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1

Growth, microstructure and electrical properties of sputter-deposited...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Growth, microstructure and electrical properties of sputter-deposited hafnium oxide (HfO2) thin films grown using HfO2 ceramic Growth, microstructure and electrical properties of...

2

Climate Dependency of Tree Growth Suppressed by Acid Deposition  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

uptake). These soil changes coincided with decreased diameter growth and a suppression of climateClimate Dependency of Tree Growth Suppressed by Acid Deposition Effects on Soils in Northwest Russia G R E G O R Y B . L A W R E N C E , * , A N D R E I G . L A P E N I S , D A N B E R G G R E N

Lapenas, Andrei G.

3

DIAMOND CHEMICAL VAPOR DEPOSITION Nucleation and Early Growth Stages  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

a reality. Epi- taxial diamond has been grown on diamond and cubic-BN. Polycrystalline diamond films haveDIAMOND CHEMICAL VAPOR DEPOSITION Nucleation and Early Growth Stages by Huimin Liu David S. Dandy of high-quality diamond coatings on preshaped parts and synthesis of free-standing shapes of diamond

Dandy, David

4

Growth mode evolution of hafnium oxide by atomic layer deposition  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

HfO{sub 2} thin films were deposited using tetrakis-ethylmethylamido hafnium and H{sub 2}O as precursors on silicon by atomic layer deposition (ALD). The morphology and microstructures at different ALD cycles were characterized by atomic force microscopy and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. Based on the height–height correlation function and power spectral density function, quantitative analysis of surface morphologies was performed. Three characteristic dimensions (?{sub 1}, ?{sub 2}, and ?{sub 3}) corresponding to three surface structures, islands, local and global fluctuations, were identified. The evolution of ALD growth mode at range of the three critical scales was investigated, respectively. It suggests the transformation of growth mode from quasi two-dimensional layer-by-layer to three-dimensional island for global fluctuations.

Nie, Xianglong; Ma, Fei; Ma, Dayan, E-mail: madayan@mail.xjtu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory for Mechanical Behavior of Materials, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an 710049, Shaanxi (China); Xu, Kewei [State Key Laboratory for Mechanical Behavior of Materials, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an 710049, Shaanxi, People's Republic of China and Department of Physics and Opt-electronic Engineering, Xi'an University of Arts and Science, Xi'an 710065, Shaanxi (China)

2014-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

5

Atomic layer deposition of TiN films Growth and electrical behavior down to  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Atomic layer deposition of TiN films Growth and electrical behavior down to sub-nanometer scale Hao Van Bui #12;ATOMIC LAYER DEPOSITION OF TiN FILMS GROWTH AND ELECTRICAL BEHAVIOR DOWN TO SUBD. Thesis - University of Twente, Enschede, the Netherlands Title: Atomic layer deposition of TiN films

6

Growth of graphene underlayers by chemical vapor deposition  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We present a simple and very convincing approach to visualizing that subsequent layers of graphene grow between the existing monolayer graphene and the copper catalyst in chemical vapor deposition (CVD). Graphene samples were grown by CVD and then transferred onto glass substrates by the bubbling method in two ways, either direct-transfer (DT) to yield poly (methyl methacrylate) (PMMA)/graphene/glass or (2) inverted transfer (IT) to yield graphene/PMMA/glass. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) were used to reveal surface features for both the DT and IT samples. The results from FE-SEM and AFM topographic analyses of the surfaces revealed the underlayer growth of subsequent layers. The subsequent layers in the IT samples are visualized as 3D structures, where the smaller graphene layers lie above the larger layers stacked in a concentric manner. The results support the formation of the so-called “inverted wedding cake” stacking in multilayer graphene growth.

Fabiane, Mopeli; Khamlich, Saleh; Bello, Abdulhakeem; Dangbegnon, Julien; Momodu, Damilola; Manyala, Ncholu, E-mail: ncholu.manyala@up.ac.za [Department of Physics, Institute of Applied Materials, SARChI Chair in Carbon Technology and Materials, University of Pretoria, Pretoria 0028 (South Africa)] [Department of Physics, Institute of Applied Materials, SARChI Chair in Carbon Technology and Materials, University of Pretoria, Pretoria 0028 (South Africa); Charlie Johnson, A. T. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104 (United States)] [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104 (United States)

2013-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

7

Real-time growth rate metrology for a tungsten chemical vapor deposition process by acoustic sensing  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

to a production-scale tungsten chemical vapor deposition cluster tool for in situ process sensing. Process gasesReal-time growth rate metrology for a tungsten chemical vapor deposition process by acoustic to achieve run-to-run process control of the deposited tungsten film thickness. © 2001 American Vacuum

Rubloff, Gary W.

8

Understanding the Nanotube Growth Mechanism: A Strategy to Control Nanotube Chirality during Chemical Vapor Deposition Synthesis  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

during chemical vapor deposition synthesis must focus on controlling the structure of the nucleated nanotube seeds. DFT and RMD simulations demonstrate the viability of using the structures of catalyst particles over which nanotube growth proceeds...

Gomez Gualdron, Diego Armando 1983-

2012-10-26T23:59:59.000Z

9

Bilayer graphene growth by low pressure chemical vapor deposition on copper foil  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Successfully integrating graphene in standard processes for applications in electronics relies on the synthesis of high-quality films. In this work we study Low Pressure Chemical Vapor Deposition (LPCVD) growth of bilayer ...

Fang, Wenjing, S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

10

IRRADIATION GROWTH IN ZIRCONIUM AT LOW TEMPERATURES BY DIRECT ATHERMAL DEPOSITION OF VACANCIES AT EXTENDED SINKS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

IRRADIATION GROWTH IN ZIRCONIUM AT LOW TEMPERATURES BY DIRECT ATHERMAL DEPOSITION OF VACANCIES that at high temperatures (where vacancies are mobile) growth can be accounted for using a combination of : #12 vacancies and self-interstitial atoms (SIAs) as proposed by Woo and Gosele [5,6]. This theory seems

Motta, Arthur T.

11

Ion Beam Deposition of Thin Films: Growth Processes and Nanostructure Formation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Ion beam deposition is a process far from thermodynamic equilibrium and is in particular suited to grow metastable thin films with diamond-like properties, such as tetrahedral amorphous carbon (ta-C) and cubic boron nitride (c-BN). In this contribution the atomistic description of the deposition and growth processes are reviewed and compared to experimental results, obtained from mass selected ion beam deposition. The focus will be set to the nucleation and growth processes of boron nitride as a model system for ion based thin film formation. Furthermore, recent examples for nanostructure formation in ion deposited compound thin films will be presented. Ion beam deposited metal-carbon nano-composite thin films exhibit a variety of different morphologies such as rather homogeneous nanocluster distributions embedded in an a-C matrix, but also the self-organized formation of nanoscale multilayer structures.

Hofsaess, Hans C. [II. Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Goettingen, Friedrich-Hund-Platz 1, D-37077 Goettingen (Germany)

2004-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

12

Heteroepitaxial Growth of NSMO on Silicon by Pulsed Laser Deposition  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The following is the optimized pulsed laser deposition (PLD) procedure by which we prepared the final samples that were sent to LLNL. These samples are epitaxial multilayer structures of Si/YSZ/CeO/NSMO, where the abbreviations are explained in the following table. In this heterostructure, YSZ serves as a buffer layer to prevent deleterious chemical reactions, and also serves to de-oxygenate the amorphous SiO{sub 2} layer to generate a crystalline template for epitaxy. CeO and BTO serve as template layers to minimize the effects of thermal and lattice mismatch strains, respectively. More details on the buffer and template layer scheme are included in the manuscript [Yong et al., 2008] attached to this report.

Kolagani, R; Friedrich, S

2008-06-25T23:59:59.000Z

13

Low-temperature plasma-deposited silicon epitaxial films: Growth and properties  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Low-temperature (?200?°C) epitaxial growth yields precise thickness, doping, and thermal-budget control, which enables advanced-design semiconductor devices. In this paper, we use plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition to grow homo-epitaxial layers and study the different growth modes on crystalline silicon substrates. In particular, we determine the conditions leading to epitaxial growth in light of a model that depends only on the silane concentration in the plasma and the mean free path length of surface adatoms. For such growth, we show that the presence of a persistent defective interface layer between the crystalline silicon substrate and the epitaxial layer stems not only from the growth conditions but also from unintentional contamination of the reactor. Based on our findings, we determine the plasma conditions to grow high-quality bulk epitaxial films and propose a two-step growth process to obtain device-grade material.

Demaurex, Bénédicte, E-mail: benedicte.demaurex@epfl.ch; Bartlome, Richard; Seif, Johannes P.; Geissbühler, Jonas; Ballif, Christophe; De Wolf, Stefaan [École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL), Institute of Microengineering (IMT), Photovoltaics and Thin-Film Electronics Laboratory, Maladière 71B, CH-2000 Neuchâtel (Switzerland); Alexander, Duncan T. L.; Jeangros, Quentin [École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL), Interdisciplinary Centre for Electron Microscopy (CIME), Station 12, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland)

2014-08-07T23:59:59.000Z

14

Self-Limiting Chemical Vapor Deposition Growth of Monolayer Graphene from Ethanol  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

carbide,8 to chemical vapor deposition (CVD) of hydrocarbon precursors on transition metals,9-13 economic up to wafer scale,14,15 nickel and copper are the two most commonly used metal substrates. DueC) restricts the growth of graphene to the metal surface.12,17 The uniformity and high quality of the resultant

Maruyama, Shigeo

15

Continuous growth of single-wall carbon nanotubes using chemical vapor deposition  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The invention relates to a chemical vapor deposition process for the continuous growth of a carbon single-wall nanotube where a carbon-containing gas composition is contacted with a porous membrane and decomposed in the presence of a catalyst to grow single-wall carbon nanotube material. A pressure differential exists across the porous membrane such that the pressure on one side of the membrane is less than that on the other side of the membrane. The single-wall carbon nanotube growth may occur predominately on the low-pressure side of the membrane or, in a different embodiment of the invention, may occur predominately in between the catalyst and the membrane. The invention also relates to an apparatus used with the carbon vapor deposition process.

Grigorian, Leonid; Hornyak, Louis; Dillon, Anne C; Heben, Michael J

2014-09-23T23:59:59.000Z

16

Continuous growth of single-wall carbon nanotubes using chemical vapor deposition  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The invention relates to a chemical vapor deposition process for the continuous growth of a carbon single-wall nanotube where a carbon-containing gas composition is contacted with a porous membrane and decomposed in the presence of a catalyst to grow single-wall carbon nanotube material. A pressure differential exists across the porous membrane such that the pressure on one side of the membrane is less than that on the other side of the membrane. The single-wall carbon nanotube growth may occur predominately on the low-pressure side of the membrane or, in a different embodiment of the invention, may occur predominately in between the catalyst and the membrane. The invention also relates to an apparatus used with the carbon vapor deposition process.

Grigorian, Leonid (Raymond, OH); Hornyak, Louis (Evergreen, CO); Dillon, Anne C (Boulder, CO); Heben, Michael J (Denver, CO)

2008-10-07T23:59:59.000Z

17

Cooperative Island Growth of Large Area Single-Crystal Graphene by Chemical Vapor Deposition on Cu  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We describe a two-step approach for suppressing nucleation of graphene on Cu using chemical vapor deposition. In the first step, as received Cu foils are oxidized in air at temperatures up to 500 C to remove surface impurities and to induce the regrowth of Cu grains during subsequent annealing in H2 flow at 1040 C prior to graphene growth. In the second step, transient reactant cooling is performed by using a brief Ar pulse at the onset of growth to induce collisional deactivation of the carbon growth species. The combination of these two steps results in a three orders of magnitude reduction in the graphene nucleation density, enabling the growth of millimeter-size single crystal graphene grains. A kinetic model shows that suppressing nucleation promotes a cooperative island growth mode that favors the formation of large area single crystal graphene, and it is accompanied by a roughly 3 orders of magnitude increase in the reactive sticking probability of methane compared to that in random nucleation growth.

Regmi, Murari [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Rouleau, Christopher [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Puretzky, Alexander A [ORNL; Ivanov, Ilia N [ORNL; Geohegan, David B [ORNL; Chen, Jihua [ORNL; Eastman, Jeffrey [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL); Eres, Gyula [ORNL

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

18

Diamond growth on WC-Co substrates by hot filament chemical vapor deposition: Effect of filamentsubstrate separation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Polycrystalline diamond films have been grown by hot filament (HF) chemical vapor deposition on WC-Co bar is an established technique for growing hard, wear- resistant polycrystalline diamond films on a range of substratesDiamond growth on WC-Co substrates by hot filament chemical vapor deposition: Effect of filament

Bristol, University of

19

Growth mechanism of atomic layer deposition of zinc oxide: A density functional theory approach  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Atomic layer deposition of zinc oxide (ZnO) using diethylzinc (DEZ) and water is studied using density functional theory. The reaction pathways between the precursors and ZnO surface sites are discussed. Both reactions proceed by the formation of intermediate complexes on the surface. The Gibbs free energy of the formation of these complexes is positive at temperatures above ?120?°C and ?200?°C for DEZ and water half-reactions, respectively. Spectroscopic ellipsometry results show that the growth per cycle changes at approximately the same temperatures.

Afshar, Amir; Cadien, Kenneth C., E-mail: kcadien@ualberta.ca [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2V4 (Canada)

2013-12-16T23:59:59.000Z

20

Growth of crystalline X-Sic on Si at reduced temperatures by chemical vapor deposition from `silacycllobutane  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, and TPS resulted in single crystal layer" on Si ( 111) only up to a thickness of 2000 h;. Highly orientedGrowth of crystalline X-Sic on Si at reduced temperatures by chemical vapor deposition from grown by SCB at a temperature of 800 "C. The progress of SiC/Si heterojunction devices has been C3HsSiH2

Steckl, Andrew J.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "deposition growth cxs" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Initial growth, refractive index, and crystallinity of thermal and plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposition AlN films  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The authors have studied and compared the initial growth and properties of AlN films deposited on Si(111) by thermal and plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposition (ALD) using trimethylaluminum and either ammonia or a N{sub 2}-H{sub 2} mixture as precursors. In-situ spectroscopic ellipsometry was employed to monitor the growth and measure the refractive index of the films during the deposition. The authors found that an incubation stage only occurred for thermal ALD. The linear growth for plasma-enhanced ALD (PEALD) started instantly from the beginning due to the higher nuclei density provided by the presence of plasma. The authors observed the evolution of the refractive index of AlN during the growth, which showed a rapid increase up to a thickness of about 30?nm followed by a saturation. Below this thickness, higher refractive index values were obtained for AlN films grown by PEALD, whereas above that the refractive index was slightly higher for thermal ALD films. X-ray diffraction characterization showed a wurtzite crystalline structure with a (101{sup ¯}0) preferential orientation obtained for all the layers with a slightly better crystallinity for films grown by PEALD.

Van Bui, Hao, E-mail: H.VanBui@utwente.nl; Wiggers, Frank B.; Gupta, Anubha; Nguyen, Minh D.; Aarnink, Antonius A. I.; Jong, Michel P. de; Kovalgin, Alexey Y., E-mail: A.Y.Kovalgin@utwente.nl [MESA Institute for Nanotechnology, University of Twente, P. O. Box 217, 7500 AE Enschede (Netherlands)

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

22

Growth direction of oblique angle electron beam deposited silicon monoxide thin films identified by optical second-harmonic generation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Oblique angle deposited (OAD) silicon monoxide (SiO) thin films forming tilted columnar structures have been characterized by second-harmonic generation. It was found that OAD SiO leads to a rotationally anisotropic second-harmonic response, depending on the optical angle of incidence. A model for the observed dependence of the second-harmonic signal on optical angle of incidence allows extraction of the growth direction of OAD films. The optically determined growth directions show convincing agreement with cross-sectional scanning electron microscopy images. In addition to a powerful characterization tool, these results demonstrate the possibilities for designing nonlinear optical devices through SiO OAD.

Vejling Andersen, Søren; Lund Trolle, Mads; Pedersen, Kjeld [Department of Physics and Nanotechnology, Aalborg University, Skjernvej 4A, DK-9220 Aalborg Øst (Denmark)] [Department of Physics and Nanotechnology, Aalborg University, Skjernvej 4A, DK-9220 Aalborg Øst (Denmark)

2013-12-02T23:59:59.000Z

23

"Fractal Growth Modeling of Electrochemical Deposition in Solid Freeform Fabrication," J. G. Zhou, Z. He and J. Guo, Proceedings of the Tenth Solid Freeform Fabrication Symposium, Austin, Texas, August, 1999.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

"Fractal Growth Modeling of Electrochemical Deposition in Solid Freeform Fabrication," J. G. Zhou, August, 1999. FRACTAL GROWTH MODELING OF ELECTROCHEMICAL DEPOSITION IN SOLID FREEFORM FABRICATION Jack G deposition among metal particles during ECLD-SFF is a fractal growth process. The fractal dimension

Zhou, Jack

24

Low temperature junction growth using hot-wire chemical vapor deposition  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A system and a process for forming a semi-conductor device, and solar cells (10) formed thereby. The process includes preparing a substrate (12) for deposition of a junction layer (14); forming the junction layer (14) on the substrate (12) using hot wire chemical vapor deposition; and, finishing the semi-conductor device.

Wang, Qi; Page, Matthew; Iwaniczko, Eugene; Wang, Tihu; Yan, Yanfa

2014-02-04T23:59:59.000Z

25

Thermodynamic analysis and growth of ZrO2 by chloride chemical vapor deposition  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

reaction [9­12], and simple chamber designs (e.g., vertical, cold-wall, axisymmetric chamber) to deposit flow injector can be used. A stagnation plane flow injector (for vertical, cold-wall CVD chambers homogeneous nucleation and/ or reactor wall deposition. For example, Holstein [17] de- monstrated that at high

Anderson, Timothy J.

26

Nucleation and growth of MgO atomic layer deposition: A real-time spectroscopic ellipsometry study  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The atomic layer deposition (ALD) of MgO thin films from bis(cyclopentadienyl) magnesium and H{sub 2}O was studied using in-situ real-time spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE), ex-situ x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and grazing-incidence x-ray diffraction. It is found that the initial growth is not linear during the first ten cycles, and magnesium silicate forms spontaneously on the SiO{sub 2}/Si substrates at 250 °C. Submonolayer sensitivity of SE is demonstrated by the analysis of each half-cycle and self-limiting adsorption, revealing characteristic features of hetero- and homo-MgO ALD processes.

Wang, Han; Fu, Kan [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Connecticut, Storrs, Connecticut 06269. (United States)] [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Connecticut, Storrs, Connecticut 06269. (United States)

2013-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

27

Non-equilibrium deposition of phase pure Cu{sub 2}O thin films at reduced growth temperature  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Cuprous oxide (Cu{sub 2}O) is actively studied as a prototypical material for energy conversion and electronic applications. Here we reduce the growth temperature of phase pure Cu{sub 2}O thin films to 300?°C by intentionally controlling solely the kinetic parameter (total chamber pressure, P{sub tot}) at fixed thermodynamic condition (0.25 mTorr pO{sub 2}). A strong non-monotonic effect of P{sub tot} on Cu-O phase formation is found using high-throughput combinatorial-pulsed laser deposition. This discovery creates new opportunities for the growth of Cu{sub 2}O devices with low thermal budget and illustrates the importance of kinetic effects for the synthesis of metastable materials with useful properties.

Subramaniyan, Archana, E-mail: asubrama@mymail.mines.edu [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado 80401 (United States); Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Colorado School of Mines, Golden, Colorado 80401 (United States); Perkins, John D.; Lany, Stephan; Stevanovic, Vladan; Ginley, David S.; Zakutayev, Andriy [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado 80401 (United States); O’Hayre, Ryan P. [Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Colorado School of Mines, Golden, Colorado 80401 (United States)

2014-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

28

Effect of deposition and treatment conditions on growth of nanometer PtSi heterostructure  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-X I. INTRODUCTION Transition metal silicides have received a great deal of attention due to their use in a number of devices.1­4 Platinum silicide PtSi is an important metal silicide which is widely of silicides are intensely affected by the deposition and technological parameters. It is also confirmed

Zheng, Yufeng

29

Compensator Control For Chemical Vapor Deposition Film Growth Using Reduced Order Design Models  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in a high pressure chemical vapor deposition (HPCVD) reactor that in­ cludes multiple species and controls optoelectronic integrated circuits. This can sometimes be addressed, in part, through open­loop optimization [7 reactor with real­time sensing and control as an innovative feature of this proto­ type reactor. Previous

30

Growth of controllable ZnO film by atomic layer deposition technique via inductively coupled plasma treatment  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An inductively coupled plasma technique (ICP), namely, remote-plasma treatment was introduced to ionize the water molecules as the precursor for the deposition of ZnO film via the atomic layer deposition processes. Compared with the H{sub 2}O gas as the precursor for the ALD growth, the ionized water molecules can provide a lesser energy to uniformly stabilize oxidization processes, resulting in a better film quality with a higher resistivity owing to less formation of intrinsic defects at a lower growth temperature. The relationship between resistivity and formation mechanisms have been discussed and investigated through analyses of atomic force microscopy, photonluminescence, and absorption spectra, respectively. Findings indicate that the steric hindrance of the ligands plays an important rule for the ALD-ZnO film sample with the ICP treatment while the limited number of bonding sites will be dominant for the ALD-ZnO film without the ICP treatment owing to decreasing of the reactive sites via the ligand-exchange reaction during the dissociation process. Finally, the enhanced aspect-ratio into the anodic aluminum oxide with the better improved uniform coating of ZnO layer after the ICP treatment was demonstrated, providing an important information for a promising application in electronics based on ZnO ALD films.

Huang, Hsin-Wei; Chang, Wen-Chih; Lin, Su-Jien; Chueh, Yu-Lun [Department of Materials Science Engineering and Center For Nanotechnology, Material Science, and Microsystem, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China)

2012-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

31

Epitaxial growth of aligned AlGalnN nanowires by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Highly ordered and aligned epitaxy of III-Nitride nanowires is demonstrated in this work. <1010> M-axis is identified as a preferential nanowire growth direction through a detailed study of GaN/AlN trunk/branch nanostructures by transmission electron microscopy. Crystallographic selectivity can be used to achieve spatial and orientational control of nanowire growth. Vertically aligned (Al)GaN nanowires are prepared on M-plane AlN substrates. Horizontally ordered nanowires, extending from the M-plane sidewalls of GaN hexagonal mesas or islands demonstrate new opportunities for self-aligned nanowire devices, interconnects, and networks.

Han, Jung (Woodbridge, CT); Su, Jie (New Haven, CT)

2008-08-05T23:59:59.000Z

32

Growth of magnesium oxide thin lms using single molecular precursors by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Growth of magnesium oxide thin ®lms using single molecular precursors by metal±organic chemical precursors; Silicon; Sapphire 1. Introduction Magnesium oxide (MgO) thin ®lms have attracted much attention MgO ®lms on Si(100) above 6508C by thermal CVD. Murayama and Shionoya [12] used magnesium 2

Boo, Jin-Hyo

33

Optimization of InAsSb/InGaAs strained-layer superlattice growth by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition for use in infrared emitters  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We have prepared InAsSb/InGaAs strained-layer superlattices (SLSs) by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition using a variety of growth conditions. Presence of an InGaAsSb interface layer was indicated by x-ray diffraction. This interface effect was minimized by optimizing the purge times, reactant flows, and growth conditions. The optimized growth conditions involved the use of low pressure, short purge times between the growth of the layers, and no reactant flow during the purges. Electron diffraction indicates that CuPt-type compositional ordering occurs in InAs{sub 1{minus}x}Sb{sub x} alloys and SLSs which explains an observed bandgap reduction from previously accepted alloy values.

Biefeld, R.M.; Baucom, K.C.; Follstaedt, D.M.; Kurtz, S.R.

1994-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

34

In Situ Synchrotron Based X-ray Fluorescence and Scattering Measurements During Atomic Layer Deposition: Initial Growth of HfO2 on Si and Ge Substrates  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The initial growth of HfO{sub 2} was studied by means of synchrotron based in situ x-ray fluorescence (XRF) and grazing incidence small angle x-ray scattering (GISAXS). HfO{sub 2} was deposited by atomic layer deposition (ALD) using tetrakis(ethylmethylamino)hafnium and H{sub 2}O on both oxidized and H-terminated Si and Ge surfaces. XRF quantifies the amount of deposited material during each ALD cycle and shows an inhibition period on H-terminated substrates. No inhibition period is observed on oxidized substrates. The evolution of film roughness was monitored using GISAXS. A correlation is found between the inhibition period and the onset of surface roughness.

K Devloo-Casier; J Dendooven; K Ludwig; G Lekens; J DHaen; C Detavernier

2011-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

35

Growth behavior and properties of atomic layer deposited tin oxide on silicon from novel tin(II)acetylacetonate precursor and ozone  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this work, a novel liquid tin(II) precursor, tin(II)acetylacetonate [Sn(acac){sub 2}], was used to deposit tin oxide films on Si(100) substrate, using a custom-built hot wall atomic layer deposition (ALD) reactor. Three different oxidizers, water, oxygen, and ozone, were tried. Resulting growth rates were studied as a function of precursor dosage, oxidizer dosage, reactor temperature, and number of ALD cycles. The film growth rate was found to be 0.1?±?0.01?nm/cycle within the wide ALD temperature window of 175–300?°C using ozone; no film growth was observed with water or oxygen. Characterization methods were used to study the composition, interface quality, crystallinity, microstructure, refractive index, surface morphology, and resistivity of the resulting films. X-ray photoelectron spectra showed the formation of a clean SnO{sub x}–Si interface. The resistivity of the SnO{sub x} films was calculated to be 0.3?? cm. Results of this work demonstrate the possibility of introducing Sn(acac){sub 2} as tin precursor to deposit conducting ALD SnO{sub x} thin films on a silicon surface, with clean interface and no formation of undesired SiO{sub 2} or other interfacial reaction products, for transparent conducting oxide applications.

Kannan Selvaraj, Sathees [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60607 (United States); Feinerman, Alan [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60607 (United States); Takoudis, Christos G., E-mail: takoudis@uic.edu [Departments of Bioengineering and Chemical Engineering, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60607 (United States)

2014-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

36

Effects of pressure, temperature, and hydrogen during graphene growth on SiC(0001) using propane-hydrogen chemical vapor deposition  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Graphene growth from a propane flow in a hydrogen environment (propane-hydrogen chemical vapor deposition (CVD)) on SiC differentiates from other growth methods in that it offers the possibility to obtain various graphene structures on the Si-face depending on growth conditions. The different structures include the (6{radical}3 Multiplication-Sign 6{radical}3)-R30 Degree-Sign reconstruction of the graphene/SiC interface, which is commonly observed on the Si-face, but also the rotational disorder which is generally observed on the C-face. In this work, growth mechanisms leading to the formation of the different structures are studied and discussed. For that purpose, we have grown graphene on SiC(0001) (Si-face) using propane-hydrogen CVD at various pressure and temperature and studied these samples extensively by means of low energy electron diffraction and atomic force microscopy. Pressure and temperature conditions leading to the formation of the different structures are identified and plotted in a pressure-temperature diagram. This diagram, together with other characterizations (X-ray photoemission and scanning tunneling microscopy), is the basis of further discussions on the carbon supply mechanisms and on the kinetics effects. The entire work underlines the important role of hydrogen during growth and its effects on the final graphene structure.

Michon, A.; Vezian, S.; Roudon, E.; Lefebvre, D.; Portail, M. [CNRS-CRHEA, Rue Bernard Gregory, 06560 Valbonne (France)] [CNRS-CRHEA, Rue Bernard Gregory, 06560 Valbonne (France); Zielinski, M.; Chassagne, T. [NOVASiC, Savoie Technolac, Arche Bat 4, BP267, 73375 Le Bourget du Lac (France)] [NOVASiC, Savoie Technolac, Arche Bat 4, BP267, 73375 Le Bourget du Lac (France)

2013-05-28T23:59:59.000Z

37

Growth, microstructure and electrical properties of sputter-deposited hafnium oxide (HfO2) thin films grown using HfO2 ceramic target  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Hafnium oxide (HfO?) thin films have been made by radio-frequency (rf) magnetron-sputtering onto Si(100) substrates under varying growth temperature (Ts). HfO? ceramic target has been employed for sputtering while varying the Ts from room temperature to 500?C during deposition. The effect of Ts on the growth and microstructure of deposited HfO? films has been studied using grazing incidence x-ray diffraction (GIXRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and high-resolution scanning electron microscopy (HR-SEM) coupled with energy dispersive x-ray spectrometry (EDS). The results indicate that the effect of Ts is significant on the growth, surface and interface structure, morphology and chemical composition of the HfO? films. Structural characterization indicates that the HfO? films grown at Ts<200 ?C are amorphous while films grown at Ts>200 ?C are nanocrystalline. An amorphous-to-crystalline transition occurs at Ts=200 ?C. Nanocrystalline HfO? films crystallized in a monoclinic structure with a (-111) orientation. XPS measurements indicated the high surface-chemical quality and stoichiometric nature of the grown HfO? films. An interface layer (IL) formation occurs due to reaction at the HfO?-Si interface for HfO? films deposited at Ts>200 ?C. The thickness of IL increases with increasing Ts. XPS and EDS at the HfO?-Si cross-section indicate the IL is a (Hf, Si)-O compound. The electrical characterization using capacitance-voltage measurements indicate that the dielectric constant decreases from 25 to 16 with increasing Ts.

Aguirre, B.; Vemuri, R. S.; Zubia, David; Engelhard, Mark H.; Shutthanandan, V.; Kamala Bharathi, K.; Ramana, Chintalapalle V.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

38

Direct growth of few-layer graphene on 6H-SiC and 3C-SiC/Si via propane chemical vapor deposition  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We propose to grow graphene on SiC by a direct carbon feeding through propane flow in a chemical vapor deposition reactor. X-ray photoemission and low energy electron diffraction show that propane allows to grow few-layer graphene (FLG) on 6H-SiC(0001). Surprisingly, FLG grown on (0001) face presents a rotational disorder similar to that observed for FLG obtained by annealing on (000-1) face. Thanks to a reduced growth temperature with respect to the classical SiC annealing method, we have also grown FLG/3C-SiC/Si(111) in a single growth sequence. This opens the way for large-scale production of graphene-based devices on silicon substrate.

Michon, A.; Vezian, S.; Portail, M. [CNRS-CRHEA, Rue Bernard Gregory, 06560 Valbonne (France); Ouerghi, A. [CNRS-LPN, Route de Nozay, 91460 Marcoussis (France); Zielinski, M.; Chassagne, T. [NOVASiC, Savoie Technolac, Arche Bat 4, BP267, 73375 Le Bourget du Lac (France)

2010-10-25T23:59:59.000Z

39

Epitaxial growth of BaTiO3 thin films at 600 C by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

with an a-axis perpendicular to the substrate plane. Nanoscale energy dispersive x-ray spectrometry processes include deposition over large areas, high throughput, and uniform coverage of nonplanar shapes by a plasma-enhanced MOCVD pro- cess. It is not known if the added energy from the plasma generates structural

Wang, Zhong L.

40

ENHANCED GROWTH RATE AND SILANE UTILIZATION IN AMORPHOUS SILICON AND NANOCRYSTALLINE-SILICON SOLAR CELL DEPOSITION VIA GAS PHASE ADDITIVES  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Air Products set out to investigate the impact of additives on the deposition rate of both ���µCSi and ���±Si-H films. One criterion for additives was that they could be used in conventional PECVD processing, which would require sufficient vapor pressure to deliver material to the process chamber at the required flow rates. The flow rate required would depend on the size of the substrate onto which silicon films were being deposited, potentially ranging from 200 mm diameter wafers to the 5.7 m2 glass substrates used in GEN 8.5 flat-panel display tools. In choosing higher-order silanes, both disilane and trisilane had sufficient vapor pressure to withdraw gas at the required flow rates of up to 120 sccm. This report presents results obtained from testing at Air Products�¢���� electronic technology laboratories, located in Allentown, PA, which focused on developing processes on a commercial IC reactor using silane and mixtures of silane plus additives. These processes were deployed to compare deposition rates and film properties with and without additives, with a goal of maximizing the deposition rate while maintaining or improving film properties.

Ridgeway, R.G.; Hegedus, S.S.; Podraza, N.J.

