4 5 NNSA - SNOPR ROLLOUT MEETING 6 7 Department of Energy 8 1000 Independence Avenue, S.W. 9 Forrestal Building 10 Washington, D.C. 11 12 13 Monday, August 5, 2013 14 1:00 p.m. 15 16 17 18 19 Reported by: Natalia Thomas, 20 Capital Reporting Company 21 22 Capital Reporting Company 866.488.DEPO www.CapitalReportingCompany.com 2 A P

  6. Deposition

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    ... 9 take a look at a rule that really no longer reflected 10 how proliferation was being conducted or how we saw 11 proliferation and, yet, also how industry was moving 12 forward. ...

  7. Chemical vapor deposition of sialon

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Landingham, R.L.; Casey, A.W.

    A laminated composite and a method for forming the composite by chemical vapor deposition are described. The composite includes a layer of sialon and a material to which the layer is bonded. The method includes the steps of exposing a surface of the material to an ammonia containing atmosphere; heating the surface to at least about 1200/sup 0/C; and impinging a gas containing N/sub 2/, SiCl/sub 4/, and AlCl/sub 3/ on the surface.

  8. Conductive layer for biaxially oriented semiconductor film growth

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Findikoglu, Alp T.; Matias, Vladimir

    2007-10-30

    A conductive layer for biaxially oriented semiconductor film growth and a thin film semiconductor structure such as, for example, a photodetector, a photovoltaic cell, or a light emitting diode (LED) that includes a crystallographically oriented semiconducting film disposed on the conductive layer. The thin film semiconductor structure includes: a substrate; a first electrode deposited on the substrate; and a semiconducting layer epitaxially deposited on the first electrode. The first electrode includes a template layer deposited on the substrate and a buffer layer epitaxially deposited on the template layer. The template layer includes a first metal nitride that is electrically conductive and has a rock salt crystal structure, and the buffer layer includes a second metal nitride that is electrically conductive. The semiconducting layer is epitaxially deposited on the buffer layer. A method of making such a thin film semiconductor structure is also described.

  9. Crediting Tritium Deposition in Accident Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Murphy, C.E. Jr.

    2001-06-20

    This paper describes the major aspects of tritium dispersion phenomenology, summarizes deposition attributes of the computer models used in the DOE Complex for tritium dispersion, and recommends an approach to account for deposition in accident analysis.

  10. Atomic layer deposition of perovskite oxides and their epitaxial integration with Si, Ge, and other semiconductors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McDaniel, Martin D.; Ngo, Thong Q.; Hu, Shen; Ekerdt, John G.; Posadas, Agham; Demkov, Alexander A.

    2015-12-15

    Atomic layer deposition (ALD) is a proven technique for the conformal deposition of oxide thin films with nanoscale thickness control. Most successful industrial applications have been with binary oxides, such as Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and HfO{sub 2}. However, there has been much effort to deposit ternary oxides, such as perovskites (ABO{sub 3}), with desirable properties for advanced thin film applications. Distinct challenges are presented by the deposition of multi-component oxides using ALD. This review is intended to highlight the research of the many groups that have deposited perovskite oxides by ALD methods. Several commonalities between the studies are discussed. Special emphasis is put on precursor selection, deposition temperatures, and specific property performance (high-k, ferroelectric, ferromagnetic, etc.). Finally, the monolithic integration of perovskite oxides with semiconductors by ALD is reviewed. High-quality epitaxial growth of oxide thin films has traditionally been limited to physical vapor deposition techniques (e.g., molecular beam epitaxy). However, recent studies have demonstrated that epitaxial oxide thin films may be deposited on semiconductor substrates using ALD. This presents an exciting opportunity to integrate functional perovskite oxides for advanced semiconductor applications in a process that is economical and scalable.

  11. Deposition of thin silicon layers on transferred large area graphene

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lupina, Grzegorz Kitzmann, Julia; Lukosius, Mindaugas; Dabrowski, Jarek; Wolff, Andre; Mehr, Wolfgang

    2013-12-23

    Physical vapor deposition of Si onto transferred graphene is investigated. At elevated temperatures, Si nucleates preferably on wrinkles and multilayer graphene islands. In some cases, however, Si can be quasi-selectively grown only on the monolayer graphene regions while the multilayer islands remain uncovered. Experimental insights and ab initio calculations show that variations in the removal efficiency of carbon residuals after the transfer process can be responsible for this behavior. Low-temperature Si seed layer results in improved wetting and enables homogeneous growth. This is an important step towards realization of electronic devices in which graphene is embedded between two Si layers.

  12. Ion beam assisted deposition of thermal barrier coatings

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Youchison, Dennis L.; McDonald, Jimmie M.; Lutz, Thomas J.; Gallis, Michail A.

    2010-11-23

    Methods and apparatus for depositing thermal barrier coatings on gas turbine blades and vanes using Electron Beam Physical Vapor Deposition (EBPVD) combined with Ion Beam Assisted Deposition (IBAD).

  13. Growth, microstructure, and luminescent

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... deposition (MOCVD) in the range of 30%-60% In and used electroreflectance and Raman spectroscopy to conclude that the directindirect crossover occurs at 49% Al fraction but ...

  14. Chemical vapor deposition of epitaxial silicon

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Berkman, Samuel

    1984-01-01

    A single chamber continuous chemical vapor deposition (CVD) reactor is described for depositing continuously on flat substrates, for example, epitaxial layers of semiconductor materials. The single chamber reactor is formed into three separate zones by baffles or tubes carrying chemical source material and a carrier gas in one gas stream and hydrogen gas in the other stream without interaction while the wafers are heated to deposition temperature. Diffusion of the two gas streams on heated wafers effects the epitaxial deposition in the intermediate zone and the wafers are cooled in the final zone by coolant gases. A CVD reactor for batch processing is also described embodying the deposition principles of the continuous reactor.

  15. Nanowire-templated lateral epitaxial growth of non-polar group III nitrides

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wang, George T.; Li, Qiming; Creighton, J. Randall

    2010-03-02

    A method for growing high quality, nonpolar Group III nitrides using lateral growth from Group III nitride nanowires. The method of nanowire-templated lateral epitaxial growth (NTLEG) employs crystallographically aligned, substantially vertical Group III nitride nanowire arrays grown by metal-catalyzed metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) as templates for the lateral growth and coalescence of virtually crack-free Group III nitride films. This method requires no patterning or separate nitride growth step.

  16. Chemical vapor deposition of sialon

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Landingham, Richard L.; Casey, Alton W.

    1982-01-01

    A laminated composite and a method for forming the composite by chemical vapor deposition. The composite includes a layer of sialon and a material to which the layer is bonded. The method includes the steps of exposing a surface of the material to an ammonia containing atmosphere; heating the surface to at least about 1200.degree. C.; and impinging a gas containing in a flowing atmosphere of air N.sub.2, SiCl.sub.4, and AlCl.sub.3 on the surface.

  17. Metal deposition using seed layers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Feng, Hsein-Ping; Chen, Gang; Bo, Yu; Ren, Zhifeng; Chen, Shuo; Poudel, Bed

    2013-11-12

    Methods of forming a conductive metal layers on substrates are disclosed which employ a seed layer to enhance bonding, especially to smooth, low-roughness or hydrophobic substrates. In one aspect of the invention, the seed layer can be formed by applying nanoparticles onto a surface of the substrate; and the metallization is achieved by electroplating an electrically conducting metal onto the seed layer, whereby the nanoparticles serve as nucleation sites for metal deposition. In another approach, the seed layer can be formed by a self-assembling linker material, such as a sulfur-containing silane material.

  18. Nucleation and Growth of Electrodeposited ZnO Visualized by in-Situ X-ray

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Microscopy | Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource Nucleation and Growth of Electrodeposited ZnO Visualized by in-Situ X-ray Microscopy Thursday, June 30, 2016 Electrodeposition (ED) of ZnO has been widely used to deposit transparent conducting films for optoelectronic applications. The film quality, and consequently the performance of the film, is highly dependent on both the nucleation and growth of ZnO. Current studies employ ex-situ experiments where the film is deposited, dried,

  19. In-situ spectroscopic ellipsometry study of copper selective-area atomic layer deposition on palladium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jiang, Xiaoqiang; Wang, Han; Qi, Jie; Willis, Brian G.

    2014-07-01

    Selective area copper atomic layer deposition on palladium seed layers has been investigated with in-situ real-time spectroscopic ellipsometry to probe the adsorption/desorption and reaction characteristics of individual deposition cycles. The reactants are copper bis(2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-3,5-heptanedionate) vapor and hydrogen gas. Self-limiting atomic layer deposition was observed in the temperature range of 135–230 °C in a low pressure reactor. Under optimal conditions, growth occurs selectively on palladium and not on silicon dioxide or silicon nitride layers. Based on in-situ ellipsometry data and supporting experiments, a new mechanism for growth is proposed. In the proposed mechanism, precursor adsorption is reversible, and dissociatively adsorbed hydrogen are the stable surface intermediates between growth cycles. The mechanism is enabled by continuous diffusion of palladium from the seed layer into the deposited copper film and strong H* binding to palladium sites. Less intermixing can be obtained at low growth temperatures and short cycle times by minimizing Cu/Pd inter-diffusion.

  20. Dendrite-Free Lithium Deposition with Self-Aligned Nanorod Structure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Yaohui; Qian, Jiangfeng; Xu, Wu; Russell, Selena M.; Chen, Xilin; Nasybulin, Eduard; Bhattacharya, Priyanka; Engelhard, Mark H.; Mei, Donghai; Cao, Ruiguo; Ding, Fei; Cresce, Arthur V.; Xu, Kang; Zhang, Jiguang

    2014-12-10

    Suppressing lithium (Li) dendrite growth is one of the most critical challenges for the development of Li metal batteries. We recently proposed a novel self-healing electrostatic shield (SHES) mechanism which can fundamentally change the Li deposition behavior and lead to the growth of dendrite-free Li films. Here, we report for the first time that the as-deposited dendrite-free Li films grown with assistance of SHES additive are actually composed of highly-aligned and compacted Li nanorods with hemispherical tips. Both surface and cross sectional morphology evolution of the Li films during repeated Li deposition/stripping processes were systematically investigated. A new model has been established to explain the formation and evolution of the Li nanorods. A fundamental understanding on the internal structure and evolution of Li metal films may lead to new approaches to stabilize the long term cycling stability of Li metal anode.

  1. Si Passivation and Chemical Vapor Deposition of Silicon Nitride: Final Technical Report, March 18, 2007

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Atwater, H. A.

    2007-11-01

    This report investigated chemical and physical methods for Si surface passivation for application in crystalline Si and thin Si film photovoltaic devices. Overall, our efforts during the project were focused in three areas: i) synthesis of silicon nitride thin films with high hydrogen content by hot-wire chemical vapor deposition; ii) investigation of the role of hydrogen passivation of defects in crystalline Si and Si solar cells by out diffusion from hydrogenated silicon nitride films; iii) investigation of the growth kinetics and passivation of hydrogenated polycrystalline. Silicon nitride films were grown by hot-wire chemical vapor deposition and film properties have been characterized as a function of SiH4/NH3 flow ratio. It was demonstrated that hot-wire chemical vapor deposition leads to growth of SiNx films with controllable stoichiometry and hydrogen.

  2. Epitaxial Electronic Oxides on Semiconductors Using Pulsed-Laser Deposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Norton, D.P.; Budai, J.D.; Chisholm, M.F.

    1999-12-01

    We describe the growth and properties of epitaxial (OO1) CeO{sub 2} on a (001) Ge surface using a hydrogen-assisted pulsed-laser deposition method. Hydrogen gas is introduced during film growth to eliminate the presence of the GeOs from the semiconductor surface during the initial nucleation of the metal oxide film. The hydrogen partial pressure and substrate temperature are selected to be sufficiently high such that the germanium native oxides are thermodynamically unstable. The Gibbs free energy of CeO{sub 2} is larger in magnitude than that of the Ge native oxides, making it more favorable for the metal oxide to reside at the interface in comparison to the native Ge oxides. By satisfying these criteria. the metal oxide/semiconductor interface is shown to be atomically abrupt with no native oxide present. Preliminary structural and electrical properties are reported.

  3. Surface roughness and interface width scaling of magnetron sputter deposited Ni/Ti multilayers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maidul Haque, S.; Biswas, A.; Tokas, R. B.; Bhattacharyya, D.; Sahoo, N. K.; Bhattacharya, Debarati

    2013-09-14

    Using an indigenously built r.f. magnetron sputtering system, several single layer Ti and Ni films have been deposited at varying deposition conditions. All the samples have been characterized by Grazing Incidence X-ray Reflectivity (GIXR) and Atomic Force Microscopy to estimate their thickness, density, and roughness and a power law dependence of the surface roughness on the film thickness has been established. Subsequently, at optimized deposition condition of Ti and Ni, four Ni/Ti multilayers of 11-layer, 21-layer, 31-layer, and 51-layer having different bilayer thickness have been deposited. The multilayer samples have been characterized by GIXR and neutron reflectivity measurements and the experimental data have been fitted assuming an appropriate sample structure. A power law correlation between the interface width and bilayer thickness has been observed for the multilayer samples, which was explained in the light of alternate roughening/smoothening of multilayers and assuming that at the interface the growth restarts every time.

  4. Hybrid deposition of thin film solid oxide fuel cells and electrolyzers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jankowski, Alan F.; Makowiecki, Daniel M.; Rambach, Glenn D.; Randich, Erik

    1999-01-01

    The use of vapor deposition techniques enables synthesis of the basic components of a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC); namely, the electrolyte layer, the two electrodes, and the electrolyte-electrode interfaces. Such vapor deposition techniques provide solutions to each of the three critical steps of material synthesis to produce a thin film solid oxide fuel cell (TFSOFC). The electrolyte is formed by reactive deposition of essentially any ion conducting oxide, such as defect free, yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) by planar magnetron sputtering. The electrodes are formed from ceramic powders sputter coated with an appropriate metal and sintered to a porous compact. The electrolyte-electrode interface is formed by chemical vapor deposition of zirconia compounds onto the porous electrodes to provide a dense, smooth surface on which to continue the growth of the defect-free electrolyte, whereby a single fuel cell or multiple cells may be fabricated.

  5. Hybrid deposition of thin film solid oxide fuel cells and electrolyzers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jankowski, A.F.; Makowiecki, D.M.; Rambach, G.D.; Randich, E.

    1998-05-19

    The use of vapor deposition techniques enables synthesis of the basic components of a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC); namely, the electrolyte layer, the two electrodes, and the electrolyte-electrode interfaces. Such vapor deposition techniques provide solutions to each of the three critical steps of material synthesis to produce a thin film solid oxide fuel cell (TFSOFC). The electrolyte is formed by reactive deposition of essentially any ion conducting oxide, such as defect free, yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) by planar magnetron sputtering. The electrodes are formed from ceramic powders sputter coated with an appropriate metal and sintered to a porous compact. The electrolyte-electrode interface is formed by chemical vapor deposition of zirconia compounds onto the porous electrodes to provide a dense, smooth surface on which to continue the growth of the defect-free electrolyte, whereby a single fuel cell or multiple cells may be fabricated. 8 figs.

  6. Hybrid deposition of thin film solid oxide fuel cells and electrolyzers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jankowski, Alan F.; Makowiecki, Daniel M.; Rambach, Glenn D.; Randich, Erik

    1998-01-01

    The use of vapor deposition techniques enables synthesis of the basic components of a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC); namely, the electrolyte layer, the two electrodes, and the electrolyte-electrode interfaces. Such vapor deposition techniques provide solutions to each of the three critical steps of material synthesis to produce a thin film solid oxide fuel cell (TFSOFC). The electrolyte is formed by reactive deposition of essentially any ion conducting oxide, such as defect free, yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) by planar magnetron sputtering. The electrodes are formed from ceramic powders sputter coated with an appropriate metal and sintered to a porous compact. The electrolyte-electrode interface is formed by chemical vapor deposition of zirconia compounds onto the porous electrodes to provide a dense, smooth surface on which to continue the growth of the defect-free electrolyte, whereby a single fuel cell or multiple cells may be fabricated.

  7. Local deposition of high-purity Pt nanostructures by combining electron beam induced deposition and atomic layer deposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mackus, A. J. M.; Sanden, M. C. M. van de; Kessels, W. M. M.; Mulders, J. J. L.

    2010-06-15

    An approach for direct-write fabrication of high-purity platinum nanostructures has been developed by combining nanoscale lateral patterning by electron beam induced deposition (EBID) with area-selective deposition of high quality material by atomic layer deposition (ALD). Because virtually pure, polycrystalline Pt nanostructures are obtained, the method extends the application possibilities of EBID, whereas compared to other area-selective ALD approaches, a much higher resolution is attainable; potentially down to sub-10 nm lateral dimensions.

  8. Exhaust Gas Recirculation Cooler Fouling in Diesel Applications: Fundamental Studies Deposit Properties and Microstructure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Storey, John Morse; Sluder, Scott; Lance, Michael J; Styles, Dan; Simko, Steve

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports on the results of experimental efforts aimed at improving the understanding of the mechanisms and conditions at play in the fouling of EGR coolers. An experimental apparatus was constructed to utilize simplified surrogate heat exchanger tubes in lieu of full-size heat exchangers. The use of these surrogate tubes allowed removal of the tubes after exposure to engine exhaust for study of the deposit layer and its properties. The exhaust used for fouling the surrogate tubes was produced using a modern medium-duty diesel engine fueled with both ultra-low sulfur diesel and biodiesel blends. At long exposure times, no significant difference in the fouling rate was observed between fuel types and HC levels. Surface coatings for the tubes were also evaluated to determine their impact on deposit growth. No surface treatment or coating produced a reduction in the fouling rate or any evidence of deposit removal. In addition, microstructural analysis of the fouling layers was performed using optical and electron microscopy in order to better understand the deposition mechanism. The experimental results are consistent with thermophoretic deposition for deposit formation, and van der Waals attraction between the deposit surface and exhaust-borne particulate.

  9. Atomic layer deposition of superparamagnetic and ferrimagnetic magnetite thin films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Yijun; Liu, Ming E-mail: wren@mail.xjtu.edu.cn Ren, Wei E-mail: wren@mail.xjtu.edu.cn; Zhang, Yuepeng; Chen, Xing; Ye, Zuo-Guang E-mail: wren@mail.xjtu.edu.cn

    2015-05-07

    One of the key challenges in realizing superparamagnetism in magnetic thin films lies in finding a low-energy growth way to create sufficiently small grains and magnetic domains which allow the magnetization to randomly and rapidly reverse. In this work, well-defined superparamagnetic and ferrimagnetic Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} thin films are successfully prepared using atomic layer deposition technique by finely controlling the growth condition and post-annealing process. As-grown Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} thin films exhibit a conformal surface and poly-crystalline nature with an average grain size of 7 nm, resulting in a superparamagnetic behavior with a blocking temperature of 210 K. After post-annealing in H{sub 2}/Ar at 400 °C, the as-grown α−Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} sample is reduced to Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} phase, exhibiting a ferrimagnetic ordering and distinct magnetic shape anisotropy. Atomic layer deposition of magnetite thin films with well-controlled morphology and magnetic properties provides great opportunities for integrating with other order parameters to realize magnetic nano-devices with potential applications in spintronics, electronics, and bio-applications.

  10. Modeling particle deposition on HVAC heat exchangers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Siegel, J.A.; Nazaroff, W.W.

    2002-01-01

    Fouling of fin-and-tube heat exchangers by particle deposition leads to diminished effectiveness in supplying ventilation and air conditioning. This paper explores mechanisms that cause particle deposition on heat exchanger surfaces. We present a model that accounts for impaction, diffusion, gravitational settling, and turbulence. Simulation results suggest that some submicron particles deposit in the heat exchanger core, but do not cause significant performance impacts. Particles between 1 and 10 {micro}m deposit with probabilities ranging from 1-20% with fin edge impaction representing the dominant mechanism. Particles larger than 10 {micro}m deposit by impaction on refrigerant tubes, gravitational settling on fin corrugations, and mechanisms associated with turbulent airflow. The model results agree reasonably well with experimental data, but the deposition of larger particles at high velocities is underpredicted. Geometric factors, such as discontinuities in the fins, are hypothesized to be responsible for the discrepancy.

  11. Other Hydrothermal Deposits | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Capping Other Hydrothermal Alteration Products Colorful hydrothermal deposits dot the landscape at the Hverir Geothermal Area, Iceland. Photo by Darren Atkins User-specified field...

  12. Giant landslide deposits in northwest Argentina

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fauque, L.; Strecker, M.R.; Bloom, A.L.

    1985-01-01

    Giant Quaternary landslide deposits occur along mountain fronts in the structural transition zone between the high-angle reverse-fault-bounded Sierras Pampeanas and the low-angle thrust belt of the Sierras Subandinas. There are two modes of occurrence: (1) chaotic masses without distinct geometry, and (2) masses with distinct lobate geometry similar to glacial moraines. Type (1) deposits occur where the moving rock mass followed a narrow valley and blocked the drainage. Many of these caused subsequent formation of lakes and changed the sedimentation processes on pediments at the mountain fronts. In type (2) deposits, lateral and frontal ridges are up to 10 m higher than the interior parts; in some places pressure ridges within the lobes are well preserved. Type (2) deposits show reverse grading and were deposited on relatively smooth pediments or alluvial fans. The lobate geometry strongly suggests that type (2) deposits are a product of flowage and are debris stream or sturzstrom deposits (sense of Heim, 1932 and Hsu, 1975). All investigated deposits occur in areas of demonstrated Quaternary faulting and are interpreted as the result of tectonic movements, although structural inhomogeneities in the source area may have been a significant factor for some of the landslides. No datable materials have yet been found associated with the deposits.

  13. Atmospheric Pressure Deposition for Electrochromic Windows |...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    More Documents & Publications NREL senior scientist, Robert Tenent, Ph.D., with equipment for low cost processing (deposition) of window coatings materials. Dynamic Windows ...

  14. Hydrothermally Deposited Rock | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    at Paleochori, Milos, Greece. http:www.photovolcanica.comVolcanoInfoMilosMilos.html Hydrothermally deposited rock includes rocks and minerals that have precipitated from...

  15. Selective deposition of nanostructured ruthenium oxide using...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    This content will become publicly available on June 5, 2017 Title: Selective deposition of nanostructured ruthenium oxide using Tobacco mosaic virus for micro-supercapacitors in ...

  16. Growth process for gallium nitride porous nanorods

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wildeson, Isaac Harshman; Sands, Timothy David

    2015-03-24

    A GaN nanorod and formation method. Formation includes providing a substrate having a GaN film, depositing SiN.sub.x on the GaN film, etching a growth opening through the SiN.sub.x and into the GaN film, growing a GaN nanorod through the growth opening, the nanorod having a nanopore running substantially through its centerline. Focused ion beam etching can be used. The growing can be done using organometallic vapor phase epitaxy. The nanopore diameter can be controlled using the growth opening diameter or the growing step duration. The GaN nanorods can be removed from the substrate. The SiN.sub.x layer can be removed after the growing step. A SiO.sub.x template can be formed on the GaN film and the GaN can be grown to cover the SiO.sub.x template before depositing SiN.sub.x on the GaN film. The SiO.sub.x template can be removed after growing the nanorods.

  17. Characterization of ZnO film grown on polycarbonate by atomic layer deposition at low temperature

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, Gyeong Beom; Han, Gwon Deok; Shim, Joon Hyung; Choi, Byoung-Ho

    2015-01-15

    ZnO is an attractive material for use in various technological products such as phosphors, gas sensors, and transparent conductors. Recently, aluminum-doped zinc oxide has received attention as a potential replacement for indium tin oxide, which is one of the transparent conductive oxides used in flat panel displays, organic light-emitting diodes, and organic solar cells. In this study, the characteristics of ZnO films deposited on polycarbonate (PC) substrates by atomic layer deposition (ALD) are investigated for various process temperatures. The growth mechanism of these films was investigated at low process temperatures using x-ray diffraction (XRD) and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). XRD and XPS were used to determine the preferred orientation and chemical composition of the films, respectively. Furthermore, the difference of the deposition mechanisms on an amorphous organic material, i.e., PC substrate and an inorganic material such as silicon was discussed from the viewpoint of the diffusion and deposition of precursors. The structure of the films was also investigated by chemical analysis in order to determine the effect of growth temperature on the films deposited by ALD.

  18. Optical Properties of Zn(O,S) Thin Films Deposited by RF Sputtering, Atomic Layer Deposition, and Chemical Bath Deposition: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, J.; Glynn, S.; Christensen, S.; Mann, J.; To, B.; Ramanathan, K.; Noufi, R.; Furtak, T. E.; Levi, D.

    2012-06-01

    Zn(O,S) thin films 27 - 100 nm thick were deposited on glass or Cu(InxGa1-x)Se2/Molybdenum/glass with RF sputtering, atomic layer deposition, and chemical bath deposition.

  19. Growth Mode Transition in Complex Oxide Heteroepitaxy: Atomically Resolved Studies

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Tselev, Alexander; Vasudevan, Rama K.; Gianfrancesco, Anthony G.; Qiao, Liang; Meyer, Tricia L.; Lee, Ho Nyung; Biegalski, Michael D.; Baddorf, Arthur P.; Kalinin, Sergei V.

    2016-04-04

    Here we performed investigations of the atomic-scale surface structure of epitaxial La5/8Ca3/8MnO3 thin films as a model system dependent on growth conditions in pulsed laser deposition with emphasis on film growth kinetics. Postdeposition in situ scanning tunneling microscopy was combined with in operando reflective high-energy electron diffraction to monitor the film growth and ex situ X-ray diffraction for structural analysis. We find a correlation between the out-of-plane lattice parameter and both adspecies mobility and height of the Ehrlich–Schwoebel barrier, with mobility of adatoms greater over the cationically stoichiometric terminations. We find that the data suggest that the out-of-plane lattice parametermore » is dependent on the mechanism of epitaxial strain relaxation, which is controlled by the oxidative power of the deposition environment.« less

  20. Ammonia release method for depositing metal oxides

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Silver, G.L.; Martin, F.S.

    1994-12-13

    A method is described for depositing metal oxides on substrates which is indifferent to the electrochemical properties of the substrates and which comprises forming ammine complexes containing metal ions and thereafter effecting removal of ammonia from the ammine complexes so as to permit slow precipitation and deposition of metal oxide on the substrates. 1 figure.

  1. Ammonia release method for depositing metal oxides

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Silver, Gary L.; Martin, Frank S.

    1994-12-13

    A method of depositing metal oxides on substrates which is indifferent to the electrochemical properties of the substrates and which comprises forming ammine complexes containing metal ions and thereafter effecting removal of ammonia from the ammine complexes so as to permit slow precipitation and deposition of metal oxide on the substrates.

  2. Chemical vapor deposition of mullite coatings

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sarin, Vinod (Lexington, MA); Mulpuri, Rao (Boston, MA)

    1998-01-01

    This invention is directed to the creation of crystalline mullite coatings having uniform microstructure by chemical vapor deposition (CVD). The process comprises the steps of establishing a flow of reactants which will yield mullite in a CVD reactor, and depositing a crystalline coating from the reactant flow. The process will yield crystalline coatings which are dense and of uniform thickness.

  3. Atomic Layer Deposition | Argonne National Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Atomic Layer Deposition New nanophase thin film materials with properties tailored to specifically meet the needs of industry New software simulates ALD over multiple length scale, saving industry time and money on developing specialized tools PDF icon Atomic_Layer_Deposition

  4. Growth in Solar Means Growth in Ohio | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Growth in Solar Means Growth in Ohio Growth in Solar Means Growth in Ohio October 6, 2010 - 2:26pm Addthis Lorelei Laird Writer, Energy Empowers Editor's Note: Yesterday Secretary ...

  5. Improved Formulations for Air-Surface Exchanges Related to National Security Needs: Dry Deposition Models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Droppo, James G.

    2006-07-01

    . 4) development of dry deposition formulations applicable to urban areas. Also to improve dry deposition modeling capabilities, atmospheric dispersion models in which the dry deposition formulations are imbedded need better source-term plume initialization and improved in-plume treatment of particle growth processes. Dry deposition formulations used in current models are largely inapplicable to the complex urban environment. An improved capability is urgently needed to provide surface-specific information to assess local exposure hazard levels in both urban and non-urban areas on roads, buildings, crops, rivers, etc. A model improvement plan is developed with a near-term and far-term component. Despite some conceptual limitations, the current formulations for particle deposition based on a resistance approach have proven to provide reasonable dry deposition simulations. For many models with inadequate dry deposition formulations, adding or improving a resistance approach will be the desirable near-term update. Resistance models however are inapplicable aerodynamically very rough surfaces such as urban areas. In the longer term an improved parameterization of dry deposition needs to be developed that will be applicable to all surfaces, and in particular urban surfaces.

  6. Growth of multi-component alloy films with controlled graded chemical composition on sub-nanometer scale

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bajt, Sasa; Vernon, Stephen P.

    2005-03-15

    The chemical composition of thin films is modulated during their growth. A computer code has been developed to design specific processes for producing a desired chemical composition for various deposition geometries. Good agreement between theoretical and experimental results was achieved.

  7. Apparatus for gas-metal arc deposition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Buhrmaster, Carol L.; Clark, Denis E.; Smartt, Herschel B.

    1991-01-01

    Apparatus for gas-metal arc deposition of metal, metal alloys, and metal matrix composites. The apparatus contains an arc chamber for confining a D.C. electrical arc discharge, the arc chamber containing an outlet orifice in fluid communication with a deposition chamber having a deposition opening in alignment with the orifice for depositing metal droplets on a coatable substrate. Metal wire is passed continuously into the arc chamber in alignment with the orifice. Electric arcing between the metal wire anode and the orifice cathode produces droplets of molten metal from the wire which pass through the orifice and into the deposition chamber for coating a substrate exposed at the deposition opening. When producing metal matrix composites, a suspenion of particulates in an inert gas enters the deposition chamber via a plurality of feed openings below and around the orifice so that reinforcing particulates join the metal droplets to produce a uniform mixture which then coats the exposed substrate with a uniform metal matrix composite.

  8. Method for gas-metal arc deposition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Buhrmaster, Carol L.; Clark, Denis E.; Smartt, Herschel B.

    1990-01-01

    Method and apparatus for gas-metal arc deposition of metal, metal alloys, and metal matrix composites. The apparatus contains an arc chamber for confining a D.C. electrical arc discharge, the arc chamber containing an outlet orifice in fluid communication with a deposition chamber having a deposition opening in alignment wiht the orifice for depositing metal droplets on a coatable substrate. Metal wire is passed continuously into the arc chamber in alignment with the orifice. Electric arcing between the metal wire anode and the orifice cathode produces droplets of molten metal from the wire which pass through the orifice and into the deposition chamber for coating a substrate exposed at the deposition opening. When producing metal matrix composites, a suspension of particulates in an inert gas enters the deposition chamber via a plurality of feed openings below and around the orifice so that reinforcing particulates join the metal droplets to produce a uniform mixture which then coats the exposed substrate with a uniform metal matrix composite.

  9. Method for gas-metal arc deposition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Buhrmaster, C.L.; Clark, D.E.; Smartt, H.B.

    1990-11-13

    Method and apparatus for gas-metal arc deposition of metal, metal alloys, and metal matrix composites are disclosed. The apparatus contains an arc chamber for confining a D.C. electrical arc discharge, the arc chamber containing an outlet orifice in fluid communication with a deposition chamber having a deposition opening in alignment with the orifice for depositing metal droplets on a coatable substrate. Metal wire is passed continuously into the arc chamber in alignment with the orifice. Electric arcing between the metal wire anode and the orifice cathode produces droplets of molten metal from the wire which pass through the orifice and into the deposition chamber for coating a substrate exposed at the deposition opening. When producing metal matrix composites, a suspension of particulates in an inert gas enters the deposition chamber via a plurality of feed openings below and around the orifice so that reinforcing particulates join the metal droplets to produce a uniform mixture which then coats the exposed substrate with a uniform metal matrix composite. 1 fig.

  10. Epitaxial growth of silicon for layer transfer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Teplin, Charles; Branz, Howard M

    2015-03-24

    Methods of preparing a thin crystalline silicon film for transfer and devices utilizing a transferred crystalline silicon film are disclosed. The methods include preparing a silicon growth substrate which has an interface defining substance associated with an exterior surface. The methods further include depositing an epitaxial layer of silicon on the silicon growth substrate at the surface and separating the epitaxial layer from the substrate substantially along the plane or other surface defined by the interface defining substance. The epitaxial layer may be utilized as a thin film of crystalline silicon in any type of semiconductor device which requires a crystalline silicon layer. In use, the epitaxial transfer layer may be associated with a secondary substrate.

  11. Electrochemical Deposition of Iron Nanoneedles on Titanium Oxide Nanotubes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gan Y. X.; Zhang L.; Gan B.J.

    2011-10-01

    Iron as a catalyst has wide applications for hydrogen generation from ammonia, photodecomposition of organics, and carbon nanotube growth. Tuning the size and shape of iron is meaningful for improving the catalysis efficiency. It is the objective of this work to prepare nanostructured iron with high surface area via electrochemical deposition. Iron nanoneedles were successfully electrodeposited on Ti supported TiO2 nanotube arrays in a chlorine-based electrolyte containing 0.15 M FeCl2 {center_dot} 4H2O and 2.0 M HCl. Transmission electron microscopic analysis reveals that the average length of the nanoneedles is about 200 nm and the thickness is about 10 nm. It has been found that a high overpotential at the cathode made of Ti/TiO2 nanotube arrays is necessary for the formation of the nanoneedles. Cyclic voltammetry test indicates that the electrodeposition of iron nanoneedles is a concentration-limited process.

  12. Polymer-assisted aqueous deposition of metal oxide films (Patent...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Polymer-assisted aqueous deposition of metal oxide films Title: Polymer-assisted aqueous deposition of metal oxide films An organic solvent-free process for deposition of metal ...

  13. Source replenishment device for vacuum deposition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hill, Ronald A. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1988-01-01

    A material source replenishment device for use with a vacuum deposition apparatus. The source replenishment device comprises an intermittent motion producing gear arrangement disposed within the vacuum deposition chamber. An elongated rod having one end operably connected to the gearing arrangement is provided with a multiarmed head at the opposite end disposed adjacent the heating element of the vacuum deposition apparatus. An inverted U-shaped source material element is releasably attached to the outer end of each arm member whereby said multiarmed head is moved to locate a first of said material elements above said heating element, whereupon said multiarmed head is lowered to engage said material element with the heating element and further lowered to release said material element on the heating element. After vaporization of said material element, second and subsequent material elements may be provided to the heating element without the need for opening the vacuum deposition apparatus to the atmosphere.

  14. Source replenishment device for vacuum deposition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hill, R.A.

    1986-05-15

    A material source replenishment device for use with a vacuum deposition apparatus is described. The source replenishment device comprises an intermittent motion producing gear arrangement disposed within the vacuum deposition chamber. An elongated rod having one end operably connected to the gearing arrangement is provided with a multiarmed head at the opposite end disposed adjacent the heating element of the vacuum deposition apparatus. An inverted U-shaped source material element is releasably attached to the outer end of each arm member whereby said multiarmed head is moved to locate a first of said material elements above said heating element, whereupon said multiarmed head is lowered to engage said material element with the heating element and further lowered to release said material element on the heating element. After vaporization of said material element, second and subsequent material elements may be provided to the heating element without the need for opening the vacuum deposition apparatus to the atmosphere.

  15. Role of diffusion in irreversible deposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Luthi, P.O.; Ramsden, J.J.; Chopard, B.

    1997-03-01

    The adsorption of spheres onto solid surfaces is investigated using a cellular automaton model of diffusion deposition. Unlike previous models, the diffusive transport of the particles from the bulk to the surface as well as their interaction with adsorbed particles are explicitly considered at a microscopic level. We study the initial time regime, which determines the subsequent evolution and during which the particle flux at the surface is not constant. We observe that diffusion-driven adsorption differs significantly from random sequential adsorption (RSA) when particles diffuse in a two-dimensional bulk and are adsorbed on a one-dimensional substrate. We also find that the microscopic details of the diffusive motion influence both the kinetics of deposition and the jamming limit of the coverage. The RSA model appears to be a good approximation, especially for two-dimensional deposition, but cannot generally represent diffusion deposition. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  16. Palladium catalysts synthesized by atomic layer deposition for methanol decomposition.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elam, J. W.; Feng, H.; Stair, P. C.; Libera, J. A.; Setthapun, W.; Northwestern Univ.

    2010-05-25

    Atomic layer deposition (ALD) palladium films were deposited at 200 C on various ALD metal oxide surfaces using sequential exposures to Pd(II) hexafluoroacetylacetonate (Pd(hfac)2) and formalin. In situ quartz crystal microbalance measurements as well as ex situ measurements performed on planar substrates revealed that the Pd growth begins with a relatively slow nucleation process and accelerates once an adequate amount of Pd has deposited on the surface. Furthermore, the Pd nucleation is faster on ALD ZnO surfaces compared to ALD Al2O3 surfaces. ALD was utilized to synthesize highly dispersed, uniform Pd nanoparticles (1 to 2 nm in diameter) on ALD ZnO and Al2O3 coated mesoporous silica gel, and the catalytic performances of these samples were compared in the methanol decomposition reaction. The ALD Pd-Al2O3 showed high activity and hydrogen selectivity at relatively low temperatures while the ALD Pd-ZnO showed very low activity as well as quick deactivation. In situ extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) measurement revealed that the Pd supported on ZnO 'dissolves' into the substrate during the methanol decomposition reaction which accounts for the gradual disappearance of its catalytic activity. By applying one cycle of ALD Al2O3 on top of the Pd-ZnO catalyst, the activity was enhanced and the catalyst deactivation was mitigated. This Al2O3 overcoating method stabilizes the Pd-ZnO and effectively prevents the dissolution of Pd into the ZnO substrate.

  17. Enhanced photoresponse of conformal TiO{sub 2}/Ag nanorod array-based Schottky photodiodes fabricated via successive glancing angle and atomic layer deposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Haider, Ali; Biyikli, Necmi; Cansizoglu, Hilal; Cansizoglu, Mehmet Fatih; Karabacak, Tansel; Okyay, Ali Kemal

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the authors demonstrate a proof of concept nanostructured photodiode fabrication method via successive glancing angle deposition (GLAD) and atomic layer deposition (ALD). The fabricated metal-semiconductor nanorod (NR) arrays offer enhanced photoresponse compared to conventional planar thin-film counterparts. Silver (Ag) metallic NR arrays were deposited on Ag-film/Si templates by utilizing GLAD. Subsequently, titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2}) was deposited conformally on Ag NRs via ALD. Scanning electron microscopy studies confirmed the successful formation of vertically aligned Ag NRs deposited via GLAD and conformal deposition of TiO{sub 2} on Ag NRs via ALD. Following the growth of TiO{sub 2} on Ag NRs, aluminum metallic top contacts were formed to complete the fabrication of NR-based Schottky photodiodes. Nanostructured devices exhibited a photo response enhancement factor of 1.49??10{sup 2} under a reverse bias of 3 V.

