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1

Modeling PWR Fuel Corrosion Product Deposition and Growth Processes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Development of axial offset anomaly (AOA) in pressurized water reactors (PWRs) drove industry to conduct crud scrape campaigns at a number of units to characterize and better understand the material being deposited on the fuel clad surface. This report describes the first phase of a program to develop models that describe the crud deposition and growth process, including the many phenomena that influence not only the deposit mass, but the composition. The models will be benchmarked against published crud...

2004-12-09T23:59:59.000Z

2

Chemical vapor deposition growth. Quarterly report No. 1  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The activities of the first quarter of the contract, which began December 29, 1975, are described. An existing laboratory-type CVD reactor system with a vertical deposition chamber has been used for growth of the Si films studied to date. Extensive modifications of this system, involving mass flow controllers and automatic timing of reactant gas flows by means of solenoid-activated air-operated bellows valves, will be completed early in the second quarter. (WDM)

Ruth, R.P.; Manasevit, H.M.; Kenty, J.L.; Moudy, L.A.; Simpson, W.I.; Yang, J.J.

1976-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

3

Chemical vapor deposition growth. Quarterly report No. 4  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The contract activities during the quarter were concentrated in the following areas: (1) preparation of polished substrates of three new experimental glasses received in raw billet form from the manufacturer; (2) exploratory Si CVD growth on two experimental glazes (on aluminas), at temperatures below and above the softening points; (3) evaluation of several different surface cleaning procedures for glass substrates, with a procedure involving an acid-cleaning step being adopted as standard; (4) determination of Si film crystallographic properties on glasses (and sapphire) as a function of deposition temperature and thickness in three different thickness ranges; (5) determination of the effect of HCl additions to SiH/sub 4/ on the net growth rates and the properties of Si films grown by a two-step process at two different deposition temperatures; (6) investigation of the reproducibility of Si film growth rates when the SiH/sub 4/ flow rate is controlled by a) the mass-flow controller and b) the conventional rotameter; (7) determination of further carrier density vs added dopant concentration data for B-doped Si films grown in He at low temperatures (approximately 850/sup 0/C); (8) preparation of p-type B-doped Si films in a range of carrier densities on substrates of single-crystal Si, sapphire, and several glasses for fabrication of experimental solar cell structures; (9) preparation of p/p/sup +/ films on substrates of sapphire and single-crystal Si for solar cell fabrication; (10) evaluation of the electrical properties of the various films prepared; and (11) fabrication and characterization of experimental cells made by P diffusion into the p-type and the p/p/sup +/ CVD layers.

Ruth, R.P.; Manasevit, H.M.; Campbell, A.G.; Johnson, R.E.; Moudy, L.A.; Shaw, G.L.; Simpson, W.I.

1977-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

4

Laboratory and In Situ Observation of Deposition Growth of Frozen Drops  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The water vapor deposition growth of frozen drops with diameter greater than 100 ?m has been studied in a thermal diffusion chamber. For varying periods of time, it was found that frozen drops experience spherical growth. The characteristic time ...

Alexei V. Korolev; Matthew P. Bailey; John Hallett; George A. Isaac

2004-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

5

Chemical vapor deposition growth. Quarterly report No. 3  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The purpose of the contract is to explore the chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method for the growth of Si sheet on inexpensive substrate materials. The work is carried out at the Rockwell Electronics Research Division in Anaheim, and also involves some experimental solar cell fabrication and evaluation by the Photo-electronics Group of Optical Coating Laboratory, Inc. (OCLI), in City of Industry, California. The contract program is composed of six main technical tasks: (1) modification and test of an existing CVD reactor system; (2) identification and/or development of suitable inexpensive substrate materials; (3) experimental investigation of CVD process parameters using various candidate substrate materials; (4) preparation of Si sheet samples for various special studies, including solar cell fabrication; (5) evaluation of the properties of the Si sheet material produced by the CVD process; and (6) fabrication and evaluation of experimental solar cell structures (by OCLI), using standard and near-standard processing techniques. The progress achieved during the fourth quarter is described by task, followed by a summary of conclusions and recommendations and an outline of the work planned for the next three months. The manpower and funding expenditures to date are summarized in Appendix A, and the Updated Technical Program Plan is included as Appendix B.

Ruth, R.P.; Manasevit, H.M.; Johnson, R.D.; Moudy, L.A..; Simpson, W.I.; Yang, J.J.

1977-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

6

Monolayer Graphene Growth on Ni(111) by Low Temperature Chemical Vapor Deposition  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In contrast to the commonly employed high temperature chemical vapor deposition growth that leads to multilayer graphene formation by carbon segregation from the bulk, we demonstrate that below 600 C graphene can be grown in a self-limiting monolayer growth process. Optimum growth is achieved at {approx}550 C. Above this temperature, carbon diffusion into the bulk is limiting the surface growth rate, while at temperatures below {approx}500 C a competing surface carbide phase impedes graphene formation.

Batzill, M.; Sutter, P.; Addou, R.; Dahal, A.

2012-01-09T23:59:59.000Z

7

Modeling PWR Fuel Corrosion Product Deposition and Growth Process  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report describes further developments to the crud chemistry model developed in 2003. This model calculates the thermal and chemical conditions within fuel crud deposits. The model was developed to understand fuel crud scrape observations and help alleviate AOA in plants suffering this problem. The model predicts the main form of boron in thick crud (30µm) is precipitated LiBO2. This precipitates because Li and boric acid concentrate in the bottom of the deposit due to evaporation. The rise in temper...

2005-09-26T23:59:59.000Z

8

Continuous growth of single-wall carbon nanotubes using chemical vapor deposition  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The invention relates to a chemical vapor deposition process for the continuous growth of a carbon single-wall nanotube where a carbon-containing gas composition is contacted with a porous membrane and decomposed in the presence of a catalyst to grow single-wall carbon nanotube material. A pressure differential exists across the porous membrane such that the pressure on one side of the membrane is less than that on the other side of the membrane. The single-wall carbon nanotube growth may occur predominately on the low-pressure side of the membrane or, in a different embodiment of the invention, may occur predominately in between the catalyst and the membrane. The invention also relates to an apparatus used with the carbon vapor deposition process.

Grigorian, Leonid (Raymond, OH); Hornyak, Louis (Evergreen, CO); Dillon, Anne C (Boulder, CO); Heben, Michael J (Denver, CO)

2008-10-07T23:59:59.000Z

9

Low temperature metal-organic chemical vapor deposition growth processes for high-efficiency solar cells  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report describes the results of a program to develop a more complete understanding of the physical and chemical processes involved in low-temperature growth of III-V compounds by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) and to develop a low-temperature process that is suitable for the growth of high-efficiency solar cells. The program was structured to develop a better understanding of the chemical reactions involved in MOCVD growth, to develop a model of the processes occurring in the gas phase, to understand the physical kinetics and reactions operative on the surface of the growing crystal, and to develop an understanding of the means by which these processes may be altered to reduce the temperature of growth and the utilization of toxic hydrides. The basic approach was to develop the required information about the chemical and physical kinetics operative in the gas phase and on the surface by the direct physical measurement of the processes whenever possible. The program included five tasks: (1) MOCVD growth process characterization, (2) photoenhanced MOCVD studies, (3) materials characterization, (4) device fabrication and characterization, and (5) photovoltaic training. Most of the goals of the program were met and significant progress was made in defining an approach that would allow both high throughput and high uniformity growth of compound semiconductors at low temperatures. The technical activity was focused on determining the rates of thermal decomposition of trimethyl gallium, exploring alternate arsenic sources for use MOCVD, and empirical studies of atomic layer epitaxy as an approach.

Dapkus, P.D. (University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States))

1993-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

10

Growth of homo-epitaxial silicon at low temperatures using hot wire chemical vapor deposition  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The authors report on the first known growth of high-quality epitaxial Si via the hot wire chemical vapor deposition (HWCVD) method. This method yields device-quality epitaxial Si at the comparatively low temperatures of 195 to 450 C, and relatively high growth rates of 3 to 20 {angstrom}/sec. Layers up to 4,500-{angstrom} thick have been grown. These epitaxial layers have been characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), indicating large regions of nearly perfect atomic registration. Electron channeling patterns (ECPs) generated on a scanning electron microscope (SEM) have been used to characterize as well as optimize the growth process. Electron beam induced current (EBIC) characterization has also been performed, indicating defect densities as low as 5 x 104/cm{sup 2}. Secondary ion beam mass spectrometry (SIMS) data shows that these layers have reasonable impurity levels within the constraints of the current deposition system. Both n and p-type layers were grown, and p/n diodes have been fabricated.

Thiesen, J.; Jones, K.M.; Matson, R.; Reedy, R.; Crandall, R.; Iwaniczko, E.; Mahan, H.

1999-12-13T23:59:59.000Z

11

A comparison of diamond growth rate using in-liquid and conventional plasma chemical vapor deposition methods  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In order to make high-speed deposition of diamond effective, diamond growth rates for gas-phase microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition and in-liquid microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition are compared. A mixed gas of methane and hydrogen is used as the source gas for the gas-phase deposition, and a methanol solution of ethanol is used as the source liquid for the in-liquid deposition. The experimental system pressure is in the range of 60-150 kPa. While the growth rate of diamond increases as the pressure increases, the amount of input microwave energy per unit volume of diamond is 1 kW h/mm{sup 3} regardless of the method used. Since the in-liquid deposition method provides a superior cooling effect through the evaporation of the liquid itself, a higher electric input power can be applied to the electrodes under higher pressure environments. The growth rate of in-liquid microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition process is found to be greater than conventional gas-phase microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition process under the same pressure conditions.

Takahashi, Yoshiyuki; Toyota, Hiromichi; Nomura, Shinfuku; Mukasa, Shinobu [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Ehime University, 3 Bunkyo-cho, Matsuyama 790-8577 (Japan); Inoue, Toru [Geodynamics Research Center, Ehime University, 2-5 Bunkyo-cho, Matsuyama 790-8577 (Japan)

2009-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

12

Epitaxial growth of metal fluoride thin films by pulsed-laser deposition  

SciTech Connect

We have studied growth of GdLiF4 thin films for optical waveguide applications. Epitaxial, c-axis oriented GdLiF4 films wer grown from undoped GdLiF4 targets in an on-axis Pulsed-laser deposition geometry on (100) CaF2. These films exhibit a high density of particulates on the surface which are ejected from the target in the ablation process. Growth from Nd-doped polycrystalline GdLiF4 ablation targets results in smooth films with lower particulate densities, as Nd doping increases the optical absorption of GdLiF4 at the ablation laser wavelength 193 nm and permits efficient pulsed-laser deposition. Optical emission spectra of the ablation pume reveals the presence of atomic F, Gd, and Li, indicating the dissociation of the metal-fluorine bonds in the ablation process. In addition, we find that the residual background oxygen pressure must be reduced to avoid formation of Gd4O3F6 as an impurity oxyfluoride phase in the films.

Norton, D.P.; Budal, J.D.; Chakoumakos, B.C.; Geohegan, D.B. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Puretzky, A. [AN SSSR, Troitsk (Russian Federation). Inst. Spektroskopii

1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

13

Low Temperature Direct Growth of Graphene Films on Transparent Substrates by Chemical Vapor Deposition  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and Few- Layer Graphene by Chemical Vapor Deposition",Liu, W. , et al. (2010). "Chemical vapor deposition of large5 1.3.3. Chemical Vapor

Antoine, Geoffrey Sandosh Jeffy

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

14

Low Temperature, Self-nucleated Growth of Indium Tin Oxide Nanostructures by Pulsed Laser Deposition in Argon  

SciTech Connect

Indium tin oxide (ITO) nanostructures were successfully deposited on glass substrate by pulsed laser ablation in argon gas at 250 deg. C. Microstructural changes were observed in the argon gas pressure between 30 to 50 mTorr. The as-grown, nanostructured ITO exhibit In{sub 2}O{sub 3} bixbyite structure orientated at <111> direction. At the initial stage of growth, there was a large number of nucleation sites detected which eventually evolved into needle-like branches. The presence of spheres at the tip of these branches indicates that these nanostructured ITO were likely governed by vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) growth mechanism.

Tan, S. S.; Lee, W. K.; Kee, Y. Y.; Wong, H. Y.; Tou, T. Y. [Faculty of Engineering, Multimedia University, 63100 Cyberjaya (Malaysia)

2011-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

15

Ultrahigh growth rate of epitaxial silicon by chemical vapor deposition at low temperature with neopentasilane  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

- iane SiH4 to disilane Si2H6 , to trisilane, Si3H8 2 leads to increased epitaxy growth rates at the same growth rate was 0.6 nm/min, and the disilane growth rate was 8 nm/min. In this work, we explored the use

16

High temperature step-flow growth of gallium phosphide by molecular beam epitaxy and metalorganic chemical vapor deposition  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Post-growth surface morphologies of high-temperature homoepitaxial GaP films grown by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) and metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) have been studied. Smooth, stepped surface morphologies of MBE-grown layers, measured by atomic force microscopy, were found for a wide range of substrate temperatures and P{sub 2}:Ga flux ratios. A MOCVD-based growth study performed under similar conditions to MBE-grown samples shows a nearly identical smooth, step-flow surface morphology, presenting a convergence of growth conditions for the two different methods. The additional understanding of GaP epitaxy gained from this study will impact its use in applications that include GaP-based device technologies, III-V metamorphic buffers, and III-V materials integration with silicon.

Ratcliff, C. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210 (United States); Grassman, T. J.; Ringel, S. A. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210 (United States); Institute for Materials Research, Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210 (United States); Carlin, J. A. [Institute for Materials Research, Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210 (United States)

2011-10-03T23:59:59.000Z

17

Growth diagram of La0.7Sr0.3MnO3 thin films using pulsed laser deposition  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An experimental study was conducted on controlling the growth mode of La0.7Sr0.3MnO3 thin films on SrTiO3 substrates using pulsed laser deposition by tuning growth temperature, pressure and laser fluence. Different thin film morphology, crystallinity and stoichiometry have been observed depending on growth parameters. To understand the microscopic origin, the adatom nucleation, step advance processes and their relationship to film growth were theoretically analyzed and a growth diagram was constructed. Three boundaries between highly and poorly crystallized growth, layer-by-layer and 3D growth, stoichiometric and non-stoichiometric growth were identified in the growth diagram. A good fit of our experimental observation with the growth diagram was found. This case study demonstrates that a more comprehensive understanding and the predicting of the growth mode in PLD is possible.

Guo, Hangwen [ORNL; Sun, Da-Li [ORNL; Wang, Wenbin [ORNL; Gai, Zheng [ORNL; Kravchenko, Ivan I [ORNL; Shao, Jian [Fudan University, China; Jiang, Lu [ORNL; Ward, Thomas Z [ORNL; Snijders, Paul C [ORNL; Yin, Lifeng [ORNL; Shen, Jian [Fudan University, China; Xu, Xiaoshan [ORNL

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

18

Effect of fuel type and deposition surface temperature on the growth and structure of an ash deposit collected during co-firing of coal with sewage sludge and sawdust  

SciTech Connect

Blends of a South African bituminous 'Middleburg' coal, a municipal sewage sludge, and a sawdust have been fired in the slagging reactor to examine the effect of the added fuel on the slagging propensity of the mixtures. Uncooled ceramic probes and air-cooled metal probes were used to examine the influence of the deposition surface temperature on the growth and structureof the deposits. The initial stages of slagging were in a high-temperature range of 1100-1300{sup o}C and a low-temperature range of 550-700{sup o}C. Laboratory ash, ash sampled on the deposition probes, and ash collected in the cyclone have been analyzed using the X-ray fluorescence technique. The electron probe microanalysis (EPMA) of the embedded resin deposit probes have been performed to determine the thickness, structure, porosity, and chemical composition in different layers of the deposit. Distinct differences in structures of the deposits collected using the uncooled ceramic probes and air-cooled steal probes were observed. Glassy, easily molten deposits collected on uncooled ceramic deposition probes are characteristic for co-firing of municipal sewage sludge with coal. Porous, sintered, but easily removable deposits of the same fuel blend have been collected on the air-cooled metal deposition probes. The addition of sawdust does not negatively influence the deposition behavior. Loose, easy removable deposits have been sampled on air-cooled metal deposition probes during co-firing of coal-sawdust blends. The mass of the deposit sampled at lower deposition surface temperatures (550-700{sup o}C) was always larger than the mass sampled at higher surface temperatures (1100-1300{sup o}C). 12 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

Tomasz Kupka; Krzysztof Zajac; Roman Weber [Clausthal University of Technology, Clausthal-Zellerfeld (Germany). Institute of Energy Process Engineering and Fuel Technology

2009-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

19

Novel ways of depositing ZnTe films by a solution growth technique  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

An electrochemical process has been successfully developed for the reproducible deposition of ZnTe and copper-doped ZnTe films suitable as transparent ohmic contacts for CdS/CdTe solar cells. The development of this method and optimization of key processing steps in the fabrication of CdS/CdTe/ZnTe:Cu devices has allowed IEC to achieve cell performance results of FF>70% and {eta} {approximately}10%. Preliminary efforts have indicated that the deposition methods investigated are potentially feasible for the formation of other II-VI compounds for use in polycrystalline thin film solar devices and should be the focus of future work.

Birkmire, R.W.; McCandless, B.E.; Yokimcus, T.A.; Mondal, A. (Delaware Univ., Newark, DE (United States). Inst. of Energy Conversion)

1992-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

20

Real-time optical diagnostics of graphene growth induced by pulsed chemical vapor deposition  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The kinetics and mechanisms of graphene growth on Ni films at 720 -880 C have been measured using fast pulses of acetylene and real-time optical diagnostics. In situ UV-Raman spectroscopy was used to unambiguously detect isothermal graphene growth at high temperatures, measure the growth kinetics with ~ 1s temporal resolution, and estimate the fractional precipitation upon cooldown for the first time. Optical reflectivity and videography provided much faster temporal resolution. Both the growth kinetics and the fractional isothermal precipitation were found to be governed by the C2H2 partial pressure in the CVD pulse for a given film thickness and temperature, with up to ~ 94% of graphene growth occurring isothermally within 1 second at 800 C at high partial pressures. At lower partial pressures, isothermal graphene growth is shown to continue 10 seconds after the gas pulse. These flux-dependent growth kinetics are described in the context of a dissolution/precipitation model, where carbon rapidly dissolves into the Ni film and later precipitates driven by gradients in the chemical potential. The combination of pulsed-CVD and real-time optical diagnostics opens new opportunities to understand and control the fast, sub-second growth of graphene on various substrates at high temperatures.

Puretzky, Alexander A [ORNL; Geohegan, David B [ORNL; Pannala, Sreekanth [ORNL; Rouleau, Christopher M [ORNL; Regmi, Murari [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Thonnard, Norbert [ORNL; Eres, Gyula [ORNL

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "deposition growth cxs" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Atomic-level investigation of the growth of Si/Ge by ultrahigh vacuum chemical vapor deposition  

SciTech Connect

Si and Ge films can be prepared under ultrahigh vacuum conditions by chemical vapor deposition using disilane and digermane as source gases. These gases offer a high sticking probability, and are suitable for atomic layer epitaxy. Using synchrotron radiation photoemission spectroscopy and scanning tunneling microscopy, we have examined the surface processes associated with the heteroepitaxial growth of Ge/Si. The measured surface-induced shifts and chemical shifts of the Si 2p and Ge 3d core levels allow us to identify the surface species and to determine the surface chemical composition, and this information is correlated with the atomic features observed by scanning tunneling microscopy. Issues related to precursor dissociation, attachment to dangling bonds, diffusion, surface segregation, growth morphology, and pyrolytic reaction pathways will be discussed. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Vacuum Society.}

Lin, D. [Institute of Physics, National Chiao-Tung University, Hsinchu, Taiwan, Republic of (China)] [Institute of Physics, National Chiao-Tung University, Hsinchu, Taiwan, Republic of (China); Miller, T.; Chiang, T. [Department of Physics and Materials Research Laboratory, University of Illinois, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States)] [Department of Physics and Materials Research Laboratory, University of Illinois, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States)

1997-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

22

High Growth Rate Deposition of Hydrogenated Amorphous Silicon-Germanium Films and Devices Using ECR-PECVD  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Hydrogenated amorphous silicon germanium films (a-SiGe:H) and devices have been extensively studied because of the tunable band gap for matching the solar spectrum and mature the fabrication techniques. a-SiGe:H thin film solar cells have great potential for commercial manufacture because of very low cost and adaptability to large-scale manufacturing. Although it has been demonstrated that a-SiGe:H thin films and devices with good quality can be produced successfully, some issues regarding growth chemistry have remained yet unexplored, such as the hydrogen and inert-gas dilution, bombardment effect, and chemical annealing, to name a few. The alloying of the SiGe introduces above an order-of-magnitude higher defect density, which degrades the performance of the a-SiGe:H thin film solar cells. This degradation becomes worse when high growth-rate deposition is required. Preferential attachment of hydrogen to silicon, clustering of Ge and Si, and columnar structure and buried dihydride radicals make the film intolerably bad. The work presented here uses the Electron-Cyclotron-Resonance Plasma-Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition (ECR-PECVD) technique to fabricate a-SiGe:H films and devices with high growth rates. Helium gas, together with a small amount of H{sub 2}, was used as the plasma species. Thickness, optical band gap, conductivity, Urbach energy, mobility-lifetime product, I-V curve, and quantum efficiency were characterized during the process of pursuing good materials. The microstructure of the a-(Si,Ge):H material was probed by Fourier-Transform Infrared spectroscopy. They found that the advantages of using helium as the main plasma species are: (1) high growth rate--the energetic helium ions break the reactive gas more efficiently than hydrogen ions; (2) homogeneous growth--heavy helium ions impinging on the surface promote the surface mobility of the reactive radicals, so that heteroepitaxy growth as clustering of Ge and Si, columnar structure are reduced; (3) surface hydrogen removal--heavier and more energetic helium ions break the Si-H much easier than hydrogen ions. The preferential attachment of Si-H to Ge-H is reduced. They also found that with the small amount of hydrogen put into the plasma, the superior properties of a-(Si,Ge):H made from pure hydrogen dilution plasma were still maintained. These hydrogen ions help to remove the subsurface weakly bonded hydrogen and buried hydrogen. They also help to passivate the Ge-dangling bond.

Yong Liu

2002-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

23

The Theoretical Basis for the Parameterization of Ice Crystal Habits: Growth by Vapor Deposition  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A theoretical analysis of surface kinetic and gas-phase diffusional effects permits the growth rates and habits of ice crystals to be specified in a self-consistent way. The analysis makes use of the fact that the difference between the ...

Jen-Ping Chen; Dennis Lamb

1994-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

24

Interactions between radical growth precursors on plasma-deposited silicon thin-film surfaces  

SciTech Connect

We present a detailed analysis of the interactions between growth precursors, SiH{sub 3} radicals, on surfaces of silicon thin films. The analysis is based on a synergistic combination of density functional theory calculations on the hydrogen-terminated Si(001)-(2x1) surface and molecular-dynamics (MD) simulations of film growth on surfaces of MD-generated hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) thin films. In particular, the authors find that two interacting growth precursors may either form disilane (Si{sub 2}H{sub 6}) and desorb from the surface, or disproportionate, resulting in the formation of a surface dihydride (adsorbed SiH{sub 2} species) and gas-phase silane (SiH{sub 4}). The reaction barrier for disilane formation is found to be strongly dependent on the local chemical environment on the silicon surface and reduces (or vanishes) if one/both of the interacting precursors is/are in a ''fast diffusing state,'' i.e., attached to fivefold coordinated surface Si atoms. Finally, activation energy barriers in excess of 1 eV are obtained for two chemisorbed (i.e., bonded to a fourfold coordinated surface Si atom) SiH{sub 3} radicals. Activation energy barriers for disproportionation follow the same tendency, though, in most cases, higher barriers are obtained compared to disilane formation reactions starting from the same initial configuration. MD simulations confirm that disilane formation and disproportionation reactions also occur on a-Si:H growth surfaces, preferentially in configurations where at least one of the SiH{sub 3} radicals is in a ''diffusive state.'' Our results are in agreement with experimental observations and results of plasma process simulators showing that the primary source for disilane in low-power plasmas may be the substrate surface.

Bakos, Tamas; Valipa, Mayur S.; Maroudas, Dimitrios [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, Massachusetts 01003-3110 (United States)

2007-03-21T23:59:59.000Z

25

Graphene layer growth on silicon substrates with nickel film by pulse arc plasma deposition  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Carbon layer has been grown on a Ni/SiO{sub 2}/Si(111) substrate under high vacuum pressure by pulse arc plasma deposition. From the results of Raman spectroscopy for the sample, it is found that graphene was formed by ex-situ annealing of sample grown at room temperature. Furthermore, for the sample grown at high temperature, graphene formation was shown and optimum temperature was around 1000 Degree-Sign C. Transmission electron microscopy observation of the sample suggests that the graphene was grown from step site caused by grain of Ni film. The results show that the pulse arc plasma technique has the possibility for acquiring homogenous graphene layer with controlled layer thickness.

Fujita, K.; Banno, K.; Aryal, H. R.; Egawa, T. [Research Center for Nano-Device and System, Nagoya Institute of Technology, Gokiso-cho, Showa-Ku, Nagoya 466-8555 (Japan)

2012-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

26

The Effect of Growth Parameters on the Intrinsic Properties of Large-Area Single Layer Graphene Grown by Chemical Vapor Deposition on Cu  

SciTech Connect

We present a comprehensive study of the parameter space for single layer graphene growth by chemical vapor deposition on Cu. The temperature is the most widely recognized parameter in single layer graphene growth. We show that the methane-to-hydrogen ratio and the growth pressure also are critical parameters that affect the structural perfection and the cleanliness of graphene. The optimal conditions for suppressing double and multilayer graphene growth occur near 1000 C, 1:20 methane-to-hydrogen ratio, and a total pressure in the range from 0.5 to 1 Torr. Raman mapping of a 40x30 m2 area shows single layer domains with 5-10 m linear dimensions. Atomic resolution imaging of suspended graphene by aberration corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy shows that the cleanest single layer graphene consists of areas of 10-15 nm linear dimensions and smaller patches of residual contamination that was undetected by other characterization methods.

Regmi, Murari [ORNL; Chisholm, Matthew F [ORNL; Eres, Gyula [ORNL

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

27

Self-catalyzed chemical vapor deposition method for the growth of device-quality metal thin films  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Deposition of metals and alloys was demonstrated using thermal chemical vapor deposition starting from commercially available precursors in the absence of molecular hydrogen. The adopted chemical strategy relies solely on the selective reactivity of ... Keywords: CVD of metals, Chemical reduction, Direct liquid injection, Pulsed spray evaporation

N. Bahlawane; P. Antony Premkumar; K. Onwuka; G. Reiss; K. Kohse-Höinghaus

2007-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

28

Low temperature metal-organic chemical vapor deposition growth processes for high-efficiency solar cells. Final technical report, 1 September 1985--30 November 1989  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report describes the results of a program to develop a more complete understanding of the physical and chemical processes involved in low-temperature growth of III-V compounds by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) and to develop a low-temperature process that is suitable for the growth of high-efficiency solar cells. The program was structured to develop a better understanding of the chemical reactions involved in MOCVD growth, to develop a model of the processes occurring in the gas phase, to understand the physical kinetics and reactions operative on the surface of the growing crystal, and to develop an understanding of the means by which these processes may be altered to reduce the temperature of growth and the utilization of toxic hydrides. The basic approach was to develop the required information about the chemical and physical kinetics operative in the gas phase and on the surface by the direct physical measurement of the processes whenever possible. The program included five tasks: (1) MOCVD growth process characterization, (2) photoenhanced MOCVD studies, (3) materials characterization, (4) device fabrication and characterization, and (5) photovoltaic training. Most of the goals of the program were met and significant progress was made in defining an approach that would allow both high throughput and high uniformity growth of compound semiconductors at low temperatures. The technical activity was focused on determining the rates of thermal decomposition of trimethyl gallium, exploring alternate arsenic sources for use MOCVD, and empirical studies of atomic layer epitaxy as an approach.

Dapkus, P.D. [University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

1993-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

29

Use of Optical Microscopy to Examine Crystallite Nucleation and Growth in Thermally Annealed Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition and Hot Wire Chemical Vapor Deposition a-Si:H Films  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

We report a simple method to investigate crystallite nucleation and growth in stepwise, thermally annealed plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition and hot wire chemical vapor deposition a-Si:H films. By confining film thicknesses to the range 500-4000 {angstrom}, optical microscopy in the reflection mode can be used to readily detect crystallites in the thermally annealed a-Si:H lattice. Measurements of the crystallite density versus annealing time for identically prepared films of different thickness show that the crystallite nucleation rate is smaller for thinner films, suggesting that crystallite nucleation is homogeneous, in agreement with previous results. A comparison of film nucleation rates with those obtained by other methods on identically prepared films shows excellent agreement, thus establishing the validity of the current technique. The potential effect of impurity (oxygen) incorporation during the stepwise annealing in air is shown not to affect crystallite nucleation and growth, in that SIMS oxygen profiles for stepwise versus continuous annealing show not only similar impurity profiles but also similar bulk impurity densities.

Mahan, A. H.; Dabney, M. S.; Reedy, Jr R. C.; Molina, D.; Ginley, D. S.

2012-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

30

Effects of pressure, temperature, and hydrogen during graphene growth on SiC(0001) using propane-hydrogen chemical vapor deposition  

SciTech Connect

Graphene growth from a propane flow in a hydrogen environment (propane-hydrogen chemical vapor deposition (CVD)) on SiC differentiates from other growth methods in that it offers the possibility to obtain various graphene structures on the Si-face depending on growth conditions. The different structures include the (6{radical}3 Multiplication-Sign 6{radical}3)-R30 Degree-Sign reconstruction of the graphene/SiC interface, which is commonly observed on the Si-face, but also the rotational disorder which is generally observed on the C-face. In this work, growth mechanisms leading to the formation of the different structures are studied and discussed. For that purpose, we have grown graphene on SiC(0001) (Si-face) using propane-hydrogen CVD at various pressure and temperature and studied these samples extensively by means of low energy electron diffraction and atomic force microscopy. Pressure and temperature conditions leading to the formation of the different structures are identified and plotted in a pressure-temperature diagram. This diagram, together with other characterizations (X-ray photoemission and scanning tunneling microscopy), is the basis of further discussions on the carbon supply mechanisms and on the kinetics effects. The entire work underlines the important role of hydrogen during growth and its effects on the final graphene structure.

Michon, A.; Vezian, S.; Roudon, E.; Lefebvre, D.; Portail, M. [CNRS-CRHEA, Rue Bernard Gregory, 06560 Valbonne (France)] [CNRS-CRHEA, Rue Bernard Gregory, 06560 Valbonne (France); Zielinski, M.; Chassagne, T. [NOVASiC, Savoie Technolac, Arche Bat 4, BP267, 73375 Le Bourget du Lac (France)] [NOVASiC, Savoie Technolac, Arche Bat 4, BP267, 73375 Le Bourget du Lac (France)

2013-05-28T23:59:59.000Z

31

Growth, microstructure and electrical properties of sputter-deposited hafnium oxide (HfO2) thin films grown using HfO2 ceramic target  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Hafnium oxide (HfO?) thin films have been made by radio-frequency (rf) magnetron-sputtering onto Si(100) substrates under varying growth temperature (Ts). HfO? ceramic target has been employed for sputtering while varying the Ts from room temperature to 500?C during deposition. The effect of Ts on the growth and microstructure of deposited HfO? films has been studied using grazing incidence x-ray diffraction (GIXRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and high-resolution scanning electron microscopy (HR-SEM) coupled with energy dispersive x-ray spectrometry (EDS). The results indicate that the effect of Ts is significant on the growth, surface and interface structure, morphology and chemical composition of the HfO? films. Structural characterization indicates that the HfO? films grown at Ts200 ?C are nanocrystalline. An amorphous-to-crystalline transition occurs at Ts=200 ?C. Nanocrystalline HfO? films crystallized in a monoclinic structure with a (-111) orientation. XPS measurements indicated the high surface-chemical quality and stoichiometric nature of the grown HfO? films. An interface layer (IL) formation occurs due to reaction at the HfO?-Si interface for HfO? films deposited at Ts>200 ?C. The thickness of IL increases with increasing Ts. XPS and EDS at the HfO?-Si cross-section indicate the IL is a (Hf, Si)-O compound. The electrical characterization using capacitance-voltage measurements indicate that the dielectric constant decreases from 25 to 16 with increasing Ts.

Aguirre, B.; Vemuri, R. S.; Zubia, David; Engelhard, Mark H.; Shutthanandan, V.; Kamala Bharathi, K.; Ramana, Chintalapalle V.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

32

On the Effect of the Film Hydrogen Content and Deposition Type on the Grain Nucleation and Grain Growth During Crystallization of a-Si:H Films: Preprint  

SciTech Connect

We report the effect of the initial film hydrogen content (CH) on the crystallization kinetics, crystallite nucleation rate and grain growth rate when HWCVD and PECVD a-Si:H films are crystallized by annealing at 600 C. For the HWCVD films, both the incubation time and crystallization time decrease, and the full width at half maximum (FWHM) of the XRD (111) peak decreases with decreasing film CH. However, other sources of XRD line broadening exist in such materials in addition to crystallite size, including the density of crystallite defects. To address these issues, TEM measurements have also been performed on a-Si:H films deposited directly onto TEM grids.

Mahan, A. H.; Ahrenkiel, S. P.; Roy, B.; Schropp, R.E.I.; Li, H.; Ginley, D. S.

2006-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

33

Surface modeling of thin film growth: A study of silicon oxide deposition from tetraethoxysilane and silicon deposition from disilane on the Si(100) surface  

SciTech Connect

In this thesis, surface reactions brought about by the pyrolysis of adsorbed TEOS, the modeling of this reaction with ethanol, and the photolysis of adsorbed disilane have been investigated under ultrahigh vacuum conditions, using mainly temperature programmed desorption (TPD). TEOS molecularly desorbs at about 195K when adsorbed on clean Si(100) at low temperatures. When adsorbed at 300K, the primary surface species produced is a mixture of ethoxysiloxanes. Upon heating the surface in vacuum, the adsorbed ethoxysiloxanes decompose the evolve ethylene and hydrogen, with trace production of acetylene and acetaldehyde. In a parallel study, the adsorption and subsequent deposition of ethanol (C[sub 2]H[sub 5]OH, C[sub 2]D[sub 5]OD, and CH[sub 3]CD[sub 2]OH) on Si(100) has been shown to model the TEOS system. The molecular desorption temperature is ca. 150K. When adsorbed at 200K, ethanol dissociatively chemisorbs as an ethoxide and the monohydride species. The adlayer decomposes at higher temperature to evolve ethylene, hydrogen, acetaldehyde, and acetylene. The adsorption and decomposition of ethanol on Si(100)-2x1:H has also been studied in gathering additional information about the competition between distinct decomposition mechanisms, and the nature of the reaction site. In the Si[sub 2]H[sub 6]/Si(100) system, with no UV irradiation, disilane adsorption at 120K produces a chemisorbed SiH[sub x] (x = 1 - 3) layer and, for high exposures, a disilane multilayer. Upon heating the surface in vacuum, molecular desorption is observed at ca. 150K, while hydrogen and silane are evolved at much higher temperatures. For Si[sub 2]H[sub 6] exposure during photo-irradiation, the desorption yields of hydrogen and silane are enhanced. Model studies using the partially and fully deuterated Si(100)-2x1:D surface reveals that the photo-induced surface reaction is dominated by an insertion reaction by the photo-generated silylene species.

Cho, Hee-Chuen.

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

34

ENHANCED GROWTH RATE AND SILANE UTILIZATION IN AMORPHOUS SILICON AND NANOCRYSTALLINE-SILICON SOLAR CELL DEPOSITION VIA GAS PHASE ADDITIVES  

SciTech Connect

Air Products set out to investigate the impact of additives on the deposition rate of both ���µCSi and ���±Si-H films. One criterion for additives was that they could be used in conventional PECVD processing, which would require sufficient vapor pressure to deliver material to the process chamber at the required flow rates. The flow rate required would depend on the size of the substrate onto which silicon films were being deposited, potentially ranging from 200 mm diameter wafers to the 5.7 m2 glass substrates used in GEN 8.5 flat-panel display tools. In choosing higher-order silanes, both disilane and trisilane had sufficient vapor pressure to withdraw gas at the required flow rates of up to 120 sccm. This report presents results obtained from testing at Air Products�¢���� electronic technology laboratories, located in Allentown, PA, which focused on developing processes on a commercial IC reactor using silane and mixtures of silane plus additives. These processes were deployed to compare deposition rates and film properties with and without additives, with a goal of maximizing the deposition rate while maintaining or improving film properties.

Ridgeway, R.G.; Hegedus, S.S.; Podraza, N.J.

2012-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

35

Direct growth of few-layer graphene on 6H-SiC and 3C-SiC/Si via propane chemical vapor deposition  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We propose to grow graphene on SiC by a direct carbon feeding through propane flow in a chemical vapor deposition reactor. X-ray photoemission and low energy electron diffraction show that propane allows to grow few-layer graphene (FLG) on 6H-SiC(0001). Surprisingly, FLG grown on (0001) face presents a rotational disorder similar to that observed for FLG obtained by annealing on (000-1) face. Thanks to a reduced growth temperature with respect to the classical SiC annealing method, we have also grown FLG/3C-SiC/Si(111) in a single growth sequence. This opens the way for large-scale production of graphene-based devices on silicon substrate.

Michon, A.; Vezian, S.; Portail, M. [CNRS-CRHEA, Rue Bernard Gregory, 06560 Valbonne (France); Ouerghi, A. [CNRS-LPN, Route de Nozay, 91460 Marcoussis (France); Zielinski, M.; Chassagne, T. [NOVASiC, Savoie Technolac, Arche Bat 4, BP267, 73375 Le Bourget du Lac (France)

2010-10-25T23:59:59.000Z

36

Evolution of Snow-Size Spectra in Cyclonic Storms. Part I: Snow Growth by Vapor Deposition and Aggregation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Based on the stochastic collection equation, height- and time-dependent snow growth models were developed for unrimed stratiform snowfall. Moment conservation equations were parameterized and solved by constraining the size distribution to be of ...

David L. Mitchell

1988-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

37

High Growth Rate of Epitaxial Silicon-Carbon Alloys by High-Order Silane Precursor and Chemical Vapor Deposition  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

rates typically achieved by disilane and silane, respectively, at 575o C. The rate at present is limited precursor HOS than disilane in CVD, even at lower temperatures. Our current growth rates of Si1-yCy alloys

38

The Growth of InGaAsN for High Efficiency Solar Cells by Metalorganic Chemical Vapor Deposition  

SciTech Connect

InGaAsN alloys are a promising material for increasing the efficiency of multi-junction solar cells now used for satellite power systems. However, the growth of these dilute N containing alloys has been challenging with further improvements in material quality needed before the solar cell higher efficiencies are realized. Nitrogen/V ratios exceeding 0.981 resulted in lower N incorporation and poor surface morphologies. The growth rate was found to depend on not only the total group III transport for a fixed N/V ratio but also on the N/V ratio. Carbon tetrachloride and dimethylzinc were effective for p-type doping. Disilane was not an effective n-type dopant while SiCl4 did result in n-type material but only a narrow range of electron concentrations (2-5e17cm{sup -3}) were achieved.

ALLERMAN,ANDREW A.; BANKS,JAMES C.; GEE,JAMES M.; JONES,ERIC D.; KURTZ,STEVEN R.

1999-09-16T23:59:59.000Z

39

Effects of acidic deposition on nutrient uptake, nutrient cycling and growth processes of vegetation in the spruce-fir ecosystem  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report summarizes progress in three years of field research designed to evaluate biological and chemical indicators of the current and future health of the Southern Appalachian spruce-fir ecosystem. The emphasis of this research has been on the identification and understanding of mechanisms through which current levels of acidic deposition are impacting ecosystem processes. The identification of these principal mechanisms and key biological indicators of change was designed to improve our capabilities to detect, monitor, and assess the effects of air quality regulations and attendant future air quality changes on ecosystem response. Individual research tasks focused on the following research areas: (1) the significance of foliar uptake of atmospheric sources of nitrogen in relationship to plant utilization of N from available soil reserves; (2) linkages between atmospheric inputs to the soil surface, solution chemistry, and decomposition in the upper organic soil horizons; (3) effects of soil solution chemistry on uptake of cations and aluminum by fine roots; and (4) the effects of varying rates of calcium supply on carbon metabolism of Fraser fir and red spruce, and the relationship between calcium levels in wood cells and integrity of wood formed in bole and branches. Each of the individual tasks was designed to focus upon a mechanism or process that we consider critical to understanding chemical and biological linkages. These linkages will be important determinants in understanding the basis of past and potential future responses of the high elevation Southern Appalachian Forest to acidic deposition and other co-occurring environmental stresses. This report contains (1) background and rationale for the research undertaken in 1992-94; (2) a summary of principal research findings; (3) publications from this research; and (4) characterization of data sets produced by this research which will be the basis of future research, analyses and/or publications.

McLaughlin, S.B.; Garten, C.T.; Wullschleger, S.D. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)] [and others

1996-10-16T23:59:59.000Z

40

Effects of laser energy fluence on the onset and growth of the Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities and its influence on the topography of the Fe thin film grown in pulsed laser deposition facility  

SciTech Connect

The effect of laser energy fluence on the onset and growth of Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) instabilities in laser induced Fe plasma is investigated using time-resolved fast gated imaging. The snow plow and shock wave models are fitted to the experimental results and used to estimate the ablation parameters and the density of gas atoms that interact with the ablated species. It is observed that RT instability develops during the interface deceleration stage and grows for a considerable time for higher laser energy fluence. The effects of RT instabilities formation on the surface topography of the Fe thin films grown in pulsed laser deposition system are investigated (i) using different laser energy fluences for the same wavelength of laser radiation and (ii) using different laser wavelengths keeping the energy fluence fixed. It is concluded that the deposition achieved under turbulent condition leads to less smooth deposition surfaces with bigger sized particle agglomerates or network.

Mahmood, S. [National Institute of Education, Nanyang Technological University, 1 Nanyang Walk, Singapore 637616 (Singapore); Department of Physics, University of Karachi, Karachi 75270 (Pakistan); Rawat, R. S.; Wang, Y.; Lee, S.; Tan, T. L.; Springham, S. V.; Lee, P. [National Institute of Education, Nanyang Technological University, 1 Nanyang Walk, Singapore 637616 (Singapore); Zakaullah, M. [Department of Physics, Quaid-i-Azam University, 45320 Islamabad (Pakistan)

2012-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "deposition growth cxs" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Novel ways of depositing ZnTe films by a solution growth technique. Final subcontract report, 1 January 1990--1 January 1992  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

An electrochemical process has been successfully developed for the reproducible deposition of ZnTe and copper-doped ZnTe films suitable as transparent ohmic contacts for CdS/CdTe solar cells. The development of this method and optimization of key processing steps in the fabrication of CdS/CdTe/ZnTe:Cu devices has allowed IEC to achieve cell performance results of FF>70% and {eta} {approximately}10%. Preliminary efforts have indicated that the deposition methods investigated are potentially feasible for the formation of other II-VI compounds for use in polycrystalline thin film solar devices and should be the focus of future work.

Birkmire, R.W.; McCandless, B.E.; Yokimcus, T.A.; Mondal, A. [Delaware Univ., Newark, DE (United States). Inst. of Energy Conversion

1992-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

42

Method of deposition by molecular beam epitaxy  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method is described for reproducibly controlling layer thickness and varying layer composition in an MBE deposition process. In particular, the present invention includes epitaxially depositing a plurality of layers of material on a substrate with a plurality of growth cycles whereby the average of the instantaneous growth rates for each growth cycle and from one growth cycle to the next remains substantially constant as a function of time.

Chalmers, Scott A. (Albuquerque, NM); Killeen, Kevin P. (Albuquerque, NM); Lear, Kevin L. (Albuquerque, NM)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

43

Cathodic Arc Plasma Deposition  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

Cathodic Arc Plasma Deposition Cathodic Arc Plasma Deposition André Anders Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, University of California, 1 Cyclotron Road, Mailstop 53, Berkeley, California 94720 aanders@lbl.gov Abstract Cathodic arc plasma deposition is one of oldest coatings technologies. Over the last two decades it has become the technology of choice for hard, wear resistant coatings on cutting and forming tools, corrosion resistant and decorative coatings on door knobs, shower heads, jewelry, and many other substrates. The history, basic physics of cathodic arc operation, the infamous macroparticle problem and common filter solutions are reviewed. Cathodic arc plasmas stand out due to their high degree of ionization, with important consequences for film nucleation, growth, and efficient utilization of substrate bias. The

44

Deposition Process  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Pulsed Plasma Processing Pulsed Plasma Processing NEW: Downloadable: Invited Talk "Pulsed Metal Plasmas," presented at the 2006 AVS Meeting, San Francisco, California, November 15, 2006. (PDF, file size 8 MB). Plasma Sources for Window Coatings Deposition processes for low-emittance and solar control coatings can be improved through the use of advanced plasma technology developed at LBNL. A new type of constricted glow-discharge plasma source was selected for the 1997 R&D 100 Award. Invented by LBNL researchers Andre Anders, Mike Rubin, and Mike Dickinson, the source was designed to be compatible with industrial vacuum deposition equipment and practice. Construction is simple, rugged and inexpensive. It can operate indefinitely over a wide range of chamber pressure without any consumable parts such as filaments or grids. Several different gases including Argon, Oxygen and Nitrogen have been tested successfully.