2012-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "deposition growth cxs" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Growth mechanisms of carbon nanotrees with branched carbon nanofibers synthesized by plasma-enhanced chemical vapour deposition  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

be interesting for future applications in nanoelectronic devices and also composite materials. hal-008807221 Growth mechanisms of carbon nanotrees with branched carbon nanofibers synthesized by plasma , Didier Pribat*, 3 1 State Key Laboratory for Advanced Metals and Materials, University of Science

Boyer, Edmond

42

Thermal decomposition of ethanol and growth of vertically aligned single-walled carbon nanotubes by alcohol catalytic chemical vapor deposition  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Thermal decomposition of ethanol and growth of vertically aligned single-walled carbon nanotubes. In this study, we have investigated the thermal decomposition of ethanol at various temperatures, as well National Meeting, San Francisco, CA, September 10-14, 2006 1/1 PRES 29 - Thermal decomposition of ethanol

Maruyama, Shigeo

43

Growth of Epitaxial gamma-Al2O3 Films on Rigid Single-Crystal Ceramic Substrates and Flexible, Single-Crystal-Like Metallic Substrates by Pulsed Laser Deposition  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Epitaxial -Al2O3 thin films were grown on diverse substrates using pulsed laser deposition. The high quality of epitaxial growth and cubic structure of -Al2O3 films was confirmed by x-ray diffraction. SrTiO3 and MgO single crystal substrates were used to optimize the growth conditions for epitaxial -Al2O3 film. Under the optimized conditions, epitaxial -Al2O3 thin films were grown on flexible, single-crystal-like, metallic templates. These included untextured Hastelloy substrates with a biaxially textured MgO layer deposited using ion-beam-assisted-deposition and biaxially textured Ni-W metallic tapes with epitaxially grown and a biaxially textured, MgO buffer layer. These biaxially textured, -Al2O3 films on flexible, single-crystal-like substrates are promising for subsequent epitaxial growth of various complex oxide films used for electrical, magnetic and electronic device applications.

Shin, Junsoo [ORNL; Goyal, Amit [ORNL; Wee, Sung Hun [ORNL

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

44

Epitaxial growth of CdTe thin film on cube-textured Ni by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

CdTe thin film has been grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) on Ni(100) substrate. Using x-ray pole figure measurements we observed the epitaxial relationship of {111}CdTe// {001}Ni with [110]CdTe//[010]Ni and [112] CdTe//[100]Ni. The 12 diffraction peaks in the (111) pole figure of CdTe film and their relative positions with respect to the four peak positions in the (111) pole figure of Ni substrate are consistent with four equivalent orientational domains of CdTe with three to four superlattice match of about 0.7% in the [110] direction of CdTe and the [010] direction of Ni. The electron backscattered diffraction (EBSD) images show that the CdTe domains are 30 degrees orientated from each other.

GIARE, C [Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (RPI); RAO, S [Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (RPI); RILEY, M [Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (RPI); CHEN, L [Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (RPI); Goyal, Amit [ORNL; BHAT, I [Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (RPI); LU, T [Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (RPI); WANG, G [Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (RPI)

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

45

Instrument Series: Deposition and Microfabrication Sputter Deposition  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Sensors ­ thin film growth of functional material systems for developing highly sensitive and portable chemical and biological sensors Energy sources ­ development of thin film materials systems for research and solid oxide fuel cells and solar cells for energy generation Microfabrication ­ deposition

46

Biomimetic thin film deposition  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Biological mineral deposition for the formation of bone, mollusk shell and other hard tissues provides materials scientists with illustrative materials processing strategies. This presentation will review the key features of biomineralization and how these features can be of technical importance. We have adapted existing knowledge of biomineralization to develop a unique method of depositing inorganic thin films and coating. Our approach to thin film deposition is to modify substrate surfaces to imitate the proteins found in nature that are responsible for controlling mineral deposition. These biomimetic surfaces control the nucleation and growth of the mineral from a supersaturated aqueous solution. This has many processing advantages including simple processing equipment, environmentally benign reagents, uniform coating of highly complex shapes, and enhanced adherence of coating. Many different types of metal oxide, hydroxide, sulfide and phosphate materials with useful mechanical, optical, electronic and biomedical properties can be deposited.

Rieke, P.R.; Graff, G.E.; Campbell, A.A.; Bunker, B.C.; Baskaran, S.; Song, L.; Tarasevich, B.J.; Fryxell, G.E.

1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

47

Elemental diffusion during the droplet epitaxy growth of In(Ga)As/GaAs(001) quantum dots by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Droplet epitaxy is an important method to produce epitaxial semiconductor quantum dots (QDs). Droplet epitaxy of III-V QDs comprises group III elemental droplet deposition and the droplet crystallization through the introduction of group V elements. Here, we report that, in the droplet epitaxy of InAs/GaAs(001) QDs using metal-organic chemical vapor deposition, significant elemental diffusion from the substrate to In droplets occurs, resulting in the formation of In(Ga)As crystals, before As flux is provided. The supply of As flux suppresses the further elemental diffusion from the substrate and promotes surface migration, leading to large island formation with a low island density.

Chen, Z. B.; Chen, B.; Wang, Y. B.; Liao, X. Z., E-mail: xiaozhou.liao@sydney.edu.au [School of Aerospace, Mechanical and Mechatronic Engineering, The University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Lei, W. [School of Electrical, Electronic and Computer Engineering, The University of Western Australia, Perth, WA 6009 (Australia); Tan, H. H.; Jagadish, C. [Department of Electronic Materials Engineering, Research School of Physics and Engineering, The Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 0200 (Australia); Zou, J. [Materials Engineering and Centre for Microscopy and Microanalysis, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD 4072 (Australia); Ringer, S. P. [School of Aerospace, Mechanical and Mechatronic Engineering, The University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Australian Centre for Microscopy and Microanalysis, The University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia)

2014-01-13T23:59:59.000Z

48

Process sensing and metrology in gate oxide growth by rapid thermal chemical vapor deposition from SiH4 and N2O  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

SiO2 film. An optimal process window had been previously identified at a total pressure of 5 Torr, but also quantitative metrology for the film deposition process. © 1999 American Vacuum Society. S0734-211X the wafer. Radiative heating of the wafer was achieved through a quartz window by an array of halogen lamps

Rubloff, Gary W.

49

Growth mechanisms study of microcrystalline silicon deposited by SiH{sub 4}/H{sub 2} plasma using tailored voltage waveforms  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The use of Tailored Voltage Waveforms is a technique wherein one uses non-sinusoidal waveforms with a period equivalent to RF frequencies to excite a plasma. It has been shown to be an effective technique to decouple maximum Ion Bombardment Energy (IBE) from the ion flux at the surface of the electrodes. In this paper, we use it for the first time as a way to scan through the IBE in order to study the growth mechanism of hydrogenated microcrystalline silicon using a SiH{sub 4}/H{sub 2} chemistry. We find that at critical energies, a stepwise increase in the amorphous to microcrystalline transition thickness is observed, as detected by Real Time Spectroscopic Ellipsometry. The same energy thresholds (30?eV and 70?eV) are found to be very influential on the final surface morphology of the samples, as observed by Atomic Force Microscopy. These thresholds correspond to SiH{sub x}{sup +} bulk displacement (30?eV) and H{sub x}{sup +} (70?eV) surface displacement energies. A model is therefore proposed to account for the impact of these ions on the morphology of ?c-Si:H growth.

Bruneau, B., E-mail: bastien.bruneau@polytechnique.edu; Johnson, E. V. [LPICM-CNRS, Ecole Polytechnique, route de Saclay, 91128 Palaiseau (France); Wang, J. [LPICM-CNRS, Ecole Polytechnique, route de Saclay, 91128 Palaiseau (France); ICARE China-Europe Institute for Clean and Renewable Energy at Huazhong University of Science and Technology, 1037 Luoyu Road, 430074 Wuhan (China); Dornstetter, J.-C. [LPICM-CNRS, Ecole Polytechnique, route de Saclay, 91128 Palaiseau (France); TOTAL New Energies, 24 cours Michelet, 92069 Paris La Défense Cedex (France)

2014-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

50

Direct Growth Graphene on Cu Nanoparticles by Chemical Vapor Deposition as Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering Substrate for Label-Free Detection of Adenosine  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We present a graphene/Cu nanoparticle hybrids (G/CuNPs) system as a surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) substrate for adenosine detection. The Cu nanoparticles wrapped around a monolayer graphene shell were directly synthesized on flat quartz by chemical vapor deposition in a mixture of methane and hydrogen. The G/CuNPs showed an excellent SERS enhancement activity for adenosine. The minimum detected concentration of the adenosine in serum was demonstrated as low as 5 nM, and the calibration curve showed a good linear response from 5 to 500 nM. The capability of SERS detection of adenosine in real normal human urine samples based on G/CuNPs was also investigated and the characteristic peaks of adenosine were still recognizable. The reproducible and the ultrasensitive enhanced Raman signals could be due to the presence of an ultrathin graphene layer. The graphene shell was able to enrich and fix the adenosine molecules, which could also efficiently maintain chemical and optical stability of G/CuNPs. Based...

Xu, Shicai; Jiang, Shouzhen; Wang, Jihua; Wei, Jie; Xu, Shida; Liu, Hanping

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

51

Direct Visualization of Initial SEI Morphology and Growth Kinetics...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Initial SEI Morphology and Growth Kinetics During Lithium Deposition by in situ Electrochemical Direct Visualization of Initial SEI Morphology and Growth Kinetics During Lithium...

52

Photobiomolecular deposition of metallic particles and films  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The method of the invention is based on the unique electron-carrying function of a photocatalytic unit such as the photosynthesis system I (PSI) reaction center of the protein-chlorophyll complex isolated from chloroplasts. The method employs a photo-biomolecular metal deposition technique for precisely controlled nucleation and growth of metallic clusters/particles, e.g., platinum, palladium, and their alloys, etc., as well as for thin-film formation above the surface of a solid substrate. The photochemically mediated technique offers numerous advantages over traditional deposition methods including quantitative atom deposition control, high energy efficiency, and mild operating condition requirements.

Hu, Zhong-Cheng

2005-02-08T23:59:59.000Z

53

E-Print Network 3.0 - assisted vapour deposition Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

chemical vapour deposition (MOCVD) for the growth of thin films of In 0 :Sn... in a nitrogen-oxygen atmosphere, thin films are deposited on hot 410-SOOC glass and (111) silicon...

54

Particle deposition in ventilation ducts  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and An Evaluation of Thermophoretic Deposition Rates C.1of estimated thermophoretic deposition velocities, v th+ ,of estimated thermophoretic deposition velocities, v th+ ,

Sippola, Mark R.

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

55

Original article Growth stresses in tension wood  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Original article Growth stresses in tension wood: role of microfibrils and lignification T Okuyama the growth stress generation in the region of normal and tension woods. growth stress/ tension wood in normal and ten- sion wood. The compressive stress from the deposition of lignin controls the level

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

56

Growth of cubic SiC thin films on Si,,001... by high vacuum chemical vapor deposition using 1,3-disilabutane and an investigation of the effect of  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Department of Chemistry, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440-746, Korea K.-W. Lee, M. M. Sung, and Y. Kim Thin by sublimation and liquid phase epitaxial growth is not commer- cially available in sizes above 2 in. Moreover

Boo, Jin-Hyo

57

Nanoscale Growth Twins in Sputtered Copper Films  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

.............................................................. 7 I.1.3. Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) .................................... 8 I.2. Fabrication of copper thin films .................................................... 12... to the exposure of the film growth surface to the solution, impurities may be introduced. I.1.3. Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) CVD is a chemical process used to produce high-purity, high-performance thin films and often used in the semiconductor industry...

Anderoglu, Osman

2011-08-08T23:59:59.000Z

58

Radionuclide deposition control  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The deposition of radionuclides manganese-54, cobalt-58 and cobalt-60 from liquid sodium coolant is controlled by providing surfaces of nickel or high nickel alloys to extract the radionuclides from the liquid sodium, and by providing surfaces of tungsten, molybdenum or tantalum to prevent or retard radionuclide deposition.

Brehm, William F. (Richland, WA); McGuire, Joseph C. (Richland, WA)

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

59

Solution deposition assembly  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Methods and devices are provided for improved deposition systems. In one embodiment of the present invention, a deposition system is provided for use with a solution and a substrate. The system comprises of a solution deposition apparatus; at least one heating chamber, at least one assembly for holding a solution over the substrate; and a substrate curling apparatus for curling at least one edge of the substrate to define a zone capable of containing a volume of the solution over the substrate. In another embodiment of the present invention, a deposition system for use with a substrate, the system comprising a solution deposition apparatus; at heating chamber; and at least assembly for holding solution over the substrate to allow for a depth of at least about 0.5 microns to 10 mm.

Roussillon, Yann; Scholz, Jeremy H; Shelton, Addison; Green, Geoff T; Utthachoo, Piyaphant

2014-01-21T23:59:59.000Z

60

Heteroepitaxy of group IV-VI nitrides by atomic layer deposition  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Heteroepitaxial growth of selected group IV-VI nitrides on various orientations of sapphire (?-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) is demonstrated using atomic layer deposition. High quality, epitaxial films are produced at significantly lower temperatures than required by conventional deposition methods. Characterization of electrical and superconducting properties of epitaxial films reveals a reduced room temperature resistivity and increased residual resistance ratio for films deposited on sapphire compared to polycrystalline samples deposited concurrently on fused quartz substrates.

Klug, Jeffrey A., E-mail: jklug@anl.gov; Groll, Nickolas R.; Pellin, Michael J.; Proslier, Thomas, E-mail: prolier@anl.gov [Materials Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States)] [Materials Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States); Becker, Nicholas G.; Cao, Chaoyue; Zasadzinski, John F. [Materials Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States) [Materials Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States); Department of Physics, Illinois Institute of Technology, Chicago, Illinois 60616 (United States); Weimer, Matthew S. [Materials Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States) [Materials Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States); Department of Chemistry, Illinois Institute of Technology, Chicago, Illinois 60616 (United States)

2013-11-18T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "deposition growth cxs" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Ash deposit workshop: Class outline  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Ash deposits formed from the combustion of coal and other fuels have plagued the steam production industry from the start. The ash fusion test has been around for over eighty years. As steam plant size increased, so have the problems associated with ash deposits. This workshop is designed to cover: (1) The basic types of deposits. (2) Causes of deposits. (3) Analytical procedures for resolving, or at least providing information about deposits and fuels, and (4) Deposit removal and reduction techniques.

Hatt, R. [Commercial Testing & Engineering Co., Lexington, KY (United States)

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

62

GaSb molecular beam epitaxial growth on p-InP(001) and passivation with in situ deposited Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} gate oxide  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The integration of high carrier mobility materials into future CMOS generations is presently being studied in order to increase drive current capability and to decrease power consumption in future generation CMOS devices. If III-V materials are the candidates of choice for n-type channel devices, antimonide-based semiconductors present high hole mobility and could be used for p-type channel devices. In this work we first demonstrate the heteroepitaxy of fully relaxed GaSb epilayers on InP(001) substrates. In a second part, the properties of the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/GaSb interface have been studied by in situ deposition of an Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} high-{kappa} gate dielectric. The interface is abrupt without any substantial interfacial layer, and is characterized by high conduction and valence band offsets. Finally, MOS capacitors show well-behaved C-V with relatively low D{sub it} along the bandgap, these results point out an efficient electrical passivation of the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/GaSb interface.

Merckling, C.; Brammertz, G.; Hoffmann, T. Y.; Caymax, M.; Dekoster, J. [Interuniversity Microelectronics Center (IMEC vzw), Kapeldreef 75, 3001, Leuven (Belgium); Sun, X. [Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Celestijnelaan 200D, 3001, Leuven (Belgium); Department of Electrical Engineering, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut 06520-8284 (United States); Alian, A.; Heyns, M. [Interuniversity Microelectronics Center (IMEC vzw), Kapeldreef 75, 3001, Leuven (Belgium); Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Celestijnelaan 200D, 3001, Leuven (Belgium); Afanas'ev, V. V. [Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Celestijnelaan 200D, 3001, Leuven (Belgium)

2011-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

63

Vacuum arc deposition devices  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The vacuum arc is a high-current, low-voltage electrical discharge which produces a plasma consisting of vaporized and ionized electrode material. In the most common cathodic arc deposition systems, the arc concentrates at minute cathode spots on the cathode surface and the plasma is emitted as a hypersonic jet, with some degree of contamination by molten droplets [known as macroparticles (MPs)] of the cathode material. In vacuum arc deposition systems, the location and motion of the cathode spots are confined to desired surfaces by an applied magnetic field and shields around undesired surfaces. Substrates are mounted on a holder so that they intercept some portion of the plasma jet. The substrate often provides for negative bias to control the energy of depositing ions and heating or cooling to control the substrate temperature. In some systems, a magnetic field is used to guide the plasma around an obstacle which blocks the MPs. These elements are integrated with a deposition chamber, cooling, vacuum gauges and pumps, and power supplies to produce a vacuum arc deposition system.

Boxman, R.L.; Zhitomirsky, V.N. [Electrical Discharge and Plasma Laboratory, Faculty of Engineering, Tel Aviv University, P.O. Box 39040, Tel Aviv 69978 (Israel)

2006-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

64

Ultrashort pulse laser deposition of thin films  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Short pulse PLD is a viable technique of producing high quality films with properties very close to that of crystalline diamond. The plasma generated using femtosecond lasers is composed of single atom ions with no clusters producing films with high Sp.sup.3 /Sp.sup.2 ratios. Using a high average power femtosecond laser system, the present invention dramatically increases deposition rates to up to 25 .mu.m/hr (which exceeds many CVD processes) while growing particulate-free films. In the present invention, deposition rates is a function of laser wavelength, laser fluence, laser spot size, and target/substrate separation. The relevant laser parameters are shown to ensure particulate-free growth, and characterizations of the films grown are made using several diagnostic techniques including electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) and Raman spectroscopy.

Perry, Michael D. (Livermore, CA); Banks, Paul S. (Livermore, CA); Stuart, Brent C. (Fremont, CA)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

65

Deposition of biaxially textured yttria-stabilized zirconia by ion-beam-assisted deposition.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Biaxially textured yttria (8 mol %)-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) thin films were deposited on randomly oriented Hastelloy C and Stainless Steel 304 at room temperature as a buffer layer for subsequent deposition of oriented YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub x} films. The 0.16-1.3 {micro}m thick YSZ films were deposited by e-beam evaporation at rates of 1.2-3.2 {angstrom}/sec. Biaxially textured films were produced with an Ar/O{sub 2} ion beam directed at the substrate during film growth. X-ray diffraction was used to study in-plane and out-of-plane orientation as a function of ion-bombardment angle, film thickness, ion-to-atom flux ratio, and substrate material. In-plane and out-of-plane average-misorientation angles on these YSZ films that were deposited by ion-beam-assisted deposition were as low as 17 and 5.4{degree}, respectively, on as-received substrates.

Chudzik, M. P.

1998-09-17T23:59:59.000Z

66

Sputter deposition of semiconductor superlattices for thermoelectric applications  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Theoretical dramatic improvement of the thermoelectric properties of materials by using quantum confinement in novel semiconductor nanostructures has lead to considerable interest in the thermoelectric community. Therefore, we are exploring the critical materials issues for fabrication of quantum confined structures by magnetron sputtering in the lead telluride and bismuth telluride families of materials. We have synthesized modulated structures from thermoelectric materials with bilayer periods of as little as 3.2 nm and shown that they are stable at deposition temperatures high enough to grow quality films. Issues critical to high quality film growth have been investigated such as nucleation and growth conditions and their effect on crystal orientation and growth morphology. These investigations show that nucleating the film at a temperature below the growth temperature of optimum electronic properties produces high quality films. Our work with sputter deposition, which is inherently a high rate deposition process, builds the technological base necessary to develop economical production of these advanced materials. High deposition rate is critical since, even if efficiencies comparable with CFC based refrigeration systems can be achieved, large quantities of quantum confined materials will be necessary for cost-competitive uses.

Wagner, A.V.; Foreman, R.J.; Farmer, J.C.; Barbee, T.W.

1996-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

67

Polymer electrolyte fuel cell electrodes grown by vapor deposition techniques Pascal Brault*  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Polymer electrolyte fuel cell electrodes grown by vapor deposition techniques Pascal Brault Abstract: Polymer fuel cell electrode growth using vapor deposition techniques is reviewed. The supports process: sputtering, CVD, PECVD, MOCVD. In each case, up-to-date fuel cell performances are highlighted

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

68

OPTIMAL DESIGN OF A HIGH PRESSURE ORGANOMETALLIC CHEMICAL VAPOR DEPOSITION REACTOR  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

OPTIMAL DESIGN OF A HIGH PRESSURE ORGANOMETALLIC CHEMICAL VAPOR DEPOSITION REACTOR K.J. BACHMANN of computer simulations as an optimal design tool which lessens the costs in time and effort in experimental vapor deposition (HPOMCVD) reactor for use in thin film crystal growth. The advantages of such a reactor

69

On the optimization of a dc arcjet diamond chemical vapor deposition reactor  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

On the optimization of a dc arcjet diamond chemical vapor deposition reactor S. W. Reevea) and W. A precursor in our dc arcjet reactor.1 Based on conclusions drawn from that work, an optimization strategy diamond film growth in a dc arcjet chemical vapor deposition reactor has been developed. Introducing

Dandy, David

70

Uranium deposits of Brazil  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Brazil is a country of vast natural resources, including numerous uranium deposits. In support of the country`s nuclear power program, Brazil has developed the most active uranium industry in South America. Brazil has one operating reactor (Angra 1, a 626-MWe PWR), and two under construction. The country`s economic challenges have slowed the progress of its nuclear program. At present, the Pocos de Caldas district is the only active uranium production. In 1990, the Cercado open-pit mine produced approximately 45 metric tons (MT) U{sub 3}O{sub 8} (100 thousand pounds). Brazil`s state-owned uranium production and processing company, Uranio do Brasil, announced it has decided to begin shifting its production from the high-cost and nearly depleted deposits at Pocos de Caldas, to lower-cost reserves at Lagoa Real. Production at Lagoa Real is schedules to begin by 1993. In addition to these two districts, Brazil has many other known uranium deposits, and as a whole, it is estimated that Brazil has over 275,000 MT U{sub 3}O{sub 8} (600 million pounds U{sub 3}O{sub 8}) in reserves.

NONE

1991-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

71

Effect of high temperature deposition on CoSi{sub 2} phase formation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper discusses the nucleation behaviour of the CoSi to CoSi{sub 2} transformation from cobalt silicide thin films grown by deposition at elevated substrate temperatures ranging from 375 Degree-Sign C to 600 Degree-Sign C. A combination of channelling, real-time Rutherford backscattering spectrometry, real-time x-ray diffraction, and transmission electron microscopy was used to investigate the effect of the deposition temperature on the subsequent formation temperature of CoSi{sub 2}, its growth behaviour, and the epitaxial quality of the CoSi{sub 2} thus formed. The temperature at which deposition took place was observed to exert a significant and systematic influence on both the formation temperature of CoSi{sub 2} and its growth mechanism. CoSi films grown at the lowest temperatures were found to increase the CoSi{sub 2} nucleation temperature above that of CoSi{sub 2} grown by conventional solid phase reaction, whereas the higher deposition temperatures reduced the nucleation temperature significantly. In addition, a systematic change in growth mechanism of the subsequent CoSi{sub 2} growth occurs as a function of deposition temperature. First, the CoSi{sub 2} growth rate from films grown at the lower reactive deposition temperatures is substantially lower than that grown at higher reactive deposition temperatures, even though the onset of growth occurs at a higher temperature, Second, for deposition temperatures below 450 Degree-Sign C, the growth appears columnar, indicating nucleation controlled growth. Elevated deposition temperatures, on the other hand, render the CoSi{sub 2} formation process layer-by-layer which indicates enhanced nucleation of the CoSi{sub 2} and diffusion controlled growth. Our results further indicate that this observed trend is most likely related to stress and changes in microstructure introduced during reactive deposition of the CoSi film. The deposition temperature therefore provides a handle to tune the CoSi{sub 2} growth mechanism.

Comrie, C. M. [Department of Physics, University of Cape Town, Rondebosch 7700 (South Africa) [Department of Physics, University of Cape Town, Rondebosch 7700 (South Africa); MRD, iThemba LABS, P.O. Box 722, Somerset West 7129 (South Africa); Ahmed, H. [Department of Physics, University of Cape Town, Rondebosch 7700 (South Africa)] [Department of Physics, University of Cape Town, Rondebosch 7700 (South Africa); Smeets, D.; Demeulemeester, J.; Vantomme, A. [Instituut voor Kern- en Stralingsfysica, KU Leuven, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium)] [Instituut voor Kern- en Stralingsfysica, KU Leuven, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Turner, S.; Van Tendeloo, G. [EMAT, Universiteit Antwerpen, B-2020 Antwerpen (Belgium)] [EMAT, Universiteit Antwerpen, B-2020 Antwerpen (Belgium); Detavernier, C. [Vakgroep Vaste-Stofwetenschappen, Universiteit Gent, B-9000 Gent (Belgium)] [Vakgroep Vaste-Stofwetenschappen, Universiteit Gent, B-9000 Gent (Belgium)

2013-06-21T23:59:59.000Z

72

Graphene growth with giant domains using chemical vapor deposition  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

N. Martensson, Controlling graphene corrugation on lattice-in patterned epitaxial graphene, Science, 2006, 312(5777), 92009, 4(6), 17 A. K. Geim, Graphene: Status and Prospects,

Yong, Virginia; Hahn, H. Thomas

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

73

Growth, microstructure and electrical properties of sputter-deposited  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth7-1D: Vegetation ProposedUsingFun with Big Sky LearningGetGraphene'sEMSL barium

74

Deposition and Microfabrication | EMSL  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary)morphinanInformation Desert Southwest Region service area. The Desert Southwest RegionInsideDeposition and

75

Static magnetic and microwave properties of Li-ferrite films prepared by pulsed laser deposition  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Static magnetic and microwave properties of Li-ferrite films prepared by pulsed laser deposition F University, Fort Collins, Colorado 80523 Highly textured Li-ferrite films have been synthesized by pulsed approaching 1000 °C the growth mode was predominantly 333 . A similar growth mode was recently reported for Ni-ferrite

Patton, Carl

76

Analysis of gallium arsenide deposition in a horizontal chemical vapor deposition reactor using massively parallel computations  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A numerical analysis of the deposition of gallium from trimethylgallium (TMG) and arsine in a horizontal CVD reactor with tilted susceptor and a three inch diameter rotating substrate is performed. The three-dimensional model includes complete coupling between fluid mechanics, heat transfer, and species transport, and is solved using an unstructured finite element discretization on a massively parallel computer. The effects of three operating parameters (the disk rotation rate, inlet TMG fraction, and inlet velocity) and two design parameters (the tilt angle of the reactor base and the reactor width) on the growth rate and uniformity are presented. The nonlinear dependence of the growth rate uniformity on the key operating parameters is discussed in detail. Efficient and robust algorithms for massively parallel reacting flow simulations, as incorporated into our analysis code MPSalsa, make detailed analysis of this complicated system feasible.

Salinger, A.G.; Shadid, J.N.; Hutchinson, S.A. [and others

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

77

Variable temperature semiconductor film deposition  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method of depositing a semiconductor material on a substrate is disclosed. The method sequentially comprises (a) providing the semiconductor material in a depositable state such as a vapor for deposition on the substrate; (b) depositing the semiconductor material on the substrate while heating the substrate to a first temperature sufficient to cause the semiconductor material to form a first film layer having a first grain size; (c) continually depositing the semiconductor material on the substrate while cooling the substrate to a second temperature sufficient to cause the semiconductor material to form a second film layer deposited on the first film layer and having a second grain size smaller than the first grain size; and (d) raising the substrate temperature, while either continuing or not continuing to deposit semiconductor material to form a third film layer, to thereby anneal the film layers into a single layer having favorable efficiency characteristics in photovoltaic applications. A preferred semiconductor material is cadmium telluride deposited on a glass/tin oxide substrate already having thereon a film layer of cadmium sulfide.

Li, X.; Sheldon, P.

1998-01-27T23:59:59.000Z

78

Tritium deposition patterns in TFTR  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Tritium deposition patterns in TFTR Presented by C. H. Skinner with key contributions from Charles, JAERI #12;· TFTR was a limiter machine - no divertor. · Operated with tritium Nov `93 - April `97. · NetV Limiter Temperature @ 28 MW NBI Low density, high temperature edge #12;Tritium deposition patterns in TFTR

Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory

79

Spatially resolved mineral deposition on patterned self-assembled monolayers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Electron and ion beam lithographic techniques were used to pattern self-assembled monolayers with organic functional groups. Nucleation and growth of minerals from aqueous solution were confined to the patterned regions. A vinyl-terminated self-assembled monolayer (SAM) was selectively deposited in ion and electron beam etched regions of a methyl-terminated SAM. Sulfonation of the vinyl groups produced a surface patterned in either hydrophobic methyl groups or hydrophilic sulfonate groups. Subsequent growth of FeOOH films was confined to the sulfonated regions. Condensation images were used to image each step in the lithographic scheme. Resolution of the SAM patterning step was 1-3 [mu]m, while resolution of the mineral deposition step was 10-15 [mu]m. 15 refs., 3 figs.

Rieke, P.C.; Tarasevich, B.J.; Wood, L.L.; Engelhard, M.H.; Baer, D.R.; Fryxell, G.E. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)); John, C.M. (Charles Evans Associates, Redwood City, CA (United States)); Laken, D.A.; Jaehnig, M.C. (FEI Corp., Beaverton, OR (United States))

1994-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

80

TULSA UNIVERSITY PARAFFIN DEPOSITION PROJECTS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

As oil and gas production moves to deeper and colder water, subsea multiphase production systems become critical for economic feasibility. It will also become increasingly imperative to adequately identify the conditions for paraffin precipitation and predict paraffin deposition rates to optimize the design and operation of these multiphase production systems. Although several oil companies have paraffin deposition predictive capabilities for single-phase oil flow, these predictive capabilities are not suitable for the multiphase flow conditions encountered in most flowlines and wellbores. For deepwater applications in the Gulf of Mexico, it is likely that multiphase production streams consisting of crude oil, produced water and gas will be transported in a single multiphase pipeline to minimize capital cost and complexity at the mudline. Existing single-phase (crude oil) paraffin deposition predictive tools are clearly inadequate to accurately design these pipelines because they do not account for the second and third phases, namely, produced water and gas. The objective of this program is to utilize the current test facilities at The University of Tulsa, as well as member company expertise, to accomplish the following: enhance our understanding of paraffin deposition in single and two-phase (gas-oil) flows; conduct focused experiments to better understand various aspects of deposition physics; and, utilize knowledge gained from experimental modeling studies to enhance the computer programs developed in the previous JIP for predicting paraffin deposition in single and two-phase flow environments. These refined computer models will then be tested against field data from member company pipelines. The following deliverables are scheduled during the first three projects of the program: (1) Single-Phase Studies, with three different black oils, which will yield an enhanced computer code for predicting paraffin deposition in deepwater and surface pipelines. (2) Two-Phase Studies, with a focus on heat transfer and paraffin deposition at various pipe inclinations, which will be used to enhance the paraffin deposition code for gas-liquid flow in pipes. (3) Deposition Physics and Water Impact Studies, which will address the aging process, improve our ability to characterize paraffin deposits and enhance our understanding of the role water plays in paraffin deposition in deepwater pipelines. As in the previous two studies, knowledge gained in this suite of studies will be integrated into a state-of-the-art three-phase paraffin deposition computer program.

Michael Volk; Cem Sarica

2003-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "deposition growth cxs" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Property transformation of graphene with Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} films deposited directly by atomic layer deposition  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} films are deposited directly onto graphene by H{sub 2}O-based atomic layer deposition (ALD), and the films are pinhole-free and continuously cover the graphene surface. The growth process of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} films does not introduce any detective defects in graphene, suppresses the hysteresis effect and tunes the graphene doping to n-type. The self-cleaning of ALD growth process, together with the physically absorbed H{sub 2}O and oxygen-deficient ALD environment consumes OH{sup ?} bonds, suppresses the p-doping of graphene, shifts Dirac point to negative gate bias and enhances the electron mobility.