  18. Atomic layer deposition of titanium sulfide and its application in extremely thin absorber solar cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mahuli, Neha; Sarkar, Shaibal K.

    2015-01-15

    Atomic layer deposition (ALD) of TiS{sub 2} is investigated with titanium tetrachloride and hydrogen sulfide precursors. In-situ quartz crystal microbalance and ex-situ x-ray reflectivity measurements are carried out to study self-limiting deposition chemistry and material growth characteristics. The saturated growth rate is found to be ca. 0.5 Å/cycle within the ALD temperature window of 125–200 °C. As grown material is found poorly crystalline. ALD grown TiS{sub 2} is applied as a photon harvesting material for solid state sensitized solar cells with TiO{sub 2} as electron transport medium. Initial results with Spiro-OMeTAD as hole conducting layer show ca. 0.6% energy conversion efficiency under 1 sun illumination.

  19. Semiconductor assisted metal deposition for nanolithography applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rajh, Tijana; Meshkov, Natalia; Nedelijkovic, Jovan M.; Skubal, Laura R.; Tiede, David M.; Thurnauer, Marion

    2001-01-01

    An article of manufacture and method of forming nanoparticle sized material components. A semiconductor oxide substrate includes nanoparticles of semiconductor oxide. A modifier is deposited onto the nanoparticles, and a source of metal ions are deposited in association with the semiconductor and the modifier, the modifier enabling electronic hole scavenging and chelation of the metal ions. The metal ions and modifier are illuminated to cause reduction of the metal ions to metal onto the semiconductor nanoparticles.

  20. Semiconductor assisted metal deposition for nanolithography applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rajh, Tijana; Meshkov, Natalia; Nedelijkovic, Jovan M.; Skubal, Laura R.; Tiede, David M.; Thurnauer, Marion

    2002-01-01

    An article of manufacture and method of forming nanoparticle sized material components. A semiconductor oxide substrate includes nanoparticles of semiconductor oxide. A modifier is deposited onto the nanoparticles, and a source of metal ions are deposited in association with the semiconductor and the modifier, the modifier enabling electronic hole scavenging and chelation of the metal ions. The metal ions and modifier are illuminated to cause reduction of the metal ions to metal onto the semiconductor nanoparticles.

  1. Energy deposition in STARFIRE reactor components

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gohar, Y.; Brooks, J.N.

    1985-04-01

    The energy deposition in the STARFIRE commercial tokamak reactor was calculated based on detailed models for the different reactor components. The heat deposition and the 14 MeV neutron flux poloidal distributions in the first wall were obtained. The poloidal surface heat load distribution in the first wall was calculated from the plasma radiation. The Monte Carlo method was used for the calculation to allow an accurate modeling for the reactor geometry.

  2. Polymer-assisted deposition of films

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McCleskey, Thomas M.; Burrell; Anthony K.; Jia; Quanxi; Lin; Yuan

    2009-10-20

    A polymer assisted deposition process for deposition of metal oxide films and the like is presented. The process includes solutions of one or more metal precursor and soluble polymers having binding properties for the one or more metal precursor. After a coating operation, the resultant coating is heated at high temperatures to yield metal oxide films and the like. Such films can be epitaxial in structure and can be of optical quality. The process can be organic solvent-free.

  3. Polymer-assisted deposition of films

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McCleskey, Thomas M.; Burrell, Anthony K.; Jia, Quanxi; Lin, Yuan

    2008-04-29

    A polymer assisted deposition process for deposition of metal oxide films is presented. The process includes solutions of one or more metal precursor and soluble polymers having binding properties for the one or more metal precursor. After a coating operation, the resultant coating is heated at high temperatures to yield metal oxide films. Such films can be epitaxial in structure and can be of optical quality. The process can be organic solvent-free.

  4. Dendrite-Free Lithium Deposition via Self-Healing Electrostatic Shield Mechanism

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ding, Fei; Xu, Wu; Graff, Gordon L.; Zhang, Jian; Sushko, Maria L.; Chen, Xilin; Shao, Yuyan; Engelhard, Mark H.; Nie, Zimin; Xiao, Jie; Liu, Xingjiang; Sushko, P. V.; Liu, Jun; Zhang, Jiguang

    2013-02-28

    Lithium metal batteries are called the “holy grail” of energy storage systems. However, lithium dendrite growth in these batteries has prevented their practical applications in the last 40 years. Here we show a novel mechanism which can fundamentally change the dendritic morphology of lithium deposition. A low concentration of the second cations (including ions of cesium, rubidium, potassium, and strontium) exhibits an effective reduction potential lower than the standard reduction potential of lithium ions when the chemical activities of these second cations are much lower than that of lithium ions. During lithium deposition, these second cations will form a self-healing electrostatic shield around the initial tip of lithium whenever it is formed. This shield will repel the incoming lithium ions and force them to deposit in the smoother region of the anode so a dendrite-free film is obtained. This mechanism is effective on dendrite prevention in both lithium metal and lithium ion batteries. They may also prevent dendrite growth in other metal batteries and have transformational impact on the smooth deposition in general electrodeposition processes.

  5. CFD Analysis of Particle Deposition During DPF Filtration Processes...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Analysis of Particle Deposition During DPF Filtration Processes CFD Analysis of Particle Deposition During DPF Filtration Processes A 3-D DPF model is developed to predict ...

  6. Precursors for the polymer-assisted deposition of films (Patent...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    A polymer assisted deposition process for deposition of metal oxide films is presented. The process includes solutions of one or more metal precursor and soluble polymers having ...

  7. Spatial atomic layer deposition on flexible substrates using...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Spatial atomic layer deposition on flexible substrates using a modular rotating cylinder reactor Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Spatial atomic layer deposition on...

  8. Solvothermal Thin Film Deposition of Electron Blocking Layers...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Solvothermal Thin Film Deposition of Electron Blocking Layers Home > Research > ANSER Research Highlights > Solvothermal Thin Film Deposition of Electron Blocking Layers...

  9. Geology and Mineral Deposits of Churchill County, Nevada | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Mineral Deposits of Churchill County, Nevada Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Report: Geology and Mineral Deposits of Churchill County, Nevada...

  10. Atomic Layer Deposition of Metal Sulfide Materials | Argonne...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Atomic Layer Deposition of Metal Sulfide Materials Title Atomic Layer Deposition of Metal Sulfide Materials Publication Type Journal Article Year of Publication 2015 Authors...

  11. Practical silicon deposition rules derived from silane monitoring during plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bartlome, Richard De Wolf, Stefaan; Demaurex, Bénédicte; Ballif, Christophe; Amanatides, Eleftherios; Mataras, Dimitrios

    2015-05-28

    We clarify the difference between the SiH{sub 4} consumption efficiency η and the SiH{sub 4} depletion fraction D, as measured in the pumping line and the actual reactor of an industrial plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition system. In the absence of significant polysilane and powder formation, η is proportional to the film growth rate. Above a certain powder formation threshold, any additional amount of SiH{sub 4} consumed translates into increased powder formation rather than into a faster growing Si film. In order to discuss a zero-dimensional analytical model and a two-dimensional numerical model, we measure η as a function of the radio frequency (RF) power density coupled into the plasma, the total gas flow rate, the input SiH{sub 4} concentration, and the reactor pressure. The adjunction of a small trimethylboron flow rate increases η and reduces the formation of powder, while the adjunction of a small disilane flow rate decreases η and favors the formation of powder. Unlike η, D is a location-dependent quantity. It is related to the SiH{sub 4} concentration in the plasma c{sub p}, and to the phase of the growing Si film, whether the substrate is glass or a c-Si wafer. In order to investigate transient effects due to the RF matching, the precoating of reactor walls, or the introduction of a purifier in the gas line, we measure the gas residence time and acquire time-resolved SiH{sub 4} density measurements throughout the ignition and the termination of a plasma.

  12. Hydrocarbon and Deposit Morphology Effects on EGR Cooler Deposit Stability and Removal

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This paper reports on studies carried out at ORNL to examine the shear force required to remove particles from a well-developed EGR cooler deposit.

  13. Effects of catalyst film thickness on plasma-enhanced carbon nanotube growth

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hofmann, S.; Cantoro, M.; Kleinsorge, B.; Casiraghi, C.; Parvez, A.; Robertson, J.; Ducati, C.

    2005-08-01

    A systematic study is presented of the influence of catalyst film thickness on carbon nanostructures grown by plasma-enhanced chemical-vapor deposition from acetylene and ammonia mixtures. We show that reducing the Fe/Co catalyst film thickness below 3 nm causes a transition from larger diameter (>40 nm), bamboolike carbon nanofibers to small diameter ({approx}5 nm) multiwalled nanotubes with two to five walls. This is accompanied by a more than 50 times faster growth rate and a faster catalyst poisoning. Thin Ni catalyst films only trigger such a growth transition when pretreated with an ammonia plasma. We observe a limited correlation between this growth transition and the coarsening of the catalyst film before deposition. For a growth temperature of {<=}550 deg. C, all catalysts showed mainly a tip growth regime and a similar activity on untreated silicon, oxidized silicon, and silicon nitride support.

  14. Methods for improved growth of group III nitride semiconductor compounds

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Melnik, Yuriy; Chen, Lu; Kojiri, Hidehiro

    2015-03-17

    Methods are disclosed for growing group III-nitride semiconductor compounds with advanced buffer layer technique. In an embodiment, a method includes providing a suitable substrate in a processing chamber of a hydride vapor phase epitaxy processing system. The method includes forming an AlN buffer layer by flowing an ammonia gas into a growth zone of the processing chamber, flowing an aluminum halide containing precursor to the growth zone and at the same time flowing additional hydrogen halide or halogen gas into the growth zone of the processing chamber. The additional hydrogen halide or halogen gas that is flowed into the growth zone during buffer layer deposition suppresses homogeneous AlN particle formation. The hydrogen halide or halogen gas may continue flowing for a time period while the flow of the aluminum halide containing precursor is turned off.

  15. Growth of tungsten oxide on carbon nanowalls templates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Hua; Su, Yan; Chen, Shuo; Quan, Xie

    2013-03-15

    Highlights: ? Tungsten oxide deposited on carbon nanowalls by hot filament chemical vapor deposition technique. ? This composite has two-dimensional uniform morphology with a crystalline structure of monoclinic tungsten trioxide. ? Surface photoelectric voltage measurements show that this product has photoresponse properties. - Abstract: In the present work we present a simple approach for coupling tungsten oxide with carbon nanowalls. The two-dimensional carbon nanowalls with open boundaries were grown using plasma enhanced hot filament chemical vapor deposition, and the subsequent tungsten oxide growth was performed in the same equipment by direct heating of a tungsten filament. The tungsten oxide coating is found to have uniform morphology with a crystalline structure of monoclinic tungsten trioxide. Surface photoelectric voltage measurements show that this product has photoresponse properties. The method of synthesis described here provides an operable route to the production of two-dimensional tungsten oxide nanocomposites.

  16. Growth mechanisms, polytypism, and real structure of kaolinite microcrystals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Samotoin, N. D.

    2008-09-15

    The mechanisms of growth of kaolinite microcrystals (0.1-5.0 {mu}m in size) at deposits related to the cluvial weathering crust, as well as to the low-temperature and medium-temperature hydrothermal processes of transformations of minerals in different rocks in Russia, Kazakhstan, Ukraine, Czechia, Vietnam, India, Cuba, and Madagascar, are investigated using transmission electron microscopy and vacuum decoration with gold. It is established that kaolinite microcrystals grow according to two mechanisms: the mechanism of periodic formation of two-dimensional nuclei and the mechanism of spiral growth. The spiral growth of kaolinite microcrystals is dominant and occurs on steps of screw dislocations that differ in sign and magnitude of the Burgers vector along the c axis. The layered growth of kaolinite originates from a widespread source in the form of a step between polar (+ and -) dislocations, i.e., a growth analogue of the Frank-Read dislocation source. The density of growth screw dislocations varies over a wide range and can be as high as {approx}10{sup 9} cm{sup -2}. Layered stepped kaolinite growth pyramids for all mechanisms of growth on the (001) face of kaolinite exhibit the main features of the triclinic 1Tc and real structures of this mineral.

  17. Apparatus for laser assisted thin film deposition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Warner, Bruce E.; McLean, II, William

    1996-01-01

    A pulsed laser deposition apparatus uses fiber optics to deliver visible output beams. One or more optical fibers are coupled to one or more laser sources, and delivers visible output beams to a single chamber, to multiple targets in the chamber or to multiple chambers. The laser can run uninterrupted if one of the deposition chambers ceases to operate because other chambers can continue their laser deposition processes. The laser source can be positioned at a remote location relative to the deposition chamber. The use of fiber optics permits multi-plexing. A pulsed visible laser beam is directed at a generally non-perpendicular angle upon the target in the chamber, generating a plume of ions and energetic neutral species. A portion of the plume is deposited on a substrate as a thin film. A pulsed visible output beam with a high pulse repetition frequency is used. The high pulse repetition frequency is greater than 500 Hz, and more preferably, greater than about 1000 Hz. Diamond-like-carbon (DLC) is one of the thin films produced using the apparatus.

  18. Apparatus for laser assisted thin film deposition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Warner, B.E.; McLean, W. II

    1996-02-13

    A pulsed laser deposition apparatus uses fiber optics to deliver visible output beams. One or more optical fibers are coupled to one or more laser sources, and delivers visible output beams to a single chamber, to multiple targets in the chamber or to multiple chambers. The laser can run uninterrupted if one of the deposition chambers ceases to operate because other chambers can continue their laser deposition processes. The laser source can be positioned at a remote location relative to the deposition chamber. The use of fiber optics permits multi-plexing. A pulsed visible laser beam is directed at a generally non-perpendicular angle upon the target in the chamber, generating a plume of ions and energetic neutral species. A portion of the plume is deposited on a substrate as a thin film. A pulsed visible output beam with a high pulse repetition frequency is used. The high pulse repetition frequency is greater than 500 Hz, and more preferably, greater than about 1000 Hz. Diamond-like-carbon (DLC) is one of the thin films produced using the apparatus. 9 figs.

  19. Patterns of permeability in eolian deposits

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goggin, D.J.; Chandler, M.A.; Kocurek, G.; Lake, L.W.

    1988-06-01

    The eolian, Jurassic Page sandstone of northeastern Arizona is marked by a highly ordered heterogeneity. The heterogeneity is expressed by the intricate association of stratification types, which are a direct result of the depositional processes. The dominant stratification types in eolian reservoirs are grainflow, grainfall, and wind-ripple deposits, which form on the lee faces of migrating dunes; interdune deposits, which form between migrating dunes; and extra-erg deposits, which occur sporadically when other depositional environments encroach upon an eolian system. These stratification types each have a unique permeability range, which implies that the fluid migration routes in eolian reservoirs will be dictated by the geometry and types of stratification present. One of the most important aspects of this study is the correlation of qualitative geologic descriptions with quantitative variables such as permeability. About 2,000 measurements were made with a field minipermeameter on an outcrop of the Page sandstone. These data show that three distinct permeability modes directly relate to the different stratification types.

  20. Room temperature atomic layerlike deposition of ZnS on organic thin films: Role of substrate functional groups and precursors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shi, Zhiwei; Walker, Amy V.

    2015-09-15

    The room temperature atomic layerlike deposition (ALLD) of ZnS on functionalized self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) was investigated, using diethyl zinc (DEZ) and in situ generated H{sub 2}S as reactants. Depositions on SAMs with three different terminal groups, –CH{sub 3,} –OH, and –COOH, were studied. It was found that the reaction of DEZ with the SAM terminal group is critical in determining the film growth rate. Little or no deposition is observed on –CH{sub 3} terminated SAMs because DEZ does not react with the methyl terminal group. ZnS does deposit on both –OH and –COOH terminated SAMs, but the grow rate on –COOH terminated SAMs is ∼10% lower per cycle than on –OH terminated SAMs. DEZ reacts with the hydroxyl group on –OH terminated SAMs, while on –COOH terminated SAMs it reacts with both the hydroxyl and carbonyl bonds of the terminal groups. The carbonyl reaction is found to lead to the formation of ketones rather than deposition of ZnS, lowering the growth rate on –COOH terminated SAMs. SIMS spectra show that both –OH and –COOH terminated SAMs are covered by the deposited ZnS layer after five ALLD cycles. In contrast to ZnO ALLD where the composition of the film differs for the first few layers on –COOH and –OH terminated SAMs, the deposited film composition is the same for both –COOH and –OH terminated SAMs. The deposited film is found to be Zn-rich, suggesting that the reaction of H{sub 2}S with the Zn-surface adduct may be incomplete.

  1. Renewable Energy Growth Program

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    In 2014, Act H 7727 created the Renewable Energy Growth (REG) program with the goal to promote installation of grid connected renewable energy within the load zones of electric distribution...

  2. FGF growth factor analogs

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zamora, Paul O.; Pena, Louis A.; Lin, Xinhua; Takahashi, Kazuyuki

    2012-07-24

    The present invention provides a fibroblast growth factor heparin-binding analog of the formula: ##STR00001## where R.sub.1, R.sub.2, R.sub.3, R.sub.4, R.sub.5, X, Y and Z are as defined, pharmaceutical compositions, coating compositions and medical devices including the fibroblast growth factor heparin-binding analog of the foregoing formula, and methods and uses thereof.

  3. ARM - Measurement - Hygroscopic growth

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    govMeasurementsHygroscopic growth ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Hygroscopic growth The rate that aerosol particles grow at relative humidity values less than 100 percent. Sometimes supersaturation conditions are used in making this measurement. Categories Aerosols Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the following instruments. Refer to the

  4. Smart Cities - Smart Growth

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Smart Cities - Smart Growth The United States Secretaries of Commerce will co-lead a Business Development Mission to China from April 12-17, 2015. This mission will promote U.S. clean technology products and services in the areas of green building/construction, energy efficiency, carbon capture, utilization and storage (CCUS) and environmental technologies in support of the Smart Cities-Smart Growth theme. On November 12, President Obama and President Xi jointly announced the two countries'

  5. Method and apparatus for conducting variable thickness vapor deposition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nesslage, G.V.

    1984-08-03

    A method of vapor depositing metal on a substrate in variable thickness comprises conducting the deposition continuously without interruption to avoid formation of grain boundaries. To achieve reduced deposition in specific regions a thin wire or ribbon blocking body is placed between source and substrate to partially block vapors from depositing in the region immediately below.

  6. Line-of-sight deposition method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Patten, James W.; McClanahan, Edwin D.; Bayne, Michael A.

    1981-01-01

    A line-of-sight method of depositing a film having substantially 100% of theoretical density on a substrate. A pressure vessel contains a target source having a surface thereof capable of emitting particles therefrom and a substrate with the source surface and the substrate surface positioned such that the source surface is substantially parallel to the direction of the particles impinging upon the substrate surface, the distance between the most remote portion of the substrate surface receiving the particles and the source surface emitting the particles in a direction parallel to the substrate surface being relatively small. The pressure in the vessel is maintained less than about 5 microns to prevent scattering and permit line-of-sight deposition. By this method the angles of incidence of the particles impinging upon the substrate surface are in the range of from about 45.degree. to 90.degree. even when the target surface area is greatly expanded to increase the deposition rate.

  7. Line-of-sight deposition method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Patten, J.W.; McClanahan, E.D.; Bayne, M.A.

    1980-04-16

    A line-of-sight method of depositing a film having substantially 100% of theoretical density on a substrate. A pressure vessel contains a target source having a surface thereof capable of emitting particles therefrom and a substrate with the source surface and the substrate surface positioned such that the source surface is substantially parallel to the direction of the particles impinging upon the substrate surface, the distance between the most remote portion of the substrate surface receiving the particles and the source surface emitting the particles in a direction parallel to the substrate surface being relatively small. The pressure in the vessel is maintained less than about 5 microns to prevent scattering and permit line-of-sight deposition. By this method the angles of incidence of the particles impinging upon the substrate surface are in the range of from about 45/sup 0/ to 90/sup 0/ even when the target surface area is greatly expanded to increase the deposition rate.

  8. Chemical vapor deposition of group IIIB metals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Erbil, Ahmet

    1989-01-01

    Coatings of Group IIIB metals and compounds thereof are formed by chemical vapor deposition, in which a heat decomposable organometallic compound of the formula (I) ##STR1## where M is a Group IIIB metal, such as lanthanum or yttrium and R is a lower alkyl or alkenyl radical containing from 2 to about 6 carbon atoms, with a heated substrate which is above the decomposition temperature of the organometallic compound. The pure metal is obtained when the compound of the formula I is the sole heat decomposable compound present and deposition is carried out under nonoxidizing conditions. Intermetallic compounds such as lanthanum telluride can be deposited from a lanthanum compound of formula I and a heat decomposable tellurium compound under nonoxidizing conditions.

  9. Glow discharge plasma deposition of thin films

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Weakliem, Herbert A. (Pennington, NJ); Vossen, Jr., John L. (Bridgewater, NJ)

    1984-05-29

    A glow discharge plasma reactor for deposition of thin films from a reactive RF glow discharge is provided with a screen positioned between the walls of the chamber and the cathode to confine the glow discharge region to within the region defined by the screen and the cathode. A substrate for receiving deposition material from a reactive gas is positioned outside the screened region. The screen is electrically connected to the system ground to thereby serve as the anode of the system. The energy of the reactive gas species is reduced as they diffuse through the screen to the substrate. Reactive gas is conducted directly into the glow discharge region through a centrally positioned distribution head to reduce contamination effects otherwise caused by secondary reaction products and impurities deposited on the reactor walls.

  10. Liquid injection plasma deposition method and apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kong, Peter C.; Watkins, Arthur D.

    1999-01-01

    A liquid injection plasma torch deposition apparatus for depositing material onto a surface of a substrate may comprise a plasma torch for producing a jet of plasma from an outlet nozzle. A plasma confinement tube having an inlet end and an outlet end and a central bore therethrough is aligned with the outlet nozzle of the plasma torch so that the plasma jet is directed into the inlet end of the plasma confinement tube and emerges from the outlet end of the plasma confinement tube. The plasma confinement tube also includes an injection port transverse to the central bore. A liquid injection device connected to the injection port of the plasma confinement tube injects a liquid reactant mixture containing the material to be deposited onto the surface of the substrate through the injection port and into the central bore of the plasma confinement tube.

  11. Liquid injection plasma deposition method and apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kong, P.C.; Watkins, A.D.

    1999-05-25

    A liquid injection plasma torch deposition apparatus for depositing material onto a surface of a substrate may comprise a plasma torch for producing a jet of plasma from an outlet nozzle. A plasma confinement tube having an inlet end and an outlet end and a central bore therethrough is aligned with the outlet nozzle of the plasma torch so that the plasma jet is directed into the inlet end of the plasma confinement tube and emerges from the outlet end of the plasma confinement tube. The plasma confinement tube also includes an injection port transverse to the central bore. A liquid injection device connected to the injection port of the plasma confinement tube injects a liquid reactant mixture containing the material to be deposited onto the surface of the substrate through the injection port and into the central bore of the plasma confinement tube. 8 figs.

  12. Supplemental heating of deposition tooling shields

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ohlhausen, James A. (Albuquerque, NM); Peebles, Diane E. (Albuquerque, NM); Hunter, John A. (Albuquerque, NM); Eckelmeyer, Kenneth H. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2000-01-01

    A method of reducing particle generation from the thin coating deposited on the internal surfaces of a deposition chamber which undergoes temperature variation greater than 100.degree. C. comprising maintaining the temperature variation of the internal surfaces low enough during the process cycle to keep thermal expansion stresses between the coating and the surfaces under 500 MPa. For titanium nitride deposited on stainless steel, this means keeping temperature variations under approximately 70.degree. C. in a chamber that may be heated to over 350.degree. C. during a typical processing operation. Preferably, a supplemental heater is mounted behind the upper shield and controlled by a temperature sensitive element which provides feedback control based on the temperature of the upper shield.

  13. Chemical vapor deposition of fluorinated polymers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moore, J.A.; Lang, C.I.; Lu, T.M.; You, L.

    1993-12-31

    An overview of the authors` work directed toward the deposition of fluorinated polymers by condensation of thermally or photochemically generated intermediates directly from the vapor state will be presented. Previously known materials such as Teflon AF{reg_sign} and Parylene AF{sub 4} have been successfully deposited and are being evaluated for microelectronic application as on-chip dielectrics. A novel, one-step route to Parylene AF{sub 4} will be described which obviates the necessity of multistep organic synthesis to prepare precursors. A new, partially fluorinated parylene obtained from tetrafluoro-p-xylene will be described. It has also been observed that ultraviolet irradiation of the vapor of dimethyl tetrafluorobenzocyclobutene causes the deposition of an insoluble film which contains fluorine.

  14. Forming aspheric optics by controlled deposition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hawryluk, Andrew M.

    1998-01-01

    An aspheric optical element formed by depositing material onto a spherical surface of an optical element by controlled deposition to form an aspheric surface of desired shape. A reflecting surface, single or multi-layer, can then be formed on the aspheric surface by evaporative or sputtering techniques. Aspheric optical elements are suitable for deep ultra-violet (UV) and x-ray wavelengths. The reflecting surface may, for example, be a thin (.about.100 nm) layer of aluminum, or in some cases the deposited modifying layer may function as the reflecting surface. For certain applications, multi-layer reflective surfaces may be utilized, such as chromium-carbon or tungsten-carbon multi-layer, with the number of layers and thickness being determined by the intended application.

  15. Forming aspheric optics by controlled deposition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hawryluk, A.M.

    1998-04-28

    An aspheric optical element is disclosed formed by depositing material onto a spherical surface of an optical element by controlled deposition to form an aspheric surface of desired shape. A reflecting surface, single or multi-layer, can then be formed on the aspheric surface by evaporative or sputtering techniques. Aspheric optical elements are suitable for deep ultra-violet (UV) and x-ray wavelengths. The reflecting surface may, for example, be a thin ({approx}100 nm) layer of aluminum, or in some cases the deposited modifying layer may function as the reflecting surface. For certain applications, multi-layer reflective surfaces may be utilized, such as chromium-carbon or tungsten-carbon multi-layer, with the number of layers and thickness being determined by the intended application. 4 figs.

  16. Chemical vapor deposition of group IIIB metals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Erbil, A.

    1989-11-21

    Coatings of Group IIIB metals and compounds thereof are formed by chemical vapor deposition, in which a heat decomposable organometallic compound of the formula given in the patent where M is a Group IIIB metal, such as lanthanum or yttrium and R is a lower alkyl or alkenyl radical containing from 2 to about 6 carbon atoms, with a heated substrate which is above the decomposition temperature of the organometallic compound. The pure metal is obtained when the compound of the formula 1 is the sole heat decomposable compound present and deposition is carried out under nonoxidizing conditions. Intermetallic compounds such as lanthanum telluride can be deposited from a lanthanum compound of formula 1 and a heat decomposable tellurium compound under nonoxidizing conditions.

  17. Method for deposition of a conductor in integrated circuits

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Creighton, J.R.; Dominguez, F.; Johnson, A.W.; Omstead, T.R.

    1997-09-02

    A method is described for fabricating integrated semiconductor circuits and, more particularly, for the selective deposition of a conductor onto a substrate employing a chemical vapor deposition process. By way of example, tungsten can be selectively deposited onto a silicon substrate. At the onset of loss of selectivity of deposition of tungsten onto the silicon substrate, the deposition process is interrupted and unwanted tungsten which has deposited on a mask layer with the silicon substrate can be removed employing a halogen etchant. Thereafter, a plurality of deposition/etch back cycles can be carried out to achieve a predetermined thickness of tungsten. 2 figs.

  18. Method for deposition of a conductor in integrated circuits

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Creighton, J. Randall; Dominguez, Frank; Johnson, A. Wayne; Omstead, Thomas R.

    1997-01-01

    A method is described for fabricating integrated semiconductor circuits and, more particularly, for the selective deposition of a conductor onto a substrate employing a chemical vapor deposition process. By way of example, tungsten can be selectively deposited onto a silicon substrate. At the onset of loss of selectivity of deposition of tungsten onto the silicon substrate, the deposition process is interrupted and unwanted tungsten which has deposited on a mask layer with the silicon substrate can be removed employing a halogen etchant. Thereafter, a plurality of deposition/etch back cycles can be carried out to achieve a predetermined thickness of tungsten.

  19. Growth analysis of cadmium sulfide thin films by atomic force microscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moutinho, H.R.; Dhere, R.G.; Ramanathan, K.

    1996-05-01

    CdS films have been deposited by solution growth on SnO{sub 2} and glass substrates. Nucleation on SnO{sub 2} occurs at early deposition times, and complete conformal coverage is observed at low thickness values. The average grain size of the CdS films is established at these early times. In films deposited on glass substrates, nucleation is slower and occurs through 3-dimensional islands that increase in size and number as deposition proceeds. Optical measurements show that the bandgap values of CdS films deposited on SnO{sub 2} depend mainly on substrate structure. Hydrogen heat treatment does not affect the surface morphology of the samples, but decreases bandgap values.

  20. ACTIVATION ENERGY FOR GRAIN GROWTH IN BISMUTH COATINGS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jankowski, A F; Hayes, J P; Smith, R F; Reed, B W; Kumar, M; Colvin, J D

    2005-09-09

    The knowledge of both activation energy and diffusion coefficient is needed for a predictive processing of grain size in coatings. However, for metals as Bismuth there is insufficient information available in the literature for these parameters. To determine these values, a method is adopted wherein an examination of the grain size is conducted for coatings deposited isothermally. The exponent for grain growth with time is determined, thereby enabling quantification of the activation energy and diffusion coefficient. Bismuth coatings that range from 10 {micro}m to 1 mm thick are deposited using electron-beam evaporation onto temperature-controlled substrate surfaces of glass and lithium fluoride. The grain size of each coating is measured upon examination of the microstructure in cross-section using the intercept method. Ideal grain growth is observed over the experimental range of deposition temperatures examined from 317 to 491 K. The activation energy (Q) for grain growth in bismuth is fit as 0.47 eV {center_dot} atom{sup -1} with a diffusion coefficient (D{sub 0}) of 3.3 x 10{sup -4} cm{sup 2} {center_dot} sec{sup -1}.

  1. Polymer-assisted deposition of films

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McCleskey,Thomas M.; Burrell,Anthony K.; Jia,Quanxi; Lin,Yuan

    2012-02-28

    A polymer assisted deposition process for deposition of metal nitride films and the like is presented. The process includes solutions of one or more metal precursor and soluble polymers having binding properties for the one or more metal precursor. After a coating operation, the resultant coating is heated at high temperatures under a suitable atmosphere to yield metal nitride films and the like. Such films can be conformal on a variety of substrates including non-planar substrates. In some instances, the films can be epitaxial in structure and can be of optical quality. The process can be organic solvent-free.

  2. Ruthenium / aerogel nanocomposits via Atomic Layer Deposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Biener, J; Baumann, T F; Wang, Y; Nelson, E J; Kucheyev, S O; Hamza, A V; Kemell, M; Ritala, M; Leskela, M

    2006-08-28

    We present a general approach to prepare metal/aerogel nanocomposites via template directed atomic layer deposition (ALD). In particular, we used a Ru ALD process consisting of alternating exposures to bis(cyclopentadienyl)ruthenium (RuCp{sub 2}) and air at 350 C to deposit metallic Ru nanoparticles on the internal surfaces of carbon and silica aerogels. The process does not affect the morphology of the aerogel template and offers excellent control over metal loading by simply adjusting the number of ALD cycles. We also discuss the limitations of our ALD approach, and suggest ways to overcome these.

  3. Role of hydrogen in evolution of plasma parameters and dust growth in capacitively coupled dusty plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chai, K. B.; Choe, Wonho; Seon, C. R.; Chung, C. W.

    2010-11-15

    The temporal behavior of naturally produced dust parameters (radius and density) and plasma parameters (electron temperature and ion flux) was investigated in radio frequency SiH{sub 4}/H{sub 2}/Ar plasmas. As a result, the electron temperature and ion flux were shown to be strongly correlated with the three-step dust growth pattern. In addition, the generation of dust particles was suppressed by mixing more hydrogen gas due to the plasma chemistry, and consequently, the dust growth rate in the molecular accretion growth, which is known to be proportional to the growth rate of thin film deposition, increased.

  4. Dual ion beam assisted deposition of biaxially textured template layers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Groves, James R.; Arendt, Paul N.; Hammond, Robert H.

    2005-05-31

    The present invention is directed towards a process and apparatus for epitaxial deposition of a material, e.g., a layer of MgO, onto a substrate such as a flexible metal substrate, using dual ion beams for the ion beam assisted deposition whereby thick layers can be deposited without degradation of the desired properties by the material. The ability to deposit thicker layers without loss of properties provides a significantly broader deposition window for the process.

  5. Growth mechanism of graphene on platinum: Surface catalysis and carbon segregation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sun, Jie Lindvall, Niclas; Yurgens, August; Nam, Youngwoo; Cole, Matthew T.; Teo, Kenneth B. K.; Woo Park, Yung

    2014-04-14

    A model of the graphene growth mechanism of chemical vapor deposition on platinum is proposed and verified by experiments. Surface catalysis and carbon segregation occur, respectively, at high and low temperatures in the process, representing the so-called balance and segregation regimes. Catalysis leads to self-limiting formation of large area monolayer graphene, whereas segregation results in multilayers, which evidently grow from below. By controlling kinetic factors, dominantly monolayer graphene whose high quality has been confirmed by quantum Hall measurement can be deposited on platinum with hydrogen-rich environment, quench cooling, tiny but continuous methane flow and about 1000?C growth temperature.

  6. Carbon impurities on graphene synthesized by chemical vapor deposition on platinum

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ping, Jinglei; Fuhrer, Michael S., E-mail: michael.fuhrer@monash.edu [Center for Nanophysics and Advanced Materials, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742-4111, USA and School of Physics, Monash University, 3800 Victoria (Australia)

    2014-07-28

    We report nanocrystalline carbon impurities coexisting with graphene synthesized via chemical vapor deposition on platinum. For certain growth conditions, we observe micron-size island-like impurity layers which can be mistaken for second graphene layers in optical microscopy or scanning electron microscopy. The island orientation depends on the crystalline orientation of the Pt, as shown by electron backscatter diffraction, indicating growth of carbon at the platinum surface below graphene. Dark-field transmission electron microscopy indicates that in addition to uniform single-crystal graphene, our sample is decorated with nanocrystalline carbon impurities with a spatially inhomogeneous distribution. The impurity concentration can be reduced significantly by lowering the growth temperature. Raman spectra show a large D peak, however, electrical characterization shows high mobility (?8000?cm{sup 2}/Vs), indicating a limitation for Raman spectroscopy in characterizing the electronic quality of graphene.

  7. Plasma deposition of amorphous metal alloys

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hays, Auda K. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1986-01-01

    Amorphous metal alloy coatings are plasma-deposited by dissociation of vapors of organometallic compounds and metalloid hydrides in the presence of a reducing gas, using a glow discharge. Tetracarbonylnickel, phosphine, and hydrogen constitute a typical reaction mixture of the invention, yielding a NiPC alloy.

  8. Plasma deposition of amorphous metal alloys

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hays, A.K.

    1979-07-18

    Amorphous metal alloy coatings are plasma-deposited by dissociation of vapors of organometallic compounds and metalloid hydrides in the presence of a reducing gas, using a glow discharge. Tetracarbonylnickel, phosphine, and hydrogen constitute a typical reaction mixture of the invention, yielding a NiPC alloy.

  9. Chemical vapor deposition of aluminum oxide

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gordon, Roy; Kramer, Keith; Liu, Xinye

    2000-01-01

    An aluminum oxide film is deposited on a heated substrate by CVD from one or more alkylaluminum alkoxide compounds having composition R.sub.n Al.sub.2 (OR').sub.6-n, wherein R and R' are alkyl groups and n is in the range of 1 to 5.

  10. Defect distributions in weld-deposited cladding

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Y.Y.; Mabe, W.R.

    1998-11-01

    Defect distributions in stainless steel and nickel-chromium alloy weld-deposited cladding over a low alloy steel base were characterized by destructive evaluation (DE). An evaluation of the observed defects was conducted to characterize the defects by type or classification. Size distributions of cladding defect types were developed from the information obtained. This paper presents the results of the cladding evaluation.

  11. Panel 1 - comparative evaluation of deposition technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fenske, G.R.; Stodolsky, F.; Benson, D.K.; Pitts, R.J.; Bhat, D.G.; Yulin Chen; Gat, R.; Sunkara, M.K.; Kelly, M.; Lawler, J.E.; Nagle, D.C.; Outka, D.; Revankar, G.S.; Subramaniam, V.V.; Wilbur, P.J.; Mingshow Wong; Woolam, W.E.

    1993-01-01

    This working group attempted to evaluate/compare the different types of deposition techniques currently under investigation for depositing diamond and diamond-like carbon films. A table lists the broad types of techniques that were considered for depositing diamond and diamond-like carbon films. After some discussion, it was agreed that any evaluation of the various techniques would be dependent on the end application. Thus the next action was to list the different areas where diamond and DLC films could find applications in transportation. These application areas are listed in a table. The table intentionally does not go into great detail on applications because that subject is dealt with specifically by Panel No. 4 - Applications To Transportation. The next action concentrated on identifying critical issues or limitations that need to be considered in evaluating the different processes. An attempt was then made to rank different broad categories of deposition techniques currently available or under development based on the four application areas and the limitations. These rankings/evaluations are given for diamond and DLC techniques. Finally, the working group tried to identify critical development and research issues that need to be incorporated into developing a long-term program that focuses on diamond/DLC coatings for transportation needs. 5 tabs.

  12. The Effect Of Electronic Energy Loss On Irradiation-induced Grain Growth In Nanocrystalline Oxides

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Yanwen; Aidhy, Dilpuneet S.; Varga, Tamas; Moll, Sandra; Edmondson, Philip D.; Namavar, Fereydoon; Jin, Ke; Ostrouchov, Christopher N.; Weber, William J.

    2014-03-03

    Grain growth of nanocrystalline materials is generally thermally activated, but can also be driven by irradiation at much lower temperature. In nanocrystalline ceria and zirconia, energetic ions deposit their energy to both atomic nuclei and electrons. Our experimental results have shown that irradiationinduced grain growth is dependent on the total energy deposited, where electronic energy loss and elastic collisions between atomic nuclei both contribute to the production of disorder and grain growth. Our atomistic simulations reveal that a high density of disorder near grain boundaries leads to locally rapid grain movement. The additive effect from both electronic excitation and atomic collision cascades on grain growth demonstrated in this work opens up new possibilities for controlling grain sizes to improve functionality of nanocrystalline materials.

  13. The Effect of Eectronic Energy Loss on Irradiation-Induced Grain Growth in Nanocrystalline Oxides

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Yanwen; Aidhy, Dilpuneet S.; Varga, Tamas; Moll, Sandra; Edmondson, P. D.; Namavar, Fereydoon; Jin, Ke; Ostrouchov, Christopher N.; Weber, William J.