45

Chemical vapor deposition growth. Annual report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The formal objective of the contract is development of CVD techniques for producing large areas of Si sheet on inexpensive substrate materials, with sheet properties suitable for fabricating solar cells. The techniques developed are to be directed toward (1) minimum-cost processing, (2) production of sheet having properties adequate to result in cells with terrestrial array efficiency of 10 percent or more, and (3) eventual scale-up to large-quantity production. (WDM)

Ruth, R.P.; Manasevit, H.M.; Johnson, R.E.; Kenty, J.L.; Moudy, L.A.; Simpson, W.I.; Yang, J.J.

1976-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

46

Chemical vapor deposition sciences  

SciTech Connect

Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) is a widely used method for depositing thin films of a variety of materials. Applications of CVD range from the fabrication of microelectronic devices to the deposition of protective coatings. New CVD processes are increasingly complex, with stringent requirements that make it more difficult to commercialize them in a timely fashion. However, a clear understanding of the fundamental science underlying a CVD process, as expressed through computer models, can substantially shorten the time required for reactor and process development. Research scientists at Sandia use a wide range of experimental and theoretical techniques for investigating the science of CVD. Experimental tools include optical probes for gas-phase and surface processes, a range of surface analytic techniques, molecular beam methods for gas/surface kinetics, flow visualization techniques and state-of-the-art crystal growth reactors. The theoretical strategy uses a structured approach to describe the coupled gas-phase and gas-surface chemistry, fluid dynamics, heat and mass transfer of a CVD process. The software used to describe chemical reaction mechanisms is easily adapted to codes that model a variety of reactor geometries. Carefully chosen experiments provide critical information on the chemical species, gas temperatures and flows that are necessary for model development and validation. This brochure provides basic information on Sandia`s capabilities in the physical and chemical sciences of CVD and related materials processing technologies. It contains a brief description of the major scientific and technical capabilities of the CVD staff and facilities, and a brief discussion of the approach that the staff uses to advance the scientific understanding of CVD processes.

1992-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

47

Nitrogen Deposition Data Available  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Nitrogen Deposition Data Available This data set, prepared by Elizabeth Holland and colleagues, contains data for wet and dry nitrogen-species deposition for the United States and...

48

Effect of gas feeding methods on optical properties of GaN grown by rapid thermal chemical vapor deposition reactor  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Keywords: Ga vacancies, GaN growth, gas feeding method, optical property, rapid thermal chemical vapor deposition (RTCVD), yellow luminescence

Sun Jung Kim; Young Hun Seo; Kee Suk Nahm; Yun Bong Hahn; Hyun Wook Shim; Eun-Kyung Suh; Kee Young Lim; Hyung Jae Lee

1999-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

49

direct_deposit_111609  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

PROTECT YOUR BANKING INFORMATION: PROTECT YOUR BANKING INFORMATION: DO NOT complete this form until you are ready to submit it to the Payroll Department. DIRECT DEPOSIT REQUEST Directions: 1. Provide required information neatly, legibly; 2. If Checking Account Direct Deposit, include a voided check. a. DO NOT submit a deposit slip! 3. If Savings Account Direct Deposit, include a copy of savings card. 4. Sign this form; 5. Inter-office mail it to Craft Payroll at "P238." DIRECT DEPOSITION AUTHORIZATION I hereby authorize Los Alamos National Laboratory, hereinafter called The Laboratory, to initiate credit entries and, if necessary, debit entries and adjustments for any credit entries in error to my account listed on this form. If deposit is for:

50

Chemical vapor deposition of amorphous semiconductor films. Final subcontract report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) from higher order silanes has been studied for fabricating amorphous hydrogenated silicon thin-film solar cells. Intrinsic and doped a-Si:H films were deposited in a reduced-pressure, tubular-flow reactor, using disilane feed-gas. Conditions for depositing intrinsic films at growth rates up to 10 A/s were identified. Electrical and optical properties, including dark conductivity, photoconductivity, activation energy, optical absorption, band-gap and sub-band-gap absorption properties of CVD intrinsic material were characterized. Parameter space for depositing intrinsic and doped films, suitable for device analysis, was identified.

Rocheleau, R.E.

1984-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

51

Radionuclide deposition control  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The deposition of radionuclides manganese-54, cobalt-58 and cobalt-60 from liquid sodium coolant is controlled by providing surfaces of nickel or high nickel alloys to extract the radionuclides from the liquid sodium, and by providing surfaces of tungsten, molybdenum or tantalum to prevent or retard radionuclide deposition.

Brehm, William F. (Richland, WA); McGuire, Joseph C. (Richland, WA)

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

52

Perspectives on Deposition Velocity  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Deposition Deposition Velocity ... Going down the rabbit hole to explain that sinking feeling Brian DiNunno, Ph.D. Project Enhancement Corporation June 6 th , 2012 Discussion Framework ï‚— Development of the HSS Deposition Velocity Safety Bulletin ï‚— Broader discussion of appropriate conservatism within dispersion modeling and DOE-STD-3009 DOE-STD-3009 Dose Comparison "General discussion is provided for source term calculation and dose estimation, as well as prescriptive guidance for the latter. The intent is that calculations be based on reasonably conservative estimates of the various input parameters." - DOE-STD-3009, Appendix A.3 DOE-STD-3009 Dispersion

53

BWR Fuel Deposit Evaluation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

With zinc injection to BWR feedwater for plant radiation dose reduction, fuel deposits often contain significant amounts of zinc and the inner layers of deposits become more adherent to the cladding. Fuel surveillance programs have revealed thick tenacious crud with surface spallation at several plants. This project determined the chemical composition and morphological features of crud flake samples from Duane Arnold Cycle 17 and Browns Ferry 2 Cycle 12 and compared the data with those obtained from othe...

2005-12-07T23:59:59.000Z

54

EMSL: Capabilities: Deposition and Microfabrication  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Deposition and Microfabrication Deposition and Microfabrication Additional Information Meet the Deposition and Microfabrication Experts Related EMSL User Projects Deposition and Microfabrication Tools are Applied to all Science Themes Deposition and Microfabrication brochure Designed to augment research important to a variety of disciplines, EMSL's Deposition and Microfabrication Capability tackles serious scientific challenges from a microscopic perspective. From deposition instruments that emphasize oxide films and interfaces to a state-of-the-art microfabrication suite, EMSL has equipment to tailor surfaces, as diverse as single-crystal thin films or nanostructures, or create the microenvironments needed for direct experimentation at micron scales. Users benefit from coupling deposition and microfabrication applications

55

GaSb molecular beam epitaxial growth on p-InP(001) and passivation with in situ deposited Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} gate oxide  

SciTech Connect

The integration of high carrier mobility materials into future CMOS generations is presently being studied in order to increase drive current capability and to decrease power consumption in future generation CMOS devices. If III-V materials are the candidates of choice for n-type channel devices, antimonide-based semiconductors present high hole mobility and could be used for p-type channel devices. In this work we first demonstrate the heteroepitaxy of fully relaxed GaSb epilayers on InP(001) substrates. In a second part, the properties of the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/GaSb interface have been studied by in situ deposition of an Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} high-{kappa} gate dielectric. The interface is abrupt without any substantial interfacial layer, and is characterized by high conduction and valence band offsets. Finally, MOS capacitors show well-behaved C-V with relatively low D{sub it} along the bandgap, these results point out an efficient electrical passivation of the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/GaSb interface.

Merckling, C.; Brammertz, G.; Hoffmann, T. Y.; Caymax, M.; Dekoster, J. [Interuniversity Microelectronics Center (IMEC vzw), Kapeldreef 75, 3001, Leuven (Belgium); Sun, X. [Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Celestijnelaan 200D, 3001, Leuven (Belgium); Department of Electrical Engineering, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut 06520-8284 (United States); Alian, A.; Heyns, M. [Interuniversity Microelectronics Center (IMEC vzw), Kapeldreef 75, 3001, Leuven (Belgium); Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Celestijnelaan 200D, 3001, Leuven (Belgium); Afanas'ev, V. V. [Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Celestijnelaan 200D, 3001, Leuven (Belgium)

2011-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

56

Instrument Series: Deposition and Microfabrication  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Deposition and Microfabrication Deposition and Microfabrication Sputter Deposition System Only available at EMSL, the Discovery ® Deposition System has been customized to be a fully automated multi-functional "hybrid" instrument with several modes for thin film processing, including multi-target sputtering, effusion cell deposition, electron beam deposition, and in-situ reflection high-energy electron diffraction (RHEED) materials characterization. Unlike most systems, the Discovery ® Deposition System's unique configuration offers operational flexibility, efficiency, and control, allowing a range of applications and materials to be processed simultaneously. Because it is software controlled, users can provide their own "recipes" and have a complete log of what happens throughout the

57

Dry deposition of pan to grassland vegetation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Peroxyacetyl nitrate or PAN (CH{sub 3}C(O)OONO{sub 2}) is formed in the lower troposphere via photochemical reactions involving nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) and non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHCs). PAN has a lifetime in the free troposphere of about three months and is removed by photolysis or reaction with OH. Dry deposition will decrease its lifetime, although the few measurements that have been made indicate that this process is slow. Measurements of the uptake of PAN by alfalfa in growth chambers indicated that the dry deposition velocity (downward flux divided by concentration at a specified height) was 0.75 cm s{sup {minus}1}. Garland and Penkett measured a dry deposition velocity of 0.25 cm s{sup {minus}1} for PAN to grass and soil in a return-flow wind tunnel. Shepson et al. (1992) analyzed trends of PAN and O{sub 3} concentrations in the stable nocturnal boundary layer over mixed deciduous/coniferous forests at night, when leaf stomata were closed, and concluded that the deposition velocity for PAN was at least 0.5 cm s{sup {minus}1}. We measured the dry deposition velocity of PAN to a grassland site in the midwestern United States with a modified Bowen ratio technique. Experiments were conducted on selected days during September, October, and November of 1990. An energy balance Bowen ratio station was used to observe the differences in air temperature and water vapor content between heights of 3.0 and 0.92 m and to evaluate the surface energy balance. Air samples collected at the same two heights in Teflon {reg_sign} bags were analyzed for PAN by a gas chromatographic technique. We present an example of the variations of PAN concentrations and gradients observed during the day and compare measurements of the dry deposition velocity to expectations based on the physicochemical properties of PAN.

Doskey, P.V.; Wesely, M.L.; Cook, D.R.; Gao, W.

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

58

Chemical vapor deposition of hydrogenated amorphous silicon from disilane  

SciTech Connect

The authors describe hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) thin films deposited at growth rates of 1 to 30 A/s by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) from disilane source gas at 24 torr total pressure in a tubular reactor. The effects of substrate temperature and gas holding time (flow rate) on film growth rate and effluent gas composition were measured at temperatures ranging from 360{sup 0} to 485{sup 0}C and gas holding times from 3 to 62s. Effluent gases determined by gas chromatography included silane, disilane and other higher order silanes. A chemical reaction engineering model, based on a silylene (SiH/sub 2/) insertion gas phase reaction network and film growth from both SiH/sub 2/ and high molecular weight silicon species, Si/sub n/H/sub 2n/, was developed. The model predictions were in good agreement with experimentally determined growth rates and effluent gas compositions.

Bogaert, R.J.; Russell, T.W.F.; Klein, M.T. (Delaware Univ., Newark, DE (USA). Dept. of Chemical Engineering); Rocheleau, R.E.; Baron, B.N. (Delaware Univ., Newark, DE (USA). Inst. of Energy Conversion)

1989-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

59

Dynamics of nucleation in chemical vapor deposition  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We study the evolution of layer morphology during the early stages of metal chemical vapor deposition (CVD) onto Si(100) via pyrolysis of Fe(CO){sub 5} below 250{degrees}C. Scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) shows that nuclei formation is limited by precursor dissociation which occurs on terraces, not at step sites. Also, the average size of clusters formed during CVD is larger than for Fe growth by evaporation (a random deposition process). Based on STM data and Monte Carlo simulations, we conclude that the CVD-growth morphology is affected by preferential dissociation of Fe(CO){sub 5} molecules at existing Fe clusters -- an autocatalytic effect. We demonstrate that nucleation kinetics can be used to control formation of metal nanostructures on chemically tailored surfaces. Reactive sites on Si (001) are first passivated by hydrogen. H atoms are locally removed by electron stimulated desorption using electrons emitted from the STM tip. Subsequent pyrolysis of Fe(CO){sub 5} leads to selective nucleation and growth of Fe films in the areas where H has been removed.

Mayer, T.M.; Adams, D.P.; Swartzentruber, B.S.; Chason, E.

1995-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

60

Ultrashort pulse laser deposition of thin films  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Short pulse PLD is a viable technique of producing high quality films with properties very close to that of crystalline diamond. The plasma generated using femtosecond lasers is composed of single atom ions with no clusters producing films with high Sp.sup.3 /Sp.sup.2 ratios. Using a high average power femtosecond laser system, the present invention dramatically increases deposition rates to up to 25 .mu.m/hr (which exceeds many CVD processes) while growing particulate-free films. In the present invention, deposition rates is a function of laser wavelength, laser fluence, laser spot size, and target/substrate separation. The relevant laser parameters are shown to ensure particulate-free growth, and characterizations of the films grown are made using several diagnostic techniques including electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) and Raman spectroscopy.

Perry, Michael D. (Livermore, CA); Banks, Paul S. (Livermore, CA); Stuart, Brent C. (Fremont, CA)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "deposition growth cxs" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Energy Deposition Using EGS4  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

are used to model the energy deposition in 0.4 r.l. Ti due to photons produced by the Tesla TRD undulator driven by the 250 GeV Tesla primary electron beam. 1 Energy Deposition...

62

Oil shale deposits of Thailand  

SciTech Connect

Oil-shale deposits occur in several areas of Thailand. Perhaps the most important deposit occurs at Mae Sod in Tak Province, West Thailand. Other well-known deposits are Li in Lamphum Province, Ko Kha District, Lampang Province, and Krabi in the southern peninsular region. The geological age of all these deposits is late Tertiary, as demonstrated by the presence of the fossils from the oil shale of the Mae Sod series, e.g., fish of the Ostariophysian family Cyprinidae.

Chakrabarti, A.K.

1976-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

63

Thin Film Deposition and Processing  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... Applications: Tube 1 (T1), open for future upgrade. Silicon Nitride Deposition (Tube 2): Low Stress recipe. Stoichiometric recipe. ...

2013-09-17T23:59:59.000Z

64

Topography-sensitive copper deposition in supercritical solutions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Topography-sensitive deposition, a preferential growth mode in a narrow concave feature, of copper in supercritical solutions is reported. Experiments were carried out in supercritical carbon dioxide at 13MPa with a maximum temperature of 230^oC, using ... Keywords: Capillary condensation, Copper, Nanorod, Supercritical fluid

E. Kondoh; K. Nagano; C. Yamamoto; J. Yamanaka

2009-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

65

Sputter deposition of semiconductor superlattices for thermoelectric applications  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Theoretical dramatic improvement of the thermoelectric properties of materials by using quantum confinement in novel semiconductor nanostructures has lead to considerable interest in the thermoelectric community. Therefore, we are exploring the critical materials issues for fabrication of quantum confined structures by magnetron sputtering in the lead telluride and bismuth telluride families of materials. We have synthesized modulated structures from thermoelectric materials with bilayer periods of as little as 3.2 nm and shown that they are stable at deposition temperatures high enough to grow quality films. Issues critical to high quality film growth have been investigated such as nucleation and growth conditions and their effect on crystal orientation and growth morphology. These investigations show that nucleating the film at a temperature below the growth temperature of optimum electronic properties produces high quality films. Our work with sputter deposition, which is inherently a high rate deposition process, builds the technological base necessary to develop economical production of these advanced materials. High deposition rate is critical since, even if efficiencies comparable with CFC based refrigeration systems can be achieved, large quantities of quantum confined materials will be necessary for cost-competitive uses.

Wagner, A.V.; Foreman, R.J.; Farmer, J.C.; Barbee, T.W.

1996-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

66

Multi-chamber deposition system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A system for the simultaneous deposition of different coatings onto a thin web within a large volume vacuum chamber is disclosed which chamber is provided with a plurality of deposition chambers in which the different layers are deposited onto the film as its moves from a supply roll to a finished take-up roll of coated web. The deposition chambers provided within the large vacuum chamber are provided with separate seals which minimize back diffusion of any dopant gas from adjacent deposition chambers.

Jacobson, Richard L. (Roseville, MN); Jeffrey, Frank R. (Shoreview, MN); Westerberg, Roger K. (Cottage Grove, MN)

1989-10-17T23:59:59.000Z

67

Multi-chamber deposition system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A system for the simultaneous deposition of different coatings onto a thin web within a large volume vacuum chamber is disclosed which chamber is provided with a plurality of deposition chambers in which the different layers are deposited onto the film as its moves from a supply roll to a finished take-up roll of coated web. The deposition chambers provided within the large vacuum chamber are provided with separate seals which minimize back diffusion of any dopant gas from adjacent deposition chambers.

Jacobson, Richard L. (Roseville, MN); Jeffrey, Frank R. (Shoreview, MN); Westerberg, Roger K. (Cottage Grove, MN)

1989-06-27T23:59:59.000Z

68

Synthesis of high-quality monolayer and bilayer graphene on copper using chemical vapor deposition  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

/IG of the Raman spectra (red line in Fig. 6a) taken from the graphene grown on high purity Cu (99.999%) is above 3Synthesis of high-quality monolayer and bilayer graphene on copper using chemical vapor deposition determining the growth of high-quality monolayer and bilayer graphene on Cu using chemical vapor deposition

69

Chemical vapor deposition growth. Quarterly report No. 2  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The objective of the program is the development of CVD techniques for producing large areas of Si sheet on inexpensive substrate materials, with sheet properties suitable for fabricating solar cells meeting the technical goals of the Low Cost Silicon Solar Array Project (LCSSAP). The techniques developed are to be directed toward (1) minimum-cost processing, (2) production of sheet having properties adequate to result in cells with terrestrial array efficiency of 10 percent or more, and (3) eventual scale-up to large-quantity production. (WDM)

Ruth, R.P.; Manasevit, H.M.; Kenty, J.L.; Mondy, L.A.; Simpson, W.I.; Yang, J.J.

1976-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

70

Underpotential Deposition-Mediated Layer-by-Layer Growth of ...  

Building Energy Efficiency; Electricity Transmission; Energy Analysis; ... after coating palladium-on-carbon catalysts with four monolayers of ...

71

Graphene growth with giant domains using chemical vapor deposition  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

N. Martensson, Controlling graphene corrugation on lattice-in patterned epitaxial graphene, Science, 2006, 312(5777), 92009, 4(6), 17 A. K. Geim, Graphene: Status and Prospects,

Yong, Virginia; Hahn, H. Thomas

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

72

Plasma deposited diamond-like carbon films for large neutralarrays  

SciTech Connect

To understand how large systems of neurons communicate, we need to develop methods for growing patterned networks of large numbers of neurons. We have found that diamond-like carbon thin films formed by energetic deposition from a filtered vacuum arc carbon plasma can serve as ''neuron friendly'' substrates for the growth of large neural arrays. Lithographic masks can be used to form patterns of diamond-like carbon, and regions of selective neuronal attachment can form patterned neural arrays. In the work described here, we used glass microscope slides as substrates on which diamond-like carbon was deposited. PC-12 rat neurons were then cultured on the treated substrates and cell growth monitored. Neuron growth showed excellent contrast, with prolific growth on the treated surfaces and very low growth on the untreated surfaces. Here we describe the vacuum arc plasma deposition technique employed, and summarize results demonstrating that the approach can be used to form large patterns of neurons.

Brown, I.G.; Blakely, E.A.; Bjornstad, K.A.; Galvin, J.E.; Monteiro, O.R.; Sangyuenyongpipat, S.

2004-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

73

(Acidic deposition and the environment)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The travelers presented several papers at the Fourth International Conference on Acidic Deposition. These covered the following topics: atmospheric chemistry and deposition of airborne nitrogen compounds, soil solution chemistry in high-elevation spruce forests, and forest throughfall measurements for estimating total sulfur deposition to ecosystems. In addition, S. E. Lindberg was invited to organize and chair a conference session on Throughfall and Stemflow Experiments, and to present an invited lecture on Atmospheric Deposition and Canopy Interactions of Metals and Nitrogen in Forest Ecosystems: The Influence of Global Change'' at the 110th Anniversary Celebration of the Free University of Amsterdam.

Garten, C.T.; Lindberg, S.E.; Van Miegroet, H.

1990-10-24T23:59:59.000Z

74

Rapid tooling by electron-beam vapor deposition  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Electron-beam physical vapor deposition (EBPVD) of tooling metal, onto a shaped substrate to produce a replica of the substrate surface, offers the potential for significant cost savings over present methods of injection mold manufacturing. These savings are realized by the high deposition rate and the corresponding short manufacturing times provided by the EBPVD process. However, on route to realizing these gains, there are process technical issues which need to be resolved. Mold surfaces typically contain relatively high aspect ratio details that must be replicated to dimensional tolerances within +/- 2 mils. The deposited mold material must also provide high surface hardness and high fracture toughness. Good quality grain structure can be obtained in deposited Al 10-wt% Cu mold material when the substrate and corresponding deposit are at high process temperature. However, the resulting mold is subject to distortion during cooldown due to differential temperatures and shrinkage rates. Thermally controlled cooldown and the use of crushable substrate materials reduce these distortions, but not to the required levels of tolerance. Deposition of the Al-Cu at lower temperature produces columnar, poorly joined grains which result in a brittle and weakened mold material. When Al 10-wt% Cu metal vapor is deposited across high aspect ratio step features on the substrate surface, a grain growth defect can form in the step-shadowed regions of the deposited material, alongside the step feature. The step coverage defect consists of entrained voids which persist at intermediate deposition temperatures and produce a weakened mold. This final 1997 LDRD report investigates causes of this step coverage defect and offers methods for their control and elimination.

Meier, T. C., LLNL

1998-02-25T23:59:59.000Z

75

Variable temperature semiconductor film deposition  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method of depositing a semiconductor material on a substrate is disclosed. The method sequentially comprises (a) providing the semiconductor material in a depositable state such as a vapor for deposition on the substrate; (b) depositing the semiconductor material on the substrate while heating the substrate to a first temperature sufficient to cause the semiconductor material to form a first film layer having a first grain size; (c) continually depositing the semiconductor material on the substrate while cooling the substrate to a second temperature sufficient to cause the semiconductor material to form a second film layer deposited on the first film layer and having a second grain size smaller than the first grain size; and (d) raising the substrate temperature, while either continuing or not continuing to deposit semiconductor material to form a third film layer, to thereby anneal the film layers into a single layer having favorable efficiency characteristics in photovoltaic applications. A preferred semiconductor material is cadmium telluride deposited on a glass/tin oxide substrate already having thereon a film layer of cadmium sulfide.

Li, X.; Sheldon, P.

1998-01-27T23:59:59.000Z

76

Particle Deposition in Granular Media  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Objective is to understand aerosol deposition from gas streams flowing through granular media; this is important to the design of granular filtration systems. The following investigations were carried out: transient behavior of granular filtration of aerosols, and stochastic simulation of aerosol deposition in granular media.

Tien, C.

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

77

Silicon nucleation and film evolution on silicon dioxide using disilane: Rapid thermal chemical vapor deposition of very smooth silicon at high deposition rates  

SciTech Connect

An investigation of Si{sub 2}H{sub 6} and H{sub 2} for rapid thermal chemical vapor deposition (RTCVD) of silicon on SiO{sub 2} has been performed at temperatures ranging from 590 to 900 C and pressures ranging from 0.1 to 1.5 Torr. Deposition at 590 C yields amorphous silicon films with the corresponding ultrasmooth surface with a deposition rate of 68 nm/min. Cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy of a sample deposited at 625 C and 1 Torr reveals a bilayer structure which is amorphous at the growth surface and crystallized at the oxide interface. Higher temperatures yield polycrystalline films where the surface roughness depends strongly on both deposition pressure and temperature. Silane-based amorphous silicon deposition in conventional systems yields the expected ultrasmooth surfaces, but at greatly reduced deposition rates unsuitable for single-wafer processing. However, disilane, over the process window considered here, yields growth rates high enough to be appropriate for single-wafer manufacturing, thus providing a viable means for deposition of very smooth silicon films on SiO{sub 2} in a single-wafer environment.

Violette, K.E.; Oeztuerk, M.C.; Christensen, K.N.; Maher, D.M. [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States)

1996-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

78

Hydrothermal Deposition | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Hydrothermal Deposition Hydrothermal Deposition Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Print PDF Hydrothermal Deposition Dictionary.png Hydrothermal Deposition: No definition has been provided for this term. Add a Definition Quartz veins indicate ancient fluid flow, possibly the result of a hydrothermal system (reference: http://www.nvcc.edu/home/cbentley/dc_rocks/) Tufa mounds indicate the location of extinct hot springs. In this photo they show the ancient extent of the surface manifestations at Mono Lake, CA (reference: http://news.medill.northwestern.edu/climatechange/page.aspx?id=170704)(photo by Scott Stine) Hydrothermal water carries minerals as it travels through the crust. These minerals are often deposited as pressure decreases as the fluid approaches

79

TULSA UNIVERSITY PARAFFIN DEPOSITION PROJECTS  

SciTech Connect

As oil and gas production moves to deeper and colder water, subsea multiphase production systems become critical for economic feasibility. It will also become increasingly imperative to adequately identify the conditions for paraffin precipitation and predict paraffin deposition rates to optimize the design and operation of these multiphase production systems. Although several oil companies have paraffin deposition predictive capabilities for single-phase oil flow, these predictive capabilities are not suitable for the multiphase flow conditions encountered in most flowlines and wellbores. For deepwater applications in the Gulf of Mexico, it is likely that multiphase production streams consisting of crude oil, produced water and gas will be transported in a single multiphase pipeline to minimize capital cost and complexity at the mudline. Existing single-phase (crude oil) paraffin deposition predictive tools are clearly inadequate to accurately design these pipelines because they do not account for the second and third phases, namely, produced water and gas. The objective of this program is to utilize the current test facilities at The University of Tulsa, as well as member company expertise, to accomplish the following: enhance our understanding of paraffin deposition in single and two-phase (gas-oil) flows; conduct focused experiments to better understand various aspects of deposition physics; and, utilize knowledge gained from experimental modeling studies to enhance the computer programs developed in the previous JIP for predicting paraffin deposition in single and two-phase flow environments. These refined computer models will then be tested against field data from member company pipelines. The following deliverables are scheduled during the first three projects of the program: (1) Single-Phase Studies, with three different black oils, which will yield an enhanced computer code for predicting paraffin deposition in deepwater and surface pipelines. (2) Two-Phase Studies, with a focus on heat transfer and paraffin deposition at various pipe inclinations, which will be used to enhance the paraffin deposition code for gas-liquid flow in pipes. (3) Deposition Physics and Water Impact Studies, which will address the aging process, improve our ability to characterize paraffin deposits and enhance our understanding of the role water plays in paraffin deposition in deepwater pipelines. As in the previous two studies, knowledge gained in this suite of studies will be integrated into a state-of-the-art three-phase paraffin deposition computer program.

Michael Volk; Cem Sarica

2003-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

80

Application to low-pressure deposition of tungsten  

SciTech Connect

This paper reports on a mode for the simultaneous reaction kinetics and transport processes in chemical vapor deposition (CVD) reactors extended to treat deposition of materials that have a broad range of surface characteristics, e.g. sites with multiple dangling bonds and adsorbates with multiple bonding configurations. The model uses the nature of the surface to determine the elementary processes that can take place during growth. Rate constants for these processes are calculated from first principles using statistical thermodynamics, transition state theory, and bond dissociation enthalpies. In this way, deposition rates are determined without either assuming the reaction mechanism or arbitrarily choosing any kinetic parameter values. The utility of the approach is illustrated by modeling low-pressure CVD of tungsten from tungsten hexafluoride and hydrogen. The treatment considers 14 species and eight reactions in the gas together with 21 species and 65 processes at the surface.

Arora, R.; Pollard, R. (Dept. of Chemical Engineering, Univ. of Houston, Houston, TX (US))

1991-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "deposition growth cxs" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Particle deposition in ventilation ducts  

SciTech Connect

Exposure to airborne particles is detrimental to human health and indoor exposures dominate total exposures for most people. The accidental or intentional release of aerosolized chemical and biological agents within or near a building can lead to exposures of building occupants to hazardous agents and costly building remediation. Particle deposition in heating, ventilation and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems may significantly influence exposures to particles indoors, diminish HVAC performance and lead to secondary pollutant release within buildings. This dissertation advances the understanding of particle behavior in HVAC systems and the fates of indoor particles by means of experiments and modeling. Laboratory experiments were conducted to quantify particle deposition rates in horizontal ventilation ducts using real HVAC materials. Particle deposition experiments were conducted in steel and internally insulated ducts at air speeds typically found in ventilation ducts, 2-9 m/s. Behaviors of monodisperse particles with diameters in the size range 1-16 {micro}m were investigated. Deposition rates were measured in straight ducts with a fully developed turbulent flow profile, straight ducts with a developing turbulent flow profile, in duct bends and at S-connector pieces located at duct junctions. In straight ducts with fully developed turbulence, experiments showed deposition rates to be highest at duct floors, intermediate at duct walls, and lowest at duct ceilings. Deposition rates to a given surface increased with an increase in particle size or air speed. Deposition was much higher in internally insulated ducts than in uninsulated steel ducts. In most cases, deposition in straight ducts with developing turbulence, in duct bends and at S-connectors at duct junctions was higher than in straight ducts with fully developed turbulence. Measured deposition rates were generally higher than predicted by published models. A model incorporating empirical equations based on the experimental measurements was applied to evaluate particle losses in supply and return duct runs. Model results suggest that duct losses are negligible for particle sizes less than 1 {micro}m and complete for particle sizes greater than 50 {micro}m. Deposition to insulated ducts, horizontal duct floors and bends are predicted to control losses in duct systems. When combined with models for HVAC filtration and deposition to indoor surfaces to predict the ultimate fates of particles within buildings, these results suggest that ventilation ducts play only a small role in determining indoor particle concentrations, especially when HVAC filtration is present. However, the measured and modeled particle deposition rates are expected to be important for ventilation system contamination.

Sippola, Mark R.

2002-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

82

Modeling particle deposition on HVAC heat exchangers  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

DEPOSITION ON HVAC HEAT EXCHANGERS JA Siegel 1,3 * and WWof fin-and-tube heat exchangers by particle deposition leadsparticle deposition on heat exchanger surfaces. We present a

Siegel, J.A.; Nazaroff, W.W.

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

83

Seasonalepisodic control of acid deposition  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This report contains the climatological, technical and economic factors for episodic and seasonal control of emissions in existing power plants. Analyzing a large data set of acid deposition for the years 1982-85, we find ...

Fay, James A.

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

84

Linked Deposit Loan Program (Kentucky)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

The Linked Deposit Program provides loan financing for small businesses of up to $100,000 for up to 7 years. The State Investment Commission invests funds from the state's Abandoned Property Cash...

85

Synthesis and characterization of GaN thin films deposited on different substrates using a low-cost electrochemical deposition technique  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Gallium nitride GaN thin films were deposited on three different substrates; Si (111), Si (100) and ITO coated glass using electrochemical deposition technique at 20 Degree-Sign C. A mixture of gallium nitrate, ammonium nitrate was used as electrolyte. The deposited films were investigated at room temperature by a series of material characterization techniques, namely; scanning electron microscopy (SEM), EDX and X-ray diffraction (XRD). SEM images and EDX results indicated that the growth of GaN films varies according to the substrates. XRD analyses showed the presence of hexagonal wurtzite and cubic zinc blende GaN phases with the crystallite size around 18-29 nm.

Al-Heuseen, K.; Hashim, M. R. [Al-Balqa Applied University, Ajloun University College (Jordan); School of Physics, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800-Penang (Malaysia)

2012-09-06T23:59:59.000Z

86

BWR Fuel Deposit Sample Evaluation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

River Bend Nuclear Power Station, a boiling water reactor (BWR) plant, experienced fuel defects during Cycle 11. The failed fuel pins were identified during the subsequent refueling outage. To assist analysis of the fuel failure root cause, crud flake deposit samples were collected for analyses. Results on the morphology and distribution of chemical elements in four tenacious crud flakes that are associated with the fuel failures are reported in EPRI report 1009733, BWR Fuel Deposit Sample Evaluation–Riv...

2005-11-29T23:59:59.000Z

87

Vapor deposition of hardened niobium  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method of coating ceramic nuclear fuel particles containing a major amount of an actinide ceramic in which the particles are placed in a fluidized bed maintained at ca. 800.degree. to ca. 900.degree. C., and niobium pentachloride vapor and carbon tetrachloride vapor are led into the bed, whereby niobium metal is deposited on the particles and carbon is deposited interstitially within the niobium. Coating apparatus used in the method is also disclosed.

Blocher, Jr., John M. (Columbus, OH); Veigel, Neil D. (Columbus, OH); Landrigan, Richard B. (Columbus, OH)

1983-04-19T23:59:59.000Z

88

Chemical enhancement of surface deposition  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method and apparatus are disclosed for increasing the deposition of ions onto a surface, such as the adsorption of uranium ions on the detecting surface of a radionuclide detector. The method includes the step of exposing the surface to a complexing agent, such as a phosphate ion solution, which has an affinity for the dissolved species to be deposited on the surface. This provides, for example, enhanced sensitivity of the radionuclide detector. 16 figs.

Patch, K.D.; Morgan, D.T.

1997-07-29T23:59:59.000Z

89

Chemical enhancement of surface deposition  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method and apparatus for increasing the deposition of ions onto a surface, such as the adsorption of uranium ions on the detecting surface of a radionuclide detector. The method includes the step of exposing the surface to a complexing agent, such as a phosphate ion solution, which has an affinity for the dissolved species to be deposited on the surface. This provides, for example, enhanced sensitivity of the radionuclide detector.

Patch, Keith D. (Lexington, MA); Morgan, Dean T. (Sudbury, MA)

1997-07-29T23:59:59.000Z

90

Aging of reflective roofs: soot deposition  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Aging of reflective roofs: soot deposition Title Aging of reflective roofs: soot deposition Publication Type Journal Article Year of Publication 2002 Authors Berdahl, Paul, Hashem...

91

Quick, Efficient Film Deposition for Nanomaterials - Energy ...  

Electricity Transmission; Energy Analysis; ... • Films can be deposited uniformly in a one-step deposition of nanoparticles with optimized drop distri ...

92

Rocky Mountain carbonate spring deposit development.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Relict Holocene carbonate spring deposits containing diverse biotic and abiotic depositional textures are present at Fall Creek cold sulphur springs, Alberta, Fairmont Hot Springs, British… (more)

Rainey, Dustin

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

93

A Radon Progeny Deposition Model  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The next generation low-background detectors operating underground aim for unprecedented low levels of radioactive backgrounds. Although the radioactive decays of airborne radon (particularly {sup 222}Rn) and its subsequent progeny present in an experiment are potential backgrounds, also problematic is the deposition of radon progeny on detector materials. Exposure to radon at any stage of assembly of an experiment can result in surface contamination by progeny supported by the long half life (22 y) of {sup 210}Pb on sensitive locations of a detector. An understanding of the potential surface contamination from deposition will enable requirements of radon-reduced air and clean room environments for the assembly of low background experiments. It is known that there are a number of environmental factors that govern the deposition of progeny onto surfaces. However, existing models have not explored the impact of some environmental factors important for low background experiments. A test stand has been constructed to deposit radon progeny on various surfaces under a controlled environment in order to develop a deposition model. Results from this test stand and the resulting deposition model are presented.

Guiseppe, V. E. [University of South Dakota, Vermillion, South Dakota 57069 (United States); Elliott, S. R.; Hime, A.; Rielage, K. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Westerdale, S. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States)

2011-04-27T23:59:59.000Z

94

A radon progeny deposition model  

SciTech Connect

The next generation low-background detectors operating underground aim for unprecedented low levels of radioactive backgrounds. Although the radioactive decays of airborne radon (particularly {sup 222}Rn) and its subsequent progeny present in an experiment are potential backgrounds, also problematic is the deposition of radon progeny on detector materials. Exposure to radon at any stage of assembly of an experiment can result in surface contamination by progeny supported by the long half life (22 y) of {sup 210}Pb on sensitive locations of a detector. An understanding of the potential surface contamination from deposition will enable requirements of radon-reduced air and clean room environments for the assembly of low background experiments. It is known that there are a number of environmental factors that govern the deposition of progeny onto surfaces. However, existing models have not explored the impact of some environmental factors important for low background experiments. A test stand has been constructed to deposit radon progeny on various surfaces under a controlled environment in order to develop a deposition model. Results from this test stand and the resulting deposition model are presented.

Rielage, Keith [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Elliott, Steven R [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hime, Andrew [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Guiseppe, Vincent E [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Westerdale, S. [MIT

2010-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

95

Molar Growth  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Molar Growth Molar Growth Name: Daniel Location: N/A Country: N/A Date: N/A Question: What animals have molars that grow continuously ? Replies: No mammals that I or my colleagues are aware of, only some few whose incisors grow continuously. J. Elliott Most vertebrates are "polyphyodonts" meaning that they replace teeth continuously through out their lives. All the teeth aren't replaced at once, but in waves so that the animals always have functional teeth around those that are lost. Most mammals are "diphyodonts", which means that they have only 2 sets of teeth: baby teeth and adult teeth. The teeth of herbivore mammals, those which eat grasses, seem to grow throughout their lives. But really, the teeth are very long and extend far down into the jaws. They gradually move up in the jaw toward the surface over time, with the area beneath them filling in with bone.

96

Published in J. Mat. Sci. Lettr. 18 (1999) 427-430 Selective Patterned Deposition of Diamond using a New Technique  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of centrifugation on diamond deposition. It is generally believed that atomic hydrogen at the growth surface deposition were unsuitable for experiments on a centrifuge. Thus, a new closed chemical vapor transport and removal of gas [4]. Graphite was used as a carbon source in the presence of hydrogen at low pressure

Regel, Liya L.

97

Growth and Characterization of Complex Mineral Surfaces  

SciTech Connect

Precipitation of mineral aggregates near the Earth's surface or in subsurface fractures and cavities often produces complex microstructures and surface morphologies. Here we demonstrate how a simple surface normal growth (SNG) process may produce microstructures and surface morphologies very similar to those observed in some natural carbonate systems. A simple SNG model was used to fit observed surfaces, thus providing information about the growth history and also about the frequency and spatial distribution of nucleation events during growth. The SNG model can be extended to systems in which the symmetry of precipitation is broken, for example by fluid flow. We show how a simple modification of the SNG model in which the local growth rate depends on the distance from a fluid source and the local slope or fluid flow rate, produces growth structures with many similarities to natural travertine deposits.

P. Meakin; E. Jettestuen; B. Jamtveit; Y. Y. Podladchikov; S. deVilliers; H. E. F. Amundsen

2006-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

98

Emissivity Correcting Pyrometry of Semiconductor Growth  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Emissivity Correcting Pyrometry of Semiconductor Growth Emissivity Correcting Pyrometry of Semiconductor Growth by W. G. Breiland, L. A. Bruskas, A. A. Allerman, and T. W. Hargett Motivation-Temperature is a critical factor in the growth of thin films by either chemical vapor deposition (CVD) or molecular beam epitaxy (MBE). It is particularly important in compound semiconductor growth because one is often challenged to grow materials with specific chemical compositions in order to maintain stringent lattice-matching conditions or to achieve specified bandgap values. Optical pyrometry can be used to measure surface temperatures, but the thin film growth causes significant changes in the emissivity of the surface, leading to severe errors in the pyrometer measurement. To avoid these errors, emissivity changes must be measured and

99

Metal film deposition by laser breakdown chemical vapor deposition  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Dielectric breakdown of gas mixtures can be used to deposit homogeneous thin films by chemical vapor deposition with appropriate control of flow and pressure conditions to suppress gas phase nucleation and particle formation. Using a pulsed CO/sub 2/ laser operating at 10.6 microns where there is no significant resonant absorption in any of the source gases, we have succeeded in depositing homogeneous films from several gas phase precursors by gas phase laser pyrolysis. Nickel and molybdenum from the respective carbonyls and tungsten from the hexafluoride have been examined to date. In each case the gas precursor is buffered to reduce the partial pressure of the reactants and to induce breakdown. The films are spectrally reflective and uniform over a large area. Films have been characterized by Auger electron spectroscopy, x-ray diffraction, pull tests, and resistivity measurements. The highest quality films have resulted from the nickel depositions. Detailed x-ray diffraction analysis of these films yields a very small domain size (approx. 50 A) consistent with rapid quenching from the gas phase reaction zone. This analysis also shows nickel carbide formation consistent with the temperature of the reaction zone and the Auger electron spectroscopy results which show some carbon and oxygen incorporation (8% and 1% respectively). Gas phase transport and condensation of the molybdenum carbonyl results in substantial carbon and oxygen contamination of the molybdenum films requiring heated substrates, a requirement not consistent with the goals of the program to maximize the quench rate of the deposition. Results from tungsten deposition experiments representing a reduction chemistry instead of the decomposition chemistry involved in the carbonyl experiments are also reported.

Jervis, T.R.

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

100

TULSA UNIVERSITY PARAFFIN DEPOSITION PROJECTS  

SciTech Connect

As oil and gas production moves to deeper and colder water, subsea multiphase production systems become critical for economic feasibility. It will also become increasingly imperative to adequately identify the conditions for paraffin precipitation and predict paraffin deposition rates to optimize the design and operation of these multi-phase production systems. Although several oil companies have paraffin deposition predictive capabilities for single-phase oil flow, these predictive capabilities are not suitable for the multiphase flow conditions encountered in most flowlines and wellbores. For deepwater applications in the Gulf of Mexico, it is likely that multiphase production streams consisting of crude oil, produced water and gas will be transported in a single multiphase pipeline to minimize capital cost and complexity at the mudline. Existing single-phase (crude oil) paraffin deposition predictive tools are clearly inadequate to accurately design these pipelines, because they do not account for the second and third phases, namely, produced water and gas. The objective of this program is to utilize the current test facilities at The University of Tulsa, as well as member company expertise, to accomplish the following: enhance our understanding of paraffin deposition in single and two-phase (gas-oil) flows; conduct focused experiments to better understand various aspects of deposition physics; and, utilize knowledge gained from experimental modeling studies to enhance the computer programs developed in the previous JIP for predicting paraffin deposition in single and two-phase flow environments. These refined computer models will then be tested against field data from member company pipelines.

Cem Sarica; Michael Volk

2004-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "deposition growth cxs" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Eyeball Growth  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Eyeball Growth Eyeball Growth Name: Jade Hawk Status: N/A Age: N/A Location: N/A Country: N/A Date: N/A Question: Okay, I know I'm supposed to be able to answer questions here, but a friend who teaches grades 7 & 8 general science wants to know if the human eyeball is fully grown at birth. I checked my references, which are rather limited when it comes to human physiology, and found nothing. Can anyone help? Replies: The eye will still develop in size, pigmentation, and neurologically but I don't have the details here at hand. A kitten is born with eyes even more immature than human babies. Besides having sealed eyes that take about a week to open, they have retinas that a avascularized and need to undergo neovascularization to properly nourish and oxygenate the tissue. We have used the kitten to study retinopathy of prematurity, a condition caused in part by increased inspired oxygen. The kitten is also used in the study of diabetic retinopathy which a I think is the leading cause of blindness in the US. Look up publications by Dale Phelps, MD.

102

Chemical vapor deposition of amorphous semiconductor films. Semiannual report, 1 May 1984-31 October 1984  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report describes the results of research done by the Institute of Energy Conversion for the Solar Energy Research Institute in 1984 on high-efficiency, stable, amorphous silicon solar cells, fabricated by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) from disilane at high growth rates. The kinetics of CVD with higher order silanes were modelled for a tubular reactor with static substrates. A gas-phase reaction network was adopted, based on published silylene insertion and decomposition pathways. Mass balances for hydrogen and all saturated silanes through octasilane were derived. Boron-doped a-Si:H p-layers were deposited by CVD at 200/sup 0/ to 250/sup 0/C. Band gap and conductivity depended strongly on the diborane fraction in the feed gas, independent of substrate temperature. The effects of intrinsic layer deposition temperature and growth rate on material properties and device performance were studied. Cell parameters of p-i-n cells were correlated with i-layer deposition temperature and growth rate. Fill factor and short-circuit current depended on deposition conditions, while open-circuit voltage did not. Effects of diborane additions to the feed gas during i-layer deposition were studied. Experimental evidence and calculations indicate high resistance at the back contact.

Baron, B.N.; Rocheleau, R.E.; Hegedus, S.S.

1985-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

103

Pulsed-Laser Deposition of Electronic Oxides: Superconductor and Semiconductor Applications  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Over the past decade, pulsed-laser deposition (PLD) has proven to be one of the most versatile and effective methods for obtaining high-quality electronic oxide thin-film materials. Much of this success can be attributed to its initial use in depositing high temperature superconducting materials. However, pulsed-laser deposition is now a leading research tool in the development of various electronic oxide thin-film technologies, In this paper, recent progress in the deposition of oxide materials on dissimilar materials for both superconductor and semiconductor applications is discussed. Recent developments in the synthesis of superconducting wires via epitaxial growth of superconducting oxides on biaxially textured metal tapes is described. In addition, efforts to integrate high-k dielectric oxides on semiconductor surfaces using pulsed-laser deposition are highlighted.

Norton, D.P.; Park, C.; Lee, Y.E.; Budai, J.D.; Chisholm, M.F.; Verebelyi, D.T.; Christen, D.K.; Kroeger, D.M.

2000-01-24T23:59:59.000Z

104

Reducing dislocations in semiconductors utilizing repeated thermal cycling during multistage epitaxial growth  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Dislocation densities are reduced in growing semiconductors from the vapor phase by employing a technique of interrupting growth, cooling the layer so far deposited, and then repeating the process until a high quality active top layer is achieved. The method of interrupted growth, coupled with thermal cycling, permits dislocations to be trapped in the initial stages of epitaxial growth.