Zheng, Li; Cao, Duo; Wang, Zhongjian; Xia, Chao [State Key Laboratory of Functional Materials for Informatics, SIMIT, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200050 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Cheng, Xinhong, E-mail: xh-cheng@mail.sim.ac.cn; Yu, Yuehui [State Key Laboratory of Functional Materials for Informatics, SIMIT, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200050 (China); Shen, Dashen [University of Alabama in Huntsville, Huntsville, Alabama 35899 (United States)

2014-01-13T23:59:59.000Z

82

The role of inert gas in MW-enhanced plasmas for the deposition of nanocrystalline diamond thin films  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in polycrystalline diamond film CVD [3,4]. While the mechanical, thermal and acoustic properties of MCD films haveThe role of inert gas in MW-enhanced plasmas for the deposition of nanocrystalline diamond thin diamond Nanocrystalline Inert gas Growth Nanocrystalline diamond thin films have been deposited using

Bristol, University of

83

Sol-Gel Deposited Electrochromic Coatings  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

R A T O R Y Sol-Gel Deposited Electrochromic Coatings NilgunUC-1600 Sol-Gel Deposited Electrochromic Coatings NilgunPaper Sol-gel Deposited Electrochromic Coatings Nilgun Ozer

Ozer, N.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

84

Particle deposition in ventilation ducts  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Exposure to airborne particles is detrimental to human health and indoor exposures dominate total exposures for most people. The accidental or intentional release of aerosolized chemical and biological agents within or near a building can lead to exposures of building occupants to hazardous agents and costly building remediation. Particle deposition in heating, ventilation and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems may significantly influence exposures to particles indoors, diminish HVAC performance and lead to secondary pollutant release within buildings. This dissertation advances the understanding of particle behavior in HVAC systems and the fates of indoor particles by means of experiments and modeling. Laboratory experiments were conducted to quantify particle deposition rates in horizontal ventilation ducts using real HVAC materials. Particle deposition experiments were conducted in steel and internally insulated ducts at air speeds typically found in ventilation ducts, 2-9 m/s. Behaviors of monodisperse particles with diameters in the size range 1-16 {micro}m were investigated. Deposition rates were measured in straight ducts with a fully developed turbulent flow profile, straight ducts with a developing turbulent flow profile, in duct bends and at S-connector pieces located at duct junctions. In straight ducts with fully developed turbulence, experiments showed deposition rates to be highest at duct floors, intermediate at duct walls, and lowest at duct ceilings. Deposition rates to a given surface increased with an increase in particle size or air speed. Deposition was much higher in internally insulated ducts than in uninsulated steel ducts. In most cases, deposition in straight ducts with developing turbulence, in duct bends and at S-connectors at duct junctions was higher than in straight ducts with fully developed turbulence. Measured deposition rates were generally higher than predicted by published models. A model incorporating empirical equations based on the experimental measurements was applied to evaluate particle losses in supply and return duct runs. Model results suggest that duct losses are negligible for particle sizes less than 1 {micro}m and complete for particle sizes greater than 50 {micro}m. Deposition to insulated ducts, horizontal duct floors and bends are predicted to control losses in duct systems. When combined with models for HVAC filtration and deposition to indoor surfaces to predict the ultimate fates of particles within buildings, these results suggest that ventilation ducts play only a small role in determining indoor particle concentrations, especially when HVAC filtration is present. However, the measured and modeled particle deposition rates are expected to be important for ventilation system contamination.

Sippola, Mark R.

2002-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

85

Sol-Gel Deposited Electrochromic Coatings  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Handbook of Inorganic Electrochromic Materials, Elsevier, .O R Y Sol-Gel Deposited Electrochromic Coatings Nilgun Ozer1600 Sol-Gel Deposited Electrochromic Coatings Nilgun Ozer

Ozer, N.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

86

Linked Deposit Loan Program (Kentucky)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The Linked Deposit Program provides loan financing for small businesses of up to $100,000 for up to 7 years. The State Investment Commission invests funds from the state's Abandoned Property Cash...

87

Seasonalepisodic control of acid deposition  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This report contains the climatological, technical and economic factors for episodic and seasonal control of emissions in existing power plants. Analyzing a large data set of acid deposition for the years 1982-85, we find ...

Fay, James A.

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

88

Asphalt deposition in miscible floods  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS. . 22 23 8. REFERENCES. 24 9. APPENDIX. 26 LIST OF TABLES Table Page I II IV Properties of the Crude Oils Studied Average Core Properties for Different Tests Average Perrneabilities of Different Sections of Core Before and After... Displacement with Liquefied Petroleum Gas Percent Reduction in Permeability in Different Sections of Core Due to Asphalt Deposition Average Recoveries of Four Crude Oils and Increase in Swept Area due to Plugging by Asphalt Deposition 27 29 ABSTRACT...

Hasan, Syed Mir Ahmed

1964-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

89

Chemical enhancement of surface deposition  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method and apparatus for increasing the deposition of ions onto a surface, such as the adsorption of uranium ions on the detecting surface of a radionuclide detector. The method includes the step of exposing the surface to a complexing agent, such as a phosphate ion solution, which has an affinity for the dissolved species to be deposited on the surface. This provides, for example, enhanced sensitivity of the radionuclide detector.

Patch, Keith D. (Lexington, MA); Morgan, Dean T. (Sudbury, MA)

1997-07-29T23:59:59.000Z

90

Chemical enhancement of surface deposition  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method and apparatus are disclosed for increasing the deposition of ions onto a surface, such as the adsorption of uranium ions on the detecting surface of a radionuclide detector. The method includes the step of exposing the surface to a complexing agent, such as a phosphate ion solution, which has an affinity for the dissolved species to be deposited on the surface. This provides, for example, enhanced sensitivity of the radionuclide detector. 16 figs.

Patch, K.D.; Morgan, D.T.

1997-07-29T23:59:59.000Z

91

Vapor deposition of hardened niobium  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method of coating ceramic nuclear fuel particles containing a major amount of an actinide ceramic in which the particles are placed in a fluidized bed maintained at ca. 800.degree. to ca. 900.degree. C., and niobium pentachloride vapor and carbon tetrachloride vapor are led into the bed, whereby niobium metal is deposited on the particles and carbon is deposited interstitially within the niobium. Coating apparatus used in the method is also disclosed.

Blocher, Jr., John M. (Columbus, OH); Veigel, Neil D. (Columbus, OH); Landrigan, Richard B. (Columbus, OH)

1983-04-19T23:59:59.000Z

92

Reducing dislocations in semiconductors utilizing repeated thermal cycling during multistage epitaxial growth  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Dislocation densities are reduced in growing semiconductors from the vapor phase by employing a technique of interrupting growth, cooling the layer so far deposited, and then repeating the process until a high quality active top layer is achieved. The method of interrupted growth, coupled with thermal cycling, permits dislocations to be trapped in the initial stages of epitaxial growth.

Fan, John C. C. (Chestnut Hill, MA); Tsaur, Bor-Yeu (Arlington, MA); Gale, Ronald P. (Bedford, MA); Davis, Frances M. (Framingham, MA)

1986-12-30T23:59:59.000Z

93

Reducing dislocations in semiconductors utilizing repeated thermal cycling during multistage epitaxial growth  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Dislocation densities are reduced in growing semiconductors from the vapor phase by employing a technique of interrupting growth, cooling the layer so far deposited, and then repeating the process until a high quality active top layer is achieved. The method of interrupted growth, coupled with thermal cycling, permits dislocations to be trapped in the initial stages of epitaxial growth.

Fan, John C. C. (Chestnut Hill, MA); Tsaur, Bor-Yeu (Arlington, MA); Gale, Ronald P. (Bedford, MA); Davis, Frances M. (Framingham, MA)

1992-02-25T23:59:59.000Z

94

Economic Growth Policies & Economic Growth Theory Influences.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

?? The aim of this thesis is to describe the presence of theories for economic growth in municipalities’ economic growth strategies, and to compare the… (more)

Hallden, Sophie

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

95

A Radon Progeny Deposition Model  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The next generation low-background detectors operating underground aim for unprecedented low levels of radioactive backgrounds. Although the radioactive decays of airborne radon (particularly Rn-222) and its subsequent progeny present in an experiment are potential backgrounds, also problematic is the deposition of radon progeny on detector materials. Exposure to radon at any stage of assembly of an experiment can result in surface contamination by progeny supported by the long half life (22 y) of Pb-210 on sensitive locations of a detector. An understanding of the potential surface contamination from deposition will enable requirements of radon-reduced air and clean room environments for the assembly of low background experiments. It is known that there are a number of environmental factors that govern the deposition of progeny onto surfaces. However, existing models have not explored the impact of some environmental factors important for low background experiments. A test stand has been constructed to deposit radon progeny on various surfaces under a controlled environment in order to develop a deposition model. Results from this test stand and the resulting deposition model are presented.

V. E. Guiseppe; S. R. Elliott; A. Hime; K. Rielage; S. Westerdale

2010-12-30T23:59:59.000Z

96

The development of chemically vapor deposited mullite coatings for the corrosion protection of SiC  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Crystalline mullite coatings have been chemically vapor deposited onto SiC substrates to enhance the corrosion and oxidation resistance of the substrate. Current research has been divided into three distinct areas: (1) Development of the deposition processing conditions for increased control over coating`s growth rate, microstructure, and morphology; (2) Analysis of the coating`s crystal structure and stability; (3) The corrosion resistance of the CVD mullite coating on SiC.

Auger, M.; Hou, P.; Sengupta, A.; Basu, S.; Sarin, V. [Boston Univ., MA (United States)

1998-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

97

Strain relaxation in graphene grown by chemical vapor deposition  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The growth of single layer graphene by chemical vapor deposition on polycrystalline Cu substrates induces large internal biaxial compressive strain due to thermal expansion mismatch. Raman backscattering spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy were used to study the strain relaxation during and after the transfer process from Cu foil to SiO{sub 2}. Interestingly, the growth of graphene results in a pronounced ripple structure on the Cu substrate that is indicative of strain relaxation of about 0.76% during the cooling from the growth temperature. Removing graphene from the Cu substrates and transferring it to SiO{sub 2} results in a shift of the 2D phonon line by 27?cm{sup ?1} to lower frequencies. This translates into additional strain relaxation. The influence of the processing steps, used etching solution and solvents on strain, is investigated.

Troppenz, Gerald V., E-mail: gerald.troppenz@helmholtz-berlin.de; Gluba, Marc A.; Kraft, Marco; Rappich, Jörg; Nickel, Norbert H. [Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin für Materialien und Energie GmbH, Institut für Silizium Photovoltaik, Kekuléstr. 5, D-12489 Berlin (Germany)

2013-12-07T23:59:59.000Z

98

RISO-M-2438 Dry deposition and resuspension of  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

deposition to city surfaces. INIS descriptors AEROSOLS; DEPOSITION; DUSTS; MATHEMATICAL MODELS; PARTICLE

99

Direct growth of graphene on Si(111)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Due to the need of integrated circuit in the current silicon technology, the formation of graphene on Si wafer is highly desirable, but is still a challenge for the scientific community. In this context, we report the direct growth of graphene on Si(111) wafer under appropriate conditions using an electron beam evaporator. The structural quality of the material is investigated in detail by reflection high energy electron diffraction, Auger electron spectroscopy, X-ray photoemission spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, high resolution scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, and scanning tunneling microscopy. Our experimental results confirm that the quality of graphene is strongly dependent on the growth time during carbon atoms deposition.

Thanh Trung, Pham, E-mail: phamtha@fundp.ac.be; Joucken, Frédéric; Colomer, Jean-François; Robert, Sporken [Research Center in Physics of Matter and Radiation (PMR), University of Namur (FUNDP), 61 Rue de Bruxelles, 5000 Namur (Belgium); Campos-Delgado, Jessica; Raskin, Jean-Pierre [Electrical Engineering (ELEN), Institute of Information and Communication Technologies, Electronics and Applied Mathematics (ICTEAM), Université catholique de Louvain UCL, 3 place du Levant, Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium); Hackens, Benoît; Santos, Cristiane N. [Nanoscopic physics (NAPS), Institute of Condensed Matter and Nanosciences (IMCN), Université catholique de Louvain UCL, 2 chemin du Cyclotron, Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium)

2014-06-14T23:59:59.000Z

100

Temperature dependent effects during Ag deposition on Cu(110)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The composition, structure, and morphology of ultrathin films grown by Ag deposition on Cu(110) were monitored as a function of temperature using low-energy electron diffraction (LEED), Auger electron spectroscopy (AES), and medium energy ion scattering (MEIS). Aligned backscattering measurements with 150 keV He ions indicate that the Ag resides on top of the Cu and there is no significant surface compound formation. Measurements with LEED show that the Ag is initially confined to the substrate troughs. Further deposition forces the Ag out of the troughs and results in a split c(2 {times} 4) LEED pattern, which is characteristic of a distorted Ag(111) monolayer template. As verified by both AES and MEIS measurements, postmonolayer deposition of Ag on Cu(110) at 300K leads to a pronounced 3-dimensional clustering. Ion blocking analysis of the Ag clusters show that the crystallites have a (110)-like growth orientation, implying that the Ag monolayer template undergoes a rearrangement. These data are confirmed by low temperature LEED results in the absence of clusters, which indicate that Ag multilayers grow from a Ag--Cu interface where the Ag is captured in the troughs. Changes observed in the film structure and morphology are consistent with a film growth mechanism that is driven by overlayer strain response to the substrate corrugation. 16 refs., 4 figs.

Taylor, T.N.; Muenchausen, R.E.; Hoffbauer, M.A.; Denier van der Gon, A.W.; van der Veen, J.F. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (USA); FOM-Instituut voor Atoom-en Molecuulfysica, Amsterdam (Netherlands))

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "deposition growth cxs" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Vapor deposition of thin films  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A highly pure thin metal film having a nanocrystalline structure and a process of preparing such highly pure thin metal films of, e.g., rhodium, iridium, molybdenum, tungsten, rhenium, platinum, or palladium by plasma assisted chemical vapor deposition of, e.g., rhodium(allyl).sub.3, iridium(allyl).sub.3, molybdenum(allyl).sub.4, tungsten(allyl).sub.4, rhenium(allyl).sub.4, platinum(allyl).sub.2, or palladium(allyl).sub.2 are disclosed. Additionally, a general process of reducing the carbon content of a metallic film prepared from one or more organometallic precursor compounds by plasma assisted chemical vapor deposition is disclosed.

Smith, David C. (Los Alamos, NM); Pattillo, Stevan G. (Los Alamos, NM); Laia, Jr., Joseph R. (Los Alamos, NM); Sattelberger, Alfred P. (Los Alamos, NM)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

102

Conductive layer for biaxially oriented semiconductor film growth  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A conductive layer for biaxially oriented semiconductor film growth and a thin film semiconductor structure such as, for example, a photodetector, a photovoltaic cell, or a light emitting diode (LED) that includes a crystallographically oriented semiconducting film disposed on the conductive layer. The thin film semiconductor structure includes: a substrate; a first electrode deposited on the substrate; and a semiconducting layer epitaxially deposited on the first electrode. The first electrode includes a template layer deposited on the substrate and a buffer layer epitaxially deposited on the template layer. The template layer includes a first metal nitride that is electrically conductive and has a rock salt crystal structure, and the buffer layer includes a second metal nitride that is electrically conductive. The semiconducting layer is epitaxially deposited on the buffer layer. A method of making such a thin film semiconductor structure is also described.

Findikoglu, Alp T. (Los Alamos, NM); Matias, Vladimir (Santa Fe, NM)

2007-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

103

Nanowire-templated lateral epitaxial growth of non-polar group III nitrides  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method for growing high quality, nonpolar Group III nitrides using lateral growth from Group III nitride nanowires. The method of nanowire-templated lateral epitaxial growth (NTLEG) employs crystallographically aligned, substantially vertical Group III nitride nanowire arrays grown by metal-catalyzed metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) as templates for the lateral growth and coalescence of virtually crack-free Group III nitride films. This method requires no patterning or separate nitride growth step.

Wang, George T. (Albuquerque, NM); Li, Qiming (Albuquerque, NM); Creighton, J. Randall (Albuquerque, NM)

2010-03-02T23:59:59.000Z

104

Study of Growth of Carbon Nanotubes on Pure Metal and Metal Alloy Electrodes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

the surface prior to the CNT growth. Cupro-Nickel alloys and electroless Ni plated Cu were not suitable. Electroless Ni coated Monel and Ni deposited Si wafer with 20 nm Cr under layer gave the highest density

105

Catalyst proximity effects on the growth rate of Si nanowires S. T. Boles,1,a  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and a silane precursor in a cold-wall chemical vapor deposition CVD system, where the precursor decomposition and experimental design, we have identified a fundamental aspect of growth of Si nanowires using the VLS mechanism

106

MOCVD growth of In GaP-based heterostructures for light emitting devices  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In this work, we examine fundamental materials processes in the growth of indium gallium phosphide (InGaP) via metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD). In particular, we realize improvements in the epitaxial integration ...

McGill, Lisa Megan, 1975-

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

107

Method to inhibit deposit formation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A process is described for inhibiting deposit formation on the contact surfaces of structures confining heated hydrocarbon fluid which exhibits substantial fouling. The process consists of introducing into the hydrocarbon fluid at least an inhibiting amount of thiophene-containing polycondensed aromatic/naphthenic compounds of number average molecular weight (M-bar n) from 200 to 1,000.

Dickakian, G.B.

1986-10-28T23:59:59.000Z

108

Fabrication of alkali halide UV photocathodes by pulsed laser deposition  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A technique has been proposed for the fabrication of atmospheric corrosion resistant alkali halide UV photocathodes by pulsed laser deposition. We produced photocathodes with a highly homogeneous photoemissive layer well-adherent to the substrate. The photocathodes were mounted in a vacuum photodiode, and a tungsten grid was used as an anode. Using pulsed UV lasers, we carried out experiments aimed at evaluating the quantum efficiency of the photocathodes. With a dc voltage applied between the photocathode and anode grid, we measured a shunt signal proportional to the total charge emitted by the cathode exposed to UV laser light. The proposed deposition technique enables one to produce photocathodes with photoemissive layers highly uniform in quantum efficiency, which is its main advantage over thin film growth by resistive evaporation. (laser technologies)

Brendel', V M; Bukin, V V; Garnov, Sergei V; Bagdasarov, V Kh; Denisov, N N; Garanin, Sergey G; Terekhin, V A; Trutnev, Yurii A

2012-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

109

Densification of functional plasma polymers by momentum transfer during film growth  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Functional plasma polymers were deposited from pure ethylene discharges and with the addition of carbon dioxide or ammonia. The incorporation of oxygen and nitrogen-containing functional groups depends on the fragmentation in the gas phase as well as on the densification during film growth. While a minimum energy per deposited carbon atom is required for cross-linking, the densification and accompanying reduction of functional group incorporation was found to scale linearly with momentum transfer through ion bombardment during film growth.

Hegemann, Dirk; Koerner, Enrico; Blanchard, Noemi; Drabik, Martin; Guimond, Sebastien [Empa, Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology, Lerchenfeldstrasse 5, 9014 St. Gallen (Switzerland)

2012-11-19T23:59:59.000Z

110

Growth of Carbon Support for Proton-Exchange-Membrane Fuel Cell by  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Growth of Carbon Support for Proton-Exchange-Membrane Fuel Cell by Pulsed-Laser Deposition (PLDGDL)(catalyst) (pulsed laser deposition PLD) (plasma plume) () #12;III Abstract key word: Fuel CellPulsed Laser. People begin to develop fuel cells for seeking alternative energy sources. Fuel cell use the chemical

111

Preliminary study of CdTe and CdTe:Cu thin films nanostructures deposited by using DC magnetron sputtering  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Growth and properties of CdTe and CdTe:Cu thin films nanostrucures deposited by using dc magnetron sputtering are reported. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) was used to observe the surface morphologies of the thin films. At growth conditions of 250 °C and 14 W, CdTe films did not yet evenly deposited. However, at growth temperature and plasma power of 325 °C and 43 W, both CdTe and CdTe:Cu(2%) have deposited on the substrates. In this condition, the morphology of the films indicate that the films have a grain-like nanostructures. Grain size diameter of about 200 nm begin to appear on top of the films. Energy Dispersive X-rays spectroscopy (EDX) was used to investigate chemical elements of the Cu doped CdTe film deposited. It was found that the film deposited consist of Cd, Te and Cu elements. XRD was used to investigate the full width at half maximum (FWHM) values of the thin films deposited. The results show that CdTe:Cu(2%) thin film has better crystallographic properties than CdTe thin film. The UV-Vis spectrometer was used to investigate the optical properties of thin films deposited. The transmittance spectra showed that transmittance of CdTe:Cu(2%) film is lower than CdTe film. It was found that the bandgap energy of CdTe and CdTe:Cu(2%) thin films of about 1.48 eV.

Marwoto, Putut; Made, D. P. Ngurah; Sugianto [Departement of Physics, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Universitas Negeri Semarang, Gunungpati, Semarang 50229 Jawa Tengah (Indonesia)] [Departement of Physics, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Universitas Negeri Semarang, Gunungpati, Semarang 50229 Jawa Tengah (Indonesia); Wibowo, Edy; Astuti, Santi Yuli; Aryani, Nila Prasetya [Materials Research Group, Laboratory of Thin Film, Department of Physics, Universitas Negeri Semarang, Gunungpati, Semarang 50229 Jawa Tengah (Indonesia)] [Materials Research Group, Laboratory of Thin Film, Department of Physics, Universitas Negeri Semarang, Gunungpati, Semarang 50229 Jawa Tengah (Indonesia); Othaman, Zulkafli [Departement of Physics, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia (UTM), Skudai, Johor Bahru (Malaysia)] [Departement of Physics, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia (UTM), Skudai, Johor Bahru (Malaysia)

2013-09-03T23:59:59.000Z

112

Transitions in morphology observed in nitrogenmethanehydrogen depositions of polycrystalline diamond films  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

% and 1% methane­hydrogen depositions of polycrystalline diamond films. Five results are reported. 1.1063/1.1362406 I. INTRODUCTION Controlled, textured growth of polycrystalline diamond films would be desirable of polycrystalline diamond films: 2% CH4 /H2 and 1% CH4 /H2 . Five results are reported and discussed. II

Ayres, Virginia

113

An atomic-scale analysis of catalytically-assisted chemical vapor deposition of carbon nanotubes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

An atomic-scale analysis of catalytically-assisted chemical vapor deposition of carbon nanotubes M Growth of carbon nanotubes during transition-metal particles catalytically-assisted thermal decomposition of various nanotube surface and edge reactions (e.g. adsorption of hydrocarbons and hydrogen onto the surface

Grujicic, Mica

114

Composition and chemical bonding of pulsed laser deposited carbon nitride thin films  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

properties such as extreme hardness, infrared transparency, chemical inertness, and excellent tribological with existing lubricants.7 DLC and CNx films can be grown with different meth- ods such as sputter deposition.11 There are still several open questions regarding how the growth conditions influence the resulting

Brune, Harald

115

Highly Conformal Thin Films of Tungsten Nitride Prepared by Atomic Layer Deposition from a Novel  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

) deposition temperatures under 350 °C (due to the thermal instability of low-k materials); (8) good growth, and electrically conducting. All of the films showed good adhesion to the substrates, were acid-resistant, and did resistivity than aluminum, 1.7 versus 2.7 µ-cm, respectively (bulk values). This property of copper enables

116

A Study of Atmospheric Deposition of Air Toxics to the Waters of Puget Sound  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, Washington, it is vital to determine what the impacts of such growth have had on air and water quality and if greater needs in regulation are needed to curtail emissions. A bi-weekly deposition study of atmospheric particulate matter at seven sites around...

Aguirre, Danielle

2009-06-09T23:59:59.000Z

117

Cobalt Ultrathin Film Catalyzed Ethanol Chemical Vapor Deposition of Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Cobalt Ultrathin Film Catalyzed Ethanol Chemical Vapor Deposition of Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes (SWNTs) using a cobalt ultrathin film (1 nm) as the catalyst and ethanol as carbon feedstock flow during the growth. The trace amount of self-contained water (0.2-5 wt %) in ethanol may act

Hone, James

118

Decomposition of Ethanol and Dimethyl Ether During Chemical Vapour deposition Synthesis  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 Decomposition of Ethanol and Dimethyl Ether During Chemical Vapour deposition Synthesis of Single-phase thermal decomposition of ethanol and dimethyl ether (DME) at typical SWNT growth conditions using to the predicted decomposition mechanism. Signature peak intensities indicated concentrations of both ethanol

Maruyama, Shigeo

119

Florida Growth Fund (Florida)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The Florida Growth Fund can provide investments in technology and growth-related companies through co-investments with other institutional investors. The Fund awards preference to companies...

120

Essays on Banking Crises and Deposit Insurance  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and elaborately illustrated the role of market discipline under deposit insurance. Barajas and Steiner (2000) show the ability of the Colombian deposit insurance system to limit moral hazard when considering market discipline. Demirguc-Kunt and Huizinga (2004...

Wang, Wen-Yao

2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "deposition growth cxs" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Formation mechanisms of combustion chamber deposits  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Combustion chamber deposits are found in virtually all internal combustion engines after a few hundred hours of operation. Deposits form on cylinder, piston, and head surfaces that are in contact with fuel-air mixture ...

O'Brien, Christopher J. (Christopher John)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

122

Chemical vapor deposition of functionalized isobenzofuran polymers  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This thesis develops a platform for deposition of polymer thin films that can be further tailored by chemical surface modification. First, we explore chemical vapor deposition of functionalized isobenzofuran films using ...

Olsson, Ylva Kristina

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

123

Modeling deposit formation in diesel injector nozzle  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Formation of deposit in the diesel injector nozzle affects the injection behavior and hinders performance. Under running condition, deposit precursors are washed away by the ensuing injection. However, during the cool down ...

Sudhiesh Kumar, Chintoo

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

124

Structural characterization of carbonaceous engine deposits   

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Carbonaceous engine deposits tend to accumulate on most of the inner surfaces of the car engine. The presence of these deposits leads to a deteriorated efficiency of the engine and a number of adverse effects, such as ...

Pinto da Costa, José Mário Cerqueira

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

125

Dendrite-Free Lithium Deposition with Self-Aligned Nanorod Structure  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Suppressing lithium (Li) dendrite growth is one of the most critical challenges for the development of Li metal batteries. We recently proposed a novel self-healing electrostatic shield (SHES) mechanism which can fundamentally change the Li deposition behavior and lead to the growth of dendrite-free Li films. Here, we report for the first time that the as-deposited dendrite-free Li films grown with assistance of SHES additive are actually composed of highly-aligned and compacted Li nanorods with hemispherical tips. Both surface and cross sectional morphology evolution of the Li films during repeated Li deposition/stripping processes were systematically investigated. A new model has been established to explain the formation and evolution of the Li nanorods. A fundamental understanding on the internal structure and evolution of Li metal films may lead to new approaches to stabilize the long term cycling stability of Li metal anode.

Zhang, Yaohui; Qian, Jiangfeng; Xu, Wu; Russell, Selena M.; Chen, Xilin; Nasybulin, Eduard; Bhattacharya, Priyanka; Engelhard, Mark H.; Mei, Donghai; Cao, Ruiguo; Ding, Fei; Cresce, Arthur V.; Xu, Kang; Zhang, Jiguang

2014-12-10T23:59:59.000Z

126

Sputter deposition of lithium silicate - lithium phosphate amorphous electrolytes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Thin films of an amorphous lithium-conducting electrolyte were deposited by rf magnetron sputtering of ceramic targets containing Li{sub 4}SiO{sub 4} and Li{sub 3}PO{sub 4}. The lithium content of the films was found to depend more strongly on the nature and composition of the targets than on many other sputtering parameters. For targets containing Li{sub 4}SiO{sub 4}, most of the lithium was found to segregate away from the sputtered area of the target. Codeposition using two sputter sources achieves a high lithium content in a controlled and reproducible film growth. 10 refs., 4 figs.

Dudney, N.J.; Bates, J.B.; Luck, C.F. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA)); Robertson, J.D. (Kentucky Univ., Lexington, KY (USA). Dept. of Chemistry)

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

127

Deposition of thin silicon layers on transferred large area graphene  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Physical vapor deposition of Si onto transferred graphene is investigated. At elevated temperatures, Si nucleates preferably on wrinkles and multilayer graphene islands. In some cases, however, Si can be quasi-selectively grown only on the monolayer graphene regions while the multilayer islands remain uncovered. Experimental insights and ab initio calculations show that variations in the removal efficiency of carbon residuals after the transfer process can be responsible for this behavior. Low-temperature Si seed layer results in improved wetting and enables homogeneous growth. This is an important step towards realization of electronic devices in which graphene is embedded between two Si layers.

Lupina, Grzegorz, E-mail: lupina@ihp-microelectronics.com; Kitzmann, Julia; Lukosius, Mindaugas; Dabrowski, Jarek; Wolff, Andre; Mehr, Wolfgang [IHP, Im Technologiepark 25, 15236 Frankfurt (Oder) (Germany)] [IHP, Im Technologiepark 25, 15236 Frankfurt (Oder) (Germany)

2013-12-23T23:59:59.000Z

128

Ion beam assisted deposition of thermal barrier coatings  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Methods and apparatus for depositing thermal barrier coatings on gas turbine blades and vanes using Electron Beam Physical Vapor Deposition (EBPVD) combined with Ion Beam Assisted Deposition (IBAD).

Youchison, Dennis L. (Albuquerque, NM); McDonald, Jimmie M. (Albuquerque, NM); Lutz, Thomas J. (Albuquerque, NM); Gallis, Michail A. (Albuquerque, NM)

2010-11-23T23:59:59.000Z

129

The Polar Deposits of Mars Shane Byrne  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

- tian polar layered deposits and understanding the role of the residual ice caps that cover them of the stratigraphy of the polar layered deposits in unprecedented detail. Additionally, change within the residualThe Polar Deposits of Mars Shane Byrne Lunar and Planetary Laboratory, University of Arizona

Jellinek, Mark

130

Deposition  

National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

it as simple as possible. So that when 123 13 comes into effect, then the Secretary of Energy, with 14 the concurrence of the State Department and consulting 15 with the other...

131

Deposition  

National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) "ofEarlyEnergyDepartmentNational NuclearhasAdministration77 SandiaGuidance to8/08/2012Reporting Company

132

Hybrid deposition of thin film solid oxide fuel cells and electrolyzers  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The use of vapor deposition techniques enables synthesis of the basic components of a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC); namely, the electrolyte layer, the two electrodes, and the electrolyte-electrode interfaces. Such vapor deposition techniques provide solutions to each of the three critical steps of material synthesis to produce a thin film solid oxide fuel cell (TFSOFC). The electrolyte is formed by reactive deposition of essentially any ion conducting oxide, such as defect free, yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) by planar magnetron sputtering. The electrodes are formed from ceramic powders sputter coated with an appropriate metal and sintered to a porous compact. The electrolyte-electrode interface is formed by chemical vapor deposition of zirconia compounds onto the porous electrodes to provide a dense, smooth surface on which to continue the growth of the defect-free electrolyte, whereby a single fuel cell or multiple cells may be fabricated. 8 figs.

Jankowski, A.F.; Makowiecki, D.M.; Rambach, G.D.; Randich, E.

1998-05-19T23:59:59.000Z

133

Political connections, bank deposits, and formal deposit insurance: Evidence from an emerging economy  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 Political connections, bank deposits, and formal deposit insurance: Evidence from an emerging the impact of banks' political connections on their ability to collect deposits under two different deposit, regardless of their type (state-owned or private entities), politically connected banks are able to attract

Boyer, Edmond

134

Chemical vapor deposition of epitaxial silicon  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A single chamber continuous chemical vapor deposition (CVD) reactor is described for depositing continuously on flat substrates, for example, epitaxial layers of semiconductor materials. The single chamber reactor is formed into three separate zones by baffles or tubes carrying chemical source material and a carrier gas in one gas stream and hydrogen gas in the other stream without interaction while the wafers are heated to deposition temperature. Diffusion of the two gas streams on heated wafers effects the epitaxial deposition in the intermediate zone and the wafers are cooled in the final zone by coolant gases. A CVD reactor for batch processing is also described embodying the deposition principles of the continuous reactor.

Berkman, Samuel (Florham Park, NJ)

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

135

Development of Lithium Deposition Techniques for TFTR  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The ability to increase the quantity of lithium deposition into TFTR beyond that of the Pellet Injector while minimizing perturbations to the plasma provides interesting experimental and operational options. Two additional lithium deposition tools were developed for possible application during the 1996 Experimental Schedule: a solid lithium target probe for real-time deposition, and a lithium effusion oven for deposition between discharges. The lithium effusion oven was operated in TFTR to deposit lithium on the Inner Limiter in the absence of plasma. This resulted in the third highest power TFTR discharge.

Gorman, J.; Johnson, D.; Kugel, H.W.; Labik, G.; Lemunyan, G.; et al

1997-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

136

Development of lithium deposition techniques for TFTR  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The ability to increase the quantity of lithium deposition into TFTR beyond that of the Pellet Injector while minimizing perturbations to the plasma provides interesting experimental and operational options. Two additional lithium deposition tools were developed for possible application during the 1996 Experimental Schedule: a solid lithium target probe for real-time deposition, and a lithium effusion oven for deposition between discharges. The lithium effusion oven was operated in TFTR to deposit lithium on the Inner Limiter in the absence of plasma. This resulted in the third highest power TFTR discharge.