    2014-01-01

    Grain growth of nanocrystalline materials is generally thermally activated, but can also be driven by irradiation at much lower temperature. In nanocrystalline ceria and zirconia, contributions from both displacement damage and ionization to the grain growth are identified. Our atomistic simulations have revealed fast grain boundary (GB) movements due to the high density of disorder near GBs. Our experimental results have shown that irradiation-induced grain growth is a function of total energy deposited, where the excitation of target electrons and displacement of lattice atoms both contribute to the overall disorder and both play important roles in grain growth. The coupling of energy deposition to the electronic and lattice structures should both be taken into consideration when engineering nanostructural materials.

  14. Catalyst-induced growth of carbon nanotubes on tips of cantilevers and nanowires

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lee, James Weifu; Lowndes, Douglas H.; Merkulov, Vladimir I.; Eres, Gyula; Wei, Yayi; Greenbaum, Elias; Lee, Ida

    2004-06-29

    A method is described for catalyst-induced growth of carbon nanotubes, nanofibers, and other nanostructures on the tips of nanowires, cantilevers, conductive micro/nanometer structures, wafers and the like. The method can be used for production of carbon nanotube-anchored cantilevers that can significantly improve the performance of scaning probe microscopy (AFM, EFM etc). The invention can also be used in many other processes of micro and/or nanofabrication with carbon nanotubes/fibers. Key elements of this invention include: (1) Proper selection of a metal catalyst and programmable pulsed electrolytic deposition of the desired specific catalyst precisely at the tip of a substrate, (2) Catalyst-induced growth of carbon nanotubes/fibers at the catalyst-deposited tips, (3) Control of carbon nanotube/fiber growth pattern by manipulation of tip shape and growth conditions, and (4) Automation for mass production.

  15. Initiation of atomic layer deposition of metal oxides on polymer substrates by water plasma pretreatment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steven Brandt, E.; Grace, Jeremy M.

    2012-01-15

    The role of surface hydroxyl content in atomic layer deposition (ALD) of aluminum oxide (AO) on polymers is demonstrated by performing an atomic layer deposition of AO onto a variety of polymer types, before and after pretreatment in a plasma struck in water vapor. The treatment and deposition reactions are performed in situ in a high vacuum chamber that is interfaced to an x-ray photoelectron spectrometer to prevent adventitious exposure to atmospheric contaminants. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy is used to follow the surface chemistries of the polymers, including theformation of surface hydroxyls and subsequent growth of AO by ALD. Using dimethyl aluminum isopropoxide and water as reactants, ALD is obtained for water-plasma-treated poly(styrene) (PS), poly(propylene) (PP), poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA), and poly(ethylene naphthalate) (PEN). For PS, PP, and PEN, initial growth rates of AO on the native (untreated) polymers are at least an order of magnitude lower than on the same polymer surface following the plasma treatment. By contrast, native PVA is shown to initiate ALD of AO as a result of the presence of intrinsic surface hydroxyls that are derived from the repeat unit of this polymer.

  16. On-line coating of glass with tin oxide by atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Allendorf, Mark D.; Sopko, J.F. (PPF Industries, Pittsburgh, PA); Houf, William G.; Chae, Yong Kee; McDaniel, Anthony H.; Li, M. (PPF Industries, Pittsburgh, PA); McCamy, J.W.

    2006-11-01

    Atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition (APCVD) of tin oxide is a very important manufacturing technique used in the production of low-emissivity glass. It is also the primary method used to provide wear-resistant coatings on glass containers. The complexity of these systems, which involve chemical reactions in both the gas phase and on the deposition surface, as well as complex fluid dynamics, makes process optimization and design of new coating reactors a very difficult task. In 2001 the U.S. Dept. of Energy Industrial Technologies Program Glass Industry of the Future Team funded a project to address the need for more accurate data concerning the tin oxide APCVD process. This report presents a case study of on-line APCVD using organometallic precursors, which are the primary reactants used in industrial coating processes. Research staff at Sandia National Laboratories in Livermore, CA, and the PPG Industries Glass Technology Center in Pittsburgh, PA collaborated to produce this work. In this report, we describe a detailed investigation of the factors controlling the growth of tin oxide films. The report begins with a discussion of the basic elements of the deposition chemistry, including gas-phase thermochemistry of tin species and mechanisms of chemical reactions involved in the decomposition of tin precursors. These results provide the basis for experimental investigations in which tin oxide growth rates were measured as a function of all major process variables. The experiments focused on growth from monobutyltintrichloride (MBTC) since this is one of the two primary precursors used industrially. There are almost no reliable growth-rate data available for this precursor. Robust models describing the growth rate as a function of these variables are derived from modeling of these data. Finally, the results are used to conduct computational fluid dynamic simulations of both pilot- and full-scale coating reactors. As a result, general conclusions are

  17. Method for depositing layers of high quality semiconductor material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Guha, Subhendu; Yang, Chi C.

    2001-08-14

    Plasma deposition of substantially amorphous semiconductor materials is carried out under a set of deposition parameters which are selected so that the process operates near the amorphous/microcrystalline threshold. This threshold varies as a function of the thickness of the depositing semiconductor layer; and, deposition parameters, such as diluent gas concentrations, must be adjusted as a function of layer thickness. Also, this threshold varies as a function of the composition of the depositing layer, and in those instances where the layer composition is profiled throughout its thickness, deposition parameters must be adjusted accordingly so as to maintain the amorphous/microcrystalline threshold.

  18. Effect of process parameters on properties of argonnitrogen plasma for titanium nitride film deposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Saikia, Partha; Kakati, Bharat

    2013-11-15

    In this study, the effect of working pressure and input power on the physical properties and sputtering efficiencies of argonnitrogen (Ar/N{sub 2}) plasma in direct current magnetron discharge is investigated. The discharge in Ar/N{sub 2} is used to deposit TiN films on high speed steel substrate. The physical plasma parameters are determined by using Langmuir probe and optical emission spectroscopy. On the basis of the different reactions in the gas phase, the variation of plasma parameters and sputtering rate are explained. A prominent change of electron temperature, electron density, ion density, and degree of ionization of Ar is found as a function of working pressure and input power. The results also show that increasing working pressure exerts a negative effect on film deposition rate while increasing input power has a positive impact on the same. To confirm the observed physical properties and evaluate the texture growth as a function of deposition parameters, x-ray diffraction study of deposited TiN films is also done.

  19. Dysprosium oxide and dysprosium-oxide-doped titanium oxide thin films grown by atomic layer deposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tamm, Aile Kozlova, Jekaterina; Aarik, Lauri; Aarik, Jaan; Kukli, Kaupo; Link, Joosep; Stern, Raivo

    2015-01-15

    Dysprosium oxide and dysprosium-oxide-doped titanium oxide thin films were grown by atomic layer deposition on silicon substrates. For depositing dysprosium and titanium oxides Dy(thd){sub 3}-O{sub 3} and TiCl{sub 4}-O{sub 3} were used as precursors combinations. Appropriate parameters for Dy(thd){sub 3}-O{sub 3} growth process were obtained by using a quartz crystal microbalance system. The Dy{sub 2}O{sub 3} films were deposited on planar substrates and on three-dimensional substrates with aspect ratio 1:20. The Dy/Ti ratio of Dy{sub 2}O{sub 3}-doped TiO{sub 2} films deposited on a planar silicon substrate ranged from 0.04 to 0.06. Magnetometry studies revealed that saturation of magnetization could not be observed in planar Dy{sub 2}O{sub 3} films, but it was observable in Dy{sub 2}O{sub 3} films on 3D substrates and in doped TiO{sub 2} films with a Dy/Ti atomic ratio of 0.06. The latter films exhibited saturation magnetization 10{sup −6} A cm{sup 2} and coercivity 11 kA/m at room temperature.

  20. Digital Transfer Growth of Patterned 2D Metal Chalcogenides by Confined Nanoparticle Evaporation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mahjouri-Samani, Masoud; Tian, Mengkun; Wang, Kai; Boulesbaa, Abdelaziz; Rouleau, Christopher M.; Puretzky, Alexander A.; McGuire, Michael A.; Srijanto, Bernadeta R.; Xiao, Kai; Eres, Gyula; Duscher, Gerd; Geohegan, David B.

    2014-10-19

    Developing methods for the facile synthesis of two-dimensional (2D) metal chalcogenides and other layered materials is crucial for emerging applications in functional devices. Controlling the stoichiometry, number of the layers, crystallite size, growth location, and areal uniformity is challenging in conventional vapor phase synthesis. Here, we demonstrate a new route to control these parameters in the growth of metal chalcogenide (GaSe) and dichalcogenide (MoSe2) 2D crystals by precisely defining the mass and location of the source materials in a confined transfer growth system. A uniform and precise amount of stoichiometric nanoparticles are first synthesized and deposited onto a substrate by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) at room temperature. This source substrate is then covered with a receiver substrate to form a confined vapor transport growth (VTG) system. By simply heating the source substrate in an inert background gas, a natural temperature gradient is formed that evaporates the confined nanoparticles to grow large, crystalline 2D nanosheets on the cooler receiver substrate, the temperature of which is controlled by the background gas pressure. Large monolayer crystalline domains (~ 100 m lateral sizes) of GaSe and MoSe2 are demonstrated, as well as continuous monolayer films through the deposition of additional precursor materials. This novel PLD-VTG synthesis and processing method offers a unique approach for the controlled growth of large-area, metal chalcogenides with a controlled number of layers in patterned growth locations for optoelectronics and energy related applications.

  1. Filtered cathodic arc deposition apparatus and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Krauss, Alan R.

    1999-01-01

    A filtered cathodic arc deposition method and apparatus for the production of highly dense, wear resistant coatings which are free from macro particles. The filtered cathodic arc deposition apparatus includes a cross shaped vacuum chamber which houses a cathode target having an evaporable surface comprised of the coating material, means for generating a stream of plasma, means for generating a transverse magnetic field, and a macro particle deflector. The transverse magnetic field bends the generated stream of plasma in the direction of a substrate. Macro particles are effectively filtered from the stream of plasma by traveling, unaffected by the transverse magnetic field, along the initial path of the plasma stream to a macro particle deflector. The macro particle deflector has a preformed surface which deflects macro particles away from the substrate.

  2. Process for depositing Cr-bearing layer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ellis, Timothy W.; Lograsso, Thomas A.; Eshelman, Mark A.

    1995-05-09

    A method of applying a Cr-bearing layer to a substrate, comprises introducing an organometallic compound, in vapor or solid powder form entrained in a carrier gas to a plasma of an inductively coupled plasma torch or device to thermally decompose the organometallic compound and contacting the plasma and the substrate to be coated so as to deposit the Cr-bearing layer on the substrate. A metallic Cr, Cr alloy or Cr compound such as chromium oxide, nitride and carbide can be provided on the substrate. Typically, the organometallic compound is introduced to an inductively coupled plasma torch that is disposed in ambient air so to thermally decompose the organometallic compound in the plasma. The plasma is directed at the substrate to deposit the Cr-bearing layer or coating on the substrate.

  3. Methods for patterned deposition on a substrate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rye, R.R.; Ricco, A.J.; Hampden-Smith, M.J.; Kodas, T.T.

    1995-01-10

    A method is described for patterned depositions of a material onto a substrate. A surface of a polymeric substrate is first etched so as to form an etched layer having enhanced adhesions characteristics and then selected portions of the etched layer are removed so as to define a pattern having enhanced and diminished adhesion characteristics for the deposition of a conductor onto the remaining etched layer. In one embodiment, a surface of a PTFE substrate is chemically etched so as to improve the adhesion of copper thereto. Thereafter, selected portions of the etched surface are irradiated with a laser beam so as to remove the etched selected portions of the etched surface and form patterns of enhanced and diminished adhesion of copper thereto. 5 figures.

  4. Process for depositing Cr-bearing layer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ellis, T.W.; Lograsso, T.A.; Eshelman, M.A.

    1995-05-09

    A method of applying a Cr-bearing layer to a substrate, comprises introducing an organometallic compound, in vapor or solid powder form entrained in a carrier gas to a plasma of an inductively coupled plasma torch or device to thermally decompose the organometallic compound and contacting the plasma and the substrate to be coated so as to deposit the Cr-bearing layer on the substrate. A metallic Cr, Cr alloy or Cr compound such as chromium oxide, nitride and carbide can be provided on the substrate. Typically, the organometallic compound is introduced to an inductively coupled plasma torch that is disposed in ambient air so to thermally decompose the organometallic compound in the plasma. The plasma is directed at the substrate to deposit the Cr-bearing layer or coating on the substrate. 7 figs.

  5. Surface acoustic wave dust deposition monitor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fasching, G.E.; Smith, N.S. Jr.

    1988-02-12

    A system is disclosed for using the attenuation of surface acoustic waves to monitor real time dust deposition rates on surfaces. The system includes a signal generator, a tone-burst generator/amplifier connected to a transmitting transducer for converting electrical signals into acoustic waves. These waves are transmitted through a path defining means adjacent to a layer of dust and then, in turn, transmitted to a receiving transducer for changing the attenuated acoustic wave to electrical signals. The signals representing the attenuated acoustic waves may be amplified and used in a means for analyzing the output signals to produce an output indicative of the dust deposition rates and/or values of dust in the layer. 8 figs.

  6. Substrate heater for thin film deposition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Foltyn, Steve R. (111 Beryl St., Los Alamos, NM 87544)

    1996-01-01

    A substrate heater for thin film deposition of metallic oxides upon a target substrate configured as a disk including means for supporting in a predetermined location a target substrate configured as a disk, means for rotating the target substrate within the support means, means for heating the target substrate within the support means, the heating means about the support means and including a pair of heating elements with one heater element situated on each side of the predetermined location for the target substrate, with one heater element defining an opening through which desired coating material can enter for thin film deposition and with the heating means including an opening slot through which the target substrate can be entered into the support means, and, optionally a means for thermal shielding of the heating means from surrounding environment is disclosed.

  7. Methods for patterned deposition on a substrate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rye, Robert R. (Albuquerque, NM); Ricco, Antonio J. (Albuquerque, NM); Hampden-Smith, M. J. (Albuquerque, NM); Kodas, T. T. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1995-01-01

    A method is described for patterned depositions of a material onto a substrate. A surface of a polymeric substrate is first etched so as to form an etched layer having enhanced adhesions characteristics and then selected portions of the etched layer are removed so as to define a pattern having enhanced and diminished adhesion characteristics for the deposition of a conductor onto the remaining etched layer. In one embodiment, a surface of a PTFE substrate is chemically etched so as to improve the adhesion of copper thereto. Thereafter, selected portions of the etched surface are irradiated with a laser beam so as to remove the etched selected portions of the etched surface and form patterns of enhanced and diminished adhesion of copper thereto.

  8. Apparatus and method for photochemical vapor deposition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jackson, Scott C.; Rocheleau, Richard E.

    1987-03-31

    A photochemical vapor deposition apparatus includes a reactor housing having a window in one wall above a reaction chamber in the housing. A transparent curtain divides the reaction chamber into a reaction zone and a flush zone. At least one substrate is mounted in the reaction zone in light communication with the window so that ultraviolet radiation may penetrate through the window into the reaction zone. The window is kept clear by a gas flowing through the flush zone.

  9. Stationary phase deposition based on onium salts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wheeler, David R.; Lewis, Patrick R.; Dirk, Shawn M.; Trudell, Daniel E.

    2008-01-01

    Onium salt chemistry can be used to deposit very uniform thickness stationary phases on the wall of a gas chromatography column. In particular, the stationary phase can be bonded to non-silicon based columns, especially microfabricated metal columns. Non-silicon microfabricated columns may be manufactured and processed at a fraction of the cost of silicon-based columns. In addition, the method can be used to phase-coat conventional capillary columns or silicon-based microfabricated columns.

  10. Nanotube array controlled carbon plasma deposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Qian, Shi; Cao, Huiliang; Liu, Xuanyong; Ding, Chuanxian

    2013-06-17

    Finding approaches to control the elementary processes of plasma-solid interactions and direct the fluxes of matter at nano-scales becomes an important aspect in science. This letter reports that, by taking advantages of the spacing characteristics of discrete TiO{sub 2} nanotube arrays, the flying trajectories and the subsequent implantation and deposition manner of energetic carbon ions can be directed and controlled to fabricate hollow conical arrays. The study provides an alternative method for plasma nano-manufacturing.

  11. DEPOSITION OF METAL ON NONMETAL FILAMENT

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Magel, T.T.

    1959-02-10

    A method is described for purifying metallic uranium by passing a halogen vapor continuously over the impure uranium to form uranium halide vapor and immediately passing the halide vapor into contact with a nonmetallic refractory surface which is at a temperature above the melting point of uranium metal. The halide is decomposed at the heated surface depositing molten metal, which collects and falls into a receiver below.

  12. Electrostatic force assisted deposition of graphene

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Liang, Xiaogan

    2011-11-15

    An embodiment of a method of depositing graphene includes bringing a stamp into contact with a substrate over a contact area. The stamp has at least a few layers of the graphene covering the contact area. An electric field is developed over the contact area. The stamp is removed from the vicinity of the substrate which leaves at least a layer of the graphene substantially covering the contact area.

  13. Chemical deposition methods using supercritical fluid solutions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sievers, Robert E.; Hansen, Brian N.

    1990-01-01

    A method for depositing a film of a desired material on a substrate comprises dissolving at least one reagent in a supercritical fluid comprising at least one solvent. Either the reagent is capable of reacting with or is a precursor of a compound capable of reacting with the solvent to form the desired product, or at least one additional reagent is included in the supercritical solution and is capable of reacting with or is a precursor of a compound capable of reacting with the first reagent or with a compound derived from the first reagent to form the desired material. The supercritical solution is expanded to produce a vapor or aerosol and a chemical reaction is induced in the vapor or aerosol so that a film of the desired material resulting from the chemical reaction is deposited on the substrate surface. In an alternate embodiment, the supercritical solution containing at least one reagent is expanded to produce a vapor or aerosol which is then mixed with a gas containing at least one additional reagent. A chemical reaction is induced in the resulting mixture so that a film of the desired material is deposited.

  14. Low temperature atomic layer deposited ZnO photo thin film transistors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oruc, Feyza B.; Aygun, Levent E.; Donmez, Inci; Biyikli, Necmi; Okyay, Ali K.; Yu, Hyun Yong

    2015-01-01

    ZnO thin film transistors (TFTs) are fabricated on Si substrates using atomic layer deposition technique. The growth temperature of ZnO channel layers are selected as 80, 100, 120, 130, and 250?C. Material characteristics of ZnO films are examined using x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and x-ray diffraction methods. Stoichiometry analyses showed that the amount of both oxygen vacancies and interstitial zinc decrease with decreasing growth temperature. Electrical characteristics improve with decreasing growth temperature. Best results are obtained with ZnO channels deposited at 80?C; I{sub on}/I{sub off} ratio is extracted as 7.8 10{sup 9} and subthreshold slope is extracted as 0.116 V/dec. Flexible ZnO TFT devices are also fabricated using films grown at 80?C. I{sub D}V{sub GS} characterization results showed that devices fabricated on different substrates (Si and polyethylene terephthalate) show similar electrical characteristics. Sub-bandgap photo sensing properties of ZnO based TFTs are investigated; it is shown that visible light absorption of ZnO based TFTs can be actively controlled by external gate bias.

  15. Ferromagnetism of manganese-doped indium tin oxide films deposited on polyethylene naphthalate substrates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nakamura, Toshihiro; Isozaki, Shinichi; Tanabe, Kohei; Tachibana, Kunihide

    2009-04-01

    Mn-doped indium tin oxide (ITO) films were deposited on polyethylene naphthalate (PEN) substrates using radio-frequency magnetron sputtering. The magnetic, electrical, and optical properties of the films deposited on PEN substrates were investigated by comparing with the properties of films grown on glass substrates at the same growth conditions. Thin films on PEN substrates exhibited low electrical resistivity of the order of 10{sup -4} {omega} cm and high optical transmittance between 75% and 90% in the visible region. Ferromagnetic hysteresis loops were observed at room temperature for the samples grown on PEN substrates. Mn-doped ITO films can be one of the most promising candidates of transparent ferromagnetic materials for flexible spintronic devices.

  16. Fabrication of ion conductive tin oxide-phosphate amorphous thin films by atomic layer deposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Park, Suk Won; Jang, Dong Young; Kim, Jun Woo; Shim, Joon Hyung

    2015-07-15

    This work reports the atomic layer deposition (ALD) of tin oxide-phosphate films using tetrakis(dimethylamino)tin and trimethyl phosphate as precursors. The growth rates were 1.23–1.84 Å/cycle depending upon the deposition temperature and precursor combination. The ionic conductivity of the ALD tin oxide-phosphate films was evaluated by cross-plane impedance measurements in the temperature range of 50–300 °C under atmospheric air, with the highest conductivity measured as 1.92 × 10{sup −5} S cm{sup −1} at 300 °C. Furthermore, high-resolution x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy exhibited two O1s peaks that were classified as two subpeaks of hydroxyl ions and oxygen ions, revealing that the quantity of hydroxyl ions in the ALD tin oxide-phosphate films influences their ionic conductivity.

  17. System and Method for Sealing a Vapor Deposition Source - Energy...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    An apparatus for movably sealing a deposition chamber from the rest of a fabrication ... there is a need to seal the deposition chamber from the rest of the system under vacuum. ...

  18. Precursors for the polymer-assisted deposition of films (Patent...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Precursors for the polymer-assisted deposition of films Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Precursors for the polymer-assisted deposition of films You are accessing a ...

  19. Polymer-assisted deposition of films and preparation of carbon...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Polymer-assisted deposition of films and preparation of carbon nanotube arrays using the films Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Polymer-assisted deposition of films and ...

  20. Microsoft Word - Deposition Request Form Rev10-12.doc

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Deposition Request Form rev10/12-sm Personal Contact Information Date: ____/____/______ Name:_________________________________ Phone #__________________ E-Mail_____________________________ Project Reference Number: _________________________ Dept _________________ Professor _____________________________ Professor Email ________________________________ Substrate Description ( substrate provided by user) Total Number of Substrates: ________ Deposition Specifications Film

  1. Solvothermal Thin Film Deposition of Electron Blocking Layers | ANSER

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Center | Argonne-Northwestern National Laboratory Solvothermal Thin Film Deposition of Electron Blocking Layers Home > Research > ANSER Research Highlights > Solvothermal Thin Film Deposition of Electron Blocking Layers

  2. Formation of amorphous metal alloys by chemical vapor deposition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mullendore, A.W.

    1988-03-18

    Amorphous alloys are deposited by a process of thermal dissociation of mixtures of organometallic compounds and metalloid hydrides,e.g., transition metal carbonyl, such as nickel carbonyl and diborane. Various sizes and shapes of deposits can be achieved, including near-net-shape free standing articles, multilayer deposits, and the like. Manipulation or absence of a magnetic field affects the nature and the structure of the deposit. 1 fig.

  3. NREL: Process Development and Integration Laboratory - Materials Deposition

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and Device Fabrication in the Atmospheric Processing Platform Materials Deposition and Device Fabrication in the Atmospheric Processing Platform This page provides details on materials deposition and device fabrication in the Atmospheric Processing platform. The four techniques highlighted are robotic inkjet printing, large-area ultrasonic spray deposition, sputtering, and thermal evaporator deposition. Photo of the shiny back of the glove box behind a close-up of an unenclosed inkjet

  4. Formation of amorphous metal alloys by chemical vapor deposition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mullendore, Arthur W.

    1990-01-01

    Amorphous alloys are deposited by a process of thermal dissociation of mixtures or organometallic compounds and metalloid hydrides, e.g., transition metal carbonyl such as nickel carbonyl, and diborane. Various sizes and shapes of deposits can be achieved, including near-net-shape free standing articles, multilayer deposits, and the like. Manipulation or absence of a magnetic field affects the nature and the structure of the deposit.

  5. Microstructural Evolution of EGR Cooler Deposits | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Evolution of EGR Cooler Deposits Microstructural Evolution of EGR Cooler Deposits Characterize the thermo-physical properties of the deposit under different operating conditions on model EGR cooler tube and determine the long-term changes in deposit properties due to thermal cycling and water/HC condensation deer09_lance.pdf (5.25 MB) More Documents & Publications Materials Issues Associated with EGR Systems Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Materials Issues Associated with EGR

  6. Low-Temperature Engineering Algorithm of Deposition Risk

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1992-12-08

    LEADER is designed to qualitatively predict the potential coal ash deposition in an utility boiler in convective pass heat exchange surfaces below 1850 F. This program concentrates on those deposits which develop their strength through sulfation and not silicate sintering. Massive deposits that form on the upstream sides of boiler tubes at higher temperatures are not considered in this model.

  7. High Rate Deposition of High Quality ZnO:Al by Filtered Cathodic Arc

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mendelsberg, Rueben J.; Lim, S.H.N.; Milliron, D.J.; Anders, Andre

    2010-11-18

    High quality ZnO:Al (AZO) thin films were prepared on glass substrates by direct current filtered cathodic arc deposition. Substrate temperature was varied from room temperature to 425oC, and samples were grown with and without the assistance of low power oxygen plasma (75W). For each growth condition, at least 3 samples were grown to give a statistical look at the effect of the growth environment on the film properties and to explore the reproducibility of the technique. Growth rate was in the 100-400 nm/min range but was apparently random and could not be easily traced to the growth conditions explored. For optimized growth conditions, 300-600 nm AZO films had resistivities of 3-6 x 10-4 ?Omega cm, carrier concentrations in the range of 2-4 x 1020 cm3, Hall mobility as high as 55 cm2/Vs, and optical transmittance greater than 90percent. These films are also highly oriented with the c-axis perpendicular to the substrate and a surface roughness of 2-4 nm.

  8. Electrochemical Solution Growth: Gallium Nitride Crystal Growth - Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Innovation Portal Vehicles and Fuels Vehicles and Fuels Building Energy Efficiency Building Energy Efficiency Find More Like This Return to Search Electrochemical Solution Growth: Gallium Nitride Crystal Growth Sandia National Laboratories Contact SNL About This Technology Publications: PDF Document Publication Market Sheet (886 KB) Technology Marketing SummarySandia National Laboratories has developed a disruptive new crystal growth technology, called Electrochemical Solution Growth (ESG).

  9. Controlling Atomic Layer Deposition of TiO2 in Aerogels through Surface Functionalization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ghosal, S; Baumann, T F; King, J S; Kucheyev, S; Wang, Y; Worsley, M A; Biener, J; Bent, S F; Hamza, A V

    2009-03-09

    This report demonstrates a chemical functionalization method for controlling atomic layer deposition (ALD) of TiO{sub 2} in low-density nanoporous materials. Functionalization of silica aerogel with trimethylsilane is shown to strongly suppress TiO{sub 2} growth via ALD. Subsequent modification of the functionalization through selective removal of the hydrocarbon groups reactivates the aerogel towards TiO{sub 2} deposition. These results demonstrate the potential use of ALD as a selective tool for creating novel nanoporous materials. Nanoporous materials present significant technological advantage for a wide range of applications, including catalysis, energy storage and conversion, nanoelectronics to name just a few (1-4). Hence, there is considerable interest in developing synthetic pathways for the fabrication of nanoporous materials with tailored properties. Aerogels (AGs) are unique low-density, open-cell porous materials consisting of submicrometer pores and ligaments that can be used as a robust material platform for designing novel nanoporous materials. In recent years, a synthetic approach based on ALD on AG templates has emerged as a promising method for the directed growth of nanoporous materials (5-11, 18). This approach has been used successfully to prepare millimeter-sized high aspect ratio aerogels coated uniformly with zinc oxide (ZnO), tungsten (W) and alumina (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) (10, 11). The ALD process utilizes two sequential, self-limiting surface reactions resulting in a layer-by-layer growth mode. The self limiting nature of the surface reactions makes ALD a particularly suitable technique for uniform deposition onto high aspect ratio porous substrates. Additionally, chemical specificity of the surface reactions in ALD enables one to control the deposition process through selective functionalization of the substrate surface. In fact the functionalization of planar substrates such as silicon wafers with organosilane groups (R{sub n}SiX{sub 4-n

  10. Comparisons of wet and dry deposition derived from the first year of trial dry deposition monitoring

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hicks, B.B.; Hosker, R.P. Jr.; Womack, J.D.

    1986-04-01

    In general, the turbulent exchange of trace gas and aerosol particles cannot always be assumed to be downwards. For many trace gases, the surface constitutes both a source and a sink, leading to wide temporal variations in both the direction and the magnitude of the net exchange. For some chemical species, however, the surface can be assumed to be a continuing sink. Such species include several chemical compounds of current importance, such as sulfur dioxide, nitric acid vapor, and ozone. In such instances, dry deposition fluxes to natural surfaces can be inferred from air concentration data, provided accurate evaluations are available of the efficiency with which the surface scavenges pollutants from the air to which it is exposed. This simple approach is the foundation for the so-called concentration monitoring or inferential method for assessing dry deposition. The inferential method relies upon the availability of accurate concentration data and corresponding deposition velocities. Knowledge of these properties alone does not permit the desired deposition data to be computed. As an extension of dry deposition research programs, a trial network has been set up to test the inferential method. Here, the scientific basis for the network operation is discussed, and preliminary data presented.

  11. Effects of Ar plasma treatment for deposition of ruthenium film by remote plasma atomic layer deposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Park, Taeyong; Lee, Jaesang; Park, Jingyu; Jeon, Heeyoung; Jeon, Hyeongtag; Lee, Ki-Hoon; Cho, Byung-Chul; Kim, Moo-Sung; Ahn, Heui-Bok

    2012-01-15

    Ruthenium thin films were deposited on argon plasma-treated SiO{sub 2} and untreated SiO{sub 2} substrates by remote plasma atomic layer deposition using bis(ethylcyclopentadienyl)ruthenium [Ru(EtCp){sub 2}] as a Ru precursor and ammonia plasma as a reactant. The results of in situ Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) analysis indicate that the initial transient region of Ru deposition was decreased by Ar plasma treatment at 400 deg. C, but did not change significantly at 300 deg. C The deposition rate exhibited linearity after continuous film formation and the deposition rates were about 1.7 A/cycle and 0.4 A/cycle at 400 deg. C and 300 deg. C, respectively. Changes of surface energy and polar and dispersive components were measured by the sessile drop test. The quantity of surface amine groups was measured from the surface nitrogen concentration with AES. Furthermore, the Ar plasma-treated SiO{sub 2} contained more amine groups and less hydroxyl groups on the surface than on untreated SiO{sub 2}. Auger spectra exhibited chemical shifts by Ru-O bonding, and larger shifts were observed on untreated substrates due to the strong adhesion of Ru films.

  12. High quality ZnO:Al transparent conducting oxide films synthesized by pulsed filtered cathodic arc deposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anders, Andre; Lim, Sunnie H.N.; Yu, Kin Man; Andersson, Joakim; Rosen, Johanna; McFarland, Mike; Brown, Jeff

    2009-04-24

    Aluminum-doped zinc oxide, ZnO:Al or AZO, is a well-known n-type transparent conducting oxide with great potential in a number of applications currently dominated by indium tin oxide (ITO). In this study, the optical and electrical properties of AZO thin films deposited on glass and silicon by pulsed filtered cathodic arc deposition are systematically studied. In contrast to magnetron sputtering, this technique does not produce energetic negative ions, and therefore ion damage can be minimized. The quality of the AZO films strongly depends on the growth temperature while only marginal improvements are obtained with post-deposition annealing. The best films, grown at a temperature of about 200?C, have resistivities in the low to mid 10-4 Omega cm range with a transmittance better than 85percent in the visible part of the spectrum. It is remarkable that relatively good films of small thickness (60 nm) can be fabricated using this method.

  13. Growing LaAlO{sub 3}/SrTiO{sub 3} interfaces by sputter deposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dildar, I. M.; Neklyudova, M.; Xu, Q.; Zandbergen, H. W.; Harkema, S.; Boltje, D.; Aarts, J.

    2015-06-15

    Sputter deposition of oxide materials in a high-pressure oxygen atmosphere is a well-known technique to produce thin films of perovskite oxides in particular. Also interfaces can be fabricated, which we demonstrated recently by growing LaAlO{sub 3} on SrTiO{sub 3} substrates and showing that the interface showed the same high degree of epitaxy and atomic order as is made by pulsed laser deposition. However, the high pressure sputtering of oxides is not trivial and number of parameters are needed to be optimized for epitaxial growth. Here we elaborate on the earlier work to show that only a relatively small parameter window exists with respect to oxygen pressure, growth temperature, radiofrequency power supply and target to substrate distance. In particular the sensitivity to oxygen pressure makes it more difficult to vary the oxygen stoichiometry at the interface, yielding it insulating rather than conducting.

  14. Spectroscopic signatures of AA' and AB stacking of chemical vapor deposited bilayer MoS2

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Xia, Ming; Li, Bo; Yin, Kuibo; Capellini, Giovanni; Niu, Gang; Gong, Yongji; Zhou, Wu; Ajayan, Pulickel M.; Xie, Ya -Hong

    2015-11-04

    We discuss prominent resonance Raman and photoluminescence spectroscopic differences between AA'and AB stacked bilayer molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) grown by chemical vapor deposition are reported. Bilayer MoS2 islands consisting of the two stacking orders were obtained under identical growth conditions. Also, resonance Raman and photoluminescence spectra of AA' and AB stacked bilayer MoS2 were obtained on Au nanopyramid surfaces under strong plasmon resonance. Both resonance Raman and photoluminescence spectra show distinct features indicating clear differences in interlayer interaction between these two phases. The implication of these findings on device applications based on spin and valley degrees of freedom.

  15. Plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposition and etching of high-k gadolinium oxide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vitale, Steven A.; Wyatt, Peter W.; Hodson, Chris J.

    2012-01-15

    Atomic layer deposition (ALD) of high-quality gadolinium oxide thin films is achieved using Gd(iPrCp){sub 3} and O{sub 2} plasma. Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3} growth is observed from 150 to 350 deg. C, though the optical properties of the film improve at higher temperature. True layer-by-layer ALD growth of Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3} occurred in a relatively narrow window of temperature and precursor dose. A saturated growth rate of 1.4 A/cycle was observed at 250 deg. C. As the temperature increases, high-quality films are deposited, but the growth mechanism appears to become CVD-like, indicating the onset of precursor decomposition. At 250 deg. C, the refractive index of the film is stable at {approx}1.80 regardless of other deposition conditions, and the measured dispersion characteristics are comparable to those of bulk Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3}. XPS data show that the O/Gd ratio is oxygen deficient at 1.3, and that it is also very hygroscopic. The plasma etching rate of the ALD Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3} film in a high-density helicon reactor is very low. Little difference is observed in etching rate between Cl{sub 2} and pure Ar plasmas, suggesting that physical sputtering dominates the etching. A threshold bias power exists below which etching does not occur; thus it may be possible to etch a metal gate material and stop easily on the Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3} gate dielectric. The Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3} film has a dielectric constant of about 16, exhibits low C-V hysteresis, and allows a 50 x reduction in gate leakage compared to SiO{sub 2}. However, the plasma enhanced atomic layer deposition (PE-ALD) process causes formation of an {approx}1.8 nm SiO{sub 2} interfacial layer, and generates a fixed charge of -1.21 x 10{sup 12} cm{sup -2}, both of which may limit use of PE-ALD Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3} as a gate dielectric.

  16. Plasma stabilisation of metallic nanoparticles on silicon for the growth of carbon nanotubes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Esconjauregui, S.; Fouquet, M.; Bayer, B. C.; Gamalski, A. D.; Chen Bingan; Xie Rongsi; Hofmann, S.; Robertson, J.; Cepek, C.; Bhardwaj, S.; Ducati, C.

    2012-08-01

    Ammonia (NH{sub 3}) plasma pretreatment is used to form and temporarily reduce the mobility of Ni, Co, or Fe nanoparticles on boron-doped mono- and poly-crystalline silicon. X-ray photoemission spectroscopy proves that NH{sub 3} plasma nitrides the Si supports during nanoparticle formation which prevents excessive nanoparticle sintering/diffusion into the bulk of Si during carbon nanotube growth by chemical vapour deposition. The nitridation of Si thus leads to nanotube vertical alignment and the growth of nanotube forests by root growth mechanism.

  17. Predicting growth of graphene nanostructures using high-fidelity atomistic simulations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McCarty, Keven F.; Zhou, Xiaowang; Ward, Donald K.; Schultz, Peter A.; Foster, Michael E.; Bartelt, Norman Charles

    2015-09-01

    In this project we developed t he atomistic models needed to predict how graphene grows when carbon is deposited on metal and semiconductor surfaces. We first calculated energies of many carbon configurations using first principles electronic structure calculations and then used these energies to construct an empirical bond order potentials that enable s comprehensive molecular dynamics simulation of growth. We validated our approach by comparing our predictions to experiments of graphene growth on Ir, Cu and Ge. The robustness of ou r understanding of graphene growth will enable high quality graphene to be grown on novel substrates which will expand the number of potential types of graphene electronic devices.

  18. Plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposition of silicon dioxide films using plasma-activated triisopropylsilane as a precursor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jeon, Ki-Moon; Shin, Jae-Su; Yun, Ju-Young; Jun Lee, Sang; Kang, Sang-Woo

    2014-05-15

    The plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposition (PEALD) process was developed as a growth technique of SiO{sub 2} thin films using a plasma-activated triisopropylsilane [TIPS, ((iPr){sub 3}SiH)] precursor. TIPS was activated by an argon plasma at the precursor injection stage of the process. Using the activated TIPS, it was possible to control the growth rate per cycle of the deposited films by adjusting the plasma ignition time. The PEALD technique allowed deposition of SiO{sub 2} films at temperatures as low as 50 °C without carbon impurities. In addition, films obtained with plasma ignition times of 3 s and 10 s had similar values of root-mean-square surface roughness. In order to evaluate the suitability of TIPS as a precursor for low-temperature deposition of SiO{sub 2} films, the vapor pressure of TIPS was measured. The thermal stability and the reactivity of the gas-phase TIPS with respect to water vapor were also investigated by analyzing the intensity changes of the C–H and Si–H peaks in the Fourier-transform infrared spectrum of TIPS.

  19. Thermal and plasma enhanced atomic layer deposition of TiO{sub 2}: Comparison of spectroscopic and electric properties

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Das, Chittaranjan Henkel, Karsten; Tallarida, Massimo; Schmeißer, Dieter; Gargouri, Hassan; Kärkkänen, Irina; Schneidewind, Jessica; Gruska, Bernd; Arens, Michael

    2015-01-15

    Titanium oxide (TiO{sub 2}) deposited by atomic layer deposition (ALD) is used as a protective layer in photocatalytic water splitting system as well as a dielectric in resistive memory switching. The way ALD is performed (thermally or plasma-assisted) may change the growth rate as well as the electronic properties of the deposited films. In the present work, the authors verify the influence of the ALD mode on functional parameters, by comparing the growth rate and electronic properties of TiO{sub 2} films deposited by thermal (T-) and plasma-enhanced (PE-) ALD. The authors complete the study with the electrical characterization of selected samples by means of capacitance–voltage and current–voltage measurements. In all samples, the authors found a significant presence of Ti{sup 3+} states, with the lowest content in the PE-ALD grown TiO{sub 2} films. The observation of Ti{sup 3+} states was accompanied by the presence of in-gap states above the valence band maximum. For films thinner than 10 nm, the authors found also a strong leakage current. Also in this case, the PE-ALD films showed the weakest leakage currents, showing a correlation between the presence of Ti{sup 3+} states and leakage current density.