Fan, John C. C. (Chestnut Hill, MA); Tsaur, Bor-Yeu (Arlington, MA); Gale, Ronald P. (Bedford, MA); Davis, Frances M. (Framingham, MA)

1992-02-25T23:59:59.000Z

105

Reducing dislocations in semiconductors utilizing repeated thermal cycling during multistage epitaxial growth  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Dislocation densities are reduced in growing semiconductors from the vapor phase by employing a technique of interrupting growth, cooling the layer so far deposited, and then repeating the process until a high quality active top layer is achieved. The method of interrupted growth, coupled with thermal cycling, permits dislocations to be trapped in the initial stages of epitaxial growth.

Fan, John C. C. (Chestnut Hill, MA); Tsaur, Bor-Yeu (Arlington, MA); Gale, Ronald P. (Bedford, MA); Davis, Frances M. (Framingham, MA)

1986-12-30T23:59:59.000Z

106

Photoluminescence in Chemical Vapor Deposited ZnS: insight into electronic defects  

SciTech Connect

Photoluminescence spectra taken from chemical vapor deposited (CVD) ZnS are shown to exhibit sub-band-gap emission bands characteristic of isoelectronic oxygen defects. The emission spectra vary spatially with position and orientation with respect to the major axis of CVD growth. These data suggest that a complex set of defects exist in the band gap of CVD ZnS whose structural nature is highly dependent upon local deposition and growth conditions, contributing to inherent heterogeneity in optical behavior throughout the material.

McCloy, John S.; Potter, B.g.

2013-08-09T23:59:59.000Z

107

Evolution of Turbine Blade Deposits in an Accelerated Deposition Facility: Roughness and Thermal Analysis.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??During the operation of a gas turbine, ingested contaminants present in the air form deposits on the surfaces of the turbine blades. These deposits grow… (more)

Wammack, James Edward 1979-

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

108

Cadmium zinc sulfide by solution growth  

SciTech Connect

A process for depositing thin layers of a II-VI compound cadmium zinc sulfide (CdZnS) by an aqueous solution growth technique with quality suitable for high efficiency photovoltaic or other devices which can benefit from the band edge shift resulting from the inclusion of Zn in the sulfide. A first solution comprising CdCl.sub.2 2.5H.sub.2 O, NH.sub.4 Cl, NH.sub.4 OH and ZnCl.sub.2, and a second solution comprising thiourea ((NH.sub.2).sub.2 CS) are combined and placed in a deposition cell, along with a substrate to form a thin i.e. 10 nm film of CdZnS on the substrate. This process can be sequentially repeated with to achieve deposition of independent multiple layers having different Zn concentrations.

Chen, Wen S. (Seattle, WA)

1992-05-12T23:59:59.000Z

109

Chemical vapor deposition of amorphous silicon films from disilane  

SciTech Connect

Amorphous silicon films for fabrication of solar cells have been deposited by thermal chemical vapor deposition (CVD) from disilane (Si/sub 2/H/sub 6/) using a tubular flow reactor. A mathematical description for the CVD reactor was developed and solved by a numerical procedure. The proposed chemical reaction network for the model is based on silylene (SiH/sub 2/) insertion in the gas phase and film growth from SiH/sub 2/ and silicon polymers (Si/sub n/N/sub 2n/, n approx. 10). Estimates of the rate constants have been obtained for trisilane decomposition, silicon polymer formation, and polymer dehydrogenation. The silane unimolecular decomposition rate constants were corrected for pressure effects. The model behavior is compared to the experimental results over the range of conditions: reactor temperature (360 to 485/sup 0/C), pressures (2 to 48 torr), and gas holding time (1 to 70 s). Within the above range of conditions, film growth rate varies from 0.01 to 30 A/s. Results indicate that silicon polymers are the main film precursors for gas holding times greater than 3 s. Film growth by silylene only becomes important at short holding times, large inert gas dilution, and positions near the beginning of the reactor hot zone.

Bogaert, R.J.

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

110

Electron Microscopy Study of Tin Whisker Growth  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The growth of tin whiskers formed on sputtered tin layers deposited on brass was studied using electron microscopy. The occurrence of whiskers appeared to be largely independent of the macroscopic stress state in the film; rather it was microscopic compressive stresses arising from the formation of an intermetallic phase that appeared to be the necessary precursor. Whisker morphology was a result of whether nucleation had occurred on single grains or on multiple grains. In the latter case, the whiskers had a fluted or striated surface. The formation of whiskers on electron transparent samples was demonstrated. These samples showed the whiskers were monocrystalline and defect free, and that the growth direction could be determined.

Norton, Murray G. (Washington State University); Lebret, Joel (8392)

2003-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

111

Deposition  

National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

as far 4 as nuclear power, the vast majority of those items that 5 are in a nuclear power plant that Commerce controls 6 have very limited licensing requirements. 7 Commerce also...

112

Chemical vapor depositing of metal fluorides  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

High Purity BeF2 and BeF2–AlF3glasses have been deposited by the chemical vapor deposition technique using beryllium and aluminum 1

A. Sarhangi; J. M. Power

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

113

Chemical vapor deposition of functionalized isobenzofuran polymers  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This thesis develops a platform for deposition of polymer thin films that can be further tailored by chemical surface modification. First, we explore chemical vapor deposition of functionalized isobenzofuran films using ...

Olsson, Ylva Kristina

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

114

Modeling deposit formation in diesel injector nozzle  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Formation of deposit in the diesel injector nozzle affects the injection behavior and hinders performance. Under running condition, deposit precursors are washed away by the ensuing injection. However, during the cool down ...

Sudhiesh Kumar, Chintoo

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

115

Conductive layer for biaxially oriented semiconductor film growth  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A conductive layer for biaxially oriented semiconductor film growth and a thin film semiconductor structure such as, for example, a photodetector, a photovoltaic cell, or a light emitting diode (LED) that includes a crystallographically oriented semiconducting film disposed on the conductive layer. The thin film semiconductor structure includes: a substrate; a first electrode deposited on the substrate; and a semiconducting layer epitaxially deposited on the first electrode. The first electrode includes a template layer deposited on the substrate and a buffer layer epitaxially deposited on the template layer. The template layer includes a first metal nitride that is electrically conductive and has a rock salt crystal structure, and the buffer layer includes a second metal nitride that is electrically conductive. The semiconducting layer is epitaxially deposited on the buffer layer. A method of making such a thin film semiconductor structure is also described.

Findikoglu, Alp T. (Los Alamos, NM); Matias, Vladimir (Santa Fe, NM)

2007-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

116

LOW PRESSURE CHEMICAL VAPOR DEPOSITION OF POLYSILICON  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

THEORY The mass transport processes in low pressure chemical vapor deposition (LPCVD) are similar to those occuring in catalytic reactors

Gieske, R.J.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

117

Guidelines for Turbine Deposit Collection and Analysis  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Steam impurities can deposit throughout the steam path, causing a variety of performance issues. Deposits can result in efficiency losses and component failures through stress corrosion cracking (SCC) or corrosion fatigue (CF) initiated by corrosive deposits. The potential for each of these mechanisms can be exacerbated by the reduced frequency of turbine overhauls or opportunities to conduct an inspection. Sampling and deposit analysis is an integral part of a steam path audit, as well as a reflection o...

2011-12-14T23:59:59.000Z

118

Texture of atomic layer deposited ruthenium  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Ruthenium films were grown by plasma enhanced atomic layer deposition (ALD) on Si(100) and ALD TiN. X-ray diffraction (XRD) showed that the as-deposited films on Si(100) were polycrystalline, on TiN they were (002) oriented. After annealing at 800^oC ... Keywords: Ammonia plasma, Atomic layer deposition, Ruthenium, Silicide, Texture

J. Musschoot; Q. Xie; D. Deduytsche; K. De Keyser; D. Longrie; J. Haemers; S. Van den Berghe; R. L. Van Meirhaeghe; J. D'Haen; C. Detavernier

2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

119

Radiative Impacts on the Growth of Drops within Simulated Marine Stratocumulus. Part I: Maximum Solar Heating  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The effects of solar heating and infrared cooling on the vapor depositional growth of cloud drops, and hence the potential for collection enhancement, is investigated. Large eddy simulation (LES) of marine stratocumulus is used to generate 600 ...

Christopher M. Hartman; Jerry Y. Harrington

2005-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

120

A study of InP nanowires : growth, material properties, and application in optoelectronics  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

on Sapphire, so growth on indium oxide should not be muchthe NWs onto an electrode (indium tin oxide), the problem ofis deposited onto an indium tin oxide (ITO)-coated glass

Novotny, Clint Joseph

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "deposition growth cxs" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

MOCVD growth of In GaP-based heterostructures for light emitting devices  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this work, we examine fundamental materials processes in the growth of indium gallium phosphide (InGaP) via metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD). In particular, we realize improvements in the epitaxial integration ...

McGill, Lisa Megan, 1975-

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

122

Codeposition on hot CVD surfaces: Particle dynamics and deposit roughness interactions  

SciTech Connect

To capture in a tractable manner essential coupling effects in CVD systems when particles generated in thermal boundary layers also deposit, a film theory was developed that predicts simultaneous vapor and particle deposition rates at a hot deposition surface. The codeposition rate prediction method also calculates for the first time the corresponding solid deposit roughness using recently published results of particle-level simulations. For the numerical illustrations, the growth of TiO{sub 2}(s) films by the codeposition of titanium tetra-isopropoxide vapor and film-nucleated/grown TiO{sub 2} particles (generated in the thermal boundary layer) was considered. Experimental rate data for this system are available. The continuum and particle-level simulation methods provide: the interplay of vapor precursor kinetics, particle nucleation, growth, coagulation and diffusion in determining the complex ``structure`` of such multiphase chemically reacting boundary layers; wall deposition rates of both surviving vapors and film-nucleated particles; and the ``self-consistent`` microstructure (surface roughness) of the resulting solid deposit. Timely and tractable generalizations are discussed in the light of recent results for the transport properties and stability of ``fractal-like`` aggregated particles.

Tandon, P.; Rosner, D.E. [Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States)

1996-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

123

Densification of functional plasma polymers by momentum transfer during film growth  

SciTech Connect

Functional plasma polymers were deposited from pure ethylene discharges and with the addition of carbon dioxide or ammonia. The incorporation of oxygen and nitrogen-containing functional groups depends on the fragmentation in the gas phase as well as on the densification during film growth. While a minimum energy per deposited carbon atom is required for cross-linking, the densification and accompanying reduction of functional group incorporation was found to scale linearly with momentum transfer through ion bombardment during film growth.

Hegemann, Dirk; Koerner, Enrico; Blanchard, Noemi; Drabik, Martin; Guimond, Sebastien [Empa, Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology, Lerchenfeldstrasse 5, 9014 St. Gallen (Switzerland)

2012-11-19T23:59:59.000Z

124

Creep Crack Growth  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Table 3   Creep crack growth constants b and m for various ferritic steels...and Banerji, â??Creep Crack Growth Behavior

125

Florida Growth Fund (Florida)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

The Florida Growth Fund can provide investments in technology and growth-related companies through co-investments with other institutional investors. The Fund awards preference to companies...

126

Regional companies eye growth  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Regional companies eye growth Regional companies eye growth Adaptive Radio Technologies, Los Alamos Visualization Associates, Mesa Tech International Inc., and ThermaSun Inc. were...

127

DOE Workshop - Deposition Velocity Status  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Delivering DOE's Vision for the Delivering DOE's Vision for the East Tennessee Technology Park Mission Safely Delivering the Department of Energy's Vision for the East Tennessee Technology Park Mission DOE Workshop Deposition Velocity Status Mike Hitchler, Manager Nuclear Facility Safety June 5, 2012 Safely Delivering DOE's Vision for the East Tennessee Technology Park Mission Existing UCOR Analyses * UCOR facilities at East Tennessee Technology Park (ETTP) and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) use various plume models depending on when they were developed and by whom. - Some use MACCS or MACCS2 for dispersion evaluation. (~5 locations) - LLLW uses ingestion modeling (multiple locations)

128

Hybrid deposition of thin film solid oxide fuel cells and electrolyzers  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The use of vapor deposition techniques enables synthesis of the basic components of a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC); namely, the electrolyte layer, the two electrodes, and the electrolyte-electrode interfaces. Such vapor deposition techniques provide solutions to each of the three critical steps of material synthesis to produce a thin film solid oxide fuel cell (TFSOFC). The electrolyte is formed by reactive deposition of essentially any ion conducting oxide, such as defect free, yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) by planar magnetron sputtering. The electrodes are formed from ceramic powders sputter coated with an appropriate metal and sintered to a porous compact. The electrolyte-electrode interface is formed by chemical vapor deposition of zirconia compounds onto the porous electrodes to provide a dense, smooth surface on which to continue the growth of the defect-free electrolyte, whereby a single fuel cell or multiple cells may be fabricated. 8 figs.

Jankowski, A.F.; Makowiecki, D.M.; Rambach, G.D.; Randich, E.

1998-05-19T23:59:59.000Z

129

Hybrid deposition of thin film solid oxide fuel cells and electrolyzers  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The use of vapor deposition techniques enables synthesis of the basic components of a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC); namely, the electrolyte layer, the two electrodes, and the electrolyte-electrode interfaces. Such vapor deposition techniques provide solutions to each of the three critical steps of material synthesis to produce a thin film solid oxide fuel cell (TFSOFC). The electrolyte is formed by reactive deposition of essentially any ion conducting oxide, such as defect free, yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) by planar magnetron sputtering. The electrodes are formed from ceramic powders sputter coated with an appropriate metal and sintered to a porous compact. The electrolyte-electrode interface is formed by chemical vapor deposition of zirconia compounds onto the porous electrodes to provide a dense, smooth surface on which to continue the growth of the defect-free electrolyte, whereby a single fuel cell or multiple cells may be fabricated.

Jankowski, Alan F. (Livermore, CA); Makowiecki, Daniel M. (Livermore, CA); Rambach, Glenn D. (Livermore, CA); Randich, Erik (Endinboro, PA)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

130

Hybrid deposition of thin film solid oxide fuel cells and electrolyzers  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The use of vapor deposition techniques enables synthesis of the basic components of a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC); namely, the electrolyte layer, the two electrodes, and the electrolyte-electrode interfaces. Such vapor deposition techniques provide solutions to each of the three critical steps of material synthesis to produce a thin film solid oxide fuel cell (TFSOFC). The electrolyte is formed by reactive deposition of essentially any ion conducting oxide, such as defect free, yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) by planar magnetron sputtering. The electrodes are formed from ceramic powders sputter coated with an appropriate metal and sintered to a porous compact. The electrolyte-electrode interface is formed by chemical vapor deposition of zirconia compounds onto the porous electrodes to provide a dense, smooth surface on which to continue the growth of the defect-free electrolyte, whereby a single fuel cell or multiple cells may be fabricated.

Jankowski, Alan F. (Livermore, CA); Makowiecki, Daniel M. (Livermore, CA); Rambach, Glenn D. (Livermore, CA); Randich, Erik (Endinboro, PA)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

131

Growth and Characterization of Epitaxial Oxide Thin Films  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of these morphological changes was found to be dependent on a number of factors including deposition rates, flux and energy of bombarding ions, and the average angle of incidence of Glow Discharge Glow Discharge -V (DC) Cathode (Target) Insulation Substrates Anode Vacuum... techniques such as reflected high energy electron diffraction (RHEED) and low energy electron diffraction (LEED) can give valuable information about the initial growth mechanisms and surface structure of the very thin films during growth in an in-situ manner...

Garg, Ashish

132

Exhaust Gas Recirculation Cooler Fouling in Diesel Applications: Fundamental Studies Deposit Properties and Microstructure  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper reports on the results of experimental efforts aimed at improving the understanding of the mechanisms and conditions at play in the fouling of EGR coolers. An experimental apparatus was constructed to utilize simplified surrogate heat exchanger tubes in lieu of full-size heat exchangers. The use of these surrogate tubes allowed removal of the tubes after exposure to engine exhaust for study of the deposit layer and its properties. The exhaust used for fouling the surrogate tubes was produced using a modern medium-duty diesel engine fueled with both ultra-low sulfur diesel and biodiesel blends. At long exposure times, no significant difference in the fouling rate was observed between fuel types and HC levels. Surface coatings for the tubes were also evaluated to determine their impact on deposit growth. No surface treatment or coating produced a reduction in the fouling rate or any evidence of deposit removal. In addition, microstructural analysis of the fouling layers was performed using optical and electron microscopy in order to better understand the deposition mechanism. The experimental results are consistent with thermophoretic deposition for deposit formation, and van der Waals attraction between the deposit surface and exhaust-borne particulate.

Storey, John Morse [ORNL; Sluder, Scott [ORNL; Lance, Michael J [ORNL; Styles, Dan [Ford Motor Company; Simko, Steve [Ford Motor Company

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

133

Electrochemical Solution Growth  

chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) technology. The ions are delivered to a rotating seed crystal surface by way of the fluid dynamics imposed by

134

Chemical Vapor Deposition of Silicon Carbide Epitaxial Films and their Characterization  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A chemical vapor deposition (CVD) system was designed and fabricated in our laboratory and SiC homo-epitaxial layers were grown in the CVD process using silicon tetrachloride and propane precursors with hydrogen as a carrier gas. The temperature field was generated using numerical modeling. Gas flow rates, temperature field, and the gradients are found to influence the growth rates of the epitaxial layers. Growth rates were found to increase as the temperature increased at high carrier gas flow rate, while at lower carrier gas flow rate, growth rates were observed to decrease as the temperature increased. Based on the equilibrium model, 'thermodynamically controlled growth' accounts for the growth rate reduction. The grown epitaxial layers were characterized using various techniques. Reduction in the threading screw dislocation (SD) density in the epilayers was observed. Suitable models were developed for explaining the reduction in the SD density as well as the conversion of basal plane dislocations (BPDs) into threading edge dislocations (TEDs).

Dhanaraj,G.; Chen, Y.; Dudley, M.; Cai, D.; Zhang, H.

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

135

Effects of catalyst pretreatment for carbon nanotube growth  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The effects of pretreatment of iron catalyst for carbon nanotube (CNT) growth was studied. CNTs were grown on Fe/A1203 (1/10 nm) thin-film catalyst deposited on silicon substrates via exposure to C2H4 in a thermal chemical ...

Morgan, Caitlin D

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

136

Effect of Electronic Excitation on Thin Film Growth  

SciTech Connect

The effect of nanosecond pulsed laser excitation on surface diffusion during growth of Ge on Si(100) at 250 degrees C was studied. In Situ reflection high-energy electron diffraction (RHEED) was used to measure the surface diffusion coefficient while ex situ atomic force microscopy (AFM) was used to probe the structure and morphology of the grown quantum dots. The results show that laser excitation of the substrate increases the surface diffusion during growth of Ge on Si(100), changes the growth morphology, improves crystalline structure of the grown quantum dots, and decreases their size distribution. A purely electronic mechanism of enhanced surface diffusion of the deposited Ge is proposed. Ge quantum dots were grown on Si(100)-(2x1) by pulsed laser deposition at various substrate temperatures using a femtosecond Ti:sapphire laser. In-situ reflection high-energy electron diffraction and ex-situ atomic force microscopy were used to analyze the fim structure and morphology. The morphology of germanium islands on silicon was studied at differect coverages. The results show that femtosecond pulsed laser depositon reduces the minimum temperature for epitaxial growth of Ge quantum dots to ~280 degrees C, which is 120 degrees C lower then previously observed in nanosecond pulsed laser deposition and more than 200 degrees C lower than that reported for molecular beam epitaxy and chemical vapor deposition.

Elsayed-Ali, Hani E. [Old Dominion University

2011-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

137

DETERMINATION OF DEPOSITION RATES FOR COOKING ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... All calculations of deposition rates were made after ... the in- duct electrostatic precipitator increased the ... (1985) measured the performance of several ...

2005-10-07T23:59:59.000Z

138

Available Technologies: Super High Rate Sputter Deposition  

Andre’ Anders of Berkeley Lab has developed a very high deposition rate magnetron sputtering wherein the surface of a target and the race track zone area of the ...

139

Fundamentals of Electrochemical Deposition, Second Edition - TMS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Jul 25, 2007 ... Fundamentals of Electrochemical Deposition, 2nd Edition by Milan Paunovic and Mordechay Schlesinger provides a ... This is not a handbook.

140

Predicting particle deposition on HVAC heat exchangers  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

gas-side of finned tube heat- exchangers. Journal of Heatsurface interactions in heat exchanger fouling. Journal ofParticle Deposition on Heat Exchangers Epstein, N. , 1988.

Siegel, J A; Nazaroff, William W

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "deposition growth cxs" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

"Invisible" Archaeological Deposits at Small Milling Sites  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Deposits at Small Milling Sites ROBERT E. PARR and MARK Q.architechire, bedrock milling features, soil colorlithic scatters or bedrock milling stations), it appears

Parr, Robert E.; Sutton, Mark Q.

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

142

A theoretical investigation of gas source growth of the Si(001) surface  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

such as disilane is technologically important, as well as scientifically interesting. The aspects of growth covered of silicon from adsorption of fragments of disilane to nucleation of dimer strings. The theoretical methods. The behaviour of hydrogen is vital to understanding growth, as large amounts are deposited during disilane

Bowler, David

143

Optical Properties of Zn(O,S) Thin Films Deposited by RF Sputtering, Atomic Layer Deposition, and Chemical Bath Deposition: Preprint  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Zn(O,S) thin films 27 - 100 nm thick were deposited on glass or Cu(InxGa1-x)Se2/Molybdenum/glass with RF sputtering, atomic layer deposition, and chemical bath deposition.

Li, J.; Glynn, S.; Christensen, S.; Mann, J.; To, B.; Ramanathan, K.; Noufi, R.; Furtak, T. E.; Levi, D.

2012-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

144

MODELING PARTICLE DEPOSITION ON HVAC HEAT EXCHANGERS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

LBNL-49339 MODELING PARTICLE DEPOSITION ON HVAC HEAT EXCHANGERS J.A. Siegel1,3 * and W.W. Nazaroff2 Department of Energy under contract DE-AC03-76SF00098. #12;MODELING PARTICLE DEPOSITION ON HVAC HEAT, such as discontinuities in the fins, are hypothesized to be responsible for the discrepancy. INDEX TERMS HVAC, Fouling

145

Ammonia release method for depositing metal oxides  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method of depositing metal oxides on substrates which is indifferent to the electrochemical properties of the substrates and which comprises forming ammine complexes containing metal ions and thereafter effecting removal of ammonia from the ammine complexes so as to permit slow precipitation and deposition of metal oxide on the substrates.

Silver, G.L.; Martin, F.S.

1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

146

Particle Deposition in Granular Media. Final report  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Objective is to understand aerosol deposition from gas streams flowing through granular media; this is important to the design of granular filtration systems. The following investigations were carried out: transient behavior of granular filtration of aerosols, and stochastic simulation of aerosol deposition in granular media.

Tien, C.

1992-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

147

Focused helium ion beam milling and deposition  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The use of a helium ion microscope with an integrated gas injection system for nanofabrication is explored by demonstrating the milling of fine features into single layered graphene and the controlled deposition of tungsten and platinum wires from gaseous ... Keywords: Beam-induced deposition, Focused ion beam, Gas injection system, Graphene, Helium ion microscope

S. A. Boden; Z. Moktadir; D. M. Bagnall; H. Mizuta; H. N. Rutt

2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

148

Ash Deposit Physical and Chemical Analysis  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report focuses on identifying ash deposit materials and mounting them to a heat transfer surface for further study. A group of synthetic slag of various compositions was also produced using a sodium silicate binder, Powder River Basin (PRB) bottom ash, and ash cenospheres for porosity to test the effects of pulse detonation techniques on the removal of ash deposits.

2010-12-17T23:59:59.000Z

149

Plasma deposited rider rings for hot displacer  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A hot cylinder for a cryogenic refrigerator having two plasma spray deposited rider rings of a corrosion and abrasion resistant material provided in the rider ring grooves, wherein the rider rings are machined to the desired diameter and width after deposition. The rider rings have gas flow flats machined on their outer surface.

Kroebig, Helmut L. (Rolling Hills, CA)

1976-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

150

Chemical vapor deposition of mullite coatings  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This invention is directed to the creation of crystalline mullite coatings having uniform microstructure by chemical vapor deposition (CVD). The process comprises the steps of establishing a flow of reactants which will yield mullite in a CVD reactor, and depositing a crystalline coating from the reactant flow. The process will yield crystalline coatings which are dense and of uniform thickness.

Sarin, Vinod (Lexington, MA); Mulpuri, Rao (Boston, MA)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

151

Time Resolved Deposition Measurements in NSTX  

SciTech Connect

Time-resolved measurements of deposition in current tokamaks are crucial to gain a predictive understanding of deposition with a view to mitigating tritium retention and deposition on diagnostic mirrors expected in next-step devices. Two quartz crystal microbalances have been installed on NSTX at a location 0.77m outside the last closed flux surface. This configuration mimics a typical diagnostic window or mirror. The deposits were analyzed ex-situ and found to be dominantly carbon, oxygen, and deuterium. A rear facing quartz crystal recorded deposition of lower sticking probability molecules at 10% of the rate of the front facing one. Time resolved measurements over a 4-week period with 497 discharges, recorded 29.2 {micro}g/cm{sup 2} of deposition, however surprisingly, 15.9 {micro}g/cm{sup 2} of material loss occurred at 7 discharges. The net deposited mass of 13.3 {micro}g/cm{sup 2} matched the mass of 13.5 {micro}g/cm{sup 2} measured independently by ion beam analysis. Monte Carlo modeling suggests that transient processes are likely to dominate the deposition.

C.H. Skinner; H. Kugel; A.L. Roquemore; J. Hogan; W.R. Wampler; the NSTX team

2004-08-03T23:59:59.000Z

152

Improved Formulations for Air-Surface Exchanges Related to National Security Needs: Dry Deposition Models  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Department of Homeland Security and others rely on results from atmospheric dispersion models for threat evaluation, event management, and post-event analyses. The ability to simulate dry deposition rates is a crucial part of our emergency preparedness capabilities. Deposited materials pose potential hazards from radioactive shine, inhalation, and ingestion pathways. A reliable characterization of these potential exposures is critical for management and mitigation of these hazards. A review of the current status of dry deposition formulations used in these atmospheric dispersion models was conducted. The formulations for dry deposition of particulate materials from am event such as a radiological attack involving a Radiological Detonation Device (RDD) is considered. The results of this effort are applicable to current emergency preparedness capabilities such as are deployed in the Interagency Modeling and Atmospheric Assessment Center (IMAAC), other similar national/regional emergency response systems, and standalone emergency response models. The review concludes that dry deposition formulations need to consider the full range of particle sizes including: 1) the accumulation mode range (0.1 to 1 micron diameter) and its minimum in deposition velocity, 2) smaller particles (less than .01 micron diameter) deposited mainly by molecular diffusion, 3) 10 to 50 micron diameter particles deposited mainly by impaction and gravitational settling, and 4) larger particles (greater than 100 micron diameter) deposited mainly by gravitational settling. The effects of the local turbulence intensity, particle characteristics, and surface element properties must also be addressed in the formulations. Specific areas for improvements in the dry deposition formulations are 1) capability of simulating near-field dry deposition patterns, 2) capability of addressing the full range of potential particle properties, 3) incorporation of particle surface retention/rebound processes, and. 4) development of dry deposition formulations applicable to urban areas. Also to improve dry deposition modeling capabilities, atmospheric dispersion models in which the dry deposition formulations are imbedded need better source-term plume initialization and improved in-plume treatment of particle growth processes. Dry deposition formulations used in current models are largely inapplicable to the complex urban environment. An improved capability is urgently needed to provide surface-specific information to assess local exposure hazard levels in both urban and non-urban areas on roads, buildings, crops, rivers, etc. A model improvement plan is developed with a near-term and far-term component. Despite some conceptual limitations, the current formulations for particle deposition based on a resistance approach have proven to provide reasonable dry deposition simulations. For many models with inadequate dry deposition formulations, adding or improving a resistance approach will be the desirable near-term update. Resistance models however are inapplicable aerodynamically very rough surfaces such as urban areas. In the longer term an improved parameterization of dry deposition needs to be developed that will be applicable to all surfaces, and in particular urban surfaces.

Droppo, James G.

2006-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

153

Hail Growth Hysteresis  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The transition between wet and dry growth for graupel and hail is examined, and new figures are presented illustrating the critical water contents necessary for transitions into or out of the wet-growth regime. These figures are extended to ...

David B. Johnson; Roy M. Rasmussen

1992-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

154

Quantification of particle deposition in asymmetrical tracheobronchial model geometry  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The primary objective of this study was to quantify the local inspiratory and expiratory aerosol deposition in a highly asymmetric five-generation tracheobronchial tree. User-enhanced commercial codes and self-developed software was used to compute the ... Keywords: Airflow, Central airways, Computational fluid and particle dynamics, Deposition efficiency, Deposition enhancement factor, Deposition fraction, Particle deposition patterns

Árpád Farkas; Imre Balásházy

2008-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

155

Atomistic Film Growth  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

...(AES) Low-energy electron diffraction (LEED) Reflection high-energy electron diffraction (RHEED) Work function change as a function of mass deposited Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) Scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) ( Ref 16 ) Atomic force microscopy (AFM) Photon tunneling microscopy...

156

Apparatus for gas-metal arc deposition  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Apparatus for gas-metal arc deposition of metal, metal alloys, and metal matrix composites. The apparatus contains an arc chamber for confining a D.C. electrical arc discharge, the arc chamber containing an outlet orifice in fluid communication with a deposition chamber having a deposition opening in alignment with the orifice for depositing metal droplets on a coatable substrate. Metal wire is passed continuously into the arc chamber in alignment with the orifice. Electric arcing between the metal wire anode and the orifice cathode produces droplets of molten metal from the wire which pass through the orifice and into the deposition chamber for coating a substrate exposed at the deposition opening. When producing metal matrix composites, a suspenion of particulates in an inert gas enters the deposition chamber via a plurality of feed openings below and around the orifice so that reinforcing particulates join the metal droplets to produce a uniform mixture which then coats the exposed substrate with a uniform metal matrix composite.

Buhrmaster, Carol L. (Corning, NY); Clark, Denis E. (Idaho Falls, ID); Smartt, Herschel B. (Idaho Falls, ID)

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

157

Method for gas-metal arc deposition  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Method and apparatus for gas-metal arc deposition of metal, metal alloys, and metal matrix composites. The apparatus contains an arc chamber for confining a D.C. electrical arc discharge, the arc chamber containing an outlet orifice in fluid communication with a deposition chamber having a deposition opening in alignment wiht the orifice for depositing metal droplets on a coatable substrate. Metal wire is passed continuously into the arc chamber in alignment with the orifice. Electric arcing between the metal wire anode and the orifice cathode produces droplets of molten metal from the wire which pass through the orifice and into the deposition chamber for coating a substrate exposed at the deposition opening. When producing metal matrix composites, a suspension of particulates in an inert gas enters the deposition chamber via a plurality of feed openings below and around the orifice so that reinforcing particulates join the metal droplets to produce a uniform mixture which then coats the exposed substrate with a uniform metal matrix composite.

Buhrmaster, Carol L. (Corning, NY); Clark, Denis E. (Idaho Falls, ID); Smartt, Herschel B. (Idaho Falls, ID)

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

158

Method for gas-metal arc deposition  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Method and apparatus for gas-metal arc deposition of metal, metal alloys, and metal matrix composites are disclosed. The apparatus contains an arc chamber for confining a D.C. electrical arc discharge, the arc chamber containing an outlet orifice in fluid communication with a deposition chamber having a deposition opening in alignment with the orifice for depositing metal droplets on a coatable substrate. Metal wire is passed continuously into the arc chamber in alignment with the orifice. Electric arcing between the metal wire anode and the orifice cathode produces droplets of molten metal from the wire which pass through the orifice and into the deposition chamber for coating a substrate exposed at the deposition opening. When producing metal matrix composites, a suspension of particulates in an inert gas enters the deposition chamber via a plurality of feed openings below and around the orifice so that reinforcing particulates join the metal droplets to produce a uniform mixture which then coats the exposed substrate with a uniform metal matrix composite. 1 fig.

Buhrmaster, C.L.; Clark, D.E.; Smartt, H.B.

1990-11-13T23:59:59.000Z

159

Multilayer Laue Lens Growth at NSLS-II  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The new NSLS-II deposition laboratory has been commissioned to include a variety of thin-film characterization equipment and a next-generation deposition system. The primary goal for this effort is R&D on the multilayer Laue lens (MLL), which is a new type of x-ray optic with the potential for an unprecedented level of x-ray nano-focusing. This unique deposition system contains many design features in order to facilitate growth of combined depth-graded and laterally graded multilayers with precise thickness control over many thousands of layers, providing total film growth in one run of up to 100 {micro}m thick or greater. A precision in-vacuum linear motor servo system raster scans a substrate over an array of magnetrons with shaped apertures at well-defined velocities to affect a multilayer coating. The design, commissioning, and performance metrics of the NSLS-II deposition system will be discussed. Latest growth results of both MLL and reflective multilayers in this machine will be presented.

Conley R.; Bouet, N.; Lauer, K.; Carlucci-Dayton, M.; Biancarosa, J.; Boas, L.; Drannbauer, J.; Feraca, J.; Rosenbaum, L.

2012-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

160

Depletion effects of silicon deposition from methyltrichlorosilane  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The deposition rate of SiC on carbon-coated Nicalon fibers from methyltrichlorosilane in hydrogen was measured as a function of temperature, pressure, total flow rate, and simulated reactant depletion. The results, which are included in this paper together with kinetic information on the stability of methyltrichlorosilane, led to two conclusions: two different mechanisms of deposition can occur depending on whether the methyltrichlorosilane has an opportunity to dissociate into separate silicon- and carbon-containing precursors, and the deposition rate is strongly reduced by the generation of byproduct HCl. The data were fitted to a simple etch model to obtain a kinetic expression that accounts for the significant effect of HCl.

Besmann, T.M.; Sheldon, B.W.; Moss, T.S. III; Kaster, M.D. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States))

1992-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "deposition growth cxs" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Indium oxide atomic layer deposition facilitated by the synergy between oxygen and water.  

SciTech Connect

This paper explores the atomic layer deposition (ALD) of indium oxide (In{sub 2}O{sub 3}) films using cyclopentadienyl indium (InCp) and combinations of both molecular oxygen and water as the co-reactants. When either O{sub 2} or H{sub 2}O were used individually as the oxygen source the In{sub 2}O{sub 3} growth was negligible over the temperature range 100-250 C. However, when oxygen and water were used in combination either as a simultaneous exposure or supplied sequentially, In{sub 2}O{sub 3} films were deposited at growth rates of 1.0-1.6 {angstrom}/cycle over the full range of deposition temperatures. In situ quadrupole mass spectrometry and quartz crystal microbalance measurements revealed that water serves the function of releasing ligands from the surface while oxygen performs the role of oxidizing the indium. Since both processes are necessary for sustained growth, both O{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O are required for the In{sub 2}O{sub 3} ALD. The electrical resistivity, mobility, and carrier concentration of the In{sub 2}O{sub 3} films varied dramatically with both the deposition temperature and co-reactant sequence and correlated to a crystallization occurring at {approx}140 C observed by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. Using this new process we successfully deposited ALD In{sub 2}O{sub 3} films over large area substrates (12 in. x 18 in.) with very high uniformity in thickness and resistivity.

Libera, J. A.; Hryn, J. N.; Elam, J. W. (Energy Systems)

2011-04-26T23:59:59.000Z

162

Enhancement of spin-dependent scattering and improvement of microstructure in spin valves by delayed deposition  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Si/Ta/Co/Cu/CoFeMn (or NiO) spin valves were prepared by a delayed sputtering procedure, in which depositions of Ta and followed layers were intervened by 1 h. The spin valves are found to have better coherent growth with stronger (111) preferred orientations in Co and Cu layers, compared with the traditional continuous method. At the same time, the giant magnetoresistance ratio and spin-dependent scattering are enhanced by a factor of 20%-30%. These results indicate that the coherent growth and the (111) preferred orientation can enhance the spin-dependent scattering of spin valves.

Yang, D.Z.; Wang, L.; Yang, X.J.; Zhou, S.M.; Wu, X.S.; Du, J.; Hu, A.; Zhang, X.X. [Surface Physics Laboratory (State Key Laboratory) and Department of Physics, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China) and Department of Physics, Southeast University, Nanjing 210096 (China); Surface Physics Laboratory (State Key Laboratory) and Department of Physics, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); National Laboratory of Solid State Microstructures and Department of Physics, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Department of Physics, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China)

2005-06-20T23:59:59.000Z

163

Electrochemical Deposition of Iron Nanoneedles on Titanium Oxide Nanotubes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Iron as a catalyst has wide applications for hydrogen generation from ammonia, photodecomposition of organics, and carbon nanotube growth. Tuning the size and shape of iron is meaningful for improving the catalysis efficiency. It is the objective of this work to prepare nanostructured iron with high surface area via electrochemical deposition. Iron nanoneedles were successfully electrodeposited on Ti supported TiO2 nanotube arrays in a chlorine-based electrolyte containing 0.15 M FeCl2 {center_dot} 4H2O and 2.0 M HCl. Transmission electron microscopic analysis reveals that the average length of the nanoneedles is about 200 nm and the thickness is about 10 nm. It has been found that a high overpotential at the cathode made of Ti/TiO2 nanotube arrays is necessary for the formation of the nanoneedles. Cyclic voltammetry test indicates that the electrodeposition of iron nanoneedles is a concentration-limited process.

Gan Y. X.; Zhang L.; Gan B.J.

2011-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

164

Dendrite-Free Lithium Deposition via Self-Healing Electrostatic Shield Mechanism  

SciTech Connect

Lithium metal batteries are called the “holy grail” of energy storage systems. However, lithium dendrite growth in these batteries has prevented their practical applications in the last 40 years. Here we show a novel mechanism which can fundamentally change the dendritic morphology of lithium deposition. A low concentration of the second cations (including ions of cesium, rubidium, potassium, and strontium) exhibits an effective reduction potential lower than the standard reduction potential of lithium ions when the chemical activities of these second cations are much lower than that of lithium ions. During lithium deposition, these second cations will form a self-healing electrostatic shield around the initial tip of lithium whenever it is formed. This shield will repel the incoming lithium ions and force them to deposit in the smoother region of the anode so a dendrite-free film is obtained. This mechanism is effective on dendrite prevention in both lithium metal and lithium ion batteries. They may also prevent dendrite growth in other metal batteries and have transformational impact on the smooth deposition in general electrodeposition processes.

Ding, Fei; Xu, Wu; Graff, Gordon L.; Zhang, Jian; Sushko, Maria L.; Chen, Xilin; Shao, Yuyan; Engelhard, Mark H.; Nie, Zimin; Xiao, Jie; Liu, Xingjiang; Sushko, P. V.; Liu, Jun; Zhang, Jiguang

2013-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

165

Mn deposition on Ni{sub 2}MnGa(100)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We report the study of Mn adlayers on a Mn deficient Ni{sub 2}MnGa(100) surface by using low energy electron diffraction (LEED). The spot profile analysis indicates that after 0.2 monolayer (ML) deposition, the LEED spots become very sharp. This pattern indicates the removal of Mn vacancies formed on the surface due to Mn deficiency. But with further growth of Mn layers on this surface, the LEED spots become broad.

Nayak, J.; Rai, Abhishek; D'Souza, S. W.; Maniraj, M.; Barman, S. R. [UGC-DAE Consortium for Scientific Research, Khandwa Road, Indore, 452001, M.P. (India)

2012-06-05T23:59:59.000Z

166

Chemical vapor deposition of antimicrobial polymer coatings  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

There is large and growing interest in making a wide variety of materials and surfaces antimicrobial. Initiated chemical vapor deposition (iCVD), a solventless low-temperature process, is used to form thin films of polymers ...

Martin, Tyler Philip, 1977-

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

167

Thin Film Deposition Method for Sensor Manufacturing  

Scientists at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) have developed an innovative method for gas sensor manufacturing using a thin film deposition. The thin film requires very little material and can be applied in high throughput applications.

168

Small Business Linked Deposit Program (Oklahoma)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

The Small Business Linked Deposit Program provides below-market interest rates for qualified small businesses and certified industrial parks through local financing sources. Loans are for a two...

169

Linked Deposit Loan Program (West Virginia)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

The Linked Deposit Loan Program is targeted at small, private firms with 50 or fewer employees and gross annual revenues of $5 million or less comes. This loan offered through the West Virginia...

170

Functionally Graded Materials (FGMs) by Laser Deposition  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Abstract Scope, Laser metal deposition is a layered manufacturing process which ... using a computer simulated model and relate a few metallurgical systems as ... of Square Plate and Poisson's Ratio Measurement at Cryogenic Temperatures.

171

Ash Deposit Physical and Chemical Analysis  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

As part of the Electric Power Research Institutes (EPRIs) ongoing Boiler Tube Failure Reduction (BTFR) program, this report has been compiled to discuss chemical and mechanical mechanisms that lead to the formation of ash deposits. Ash deposits are a known cause of several boiler tube failure mechanisms, which can not only impact plant performance, but also lead to millions of dollars in lost revenue due to forced outages.

2010-12-17T23:59:59.000Z

172

Heat Recovery Steam Generator (HRSG) Deposits  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Under-deposit corrosion represents the second leading mechanism of chemistry-influenced heat recovery steam generator (HRSG) tube failures (HTFs) and third leading cause of major availability losses. This report was prepared, in recognition of the lack of information, to assemble the state of knowledge on deposition in HRSG high-pressure (HP) evaporator tubing and to identify the major deficiencies in that knowledge. Findings of this effort can be used to establish immediate remediation and correction of...

2009-11-11T23:59:59.000Z

173

Ash Deposit Physical and Chemical Analysis  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

As part of the Electric Power Research Institutes (EPRIs) ongoing Boiler Tube Failure Reduction (BTFR) program, this report has been compiled to discuss chemical and mechanical mechanisms that lead to the formation of ash deposits. Ash deposits are a known cause of a number of boiler tube failure mechanisms, which can not only impact plant performance, but lead to millions of dollars in lost revenue due to forced outages.

2010-12-17T23:59:59.000Z

174

Semiconductor assisted metal deposition for nanolithography applications  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An article of manufacture and method of forming nanoparticle sized material components. A semiconductor oxide substrate includes nanoparticles of semiconductor oxide. A modifier is deposited onto the nanoparticles, and a source of metal ions are deposited in association with the semiconductor and the modifier, the modifier enabling electronic hole scavenging and chelation of the metal ions. The metal ions and modifier are illuminated to cause reduction of the metal ions to metal onto the semiconductor nanoparticles.

Rajh, Tijana (Naperville, IL); Meshkov, Natalia (Downers Grove, IL); Nedelijkovic, Jovan M. (Belgrade, YU); Skubal, Laura R. (West Brooklyn, IL); Tiede, David M. (Elmhurst, IL); Thurnauer, Marion (Downers Grove, IL)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

175

Chemical vapor deposition of amorphous semiconductor films. Semiannual report, 1 May 1983-31 October 1984  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report presents an analysis of intrinsic and phosphorus-doped n-type amorphous silicon films deposited by LPCVD from disilane in a laminar flow tubular reactor. These films were analyzed using SIMs, ESR measurements, optical absorption, and conductivity in light and dark. CVD deposited i layers were used to make platinum Schottky barrier devices and hybrid cells utilizing glow discharge deposited layers in both the ITO/nip/Mo and ITO/pin/Mo configurations. The highest efficiency of hybrid cells with the ITO/ni(CVD)/p(GD)/Mo structure was approximately 1.5%. The highest efficiencies were obtained with thin i layers. The highest efficiency for the ITO/p(GD)/in(CVD)/Mo configuration was 4.0%. A chemical model was developed describing the gas phase reactions and film growth; the model quantitatively describes the effluent composition when the measured growth rate is input. Kinetic rate expressions and constants for growth from higher silanes are being determined for a wide range of reaction conditions.

Not Available

1984-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

176

Sorghum Growth and Development  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Sorghum is well adapted to Texas, and its ability to yield consistently makes it popular with growers. This publication discusses sorghum plant biology and growth.

Gerik, Tom; Bean, Brent W.; Vanderlip, Richard

2003-08-07T23:59:59.000Z

177

Thermal Stability and Substitutional Carbon Incorporation far above Solid-Solubility in Si1-xCx and Si1-x-yGexCy Layers Grown by Chemical Vapor Deposition  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Cx and Si1-x-yGexCy Layers Grown by Chemical Vapor Deposition using Disilane M. S. Carroll*, J. C. Sturm on (100) silicon substrates by rapid thermal chemical vapor deposition (RTCVD) with disilane source gas and disilane is known to produce higher silicon epitaxial growth rates for similar partial

178

Chemical characteristics of some major uranium deposits in western USA  

SciTech Connect

Multi-element chemical analyses of several thousand samples were retrieved from the US Geological Survey's computerized Rock Analysis Storage System and used to estimate the average abundances of various elements in each of several types of uranium deposits, in altered rocks associated with some of these deposits, and in unmineralized parts of the various host rocks. Deposits for which results are presented include the tabular deposits in the Morrison Formation, Ambrosia Lake district, New Mexico; secondary deposits in the Ambrosia Lake district; tabular deposits in the Morrison Formation of the Henry Mountains, Utah; tabular deposits in the Chinle Formation in Utah and Colorado; roll-type deposits in Tertiary rocks from the Texas Gulf district; roll-type deposits in the Tertiary basins of Wyoming; tabular deposits in the Entrada Sandstone in Colorado; and a vein-type deposit in crystalline rocks of the Front Range of Colorado. Statistical treatment of the data identified elements that were notably more or less abundant in the deposits and altered rocks than in the unmineralized parts of the host rocks. Comparisons of the mean abundances of elements in the deposits show that the chemical composition of roll-type deposits varies greatly even among deposits in the same district. By contrast, the chemical characteristics of tabular deposits display little variation; the Ambrosia Lake tabular deposits and those of the Henry Mountains district are particularly similar. The data place some constraints on the geochemical aspects of genetic models and suggest certain elements as potential prospecting guides.