Kugel, H.W.; Gorman, J.; Johnson, D.; Labik, G.; Lemunyan, G.; Mansfield, D.; Timberlake, J.; Vocaturo, M.

1997-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

137

Effects of catalyst pretreatment for carbon nanotube growth  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The effects of pretreatment of iron catalyst for carbon nanotube (CNT) growth was studied. CNTs were grown on Fe/A1203 (1/10 nm) thin-film catalyst deposited on silicon substrates via exposure to C2H4 in a thermal chemical ...

Morgan, Caitlin D

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

138

Effect of Electronic Excitation on Thin Film Growth  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The effect of nanosecond pulsed laser excitation on surface diffusion during growth of Ge on Si(100) at 250 degrees C was studied. In Situ reflection high-energy electron diffraction (RHEED) was used to measure the surface diffusion coefficient while ex situ atomic force microscopy (AFM) was used to probe the structure and morphology of the grown quantum dots. The results show that laser excitation of the substrate increases the surface diffusion during growth of Ge on Si(100), changes the growth morphology, improves crystalline structure of the grown quantum dots, and decreases their size distribution. A purely electronic mechanism of enhanced surface diffusion of the deposited Ge is proposed. Ge quantum dots were grown on Si(100)-(2x1) by pulsed laser deposition at various substrate temperatures using a femtosecond Ti:sapphire laser. In-situ reflection high-energy electron diffraction and ex-situ atomic force microscopy were used to analyze the fim structure and morphology. The morphology of germanium islands on silicon was studied at differect coverages. The results show that femtosecond pulsed laser depositon reduces the minimum temperature for epitaxial growth of Ge quantum dots to ~280 degrees C, which is 120 degrees C lower then previously observed in nanosecond pulsed laser deposition and more than 200 degrees C lower than that reported for molecular beam epitaxy and chemical vapor deposition.

Elsayed-Ali, Hani E. [Old Dominion University

2011-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

139

Exhaust Gas Recirculation Cooler Fouling in Diesel Applications: Fundamental Studies Deposit Properties and Microstructure  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper reports on the results of experimental efforts aimed at improving the understanding of the mechanisms and conditions at play in the fouling of EGR coolers. An experimental apparatus was constructed to utilize simplified surrogate heat exchanger tubes in lieu of full-size heat exchangers. The use of these surrogate tubes allowed removal of the tubes after exposure to engine exhaust for study of the deposit layer and its properties. The exhaust used for fouling the surrogate tubes was produced using a modern medium-duty diesel engine fueled with both ultra-low sulfur diesel and biodiesel blends. At long exposure times, no significant difference in the fouling rate was observed between fuel types and HC levels. Surface coatings for the tubes were also evaluated to determine their impact on deposit growth. No surface treatment or coating produced a reduction in the fouling rate or any evidence of deposit removal. In addition, microstructural analysis of the fouling layers was performed using optical and electron microscopy in order to better understand the deposition mechanism. The experimental results are consistent with thermophoretic deposition for deposit formation, and van der Waals attraction between the deposit surface and exhaust-borne particulate.

Storey, John Morse [ORNL; Sluder, Scott [ORNL; Lance, Michael J [ORNL; Styles, Dan [Ford Motor Company; Simko, Steve [Ford Motor Company

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

140

Growth of a single freestanding multiwall carbon nanotube on each nanonickel dot  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

that the structures are indeed hollow nanotubes. The diameter and height depend on the nickel dot size and growth time displays FEDs . Attempts to manipulate nano- tubes for these applications have been made by postgrowth deposition CVD on mesopo- rous silica with imbedded iron particles.9 The growth of large arrays of well

Reed, Mark

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "deposition growth cxs" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

MOCVD growth mechanisms of ZnO nanorods G Perillat-Merceroz1, 2  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

cells, gas sensors or LEDs. Their high crystalline quality and purity, due to growth without a catalyst, are adequate for optoelectronic applications. MOCVD growth [2] enables fast, large area deposition details ZnO nanorods were grown using catalyst-free MOCVD in a horizontal hot-wall Epigress reactor. The c

Boyer, Edmond

142

Metal deposition using seed layers  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Methods of forming a conductive metal layers on substrates are disclosed which employ a seed layer to enhance bonding, especially to smooth, low-roughness or hydrophobic substrates. In one aspect of the invention, the seed layer can be formed by applying nanoparticles onto a surface of the substrate; and the metallization is achieved by electroplating an electrically conducting metal onto the seed layer, whereby the nanoparticles serve as nucleation sites for metal deposition. In another approach, the seed layer can be formed by a self-assembling linker material, such as a sulfur-containing silane material.

Feng, Hsein-Ping; Chen, Gang; Bo, Yu; Ren, Zhifeng; Chen, Shuo; Poudel, Bed

2013-11-12T23:59:59.000Z

143

Silica Deposition | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFranconia, Virginia:FAQ < RAPID Jump to:Seadov Pty Ltd Jump to: navigation,Pvt LtdShrub Oak, New York:Siemens°SilescentDeposition

144

The role of size-dependent dry deposition of sulfate aerosol in a three-dimensional Eulerian air quality model  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Regional Particulate Model, a three-dimensional Eulerian air quality model, was developed to investigate aerosol particle issues of important to the US EPA and to meet the demands of the Clean Air Act amendments of 1990. In addition to aerosol dynamics such as growth and coagulation, the model includes photochemistry, transport, and deposition. A new formulation of dry deposition as a function of the aerosol size distribution has been incorporated into the model. This formulation allows for the representation of dry deposition of total particle number and total particle mass by deposition velocities specifically formulated for these two quantities as a function of particle size. Results for the dry deposition of sulfate mass from the new model will be compared with those from the Tagged Species Engineering Model for a variety of local conditions. The behavior of the aerosol size distribution responding to the new formulation will also be discussed.

Binkowski, F.S. [NOAA, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Shankar, U. [MCNC, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States)

1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

145

Magnetic properties of Ni-Fe nanowire arrays: effect of template material and deposition conditions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of this work is to study the magnetic properties of arrays of Ni-Fe nanowires electrodeposited in different template materials such as porous silicon, polycarbonate and alumina. Magnetic properties were studied as a function of template material, applied magnetic field (parallel and perpendicular) during deposition, wire length, as well as magnetic field orientation during measurement. The results show that application of magnetic field during deposition strongly influences the c-axis preferred orientation growth of Ni-Fe nanowires. The samples with magnetic field perpendicular to template plane during deposition exhibits strong perpendicular anisotropy with greatly enhanced coercivity and squareness ratio, particularly in Ni-Fe nanowires deposited in polycarbonate templates. In case of polycarbonate template, as magnetic field during deposition increases, both coercivity and squareness ratio also increase. The wire length dependence was also measured for polycarbonate templates. As wire length increases, coercivity and squarness ratio decrease, but saturation field increases. Such magnetic behavior (dependence on template material, magnetic field, wire length) can be qualitatively explained by preferential growth phenomena, dipolar interactions among nanowires, and perpendicular shape anisotropy in individual nanowires.

Singleton, John [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Aravamudhan, Shyan [U OF SOUTH FL; Goddard, Paul A [U OF OXFORD; Bhansali, Shekhar [U OF SOUTH FL

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

146

Research on fundamental aspects of inorganic vapor and particle deposition in coal-fired systems  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In September 1990 DOE-PETC initiated at the Yale HTCRE Laboratory a systematic three-year research program directed toward providing engineers with the fundamentally-based design/optimization tools'' foreconomically predicting the dynamics of net deposit growth, and thermophysical properties of the resulting microparticulate deposits in coal-fired systems. The goal of our research in the area of mineral mattertransport is to advance the capability of making reliable engineering predictions of the dynamics of net deposit growth for surfaces exposed to the particle-laden products of coal combustion. To accomplish thisfor a wide variety of combustor types, coal types, and operating conditions, this capability must be based on a quantitative understanding of each of the important mechanisms of mineral matter transport, as well as the nature of the interactions between these substances and the prevailing fireside'' surface of deposits. This level of understanding and predictive capability could be translated into very significant cost reductions for coal-fired equipment design, development and operation. It is also expected that this research activity will not only directly benefit the ash deposition R D community -- but also generically closely related technologies of importance to DOE (e.g. hot-gas clean-up, particulate solids handling,...).

Rosner, D.E.

1992-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

147

Two-stage epitaxial growth of vertically-aligned SnO2 nano-rods on(001) ceria  

DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

Growth of high-aspect ratio oriented tin oxide, SnO2, nano-rods is complicated by a limited choice of matching substrates. We show that a (001) cerium oxide, CeO2, surface uniquely enables epitaxial growth of tin-oxide nano-rods via a two-stage process. First, (100) oriented nano-wires coat the ceria surface by lateral growth, forming a uniaxially-textured SnO2 deposit. Second, vertical SnO2nano-rods nucleate on the deposit by homoepitaxy. We demonstrate growth of vertically oriented 1-2 ?m long nano-rods with an average diameter of ?20 nm.

Solovyov, Vyacheslav F. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Wu, Li-jun [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Rupich, Martin W. [American Superconductor, Devens, MA (United States); Sathyamurthy, Srivatsan [American Superconductor, Devens, MA (United States); Li, Xiaoping [American Superconductor, Devens, MA (United States); Li, Qiang [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

2014-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

148

Modeling particle deposition on HVAC heat exchangers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Fouling of fin-and-tube heat exchangers by particle deposition leads to diminished effectiveness in supplying ventilation and air conditioning. This paper explores mechanisms that cause particle deposition on heat exchanger surfaces. We present a model that accounts for impaction, diffusion, gravitational settling, and turbulence. Simulation results suggest that some submicron particles deposit in the heat exchanger core, but do not cause significant performance impacts. Particles between 1 and 10 {micro}m deposit with probabilities ranging from 1-20% with fin edge impaction representing the dominant mechanism. Particles larger than 10 {micro}m deposit by impaction on refrigerant tubes, gravitational settling on fin corrugations, and mechanisms associated with turbulent airflow. The model results agree reasonably well with experimental data, but the deposition of larger particles at high velocities is underpredicted. Geometric factors, such as discontinuities in the fins, are hypothesized to be responsible for the discrepancy.

Siegel, J.A.; Nazaroff, W.W.

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

149

Laser Induced Chemical Liquid Phase Deposition (LCLD)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Laser induced chemical deposition (LCLD) of metals onto different substrates attracts growing attention during the last decade. Deposition of metals onto the surface of dielectrics and semiconductors with help of laser beam allows the creation of conducting metal of very complex architecture even in 3D. In the processes examined the deposition occurs from solutions containing metal ions and reducing agents. The deposition happens in the region of surface irradiated by laser beam (micro reactors). Physics -chemical reactions driven by laser beam will be discussed for different metal-substrate systems. The electrical, optical, mechanical properties of created interfaces will be demonstrated also including some practical-industrial applications.

Nanai, Laszlo; Balint, Agneta M. [University of Szeged, JGYPK, Department of General and Environmental Physics H-6725 Szeged, Boldogasszony sgt. 6 (Hungary); West University of Timisoara, Faculty of Physics, Department of Physics, Bulv. V. Parvan 4, Timisoara 300223 (Romania)

2012-08-17T23:59:59.000Z

150

Continental growth at convergent margins facing large ocean basins: a case study from Mesozoic convergent-margin basins of  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

with progradational backarc arc-apron deposits that record the growth of adjacent volcanoes up to and above sea level of grabens that stepped downward toward the trench, filled with coarse-grained slope apron deposits. Phase 2 subduction resulted in accretion of blueschist metamorphic rocks, with development of a broad residual

Lee, Cin-Ty Aeolus

151

Research on fundamental aspects of inorganic vapor and particle deposition in coal-fired systems  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In September 1990 DOE-PETC initiated at the Yale HTCRE Laboratory a systematic three-year research program directed toward providing engineers with the fundamentally-based design/optimization 'tools' for economically predicting the dynamics of net deposit growth*, and thermophysical properties of the resulting microparticulate deposits in coal-fired systems. In light of the theoretical 'program' based on the notion of self-regulation'' set forth in Rosner and Nagarajan (1987), this Task includes investigation of the effects of particle material properties and possible liquid phases on the capture properties of particulate deposits. For this purpose we exploit dynamical 'many-body' computer simulation techniques. This approach will provide the required parametric dependencies (on such quantities as incident kinetic energy and angle, mechanical and thermophysical properties of the particles,[hor ellipsis]) of a dimensionless ensemble-averaged particle capture fraction, relegating the role of direct laboratory experiment to verifying (or rejecting) some crucial features/consequences of the simulation route followed. Our ultimate goal is recommend 'sticking' and 'erosion' laws of mechanistic origin. The availability of such laws could dramatically increase the reliability of predicted deposition rates of inertially delivered particles, in the simultaneous presence of a condensed liquid phase within the growing particulate, deposit. Equally important, one could also rationally select conditions to avoid. troublesome deposition subject to other operational requirements.

Rosner, D.E.

1992-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

152

Optical Properties of Zn(O,S) Thin Films Deposited by RF Sputtering, Atomic Layer Deposition, and Chemical Bath Deposition: Preprint  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Zn(O,S) thin films 27 - 100 nm thick were deposited on glass or Cu(InxGa1-x)Se2/Molybdenum/glass with RF sputtering, atomic layer deposition, and chemical bath deposition.

Li, J.; Glynn, S.; Christensen, S.; Mann, J.; To, B.; Ramanathan, K.; Noufi, R.; Furtak, T. E.; Levi, D.

2012-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

153

Improved Formulations for Air-Surface Exchanges Related to National Security Needs: Dry Deposition Models  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Department of Homeland Security and others rely on results from atmospheric dispersion models for threat evaluation, event management, and post-event analyses. The ability to simulate dry deposition rates is a crucial part of our emergency preparedness capabilities. Deposited materials pose potential hazards from radioactive shine, inhalation, and ingestion pathways. A reliable characterization of these potential exposures is critical for management and mitigation of these hazards. A review of the current status of dry deposition formulations used in these atmospheric dispersion models was conducted. The formulations for dry deposition of particulate materials from am event such as a radiological attack involving a Radiological Detonation Device (RDD) is considered. The results of this effort are applicable to current emergency preparedness capabilities such as are deployed in the Interagency Modeling and Atmospheric Assessment Center (IMAAC), other similar national/regional emergency response systems, and standalone emergency response models. The review concludes that dry deposition formulations need to consider the full range of particle sizes including: 1) the accumulation mode range (0.1 to 1 micron diameter) and its minimum in deposition velocity, 2) smaller particles (less than .01 micron diameter) deposited mainly by molecular diffusion, 3) 10 to 50 micron diameter particles deposited mainly by impaction and gravitational settling, and 4) larger particles (greater than 100 micron diameter) deposited mainly by gravitational settling. The effects of the local turbulence intensity, particle characteristics, and surface element properties must also be addressed in the formulations. Specific areas for improvements in the dry deposition formulations are 1) capability of simulating near-field dry deposition patterns, 2) capability of addressing the full range of potential particle properties, 3) incorporation of particle surface retention/rebound processes, and. 4) development of dry deposition formulations applicable to urban areas. Also to improve dry deposition modeling capabilities, atmospheric dispersion models in which the dry deposition formulations are imbedded need better source-term plume initialization and improved in-plume treatment of particle growth processes. Dry deposition formulations used in current models are largely inapplicable to the complex urban environment. An improved capability is urgently needed to provide surface-specific information to assess local exposure hazard levels in both urban and non-urban areas on roads, buildings, crops, rivers, etc. A model improvement plan is developed with a near-term and far-term component. Despite some conceptual limitations, the current formulations for particle deposition based on a resistance approach have proven to provide reasonable dry deposition simulations. For many models with inadequate dry deposition formulations, adding or improving a resistance approach will be the desirable near-term update. Resistance models however are inapplicable aerodynamically very rough surfaces such as urban areas. In the longer term an improved parameterization of dry deposition needs to be developed that will be applicable to all surfaces, and in particular urban surfaces.

Droppo, James G.

2006-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

154

Chemical vapor deposition of mullite coatings  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

This invention is directed to the creation of crystalline mullite coatings having uniform microstructure by chemical vapor deposition (CVD). The process comprises the steps of establishing a flow of reactants which will yield mullite in a CVD reactor, and depositing a crystalline coating from the reactant flow. The process will yield crystalline coatings which are dense and of uniform thickness.

Sarin, Vinod (Lexington, MA); Mulpuri, Rao (Boston, MA)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

155

MODELING PARTICLE DEPOSITION ON HVAC HEAT EXCHANGERS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

LBNL-49339 MODELING PARTICLE DEPOSITION ON HVAC HEAT EXCHANGERS J.A. Siegel1,3 * and W.W. Nazaroff2 Department of Energy under contract DE-AC03-76SF00098. #12;MODELING PARTICLE DEPOSITION ON HVAC HEAT, such as discontinuities in the fins, are hypothesized to be responsible for the discrepancy. INDEX TERMS HVAC, Fouling

156

Rare Earth Element Mines, Deposits, and Occurrences  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Rare Earth Element Mines, Deposits, and Occurrences by Greta J. Orris1 and Richard I. Grauch2 Open. For many years, the deposit at Mountain Pass was the world's dominant source of rare earth elements of rare earth element concentration. Many of the occurrences have not been well studied and the economic

Torgersen, Christian

157

Colloidal particle deposition in turbulent flow  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A theoretical analysis is presented which describes the initial deposition of monodispersed spherical colloidal particles from a steady fully developed turbulent flow onto conduit walls. When the net particle-conduit electrical interaction potential is attractive, particle deposition is shown to be often governed by turbulent hydrodynamics. When the net particle-conduit electrical interaction potential possess a repulsive maximum, particle deposition to first order is uniform and depends solely on electrical interaction effects. The developed theoretical model specialized to orifice deposition with the use of Harwell Flow3D turbulence modelling software qualitatively described the deposition of 0.5 {mu}m silica particles onto glass orifices from an aqueous suspension. The effect of the electrical double layer on the rate of colloidal particle deposition in laminar flow has been described by Spielman and Friedlander (1), Dahneke (2), Bowen et al. (3) and Bowen and Epstein (4). This article describes the extension of their work to colloidal particle deposition under steady fully developed turbulent flow conditions. This article also reports the results of orifice particle deposition experiments which were conducted to qualitatively investigate the developed theoretical model.

Morton, D.S.

1994-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

158

Constraining Mercury Oxidation Using Wet Deposition  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Constraining Mercury Oxidation Using Wet Deposition Noelle E. Selin and Christopher D. Holmes mercury oxidation [Selin & Jacob, Atmos. Env. 2008] 30 60 90 120 150 30 60 90 120 150 30 60 90 120 150 30 Influences on Mercury Wet Deposition · Hg wet dep = f(precipitation, [Hg(II)+Hg(P)]) Correlation (r2) between

Selin, Noelle Eckley

159

Laser induced thermophoresis and particulate deposition efficiency  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The interaction of laser radiation and an absorbing aerosol in a tube flow has been considered. The aerosol is produced by external heating of reactants as in the MCVD (Modified Chemical Vapor Deposition) process to produce submicron size particles in the manufacture of optical fiber preforms. These are subsequently deposited by thermophoretic forces on the inner wall of the tube as they are convected by a Poiseuille velocity profile. Axial laser radiation in the tube interacts with the absorbing particles, and the laser heating of the gas induces additional thermophoretic forces that markedly increase the efficiency of particulate deposition. A particle concentration dependent absorption coefficient that appears in the energy equation couples the energy equation to the equation of particle conservation, so that a non-linear set of coupled partial integrodifferential equations must be solved. Numerical solutions for aerosol particle trajectories, and thus deposition efficiencies, have been obtained. It is shown that laser enhanced thermophoresis markedly improves the deposition efficiency.

Cipolla, J.; Morse, T.F.; Wang, C.Y.

1983-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

160

Combinatorial pulsed laser deposition of doped yttrium iron garnet films on yttrium aluminium garnet  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We investigate the crystalline growth of yttrium iron garnet (YIG) films doped with bismuth (Bi) and cerium (Ce) by combinatorial pulsed laser deposition, co-ablating a YIG target and either a Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3} or a CeO{sub 2} target, for applications in microwave and optical communications. Substrate temperature is critical for crystalline growth of YIG with simultaneous inclusion of Bi in the garnet lattice, whereas Ce is not incorporated in the garnet structure, but forms a separate CeO{sub 2} phase.

Sposito, A., E-mail: as11g10@orc.soton.ac.uk; Eason, R. W. [Optoelectronics Research Centre, University of Southampton, Southampton SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom); Gregory, S. A.; Groot, P. A. J. de [Physics and Astronomy, University of Southampton, Southampton SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom)

2014-02-07T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "deposition growth cxs" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

The aging of tungsten filaments and its effect on wire surface kinetics in hot-wire chemical vapor deposition  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

desorption kinetics. In particular, the Si signal exhibits a high temperature activation energy consistent vapor deposition growth have been measured by quadrupole mass spectrometry. New wires produce Si with previous measurements; the activation energy for the SiH3 signal suggests its formation is catalyzed. Aged

Atwater, Harry

162

Dendrite-Free Lithium Deposition via Self-Healing Electrostatic Shield Mechanism  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Lithium metal batteries are called the “holy grail” of energy storage systems. However, lithium dendrite growth in these batteries has prevented their practical applications in the last 40 years. Here we show a novel mechanism which can fundamentally change the dendritic morphology of lithium deposition. A low concentration of the second cations (including ions of cesium, rubidium, potassium, and strontium) exhibits an effective reduction potential lower than the standard reduction potential of lithium ions when the chemical activities of these second cations are much lower than that of lithium ions. During lithium deposition, these second cations will form a self-healing electrostatic shield around the initial tip of lithium whenever it is formed. This shield will repel the incoming lithium ions and force them to deposit in the smoother region of the anode so a dendrite-free film is obtained. This mechanism is effective on dendrite prevention in both lithium metal and lithium ion batteries. They may also prevent dendrite growth in other metal batteries and have transformational impact on the smooth deposition in general electrodeposition processes.

Ding, Fei; Xu, Wu; Graff, Gordon L.; Zhang, Jian; Sushko, Maria L.; Chen, Xilin; Shao, Yuyan; Engelhard, Mark H.; Nie, Zimin; Xiao, Jie; Liu, Xingjiang; Sushko, P. V.; Liu, Jun; Zhang, Jiguang

2013-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

163

Sorghum Growth and Development  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Sorghum is well adapted to Texas, and its ability to yield consistently makes it popular with growers. This publication discusses sorghum plant biology and growth....

Gerik, Tom; Bean, Brent W.; Vanderlip, Richard

2003-08-07T23:59:59.000Z

164

Strategic Growth Initiative (Michigan)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

A joint venture between Michigan Department of Agriculture and Rural Development (MDARD) and the Michigan Economic Development Corporation (MEDC), the Strategic Growth Initiative Grant Program was...

165

Aligned Carbon Nanotube Array Functionalization for Enhanced Atomic Layer Deposition of Platinum Electrocatalysts  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Uniform metal deposition onto high surface area supports is a key challenge of developing successful efficient catalyst materials. Atomic layer deposition (ALD) circumvents permeation difficulties, but relies on gas-surface reactions to initiate growth. Our work demonstrates that modified surfaces within vertically aligned carbon nanotube (CNT) arrays, from plasma and molecular precursor treatments, can lead to improved catalyst deposition. Gas phase functionalization influences the number of ALD nucleation sites and the onset of ALD growth and, in turn, affects the uniformity of the coating along the length of the CNTs within the aligned arrays. The induced chemical changes for each functionalization route are identified by X-ray photoelectron and Raman spectroscopies. The most effective functionalization routes increase the prevalence of oxygen moieties at defect sites on the carbon surfaces. The striking effects of the functionalization are demonstrated with ALD Pt growth as a function of surface treatment and ALD cycles examined by electron microscopy of the arrays and the individual CNTs. Finally, we demonstrate applicability of these materials as fuel cell electrocatalysts and show that surface functionalization affects their performance towards oxygen reduction reaction.

Dameron, A. A.; Pylypenko, S.; Bult, J. B.; Neyerlin, K. C.; Engtrakul, C.; Bochert, C.; Leong, G. J.; Frisco, S. L.; Simpson, L.; Dinh, H. N.; Pivovar, B.

2012-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

166

Depositional environments of the Kodiak Shelf, Alaska  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

'te ?eel i 9/I !, . jor S h!est; O? anoo! aphJ DEPOSITIONAL ENVIRONMENTS OF THE KODIAK SHELF, ALASKA A Thesis by STUART PETER BURBACH Approved as to sty1e and content by: (Chairman of Committee ( ead of Department) (Member) (Member) December 1977... -'DSTRRCT Depositional Environments of the Kodiak ', elf, Alaska. (December 1977) Stuart Peter Burbach, B. P, . , University of Ifisconsin at Iililv!aukee Chairman of Cidvfsory Committee: Dr. I!illiam B. Bryant Four depositional environments are defined...

Burbach, Stuart Peter

1977-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

167

Growth mechanisms, polytypism, and real structure of kaolinite microcrystals  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The mechanisms of growth of kaolinite microcrystals (0.1-5.0 {mu}m in size) at deposits related to the cluvial weathering crust, as well as to the low-temperature and medium-temperature hydrothermal processes of transformations of minerals in different rocks in Russia, Kazakhstan, Ukraine, Czechia, Vietnam, India, Cuba, and Madagascar, are investigated using transmission electron microscopy and vacuum decoration with gold. It is established that kaolinite microcrystals grow according to two mechanisms: the mechanism of periodic formation of two-dimensional nuclei and the mechanism of spiral growth. The spiral growth of kaolinite microcrystals is dominant and occurs on steps of screw dislocations that differ in sign and magnitude of the Burgers vector along the c axis. The layered growth of kaolinite originates from a widespread source in the form of a step between polar (+ and -) dislocations, i.e., a growth analogue of the Frank-Read dislocation source. The density of growth screw dislocations varies over a wide range and can be as high as {approx}10{sup 9} cm{sup -2}. Layered stepped kaolinite growth pyramids for all mechanisms of growth on the (001) face of kaolinite exhibit the main features of the triclinic 1Tc and real structures of this mineral.

Samotoin, N. D., E-mail: samnik@igem.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Geology of Ore Deposits, Petrography, Mineralogy, and Geochemistry (Russian Federation)

2008-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

168

Growth of tungsten oxide on carbon nanowalls templates  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Highlights: ? Tungsten oxide deposited on carbon nanowalls by hot filament chemical vapor deposition technique. ? This composite has two-dimensional uniform morphology with a crystalline structure of monoclinic tungsten trioxide. ? Surface photoelectric voltage measurements show that this product has photoresponse properties. - Abstract: In the present work we present a simple approach for coupling tungsten oxide with carbon nanowalls. The two-dimensional carbon nanowalls with open boundaries were grown using plasma enhanced hot filament chemical vapor deposition, and the subsequent tungsten oxide growth was performed in the same equipment by direct heating of a tungsten filament. The tungsten oxide coating is found to have uniform morphology with a crystalline structure of monoclinic tungsten trioxide. Surface photoelectric voltage measurements show that this product has photoresponse properties. The method of synthesis described here provides an operable route to the production of two-dimensional tungsten oxide nanocomposites.

Wang, Hua, E-mail: wanghua@dlou.edu.cn [Faculty of Chemical, Environmental and Biological Science and Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); College of Fisheries and Life Science, Dalian Ocean University, Dalian 116023 (China); Su, Yan [Faculty of Chemical, Environmental and Biological Science and Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Chen, Shuo, E-mail: shuochen@dlut.edu.cn [Faculty of Chemical, Environmental and Biological Science and Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Quan, Xie [Faculty of Chemical, Environmental and Biological Science and Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China)

2013-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

169

Growth and Characterization of Epitaxial Oxide Thin Films  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

out during past three years has been published as follows: 1. A. Garg, J. A. Leake, and Z. H. Barber, Epitaxial Growth of WO3 Films on SrTiO3 and R- Sapphire, J. Phys.: D, Appl. Phys., 33 (9), 1048 (2000) 2. A. Garg, S. Dunn, and Z. H. Barber, Growth... of these films by 3-D Stranski-Krastanov mode. However, these films did not exhibit any ferroelectric activity. Highly epitaxial (116)-oriented films were deposited on SrTiO3 (110) substrates. These films were also very smooth with root mean square (RMS...

Garg, Ashish

170

Depositional setting, structural style, and sandstone distribution in three geopressured geothermal areas, Texas Gulf Coast  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Three areas in the Texas Gulf Coastal Plain were studied using electric logs and seismic-reflection data to interpret their depositional and structural history and to compare their potential as geopressured-geothermal reservoirs. The Cuero study area, on the lower Wilcox (upper Paleocene) growth-fault trend, is characterized by closely and evenly spaced, subparallel, down-to-the-basin growth faults, relatively small expansion ratios, and minor block rotation. Distributary-channel sandstones in the geopressured lower Wilcox Group of the South Cook fault block appear to be the best geothermal aquifers in the Cuero area. The Blessing study area, on the lower Frio (Oligocene) growth-fault trend, shows wider and more variable fault spacing and much greater expansion ratios and block rotation, particularly during early Frio time. Thick geopressured sandstone aquifers are laterally more extensive in the Blessing area than in the Cuero area. The Pleasant Bayou study area, like the Blessing area, is on the Frio growth-fault trand, and its early structural development was similar rapid movement of widely spaced faults resulted in large expansion ratios and major block rotation. However, a late-stage pattern of salt uplift and withdrawal complicated the structural style. Thick geopressured lower Frio sandstone aquifers are highly permeable and laterally extensive, as in the Blessing area. In all three areas, geopressured aquifers were created where early, rapid movement along down-to-the-basin growth faults juxtaposed shallow-water sands against older shales, probably deposited in slope environments. Major transgressions followed the deposition of reservoir sands and probably also influenced the hydraulic isolation that allowed the build up of abnormal pressures. 26 refs., 49 figs., 8 tabs.

Winker, C.D.; Morton, R.A.; Ewing, T.E.; Garcia, D.D.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

171

Analysis Of Hot Springs And Associated Deposits In Yellowstone...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

analysis, and VNIR spectroscopy. Samples of hot spring deposits, geyser deposits, and soil were also collected. Analysis of ASTER data provided broad scale characteristics of the...

172

Persistence of soil organic matter in eroding versus depositional...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Persistence of soil organic matter in eroding versus depositional landform positions. Persistence of soil organic matter in eroding versus depositional landform positions....

173

Quaternary Borate Deposits As A Geothermal Exploration Tool In...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Borate Deposits As A Geothermal Exploration Tool In The Great Basin Abstract A close spatial relationship exists between Quaternary borate deposits and moderate to high...

174

Supercritical Fluid Immersion Deposition: A New Process for Selective...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

property of immersion deposition, enables the SFID technique to selectively deposit metal films in small features. SFID may also provide a new method to fabricate palladium...

175

Deposition of Platinum Nanoparticles on Carbon Nanotubes by Supercriti...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Deposition of Platinum Nanoparticles on Carbon Nanotubes by Supercritical Fluid Method. Deposition of Platinum Nanoparticles on Carbon Nanotubes by Supercritical Fluid Method....

176

aln film deposited: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

deposited by the reactive dc magnetron sputtering technique at room, amorphous and polycrystalline GaN thin films have been deposited using the magnetron sputtering...

177

aln films deposited: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

deposited by the reactive dc magnetron sputtering technique at room, amorphous and polycrystalline GaN thin films have been deposited using the magnetron sputtering...

178

Eulerian CFD Models to Predict Thermophoretic Deposition of Soot...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Eulerian CFD Models to Predict Thermophoretic Deposition of Soot Particles in EGR Coolers Eulerian CFD Models to Predict Thermophoretic Deposition of Soot Particles in EGR Coolers...

179

Small Business Linked Deposit Program (Oklahoma)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The Small Business Linked Deposit Program provides below-market interest rates for qualified small businesses and certified industrial parks through local financing sources. Loans are for a two...

180

CALCIUM CARBONATE DEPOSITION IN GEOTHERMAL WELLBORES  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

geothermal energy exploration and development are most important. Geothermal resources in Costa Rica have of energy development in Costa Rica. The Miravalles geothermCALCIUM CARBONATE DEPOSITION IN GEOTHERMAL WELLBORES MIRAVALLES GEOTHERMAL FIELD COSTA RICA

Stanford University

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "deposition growth cxs" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Chemical vapor deposition of antimicrobial polymer coatings  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

There is large and growing interest in making a wide variety of materials and surfaces antimicrobial. Initiated chemical vapor deposition (iCVD), a solventless low-temperature process, is used to form thin films of polymers ...