  20. Atomic layer deposition precursor step repetition and surface plasma pretreatment influence on semiconductor–insulator–semiconductor heterojunction solar cell

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Talkenberg, Florian Illhardt, Stefan; Schmidl, Gabriele; Schleusener, Alexander; Sivakov, Vladimir; Radnóczi, György Zoltán; Pécz, Béla; Dikhanbayev, Kadyrjan; Mussabek, Gauhar; Gudovskikh, Alexander

    2015-07-15

    Semiconductor–insulator–semiconductor heterojunction solar cells were prepared using atomic layer deposition (ALD) technique. The silicon surface was treated with oxygen and hydrogen plasma in different orders before dielectric layer deposition. A plasma-enhanced ALD process was applied to deposit dielectric Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} on the plasma pretreated n-type Si(100) substrate. Aluminum doped zinc oxide (Al:ZnO or AZO) was deposited by thermal ALD and serves as transparent conductive oxide. Based on transmission electron microscopy studies the presence of thin silicon oxide (SiO{sub x}) layer was detected at the Si/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} interface. The SiO{sub x} formation depends on the initial growth behavior of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and has significant influence on solar cell parameters. The authors demonstrate that a hydrogen plasma pretreatment and a precursor dose step repetition of a single precursor improve the initial growth behavior of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and avoid the SiO{sub x} generation. Furthermore, it improves the solar cell performance, which indicates a change of the Si/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} interface states.

  1. In Situ Localized Surface Plasmon Resonance (LSPR) Spectroscopy to Investigate Kinetics of Chemical Bath Deposition of CdS Thin Films

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Kalyanaraman, Ramki; Taz, Humaira; Ruther, Rose E.; Nanda, Jagjit

    2015-02-11

    Techniques that can characterize the early stages of thin film deposition from liquid phase processes can aid greatly in our understanding of mechanistic aspects of chemical bath deposition (CBD). Here we have used localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) spectroscopy to monitor in-situ the kinetics of early-stage growth of cadmium sulfide (CdS) thin films on Ag nanoparticle on quartz substrates. Real-time shift during CdS deposition showed that the LSPR wavelength red shifted rapidly due to random deposition of CdS on the substrate, but saturated at longer times. LSPR modeling showed that these features could be interpreted as an initial deposition ofmore » CdS islands followed by preferential deposition onto itself. The CdS also showed significantly enhanced Raman signals up to 170 times due to surface enhanced raman scattering (SERS) from the CdS/Ag NP regions. The ex-situ SERS effect supported the LSPR shift suggesting that these techniques could be used to understand nucleation and growth phenomena from the liquid phase.« less

  2. Nanowire growth by an electron beam induced massive phase transformation

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Sood, Shantanu; Kisslinger, Kim; Gouma, Perena

    2014-11-15

    Tungsten trioxide nanowires of a high aspect ratio have been synthesized in-situ in a TEM under an electron beam of current density 14A/cm² due to a massive polymorphic reaction. Sol-gel processed pseudocubic phase nanocrystals of tungsten trioxide were seen to rapidly transform to one dimensional monoclinic phase configurations, and this reaction was independent of the substrate on which the material was deposited. The mechanism of the self-catalyzed polymorphic transition and accompanying radical shape change is a typical characteristic of metastable to stable phase transformations in nanostructured polymorphic metal oxides. A heuristic model is used to confirm the metastable to stablemore » growth mechanism. The findings are important to the control electron beam deposition of nanowires for functional applications starting from colloidal precursors.« less

  3. Nanowire growth by an electron beam induced massive phase transformation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sood, Shantanu; Kisslinger, Kim; Gouma, Perena

    2014-11-15

    Tungsten trioxide nanowires of a high aspect ratio have been synthesized in-situ in a TEM under an electron beam of current density 14A/cm² due to a massive polymorphic reaction. Sol-gel processed pseudocubic phase nanocrystals of tungsten trioxide were seen to rapidly transform to one dimensional monoclinic phase configurations, and this reaction was independent of the substrate on which the material was deposited. The mechanism of the self-catalyzed polymorphic transition and accompanying radical shape change is a typical characteristic of metastable to stable phase transformations in nanostructured polymorphic metal oxides. A heuristic model is used to confirm the metastable to stable growth mechanism. The findings are important to the control electron beam deposition of nanowires for functional applications starting from colloidal precursors.

  4. Nanowire growth by an electron beam induced massive phase transformation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sood, Shantanu; Kisslinger, Kim; Gouma, Perena

    2014-11-15

    Tungsten trioxide nanowires of a high aspect ratio have been synthesized in-situ in a TEM under an electron beam of current density 14A/cm due to a massive polymorphic reaction. Sol-gel processed pseudocubic phase nanocrystals of tungsten trioxide were seen to rapidly transform to one dimensional monoclinic phase configurations, and this reaction was independent of the substrate on which the material was deposited. The mechanism of the self-catalyzed polymorphic transition and accompanying radical shape change is a typical characteristic of metastable to stable phase transformations in nanostructured polymorphic metal oxides. A heuristic model is used to confirm the metastable to stable growth mechanism. The findings are important to the control electron beam deposition of nanowires for functional applications starting from colloidal precursors.

  5. Final Report- Vapor Transport Deposition for III-V Thin Film Photovoltaics

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Silicon, the dominant photovoltaic (PV) technology, is reaching its fundamental performance limits as a single absorber/junction technology. Higher efficiency devices are needed to reduce cost further because the balance of systems account for about two-thirds of the overall cost of the solar electricity. III-V semiconductors such as GaAs are used to make the highest-efficiency photovoltaic devices, but the costs of manufacture are much too high for non-concentrated terrestrial applications. The cost of III-V’s is driven by two factors: (1) metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD), the dominant growth technology, employs expensive, toxic and pyrophoric gas-phase precursors, and (2) the growth substrates conventionally required for high-performance devices are monocrystalline III-V wafers.

  6. Growth modes of thin films of ligand-free metal clusters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dollinger, A.; Strobel, C. H.; Bleuel, H.; Marsteller, A.; Gantefoer, G.; Fairbrother, D. H.; Tang, Xin; Bowen, K. H.; Kim, Young Dok

    2015-05-21

    Size-selected Mo{sub n}{sup ?}, W{sub n}{sup ?}, and Fe{sub n}{sup ?} cluster anions are deposited on a weakly interacting substrate (highly oriented pyrolytic graphite) and studied ex-situ using atomic force microscopy. Depending on size, three growth modes can be distinguished. Very small clusters consisting of less than 1030 atoms behave similar to atoms and coalesce into 3-dimensional bulk-like islands. Medium sized clusters consisting of hundreds of atoms do not coalesce and follow a Stanski-Krastanov growth pattern. At low coverage, an almost perfect monolayer is formed. This is a new finding different from all previous studies on deposited metal clusters. For clusters with several thousands of atoms, the growth pattern again changes. At low coverage, the substrate is dotted with individual clusters, while at high coverage, the surface becomes extremely rough.

  7. APPARATUS FOR VACUUM DEPOSITION OF METALS

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Milleron, N.

    1962-03-13

    An apparatus and a method are described for continuous vacuum deposition of metals for metallic coatings, for ultra-high vacuum work, for purification of metals, for maintaining high-density electron currents, and for other uses. The apparatus comprises an externally cooled feeder tube extending into a container and adapted to feed metal wire or strip so that it emerges in a generally vertical position therein. The tube also provides shielding from the heat produced by an electron beam therein focused to impinge from a vertical direction upon the tip of the emerging wire. By proper control of the wire feed, coolant feed, and electron beam intensity, a molten ball of metal forms upon the emerging tip and remains self-supported thereon by the interaction of various forces. The metal is vaporized and travels in a line of sight direction, while additional wire is fed from the tube, so that the size of the molten ball remains constant. In the preferred embodiments, the wire is selected from a number of gettering metals and is degassed by electrical resistance in an adjacent chamber which is also partially evacuated. The wire is then fed through the feed tube into the electron beam and vaporizes and adsorbs gases to provide pumping action while being continuously deposited upon surfaces within the chamber. Ion pump electrodes may also be provided within line of sight of the vaporizing metal source to enhance the pumping action. (AEC)

  8. Aerosol deposition in bends with turbulent flow

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McFarland, A.R.; Gong, H.; Wente, W.B.

    1997-08-01

    The losses of aerosol particles in bends were determined numerically for a broad range of design and operational conditions. Experimental data were used to check the validity of the numerical model, where the latter employs a commercially available computational fluid dynamics code for characterizing the fluid flow field and Lagrangian particle tracking technique for characterizing aerosol losses. Physical experiments have been conducted to examine the effect of curvature ratio and distortion of the cross section of bends. If it curvature ratio ({delta} = R/a) is greater than about 4, it has little effect on deposition, which is in contrast with the recommendation given in ANSI N13.1-1969 for a minimum curvature ratio of 10. Also, experimental results show that if the tube cross section is flattened by 25% or less, the flattening also has little effect on deposition. Results of numerical tests have been used to develop a correlation of aerosol penetration through a bend as a function of Stokes number (Stk), curvature ratio ({delta}) and the bend angle ({theta}). 17 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs.

  9. FACET Emittance Growth

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Frederico, J; Hogan, M.J.; Nosochkov, Y.; Litos, M.D.; Raubenheimer, T.; /SLAC

    2011-04-05

    FACET, the Facility for Advanced Accelerator and Experimental Tests, is a new facility being constructed in sector 20 of the SLAC linac primarily to study beam driven plasma wakefield acceleration. The FACET beamline consists of a chicane and final focus system to compress the 23 GeV, 3.2 nC electron bunches to {approx}20 {micro}m long and {approx}10 {micro}m wide. Simulations of the FACET beamline indicate the short-duration and large, 1.5% rms energy spread beams may suffer a factor of four emittance growth from a combination of chromaticity, incoherent synchrotron radiation (ISR), and coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR). Emittance growth is directly correlated to head erosion in plasma wakefield acceleration and is a limiting factor in single stage performance. Studies of the geometric, CSR, and ISR components are presented. Numerical calculation of the rms emittance can be overwhelmed by long tails in the simulated phase space distributions; more useful definitions of emittance are given. A complete simulation of the beamline is presented as well, which agrees with design specifications.

  10. On the physical and chemical details of alumina atomic layer deposition: A combined experimental and numerical approach

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pan, Dongqing; Ma, Lulu; Xie, Yuanyuan; Yuan, Chris; Jen, Tien Chien

    2015-03-15

    Alumina thin film is typically studied as a model atomic layer deposition (ALD) process due to its high dielectric constant, high thermal stability, and good adhesion on various wafer surfaces. Despite extensive applications of alumina ALD in microelectronics industries, details on the physical and chemical processes are not yet well understood. ALD experiments are not able to shed adequate light on the detailed information regarding the transient ALD process. Most of current numerical approaches lack detailed surface reaction mechanisms, and their results are not well correlated with experimental observations. In this paper, the authors present a combined experimental and numerical study on the details of flow and surface reactions in alumina ALD using trimethylaluminum and water as precursors. Results obtained from experiments and simulations are compared and correlated. By experiments, growth rate on five samples under different deposition conditions is characterized. The deposition rate from numerical simulation agrees well with the experimental results. Details of precursor distributions in a full cycle of ALD are studied numerically to bridge between experimental observations and simulations. The 3D transient numerical model adopts surface reaction kinetics and mechanisms based on atomic-level studies to investigate the surface deposition process. Surface deposition is shown as a strictly self-limited process in our numerical studies. ALD is a complex strong-coupled fluid, thermal and chemical process, which is not only heavily dependent on the chemical kinetics and surface conditions but also on the flow and material distributions.

  11. Electrical performance of phase change memory cells with Ge{sub 3}Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 6} deposited by molecular beam epitaxy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boschker, Jos E.; Riechert, Henning; Calarco, Raffaella; Boniardi, Mattia; Redaelli, Andrea

    2015-01-12

    Here, we report on the electrical characterization of phase change memory cells containing a Ge{sub 3}Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 6} (GST) alloy grown in its crystalline form by Molecular Beam Epitaxy (MBE). It is found that the high temperature growth on the amorphous substrate results in a polycrystalline film exhibiting a rough surface with a grain size of approximately 80150?nm. A detailed electrical characterization has been performed, including I-V characteristic curves, programming curves, set operation performance, crystallization activation at low temperature, and resistance drift, in order to determine the material related parameters. The results indicate very good alignment of the electrical parameters with the current state-of-the-art GST, deposited by physical vapor deposition. Such alignment enables a possible employment of the MBE deposition technique for chalcogenide materials in the phase change memory technology, thus leading to future studies of as-deposited crystalline chalcogenides as integrated in electrical vehicles.

  12. High-quality and high-purity homoepitaxial diamond (100) film growth under high oxygen concentration condition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Teraji, Tokuyuki

    2015-09-21

    Defect formation during diamond homoepitaxial growth was sufficiently inhibited by adding oxygen simultaneously in the growth ambient with high concentration of 2%. A 30-μm thick diamond films with surface roughness of <2 nm were homoepitaxially deposited on the (100) diamond single crystal substrates with reasonable growth rate of approximately 3 μm h{sup −1} under the conditions of higher methane concentration of 10%, higher substrate temperature of ∼1000 °C, and higher microwave power density condition of >100 W cm{sup −3}. Surface characteristic patterns moved to an identical direction with growth thickness, indicating that lateral growth was dominant growth mode. High chemical purity represented by low nitrogen concentration of less than 1 ppb and the highest {sup 12}C isotopic ratio of 99.998% of the obtained homoepitaxial diamond (100) films suggest that the proposed growth condition has high ability of impurity control.

  13. Improvement of adhesion and barrier properties of biomedical stainless steel by deposition of YSZ coatings using RF magnetron sputtering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sánchez-Hernández, Z.E.; Domínguez-Crespo, M.A.; Torres-Huerta, A.M.; Onofre-Bustamante, E.; Andraca Adame, J.; Dorantes-Rosales, H.

    2014-05-01

    The AISI 316L stainless steel (SS) has been widely used in both artificial knee and hip joints in biomedical applications. In the present study, yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ, ZrO{sub 2} + 8% Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}) films were deposited on AISI 316L SS by radio-frequency magnetron sputtering using different power densities (50–250 W) and deposition times (30–120 min) from a YSZ target. The crystallographic orientation and surface morphology were studied using X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The effects of the surface modification on the corrosion performance of AISI 316L SS were evaluated in phosphate buffered saline (PBS) solution using an electrochemical test on both the virgin and coated samples. The YSZ coatings have a (111) preferred orientation during crystal growth along the c-axis for short deposition times (30–60 min), whereas a polycrystalline structure forms during deposition times from 90 to 120 min. The corrosion protective character of the YSZ coatings depends on the crystal size and film thickness. A significant increase in adhesion and corrosion resistance by at least a factor of 46 and a higher breakdown potential were obtained for the deposited coatings at 200 W (120 min). - Highlights: • Well-formed and protective YSZ coatings were achieved on AISI 316L SS substrates. • Films grown at high power and long deposition time have polycrystalline structures. • The crystal size varies from ∼ 5 to 30 nm as both power and deposition time increased. • The differences of corrosion resistance are attributed to internal film structure.

  14. Global Green Growth Institute | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Growth Institute Redirect page Jump to: navigation, search REDIRECT Green Growth Strategy Support Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgwindex.php?titleGlobalGreenGrowthIn...

  15. Graphene Monolayer Rotation on Ni(111) Facilities Bilayer Graphene Growth

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Batzill M.; Sutter P.; Dahal, A.; Addou, R.

    2012-06-11

    Synthesis of bilayer graphene by chemical vapor deposition is of importance for graphene-based field effect devices. Here, we demonstrate that bilayer graphene preferentially grows by carbon-segregation under graphene sheets that are rotated relative to a Ni(111) substrate. Rotated graphene monolayer films can be synthesized at growth temperatures above 650 C on a Ni(111) thin-film. The segregated second graphene layer is in registry with the Ni(111) substrate and this suppresses further C-segregation, effectively self-limiting graphene formation to two layers.

  16. Analysis of vapor-liquid-solid mechanism in Au-assisted GaAs nanowire growth

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harmand, J.C.; Patriarche, G.; Pere-Laperne, N.; Merat-Combes, M-N.; Travers, L.; Glas, F.

    2005-11-14

    GaAs nanowires were grown by molecular-beam epitaxy on (111)B oriented surfaces, after the deposition of Au nanoparticles. Different growth durations and different growth terminations were tested. After the growth of the nanowires, the structure and the composition of the metallic particles were analyzed by transmission electron microscopy and energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy. We identified three different metallic compounds: the hexagonal {beta}{sup '}Au{sub 7}Ga{sub 2} structure, the orthorhombic AuGa structure, and an almost pure Au face centered cubic structure. We explain how these different solid phases are related to the growth history of the samples. It is concluded that during the wire growth, the metallic particles are liquid, in agreement with the generally accepted vapor-liquid-solid mechanism. In addition, the analysis of the wire morphology indicates that Ga adatoms migrate along the wire sidewalls with a mean length of about 3 {mu}m.

  17. Modeling precursor diffusion and reaction of atomic layer deposition in porous structures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Keuter, Thomas, E-mail: t.keuter@fz-juelich.de; Menzler, Norbert Heribert; Mauer, Georg; Vondahlen, Frank; Vaen, Robert; Buchkremer, Hans Peter [Forschungszentrum Jlich, Institute of Energy and Climate Research (IEK-1), 52425 Jlich (Germany)

    2015-01-01

    Atomic layer deposition (ALD) is a technique for depositing thin films of materials with a precise thickness control and uniformity using the self-limitation of the underlying reactions. Usually, it is difficult to predict the result of the ALD process for given external parameters, e.g., the precursor exposure time or the size of the precursor molecules. Therefore, a deeper insight into ALD by modeling the process is needed to improve process control and to achieve more economical coatings. In this paper, a detailed, microscopic approach based on the model developed by Yanguas-Gil and Elam is presented and additionally compared with the experiment. Precursor diffusion and second-order reaction kinetics are combined to identify the influence of the porous substrate's microstructural parameters and the influence of precursor properties on the coating. The thickness of the deposited film is calculated for different depths inside the porous structure in relation to the precursor exposure time, the precursor vapor pressure, and other parameters. Good agreement with experimental results was obtained for ALD zirconiumdioxide (ZrO{sub 2}) films using the precursors tetrakis(ethylmethylamido)zirconium and O{sub 2}. The derivation can be adjusted to describe other features of ALD processes, e.g., precursor and reactive site losses, different growth modes, pore size reduction, and surface diffusion.

  18. Study of CNT growth using nanocatalyst Ag precursor by HWC-VHF-PECVD

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eliyana, Ajeng; Rosikin, Ahmad; Winata, Toto

    2015-04-16

    The study of CNT growth has been done by using silver (Ag) nanocatalyst as a guide precursor on corning glass 7059 substrate. The silver catalyst was prepared by the evaporation method by varying deposition time for 50, 25, and 14 seconds. The silver films were then annealed at temperature of 400C for 4 hours. From Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) and Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDX) results the grain sizes are 65?nm, 57?nm, and 33?nm, and also the atomic compositions are 6,06%, 4,52%, and 3,73% for 14, 25 and 50 seconds samples, respectively. The 33?nm samples were then used for CNT growth by using Hot Wire Cell (HWC) Very High Frequency (VHF) Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition (PECVD) at 275 C deposition temperature and pressure of 300 mTorr. The rf power was varied from 8 to 20 watts, with deposition time for 60 minutes. The methane (CH4) 99.999% was used as Carbon sources. Hydrogen gas (H2) was used to etch the oxide layer formed during the pre-deposition process. The diameter and length for the CNT are 125?nm and 1.650 to 2.989?nm respectively.

  19. Tuning the properties of Ge-quantum dots superlattices in amorphous silica matrix through deposition conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pinto, S. R. C.; Ramos, M. M. D.; Gomes, M. J. M.; Buljan, M.; Chahboun, A.; Roldan, M. A.; Molina, S. I.; Bernstorff, S.; Varela, M.; Pennycook, S. J.; Barradas, N. P.; Alves, E.

    2012-04-01

    In this work, we investigate the structural properties of Ge quantum dot lattices in amorphous silica matrix, prepared by low-temperature magnetron sputtering deposition of (Ge+SiO{sub 2})/SiO{sub 2} multilayers. The dependence of quantum dot shape, size, separation, and arrangement type on the Ge-rich (Ge + SiO{sub 2}) layer thickness is studied. We show that the quantum dots are elongated along the growth direction, perpendicular to the multilayer surface. The size of the quantum dots and their separation along the growth direction can be tuned by changing the Ge-rich layer thickness. The average value of the quantum dots size along the lateral (in-plane) direction along with their lateral separation is not affected by the thickness of the Ge-rich layer. However, the thickness of the Ge-rich layer significantly affects the quantum dot ordering. In addition, we investigate the dependence of the multilayer average atomic composition and also the quantum dot crystalline quality on the deposition parameters.

  20. Synthesis, deposition and characterization of magnesium hydroxide nanostructures on zeolite 4A

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koh, Pei-Yoong; Yan, Jing; Ward, Jason; Koros, William J.; Teja, Amyn S.; Xu, Bo

    2011-03-15

    Research highlights: {yields} Reports a simple precipitation-growth method to produce nanostructures of Mg(OH){sub 2} on the surface of zeolite 4A. {yields} Able to control the growth of the nanostructures by manipulating the experimental procedure. {yields} Able to deposit Mg(OH){sub 2} onto specific sites namely bridging hydroxyl protons (SiOHAl) on the surface of zeolite 4A. -- Abstract: The precipitation and self-assembly of magnesium hydroxide Mg(OH){sub 2} nanopetals on dispersed zeolite 4A particles was investigated. Mg(OH){sub 2}/zeolite nanocomposites were produced from magnesium chloride solutions and characterized via X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared analysis (FTIR), and solid state NMR. It was determined that Mg(OH){sub 2} interacted with bridging hydroxyl protons (SiOHAl) on the zeolite surface, but not with silanol or aluminol groups. NMR analysis showed that 13% of the tetrahedral Al sites on the zeolite were converted to octahedral Al. The zeolite structure and crystallinity remained intact after treatment, and no dealumination reactions were detected. This suggests that the deposition-precipitation process at ambient conditions is a facile method for controlling Mg(OH){sub 2} nanostructures on zeolites.

  1. Vacuum deposition and curing of liquid monomers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Affinito, J.D.

    1995-03-07

    The present invention is the formation of solid polymer layers under vacuum. More specifically, the present invention is the use of ``standard`` polymer layer-making equipment that is generally used in an atmospheric environment in a vacuum, and degassing the monomer material prior to injection into the vacuum. Additional layers of polymer or metal or oxide may be vacuum deposited onto solid polymer layers. Formation of polymer layers under a vacuum improves material and surface characteristics, and subsequent quality of bonding to additional layers. Further advantages include use of less to no photoinitiator for curing, faster curing, fewer impurities in the polymer electrolyte, as well as improvement in material properties including no trapped gas resulting in greater density, and reduced monomer wetting angle that facilitates spreading of the monomer and provides a smoother finished surface.

  2. Vacuum deposition and curing of liquid monomers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Affinito, John D. (Richland, WA)

    1993-01-01

    The present invention is the formation of solid polymer layers under vacuum. More specifically, the present invention is the use of "standard" polymer layer-making equipment that is generally used in an atmospheric environment in a vacuum, and degassing the monomer material prior to injection into the vacuum. Additional layers of polymer or metal may be vacuum deposited onto solid polymer layers. Formation of polymer layers under a vacuum improves material and surface characteristics, and subsequent quality of bonding to additional layers. Further advantages include use of less to no photoinitiator for curing, faster curing, fewer impurities in the polymer electrolyte, as well as improvement in material properties including no trapped gas resulting in greater density, and reduced monomer wetting angle that facilitates spreading of the monomer and provides a smoother finished surface.

  3. Vacuum deposition and curing of liquid monomers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Affinito, John D. (Kennewick, WA)

    1995-01-01

    The present invention is the formation of solid polymer layers under vacuum. More specifically, the present invention is the use of "standard" polymer layer-making equipment that is generally used in an atmospheric environment in a vacuum, and degassing the monomer material prior to injection into the vacuum. Additional layers of polymer or metal or oxide may be vacuum deposited onto solid polymer layers. Formation of polymer layers under a vacuum improves material and surface characteristics, and subsequent quality of bonding to additional layers. Further advantages include use of less to no photoinitiator for curing, faster curing, fewer impurities in the polymer electrolyte, as well as improvement in material properties including no trapped gas resulting in greater density, and reduced monomer wetting angle that facilitates spreading of the monomer and provides a smoother finished surface.

  4. Vacuum deposition and curing of liquid monomers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Affinito, J.D.

    1993-11-09

    The present invention is the formation of solid polymer layers under vacuum. More specifically, the present invention is the use of standard polymer layer-making equipment that is generally used in an atmospheric environment in a vacuum, and degassing the monomer material prior to injection into the vacuum. Additional layers of polymer or metal may be vacuum deposited onto solid polymer layers. Formation of polymer layers under a vacuum improves material and surface characteristics, and subsequent quality of bonding to additional layers. Further advantages include use of less to no photoinitiator for curing, faster curing, fewer impurities in the polymer electrolyte, as well as improvement in material properties including no trapped gas resulting in greater density, and reduced monomer wetting angle that facilitates spreading of the monomer and provides a smoother finished surface.

  5. Electro-deposition of superconductor oxide films

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bhattacharya, Raghu N.

    2001-01-01

    Methods for preparing high quality superconducting oxide precursors which are well suited for further oxidation and annealing to form superconducting oxide films. The method comprises forming a multilayered superconducting precursor on a substrate by providing an electrodeposition bath comprising an electrolyte medium and a substrate electrode, and providing to the bath a plurality of precursor metal salts which are capable of exhibiting superconducting properties upon subsequent treatment. The superconducting precursor is then formed by electrodepositing a first electrodeposited (ED) layer onto the substrate electrode, followed by depositing a layer of silver onto the first electrodeposited (ED) layer, and then electrodepositing a second electrodeposited (ED) layer onto the Ag layer. The multilayered superconducting precursor is suitable for oxidation at a sufficient annealing temperature in air or an oxygen-containing atmosphere to form a crystalline superconducting oxide film.

  6. Method and apparatus for electrospark deposition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bailey, Jeffrey A.; Johnson, Roger N.; Park, Walter R.; Munley, John T.

    2004-12-28

    A method and apparatus for controlling electrospark deposition (ESD) comprises using electrical variable waveforms from the ESD process as a feedback parameter. The method comprises measuring a plurality of peak amplitudes from a series of electrical energy pulses delivered to an electrode tip. The maximum peak value from among the plurality of peak amplitudes correlates to the contact force between the electrode tip and a workpiece. The method further comprises comparing the maximum peak value to a set point to determine an offset and optimizing the contact force according to the value of the offset. The apparatus comprises an electrode tip connected to an electrical energy wave generator and an electrical signal sensor, which connects to a high-speed data acquisition card. An actuator provides relative motion between the electrode tip and a workpiece by receiving a feedback drive signal from a processor that is operably connected to the actuator and the high-speed data acquisition card.

  7. Nanostructure templating using low temperature atomic layer deposition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grubbs, Robert K.; Bogart, Gregory R.; Rogers, John A.

    2011-12-20

    Methods are described for making nanostructures that are mechanically, chemically and thermally stable at desired elevated temperatures, from nanostructure templates having a stability temperature that is less than the desired elevated temperature. The methods comprise depositing by atomic layer deposition (ALD) structural layers that are stable at the desired elevated temperatures, onto a template employing a graded temperature deposition scheme. At least one structural layer is deposited at an initial temperature that is less than or equal to the stability temperature of the template, and subsequent depositions made at incrementally increased deposition temperatures until the desired elevated temperature stability is achieved. Nanostructure templates include three dimensional (3D) polymeric templates having features on the order of 100 nm fabricated by proximity field nanopatterning (PnP) methods.

  8. Co-GISAXS technique for investigating surface growth dynamics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rainville, Meliha G.; Hoskin, Christa; Ulbrandt, Jeffrey G.; Narayanan, Suresh; Sandy, Alec R.; Zhou, Hua; Headrick, Randall L.; Ludwig, Jr., Karl F.

    2015-12-08

    Detailed quantitative measurement of surface dynamics during thin film growth is a major experimental challenge. Here X-ray Photon Correlation Spectroscopy with coherent hard X-rays is used in a Grazing-Incidence Small-Angle X-ray Scattering (i.e. Co-GISAXS) geometry as a new tool to investigate nanoscale surface dynamics during sputter deposition of a-Si and a-WSi2 thin films. For both films, kinetic roughening during surface growth reaches a dynamic steady state at late times in which the intensity autocorrelation function g2(q,t) becomes stationary. The g2(q,t) functions exhibit compressed exponential behavior at all wavenumbers studied. The overall dynamics are complex, but the most surface sensitive sections of the structure factor and correlation time exhibit power law behaviors consistent with dynamical scaling.

  9. Two-stage epitaxial growth of vertically-aligned SnO2 nano-rods on(001) ceria

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Solovyov, Vyacheslav F.; Wu, Li-jun; Rupich, Martin W.; Sathyamurthy, Srivatsan; Li, Xiaoping; Li, Qiang

    2014-09-20

    Growth of high-aspect ratio oriented tin oxide, SnO2, nano-rods is complicated by a limited choice of matching substrates. We show that a (001) cerium oxide, CeO2, surface uniquely enables epitaxial growth of tin-oxide nano-rods via a two-stage process. First, (100) oriented nano-wires coat the ceria surface by lateral growth, forming a uniaxially-textured SnO2 deposit. Second, vertical SnO2nano-rods nucleate on the deposit by homoepitaxy. We demonstrate growth of vertically oriented 1-2 μm long nano-rods with an average diameter of ≈20 nm.

  10. Two-stage epitaxial growth of vertically-aligned SnO2 nano-rods on (001) ceria

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Solovyov, VF; Wu, LJ; Rupich, MW; Sathyamurthy, S; Li, XP; Li, Q

    2014-12-15

    Growth of high-aspect ratio oriented tin oxide, SnO2, nano-rods is complicated by a limited choice of matching substrates. We show that a (001) cerium oxide, CeO2, surface uniquely enables epitaxial growth of tin-oxide nano-rods via a two-stage process. First, (100) oriented nano-wires coat the ceria surface by lateral growth, forming a uniaxially-textured SnO2 deposit. Second, vertical SnO2 nano-rods nucleate on the deposit by homoepitaxy. We demonstrate growth of vertically oriented 1-2 mu m long nano-rods with an average diameter of approximate to 20 nm. 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Deposition method for producing silicon carbide high-temperature semiconductors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hsu, George C.; Rohatgi, Naresh K.

    1987-01-01

    An improved deposition method for producing silicon carbide high-temperature semiconductor material comprising placing a semiconductor substrate composed of silicon carbide in a fluidized bed silicon carbide deposition reactor, fluidizing the bed particles by hydrogen gas in a mildly bubbling mode through a gas distributor and heating the substrate at temperatures around 1200.degree.-1500.degree. C. thereby depositing a layer of silicon carbide on the semiconductor substrate.

  12. Reduction of particle deposition on substrates using temperature gradient control

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rader, Daniel J.; Dykhuizen, Ronald C.; Geller, Anthony S.

    2000-01-01

    A method of reducing particle deposition during the fabrication of microelectronic circuitry is presented. Reduction of particle deposition is accomplished by controlling the relative temperatures of various parts of the deposition system so that a large temperature gradient near the surface on which fabrication is taking place exists. This temperature gradient acts to repel particles from that surface, thereby producing cleaner surfaces, and thus obtaining higher yields from a given microelectronic fabrication process.

  13. Indium Oxide Thin Films by Atomic Layer Deposition Using Trimethylindium

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and Ozone | Argonne National Laboratory Indium Oxide Thin Films by Atomic Layer Deposition Using Trimethylindium and Ozone Title Indium Oxide Thin Films by Atomic Layer Deposition Using Trimethylindium and Ozone Publication Type Journal Article Year of Publication 2016 Authors Mane, AU, Allen, AJ, Kanjolia, RK, Elam, JW Journal Journal of Physical Chemistry C Volume 120 Start Page 9874 Issue 18 Pagination 10 Date Published 04182016 Abstract We investigated the atomic layer deposition (ALD)

  14. Deposition of copper coatings in a magnetron with liquid target

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tumarkin, A. V. Kaziev, A. V.; Kolodko, D. V.; Pisarev, A. A.; Kharkov, M. M.; Khodachenko, G. V.

    2015-12-15

    Copper coatings were deposited on monocrystalline Si substrates using a magnetron discharge with a liquid cathode in the metal vapour plasma. During the deposition, the bias voltage in the range from 0 V to–400 V was applied to the substrate. The prepared films were investigated by a scanning electron microscope, and their adhesive properties were studied using a scratch tester. It was demonstrated that the adhesion of the deposited films strongly depends on the bias voltage and varies in a wide range.

  15. Roll-to-roll atomic layer deposition process for flexible electronics encapsulation applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maydannik, Philipp S. Kriinen, Tommi O.; Lahtinen, Kimmo; Cameron, David C.; Sderlund, Mikko; Soininen, Pekka; Johansson, Petri; Kuusipalo, Jurkka; Moro, Lorenza; Zeng, Xianghui

    2014-09-01

    At present flexible electronic devices are under extensive development and, among them, flexible organic light-emitting diode displays are the closest to a large market deployment. One of the remaining unsolved challenges is high throughput production of impermeable flexible transparent barrier layers that protect sensitive light-emitting materials against ambient moisture. The present studies deal with the adaptation of the atomic layer deposition (ALD) process to high-throughput roll-to-roll production using the spatial ALD concept. We report the development of such a process for the deposition of 20?nm thickness Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} diffusion barrier layers on 500?mm wide polymer webs. The process uses trimethylaluminum and water as precursors at a substrate temperature of 105?C. The observation of self-limiting film growth behavior and uniformity of thickness confirms the ALD growth mechanism. Water vapor transmission rates for 20?nm Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} films deposited on polyethylene naphthalate (PEN) substrates were measured as a function of substrate residence time, that is, time of exposure of the substrate to one precursor zone. Moisture permeation levels measured at 38?C/90% relative humidity by coulometric isostaticisobaric method were below the detection limit of the instrument (<5??10{sup ?4}?g/m{sup 2} day) for films coated at web moving speed of 0.25?m/min. Measurements using the Ca test indicated water vapor transmission rates ?5??10{sup ?6} g/m{sup 2} day. Optical measurements on the coated web showed minimum transmission of 80% in the visible range that is the same as the original PEN substrate.

  16. CX-013386: Categorical Exclusion Determination

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Chemical Vapor Deposition CX(s) Applied: B3.6Date: 01/07/2015 Location(s): South CarolinaOffices(s): Savannah River Operations Office

  17. CX-014651: Categorical Exclusion Determination

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Chemical Vapor Deposition CX(s) Applied: B3.6Date: 02/17/2016 Location(s): South CarolinaOffices(s): Savannah River Operations Office

  18. Spatial correlation of energy deposition events in irradiated...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    events in irradiated liquid water Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Spatial correlation of energy deposition events in irradiated liquid water You are accessing a ...

  19. Spatial correlation of energy deposition events in irradiated...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    events in irradiated liquid water Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Spatial correlation of energy deposition events in irradiated liquid water Monte Carlo electron ...

  20. Remote Detection of Quaternary Borate Deposits with ASTER Satellite...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Deposits with ASTER Satellite Imagery as a Geothermal Exploration Tool Abstract In the Great Basin of the western United States, geothermal fluids are sometimes associated with...

  1. Analysis Of Hot Springs And Associated Deposits In Yellowstone...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) and the Airborne VisibleIR Image Spectrometer (AVIRIS) data were used to characterize hot spring deposits in the...

  2. Plasma sprayed and electrospark deposited zirconium metal diffusion barrier coatings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hollis, Kendall J; Pena, Maria I

    2010-01-01

    Zirconium metal coatings applied by plasma spraying and electrospark deposition (ESD) have been investigated for use as diffusion barrier coatings on low enrichment uranium fuel for research nuclear reactors. The coatings have been applied to both stainless steel as a surrogate and to simulated nuclear fuel uranium-molybdenum alloy substrates. Deposition parameter development accompanied by coating characterization has been performed. The structure of the plasma sprayed coating was shown to vary with transferred arc current during deposition. The structure of ESD coatings was shown to vary with the capacitance of the deposition equipment.

  3. Atomic Layer Deposition for Stabilization of Amorphous Silicon...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    More Documents & Publications Nanostructured Metal Oxide Anodes Atomic Layer Deposition for Stabilization of Silicon Anodes Development of Industrially Viable Battery Electrode ...

  4. Rhyolites and Associated Deposits of the Valles-Toledo Caldera...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Complex Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Journal Article: Rhyolites and Associated Deposits of the Valles-Toledo Caldera Complex Abstract...

  5. Deposition of dopant impurities and pulsed energy drive-in

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wickboldt, Paul; Carey, Paul G.; Smith, Patrick M.; Ellingboe, Albert R.

    2008-01-01

    A semiconductor doping process which enhances the dopant incorporation achievable using the Gas Immersion Laser Doping (GILD) technique. The enhanced doping is achieved by first depositing a thin layer of dopant atoms on a semiconductor surface followed by exposure to one or more pulses from either a laser or an ion-beam which melt a portion of the semiconductor to a desired depth, thus causing the dopant atoms to be incorporated into the molten region. After the molten region recrystallizes the dopant atoms are electrically active. The dopant atoms are deposited by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) or other known deposition techniques.

  6. CHEMICAL SOLUTION DEPOSITION BASED OXIDE BUFFERS AND YBCO COATED...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    to obtain the flexible, biaxially oriented copper, nickel or nickel-alloy substrates. Buffers and Rare Earth Barium Copper Oxide (REBCO) superconductors have been deposited ...

  7. Atomic Layer Deposition and in Situ Characterization of Ultraclean...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Hydroxide Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Atomic Layer Deposition and in Situ Characterization of Ultraclean Lithium Oxide and Lithium Hydroxide Authors: Kozen,...

  8. Evaluation of Wax Deposition and Its Control During Production...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: Evaluation of Wax Deposition and Its Control During Production of Alaska North Slope Oils Due to increasing oil demand, oil companies are moving into arctic environments and ...

  9. EGR Cooler Fouling- Visualization of Deposition and Removal Mechanis

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presents experimental data on exhaust gas recirculation(EGR) cooler fouling using new test apparatus that allows for in-situ observation of deposition and removal processes

  10. Deposition of dopant impurities and pulsed energy drive-in

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wickboldt, P.; Carey, P.G.; Smith, P.M.; Ellingboe, A.R.