Spirakis, C.S.; Pierson, C.T.

1984-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

179

Epitaxial Growth and Characterization of Silicon Carbide Films  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Silicon carbide (SiC) epitaxial layers have been grown in a chemical vapor deposition (CVD) system designed and fabricated in our laboratory. Silicon tetrachloride-propane as well as silane-propane were used as precursor gases. The hot zone was designed based on simulation by using numerical modeling. Growth rates up to 200 {mu}m could be achieved. A new growth-assisted hydrogen etching was developed to show the distribution of the micropipes present in the substrate. Higher growth rate was observed on off-axis (0 0 0 1) 4 H SiC compared to the on-axis (0 0 0 1) wafer and growth mechanism was explained.

Dhanaraj,G.; Dudley, M.; Chen, Y.; Ragothamachar, B.; Wu, B.; Zhang, H.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

180

Vacuum deposited polymer/silver reflector material  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Weatherable, low cost, front surface, solar reflectors on flexible substrates would be highly desirable for lamination to solar concentrator panels. The method to be described in this paper may permit such reflector material to be fabricated for less than 50 cents per square foot. Vacuum deposited Polymer/Silver/Polymer reflectors and Fabry-Perot interference filters were fabricated in a vacuum web coating operation on polyester substrates. Reflectivities were measured in the wavelength range from .4 {mu}m to .8 {mu}m. It is hoped that a low cost substrate can be used with the substrate laminated to the concentrator and the weatherable acrylic polymer coating facing the sun. This technique should be capable of deposition line speeds approaching 1500 linear feet/minute. Central to this technique is a new vacuum deposition process for the high rate deposition of polymer films. This polymer process involves the flash evaporation of an acrylic monomer onto a moving substrate. The monomer is subsequently cured by an electron beam or ultraviolet light. This high speed polymer film deposition process has been named the PML process - for Polymer Multi-Layer.

Affinito, J.; Martin, P.; Gross, M.; Bennett, W.

1994-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "deposition growth cxs" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Apparatus for laser assisted thin film deposition  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A pulsed laser deposition apparatus uses fiber optics to deliver visible output beams. One or more optical fibers are coupled to one or more laser sources, and delivers visible output beams to a single chamber, to multiple targets in the chamber or to multiple chambers. The laser can run uninterrupted if one of the deposition chambers ceases to operate because other chambers can continue their laser deposition processes. The laser source can be positioned at a remote location relative to the deposition chamber. The use of fiber optics permits multi-plexing. A pulsed visible laser beam is directed at a generally non-perpendicular angle upon the target in the chamber, generating a plume of ions and energetic neutral species. A portion of the plume is deposited on a substrate as a thin film. A pulsed visible output beam with a high pulse repetition frequency is used. The high pulse repetition frequency is greater than 500 Hz, and more preferably, greater than about 1000 Hz. Diamond-like-carbon (DLC) is one of the thin films produced using the apparatus.

Warner, Bruce E. (Pleasanton, CA); McLean, II, William (Oakland, CA)

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

182

Skeletal crystals of calcite and trona from hot-spring deposits in Kenya and New Zealand  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Skeletal crystals are hollow crystals that develop because their outer walls grow before their cores. The presence of skeletal crystals of calcite (three types--trigonal prisms, hexagonal prisms, and plates) and trona in hot (> 90 C) spring deposits in New Zealand (Waikite Springs and Ohaaki Pool) and Kenya (Lorusio hot springs) shows that they can form in natural sedimentary regimes. Analysis of samples from these deposits shows that this crystal morphology develops under disequilibrium conditions that are unrelated to a specific environmental or diagenetic setting. Skeletal crystals transform into solid crystals when subsequent precipitation fills their hollow cores. In some cases, this may involve precipitation of crystalline material that has a sieve-like texture. In other examples, the skeletal crystal provides a framework upon which other materials can be precipitated. Walls in the skeletal trigonal calcite prisms from Waikite Springs are formed of subcrystals that mimic the shape of the parent crystal. Similarly, plate-like skeletal crystals from Lorusio are formed of densely packed subcrystals that are trona crystals from Lorusio are not formed of subcrystals. Recognition of skeletal crystals is important because they represent growth that follows the reverse pattern of normal growth. Failure to recognize that crystal growth followed the skeletal motif may lead to false interpretations concerning the growth of a crystal.

Jones, B. [Univ. of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta (Canada). Dept. of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences; Renaut, R.W. [Univ. of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan (Canada). Dept. of Geological Sciences

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

183

Method for deposition of a conductor in integrated circuits  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method is described for fabricating integrated semiconductor circuits and, more particularly, for the selective deposition of a conductor onto a substrate employing a chemical vapor deposition process. By way of example, tungsten can be selectively deposited onto a silicon substrate. At the onset of loss of selectivity of deposition of tungsten onto the silicon substrate, the deposition process is interrupted and unwanted tungsten which has deposited on a mask layer with the silicon substrate can be removed employing a halogen etchant. Thereafter, a plurality of deposition/etch back cycles can be carried out to achieve a predetermined thickness of tungsten.

Creighton, J. Randall (Albuquerque, NM); Dominguez, Frank (Albuquerque, NM); Johnson, A. Wayne (Albuquerque, NM); Omstead, Thomas R. (Albuquerque, NM)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

184

Deposition and Characterization of Highly Oriented Mg(3)(VO(4))(2) Thin Film Catalyst  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Magnesium vanadates are potentially important catalytic materials for the conversion of alkanes to alkenes via oxidative dehydrogenation. However, little is known about the active sites at which the catalytic reactions take place. It may be possible to obtain a significant increase in the catalytic efficiency if the effects of certain material properties on the surface reactions could be quantified and optimized through the use of appropriate preparation techniques. Given that surface reactivity is often dependent upon surface structure and that the atomic level structure of the active sites in these catalysts is virtually unknown, we desire thin film samples consisting of a single magnesium vanadate phase and a well defined crystallographic orientation in order to reduce complexity and simplify the study of active sites. We report on the use of reactive RF sputter deposition to fabricate very highly oriented, stoichiometric Mg{sub 3}(VO{sub 4}){sub 2} thin films for use in these surface analysis studies. Deposition of samples onto amorphous substrates resulted in very poor crystallinity. However, deposition of Mg{sub 3}(VO{sub 4}){sub 2} onto well-oriented, lattice-matched thin film ''seed'' layers such as Ti(0001), Au(111), or Pt(111) resulted in very strong preferential (042) crystallographic orientation (pseudo-hexagonal oxygen planes parallel to the substrate). This strong preferential growth of the Mg{sub 3}VO{sub 4}{sub 2} suggests epitaxial (single-crystal) growth of this mixed metal oxide on the underlying metal seed layer. The effects of the seed layer material, deposition temperature, and post-deposition reactive treatments on thin film properties such as stoichiometry, crystallographic orientation, and chemical interactions will be discussed.

RODRIGUEZ,MARK A.; RUFFNER,JUDITH A.; SAULT,ALLEN G.; TISSOT JR.,RALPH G.

1999-10-22T23:59:59.000Z

185

Worldwide deposition of strontium-90 through 1990  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Strontium-90 results from the Environmental Measurements Laboratory`s (EML) Global Fallout Program (GFP) are presented for the years 1987 through 1990. Quarterly {sup 90}Sr deposition results for the 66 sampling locations of EML`s GFP were generally low, indicating that there was no significant release of fission products into the atmosphere during this period. The global {sup 90}Sr deposition during these 4 years was lower than it has been for any similar period since this program began in 1958. Since there was no major atmospheric source of {sup 90}Sr during this period, the global cumulative deposit of {sup 90}Sr continued to decrease by radioactive decay to a 27 year low of 311.4 Pbq.

Monetti, M.A.

1996-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

186

Line-of-sight deposition method  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A line-of-sight method of depositing a film having substantially 100% of theoretical density on a substrate. A pressure vessel contains a target source having a surface thereof capable of emitting particles therefrom and a substrate with the source surface and the substrate surface positioned such that the source surface is substantially parallel to the direction of the particles impinging upon the substrate surface, the distance between the most remote portion of the substrate surface receiving the particles and the source surface emitting the particles in a direction parallel to the substrate surface being relatively small. The pressure in the vessel is maintained less than about 5 microns to prevent scattering and permit line-of-sight deposition. By this method the angles of incidence of the particles impinging upon the substrate surface are in the range of from about 45/sup 0/ to 90/sup 0/ even when the target surface area is greatly expanded to increase the deposition rate.

Patten, J.W.; McClanahan, E.D.; Bayne, M.A.

1980-04-16T23:59:59.000Z

187

Line-of-sight deposition method  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A line-of-sight method of depositing a film having substantially 100% of theoretical density on a substrate. A pressure vessel contains a target source having a surface thereof capable of emitting particles therefrom and a substrate with the source surface and the substrate surface positioned such that the source surface is substantially parallel to the direction of the particles impinging upon the substrate surface, the distance between the most remote portion of the substrate surface receiving the particles and the source surface emitting the particles in a direction parallel to the substrate surface being relatively small. The pressure in the vessel is maintained less than about 5 microns to prevent scattering and permit line-of-sight deposition. By this method the angles of incidence of the particles impinging upon the substrate surface are in the range of from about 45.degree. to 90.degree. even when the target surface area is greatly expanded to increase the deposition rate.

Patten, James W. (Richland, WA); McClanahan, Edwin D. (Richland, WA); Bayne, Michael A. (West Richland, WA)

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

188

Morphology effects on polydispersed aerosol deposition rates  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In the analysis of severe nuclear accidents, accurate prediction of aerosol deposition is important since, among other things, this influences the distribution of radioactive decay heat within the primary system and containment compartments. The fact that the aerosol cloud is not comprised of dense isolated spherical particles of only one size inevitably complicates such calculations but must be taken into account. Some particle deposition mechanisms are more sensitive to particle size and morphology than others so that simplifying assumptions valid for one mechanism [such as particle thermophoresis (notoriously size and morphology insensitive)] may be seriously in error for others (e.g., convective Brownian diffusion or eddy impaction). This paper deals with aggregate aerosol deposition.

Rosner, D.E.; Tandon, P. [Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States); Khalil, Y.F. [Northeast Utilities Service Co., Berlin, CT (United States)

1997-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

189

Supplemental heating of deposition tooling shields  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method of reducing particle generation from the thin coating deposited on the internal surfaces of a deposition chamber which undergoes temperature variation greater than 100.degree. C. comprising maintaining the temperature variation of the internal surfaces low enough during the process cycle to keep thermal expansion stresses between the coating and the surfaces under 500 MPa. For titanium nitride deposited on stainless steel, this means keeping temperature variations under approximately 70.degree. C. in a chamber that may be heated to over 350.degree. C. during a typical processing operation. Preferably, a supplemental heater is mounted behind the upper shield and controlled by a temperature sensitive element which provides feedback control based on the temperature of the upper shield.

Ohlhausen, James A. (Albuquerque, NM); Peebles, Diane E. (Albuquerque, NM); Hunter, John A. (Albuquerque, NM); Eckelmeyer, Kenneth H. (Albuquerque, NM)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

190

Apparatus and method for laser deposition of durable coatings  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Disclosed are method and apparatus for depositing durable coatings onto the surface of a substrate without heating the entire substrate to high temperatures by using lasers to heat the substrate and dissociate a deposition gas. The apparatus comprises a deposition chamber for enclosing the substrate upon which a coating is to be deposited, gas delivery means for directing a flow of deposition gas on the substrate, a first laser for heating the substrate, and a second laser for irradiating the deposition gas to dissociate the gas. The method includes placing a substrate within a vacuum deposition chamber and directing a flow of deposition gas on the substrate. Then the substrate is heated with a first laser while the deposition gas is irradiated with a second laser to dissociate the deposition gas.

Veligdan, J.T.; Vanier, P.; Barletta, R.E.

1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

191

Boiler Water Deposition Model for Fossil-Fueled Power Plants  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The feasibility and initial development of an integrated, deterministic model of the various processes governing deposition in fossil boilers was assessed in the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) reports Boiler Water Deposition Model for Fossil Fuel Plants, Part 1: Feasibility Study (1004931), published in 2004; Boiler Water Deposition Model for Fossil Fuel Plants, Part 2: Initial Deterministic Model Development and Deposit Characterization (1012207) published in 2007; and Boiler Water Deposition ...

2009-03-12T23:59:59.000Z

192

Boiler Water Deposition Model for Fossil-Fueled Power Plants  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The feasibility and initial development of an integrated, deterministic model of the various processes governing deposition in fossil boilers was assessed in the following Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) reports: 1004931, Boiler Water Deposition Model: Part 1: Feasibility Study, published in 2004; 1012207, Boiler Water Deposition Model for Fossil Fuel Plants, Part 2: Initial Deterministic Model Development and Deposit Characterization, published in 2007; 1014128, Boiler Water Deposition Model fo...

2010-01-27T23:59:59.000Z

193

Method of blasting a subterranean deposit  

SciTech Connect

A blasting method is described for mining of a subterranean oil-shale deposit. A raise is driven upward into a designated block of a subterranean oil-shale deposit from the roof of an undercutting cavity. A number of blasting holes are driven horizontally into the block from the raise in a fan-shaped pattern at each of a number of vertically spaced levels and are at least partially loaded with explosives. The charges are detonated sequentially in an upward progression to effect fragmentation and expansion of the overlaying block into the undercutting cavity. (11 claims)

Janssen, A.T.

1975-11-04T23:59:59.000Z

194

Atmospheric Pressure Deposition for Electrochromic Windows  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Atmospheric Pressure Deposition Atmospheric Pressure Deposition for Electrochromic Windows TDM - Karma Sawyer Robert C. Tenent National Renewable Energy Laboratory robert.tenent@nrel.gov 303-384-6775 4/4/2013 Insulating Glass Unit (IGU) Glass Transparent Conductor (TC) Active Electrode Counter Electrode Ion Conductor 2 | Building Technologies Office eere.energy.gov Purpose and Objectives * Expense - Current market price of $50-$100/ft 2 - Projections indicate under $20/ft 2 needed - A new production paradigm is required * Aesthetics - Architects hesitant to adopt "smurf glass"

195

Atmospheric Pressure Deposition for Electrochromic Windows  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Atmospheric Pressure Deposition Atmospheric Pressure Deposition for Electrochromic Windows TDM - Karma Sawyer Robert C. Tenent National Renewable Energy Laboratory robert.tenent@nrel.gov 303-384-6775 4/4/2013 Insulating Glass Unit (IGU) Glass Transparent Conductor (TC) Active Electrode Counter Electrode Ion Conductor 2 | Building Technologies Office eere.energy.gov Purpose and Objectives * Expense - Current market price of $50-$100/ft 2 - Projections indicate under $20/ft 2 needed - A new production paradigm is required * Aesthetics - Architects hesitant to adopt "smurf glass"

196

Treating paraffin deposits in producing oil wells  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Paraffin deposition has been a problem for operators in many areas since the beginning of petroleum production from wells. An extensive literature search on paraffin problems and methods of control has been carried out, and contact was made with companies which provide chemicals to aid in the treatment of paraffin problems. A discussion of the nature of paraffins and the mechanisms of this deposition is presented. The methods of prevention and treatment of paraffin problems are summarized. Suggested procedures for handling paraffin problems are provided. Suggestions for areas of further research testing are given.

Noll, L.

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

197

Nanoporous films for epitaxial growth of single crystal semiconductor materials : final LDRD report.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This senior council Tier 1 LDRD was focused on exploring the use of porous growth masks as a method for defect reduction during heteroepitaxial crystal growth. Initially our goal was to investigate porous silica as a growth mask, however, we expanded the scope of the research to include several other porous growth masks on various size scales, including mesoporous carbon, photolithographically patterned SU-8 and carbonized SU-8 structures. Use of photolithographically defined growth templates represents a new direction, unique in the extensive literature of patterned epitaxial growth, and presents the possibility of providing a single step growth mask. Additional research included investigation of pore viability via electrochemical deposition into high aspect ratio photoresist. This project was a small footprint research effort which, nonetheless, produced significant progress towards both the stated goal as well as unanticipated research directions.

Rowen, Adam M.; Koleske, Daniel David; Fan, Hongyou; Brinker, C. Jeffrey; Burckel, David Bruce; Williams, John Dalton; Arrington, Christian L.; Steen, William Arthur

2007-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

198

Depositional history of Lower Permian (Wolfcampian-Leonardian) carbonate buildups, Midland Basin, Upton County, Texas  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A north-south oriented trend of Wolfcampian-Leonardian carbonate buildups is located in the southwestern Midland Basin, Upton County, Texas. The buildup trend is located west of the eastern faulted margin of the Central Basin Platform and north of the Ozona Arch. This trend was deposited during late Paleozoic time, just after major uplift of the Central Basin Platform and as the Midland Basin subsided. Chevron U.S.A. Production Company has actively explored for petroleum in the buildup trend since the early 1980s and loaned their data set to Texas A&M University for this study. The carbonate buildups lie stratigraphically within the Eddleman and Amacker formations. The Eddleman (middle Wolfcampian (PW-2)-late Wolfcampian (PW-3)) and smacker (early Leonardian (PL-1)-early middle Leonardian (PL-2-A)) formations are composed of varying amounts of shallow-water skeletal limestones, matrix-supported limestones, lithoclastic facies, and minor boundstone facies. Dominant grain types include dasycladacean green algae, Tubiphytes, phylloid algae, crinoids, fusulinids, foraminifera, and coated grains. Carbonate deposition begins during lowstand times within or just below wave base in a low energy environment. Separating the two carbonate units is a basibal dark-colored calcareous shale known informally as the Twenty-one formation (late Wolfcampian) that was deposited during a rapid relative sea-level rise. The Tippett shale overlies the Amacker formation and consists of transgressive, basibal, dark-colored calcareous shale that terminated carbonate deposition in the southwestern Midland Basin during early middle Leonardian time. Two basic types of carbonate buildups, skeletal-sand and carbonate-debris, have been identified in this interval. The buildups formed on a ramp-like depositional profile with subtle paleobathymetric highs and lows that were created by mostly post-strewn (middle Pennsylvanian) deformation. The importance of the paleohighs and lows is that the cleaner skeletal-sand buildups initiated growth within the paleolows, and the carbonate-debris buildups (largely sediment gravity-flow deposits) were deposited on paleohighs. The skeletal-sand buildups created synoptic relief during Leonardian time that forced sediment gravity-flows to move between the buildups. This resulted in the abrupt lateral facies transitions within the Eddleman-Amacker interval. Understanding the depositional history of this carbonate buildup trend is important for establishing models for carbonate deposition in the southwestern Midland Basin, where active deformation, rapid subsidence, and major sea-level fluctuations influenced sedimentation.

Merriam, Catherine O'Hara

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

199

Fish scales and growth  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Fish scales and growth Name: Belinda Clark Location: NA Country: NA Date: NA Question: In my daughter's book about fish, it states that fish continue to get bigger as they age...

200

Selective Area ALD Deposition with Nanolithography  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Well-defined nano-patterned surfaces after metal-oxide deposition will be ... Effect of Initial Microstructure on the Processing of Titanium Using Equal ... of Ferroelectric Poly(Vinylidene Fluoride-Trifluoroethylene) Copolymer Films ... Sonochemistry as a Tool for Synthesis of Ion-Substituted Calcium Phosphate Nanoparticles.

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201

Exploration for uranium deposits, Grants mineral belt  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Uranium ore deposits in the Grants mineral belt, New Mexico, occur in fluvial sandstones in the Morrison Formation (Jurassic). Uranium mineralization is concentrated by a dark-gray to black substance that has been identified as humate, which is derived from decaying vegetation. Black ore is truncated by overlying sandstone in at least three ore deposits, documenting an early age for mineralization. Ore deposits in the Grants mineral belt vary greatly in size and shape, tend to occur in clusters, and often present difficult drill targets. Current exploration is largely a matter of drilling in stages to distinguish favorable from unfavorable ground on a wide spacing, to seek mineralization in favorable ground, and to conduct close-spaced drilling in mineralized areas. Criteria for favorability differ among exploration groups but generally include 1) presence of a host sandstone, 2) anomalous mineralization, 3) color of the host rock, 4) presence of carbonaceous matter, and 5) position of the area relative to mineralized trends. A description of the drilling sequence, from ore discovery to the development of a mine at the Johnny M deposit (in the east part of the Ambrosia Lake district), exemplifies the problem of predicting where orebodies may occur. A study of the drill data at the Johnny M indicates the uranium ore is not related to specific geologic features other than humate, which is commonly associated with coalified plant fragments in mudstone-rich parts of the host sandstone.

Fitch, D.C.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

202

Deposition Diagnostics for Next-step Devices  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The scale-up of deposition in next-step devices such as ITER will pose new diagnostic challenges. Codeposition of hydrogen with carbon needs to be characterized and understood in the initial hydrogen phase in order to mitigate tritium retention and qualify carbon plasma facing components for DT operations. Plasma facing diagnostic mirrors will experience deposition that is expected to rapidly degrade their reflectivity, posing a new challenge to diagnostic design. Some eroded particles will collect as dust on interior surfaces and the quantity of dust will be strictly regulated for safety reasons - however diagnostics of in-vessel dust are lacking. We report results from two diagnostics that relate to these issues. Measurements of deposition on NSTX with 4 Hz time resolution have been made using a quartz microbalance in a configuration that mimics that of a typical diagnostic mirror. Often deposition was observed immediately following the discharge suggesting that diagnostic shutters should be closed as soon as possible after the time period of interest. Material loss was observed following a few discharges. A novel diagnostic to detect surface particles on remote surfaces was commissioned on NSTX.

C.H. Skinner; A.L. Roquemore; the NSTX team; A. Bader; W.R. Wampler

2004-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

203

Tilting of carbon encapsulated metallic nanocolumns in carbon-nickel nanocomposite films by ion beam assisted deposition  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The influence of assisting low-energy ({approx}50-100 eV) ion irradiation effects on the morphology of C:Ni ({approx}15 at. %) nanocomposite films during ion beam assisted deposition (IBAD) is investigated. It is shown that IBAD promotes the columnar growth of carbon encapsulated metallic nanoparticles. The momentum transfer from assisting ions results in tilting of the columns in relation to the growing film surface. Complex secondary structures are obtained, in which a significant part of the columns grows under local epitaxy via the junction of sequentially deposited thin film fractions. The influence of such anisotropic film morphology on the optical properties is highlighted.

Krause, Matthias [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, PF-510119, 01314 Dresden (Germany); Technische Universitaet Dresden, D-01062 Dresden (Germany); Muecklich, Arndt; Zschornak, Matthias; Wintz, Sebastian; Gemming, Sibylle; Abrasonis, Gintautas [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, PF-510119, 01314 Dresden (Germany); Oates, Thomas W. H. [Leibniz-Institut fuer Analytische Wissenschaft, ISAS e.V., Albert-Einstein-Str. 9, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Luis Endrino, Jose [Surfaces and Coatings Department, Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid, c/Sor Juana Ines de la Cruz 3, Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Baehtz, Carsten; Shalimov, Artem [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, PF-510119, 01314 Dresden (Germany); Rossendorf Beamline, European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, F-38043 Grenoble (France)

2012-07-30T23:59:59.000Z

204

A comparative study of ultraviolet photoconductivity relaxation in zinc oxide (ZnO) thin films deposited by different techniques  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Photoresponse characteristics of ZnO thin films deposited by three different techniques namely rf diode sputtering, rf magnetron sputtering, and electrophoretic deposition has been investigated in the metal-semiconductor-metal (MSM) configuration. A significant variation in the crystallinity, surface morphology, and photoresponse characteristics of ZnO thin film with change in growth kinetics suggest that the presence of defect centers and their density govern the photodetector relaxation properties. A relatively low density of traps compared to the true quantum yield is found very crucial for the realization of practical ZnO thin film based ultraviolet (UV) photodetector.

Yadav, Harish Kumar; Gupta, Vinay [Department of Physics and Astrophysics, University of Delhi, Delhi 110 007 (India)

2012-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

205

FGF growth factor analogs  

SciTech Connect

The present invention provides a fibroblast growth factor heparin-binding analog of the formula: ##STR00001## where R.sub.1, R.sub.2, R.sub.3, R.sub.4, R.sub.5, X, Y and Z are as defined, pharmaceutical compositions, coating compositions and medical devices including the fibroblast growth factor heparin-binding analog of the foregoing formula, and methods and uses thereof.

Zamora, Paul O. (Gaithersburg, MD); Pena, Louis A. (Poquott, NY); Lin, Xinhua (Plainview, NY); Takahashi, Kazuyuki (Germantown, MD)

2012-07-24T23:59:59.000Z

206

Influence of nitrogen background pressure on structure of niobium nitride films grown by pulsed laser deposition  

SciTech Connect

Depositions of niobium nitride thin films on Nb using pulsed laser deposition (PLD) with different nitrogen background pressures (10.7 to 66.7 Pa) have been performed. The effect of nitrogen pressure on NbN formation in this process was examined. The deposited films were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM), atomic force microscope (AFM), and energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis. Hexagonal {beta}-Nb{sub 2}N and cubic {delta}-NbN phases resulted when growth was performed in low nitrogen background pressures. With an increase in nitrogen pressure, NbN films grew in single hexagonal {beta}-Nb{sub 2}N phase. The formation of the hexagonal texture during the film growth was studied. The c/a ratio of the hexagonal {beta}-Nb{sub 2}N unit cell parameter increases with increasing nitrogen pressure. Furthermore, the N:Nb ratio has a strong influence on the lattice parameter of the {delta}-NbN, where the highest value was achieved for this ratio was 1.19. It was found that increasing nitrogen background pressure leads to change in the phase structure of the NbN film. With increasing nitrogen pressure, the film structure changes from hexagonal to a mixed phase and then back to a hexagonal phase.

Ashraf H. Farha, Ali O. Er, Yüksel Ufuktepe, Ganapati Myneni, Hani E. Elsayed-Ali

2011-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

207

On-line coating of glass with tin oxide by atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition.  

SciTech Connect

Atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition (APCVD) of tin oxide is a very important manufacturing technique used in the production of low-emissivity glass. It is also the primary method used to provide wear-resistant coatings on glass containers. The complexity of these systems, which involve chemical reactions in both the gas phase and on the deposition surface, as well as complex fluid dynamics, makes process optimization and design of new coating reactors a very difficult task. In 2001 the U.S. Dept. of Energy Industrial Technologies Program Glass Industry of the Future Team funded a project to address the need for more accurate data concerning the tin oxide APCVD process. This report presents a case study of on-line APCVD using organometallic precursors, which are the primary reactants used in industrial coating processes. Research staff at Sandia National Laboratories in Livermore, CA, and the PPG Industries Glass Technology Center in Pittsburgh, PA collaborated to produce this work. In this report, we describe a detailed investigation of the factors controlling the growth of tin oxide films. The report begins with a discussion of the basic elements of the deposition chemistry, including gas-phase thermochemistry of tin species and mechanisms of chemical reactions involved in the decomposition of tin precursors. These results provide the basis for experimental investigations in which tin oxide growth rates were measured as a function of all major process variables. The experiments focused on growth from monobutyltintrichloride (MBTC) since this is one of the two primary precursors used industrially. There are almost no reliable growth-rate data available for this precursor. Robust models describing the growth rate as a function of these variables are derived from modeling of these data. Finally, the results are used to conduct computational fluid dynamic simulations of both pilot- and full-scale coating reactors. As a result, general conclusions are reached concerning the factors affecting the growth rate in on-line APCVD reactors. In addition, a substantial body of data was generated that can be used to model many different industrial tin oxide coating processes. These data include the most extensive compilation of thermochemistry for gas-phase tin-containing species as well as kinetic expressions describing tin oxide growth rates over a wide range of temperatures, pressures, and reactant concentrations.

Allendorf, Mark D.; Sopko, J.F. (PPF Industries, Pittsburgh, PA); Houf, William G.; Chae, Yong Kee; McDaniel, Anthony H.; Li, M. (PPF Industries, Pittsburgh, PA); McCamy, J.W. (PPF Industries, Pittsburgh, PA)

2006-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

208

On Impacts of Economic Growth.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??This thesis presents four papers on impacts of economic growth. The results indicate that faster economic growth improves the short-run political survival prospects of national… (more)

Burke, Paul John

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

209

Artificial light and plant growth  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Artificial light and plant growth Name: Lim Age: NA Location: NA Country: NA Date: NA Question: What color of artificial light works the best in plant growth? Replies:...

210

Low Temperature Direct Growth of Graphene Films on Transparent Substrates by Chemical Vapor Deposition  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

innovative designs using graphene in fields like electronicsof Entire CVD- Grown Graphene Sheets", Small 7(18): 2599-dimensional few layer graphene and carbon nanotube foam

Antoine, Geoffrey Sandosh Jeffy

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

211

Low Temperature Direct Growth of Graphene Films on Transparent Substrates by Chemical Vapor Deposition  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Four-point electrical resistivity measurement…………………………..34with negligible electrical resistivity due to scattering3] . 4.3 Four-point electrical resistivity measurement: For

Antoine, Geoffrey Sandosh Jeffy

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

212

State-of-Knowledge on Deposition, Part 2: Assessment of Deposition Activity in Fossil Plant Units  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Over the last 20 years, substantial advances have been made in the understanding and control of fossil plant cycle chemistry. In spite of these advances, deposition activity, most notably in boilers and steam turbines, remains an issue of concern to many organizations that operate fossil units. The underlying science of deposition in fossil unit components has not, with the exception of steam turbines, been studied extensively under the EPRI Boiler and Turbine Steam and Cycle Chemistry Program. This repo...

2003-12-08T23:59:59.000Z

213

Growth and surface structure of vanadium oxide on anatase (001)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Oxygen plasma assisted molecular beam epitaxy (OPA-MBE) of vanadium oxide on (1?4)-reconstructed anatase (001) thin films was studied using reflection high energy electron diffraction (RHEED), low energy electron diffraction (LEED), x-ray and ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS and UPS), x-ray diffraction (XRD), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). XPS and UPS results showed that the vanadium was predominantly in the 5+ oxidation state after deposition of a monolayer at 525 K. After 1 ML of vanadia was deposited, the anatase (1?4)/(4?1) LEED and RHEED patterns were replaced by (1?1) patterns indicating that the vanadia lifts the reconstruction and suggesting that the monolayer is pseudomorphic. At 525 K, the V?? oxidation state predominated in thicker films, however, no discernible LEED or RHEED patterns were seen after a few monolayers were deposited indicating that V?O? epitaxy cannot be continued beyond 1 ML. When the growth temperature was increased to 750 K, RHEED patterns indicated no change in the surface structure after more than 20 ML of vanadia were deposited. Under these conditions, XPS peak positions were consistent with VO?. After growth at 775 K a c(2x2) LEED pattern attributed to half a monolayer of adsorbed oxygen on the VO? surface was observed. The surface characterization data all pointed towards pseudomorphic growth of VO? with a half monolayer of capping oxygen allowing the monolayer to achieve the V?O? stoichiometry while maintaining the anatase structure. Bulk XRD data, however, were consistent with VO? (B), V?O??, and rutile VO? none of which expose surfaces with the periodicity observed with RHEED and LEED. The reasons for the differences between the surface and bulk characterization are discussed.

Gao, Weiwei; Wang, Chong M.; Wang, Huiqiong; Henrich, Victor E.; Altman, Eric I.

2004-06-20T23:59:59.000Z

214

THE KINETICS OF THE ELECTROCHEMICAL DEPOSITION OF RADIOACTIVE IONS ON METAL SURFACES  

SciTech Connect

The Nernst-Brunner equation hss been applied to the electrochemical deposition of carrier-free radioactive ions on metal foils in a modified form to include decay and growth. The modified equation was shown to hold for the depesition of B/sup 212/(ThC) and Bi/sup 210/(RaE) on nickel foils from weak hydrochloric acid solutions under the following conditions: pure Bl/sup 212/ in equilibrium with Pb/sup 212/(ThB), Bi/sup 212/ in equilibrium with Th/sup 228/ (RdTh), and Bi/sup 210/ in equilibrium with Pb/sup 210/(RaD), Some indications of the purity of the deposited radio-bismuth are given. (auth)

Fahland, J.; Herrmann, G.; Strassmann, F.

1958-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

215

Aging of reflective roofs: soot deposition  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Solar-reflective roofs remain cooler than absorptive roofs and thus conserve electricity otherwise needed for air conditioning. A currently controversial aspect of solar-reflective cool roofing is the extent to which an initially high solar reflectance decreases with time. We present experimental data on the spectral absorption of deposits that accumulate on roofs, and we attribute most of the absorption to carbon soot originally produced by combustion. The deposits absorb more at short wavelengths (e.g., in the blue) than in the red and infrared, imparting a slightly yellow tinge to formerly white surfaces. The initial rate of reflectance reduction by soot accumulation is consistent with known emission rates that are due to combustion. The long-term reflectance change appears to be determined by the ability of the soot to adhere to the roof, resisting washout by rain.

Berdahl, Paul; Akbari, Hashem; Rose, Leanna S.

2001-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

216

ARM - Measurement - Hygroscopic growth  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

govMeasurementsHygroscopic growth govMeasurementsHygroscopic growth ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Hygroscopic growth The rate that aerosol particles grow at relative humidity values less than 100 percent. Categories Aerosols Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the following instruments. Refer to the datastream (netcdf) file headers of each instrument for a list of all available measurements, including those recorded for diagnostic or quality assurance purposes. ARM Instruments AOS : Aerosol Observing System SMPS : Scanning mobility particle sizer TDMA : Tandem Differential Mobility Analyzer Field Campaign Instruments AOS : Aerosol Observing System

217

Pollution adn Plant Growth  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Pollution adn Plant Growth Pollution adn Plant Growth Name: Virdina Location: N/A Country: N/A Date: N/A Question: What are the effcts off water polltuion on plant growth? Are there any good websites where I can find current or on going research being done by other scientist? Replies: Dear Virdina, Possibly helpful: http://www.ec.gc.ca/water/en/manage/poll/e_poll.htm http://www.epa.vic.gov.au/wq/info/wq987.htm Sincerely, Anthony R. Brach This is a very complicated question, there are so many different types of water pollution and different species of plants react very differently. Good places to start are the U.S. environmental protection agency, the office of water is at: http://www.epa.gov/ow/ and there is a link to a kid's page from there: http://www.epa.gov/OST/KidsStuff/ You might also try state EPA's, Illinois is at:

218

Plant Tumor Growth Rates  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Plant Tumor Growth Rates Plant Tumor Growth Rates Name: Gina and Maria Location: N/A Country: N/A Date: N/A Question: We are doing a science fair project on if B. Carotene, Green tea, and Grape Seed Extract helps plants against the crown gall disease. We injected sunflowers with agrobacterium tum. one week ago (Sun. Feb. 27, 2000). Our questions is how long will it take for the tumors to grow? We scratched the surface of the stems and injected the agrobacterium in the wound. Also which do you think, in your opinion, will do the best, if any? Our science fair is April 13, do you think we'll have growth before then, atleast enough time to do our conclusion and results? Thank you, any information you forward will be very helpful. Replies: Sunflowers form galls relatively quickly. I usually get them in two weeks at least. Good luck.

219

Ion-assisted doping of 2-6 compounds during physical vapor deposition  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report describes a research program to (1) investigate ion-assisted doping during chemical vapor deposition of CdTe and (2) determine the influence of co-depositing ionized dopant atoms in the growth and structural and photoelectronic properties of the deposited films. In p-CdTe homo-epitaxial films, we controlled doping up to about 6 {times} 10{sup 16} cm{sup {minus}3} and 2 {times} 10{sup 17} cm{sub {minus}3} or ion-assisted depositions with As and P ions, respectively. At a growth rate of approximately 0.1 {mu}m/min, a substrate temperature of 400{degree}C, and ion energy of 60 eV, a maximum doping density was found near an ion current of 0.6{mu}A/cm{sup 2}. Related studies included elucidating the role of low-energy ion damage in the ion-assisted doping process, and investigating the decrease in carrier density near the surface of p-CdTe upon heating in vacuum, H{sub 2}, or Ar. We demonstrate the ability to make carrier density profiles and to grade junctions, and we present preliminary results from polycrystalline p-CdTe films grown on graphite and alumina substrates. We also present solar cells prepared using the p-CdTe as the collector area and n-CdS as the window layer, and we examine their photovoltaic parameters for different carrier densities and configurations in p-CdTe. 91 refs., 44 figs., 5 tabs.

Bube, R H [Stanford Univ., CA (USA). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering

1990-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

220

Apparatus and method for photochemical vapor deposition  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A photochemical vapor deposition apparatus includes a reactor housing having a window in one wall above a reaction chamber in the housing. A transparent curtain divides the reaction chamber into a reaction zone and a flush zone. At least one substrate is mounted in the reaction zone in light communication with the window so that ultraviolet radiation may penetrate through the window into the reaction zone. The window is kept clear by a gas flowing through the flush zone.

Jackson, Scott C. (Wilmington, DE); Rocheleau, Richard E. (Wilmington, DE)

1987-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "deposition growth cxs" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
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221

Electrostatic force assisted deposition of graphene  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An embodiment of a method of depositing graphene includes bringing a stamp into contact with a substrate over a contact area. The stamp has at least a few layers of the graphene covering the contact area. An electric field is developed over the contact area. The stamp is removed from the vicinity of the substrate which leaves at least a layer of the graphene substantially covering the contact area.

Liang, Xiaogan (Berkeley, CA)

2011-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

222

Microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition of nano-composite...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

plasma chemical vapor deposition of nano-composite CPt thin-films Title Microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition of nano-composite CPt thin-films Publication Type Journal...

223

Experimental investigation of aerosol deposition on slot-and...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Experimental investigation of aerosol deposition on slot-and joint-type leaks Title Experimental investigation of aerosol deposition on slot-and joint-type leaks Publication Type...

224

A molecular view of vapor deposited glasses  

SciTech Connect

Recently, novel organic glassy materials that exhibit remarkable stability have been prepared by vapor deposition. The thermophysical properties of these new ''stable'' glasses are equivalent to those that common glasses would exhibit after aging over periods lasting thousands of years. The origin of such enhanced stability has been elusive; in the absence of detailed models, past studies have discussed the formation of new polyamorphs or that of nanocrystals to explain the observed behavior. In this work, an atomistic molecular model of trehalose, a disaccharide of glucose, is used to examine the properties of vapor-deposited stable glasses. Consistent with experiment, the model predicts the formation of stable glasses having a higher density, a lower enthalpy, and higher onset temperatures than those of the corresponding ''ordinary'' glass formed by quenching the bulk liquid. Simulations reveal that newly formed layers of the growing vapor-deposited film exhibit greater mobility than the remainder of the material, thereby enabling a reorganization of the film as it is grown. They also reveal that ''stable'' glasses exhibit a distinct layered structure in the direction normal to the substrate that is responsible for their unusual properties.

Singh, Sadanand; Pablo, Juan J. de [Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, University of Wisconsin, Madison Wisconsin 53706 (United States)

2011-05-21T23:59:59.000Z

225

Chemical deposition methods using supercritical fluid solutions  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for depositing a film of a desired material on a substrate comprises dissolving at least one reagent in a supercritical fluid comprising at least one solvent. Either the reagent is capable of reacting with or is a precursor of a compound capable of reacting with the solvent to form the desired product, or at least one additional reagent is included in the supercritical solution and is capable of reacting with or is a precursor of a compound capable of reacting with the first reagent or with a compound derived from the first reagent to form the desired material. The supercritical solution is expanded to produce a vapor or aerosol and a chemical reaction is induced in the vapor or aerosol so that a film of the desired material resulting from the chemical reaction is deposited on the substrate surface. In an alternate embodiment, the supercritical solution containing at least one reagent is expanded to produce a vapor or aerosol which is then mixed with a gas containing at least one additional reagent. A chemical reaction is induced in the resulting mixture so that a film of the desired material is deposited.

Sievers, Robert E. (Boulder, CO); Hansen, Brian N. (Boulder, CO)

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

226

Research District Seeing Growth  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Monthly economic diversity column for the Tri-City Herald (May 2012) - excerpt follows: It’s been a while since I’ve updated you on the Tri-Cities Research District, most certainly not for lack of new activity over the past several months. In fact, much has happened, and there’s more to come. I think many of us see new land development and construction as indicative of current or impending economic growth. So those of you who have ventured into North Richland either via Stevens Drive or George Washington Way lately have probably begun sensing and anticipating that such growth is afoot.

Madison, Alison L.

2012-05-13T23:59:59.000Z

227

High quality ZnO:Al transparent conducting oxide films synthesized by pulsed filtered cathodic arc deposition  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Aluminum-doped zinc oxide, ZnO:Al or AZO, is a well-known n-type transparent conducting oxide with great potential in a number of applications currently dominated by indium tin oxide (ITO). In this study, the optical and electrical properties of AZO thin films deposited on glass and silicon by pulsed filtered cathodic arc deposition are systematically studied. In contrast to magnetron sputtering, this technique does not produce energetic negative ions, and therefore ion damage can be minimized. The quality of the AZO films strongly depends on the growth temperature while only marginal improvements are obtained with post-deposition annealing. The best films, grown at a temperature of about 200?C, have resistivities in the low to mid 10-4 Omega cm range with a transmittance better than 85percent in the visible part of the spectrum. It is remarkable that relatively good films of small thickness (60 nm) can be fabricated using this method.

Anders, Andre; Lim, Sunnie H.N.; Yu, Kin Man; Andersson, Joakim; Rosen, Johanna; McFarland, Mike; Brown, Jeff

2009-04-24T23:59:59.000Z

228

Biaxially-Textured Photovoltaic Film Crystal Silicon on Ion Beam Assisted Deposition CaF2 Seed Layers on Glass  

SciTech Connect

We grow biaxially textured heteroepitaxial crystal silicon (c-Si) films on display glass as a low-cost photovoltaic material. We first fabricate textured CaF{sub 2} seed layers using ion-beam assisted deposition, then coat the CaF{sub 2} with a thin, evaporated epitaxial Ge buffer and finally deposit heteroepitaxial silicon on the Ge. The silicon is grown by hot-wire chemical vapor deposition, a high-rate, scalable epitaxy technology. Electron and X-ray diffraction confirm the biaxial texture of the CaF{sub 2} and epitaxial growth of the subsequent layers. Transmission electron microscopy reveals columnar silicon grains about 500 nm across. We fabricate a proof-of-concept epitaxial film c-Si solar cell with an open circuit voltage of 375 mV that is limited by minority carrier lifetime.

Groves, J. R.; Li, J. B.; Clemens, B. M.; LaSalvia, V.; Hasoon, F.; Branz, H. M.; Teplin, C. W.

2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

229

Formation of amorphous metal alloys by chemical vapor deposition  

SciTech Connect

Amorphous alloys are deposited by a process of thermal dissociation of mixtures or organometallic compounds and metalloid hydrides, e.g., transition metal carbonyl such as nickel carbonyl, and diborane. Various sizes and shapes of deposits can be achieved, including near-net-shape free standing articles, multilayer deposits, and the like. Manipulation or absence of a magnetic field affects the nature and the structure of the deposit.

Mullendore, Arthur W. (Sandia Park, NM)

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

230

Boiler Water Deposition Model for Fossil-Fueled Power Plants  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Accumulation of internal deposits can adversely affect the performance and availability of boilers and turbines in fossil steam-water cycles. Deposition in drum boilers has been identified as the area of broadest concern to the industry; therefore, an improved understanding of deposition in drum boilers is expected to represent the greatest source of benefits and value to end users. The overall objective of the modeling described here is to develop a comprehensive, integrated model for deposition process...

2011-12-16T23:59:59.000Z

231

Electrochemical deposition of high purity silicon from molten fluoride ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

About this Abstract. Meeting, 2014 TMS Annual Meeting & Exhibition. Symposium , Solar Cell Silicon. Presentation Title, Electrochemical deposition of high purity ...

232

Deposition of Graded Thermal Barrier Coatings for Gas Turbine ...  

Wind Energy Industrial Technologies Advanced Materials Deposition of Graded Thermal Barrier Coatings for Gas Turbine Blades Sandia National ...

233

Ion beam assisted deposition of thermal barrier coatings ...  

... Energy Innovation Portal on Google; Bookmark Ion beam assisted deposition of thermal barrier coatings - Energy Innovation Portal on Delicious ...