Martin, Tyler Philip, 1977-

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

182

Source replenishment device for vacuum deposition  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A material source replenishment device for use with a vacuum deposition apparatus is described. The source replenishment device comprises an intermittent motion producing gear arrangement disposed within the vacuum deposition chamber. An elongated rod having one end operably connected to the gearing arrangement is provided with a multiarmed head at the opposite end disposed adjacent the heating element of the vacuum deposition apparatus. An inverted U-shaped source material element is releasably attached to the outer end of each arm member whereby said multiarmed head is moved to locate a first of said material elements above said heating element, whereupon said multiarmed head is lowered to engage said material element with the heating element and further lowered to release said material element on the heating element. After vaporization of said material element, second and subsequent material elements may be provided to the heating element without the need for opening the vacuum deposition apparatus to the atmosphere.

Hill, R.A.

1986-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

183

Linked Deposit Loan Program (West Virginia)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The Linked Deposit Loan Program is targeted at small, private firms with 50 or fewer employees and gross annual revenues of $5 million or less comes. This loan offered through the West Virginia...

184

Low temperature atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition of group 14 oxide films  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Depositions of high quality SiO{sub 2} and SnO{sub 2} films from the reaction of homoleptic amido precursors M(NMe{sub 2})4 (M = Si,Sn) and oxygen were carried out in an atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition r. The films were deposited on silicon, glass and quartz substrates at temperatures of 250 to 450C. The silicon dioxide films are stoichiometric (O/Si = 2.0) with less than 0.2 atom % C and 0.3 atom % N and have hydrogen contents of 9 {plus_minus} 5 atom %. They are deposited with growth rates from 380 to 900 {angstrom}/min. The refractive indexes of the SiO{sub 2} films are 1.46, and infrared spectra show a possible Si-OH peak at 950 cm{sup {minus}1}. X-Ray diffraction studies reveal that the SiO{sub 2} film deposited at 350C is amorphous. The tin oxide films are stoichiometric (O/Sn = 2.0) and contain less than 0.8 atom % carbon, and 0.3 atom % N. No hydrogen was detected by elastic recoil spectroscopy. The band gap for the SnO{sub 2} films, as estimated from transmission spectra, is 3.9 eV. The resistivities of the tin oxide films are in the range 10{sup {minus}2} to 10{sup {minus}3} {Omega}cm and do not vary significantly with deposition temperature. The tin oxide film deposited at 350C is cassitterite with some (101) orientation.

Hoffman, D.M. [Houston Univ., TX (United States); Atagi, L.M. [Houston Univ., TX (United States)]|[Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Chu, Wei-Kan; Liu, Jia-Rui; Zheng, Zongshuang [Houston Univ., TX (United States); Rubiano, R.R. [Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (United States); Springer, R.W.; Smith, D.C. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

1994-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

185

Chemical vapor deposited diamond-on-diamond powder composites (LDRD final report)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Densifying non-mined diamond powder precursors with diamond produced by chemical vapor infiltration (CVI) is an attractive approach for forming thick diamond deposits that avoids many potential manufacturability problems associated with predominantly chemical vapor deposition (CVD) processes. The authors developed techniques for forming diamond powder precursors and densified these precursors in a hot filament-assisted reactor and a microwave plasma-assisted reactor. Densification conditions were varied following a fractional factorial statistical design. A number of conclusions can be drawn as a result of this study. High density diamond powder green bodies that contain a mixture of particle sizes solidify more readily than more porous diamond powder green bodies with narrow distributions of particle sizes. No composite was completely densified although all of the deposits were densified to some degree. The hot filament-assisted reactor deposited more material below the exterior surface, in the interior of the powder deposits; in contrast, the microwave-assisted reactor tended to deposit a CVD diamond skin over the top of the powder precursors which inhibited vapor phase diamond growth in the interior of the powder deposits. There were subtle variations in diamond quality as a function of the CVI process parameters. Diamond and glassy carbon tended to form at the exterior surface of the composites directly exposed to either the hot filament or the microwave plasma. However, in the interior, e.g. the powder/substrate interface, diamond plus diamond-like-carbon formed. All of the diamond composites produced were grey and relatively opaque because they contained flawed diamond, diamond-like-carbon and glassy carbon. A large amount of flawed and non-diamond material could be removed by post-CVI oxygen heat treatments. Heat treatments in oxygen changed the color of the composites to white.

Panitz, J.K.; Hsu, W.L.; Tallant, D.R.; McMaster, M.; Fox, C.; Staley, D.

1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

186

Nanoporous films for epitaxial growth of single crystal semiconductor materials : final LDRD report.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This senior council Tier 1 LDRD was focused on exploring the use of porous growth masks as a method for defect reduction during heteroepitaxial crystal growth. Initially our goal was to investigate porous silica as a growth mask, however, we expanded the scope of the research to include several other porous growth masks on various size scales, including mesoporous carbon, photolithographically patterned SU-8 and carbonized SU-8 structures. Use of photolithographically defined growth templates represents a new direction, unique in the extensive literature of patterned epitaxial growth, and presents the possibility of providing a single step growth mask. Additional research included investigation of pore viability via electrochemical deposition into high aspect ratio photoresist. This project was a small footprint research effort which, nonetheless, produced significant progress towards both the stated goal as well as unanticipated research directions.

Rowen, Adam M.; Koleske, Daniel David; Fan, Hongyou; Brinker, C. Jeffrey; Burckel, David Bruce; Williams, John Dalton; Arrington, Christian L.; Steen, William Arthur

2007-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

187

Interfacial oxide re-growth in thin film metal oxide III-V semiconductor systems  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/GaAs and HfO{sub 2}/GaAs interfaces after atomic layer deposition are studied using in situ monochromatic x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Samples are deliberately exposed to atmospheric conditions and interfacial oxide re-growth is observed. The extent of this re-growth is found to depend on the dielectric material and the exposure temperature. Comparisons with previous studies show that ex situ characterization can result in misleading conclusions about the interface reactions occurring during the metal oxide deposition process.

McDonnell, S.; Dong, H.; Hawkins, J. M.; Brennan, B.; Milojevic, M.; Aguirre-Tostado, F. S.; Zhernokletov, D. M.; Hinkle, C. L.; Kim, J.; Wallace, R. M.

2012-04-02T23:59:59.000Z

188

Growth mechanism of graphene on platinum: Surface catalysis and carbon segregation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A model of the graphene growth mechanism of chemical vapor deposition on platinum is proposed and verified by experiments. Surface catalysis and carbon segregation occur, respectively, at high and low temperatures in the process, representing the so-called balance and segregation regimes. Catalysis leads to self-limiting formation of large area monolayer graphene, whereas segregation results in multilayers, which evidently “grow from below.” By controlling kinetic factors, dominantly monolayer graphene whose high quality has been confirmed by quantum Hall measurement can be deposited on platinum with hydrogen-rich environment, quench cooling, tiny but continuous methane flow and about 1000?°C growth temperature.

Sun, Jie, E-mail: jie.sun@chalmers.se; Lindvall, Niclas; Yurgens, August [Quantum Device Physics Laboratory, Department of Microtechnology and Nanoscience, Chalmers University of Technology, SE-41296 Gothenburg (Sweden); Nam, Youngwoo [Quantum Device Physics Laboratory, Department of Microtechnology and Nanoscience, Chalmers University of Technology, SE-41296 Gothenburg (Sweden); Department of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-747 (Korea, Republic of); Cole, Matthew T. [Electrical Engineering Division, Department of Engineering, University of Cambridge, 9 JJ Thomson Avenue, CB3 0FA Cambridge (United Kingdom); Teo, Kenneth B. K. [AIXTRON Nanoinstruments Ltd., Swavesey, CB24 4FQ Cambridge (United Kingdom); Woo Park, Yung [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-747 (Korea, Republic of)

2014-04-14T23:59:59.000Z

189

Selected growth and interaction characteristics of seafloor faults in the central Mississippi Canyon Offshore Continental Shelf (OCS) area, northern Gulf of Mexico  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. Specifically, the characteristics of growth, interaction, and linkage of faults are of interest. Most of the Gulf has seen continuous clastic sediment deposition since the end of continental rifting in the middle Mesozoic. The Gulf is a tectonically quiescent...

Wegner, Scott Ashley

2006-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

190

Skeletal crystals of calcite and trona from hot-spring deposits in Kenya and New Zealand  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Skeletal crystals are hollow crystals that develop because their outer walls grow before their cores. The presence of skeletal crystals of calcite (three types--trigonal prisms, hexagonal prisms, and plates) and trona in hot (> 90 C) spring deposits in New Zealand (Waikite Springs and Ohaaki Pool) and Kenya (Lorusio hot springs) shows that they can form in natural sedimentary regimes. Analysis of samples from these deposits shows that this crystal morphology develops under disequilibrium conditions that are unrelated to a specific environmental or diagenetic setting. Skeletal crystals transform into solid crystals when subsequent precipitation fills their hollow cores. In some cases, this may involve precipitation of crystalline material that has a sieve-like texture. In other examples, the skeletal crystal provides a framework upon which other materials can be precipitated. Walls in the skeletal trigonal calcite prisms from Waikite Springs are formed of subcrystals that mimic the shape of the parent crystal. Similarly, plate-like skeletal crystals from Lorusio are formed of densely packed subcrystals that are < 0.5 {micro}m long. Conversely, the walls of the skeletal hexagonal calcite crystals from Ohaaki Pool and the skeletal trona crystals from Lorusio are not formed of subcrystals. Recognition of skeletal crystals is important because they represent growth that follows the reverse pattern of normal growth. Failure to recognize that crystal growth followed the skeletal motif may lead to false interpretations concerning the growth of a crystal.

Jones, B. [Univ. of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta (Canada). Dept. of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences; Renaut, R.W. [Univ. of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan (Canada). Dept. of Geological Sciences

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

191

From Ultrananocrystalline Diamond to Single Crystal Diamond Growth in Hot Filament and Microwave Plasma-Enhanced CVD Reactors: a Unified Model for Growth Rates and  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

From Ultrananocrystalline Diamond to Single Crystal Diamond Growth in Hot Filament and Microwave, Moscow State UniVersity, 119991 Moscow, Russia ReceiVed: April 29, 2008 CVD Diamond can now be deposited either in the form of single crystal homoepitaxial layers, or as polycrystalline films with crystal sizes

Bristol, University of

192

Growth of Large-Area Aligned Molybdenum Nanowires by High Temperature Chemical Vapor Deposition: Synthesis, Growth Mechanism, and Device Application  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, thermogravimetry, and differential scanning calorimetry analysis, as well as structure analysis by electron on the decomposition of MoO2 vapors through condensation of its vapor at high substrate temperatures. The aligned nanowires with H2 gas.6d-f However, the reduction process degrades the crystal- linity of the nanowires

Wang, Zhong L.

193

Carbon impurities on graphene synthesized by chemical vapor deposition on platinum  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We report nanocrystalline carbon impurities coexisting with graphene synthesized via chemical vapor deposition on platinum. For certain growth conditions, we observe micron-size island-like impurity layers which can be mistaken for second graphene layers in optical microscopy or scanning electron microscopy. The island orientation depends on the crystalline orientation of the Pt, as shown by electron backscatter diffraction, indicating growth of carbon at the platinum surface below graphene. Dark-field transmission electron microscopy indicates that in addition to uniform single-crystal graphene, our sample is decorated with nanocrystalline carbon impurities with a spatially inhomogeneous distribution. The impurity concentration can be reduced significantly by lowering the growth temperature. Raman spectra show a large D peak, however, electrical characterization shows high mobility (?8000?cm{sup 2}/Vs), indicating a limitation for Raman spectroscopy in characterizing the electronic quality of graphene.

Ping, Jinglei; Fuhrer, Michael S., E-mail: michael.fuhrer@monash.edu [Center for Nanophysics and Advanced Materials, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742-4111, USA and School of Physics, Monash University, 3800 Victoria (Australia)

2014-07-28T23:59:59.000Z

194

Atomic layer deposition of bismuth oxide using Bi(OCMe{sub 2}{sup i}Pr){sub 3} and H{sub 2}O  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Bismuth oxide thin films were deposited by atomic layer deposition using Bi(OCMe{sub 2}{sup i}Pr){sub 3} and H{sub 2}O at deposition temperatures between 90 and 270?°C on Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}, TaN, and TiN substrates. Films were analyzed using spectroscopic ellipsometry, x-ray diffraction, x-ray reflectivity, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, and Rutherford backscattering spectrometry. Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3} films deposited at 150?°C have a linear growth per cycle of 0.039?nm/cycle, density of 8.3?g/cm{sup 3}, band gap of approximately 2.9?eV, low carbon content, and show the ? phase structure with a (201) preferred crystal orientation. Deposition temperatures above 210?°C and postdeposition anneals caused uneven volumetric expansion, resulting in a decrease in film density, increased interfacial roughness, and degraded optical properties.

Austin, Dustin Z., E-mail: austind@eecs.oregonstate.edu; Conley, John F., E-mail: jconley@eecs.oregonstate.edu [Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Oregon State University, Corvallis, Oregon 97331 (United States); Allman, Derryl; Price, David; Hose, Sallie [ON Semiconductor, Technology Development, Gresham, Oregon 97030 (United States); Saly, Mark [SAFC Hitech, Haverhill, Massachusetts 01832 (United States)

2014-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

195

Method for deposition of a conductor in integrated circuits  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method is described for fabricating integrated semiconductor circuits and, more particularly, for the selective deposition of a conductor onto a substrate employing a chemical vapor deposition process. By way of example, tungsten can be selectively deposited onto a silicon substrate. At the onset of loss of selectivity of deposition of tungsten onto the silicon substrate, the deposition process is interrupted and unwanted tungsten which has deposited on a mask layer with the silicon substrate can be removed employing a halogen etchant. Thereafter, a plurality of deposition/etch back cycles can be carried out to achieve a predetermined thickness of tungsten. 2 figs.

Creighton, J.R.; Dominguez, F.; Johnson, A.W.; Omstead, T.R.

1997-09-02T23:59:59.000Z

196

Method for deposition of a conductor in integrated circuits  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method is described for fabricating integrated semiconductor circuits and, more particularly, for the selective deposition of a conductor onto a substrate employing a chemical vapor deposition process. By way of example, tungsten can be selectively deposited onto a silicon substrate. At the onset of loss of selectivity of deposition of tungsten onto the silicon substrate, the deposition process is interrupted and unwanted tungsten which has deposited on a mask layer with the silicon substrate can be removed employing a halogen etchant. Thereafter, a plurality of deposition/etch back cycles can be carried out to achieve a predetermined thickness of tungsten.

Creighton, J. Randall (Albuquerque, NM); Dominguez, Frank (Albuquerque, NM); Johnson, A. Wayne (Albuquerque, NM); Omstead, Thomas R. (Albuquerque, NM)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

197

Modeling tin whisker growth.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Tin, lead, and lead-tin solders are the most commonly used solders due to their low melting temperatures. However, due to the toxicity problems, lead must now be removed from solder materials. This has lead to the re-emergence of the issue of tin whisker growth. Tin whiskers are a microelectronic packaging issue because they can lead to shorts if they grow to sufficient length. However, the cause of tin whisker growth is still not well understood and there is lack of robust methods to determine when and if whiskering will be a problem. This report summarizes some of the leading theories on whisker growth and attempts to provide some ideas towards establishing the role microstructure plays in whisker growth.

Weinberger, Christopher Robert

2013-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

198

Planar elliptic growth  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The planar elliptic extension of the Laplacian growth is, after a proper parametrization, given in a form of a solution to the equation for areapreserving diffeomorphisms. The infinite set of conservation laws associated with such elliptic growth is interpreted in terms of potential theory, and the relations between two major forms of the elliptic growth are analyzed. The constants of integration for closed form solutions are identified as the singularities of the Schwarz function, which are located both inside and outside the moving contour. Well-posedness of the recovery of the elliptic operator governing the process from the continuum of interfaces parametrized by time is addressed and two examples of exact solutions of elliptic growth are presented.

Mineev, Mark [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

199

Apparatus for laser assisted thin film deposition  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A pulsed laser deposition apparatus uses fiber optics to deliver visible output beams. One or more optical fibers are coupled to one or more laser sources, and delivers visible output beams to a single chamber, to multiple targets in the chamber or to multiple chambers. The laser can run uninterrupted if one of the deposition chambers ceases to operate because other chambers can continue their laser deposition processes. The laser source can be positioned at a remote location relative to the deposition chamber. The use of fiber optics permits multi-plexing. A pulsed visible laser beam is directed at a generally non-perpendicular angle upon the target in the chamber, generating a plume of ions and energetic neutral species. A portion of the plume is deposited on a substrate as a thin film. A pulsed visible output beam with a high pulse repetition frequency is used. The high pulse repetition frequency is greater than 500 Hz, and more preferably, greater than about 1000 Hz. Diamond-like-carbon (DLC) is one of the thin films produced using the apparatus. 9 figs.

Warner, B.E.; McLean, W. II

1996-02-13T23:59:59.000Z

200

Apparatus for laser assisted thin film deposition  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A pulsed laser deposition apparatus uses fiber optics to deliver visible output beams. One or more optical fibers are coupled to one or more laser sources, and delivers visible output beams to a single chamber, to multiple targets in the chamber or to multiple chambers. The laser can run uninterrupted if one of the deposition chambers ceases to operate because other chambers can continue their laser deposition processes. The laser source can be positioned at a remote location relative to the deposition chamber. The use of fiber optics permits multi-plexing. A pulsed visible laser beam is directed at a generally non-perpendicular angle upon the target in the chamber, generating a plume of ions and energetic neutral species. A portion of the plume is deposited on a substrate as a thin film. A pulsed visible output beam with a high pulse repetition frequency is used. The high pulse repetition frequency is greater than 500 Hz, and more preferably, greater than about 1000 Hz. Diamond-like-carbon (DLC) is one of the thin films produced using the apparatus.

Warner, Bruce E. (Pleasanton, CA); McLean, II, William (Oakland, CA)

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "deposition growth cxs" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Source-attribution for atmospheric mercury deposition: Where does the mercury in mercury deposition come from?  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 Source-attribution for atmospheric mercury deposition: Where does the mercury in mercury of the Mercury Working Group, Office of Air Quality, Indiana Department of Environmental Management (IDEM) April 21, 2005 #12;2 For mercury, how important is atmospheric deposition relative to other loading

202

FGF growth factor analogs  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention provides a fibroblast growth factor heparin-binding analog of the formula: ##STR00001## where R.sub.1, R.sub.2, R.sub.3, R.sub.4, R.sub.5, X, Y and Z are as defined, pharmaceutical compositions, coating compositions and medical devices including the fibroblast growth factor heparin-binding analog of the foregoing formula, and methods and uses thereof.

Zamora, Paul O. (Gaithersburg, MD); Pena, Louis A. (Poquott, NY); Lin, Xinhua (Plainview, NY); Takahashi, Kazuyuki (Germantown, MD)

2012-07-24T23:59:59.000Z

203

Role of gas phase reactions in subatmospheric chemical-vapor deposition ozone/TEOS processes for oxide deposition  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-vapor deposition. Our results for oxide deposition show optimum process window around 200 Torr for producing films a po- tentially optimum process window in which film properties, deposition rates, film uniformity requires high quality dielectric films that can be deposited rapidly and conformally on high aspect ratio

Rubloff, Gary W.

204

Authorization Form for Direct Deposit for Boston College Vendor Payments Boston College has implemented Direct Deposit for Vendor Payments.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Authorization Form for Direct Deposit for Boston College Vendor Payments Boston College has implemented Direct Deposit for Vendor Payments. Once you are set up, all payments will be processed via direct, a brief payment description, and the estimated deposit date. Direct Deposit Form Vendor Information Vendor

Huang, Jianyu

205

Glow discharge plasma deposition of thin films  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A glow discharge plasma reactor for deposition of thin films from a reactive RF glow discharge is provided with a screen positioned between the walls of the chamber and the cathode to confine the glow discharge region to within the region defined by the screen and the cathode. A substrate for receiving deposition material from a reactive gas is positioned outside the screened region. The screen is electrically connected to the system ground to thereby serve as the anode of the system. The energy of the reactive gas species is reduced as they diffuse through the screen to the substrate. Reactive gas is conducted directly into the glow discharge region through a centrally positioned distribution head to reduce contamination effects otherwise caused by secondary reaction products and impurities deposited on the reactor walls.

Weakliem, Herbert A. (Pennington, NJ); Vossen, Jr., John L. (Bridgewater, NJ)

1984-05-29T23:59:59.000Z

206

Supplemental heating of deposition tooling shields  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method of reducing particle generation from the thin coating deposited on the internal surfaces of a deposition chamber which undergoes temperature variation greater than 100.degree. C. comprising maintaining the temperature variation of the internal surfaces low enough during the process cycle to keep thermal expansion stresses between the coating and the surfaces under 500 MPa. For titanium nitride deposited on stainless steel, this means keeping temperature variations under approximately 70.degree. C. in a chamber that may be heated to over 350.degree. C. during a typical processing operation. Preferably, a supplemental heater is mounted behind the upper shield and controlled by a temperature sensitive element which provides feedback control based on the temperature of the upper shield.

Ohlhausen, James A. (Albuquerque, NM); Peebles, Diane E. (Albuquerque, NM); Hunter, John A. (Albuquerque, NM); Eckelmeyer, Kenneth H. (Albuquerque, NM)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

207

Forming aspheric optics by controlled deposition  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An aspheric optical element formed by depositing material onto a spherical surface of an optical element by controlled deposition to form an aspheric surface of desired shape. A reflecting surface, single or multi-layer, can then be formed on the aspheric surface by evaporative or sputtering techniques. Aspheric optical elements are suitable for deep ultra-violet (UV) and x-ray wavelengths. The reflecting surface may, for example, be a thin (.about.100 nm) layer of aluminum, or in some cases the deposited modifying layer may function as the reflecting surface. For certain applications, multi-layer reflective surfaces may be utilized, such as chromium-carbon or tungsten-carbon multi-layer, with the number of layers and thickness being determined by the intended application.

Hawryluk, Andrew M. (Modesto, CA)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

208

Chemical vapor deposition of group IIIB metals  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Coatings of Group IIIB metals and compounds thereof are formed by chemical vapor deposition, in which a heat decomposable organometallic compound of the formula given in the patent where M is a Group IIIB metal, such as lanthanum or yttrium and R is a lower alkyl or alkenyl radical containing from 2 to about 6 carbon atoms, with a heated substrate which is above the decomposition temperature of the organometallic compound. The pure metal is obtained when the compound of the formula 1 is the sole heat decomposable compound present and deposition is carried out under nonoxidizing conditions. Intermetallic compounds such as lanthanum telluride can be deposited from a lanthanum compound of formula 1 and a heat decomposable tellurium compound under nonoxidizing conditions.

Erbil, A.

1989-11-21T23:59:59.000Z

209

Ash & Pulverized Coal Deposition in Combustors & Gasifiers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Further progress in achieving the objectives of the project was made in the period of October 1 to December 31, 1996. In particular, the sublayer model for evaluating the particle deposition in turbulent flows was extended to include the effect of particle rebound. A new more advance flow model for the near wall vortices is also used in these analysis. The computational model for simulating particle transport in turbulent flows was used to analyze the dispersion and deposition of particles in a recirculating flow region. The predictions of the particle resuspension model is compared with the experimental data. It is shown that when the effects of the near wall flow structure, as we as the surface roughness are included the model agrees with the available experimental data. Considerable progress was also made in the direct numerical simulation of particle removal process in turbulent gas flows. Experimental data for transport and deposition of glass fiber in the aerosol wind tunnel was also obtained.

Goodarz Ahmadi

1998-12-02T23:59:59.000Z

210

Liquid injection plasma deposition method and apparatus  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A liquid injection plasma torch deposition apparatus for depositing material onto a surface of a substrate may comprise a plasma torch for producing a jet of plasma from an outlet nozzle. A plasma confinement tube having an inlet end and an outlet end and a central bore therethrough is aligned with the outlet nozzle of the plasma torch so that the plasma jet is directed into the inlet end of the plasma confinement tube and emerges from the outlet end of the plasma confinement tube. The plasma confinement tube also includes an injection port transverse to the central bore. A liquid injection device connected to the injection port of the plasma confinement tube injects a liquid reactant mixture containing the material to be deposited onto the surface of the substrate through the injection port and into the central bore of the plasma confinement tube.

Kong, Peter C. (Idaho Falls, ID); Watkins, Arthur D. (Idaho Falls, ID)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

211

Inclined substrate deposition of magnesium oxide for YBCO-coated conductors.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Thin films of YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7-x} (YBCO) were grown on MgO buffered metallic substrates by pulsed laser deposition (PLD). The MgO buffer films, which provide the initial biaxial texture, had been grown on polished Hastelloy C276 (HC) tapes using inclined substrate deposition (ISD). The ISD process is promising for the fabrication of coated superconductor wires because it produces biaxially textured template films on nontextured substrate at high deposition rates. Biaxially aligned MgO films were deposited at deposition rates of 20 to 100 {angstrom}/sec. The buffer films were deposited on these template films before ablation of the YBCO films by PLD. The microstructure was studied by scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy. X-ray pole figure analysis and {phi}- and {omega}-scans were used for texture characterization. Good in- and out-of-plane textures were observed on the ISD MgO films ({approx}1.5 {micro}m thick). The full width at half maximums were 9.2{sup o} for the MgO (002) {phi}-scan and 5.4{sup o} for the {omega}-scan. Cube-on-cube epitaxial growth of yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) and ceria (CeO{sub 2}) films on the ISD MgO films was also achieved by PLD. A superconducting critical temperature of 90 K, with a sharp transition, and transport critical current density of >2.5 x 10{sup 5} A/cm{sup 2} were obtained on a 0.5-{micro}m-thick, 0.5-cm-wide, and 1-cm-long YBCO film with MgO buffer layer at 77 K in self-field.

Ma, B.; Li, M.; Fisher, B. L.; Koritala, R. E.; Dorris, S. E.; Maroni, V. A.; Balachandran, U.

2002-04-26T23:59:59.000Z

212

Fabrication of ZnO nanorod using spray-pyrolysis and chemical bath deposition method  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

ZnO thin films with nanorod structure were deposited using Ultrasonic Spray Pyrolysis method for seed growth, and Chemical Bath Deposition (CBD) for nanorod growth. High purity Zn-hydrate and Urea are used to control Ph were dissolved in ethanol and aqua bidest in Ultrasonic Spray Pyrolysis process. Glass substrate was placed above the heater plate of reaction chamber, and subsequently sprayed with the range duration of 5, 10 and 20 minutes at the temperatures of 3500 C. As for the Chemical Bath Deposition, the glass substrate with ZnO seed on the surface was immerse to Zn-hydrate, HMTA (Hexa Methylene Tetra Amine) and deionized water solution for duration of 3, 5 and 7 hour and temperatures of 600 C, washed in distilled water, dried, and annealed at 3500 C for an hour. The characterization of samples was carried out to reveal the surface morphology using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). From the data, the combination of 5 minutes of Ultrasonic Spray Pyrolysis process and 3 hour of CBD has showed the best structure of nanorod. Meanwhile the longer Spraying process and CBD yield the bigger nanorod structure that have been made, and it makes the films more dense which make the nanorod collide each other and as a result produce unsymetric nanorod structure.

Ramadhani, Muhammad F., E-mail: brian@tf.itb.ac.id; Pasaribu, Maruli A. H., E-mail: brian@tf.itb.ac.id; Yuliarto, Brian, E-mail: brian@tf.itb.ac.id; Nugraha, E-mail: brian@tf.itb.ac.id [Advanced Functional Materials Laboratory, Engineering Physics Department Faculty of Industrial Technology, Institut Teknologi Bandung (Indonesia)

2014-02-24T23:59:59.000Z

213

On-line coating of glass with tin oxide by atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition (APCVD) of tin oxide is a very important manufacturing technique used in the production of low-emissivity glass. It is also the primary method used to provide wear-resistant coatings on glass containers. The complexity of these systems, which involve chemical reactions in both the gas phase and on the deposition surface, as well as complex fluid dynamics, makes process optimization and design of new coating reactors a very difficult task. In 2001 the U.S. Dept. of Energy Industrial Technologies Program Glass Industry of the Future Team funded a project to address the need for more accurate data concerning the tin oxide APCVD process. This report presents a case study of on-line APCVD using organometallic precursors, which are the primary reactants used in industrial coating processes. Research staff at Sandia National Laboratories in Livermore, CA, and the PPG Industries Glass Technology Center in Pittsburgh, PA collaborated to produce this work. In this report, we describe a detailed investigation of the factors controlling the growth of tin oxide films. The report begins with a discussion of the basic elements of the deposition chemistry, including gas-phase thermochemistry of tin species and mechanisms of chemical reactions involved in the decomposition of tin precursors. These results provide the basis for experimental investigations in which tin oxide growth rates were measured as a function of all major process variables. The experiments focused on growth from monobutyltintrichloride (MBTC) since this is one of the two primary precursors used industrially. There are almost no reliable growth-rate data available for this precursor. Robust models describing the growth rate as a function of these variables are derived from modeling of these data. Finally, the results are used to conduct computational fluid dynamic simulations of both pilot- and full-scale coating reactors. As a result, general conclusions are reached concerning the factors affecting the growth rate in on-line APCVD reactors. In addition, a substantial body of data was generated that can be used to model many different industrial tin oxide coating processes. These data include the most extensive compilation of thermochemistry for gas-phase tin-containing species as well as kinetic expressions describing tin oxide growth rates over a wide range of temperatures, pressures, and reactant concentrations.

Allendorf, Mark D.; Sopko, J.F. (PPF Industries, Pittsburgh, PA); Houf, William G.; Chae, Yong Kee; McDaniel, Anthony H.; Li, M. (PPF Industries, Pittsburgh, PA); McCamy, J.W. (PPF Industries, Pittsburgh, PA)

2006-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

214

Method for using salt deposits for storage  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A method for developing, evacuating, using, sealing, and re-entering multiple stacked cavities which are created from a single well in salt deposits. The cavities are created in a salt deposit by circulating raw water through concentric casing strings in the well. Each of the cavities is evacuated of liquids prior to use. After storage material is injected into a cavity, the cavity is sealed by setting a plug in the well bore above the top of the cavity. The cavities may be re-entered by drilling out the plug or by drilling a directional well directly into the cavity.

Hooper, M. W.; Voorhees, E. J.

1984-12-18T23:59:59.000Z

215

Ruthenium / aerogel nanocomposits via Atomic Layer Deposition  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We present a general approach to prepare metal/aerogel nanocomposites via template directed atomic layer deposition (ALD). In particular, we used a Ru ALD process consisting of alternating exposures to bis(cyclopentadienyl)ruthenium (RuCp{sub 2}) and air at 350 C to deposit metallic Ru nanoparticles on the internal surfaces of carbon and silica aerogels. The process does not affect the morphology of the aerogel template and offers excellent control over metal loading by simply adjusting the number of ALD cycles. We also discuss the limitations of our ALD approach, and suggest ways to overcome these.

Biener, J; Baumann, T F; Wang, Y; Nelson, E J; Kucheyev, S O; Hamza, A V; Kemell, M; Ritala, M; Leskela, M

2006-08-28T23:59:59.000Z

216

Polymer-assisted deposition of films  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A polymer assisted deposition process for deposition of metal nitride films and the like is presented. The process includes solutions of one or more metal precursor and soluble polymers having binding properties for the one or more metal precursor. After a coating operation, the resultant coating is heated at high temperatures under a suitable atmosphere to yield metal nitride films and the like. Such films can be conformal on a variety of substrates including non-planar substrates. In some instances, the films can be epitaxial in structure and can be of optical quality. The process can be organic solvent-free.

McCleskey,Thomas M. (Los Alamos, NM); Burrell,Anthony K. (Los Alamos, NM); Jia,Quanxi (Los Alamos, NM); Lin,Yuan (Chandler, AZ)

2012-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

217

Effect of process parameters on properties of argon–nitrogen plasma for titanium nitride film deposition  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this study, the effect of working pressure and input power on the physical properties and sputtering efficiencies of argon–nitrogen (Ar/N{sub 2}) plasma in direct current magnetron discharge is investigated. The discharge in Ar/N{sub 2} is used to deposit TiN films on high speed steel substrate. The physical plasma parameters are determined by using Langmuir probe and optical emission spectroscopy. On the basis of the different reactions in the gas phase, the variation of plasma parameters and sputtering rate are explained. A prominent change of electron temperature, electron density, ion density, and degree of ionization of Ar is found as a function of working pressure and input power. The results also show that increasing working pressure exerts a negative effect on film deposition rate while increasing input power has a positive impact on the same. To confirm the observed physical properties and evaluate the texture growth as a function of deposition parameters, x-ray diffraction study of deposited TiN films is also done.