    1999-06-29

    A semiconductor doping process which enhances the dopant incorporation achievable using the Gas Immersion Laser Doping (GILD) technique is disclosed. The enhanced doping is achieved by first depositing a thin layer of dopant atoms on a semiconductor surface followed by exposure to one or more pulses from either a laser or an ion-beam which melt a portion of the semiconductor to a desired depth, thus causing the dopant atoms to be incorporated into the molten region. After the molten region recrystallizes the dopant atoms are electrically active. The dopant atoms are deposited by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) or other known deposition techniques. 2 figs.

  11. Deposition of dopant impurities and pulsed energy drive-in

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wickboldt, Paul; Carey, Paul G.; Smith, Patrick M.; Ellingboe, Albert R.

    1999-01-01

    A semiconductor doping process which enhances the dopant incorporation achievable using the Gas Immersion Laser Doping (GILD) technique. The enhanced doping is achieved by first depositing a thin layer of dopant atoms on a semiconductor surface followed by exposure to one or more pulses from either a laser or an ion-beam which melt a portion of the semiconductor to a desired depth, thus causing the dopant atoms to be incorporated into the molten region. After the molten region recrystallizes the dopant atoms are electrically active. The dopant atoms are deposited by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) or other known deposition techniques.

  12. USE OF ATOMIC LAYER DEPOSITION OF FUNCTIONALIZATION OF NANOPOROUS BIOMATERIALS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brigmon, R.; Narayan, R.; Adiga, S.; Pellin, M.; Curtiss, L.; Stafslien, S.; Chisholm, B.; Monteiro-Riviere, N.; Elam, J.

    2010-02-08

    Due to its chemical stability, uniform pore size, and high pore density, nanoporous alumina is being investigated for use in biosensing, drug delivery, hemodialysis, and other medical applications. In recent work, we have examined the use of atomic layer deposition for coating the surfaces of nanoporous alumina membranes. Zinc oxide coatings were deposited on nanoporous alumina membranes using atomic layer deposition. The zinc oxide-coated nanoporous alumina membranes demonstrated antimicrobial activity against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus bacteria. These results suggest that atomic layer deposition is an attractive technique for modifying the surfaces of nanoporous alumina membranes and other nanostructured biomaterials.

  13. Quick, Efficient Film Deposition for Nanomaterials - Energy Innovation...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Solar Photovoltaic Solar Photovoltaic Find More Like This Return to Search Quick, Efficient Film Deposition for Nanomaterials Oak Ridge National Laboratory Contact ORNL About This ...

  14. Liquid Metal Heat Exchanger for Geologic Deposits - Energy Innovation...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Liquid Metal Heat Exchanger for Geologic Deposits Oak Ridge National Laboratory Contact ... The apparatus provides more efficient heat transfer than existing technologies for ...

  15. Active Geothermal Systems And Associated Gold Deposits In The...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Geothermal Systems And Associated Gold Deposits In The Great Basin Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Conference Paper: Active Geothermal Systems...

  16. Eulerian CFD Models to Predict Thermophoretic Deposition of Soot...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    This paper describes an Eulerian axisymmetric method in Fluent(R) to predict the overall heat transfer reduction of a surrogate tube due to thermophoretic deposition of submicron ...

  17. Method of depositing a high-emissivity layer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wickersham, Charles E.; Foster, Ellis L.

    1983-01-01

    A method of depositing a high-emissivity layer on a substrate comprising RF sputter deposition of a carbide-containing target in an atmosphere of a hydrocarbon gas and a noble gas. As the carbide is deposited on the substrate the hydrocarbon gas decomposes to hydrogen and carbon. The carbon deposits on the target and substrate causing a carbide/carbon composition gradient to form on the substrate. At a sufficiently high partial pressure of hydrocarbon gas, a film of high-emissivity pure carbon will eventually form over the substrate.

  18. OLEDWORKS DEVELOPS INNOVATIVE HIGH-PERFORMANCE DEPOSITION TECHNOLOGY...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    high-performance deposition technology that addresses two major aspects of this manufacturing cost: the expense of organic materials per area of useable product, and the...

  19. Electroless Atomic Layer Deposition: A Scalable Approach to Surface...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: Electroless Atomic Layer Deposition: A Scalable Approach to Surface Modified Metal Powders. Abstract not provided. Authors: Cappillino, Patrick ; Robinson, David ; El Gabaly ...

  20. CFD Analysis of Particle Deposition During DPF Filtration Processes

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A 3-D DPF model is developed to predict thermo-physical properties during filtration processes and to quantitatively investigate particle deposition regarding its size and number distribution.

  1. Liquid-Phase Deposition of Silicon Nanocrystal Films - Energy...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Liquid-Phase Deposition of Silicon Nanocrystal Films University of Minnesota DOE Grant Recipients Contact GRANT About This Technology Technology Marketing Summary Silicon ...

  2. A radon progeny deposition model (Journal Article) | SciTech...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    by the long half life (22 y) of sup 210Pb on sensitive locations of a detector. ... RADIATION; CLEAN ROOMS; DEPOSITION; HALF-LIFE; PROGENY; RADIATION DETECTORS; RADON; ...

  3. EGR Cooler Fouling - Visualization of Deposition and Removal...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Presents experimental data on exhaust gas recirculation(EGR) cooler fouling using new test apparatus that allows for in-situ observation of deposition and removal processes ...

  4. Growth of tapered silica nanowires with a shallow U-shaped vapor chamber: Growth mechanism and structural and optical properties

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Danqing; Zhang, Xi Wei, Jianglin; Gu, Gangxu; Xiang, Gang

    2015-04-28

    Traditional chemical vapor deposition method modified with a shallow U-shaped vapor chamber has been used to synthesize tapered bamboo shoot-like (BS-like) amorphous SiO{sub 2} nanowires (NWs) on Si (100) substrates without catalyst. The key innovation of this approach lies in a creation of swirling flow of the reactant vapors during the growth, which leads to a harvest of tapered silica NWs with lengths up to several microns. The unique structures and corresponding luminescence properties of the BS-like NWs were studied and their relationship with the evaporated active reactants was explored. A thermodynamic model that considers the critical role of the vapor flow during the growth is proposed to understand the structural and optical features. The shallow U-shaped vapor chamber-aided approach may provide a viable way to tailor novel structure of NWs for potential applications in nano-devices.

  5. Substrate temperature effect on the growth of carbon nanowalls synthesized via microwave PECVD

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, Sung Yun; Choi, Won Seok; Lee, Jae-Hyeoung; Hong, Byungyou

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: Well grown carbon nanowalls (CNWs) were obtained by using a microwave plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) with methane and hydrogen gases on Si substrates. CNWs were grown at the growth temperature of 850 C showed the highest contact angle. Raman analysis showed higher I{sub D}/I{sub G} value that the CNWs were grown at more than 850 C growth temperature. - Abstract: A carbon nanowall (CNW) is a carbon-based nanomaterial that is constructed with vertical-structure graphenes. Thus, it effectively increases the reaction surface of electrodes. In this study, the substrate temperature effect on the growth of CNWs was investigated via microwave plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) with methane (CH{sub 4}) and hydrogen (H{sub 2}) gases on silicon substrates. To find the growth mechanism of a CNW, its growth temperature was changed from 700 C to 950 C. The vertical and surface conditions of the grown CNWs according to the growth temperature were characterized via field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM). The energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) measurements showed that the CNWs were composed solely of carbon.

  6. Fabrication of Conductive Paths on a Fused Deposition Modeling Substrate using Inkjet Deposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhou, Wenchao; List, III, Frederick Alyious; Duty, Chad E.; Babu, Sudarsanam Suresh

    2015-01-15

    Inkjet deposition is one of the most attractive fabrication techniques for producing cost efficient and lightweight electronic devices on various substrates with low environmental impact. Fused Deposition Modeling (FDM) is one of the most used and reliable additive manufacturing processes by extrusion of wire-shaped thermoplastic materials, which provides an opportunity for embedding printed electronics into mechanical structures during the building process and enables the design of compact smart structures that can sense and adapt to their own state and the environment. This paper represents one of the first explorations of integrating inkjet deposition of silver nanoparticle inks with the FDM process for making compact electro-mechanical structures. Three challenges have been identified and investigated, including the discontinuity of the printed lines resulting from the irregular surface of the FDM substrate, the non-conductivity of the printed lines due to the particle segregation during the droplet drying process, and the slow drying process caused by the skinning effect . Two different techniques are developed in this paper to address the issue of continuity of the printed lines, including surface ironing and a novel thermal plow technique that plows a channel in the FDM substrate to seal off the pores in the substrate and contain the deposited inks. Two solutions are also found for obtaining conductivity from the continuous printed lines, including porous surface coating and using a more viscous ink with larger nanoparticle size. Then the effects of the printing and post-processing parameters on the conductivity are examined. It is found that post-processing is a dominant factor in determining the conductivity of the printed lines.

  7. Fabrication of Conductive Paths on a Fused Deposition Modeling Substrate using Inkjet Deposition

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zhou, Wenchao; List, III, Frederick Alyious; Duty, Chad E.; Babu, Sudarsanam Suresh

    2015-01-15

    Inkjet deposition is one of the most attractive fabrication techniques for producing cost efficient and lightweight electronic devices on various substrates with low environmental impact. Fused Deposition Modeling (FDM) is one of the most used and reliable additive manufacturing processes by extrusion of wire-shaped thermoplastic materials, which provides an opportunity for embedding printed electronics into mechanical structures during the building process and enables the design of compact smart structures that can sense and adapt to their own state and the environment. This paper represents one of the first explorations of integrating inkjet deposition of silver nanoparticle inks with the FDMmore » process for making compact electro-mechanical structures. Three challenges have been identified and investigated, including the discontinuity of the printed lines resulting from the irregular surface of the FDM substrate, the non-conductivity of the printed lines due to the particle segregation during the droplet drying process, and the slow drying process caused by the skinning effect . Two different techniques are developed in this paper to address the issue of continuity of the printed lines, including surface ironing and a novel thermal plow technique that plows a channel in the FDM substrate to seal off the pores in the substrate and contain the deposited inks. Two solutions are also found for obtaining conductivity from the continuous printed lines, including porous surface coating and using a more viscous ink with larger nanoparticle size. Then the effects of the printing and post-processing parameters on the conductivity are examined. It is found that post-processing is a dominant factor in determining the conductivity of the printed lines.« less

  8. Quartz crystal growth

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Baughman, Richard J.

    1992-01-01

    A process for growing single crystals from an amorphous substance that can undergo phase transformation to the crystalline state in an appropriate solvent. The process is carried out in an autoclave having a lower dissolution zone and an upper crystallization zone between which a temperature differential (.DELTA.T) is maintained at all times. The apparatus loaded with the substance, solvent, and seed crystals is heated slowly maintaining a very low .DELTA.T between the warmer lower zone and cooler upper zone until the amorphous substance is transformed to the crystalline state in the lower zone. The heating rate is then increased to maintain a large .DELTA.T sufficient to increase material transport between the zones and rapid crystallization. .alpha.-Quartz single crystal can thus be made from fused quartz in caustic solvent by heating to 350.degree. C. stepwise with a .DELTA.T of 0.25.degree.-3.degree. C., increasing the .DELTA.T to about 50.degree. C. after the fused quartz has crystallized, and maintaining these conditions until crystal growth in the upper zone is completed.

  9. Sputter deposition for multi-component thin films

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Krauss, A.R.; Auciello, O.

    1990-05-08

    Ion beam sputter-induced deposition using a single ion beam and a multicomponent target is capable of reproducibly producing thin films of arbitrary composition, including those which are close to stoichiometry. Using a quartz crystal deposition monitor and a computer controlled, well-focused ion beam, this sputter-deposition approach is capable of producing metal oxide superconductors and semiconductors of the superlattice type such as GaAs-AlGaAs as well as layered metal/oxide/semiconductor/superconductor structures. By programming the dwell time for each target according to the known sputtering yield and desired layer thickness for each material, it is possible to deposit composite films from a well-controlled sub-monolayer up to thicknesses determined only by the available deposition time. In one embodiment, an ion beam is sequentially directed via a set of X-Y electrostatic deflection plates onto three or more different element or compound targets which are constituents of the desired film. In another embodiment, the ion beam is directed through an aperture in the deposition plate and is displaced under computer control to provide a high degree of control over the deposited layer. In yet another embodiment, a single fixed ion beam is directed onto a plurality of sputter targets in a sequential manner where the targets are each moved in alignment with the beam under computer control in forming a multilayer thin film. This controlled sputter-deposition approach may also be used with laser and electron beams. 10 figs.

  10. Method of depositing epitaxial layers on a substrate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goyal, Amit

    2003-12-30

    An epitaxial article and method for forming the same includes a substrate having a textured surface, and an electrochemically deposited substantially single orientation epitaxial layer disposed on and in contact with the textured surface. The epitaxial article can include an electromagnetically active layer and an epitaxial buffer layer. The electromagnetically active layer and epitaxial buffer layer can also be deposited electrochemically.

  11. Sputter deposition for multi-component thin films

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Krauss, Alan R.; Auciello, Orlando

    1990-01-01

    Ion beam sputter-induced deposition using a single ion beam and a multicomponent target is capable of reproducibly producing thin films of arbitrary composition, including those which are close to stoichiometry. Using a quartz crystal deposition monitor and a computer controlled, well-focused ion beam, this sputter-deposition approach is capable of producing metal oxide superconductors and semiconductors of the superlattice type such as GaAs-AlGaAs as well as layered metal/oxide/semiconductor/superconductor structures. By programming the dwell time for each target according to the known sputtering yield and desired layer thickness for each material, it is possible to deposit composite films from a well-controlled sub-monolayer up to thicknesses determined only by the available deposition time. In one embodiment, an ion beam is sequentially directed via a set of X-Y electrostatic deflection plates onto three or more different element or compound targets which are constituents of the desired film. In another embodiment, the ion beam is directed through an aperture in the deposition plate and is displaced under computer control to provide a high degree of control over the deposited layer. In yet another embodiment, a single fixed ion beam is directed onto a plurality of sputter targets in a sequential manner where the targets are each moved in alignment with the beam under computer control in forming a multilayer thin film. This controlled sputter-deposition approach may also be used with laser and electron beams.

  12. Electrophoretic deposition of composite hydroxyapatite-silica-chitosan coatings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grandfield, K.; Zhitomirsky, I.

    2008-01-15

    Electrophoretic deposition (EPD) method has been developed for the fabrication of nanocomposite silica-chitosan coatings. Cathodic deposits were obtained on various conductive substrates using suspensions of silica nanoparticles in a mixed ethanol-water solvent, containing dissolved chitosan. Co-deposition of silica and hydroxyapatite (HA) nanoparticles resulted in the fabrication of HA-silica-chitosan coatings. The deposition yield has been studied at a constant voltage mode at various deposition durations. The method enabled the formation of coatings of different thickness in the range of up to 100 {mu}m. Deposit composition, microstructure and porosity can be varied by variation of HA and silica concentration in the suspensions. It was demonstrated that EPD can be used for the fabrication of HA-silica-chitosan coatings of graded composition and laminates. The method enabled the deposition of coatings containing layers of silica-chitosan and HA-chitosan nanocomposites using suspensions with different HA and silica content. Obtained coatings were studied by X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetric and differential thermal analysis, scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy. The mechanism of deposition is discussed.

  13. Electroplating method for producing ultralow-mass fissionable deposits

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ruddy, Francis H.

    1989-01-01

    A method for producing ultralow-mass fissionable deposits for nuclear reactor dosimetry is described, including the steps of holding a radioactive parent until the radioactive parent reaches secular equilibrium with a daughter isotope, chemically separating the daughter from the parent, electroplating the daughter on a suitable substrate, and holding the electroplated daughter until the daughter decays to the fissionable deposit.

  14. Molybdenum enhanced low-temperature deposition of crystalline silicon nitride

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lowden, Richard A.

    1994-01-01

    A process for chemical vapor deposition of crystalline silicon nitride which comprises the steps of: introducing a mixture of a silicon source, a molybdenum source, a nitrogen source, and a hydrogen source into a vessel containing a suitable substrate; and thermally decomposing the mixture to deposit onto the substrate a coating comprising crystalline silicon nitride containing a dispersion of molybdenum silicide.

  15. Study on re-sputtering during CN{sub x} film deposition through spectroscopic diagnostics of plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liang, Peipei; Yang, Xu; Li, Hui; Cai, Hua; Sun, Jian; Xu, Ning; Wu, Jiada

    2015-10-15

    A nitrogen-carbon plasma was generated during the deposition of carbon nitride (CN{sub x}) thin films by pulsed laser ablation of a graphite target in a discharge nitrogen plasma, and the optical emission of the generated nitrogen-carbon plasma was measured for the diagnostics of the plasma and the characterization of the process of CN{sub x} film deposition. The nitrogen-carbon plasma was recognized to contain various species including nitrogen molecules and molecular ions excited in the ambient N{sub 2} gas, carbon atoms and atomic ions ablated from the graphite target and CN radicals. The temporal evolution and spatial distribution of the CN emission and their dependence on the substrate bias voltage show two groups of CN radicals flying in opposite directions. One represents the CN radicals formed as the products of the reactions occurring in the nitrogen-carbon plasma, revealing the reactive deposition of CN{sub x} film due to the reactive expansion of the ablation carbon plasma in the discharge nitrogen plasma and the effective formation of gaseous CN radicals as precursors for CN{sub x} film growth. The other one represents the CN radicals re-sputtered from the growing CN{sub x} film by energetic plasma species, evidencing the re-sputtering of the growing film accompanying film growth. And, the re-sputtering presents ion-induced sputtering features.

  16. Method of and apparatus for determining deposition-point temperature

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mansure, A.J.; Spates, J.J.; Martin, S.J.

    1998-10-27

    Acoustic-wave sensor apparatus and method are disclosed for analyzing a normally liquid petroleum-based composition for monitoring deposition-point temperature. The apparatus includes at least one acoustic-wave device such as SAW, QCM, FPM, TSM or APM type devices in contact with the petroleum-based composition for sensing or detecting the surface temperature at which deposition occurs and/or rate of deposition as a function of temperature by sensing an accompanying change in frequency, phase shift, damping voltage or damping current of an electrical oscillator to a known calibrated condition. The acoustic wave device is actively cooled to monitor the deposition of constituents such as paraffins by determining the point at which solids from the liquid composition begin to form on the acoustic wave device. The acoustic wave device can be heated to melt or boil off the deposits to reset the monitor and the process can be repeated. 5 figs.

  17. Method of and apparatus for determining deposition-point temperature

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mansure, Arthur J.; Spates, James J.; Martin, Stephen J.

    1998-01-01

    Acoustic-wave sensor apparatus and method for analyzing a normally liquid petroleum-based composition for monitoring deposition-point temperature. The apparatus includes at least one acoustic-wave device such as SAW, QCM, FPM, TSM or APM type devices in contact with the petroleum-based composition for sensing or detecting the surface temperature at which deposition occurs and/or rate of deposition as a function of temperature by sensing an accompanying change in frequency, phase shift, damping voltage or damping current of an electrical oscillator to a known calibrated condition. The acoustic wave device is actively cooled to monitor the deposition of constituents such as paraffins by determining the point at which solids from the liquid composition begin to form on the acoustic wave device. The acoustic wave device can be heated to melt or boil off the deposits to reset the monitor and the process can be repeated.

  18. How to make deposition of images a reality

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guss, J. Mitchell; McMahon, Brian

    2014-10-01

    An analysis is performed of the technical and financial challenges to be overcome if deposition of primary experimental data is to become routine. The IUCr Diffraction Data Deposition Working Group is investigating the rationale and policies for routine deposition of diffraction images (and other primary experimental data sets). An information-management framework is described that should inform policy directions, and some of the technical and other issues that need to be addressed in an effort to achieve such a goal are analysed. In the near future, routine data deposition could be encouraged at one of the growing number of institutional repositories that accept data sets or at a generic data-publishing web repository service. To realise all of the potential benefits of depositing diffraction data, specialized archives would be preferable. Funding such an initiative will be challenging.

  19. COAL-FIRED UTILITY BOILERS: SOLVING ASH DEPOSITION PROBLEMS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Christopher J. Zygarlicke; Donald P. McCollor; Steven A. Benson; Jay R. Gunderson

    2001-04-01

    The accumulation of slagging and fouling ash deposits in utility boilers has been a source of aggravation for coal-fired boiler operators for over a century. Many new developments in analytical, modeling, and combustion testing methods in the past 20 years have made it possible to identify root causes of ash deposition. A concise and comprehensive guidelines document has been assembled for solving ash deposition as related to coal-fired utility boilers. While this report accurately captures the current state of knowledge in ash deposition, note that substantial research and development is under way to more completely understand and mitigate slagging and fouling. Thus, while comprehensive, this document carries the title ''interim,'' with the idea that future work will provide additional insight. Primary target audiences include utility operators and engineers who face plant inefficiencies and significant operational and maintenance costs that are associated with ash deposition problems. Pulverized and cyclone-fired coal boilers are addressed specifically, although many of the diagnostics and solutions apply to other boiler types. Logic diagrams, ash deposit types, and boiler symptoms of ash deposition are used to aid the user in identifying an ash deposition problem, diagnosing and verifying root causes, determining remedial measures to alleviate or eliminate the problem, and then monitoring the situation to verify that the problem has been solved. In addition to a step-by-step method for identifying and remediating ash deposition problems, this guideline document (Appendix A) provides descriptions of analytical techniques for diagnostic testing and gives extensive fundamental and practical literature references and addresses of organizations that can provide help in alleviating ash deposition problems.

  20. Approaches to identifying reservoir heterogeneity and reserve growth opportunities from subsurface data: The Oficina Formation, Budare field, Venezuela

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hamilton, D.S.; Raeuchle, S.K.; Holtz, M.H.

    1997-08-01

    We applied an integrated geologic, geophysical, and engineering approach devised to identify heterogeneities in the subsurface that might lead to reserve growth opportunities in our analysis of the Oficina Formation at Budare field, Venezuela. The approach involves 4 key steps: (1) Determine geologic reservoir architecture; (2) Investigate trends in reservoir fluid flow; (3) Integrate fluid flow trends with reservoir architecture; and (4) Estimate original oil-in-place, residual oil saturation, and remaining mobile oil, to identify opportunities for reserve growth. There are three main oil-producing reservoirs in the Oficina Formation that were deposited in a bed-load fluvial system, an incised valley-fill, and a barrier-strandplain system. Reservoir continuity is complex because, in addition to lateral facies variability, the major Oficina depositional systems were internally subdivided by high-frequency stratigraphic surfaces. These surfaces define times of intermittent lacustrine and marine flooding events that punctuated the fluvial and marginal marine sedimentation, respectively. Syn and post depositional faulting further disrupted reservoir continuity. Trends in fluid flow established from initial fluid levels, response to recompletion workovers, and pressure depletion data demonstrated barriers to lateral and vertical fluid flow caused by a combination of reservoir facies pinchout, flooding shale markers, and the faults. Considerable reserve growth potential exists at Budare field because the reservoir units are highly compartment by the depositional heterogeneity and structural complexity. Numerous reserve growth opportunities were identified in attics updip of existing production, in untapped or incompletely drained compartments, and in field extensions.

  1. Low-Cost Growth of III-V Layers on Si Using Close-Spaced Vapor Transport

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boucher, Jason W.; Greenaway, Ann L.; Ritenour, Andrew J.; Davis, Allison L.; Bachman, Benjamin F.; Aloni, Shaul; Boettcher, Shannon W.

    2015-06-14

    Close-spaced vapor transport (CSVT) uses solid precursors to deposit material at high rates and with high precursor utilization. The use of solid precursors could significantly reduce the costs associated with III-V photovoltaics, particularly if growth on Si substrates can be demonstrated. We present preliminary results of the growth of GaAs1-xPx with x ≈ 0.3 and 0.6, showing that CSVT can be used to produce III-V-V’ alloys with band gaps suitable for tandem devices. Additionally, we have grown GaAs on Si by first thermally depositing films of Ge and subsequently depositing GaAs by CSVT. Patterning the Ge into islands prevents cracking due to thermal mismatch and is useful for potential tandem structures.

  2. Growth of metal and semiconductor nanostructures using localized photocatalysts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shelnutt, John A; Wang, Zhongchun; Medforth, Craig J

    2006-03-08

    Our overall goal has been to understand and develop a light-driven approach to the controlled growth of novel metal and semiconductor nanostructures and nanomaterials. In this photochemical process, bio-inspired porphyrin-based photocatalysts reduce metal salts in aqueous solutions at ambient temperatures when exposed to visible light, providing metal nucleation and growth centers. The photocatalyst molecules are pre-positioned at the nanoscale to control the location of the deposition of metal and therefore the morphology of the nanostructures that are grown. Self-assembly, chemical confinement, and molecular templating are some of the methods we are using for nanoscale positioning of the photocatalyst molecules. When exposed to light, each photocatalyst molecule repeatedly reduces metal ions from solution, leading to deposition near the photocatalyst and ultimately the synthesis of new metallic nanostructures and nanostructured materials. Studies of the photocatalytic growth process and the resulting nanostructures address a number of fundamental biological, chemical, and environmental issues and draw on the combined nanoscience characterization and multi-scale simulation capabilities of the new DOE Center for Integrated Nanotechnologies at Sandia National Laboratories and the University of Georgia. Our main goals are to elucidate the processes involved in the photocatalytic growth of metal nanomaterials and provide the scientific basis for controlled nanosynthesis. The nanomaterials resulting from these studies have applications in nanoelectronics, photonics, sensors, catalysis, and micromechanical systems. Our specific goals for the past three years have been to understand the role of photocatalysis in the synthesis of dendritic metal (Pt, Pd, Au) nanostructures grown from aqueous surfactant solutions under ambient conditions and the synthesis of photocatalytic porphyrin nanostructures (e.g., nanotubes) as templates for fabrication of photo-active metal

  3. Ultrasonically assisted deposition of colloidal crystals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wollmann, Sabine; Patel, Raj B.; Wixforth, Achim; Krenner, Hubert J.

    2014-07-21

    Colloidal particles are a versatile physical system which have found uses across a range of applications such as the simulation of crystal kinetics, etch masks for fabrication, and the formation of photonic band-gap structures. Utilization of colloidal particles often requires a means to produce highly ordered, periodic structures. One approach is the use of surface acoustic waves (SAWs) to direct the self-assembly of colloidal particles. Previous demonstrations using standing SAWs were shown to be limited in terms of crystal size and dimensionality. Here, we report a technique to improve the spatial alignment of colloidal particles using traveling SAWs. Through control of the radio frequency power, which drives the SAW, we demonstrate enhanced quality and dimensionality of the crystal growth. We show that this technique can be applied to a range of particle sizes in the ?m-regime and may hold potential for particles in the sub-?m-regime.

  4. Optical emission diagnostics of plasmas in chemical vapor deposition of single-crystal diamond

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hemawan, Kadek W. Hemley, Russell J.

    2015-11-15

    A key aspect of single crystal diamond growth via microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition is in-process control of the local plasma–substrate environment, that is, plasma gas phase concentrations of activated species at the plasma boundary layer near the substrate surface. Emission spectra of the plasma relative to the diamond substrate inside the microwave plasma reactor chamber have been analyzed via optical emission spectroscopy. The spectra of radical species such as CH, C{sub 2}, and H (Balmer series) important for diamond growth were identified and analyzed. The emission intensities of these electronically excited species were found to be more dependent on operating pressure than on microwave power. Plasma gas temperatures were calculated from measurements of the C{sub 2} Swan band (d{sup 3}Π → a{sup 3}Π transition) system. The plasma gas temperature ranges from 2800 to 3400 K depending on the spatial location of the plasma ball, microwave power and operating pressure. Addition of Ar into CH{sub 4}+H{sub 2} plasma input gas mixture has little influence on the Hα, Hβ, and Hγ intensities and single-crystal diamond growth rates.

  5. Digital Transfer Growth of Patterned 2D Metal Chalcogenides by Confined Nanoparticle Evaporation

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Mahjouri-Samani, Masoud; Tian, Mengkun; Wang, Kai; Boulesbaa, Abdelaziz; Rouleau, Christopher M.; Puretzky, Alexander A.; McGuire, Michael A.; Srijanto, Bernadeta R.; Xiao, Kai; Eres, Gyula; et al

    2014-10-19

    Developing methods for the facile synthesis of two-dimensional (2D) metal chalcogenides and other layered materials is crucial for emerging applications in functional devices. Controlling the stoichiometry, number of the layers, crystallite size, growth location, and areal uniformity is challenging in conventional vapor phase synthesis. Here, we demonstrate a new route to control these parameters in the growth of metal chalcogenide (GaSe) and dichalcogenide (MoSe2) 2D crystals by precisely defining the mass and location of the source materials in a confined transfer growth system. A uniform and precise amount of stoichiometric nanoparticles are first synthesized and deposited onto a substrate bymore » pulsed laser deposition (PLD) at room temperature. This source substrate is then covered with a receiver substrate to form a confined vapor transport growth (VTG) system. By simply heating the source substrate in an inert background gas, a natural temperature gradient is formed that evaporates the confined nanoparticles to grow large, crystalline 2D nanosheets on the cooler receiver substrate, the temperature of which is controlled by the background gas pressure. Large monolayer crystalline domains (~ 100 m lateral sizes) of GaSe and MoSe2 are demonstrated, as well as continuous monolayer films through the deposition of additional precursor materials. This novel PLD-VTG synthesis and processing method offers a unique approach for the controlled growth of large-area, metal chalcogenides with a controlled number of layers in patterned growth locations for optoelectronics and energy related applications.« less

  6. Controlled Growth of Ordered III-Nitride Core-Shell Nanostructure Arrays for Visible Optoelectronic Devices

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Rishinaramangalam, Ashwin K.; Mishkat Ul Masabih, Saadat; Fairchild, Michael N.; Wright, Jeremy Benjamin; Shima, Darryl M.; Balakrishnan, Ganesh; Brener, Igal; Brueck, Steven R.J.; Feezell, Daniel F.

    2014-10-21

    In our paper, we demonstrate the growth of ordered arrays of nonpolar {101 ¯ 0} core–shell nanowalls and semipolar {101 ¯ 1} core–shell pyramidal nanostripes on c-plane (0001) sapphire substrates using selective-area epitaxy and metal organic chemical vapor deposition. The nanostructure arrays are controllably patterned into LED mesa regions, demonstrating a technique to impart secondary lithography features into the arrays. Moreover, we study the dependence of the nanostructure cores on the epitaxial growth conditions and show that the geometry and morphology are strongly influenced by growth temperature, V/III ratio, and pulse interruption time. We also demonstrate the growth of InGaNmore » quantum well shells on the nanostructures and characterize the structures by using micro-photoluminescence and cross-section scanning tunneling electron microscopy.« less

  7. Controlled Growth of Ordered III-Nitride Core-Shell Nanostructure Arrays for Visible Optoelectronic Devices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rishinaramangalam, Ashwin K.; Mishkat Ul Masabih, Saadat; Fairchild, Michael N.; Wright, Jeremy Benjamin; Shima, Darryl M.; Balakrishnan, Ganesh; Brener, Igal; Brueck, Steven R.J.; Feezell, Daniel F.

    2014-10-21

    In our paper, we demonstrate the growth of ordered arrays of nonpolar {101 0} coreshell nanowalls and semipolar {101 1} coreshell pyramidal nanostripes on c-plane (0001) sapphire substrates using selective-area epitaxy and metal organic chemical vapor deposition. The nanostructure arrays are controllably patterned into LED mesa regions, demonstrating a technique to impart secondary lithography features into the arrays. Moreover, we study the dependence of the nanostructure cores on the epitaxial growth conditions and show that the geometry and morphology are strongly influenced by growth temperature, V/III ratio, and pulse interruption time. We also demonstrate the growth of InGaN quantum well shells on the nanostructures and characterize the structures by using micro-photoluminescence and cross-section scanning tunneling electron microscopy.

  8. Risk assessment based on point source deposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chadwick, G.F.

    1997-12-31

    The International Joint Commission (IJC) in a recently published report states that various clean-up techniques have resulted in significantly cleaner lakes than 20 years ago. Both the US EPA and Environment Canada have passed laws that require emissions controls on significant sources of contaminants. Improved emission controls have played a large part in the reduced pollution levels to the Great Lakes. Improved controls have significantly reduced the pollutants deposited to both land and water. This paper will discuss a Risk Analysis for the emissions from a Hospital in Rochester, New York. Current New York Department of Environmental Conservation (DEC) regulations require emission controls on such incinerators. This hospital has added both a scrubber and a bag house to control emissions. Twenty years ago, such incinerators, like many other emission sources would not have had control devices. New York`s Department of Environmental Conservation requires, as part of the Permitting process, that an Impact Analysis and if required, a multipathway Health Risk Assessment (HRA) be performed for all Medical Waste Incinerators before a Permit can be issued. This insures that the emissions will not create a health hazard to humans. Such an analysis was performed for a new 1,000 lb/hr Medical Waste Incinerator (MWI) installed in the North-East part of Rochester, New York. An Air Quality Impact Assessment (AQIA) based on an actual stack test indicated that this facility`s dioxin emissions would exceed the NY DEC Guideline levels. The Carcinogenic Risk (of death) for our most exposed individual (MEI) was calculated to be 8.75 E{sup {minus}06} (<1:100,000). The Hazard Index calculated for this MEI was 0.43. Hazard Index`s less then 1 are considered a reasonable risk. Health risk assessments are by design, very conservative. EPA sources have concluded that calculated death risks between one (1) and one hundred (100) per million are not excessive.

  9. Method for rapid, controllable growth and thickness, of epitaxial silicon films

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wang, Qi; Stradins, Paul; Teplin, Charles; Branz, Howard M.

    2009-10-13

    A method of producing epitaxial silicon films on a c-Si wafer substrate using hot wire chemical vapor deposition by controlling the rate of silicon deposition in a temperature range that spans the transition from a monohydride to a hydrogen free silicon surface in a vacuum, to obtain phase-pure epitaxial silicon film of increased thickness is disclosed. The method includes placing a c-Si substrate in a HWCVD reactor chamber. The method also includes supplying a gas containing silicon at a sufficient rate into the reaction chamber to interact with the substrate to deposit a layer containing silicon thereon at a predefined growth rate to obtain phase-pure epitaxial silicon film of increased thickness.

  10. Fluorine contamination in yttrium-doped barium zirconate film deposited by atomic layer deposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    An Jihwan; Beom Kim, Young; Sun Park, Joong; Hyung Shim, Joon; Guer, Turgut M.; Prinz, Fritz B.

    2012-01-15

    The authors have investigated the change of chemical composition, crystallinity, and ionic conductivity in fluorine contaminated yttrium-doped barium zirconate (BYZ) fabricated by atomic layer deposition (ALD). It has been identified that fluorine contamination can significantly affect the conductivity of the ALD BYZ. The authors have also successfully established the relationship between process temperature and contamination and the source of fluorine contamination, which was the perfluoroelastomer O-ring used for vacuum sealing. The total removal of fluorine contamination was achieved by using all-metal sealed chamber instead of O-ring seals.

  11. Big-Data RHEED analysis for understanding epitaxial film growth processes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vasudevan, Rama K; Tselev, Alexander; Baddorf, Arthur P; Kalinin, Sergei V

    2014-10-28

    Reflection high energy electron diffraction (RHEED) has by now become a standard tool for in-situ monitoring of film growth by pulsed laser deposition and molecular beam epitaxy. Yet despite the widespread adoption and wealth of information in RHEED image, most applications are limited to observing intensity oscillations of the specular spot, and much additional information on growth is discarded. With ease of data acquisition and increased computation speeds, statistical methods to rapidly mine the dataset are now feasible. Here, we develop such an approach to the analysis of the fundamental growth processes through multivariate statistical analysis of RHEED image sequence. This approach is illustrated for growth of LaxCa1-xMnO3 films grown on etched (001) SrTiO3 substrates, but is universal. The multivariate methods including principal component analysis and k-means clustering provide insight into the relevant behaviors, the timing and nature of a disordered to ordered growth change, and highlight statistically significant patterns. Fourier analysis yields the harmonic components of the signal and allows separation of the relevant components and baselines, isolating the assymetric nature of the step density function and the transmission spots from the imperfect layer-by-layer (LBL) growth. These studies show the promise of big data approaches to obtaining more insight into film properties during and after epitaxial film growth. Furthermore, these studies open the pathway to use forward prediction methods to potentially allow significantly more control over growth process and hence final film quality.

  12. Conformal growth of Mo/Si multilayers on grating substrates using collimated ion beam sputtering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gawlitza, Peter; Cambie, Rossana; Dhuey, Scott; Gullikson, Eric; Warwick, Tony; Braun, Stefan; Yashchuk, Valeriy; Padmore, Howard

    2012-01-23

    Deposition of multilayers on saw-tooth substrates is a key step in the fabrication of multilayer blazed gratings (MBG) for extreme ultraviolet and soft x-rays. Growth of the multilayers can be perturbed by shadowing effects caused by the highly corrugated surface of the substrates, which results in distortion of the multilayer stack structure and degradation of performance of MBGs. To minimize the shadowing effects we used an ionbeam sputtering machine with a highly collimated atomic flux to deposit Mo/Si multilayers on saw-tooth substrates. The sputtering conditions were optimized by finding a balance between smoothening and roughening processes in order to minimize degradation of the groove profile in the course of deposition and at the same time to keep the interfaces of a multilayer stack smooth enough for high efficiency. An optimal value of energy of 200 eV for sputtering Kr{sup +} ions was found by deposition of test multilayers on flat substrates at a range of ion energies. Two saw-tooth substrates were deposited at energies of 200 eV and 700 eV for the sputtering ions. It was found that reduction of the ion energy improved the blazing performance of the MBG and resulted in a 40% gain in the diffraction efficiency due to better replication of the groove profile by the multilayer. As a result of the optimization performed, an absolute diffraction efficiency of 28.8% was achieved for the 2nd blaze order of the MBG with a groove density of 7350 lines/mm at a wavelength of 13.5 nm. Details of the growth behavior of the multilayers on flat and saw-tooth substrates are discussed in terms of the Linear Continuous Model of film growth.

  13. Vacuum deposited polymer/metal films for optical applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Affinito, J.D.; Martin, P.M.; Gross, M.E.; Coronado, C.; Greenwell, E.

    1995-04-01

    Vacuum deposited Polymer/Silver/Polymer reflectors and Tantalum/Polymer/Aluminum Fabry-Perot interference filters were fabricated in a vacuun web coating operation on polyester substrates with a new, high speed deposition process. Reflectivities were measured in the wavelength range from 0.3 to 0.8{mu}m. This new vacuum processing technique has been shown to be capable of deposition line speeds in excess of 500 linear meters/minute. Central to this technique is a new position process for the high rate deposition of polymer films. This polymer process involves the flash evaporation of an acrylic monomer onto a moving substrate. The monomer is subsequently cured by an electron beam or ultraviolet light. This high speed polymer film deposition process has been named the PML process -- for Polymer Multi-Layer. Also, vacuum deposited, index matched, polymer/CaF{sub 2} composites were fabricated from monomer slurries that were subsequently cured with LTV light. This second technique is called the Liquid Multi-Layer (or LML) process. Each of these polymer processes is compatible with each other and with conventional vacuum deposition processes such as sputtering or evaporation.