234

Controlling Atomic Layer Deposition of TiO2 in Aerogels through Surface Functionalization  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report demonstrates a chemical functionalization method for controlling atomic layer deposition (ALD) of TiO{sub 2} in low-density nanoporous materials. Functionalization of silica aerogel with trimethylsilane is shown to strongly suppress TiO{sub 2} growth via ALD. Subsequent modification of the functionalization through selective removal of the hydrocarbon groups reactivates the aerogel towards TiO{sub 2} deposition. These results demonstrate the potential use of ALD as a selective tool for creating novel nanoporous materials. Nanoporous materials present significant technological advantage for a wide range of applications, including catalysis, energy storage and conversion, nanoelectronics to name just a few (1-4). Hence, there is considerable interest in developing synthetic pathways for the fabrication of nanoporous materials with tailored properties. Aerogels (AGs) are unique low-density, open-cell porous materials consisting of submicrometer pores and ligaments that can be used as a robust material platform for designing novel nanoporous materials. In recent years, a synthetic approach based on ALD on AG templates has emerged as a promising method for the directed growth of nanoporous materials (5-11, 18). This approach has been used successfully to prepare millimeter-sized high aspect ratio aerogels coated uniformly with zinc oxide (ZnO), tungsten (W) and alumina (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) (10, 11). The ALD process utilizes two sequential, self-limiting surface reactions resulting in a layer-by-layer growth mode. The self limiting nature of the surface reactions makes ALD a particularly suitable technique for uniform deposition onto high aspect ratio porous substrates. Additionally, chemical specificity of the surface reactions in ALD enables one to control the deposition process through selective functionalization of the substrate surface. In fact the functionalization of planar substrates such as silicon wafers with organosilane groups (R{sub n}SiX{sub 4-n} (n = 1-3)) has been shown to deactivate the substrate towards ZrO{sub 2}, HfO{sub 2}, ZnO, and TiO{sub 2} ALD processes (12-16). A possible mechanism for the deactivation effect is the blocking of surface functional groups, such as hydroxyl (OH) moieties, which serve as chemisorption sites for the ALD precursors and hence are essential for nucleating the deposition process. Henceforth, we shall refer to these surface functional groups as nucleation sites for the ALD process.

Ghosal, S; Baumann, T F; King, J S; Kucheyev, S; Wang, Y; Worsley, M A; Biener, J; Bent, S F; Hamza, A V

2009-03-09T23:59:59.000Z

235

Boiler Water Deposition Model for Fossil-Fueled Power Plants  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The feasibility of modeling the various processes governing deposition in fossil boilers was assessed in EPRI report 1004931, Boiler Water Deposition Model: Part 1: Feasibility Study, published in 2004. This report presents findings of follow-up activities directed toward the ultimate goal of developing an aggregate model that is applicable to the important deposition phenomena in fossil drum-type boilers.

2007-03-26T23:59:59.000Z

236

Growth, Growth Accelerations and the Poor: Lessons from Indonesia 1  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Abstract. We study the impact of growth and growth accelerations on poverty and inequality in Indonesia using a new panel dataset covering 26 provinces over the period 1977-2010. This new dataset allows us to distinguish between mining and non-mining sectors of the economy. We find that growth in non-mining significantly reduces poverty and inequality. In contrast, overall growth and growth in mining appears to have no effect on poverty and inequality. We also identify growth acceleration episodes defined by at least four consecutive years of positive growth in GDP per capita. Growth acceleration in non-mining reduces poverty and inequality whereas growth acceleration in mining increases poverty. We expect that the degree of forward and backward linkages of mining and non-mining sectors explain the asymmetric result. Our results are robust to state and year fixed effects, state specific trends, and instrumental variable estimation with rainfall and humidity as instruments.

Sambit Bhattacharyya; Budy P. Resosudarmo

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

237

Plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposition and etching of high-k gadolinium oxide  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Atomic layer deposition (ALD) of high-quality gadolinium oxide thin films is achieved using Gd(iPrCp){sub 3} and O{sub 2} plasma. Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3} growth is observed from 150 to 350 deg. C, though the optical properties of the film improve at higher temperature. True layer-by-layer ALD growth of Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3} occurred in a relatively narrow window of temperature and precursor dose. A saturated growth rate of 1.4 A/cycle was observed at 250 deg. C. As the temperature increases, high-quality films are deposited, but the growth mechanism appears to become CVD-like, indicating the onset of precursor decomposition. At 250 deg. C, the refractive index of the film is stable at {approx}1.80 regardless of other deposition conditions, and the measured dispersion characteristics are comparable to those of bulk Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3}. XPS data show that the O/Gd ratio is oxygen deficient at 1.3, and that it is also very hygroscopic. The plasma etching rate of the ALD Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3} film in a high-density helicon reactor is very low. Little difference is observed in etching rate between Cl{sub 2} and pure Ar plasmas, suggesting that physical sputtering dominates the etching. A threshold bias power exists below which etching does not occur; thus it may be possible to etch a metal gate material and stop easily on the Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3} gate dielectric. The Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3} film has a dielectric constant of about 16, exhibits low C-V hysteresis, and allows a 50 x reduction in gate leakage compared to SiO{sub 2}. However, the plasma enhanced atomic layer deposition (PE-ALD) process causes formation of an {approx}1.8 nm SiO{sub 2} interfacial layer, and generates a fixed charge of -1.21 x 10{sup 12} cm{sup -2}, both of which may limit use of PE-ALD Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3} as a gate dielectric.

Vitale, Steven A.; Wyatt, Peter W.; Hodson, Chris J. [MIT Lincoln Laboratory, 244 Wood Street, Lexington, Massachusetts 02420 (United States); Oxford Instruments Plasma Technology, Yatton, Bristol, BS49 4AP (United Kingdom)

2012-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

238

Plasma stabilisation of metallic nanoparticles on silicon for the growth of carbon nanotubes  

SciTech Connect

Ammonia (NH{sub 3}) plasma pretreatment is used to form and temporarily reduce the mobility of Ni, Co, or Fe nanoparticles on boron-doped mono- and poly-crystalline silicon. X-ray photoemission spectroscopy proves that NH{sub 3} plasma nitrides the Si supports during nanoparticle formation which prevents excessive nanoparticle sintering/diffusion into the bulk of Si during carbon nanotube growth by chemical vapour deposition. The nitridation of Si thus leads to nanotube vertical alignment and the growth of nanotube forests by root growth mechanism.

Esconjauregui, S.; Fouquet, M.; Bayer, B. C.; Gamalski, A. D.; Chen Bingan; Xie Rongsi; Hofmann, S.; Robertson, J. [Department of Engineering, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB3 0FA (United Kingdom); Cepek, C.; Bhardwaj, S. [Istituto Officina dei Materiali-CNR, Laboratorio TASC, s.s. 14 km 163.5, I-34149 Trieste (Italy); Ducati, C. [Department of Materials Science and Metallurgy, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 3QZ (United Kingdom)

2012-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

239

Abstract--Selective epitaxial growth of crystalline Ge on Si in a standard ASM Epsilon 2000 CVD reactor is investigated for the  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In a standard CVD reactor, Ge selective epitaxial growth on patterned Si substrates was developed in thickness. The epitaxy is performed in a standard ASM Epsilon 2000 chemical-vapor-deposition (CVD) reactor surface after Ge-growth make this an attractive and straightforward add-on to standard Si technology. #12

Technische Universiteit Delft

240

Low emissivity Ag/Ta/glass multilayer thin films deposited by sputtering  

SciTech Connect

Ta is deposited on a glass substrate as an interlayer for the two-dimensional growth of Ag thin films because Ta has good thermal stability and can induce a negative surface-energy change in Ag/glass. From the transmission electron microscopy results, we concluded that the Ag crystals in the bottom layer (seemingly on Ag/Ta) were flattened; this was rarely observed in the three-dimensional growth mode. Comparing Ag/Ta/glass with Ag/glass, we found that the Ta interlayer was effective in reducing both the resistance and the emissivity, accompanied by the relatively high transmittance in the visible region. In particular, Ag(9 nm)/Ta(1 nm)/glass film showed 0.08 of the emissivity, including {approx}61% of the transmittance in the visible region (wavelength: 550 nm).

Park, Sun Ho [Division of Advanced Materials Engineering, Kongju National University, Budaedong, Cheonan City (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Kee Sun [Division of Advanced Materials Engineering, Kongju National University, Budaedong, Cheonan City (Korea, Republic of); Green Home Energy Technology Center, Cheonan City (Korea, Republic of); Sivasankar Reddy, A. [Green Home Energy Technology Center, Cheonan City (Korea, Republic of)

2011-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "deposition growth cxs" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Hall mobility of cuprous oxide thin films deposited by reactive direct-current magnetron sputtering  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Cuprous oxide (Cu{sub 2}O) is a promising earth-abundant semiconductor for photovoltaic applications. We report Hall mobilities of polycrystalline Cu{sub 2}O thin films deposited by reactive dc magnetron sputtering. High substrate growth temperature enhances film grain structure and Hall mobility. Temperature-dependent Hall mobilities measured on these films are comparable to monocrystalline Cu{sub 2}O at temperatures above 250 K, reaching 62 cm{sup 2}/V s at room temperature. At lower temperatures, the Hall mobility appears limited by carrier scattering from ionized centers. These observations indicate that sputtered Cu{sub 2}O films at high substrate growth temperature may be suitable for thin-film photovoltaic applications.

Lee, Yun Seog; Winkler, Mark T.; Siah, Sin Cheng; Brandt, Riley; Buonassisi, Tonio [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States)

2011-05-09T23:59:59.000Z

242

CHLORIDE DEPOSITION FROM STEAM ONTO SUPERHEATER FUEL CLAD MATERIALS  

SciTech Connect

Experimemts using Cl/sup 36/ in a steam test loop were conducted to study the deposition behavior of chlorides on BONUS superheater fuel assembly materials. The moisture content of the steam was varied between 0 and 0.5 wt%, and superheat was added up to 15 deg F before the steam passed over the test cartridge heater. The effects of vaiiables on the chloride deposition on the heater were studied in detail. Chloride deposition from moist steam was found to result in heavy, adherent deposits which are conducive to severe chloride stress corrosion of austenitic steels, while removal of all moisture from the incoming steam reduces the chloride deposition and minimizes the chloride stress corrosion. The heater surface condition was found to be a very important variable; deposition is increased by surface defects and pits. Neither the temperature of steam or heater nor the amount of superheat had an appreciable effect on the deposition, when no moisture existed in the steam. However, low steam velocities and spacer protoberances increase the deposition. Different clad materials (Inconel and Type 304 and 347 stainless steel) with similar surface conditions did not affect the deposition, although subsequent corrosion effects do modify the deposition behavior. Recommendations are given for the control of chloride deposition in nuclear superheater reactor systems. (D.L.C.)

Bevilacqua, F.; Brown, G.M.

1963-10-18T23:59:59.000Z

243

Growth in Solar Means Growth in Ohio | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Growth in Solar Means Growth in Ohio Growth in Solar Means Growth in Ohio Growth in Solar Means Growth in Ohio October 6, 2010 - 2:26pm Addthis Lorelei Laird Writer, Energy Empowers Editor's Note: Yesterday Secretary Chu announced that solar panels and a solar hot water heater will be added to the White House by the end of next spring. This entry is cross-posted from the Energy Empowers blog and deals with how the continued growth of solar power is not only a boon for industry, but for local economies as well. The solar industry saw growth in 2010. Market research company Solarbuzz reports that global demand soared by 54 percent in the second quarter of 2010. The research firm reports that in the United States, the annual number of total watts installed moved from 485 MW in all of 2009 to 2.3 GW

244

Growth in Solar Means Growth in Ohio | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Growth in Solar Means Growth in Ohio Growth in Solar Means Growth in Ohio Growth in Solar Means Growth in Ohio October 6, 2010 - 2:26pm Addthis Lorelei Laird Writer, Energy Empowers Editor's Note: Yesterday Secretary Chu announced that solar panels and a solar hot water heater will be added to the White House by the end of next spring. This entry is cross-posted from the Energy Empowers blog and deals with how the continued growth of solar power is not only a boon for industry, but for local economies as well. The solar industry saw growth in 2010. Market research company Solarbuzz reports that global demand soared by 54 percent in the second quarter of 2010. The research firm reports that in the United States, the annual number of total watts installed moved from 485 MW in all of 2009 to 2.3 GW

245

Low-pressure chemical vapor deposition of amorphous silicon photovoltaic devices. Annual technical progress report, 1 May 1984-30 April 1985  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Intrinsic and doped a-Si:H films were deposited by low pressure chemical vapor deposition (CVD) for disilane. Intrinsic layers were deposited at growth rates as high as 50 A/s. A chemical reaction engineering model that quantitatively describes the CVD reactor behavior has been developed. CVD intrinsic material was characterized by measurements of impurities, optical band gap, photoconductivity, activation energy, diffusion length, and density of states. Photovoltaic cells of the p-i-n type with efficiencies of 4% and 3.6% were fabricated using CVD intrinsic layers deposited at 1 A/s and 9 A/s, respectively. A maximum short-circuit current of 11 mA/cm/sup 2/ under 87.5 MW/cm/sup 2/ ELH illumination was obtained with boron-compensated CVD intrinsic material. Efficiency-limiting mechanisms in CVD cells were quantitatively analyzed and related to fundamental properties.

Baron, B.N.; Rocheleau, R.E.; Hegedus, S.S.

1986-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

246

Pine Tree Growth Locations  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Pine Tree Growth Locations Pine Tree Growth Locations Name: Amielee Location: N/A Country: N/A Date: N/A Question: Why do pine trees not grow south of the equator? Replies: Dear Amielee, The natural distribution of the pines is the northern hemisphere: http://phylogeny.arizona.edu/tree/eukaryotes/green_plants/embryophytes/conif ers/pinaceae/pinus/pinus.html However, pines have become introduced into the southern hemisphere through cultivation: http://www.woodweb.com/~treetalk/Radiata_Pine/wowhome.html Sincerely, Anthony R. Brach, Ph.D. Hi Amielee Some pine trees do live south of the equator but we (I live in Australia) do not have the huge forests of native conifers that you have in the northern hemisphere. Even in the northern hemisphere conifers are only found in two forest types: 1. Tiaga

247

Adjusted Growth Rates*  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Jan. '99 to Feb. '99: -1.7% Feb. '98 to Feb. '99: +19.8% YTD '98 to YTD '99: +15.0% 4,100 4,400 4,700 5,000 5,300 5,600 5,900 Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Millions of Gallons U.S. Distillate Fuel Sales 2011 2012 2013 Adjusted Growth Rates* Jul '13 to Aug '13: 2.5% Aug '12 to Aug '13: -1.3% YTD '12 to YTD '13: 1.5% 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Millions of Gallons U.S. Residual Fuel Sales 2011 2012 2013 Adjusted Growth Rates* Jul '13 to Aug '13: -0.8%

248

Tungsten Cladding of Tungsten-Uranium Dioxide (W-UO2) Composites by Deposition from Tungsten Hexafluoride (WF6)  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

?A program is being conducted to develop a process for cladding tungsten and tungsten cermet fuels with tungsten deposited from the vapor state by the hydrogen reduction of tungsten hexafluoride. Early work was performed using recrystallized, high purity, commercial tungsten as the substrate material. Temperatures in the range 660 to 12950F (350 to 1700°C) and pressures from 10 to 350 mm Hg were investigated. Hydrogen to WF 6 ratios of 10: 1 to 150: 1 were utilized. Efforts were directed toward optimizing deposition process parameters to attain control of qualities such as coating thickness, uniformity, density, impurity content, and surface quality. Substrate penetration methods have been investigated in the interest of completely eliminating the interface between the fueled substrate and cladding. In addition, the effects of process parameters and post-cladding heat treatments on the fuel retention properties of clad composites at 4500 degrees F (2480 degrees C) in hydrogen for 2 hours have been evaluated. As a result of work performed during the first phase of the program it has been shown that the rate of deposition of tungsten from WF 6 and the uniformity of the deposit can be varied in a predictable and reproducible manner by exercising control over the temperature, pressure, and gas flow rates at which the deposits are produced. A significant result of the study is the discovery that substrate nucleation and epitaxial growth in deposits made on both unfueled tungsten and fueled substrates may be effected by pretreating the substrates in hydrogen. High temperature fuel retention testing of tungsten clad W-U02 at 45000F (2480 degrees C) in hydrogen for 2 hours has demonstrated that the vapor deposited layer effectively and consistently restricts fuel loss.

Lamartine, J.T.; Hoppe, A.W.

1965-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

249

Adjusted Growth Rates* Jan.  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Adjusted Adjusted Growth Rates* Jan. '99 to Feb. '99: -1.7% Feb. '98 to Feb. '99: +19.8% YTD '98 to YTD '99: +15.0% U.S. Distillate Fuel Sales 3,000 3,500 4,000 4,500 5,000 5,500 Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Millions of Gallons 1998 1999 2000 Adjusted Growth Rates* Dec '99 to Jan '00: -7.4% Jan '99 to Jan '00: -0.1% YTD '99 to YTD '00: -0.1% U.S. Motor Gasoline Sales 8,000 9,000 10,000 11,000 12,000 Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Millions of Gallons 1998 1999 2000 Adjusted Growth Rates* Dec '99 to Jan '00: -16.8% Jan '99 to Jan '00: -3.2% YTD '99 to YTD '00: -3.2% U.S. Kerosene-Type Jet Fuel Sales 1,500 1,600 1,700 1,800 1,900 2,000 Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Millions of Gallons 1998 1999 2000 Adjusted Growth Rates* Dec '99 to Jan '00: -9.3% Jan '99 to Jan '00: +3.5% YTD '99 to YTD '00: +3.5% U.S. Propane Sales 600 800 1,000 1,200 1,400 1,600 1,800 Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul

250

Adjusted Growth Rates*  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

July '99 to Aug. '99: +4.7% July '99 to Aug. '99: +4.7% Aug. '98 to Aug. '99: +1.3% YTD '98 to YTD '99: +4.7% U.S. Motor Gasoline Sales 8,000 9,000 10,000 11,000 12,000 Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Millions of Gallons 1997 1998 1999 Adjusted Growth Rates* July '99 to Aug. '99: -1.9% Aug. '98 to Aug. '99: -0.4% YTD '98 to YTD '99: +0.9% U.S. Kerosene-Type Jet Fuel Sales 1,500 1,600 1,700 1,800 1,900 2,000 Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Millions of Gallons 1997 1998 1999 Adjusted Growth Rates* July '99 to Aug. '99: -0.1% Aug. '98 to Aug. '99: -1.4% YTD '98 to YTD '99: -0.7% U.S. Propane Sales 600 800 1,000 1,200 1,400 1,600 1,800 Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Millions of Gallons 1997 1998 1999 Adjusted Growth Rates* July '99 to Aug. '99: +22.3% Aug. '98 to Aug. '99: +21.1%

251

Adjusted Growth Rates*  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Aug '99 to Sep '99: +4.9% Aug '99 to Sep '99: +4.9% Sep '98 to Sep '99: +4.7% YTD '98 to YTD '99: +4.7% U.S. Motor Gasoline Sales 8,000 9,000 10,000 11,000 12,000 Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Millions of Gallons 1997 1998 1999 Adjusted Growth Rates* Aug '99 to Sep '99: -2.4% Sep '98 to Sep '99: +0.4% YTD '98 to YTD '99: +1.3% U.S. Kerosene-Type Jet Fuel Sales 1,500 1,600 1,700 1,800 1,900 2,000 Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Millions of Gallons 1997 1998 1999 Adjusted Growth Rates* Aug '99 to Sep '99: -2.1% Sep '98 to Sep '99: +4.6% YTD '98 to YTD '99: 0.0% U.S. Propane Sales 600 800 1,000 1,200 1,400 1,600 1,800 Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Millions of Gallons 1997 1998 1999 Adjusted Growth Rates* Aug '99 to Sep '99: +7.3% Sep '98 to Sep '99: +8.4% YTD '98 to YTD '99: +8.3%

252

Adjusted Growth Rates*  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

June '99 to July '99: -5.4% June '99 to July '99: -5.4% July '98 to July '99: +3.3% YTD '98 to YTD '99: +6.3% U.S. Motor Gasoline Sales 8,000 9,000 10,000 11,000 12,000 Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Millions of Gallons 1997 1998 1999 Adjusted Growth Rates* June '99 to July '99: -0.5% July '98 to July '99: -0.4% YTD '98 to YTD '99: +1.1% U.S. Kerosene-Type Jet Fuel Sales 1,500 1,600 1,700 1,800 1,900 2,000 Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Millions of Gallons 1997 1998 1999 Adjusted Growth Rates* June '99 to July '99: +0.5% July '98 to July '99: +1.0% YTD '98 to YTD '99: -0.3% U.S. Propane Sales 600 800 1,000 1,200 1,400 1,600 1,800 Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Millions of Gallons 1997 1998 1999 Adjusted Growth Rates* June '99 to July '99: +1.5% July '98 to July '99: +10.2% YTD '98 to YTD '99: +7.2%

253

Adjusted Growth Rates*  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Nov '99 to Dec '99: +5.3% Nov '99 to Dec '99: +5.3% Dec '98 to Dec '99: +8.7% YTD '98 to YTD '99: +5.0% U.S. Motor Gasoline Sales 8,000 9,000 10,000 11,000 12,000 Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Millions of Gallons 1997 1998 1999 Adjusted Growth Rates* Nov '99 to Dec '99: +6.0% Dec '98 to Dec '99: +4.5% YTD '98 to YTD '99: +1.3% U.S. Kerosene-Type Jet Fuel Sales 1,500 1,600 1,700 1,800 1,900 2,000 Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Millions of Gallons 1997 1998 1999 Adjusted Growth Rates* Nov '99 to Dec '99: +2.4% Dec '98 to Dec '99: +3.0% YTD '98 to YTD '99: +0.9% U.S. Propane Sales 600 800 1,000 1,200 1,400 1,600 1,800 Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Millions of Gallons 1997 1998 1999 Adjusted Growth Rates* Nov '99 to Dec '99: +32.3% Dec '98 to Dec '99: +2.0% YTD '98 to YTD '99: +5.5%

254

The Growth of Fishes  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Growth of Fishes Growth of Fishes Nature Bulletin No. 272-A June 3, 1967 Forest Preserve District of Cook County Richard B. Ogilvie, President Roland F, Eisenbeis, Supt. of Conservation THE GROWTH OF FISHES Baby fish, by the millions, are hatching now every day in our lakes, streams and ponds. Some kinds come from eggs sown broadcast among water plants; others from eggs laid in clusters or nests; some from masses of eggs hidden in underwater holes; while the eggs of many little fish, such as minnows and darters, are attached in neat patches to the underside of rocks or sunken logs. For some time before hatching, the young fish can be seen wriggling inside the eggs. Newly hatched baby fish -- or fry, as they should be called -- look much alike, regardless of the size or appearance of their parents. Each is almost transparent except for the large dark eyes and a bulging stomach which encloses yolk from the egg. Under a magnifying glass, the pumping red heart can be seen and the mouth gulping water. The tiny fins are beginning to form, a few dots of dark pigment may show in the skin, but there is little or no sign of scales. They vary from an eighth to a half inch or more in length, depending upon the species and the size of the egg.

255

Adjusted Growth Rates*  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Oct '99 to Nov '99: +0.1% Oct '99 to Nov '99: +0.1% Nov '98 to Nov '99: +5.5% YTD '98 to YTD '99: +4.5% U.S. Motor Gasoline Sales 8,000 9,000 10,000 11,000 12,000 Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Millions of Gallons 1997 1998 1999 Adjusted Growth Rates* Oct '99 to Nov '99: -0.7% Nov '98 to Nov '99: +1.7% YTD '98 to YTD '99: +1.1% U.S. Kerosene-Type Jet Fuel Sales 1,500 1,600 1,700 1,800 1,900 2,000 Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Millions of Gallons 1997 1998 1999 Adjusted Growth Rates* Oct '99 to Nov '99: +2.5% Nov '98 to Nov '99: +6.0% YTD '98 to YTD '99: +0.8% U.S. Propane Sales 600 800 1,000 1,200 1,400 1,600 1,800 Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Millions of Gallons 1997 1998 1999 Adjusted Growth Rates* Oct '99 to Nov '99: +9.7% Nov '98 to Nov '99: +2.2% YTD '98 to YTD '99: +6.2%

256

Adjusted Growth Rates*  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Sep '99 to Oct '99: +3.9% Sep '99 to Oct '99: +3.9% Oct '98 to Oct '99: +2.3% YTD '98 to YTD '99: +4.4% U.S. Motor Gasoline Sales 8,000 9,000 10,000 11,000 12,000 Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Millions of Gallons 1997 1998 1999 Adjusted Growth Rates* Sep '99 to Oct '99: -0.2% Oct '98 to Oct '99: -0.9% YTD '98 to YTD '99: +1.0% U.S. Kerosene-Type Jet Fuel Sales 1,500 1,600 1,700 1,800 1,900 2,000 Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Millions of Gallons 1997 1998 1999 Adjusted Growth Rates* Sep '99 to Oct '99: -1.9% Oct '98 to Oct '99: -0.7% YTD '98 to YTD '99: +0.4% U.S. Propane Sales 600 800 1,000 1,200 1,400 1,600 1,800 Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Millions of Gallons 1997 1998 1999 Adjusted Growth Rates* Sep '99 to Oct '99: -2.1% Oct '98 to Oct '99: -6.4% YTD '98 to YTD '99: +6.6%

257

APPARATUS FOR VACUUM DEPOSITION OF METALS  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An apparatus and a method are described for continuous vacuum deposition of metals for metallic coatings, for ultra-high vacuum work, for purification of metals, for maintaining high-density electron currents, and for other uses. The apparatus comprises an externally cooled feeder tube extending into a container and adapted to feed metal wire or strip so that it emerges in a generally vertical position therein. The tube also provides shielding from the heat produced by an electron beam therein focused to impinge from a vertical direction upon the tip of the emerging wire. By proper control of the wire feed, coolant feed, and electron beam intensity, a molten ball of metal forms upon the emerging tip and remains self-supported thereon by the interaction of various forces. The metal is vaporized and travels in a line of sight direction, while additional wire is fed from the tube, so that the size of the molten ball remains constant. In the preferred embodiments, the wire is selected from a number of gettering metals and is degassed by electrical resistance in an adjacent chamber which is also partially evacuated. The wire is then fed through the feed tube into the electron beam and vaporizes and adsorbs gases to provide pumping action while being continuously deposited upon surfaces within the chamber. Ion pump electrodes may also be provided within line of sight of the vaporizing metal source to enhance the pumping action. (AEC)

Milleron, N.

1962-03-13T23:59:59.000Z

258

Comparative study of GaN growth process by MOVPE  

SciTech Connect

A comparative study of two different MOVPE reactors used for GaN growth is presented. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) was used to determine common gas phase and fluid flow behaviors within these reactors. This paper focuses on the common thermal fluid features of these two MOVPE reactors with different geometries and operating pressures that can grow device-quality GaN-based materials. The study clearly shows that several growth conditions must be achieved in order to grow high quality GaN materials. The high-temperature gas flow zone must be limited to a very thin flow sheet above the susceptor, while the bulk gas phase temperature must be very low to prevent extensive pre-deposition reactions. These conditions lead to higher growth rates and improved material quality. A certain range of gas flow velocity inside the high-temperature gas flow zone is also required in order to minimize the residence time and improve the growth uniformity. These conditions can be achieved by the use of either a novel reactor structure such as a two-flow approach or by specific flow conditions. The quantitative ranges of flow velocities, gas phase temperature, and residence time required in these reactors to achieve high quality material and uniform growth are given.

Sun, J.; Redwing, J.M.; Kuech, T.F.

1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

259

Tuning the properties of Ge-quantum dots superlattices in amorphous silica matrix through deposition conditions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this work, we investigate the structural properties of Ge quantum dot lattices in amorphous silica matrix, prepared by low-temperature magnetron sputtering deposition of (Ge+SiO{sub 2})/SiO{sub 2} multilayers. The dependence of quantum dot shape, size, separation, and arrangement type on the Ge-rich (Ge + SiO{sub 2}) layer thickness is studied. We show that the quantum dots are elongated along the growth direction, perpendicular to the multilayer surface. The size of the quantum dots and their separation along the growth direction can be tuned by changing the Ge-rich layer thickness. The average value of the quantum dots size along the lateral (in-plane) direction along with their lateral separation is not affected by the thickness of the Ge-rich layer. However, the thickness of the Ge-rich layer significantly affects the quantum dot ordering. In addition, we investigate the dependence of the multilayer average atomic composition and also the quantum dot crystalline quality on the deposition parameters.

Pinto, S. R. C.; Ramos, M. M. D.; Gomes, M. J. M. [University of Minho, Centre of Physics and Physics Department, Braga 4710-057 (Portugal); Buljan, M. [Ruder Boskovic Institute, Bijenicka cesta 54, Zagreb 10000 (Croatia); Chahboun, A. [University of Minho, Centre of Physics and Physics Department, Braga 4710-057 (Portugal); Physics Department, FST Tanger, Tanger BP 416 (Morocco); Roldan, M. A.; Molina, S. I. [Departamento de Ciencia de los Materiales e Ing. Metalurgica y Q. I., Universidad de Cadiz, Cadiz (Spain); Bernstorff, S. [Sincrotrone Trieste, SS 14 km163, 5, Basovizza 34012 (Italy); Varela, M.; Pennycook, S. J. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States); Barradas, N. P.; Alves, E. [Instituto Superior Tecnico e Instituto Tecnologico e Nuclear-, EN10, Sacavem 2686-953 (Portugal)

2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

260

Tuning the properties of Ge-quantum dots superlattices in amorphous silica matrix through deposition conditions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this work, we investigate the structural properties of Ge quantum dot lattices in amorphous silica matrix, prepared by low-temperature magnetron sputtering deposition of (Ge+SiO{sub 2})/SiO{sub 2} multilayers. The dependence of quantum dot shape, size, separation, and arrangement type on the Ge-rich (Ge + SiO{sub 2}) layer thickness is studied. We show that the quantum dots are elongated along the growth direction, perpendicular to the multilayer surface. The size of the quantum dots and their separation along the growth direction can be tuned by changing the Ge-rich layer thickness. The average value of the quantum dots size along the lateral (in-plane) direction along with their lateral separation is not affected by the thickness of the Ge-rich layer. However, the thickness of the Ge-rich layer significantly affects the quantum dot ordering. In addition, we investigate the dependence of the multilayer average atomic composition and also the quantum dot crystalline quality on the deposition parameters.

Pinto, S. [University of Minho, Portugal; Roldan Gutierrez, Manuel A [ORNL; Ramos, M. M.D. [University of Minho, Portugal; Gomes, M.J.M. [University of Minho, Portugal; Molina, S. I. [Universidad de Cadiz, Spain; Pennycook, Stephen J [ORNL; Varela del Arco, Maria [ORNL; Buljan, M. [R. Boskovic Institute, Zagreb, Croatia; Barradas, N. [Instituto Tecnologico e Nuclear (ITN), Lisbon, Portugal; Alves, E. [Instituto Tecnologico e Nuclear (ITN), Lisbon, Portugal; Chahboun, A. [FST Tanger, Morocco; Bernstorff, S. [Sincrotrone Trieste, Basovizza, Italy

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

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261

Surface modification of nickel battery electrodes by cobalt plasma immersion ion implantation and deposition  

SciTech Connect

Nickel hydroxide is the electrochemically active material in the positive electrode of several important rechargeable alkaline-electrolyte batteries. It is believed that divalent Ni(OH){sub 2} is converted to trivalent NiOOH as the electrode is electrochemically oxidized during the battery charging process, and the reverse reaction (electrochemical reduction) occurs during battery discharge, however the details of this process are not completely understood. Because these electrochemical reactions involve surface charge-transfer processes, it is anticipated that surface modification may result in improved battery performance. We used broad-beam metal ion implantation and Metal Plasma Immersion Ion Implantation and Deposition to add cobalt and other species to the nickel electrode surface. The principle of the latter technique is explained in detail. It is shown that implanted and deposited cobalt ions act as a dopant of Ni(OH){sub 2}, and thereby alter its electronic conductivity. This electronic effect promotes lateral growth of NiOOH nodules and more-complete conversion of Ni(OH){sub 2} to NiOOH, which can be interpreted in terms of the nodule growth model. Other dopants such as Au, W, Pb, Ta and Ti{sub 4}O{sub 7} were also tested for suppressing the parasitic oxygen evolution reaction in rechargeable nickel cells.

Anders, S.; Anders, A.; Brown, I.; Kong, F.; McLarnon, F.

1995-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

262

Graphene Monolayer Rotation on Ni(111) Facilities Bilayer Graphene Growth  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Synthesis of bilayer graphene by chemical vapor deposition is of importance for graphene-based field effect devices. Here, we demonstrate that bilayer graphene preferentially grows by carbon-segregation under graphene sheets that are rotated relative to a Ni(111) substrate. Rotated graphene monolayer films can be synthesized at growth temperatures above 650 C on a Ni(111) thin-film. The segregated second graphene layer is in registry with the Ni(111) substrate and this suppresses further C-segregation, effectively self-limiting graphene formation to two layers.

Batzill M.; Sutter P.; Dahal, A.; Addou, R.

2012-06-11T23:59:59.000Z

263

Demographic heterogeneity, cohort selection, and population growth  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

individuals. The growth rate increases monotonically withis quite different: growth rate increases with reproductivepopulation growth rate increases more slowly than linearly

Kendall, Bruce E.; Fox, Gordon A; Fujiwara, Masami; Nogeire, Theresa M

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

264

Growth regulation by macrophages  

SciTech Connect

The evidence reviewed here indicates that macrophages, either acting alone or in concert with other cells, influence the proliferation of multiple types of cells. Most of the data indicate that these effects are mediated by soluble macrophage-elaborated products (probably proteins) although the role of direct cell-to-cell contacts cannot be ruled out in all cases. A degree of success has been achieved on the biochemical characterization of these factors, due mainly to their low specific activity in conditioned medium and the lack of rapid, specific assays. Understanding the growth-regulating potential of macrophages is an important and needed area of research.

Wharton, W.; Walker, E.; Stewart, C.C.

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

265

Effects of deposition conditions on the properties of pyrolytic carbon deposited in a fluidized bed  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The high-density, isotropic pyrolytic carbon layer beneath the silicon carbide (IPyC) plays a key role in the irradiation performance of coated particle fuel. The IPyC layer protects the kernel from reactions with chlorine during deposition of the SiC layer, provides structural support for the SiC layer, and protects the SiC from fission products and carbon monoxide. The process conditions used by the Germans to deposit the IPyC coating produced a highly isotropic, but somewhat permeable IPyC coating. The permeability of the IPyC coating was acceptable for use with the dense German UO{sub 2} kernels, but may not be suitable when coating UCO kernels. The UCO kernels are typically more porous and thus have a larger surface area than UO{sub 2} kernels. The lower density and the higher surface area of UCO kernels could make them more susceptible to attack by HCl gas during the silicon carbide (SiC) coating process, which could result in heavy metal dispersion into the buffer and IPyC coatings and a higher level of as-manufactured SiC defects. The relationship between IPyC deposition conditions, permeability, and anisotropy must be understood and the appropriate combination of anisotropy and permeability for particle fuel containing UCO kernels selected. A reference set of processing conditions have been determined from review of historical information and results of earlier coating experiments employing 350 and 500 {micro}m UO{sub 2} kernels. It was decided that a limited study would be conducted, in which only coating gas fraction (CGF) and temperature would be varied. Coatings would be deposited at different rates and with a range of microstructures. Thickness, density, porosity and anisotropy would be measured and permeability evaluated using a chlorine leach test. The results would be used to select the best IPyC coating conditions for use with the available natural enrichment uranium carbide/uranium oxide (NUCO) kernels. The response plots from the investigation of the deposition of pyrolytic carbon in a fluidized bed graphically depict the relationships between processing parameters and coating properties. The additional figures present optical, scanning electron microscopy, and other images to highlight microstructural details. For the study, only two parameters (factors), coating gas fraction and deposition temperature, were varied. The plots reveal obvious trends and links between factors and responses. The dominant relationships determined by this study for this range of coating conditions are: (1) rate is dependent upon coating gas fraction or in other terms, reactant concentration; (2) density is controlled by deposition temperature; (3) efficiency is influenced by both CGF and temperature; (4) anisotropy is affect by CGF and temperature, however, the relationship is more complex than for other properties; (5) permeability is dependent upon deposition temperature (thus density); and (6) open porosity is affect by CGF thus is influenced by coating rate. The response plots can be used as 'maps' for the deposition process and are thus valuable for selecting coating conditions necessary to produce desired combinations of properties. The information is useful in predicting the effects of changes to processing on properties and is beneficial in optimizing the process and product properties. Although the study was limited to only two parameters, the information provides a foundation from which other aspects of the coating process can be more easily investigated.

Lowden, Richard Andrew [ORNL; Hunn, John D [ORNL; Nunn, Stephen D [ORNL; Kercher, Andrew K [ORNL; Price, Jeffery R [ORNL; Jellison Jr, Gerald Earle [ORNL

2005-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

266

Jackpile-Paguate deposit: a review  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Uranium mineralization occurs in the Jackpile sandstone, the uppermost unit in the Brushy Basin Member of the Morrison Formation (Jurassic), north of Laguna, New Mexico. Mineralization ranges from discontinuous, spotty disseminations to lenses up to 30 ft (10 m) thick and 100 ft (30 m) long. The lenses are elongate subparallel to the northeast trend of the Jackpile sandstone. Since 1952, observations during mining have indicated that varied forms of mineralization occur within lenses, such as rodlike features, irregular and diffused masses, and discontinuous seams or wisps crosscutting channel boundaries. The positive correlation between uranium content and organic carbon for samples greater than 0.04 percent U/sub 3/O/sub 8/ suggests that organic carbonaceous material is a major large-scale controlling factor for the deposition of uranium. No other significant geochemical control on mineralization can be postulated from the limited data presented.

Beck, R.G.; Cherrywell, C.H.; Earnest, D.F.; Feirn, W.C.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

267

Atomic Layer Deposition for SRF Cavities  

SciTech Connect

We have begun using Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD) to synthesize a variety of surface coatings on coupons and cavities as part of an effort to produce rf structures with significantly better performance and yield than those obtained from bulk niobium, The ALD process offers the possibility of conformally coating complex cavity shapes with precise layered structures with tightly constrained morphology and chemical properties. Our program looks both at the metallurgy and superconducting properties of these coatings, and also their performance in working structures. Initial results include: 1) evidence from point contact tunneling showing magnetic oxides can be a significant limitation to high gradient operation, 2) experimental results showing the production sharp niobium/oxide interfaces from a high temperature bake of ALD coated Al2O3 on niobium surfaces, 3) results from ALD coated structures.

Norem, J; Pellin, M J; Antoine, C Z; Ciovati, G; Kneisel, P; Reece, C E; Rimmer, R A; Cooley, L; Gurevich, A V; Ha, Y; Proslier, Th

2009-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

268

Boiler Water Deposition Model for Fossil-Fueled Power Plants  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Since the beginning of the commercial steam and power generation industry, deposits on heat transfer surfaces of the steam-water cycle equipment in fossil plant units have been a challenge. Deposits form at nearly all locations within the steam-water cycle, particularly in boiler tubes where failures can have substantial negative impacts on unit availability and reliability. Accumulation of internal deposits can adversely affect the performance and availability of boilers and turbines in fossil steam-wat...

2012-01-23T23:59:59.000Z

269

Boiler Water Deposition Model, Part 1: Feasibility Study  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Many sources of availability and performance losses in fossil units involve deposition on water- and steam-touched surfaces, with the most acute effects occurring in boilers and turbines. Earlier deposition state-of-knowledge assessments sponsored by EPRI established three broad classifications of deposition phenomena (EPRI reports 1004194 and 1004930). However, within these classifications are many processes and influencing factors that need to be considered in order to make meaningful improvements in d...

2004-11-17T23:59:59.000Z

270

REPORT: Direct Laser Powder Deposition – “State of the Art”  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Dec 11, 2007 ... This report describes the Direct Laser Powder Deposition (DLPD) process known by various names, including Directed Light Fabrication ...

271

Anisotropic Finite Element Modeling of the Fused Deposition ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Differential Characterization of Ikperejere Iron shale and Iron Sandstone Deposit · Direct Precipitation of Sr-doped LaP3O9 Thin Film Electrolytes for ...

272

Study of Electroless-Deposited Nano-Silver on Medical ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this study, the sodium hypophosphite, dextrose and potassium sodium tartrate were selected as reducers for electroless-deposited nano-silver. The influences ...

273

Concept for lightweight spaced-based deposition technology  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

based deposition technology for solar power and astronomicalmirrors and space solar power reflectors. In addition, thelow voltage bus of a solar panel power system of a satellite

Fulton, Michael; Anders, Andre

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

274

Geochemistry of the Yutangba Se deposit in western Hubei, China  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In the Se ores and abandoned stone coal pile at the Yutangba Se deposit there ... of Se minerals due to secondary enrichment of selenium in the stone coal ...

275

Laser-deposited Calcium Phosphate Based Bio-ceramic Coatings ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Presentation Title, Laser-deposited Calcium Phosphate Based Bio-ceramic Coatings on ... of Nano Calcium Phosphates Doped with Fluoride and Titanium Ions.

276

Degradation of Thermal Barrier Coatings from Deposits and Its...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Degradation of Thermal Barrier Coatings from Deposits and Its Mitigation-The Ohio State University Background When coal derived synthesis gas (syngas) is used in place of natural...

277

USE OF ATOMIC LAYER DEPOSITION OF FUNCTIONALIZATION OF NANOPOROUS BIOMATERIALS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Due to its chemical stability, uniform pore size, and high pore density, nanoporous alumina is being investigated for use in biosensing, drug delivery, hemodialysis, and other medical applications. In recent work, we have examined the use of atomic layer deposition for coating the surfaces of nanoporous alumina membranes. Zinc oxide coatings were deposited on nanoporous alumina membranes using atomic layer deposition. The zinc oxide-coated nanoporous alumina membranes demonstrated antimicrobial activity against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus bacteria. These results suggest that atomic layer deposition is an attractive technique for modifying the surfaces of nanoporous alumina membranes and other nanostructured biomaterials.

Brigmon, R.; Narayan, R.; Adiga, S.; Pellin, M.; Curtiss, L.; Stafslien, S.; Chisholm, B.; Monteiro-Riviere, N.; Elam, J.

2010-02-08T23:59:59.000Z

278

Hot Wire Chemical Vapor Deposition with Carbide Filaments ...  

Many of the current industry cells in production have come through NREL, ... One deposition technology utilized at NREL deals with hot wire chemical ...

279

Application of Vacuum Deposition Methods to Solid Oxide Fuel Cells  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The application of vacuum deposition techniques to the fabrication of solid oxide fuel cell materials and structures are reviewed, focusing on magnetron sputtering, vacuum plasma methods, laser ablation, and electrochemical vapor deposition. A description of each method and examples of use to produce electrolyte, electrode, and/or electrical interconnects are given. Generally high equipment costs and relatively low deposition rates have limited the use of vacuum deposition methods in solid oxide fuel cell manufacture, with a few notable exceptions. Vacuum methods are particularly promising in the fabrication of micro fuel cells, where thin films of high quality and unusual configuration are desired.

Pederson, Larry R.; Singh, Prabhakar; Zhou, Xiao Dong

2006-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

280

Heteroepitaxial Si Thin Films Deposited on Flexible Copper ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Presentation Title, Heteroepitaxial Si Thin Films Deposited on Flexible Copper Substrates for Solar Photovoltaics. Author(s), Daniela Florentina Bogorin, Lee ...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "deposition growth cxs" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

Dense Deposition of Nanocomposites by a Compact YAG Laser  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Feb 1, 2002 ... Dense Deposition of Nanocomposites by a Compact YAG Laser by M. Senna and K. Hamada. Publisher: TMS. Product Format: PDF. Pages ...

282

Formation and Quantification of Corrosion Deposits in the Power Industry.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The presence of deposits on the secondary side of pressurized water reactor (PWR) steam generator systems is one of the main contributors to the high… (more)

Namduri, Haritha

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

283

Plasma implantation and deposition for advanced materials surface modification.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The research work described in this thesis focuses on the physics of plasma implantation and deposition as well as the application of the technology to… (more)

Fu, King Yu (???)

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

284

Characteristics of Polymer Films Deposited via Microwave Plasma ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Abstract Scope, Thin films were deposited on both Al and glass substrates at RT by MPECVD using benzene as precursor. Surface and physical properties of ...

285

REMOVAL AND RECOVERY OF DEPOSITS FROM COAL GASIFICATION ...  

A method is provided for on-line removal and recovery of deposits from fossil fuel gasification systems to improve plant performance and recover a valuable metalloid.

286

Liquid Metal Heat Exchanger for Geologic Deposits - Energy ...  

Researchers at ORNL developed a down-well heating apparatus that efficiently heats subterranean geological deposits, such as oil shale, to extract ...

287

Aerosol Jet® Material Deposition for High Resolution Printed ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Abstract Scope, Aerosol Jet printing, is finding wide use in a number of ... The Aerosol Jet systems deposit a wide variety of functional materials onto a wide ...

288

Plant Growth and Photosynthesis  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Plant Growth and Photosynthesis Plant Growth and Photosynthesis Name: Jack Location: N/A Country: N/A Date: N/A Question: Do plants have any other way of growing besides photosythesis? Plants do not use photosynthesis to grow!!! They use cellular respiration just like every other organism to process energy into work. Plants use oxygen just like we do. Photosynthesis is principally only a process to change sunlight into a chemical form for storage. Replies: Check out our archives for more information. www.newton.dep.anl.gov/archive.htm Steve Sample Jack, Several kinds of flowering plants survive without the use of chlorophyll which is what makes plants green and able to produce sugar through photosynthesis. Dodder is a parasitic nongreen (without chlorophyll) plant that is commonly found growing on jewelweed and other plants in damp areas. Dodder twines around its host, (A host is an organism that has fallen victim to a parasite.), like a morning glory and attaches itself at certain points along the stem where it absorbs sugar and nutrients from the hosts sap.

289

Growth study of ion assisted evaporated molybdenum thin films  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We reported optimization of ion-to-atom ratios and ion energy for growth of molybdenum thin film on oxidized silicon substrate using ion assisted electron beam evaporation system. The ion-to-atom ratio is varied by independently adjusting the ion current density and deposition rate. The structural characterization of the films is carried out by hard X-ray reflectivity. We observed improvement in film density from 85.5% to 98.2% and film roughness from {approx}2 nm to 0.84nm on {approx}26 nm thick Mo film by optimizing ion parameters. The observed results are discussed considering the effect of kinetic of adatoms during growth of film.