Saikia, Partha; Kakati, Bharat [Centre of Plasma Physics, Institute for Plasma Research, Nazirakhat, Sonapur-782 402, Kamrup, Assam (India)] [Centre of Plasma Physics, Institute for Plasma Research, Nazirakhat, Sonapur-782 402, Kamrup, Assam (India)

2013-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

218

Panel 1 - comparative evaluation of deposition technologies  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This working group attempted to evaluate/compare the different types of deposition techniques currently under investigation for depositing diamond and diamond-like carbon films. A table lists the broad types of techniques that were considered for depositing diamond and diamond-like carbon films. After some discussion, it was agreed that any evaluation of the various techniques would be dependent on the end application. Thus the next action was to list the different areas where diamond and DLC films could find applications in transportation. These application areas are listed in a table. The table intentionally does not go into great detail on applications because that subject is dealt with specifically by Panel No. 4 - Applications To Transportation. The next action concentrated on identifying critical issues or limitations that need to be considered in evaluating the different processes. An attempt was then made to rank different broad categories of deposition techniques currently available or under development based on the four application areas and the limitations. These rankings/evaluations are given for diamond and DLC techniques. Finally, the working group tried to identify critical development and research issues that need to be incorporated into developing a long-term program that focuses on diamond/DLC coatings for transportation needs. 5 tabs.

Fenske, G.R.; Stodolsky, F. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Benson, D.K.; Pitts, R.J. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States); Bhat, D.G. [GTE Valenite Corp., Troy, MI (United States); Yulin Chen [Allison Gas Turbine Division, GM, Indianapolis, IN (United States); Gat, R.; Sunkara, M.K. [Case Western Reserve Univ., Cleveland, OH (United States); Kelly, M. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States); Lawler, J.E. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison (United States); Nagle, D.C. [Martin Marietta Labs., Baltimore, MD (United States); Outka, D. [Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA (United States); Revankar, G.S. [Deere & Co., Moline, IL (United States); Subramaniam, V.V. [Ohio State Univ., Columbus (United States); Wilbur, P.J. [Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins (United States); Mingshow Wong [Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States); Woolam, W.E. [Southwest Research Inst., Arlington, VA (United States)

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

219

Chemical vapor deposition of aluminum oxide  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An aluminum oxide film is deposited on a heated substrate by CVD from one or more alkylaluminum alkoxide compounds having composition R.sub.n Al.sub.2 (OR').sub.6-n, wherein R and R' are alkyl groups and n is in the range of 1 to 5.

Gordon, Roy (Cambridge, MA); Kramer, Keith (Cleveland, OH); Liu, Xinye (Cambridge, MA)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

220

Effects of phosphorus implantation and subsequent growth on diamond Euo Sik Choa,*, Cheon An Leea  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

]. Espe- cially, polycrystalline diamond films grown by microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition (MPCVD, and their fabrication is easy and economical. Polycrystalline diamond film has a rough surface and a lot of defectsEffects of phosphorus implantation and subsequent growth on diamond Euo Sik Choa,*, Cheon An Leea

Lee, Jong Duk

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "deposition growth cxs" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

MOVPE growth of semipolar III-nitride semiconductors on CVD graphene Priti Gupta n  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

MOVPE growth of semipolar III-nitride semiconductors on CVD graphene Priti Gupta n , A.A. Rahman pressure metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy B1. Graphene B1. Nitrides B2. Semiconducting III­V materials a b on graphene grown by chemical vapour deposition. GaN, AlGaN alloys, and InN layers are grown using an Al

Deshmukh, Mandar M.

222

Carbon monoxide-assisted growth of carbon nanotubes Y.H. Tang a,b  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Carbon monoxide-assisted growth of carbon nanotubes Y.H. Tang a,b , Y.F. Zheng a , C.S. Lee a , N was used to synthesize carbon nanotubes (CNTs) in a hot-®lament chemical vapor deposition (HFCVD) system in the formation of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNT)s. The CNTs synthesized from carbon monoxide validate

Zheng, Yufeng

223

Radiative Impacts on the Growth of Drops within Simulated Marine Stratocumulus. Part I: Maximum Solar Heating  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

November 2004) ABSTRACT The effects of solar heating and infrared cooling on the vapor depositional growth of as much as 45 min. Including infrared cooling as well as solar heating in the LES and microphysical bin Solar Heating CHRISTOPHER M. HARTMAN AND JERRY Y. HARRINGTON Department of Meteorology, The Pennsylvania

Harrington, Jerry Y.

224

Effects of oxygen on the growth characteristics of carbon nanotubes on conductive substrates  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The effects of oxygen on Fe-catalyzed carbon nanotube (CNT) growth on Ta substrates was studied. CNTs were grown on Fe thin-film catalysts deposited on silicon substrates via exposure to C?H? in a thermal chemical vapor ...

Bonaparte, Ryan K

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

225

Analysis of calorimetric measurements of grain growth L. C. Chena) and F. Spaepen  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

solidification4 or vapor deposition,' or in some of the materials prepared by gas condensation and compaction,6Analysis of calorimetric measurements of grain growth L. C. Chena) and F. Spaepen Division. The Kissinger' analysis of the shift of the transformation peaks as a function of heating rate is perhaps

Spaepen, Frans A.

226

Revue Mdecine Vtrinaire, 2000, 151, 2, 99-104 Mechanism of antimicrobial growth promoters used in  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. Antimicrobial growth promoters also decrease the fermentation of carbohydrates and the decomposition of bile to a reduced turnover in the gut epithelium. In cattle, the rumen flora fermentations are oriented toward propionic acid production, instead of acetic acid, favouring the meat deposit, and less methane is produced

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

227

Low temperature atomic layer deposited ZnO photo thin film transistors  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

ZnO thin film transistors (TFTs) are fabricated on Si substrates using atomic layer deposition technique. The growth temperature of ZnO channel layers are selected as 80, 100, 120, 130, and 250?°C. Material characteristics of ZnO films are examined using x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and x-ray diffraction methods. Stoichiometry analyses showed that the amount of both oxygen vacancies and interstitial zinc decrease with decreasing growth temperature. Electrical characteristics improve with decreasing growth temperature. Best results are obtained with ZnO channels deposited at 80?°C; I{sub on}/I{sub off} ratio is extracted as 7.8 × 10{sup 9} and subthreshold slope is extracted as 0.116 V/dec. Flexible ZnO TFT devices are also fabricated using films grown at 80?°C. I{sub D}–V{sub GS} characterization results showed that devices fabricated on different substrates (Si and polyethylene terephthalate) show similar electrical characteristics. Sub-bandgap photo sensing properties of ZnO based TFTs are investigated; it is shown that visible light absorption of ZnO based TFTs can be actively controlled by external gate bias.

Oruc, Feyza B.; Aygun, Levent E.; Donmez, Inci; Biyikli, Necmi; Okyay, Ali K., E-mail: aokyay@ee.bilkent.edu.tr [Institute of Materials Science and Nanotechnology, Bilkent University, Bilkent, 06800 Ankara (Turkey); UNAM—National Nanotechnology Research Center, Bilkent University, Bilkent, 06800 Ankara (Turkey); Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Bilkent University, Bilkent, 06800 Ankara (Turkey); Yu, Hyun Yong [The School of Electrical Engineering, Korea University, Seoul 136-701 (Korea, Republic of)

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

228

Continuous Microreactor-Assisted Solution Deposition for Scalable Production of CdS Films  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Solution deposition offers an attractive, low temperature option in the cost effective production of thin film solar cells. Continuous microreactor-assisted solution deposition (MASD) was used to produce nanocrystalline cadmium sulfide (CdS) films on fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO) coated glass substrates with excellent uniformity. We report a novel liquid coating technique using a ceramic rod to efficiently and uniformly apply reactive solution to large substrates (152 mm × 152 mm). This technique represents an inexpensive approach to utilize the MASD on the substrate for uniform growth of CdS films. Nano-crystalline CdS films have been produced from liquid phase at ~90°C, with average thicknesses of 70 nm to 230 nm and with a 5 to 12% thickness variation. The CdS films produced were characterized by UV-Vis spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and X-Ray diffraction to demonstrate their suitability to thin-film solar technology.

Ramprasad, Sudhir; Su, Yu-Wei; Chang, Chih-Hung; Paul, Brian; Palo, Daniel R.

2013-06-13T23:59:59.000Z

229

Niobium thin film deposition studies on copper surfaces for superconducting radio frequency cavity applications  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Thin film coatings have the potential to increase both the thermal efficiency and accelerating gradient in superconducting radio frequency accelerator cavities. However, before this potential can be realized, systematic studies on structure-property correlations in these thin films need to be carried out since the reduced geometry, combined with specific growth parameters, can modify the physical properties of the materials when compared to their bulk form. Here, we present our systematic studies of Nb thin films deposited onto Cu surfaces to clarify possible reasons for the limited success that this process exhibited in previous attempts. We compare these films with Nb grown on other surfaces. In particular, we study the crystal structure and surface morphology and their effect on superconducting properties, such as critical temperature and lower critical field. We found that higher deposition temperature leads to a sharper critical temperature transition, but also to increased roughness indicating that there are competing mechanisms that must be considered for further optimization.

W. M. Roach, D. B. Beringer, J. R. Skuza, W. A. Oliver, C. Clavero, C. E. Reece, R. A. Lukaszew

2012-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

230

Research District Seeing Growth  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Monthly economic diversity column for the Tri-City Herald (May 2012) - excerpt follows: It’s been a while since I’ve updated you on the Tri-Cities Research District, most certainly not for lack of new activity over the past several months. In fact, much has happened, and there’s more to come. I think many of us see new land development and construction as indicative of current or impending economic growth. So those of you who have ventured into North Richland either via Stevens Drive or George Washington Way lately have probably begun sensing and anticipating that such growth is afoot.

Madison, Alison L.

2012-05-13T23:59:59.000Z

231

Deposition of TiN and HfO{sub 2} in a commercial 200 mm remote plasma atomic layer deposition reactor  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The authors describe a remote plasma atomic layer deposition reactor (Oxford Instruments FlexAL trade mark sign ) that includes an inductively coupled plasma source and a load lock capable of handling substrates up to 200 mm in diameter. The deposition of titanium nitride (TiN) and hafnium oxide (HfO{sub 2}) is described for the combination of the metal-halide precursor TiCl{sub 4} and H{sub 2}-N{sub 2} plasma and the combination of the metallorganic precursor Hf[N(CH{sub 3})(C{sub 2}H{sub 5})]{sub 4} and O{sub 2} plasma, respectively. The influence of the plasma exposure time and substrate temperature has been studied and compositional, structural, and electrical properties are reported. TiN films with a low Cl impurity content were obtained at 350 deg. C at a growth rate of 0.35 A /cycle with an electrical resistivity as low as 150 {mu}{omega} cm. Carbon-free (detection limit <2 at. %) HfO{sub 2} films were obtained at a growth rate of 1.0 A /cycle at 290 deg. C. The thickness and resisitivity nonuniformity was <5% for the TiN and the thickness uniformality was <2% for the HfO{sub 2} films as determined over 200 mm wafers.

Heil, S. B. S.; Hemmen, J. L. van; Hodson, C. J.; Singh, N.; Klootwijk, J. H.; Roozeboom, F.; Sanden, M. C. M. van de; Kessels, W. M. M. [Department of Applied Physics, Eindhoven University of Technology, P.O. Box 513, 5600 MB Eindhoven (Netherlands); Oxford Instruments Plasma Technology, North End, Yatton BS49 4AP (United Kingdom); Philips Research Laboratories, High Tech Campus 4, 5656 AE Eindhoven (Netherlands); NXP Semiconductors Research, High Tech Campus 4, 5656 AE Eindhoven (Netherlands); Department of Applied Physics, Eindhoven University of Technology, P.O. Box 513, 5600 MB Eindhoven (Netherlands)

2007-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

232

Low Temperature Direct Growth of Graphene Films on Transparent Substrates by Chemical Vapor Deposition  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

graphene in fields like electronics and optoelectronics.useful for electronics, optoelectronics and photovoltaic

Antoine, Geoffrey Sandosh Jeffy

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

233

Control of carbon nanotube growth directions and morphology by direct current plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Pierard, A. Fonseca, Z. Konya, I. Willems, G. Van Tendeloo,D. Mehn, G. Galbaes, Z. Konya, I. Kiricsi, Catal. Today 76,

AuBuchon, Joseph Francis

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

234

Underpotential Deposition-Mediated Layer-by-Layer Growth of Thin Films -  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmosphericNuclear SecurityTensile Strain Switched Ferromagnetism in Layeredof2014National Nuclear23, 2014 Meetingsays | ArgonneEnergy

235

Reactive Ballistic Deposition of Porous TiO2 Films: Growth and  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmosphericNuclear Security Administration the1 -the Mid-Infrared at 278, 298, andEpidermalOxide Fuel Cells - Energy

236

Reactive Growth of Nanoscale MgO Films by Mg Atom Deposition onto O2  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmosphericNuclear Security Administration the1 -the Mid-Infrared at 278, 298, andEpidermalOxide Fuel Cells -

237

Supercritical Fluid Immersion Deposition: A New Process for Selective Deposition of Metal Films on Silicon Substrates  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Supercritical CO2 is used as a new solvent for immersion deposition, a galvanic displacement process traditionally carried out in aqueous HF solutions containing metal ions, to selectively develop metal films on featured or non-featured silicon substrates. Components of supercritical fluid immersion deposition (SFID) solutions for fabricating Cu and Pd films on silicon substrates are described along with the corresponding experimental setup and procedure. Only silicon substrates exposed and reactive to SFID solutions can be coated. The highly pressurized and gas-like supercritical CO2, combined with the galvanic displacement property of immersion deposition, enables the SFID technique to selectively deposit metal films in small features. SFID may also provide a new method to fabricate palladium silicide in small features or to metallize porous silicon.

Ye, Xiangrong; Wai, Chien M.; Lin, Yuehe; Young, James S.; Engelhard, Mark H.

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

238

Growth of CdTe Films on Amorphous Substrates Using CaF2 Nanorods as a Buffer Layer  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Growth of CdTe Films on Amorphous Substrates Using CaF2 Nanorods as a Buffer Layer NICHOLAS LICAUSI biaxially textured CdTe films were grown on biaxial CaF2 buffer layers. The CaF2 nanorods were grown by oblique angle vapor deposition and possessed a {111}h121i biaxial texture. The CdTe film was deposited

Wang, Gwo-Ching

239

Growth & Development / Parental Care  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

participate; if one parents is lost, fledging rates usually drop #12;Winkler reduced clutch size from 5 to 3Growth & Development / Parental Care #12;Embryonic Development Although the sequence of 42 stages the egg The hatching muscle helps the chick break out of the egg Parents typically dispose of the egg

Butler, Christopher J.

240

Controlling Atomic Layer Deposition of TiO2 in Aerogels through Surface Functionalization  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report demonstrates a chemical functionalization method for controlling atomic layer deposition (ALD) of TiO{sub 2} in low-density nanoporous materials. Functionalization of silica aerogel with trimethylsilane is shown to strongly suppress TiO{sub 2} growth via ALD. Subsequent modification of the functionalization through selective removal of the hydrocarbon groups reactivates the aerogel towards TiO{sub 2} deposition. These results demonstrate the potential use of ALD as a selective tool for creating novel nanoporous materials. Nanoporous materials present significant technological advantage for a wide range of applications, including catalysis, energy storage and conversion, nanoelectronics to name just a few (1-4). Hence, there is considerable interest in developing synthetic pathways for the fabrication of nanoporous materials with tailored properties. Aerogels (AGs) are unique low-density, open-cell porous materials consisting of submicrometer pores and ligaments that can be used as a robust material platform for designing novel nanoporous materials. In recent years, a synthetic approach based on ALD on AG templates has emerged as a promising method for the directed growth of nanoporous materials (5-11, 18). This approach has been used successfully to prepare millimeter-sized high aspect ratio aerogels coated uniformly with zinc oxide (ZnO), tungsten (W) and alumina (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) (10, 11). The ALD process utilizes two sequential, self-limiting surface reactions resulting in a layer-by-layer growth mode. The self limiting nature of the surface reactions makes ALD a particularly suitable technique for uniform deposition onto high aspect ratio porous substrates. Additionally, chemical specificity of the surface reactions in ALD enables one to control the deposition process through selective functionalization of the substrate surface. In fact the functionalization of planar substrates such as silicon wafers with organosilane groups (R{sub n}SiX{sub 4-n} (n = 1-3)) has been shown to deactivate the substrate towards ZrO{sub 2}, HfO{sub 2}, ZnO, and TiO{sub 2} ALD processes (12-16). A possible mechanism for the deactivation effect is the blocking of surface functional groups, such as hydroxyl (OH) moieties, which serve as chemisorption sites for the ALD precursors and hence are essential for nucleating the deposition process. Henceforth, we shall refer to these surface functional groups as nucleation sites for the ALD process.

Ghosal, S; Baumann, T F; King, J S; Kucheyev, S; Wang, Y; Worsley, M A; Biener, J; Bent, S F; Hamza, A V

2009-03-09T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "deposition growth cxs" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

All graphene electromechanical switch fabricated by chemical vapor deposition  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We demonstrate an electromechanical switch comprising two polycrystalline graphene films; each deposited using ambient pressure chemical vapor deposition. The top film is pulled into electrical contact with the bottom film ...

Milaninia, Kaveh M.

242

Aeolian depositional landforms of the south eastern Mojave Desert, California  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Remote sensing and photo interpretation techniques are used to describe and map aeolian deposits found along two sediment transport corridors in the south eastern Mojave Desert. The first pathway and associated sand deposits extend eastward from...

Alvis, William Thomas

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

243

Geochemical and sedimentological investigations of Youngest Toba Tuff ashfall deposits  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

sedimentological structures and geometry ...................................................... 90 5.5 Discussion .......................................................................................................................... 91 5.5.1 The local... ..................................................... 97 5.6 Conclusion ......................................................................................................................... 97 CHAPTER 6. DEPOSITIONAL PROCESSES AND SEDIMENTOLOGY OF YTT DEPOSITS IN THE LENGGONG VALLEY, MALAYSIA...

Gatti, Emma

2013-03-12T23:59:59.000Z

244

amyloid deposition limits: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Summary: 1 Title page. Title: Subjective cognition and amyloid deposition imaging. A PiB PET study in normal-beta (A) deposition, imaged with 11 C-Pittsburg compound B (PiB) -...

245

Crater ice deposits near the south pole of Mars  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Layered deposits atop both Martian poles are thought to preserve a record of past climatic conditions in up to three km of water ice and dust. Just beyond the extent of these south polar layered deposits (SPLD), dozens of ...

Westbrook, Owen William

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

246

Plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposition of silicon dioxide films using plasma-activated triisopropylsilane as a precursor  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposition (PEALD) process was developed as a growth technique of SiO{sub 2} thin films using a plasma-activated triisopropylsilane [TIPS, ((iPr){sub 3}SiH)] precursor. TIPS was activated by an argon plasma at the precursor injection stage of the process. Using the activated TIPS, it was possible to control the growth rate per cycle of the deposited films by adjusting the plasma ignition time. The PEALD technique allowed deposition of SiO{sub 2} films at temperatures as low as 50?°C without carbon impurities. In addition, films obtained with plasma ignition times of 3?s and 10?s had similar values of root-mean-square surface roughness. In order to evaluate the suitability of TIPS as a precursor for low-temperature deposition of SiO{sub 2} films, the vapor pressure of TIPS was measured. The thermal stability and the reactivity of the gas-phase TIPS with respect to water vapor were also investigated by analyzing the intensity changes of the C–H and Si–H peaks in the Fourier-transform infrared spectrum of TIPS.

Jeon, Ki-Moon [Vacuum Center, Division of Industrial Metrology, Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science (KRISS), Daejeon 305-340, South Korea and Department of Advanced Materials Engineering, Dae Jeon University, Daejeon 300-716 (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Jae-Su [Department of Advanced Materials Engineering, Dae Jeon University, Daejeon 300-716 (Korea, Republic of); Yun, Ju-Young [Vacuum Center, Division of Industrial Metrology, Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science (KRISS), Daejeon 305-340, South Korea and Department of Nano and Bio Surface Science, University of Science and Technology (UST), Daejeon 305-333 (Korea, Republic of); Jun Lee, Sang [Center of Nanomaterials Characterization, Division of Industrial Metrology, Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science (KRISS), Daejeon 305-340, South Korea and Department of Nano Science, University of Science and Technology (UST), Daejeon 305-333 (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Sang-Woo, E-mail: swkang@kriss.re.kr [Vacuum Center, Division of Industrial Metrology, Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science (KRISS), Daejeon 305-340, South Korea and Department of Advanced Device Technology, University of Science and Technology (UST), Daejeon 305-333 (Korea, Republic of)

2014-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

247

Site control technique for quantum dots using electron beam induced deposition  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

To develop simple and high throughput sit definition technique for quantum dots (QDs), the electron beam induced deposition (EBID) method was used as desorption guide of phosphorus atoms form InP substrate. As the results one or a few indium (In) droplets (DLs) were created in the carbon grid pattern by thermal annealing at a temperature of 450°C for 10 min in the ultra high vacuum condition. The size of In DLs was larger than QDs, but arsenide DLs by molecular beam in growth chamber emitted wavelength of 1.028?m at 50K by photoluminescence measurement.

Iizuka, Kanji; Jung, JaeHun; Yokota, Hiroshi [Nippon Institute of Technology, 4-1 Gakuendai, Miyashiro, Minami-saitama, Saitama 3458501 (Japan)

2014-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

248

amorphous carbon deposited: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

The contamination was believed 2 NICKELHYDROGENATED AMORPHOUS CARBON COMPOSITE FILMS DEPOSITED IN ACETYLENEARGON MICROWAVE PLASMA DISCHARGE CiteSeer Summary:...

249

Formation of amorphous metal alloys by chemical vapor deposition  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Amorphous alloys are deposited by a process of thermal dissociation of mixtures or organometallic compounds and metalloid hydrides, e.g., transition metal carbonyl such as nickel carbonyl, and diborane. Various sizes and shapes of deposits can be achieved, including near-net-shape free standing articles, multilayer deposits, and the like. Manipulation or absence of a magnetic field affects the nature and the structure of the deposit.

Mullendore, Arthur W. (Sandia Park, NM)

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

250

ON OIL SHALE MINING IN THE ESTONIA DEPOSIT  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

age) cut the Estonian oil shale-kukersite deposits. Two younger groups of structures are typical fault

K. Sokman; V. Kattai; R. Vaher; Y. J. Systra

251

Thin film deposition of barium strontium oxide by rf magnetron sputtering  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Barium strontium oxide [(BaSr)O] thin films approximately 1 {mu}m in thickness were deposited on tungsten substrates using rf magnetron sputter deposition for thermionic cathode applications. Three substrate temperatures ranging from 25 to 700 deg. C were used in the deposition processes to create oxide films with different surface morphologies and crystalline structures. The films were characterized with scanning electron microscopy and their surface morphologies were correlated to their thermionic emission properties. The results showed that the surface morphology and crystalline structure of the oxide films strongly affected the emission properties. The oxide film deposited at the lowest substrate temperature of 25 deg. C showed a rough surface and a crystalline structure consisting of nanograins. At higher substrate temperatures, the oxide films exhibited smooth surfaces and close-packed crystalline structures with larger grains. The work function of the oxide films was reduced and the emission current density increased as a result of the increase in the growth temperature. The (BaSr)O film made at 700 deg. C exhibited the lowest work function of 1.57 eV and the largest emission current density of 1.60 A/cm{sup 2} at 1198 K under an electrical field of 0.88 V/{mu}m. The emission current density and the work function of the (BaSr)O thin film cathodes were stable over the testing period of 8 h. Compared to the traditional cathode fabrication process, which involves the coating of carbonates followed by an activation process, rf magnetron sputtering has a greater ability to control the deposition parameters, which makes it a valuable alternative technique to fabricate oxide cathodes.

Liu Yan; Day, Christopher M.; Little, Scott A.; Jin, Feng [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Ball State University, Muncie, Indiana 47306 (United States)

2006-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

252

Nanoparticle growth Controlled Growth of Platinum Nanoparticles on Strontium  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Nanoparticle growth Controlled Growth of Platinum Nanoparticles on Strontium Titanate Nanocubes nanoparticles platinum strontium titanate X-ray analysis 750 Ã? 2009 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGa

Poeppelmeier, Kenneth R.

253

Surface acoustic wave dust deposition monitor  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A system is disclosed for using the attenuation of surface acoustic waves to monitor real time dust deposition rates on surfaces. The system includes a signal generator, a tone-burst generator/amplifier connected to a transmitting transducer for converting electrical signals into acoustic waves. These waves are transmitted through a path defining means adjacent to a layer of dust and then, in turn, transmitted to a receiving transducer for changing the attenuated acoustic wave to electrical signals. The signals representing the attenuated acoustic waves may be amplified and used in a means for analyzing the output signals to produce an output indicative of the dust deposition rates and/or values of dust in the layer. 8 figs.

Fasching, G.E.; Smith, N.S. Jr.

1988-02-12T23:59:59.000Z

254

Paraffin deposition in offshore oil production  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

PARAFFIN DEPOSITION IN OFFSHORE OIL PRODUCTION A Thesis by G E R A L D M A S O N E L P H I N G S T O N E J R . Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A & M Univers i ty in part ial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree... of M A S T E R O F S C I E N C E May 1995 Major Subject: Chemica l Engineering PARAFFIN DEPOSITION IN OFFSHORE OIL PRODUCTION A Thesis by G E R A L D M A S O N E L P H I N G S T O N E J R . Submitted to Texas A & M University in part ial...

Elphingstone, Gerald Mason

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

255

Electrophoretically-deposited solid film lubricants  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An aqueous-based process that uses electrophoresis to attract powdered lubricant in suspension to a charged target was developed. The deposition process yields coatings with low friction, complies with environmental safety regulations, requires minimal equipment, and has several advantages over processes involving organic binders or vacuum techniques. This work focuses on development of the deposition process, includes an analysis of the friction coefficient of the material in sliding contact with stainless steel under a range of conditions, and a functional evaluation of coating performance in a precision mechanical device application. Results show that solid lubricant films with friction coefficients as low as 0.03 can be produced. A 0.03 friction coefficient is superior to solid lubricants with binder systems and is comparable to friction coefficients generated with more costly vacuum techniques.

Dugger, M.T.; Panitz, J.K.J.; Vanecek, C.W.

1995-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

256

Electrostatic force assisted deposition of graphene  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An embodiment of a method of depositing graphene includes bringing a stamp into contact with a substrate over a contact area. The stamp has at least a few layers of the graphene covering the contact area. An electric field is developed over the contact area. The stamp is removed from the vicinity of the substrate which leaves at least a layer of the graphene substantially covering the contact area.

Liang, Xiaogan (Berkeley, CA)

2011-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

257

Apparatus and method for photochemical vapor deposition  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A photochemical vapor deposition apparatus includes a reactor housing having a window in one wall above a reaction chamber in the housing. A transparent curtain divides the reaction chamber into a reaction zone and a flush zone. At least one substrate is mounted in the reaction zone in light communication with the window so that ultraviolet radiation may penetrate through the window into the reaction zone. The window is kept clear by a gas flowing through the flush zone.

Jackson, Scott C. (Wilmington, DE); Rocheleau, Richard E. (Wilmington, DE)

1987-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

258

Stationary phase deposition based on onium salts  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Onium salt chemistry can be used to deposit very uniform thickness stationary phases on the wall of a gas chromatography column. In particular, the stationary phase can be bonded to non-silicon based columns, especially microfabricated metal columns. Non-silicon microfabricated columns may be manufactured and processed at a fraction of the cost of silicon-based columns. In addition, the method can be used to phase-coat conventional capillary columns or silicon-based microfabricated columns.

Wheeler, David R. (Albuquerque, NM); Lewis, Patrick R. (Albuquerque, NM); Dirk, Shawn M. (Albuquerque, NM); Trudell, Daniel E. (Albuquerque, NM)

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

259

Hydrothermally Deposited Rock | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFranconia, Virginia: Energy Resources Jump to: navigation,Ohio:GreerHiCalifornia: Energythe Second Workshop onDeposited Rock Jump to:

260

Monday, March 12, 2007 MARS POLAR LAYERED DEPOSITS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

acquired a unique dataset over the north polar layered deposits and residual ices. Here, we reviewMonday, March 12, 2007 MARS POLAR LAYERED DEPOSITS 2:30 p.m. Marina Plaza Ballroom Chairs: R. J. Phillips J. J. Plaut 2:30 p.m. Tanaka K. L. * North Polar Layered Deposits on Mars as Revealed by Hi

Rathbun, Julie A.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "deposition growth cxs" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Simple approaches for measuring dry atmospheric nitrogen deposition to watersheds  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

'' and spatial variations of gaseous dry N deposition (i.e., nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and ammonia (NH3)), thoughSimple approaches for measuring dry atmospheric nitrogen deposition to watersheds Heather E. Golden the effects of atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition on surface water quality requires accurate accounts

Elliott, Emily M.

262

UNIVERSITY of CALIFORNIA ATOMIC LAYER DEPOSITION OF ALUMINUM OXIDE  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

UNIVERSITY of CALIFORNIA SANTA CRUZ ATOMIC LAYER DEPOSITION OF ALUMINUM OXIDE A thesis submitted deposition (ALD) of aluminum oxide on crystalline silicon and anodized aluminum substrates. A homemade ALD system is used with trimethylaluminum (TMA) and water as precursors to deposit uniform aluminum oxide

Belanger, David P.

263

ISSN 1745-9648 Synchronisation and Staggering of Deposit  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Working Paper 07-14 Abstract: This study examines the frequency and form of deposit account interest rateISSN 1745-9648 Synchronisation and Staggering of Deposit Account Interest Rate Changes by John K change. Specifically, the question of whether deposit interest rate change is synchronised with other

Feigon, Brooke

264

Chemical deposition methods using supercritical fluid solutions  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method for depositing a film of a desired material on a substrate comprises dissolving at least one reagent in a supercritical fluid comprising at least one solvent. Either the reagent is capable of reacting with or is a precursor of a compound capable of reacting with the solvent to form the desired product, or at least one additional reagent is included in the supercritical solution and is capable of reacting with or is a precursor of a compound capable of reacting with the first reagent or with a compound derived from the first reagent to form the desired material. The supercritical solution is expanded to produce a vapor or aerosol and a chemical reaction is induced in the vapor or aerosol so that a film of the desired material resulting from the chemical reaction is deposited on the substrate surface. In an alternate embodiment, the supercritical solution containing at least one reagent is expanded to produce a vapor or aerosol which is then mixed with a gas containing at least one additional reagent. A chemical reaction is induced in the resulting mixture so that a film of the desired material is deposited.

Sievers, Robert E. (Boulder, CO); Hansen, Brian N. (Boulder, CO)

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

265

An atomic layer deposition reactor with dose quantification for precursor adsorption and reactivity studies  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An atomic layer deposition reactor has been constructed with quantitative, precision dose control for studying precursor adsorption characteristics and to relate dose quantity and exposure dynamics to fluid flow in both the viscous and molecular flow regimes. A fixed volume of gas, held at a controlled temperature and measured pressure, is dosed into the reaction chamber by computer-controlled pneumatic valves. Dual in situ quartz crystal microbalances provide parallel mass measurement onto two differently coated substrates, which allows adsorption coverage and relative sticking coefficients to be determined. Gas composition in the reaction chamber was analyzed in situ by a quadrupole mass spectrometer. Absolute reactant exposure is unambiguously calculated from the impingement flux, and is related to dose, surface area, and growth rates. A range of control over the dose amount is demonstrated and consequences for film growth control are demonstrated and proposed.

Larrabee, T. J.; Mallouk, T. E.; Allara, D. L. [Department of Chemistry, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania 16802 (United States)

2013-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

266

Small Enterprise Growth Fund (Maine)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The Small Enterprise Growth Fund is a professionally-managed venture capital fund that invests in Maine companies which demonstrate high potential for growth and public benefit. The fund has...