  14. Graphene chemical vapor deposition at very low pressure: The impact of substrate surface self-diffusion in domain shape

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cunha, T. H. R.; Ek-Weis, J.; Lacerda, R. G.; Ferlauto, A. S., E-mail: ferlauto@fisica.ufmg.br [Department of Physics, Federal University of Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte 31270-901 (Brazil)

    2014-08-18

    The initial stages of graphene chemical vapor deposition at very low pressures (<10{sup ?5?}Torr) were investigated. The growth of large graphene domains (?up to 100??m) at very high rates (up to 3??m{sup 2} s{sup ?1}) has been achieved in a cold-wall reactor using a liquid carbon precursor. For high temperature growth (>900?C), graphene grain shape and symmetry were found to depend on the underlying symmetry of the Cu crystal, whereas for lower temperatures (<900?C), mostly rounded grains are observed. The temperature dependence of graphene nucleation density was determined, displaying two thermally activated regimes, with activation energy values of 6??1?eV for temperatures ranging from 900?C to 960?C and 9??1?eV for temperatures above 960?C. The comparison of such dependence with the temperature dependence of Cu surface self-diffusion suggests that graphene growth at high temperatures and low pressures is strongly influenced by copper surface rearrangement. We propose a model that incorporates Cu surface self-diffusion as an essential process to explain the orientation correlation between graphene and Cu crystals, and which can clarify the difference generally observed between graphene domain shapes in atmospheric-pressure and low-pressure chemical vapor deposition.

  15. Atomic layer deposition of epitaxial layers of anatase on strontium titanate single crystals: Morphological and photoelectrochemical characterization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kraus, Theodore J.; Nepomnyashchii, Alexander B.; Parkinson, B. A.

    2015-01-15

    Atomic layer deposition was used to grow epitaxial layers of anatase (001) TiO{sub 2} on the surface of SrTiO{sub 3} (100) crystals with a 3% lattice mismatch. The epilayers grow as anatase (001) as confirmed by x-ray diffraction. Atomic force microscope images of deposited films showed epitaxial layer-by-layer growth up to about 10 nm, whereas thicker films, of up to 32 nm, revealed the formation of 2–5 nm anatase nanocrystallites oriented in the (001) direction. The anatase epilayers were used as substrates for dye sensitization. The as received strontium titanate crystal was not sensitized with a ruthenium-based dye (N3) or a thiacyanine dye (G15); however, photocurrent from excited state electron injection from these dyes was observed when adsorbed on the anatase epilayers. These results show that highly ordered anatase surfaces can be grown on an easily obtained substrate crystal.

  16. Isotropic Monte Carlo Grain Growth

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2013-04-25

    IMCGG performs Monte Carlo simulations of normal grain growth in metals on a hexagonal grid in two dimensions with periodic boundary conditions. This may be performed with either an isotropic or a misorientation - and incliantion-dependent grain boundary energy.

  17. Growth of praseodymium oxide on Si(111) under oxygen-deficient conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schaefer, A.; Zielasek, V.; Baeumer, M.; Schmidt, Th.; Schowalter, M.; Schulz, Ch.; Rosenauer, A.; Falta, J.; Sandell, A.; Seifarth, O.; Schroeder, T.; Wollschlaeger, J.

    2009-07-15

    Surface science studies of thin praseodymium oxide films grown on silicon substrates are of high interest in view of applications in such different fields as microelectronics and heterogeneous catalysis. In particular, a detailed characterization of the growth and the final structure of the films are mandatory to achieve a fundamental understanding of such topics as oxygen mobility and defect structure, and their role for the electronic and chemical properties. In this paper, the MBE growth of praseodymium oxide films on Si(111) substrates was investigated at low-deposition rates (0.06 nm/min) and low-oxygen partial pressures (p(O{sub 2})<1x10{sup -10} mbar). To obtain insight into the structure and chemical composition of the growing film, spot profile analyzing low-energy electron diffraction (SPA-LEED), transmission electron microscopy, and synchrotron radiation-based x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and x-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) were applied. SPA-LEED reveals the formation of an initial closed layer followed by continuous roughening and formation of ordered three-dimensional structures. This result is in contrast to observations at higher-deposition rates, were a layer-by-layer growth was reported. XAS and XPS provide evidence that a continuous reaction takes place in the growing Pr{sub 2}O{sub 3} film leading to the formation of silicate and silicide structures within the film. Combining all data, a consistent picture of the deposition of praseodymium oxide on Si(111) emerges which clearly shows that in contrast to higher-throughput molecular beam epitaxy conditions the reactivity of the growing film strongly influences the growth behavior at low-deposition rates and low pressures.

  18. An atomistically informed mesoscale model for growth and coarsening during discharge in lithium-oxygen batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Welland, Michael J.; Lau, Kah Chun; Redfern, Paul C.; Wolf, Dieter; Curtiss, Larry A.; Liang, Linyun; Zhai, Denyun

    2015-12-14

    An atomistically informed mesoscale model is developed for the deposition of a discharge product in a Li-O{sub 2} battery. This mescocale model includes particle growth and coarsening as well as a simplified nucleation model. The model involves LiO{sub 2} formation through reaction of O{sub 2}{sup −} and Li{sup +} in the electrolyte, which deposits on the cathode surface when the LiO{sub 2} concentration reaches supersaturation in the electrolyte. A reaction-diffusion (rate-equation) model is used to describe the processes occurring in the electrolyte and a phase-field model is used to capture microstructural evolution. This model predicts that coarsening, in which large particles grow and small ones disappear, has a substantial effect on the size distribution of the LiO{sub 2} particles during the discharge process. The size evolution during discharge is the result of the interplay between this coarsening process and particle growth. The growth through continued deposition of LiO{sub 2} has the effect of causing large particles to grow ever faster while delaying the dissolution of small particles. The predicted size evolution is consistent with experimental results for a previously reported cathode material based on activated carbon during discharge and when it is at rest, although kinetic factors need to be included. The approach described in this paper synergistically combines models on different length scales with experimental observations and should have applications in studying other related discharge processes, such as Li{sub 2}O{sub 2} deposition, in Li-O{sub 2} batteries and nucleation and growth in Li-S batteries.

  19. Deposition and diagenesis in a marine-to-evaporite sequence

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fisher, R.S.; Posey, H.H.

    1990-01-01

    The Wolfcamp-to-Wichita lithologic transition provides an excellent record of the depositional and diagenetic processes that occur as depositional environments change from normal marine to marine evaporite. In this book, depositional and diagenetic sequences were established from lithologic and mineralogic examinations of core and thin section, and geochemical conditions were interpreted from isotopic (C, O, S, and Sr) compositions of calcite, dolomite, and anhydrite. The age of the Wolfcamp-Wichita transition was determined using sulfur and strontium isotopic chronostratigraphy. The timing of formation of various types of anhydrite was inferred from textural and isotopic relations between anhydrite varieties and the host carbonate rocks.

  20. Patterned electrochemical deposition of copper using an electron beam

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heijer, Mark den; Shao, Ingrid; Reuter, Mark C.; Ross, Frances M.; Radisic, Alex

    2014-02-01

    We describe a technique for patterning clusters of metal using electrochemical deposition. By operating an electrochemical cell in the transmission electron microscope, we deposit Cu on Au under potentiostatic conditions. For acidified copper sulphate electrolytes, nucleation occurs uniformly over the electrode. However, when chloride ions are added there is a range of applied potentials over which nucleation occurs only in areas irradiated by the electron beam. By scanning the beam we control nucleation to form patterns of deposited copper. We discuss the mechanism for this effect in terms of electron beam-induced reactions with copper chloride, and consider possible applications.

  1. Cathodic deposition of amorphous alloys of silicon, carbon, and fluorine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, C.H.; Kroger, F.A.

    1982-05-01

    Amorphous silicon containing fluorine and carbon, pure and doped with boron or phosphorus, was deposited cathodically from solutions of K/sub 2/SiF/sub 6/ in acetone with HF. The conditions for optimum deposition were determined, and the deposits were characterized by electron microprobe x-ray emission, electrical conductivity, and infrared absorption. Doping with phosphorus causes a change from p- to n-type semiconductor behavior, with a maximum of resistivity >10/sup 13/ /OMEGA/ cm at the compensation point. 48 refs.

  2. Method for depositing high-quality microcrystalline semiconductor materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Guha, Subhendu; Yang, Chi C.; Yan, Baojie

    2011-03-08

    A process for the plasma deposition of a layer of a microcrystalline semiconductor material is carried out by energizing a process gas which includes a precursor of the semiconductor material and a diluent with electromagnetic energy so as to create a plasma therefrom. The plasma deposits a layer of the microcrystalline semiconductor material onto the substrate. The concentration of the diluent in the process gas is varied as a function of the thickness of the layer of microcrystalline semiconductor material which has been deposited. Also disclosed is the use of the process for the preparation of an N-I-P type photovoltaic device.

  3. Phase-field simulations of GaN growth by selective area epitaxy on complex mask geometries

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Aagesen, Larry K.; Coltrin, Michael Elliott; Han, Jung; Thornton, Katsuyo

    2015-05-15

    Three-dimensional phase-field simulations of GaN growth by selective area epitaxy were performed. Furthermore, this model includes a crystallographic-orientation-dependent deposition rate and arbitrarily complex mask geometries. The orientation-dependent deposition rate can be determined from experimental measurements of the relative growth rates of low-index crystallographic facets. Growth on various complex mask geometries was simulated on both c-plane and a-plane template layers. Agreement was observed between simulations and experiment, including complex phenomena occurring at the intersections between facets. The sources of the discrepancies between simulated and experimental morphologies were also investigated. We found that the model provides a route to optimize masks andmore » processing conditions during materials synthesis for solar cells, light-emitting diodes, and other electronic and opto-electronic applications.« less

  4. Phase-field simulations of GaN growth by selective area epitaxy from complex mask geometries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aagesen, Larry K.; Thornton, Katsuyo; Coltrin, Michael E.; Han, Jung

    2015-05-21

    Three-dimensional phase-field simulations of GaN growth by selective area epitaxy were performed. The model includes a crystallographic-orientation-dependent deposition rate and arbitrarily complex mask geometries. The orientation-dependent deposition rate can be determined from experimental measurements of the relative growth rates of low-index crystallographic facets. Growth on various complex mask geometries was simulated on both c-plane and a-plane template layers. Agreement was observed between simulations and experiment, including complex phenomena occurring at the intersections between facets. The sources of the discrepancies between simulated and experimental morphologies were also investigated. The model provides a route to optimize masks and processing conditions during materials synthesis for solar cells, light-emitting diodes, and other electronic and opto-electronic applications.

  5. Growth and stress-induced transformation of zinc blende AlN layers in Al-AlN-TiN multilayers

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Li, Nan; Yadav, Satyesh K.; Wang, Jian; Liu, Xiang -Yang; Misra, Amit

    2015-12-18

    We report that AlN nanolayers in sputter deposited {111}Al/AlN/TiN multilayers exhibit the metastable zinc-blende-structure (z-AlN). Based on density function theory calculations, the growth of the z-AlN is ascribed to the kinetically and energetically favored nitridation of the deposited aluminium layer. In situ nanoindentation of the as-deposited {111}Al/AlN/TiN multilayers in a high-resolution transmission electron microscope revealed the z-AlN to wurzite AlN phase transformation through collective glide of Shockley partial dislocations on every two {111} planes of the z-AlN.

  6. Atomic layer deposition of zinc sulfide with Zn(TMHD){sub 2}

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Short, Andrew; Jewell, Leila; Doshay, Sage; Church, Carena; Keiber, Trevor; Bridges, Frank; Carter, Sue; Alers, Glenn

    2013-01-15

    The atomic layer deposition (ALD) of ZnS films with Zn(TMHD){sub 2} and in situ generated H{sub 2}S as precursors was investigated, over a temperature range of 150-375 Degree-Sign C. ALD behavior was confirmed by investigation of growth behavior and saturation curves. The properties of the films were studied with atomic force microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy, ultraviolet-visible-infrared spectroscopy, and extended x-ray absorption fine structure. The results demonstrate a film that can penetrate a porous matrix, with a local Zn structure of bulk ZnS, and a band gap between 3.5 and 3.6 eV. The ZnS film was used as a buffer layer in nanostructured PbS quantum dot solar cell devices.

  7. Study of surface morphology and alignment of MWCNTs grown by chemical vapor deposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shukrullah, S. E-mail: noranimuti-mohamed@petronas.com.my Mohamed, N. M. E-mail: noranimuti-mohamed@petronas.com.my Shaharun, M. S. E-mail: noranimuti-mohamed@petronas.com.my; Yasar, M.

    2014-10-24

    In this research work, Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes (MWCNTs) have been synthesized successfully by using floating catalytic chemical vapor deposition (FCCVD) method. Different ferrocene amounts (0.1, 0.125 and 0.15 g) were used as catalyst and ethylene was used as a carbon precursor at reaction temperature of 800°C. Characterization of the grown MWCNTs was carried out by using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The obtained data showed that the catalyst weight affects the nanotubes diameter, alignment, crystallinity and growth significantly, whereas negligible influence was noticed on CNTs forest length. The dense, uniform and meadow like patterns of grown CNTs were observed for 0.15 g ferrocene. The average diameter of the grown CNTs was found in the range of 32 to 75 nm. Close inspection of the TEM images also confirmed the defects in some of the grown CNTs, where few black spots were evident in CNTs structure.

  8. Microstructural and optical properties of nanocrystalline ZnO deposited onto vertically aligned carbon nanotubes by physical vapor deposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Borkar, Tushar; Chang, Won Seok; Hwang, Jun Yeon; Shepherd, Nigel D.; Banerjee, Rajarshi

    2012-10-15

    Nanocrystalline ZnO films with thicknesses of 5 nm, 10 nm, 20 nm, and 50 nm were deposited via magnetron sputtering onto the surface of vertically aligned multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs). The ZnO/CNTs heterostructures were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, high resolution transmission electron microscopy, and X-ray diffraction studies. No structural degradation of the CNTs was observed and photoluminescence (PL) measurements of the nanostructured ZnO layers show that the optical properties of these films are typical of ZnO deposited at low temperatures. The results indicate that magnetron sputtering is a viable technique for growing heterostructures and depositing functional layers onto CNTs.

  9. Waterless TiO{sub 2} atomic layer deposition using titanium tetrachloride and titanium tetraisopropoxide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anderson, Virginia R.; Cavanagh, Andrew S.; Abdulagatov, Aziz I.; Gibbs, Zachary M.; George, Steven M.

    2014-01-15

    The surface chemistry for TiO{sub 2} atomic layer deposition (ALD) typically utilizes water or other oxidants that can oxidize underlying substrates such as magnetic disks or semiconductors. To avoid this oxidation, waterless or oxidant-free surface chemistry can be used that involves titanium halides and titanium alkoxides. In this study, waterless TiO{sub 2} ALD was accomplished using titanium tetrachloride (TiCl{sub 4}) and titanium tetraisopropoxide (TTIP). In situ transmission Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) studies were employed to study the surface species and the reactions during waterless TiO{sub 2} ALD. At low temperatures between 125 and 225  °C, the FTIR absorbance spectra revealed that the isopropoxide species remained on the surface after TTIP exposures. The TiCl{sub 4} exposures then removed the isopropoxide species and deposited additional titanium species. At high temperatures between 250 and 300  °C, the isopropoxide species were converted to hydroxyl species by β-hydride elimination. The observation of propene gaseous reaction product by quadrupole mass spectrometry (QMS) confirmed the β-hydride elimination reaction pathway. The TiCl{sub 4} exposures then easily reacted with the hydroxyl species. QMS studies also observed the 2-chloropropane and HCl gaseous reaction products and monitored the self-limiting nature of the TTIP reaction. Additional studies examined the waterless TiO{sub 2} ALD growth at low and high temperature. Quartz crystal microbalance measurements observed growth rates of ∼3 ng/cm{sup 2} at a low temperature of 150  °C. Much higher growth rates of ∼15 ng/cm{sup 2} were measured at a higher temperature of 250  °C under similar reaction conditions. X-ray reflectivity analysis measured a growth rate of 0.55 ± 0.05 Å/cycle at 250  °C. X-ray photoelectron depth-profile studies showed that the TiO{sub 2} films contained low Cl concentrations <1 at. %. This waterless TiO{sub 2} ALD process

  10. High-rate reactive sputter deposition of zirconium dioxide (Journal...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    The films are deposited by sputtering a Zr target in an oxygen--argon plasma. The Zr target remains in the metallic state. The films are characterized by measuring the ...

  11. Electrostatic particle trap for ion beam sputter deposition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vernon, Stephen P.; Burkhart, Scott C.

    2002-01-01

    A method and apparatus for the interception and trapping of or reflection of charged particulate matter generated in ion beam sputter deposition. The apparatus involves an electrostatic particle trap which generates electrostatic fields in the vicinity of the substrate on which target material is being deposited. The electrostatic particle trap consists of an array of electrode surfaces, each maintained at an electrostatic potential, and with their surfaces parallel or perpendicular to the surface of the substrate. The method involves interception and trapping of or reflection of charged particles achieved by generating electrostatic fields in the vicinity of the substrate, and configuring the fields to force the charged particulate material away from the substrate. The electrostatic charged particle trap enables prevention of charged particles from being deposited on the substrate thereby enabling the deposition of extremely low defect density films, such as required for reflective masks of an extreme ultraviolet lithography (EUVL) system.

  12. Precursors for the polymer-assisted deposition of films (Patent...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Patent: Precursors for the polymer-assisted deposition of films Citation Details ... DOE Contract Number: AC52-06NA25396 Resource Type: Patent Research Org: LANL (Los Alamos ...

  13. Fabrication of solid oxide fuel cell by electrochemical vapor deposition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brian, Riley; Szreders, Bernard E.

    1989-01-01

    In a high temperature solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC), the deposition of an impervious high density thin layer of electrically conductive interconnector material, such as magnesium doped lanthanum chromite, and of an electrolyte material, such as yttria stabilized zirconia, onto a porous support/air electrode substrate surface is carried out at high temperatures (approximately 1100.degree.-1300.degree. C.) by a process of electrochemical vapor deposition. In this process, the mixed chlorides of the specific metals involved react in the gaseous state with water vapor resulting in the deposit of an impervious thin oxide layer on the support tube/air electrode substrate of between 20-50 microns in thickness. An internal heater, such as a heat pipe, is placed within the support tube/air electrode substrate and induces a uniform temperature profile therein so as to afford precise and uniform oxide deposition kinetics in an arrangement which is particularly adapted for large scale, commercial fabrication of SOFCs.

  14. Method of depositing buffer layers on biaxially textured metal...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    eu; gd; tb; tm; resup1subx; resup2sub1-xsub2; osub3; buffer; layer; deposited; sol-gel; metal-organic; decomposition; laminate; article; layer; ybco; resup1subx; ...

  15. Surface treatment of nanocrystal quantum dots after film deposition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sykora, Milan; Koposov, Alexey; Fuke, Nobuhiro

    2015-02-03

    Provided are methods of surface treatment of nanocrystal quantum dots after film deposition so as to exchange the native ligands of the quantum dots for exchange ligands that result in improvement in charge extraction from the nanocrystals.

  16. Methods of coping with silica deposition - the PNOC experience

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Candelaria, M.N.R.; Garcia, S.E.; Baltazar, A.D.J. Jr.; Solis, R.P.

    1996-12-31

    Several methods of coping with silica deposition from geothermal waters have been undertaken by PNOC-EDC to maximize Power Output from these fluids. Initially, the problem of amorphous silica deposition in surface pipelines and the reinjection well was prevented by operating the production separators at pressures higher or equal to amorphous silica saturation. However, increasing demands for additional power and stringent environmental controls have dictated the need to find alternative methods of coping with silica deposition. Several options have been studied and tested to be able to optimize fluid utilization for production. These include: acid treatment polymerization and deposition of silica in surface ponds or sumps, and chemical inhibition. As each brine is unique, methodologies used for mitigation of the silica problem have been varied.

  17. Geology of the Florida Canyon gold deposit, Pershing County,...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Pershing County, Nevada, in: Gold and Silver Deposits of Western Nevada Authors Hastings, J.S., Burkhart, T.H., and Richardson and R.E. Published Geological Society of Nevada 1993...

  18. Fabrication of solid oxide fuel cell by electrochemical vapor deposition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Riley, B.; Szreders, B.E.

    1988-04-26

    In a high temperature solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC), the deposition of an impervious high density thin layer of electrically conductive interconnector material, such as magnesium doped lanthanum chromite, and of an electrolyte material, such as yttria stabilized zirconia, onto a porous support/air electrode substrate surface is carried out at high temperatures (/approximately/1100/degree/ /minus/ 1300/degree/C) by a process of electrochemical vapor deposition. In this process, the mixed chlorides of the specific metals involved react in the gaseous state with water vapor resulting in the deposit of an impervious thin oxide layer on the support tube/air electrode substrate of between 20--50 microns in thickness. An internal heater, such as a heat pipe, is placed within the support tube/air electrode substrate and induces a uniform temperature profile therein so as to afford precise and uniform oxide deposition kinetics in an arrangement which is particularly adapted for large scale, commercial fabrication of SOFCs.

  19. Programmable nanometer-scale electrolytic metal deposition and depletion

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lee, James Weifu; Greenbaum, Elias

    2002-09-10

    A method of nanometer-scale deposition of a metal onto a nanostructure includes the steps of: providing a substrate having thereon at least two electrically conductive nanostructures spaced no more than about 50 .mu.m apart; and depositing metal on at least one of the nanostructures by electric field-directed, programmable, pulsed electrolytic metal deposition. Moreover, a method of nanometer-scale depletion of a metal from a nanostructure includes the steps of providing a substrate having thereon at least two electrically conductive nanostructures spaced no more than about 50 .mu.m apart, at least one of the nanostructures having a metal disposed thereon; and depleting at least a portion of the metal from the nanostructure by electric field-directed, programmable, pulsed electrolytic metal depletion. A bypass circuit enables ultra-finely controlled deposition.

  20. Vanadium dioxide film protected with an atomic-layer-deposited...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    In this work, the authors deposited an ultrathin Alsub 2Osub 3 film with atomic layer ... heated at 350 C. However, in a humid environment at prolonged durations, a thicker ALD ...

  1. Evaluation of Wax Deposition and Its Control During Production...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Due to increasing oil demand, oil companies are moving into arctic environments and deep-water areas for oil production. In these regions of lower temperatures, wax deposits begin ...

  2. Novel method for carbon nanofilament growth on carbon fibers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Phillips, Johathan; Luhrs, Claudia; Terani, Mehran; Al - Haik, Marwan; Garcia, Daniel; Taha, Mahmoud R

    2009-01-01

    Fiber reinforced structural composites such as fiber reinforced polymers (FRPs) have proven to be key materials for blast mitigation due to their enhanced mechanical performance. However, there is a need to further increase total energy absorption of the composites in order to retain structural integrity in high energy environments, for example, blast events. Research has shown that composite failure in high energy environments can be traced to their relatively low shear strength attributed to the limited bond strength between the matrix and the fibers. One area of focus for improving the strength of composite materials has been to create 'multi-scale' composites. The most common approach to date is to introduce carbon nanotubes into a more traditional composite consisting of epoxy with embedded micron scale fibers. The inclusion of carbon nanotubes (CNT) clearly toughens different matrices. Depositing CNT in brittle matrix increases stiffness by orders of magnitude. Currently, this approach to create multiscale composites is limited due to the difficulty of dispersing significant amounts of nanotubes. It has repeatedly been reported that phase separation occurs above relatively low weight percent loading (ca. 3%) due to the strong van der Waals forces between CNTs compared with that between CNT and polymer. Hence, the nanotubes tend to segregate and form inclusions. One means to prevent nanotube or nanofilament agglomeration is to anchor one end of the nanostructure, thereby creating a stable multi-phase structure. This is most easily done by literally growing the CNTs directly on micron scale fibers. Recently, CNT were grown on carbon fibers, both polyacrylonitrile- (PAN-) and pitch-based, by hot filament chemical vapor deposition (HFCVD) using H2 and CH4 as precursors. Nickel clusters were electrodeposited on the fiber surfaces to catalyze the growth and uniform CNT coatings were obtained on both the PAN- and pitch-based carbon fibers. Multiwalled CNTs with

  3. Particle deposition in ventilation ducts: Connectors, bends anddeveloping flow

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sippola, Mark R.; Nazaroff, William W.

    2004-03-01

    In ventilation duct flow the turbulent flow profile is commonly disturbed or not fully developed and these conditions are likely to influence particle deposition to duct surfaces. Particle deposition rates at eight S-connectors, in two 90{sup o} duct bends and in two ducts where the turbulent flow profile was not fully developed were measured in a laboratory duct system with both galvanized steel and internally insulated ducts with hydraulic diameters of 15.2 cm. In the steel duct system, experiments with nominal particle diameters of 1, 3, 5, 9 and 16 {micro}m were conducted at each of three nominal air speeds: 2.2, 5.3 and 9.0 m/s. In the insulated duct system, deposition of particles with nominal diameters of 1, 3, 5, 8 and 13 {micro}m was measured at nominal air speeds of 2.2, 5.3 and 8.8 m/s. Fluorescent techniques were used to directly measure the deposition velocities of monodisperse fluorescent particles to duct surfaces. Deposition at S-connectors, in bends and in straight ducts with developing turbulence was often greater than deposition in straight ducts with fully developed turbulence for equal particle sizes, air speeds and duct surface orientations. Deposition rates at all locations were found to increase with an increase in particle size or air speed. High deposition rates at S-connectors resulted from impaction and these rates were nearly independent of the orientation of the S-connector. Deposition rates in the two 90{sup o} bends differed by more than an order of magnitude in some cases, probably because of the difference in turbulence conditions at the bend inlets. In straight steel ducts where the turbulent flow profile was developing, the deposition enhancement relative to fully developed turbulence generally increased with air speed and decreased with downstream distance from the duct inlet. This enhancement was greater at the duct ceiling and wall than at the duct floor. In insulated ducts, deposition enhancement was less pronounced overall

  4. High mobility single-crystalline-like GaAs thin films on inexpensive flexible metal substrates by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dutta, P. Rathi, M.; Gao, Y.; Yao, Y.; Selvamanickam, V.; Zheng, N.; Ahrenkiel, P.; Martinez, J.

    2014-09-01

    We demonstrate heteroepitaxial growth of single-crystalline-like n and p-type doped GaAs thin films on inexpensive, flexible, and light-weight metal foils by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition. Single-crystalline-like Ge thin film on biaxially textured templates made by ion beam assisted deposition on metal foil served as the epitaxy enabling substrate for GaAs growth. The GaAs films exhibited strong (004) preferred orientation, sharp in-plane texture, low grain misorientation, strong photoluminescence, and a defect density of ?10{sup 7?}cm{sup ?2}. Furthermore, the GaAs films exhibited hole and electron mobilities as high as 66 and 300?cm{sup 2}/V-s, respectively. High mobility single-crystalline-like GaAs thin films on inexpensive metal substrates can pave the path for roll-to-roll manufacturing of flexible III-V solar cells for the mainstream photovoltaics market.

  5. Conditioning biomass for microbial growth (Patent) | DOEPatents

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Conditioning biomass for microbial growth Title: Conditioning biomass for microbial growth You are accessing a document from the Department of Energy's (DOE) DOE Patents. This ...

  6. Aerosynthesis: Growths of Vertically Aligned Carbon Nanofibers...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Aerosynthesis: Growths of Vertically Aligned Carbon Nanofibers with Air DC Plasma Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Aerosynthesis: Growths of Vertically Aligned Carbon ...

  7. Process for thin film deposition of cadmium sulfide

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Muruska, H. Paul; Sansregret, Joseph L.; Young, Archie R.

    1982-01-01

    The present invention teaches a process for depositing layers of cadmium sulfide. The process includes depositing a layer of cadmium oxide by spray pyrolysis of a cadmium salt in an aqueous or organic solvent. The oxide film is then converted into cadmium sulfide by thermal ion exchange of the O.sup.-2 for S.sup.-2 by annealing the oxide layer in gaseous sulfur at elevated temperatures.

  8. Precursors for the polymer-assisted deposition of films

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McCleskey, Thomas M.; Burrell, Anthony K.; Jia, Quanxi; Lin, Yuan

    2013-09-10

    A polymer assisted deposition process for deposition of metal oxide films is presented. The process includes solutions of one or more metal precursor and soluble polymers having binding properties for the one or more metal precursor. After a coating operation, the resultant coating is heated at high temperatures to yield metal oxide films. Such films can be epitaxial in structure and can be of optical quality. The process can be organic solvent-free.

  9. Deposition of Graded Thermal Barrier Coatings for Gas Turbine Blades -

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Energy Innovation Portal Wind Energy Wind Energy Industrial Technologies Industrial Technologies Advanced Materials Advanced Materials Find More Like This Return to Search Deposition of Graded Thermal Barrier Coatings for Gas Turbine Blades Sandia National Laboratories Contact SNL About This Technology Publications: PDF Document Publication Market Sheet (825 KB) Technology Marketing SummarySandia has developed a method and apparatus for depositing thermal barrier coatings on gas turbine

  10. Innovative High-Performance Deposition Technology for Low-Cost

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Manufacturing of OLED Lighting | Department of Energy Innovative High-Performance Deposition Technology for Low-Cost Manufacturing of OLED Lighting Innovative High-Performance Deposition Technology for Low-Cost Manufacturing of OLED Lighting Lead Performer: OLEDWorks, LLC - Rochester, NY DOE Total Funding: $1,046,452 Cost Share: $1,046,452 Project Term: October 1, 2013 - December 31, 2015 Funding Opportunity: SSL Manufacturing R&D Funding Opportunity Announcement (FOA) DE-FOA-000079

  11. Molybdenum enhanced low-temperature deposition of crystalline silicon nitride

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lowden, R.A.

    1994-04-05

    A process for chemical vapor deposition of crystalline silicon nitride is described which comprises the steps of: introducing a mixture of a silicon source, a molybdenum source, a nitrogen source, and a hydrogen source into a vessel containing a suitable substrate; and thermally decomposing the mixture to deposit onto the substrate a coating comprising crystalline silicon nitride containing a dispersion of molybdenum silicide. 5 figures.

  12. Controlled Phase and Tunable Magnetism in Ordered Iron Oxide Nanotube Arrays Prepared by Atomic Layer Deposition

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zhang, Yijun; Liu, Ming; Peng, Bin; Zhou, Ziyao; Chen, Xing; Yang, Shu-Ming; Jiang, Zhuang-De; Zhang, Jie; Ren, Wei; Ye, Zuo-Guang

    2016-01-27

    Highly-ordered and conformal iron oxide nanotube arrays on an atomic scale are successfully prepared by atomic layer deposition (ALD) with controlled oxidization states and tunable magnetic properties between superparamagnetism and ferrimagnetism. Non-magnetic α-Fe2O3 and superparamagnetic Fe2O3with a blocking temperature of 120 K are in-situ obtained by finely controlling the oxidation reaction. Both of them exhibit a very small grain size of only several nanometers due to the nature of atom-by-atom growth of the ALD technique. Post-annealing α-Fe2O3 in a reducing atmosphere leads to the formation of the spinel Fe3O4 phase which displays a distinct ferrimagnetic anisotropy and the Verwey metal-insulatormore » transition that usually takes place only in single crystal magnetite or thick epitaxial films at low temperatures. Finally, the ALD deposition of iron oxide with well-controlled phase and tunable magnetism demonstrated in this work provides a promising opportunity for the fabrication of 3D nano-devices to be used in catalysis, spintronics, microelectronics, data storages and bio-applications.« less

  13. Fluidized bed coupled rotary reactor for nanoparticles coating via atomic layer deposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Duan, Chen-Long; Liu, Xiao; Chen, Rong E-mail: bshan@mail.hust.edu.cn; Shan, Bin E-mail: bshan@mail.hust.edu.cn

    2015-07-15

    A fluidized bed coupled rotary reactor has been designed for coating on nanoparticles (NPs) via atomic layer deposition. It consists of five major parts: reaction chamber, dosing and fluidizing section, pumping section, rotary manipulator components, as well as a double-layer cartridge for the storage of particles. In the deposition procedure, continuous fluidization of particles enlarges and homogenizes the void fraction in the particle bed, while rotation enhances the gas-solid interactions to stabilize fluidization. The particle cartridge presented here enables both the fluidization and rotation acting on the particle bed, demonstrated by the analysis of pressure drop. Moreover, enlarged interstitials and intense gas–solid contact under sufficient fluidizing velocity and proper rotation speed facilitate the precursor delivery throughout the particle bed and consequently provide a fast coating process. The cartridge can ensure precursors flowing through the particle bed exclusively to achieve high utilization without static exposure operation. By optimizing superficial gas velocities and rotation speeds, minimum pulse time for complete coating has been shortened in experiment, and in situ mass spectrometry showed the precursor usage can reach 90%. Inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy results suggested a saturated growth of nanoscale Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} films on spherical SiO{sub 2} NPs. Finally, the uniformity and composition of the shells were characterized by high angle annular dark field-transmission electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy.

  14. From plasma immersion ion implantation to deposition: A historical perspective on principles and trends

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anders, Andre

    2001-06-14

    Plasma immersion techniques of surface modification are known under a myriad of names. The family of techniques reaches from pure plasma ion implantation, to ion implantation and deposition hybrid modes, to modes that are essentially plasma film deposition with substrate bias. In the most general sense, all plasma immersion techniques have in common that the surface of a substrate (target) is exposed to plasma and that relatively high substrate bias is applied. The bias is usually pulsed. In this review, the roots of immersion techniques are explored, some going back to the 1800s, followed by a discussion of the groundbreaking works of Adler and Conrad in the 1980s. In the 1990s, plasma immersion techniques matured in theoretical understanding, scaling, and the range of applications. First commercial facilities are now operational. Various immersion concepts are compiled and explained in this review. While gas (often nitrogen) ion implantation dominated the early years, film-forming immersion techniques and semiconductor processing gained importance. In the 1980s and 1990s we have seen exponential growth of the field but signs of slowdown are clear since 1998. Nevertheless, plasma immersion techniques have found, and will continue to have, an important place among surface modification techniques.

  15. Restricting lignin and enhancing sugar deposition in secondary cell walls enhances monomeric sugar release after low temperature ionic liquid pretreatment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scullin, Chessa; Cruz, Alejandro G.; Chuang, Yi -De; Simmons, Blake A.; Loque, Dominique; Singh, Seema

    2015-07-04

    Lignocellulosic biomass has the potential to be a major source of renewable sugar for biofuel production. Before enzymatic hydrolysis, biomass must first undergo a pretreatment step in order to be more susceptible to saccharification and generate high yields of fermentable sugars. Lignin, a complex, interlinked, phenolic polymer, associates with secondary cell wall polysaccharides, rendering them less accessible to enzymatic hydrolysis. Herein, we describe the analysis of engineered Arabidopsis lines where lignin biosynthesis was repressed in fiber tissues but retained in the vessels, and polysaccharide deposition was enhanced in fiber cells with little to no apparent negative impact on growth phenotype.

  16. Restricting lignin and enhancing sugar deposition in secondary cell walls enhances monomeric sugar release after low temperature ionic liquid pretreatment

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Scullin, Chessa; Cruz, Alejandro G.; Chuang, Yi -De; Simmons, Blake A.; Loque, Dominique; Singh, Seema

    2015-07-04

    Lignocellulosic biomass has the potential to be a major source of renewable sugar for biofuel production. Before enzymatic hydrolysis, biomass must first undergo a pretreatment step in order to be more susceptible to saccharification and generate high yields of fermentable sugars. Lignin, a complex, interlinked, phenolic polymer, associates with secondary cell wall polysaccharides, rendering them less accessible to enzymatic hydrolysis. Herein, we describe the analysis of engineered Arabidopsis lines where lignin biosynthesis was repressed in fiber tissues but retained in the vessels, and polysaccharide deposition was enhanced in fiber cells with little to no apparent negative impact on growth phenotype.

  17. Atomic layer deposition grown MO{sub x} thin films for solar water splitting: Prospects and challenges

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Singh, Trilok; Lehnen, Thomas; Leuning, Tessa; Mathur, Sanjay

    2015-01-15

    The magnitude of energy challenge not only calls for efficient devices but also for abundant, inexpensive, and stable photoactive materials that can enable efficient light harvesting, charge separation and collection, as well as chemical transformations. Photoelectrochemical systems based on semiconductor materials have the possibility to transform solar energy directly into chemical energy the so-called “solar hydrogen.” The current challenge lies in the harvesting of a larger fraction of electromagnetic spectrum by enhancing the absorbance of electrode materials. In this context, atomically precise thin films of metal oxide semiconductors and their multilayered junctions are promising candidates to integrate high surface areas with well-defined electrode–substrate interface. Given its self-limited growth mechanism, the atomic layer deposition (ALD) technique offers a wide range of capabilities to deposit and modify materials at the nanoscale. In addition, it opens new frontiers for developing precursor chemistry that is inevitable to design new processes. Herein, the authors review the properties and potential of metal oxide thin films deposited by ALD for their application in photoelectrochemical water splitting application. The first part of the review covers the basics of ALD processes followed by a brief discussion on the electrochemistry of water splitting reaction. The second part focuses on different MO{sub x} films deposited by atomic layer deposition for water splitting applications; in this section, The authors discuss the most explored MO{sub x} semiconductors, namely, Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}, TiO{sub 2}, WO{sub 3}, and ZnO, as active materials and refer to their application as protective coatings, conductive scaffolds, or in heterojunctions. The third part deals with the current challenges and future prospects of ALD processed MO{sub x} thin films for water splitting reactions.

  18. 1987 wet deposition temporal and spatial patterns in North America

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Simpson, J.C.; Olsen, A.R.

    1990-03-01

    The focus of this report is on North American wet deposition temporal patterns from 1979 to 1987 and spatial patterns for 1987. The report investigates the patterns of annual precipitation-weighted average concentration and annual deposition for nine ion species: hydrogen, sulfate, nitrate, ammonium, calcium, chloride, sodium, potassium, and magnesium. Data are from the Acid Deposition System (ADS) for the statistical reporting of North American deposition data which includes the National Atmospheric Deposition Program/National Trends Network (NADP/NTN), the MAP3S precipitation chemistry network, the Utility Acid Precipitation Study Program (UAPSP), the Canadian Precipitation Monitoring Network (CAPMoN), and the daily and 4-weekly Acidic Precipitation in Ontario Study (APIOS-D and APIOS-C). Mosaic maps, based on surface estimation using kriging, display concentration and deposition spatial patterns of pH, hydrogen, sulfate, nitrate, ammonium, and calcium ion species for 1987 annual, winter, and summer periods. The temporal pattern analyses use a subset of 39 sites over a 9-year (1979--1987) period and an expanded subset of 140 sites with greater spatial coverage over a 6-year (1982--1987) period. 68 refs., 15 figs., 15 tabs.

  19. 1986 wet deposition temporal and spatial patterns in North America

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Olsen, A.R.