Yadav, P. K.; Nayak, M.; Lodha, G. S.; Rai, S. [X-ray Optics Section, Indus Synchrotrons Utilization Division, Raja Ramanna Centre For Advanced Technology, Indore-452013 (India)

2012-06-25T23:59:59.000Z

290

Low temperature rf sputtering deposition of (Ba, Sr) TiO{sub 3} thin film with crystallization enhancement by rf power supplied to the substrate  

SciTech Connect

The (Ba, Sr) TiO{sub 3} thin film deposited by radio frequency (rf) sputtering requires a high deposition temperature near 500 deg. C to realize a high relative dielectric constant over of 300. For example, the film deposited at 330 deg. C contains an amorphous phase and shows a low relative dielectric constant of less than 100. We found that rf power supplied not only to the (Ba, Sr) TiO{sub 3} sputtering target, but also to the substrate during the initial step of film deposition, enhanced the crystallization of the (Ba, Sr) TiO{sub 3} film drastically and realized a high dielectric constant of the film even at low deposition temperatures near 300 deg. C. The 50-nm-thick film with only a 10 nm initial layer deposited with the substrate rf biasing is crystallized completely and shows a high relative dielectric constant of 380 at the deposition temperature of 330 deg. C. The (Ba, Sr) TiO{sub 3} film deposited at higher temperatures (upwards of 400 deg. C) shows <110> preferred orientation, while the film deposited at 330 deg. C with the 10 nm initial layer shows a <111> preferred orientation on a <001>-oriented ruthenium electrode. The unit cell of (Ba, Sr) TiO{sub 3} (111) plane is similar to that of ruthenium (001) plane. We conclude that the rf power supplied to the substrate causes ion bombardments on the (Ba, Sr) TiO{sub 3} film surface, which assists the quasiepitaxial growth of (Ba, Sr) TiO{sub 3} film on the ruthenium electrode at low temperatures of less than 400 deg. C.

Yoshimaru, Masaki; Takehiro, Shinobu; Abe, Kazuhide; Onoda, Hiroshi [System LSI Research Division, Silicon Solution Company, Oki Electric Industry Co., Ltd., 550-1, Higashi-asakawa, Hachioji, Tokyo 193-8550 (Japan); Laboratory for Nanoelectronics and Spintronics, Research Institute of Electrical Communication, Tohoku University, 2-1-1 Katahira, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); Laboratory for Nanoelectronics and Spintronics, Research Institute of Electrical Communication, Tohoku University, 2-1-1 Katahira, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); Strategic Planning Office, Silicon Manufacturing Company, Oki Electric Industry Co., Ltd., 550-1, Higashi-asakawa, Hachioji, Tokyo 193-8550 (Japan)

2005-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

291

Minimization of Pressurized Water Reactor Radiation Fields through Fuel Deposit Engineering: Deposit Property Evaluation and Optimization  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The purpose of this report is to provide an initial assessment of the options for modification of pressurized water reactor (PWR) primary side corrosion product deposits (crud) to minimize the incorporation of activated crud into out-of-core surfaces, thus reducing the intensity of out-of-core radiation fields. This report summarizes the current knowledge of PWR fuel crud characteristics, including crystallographic structure (crystal habits), and buildup mechanisms. The report also reviews the ...

2013-11-11T23:59:59.000Z

292

Defect states in plasma-deposited a-Si:H. Technical progress report, May-July 1979  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Three preprints are presented. The first, entitled ''Glow Discharge Optical Spectroscopy Measurement of Dopant Concentrations in a-Si:H,'' reports significant differences between the ratio of boron to silicon of the films and that of their deposition plasmas. The second, entitled ''Growth Morphology and Defects in Plasma-Deposited a-Si:H Films,'' presents structural studies that show that a major class of defect is an anisotropic density fluctuation. Studies of the hydrogen environment suggest that an inhomogeneous hydrogen distribution is associated with these fluctuations. From considerations of the deposition chemistry and nucleation theory, a model is proposed to describe the film growth process and its relationship to defects. The third, entitled ''Luminescence and ESR Studies of Defects in Hydrogenated Amorphous Silicon,'' demonstrates that the two experiments involve identical recombination transitions, and identify two separate processes. One process involves defect states, and from the doping dependence of light induced ESR, it is deduced that the electronically active defects are dangling bonds with positive electronic correlation energy. (LEW)

Knights, J C

1979-09-21T23:59:59.000Z

293

Molybdenum enhanced low-temperature deposition of crystalline silicon nitride  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process for chemical vapor deposition of crystalline silicon nitride which comprises the steps of: introducing a mixture of a silicon source, a molybdenum source, a nitrogen source, and a hydrogen source into a vessel containing a suitable substrate; and thermally decomposing the mixture to deposit onto the substrate a coating comprising crystalline silicon nitride containing a dispersion of molybdenum silicide.

Lowden, Richard A. (Powell, TN)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

294

Sputter deposition for multi-component thin films  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Ion beam sputter-induced deposition using a single ion beam and a multicomponent target is capable of reproducibly producing thin films of arbitrary composition, including those which are close to stoichiometry. Using a quartz crystal deposition monitor and a computer controlled, well-focused ion beam, this sputter-deposition approach is capable of producing metal oxide superconductors and semiconductors of the superlattice type such as GaAs-AlGaAs as well as layered metal/oxide/semiconductor/superconductor structures. By programming the dwell time for each target according to the known sputtering yield and desired layer thickness for each material, it is possible to deposit composite films from a well-controlled sub-monolayer up to thicknesses determined only by the available deposition time. In one embodiment, an ion beam is sequentially directed via a set of X-Y electrostatic deflection plates onto three or more different element or compound targets which are constituents of the desired film. In another embodiment, the ion beam is directed through an aperture in the deposition plate and is displaced under computer control to provide a high degree of control over the deposited layer. In yet another embodiment, a single fixed ion beam is directed onto a plurality of sputter targets in a sequential manner where the targets are each moved in alignment with the beam under computer control in forming a multilayer thin film. This controlled sputter-deposition approach may also be used with laser and electron beams.

Krauss, Alan R. (Plainfield, IL); Auciello, Orlando (Cary, NC)

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

295

Constraining oceanic dust deposition using surface ocean dissolved Al  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Constraining oceanic dust deposition using surface ocean dissolved Al Qin Han,1 J. Keith Moore,1; accepted 7 December 2007; published 12 April 2008. [1] We use measurements of ocean surface dissolved Al (DEAD) model to constrain dust deposition to the oceans. Our Al database contains all available

Moore, Keith

296

Electroplating method for producing ultralow-mass fissionable deposits  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for producing ultralow-mass fissionable deposits for nuclear reactor dosimetry is described, including the steps of holding a radioactive parent until the radioactive parent reaches secular equilibrium with a daughter isotope, chemically separating the daughter from the parent, electroplating the daughter on a suitable substrate, and holding the electroplated daughter until the daughter decays to the fissionable deposit.

Ruddy, Francis H. (Monroeville, PA)

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

297

Analysis of Crack Growth Data  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Table 3   Methods for calculating crack growth rates...the derivative at the midpoint of a data set. These methods use

298

"Projected Real GDP Growth Trend"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

69465655,0.02391459409,0.01807394932 " * These are historical annual growth rates in real GDP (2005 chained dollars). The annual changes are compounded and averaged in the table...

299

Diagnosing oscillatory growth or decay  

SciTech Connect

An analytical study is presented for an oscillatory system in terms of four constants, namely amplitude, phase, growth or decay rate, and frequency. (MOW)

Buneman, O.

1977-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

300

[ital In] [ital situ] infrared measurements of film and gas properties during the plasma deposition of amorphous hydrogenated silicon  

SciTech Connect

This research has performed preliminary [ital in] [ital situ] Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) measurements during the plasma deposition of amorphous silicon ([ital a]-Si:H). Experiments demonstrate both gas phase and film measurements within a simple SiH[sub 4] plasma reactor using a specially modified FTIR spectrometer. Films are deposited on substrates of either gold (mirror finish) or stainless steel (matte finish). In particular, [ital in] [ital situ] emission/reflection FTIR of the film yields information about surface temperature, film thickness, and film composition. We have measured surface temperature to [plus minus]5 K and detected the onset of poor film growth at a thickness of 500--1000 A using the 2080 cm[sup [minus]1] absorption feature. A simple model for the reflectance of a film on a metal is employed to determine the thickness of the films. [ital In] [ital situ] emission/transmission FTIR of the plasma determines the gas composition and average gas temperature. Measurements show that the silane conversion is [similar to]11% within the plasma region for a typical deposition at 250 [degree]C and roughly doubles for a deposition at room temperature. The FTIR spectra show that most of this converted silane reappears as disilane (Si[sub 2]H[sub 6]). Before starting the plasma, the silane gas is [similar to]30 K cooler than the nominal substrate temperature of 250 [degree]C; starting the plasma raises the average temperature another 20 [degree]C.

Morrison, P.W. Jr.; Haigis, J.R. (Advanced Fuel Research, Inc., East Hartford, Connecticut 06108 (United States))

1993-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "deposition growth cxs" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Nitrogen Deposition onto the United States and Western Europe  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

ORNL DAAC Data Set Change Information ORNL DAAC Data Set Change Information Data Set: Nitrogen Deposition onto the United States and Western Europe Effective Date of Revision: May 2, 2005 Data Set Citation: Holland, E. A., B. H. Braswell, J. M. Sulzman, and J. -F. Lamarque. 2005. Nitrogen Deposition onto the United States and Western Europe. Data set. Available on-line [http://www.daac.ornl.gov] from Oak Ridge National Laboratory Distributed Active Archive Center, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, U.S.A. Revision Summary: The investigator advised us that data in two of the deposition files were a factor of 100 too large and the order of the records was reversed from the description in the documentation. NADP_wet_deposition_no3_0.5x0.5_grid_annual.txt NADP_wet_deposition_nh4_0.5x0.5_grid_annual.txt Data File Changes:

302

External Surveillance of Geothermal Scale Deposits Employing Iridium-192  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

External Surveillance of Geothermal Scale Deposits Employing Iridium-192 External Surveillance of Geothermal Scale Deposits Employing Iridium-192 Radiography Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Journal Article: External Surveillance of Geothermal Scale Deposits Employing Iridium-192 Radiography Abstract Iridium-192 radiography has been successfully tested as a technique for externally monitoring geothermal scale deposits in piping at the Brawley, CA geothermal field. This technique is applied to piping that handles flowing brine to provide in situ scale deposition observations without the disadvantage of dismantling piping for visual scale inspection. Exposure times and film orientations have been optimized to yield excellent agreement between radiographically detected scale thicknesses and actual

303

Method of and apparatus for determining deposition-point temperature  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Acoustic-wave sensor apparatus and method are disclosed for analyzing a normally liquid petroleum-based composition for monitoring deposition-point temperature. The apparatus includes at least one acoustic-wave device such as SAW, QCM, FPM, TSM or APM type devices in contact with the petroleum-based composition for sensing or detecting the surface temperature at which deposition occurs and/or rate of deposition as a function of temperature by sensing an accompanying change in frequency, phase shift, damping voltage or damping current of an electrical oscillator to a known calibrated condition. The acoustic wave device is actively cooled to monitor the deposition of constituents such as paraffins by determining the point at which solids from the liquid composition begin to form on the acoustic wave device. The acoustic wave device can be heated to melt or boil off the deposits to reset the monitor and the process can be repeated. 5 figs.

Mansure, A.J.; Spates, J.J.; Martin, S.J.

1998-10-27T23:59:59.000Z

304

Method of and apparatus for determining deposition-point temperature  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Acoustic-wave sensor apparatus and method for analyzing a normally liquid petroleum-based composition for monitoring deposition-point temperature. The apparatus includes at least one acoustic-wave device such as SAW, QCM, FPM, TSM or APM type devices in contact with the petroleum-based composition for sensing or detecting the surface temperature at which deposition occurs and/or rate of deposition as a function of temperature by sensing an accompanying change in frequency, phase shift, damping voltage or damping current of an electrical oscillator to a known calibrated condition. The acoustic wave device is actively cooled to monitor the deposition of constituents such as paraffins by determining the point at which solids from the liquid composition begin to form on the acoustic wave device. The acoustic wave device can be heated to melt or boil off the deposits to reset the monitor and the process can be repeated.

Mansure, Arthur J. (Albuquerque, NM); Spates, James J. (Albuquerque, NM); Martin, Stephen J. (Albuquerque, NM)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

305

ENERGY AND ANGULAR MOMENTUM DEPOSITION DURING COMMON ENVELOPE EVOLUTION  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

I consider three processes which enhance mass loss rate from a common envelope of a giant star with a main sequence or a white dwarf companion spiraling-in inside its envelope. I consider deposition of orbital energy and orbital angular momentum to the giant’s envelope, and in more detail the formation of jets by an accreting companion and their propagation in the envelope. I find that in many cases the deposition of orbital angular momentum to the envelope may be more important to the mass loss process than the deposition of orbital energy. Jets blown by an accreting companion, in particular a white dwarf, orbiting inside the outer regions of the giant’s envelope may also dominate over orbital energy deposition at early stage of the common envelope evolution. These imply that studies which ignore the deposition of angular momentum to the envelope and the effects of the accreting companion may reach wrong conclusions.

Noam Soker

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

306

Validation of Geant4 simulation of electron energy deposition  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Geant4-based simulations of the energy deposited by electrons in various materials are quantitatively compared to high precision calorimetric measurements taken at Sandia Laboratories. The experimental data concern electron beams of energy between a few tens of keV and 1 MeV at various incidence angles. Two experimental scenarios are evaluated: the longitudinal energy deposition pattern in a finely segmented detector, and the total energy deposited in a larger size calorimeter. The simulations are produced with Geant4 versions from 9.1 to 9.6; they involve models of electron-photon interactions in the standard and low energy electromagnetic packages, and various implementations of electron multiple scattering. Significant differences in compatibility with experimental data are observed in the longitudinal energy deposition patterns produced by the examined Geant4 versions, while the total deposited energy exhibits smaller variations across the various Geant4 versions, with the exception Geant4 9.4. The valida...

Batic, Matej; Pia, Maria Grazia; Saracco, Paolo; Weidenspointner, Georg

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

307

Metal oxide morphology in argon-assisted glancing angle deposition  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Glancing angle deposition (GLAD) is a thin film deposition technique capable of fabricating columnar architectures such as posts, helices, and chevrons with control over nanoscale film features. Argon bombardment during deposition modifies the GLAD process, producing films with new morphologies which have shown promise for sensing and photonic devices. The authors report modification of column tilt angle, film density, and specific surface area for 12 different metal oxide and fluoride film materials deposited using Ar-assisted GLAD. For the vapor flux/ion beam geometry and materials studied here, with increasing argon flux, the column tilt increases, film density increases, and specific surface area decreases. With a better understanding of the nature of property modification and the mechanisms responsible, the Ar-assisted deposition process can be more effectively targeted towards specific applications, including birefringent thin films or photonic crystal square spirals.

Sorge, J. B.; Taschuk, M. T.; Wakefield, N. G.; Sit, J. C.; Brett, M. J. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB T6G 2V4 (Canada); Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB T6G 2V4 (Canada) and NRC National Institute for Nanotechnology, Edmonton, AB T6G 2M9 (Canada)

2012-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

308

Radiative Impacts on the Growth of Drops within Simulated Marine Stratocumulus. Part II: Solar Zenith Angle Variations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The effects of solar heating at a variety of solar zenith angles (?o) on the vapor depositional growth of cloud drops, and hence the potential for collection enhancement, is investigated. A large eddy simulation (LES) model is used to predict the ...

Christopher M. Hartman; Jerry Y. Harrington

2005-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

309

Modeling and optimization of the growth rate for ZnO thin films using neural networks and genetic algorithms  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The process modeling for the growth rate in pulsed laser deposition (PLD)-grown ZnO thin films was investigated using neural networks (NNets) based on the back-propagation (BP) algorithm and the process recipes was optimized via genetic algorithms (GAs). ... Keywords: Genetic algorithms, Neural networks, PLD, Process modeling, ZnO

Young-Don Ko; Pyung Moon; Chang Eun Kim; Moon-Ho Ham; Jae-Min Myoung; Ilgu Yun

2009-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

310

organic material in any unit below unit 1, and (v) the lack of evidence of vegetation growth  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

organic material in any unit below unit 1, and (v) the lack of evidence of vegetation growth except locally within units 2 and 3. Because intense precipitation along the arid Peruvian coast is typically deposits at Quebrada Tacahuay. Radiocarbon dating of units 1, 2, 3, 4, 4c3, and 8 (Table 1 and Fig. 2

Lin, Zhihong

311

Growth of silicon(1-x) germanium(x) from disilane and digermane by gas-source molecular beam epitaxy.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The growth rate R of Si(001), Ge(001), and rm Sisb{1-x}Gesb{x}(001) films deposited on Si(001)2 times 1 substrates from rm Sisb2Hsb6 and rm Gesb2Hsb6 by gas-source… (more)

Bramblett, Thomas Richard

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

312

Noncrystallographic calcite dendrites from hot-spring deposits at Lake Bogoria, Kenya  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Complex calcite crystals are an integral component of precipitates that form around the orifices of the Loburu and Mawe Moto hot springs on the shores of Lake bogoria, Kenya. Two types of large (up to 4 cm long) noncrystallographic dendrites are important components of these deposits. Feather dendrites are characterized by multiple levels of branching with individual branches developed through crystal splitting and spherulitic growth. Scandulitic (from Latin meaning shingle) dendrites are formed of stacked calcite crystals and are generally more compact than feather dendrites. These developed through the incremental stacking of rectangular-shaped calcite crystals that initially grew as skeletal crystals. Feather and scandulitic dendrites precipitated from the same waters in the same springs. The difference in morphology is therefore related to microenvironments in which they grew. Feather dendrites grew in any direction in pools of free-standing water provided that they were in constant contact with the solute. Conversely, scandulitic dendrites grew on rims of dams where water flowed over the surface in concert with the pulses of spring water. Thus, each calcite crystal in these dendrites represents one episode of crystal growth. The orientation of the component crystals in scandulitic dendrites is controlled by the topography of the dam or surface, not crystallographic criteria. The noncrystallographic dendrites formed from spring waters with initial temperatures of 90--99 C. Surficial water cooling, loss of CO{sub 2}, and presence of other elements that can interfere with crystal growth contributed to the formation of these unusual crystals.

Jones, B. [Univ. of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta (Canada). Dept. of Geology; Renaut, R.W. [Univ. of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon (Canada). Dept. of Geological Sciences

1995-01-02T23:59:59.000Z

313

COAL-FIRED UTILITY BOILERS: SOLVING ASH DEPOSITION PROBLEMS  

SciTech Connect

The accumulation of slagging and fouling ash deposits in utility boilers has been a source of aggravation for coal-fired boiler operators for over a century. Many new developments in analytical, modeling, and combustion testing methods in the past 20 years have made it possible to identify root causes of ash deposition. A concise and comprehensive guidelines document has been assembled for solving ash deposition as related to coal-fired utility boilers. While this report accurately captures the current state of knowledge in ash deposition, note that substantial research and development is under way to more completely understand and mitigate slagging and fouling. Thus, while comprehensive, this document carries the title ''interim,'' with the idea that future work will provide additional insight. Primary target audiences include utility operators and engineers who face plant inefficiencies and significant operational and maintenance costs that are associated with ash deposition problems. Pulverized and cyclone-fired coal boilers are addressed specifically, although many of the diagnostics and solutions apply to other boiler types. Logic diagrams, ash deposit types, and boiler symptoms of ash deposition are used to aid the user in identifying an ash deposition problem, diagnosing and verifying root causes, determining remedial measures to alleviate or eliminate the problem, and then monitoring the situation to verify that the problem has been solved. In addition to a step-by-step method for identifying and remediating ash deposition problems, this guideline document (Appendix A) provides descriptions of analytical techniques for diagnostic testing and gives extensive fundamental and practical literature references and addresses of organizations that can provide help in alleviating ash deposition problems.

Christopher J. Zygarlicke; Donald P. McCollor; Steven A. Benson; Jay R. Gunderson

2001-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

314

Diamond growth at low substrate temperatures  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Diamond films are deposited on silicon wafers at a temperature of less than 600{degree}C by a microwave plasma-assisted chemical vapor deposition process using methane in hydrogen as a source of carbon. 9 refs., 3 figs.

Hsu, W.L.; Tung, D.M.

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

315

Diamond growth at low substrate temperatures  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Diamond films are deposited on silicon wafers at a temperature of less than 600{degree}C by a microwave plasma-assisted chemical vapor deposition process using methane in hydrogen as a source of carbon. 9 refs., 3 figs.

Hsu, W.L.; Tung, D.M.

1990-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

316

Quartz crystal growth  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process for growing single crystals from an amorphous substance that can undergo phase transformation to the crystalline state in an appropriate solvent. The process is carried out in an autoclave having a lower dissolution zone and an upper crystallization zone between which a temperature differential (.DELTA.T) is maintained at all times. The apparatus loaded with the substance, solvent, and seed crystals is heated slowly maintaining a very low .DELTA.T between the warmer lower zone and cooler upper zone until the amorphous substance is transformed to the crystalline state in the lower zone. The heating rate is then increased to maintain a large .DELTA.T sufficient to increase material transport between the zones and rapid crystallization. .alpha.-Quartz single crystal can thus be made from fused quartz in caustic solvent by heating to 350.degree. C. stepwise with a .DELTA.T of 0.25.degree.-3.degree. C., increasing the .DELTA.T to about 50.degree. C. after the fused quartz has crystallized, and maintaining these conditions until crystal growth in the upper zone is completed.

Baughman, Richard J. (Albuquerque, NM)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

317

Method for rapid, controllable growth and thickness, of epitaxial silicon films  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method of producing epitaxial silicon films on a c-Si wafer substrate using hot wire chemical vapor deposition by controlling the rate of silicon deposition in a temperature range that spans the transition from a monohydride to a hydrogen free silicon surface in a vacuum, to obtain phase-pure epitaxial silicon film of increased thickness is disclosed. The method includes placing a c-Si substrate in a HWCVD reactor chamber. The method also includes supplying a gas containing silicon at a sufficient rate into the reaction chamber to interact with the substrate to deposit a layer containing silicon thereon at a predefined growth rate to obtain phase-pure epitaxial silicon film of increased thickness.

Wang, Qi (Littleton, CO); Stradins, Paul (Golden, CO); Teplin, Charles (Boulder, CO); Branz, Howard M. (Boulder, CO)

2009-10-13T23:59:59.000Z

318

Conformal growth of Mo/Si multilayers on grating substrates using collimated ion beam sputtering  

SciTech Connect

Deposition of multilayers on saw-tooth substrates is a key step in the fabrication of multilayer blazed gratings (MBG) for extreme ultraviolet and soft x-rays. Growth of the multilayers can be perturbed by shadowing effects caused by the highly corrugated surface of the substrates, which results in distortion of the multilayer stack structure and degradation of performance of MBGs. To minimize the shadowing effects we used an ionbeam sputtering machine with a highly collimated atomic flux to deposit Mo/Si multilayers on saw-tooth substrates. The sputtering conditions were optimized by finding a balance between smoothening and roughening processes in order to minimize degradation of the groove profile in the course of deposition and at the same time to keep the interfaces of a multilayer stack smooth enough for high efficiency. An optimal value of energy of 200 eV for sputtering Kr{sup +} ions was found by deposition of test multilayers on flat substrates at a range of ion energies. Two saw-tooth substrates were deposited at energies of 200 eV and 700 eV for the sputtering ions. It was found that reduction of the ion energy improved the blazing performance of the MBG and resulted in a 40% gain in the diffraction efficiency due to better replication of the groove profile by the multilayer. As a result of the optimization performed, an absolute diffraction efficiency of 28.8% was achieved for the 2nd blaze order of the MBG with a groove density of 7350 lines/mm at a wavelength of 13.5 nm. Details of the growth behavior of the multilayers on flat and saw-tooth substrates are discussed in terms of the Linear Continuous Model of film growth.

Gawlitza, Peter; Cambie, Rossana; Dhuey, Scott; Gullikson, Eric; Warwick, Tony; Braun, Stefan; Yashchuk, Valeriy; Padmore, Howard

2012-01-23T23:59:59.000Z

319

Conformal growth of Mo/Si multilayers on grating substrates using collimated ion beam sputtering  

SciTech Connect

Deposition of multilayers on saw-tooth substrates is a key step in the fabrication of multilayer blazed gratings (MBG) for extreme ultraviolet and soft x-rays. Growth of the multilayers can be perturbed by shadowing effects caused by the highly corrugated surface of the substrates, which results in distortion of the multilayer stack structure and degradation of performance of MBGs. To minimize the shadowing effects, we used an ion-beam sputtering machine with a highly collimated atomic flux to deposit Mo/Si multilayers on saw-tooth substrates. The sputtering conditions were optimized by finding a balance between smoothening and roughening processes in order to minimize degradation of the groove profile in the course of deposition and at the same time to keep the interfaces of a multilayer stack smooth enough for high efficiency. An optimal value of energy of 200 eV for sputtering Kr{sup +} ions was found by deposition of test multilayers on flat substrates at a range of ion energies. Two saw-tooth substrates were deposited at energies of 200 eV and 700 eV for the sputtering ions. It was found that reduction of the ion energy improved the blazing performance of the MBG and resulted in a 40% gain in the diffraction efficiency due to better replication of the groove profile by the multilayer. As a result of the optimization performed, an absolute diffraction efficiency of 28.8% was achieved for the 2nd blaze order of the MBG with a groove density of 7350 lines/mm at a wavelength of 13.5 nm. Details of the growth behavior of the multilayers on flat and saw-tooth substrates are discussed in terms of the linear continuous model of film growth.

Voronov, D. L.; Cambie, R.; Dhuey, S.; Gullikson, E. M.; Warwick, T.; Yashchuk, V. V.; Padmore, H. A. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Gawlitza, P.; Braun, S. [Fraunhofer Institute for Material and Beam Technology, Winterbergstrasse 28, 01277 Dresden (Germany)

2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

320

Annual World Oil Demand Growth  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

6 6 Notes: Following relatively small increases of 1.3 million barrels per day in 1999 and 0.9 million barrels per day in 2000, EIA is estimating world demand may grow by 1.6 million barrels per day in 2001. Of this increase, about 3/5 comes from non-OECD countries, while U.S. oil demand growth represents more than half of the growth projected in OECD countries. Demand in Asia grew steadily during most of the 1990s, with 1991-1997 average growth per year at just above 0.8 million barrels per day. However, in 1998, demand dropped by 0.3 million barrels per day as a result of the Asian economic crisis that year. Since 1998, annual growth in oil demand has rebounded, but has not yet reached the average growth seen during 1991-1997. In the Former Soviet Union, oil demand plummeted during most of the

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "deposition growth cxs" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

Growth Diagram and Magnetic Properties of Hexagonal LuFe2O4 Thin Films  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A growth diagram of Lu-Fe-O compounds on an MgO (111) substrate using pulsed laser deposition is constructed according to the experimental data. The LuFe2O4 phase can only be grown in a small range of temperature and O2 pressure conditions. Fundamental understanding of the growth mechanism of Lu-Fe-O compound films are gained in terms of the thermal chemistry at the surface. Superparamagnetism is observed in a film of LuFe2O4 clusters separated by the hexagonal LuFeO3 phase and structural defects.

Wang, Wenbin [ORNL; Gai, Zheng [ORNL; Chi, Miaofang [ORNL; Fowlkes, Jason Davidson [ORNL; Yi, Jieyu [ORNL; Zhu, Leyi [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL); Cheng, Xuemei [Bryn Mawr College; Keavney, David [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL); Snijders, Paul C [ORNL; Ward, Thomas Z [ORNL; Shen, Jian [ORNL; Xu, Xiaoshan [ORNL

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

322

Localized and directed lateral growth of carbon nanotubes from a porous template  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We report on the growth of laterally oriented carbon nanotubes with both positional and directional control. The growth was done by chemical vapor deposition from Fe/Mo catalyst embedded inside a porous silicon medium which was formed electrochemically on the vertical faces of etched posts on a silicon substrate. A solution containing the catalyst was allowed to diffuse into the porous medium only in lithographically defined areas. Nanotubes grew only in the patterned areas with a preferred orientation normal to the edges of the etched posts.

S. J. Wind; R. Martel; Ph. Avouris

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

323

Ancillary effects of selected acid deposition control policies  

SciTech Connect

NAPAP is examining a number of potential ways to reduce the precursors (sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides) to acid deposition. However, the policies to reduce acid deposition will have other physical, biological and economic effects unrelated to acid deposition. For example, control policies that reduce sulfur dioxide emissions may also increase visibility. The effects of an acid deposition policy that are unrelated to acid deposition are referred to as ''ancillary'' effects. This reserch identifies and characterizes the principle physical and economic ancillary effects associated with acid deposition control and mitigation policies. In this study the ancillary benefits associated with four specific acid deposition policy options were investigated. The four policy options investigated are: (1) flue gas desulfurization, (2) coal blending or switching, (3) reductions in automobile emissions of NO/sub x/, and (4) lake liming. Potential ancillary benefits of each option were identified and characterized. Particular attention was paid to the literature on economic valuation of potential ancillary effects.

Moe, R.J.; Lyke, A.J.; Nesse, R.J.

1986-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

324

Method and apparatus for gas-metal arc deposition  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Method and apparatus for gas-metal arc deposition of metal, metal alloys, and metal matrix composites are presented. The apparatus contains an arc chamber for confining a DC electrical arc discharge, the arc chamber containing an outlet orifice in fluid communication with a deposition chamber having a deposition opening in alignment with the orifice for depositing metal droplets on a coatable substrate. Metal wire is passed continuously into the arc chamber in alignment with the orifice. Electric arcing between the metal wire anode and the orifice cathode produces droplets of molten metal from the wire which pass through the orifice and into the deposition chamber for coating a substrate exposed at the deposition opening. When producing metal matrix composites, a suspension of particulates in an inert gas enters the deposition chamber via a plurality of feed openings below and around the orifice so that reinforcing particulates join the metal droplets to produce a uniform mixture which then coats the exposed substrate with a uniform metal matrix composite. 1 fig., 2 tabs.

Buhrmaster, C.L.; Clark, D.E.; Smartt, H.B.

1989-10-18T23:59:59.000Z

325

In situ analysis of ash deposits from black liquor combustion  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Aerosols formed during combustion of black liquor cause a significant fire-side fouling problem in pulp mill recovery boilers. The ash deposits reduce heat transfer effectiveness, plug gas passages, and contribute to corrosion. Both vapors and condensation aerosols lead to the formation of such deposits. The high ash content of the fuel and the low dew point of the condensate salts lead to a high aerosol and vapor concentration in most boilers. In situ measurements of the chemical composition of these deposits is an important step in gaining a fundamental understanding of the deposition process. Infrared emission spectroscopy is used to characterize the composition of thin film deposits resulting from the combustion of black liquor and the deposition of submicron aerosols and vapors. New reference spectra of Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4}, K{sub 2}SO{sub 4}, Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} and K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} pure component films were recorded and compared with the spectra of the black liquor deposit. All of the black liquor emission bands were identified using a combination of literature data and ab initio calculations. Ab initio calculations also predict the locations and intensities of bands for the alkali vapors of interest. 39 refs., 9 figs.

Bernath, P. [Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States). Combustion Research Facility]|[Univ. of Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Sinquefield, S.A. [Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States). Combustion Research Facility]|[Oregon State Univ., Eugene, OR (United States); Baxter, L.L.; Sclippa, G.; Rohlfing, C. [Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States). Combustion Research Facility; Barfield, M. [Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States). Combustion Research Facility]|[Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States)

1996-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

326

A Permeability-Porosity Relationship for Surface Deposition  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The changes to porosity and permeability resulting from surface deposition and early dissolution in an initial rhombohedral array of uniform spheres are calculated. Very rapid decreases of permeability result from early deposition, with 48% reduction predicted in permeability from 8% reduction in porosity. After deposition has caused about a 1% increase in the radii of the spherical array, relative permeability reductions vary approximately as the square of relative changes in porosity. These theoretical results are matched with experimental data of Ioti et al. and shown to be satisfactory in some cases, but for others, a more complex model of the porous medium is needed.

Weir, G.J.; White, S.P.

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

327

Physical vapor deposition and patterning of calcium fluoride films  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Physical vapor deposition of calcium fluoride (CaF{sub 2}) thin films was performed via electron beam evaporation, resistive/thermal evaporation, and nonreactive radio frequency sputtering. Patterning of the resultant ''usable'' thin films was then also attempted in several ways, including by shadow mask deposition, liftoff, and direct chemical etching. Resistive evaporation produced the most stable films, having polycrystalline morphology with a moderately strong preference to the 331 orientation. The cleanest patterning results were obtained via a polymer/metal liftoff. The results and implications of each of the various deposition and patterning techniques are discussed.

Pinol, L.; Rebello, K.; Caruso, K.; Francomacaro, A. S.; Coles, G. L. [Applied Physics Laboratory, Johns Hopkins University, Laurel, Maryland 20723 (United States)

2011-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

328

Davis-Besse Cycle 16 Fuel Deposit Analysis and Characterization  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Fuel deposit samples were collected from Davis-Besse Unit 1 during the EOC16 outage. The impetus behind collecting crud samples came from the observation of unusual deposits on fuel during EOC15, as well as measured crud-induced power shape (CIPS) during Cycle 16. The purpose of EOC16 sample campaign therefore was to determine the nature of the fuel deposits. Samples were collected from two fuel assemblies, one after one cycle of exposure and the other after two cycles of exposure. Samples were collected...

2011-12-23T23:59:59.000Z

329

Method for depositing high-quality microcrystalline semiconductor materials  

SciTech Connect

A process for the plasma deposition of a layer of a microcrystalline semiconductor material is carried out by energizing a process gas which includes a precursor of the semiconductor material and a diluent with electromagnetic energy so as to create a plasma therefrom. The plasma deposits a layer of the microcrystalline semiconductor material onto the substrate. The concentration of the diluent in the process gas is varied as a function of the thickness of the layer of microcrystalline semiconductor material which has been deposited. Also disclosed is the use of the process for the preparation of an N-I-P type photovoltaic device.

Guha, Subhendu (Bloomfield Hills, MI); Yang, Chi C. (Troy, MI); Yan, Baojie (Rochester Hills, MI)

2011-03-08T23:59:59.000Z

330

Growth of praseodymium oxide on Si(111) under oxygen-deficient conditions  

SciTech Connect

Surface science studies of thin praseodymium oxide films grown on silicon substrates are of high interest in view of applications in such different fields as microelectronics and heterogeneous catalysis. In particular, a detailed characterization of the growth and the final structure of the films are mandatory to achieve a fundamental understanding of such topics as oxygen mobility and defect structure, and their role for the electronic and chemical properties. In this paper, the MBE growth of praseodymium oxide films on Si(111) substrates was investigated at low-deposition rates (0.06 nm/min) and low-oxygen partial pressures (p(O{sub 2})<1x10{sup -10} mbar). To obtain insight into the structure and chemical composition of the growing film, spot profile analyzing low-energy electron diffraction (SPA-LEED), transmission electron microscopy, and synchrotron radiation-based x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and x-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) were applied. SPA-LEED reveals the formation of an initial closed layer followed by continuous roughening and formation of ordered three-dimensional structures. This result is in contrast to observations at higher-deposition rates, were a layer-by-layer growth was reported. XAS and XPS provide evidence that a continuous reaction takes place in the growing Pr{sub 2}O{sub 3} film leading to the formation of silicate and silicide structures within the film. Combining all data, a consistent picture of the deposition of praseodymium oxide on Si(111) emerges which clearly shows that in contrast to higher-throughput molecular beam epitaxy conditions the reactivity of the growing film strongly influences the growth behavior at low-deposition rates and low pressures.

Schaefer, A. [Institute of Applied and Physical Chemistry, University of Bremen, Leobener Str. NW2, D-28359 Bremen (Germany); Institute of Solid State Physics, University of Bremen, P.O. Box 330440, D-28334 Bremen (Germany); Zielasek, V.; Baeumer, M. [Institute of Applied and Physical Chemistry, University of Bremen, Leobener Str. NW2, D-28359 Bremen (Germany); Schmidt, Th.; Schowalter, M.; Schulz, Ch.; Rosenauer, A.; Falta, J. [Institute of Solid State Physics, University of Bremen, P.O. Box 330440, D-28334 Bremen (Germany); Sandell, A. [Department of Physics and Materials Science, Uppsala University, P.O. Box 530, SE-75121 Uppsala (Sweden); Seifarth, O.; Schroeder, T. [IHP, Im Technologiepark 25, D-15236 Frankfurt/ Oder (Germany); Walle, L. E. [Department of Physics, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, NO-7491 Trondheim (Norway); Wollschlaeger, J. [Department of Physics, University of Osnabrueck, Barbarastrasse 7, D-49069 Osnabrueck (Germany)

2009-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

331

Growth of silicon sheets for photovoltaic applications  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The status of silicon sheet development for photovoltaic applications is critically reviewed. Silicon sheet growth processes are classified according to their linear growth rates. The fast growth processes, which include edge-defined film-fed growth, silicon on ceramic, dendritic-web growth, and ribbon-to-ribbon growth, are comparatively ranked subject to criteria involving growth stability, sheet productivity, impurity effects, crystallinity, and solar cell results. The status of more rapid silicon ribbon growth techniques, such as horizontal ribbon growth and melt quenching, is also reviewed. The emphasis of the discussions is on examining the viability of these sheet materials as solar cell substrates for low-cost silicon photovoltaic systems.

Surek, T.

1980-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

332

Initiated chemical vapor deposition of polymeric thin films : mechanism and applications  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Initiated chemical vapor deposition (iCVD) is a novel technique for depositing polymeric thin films. It is able to deposit thin films of application-specific polymers in one step without using any solvents. Its uniqueness ...

Chan, Kelvin, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

333

Evaluation of the Accuracy with Which Dry Deposition Can Be Measured with Current Micrometeorological Techniques  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

By reviewing the physics of the processes leading to dry deposition in the atmospheric surface layer, a number of corrections and possible errors in the determination of the dry deposition fluxes are identified. The concept of deposition velocity ...

J. A. Businger

1986-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

334

Chemical vapor deposition thin films as biopassivation coatings and directly patternable dielectrics  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Organosilicon thin films deposited by pulsed plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PPECVD) and hot-filament chemical vapor deposition (HFCVD) were investigated as potential biopassivation coatings for neural probes. ...

Pryce Lewis, Hilton G. (Hilton Gavin), 1973-

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

335

Transparent conductive indium zinc oxide films prepared by pulsed plasma deposition  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Transparent conductive indium zinc oxide films were prepared by pulsed plasma deposition from a ceramic target (90 wt. % In{sub 2}O{sub 3} and 10 wt. % ZnO). The dependences of film properties upon the substrate temperature was investigated using characterization methods including x-ray diffraction, atomic force microscope, Hall measurement, ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The films grown at room temperature had a rather smooth surface due to the amorphous structure, with a root mean square roughness of less than 1 nm. The atomic ratio of Zn/(Zn + In) in these films is 15.3 at. %, which is close to that in the target, and the chemical states of indium and zinc atoms were In{sup 3+} and Zn{sup 2+}, respectively. The films deposited on a substrate with a temperature of 200 Degree-Sign C exhibited polycrystalline structure and a preferred growth orientation along the (222) plane. Here the electrical properties were improved due to the better crystallinity, with the films exhibiting a minimum resistivity value of 4.2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -4}{Omega} cm, a maximum carrier mobility of 45 cm{sup 2} V{sup -1} s{sup -1}, and an optical transmittance over 80% in the visible region.

Wan Runlai; Yang Ming; Zhou Qianfei; Zhang Qun [Department of Materials Science, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China)

2012-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

336

Simple laws of urban growth  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

By analysing the evolution of the street network of Greater London from the late 1700s to the present, we are able to shed light on the inner mechanisms that lie behind the growth of a city. First we define an object called a city as a spatial discontinuous phenomena, from clustering the density of street intersections. Second, we find that the city growth mechanisms can be described by two logistic laws, hence can be determined by a simple model of urban network growth in the presence of competition for limited space.

Masucci, Paolo; Batty, Michael

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

337

Geology and Mineral Deposits of Churchill County, Nevada | Open Energy  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Geology and Mineral Deposits of Churchill County, Nevada Geology and Mineral Deposits of Churchill County, Nevada Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Report: Geology and Mineral Deposits of Churchill County, Nevada Abstract Churchill County, in west-central Nevada, is an area of varied topography and geology that has had a rather small total mineral production. The western part of the county is dominated by the broad low valley of the Carson Sink, which is underlain by deposits of Lake Lahontan. The bordering mountain ranges to the west and south are of low relief and underlain largely by Tertiary volcanic and sedimentary units. Pre-Tertiary rocks are extensively exposed east of the Carson Sink in the Stillwater Range, Clan Alpine Mountains, Augusta Mountains, and New Pass Mountains. The eastern

338

Analysis Of Hot Springs And Associated Deposits In Yellowstone National  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Hot Springs And Associated Deposits In Yellowstone National Hot Springs And Associated Deposits In Yellowstone National Park Using Aster And Aviris Remote Sensing Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Journal Article: Analysis Of Hot Springs And Associated Deposits In Yellowstone National Park Using Aster And Aviris Remote Sensing Details Activities (6) Areas (1) Regions (0) Abstract: The Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) and the Airborne Visible/IR Image Spectrometer (AVIRIS) data were used to characterize hot spring deposits in the Lower, Midway, and Upper Geyser Basins of Yellowstone National Park from the visible/near infrared (VNIR) to thermal infrared (TIR) wavelengths. Field observations of these basins provided the critical ground-truth for comparison with the

339

Y-12 Site Experience with Deposition Velocity Issues  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Site Experience with Site Experience with Deposition Velocity Issues Douglas Clark Analyst B&W Technical Services Y-12 May 9, 2012 Y-12 Site Experience with Deposition Velocity Issues Y-12 Specific Issues Y-12 Site Experience with Deposition Velocity Issues Windspeed - Calm Wind Conditions at Y-12 Site Y-12 Site Experience with Deposition Velocity Issues Windspeed - Stability Class Determinations * NRC RG 1.23 ΔT-only method * EPA-454/R-99-005 solar- radiation-delta-temperature (SRDT) method * Hybrid SR - DT method * wind direction standard deviation [sigma-theta (σ θ )] * elevation angle standard deviation [sigma-phi (σ φ )] * vertical wind speed standard deviation [sigma-omega (σ ω )], * wind-speed ratio method (u R ) * All evaluated using data from west

340

Remote Detection Of Quaternary Borate Deposits With Aster Satellite Imagery  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Of Quaternary Borate Deposits With Aster Satellite Imagery Of Quaternary Borate Deposits With Aster Satellite Imagery As A Geothermal Exploration Tool Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Conference Paper: Remote Detection Of Quaternary Borate Deposits With Aster Satellite Imagery As A Geothermal Exploration Tool Details Activities (2) Areas (2) Regions (0) Abstract: Unavailable Author(s): C. Kratt, M. Coolbaugh, Wendy Calvin Published: GRC, 2006 Document Number: Unavailable DOI: Unavailable Multispectral Imaging At Rhodes Marsh Area (Kratt, Et Al., 2006) Multispectral Imaging At Teels Marsh Area (Kratt, Et Al., 2006) Rhodes Marsh Geothermal Area Teels Marsh Geothermal Area Retrieved from "http://en.openei.org/w/index.php?title=Remote_Detection_Of_Quaternary_Borate_Deposits_With_Aster_Satellite_Imagery_As_A_Geothermal_Exploration_Tool&oldid=389959

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "deposition growth cxs" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Automatic Monitoring of the Amount of Deposited Precipitation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An automatic device for measurement of the amount (weight) of deposited precipitation developed at the Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, is described. Examples of measurements of various types of ...

J. Fišák; J. Chum; J. Vojta; K. Bart??ková

2013-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

342

Deposition of Particles Liberated in Gusts of Wind  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Theoretically, the aerial transport and deposition of fungal spores near to their source dependon the way in which they become airborne. Spores of some fungi are injected into the air, independentof wind speed, whereas others are blown from the ...

DONALD E. AYLOR; H. A. MCCARTNEY; A. BAINBRIOGE

1981-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

343

Kinetic Monte Carlo simulations of nanocrystalline film deposition  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A full diffusion kinetic Monte Carlo algorithm is used to model nanocrystalline film deposition, and study the mechanisms of grain nucleation and microstructure formation in such films. The major finding of this work is ...

Ruan, Shiyun

344

Atomic layer deposition for the conformal coating of nanoporous materials  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Atomic layer deposition (ALD) is ideal for applying precise and conformal coatings over nanoporous materials. We have recently used ALD to coat two nanoporous solids: anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) and silica aerogels. AAO possesses hexagonally ordered ...

Jeffrey W. Elam; Guang Xiong; Catherine Y. Han; H. Hau Wang; James P. Birrell; Ulrich Welp; John N. Hryn; Michael J. Pellin; Theodore F. Baumann; John F. Poco; Joe H. Satcher, Jr.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

345

Deposition and surface treatment with intense pulsed ion beams  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Intense pulsed ion beams (500 keV, 30 kA, 0.5 {mu}s) are being investigated for materials processing. Demonstrated and potential applications include film deposition, glazing and joining, alloying and mixing, cleaning and polishing, corrosion improvement, polymer surface treatments, and nanophase powder synthesis. Initial experiments at Los Alamos have emphasized thin-film formation by depositing beam ablated target material on substrates. We have deposited films with complex stoichiometry such as YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7-x}, and formed diamond-like-carbon films. Instantaneous deposition rates of 1 mm/sec have been achieved because of the short ion range (typically 1{mu}m), excellent target coupling, and the inherently high energy of these beams. Currently the beams are produced in single shot uncomplicated diodes with good electrical efficiency. High-voltage modulator technology and diodes capable of repetitive firing, needed for commercial application, are being developed.