267

Effects of copper deposition on boiler waterside surfaces  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The relative importance of metal oxide corrosion products in waterside deposits, as opposed to traditional scale-forming constituents, is discussed, and the sources of copper and copper oxide boiler deposits are reviewed. Also reviewed are explanations of some of the problems associated with the presence of deposits and especially, copper-containing deposits. These include those due to a reduction in heat transfer and tube metal overheating, as well as various corrosion mechanisms. Case histories, which illustrate certain deleterious mechanisms due to the presence of such deposition, are also presented.

Wangerin, M.C.; Rondum, K.D. [Ashland Chemical Co., Boonton, NJ (United States)

1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

268

Electrochemical investigations of product deposition and dissolution of the reduced forms of alkyl viologens on glassy carbon  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The reductions of several alkyl viologens in aqueous solutions at a glassy carbon working electrode were investigated. All of the viologens studied exist as colorless dication salts (V[sup 2+]) which are easily reduced to the violet cation radical (V[sup +.]) by a one electron process. The dications can be reduced directly to the yellow-brown, quinoidal neutral species (V[sup 0]) by a two electron process, or to neutral via the cation radical by two successive one electron transfers. In the absence of sodium n-alkyl sulfates, all but one displayed reversible, diffusion-controlled electron transfers for the V[sup 2+]/V[sup +.] couple. With addition of sodium decyl, undecyl and dodecyl sulfates at concentrations below their critical micelle concentrations (cmc), the cation radical product of methyl and ethyl viologen deposits on the electrode surface. The addition of these surfactants at concentrations below their cmc's precipitated the dicationic species of butyl, benzyl, and heptyl viologens. All redox forms of the viologens are solubilized by the onset of micelles. Double potential step chronocoulometry showed the deposition mechanism to be governed by solubility product equilibria. Open-circuit rotating ring-disk electrode (OC-RRDE) voltammetric experiments revealed that two forms of deposit exist. Above the cmc, little or no deposition of neutral forms occurs as V[sup 0] is solubilized in the hydrocarbon interior of the micelles. Cyclic voltammetric investigations revealed that there are also two forms of deposit for neutral viologens. For heptyl viologen, there may be more than two forms of both the V[sup +.] and V[sup 0] deposits. Deposition of the neutral form is governed by nucleation and subsequent growth. From RRDE voltammetry lower limits of solubility of neutral viologens were estimated. OC-RRDE voltammetric experiments showed that dissolution occurred by extremely fast conproportionation reaction which caused the process to be mass-transfer controlled.

Engelman, E.E.

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

269

Graphene Monolayer Rotation on Ni(111) Facilities Bilayer Graphene Growth  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Synthesis of bilayer graphene by chemical vapor deposition is of importance for graphene-based field effect devices. Here, we demonstrate that bilayer graphene preferentially grows by carbon-segregation under graphene sheets that are rotated relative to a Ni(111) substrate. Rotated graphene monolayer films can be synthesized at growth temperatures above 650 C on a Ni(111) thin-film. The segregated second graphene layer is in registry with the Ni(111) substrate and this suppresses further C-segregation, effectively self-limiting graphene formation to two layers.

Batzill M.; Sutter P.; Dahal, A.; Addou, R.

2012-06-11T23:59:59.000Z

270

Modeling precursor diffusion and reaction of atomic layer deposition in porous structures  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Atomic layer deposition (ALD) is a technique for depositing thin films of materials with a precise thickness control and uniformity using the self-limitation of the underlying reactions. Usually, it is difficult to predict the result of the ALD process for given external parameters, e.g., the precursor exposure time or the size of the precursor molecules. Therefore, a deeper insight into ALD by modeling the process is needed to improve process control and to achieve more economical coatings. In this paper, a detailed, microscopic approach based on the model developed by Yanguas-Gil and Elam is presented and additionally compared with the experiment. Precursor diffusion and second-order reaction kinetics are combined to identify the influence of the porous substrate's microstructural parameters and the influence of precursor properties on the coating. The thickness of the deposited film is calculated for different depths inside the porous structure in relation to the precursor exposure time, the precursor vapor pressure, and other parameters. Good agreement with experimental results was obtained for ALD zirconiumdioxide (ZrO{sub 2}) films using the precursors tetrakis(ethylmethylamido)zirconium and O{sub 2}. The derivation can be adjusted to describe other features of ALD processes, e.g., precursor and reactive site losses, different growth modes, pore size reduction, and surface diffusion.

Keuter, Thomas, E-mail: t.keuter@fz-juelich.de; Menzler, Norbert Heribert; Mauer, Georg; Vondahlen, Frank; Vaßen, Robert; Buchkremer, Hans Peter [Forschungszentrum Jülich, Institute of Energy and Climate Research (IEK-1), 52425 Jülich (Germany)

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

271

Sandia National Laboratories: atomic layer deposition  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmosphericNuclear Security Administration the1development Sandia, NREL Release Wavearc-fault circuitatomic layer deposition

272

The effects of surface contamination on the biaxially textured substrate for YBCO thick film deposition  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The epitaxial growth of YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7{minus}x} (YBCO) films on biaxially textured substrates is one of the most promising technique for the fabrication of high current superconducting tapes operating at high temperature. Ni is very attractive as substrate because it easily develops a/ (100)[001] cubic texture. The low oxidation resistance represents the main drawback of the Ni substrate. In order to better assess the role of oxygen on the Ni substrates, a surface physics technique as Auger spectroscopy has been used. It has allowed to evaluate the amount of impurities for different Ni processing and exposure to the air. The results demonstrate that the surface contamination can be efficiently removed by RF sputtering before buffer layer deposition. This procedure allows to obtain CeO{sub 2}/Pd/Ni architecture by laser ablation with a good epitaxy both of Pd and CeO{sub 2} films. On the contrary, when CeO{sub 2} is directly deposited on Ni a low epitaxy is obtained. The Auger analysis confirms that the formation of (111) NiO at the Ni-CeO{sub 2} interface hampers the epitaxial growth of the ceria film.

Apicella, M.L.; Boffa, V.; Celentano, G.; Fabbri, F.; Petrisor, T. [ENEA Centro Ricerche Frascati, Rome (Italy)] [ENEA Centro Ricerche Frascati, Rome (Italy)

1999-04-20T23:59:59.000Z

273

Step-coverage simulation for tetraethoxysilane and ozone atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A simulation model for atmospheric pressure (AP) CVD has bee developed using one-dimensional diffusion and mass conservation equations. The model was applied to trench step-coverage of the tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) and O[sub 3] CVD, in which it was not necessary to consider lateral diffusion because of narrow (and deep) trenches. For nondoped silicate glass (NSG), the step-coverage of a 4.5 aspect ratio trench showed a good fit if a sticking probability of 0.0039 was assumed for the 0.6% ozone (in oxygen) deposition and of 0.0026 for the 6% ozone deposition (both 400 C). The reaction rate constant was compared with the diffusion mass-transfer coefficient, and the reaction proved to be limited by diffusion of the reactant, TEOS, which directly participated in the CVD reaction. For the 2 m/o phosphosilicate glass (PSG) step-coverage, which had a slight overhang, the model matched the obtained results well only when an active growth species with a high sticking probability of 1.0 was added to the growth species of nondoped oxide. This analytical simulation method satisfactorily explains the experimental data.

Fujino, K. (Semiconductor Process Lab., Toyko (Japan)); Egashira, Y.; Shimogaki, Y.; Komiyama, H. (Univ. of Tokyo, (Japan). Dept. of Chemical Engineering)

1993-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

274

Tuning the properties of Ge-quantum dots superlattices in amorphous silica matrix through deposition conditions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this work, we investigate the structural properties of Ge quantum dot lattices in amorphous silica matrix, prepared by low-temperature magnetron sputtering deposition of (Ge+SiO{sub 2})/SiO{sub 2} multilayers. The dependence of quantum dot shape, size, separation, and arrangement type on the Ge-rich (Ge + SiO{sub 2}) layer thickness is studied. We show that the quantum dots are elongated along the growth direction, perpendicular to the multilayer surface. The size of the quantum dots and their separation along the growth direction can be tuned by changing the Ge-rich layer thickness. The average value of the quantum dots size along the lateral (in-plane) direction along with their lateral separation is not affected by the thickness of the Ge-rich layer. However, the thickness of the Ge-rich layer significantly affects the quantum dot ordering. In addition, we investigate the dependence of the multilayer average atomic composition and also the quantum dot crystalline quality on the deposition parameters.

Pinto, S. R. C.; Ramos, M. M. D.; Gomes, M. J. M. [University of Minho, Centre of Physics and Physics Department, Braga 4710-057 (Portugal); Buljan, M. [Ruder Boskovic Institute, Bijenicka cesta 54, Zagreb 10000 (Croatia); Chahboun, A. [University of Minho, Centre of Physics and Physics Department, Braga 4710-057 (Portugal); Physics Department, FST Tanger, Tanger BP 416 (Morocco); Roldan, M. A.; Molina, S. I. [Departamento de Ciencia de los Materiales e Ing. Metalurgica y Q. I., Universidad de Cadiz, Cadiz (Spain); Bernstorff, S. [Sincrotrone Trieste, SS 14 km163, 5, Basovizza 34012 (Italy); Varela, M.; Pennycook, S. J. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States); Barradas, N. P.; Alves, E. [Instituto Superior Tecnico e Instituto Tecnologico e Nuclear-, EN10, Sacavem 2686-953 (Portugal)

2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

275

Tuning the properties of Ge-quantum dots superlattices in amorphous silica matrix through deposition conditions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this work, we investigate the structural properties of Ge quantum dot lattices in amorphous silica matrix, prepared by low-temperature magnetron sputtering deposition of (Ge+SiO{sub 2})/SiO{sub 2} multilayers. The dependence of quantum dot shape, size, separation, and arrangement type on the Ge-rich (Ge + SiO{sub 2}) layer thickness is studied. We show that the quantum dots are elongated along the growth direction, perpendicular to the multilayer surface. The size of the quantum dots and their separation along the growth direction can be tuned by changing the Ge-rich layer thickness. The average value of the quantum dots size along the lateral (in-plane) direction along with their lateral separation is not affected by the thickness of the Ge-rich layer. However, the thickness of the Ge-rich layer significantly affects the quantum dot ordering. In addition, we investigate the dependence of the multilayer average atomic composition and also the quantum dot crystalline quality on the deposition parameters.

Pinto, S. [University of Minho, Portugal; Roldan Gutierrez, Manuel A [ORNL; Ramos, M. M.D. [University of Minho, Portugal; Gomes, M.J.M. [University of Minho, Portugal; Molina, S. I. [Universidad de Cadiz, Spain; Pennycook, Stephen J [ORNL; Varela del Arco, Maria [ORNL; Buljan, M. [R. Boskovic Institute, Zagreb, Croatia; Barradas, N. [Instituto Tecnologico e Nuclear (ITN), Lisbon, Portugal; Alves, E. [Instituto Tecnologico e Nuclear (ITN), Lisbon, Portugal; Chahboun, A. [FST Tanger, Morocco; Bernstorff, S. [Sincrotrone Trieste, Basovizza, Italy

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

276

Regional companies eye growth  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsrucLas ConchasPassive Solar HomePromising ScienceRecentRegional companies eye growth Regional

277

Growth, microstructure, and luminescent  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth7-1D: Vegetation ProposedUsingFun with Big Sky LearningGetGraphene'sEMSL barium oxideGrowth,

278

Roll-to-roll atomic layer deposition process for flexible electronics encapsulation applications  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

At present flexible electronic devices are under extensive development and, among them, flexible organic light-emitting diode displays are the closest to a large market deployment. One of the remaining unsolved challenges is high throughput production of impermeable flexible transparent barrier layers that protect sensitive light-emitting materials against ambient moisture. The present studies deal with the adaptation of the atomic layer deposition (ALD) process to high-throughput roll-to-roll production using the spatial ALD concept. We report the development of such a process for the deposition of 20?nm thickness Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} diffusion barrier layers on 500?mm wide polymer webs. The process uses trimethylaluminum and water as precursors at a substrate temperature of 105?°C. The observation of self-limiting film growth behavior and uniformity of thickness confirms the ALD growth mechanism. Water vapor transmission rates for 20?nm Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} films deposited on polyethylene naphthalate (PEN) substrates were measured as a function of substrate residence time, that is, time of exposure of the substrate to one precursor zone. Moisture permeation levels measured at 38?°C/90% relative humidity by coulometric isostatic–isobaric method were below the detection limit of the instrument (<5?×?10{sup ?4}?g/m{sup 2} day) for films coated at web moving speed of 0.25?m/min. Measurements using the Ca test indicated water vapor transmission rates ?5?×?10{sup ?6} g/m{sup 2} day. Optical measurements on the coated web showed minimum transmission of 80% in the visible range that is the same as the original PEN substrate.

Maydannik, Philipp S., E-mail: philipp.maydannik@lut.fi; Kääriäinen, Tommi O.; Lahtinen, Kimmo; Cameron, David C. [Advanced Surface Technology Research Laboratory, Lappeenranta University of Technology, Sammonkatu 12, 50130 Mikkeli (Finland); Söderlund, Mikko; Soininen, Pekka [Beneq Oy, P.O. Box 262, 01511 Vantaa (Finland); Johansson, Petri; Kuusipalo, Jurkka [Tampere University of Technology, Paper Converting and Packaging Technology, P.O. Box 589, 33101 Tampere (Finland); Moro, Lorenza; Zeng, Xianghui [Samsung Cheil Industries, San Jose R and D Center, 2186 Bering Drive, San Jose, California 95131 (United States)

2014-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

279

Growth faults and salt tectonics in Houston diapir province: relative timing and exploration significance  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Oil and gas accumulation in Gulf Coast Tertiary strata is contolled mainly by regional growth faults and by salt-related structures. Salt forms the most prominent set of structures in the Houston diapir province of southeast Texas. Recent work in three study areas shows that the Tertiary growth-fault trends, so well displayed along strike to the south-west, continue through this salt basin as well, but they have been deformed by later salt movement. In the Katy area, seismic data disclose early (pre-Wilcox) salt pillows downdip of the Cretaceous reef trend. Salt stocks were injected upward from the pillows during Clayborne deposition, and were flanked by deep withdrawal basins and turtle structures. In Brazoria County, a major lower Frio growth-fault trend affecting the Houston delta system, was deformed by later salt domes, by a salt-withdrawal basin, and by a possible turtle structure at Chocolate Bayou. A productive geopressured aquifer exists in the salt-withdrawal basin bounded by the previously formed growth faults. In Jefferson County, in contrast, salt-tectonic activity and growth faulting appear to have been coeval. Early salt-cored ridges continued to rise throughout Frio deposition; growth faults occur both updip and downdip. Hydrocarbons accumulated over the salt domes in growth-fault anticlines and in stratigraphic traps. Recognition that shelf-margin growth faulting preceded the development of the present pattern of domes and basins has important implications for hydrocarbon exploration. Growth faults may be migration paths for hydrocarbons; furthermore, early formed traps, distorted by salt movement, may still be found to contain hydrocarbons.

Ewing, T.E.

1983-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

280

Research on fundamental aspects of inorganic vapor and particle deposition in coal-fired systems. Quarterly technical report, December 6, 1991--March 5, 1992  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In September 1990 DOE-PETC initiated at the Yale HTCRE Laboratory a systematic three-year research program directed toward providing engineers with the fundamentally-based design/optimization ``tools`` foreconomically predicting the dynamics of net deposit growth, and thermophysical properties of the resulting microparticulate deposits in coal-fired systems. The goal of our research in the area of mineral mattertransport is to advance the capability of making reliable engineering predictions of the dynamics of net deposit growth for surfaces exposed to the particle-laden products of coal combustion. To accomplish thisfor a wide variety of combustor types, coal types, and operating conditions, this capability must be based on a quantitative understanding of each of the important mechanisms of mineral matter transport, as well as the nature of the interactions between these substances and the prevailing ``fireside`` surface of deposits. This level of understanding and predictive capability could be translated into very significant cost reductions for coal-fired equipment design, development and operation. It is also expected that this research activity will not only directly benefit the ash deposition R&D community -- but also generically closely related technologies of importance to DOE (e.g. hot-gas clean-up, particulate solids handling,...).

Rosner, D.E.

1992-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "deposition growth cxs" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

Mechanics of hydrogenated amorphous carbon deposits from electron-beam-induced deposition of a paraffin precursor  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, electron-energy-loss spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, secondary-ion-mass spectrometry, and nanoindentation approach employs the high surface energy of nanostructures. Cuenot et al.1 and Salvetat et al.2 used of hydrocarbon near the area where the EBID deposits were made. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy

282

Argentina: export-biased growth versus import-biased growth  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ARGENTINA. : EXPORT-BIASED GROWTH VERSUS IMPORT-BIASED GROWTH A Thesis by MICHAEL PAGE BRADLEY Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas AkM University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 1972... Major Subject: Economics ARGENTINA: EXPORT-BIASED GROWTH VERSUS IMPORT-BIASED GROWTH A Thesis by MICHAEL PAGE BRADLEY Approved as to style and content by: rman o omit ee ea o Depar men em er Mem er May 1&72 ABSTRACT Argentina: Export...

Bradley, Michael Page

1972-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

283

Nanostructure templating using low temperature atomic layer deposition  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Methods are described for making nanostructures that are mechanically, chemically and thermally stable at desired elevated temperatures, from nanostructure templates having a stability temperature that is less than the desired elevated temperature. The methods comprise depositing by atomic layer deposition (ALD) structural layers that are stable at the desired elevated temperatures, onto a template employing a graded temperature deposition scheme. At least one structural layer is deposited at an initial temperature that is less than or equal to the stability temperature of the template, and subsequent depositions made at incrementally increased deposition temperatures until the desired elevated temperature stability is achieved. Nanostructure templates include three dimensional (3D) polymeric templates having features on the order of 100 nm fabricated by proximity field nanopatterning (PnP) methods.

Grubbs, Robert K. (Albuquerque, NM); Bogart, Gregory R. (Corrales, NM); Rogers, John A. (Champaign, IL)

2011-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

284

Lognormal Size Distribution Theory for Deposition of Polydisperse Aerosol Particles  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The moments method of the lognormal size distribution theory was applied to the deposition equation of a radioactive aerosol within a liquid-metal fast breeder reactor for analysis of postulated accidents. The deposition coefficient of Crump and Seinfeld was utilized to represent the Brownian and turbulent diffusions and the gravitational sedimentation. The deposition equation was converted into a set of three ordinary differential equations. This approach takes the view point that the size distribution of an aerosol is represented by a time-dependent lognormal size distribution function during the deposition process. Numerical calculations have been performed, and the results were found to be in good agreement with the exact solution. The derived model for aerosol deposition is convenient to use in a numerical general dynamic equation solution routine based on the moments method, where nucleation, condensation, coagulation, and deposition need to be solved simultaneously.

Park, S.H.; Lee, K.W. [Kwangju Institute of Science and Technology (Korea, Republic of)

2000-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

285

Approaches to identifying reservoir heterogeneity and reserve growth opportunities from subsurface data: The Oficina Formation, Budare field, Venezuela  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We applied an integrated geologic, geophysical, and engineering approach devised to identify heterogeneities in the subsurface that might lead to reserve growth opportunities in our analysis of the Oficina Formation at Budare field, Venezuela. The approach involves 4 key steps: (1) Determine geologic reservoir architecture; (2) Investigate trends in reservoir fluid flow; (3) Integrate fluid flow trends with reservoir architecture; and (4) Estimate original oil-in-place, residual oil saturation, and remaining mobile oil, to identify opportunities for reserve growth. There are three main oil-producing reservoirs in the Oficina Formation that were deposited in a bed-load fluvial system, an incised valley-fill, and a barrier-strandplain system. Reservoir continuity is complex because, in addition to lateral facies variability, the major Oficina depositional systems were internally subdivided by high-frequency stratigraphic surfaces. These surfaces define times of intermittent lacustrine and marine flooding events that punctuated the fluvial and marginal marine sedimentation, respectively. Syn and post depositional faulting further disrupted reservoir continuity. Trends in fluid flow established from initial fluid levels, response to recompletion workovers, and pressure depletion data demonstrated barriers to lateral and vertical fluid flow caused by a combination of reservoir facies pinchout, flooding shale markers, and the faults. Considerable reserve growth potential exists at Budare field because the reservoir units are highly compartment by the depositional heterogeneity and structural complexity. Numerous reserve growth opportunities were identified in attics updip of existing production, in untapped or incompletely drained compartments, and in field extensions.

Hamilton, D.S.; Raeuchle, S.K.; Holtz, M.H. [Bureau of Economic Geology, Austin, TX (United States)] [and others

1997-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

286

Deposition method for producing silicon carbide high-temperature semiconductors  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An improved deposition method for producing silicon carbide high-temperature semiconductor material comprising placing a semiconductor substrate composed of silicon carbide in a fluidized bed silicon carbide deposition reactor, fluidizing the bed particles by hydrogen gas in a mildly bubbling mode through a gas distributor and heating the substrate at temperatures around 1200.degree.-1500.degree. C. thereby depositing a layer of silicon carbide on the semiconductor substrate.

Hsu, George C. (La Crescenta, CA); Rohatgi, Naresh K. (W. Corine, CA)

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

287

Robust Growth-Optimal Portfolios  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

May 24, 2014 ... Adopting standard terminology, we refer to the portfolio managed under the Kelly strategy as the growth-optimal portfolio. This portfolio displays ...

2014-05-24T23:59:59.000Z

288

aerosol dry deposition: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

43 Drying and deposition of poly(ethylene oxide) droplets determined by Pclet number Condensed Matter (arXiv) Summary: We report results of a detailed experimental...

289

atmospheric dry deposition: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

water vapor, and we confirm such predictions in a numerical model. There have been a number 38 Dual nitrate isotopes in dry deposition: Utility for partitioning NOx source...

290

ash formation deposition: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

deep-water depositional systems : the upper Miocene Upper Mount messenger formation, Taranaki Basin, New Zealand and Pliocene Repetto and Pico formations, Ventura Basin,...

291

advanced deposition processes: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

deep-water depositional systems : the upper Miocene Upper Mount messenger formation, Taranaki Basin, New Zealand and Pliocene Repetto and Pico formations, Ventura Basin,...

292

ash deposit formation: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

deep-water depositional systems : the upper Miocene Upper Mount messenger formation, Taranaki Basin, New Zealand and Pliocene Repetto and Pico formations, Ventura Basin,...

293

Deposition of dopant impurities and pulsed energy drive-in  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A semiconductor doping process which enhances the dopant incorporation achievable using the Gas Immersion Laser Doping (GILD) technique. The enhanced doping is achieved by first depositing a thin layer of dopant atoms on a semiconductor surface followed by exposure to one or more pulses from either a laser or an ion-beam which melt a portion of the semiconductor to a desired depth, thus causing the dopant atoms to be incorporated into the molten region. After the molten region recrystallizes the dopant atoms are electrically active. The dopant atoms are deposited by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) or other known deposition techniques.

Wickboldt, Paul (Walnut Creek, CA); Carey, Paul G. (Mountain View, CA); Smith, Patrick M. (San Jose, CA); Ellingboe, Albert R. (Malahide, IE)

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

294

Deposition of dopant impurities and pulsed energy drive-in  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A semiconductor doping process which enhances the dopant incorporation achievable using the Gas Immersion Laser Doping (GILD) technique. The enhanced doping is achieved by first depositing a thin layer of dopant atoms on a semiconductor surface followed by exposure to one or more pulses from either a laser or an ion-beam which melt a portion of the semiconductor to a desired depth, thus causing the dopant atoms to be incorporated into the molten region. After the molten region recrystallizes the dopant atoms are electrically active. The dopant atoms are deposited by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) or other known deposition techniques.

Wickboldt, Paul (Walnut Creek, CA); Carey, Paul G. (Mountain View, CA); Smith, Patrick M. (San Ramon, CA); Ellingboe, Albert R. (Fremont, CA)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

295

Electroless deposition of electrodes in solid-oxide fuel cells  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This study demonstrates the use of electroless deposition for depositing anode and cathode electrocatalysts in solid-oxide fuel cells (SOFC). Ni, Pd, and Ag films produced by electroless deposition techniques were in intimate contact with the electrolyte yttria-stabilized zirconia, and were found to catalyze SOFC anodic and cathodic reactions. Power densities of such cells were in the range of 0.33 W/cm[sup 2] at 800 C. The operating life is low due to agglomeration of the anode and densification of the cathode. For intermediate temperature/range SOFCs electroless deposition is an alternative technique for electrode preparation, if long-term stability can be attained.

Murphy, M.M.; Van Herle, J.; McEvoy, A.J.; Thampi, K.R. (Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne (Switzerland). Inst. de Chimie Physique)

1994-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

296

Surface Plasmon Mediated Chemical Solution Deposition of Gold...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

chemical deposition by using localized surface plasmon resonance (SPR) excitation. A molecular thermometry strategy was employed to investigate the SPR-mediated photothermal...

297

E-Print Network 3.0 - atmospherically deposited radionuclides...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

7 Be in rainwater. Atmospheric inputs of the radionuclides to Cumbria (UK) were recorded. Rainwater... ; lakes; radionuclide; deposition; history; modelling. Reference ... Source:...

298

Deposition of dopant impurities and pulsed energy drive-in  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A semiconductor doping process which enhances the dopant incorporation achievable using the Gas Immersion Laser Doping (GILD) technique is disclosed. The enhanced doping is achieved by first depositing a thin layer of dopant atoms on a semiconductor surface followed by exposure to one or more pulses from either a laser or an ion-beam which melt a portion of the semiconductor to a desired depth, thus causing the dopant atoms to be incorporated into the molten region. After the molten region recrystallizes the dopant atoms are electrically active. The dopant atoms are deposited by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) or other known deposition techniques. 2 figs.

Wickboldt, P.; Carey, P.G.; Smith, P.M.; Ellingboe, A.R.

1999-06-29T23:59:59.000Z

299

CFD Analysis of Particle Deposition During DPF Filtration Processes...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Processes CFD Analysis of Particle Deposition During DPF Filtration Processes A 3-D DPF model is developed to predict thermo-physical properties during filtration processes and to...

300

arc deposition system: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

preserve sufficient shielding that the peak power deposition everywhere in the superconduct- ing magnets requires an array of cryogenically cooled superconducting (SC) coils...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "deposition growth cxs" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

al films deposited: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

sputtering. Highly oriented, crack-free, stoichiometric polycrystalline rutile TiO2 thin film; RF magnetron sputtering; Phase transition; Deposition parameter effects 1....

302

alloy films deposited: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

memory alloy Elastic modulus Wrinkling Thermoelastic strain in a polycrystalline Fe-Pd thin film 50 High-resolution photometric optical monitoring for thin-film deposition...

303

assessing deposition levels: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

and testicular steroidogenesis Dolores J. Lamb; George M. Stancel 70 A Radon Progeny Deposition Model Nuclear Experiment (arXiv) Summary: The next generation...

304

atmospheric deposition operational: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

WSON fraction because, despite... Bentez, Juan Manuel Gonzlez 2010-01-01 123 A Radon Progeny Deposition Model Nuclear Experiment (arXiv) Summary: The next generation...

305

alluvial deposits: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

facies changes that result (more) Turner, Alexandre Marcel 2014-01-01 68 A Radon Progeny Deposition Model Nuclear Experiment (arXiv) Summary: The next generation...

306

adriatic sea deposition: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

has decreased by the increase in temperature. Ardakanian, Reza 2013-01-01 152 A Radon Progeny Deposition Model Nuclear Experiment (arXiv) Summary: The next generation...

307

alluvial deposits erzurum: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

facies changes that result (more) Turner, Alexandre Marcel 2014-01-01 68 A Radon Progeny Deposition Model Nuclear Experiment (arXiv) Summary: The next generation...

308

Loan/deposit links at rural Texas banks  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

: Agricultural Economics LOAN/DEPOSIT LINKS AT RURAL TEXAS RANKS A Thesis by VERA SURTON PODOLECKI Approved as to style and content by: fCha' an of Comm' ee) . '/ (Head' of Dep rtment) (Member ) (Membe May 1977 441'726 ABSTRACT Loan/Deposit Links... in agri- cultural lending on deposit level which in turn influences bank pro- fitability. This paper is directed towards providing the rural banker with tangible evidence of the effect of lending on deposit levels over time, and providing a...

Podolecki, Vera Burton

1977-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

309

Method and apparatus for electrospark deposition  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method and apparatus for controlling electrospark deposition (ESD) comprises using electrical variable waveforms from the ESD process as a feedback parameter. The method comprises measuring a plurality of peak amplitudes from a series of electrical energy pulses delivered to an electrode tip. The maximum peak value from among the plurality of peak amplitudes correlates to the contact force between the electrode tip and a workpiece. The method further comprises comparing the maximum peak value to a set point to determine an offset and optimizing the contact force according to the value of the offset. The apparatus comprises an electrode tip connected to an electrical energy wave generator and an electrical signal sensor, which connects to a high-speed data acquisition card. An actuator provides relative motion between the electrode tip and a workpiece by receiving a feedback drive signal from a processor that is operably connected to the actuator and the high-speed data acquisition card.

Bailey, Jeffrey A.; Johnson, Roger N.; Park, Walter R.; Munley, John T.

2004-12-28T23:59:59.000Z

310

Electro-deposition of superconductor oxide films  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Methods for preparing high quality superconducting oxide precursors which are well suited for further oxidation and annealing to form superconducting oxide films. The method comprises forming a multilayered superconducting precursor on a substrate by providing an electrodeposition bath comprising an electrolyte medium and a substrate electrode, and providing to the bath a plurality of precursor metal salts which are capable of exhibiting superconducting properties upon subsequent treatment. The superconducting precursor is then formed by electrodepositing a first electrodeposited (ED) layer onto the substrate electrode, followed by depositing a layer of silver onto the first electrodeposited (ED) layer, and then electrodepositing a second electrodeposited (ED) layer onto the Ag layer. The multilayered superconducting precursor is suitable for oxidation at a sufficient annealing temperature in air or an oxygen-containing atmosphere to form a crystalline superconducting oxide film.

Bhattacharya, Raghu N. (Littleton, CO)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

311

Big-Data RHEED analysis for understanding epitaxial film growth processes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Reflection high energy electron diffraction (RHEED) has by now become a standard tool for in-situ monitoring of film growth by pulsed laser deposition and molecular beam epitaxy. Yet despite the widespread adoption and wealth of information in RHEED image, most applications are limited to observing intensity oscillations of the specular spot, and much additional information on growth is discarded. With ease of data acquisition and increased computation speeds, statistical methods to rapidly mine the dataset are now feasible. Here, we develop such an approach to the analysis of the fundamental growth processes through multivariate statistical analysis of RHEED image sequence. This approach is illustrated for growth of LaxCa1-xMnO3 films grown on etched (001) SrTiO3 substrates, but is universal. The multivariate methods including principal component analysis and k-means clustering provide insight into the relevant behaviors, the timing and nature of a disordered to ordered growth change, and highlight statistically significant patterns. Fourier analysis yields the harmonic components of the signal and allows separation of the relevant components and baselines, isolating the assymetric nature of the step density function and the transmission spots from the imperfect layer-by-layer (LBL) growth. These studies show the promise of big data approaches to obtaining more insight into film properties during and after epitaxial film growth. Furthermore, these studies open the pathway to use forward prediction methods to potentially allow significantly more control over growth process and hence final film quality.

Vasudevan, Rama K [ORNL; Tselev, Alexander [ORNL; Baddorf, Arthur P [ORNL; Kalinin, Sergei V [ORNL

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

312

Research on fundamental aspects of inorganic vapor and particle deposition in coal-fired systems. Eighth quarterly technical progress report, June 6, 1992--September 5, 1992  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In September 1990 DOE-PETC initiated at the Yale HTCRE Laboratory a systematic three-year research program directed toward providing engineers with the fundamentally-based design/optimization `tools` for economically predicting the dynamics of net deposit growth*, and thermophysical properties of the resulting microparticulate deposits in coal-fired systems. In light of the theoretical `program` based on the notion of ``self-regulation`` set forth in Rosner and Nagarajan (1987), this Task includes investigation of the effects of particle material properties and possible liquid phases on the capture properties of particulate deposits. For this purpose we exploit dynamical `many-body` computer simulation techniques. This approach will provide the required parametric dependencies (on such quantities as incident kinetic energy and angle, mechanical and thermophysical properties of the particles,{hor_ellipsis}) of a dimensionless ensemble-averaged particle capture fraction, relegating the role of direct laboratory experiment to verifying (or rejecting) some crucial features/consequences of the simulation route followed. Our ultimate goal is recommend `sticking` and `erosion` laws of mechanistic origin. The availability of such laws could dramatically increase the reliability of predicted deposition rates of inertially delivered particles, in the simultaneous presence of a condensed liquid phase within the growing particulate, deposit. Equally important, one could also rationally select conditions to avoid. troublesome deposition subject to other operational requirements.