    1989-07-01

    The focus of this report is on North American wet deposition temporal patterns from 1979 to 1986 and spatial patterns for 1986. The report provides statistical distribution summaries of annual precipitation-weighted average concentration and annual deposition for nine ion species: hydrogen, sulfate, nitrate, ammonium, calcium, chloride, sodium, potassium, and magnesium. The data in the report are from the Acid Depositing System (ADS) for the statistical reporting of North American deposition data. Isopleth maps, based on surface estimation using kriging, display concentration and deposition spatial patterns of pH, hydrogen, sulfate, nitrate, ammonium, and calcium ion species for 1986 annual, winter, and summer periods. The temporal pattern analyses use a subset of 30 sites over an 8-year (1979-1986) period and an expanded subset of 137 sites with greater spatial coverage over a 5-year (1982-1986) period. The 8-year period represents the longest period with wet deposition monitoring data unavailable that has a sufficient number of sites with data of known quality to allow a descriptive summary of annual temporal patterns. 19 refs., 105 figs., 29 tabs.

  20. Process maps for plasma spray. Part II: Deposition and properties

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    XIANGYANG,JIANG; MATEJICEK,JIRI; KULKARNI,ANAND; HERMAN,HERBERT; SAMPATH,SANJAY; GILMORE,DELWYN L.; NEISER JR.,RICHARD A

    2000-03-28

    This is the second paper of a two part series based on an integrated study carried out at the State University of New York at Stony Brook and Sandia National Laboratories. The goal of the study is the fundamental understanding of the plasma-particle interaction, droplet/substrate interaction, deposit formation dynamics and microstructure development as well as the deposit property. The outcome is science-based relationships, which can be used to link processing to performance. Molybdenum splats and coatings produced at 3 plasma conditions and three substrate temperatures were characterized. It was found that there is a strong mechanical/thermal interaction between droplet and substrate, which builds up the coatings/substrate adhesion. Hardness, thermal conductivity, and modulus increase, while oxygen content and porosity decrease with increasing particle velocity. Increasing deposition temperature resulted in dramatic improvement in coating thermal conductivity and hardness as well as increase in coating oxygen content. Indentation reveals improved fracture resistance for the coatings prepared at higher deposition temperature. Residual stress was significantly affected by deposition temperature, although not significant by particle energy within the investigated parameter range. Coatings prepared at high deposition temperature with high-energy particles suffered considerably less damage in wear tests. Possible mechanisms behind these changes are discussed within the context of relational maps which are under development.

  1. Natural mercury isotope variation in coal deposits and organic soils

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abir, Biswas; Joel D. Blum; Bridget A. Bergquist; Gerald J. Keeler; Zhouqing Xie

    2008-11-15

    There is a need to distinguish among sources of Hg to the atmosphere in order to more fully understand global Hg pollution. In this study we investigate whether coal deposits within the United States, China, and Russia-Kazakhstan, which are three of the five greatest coal-producing regions, have diagnostic Hg isotopic fingerprints that can be used to discriminate among Hg sources. We also investigate the Hg isotopic composition of modern organic soil horizons developed in areas distant from point sources of Hg in North America. Mercury stored in coal deposits displays a wide range of both mass dependent fractionation and mass independent fractionation. {delta}{sup 202}Hg varies in coals by 3{per_thousand} and {Delta}{sup 201}Hg varies by 0.9{per_thousand}. Combining these two Hg isotope signals results in what may be a unique isotopic 'fingerprint' for many coal deposits. Mass independent fractionation of mercury has been demonstrated to occur during photochemical reactions of mercury. This suggests that Hg found in most coal deposits was subjected to photochemical reduction near the Earth's surface prior to deposition. The similarity in MDF and MIF of modern organic soils and coals from North America suggests that Hg deposition from coal may have imprinted an isotopic signature on soils. This research offers a new tool for characterizing mercury inputs from natural and anthropogenic sources to the atmosphere and provides new insights into the geochemistry of mercury in coal and soils. 35 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  2. Depositional patterns of kerogen, Atlantic Margin, North America

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Armentrout, J.M.

    1985-02-01

    Geochemical and biostratigraphic data from offshore wells along the Atlantic margin of North America define a depositional history dominated by coastal-plain and shallow-shelf facies containing degraded and residual continent-derived kerogen. Exceptions to this generalization are 4 depositional facies containing hydrogen-rich amorphous kerogen assemblages. The rocks containing hydrogen-rich amorphous kerogen assemblages are: (1) Upper Jurassic inner-shelf facies probably deposited in algal-rich lagoonlike environments, (2) Lower Cretaceous nonmarine coaly facies, probably deposited in algal-rich swamplike environments, (3) middle Cretaceous abyssal-plain facies probably deposited by turbidity currents that originated on an algal-rich slope, and (4) Miocene outer-shelf to upper-slope facies probably deposited under algal-rich upwelling systems. Correlations of these facies to seismic packages allows for extrapolation of probable organic facies distribution throughout the continental margin. Such modeling of organic facies distributions in conjunction with plate-tectonic and ocean-circulation models permits refinement of strategies for hydrocarbon exploration.

  3. Multi-model mean nitrogen and sulfur deposition from the Atmospheric...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Multi-model mean nitrogen and sulfur deposition from the Atmospheric Chemistry and Climate ... Title: Multi-model mean nitrogen and sulfur deposition from the Atmospheric Chemistry and ...

  4. Deposition of cobalt atoms onto Alq 3 films: A molecular dynamics...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Deposition of cobalt atoms onto Alq 3 films: A molecular dynamics study Prev Next Title: Deposition of cobalt atoms onto Alq 3 films: A molecular dynamics study Authors: ...

  5. Method and apparatus for removing and preventing window deposition during photochemical vapor deposition (photo-CVD) processes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tsuo, Simon; Langford, Alison A.

    1989-01-01

    Unwanted build-up of the film deposited on the transparent light-transmitting window of a photochemical vacuum deposition (photo-CVD) chamber is eliminated by flowing an etchant into the part of the photolysis region in the chamber immediately adjacent the window and remote from the substrate and from the process gas inlet. The respective flows of the etchant and the process gas are balanced to confine the etchant reaction to the part of the photolysis region proximate to the window and remote from the substrate. The etchant is preferably one that etches film deposit on the window, does not etch or affect the window itself, and does not produce reaction by-products that are deleterious to either the desired film deposited on the substrate or to the photolysis reaction adjacent the substrate.

  6. Method and apparatus for removing and preventing window deposition during photochemical vapor deposition (photo-CVD) processes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tsuo, S.; Langford, A.A.

    1989-03-28

    Unwanted build-up of the film deposited on the transparent light-transmitting window of a photochemical vacuum deposition (photo-CVD) chamber is eliminated by flowing an etchant into the part of the photolysis region in the chamber immediately adjacent the window and remote from the substrate and from the process gas inlet. The respective flows of the etchant and the process gas are balanced to confine the etchant reaction to the part of the photolysis region proximate to the window and remote from the substrate. The etchant is preferably one that etches film deposit on the window, does not etch or affect the window itself, and does not produce reaction by-products that are deleterious to either the desired film deposited on the substrate or to the photolysis reaction adjacent the substrate. 3 figs.

  7. Metalorganic chemical vapor deposition and characterization of (Al,Si)O dielectrics for GaN–based devices

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Chan, Silvia; Mishra, Umesh K.; Tahhan, Maher; Liu, Xiang; Bisi, David; Gupta, Chirag; Koksaldi, Onur; Li, Haoran; Mates, Tom; DenBaars, Steven P.; et al

    2016-01-20

    In this study, we report on the growth and electrical characterization of (Al,Si)O dielectrics grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) using trimethylaluminum, oxygen, and silane as precursors. The growth rates, refractive indices, and composition of (Al,Si)O films grown on Si(001) were determined from ellipsometry and XPS measurements. Crystallinity and electrical properties of (Al,Si)O films grown in situ on c-plane GaN were characterized using grazing incidence X-ray diffraction and capacitance–voltage with current–voltage measurements, respectively. Si concentration in the films was found to be tunable by varying the trimethylaluminum and/or oxygen precursor flows. The Si incorporation suppressed the formation of crystallinemore » domains, leading to amorphous films that resulted in reduced interfacial trap density, low gate leakage and ultra-low hysteresis in (Al,Si)O/n-GaN MOS-capacitors.« less

  8. Ash Deposit Formation and Deposit Properties. A Comprehensive Summary of Research Conducted at Sandia's Combustion Research Facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Larry L. Baxter

    2000-08-01

    This report summarizes experimental and theoretical work performed at Sandia's Combustion Research Facility over the past eight years on the fate of inorganic material during coal combustion. This work has been done under four broad categories: coal characterization, fly ash formation, ash deposition, and deposit property development. The objective was to provide sufficient understanding of these four areas to be able to predict coal behavior in current and advanced conversion systems. This work has led to new characterization techniques for fuels that provide, for the first time, systematic and species specific information regarding the inorganic material. The transformations of inorganic material during combustion can be described in terms of the net effects of the transformations of these individual species. Deposit formation mechanisms provide a framework for predicting deposition rates for abroad range of particle sizes. Predictions based on these rates many times are quite accurate although there are important exceptions. A rigorous framework for evaluating deposit has been established. Substantial data have been obtained with which to exercise this framework, but this portion of the work is less mature than is any other. Accurate prediction of deposit properties as functions of fuel properties, boiler design, and boiler operating conditions represents the single most critical area where additional research is needed.

  9. Digital electronic bone growth stimulator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kronberg, James W.

    1995-01-01

    A device for stimulating bone tissue by applying a low level alternating current signal directly to the patient's skin. A crystal oscillator, a binary divider chain and digital logic gates are used to generate the desired waveforms that reproduce the natural electrical characteristics found in bone tissue needed for stimulating bone growth and treating osteoporosis. The device, powered by a battery, contains a switch allowing selection of the correct waveform for bone growth stimulation or osteoporosis treatment so that, when attached to the skin of the patient using standard skin contact electrodes, the correct signal is communicated to the underlying bone structures.

  10. Digital electronic bone growth stimulator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kronberg, J.W.

    1995-05-09

    A device is described for stimulating bone tissue by applying a low level alternating current signal directly to the patient`s skin. A crystal oscillator, a binary divider chain and digital logic gates are used to generate the desired waveforms that reproduce the natural electrical characteristics found in bone tissue needed for stimulating bone growth and treating osteoporosis. The device, powered by a battery, contains a switch allowing selection of the correct waveform for bone growth stimulation or osteoporosis treatment so that, when attached to the skin of the patient using standard skin contact electrodes, the correct signal is communicated to the underlying bone structures. 5 figs.

  11. Nonlinear structural crack growth monitoring

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Welch, Donald E.; Hively, Lee M.; Holdaway, Ray F.

    2002-01-01

    A method and apparatus are provided for the detection, through nonlinear manipulation of data, of an indicator of imminent failure due to crack growth in structural elements. The method is a process of determining energy consumption due to crack growth and correlating the energy consumption with physical phenomena indicative of a failure event. The apparatus includes sensors for sensing physical data factors, processors or the like for computing a relationship between the physical data factors and phenomena indicative of the failure event, and apparatus for providing notification of the characteristics and extent of such phenomena.

  12. Two-stage epitaxial growth of vertically-aligned SnO2 nano-rods on(001) ceria

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Solovyov, Vyacheslav F.; Wu, Li-jun; Rupich, Martin W.; Sathyamurthy, Srivatsan; Li, Xiaoping; Li, Qiang

    2014-09-20

    Growth of high-aspect ratio oriented tin oxide, SnO2, nano-rods is complicated by a limited choice of matching substrates. We show that a (001) cerium oxide, CeO2, surface uniquely enables epitaxial growth of tin-oxide nano-rods via a two-stage process. First, (100) oriented nano-wires coat the ceria surface by lateral growth, forming a uniaxially-textured SnO2 deposit. Second, vertical SnO2nano-rods nucleate on the deposit by homoepitaxy. We demonstrate growth of vertically oriented 1-2 ?m long nano-rods with an average diameter of ?20 nm.

  13. Grain growth and phase stability of nanocrystalline cubic zirconia under ion irradiation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Yanwen; Jiang, Weilin; Wang, Chong M.; Namavar, Fereydoon; Edmondson, Philip D.; Zhu, Zihua; Gao, Fei; Lian, Jie; Weber, William J.

    2010-11-10

    Grain growth, oxygen stoichiometry and phase stability of nanostructurally-stabilized zirconia (NSZ) in pure cubic phase are investigated under 2 MeV Au ion bombardment at 160 and 400 K to doses up to 35 displacements per atom (dpa). The NSZ films are produced by ion-beam-assisted deposition technique at room temperature with an average grain size of 7.7 nm. The grain size increases with dose, and follows a power law (n=6) to a saturation value of ~30 nm that decreases with temperature. Slower grain growth is observed under 400 K irradiations, as compared to 160 K irradiations, indicating that thermal grain growth is not activated and defect-stimulated grain growth is the dominating mechanism. While cubic phase is perfectly retained and no new phases are identified after the high-dose irradiations, reduction of oxygen in the irradiated NSZ films is detected. The ratio of O to Zr decreases from ~2.0 for the as-deposited films to ~1.65 after irradiation to ~35 dpa. Significant increase of oxygen vacancies in nanocrystalline zirconia suggests substantially enhanced oxygen diffusion under ion irradiation, a materials behavior far from equilibrium. The oxygen deficiency may be essential in stabilizing cubic phase to larger grain sizes.

  14. Grain Growth and Phase Stability of Nanocrystalline Cubic Zirconia under Ion Irradiation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Yanwen; Jiang, Weilin; Wang, Chongmin; Namavar, Fereydoon; Edmondson, Philip D.; Zhu, Zihua; Gao, Fei; Lian, Jie; Weber, William J

    2010-01-01

    Grain growth, oxygen stoichiometry and phase stability of nanostructurally-stabilized cubic zirconia (NSZ) are investigated under 2 MeV Au ion bombardment at 160 and 400 K to doses up to 35 displacements per atom (dpa). The NSZ films are produced by ion-beam-assisted deposition technique at room temperature with an average grain size of 7.7 nm. The grain size increases with dose, and follows a power law (n=6) to a saturation value of ~30 nm that decreases with temperature. Slower grain growth is observed under 400 K irradiations, as compared to 160 K irradiations, indicating that the grain growth is not thermally activated and irradiation-induced grain growth is the dominating mechanism. While the cubic structure is retained and no new phases are identified after the high-dose irradiations, oxygen reduction in the irradiated NSZ films is detected. The ratio of O to Zr decreases from ~2.0 for the as-deposited films to ~1.65 after irradiation to ~35 dpa. The loss of oxygen suggests a significant increase of oxygen vacancies in nanocrystalline zirconia under ion irradiation. The oxygen deficiency may be essential in stabilizing the cubic phase to larger grain sizes.

  15. Growth morphology and properties of metals on graphene

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Xiaojie; Han, Yong; Evans, James W.; Engstfeld, Albert K.; Behm, R. Juergen; Tringides, Michael C.; Hupalo, Myron; Lin, Hai -Qing; Huang, Li; Ho, Kai -Ming; Appy, David; Thiel, Patricia A.; Wang, Cai -Zhuang

    2015-12-01

    Graphene, a single atomic layer of graphite, has been the focus of recent intensive studies due to its novel electronic and structural properties. With this study, metals grown on graphene also have been of interest because of their potential use as metal contacts in graphene devices, for spintronics applications, and for catalysis. All of these applications require good understanding and control of the metal growth morphology, which in part reflects the strength of the metal–graphene bond. The interaction between graphene and metal is sufficiently strong to modify the electronic structure of graphene is also of great importance. We will discuss recent experimental and computational studies related to deposition of metals on graphene supported on various substrates (SiC, SiO2, and hexagonal close-packed metal surfaces). Of specific interest are the metal–graphene interactions (adsorption energies and diffusion barriers of metal adatoms), and the crystal structures and thermal stability of the metal nanoclusters.

  16. Temperature threshold for nanorod structuring of metal and oxide films grown by glancing angle deposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Deniz, Derya; Lad, Robert J.

    2011-01-15

    Thin films of tin (Sn), aluminum (Al), gold (Au), ruthenium (Ru), tungsten (W), ruthenium dioxide (RuO{sub 2}), tin dioxide (SnO{sub 2}), and tungsten trioxide (WO{sub 3}) were grown by glancing angle deposition (GLAD) to determine the nanostructuring temperature threshold, {Theta}{sub T}, above which adatom surface diffusion becomes large enough such that nanorod morphology is no longer formed during growth. The threshold was found to be lower in metals compared to oxides. Films were grown using both dc and pulsed dc magnetron sputtering with continuous substrate rotation over the temperature range from 291 to 866 K. Film morphologies, structures, and compositions were characterized by high resolution scanning electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction, and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Films were also grown in a conventional configuration for comparison. For elemental metals, nanorod structuring occurs for films with melting points higher than that of Al (933 K) when grown at room temperature with a rotation rate of {approx}5 rpm, corresponding to a value of {Theta}{sub T}{approx_equal}0.33{+-}0.01. For the oxide films, a value of {Theta}{sub T}{approx_equal}0.5 was found, above which GLAD nanorod structuring does not occur. The existence of a nanostructuring temperature threshold in both metal and oxide GLAD films can be attributed to greater adatom mobilities as temperature is increased resulting in nonkinetically limited film nucleation and growth processes.

  17. Nitrogen doping of chemical vapor deposition grown graphene on 4H-SiC (0001)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Urban, J. M.; Binder, J.; Wysmo?ek, A.; D?browski, P.; Strupi?ski, W.; Kopciuszy?ski, M.; Ja?ochowski, M.; Klusek, Z.

    2014-06-21

    We present optical, electrical, and structural properties of nitrogen-doped graphene grown on the Si face of 4H-SiC (0001) by chemical vapor deposition method using propane as the carbon precursor and N{sub 2} as the nitrogen source. The incorporation of nitrogen in the carbon lattice was confirmed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy shows carrier behavior characteristic for massless Dirac fermions and confirms the presence of a graphene monolayer in the investigated nitrogen-doped samples. The structural and electronic properties of the material were investigated by Raman spectroscopy. A systematical analysis of the graphene Raman spectra, including D, G, and 2D bands, was performed. In the case of nitrogen-doped samples, an electron concentration on the order of 510 10{sup 12}?cm{sup ?2} was estimated based upon Raman and Hall effect measurements and no clear dependence of the carrier concentration on nitrogen concentration used during growth was observed. This high electron concentration can be interpreted as both due to the presence of nitrogen in graphitic-like positions of the graphene lattice as well as to the interaction with the substrate. A greater intensity of the Raman D band and increased inhomogeneity, as well as decreased electron mobility, observed for nitrogen-doped samples, indicate the formation of defects and a modification of the growth process induced by nitrogen doping.

  18. Passivation dynamics in the anisotropic deposition and stripping of bulk magnesium electrodes during electrochemical cycling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wetzel, David J.; Malone, Marvin A.; Haasch, Richard T.; Meng, Yifei; Vieker, Henning; Hahn, Nathan; Golzhauser, Armin; Zuo, Jian-Min; Zavadil, Kevin R.; Gewirth, Andrew A.; Nuzzo, Ralph G.

    2015-08-10

    Rechargeable magnesium (Mg) batteries show promise for use as a next generation technology for high-density energy storage, though little is known about the Mg anode solid electrolyte interphase and its implications for the performance and durability of a Mg-based battery. We explore in this report passivation effects engendered during the electrochemical cycling of a bulk Mg anode, characterizing their influences during metal deposition and dissolution in a simple, nonaqueous, Grignard electrolyte solution (ethylmagnesium bromide, EtMgBr, in tetrahydrofuran). Scanning electron microscopy images of Mg foil working electrodes after electrochemical polarization to dissolution potentials show the formation of corrosion pits. The pit densities so evidenced are markedly potential-dependent. When the Mg working electrode is cycled both potentiostatically and galvanostatically in EtMgBr these pits, formed due to passive layer breakdown, act as the foci for subsequent electrochemical activity. Detailed microscopy, diffraction, and spectroscopic data show that further passivation and corrosion results in the anisotropic stripping of the Mg {0001} plane, leaving thin oxide-comprising passivated side wall structures that demark the {0001} fiber texture of the etched Mg grains. Upon long-term cycling, oxide side walls formed due to the pronounced crystallographic anisotropy of the anodic stripping processes, leading to complex overlay anisotropic, columnar structures, exceeding 50 μm in height. Finally, the passive responses mediating the growth of these structures appear to be an intrinsic feature of the electrochemical growth and dissolution of Mg using this electrolyte.

  19. Passivation dynamics in the anisotropic deposition and stripping of bulk magnesium electrodes during electrochemical cycling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wetzel, David J.; Malone, Marvin A.; Haasch, Richard T.; Meng, Yifei; Vieker, Henning; Hahn, Nathan; Golzhauser, Armin; Zuo, Jian-Min; Zavadil, Kevin R.; Gewirth, Andrew A.; Nuzzo, Ralph G.

    2015-08-10

    Rechargeable magnesium (Mg) batteries show promise for use as a next generation technology for high-density energy storage, though little is known about the Mg anode solid electrolyte interphase and its implications for the performance and durability of a Mg-based battery. We explore in this report passivation effects engendered during the electrochemical cycling of a bulk Mg anode, characterizing their influences during metal deposition and dissolution in a simple, nonaqueous, Grignard electrolyte solution (ethylmagnesium bromide, EtMgBr, in tetrahydrofuran). Scanning electron microscopy images of Mg foil working electrodes after electrochemical polarization to dissolution potentials show the formation of corrosion pits. The pit densities so evidenced are markedly potential-dependent. When the Mg working electrode is cycled both potentiostatically and galvanostatically in EtMgBr these pits, formed due to passive layer breakdown, act as the foci for subsequent electrochemical activity. Detailed microscopy, diffraction, and spectroscopic data show that further passivation and corrosion results in the anisotropic stripping of the Mg {0001} plane, leaving thin oxide-comprising passivated side wall structures that demark the {0001} fiber texture of the etched Mg grains. Upon long-term cycling, oxide side walls formed due to the pronounced crystallographic anisotropy of the anodic stripping processes, leading to complex overlay anisotropic, columnar structures, exceeding 50 ?m in height. Finally, the passive responses mediating the growth of these structures appear to be an intrinsic feature of the electrochemical growth and dissolution of Mg using this electrolyte.

  20. Uranium deposition study on aluminum: results of early tests

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hughes, M.R.; Nolan, T.A.

    1984-06-19

    Laboratory experiments to quantify uranium compound deposition on Aluminum 3003 test coupons have been initiated. These experiments consist of exposing the coupons to normal assay UF/sub 6/ (0.7% /sup 235/U) in nickel reaction vessels under various conditions of UF/sub 6/ pressure, temperature, and time. To-date, runs from 5 minutes to 2000 hr have been completed at a UF/sub 6/ pressure of 100 torr and at a temperature of 60/sup 0/C. Longer exposure times are in progress. Initial results indicated that a surface film of uranium, primarily as uranyl fluoride (UO/sub 2/F/sub 2/), is deposited very soon after exposure to UF/sub 6/. In a five minute UF/sub 6/ exposure at a temperature of 60/sup 0/C, an average of 2.9 ..mu..g U/cm/sup 2/ was deposited; after 24 hr the deposit typically increased to 5.0 ..mu..g/cm/sup 2/ and then increased to 10.4 ..mu..g/cm/sup 2/ after 2000 hr. This amount of deposit (at 2000 hr exposure) would contribute roughly 10 to 20% to the total 186 keV gamma signal obtained from a GCEP product header pipe being operated at UF/sub 6/ pressures of 2 to 5 torr. The amount of isotopic exchange which would occur in the deposit in the event that HEU and LEU productions were alternated is considered. It is felt that isotopic exchange would not occur to any significant amount within the fixed deposit during relatively short HEU production periods since the HEU would be present primarily as adsorbed UF/sub 6/ molecules on the surface of the deposit. The adsorbed HEU molecules would be removed by evacuation and diluted by LEU production. Major increases in the deposit count would be observed if a leak occurred or moisture was introduced into the system while HEU was being produced.

  1. Methods for improved growth of group III nitride buffer layers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Melnik, Yurity; Chen, Lu; Kojiri, Hidehiro

    2014-07-15

    Methods are disclosed for growing high crystal quality group III-nitride epitaxial layers with advanced multiple buffer layer techniques. In an embodiment, a method includes forming group III-nitride buffer layers that contain aluminum on suitable substrate in a processing chamber of a hydride vapor phase epitaxy processing system. A hydrogen halide or halogen gas is flowing into the growth zone during deposition of buffer layers to suppress homogeneous particle formation. Some combinations of low temperature buffers that contain aluminum (e.g., AlN, AlGaN) and high temperature buffers that contain aluminum (e.g., AlN, AlGaN) may be used to improve crystal quality and morphology of subsequently grown group III-nitride epitaxial layers. The buffer may be deposited on the substrate, or on the surface of another buffer. The additional buffer layers may be added as interlayers in group III-nitride layers (e.g., GaN, AlGaN, AlN).

  2. 2015 NREL Industry Growth Forum

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    During NREL’s 2015 Industry Growth Forum, 30 competitively selected clean energy startups will pitch their businesses to investors and compete to win the NREL Best Venture Award.  One of the...

  3. SBA Growth Accelerator Fund Competition

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The U.S. Small Business Administration (SBA) is accepting applications for the Growth Accelerator Fund Competition to identify the nation's innovative accelerators and similar organizations and award them cash prizes they may use to fund their operations costs and allow them to bring startup competitions to scale and new ideas to life.

  4. Direct flow crystal growth system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Montgomery, Kenneth E.; Milanovich, Fred P.

    1992-01-01

    A crystal is grown in a constantly filtered solution which is flowed directly into the growing face of a crystal. In a continuous flow system, solution at its saturation temperature is removed from a crystal growth tank, heated above its saturation temperature, filtered, cooled back to its saturation temperature, and returned to the tank.

  5. Concept for lightweight spaced-based deposition technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fulton, Michael; Anders, Andre

    2006-02-28

    In this contribution we will describe a technology path to very high quality coatings fabricated in the vacuum of space. To accomplish the ambitious goals set out in NASA's Lunar-Mars proposal, advanced thin-film deposition technology will be required. The ability to deposit thin-film coatings in the vacuum of lunar-space could be extremely valuable for executing this new space mission. Developing lightweight space-based deposition technology (goal:<300 g, including power supply) will enable the future fabrication and repair of flexible large-area space antennae and fixed telescope mirrors for lunar-station observatories. Filtered Cathodic Arc (FCA) is a proven terrestrial energetic thin-film deposition technology that does not need any processing gas but is well suited for ultra-high vacuum operation. Recently, miniaturized cathodic arcs have already been developed and considered for space propulsion. It is proposed to combine miniaturized pulsed FCA technology and robotics to create a robust, enabling space-based deposition system for the fabrication, improvement, and repair of thin films, especially of silver and aluminum, on telescope mirrors and eventually on large area flexible substrates. Using miniature power supplies with inductive storage, the typical low-voltage supply systems used in space are adequate. It is shown that high-value, small area coatings are within the reach of existing technology, while medium and large area coatings are challenging in terms of lightweight technology and economics.

  6. MODELING OF THERMOPHORETIC SOOT DEPOSITION ANDHYDROCARBON CONDENSATION IN EGR COOLERS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abarham, Mehdi; Hoard, John W.; Assanis, Dennis; Styles, Dan; Curtis, Eric W.; Ramesh, Nitia; Sluder, Scott; Storey, John Morse

    2009-01-01

    EGR coolers are effective to reduce NOx emissions from diesel engines due to lower intake charge temperature. EGR cooler fouling reduces heat transfer capacity of the cooler significantly and increases pressure drop across the cooler. Engine coolant provided at 40-90 C is used to cool EGR coolers. The presence of a cold surface in the cooler causes particulate soot deposition and hydrocarbon condensation. The experimental data also indicates that the fouling is mainly caused by soot and hydrocarbons. In this study, a 1-D model is extended to simulate particulate soot and hydrocarbon deposition on a concentric tube EGR cooler with a constant wall temperature. The soot deposition caused by thermophoresis phenomena is taken into account the model. Condensation of a wide range of hydrocarbon molecules are also modeled but the results show condensation of only heavy molecules at coolant temperature. Thermal properties of fouled layer are calculated based on mass fraction of deposited soot and hydrocarbons. The experiments with the same conditions ran to validate the model. Hot EGR gases flow through the inner pipe and the coolant circulates around it in the outer pipe to keep a constant wall temperature. Effectiveness, deposited soot mass, condensed hydrocarbon mass, and pressure drop across the cooler are the parameters that have been compared. The results of the model are in a reasonably good agreement with the experimental results although there are some fields that need to be studied in future to improve the model.

  7. Automation, Control and Modeling of Compound Semiconductor Thin-Film Growth

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Breiland, W.G.; Coltrin, M.E.; Drummond, T.J.; Horn, K.M.; Hou, H.Q.; Klem, J.F.; Tsao, J.Y.

    1999-02-01

    This report documents the results of a laboratory-directed research and development (LDRD) project on control and agile manufacturing in the critical metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) and molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) materials growth processes essential to high-speed microelectronics and optoelectronic components. This effort is founded on a modular and configurable process automation system that serves as a backbone allowing integration of process-specific models and sensors. We have developed and integrated MOCVD- and MBE-specific models in this system, and demonstrated the effectiveness of sensor-based feedback control in improving the accuracy and reproducibility of semiconductor heterostructures. In addition, within this framework we have constructed ''virtual reactor'' models for growth processes, with the goal of greatly shortening the epitaxial growth process development cycle.

  8. Nanosecond laser-induced phase transitions in pulsed laser deposition-deposited GeTe films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sun, Xinxing Thelander, Erik; Lorenz, Pierre; Gerlach, Jürgen W.; Decker, Ulrich; Rauschenbach, Bernd

    2014-10-07

    Phase transformations between amorphous and crystalline states induced by irradiation of pulsed laser deposition grown GeTe thin films with nanosecond laser pulses at 248 nm and pulse duration of 20 ns are studied. Structural and optical properties of the Ge-Te phase-change films were studied by X-ray diffraction and optical reflectivity measurements as a function of the number of laser pulses between 0 and 30 pulses and of the laser fluence up to 195 mJ/cm². A reversible phase transition by using pulse numbers ≥ 5 at a fluence above the threshold fluence between 11 and 14 mJ/cm² for crystallization and single pulses at a fluence between 162 and 182 mJ/cm² for amorphization could be proved. For laser fluences from 36 up to 130 mJ/cm², a high optical contrast of 14.7% between the amorphous and crystalline state is measured. A simple model is used that allows the discussion on the distribution of temperature in dependency on the laser fluence.

  9. (Ion beam deposition of epitaxial germanium and gallium arsenide layers): Foreign trip report, June 2, 1989--June 18, 1989

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Haynes, T.E.

    1989-07-05

    The traveler presented an invited paper entitled ''Ion Beam Deposition of Epitaxial Germanium and Gallium Arsenide Layers'' at the Twelfth Symposium on Ion Sources and Ion-Assisted Technology (ISIAT '89) in Tokyo. During informal conversations at this meeting, the traveler was informed about a new Japanese initiative, sponsored by the Ministry of International Trade and Industry and an industrial consortium, to establish an Ion Engineering Research Center, whose purpose will be to provide sophisticated equipment and technology base for exploring and developing new applications of ion beam processing. The traveler also visited five Japanese laboratories involved in research on ion-solid interactions. Developments in ionized cluster beam (ICB) deposition were emphasized at ISIAT '89 and during visits to Kyoto University, where the ICB technique was pioneered, and to Mitsubishi Electric's Itami Works, where commercial ICB systems are now being produced. Discussions at Osaka University concentrated on the application of focused ion beams for maskless patterning of submicron devices and on recent studies of one- dimensional quantum effects in semiconductor wires. At Hitachi Research Laboratory, basic research on thin-film growth was described, as well as progress toward the development of a variable frequency RF quadrupole accelerator for ion implantation. Researchers at JAERI outlined programs in characterization and thin-film deposition of superconductors and in materials science studies using high-energy ion beams.

  10. Impacts of the Minamata Conventionon on Mercury Emissions and Global Deposition from Coal-Fired Power Generation in Asia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Giang, Amanda; Stokes, Leah C.; Streets, David G.; Corbitt, Elizabeth S.; Selin, Noelle E.

    2015-05-05

    We explore implications of the United Nations Minamata Convention on Mercury for emissions from Asian coal-fired power generation, and resulting changes to deposition worldwide by 2050. We use engineering analysis, document analysis, and interviews to construct plausible technology scenarios consistent with the Convention. We translate these scenarios into emissions projections for 2050, and use the GEOS-Chem model to calculate global mercury deposition. Where technology requirements in the Convention are flexibly defined, under a global energy and development scenario that relies heavily on coal, we project similar to 90 and 150 Mg.y(-1) of avoided power sector emissions for China and India, respectively, in 2050, compared to a scenario in which only current technologies are used. Benefits of this avoided emissions growth are primarily captured regionally, with projected changes in annual average gross deposition over China and India similar to 2 and 13 mu g.m(-2) lower, respectively, than the current technology case. Stricter, but technologically feasible, mercury control requirements in both countries could lead to a combined additional 170 Mg.y(-1) avoided emissions. Assuming only current technologies but a global transition away from coal avoids 6% and 36% more emissions than this strict technology scenario under heavy coal use for China and India, respectively.

  11. Deposition of device quality low H content, amorphous silicon films

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mahan, Archie H.; Carapella, Jeffrey C.; Gallagher, Alan C.

    1995-01-01

    A high quality, low hydrogen content, hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) film is deposited by passing a stream of silane gas (SiH.sub.4) over a high temperature, 2000.degree. C., tungsten (W) filament in the proximity of a high temperature, 400.degree. C., substrate within a low pressure, 8 mTorr, deposition chamber. The silane gas is decomposed into atomic hydrogen and silicon, which in turn collides preferably not more than 20-30 times before being deposited on the hot substrate. The hydrogenated amorphous silicon films thus produced have only about one atomic percent hydrogen, yet have device quality electrical, chemical, and structural properties, despite this lowered hydrogen content.

  12. Deposition of device quality low H content, amorphous silicon films

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mahan, A.H.; Carapella, J.C.; Gallagher, A.C.

    1995-03-14

    A high quality, low hydrogen content, hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) film is deposited by passing a stream of silane gas (SiH{sub 4}) over a high temperature, 2,000 C, tungsten (W) filament in the proximity of a high temperature, 400 C, substrate within a low pressure, 8 mTorr, deposition chamber. The silane gas is decomposed into atomic hydrogen and silicon, which in turn collides preferably not more than 20--30 times before being deposited on the hot substrate. The hydrogenated amorphous silicon films thus produced have only about one atomic percent hydrogen, yet have device quality electrical, chemical, and structural properties, despite this lowered hydrogen content. 7 figs.

  13. Low Speed Carbon Deposition Process for Hermetic Optical Fibers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    ABRAMCZYK,JAROSLAW; ARTHUR,SARA E. TALLANT,DAVID R.; HIKANSSON,ADAM S.; LINDHOLM,ERIC A.; LO,JIE

    1999-09-29

    For optical fibers used in adverse environments, a carbon coating is frequently deposited on the fiber surface to prevent water and hydrogen ingression that lead respectively to strength degradation through fatigue and hydrogen-induced attenuation. The deposition of a hermetic carbon coating onto an optical fiber during the draw process holds a particular challenge when thermally-cured specialty coatings are subsequently applied because of the slower drawing rate. In this paper, we report on our efforts to improve the low-speed carbon deposition process by altering the composition and concentration of hydrocarbon precursor gases. The resulting carbon layers have been analyzed for electrical resistance, Raman spectra, coating thickness, and surface roughness, then compared to strength data and dynamic fatigue behavior.

  14. Influence of substrate temperature and deposition rate on the structure of erbium films deposited on glass and a -C substrates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Savaloni, H.; Player, M.A.; Gu, E.; Marr, G.V. )

    1992-01-01

    The structure of erbium films of 600 nm thickness deposited onto carbon ({ital a}-C) and glass substrates at 0.55 and 2.5 nm/s deposition rates for varying substrate temperatures is investigated. The cross section and surface structures are examined by electron microscope. Energy-dispersive x-ray diffraction is utilized for the structure analysis of these films. Results are compared with the results presented in H. Savaloni, M. A. Player, E. Gu, and G. V. Marr (to be published), for erbium films on molybdenum substrates. It is found that to produce films with strong preferred orientation on glass substrates low deposition rate (0.55 nm/s) is favorable. This is opposite to erbium on molybdenum substrates. The grain size of erbium films produced at higher deposition rate is much larger than those at lower deposition rate. The structure of thin films has implications for performance of multilayer reflectors, and preferred orientation may have other applications to x-ray instrumentation.

  15. Catalyst and its diameter dependent growth kinetics of CVD grown GaN nanowires

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Samanta, Chandan [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur (India)] [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur (India); Chander, D. Sathish [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur (India) [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur (India); Department of Mechanical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur (India); Ramkumar, J. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur (India)] [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur (India); Dhamodaran, S., E-mail: kdams2003@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur (India)

    2012-04-15

    Graphical abstract: GaN nanowires with controlled diameter and aspect ratio has been grown using a simple CVD technique. The growth kinetics of CVD grown nanowires investigated in detail for different catalysts and their diameters. A critical diameter important to distinguish the growth regimes has been discussed in detail. The results are important which demonstrates the growth of diameter and aspect ratio controlled GaN nanowires and also understand their growth kinetics. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Controlled diameter and aspect ratio of GaN nanowires achieved in simple CVD reactor. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nanowire growth kinetics for different catalyst and its diameters were understood. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Adatoms vapor pressure inside reactor plays a crucial role in growth kinetics. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Diffusion along nanowire sidewalls dominate for gold and nickel catalysts. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Gibbs-Thomson effect dominates for palladium catalyst. -- Abstract: GaN nanowires were grown using chemical vapor deposition with controlled aspect ratio. The catalyst and catalyst-diameter dependent growth kinetics is investigated in detail. We first discuss gold catalyst diameter dependent growth kinetics and subsequently compare with nickel and palladium catalyst. For different diameters of gold catalyst there was hardly any variation in the length of the nanowires but for other catalysts with different diameter a strong length variation of the nanowires was observed. We calculated the critical diameter dependence on adatoms pressure inside the reactor and inside the catalytic particle. This gives an increasing trend in critical diameter as per the order gold, nickel and palladium for the current set of experimental conditions. Based on the critical diameter, with gold and nickel catalyst the nanowire growth was understood to be governed by limited surface diffusion of adatoms and by Gibbs-Thomson effect for the palladium

  16. Paragenesis and Geochronology of the Nopal I Uranium Deposit, Mexico

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    M. Fayek; M. Ren

    2007-02-14

    Uranium deposits can, by analogy, provide important information on the long-term performance of radioactive waste forms and radioactive waste repositories. Their complex mineralogy and variable elemental and isotopic compositions can provide important information, provided that analyses are obtained on the scale of several micrometers. Here, we present a structural model of the Nopal I deposit as well as petrography at the nanoscale coupled with preliminary U-Th-Pb ages and O isotopic compositions of uranium-rich minerals obtained by Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (SIMS). This multi-technique approach promises to provide ''natural system'' data on the corrosion rate of uraninite, the natural analogue of spent nuclear fuel.