Olson, J.C.; Davis, H.A.; Rej, D.J.; Waganaar, W.J. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Stinnett, R.W.; McIntyre, D.C. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

1995-02-08T23:59:59.000Z

346

Modeling the dynamics and depositional patterns of sandy rivers  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This thesis seeks to advance our understanding of the dynamic nature, spatial organization and depositional record of topography in sand-bedded rivers. I examine patterns and processes over a wide range of scales, on Earth ...

Jerolmack, Douglas J

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

347

Source apportionment of wet sulfate deposition in eastern North America  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

An analytical model of long distance transport of air pollutants (Fay and Rosenzweig, 1980) has been adapted for the estimation of long term (e.g. annual) wet sulfate deposition in eastern N. America. The model parameters ...

Fay, James A.

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

348

Preparing for a Deposition in a Patent Case  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Preparing for a Deposition in a Patent Case. Arnold B. Silverman. Patent litigation in the United States is tried before a federal district court, with or without a jury.

349

Fabrication of solid oxide fuel cell by electrochemical vapor deposition  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

In a high temperature solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC), the deposition of an impervious high density thin layer of electrically conductive interconnector material, such as magnesium doped lanthanum chromite, and of an electrolyte material, such as yttria stabilized zirconia, onto a porous support/air electrode substrate surface is carried out at high temperatures (approximately 1100.degree.-1300.degree. C.) by a process of electrochemical vapor deposition. In this process, the mixed chlorides of the specific metals involved react in the gaseous state with water vapor resulting in the deposit of an impervious thin oxide layer on the support tube/air electrode substrate of between 20-50 microns in thickness. An internal heater, such as a heat pipe, is placed within the support tube/air electrode substrate and induces a uniform temperature profile therein so as to afford precise and uniform oxide deposition kinetics in an arrangement which is particularly adapted for large scale, commercial fabrication of SOFCs.

Brian, Riley (Willimantic, CT); Szreders, Bernard E. (Oakdale, CT)

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

350

Fabrication of solid oxide fuel cell by electrochemical vapor deposition  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

In a high temperature solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC), the deposition of an impervious high density thin layer of electrically conductive interconnector material, such as magnesium doped lanthanum chromite, and of an electrolyte material, such as yttria stabilized zirconia, onto a porous support/air electrode substrate surface is carried out at high temperatures (/approximately/1100/degree/ /minus/ 1300/degree/C) by a process of electrochemical vapor deposition. In this process, the mixed chlorides of the specific metals involved react in the gaseous state with water vapor resulting in the deposit of an impervious thin oxide layer on the support tube/air electrode substrate of between 20--50 microns in thickness. An internal heater, such as a heat pipe, is placed within the support tube/air electrode substrate and induces a uniform temperature profile therein so as to afford precise and uniform oxide deposition kinetics in an arrangement which is particularly adapted for large scale, commercial fabrication of SOFCs.

Riley, B.; Szreders, B.E.

1988-04-26T23:59:59.000Z

351

Chemical vapor deposition of organosilicon and sacrificial polymer thin films  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) produced films for a wide array of applications from a variety of organosilicon and organic precursors. The structure and properties of thin films were controlled by varying processing ...

Casserly, Thomas Bryan

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

352

Glow discharge deposition at high rates using disilane  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The research program reported makes use of the fact that amorphous silicon films can be grown faster from disilane in a glow discharge than from the traditional silane. The goal is to find a method to grow films at a high rate and with sufficiently high quality to be used in an efficient solar cell. It must also be demonstrated that the appropriate device structure can be successfully fabricated under conditions which give high deposition rates. High quality intrinsic films have been deposited at 20 A/s. Efficiency of 5.6% on steel substrates and 5.3% on glass substrates were achieved using disilane i-layers deposited at 15 A/s in a basic structure, without wide-gap doped layers or light trapping. Wide gap p-layers were deposited using disilane. Results were compared with those obtained at Vactronic using high power discharges of silane-hydrogen mixtures. (LEW)

Rajeswaran, G.; Corderman, R.R.; Kampas, F.J.; Vanier, P.E.

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

353

Initiated chemical vapor deposition of functional polyacrylic thin films  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Initiated chemical vapor deposition (iCVD) was explored as a novel method for synthesis of functional polyacrylic thin films. The process introduces a peroxide initiator, which can be decomposed at low temperatures (<200?C) ...

Mao, Yu, 1975-

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

354

On Estimating Dry Deposition Rates in Complex Terrain  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In complex terrain, horizontal advection and filtration through a canopy can add substantially to the vertical diffusion component assumed to be the dominant transfer mechanism in conventional deposition velocity formulations. To illustrate this, ...

Bruce B. Hicks

2008-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

355

Properties of vacuum arc deposited amorphous hard carbon films  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Amorphous hard carbon films formed by vacuum arc deposition are hydrogen-free, dense, and very hard. The properties of amorphous hard carbon films depend strongly on the energy of the incident ions. A technique which is called Plasma Immersion Ion Implantation can be applied to vacuum arc deposition of amorphous hard carbon films to influence the ion energy. The authors have studied the influence of the ion energy on the elastic modulus determined by an ultrasonic method, and have measured the optical gap for films with the highest sp{sup 3} content they have obtained so far with this deposition technique. The results show an elastic modulus close to that of diamond, and an optical gap of 2.1 eV which is much greater than for amorphous hard carbon films deposited by other techniques.

Anders, S.; Anders, A.; Raoux, S. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)] [and others

1995-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

356

Computational Intelligence for Deepwater Reservoir Depositional Environments Interpretation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Predicting oil recovery efficiency of a deepwater reservoir is a challenging task. One approach to characterize a deepwater reservoir and to predict its producibility is by analyzing its depositional information. This research proposes a deposition-based stratigraphic interpretation framework for deepwater reservoir characterization. In this framework, one critical task is the identification and labeling of the stratigraphic components in the reservoir, according to their depositional environments. This interpretation process is labor intensive and can produce different results depending on the stratigrapher who performs the analysis. To relieve stratigrapher's workload and to produce more consistent results, we have developed a novel methodology to automate this process using various computational intelligence techniques. Using a well log data set, we demonstrate that the developed methodology and the designed workflow can produce finite state transducer models that interpret deepwater reservoir depositional...

Yu, Tina; Clark, Julian; Sullivan, Morgan; 10.1016/j.jngse.2011.07.014

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

357

U.S. Mercury Deposition Under Alternative Regulatory Scenarios  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Federal Clean Air Mercury Rule regulates electric utility mercury emissions while permitting individual states to enact stricter rules at their discretion. Computer modeling has shown how mercury deposition patterns will change if all regulated utility power plants follow the Federal rule, vs. alternative state rules. These patterns of deposition can be compared to the limiting case: what if all U.S. utility mercury emissions were zeroed out? The findings show that regulations stricter than the Feder...

2007-12-14T23:59:59.000Z

358

Molybdenum enhanced low-temperature deposition of crystalline silicon nitride  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process for chemical vapor deposition of crystalline silicon nitride is described which comprises the steps of: introducing a mixture of a silicon source, a molybdenum source, a nitrogen source, and a hydrogen source into a vessel containing a suitable substrate; and thermally decomposing the mixture to deposit onto the substrate a coating comprising crystalline silicon nitride containing a dispersion of molybdenum silicide. 5 figures.

Lowden, R.A.

1994-04-05T23:59:59.000Z

359

Process for thin film deposition of cadmium sulfide  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention teaches a process for depositing layers of cadmium sulfide. The process includes depositing a layer of cadmium oxide by spray pyrolysis of a cadmium salt in an aqueous or organic solvent. The oxide film is then converted into cadmium sulfide by thermal ion exchange of the O.sup.-2 for S.sup.-2 by annealing the oxide layer in gaseous sulfur at elevated temperatures.

Muruska, H. Paul (East Windsor, NJ); Sansregret, Joseph L. (Scotch Plains, NJ); Young, Archie R. (Montclair, NJ)

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

360

Photosensitivity of Pulsed Laser Deposited Amorphous (GeSe2)100 ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Photosensitivity of deposited layers in as-deposited as well as relaxed state was ... Ion Exchanged Mixed Glass Cullet Proppants for Stimulation of Oil and ...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "deposition growth cxs" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

ZnO Nanowires Grown on ZnO Thin Film Deposited by Atomic Layer ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this work the atomic layer deposition (ALD) technique was used to deposit the seeding ... 3D Multiwall Carbon Nanotubes (MWCNTs) for Li-Ion Battery Anode.

362

Stratigraphy of the PB-1 well, Nopal I uranium deposit, Sierra Pena Blanca, Chihuahua, Mexico  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Mexico, in Uranium Deposits in Volcanic Rocks, International Atomic EnergyMéxico, in Uranium Deposits in Volcanic Rocks, International Atomic Energy

Dobson, P.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

363

Natural mercury isotope variation in coal deposits and organic soils  

SciTech Connect

There is a need to distinguish among sources of Hg to the atmosphere in order to more fully understand global Hg pollution. In this study we investigate whether coal deposits within the United States, China, and Russia-Kazakhstan, which are three of the five greatest coal-producing regions, have diagnostic Hg isotopic fingerprints that can be used to discriminate among Hg sources. We also investigate the Hg isotopic composition of modern organic soil horizons developed in areas distant from point sources of Hg in North America. Mercury stored in coal deposits displays a wide range of both mass dependent fractionation and mass independent fractionation. {delta}{sup 202}Hg varies in coals by 3{per_thousand} and {Delta}{sup 201}Hg varies by 0.9{per_thousand}. Combining these two Hg isotope signals results in what may be a unique isotopic 'fingerprint' for many coal deposits. Mass independent fractionation of mercury has been demonstrated to occur during photochemical reactions of mercury. This suggests that Hg found in most coal deposits was subjected to photochemical reduction near the Earth's surface prior to deposition. The similarity in MDF and MIF of modern organic soils and coals from North America suggests that Hg deposition from coal may have imprinted an isotopic signature on soils. This research offers a new tool for characterizing mercury inputs from natural and anthropogenic sources to the atmosphere and provides new insights into the geochemistry of mercury in coal and soils. 35 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

Abir, Biswas; Joel D. Blum; Bridget A. Bergquist; Gerald J. Keeler; Zhouqing Xie [University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States). Department of Geological Sciences

2008-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

364

Application of throughfall methods to estimate dry deposition of mercury  

SciTech Connect

Several dry deposition methods for Mercury (Hg) are being developed and tested in our laboratory. These include big-leaf and multilayer resistance models, micrometeorological methods such as Bowen ratio gradient approaches, laboratory controlled plant chambers, and throughfall. We have previously described our initial results using modeling and gradient methods. Throughfall may be used to estimate Hg dry deposition if some simplifying assumptions are met. We describe here the application and initial results of throughfull studies at the Walker Branch Watershed forest, and discuss the influence of certain assumptions on interpretation of the data. Throughfall appears useful in that it can place a lower bound to dry deposition under field conditions. Our preliminary throughfall data indicate net dry deposition rates to a pine canopy which increase significantly from winter to summer, as previously predicted by our resistance model. Atmospheric data suggest that rainfall washoff of fine aerosol dry deposition at this site is not sufficient to account for all of the Hg in net throughfall. Potential additional sources include dry deposited gas-phase compounds, soil-derived coarse aerosols, and oxidation reactions at the leaf surface.

Lindberg, S.E.; Owens, J.G. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Stratton, W. [Earlham Coll., Richmond, IN (United States). Dept. of Chemistry

1992-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

365

Film deposition and surface modification using intense pulsed ion beams  

SciTech Connect

High-power pulsed ion beams have been used to ablate material for ultrahigh-rate film deposition and to treat the surfaces of alloys. Pulsed ion beams were provided by the high-power-density Gamble II facility at the Naval Research Laboratory [high voltage ({similar_to}900 keV), short pulse (60 ns)] and the lower-power-density Anaconda facility at Los Alamos National Laboratory [lower voltage ({similar_to}300 keV), longer pulse (400 ns)]. Peak film deposition rates after target ablation reached 1 mm/s. Films of pure Al, pure Ta, YBCO, and Ni--Zn ferrite were deposited on glass and single-crystal substrates, in some cases heated. The film deposition process was studied with framing photography, a bolometer, and other diagnostics to gain an understanding of the ablation, transport, and deposition steps. Stoichiometric deposition of multicomponent targets has been demonstrated. Film morphology remains poor, but has steadily improved, and our present understanding points the way to further improvement. Lower fluences ({similar_to}5 J/cm{sup 2}) were used to investigate rapid thermal processing of metal surfaces for the enhancement of corrosion resistance. The results in this area have been negative, but here again the knowledge gained through these experiments allows us to propose directions for improvement. {copyright} {ital 1995} {ital American} {ital Vacuum} {ital Society}

Meli, C.A.; Grabowski, K.S.; Hinshelwood, D.D.; Stephanakis, S.J. [Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375 (United States)] [Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375 (United States); Rej, D.J.; Waganaar, W.J. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States)] [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States)

1995-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

366

1986 wet deposition temporal and spatial patterns in North America  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The focus of this report is on North American wet deposition temporal patterns from 1979 to 1986 and spatial patterns for 1986. The report provides statistical distribution summaries of annual precipitation-weighted average concentration and annual deposition for nine ion species: hydrogen, sulfate, nitrate, ammonium, calcium, chloride, sodium, potassium, and magnesium. The data in the report are from the Acid Depositing System (ADS) for the statistical reporting of North American deposition data. Isopleth maps, based on surface estimation using kriging, display concentration and deposition spatial patterns of pH, hydrogen, sulfate, nitrate, ammonium, and calcium ion species for 1986 annual, winter, and summer periods. The temporal pattern analyses use a subset of 30 sites over an 8-year (1979-1986) period and an expanded subset of 137 sites with greater spatial coverage over a 5-year (1982-1986) period. The 8-year period represents the longest period with wet deposition monitoring data unavailable that has a sufficient number of sites with data of known quality to allow a descriptive summary of annual temporal patterns. 19 refs., 105 figs., 29 tabs.

Olsen, A.R.

1989-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

367

Deposit information in gasoline engines: Part I. Base oil effects in sequence VE deposits  

SciTech Connect

Base oil effects on sludge and deposit formation in the ASTM Sequence VE were studied with blends made using the same American Petroleum Institute (API) SG performance package and the same viscosity improver. One percent of the dispersant was removed from the formulation to accentuate base oil effects. Nine tests on six different 100N base oils were run. Sequence VE test lubricant drain analyses show differences in insolubles, viscosity, and particle size with base stock variations. The most significant base oil factors which can be used to predict Sequence VE sludge ratings are the base oil saturate content, polar content, and volatility. While all oils studied passed the Sequence VE API SG engine varnish and piston varnish requirements, higher levels of poly-nuclear aromatics (PNA`s) are shown to increase the severity of these ratings.

Supp, J.A.; Kornbrekke, R.E.; Roby, S.H. [Lubrizol Corporation, Wickliffe, OH (United States)

1994-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

368

Method and apparatus for removing and preventing window deposition during photochemical vapor deposition (photo-CVD) processes  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Unwanted build-up of the film deposited on the transparent light-transmitting window of a photochemical vacuum deposition (photo-CVD) chamber is eliminated by flowing an etchant into the part of the photolysis region in the chamber immediately adjacent the window and remote from the substrate and from the process gas inlet. The respective flows of the etchant and the process gas are balanced to confine the etchant reaction to the part of the photolysis region proximate to the window and remote from the substrate. The etchant is preferably one that etches film deposit on the window, does not etch or affect the window itself, and does not produce reaction by-products that are deleterious to either the desired film deposited on the substrate or to the photolysis reaction adjacent the substrate.

Tsuo, Simon (Lakewood, CO); Langford, Alison A. (Boulder, CO)

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

369

Method and apparatus for removing and preventing window deposition during photochemical vapor deposition (photo-CVD) processes  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Unwanted build-up of the film deposited on the transparent light-transmitting window of a photochemical vacuum deposition (photo-CVD) chamber is eliminated by flowing an etchant into the part of the photolysis region in the chamber immediately adjacent the window and remote from the substrate and from the process gas inlet. The respective flows of the etchant and the process gas are balanced to confine the etchant reaction to the part of the photolysis region proximate to the window and remote from the substrate. The etchant is preferably one that etches film deposit on the window, does not etch or affect the window itself, and does not produce reaction by-products that are deleterious to either the desired film deposited on the substrate or to the photolysis reaction adjacent the substrate. 3 figs.

Tsuo, S.; Langford, A.A.

1989-03-28T23:59:59.000Z

370

Interfacial reactions of Gd- and Nb-oxide based high-k layers deposited by aqueous chemical solution deposition  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this work, ultrathin layers of GdOx, NbOx and GdNbOx, deposited with ACSD have been investigated. Because of the high temperature anneals utilized in the process flow of electronic devices, interactions of the deposited high-k materials and the substrate ... Keywords: ACSD, Ellipsometry, GATR-FTIR, GdNbOx, GdOx, HT-XRD, High temperature anneal, High-k, Interlayer formation, NbOx, Thickness variation

D. Dewulf; N. Peys; S. Van Elshocht; G. Rampelberg; C. Detavernier; S. De Gendt; A. Hardy; M. K. Van Bael

2011-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

371

Categorical Exclusion (CX) Determinations By Date | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

2, 2010 2, 2010 CX-001181: Categorical Exclusion Determination Santiam Substation Renovation CX(s) Applied: B1.16 Date: 03/12/2010 Location(s): Linn County, Oregon Office(s): Bonneville Power Administration March 12, 2010 CX-001147: Categorical Exclusion Determination Implementation of Process Simulation Tools and Temperature Control Methods for Metal Oxide Chemical Vapor Deposition Growth CX(s) Applied: B3.6 Date: 03/12/2010 Location(s): Somerset, New Jersey Office(s): Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory March 12, 2010 CX-001182: Categorical Exclusion Determination Access Road Improvement Project for Structure 12/1 of the Snoking Tap to Echo Lake-Monroe Number 1 Transmission Line CX(s) Applied: B1.13 Date: 03/12/2010 Location(s): Snohomish, Washington

372

Categorical Exclusion (CX) Determinations By Date | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

2, 2010 2, 2010 CX-006104: Categorical Exclusion Determination California-City-Temecula CX(s) Applied: A1, A9, A11, B1.32, B2.5, B5.1 Date: 03/12/2010 Location(s): Temecula, California Office(s): Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy March 12, 2010 CX-001181: Categorical Exclusion Determination Santiam Substation Renovation CX(s) Applied: B1.16 Date: 03/12/2010 Location(s): Linn County, Oregon Office(s): Bonneville Power Administration March 12, 2010 CX-001147: Categorical Exclusion Determination Implementation of Process Simulation Tools and Temperature Control Methods for Metal Oxide Chemical Vapor Deposition Growth CX(s) Applied: B3.6 Date: 03/12/2010 Location(s): Somerset, New Jersey Office(s): Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory

373

Green Growth Strategy Support | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

navigation, search Name Green Growth Strategy Support AgencyCompany Organization Global Green Growth Institute (GGGI) Partner Brazilian Finance Ministry, EMBRAPA, FGV, Danish...

374

Cosmic Growth History and Expansion History  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

LBNL- 58260 Cosmic Growth History andExpansion History Eric V. Linder Physics Division, LawrenceCalifornia. Cosmic Growth History and Expansion History Eric

Linder, Eric V.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

375

Cosmic Growth History and Expansion History  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of the expansion history dark energy equation of state,and growth history constraints on the dark energy equationand growth history constraints on the dark energy equation

Linder, Eric V.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

376

Fluid mixing during deposition of bedded-replacement (BR) deposits in the Illinois-Kentucky fluorspar district  

SciTech Connect

The Illinois-Kentucky(IK) district is unusual by comparison to other Mississippi Valley-type (MVT) districts in the central US in that it contains fluorspar mineralization primarily, with subordinate quantities of base metals. This mineralization occurs as vein, BR, and breccia-hosted deposits. A clearly discernible paragenetic sequence of color banded fluorite sulfides, carbonates, and sulfates is present in BR deposits in three sub-districts: Cave-in-Rock, Harris Creek, and Carrsville. Homogenization temperatures (T[sub b]) and salinities of fluids in fluorite show that BR deposits formed from at least three fluids, a lower temperature-higher salinity connate fluid (F1) and a higher temperature-lower salinity connate fluid (F2) that mixed at the site of deposition. These fluids were followed by a lower temperature-lower salinity meteoric dominated fluid (F3). The involvement of two distinct regional fluids: a lower temperature, more-saline fluid, and a warmer, less-saline fluid, during mineralization of MVT deposits has previously been recognized for Pb-Zn deposits in southeast Missouri (Shelton et al., 1992), and east Tennessee (Zimmerman and Kesler, 1981; Taylor et al. 1983).

Spry, P.G.; Fuhrmann, G.D. (Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States). Dept. of Geological Atmospheric Sciences)

1993-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

377

Ash Deposit Formation and Deposit Properties. A Comprehensive Summary of Research Conducted at Sandia's Combustion Research Facility  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes experimental and theoretical work performed at Sandia's Combustion Research Facility over the past eight years on the fate of inorganic material during coal combustion. This work has been done under four broad categories: coal characterization, fly ash formation, ash deposition, and deposit property development. The objective was to provide sufficient understanding of these four areas to be able to predict coal behavior in current and advanced conversion systems. This work has led to new characterization techniques for fuels that provide, for the first time, systematic and species specific information regarding the inorganic material. The transformations of inorganic material during combustion can be described in terms of the net effects of the transformations of these individual species. Deposit formation mechanisms provide a framework for predicting deposition rates for abroad range of particle sizes. Predictions based on these rates many times are quite accurate although there are important exceptions. A rigorous framework for evaluating deposit has been established. Substantial data have been obtained with which to exercise this framework, but this portion of the work is less mature than is any other. Accurate prediction of deposit properties as functions of fuel properties, boiler design, and boiler operating conditions represents the single most critical area where additional research is needed.

Larry L. Baxter

2000-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

378

Heteroepitaxial growth of GaN/Si (111) junctions in ammonia-free atmosphere: Charge transport, optoelectronic, and photovoltaic properties  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We report the catalyst-free growth of gallium nitride (GaN) nanostructures on n-Si (111) substrates using physical vapor deposition via thermal evaporation of GaN powder at 1150 Degree-Sign C in the absence of NH{sub 3} gas. Scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive x-ray analysis indicate that the growth rate of GaN nanostructures varies with deposition time. Photoluminescence spectra showed the suppression of the UV emission and the enhancement of the visible band emission with increasing the deposition time. The fabricated GaN nanostructures exhibited p-type behavior at the GaN/Si interface, which can be related to the diffusion of Ga into the Si substrate. The obtained lowest reflection and highest transmittance over a wide wavelength range (450-750 nm) indicate the high quality of the fabricated GaN films. Hall-effect measurements showed that all fabricated films have p-type behavior with decreasing electron concentration from 10{sup 21} to 10{sup 12} cm{sup -3} and increasing the electron mobility from 50 to 225 cm{sup 2}/V s with increasing the growth time. The fabricated solar cell based on the 1 h-deposited GaN nanostructures on n-Si (111) substrate showed a well-defined rectifying behavior with a rectification ratio larger than 8.32 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 3} in dark. Upon illumination (30 mW/cm{sup 2}), the 1 h-deposited heterojunction solar cell device showed a conversion efficiency of 5.78%. The growth of GaN in the absence of NH{sub 3} gas has strong effect on the morphological, optical, and electrical properties and consequently on the efficiency of the solar cell devices made of such layers.

Saron, K. M. A.; Hashim, M. R. [Nano-Optoelectronics Research and Technology Laboratory, School of Physics, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Penang 11800 (Malaysia); Allam, Nageh K. [Energy Materials Laboratory (EML), Department of Physics, School of Sciences and Engineering, The American University in Cairo, New Cairo 11835 (Egypt)

2013-03-28T23:59:59.000Z

379

In-situ deposition of high-k dielectrics on III-V compound semiconductor in MOCVD system  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In situ deposition of high-k materials to passivate the GaAs in metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) system was well demonstrated. Both atomic layer deposition (ALD) and chemical vapor deposition (CVD) methods ...

Cheng, Cheng-Wei, Ph.D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

380

Epitaxial strontium titanate films grown by atomic layer deposition on SrTiO{sub 3}-buffered Si(001) substrates  

SciTech Connect

Epitaxial strontium titanate (STO) films have been grown by atomic layer deposition (ALD) on Si(001) substrates with a thin STO buffer layer grown by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE). Four unit cells of STO grown by MBE serve as the surface template for ALD growth. The STO films grown by ALD are crystalline as-deposited with minimal, if any, amorphous SiO{sub x} layer at the STO-Si interface. The growth of STO was achieved using bis(triisopropylcyclopentadienyl)-strontium, titanium tetraisopropoxide, and water as the coreactants at a substrate temperature of 250 Degree-Sign C. In situ x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis revealed that the ALD process did not induce additional Si-O bonding at the STO-Si interface. Postdeposition XPS analysis also revealed sporadic carbon incorporation in the as-deposited films. However, annealing at a temperature of 250 Degree-Sign C for 30 min in moderate to high vacuum (10{sup -6}-10{sup -9} Torr) removed the carbon species. Higher annealing temperatures (>275 Degree-Sign C) gave rise to a small increase in Si-O bonding, as indicated by XPS, but no reduced Ti species were observed. X-ray diffraction revealed that the as-deposited STO films were c-axis oriented and fully crystalline. A rocking curve around the STO(002) reflection gave a full width at half maximum of 0.30 Degree-Sign {+-} 0.06 Degree-Sign for film thicknesses ranging from 5 to 25 nm. Cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy revealed that the STO films were continuous with conformal growth to the substrate and smooth interfaces between the ALD- and MBE-grown STO. Overall, the results indicate that thick, crystalline STO can be grown on Si(001) substrates by ALD with minimal formation of an amorphous SiO{sub x} layer using a four-unit-cell STO buffer layer grown by MBE to serve as the surface template.

McDaniel, Martin D.; Posadas, Agham; Ngo, Thong Q.; Dhamdhere, Ajit; Smith, David J.; Demkov, Alexander A.; Ekerdt, John G. [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Texas at Austin, 1 University Station C0400, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States); Department of Physics, University of Texas at Austin, 1 University Station C1600, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States); Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Texas at Austin, 1 University Station C0400, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States); Department of Physics, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona 85287-1504 (United States); Department of Physics, University of Texas at Austin, 1 University Station C1600, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States); Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Texas at Austin, 1 University Station C0400, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States)

2013-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "deposition growth cxs" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Atmospheric Plasma Deposition of Diamond-like Carbon Coatings  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

DLC coatings in a low-pressure environment. For example, ion beam processes are widely utilized since the ion bombardment is thought to promote denser sp3-bonded carbon networks. Other processes, such as sputtering, are better suited for coating large parts [29,30,44]. However, the deposition of DLC in a vacuum system has several disadvantages, including high equipment cost and restrictions on the size and shape of material that may be treated. The deposition of DLC at atmospheric pressure has been demonstrated by several researchers. Izake, et al [53] and Novikov and Dymont [54] have demonstrated an electrochemical process that is carried out with organic compounds such as methanol and acetylene dissolved in ammonia. This process requires that the substrates be immersed in the liquid [53-54]. The atmospheric pressure deposition of DLC was also demonstrated by Kulik, et al. utilizing a plasma torch. However, this process requires operating temperatures in excess of 800 oC [55]. In this report, we investigate the deposition of diamond-like carbon films using a low temperature, atmospheric pressure plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) process. The films were characterized by solid-state carbon-13 nuclear magnetic resonance (13C NMR) and found to have a ratio of sp2 to sp3 carbon of 43 to 57%. The films were also tested for adhesion, coefficient of friction, and dielectric strength.

Ladwig, Angela

2008-01-23T23:59:59.000Z

382

Phenolic acids as bioindicators of fly ash deposit revegetation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The floristic composition, the abundance, and the cover of pioneer plant species of spontaneously formed plant communities and the content of total phenolics and phenolic acids, as humus constituents, of an ash deposit after 7 years of recultivation were studied. The restoration of both the soil and the vegetation on the ash deposits of the 'Nikola Tesla-A' thermoelectric power plant in Obrenovac (Serbia) is an extremely slow process. Unfavorable physical and chemical characteristics, the toxicity of fly ash, and extreme microclimatic conditions prevented the development of compact plant cover. The abundance and cover of plants increased from the central part of the deposit towards its edges. Festuca rubra L., Crepis setosa Hall., Erigeron canadensis L., Cirsium arvense (L.) Scop., Calamagrostis epigeios (L.) Roth., and Tamarix gallica L. were the most abundant species, thus giving the highest cover. Humus generated during the decomposition process of plant remains represents a completely new product absent in the ash as the starting material. The amount of total phenolics and phenolic acids in fly ash increased from the center of the deposit towards its edges in correlation with the increase in plant abundance and cover. The presence of phenolic acids indicates the ongoing process of humus formation in the ash, in which the most abundant pioneer plants of spontaneously formed plant communities play the main role. Phenolic compounds can serve as reliable bioindicators in an assessment of the success of the recultivation process of thermoelectric power plants' ash deposits.

L. Djurdjevic; M. Mitrovic; P. Pavlovic; G. Gajic; O. Kostic [Institute for Biological Research 'Sinisa Stankovic,' Belgrade (Serbia and Montenegro). Department of Ecology

2006-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

383

1988 Wet deposition temporal and spatial patterns in North America  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The focus of this report is on North American wet deposition temporal patterns from 1979 to 1988 and spatial patterns for 1988. It is the third in a series of reports that investigate the patterns of annual precipitation-weighted average concentration and annual deposition for nine ion species: hydrogen, sulfate, nitrate, ammonium, calcium, chloride, sodium, potassium, and magnesium. Mosaic maps, based on surface estimation using kriging, display concentration and deposition spatial patterns of pH, hydrogen, sulfate, nitrate, ammonium, and calcium ion species for 1988 annual, winter, and summer periods. Temporal pattern analyses use a subset of 35 sites over a 10-year (1979--1988) period and an expanded subset of 137 sites, with greater spatial coverage, over a 7-year (1982--1988) period. The 10-year period represents the longest period with wet deposition monitoring data available that has a sufficient number of sites with data of known quality to allow a descriptive summary of annual temporal patterns. Sen`s median trend estimate and Kendall`s seasonal tau (KST) test are calculated for each ion species concentration and deposition at each site in both subsets.

Simpson, J.C.; Olsen, A.R.; Bittner, E.A.

1992-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

384

1988 Wet deposition temporal and spatial patterns in North America  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The focus of this report is on North American wet deposition temporal patterns from 1979 to 1988 and spatial patterns for 1988. It is the third in a series of reports that investigate the patterns of annual precipitation-weighted average concentration and annual deposition for nine ion species: hydrogen, sulfate, nitrate, ammonium, calcium, chloride, sodium, potassium, and magnesium. Mosaic maps, based on surface estimation using kriging, display concentration and deposition spatial patterns of pH, hydrogen, sulfate, nitrate, ammonium, and calcium ion species for 1988 annual, winter, and summer periods. Temporal pattern analyses use a subset of 35 sites over a 10-year (1979--1988) period and an expanded subset of 137 sites, with greater spatial coverage, over a 7-year (1982--1988) period. The 10-year period represents the longest period with wet deposition monitoring data available that has a sufficient number of sites with data of known quality to allow a descriptive summary of annual temporal patterns. Sen's median trend estimate and Kendall's seasonal tau (KST) test are calculated for each ion species concentration and deposition at each site in both subsets.

Simpson, J.C.; Olsen, A.R.; Bittner, E.A.

1992-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

385

Rate-dependent morphology of Li2O2 growth in Li-O2 batteries  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Compact solid discharge products enable energy storage devices with high gravimetric and volumetric energy densities, but solid deposits on active surfaces can disturb charge transport and induce mechanical stress. In this Letter we develop a nanoscale continuum model for the growth of Li2O2 crystals in lithium-oxygen batteries with organic electrolytes, based on a theory of electrochemical non-equilibrium thermodynamics originally applied to Li-ion batteries. As in the case of lithium insertion in phase-separating LiFePO4 nanoparticles, the theory predicts a transition from complex to uniform morphologies of Li2O2 with increasing current. Discrete particle growth at low discharge rates becomes suppressed at high rates, resulting in a film of electronically insulating Li2O2 that limits cell performance. We predict that the transition between these surface growth modes occurs at current densities close to the exchange current density of the cathode reaction, consistent with experimental observations.

Horstmann, B; Mitchell, R; Bessler, W G; Shao-Horn, Y; Bazant, M Z

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

386

Photovoltaic cells fabricated by electrophoretic deposition of CdSe nanocrystals  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Photovoltaic cells fabricated by electrophoretic deposition of CdSe nanocrystals Nathanael J. Smith Electrophoretic deposition was used to deposit CdSe nanocrystals on TiO2 for use in photovoltaic cells formed. A solar cell constructed using electrophoretic deposition exhibited a photovoltaic response from

Smith, Nathanael J.

387

Low temperature plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition of silicon oxide films using disilane and nitrous oxide  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Keywords: disilane, low temperature, nitrous oxide, plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition, silicon oxide

Juho Song; G. S. Lee; P. K. Ajmera

1995-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

388

Rural Public Pension and Endogenous Growth  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Employing an endogenous growth model, this paper investigates China’s rural public pension system. We examine the effects of the policy variables on the labor income growth, population growth, etc. The positive effect of the basic benefit rate ... Keywords: rural area, public pension, endogenous growth

Zaigui Yang

2010-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

389

Poster CATALYST SULPHUR ADDITIVES IN THE GROWTH OF CARBON NANOTUBES  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Scientific community have recently focused especial attention on carbon nanomaterials, specially on carbon nanotubes (CNTs), because of their fascinating physical properties and potential applications [1]. Some of these applications, such as gas and energy storage, require high yields of well-defined qualities, what makes Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) one of the most appropriate methods for the synthesis of carbon nanotubes as it is easily scalable and makes the synthesis economically available. CVD is a versatile and promising method for CNTs synthesis as it offers the possibility of controlling a high yield synthesis of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) with specific properties by only controlling the different parameters taking place in the furnace during the hydrocarbon feedstock decomposition over a metal catalyst [2]. This communication explores the growth of CNTs by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) from methane decomposition over different catalysts prepared by the sol-gel technique, using MgO as support [3, 4] and varying the transition metal (active element in the catalyst). The aim of this work is to study the influence of additives, especially sulphur in different forms, on the activity of this kind of supported catalysts and how do the yield, morphology and physical

C. Vallés; M. Pérez-mendoza; G. Legac; W. K. Maser; M. T. Martínez; A. M. Benito

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

390

Chrome Deposit Corporation and the University of Delaware IAC: Another  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Chrome Deposit Corporation and the University of Delaware IAC: Chrome Deposit Corporation and the University of Delaware IAC: Another Energy Efficiency Success Story Chrome Deposit Corporation and the University of Delaware IAC: Another Energy Efficiency Success Story November 2, 2011 - 2:11pm Addthis Pictured left to right: University of Delaware students Joseph Camp and Nicole Suto; Keith Goossen, director of the Industrial Assessment Center; and Cesar Duarte, University of Delaware grad student. | Image courtesy of UD. Pictured left to right: University of Delaware students Joseph Camp and Nicole Suto; Keith Goossen, director of the Industrial Assessment Center; and Cesar Duarte, University of Delaware grad student. | Image courtesy of UD. April Saylor April Saylor Former Digital Outreach Strategist, Office of Public Affairs

391

Remote Detection of Quaternary Borate Deposits with ASTER Satellite Imagery  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Remote Detection of Quaternary Borate Deposits with ASTER Satellite Imagery Remote Detection of Quaternary Borate Deposits with ASTER Satellite Imagery as a Geothermal Exploration Tool Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Conference Paper: Remote Detection of Quaternary Borate Deposits with ASTER Satellite Imagery as a Geothermal Exploration Tool Abstract In the Great Basin of the western United States, geothermal fluids are sometimes associated with surface crusts of borate evaporite minerals. These borates can therefore potentially serve as a geothermal exploration tool if they can be efficiently identified and mapped in the field. We demonstrate the effectiveness of using a field-portable ASD Fieldspec® spectroradiometer, and satellite-based Advanced Spaceborne Thermal and Emitted Reflectance Radiometer (ASTER) imagery for mapping borate minerals

392

Deposition of device quality low H content, amorphous silicon films  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A high quality, low hydrogen content, hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) film is deposited by passing a stream of silane gas (SiH{sub 4}) over a high temperature, 2,000 C, tungsten (W) filament in the proximity of a high temperature, 400 C, substrate within a low pressure, 8 mTorr, deposition chamber. The silane gas is decomposed into atomic hydrogen and silicon, which in turn collides preferably not more than 20--30 times before being deposited on the hot substrate. The hydrogenated amorphous silicon films thus produced have only about one atomic percent hydrogen, yet have device quality electrical, chemical, and structural properties, despite this lowered hydrogen content. 7 figs.

Mahan, A.H.; Carapella, J.C.; Gallagher, A.C.

1995-03-14T23:59:59.000Z

393

MACCS2/Deposition Velocity Workshop | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

You are here You are here Home » MACCS2/Deposition Velocity Workshop MACCS2/Deposition Velocity Workshop The Department of Energy's Chief of Nuclear Safety hosted a MACCS2/Deposition Velocity Workshop on June 5-6, 2012, in Germantown, Maryland. Approximately 70 participants attended. The purpose of the workshop was to: Discuss MACCS2 and atmospheric dispersion models as applied to DOE consequence analysis. Discuss implementation of HSS Safety Bulletin 2011-2, Accident Analysis Parameter Update, at field sites. Develop a consistent Department-wide approach for responding to the HSS Safety Bulletin. Identify areas for improved DOE guidance for ensuring defensible consequence analyses. June Workshop Agenda- Final.docx Atmospheric Dispersion Modeling in Safety Analyses; GENII

394

Why sequence freshwater manganese depositing β-proteobacterium  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

freshwater manganese depositing β-proteobacterium freshwater manganese depositing β-proteobacterium (Siderocapsaceae)? Stream biofilms are key component of stream food webs and contain bacteria that contribute to the carbon and nitrogen cycles. A slow-growing bacterium isolated from a freshwater stream biofilm has potential bioenergy and bioremediation applications. JOSHI_001 is part of a class of bacteria that deposit iron and manganese precipitates externally to the colony early in its life cycle and could be used for fuel cells and to help clean up manganese contaminated water. Members of the Siderocapsaceae family to which JOSHI_001 belongs have been observed in biofilms for the past century, but have never before been isolated and cultivated in a laboratory environment. As a result, researchers have not been able to learn about the

395

Digital electronic bone growth stimulator  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A device is described for stimulating bone tissue by applying a low level alternating current signal directly to the patient`s skin. A crystal oscillator, a binary divider chain and digital logic gates are used to generate the desired waveforms that reproduce the natural electrical characteristics found in bone tissue needed for stimulating bone growth and treating osteoporosis. The device, powered by a battery, contains a switch allowing selection of the correct waveform for bone growth stimulation or osteoporosis treatment so that, when attached to the skin of the patient using standard skin contact electrodes, the correct signal is communicated to the underlying bone structures. 5 figs.

Kronberg, J.W.

1995-05-09T23:59:59.000Z

396

Digital electronic bone growth stimulator  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A device for stimulating bone tissue by applying a low level alternating current signal directly to the patient's skin. A crystal oscillator, a binary divider chain and digital logic gates are used to generate the desired waveforms that reproduce the natural electrical characteristics found in bone tissue needed for stimulating bone growth and treating osteoporosis. The device, powered by a battery, contains a switch allowing selection of the correct waveform for bone growth stimulation or osteoporosis treatment so that, when attached to the skin of the patient using standard skin contact electrodes, the correct signal is communicated to the underlying bone structures.

Kronberg, James W. (Aiken, SC)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

397

Nonlinear structural crack growth monitoring  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method and apparatus are provided for the detection, through nonlinear manipulation of data, of an indicator of imminent failure due to crack growth in structural elements. The method is a process of determining energy consumption due to crack growth and correlating the energy consumption with physical phenomena indicative of a failure event. The apparatus includes sensors for sensing physical data factors, processors or the like for computing a relationship between the physical data factors and phenomena indicative of the failure event, and apparatus for providing notification of the characteristics and extent of such phenomena.

Welch, Donald E. (Oak Ridge, TN); Hively, Lee M. (Philadelphia, TN); Holdaway, Ray F. (Clinton, TN)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

398

Formation of metal oxides by cathodic arc deposition  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Metal oxide thin films are of interest for a number of applications. Cathodic arc deposition, an established, industrially applied technique for formation of nitrides (e.g. TiN), can also be used for metal oxide thin film formation. A cathodic arc plasma source with desired cathode material is operated in an oxygen atmosphere, and metal oxides of various stoichiometric composition can be formed on different substrates. We report here on a series of experiments on metal oxide formation by cathodic arc deposition for different applications. Black copper oxide has been deposited on ALS components to increase the radiative heat transfer between the parts. Various metal oxides such as tungsten oxide, niobium oxide, nickel oxide and vanadium oxide have been deposited on ITO glass to form electrochromic films for window applications. Tantalum oxide films are of interest for replacing polymer electrolytes. Optical waveguide structures can be formed by refractive index variation using oxide multilayers. We have synthesized multilayers of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}/AI{sub 2}O{sub 3}/Si as possible basic structures for passive optoelectronic integrated circuits, and Al{sub 2-x}Er{sub x}O{sub 3} thin films with a variable Er concentration which is a potential component layer for the production of active optoelectronic integrated devices such as amplifiers or lasers at a wavelength of 1.53 {mu}m. Aluminum and chromium oxide films have been deposited on a number of substrates to impart improved corrosion resistance at high temperature. Titanium sub-oxides which are electrically conductive and corrosion resistant and stable in a number of aggressive environments have been deposited on various substrates. These sub-oxides are of great interest for use in electrochemical cells.

Anders, S.; Anders, A.; Rubin, M.; Wang, Z.; Raoux, S.; Kong, F.; Brown, I.G.

1995-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

399

Combustion chemical vapor deposited coatings for thermal barrier coating systems  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The new deposition process, combustion chemical vapor deposition, shows a great deal of promise in the area of thermal barrier coating systems. This technique produces dense, adherent coatings, and does not require a reaction chamber. Coatings can therefore be applied in the open atmosphere. The process is potentially suitable for producing high quality CVD coatings for use as interlayers between the bond coat and thermal barrier coating, and/or as overlayers, on top of thermal barrier coatings. In this report, the evaluation of alumina and ceria coatings on a nickel-chromium alloy is described.

Hampikian, J.M.; Carter, W.B. [Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States). School of Materials Science and Engineering

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

400

Particle Velocity and Deposition Efficiency in the Cold Spray Process  

SciTech Connect

Copper powder was sprayed by the cold-gas dynamic method. In-flight particle velocities were measured with a laser-two-focus system as a function of process parameters such as gas temperature, gas pressure, and powder feed rate. Particle velocities were uniform in a relatively large volume within the plume and agreed with theoretical predictions. The presence of the substrate was found to have no significant effect on particle velocities. Cold-spray deposition efficiencies were measured on aluminum substrates as a function of particle velocity and incident angle of the plume. Deposition efficiencies of up to 95% were achieved. The critical velocity for deposition was determined to be about 640 meters per second. This work investigates both the in-flight characteristics of copper particles in a supersonic cold-spray plume and the build-up of the subsequent coating on aluminum substrates. Velocities were found to be relatively constant within a large volume of the plume. Particle counts dropped off sharply away from the central axis. The presence of a substrate was found to have no effect on the velocity of the particles. A substantial mass-loading effect on the particle velocity was observed; particle velocities begin to drop as the mass ratio of powder to gas flow rates exceeds 3%. The measured variation of velocity with gas pressure and pre-heat temperature was in fairly good agreement with theoretical predictions. Helium may be used as the driving gas instead of air in order to achieve higher particle velocities for a given temperature and pressure. Coating deposition efficiencies were found to increase with particle velocity and decrease with gun- substrate angle. There did not appear to be any dependence of the deposition efficiency on coating thickness. A critical velocity for deposition of about 640 mk appears to fit the data well. The cold-spray technique shows promise as a method for the deposition of materials which are thermally sensitive or may experience rapid oxidation under typical thermal spray conditions. High deposition efficiencies are achievable for certain coating-substrate conditions. Work remains to determine the material and microstructural properties which govern the coating process.

Dykhuizen, R.C.; Gilmore, D.L.; Neiser, R.A.; Roemer, T.J.; Smith, M.F.

1998-11-12T23:59:59.000Z

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401

Experimental Investigations of Ice in Supercooled Clouds. Part 1: System Description and Growth of Ice by Vapor Deposition  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A continuous flow cloud chamber system was constructed for studies of microphysical and chemical processes in supercooled clouds. An important feature of the cloud chamber was the generation of the components of the supercooled clouds external to ...

Naihui Song; Dennis Lamb

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

402

A comparative study of three different chemical vapor deposition techniques of carbon nanotube growth on diamond films  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper compares between the methods of growing carbon nanotubes (CNTs) on diamond substrates and evaluates the quality of the CNTs and the interfacial strength. One potential application for these materials is a heat sink/spreader for high-power ...

Betty T. Quinton, Paul N. Barnes, Chakrapani V. Varanasi, Jack Burke, Bang-Hung Tsao, Kevin J. Yost, Sharmila M. Mukhopadhyay

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

403

An Analytic Scaling Law for the Depositional Growth of Snow in Thin Mixed-Phase Layer Clouds  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In various practical problems, such as assessing the threat of aircraft icing or calculating radiative transfer, it is important to know whether mixed-phase clouds contain significant liquid water content. Some mixed-phase clouds remain ...

Vincent E. Larson; Adam J. Smith

2009-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

404

Linear Fluctuation Growth during Frontogenesis  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Near-surface, two-dimensional (2D) baroclinic frontogenesis induced by a barotropic deformation flow enhances the growth of three-dimensional (3D) fluctuations that occur on an ever smaller scale as the front progressively sharpens. The 3D ...

James C. McWilliams; M. J. Molemaker; E. I. Olafsdottir

2009-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

405

Ellipsometry of anodic film growth  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

An automated computer interpretation of ellisometer measurements of anodic film growth was developed. Continuous mass and charge balances were used to utilize more fully the time dependence of the ellipsometer data and the current and potential measurements. A multiple-film model was used to characterize the growth of films which proceeds via a dissolution--precipitation mechanism; the model also applies to film growth by adsorption and nucleation mechanisms. The characteristic parameters for film growth describe homogeneous and heterogeneous crystallization rates, film porosities and degree of hydration, and the supersaturation of ionic species in the electrolyte. Additional descriptions which may be chosen are patchwise film formation, nonstoichiometry of the anodic film, and statistical variations in the size and orientation of secondary crystals. Theories were developed to describe the optical effects of these processes. An automatic, self-compensating ellipsometer was used to study the growth in alkaline solution of anodic films on silver, cadmium, and zinc. Mass-transport conditions included stagnant electrolyte and forced convection in a flow channel. Multiple films were needed to characterize the optical properties of these films. Anodic films grew from an electrolyte supersatuated in the solution-phase dissolution product. The degree of supersaturation depended on transport conditions and had a major effect on the structure of the film. Anodic reaction rates were limited by the transport of charge carriers through a primary surface layer. The primary layers on silver, zinc, and cadmium all appeared to be nonstoichiometric, containing excess metal. Diffusion coefficients, transference numbers, and the free energy of adsorption of zinc oxide were derived from ellipsometer measurements. 97 figures, 13 tables, 198 references.

Smith, C.G.

1978-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

406

Characterization of deposits and effect of deposits on corrosion of materials for MHD balance-of-plant applications  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Candidate heat exchanger materials tested in the Low Mass Flow Train at the Coal-Fired Flow Facility (CFFF) at Tullahoma, TN, were analyzed to evaluate their corrosion performances. Tube specimens obtained at each foot of the 14-ft-long U-bend tubes were analyzed for corrosion-scale morphologies, scale thicknesses, and internal penetration depths. Results developed on 1,500- and 2,000-h exposed specimens were correlated with exposure temperature. In addition, deposit materials collected at several locations in the CFFF were analyzed in detail to characterize the chemical and physical properties of the deposits and their influence on corrosion performance of tube materials.

Natesan, K.

1993-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

407

Deposition of Biological Aerosols on HVAC Heat Exchangers  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

LBNL-47669 Deposition of Biological Aerosols on HVAC Heat Exchangers Jeffrey Siegel and Iain Walker of Biological Aerosols on HVAC Heat Exchangers Jeffrey A. Siegel Iain S. Walker, Ph.D. ASHRAE Student Member that are found in commercial and residential HVAC systems of 1 - 6 m/s (200 - 1200 ft/min), particle diameters

408

Process for depositing hard coating in a nozzle orifice  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention is directed to a process for coating the interior surfaces of an orifice in a substrate that forms a slurry fuel injection nozzle. In a specific embodiment, the nozzle is part of a fuel injection system for metering a coal-water slurry into a large, medium-speed, multi-cylinder diesel engine. In order to retard erosion of the orifice, the substrate is placed in a chemical vapor deposition (CVD) reaction chamber. A reaction gas is passed into the chamber at a gas temperature below its reaction temperature and is directed through the orifice in the substrate. The gas reaction temperature is a temperature at and above which the reaction gas deposits as a coating, and the reaction gas is of a composition whereby improved resistance to erosion by flow of the particulates in the slurry fuel is imparted by the deposited coating. Only the portion of the substrate in proximity to the orifice to be coated is selectively heated to at least the gas reaction temperature for effecting coating of the orifice's interior surfaces by the vapor deposited coating formed from the reaction gas. 2 figures.

Flynn, P.L.; Giammarise, A.W.

1991-10-29T23:59:59.000Z

409

Tritium labeling of organic compounds deposited on porous structures  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An improved process for labeling organic compounds with tritium is carried out by depositing the selected compound on the extensive surface of a porous structure such as a membrane filter and exposing the membrane containing the compound to tritium gas activated by the microwave discharge technique. The labeled compound is then recovered from the porous structure.

Ehrenkaufer, Richard L. E. (Speonk, NY); Wolf, Alfred P. (Setauket, NY); Hembree, Wylie C. (Woodcliff Lake, NJ)

1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

410

Atmospheric Deposition of Tritium at Nuclear Power Plants  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Tritium source terms at nuclear power plants consist of several sources that include plant vents and cooling impoundments, cooling towers, and treatment ponds. Cooling lakes and reservoirs can be sources of airborne tritium. Methods are presented for estimating these source terms and predicting resulting deposition of tritium using metrological models and for estimating infiltration of tritium using hydrogeological models.

2010-12-16T23:59:59.000Z

411

Method of depositing wide bandgap amorphous semiconductor materials  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method of depositing wide bandgap p type amorphous semiconductor materials on a substrate without photosensitization by the decomposition of one or more higher order gaseous silanes in the presence of a p-type catalytic dopant at a temperature of about 200.degree. C. and a pressure in the range from about 1-50 Torr.

Ellis, Jr., Frank B. (Princeton Junction, NJ); Delahoy, Alan E. (Rocky Hill, NJ)

1987-09-29T23:59:59.000Z

412

Kinetics of silica deposition from simulated geothermal brines  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Supersaturated brines were passed through columns packed with several forms of silica (crystalline ..cap alpha.. quartz, polycrystalline ..cap alpha.. quartz, and porous Vycor). Also, silica deposition on ThO/sub 2/ microspheres and titanium powder was studied under controlled conditions of supersaturation, pH, temperature, and salinity. The residence time was varied by adjustments of flow rate and column length. The silica contents of the input and effluent solutions were determined colorimetrically by a molybdate method which does not include polymers without special pretreatment. Essentially identical deposition behavior was observed once the substrate was thoroughly coated with amorphous silica and the BET surface area of the coated particles was taken into account. The reaction rate is not diffusion limited in the columns. The silica deposition is a function of the monomeric Si(OH)/sub 4/ concentration in the brine. The deposition on all surfaces examined was spontaneously nucleated. The dependence on the supersaturation concentration, hydroxide ion concentration, surface area, temperature and salinity were examined. Fluoride was shown to have no effect at pH 5.94 and low salinity. The empirical rate law which describes the data in 1 m NaCl in the pH range 5-7 and temperatures from 60 to 120/sup 0/C is given.

Bohlmann, E.G.; Mesmer, R.E.; Berlinski, P.

1980-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

413

Atmospheric Mercury Deposition during the Last 270 Years: A  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

that were placed in an oven at 50 °C overnight to ensure complete oxidation of all mercury species. Analysis requiring pollutant scrubbers that also likely remove a fraction of the Hg in flue gases. If so, the resultsAtmospheric Mercury Deposition during the Last 270 Years: A Glacial Ice Core Record of Natural

414

Deposition of DLC via intense ion beam ablation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Diamond-like carbon films were prepared by high intensity pulsed ion beam ablation of graphite targets. A 350 key, 35 kA, 400 ns pulse width beam, consisting primarily of carbon ions and protons, was focused onto a graphite target at a fluence of 15-45J/cm{sup 2}. Films were deposited onto substrates positioned i.n q n angular array from normal to the target to 90{degrees} off normal. Deposition rates up to 30 nm per pulse, corresponding to an instantaneous deposition rate greater than I mn/sec, have been observed. Electrical resistivities between 1 and 1000 ohm-cm were measured for these films. XRD scans showed that no crystalline structure developed in the films. SEM revealed that the bulk of the films contain material with feature sizes on the order of 100 nm, but micron size particles were deposited as well. Both Raman and electron energy loss spectroscopy indicated significant amounts of sp{sup 3} bonded carbon present in most of the films.

Johnston, G.P. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)]|[Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Tiwari, P.; Rej, D.J.; Davis, H.A.; Waganaar, W.J.; Muenchausen, R.E. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Tallant, D.; Simpson, R.L. [Sandia National Lab., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Williams, D.B. [Lehigh Univ., Bethlehem, PA (United States). Dept. of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering; Qui, X. [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States). Dept of Chemical Engineering

1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

415

Modeling CaCO{sub 3} deposition in geothermal wellbores  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The capacity of a geothermal liquid to carry calcium varies mainly with the concentrations of CO{sub 2} and HCO{sub 3}, temperature and ionic strength, of which the CO{sub 2} concentration (pressure) changes most in the wellbore. Wellbore models that carry accurate computations for CO{sub 2} and other gas pressures might be adapted to compute profile thicknesses of CaCO{sub 3} scale. A general model for carbonate scale deposition in a wellbore must make a simultaneous accounting for pressures of H{sub 2}O, CO{sub 2}, and two or three other gases plus salt effects on those pressures. In addition, the elevation of flash initiation must be accurately identified and combined with profiles of temperature, etc., in the 2-phase zone. Such a model has been developed and its principle features are described here, including calibration of some factors with measured scale deposits. The model provides insight about the scale deposition processes through parametric studies. Tactics and strategies for confronting the effects of CaCO{sub 3} deposition in wells and wellfields can be explored with the model. Modeling of specific wellbores/wellfluids can help quantify risks and benefits concerning scale inhibition, wellfluid monitoring, timing of consequences relating to failure of scale inhibiting apparatus, urgency of remedial actions, and other aspects.

Michels, Donald E.

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

416

Low energy ion beam assisted deposition of a spin valve  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The spin dependent electron transport in giant magnetoresistive (GMR) multilayers is significantly affected by the atomic scale structure of their interfaces. Devices with atomically flat and chemically sharp interfaces are preferred for magnetic sensor and memory applications. Recent atomic simulations of the atom-by-atom assembly of these devices indicate that near optimal interfacial structures can be created using low energy, ion assisted vapor deposition techniques with ion energies in the 5-10 eV range. A recently developed biased target ion beam deposition system has been used to experimentally test this hypothesis. Prototypical Ta/NiFe/Co/Cu/Co/FeMn/Cu spin valve structures were first grown using (simultaneous) argon ion assistance during deposition of the Co/Cu/Co trilayer part of the spin valve multilayer. Assisting ion energies of around 10 eV resulted in structures with a 30% higher magnetoresistance ratio and significantly reduced coupling field compared to samples grown with no ion assistance or with ion energies above 15 eV. These results are consistent with the atomistic simulation predictions. Other promising ion assistance schemes identified by the simulations were then used to deposit the Ta, NiFe, FeMn, and the top copper layer. A near optimal strategy was identified that resulted in the further improvement of the GMR ratio.

Quan, J. J.; Wolf, S. A.; Wadley, H. N. G. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, School of Engineering and Applied Science, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia 22903 (United States)

2007-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

417

Apparatus for depositing hard coating in a nozzle orifice  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention is directed to a process for coating the interior surfaces of an orifice in a substrate that forms a slurry fuel injection nozzle. In a specific embodiment, the nozzle is part of a fuel injection system for metering a coal-water slurry into a large, medium-speed, multi-cylinder diesel engine. In order to retard erosion of the orifice, the substrate is placed in a chemical vapor deposition (CVD) reaction chamber. A reaction gas is passed into the chamber at a gas temperature below its reaction temperature and is directed through the orifice in the substrate. The gas reaction temperature is a temperature at and above which the reaction gas deposits as a coating, and the reaction gas is of a composition whereby improved resistance to erosion by flow of the particulates in the slurry fuel is imparted by the deposited coating. Only the portion of the substrate in proximity to the orifice to be coated is selectively heated to at least the gas reaction temperature for effecting coating of the orifice`s interior surfaces by the vapor deposited coating formed from the reaction gas. 2 figs.

Flynn, P.L.; Giammarise, A.W.

1995-02-21T23:59:59.000Z

418

Apparatus for depositing hard coating in a nozzle orifice  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention is directed to a process for coating the interior surfaces of an orifice in a substrate that forms a slurry fuel injection nozzle. In a specific embodiment, the nozzle is part of a fuel injection system for metering a coal-water slurry into a large, medium-speed, multi-cylinder diesel engine. In order to retard erosion of the orifice, the substrate is placed in a chemical vapor deposition (CVD) reaction chamber. A reaction gas is passed into the chamber at a gas temperature below its reaction temperature and is directed through the orifice in the substrate. The gas reaction temperature is a temperature at and above which the reaction gas deposits as a coating, and the reaction gas is of a composition whereby improved resistance to erosion by flow of the particulates in the slurry fuel is imparted by the deposited coating. Only the portion of the substrate in proximity to the orifice to be coated is selectively heated to at least the gas reaction temperature for effecting coating of the orifice's interior surfaces by the vapor deposited coating formed from the reaction gas.

Flynn, Paul L. (Fairview, PA); Giammarise, Anthony W. (Erie, PA)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

419

Process for depositing hard coating in a nozzle orifice  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention is directed to a process for coating the interior surfaces of an orifice in a substrate that forms a slurry fuel injection nozzle. In a specific embodiment, the nozzle is part of a fuel injection system for metering a coal-water slurry into a large, medium-speed, multi-cylinder diesel engine. In order to retard erosion of the orifice, the substrate is placed in a chemical vapor deposition (CVD) reaction chamber. A reaction gas is passed into the chamber at a gas temperature below its reaction temperature and is directed through the orifice in the substrate. The gas reaction temperature is a temperature at and above which the reaction gas deposits as a coating, and the reaction gas is of a composition whereby improved resistance toerosion by flow of the particulates in the slurry fuel is imparted by the deposited coating. Only the portion of the substrate in proximity to the orifice to be coated is selectively heated to at least the gas reaction temperature for effecting coating of the orifice's interior surfaces by the vapor deposited coating formed from the reaction gas.

Flynn, Paul L. (5139 Fox Park Dr., Fairview, PA 16415); Giammarise, Anthony W. (527 Lincoln Ave., Erie, PA 16505)

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

420

R&D ERL: Photocathode Deposition and Transport System  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of the photocathode deposition and transport system is to (1) produce a robust, high yield multialkali photocathode and (2) have a method of transporting the multialkali photocathode for insertion into a super conducting RF electron gun. This process is only successful if a sufficient quantum efficiency lifetime of the cathode, which is inserted in the SRF electron gun, is maintained. One important element in producing a multialkali photocathode is the strict vacuum requirements of 10{sup -11} torr to assure success in the production of longlived photocathodes that will not have their QE or lifetime depleted due to residual gas poisoning in a poor vacuum. A cutaway view of our third generation deposition system is shown in figure 1. There are certain design criteria and principles required. One must be able to install, remove, rejuvenate and replace a cathode without exposing the source or cathode to atmosphere. The system must allow one to deposit Cs, K, and Sb on a cathode tip surface at pressures in the 10{sup -10} to 10{sup -9} torr range. The cathode needs to be heated to as high as 850 C for cleaning and maintained at 130 C to 150 C during deposition. There should also be the capability for in-situ QE measurements. In addition the preparation of dispenser photocathodes must be accounted for, thus requiring an ion source for cathode cleaning. Finally the transport cart must be mobile and be able to negotiate the ERL facility labyrinth.

Pate, D.; Ben-Zvi, I.; Rao, T.; Burrill, R.; Todd, R.; Smedley, J.; Holmes, D.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "deposition growth cxs" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

Prevention of deleterious deposits in a coal liquefaction system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process for preventing the formation of deleterious coke deposits on the walls of coal liquefaction reactor vessels involves passing hydrogen and a feed slurry comprising feed coal and recycle liquid solvent to a coal liquefaction reaction zone while imparting a critical mixing energy of at least 3500 ergs per cubic centimeter of reaction zone volume per second to the reacting slurry.

Carr, Norman L. (Allison Park, PA); Prudich, Michael E. (Pittsburgh, PA); King, Jr., William E. (Gibsonia, PA); Moon, William G. (Cheswick, PA)

1984-07-03T23:59:59.000Z

422

Metal-to-Insulator Transition in Anatase TiO2 Thin Films Induced by Growth Rate Modulation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We demonstrate control of the carrier density of single phase anatase TiO{sub 2} thin films by nearly two orders of magnitude by modulating the growth kinetics during pulsed laser deposition, under fixed thermodynamic conditions. The resistivity and the intensity of the photoluminescence spectra of these TiO{sub 2} samples, both of which correlate with the number of oxygen vacancies, are shown to depend strongly on the growth rate. A quantitative model is used to explain the carrier density changes.

Tachikawa, T; Minohara, M.; Nakanishi, Y.; Hikita, Y.; Yoshita, M.; Akiyama, H.; Bell, C.; Hwang, H.Y.

2012-06-21T23:59:59.000Z

423

Characterization of photoluminescent (Y{sub 1{minus}x}Eu{sub x}){sub 2}O{sub 3} thin-films prepared by metallorganic chemical vapor deposition  

SciTech Connect

Europium doped yttrium oxide, (Y{sub 1{minus}x}Eu{sub x}){sub 2}O{sub 3}, thin-films were deposited on silicon and sapphire substrates by metallorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD). The films were grown in a MOCVD chamber reacting yttrium and europium tris(2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-3,5,-heptanedionates) precursors in an oxygen atmosphere at low pressures (5 Torr) and low substrate temperatures (500--700 C). The films deposited at 500 C were flat and composed of nanocrystalline regions of cubic Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}, grown in a textured [100] or [110] orientation to the substrate surface. Films deposited at 600 C developed from the flat, nanocrystalline morphology into a plate-like growth morphology oriented in the [111] with increasing deposition time. Monoclinic Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}:Eu{sup 3+} was observed in x-ray diffraction for deposition temperatures {ge}600 C on both (111) Si and (001) sapphire substrates. This was also confirmed by the photoluminescent emission spectra.

McKittrick, J.; Bacalski, C.F.; Hirata, G.A. [Univ. of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA (United States); Hubbard, K.M.; Pattillo, S.G.; Salazar, K.V.; Trkula, M. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States). Materials Science and Technology Div.

1998-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

424

A Study of Atmospheric Deposition of Air Toxics to the Waters of Puget Sound  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Air pollutants can be deposited in many forms such as rain, snow, and gases. Urban centers are major sources of combustion-derived particulate matter, black carbon, and volatile organic carbon to the atmosphere. Expansion of urban centers in the 20th Century, especially in coastal areas, and their concomitant influence on land use, vehicular traffic, and industrial growth have been responsible for major outputs of combustion-derived hydrocarbon to the atmosphere and fallout of such carbon-rich particulate matter over the urban airsheds. This, in turn, has led to local health effects on human populations and a decrease in the quality of regional hydrological cycling. Due to continuous coastal development and increase in population in Puget Sound, Washington, it is vital to determine what the impacts of such growth have had on air and water quality and if greater needs in regulation are needed to curtail emissions. A bi-weekly deposition study of atmospheric particulate matter at seven sites around the Puget Sound (from urban to rural) have been performed for the purpose of developing appropriate regional and temporal estimates of contaminant fluxes to the surface of Puget Sound. The present study focuses on anhydrosugars, molecular markers of biomass combustion, in atmospheric particles to characterize the sources of combustion-derived materials. These are then compared to combustion-derived condensed hydrocarbon (PAH) concentrations and their signature ratios. Sample series were extracted for anhydrosugars and analyzed via gas chromatography mass spectrometry. All stations showed temporal variability in fluxes of levoglucosan, a major biomass combustion anhydrosugar, over the four months studied (Aug-Nov, 2008), with values ranging close to two orders of magnitude (15-450 uGu/m2.day). Replicate sampling at different stations during the study period showed a good reproducibility (wood burning. Levoglucosan concentrations are not correlated to pyrogenic PAHs in all but one rural station suggesting a predominant biomass source of combustion at that site. A specific PAH ratio associated with biomass combustion (1,7 DMP/[1,7+2,6 DMP]) was positively correlated to levoglucosan at all stations confirming the usefulness of this ratio for tracing non fossil fuel sources of pyrogenic PAHs in natural environments.

Aguirre, Danielle

2009-06-09T23:59:59.000Z

425

Solvent-assisted growth of metal phthalocyanine thin films on Au(111)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Thin films of metal phthalocyanine (MPc) are grown on an Au(111) support with a newly developed aerosol molecular beam deposition source and characterized in situ via ultrahigh vacuum scanning tunneling microscopy. MPcs are delivered to Au(111) in a series of N{sub 2}-entrained microsized solvent droplets of variable surface residence time. Phthalocyanine film registration to the herringbone reconstruction of the Au(111) surface, indicative of thermodynamically favored structure, is observed at submonolayer coverages for aromatic solvents with long residence times. Aerosol-deposited monolayer film structures are noncrystalline with tilted MPc orientations and vacancy nanocavities. Upon annealing, MPc molecules adopt flat-lying orientations with respect to the substrate and vacancies are eliminated. Film morphologies indicate solvation-mediated film nucleation and growth, with less long-range ordering that in vapor-generated films.

Tskipuri, Levan; Shao Qian; Reutt-Robey, Janice [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742-4454 (United States)

2012-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

426

Ga-doped ZnO grown by pulsed laser deposition in H2: the roles of Ga and H  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Highly conductive thin films of ZnO doped with Ga were grown by pulsed-laser deposition (PLD) with 10 mTorr of H2 in the growth chamber. Compared with a more conventional method of producing conductive films of ZnO, i.e., growth in O2 followed by annealing in forming gas (5% H2 in Ar), the H2 method requires no post-growth anneal and also produces higher carrier concentrations and lower resistivities with better depth uniformity. As an example, a 65-nm-thick sample had a room-temperature mobility of 32 cm2/V-s, a concentration of 6.8 x 1020 cm-3, and a resistivity of 2.9 x 10^-4 ohm-cm. From a scattering model, the donor and acceptor concentrations were calculated as 8.9 x 1020 and 2.1 x 10^20 cm-3, respectively, as compared to the Ga and H concentrations of 11 x 10^20 and 1 x 10^20 cm-3. Thus, H does not play a significant role as a donor in this type of ZnO

Look, David; Droubay, Timothy; McCloy, John S.; Zhu, Zihua; Chambers, Scott A.

2011-01-11T23:59:59.000Z

427

High-rate deposition of hydrogenated amorphous silicon films and devices  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report summarizes the status of high-rate deposition technologies associated with amorphous silicon thin films for photovoltaic applications. The report lists (1) deposition rates for a-Si:H films according to source and method and (2) efficiencies and other parameters of a-Si:H solar cells. Two main deposition source materials, silane and disilane, are discussed, as well as effects of boron doping. The effects of various deposition parameters on film characteristics and on deposition rate are presented, as well as the effects of annealing on high-deposition-rate films. Light-induced effects are also discussed. Finally, progress and problems in this field of study are summarized.

Luft, W.

1987-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

428

Issues associated with the metalorganic chemical vapor deposition of ScGaN and YGaN alloys.  

SciTech Connect

The most energy efficient solid state white light source will likely be a combination of individually efficient red, green, and blue LED. For any multi-color approach to be successful the efficiency of deep green LEDs must be significantly improved. While traditional approaches to improve InGaN materials have yielded incremental success, we proposed a novel approach using group IIIA and IIIB nitride semiconductors to produce efficient green and high wavelength LEDs. To obtain longer wavelength LEDs in the nitrides, we attempted to combine scandium (Sc) and yttrium (Y) with gallium (Ga) to produce ScGaN and YGaN for the quantum well (QW) active regions. Based on linear extrapolation of the proposed bandgaps of ScN (2.15 eV), YN (0.8 eV) and GaN (3.4 eV), we expected that LEDs could be fabricated from the UV (410 nm) to the IR (1600 nm), and therefore cover all visible wavelengths. The growth of these novel alloys potentially provided several advantages over the more traditional InGaN QW regions including: higher growth temperatures more compatible with GaN growth, closer lattice matching to GaN, and reduced phase separation than is commonly observed in InGaN growth. One drawback to using ScGaN and YGaN films as the active regions in LEDs is that little research has been conducted on their growth, specifically, are there metalorganic precursors that are suitable for growth, are the bandgaps direct or indirect, can the materials be grown directly on GaN with a minimal defect formation, as well as other issues related to growth. The major impediment to the growth of ScGaN and YGaN alloys was the low volatility of metalorganic precursors. Despite this impediment some progress was made in incorporation of Sc and Y into GaN which is detailed in this report. Primarily, we were able to incorporate up to 5 x 10{sup 18} cm{sup -3} Y atoms into a GaN film, which are far below the alloy concentrations needed to evaluate the YGaN optical properties. After a no-cost extension was granted on this program, an additional more 'liquid-like' Sc precursor was evaluated and the nitridation of Sc metals on GaN were investigated. Using the Sc precursor, dopant level quantities of Sc were incorporated into GaN, thereby concluding the growth of ScGaN and YGaN films. Our remaining time during the no-cost extension was focused on pulsed laser deposition of Sc metal films on GaN, followed by nitridation in the MOCVD reactor to form ScN. Finally, GaN films were deposited on the ScN thin films in order to study possible GaN dislocation reduction.

Koleske, Daniel David; Knapp, James Arthur; Lee, Stephen Roger; Crawford, Mary Hagerott; Creighton, James Randall; Cross, Karen Charlene; Thaler, Gerald

2009-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

429

Predicting growth fluctuation in network economy  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This study presents a method to predict the growth fluctuation of firms interdependent in a network economy. The risk of downward growth fluctuation of firms is calculated from the statistics on Japanese industry.

Maeno, Yoshiharu

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

430

Design, discovery and growth of novel materials  

SciTech Connect

This editorial introduces the special issue on design, discovery, and growth of novel materials. The papers of this special issue review and reveal technical details of of how specific growths are developed and implemented.

Canfield, Paul

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

431

Theory, Growth, Characterization, and Device Applications  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Growth of semiconductor heterostructures, including multilayers, superlattices, quantum wells, quantum wires, and quantum dots by vapor phase transport, ...

432

Dendrite Growth Prevention Technology for Lithium Metal ...  

Search PNNL. PNNL Home; About; Research; Publications; Jobs; News; Contacts; Dendrite Growth Prevention Technology for Lithium Metal Batteries. ...

433

Finding a Link between Microbes and Mineral Deposits  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Finding a Link between Microbes and Mineral Deposits Finding a Link between Microbes and Mineral Deposits Contamination around mining sites is a significant problem worldwide. Acid mine drainage, for example, is a threat to surface and groundwater near mines. It occurs when metal-sulfide ores are exposed to air and water and the sulfide is transformed to sulfuric acid. Moreover, metals such as zinc are toxic and can leach into groundwater and contaminate wells and other drinking water supplies. Results of EDX (bottom left) and x-ray microprobe fluorescence (top right) analysis of specific biomineralized zinc sulfide precipitates. The sensitivity of the x-ray microprobe enables identification of arsenic and selenium constituents in the zinc sulfide precipitate. Above: Results of EDX (bottom left) and x-ray microprobe fluorescence (top

434

A filtered cathodic arc deposition apparatus and method  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A filtered cathodic arc deposition method and apparatus are described for the production of highly dense, wear resistant coatings which are free from macro particles. The filtered cathodic arc deposition apparatus includes a cross shaped vacuum chamber which houses a cathode target having an evaporable surface comprised of the coating material, means for generating a stream of plasma, means for generating a transverse magnetic field, and a macro particle deflector. The transverse magnetic field bends the generated stream of plasma in the direction of a substrate. Macro particles are effectively filtered from the stream of plasma by traveling, unaffected by the transverse magnetic field, along the initial path of the plasma stream to a macro particle deflector. The macro particle deflector has a preformed surface which deflects macro particles away from the substrate.

Krauss, Alan R.

1997-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

435

Apparatus and process for deposition of hard carbon films  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process and an apparatus for depositing thin, amorphous carbon films having extreme hardness on a substrate is described. An enclosed chamber maintained at less than atmospheric pressure houses the substrate and plasma producing elements. A first electrode is comprised of a cavity enclosed within an RF coil which excites the plasma. A substrate located on a second electrode is excited by radio frequency power applied to the substrate. A magnetic field confines the plasma produced by the first electrode to the area away from the walls of the chamber and focuses the plasma onto the substrate thereby yielding film deposits having higher purity and having more rapid buildup than other methods of the prior art.

Nyaiesh, Ali R. (Menlo Park, CA); Garwin, Edward L. (Los Altos, CA)

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

436

CORROSION PRODUCT TRANSPORT AND DEPOSITION UNDER IONIZING RADIATION  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A study was made of corrosion product transport and deposition on Zircaloy-2 and AISI 304 stainless steel in the presence and absence of ionizing radiation. Three 100-hour irradiation tests, using 2-Mev electrons from a Van de Graaff accelerator, and four 100-hour nonradiation tests were performed in 6O0 deg F pressurized water. Data from the seven runs and an additional exploratory run are presented. In addition, complete experimental procedures and descriptions of the apparatus are included. Control of pH was obtained by using H and OH form ion exchange resias for pH 7 and Li and OH form ion exchange resins for pH 10. The major conclusion to be drawn from the present work is that the deposition on Zircaloy-2 at pH 10 and 600 deg F is higher than on AISI 304 stainless steel at the same conditions. (auth)

Thomas, C.C. Jr.; Lacock, H.W.; Cadoff, H.Y. ed.

1958-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

437

PROCESS FOR THE RECOVERY AND PURIFICATION OF URANIUM DEPOSITS  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process is presented for recovering uranium values from UCl/sub 4/ deposits formed on calutrons. Such deposits are removed from the calutron parts by an aqueous wash solution which then contains the uranium values in addition to the following impurities: Ni, Cu, Fe, and Cr. This impurity bearing wash solution is treated with an oxidizing agent, and the oxidized solution is then treated with ammonia in order to precipitate the uranium as ammonium diuranate. The metal impurities of iron and chromium, which form insoluble hydroxides, are precipitated along with the uranium values. The precipitate is separated from the solution, dissolved in acid, and the solution again treated with ammonia and ammonium carbonate, which results in the precipitation of the metal impurities as hydroxides while the uranium values remain in solution.

Carter, J.M.; Kamen, M.D.

1958-10-14T23:59:59.000Z

438

Modeling study of deposition locations in the 291-Z plenum  

SciTech Connect

The TEMPEST (Trent and Eyler 1991) and PART5 computer codes were used to predict the probable locations of particle deposition in the suction-side plenum of the 291-Z building in the 200 Area of the Hanford Site, the exhaust fan building for the 234-5Z, 236-Z, and 232-Z buildings in the 200 Area of the Hanford Site. The Tempest code provided velocity fields for the airflow through the plenum. These velocity fields were then used with TEMPEST to provide modeling of near-floor particle concentrations without particle sticking (100% resuspension). The same velocity fields were also used with PART5 to provide modeling of particle deposition with sticking (0% resuspension). Some of the parameters whose importance was tested were particle size, point of injection and exhaust fan configuration.

Mahoney, L.A.; Glissmeyer, J.A.

1994-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

439

Heat treatment of cathodic arc deposited amorphous hard carbon films  

SciTech Connect

Amorphous hard carbon films of varying sp{sup 2}/sp{sup 3} fractions have been deposited on Si using filtered cathodic are deposition with pulsed biasing. The films were heat treated in air up to 550 C. Raman investigation and nanoindentation were performed to study the modification of the films caused by the heat treatment. It was found that films containing a high sp{sup 3} fraction sustain their hardness for temperatures at least up to 400 C, their structure for temperatures up to 500 C, and show a low thickness loss during heat treatment. Films containing at low sp{sup 3} fraction graphitize during the heat treatment, show changes in structure and hardness, and a considerable thickness loss.

Anders, S.; Ager, J.W. III; Brown, I.G. [and others

1997-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

440

Experimental thin film deposition and surface analysis techniques  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

An attempt has been made to present some of the thin-film deposition and surface analysis techniques which may be useful in growing superionic conducting materials. Emphasis is made on the importance of being careful in selecting process parameters and materials in order to produce films with properties outlined in this article. Also, special care should be given to proper consideration of grain boundary effects.

Collins, W.E.; Rambabu, B.

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "deposition growth cxs" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

Application of Strain Gage Technology for Slag Deposition Monitoring  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Detecting furnace deposits in large power generation boilers has always been problematic. The current requirements of fuel flexibility, high furnace availability, and reduced staffing worsen the predicament. Fuel flexibility requires furnaces to handle off-design fuels routinely, and reduced staffing provides fewer sets of eyes to observe furnace sections. In addition, the expanding use of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems has led to the firing of higher sulfur coals that, in turn, increases the pot...

2005-03-29T23:59:59.000Z

442

Freeze drying for gas chromatography stationary phase deposition  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present disclosure relates to methods for deposition of gas chromatography (GC) stationary phases into chromatography columns, for example gas chromatography columns. A chromatographic medium is dissolved or suspended in a solvent to form a composition. The composition may be inserted into a chromatographic column. Alternatively, portions of the chromatographic column may be exposed or filled with the composition. The composition is permitted to solidify, and at least a portion of the solvent is removed by vacuum sublimation.

Sylwester, Alan P. (Livermore, CA)

2007-01-02T23:59:59.000Z

443

MODELING TRITIUM TRANSPORT, DEPOSITION AND RE-EMISSION  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The atmospheric release of tritium oxide (HTO) potentially impacts human health, typically through inhalation or absorption. Due to HTO's similarity to water, vegetation will absorb HTO by solution in the leaf water and then re-emit it, creating a number of secondary sources of HTO. Currently, models used for emergency response at Savannah River Site incorporate the transport and deposition of HTO but do not provide estimates for its potential re-emission from vegetation or soil surface though re-emission could result in prolonged exposure and greater than predicted dose for an individual downwind. A simple model of HTO transport, deposition and re-emission has been developed to examine the potential increase in exposure and dose. The model simulates an initial release of HTO that moves with a mean wind and expands through diffusion as a Gaussian puff. Deposition is modeled using previous estimates of deposition velocity for HTO and re-emission is modeled using a time constant that describes how quickly HTO is transferred between the surface and atmosphere. Additional puffs are created to simulate re-emission of HTO as well as horizontal diffusion across model grid cells. An evaluation of field data indicates that the use of a re-emission module tends to improve model predictions through improved prediction of peak concentration magnitude and location. When considering dose, nearly all of the released material is included in the dose calculation when re-emission is included. Although exposure to HTO through re-emission occurs over a few hours, the incremental increase in dose is relatively small because the atmospheric concentration of re-emitted HTO is much lower than the initial release.

Viner, B.

2012-04-03T23:59:59.000Z

444

Substrates suitable for deposition of superconducting thin films  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A superconducting system for the lossless transmission of electrical current comprising a thin film of superconducting material Y.sub.1 Ba.sub.2 Cu.sub.3 O.sub.7-x epitaxially deposited upon a KTaO.sub.3 substrate. The KTaO.sub.3 is an improved substrate over those of the prior art since the it exhibits small lattice constant mismatch and does not chemically react with the superconducting film.

Feenstra, Roeland (Oak Ridge, TN); Boatner, Lynn A. (Oak Ridge, TN)

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

445

Matrix-assisted pulsed laser thin film deposition by using Nd: YAG laser  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Matrix-Assisted Pulsed Laser Evaporation (MAPLE) is a deposition technique, developed from Pulsed Laser Deposition (PLD) especially well suited for producing organic/polymeric thin films, which can take advantage from using Nd:YAG laser. Depending on ...

Francesco Bloisi; Mario Barra; Antonio Cassinese; Luciano Rosario Maria Vicari

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

446

Oxidative chemical vapor deposition of conductive polymers for use in novel photovoltaic device architectures  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The conductive polymer poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene), (PEDOT), deposited via oxidative chemical vapor deposition (oCVD) has been investigated for use in organic electronic devices. The oCVD process as well as the ...

Howden, Rachel M. (Rachel Mary)

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

447

Industrial Uses of Vegetable OilsChapter 7 Development of Soy Composites by Direct Deposition  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Industrial Uses of Vegetable Oils Chapter 7 Development of Soy Composites by Direct Deposition Processing eChapters Processing Press Downloadable pdf of Chapter 7 Development of Soy Composites by Direct Deposition

448

Deposition of micron liquid droplets on wall in impinging turbulent air jet  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The fluid mechanics of the deposition of micron liquid (olive oil) droplets on a glass wall in an impinging turbulent air jet is studied experimentally. The spatial patterns of droplets deposited on a wall are measured by ...

Liu, Tianshu

449

Investigation of electrophoretic deposition as a fabrication technique for high performance composites  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Electrophoretic deposition (EPD) is a colloidal processing method for the deposition of materials from charged nanoparticles suspended in solution with the application of an external electric field. It is an increasingly ...

Palmer, Timothy R. (Timothy Richard)

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

450

Experimental measurements of the thermal conductivity of ash deposits: Part 1. Measurement technique  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper describes a technique developed to make in situ, time-resolved measurements of the effective thermal conductivity of ash deposits formed under conditions that closely replicate those found in the convective pass of a commercial boiler. Since ash deposit thermal conductivity is thought to be strongly dependent on deposit microstructure, the technique is designed to minimize the disturbance of the natural deposit microstructure. Traditional techniques for measuring deposit thermal conductivity generally do not preserve the sample microstructure. Experiments are described that demonstrate the technique, quantify experimental uncertainty, and determine the thermal conductivity of highly porous, unsintered deposits. The average measured conductivity of loose, unsintered deposits is 0.14 {+-} 0.03 W/(m K), approximately midway between rational theoretical limits for deposit thermal conductivity.

A. L. Robinson; S. G. Buckley; N. Yang; L. L. Baxter

2000-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

451

Prediction of plasma enhanced deposition process using GA-Optimized GRNN  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A genetic algorithm (GA)-based optimization of generalized regression neural network (GRNN) was presented and evaluated with statistically characterized plasma deposition data. The film characteristics to model were deposition rate and positive charge ...

Byungwhan Kim; Dukwoo Lee; Seung Soo Han

2006-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

452

A Semianalytical Solution to a Diffusion–Deposition–Resuspension Model of Local Contamination  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This note describes a semianalytical solution to a diffusion–deposition–resuspension model. Calculations of the fate of a point contaminant show that the model performs well in representing the individual effects of advection, deposition, and ...

Yahui Zhuang

1998-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

453

Meteorological Modeling of Very High-Resolution Wind Fields and Snow Deposition for Mountains  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The inhomogeneous snow distribution found in alpine terrain is the result of wind and precipitation interacting with the snow surface. During major snowfall events, preferential deposition of snow and transport of previously deposited snow often ...

Rebecca Mott; Michael Lehning

2010-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

454

Colloidal spray method for low cost thin coating deposition  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A dense or porous coating of material is deposited onto a substrate by forcing a colloidal suspension through an ultrasonic nebulizer and spraying a fine mist of particles in a carrier medium onto a sufficiently heated substrate. The spraying rate is essentially matched to the evaporation rate of the carrier liquid from the substrate to produce a coating that is uniformly distributed over the surface of the substrate. Following deposition to a sufficient coating thickness, a single sintering step may be used to produce a dense ceramic coating. Using this method, coatings ranging in thickness from about one to several hundred microns can be obtained. By using a plurality of compounds in the colloidal suspension, coatings of mixed composition can be obtained. By using a plurality of solutions and separate pumps and a single or multiple ultrasonic nebulizer(s), and varying the individual pumping rates and/or the concentrations of the solutions, a coating of mixed and discontinuously graded (e.g., stepped) or continuously graded layers may be obtained. This method is particularly useful for depositing ceramic coatings. Dense ceramic coating materials on porous substrates are useful in providing improved electrode performance in devices such as high power density solid oxide fuel cells. Dense ceramic coatings obtained by the invention are also useful for gas turbine blade coatings, sensors, steam electrolyzers, etc. The invention has general use in preparation of systems requiring durable and chemically resistant coatings, or coatings having other specific chemical or physical properties.

Pham, Ai-Quoc (San Jose, CA); Glass, Robert S. (Livermore, CA); Lee, Tae H. (Naperville, IL)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

455

Method of physical vapor deposition of metal oxides on semiconductors  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process for growing a metal oxide thin film upon a semiconductor surface with a physical vapor deposition technique in a high-vacuum environment and a structure formed with the process involves the steps of heating the semiconductor surface and introducing hydrogen gas into the high-vacuum environment to develop conditions at the semiconductor surface which are favorable for growing the desired metal oxide upon the semiconductor surface yet is unfavorable for the formation of any native oxides upon the semiconductor. More specifically, the temperature of the semiconductor surface and the ratio of hydrogen partial pressure to water pressure within the vacuum environment are high enough to render the formation of native oxides on the semiconductor surface thermodynamically unstable yet are not so high that the formation of the desired metal oxide on the semiconductor surface is thermodynamically unstable. Having established these conditions, constituent atoms of the metal oxide to be deposited upon the semiconductor surface are directed toward the surface of the semiconductor by a physical vapor deposition technique so that the atoms come to rest upon the semiconductor surface as a thin film of metal oxide with no native oxide at the semiconductor surface/thin film interface. An example of a structure formed by this method includes an epitaxial thin film of (001)-oriented CeO.sub.2 overlying a substrate of (001) Ge.

Norton, David P. (Knoxville, TN)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

456

Non-analog Monte Carlo estimators for radiation momentum deposition  

SciTech Connect

The standard method for calculating radiation momentum deposition in Monte Carlo simulations is the analog estimator, which tallies the change in a particle's momentum at each interaction with the matter. Unfortunately, the analog estimator can suffer from large amounts of statistical error. In this paper, we present three new non-analog techniques for estimating momentum deposition. Specifically, we use absorption, collision, and track-length estimators to evaluate a simple integral expression for momentum deposition that does not contain terms that can cause large amounts of statistical error in the analog scheme. We compare our new non-analog estimators to the analog estimator with a set of test problems that encompass a wide range of material properties and both isotropic and anisotropic scattering. In nearly all cases, the new non-analog estimators outperform the analog estimator. The track-length estimator consistently yields the highest performance gains, improving upon the analog-estimator figure of merit by factors of up to two orders of magnitude.

Densmore, Jeffery D [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hykes, Joshua M [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

457

Supercritical fluid molecular spray film deposition and powder formation  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Solid films are deposited, or fine powders formed, by dissolving a solid material into a supercritical fluid solution at an elevated pressure and then rapidly expanding the solution through a short orifice into a region of relatively low pressure. This produces a molecular spray which is directed against a substrate to deposit a solid thin film thereon, or discharged into a collection chamber to collect a fine powder. Upon expansion and supersonic interaction with background gases in the low pressure region, any clusters of solvent are broken up and the solvent is vaporized and pumped away. Solute concentration in the solution is varied primarily by varying solution pressure to determine, together with flow rate, the rate of deposition and to control in part whether a film or powder is produced and the granularity of each. Solvent clustering and solute nucleation are controlled by manipulating the rate of expansion of the solution and the pressure of the lower pressure region. Solution and low pressure region temperatures are also controlled.

Smith, Richard D. (Richland, WA)

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

458

Nuclear criticality safety modeling of an LEU deposit  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The construction of the Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant (now known as the K-25 Site) began during World War H and eventually consisted of five major process buildings: K-25, K-27, K-29, K-31, and K-33. The plant took natural (0.711% {sup 231}U) uranium as feed and processed it into both low-enriched uranium (LEU) and high-enriched uranium (HEU) with concentrations up to {approximately}93% {sup 231}U. The K-25 and K-27 buildings were shut down in 1964, but the rest of the plant produced LEU until 1985. During operation, inleakage of humid air into process piping and equipment caused reactions with gaseous uranium hexafluoride (UF{sub 6}) that produced nonvolatile uranyl fluoride (UO{sub 2}F{sub 2}) deposits. As part of shutdown, most of the uranium was evacuated as volatile UF{sub 6}. The UO{sub 2}F{sub 2} deposits remained. The U.S. Department of Energy has mitiated a program to unprove nuclear criticality safety by removing the larger enriched uranium deposits.

Haire, M.J.; Elam, K.R.; Jordan, W.C.; Dahl, T.L.

1996-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

459

Method for materials deposition by ablation transfer processing  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method in which a thin layer of semiconducting, insulating, or metallic material is transferred by ablation from a source substrate, coated uniformly with a thin layer of said material, to a target substrate, where said material is desired, with a pulsed, high intensity, patternable beam of energy. The use of a patternable beam allows area-selective ablation from the source substrate resulting in additive deposition of the material onto the target substrate which may require a very low percentage of the area to be covered. Since material is placed only where it is required, material waste can be minimized by reusing the source substrate for depositions on multiple target substrates. Due to the use of a pulsed, high intensity energy source the target substrate remains at low temperature during the process, and thus low-temperature, low cost transparent glass or plastic can be used as the target substrate. The method can be carried out atmospheric pressures and at room temperatures, thus eliminating vacuum systems normally required in materials deposition processes. This invention has particular application in the flat panel display industry, as well as minimizing materials waste and associated costs. 1 fig.

Weiner, K.H.

1996-04-16T23:59:59.000Z

460

Method for materials deposition by ablation transfer processing  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method in which a thin layer of semiconducting, insulating, or metallic material is transferred by ablation from a source substrate, coated uniformly with a thin layer of said material, to a target substrate, where said material is desired, with a pulsed, high intensity, patternable beam of energy. The use of a patternable beam allows area-selective ablation from the source substrate resulting in additive deposition of the material onto the target substrate which may require a very low percentage of the area to be covered. Since material is placed only where it is required, material waste can be minimized by reusing the source substrate for depositions on multiple target substrates. Due to the use of a pulsed, high intensity energy source the target substrate remains at low temperature during the process, and thus low-temperature, low cost transparent glass or plastic can be used as the target substrate. The method can be carried out atmospheric pressures and at room temperatures, thus eliminating vacuum systems normally required in materials deposition processes. This invention has particular application in the flat panel display industry, as well as minimizing materials waste and associated costs.

Weiner, Kurt H. (San Jose, CA)

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z