  17. Ultrahigh vacuum process for the deposition of nanotubes and nanowires

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Das, Biswajit; Lee, Myung B

    2015-02-03

    A system and method A method of growing an elongate nanoelement from a growth surface includes: a) cleaning a growth surface on a base element; b) providing an ultrahigh vacuum reaction environment over the cleaned growth surface; c) generating a reactive gas of an atomic material to be used in forming the nanoelement; d) projecting a stream of the reactive gas at the growth surface within the reactive environment while maintaining a vacuum of at most 1.times.10.sup.-4 Pascal; e) growing the elongate nanoelement from the growth surface within the environment while maintaining the pressure of step c); f) after a desired length of nanoelement is attained within the environment, stopping direction of reactive gas into the environment; and g) returning the environment to an ultrahigh vacuum condition.

  18. Method for crystal growth control

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yates, Douglas A.; Hatch, Arthur E.; Goldsmith, Jeff M.

    1981-01-01

    The growth of a crystalline body of a selected material is controlled so that the body has a selected cross-sectional shape. The apparatus is of the type which includes the structure normally employed in known capillary die devices as well as means for observing at least the portion of the surfaces of the growing crystalline body and the meniscus (of melt material from which the body is being pulled) including the solid/liquid/vapor junction in a direction substantially perpendicular to the meniscus surface formed at the junction when the growth of the crystalline body is under steady state conditions. The cross-sectional size of the growing crystalline body can be controlled by determining which points exhibit a sharp change in the amount of reflected radiation of a preselected wavelength and controlling the speed at which the body is being pulled or the temperature of the growth pool of melt so as to maintain those points exhibiting a sharp change at a preselected spatial position relative to a predetermined reference position. The improvement comprises reference object means positioned near the solid/liquid/vapor junction and capable of being observed by the means for observing so as to define said reference position so that the problems associated with convection current jitter are overcome.

  19. Method of deposition of silicon carbide layers on substrates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Angelini, P.; DeVore, C.E.; Lackey, W.J.; Blanco, R.E.; Stinton, D.P.

    1982-03-19

    A method for direct chemical vapor deposition of silicon carbide to substrates, especially nuclear waste particles, is provided by the thermal decomposition of methylsilane at 800 to 1050/sup 0/C when the substrates have been confined within a suitable coating environment.

  20. Enhanced selectivity of zeolites by controlled carbon deposition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nenoff, Tina M.; Thoma, Steven G.; Kartin, Mutlu

    2006-05-09

    A method for carbonizing a zeolite comprises depositing a carbon coating on the zeolite pores by flowing an inert carrier gas stream containing isoprene through a regenerated zeolite at elevated temperature. The carbonized zeolite is useful for the separation of light hydrocarbon mixtures due to size exclusion and the differential adsorption properties of the carbonized zeolite.

  1. Tritium labeling of organic compounds deposited on porous structures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ehrenkaufer, Richard L. E.; Wolf, Alfred P.; Hembree, Wylie C.

    1979-01-01

    An improved process for labeling organic compounds with tritium is carried out by depositing the selected compound on the extensive surface of a porous structure such as a membrane filter and exposing the membrane containing the compound to tritium gas activated by the microwave discharge technique. The labeled compound is then recovered from the porous structure.

  2. Deposition of biological aerosols on HVAC heat exchangers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Siegel, Jeffrey; Walker, Ian

    2001-09-01

    Many biologically active materials are transported as bioaerosols 1-10 {micro}m in diameter. These particles can deposit on cooling and heating coils and lead to serious indoor air quality problems. This paper investigates several of the mechanisms that lead to aerosol deposition on fin and tube heat exchangers. A model has been developed that incorporates the effects of several deposition mechanisms, including impaction, Brownian and turbulent diffusion, turbophoresis, thermophoresis, diffusiophoresis, and gravitational settling. The model is applied to a typical range of air velocities that are found in commercial and residential HVAC systems 1 - 6 m/s (200 - 1200 ft/min), particle diameters from 1 - 8 {micro}m, and fin spacings from 3.2 - 7.9 fins/cm (8 - 16 fins/inch or FPI). The results from the model are compared to results from an experimental apparatus that directly measures deposition on a 4.7 fins/cm (12 FPI) coil. The model agrees reasonably well with this measured data and suggests that cooling coils are an important sink for biological aerosols and consequently a potential source of indoor air quality problems.

  3. Process for depositing hard coating in a nozzle orifice

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Flynn, P.L.; Giammarise, A.W.

    1991-10-29

    The present invention is directed to a process for coating the interior surfaces of an orifice in a substrate that forms a slurry fuel injection nozzle. In a specific embodiment, the nozzle is part of a fuel injection system for metering a coal-water slurry into a large, medium-speed, multi-cylinder diesel engine. In order to retard erosion of the orifice, the substrate is placed in a chemical vapor deposition (CVD) reaction chamber. A reaction gas is passed into the chamber at a gas temperature below its reaction temperature and is directed through the orifice in the substrate. The gas reaction temperature is a temperature at and above which the reaction gas deposits as a coating, and the reaction gas is of a composition whereby improved resistance to erosion by flow of the particulates in the slurry fuel is imparted by the deposited coating. Only the portion of the substrate in proximity to the orifice to be coated is selectively heated to at least the gas reaction temperature for effecting coating of the orifice's interior surfaces by the vapor deposited coating formed from the reaction gas. 2 figures.

  4. Apparatus for depositing hard coating in a nozzle orifice

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Flynn, P.L.; Giammarise, A.W.

    1995-02-21

    The present invention is directed to a process for coating the interior surfaces of an orifice in a substrate that forms a slurry fuel injection nozzle. In a specific embodiment, the nozzle is part of a fuel injection system for metering a coal-water slurry into a large, medium-speed, multi-cylinder diesel engine. In order to retard erosion of the orifice, the substrate is placed in a chemical vapor deposition (CVD) reaction chamber. A reaction gas is passed into the chamber at a gas temperature below its reaction temperature and is directed through the orifice in the substrate. The gas reaction temperature is a temperature at and above which the reaction gas deposits as a coating, and the reaction gas is of a composition whereby improved resistance to erosion by flow of the particulates in the slurry fuel is imparted by the deposited coating. Only the portion of the substrate in proximity to the orifice to be coated is selectively heated to at least the gas reaction temperature for effecting coating of the orifice`s interior surfaces by the vapor deposited coating formed from the reaction gas. 2 figs.

  5. Apparatus for depositing hard coating in a nozzle orifice

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Flynn, Paul L.; Giammarise, Anthony W.

    1995-01-01

    The present invention is directed to a process for coating the interior surfaces of an orifice in a substrate that forms a slurry fuel injection nozzle. In a specific embodiment, the nozzle is part of a fuel injection system for metering a coal-water slurry into a large, medium-speed, multi-cylinder diesel engine. In order to retard erosion of the orifice, the substrate is placed in a chemical vapor deposition (CVD) reaction chamber. A reaction gas is passed into the chamber at a gas temperature below its reaction temperature and is directed through the orifice in the substrate. The gas reaction temperature is a temperature at and above which the reaction gas deposits as a coating, and the reaction gas is of a composition whereby improved resistance to erosion by flow of the particulates in the slurry fuel is imparted by the deposited coating. Only the portion of the substrate in proximity to the orifice to be coated is selectively heated to at least the gas reaction temperature for effecting coating of the orifice's interior surfaces by the vapor deposited coating formed from the reaction gas.

  6. Nuclear stopping and energy deposition into the central rapidity region

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zingman, J.A.

    1987-08-03

    Nuclear stopping and energy deposition into the central rapidity region of ultrarelativistic heavy-ion collisions are studied through the application of a model incorporating hydrodynamic baryon flow coupled to a self-consistent field calculated in the flux tube model. Ultrarelativistic heavy ion collisions are modeled in which the nuclei have passed through each other and as a result are charged and heated.

  7. Nitrogen Deposition: A Component of Global Change Analyses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Norby, Richard J.

    1997-12-31

    The global cycles of carbon and nitrogen are being perturbed by human activities that increase the transfer from large pools of nonreactive forms of the elements to reactive forms that are essential to the functioning of the terrestrial biosphere. The cycles are closely linked at all scales, and global change analyses must consider carbon and nitrogen cycles together. The increasing amount of nitrogen originating from fossil fuel combustion and deposited to terrestrial ecosystems as nitrogen oxides could increase the capacity of ecosystems to sequester carbon thereby removing some of the excess carbon dioxide from the atmosphere and slowing the development of greenhouse warming. Several global and ecosystem models have calculated the amount of carbon sequestration that can be attributed to nitrogen deposition based on assumptions about the allocation of nitrogen among ecosystem components with different carbon-nitrogen ratios. They support the premise that nitrogen deposition is responsible for a an increasing terrestrial carbon sink since industrialization began, but there are large uncertainties related to the continued capacity of ecosystems to retain exogenous nitrogen. Whether terrestrial ecosystems continue to sequester additional carbon will depend in part on their response to increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations, which is widely thought to be constrained by limited nitrogen availability. Ecosystem models generally support the conclusion that the responses of ecosystems to increasing concentrations of carbon dioxide will be larger, and the range of possible responses will be wider, in ecosystems with increased nitrogen inputs originating as atmospheric deposition.

  8. R&D ERL: Photocathode Deposition and Transport System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pate, D.; Ben-Zvi, I.; Rao, T.; Burrill, R.; Todd, R.; Smedley, J.; Holmes, D.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the photocathode deposition and transport system is to (1) produce a robust, high yield multialkali photocathode and (2) have a method of transporting the multialkali photocathode for insertion into a super conducting RF electron gun. This process is only successful if a sufficient quantum efficiency lifetime of the cathode, which is inserted in the SRF electron gun, is maintained. One important element in producing a multialkali photocathode is the strict vacuum requirements of 10{sup -11} torr to assure success in the production of longlived photocathodes that will not have their QE or lifetime depleted due to residual gas poisoning in a poor vacuum. A cutaway view of our third generation deposition system is shown in figure 1. There are certain design criteria and principles required. One must be able to install, remove, rejuvenate and replace a cathode without exposing the source or cathode to atmosphere. The system must allow one to deposit Cs, K, and Sb on a cathode tip surface at pressures in the 10{sup -10} to 10{sup -9} torr range. The cathode needs to be heated to as high as 850 C for cleaning and maintained at 130 C to 150 C during deposition. There should also be the capability for in-situ QE measurements. In addition the preparation of dispenser photocathodes must be accounted for, thus requiring an ion source for cathode cleaning. Finally the transport cart must be mobile and be able to negotiate the ERL facility labyrinth.

  9. Direct chemical vapor deposition of graphene on dielectric surfaces

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zhang, Yuegang; Ismach, Ariel

    2014-04-29

    A substrate is provided that has a metallic layer on a substrate surface of a substrate. A film made of a two dimensional (2-D) material, such as graphene, is deposited on a metallic surface of the metallic layer. The metallic layer is dewet and/or removed to provide the film on the substrate surface.

  10. Development of Highly Selective Oxidation Catalysts by Atomic Layer Deposition

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This factsheet describes a research project whose goal is to use Atomic Layer Deposition to construct nanostructured catalysts to improve the effectiveness of oxidative dehydrogenation of alkanes. More effective catalysts could enable higher specific conversion rates and result in drastic energy savings - up to 25 trillion Btu per year by 2020.

  11. Aerosol chemical vapor deposition of metal oxide films

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ott, Kevin C.; Kodas, Toivo T.

    1994-01-01

    A process of preparing a film of a multicomponent metal oxide including: forming an aerosol from a solution comprised of a suitable solvent and at least two precursor compounds capable of volatilizing at temperatures lower than the decomposition temperature of said precursor compounds; passing said aerosol in combination with a suitable oxygen-containing carrier gas into a heated zone, said heated zone having a temperature sufficient to evaporate the solvent and volatilize said precursor compounds; and passing said volatilized precursor compounds against the surface of a substrate, said substrate having a sufficient temperature to decompose said volatilized precursor compounds whereby metal atoms contained within said volatilized precursor compounds are deposited as a metal oxide film upon the substrate is disclosed. In addition, a coated article comprising a multicomponent metal oxide film conforming to the surface of a substrate selected from the group consisting of silicon, magnesium oxide, yttrium-stabilized zirconium oxide, sapphire, or lanthanum gallate, said multicomponent metal oxide film characterized as having a substantially uniform thickness upon said FIELD OF THE INVENTION The present invention relates to the field of film coating deposition techniques, and more particularly to the deposition of multicomponent metal oxide films by aerosol chemical vapor deposition. This invention is the result of a contract with the Department of Energy (Contract No. W-7405-ENG-36).

  12. Deposition of cesium iodide on Parylene-N pellicles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tassano, P.L.

    1985-09-01

    During the development of a photocathode for a streak camera, Cesium Iodide was vacuum coated onto Parylene-N pellicles. This paper outlines the handling and vacuum evaporation coating techniques which were used to deposit CsI upon Parylene-N and presents a comparison of results between Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory produced foils and those which were commercially available. (AIP)

  13. Process for depositing hard coating in a nozzle orifice

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Flynn, Paul L.; Giammarise, Anthony W.

    1991-01-01

    The present invention is directed to a process for coating the interior surfaces of an orifice in a substrate that forms a slurry fuel injection nozzle. In a specific embodiment, the nozzle is part of a fuel injection system for metering a coal-water slurry into a large, medium-speed, multi-cylinder diesel engine. In order to retard erosion of the orifice, the substrate is placed in a chemical vapor deposition (CVD) reaction chamber. A reaction gas is passed into the chamber at a gas temperature below its reaction temperature and is directed through the orifice in the substrate. The gas reaction temperature is a temperature at and above which the reaction gas deposits as a coating, and the reaction gas is of a composition whereby improved resistance toerosion by flow of the particulates in the slurry fuel is imparted by the deposited coating. Only the portion of the substrate in proximity to the orifice to be coated is selectively heated to at least the gas reaction temperature for effecting coating of the orifice's interior surfaces by the vapor deposited coating formed from the reaction gas.

  14. Method of depositing wide bandgap amorphous semiconductor materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ellis, Jr., Frank B.; Delahoy, Alan E.

    1987-09-29

    A method of depositing wide bandgap p type amorphous semiconductor materials on a substrate without photosensitization by the decomposition of one or more higher order gaseous silanes in the presence of a p-type catalytic dopant at a temperature of about 200.degree. C. and a pressure in the range from about 1-50 Torr.

  15. Computational Model of Magnesium Deposition and Dissolution for Property

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Determination via Cyclic Voltammetry - Joint Center for Energy Storage Research June 23, 2016, Research Highlights Computational Model of Magnesium Deposition and Dissolution for Property Determination via Cyclic Voltammetry Top: Example distributions of the charge transfer coefficient and standard heterogeneous rate constant, obtained from fitting Bottom: Comparison between experimental and simulated voltammograms, demonstrating good agreement Scientific Achievement A computationally

  16. Polymer-assisted aqueous deposition of metal oxide films

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Li, DeQuan; Jia, Quanxi

    2003-07-08

    An organic solvent-free process for deposition of metal oxide thin films is presented. The process includes aqueous solutions of necessary metal precursors and an aqueous solution of a water-soluble polymer. After a coating operation, the resultant coating is fired at high temperatures to yield optical quality metal oxide thin films.

  17. Prevention of deleterious deposits in a coal liquefaction system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carr, Norman L.; Prudich, Michael E.; King, Jr., William E.; Moon, William G.

    1984-07-03

    A process for preventing the formation of deleterious coke deposits on the walls of coal liquefaction reactor vessels involves passing hydrogen and a feed slurry comprising feed coal and recycle liquid solvent to a coal liquefaction reaction zone while imparting a critical mixing energy of at least 3500 ergs per cubic centimeter of reaction zone volume per second to the reacting slurry.

  18. Chemical vapor deposition of fluorine-doped zinc oxide

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gordon, Roy G.; Kramer, Keith; Liang, Haifan

    2000-06-06

    Fims of fluorine-doped zinc oxide are deposited from vaporized precursor compounds comprising a chelate of a dialkylzinc, such as an amine chelate, an oxygen source, and a fluorine source. The coatings are highly electrically conductive, transparent to visible light, reflective to infrared radiation, absorbing to ultraviolet light, and free of carbon impurity.

  19. Phase-Field Simulations of GaN Growth by Selective Area Epitaxy on Complex Mask Geometries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aagesen, Larry K.; Coltrin, Michael Elliott; Han, Jung; Thornton, Katsuyo

    2015-05-15

    Three-dimensional phase-field simulations of GaNgrowth by selective area epitaxy were performed. Furthermore, this model includes a crystallographic-orientation-dependent deposition rate and arbitrarily complex mask geometries. The orientation-dependent deposition rate can be determined from experimental measurements of the relative growth rates of low-index crystallographic facets. Growth on various complex mask geometries was simulated on both c-plane and a-plane template layers. Agreement was observed between simulations and experiment, including complex phenomena occurring at the intersections between facets. The sources of the discrepancies between simulated and experimental morphologies were also investigated. We found that the model provides a route to optimize masks and processing conditions during materials synthesis for solar cells, light-emitting diodes, and other electronic and opto-electronic applications.

  20. Process for Polycrystalline film silicon growth

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wang, Tihu (Littleton, CO); Ciszek, Theodore F. (Evergreen, CO)

    2001-01-01

    A process for depositing polycrystalline silicon on substrates, including foreign substrates, occurs in a chamber at about atmospheric pressure, wherein a temperature gradient is formed, and both the atmospheric pressure and the temperature gradient are maintained throughout the process. Formation of a vapor barrier within the chamber that precludes exit of the constituent chemicals, which include silicon, iodine, silicon diiodide, and silicon tetraiodide. The deposition occurs beneath the vapor barrier. One embodiment of the process also includes the use of a blanketing gas that precludes the entrance of oxygen or other impurities. The process is capable of repetition without the need to reset the deposition zone conditions.

  1. New Partners for Smart Growth Conference

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The New Partners for Smart Growth Conference is the nation's largest smart growth and sustainability conference. The three-day conference is themed, "Practical Tools and Innovative Strategies for Creating Great Communities."

  2. Metal-to-Insulator Transition in Anatase TiO2 Thin Films Induced by Growth Rate Modulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tachikawa, T; Minohara, M.; Nakanishi, Y.; Hikita, Y.; Yoshita, M.; Akiyama, H.; Bell, C.; Hwang, H.Y.

    2012-06-21

    We demonstrate control of the carrier density of single phase anatase TiO{sub 2} thin films by nearly two orders of magnitude by modulating the growth kinetics during pulsed laser deposition, under fixed thermodynamic conditions. The resistivity and the intensity of the photoluminescence spectra of these TiO{sub 2} samples, both of which correlate with the number of oxygen vacancies, are shown to depend strongly on the growth rate. A quantitative model is used to explain the carrier density changes.

  3. Mechanosynthesis, deposition and characterization of CZTS and CZTSe materials for solar cell applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shyju, T.S.; Anandhi, S.; Suriakarthick, R.; Gopalakrishnan, R.; Kuppusami, P.

    2015-07-15

    Mechanosynthesis of nanocrystalline powders of CZTS and CZTSe by ball milling technique and the physical properties of thermally evaporated CZTS and CZTSe thin films as a function of substrate temperature are investigated. Nanocrystalline Cu–Zn–Tin–Sulphide (CZTS) and Cu–Zn–Tin–Selenide (CZTSe) powders synthesized by ball milling at different milling time using the source materials of Cu, Zn, Sn, S (or) Se in the ratio 2:1:1:4 are investigated. The above synthesized powder was thermally evaporated on glass substrate kept at room temperature and 673 K under a vacuum of 10{sup −6} mbar to prepare quaternary compound semiconducting thin films in a single step process. The synthesized powder and deposited CZTS and CZTSe thin films belong to tetragonal crystal system. Raman spectra reveal that the synthesized nanocrystals are pure without any secondary phases. A gradual reduction in optical bandgap of films was observed with increasing substrate temperature due to increased crystallinity of the films. The changes in surface morphology of the films with respect to substrate temperature were studied by scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy. Electrical studies indicate that the deposited films have p-type conductivity. - Highlights: • Nanocrystalline powders of CZTS and CZTSe are synthesized by ball milling technique. • The ball milled powder was thermally evaporated on glass at room temperature and 673 K. • Raman spectroscopy reveals that the synthesized nanocrystals are pure without any secondary phases. • SEM and AFM micrographs illustrate the granular type of growth and the roughness and particle sizes obtained at the substrate temperature of 673 K are higher than those obtained in the room temperature. • Hall coefficient obtained for the film confirms the p-type conductivity. • A gradual reduction in optical bandgap was observed with increasing substrate temperature.

  4. Fabrication of AlN/BN bishell hollow nanofibers by electrospinning and atomic layer deposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Haider, Ali; Kayaci, Fatma; Uyar, Tamer; Biyikli, Necmi; Ozgit-Akgun, Cagla; Okyay, Ali Kemal

    2014-09-01

    Aluminum nitride (AlN)/boron nitride (BN) bishell hollow nanofibers (HNFs) have been fabricated by successive atomic layer deposition (ALD) of AlN and sequential chemical vapor deposition (CVD) of BN on electrospun polymeric nanofibrous template. A four-step fabrication process was utilized: (i) fabrication of polymeric (nylon 6,6) nanofibers via electrospinning, (ii) hollow cathode plasma-assisted ALD of AlN at 100?C onto electrospun polymeric nanofibers, (iii) calcination at 500?C for 2 h in order to remove the polymeric template, and (iv) sequential CVD growth of BN at 450?C. AlN/BN HNFs have been characterized for their chemical composition, surface morphology, crystal structure, and internal nanostructure using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and selected area electron diffraction. Measurements confirmed the presence of crystalline hexagonal BN and AlN within the three dimensional (3D) network of bishell HNFs with relatively low impurity content. In contrast to the smooth surface of the inner AlN layer, outer BN coating showed a highly rough 3D morphology in the form of BN nano-needle crystallites. It is shown that the combination of electrospinning and plasma-assisted low-temperature ALD/CVD can produce highly controlled multi-layered bishell nitride ceramic hollow nanostructures. While electrospinning enables easy fabrication of nanofibrous template, self-limiting reactions of plasma-assisted ALD and sequential CVD provide control over the wall thicknesses of AlN and BN layers with sub-nanometer accuracy.

  5. Implications of Low Electricity Demand Growth

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2014 EIA Energy Conference July 14, 2014 | Washington, DC Jim Diefenderfer, Director, Office of Electricity, Coal, Nuclear, & Renewables Analysis U.S. Energy Information Administration Implications of low electricity demand growth Growth in electricity use slows, but still increases by 29% from 2012 to 2040 -2% 0% 2% 4% 6% 8% 10% 12% 14% 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010 2020 2030 2040 percent growth (3-year compounded annual growth rate) Source: EIA, Annual Energy Outlook 2014 Reference

  6. Fundamental studies of the mechanisms of slag deposit formation: Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Austin, L.G.; Benson, S.; Rabinovich, A.; Tangsathitkulchai, M.; Schobert H.H.

    1987-07-01

    The kinetics of ash deposition on utility boilers have been studied. A heated tube furnace system was used in the study. Areas of consideration in the deposition mechanics were: close space knowledge of chemical composition and distribution of inorganic constituents in coal, transformations and reactions of the inorganic constituents in the flame, ash transport mechanisms, initial adhesion of ash particles to heat transfer surfaces and subsequently to each other to form a deposit, and further interactions of the deposited ash to grow a strong deposit. Interactions of deposited ash that cause changes in physical and chemical properties in an aged deposit are due to processes such as sintering, chemical reactions, and melting. The degree of these changes increases as the deposit grows from the heat transfer surfaces where it forms. All of these changes during the deposit formation process are coal-specific and are strongly dependent on the boiler configuration and operating conditions. 18 refs., 55 figs., 42 tabs.

  7. Electroactive polyaniline film deposited from nonaqueous media; Effect of mixed organic solvent on polyaniline deposition and its battery performance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Osaka, T.; Nakajima, T.; Shiota, K.; Momma, T. )

    1991-10-01

    This paper reports on electroactive polyaniline (PAn) films which were deposited from PC (propylene carbonate)-Ec (thylene carbonate) and PC-DME (1, 2-dimethoxyethane) mixed polymerization solutions containing aniline, CF{sub 3}COOH, and LiClO{sub 4}. Higher dielectric constant solvents are necessary to deposit the PAn film where protons, dissociated from the acid, initiate the polymerization of aniline. Various PAn films deposited in the PC, the PC-EC (50 mole percent), and the PC-DME (50 volume percent) solutions were used for the cathode materials of the rechargeable lithium batteries. Charge capacity and discharge ability of the Li/PAn batteries in the PC-LiClO{sub 4} electrolyte solution are almost the same, regardless of the polymerization solvents such as PC {approx} PC-EC {ge} PC-DME and PC-EC {ge} PC-DME {approx} PC. The mixed solvent electrolyte solution effect on the Li/PAn (polymerized in the PC solution) batteries becomes much larger such as PC-DME {gt} PC-EC {gt} PC. Moreover, the electrochemical kinetic factors of the PAn films deposited in the various mixed polymerization solutions and also in the different electrolytes were experimentally determined by measuring the ac impedance. The results of the ac impedance analysis of each PAn film correlate well with the battery performances of Li/PAn cells.

  8. Fuel Cell Growth Markets | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Growth Markets Fuel Cell Growth Markets Presented at the High Temperature Membrane Working Group Meeting held Nov. 16, 2009 htmwg_nov09_fuel_cell_growth.pdf (1.1 MB) More Documents & Publications Accelerated Testing Validation Minutes of the Fall 2009 High Temperature Membrane Working Group Joint Fuel Cell Bus Workshop Summary Report

  9. Modeling delamination growth in composites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reedy, E.D. Jr.; Mello, F.J.

    1996-12-01

    A method for modeling the initiation and growth of discrete delaminations in shell-like composite structures is presented. The laminate is divided into two or more sublaminates, with each sublaminate modeled with four-noded quadrilateral shell elements. A special, eight-noded hex constraint element connects opposing sublaminate shell elements. It supplies the nodal forces and moments needed to make the two opposing shell elements act as a single shell element until a prescribed failure criterion is satisfied. Once the failure criterion is attained, the connection is broken, creating or growing a discrete delamination. This approach has been implemented in a 3D finite element code. This code uses explicit time integration, and can analyze shell-like structures subjected to large deformations and complex contact conditions. The shell elements can use existing composite material models that include in-plane laminate failure modes. This analysis capability was developed to perform crashworthiness studies of composite structures, and is useful whenever there is a need to estimate peak loads, energy absorption, or the final shape of a highly deformed composite structure. This paper describes the eight-noded hex constraint element used to model the initiation and growth of a delamination, and discusses associated implementation issues. Particular attention is focused on the delamination growth criterion, and it is verified that calculated results do not depend on element size. In addition, results for double cantilever beam and end notched flexure specimens are presented and compared to measured data to assess the ability of the present approach to model a growing delamination.

  10. Plenum type crystal growth process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Montgomery, Kenneth E.

    1992-01-01

    Crystals are grown in a tank which is divided by a baffle into a crystal growth region above the baffle and a plenum region below the baffle. A turbine blade or stirring wheel is positioned in a turbine tube which extends through the baffle to generate a flow of solution from the crystal growing region to the plenum region. The solution is pressurized as it flows into the plenum region. The pressurized solution flows back to the crystal growing region through return flow tubes extending through the baffle. Growing crystals are positioned near the ends of the return flow tubes to receive a direct flow of solution.

  11. Structural characterisation of BaTiO{sub 3} thin films deposited on SrRuO{sub 3}/YSZ buffered silicon substrates and silicon microcantilevers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Colder, H.; Jorel, C. Mchin, L.; Domengs, B.; Marie, P.; Boisserie, M.; Guillon, S.; Nicu, L.; Galdi, A.

    2014-02-07

    We report on the progress towards an all epitaxial oxide layer technology on silicon substrates for epitaxial piezoelectric microelectromechanical systems. (101)-oriented epitaxial tetragonal BaTiO{sub 3} (BTO) thin films were deposited at two different oxygen pressures, 5.10{sup ?2} mbar and 5.10{sup ?3} mbar, on SrRuO{sub 3}/Yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) buffered silicon substrates by pulsed laser deposition. The YSZ layer full (001) orientation allowed the further growth of a fully (110)-oriented conductive SrRuO{sub 3} electrode as shown by X-ray diffraction. The tetragonal structure of the BTO films, which is a prerequisite for the piezoelectric effect, was identified by Raman spectroscopy. In the BTO film deposited at 5.10{sup ?2} mbar strain was mostly localized inside the BTO grains whereas at 5.10{sup ?3} mbar, it was localized at the grain boundaries. The BTO/SRO/YSZ layers were finally deposited on Si microcantilevers at an O{sub 2} pressure of 5.10{sup ?3} mbar. The strain level was low enough to evaluate the BTO Young modulus. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was used to investigate the epitaxial quality of the layers and their epitaxial relationship on plain silicon wafers as well as on released microcantilevers, thanks to Focused-Ion-Beam TEM lamella preparation.

  12. Engineering catalytic activity via ion beam bombardment of catalyst supports for vertically aligned carbon nanotube growth

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Islam, A. E.; Zakharov, D.; Stach, E. A.; Nikoleav, P.; Amama, P. B.; Sargent, G.; Saber, S.; Huffman, D.; Erford, M.; Semiatin, S. L.; et al

    2015-09-16

    Carbon nanotube growth depends on the catalytic activity of metal nanoparticles on alumina or silica supports. The control on catalytic activity is generally achieved by variations in water concentration, carbon feed, and sample placement on a few types of alumina or silica catalyst supports obtained via thin film deposition. We have recently expanded the choice of catalyst supports by engineering inactive substrates like c-cut sapphire via ion beam bombardment. The deterministic control on the structure and chemistry of catalyst supports obtained by tuning the degree of beam-induced damage have enabled better regulation of the activity of Fe catalysts only inmore » the ion beam bombarded areas and hence enabled controllable super growth of carbon nanotubes. A wide range of surface characterization techniques were used to monitor the catalytically active surface engineered via ion beam bombardment. The proposed method offers a versatile way to control carbon nanotube growth in patterned areas and also enhances the current understanding of the growth process. As a result, with the right choice of water concentration, carbon feed and sample placement, engineered catalyst supports may extend the carbon nanotube growth yield to a level that is even higher than the ones reported here, and thus offers promising applications of carbon nanotubes in electronics, heat exchanger, and energy storage.« less

  13. Engineering catalytic activity via ion beam bombardment of catalyst supports for vertically aligned carbon nanotube growth

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Islam, A. E.; Zakharov, D.; Stach, E. A.; Nikoleav, P.; Amama, P. B.; Sargent, G.; Saber, S.; Huffman, D.; Erford, M.; Semiatin, S. L.; Maruyama, B.

    2015-09-16

    Carbon nanotube growth depends on the catalytic activity of metal nanoparticles on alumina or silica supports. The control on catalytic activity is generally achieved by variations in water concentration, carbon feed, and sample placement on a few types of alumina or silica catalyst supports obtained via thin film deposition. We have recently expanded the choice of catalyst supports by engineering inactive substrates like c-cut sapphire via ion beam bombardment. The deterministic control on the structure and chemistry of catalyst supports obtained by tuning the degree of beam-induced damage have enabled better regulation of the activity of Fe catalysts only in the ion beam bombarded areas and hence enabled controllable super growth of carbon nanotubes. A wide range of surface characterization techniques were used to monitor the catalytically active surface engineered via ion beam bombardment. The proposed method offers a versatile way to control carbon nanotube growth in patterned areas and also enhances the current understanding of the growth process. As a result, with the right choice of water concentration, carbon feed and sample placement, engineered catalyst supports may extend the carbon nanotube growth yield to a level that is even higher than the ones reported here, and thus offers promising applications of carbon nanotubes in electronics, heat exchanger, and energy storage.

  14. Method of monitoring crystal growth

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sachs, Emanual M.

    1982-01-01

    A system and method are disclosed for monitoring the growth of a crystalline body from a liquid meniscus in a furnace. The system provides an improved human/machine interface so as to reduce operator stress, strain and fatigue while improving the conditions for observation and control of the growing process. The system comprises suitable optics for forming an image of the meniscus and body wherein the image is anamorphic so that the entire meniscus can be viewed with good resolution in both the width and height dimensions. The system also comprises a video display for displaying the anamorphic image. The video display includes means for enhancing the contrast between any two contrasting points in the image. The video display also comprises a signal averager for averaging the intensity of at least one preselected portions of the image. The value of the average intensity, can in turn be utilized to control the growth of the body. The system and method are also capable of observing and monitoring multiple processes.

  15. Apparatus for monitoring crystal growth

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sachs, Emanual M.

    1981-01-01

    A system and method are disclosed for monitoring the growth of a crystalline body from a liquid meniscus in a furnace. The system provides an improved human/machine interface so as to reduce operator stress, strain and fatigue while improving the conditions for observation and control of the growing process. The system comprises suitable optics for forming an image of the meniscus and body wherein the image is anamorphic so that the entire meniscus can be viewed with good resolution in both the width and height dimensions. The system also comprises a video display for displaying the anamorphic image. The video display includes means for enhancing the contrast between any two contrasting points in the image. The video display also comprises a signal averager for averaging the intensity of at least one preselected portions of the image. The value of the average intensity, can in turn be utilized to control the growth of the body. The system and method are also capable of observing and monitoring multiple processes.

  16. Ga-doped ZnO grown by pulsed laser deposition in H2: the roles of Ga and H

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Look, David; Droubay, Timothy C.; McCloy, John S.; Zhu, Zihua; Chambers, Scott A.

    2011-01-11

    Highly conductive thin films of ZnO doped with Ga were grown by pulsed-laser deposition (PLD) with 10 mTorr of H2 in the growth chamber. Compared with a more conventional method of producing conductive films of ZnO, i.e., growth in O2 followed by annealing in forming gas (5% H2 in Ar), the H2 method requires no post-growth anneal and also produces higher carrier concentrations and lower resistivities with better depth uniformity. As an example, a 65-nm-thick sample had a room-temperature mobility of 32 cm2/V-s, a concentration of 6.8 x 1020 cm-3, and a resistivity of 2.9 x 10^-4 ohm-cm. From a scattering model, the donor and acceptor concentrations were calculated as 8.9 x 1020 and 2.1 x 10^20 cm-3, respectively, as compared to the Ga and H concentrations of 11 x 10^20 and 1 x 10^20 cm-3. Thus, H does not play a significant role as a donor in this type of ZnO

  17. Characterization of photoluminescent (Y{sub 1{minus}x}Eu{sub x}){sub 2}O{sub 3} thin-films prepared by metallorganic chemical vapor deposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McKittrick, J.; Bacalski, C.F.; Hirata, G.A.; Hubbard, K.M.; Pattillo, S.G.; Salazar, K.V.; Trkula, M.

    1998-12-01

    Europium doped yttrium oxide, (Y{sub 1{minus}x}Eu{sub x}){sub 2}O{sub 3}, thin-films were deposited on silicon and sapphire substrates by metallorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD). The films were grown in a MOCVD chamber reacting yttrium and europium tris(2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-3,5,-heptanedionates) precursors in an oxygen atmosphere at low pressures (5 Torr) and low substrate temperatures (500--700 C). The films deposited at 500 C were flat and composed of nanocrystalline regions of cubic Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}, grown in a textured [100] or [110] orientation to the substrate surface. Films deposited at 600 C developed from the flat, nanocrystalline morphology into a plate-like growth morphology oriented in the [111] with increasing deposition time. Monoclinic Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}:Eu{sup 3+} was observed in x-ray diffraction for deposition temperatures {ge}600 C on both (111) Si and (001) sapphire substrates. This was also confirmed by the photoluminescent emission spectra.

  18. Deposition temperature dependence of material and Si surface passivation properties of O{sub 3}-based atomic layer deposited Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-based films and stacks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bordihn, Stefan; Mertens, Verena; Mller, Jrg W.; Kessels, W. M. M.

    2014-01-15

    The material composition and the Si surface passivation of aluminum oxide (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) films prepared by atomic layer deposition using Al(CH{sub 3}){sub 3} and O{sub 3} as precursors were investigated for deposition temperatures (T{sub Dep}) between 200?C and 500?C. The growth per cycle decreased with increasing deposition temperature due to a lower Al deposition rate. In contrast the material composition was hardly affected except for the hydrogen concentration, which decreased from [H]?=?3 at. % at 200?C to [H]?deposition temperature and annealing or firing temperature is carefully chosen.

  19. Inert gas enhanced laser-assisted purification of platinum electron-beam-induced deposits

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Stanford, Michael G.; Lewis, Brett B.; Noh, Joo Hyon; Fowlkes, Jason Davidson; Rack, Philip D.

    2015-06-30

    Electron-beam-induced deposition patterns, with composition of PtC5, were purified using a pulsed laser-induced purification reaction to erode the amorphous carbon matrix and form pure platinum deposits. Enhanced mobility of residual H2O molecules via a localized injection of inert Ar–H2 (4%) is attributed to be the reactive gas species for purification of the deposits. Surface purification of deposits was realized at laser exposure times as low as 0.1 s. The ex situ purification reaction in the deposit interior was shown to be rate-limited by reactive gas diffusion into the deposit, and deposit contraction associated with the purification process caused some lossmore » of shape retention. To circumvent the intrinsic flaws of the ex situ anneal process, in situ deposition and purification techniques were explored that resemble a direct write atomic layer deposition (ALD) process. First, we explored a laser-assisted electron-beam-induced deposition (LAEBID) process augmented with reactive gas that resulted in a 75% carbon reduction compared to standard EBID. Lastly, a sequential deposition plus purification process was also developed and resulted in deposition of pure platinum deposits with high fidelity and shape retention.« less

  20. Inert gas enhanced laser-assisted purification of platinum electron-beam-induced deposits

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stanford, Michael G.; Lewis, Brett B.; Noh, Joo Hyon; Fowlkes, Jason Davidson; Rack, Philip D.

    2015-06-30

    Electron-beam-induced deposition patterns, with composition of PtC5, were purified using a pulsed laser-induced purification reaction to erode the amorphous carbon matrix and form pure platinum deposits. Enhanced mobility of residual H2O molecules via a localized injection of inert Ar–H2 (4%) is attributed to be the reactive gas species for purification of the deposits. Surface purification of deposits was realized at laser exposure times as low as 0.1 s. The ex situ purification reaction in the deposit interior was shown to be rate-limited by reactive gas diffusion into the deposit, and deposit contraction associated with the purification process caused some loss of shape retention. To circumvent the intrinsic flaws of the ex situ anneal process, in situ deposition and purification techniques were explored that resemble a direct write atomic layer deposition (ALD) process. First, we explored a laser-assisted electron-beam-induced deposition (LAEBID) process augmented with reactive gas that resulted in a 75% carbon reduction compared to standard EBID. Lastly, a sequential deposition plus purification process was also developed and resulted in deposition of pure platinum deposits with high fidelity and shape retention.