Rosner, D.E.

1992-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

313

Method for rapid, controllable growth and thickness, of epitaxial silicon films  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method of producing epitaxial silicon films on a c-Si wafer substrate using hot wire chemical vapor deposition by controlling the rate of silicon deposition in a temperature range that spans the transition from a monohydride to a hydrogen free silicon surface in a vacuum, to obtain phase-pure epitaxial silicon film of increased thickness is disclosed. The method includes placing a c-Si substrate in a HWCVD reactor chamber. The method also includes supplying a gas containing silicon at a sufficient rate into the reaction chamber to interact with the substrate to deposit a layer containing silicon thereon at a predefined growth rate to obtain phase-pure epitaxial silicon film of increased thickness.

Wang, Qi (Littleton, CO); Stradins, Paul (Golden, CO); Teplin, Charles (Boulder, CO); Branz, Howard M. (Boulder, CO)

2009-10-13T23:59:59.000Z

314

Size-dependent mobility of gold nano-clusters during growth on chemically modified graphene  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Gold nano-clusters were grown on chemically modified graphene by direct sputter deposition. Transmission electron microscopy of the nano-clusters on these electron-transparent substrates reveals an unusual bimodal island size distribution (ISD). A kinetic Monte Carlo model of growth incorporating a size-dependent cluster mobility rule uniquely reproduces the bimodal ISD, providing strong evidence for the mobility of large clusters during surface growth. The cluster mobility exponent of ?5/3 is consistent with cluster motion via one-dimensional diffusion of gold atoms around the edges of the nano-clusters.

Bell, Gavin R., E-mail: gavin.bell@warwick.ac.uk; Dawson, Peter M.; Pandey, Priyanka A.; Wilson, Neil R. [Department of Physics, University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL (United Kingdom); Mulheran, Paul A. [Department of Chemical and Process Engineering, University of Strathclyde, James Weir Building, 75 Montrose St., Glasgow G1 1XJ (United Kingdom)

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

315

Energetic condensation growth of Nb thin films  

DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

This paper describes energetic condensation growth of Nb films using a cathodic arc plasma, whose 60–120 eV ions penetrate a few monolayers into the substrate and enable sufficient surface mobility to ensure that the lowest energy state (crystalline structure with minimal defects) is accessible to the film. Heteroepitaxial films of Nb were grown on ?-plane sapphire and MgO crystals with good superconducting properties and crystal size (10??mm × 20??mm ) limited only by substrate size. The substrates were heated to temperatures of up to 700°C and coated at 125°C, 300°C, 500°C, and 700°C . Film thickness was varied from ?0.25???m to >3???m . Residual resistivity ratio (RRR) values (up to a record (RRR)=587 on MgO and (RRR)=328 on ?-sapphire) depend strongly on substrate annealing and deposition temperatures. X-ray diffraction spectra and pole figures reveal that RRR increases as the crystal structure of the Nb film becomes more ordered, consistent with fewer defects and, hence, longer electron mean-free path. A transition from Nb(110) to Nb(100) orientation on the MgO(100) lattice occurs at higher temperatures. This transition is discussed in light of substrate heating and energetic condensation physics. Electron backscattered diffraction and scanning electron microscope images complement the XRD data.

Krishnan, M.; Valderrama, E.; James, C.; Zhao, X.; Spradlin, J.; Feliciano, A-M Valente; Phillips, L.; Reece, C. E.; Seo, K.; Sung, Z. H.

2012-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

316

Noncrystallographic calcite dendrites from hot-spring deposits at Lake Bogoria, Kenya  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Complex calcite crystals are an integral component of precipitates that form around the orifices of the Loburu and Mawe Moto hot springs on the shores of Lake bogoria, Kenya. Two types of large (up to 4 cm long) noncrystallographic dendrites are important components of these deposits. Feather dendrites are characterized by multiple levels of branching with individual branches developed through crystal splitting and spherulitic growth. Scandulitic (from Latin meaning shingle) dendrites are formed of stacked calcite crystals and are generally more compact than feather dendrites. These developed through the incremental stacking of rectangular-shaped calcite crystals that initially grew as skeletal crystals. Feather and scandulitic dendrites precipitated from the same waters in the same springs. The difference in morphology is therefore related to microenvironments in which they grew. Feather dendrites grew in any direction in pools of free-standing water provided that they were in constant contact with the solute. Conversely, scandulitic dendrites grew on rims of dams where water flowed over the surface in concert with the pulses of spring water. Thus, each calcite crystal in these dendrites represents one episode of crystal growth. The orientation of the component crystals in scandulitic dendrites is controlled by the topography of the dam or surface, not crystallographic criteria. The noncrystallographic dendrites formed from spring waters with initial temperatures of 90--99 C. Surficial water cooling, loss of CO{sub 2}, and presence of other elements that can interfere with crystal growth contributed to the formation of these unusual crystals.

Jones, B. [Univ. of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta (Canada). Dept. of Geology; Renaut, R.W. [Univ. of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon (Canada). Dept. of Geological Sciences

1995-01-02T23:59:59.000Z

317

CALIFORNIA SMART GROWTH ENERGY SAVINGS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

(particularly autos) comprises a large share of total energy consumption, its reduction through more compact in transportation energy consumption resulting from Smart Growth planning. Since energy consumed by transportationCALIFORNIA ENERGY COMMISSION CALIFORNIA SMART GROWTH ENERGY SAVINGS MPO SURVEY FINDINGS SEPTEMBER

318

Fabrication of nanostructure by physical vapor deposition with glancing angle deposition technique and its applications  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A nanostructural thin film is one of the highly exploiting research areas particularly in applications in sensor, photocatalytic, and solar-cell technologies. In the past two decades, the integration of glancing-angle deposition (GLAD) technique to physical vapor deposition (PVD) process has gained significant attention for well-controlled multidimensional nanomorphologies because of fast, simple, cost-effective, and mass-production capability. The performance and functional properties of the coated thin films generally depend upon their nanostructural compositions, i.e., large aspect ratio, controllable porosity, and shape. Such structural platforms make the fabricated thin films very practical for several realistic applications. We therefore present morphological and nanostructural properties of various deposited materials, which included metals, i.e., silver (Ag), and oxide compounds, i.e., tungsten oxide (WO{sub 3}), titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2}), and indium tin oxide (ITO). Different PVD techniques based on DC magnetron sputtering and electron-beam evaporation, both with the integrated GLAD component, were discussed. We further explore engineered nanostructures which enable controls of optical, electrical, and mechanical properties. These improvements led to several practical applications in surface-enhanced Raman, smart windows, gas sensors, self-cleaning materials and transparent conductive oxides (TCO)

Horprathum, M., E-mail: mati.horprathum@nectec.or.th; Eiamchai, P., E-mail: mati.horprathum@nectec.or.th; Patthanasettakul, V.; Limwichean, S.; Nuntawong, N.; Chindaudom, P. [Optical Thin-Film Laboratory National Electronics and Computer Technology Center, Pathumthani, 12120 (Thailand); Kaewkhao, J. [Center of Excellence in Glass Technology and Materials Science (CEGM), Nakhon Pathom Rajabhat University, Nakhon Pathom 73000 (Thailand); Chananonnawathorn, C. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science and Technology, Thammasat University, Pathumthani, 12121 (Thailand)

2014-09-25T23:59:59.000Z

319

As-deposited low-strain LPCVD (low-pressure, chemical-vapor-deposition) polysilicon  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

As-deposited polysilicon films with very low residual strain (lower than 5 x 10/sup -5/) are obtained by a low-pressure, chemical-vapor-deposition (LPCVD) process. Straight polysilicon bridges 300 ..mu..m long, 1.2 ..mu..m thick, and 2 to 20 ..mu..m wide, made using this process. No buckling has been observed in any of the nearly one thousand bridges of this type made in two separate process runs. In addition, no problems of sticking between the bridges and the substrate were encountered with these structures. The polysilicon films from which the beams were fabricated were deposited by pyrolyzing silane at 605/degree/C on a phosphosilicate-glass (PSG) layer (8 wt % P). The PSG layer serves as a sacrificial layer to be subsequently etched away to free the bridge. Our research is aimed at obtaining an understanding of these relationships through consideration of the role of interfacial stresses and the kinetics of initial crystalline nucleation. The technique for producing these low-strain films is significant, however, because no high-temperature annealing steps are required to produce them. 4 refs., 4 figs.

Fan, L.S.; Muller, R.S.

1988-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

320

Graphene chemical vapor deposition at very low pressure: The impact of substrate surface self-diffusion in domain shape  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The initial stages of graphene chemical vapor deposition at very low pressures (<10{sup ?5?}Torr) were investigated. The growth of large graphene domains (?up to 100??m) at very high rates (up to 3??m{sup 2} s{sup ?1}) has been achieved in a cold-wall reactor using a liquid carbon precursor. For high temperature growth (>900?°C), graphene grain shape and symmetry were found to depend on the underlying symmetry of the Cu crystal, whereas for lower temperatures (<900?°C), mostly rounded grains are observed. The temperature dependence of graphene nucleation density was determined, displaying two thermally activated regimes, with activation energy values of 6?±?1?eV for temperatures ranging from 900?°C to 960?°C and 9?±?1?eV for temperatures above 960?°C. The comparison of such dependence with the temperature dependence of Cu surface self-diffusion suggests that graphene growth at high temperatures and low pressures is strongly influenced by copper surface rearrangement. We propose a model that incorporates Cu surface self-diffusion as an essential process to explain the orientation correlation between graphene and Cu crystals, and which can clarify the difference generally observed between graphene domain shapes in atmospheric-pressure and low-pressure chemical vapor deposition.

Cunha, T. H. R.; Ek-Weis, J.; Lacerda, R. G.; Ferlauto, A. S., E-mail: ferlauto@fisica.ufmg.br [Department of Physics, Federal University of Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte 31270-901 (Brazil)

2014-08-18T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "deposition growth cxs" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

Chapter 6.24 Picosun Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

by the ALD could be used for diffusion barriers and similar applications. 2.0 Materials Controls: Source/s used in the ALD machine contains the desired metal for deposition. This metal is bonded)3 is precursors used to deposit aluminum oxide. 4.5.2 TTIP: Titanium Tetrakis Isopropoxide, which supplies Ti

Healy, Kevin Edward

322

Gas Phase Electrodeposition: A Programmable Multimaterial Deposition Method for  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

plasma induced synthesis,11 and arc discharge12,13 can produce nanoparticles and nanow- ires of various-phase deposition process produces charged tungsten, and platinum and uses externally electrodeposition, arc discharge, atmospheric pressure gas phase deposition, nanoparticle nanostructured electrodes

Jacobs, Heiko O.

323

Sputter deposition for multi-component thin films  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Ion beam sputter-induced deposition using a single ion beam and a multicomponent target is capable of reproducibly producing thin films of arbitrary composition, including those which are close to stoichiometry. Using a quartz crystal deposition monitor and a computer controlled, well-focused ion beam, this sputter-deposition approach is capable of producing metal oxide superconductors and semiconductors of the superlattice type such as GaAs-AlGaAs as well as layered metal/oxide/semiconductor/superconductor structures. By programming the dwell time for each target according to the known sputtering yield and desired layer thickness for each material, it is possible to deposit composite films from a well-controlled sub-monolayer up to thicknesses determined only by the available deposition time. In one embodiment, an ion beam is sequentially directed via a set of X-Y electrostatic deflection plates onto three or more different element or compound targets which are constituents of the desired film. In another embodiment, the ion beam is directed through an aperture in the deposition plate and is displaced under computer control to provide a high degree of control over the deposited layer. In yet another embodiment, a single fixed ion beam is directed onto a plurality of sputter targets in a sequential manner where the targets are each moved in alignment with the beam under computer control in forming a multilayer thin film. This controlled sputter-deposition approach may also be used with laser and electron beams.

Krauss, Alan R. (Plainfield, IL); Auciello, Orlando (Cary, NC)

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

324

Sputter deposition for multi-component thin films  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Ion beam sputter-induced deposition using a single ion beam and a multicomponent target is capable of reproducibly producing thin films of arbitrary composition, including those which are close to stoichiometry. Using a quartz crystal deposition monitor and a computer controlled, well-focused ion beam, this sputter-deposition approach is capable of producing metal oxide superconductors and semiconductors of the superlattice type such as GaAs-AlGaAs as well as layered metal/oxide/semiconductor/superconductor structures. By programming the dwell time for each target according to the known sputtering yield and desired layer thickness for each material, it is possible to deposit composite films from a well-controlled sub-monolayer up to thicknesses determined only by the available deposition time. In one embodiment, an ion beam is sequentially directed via a set of X-Y electrostatic deflection plates onto three or more different element or compound targets which are constituents of the desired film. In another embodiment, the ion beam is directed through an aperture in the deposition plate and is displaced under computer control to provide a high degree of control over the deposited layer. In yet another embodiment, a single fixed ion beam is directed onto a plurality of sputter targets in a sequential manner where the targets are each moved in alignment with the beam under computer control in forming a multilayer thin film. This controlled sputter-deposition approach may also be used with laser and electron beams. 10 figs.

Krauss, A.R.; Auciello, O.

1990-05-08T23:59:59.000Z

325

QuestionQuestion How does nitrogen deposition affect roadside  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

al. 2004. Concentrations of ammonia and nitrogen dioxide at roadside verges, and their contributionQuestionQuestion How does nitrogen deposition affect roadside plant community composition? 1. Is there a gradient of nitrogen deposition to freeway verges from traffic exhaust? 2. Are there other sources of N

Hall, Sharon J.

326

Tropospheric Reactive Nitrogen Speciation, Deposition, and Chemistry at Harvard Forest  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and absolute contributions of nitric acid (HNO3) and NOx (nitric oxide (NO) + nitrogen dioxide (NO2)) to totalTropospheric Reactive Nitrogen Speciation, Deposition, and Chemistry at Harvard Forest A thesis. Steven C. Wofsy Cassandra Volpe Horii Tropospheric Reactive Nitrogen Speciation, Deposition

327

Electroplating method for producing ultralow-mass fissionable deposits  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method for producing ultralow-mass fissionable deposits for nuclear reactor dosimetry is described, including the steps of holding a radioactive parent until the radioactive parent reaches secular equilibrium with a daughter isotope, chemically separating the daughter from the parent, electroplating the daughter on a suitable substrate, and holding the electroplated daughter until the daughter decays to the fissionable deposit.

Ruddy, Francis H. (Monroeville, PA)

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

328

Correlation between homogeneous propane pyrolysis and pyrocarbon deposition  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of the Electrochemical Society. Suggested section. Electrochemical/Chemical Deposition and Etching to whom of the Electrochemical Society 148 (2001) C695-C708" DOI : 10.1149/1.1402981 #12;Abstract. Pyrocarbon deposition through, with markedly different material properties, so the problem of interest is to be able to monitor experimental

Boyer, Edmond

329

Subaqueous Explosive Eruption and Welding of Pyroclastic Deposits  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Subaqueous Explosive Eruption and Welding of Pyroclastic Deposits Peter Kokelaar and Cathy Busby fabrics indicative of welding of glass shards and pumice at temperatures >500"C. The occurrence emplacement temperature in pyroclas- tic deposits is welding. Welding is hot-state viscous deformation

Busby, Cathy

330

INTRODUCTION The massive sulfide deposits of southern Spain  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

INTRODUCTION The massive sulfide deposits of southern Spain and Portugal were formed about 300 Ma). Spain became a Roman province, and mining of the rich deposits of the Iberian pyrite belt for copper, California 94025 A. Palanques Instituto de Ciencias del Mar, 08039 Barcelona, Spain ABSTRACT A metal

van Geen, Alexander

331

AIR-DEPOSITED POLLUTION IN THE ANACOSTIA RIVER WATERSHED  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

) provides a summary of major scientific reports on air pollution and public health. The reports includeAIR-DEPOSITED POLLUTION IN THE ANACOSTIA RIVER WATERSHED Annual Progress Report for FY 2005 through the US Department of Interior #12;PROGRESS REPORT: AIR-DEPOSITED POLLUTION IN THE ANACOSTIA RIVER

District of Columbia, University of the

332

Hydrothermal Activity and Travertine Deposits in Valles Caldera Paul Withers  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Hydrothermal Activity and Travertine Deposits in Valles Caldera Paul Withers Valles Caldera for the Valles Caldera hydrothermal system [fig]. Some fluids escape in acid springs and mud pits (Sulphur mineral deposits as they cool, specifically travertine. Travertine is a freshwater, calcium carbonate

Withers, Paul

333

Wax Deposition and Aging in Flowlines from Irreversible Thermodynamics  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, 2007. ReVised Manuscript ReceiVed April 4, 2008 The development of waxy crude oil and some gas of the wax deposit. However, most of these models assume that the wax-oil (gel) deposit has a constant wax and the composition of the gel layer as a function of position and time. The wax-oil gel region is considered

Firoozabadi, Abbas

334

Constraining oceanic dust deposition using surface ocean dissolved Al  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Constraining oceanic dust deposition using surface ocean dissolved Al Qin Han,1 J. Keith Moore,1; accepted 7 December 2007; published 12 April 2008. [1] We use measurements of ocean surface dissolved Al (DEAD) model to constrain dust deposition to the oceans. Our Al database contains all available

Zender, Charles

335

Plasma-Therm Workshop: Fundamentals of Plasma Processing (Etching & Deposition)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The workshop will focus on the fundamentals of plasma etching and deposition. Lectures will includePlasma-Therm Workshop: Fundamentals of Plasma Processing (Etching & Deposition) Nanofabrication an introduction to vacuum technology, the basics of plasma and plasma reactors and an overview of mechanisms

Martin, Jan M.L.

336

Sulfuric acid deposition from stratospheric geoengineering with sulfate aerosols  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

aerosols can potentially result in an increase in acid deposition. [4] Acid rain has been studiedSulfuric acid deposition from stratospheric geoengineering with sulfate aerosols Ben Kravitz,1 Alan limit of hydration of all sulfate aerosols into sulfuric acid. For annual injection of 5 Tg of SO2

Robock, Alan

337

Characteristics of the samples in the FNG fission deposit collection  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Information concerning the samples in the Fast Neutron Generator (FNG) Group's fission deposit collection has been assembled. This includes the physical dimensions, isotopic analyses, half-lives, alpha emission rates specific activities and deposit weights. 10 refs., 9 figs., 5 tabs.

Meadows, J.W.

1990-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

338

A Geostatistical Study of the Uranium Deposit at Kvanefjeld,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

with the geology. It is also shown that, although anisotropy exists, the uranium variation has a secondRisa-R-468 A Geostatistical Study of the Uranium Deposit at Kvanefjeld, The Ilimaussaq Intrusion A GEOSTATISTICAL STUDY OF THE URANIUM DEPOSIT AT KVANEFJELD, THE ILIMAUSSAQ INTRUSION, SOUTH GREENLAND Flemming

339

Barrier performance optimization of atomic layer deposited diffusion barriers for organic light emitting diodes using x-ray reflectivity investigations  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The importance of O{sub 3} pulse duration for encapsulation of organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) with ultra thin inorganic atomic layer deposited Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} layers is demonstrated for deposition temperatures of 50 °C. X-ray reflectivity (XRR) measurements show that O{sub 3} pulse durations longer than 15?s produce dense and thin Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} layers. Correspondingly, black spot growth is not observed in OLEDs encapsulated with such layers during 91 days of aging under ambient conditions. This implies that XRR can be used as a tool for process optimization of OLED encapsulation layers leading to devices with long lifetimes.

Singh, Aarti, E-mail: aarti.singh@namlab.com; Schröder, Uwe [Nanoelectronics Materials Laboratory NaMLab gGmbH, Nöthnitzer Str. 64, 01187 Dresden (Germany)] [Nanoelectronics Materials Laboratory NaMLab gGmbH, Nöthnitzer Str. 64, 01187 Dresden (Germany); Klumbies, Hannes; Müller-Meskamp, Lars; Leo, Karl [Dresden Innovation Center Energy Efficiency, Institut für Angewandte Photophysik, Technische Universität Dresden, 01062 Dresden (Germany)] [Dresden Innovation Center Energy Efficiency, Institut für Angewandte Photophysik, Technische Universität Dresden, 01062 Dresden (Germany); Geidel, Marion; Knaut, Martin; Hoßbach, Christoph; Albert, Matthias [Institute of Semiconductor and Microsystems Technology, Technische Universität Dresden, 01187 Dresden (Germany)] [Institute of Semiconductor and Microsystems Technology, Technische Universität Dresden, 01187 Dresden (Germany); Mikolajick, Thomas [Nanoelectronics Materials Laboratory NaMLab gGmbH, Nöthnitzer Str. 64, 01187 Dresden (Germany) [Nanoelectronics Materials Laboratory NaMLab gGmbH, Nöthnitzer Str. 64, 01187 Dresden (Germany); Institute of Semiconductor and Microsystems Technology, Technische Universität Dresden, 01187 Dresden (Germany)

2013-12-02T23:59:59.000Z

340

Research on thermophoretic and inertial aspects of ash particle deposition on heat exchanger surfaces in coal-fired equipment  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The overall goal of this research in the area of ash transport was to advance the capability of making reliable engineering predictions of the dynamics and consequences of net deposit growth for surfaces exposed to the products of coal combustion. To accomplish this for a wide variety of combustor types, coal types, and operating conditions, this capability must be based on a quantitative understanding of each of the important mechanisms of mineral matter transport, as well as the nature of the interactions between these substances and the prevailing fireside'' surface of the deposit. This level of understanding and predictive capability could ultimately be translated into very significant cost reductions for coal-fired equipment design, development and operation.

Rosner, D.E.

1990-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "deposition growth cxs" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Method of and apparatus for determining deposition-point temperature  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Acoustic-wave sensor apparatus and method for analyzing a normally liquid petroleum-based composition for monitoring deposition-point temperature. The apparatus includes at least one acoustic-wave device such as SAW, QCM, FPM, TSM or APM type devices in contact with the petroleum-based composition for sensing or detecting the surface temperature at which deposition occurs and/or rate of deposition as a function of temperature by sensing an accompanying change in frequency, phase shift, damping voltage or damping current of an electrical oscillator to a known calibrated condition. The acoustic wave device is actively cooled to monitor the deposition of constituents such as paraffins by determining the point at which solids from the liquid composition begin to form on the acoustic wave device. The acoustic wave device can be heated to melt or boil off the deposits to reset the monitor and the process can be repeated.

Mansure, Arthur J. (Albuquerque, NM); Spates, James J. (Albuquerque, NM); Martin, Stephen J. (Albuquerque, NM)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

342

Method of and apparatus for determining deposition-point temperature  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Acoustic-wave sensor apparatus and method are disclosed for analyzing a normally liquid petroleum-based composition for monitoring deposition-point temperature. The apparatus includes at least one acoustic-wave device such as SAW, QCM, FPM, TSM or APM type devices in contact with the petroleum-based composition for sensing or detecting the surface temperature at which deposition occurs and/or rate of deposition as a function of temperature by sensing an accompanying change in frequency, phase shift, damping voltage or damping current of an electrical oscillator to a known calibrated condition. The acoustic wave device is actively cooled to monitor the deposition of constituents such as paraffins by determining the point at which solids from the liquid composition begin to form on the acoustic wave device. The acoustic wave device can be heated to melt or boil off the deposits to reset the monitor and the process can be repeated. 5 figs.

Mansure, A.J.; Spates, J.J.; Martin, S.J.

1998-10-27T23:59:59.000Z

343

Effect of differential subsidence in growth-faulted regions on E-log patterns and preservation potential  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Detailed electric log correlation, supplemented by cores, in the Eocene Wilcox Group and the Oligocene Frio Formation of the Texas Gulf basin contradicts a commonly held notion that changes in log character across growth faults exclusively reflect changes in environment. An invariable consequence of growth faulting is thickening of a depositional unit in the downthrown block, reflecting a greater subsidence rate. The growth ratio (downthrown or upthrown) varies from just over 1:1 to as much as 10:1. Analysis and mapping of log character indicate that the basic unit of both deposition and physical correlation is regressive coarsening-upward sequences. In Wilcox deltas, prodelta shales pass up into delta-front sandstones while in Frio barrier-bar or standplains, shelf and lower-shoreface deposits pass up into upper-shoreface sandstones. Regressive packages grade downdip in environment from delta plain and bay or lagoon to offshore marine. Growth faults had no significant surface expression and did not separate contrasting environments. A marked change in log character (e.g., from smooth to serrated) across a growth fault in a regressive shoreface sequence appears to indicate that the subsidence rate of the downthrown block exceeded a threshold value, enabling preservation of low-energy muddy layers and possibly episodic waning-flow storm deposits that were largely destroyed by fair-weather wave reworking on the upthrown block. This concept has implications both to regional stratigraphy and reservoir properties. Correlative units can abruptly change log character across growth faults, impeding correlation. Sandstones in the downthrown block may contain shale barriers to vertical fluid flow if the threshold subsidence rate was exceeded.

Edwards, M.B.

1985-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

344

COAL-FIRED UTILITY BOILERS: SOLVING ASH DEPOSITION PROBLEMS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The accumulation of slagging and fouling ash deposits in utility boilers has been a source of aggravation for coal-fired boiler operators for over a century. Many new developments in analytical, modeling, and combustion testing methods in the past 20 years have made it possible to identify root causes of ash deposition. A concise and comprehensive guidelines document has been assembled for solving ash deposition as related to coal-fired utility boilers. While this report accurately captures the current state of knowledge in ash deposition, note that substantial research and development is under way to more completely understand and mitigate slagging and fouling. Thus, while comprehensive, this document carries the title ''interim,'' with the idea that future work will provide additional insight. Primary target audiences include utility operators and engineers who face plant inefficiencies and significant operational and maintenance costs that are associated with ash deposition problems. Pulverized and cyclone-fired coal boilers are addressed specifically, although many of the diagnostics and solutions apply to other boiler types. Logic diagrams, ash deposit types, and boiler symptoms of ash deposition are used to aid the user in identifying an ash deposition problem, diagnosing and verifying root causes, determining remedial measures to alleviate or eliminate the problem, and then monitoring the situation to verify that the problem has been solved. In addition to a step-by-step method for identifying and remediating ash deposition problems, this guideline document (Appendix A) provides descriptions of analytical techniques for diagnostic testing and gives extensive fundamental and practical literature references and addresses of organizations that can provide help in alleviating ash deposition problems.

Christopher J. Zygarlicke; Donald P. McCollor; Steven A. Benson; Jay R. Gunderson

2001-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

345

ORGANIC GEOCHEMISTRY, DEPOSITIONAL ENVIRONMENT AND HYDROCARBON POTENTIAL OF THE TERTIARY OIL SHALE DEPOSITS IN NW ANATOLIA, TURKEY  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In this study, organic geochemical characteristics and depositional environ-ment of the Tertiary-aged oil shale deposits in Northwest Anatolia have been examined. Oil shales in all the studied areas are typically characterized by high hydrogen index and low oxygen index values. Beypazar?

R. Kara Gülbay; S. Korkmaz

346

Crystalline Ice Growth on Pt(111) and Pd(111): Nonwetting Growth...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Crystalline Ice Growth on Pt(111) and Pd(111): Nonwetting Growth on a Hydrophobic Water Monolayer. Crystalline Ice Growth on Pt(111) and Pd(111): Nonwetting Growth on a Hydrophobic...

347

Ultrasonically assisted deposition of colloidal crystals  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Colloidal particles are a versatile physical system which have found uses across a range of applications such as the simulation of crystal kinetics, etch masks for fabrication, and the formation of photonic band-gap structures. Utilization of colloidal particles often requires a means to produce highly ordered, periodic structures. One approach is the use of surface acoustic waves (SAWs) to direct the self-assembly of colloidal particles. Previous demonstrations using standing SAWs were shown to be limited in terms of crystal size and dimensionality. Here, we report a technique to improve the spatial alignment of colloidal particles using traveling SAWs. Through control of the radio frequency power, which drives the SAW, we demonstrate enhanced quality and dimensionality of the crystal growth. We show that this technique can be applied to a range of particle sizes in the ?m-regime and may hold potential for particles in the sub-?m-regime.

Wollmann, Sabine, E-mail: sabine.wollmann@griffithuni.edu.au [Lehrstuhl für Experimentalphysik 1 and Augsburg Centre for Innovative Technologies (ACIT), Universität Augsburg, 86159 Augsburg (Germany); Centre for Quantum Dynamics, Griffith University, Brisbane 4111 (Australia); Patel, Raj B. [Centre for Quantum Dynamics, Griffith University, Brisbane 4111 (Australia); Wixforth, Achim; Krenner, Hubert J. [Lehrstuhl für Experimentalphysik 1 and Augsburg Centre for Innovative Technologies (ACIT), Universität Augsburg, 86159 Augsburg (Germany); Nanosystems Initiative Munich (NIM), Schellingstr. 4, 80779 München (Germany)

2014-07-21T23:59:59.000Z

348

A photoemission study of Au, Ge, and O{sub 2} deposition on NH{sub 4}F etched Si(111)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We have studied the interaction of a metal, Au, a semiconductor, Ge, and a non-metal, O{sub 2}, with the NH{sub 4}F etched Si(111) surface with photoemission spectroscopy. Two components were present in Si 2p core level spectra from the H-terminated surface. We observed the flat band condition from the as-etched, n-type, Si(111) surface. We performed stepwise depositions of Au and measured the band bending with photoemission spectroscopy. The Fermi level pinned near mid-gap as Au was deposited onto the as-etched surface. After the deposition of 1 ML of Au, a Au-silicide layer formed. This interfacial component indicated that the passivating H layer was compromised. As the Au coverage was increased, layers of pure Au formed between the bulk silicon and the Au-silicide layer. The observed behavior was nearly identical to that of Au deposition on the Si(111) 7 {times} 7 surface. Next, we tested the ability of the monohydride layer to sustain surfactant assisted growth of Ge. Ge islanding was observed at 400{degree}C indicating that good surfactant growth was not obtained. Although the monohydride layer was not a good surfactant for the Si(111) surface at this temperature, further study at different temperatures is needed to determine the ability of the ideal monohydride layer to act as a surfactant. Finally, we observed no oxidation of the as-etched surface at room temperature upon exposure to molecular oxygen.

Terry, J.; Cao, R.; Wigren, C.; Pianetta, P.

1994-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

349

The influence of working gas pressure on interlayer mixing in magnetron-deposited Mo/Si multilayers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Impact of Ar gas pressure (1-4 mTorr) on the growth of amorphous interlayers in Mo/Si multilayers deposited by magnetron sputtering was investigated by small-angle x-ray scattering ({lambda} = 0.154 nm) and methods of cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy. Some reduction of thickness of the amorphous inter-layers with Ar pressure increase was found, while composition of the layers was enriched with molybdenum. The interface modification resulted in raise of EUV reflectance of the Mo/Si multilayers.

Pershyn, Yuriy; Gullikson, Erik; Artyukov, Igor; Kondratenko, Valeriy; Sevryukova, Victoriya; Voronov, Dmitriy; Zubarev, Evgeniy; Vinogradov, Alexander

2011-08-08T23:59:59.000Z

350

Growth machine theory: a qualitative analysis  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of land inherent in growth machine theory, does not necessarily result in a dialectic, win-lose situation. Furthermore, it is argued that the growth coalition may not always ado t a unidimensional roach to development where further growth...

Smith, Gavin Paul

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

351

Photoresponse in thin films of WO{sub 3} grown by pulsed laser deposition  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We report, the photoresponse behaviour of Tungsten trioxide (WO{sub 3}) films of different surface morphology, grown by using pulsed laser deposition (PLD). The Growth parameters for PLD were changed for two substrates SiO{sub 2}/Si (SO) and SrTiO{sub 3} (STO), such a way which, result nanocrystalline film on SO and needle like structured film on STO. The photoresponse is greatly modified in these two films because of two different surface morphologies. The nanocrystalline film (film on SO) shows distinct photocurrent (PC) ON/OFF states when light was turned on/off, the enhancement of PC is ?27%. Whereas, the film with needle like structure (film on STO) exhibits significantly enhanced persistent photocurrent even in light off condition, in this case, the enhancement of PC???50% at room temperature at lowest wavelength (??=?360?nm) at a nominal bias voltage of 0.1 V.

Roy Moulik, Samik [Unit for Nanoscience, Department of Condensed Matter Physics and Material Sciences, S. N. Bose National Centre for Basic Sciences, Kolkata (India); ICON Analytical Equipment Pvt. Ltd., Kolkata (India); Samanta, Sudeshna; Ghosh, Barnali, E-mail: barnali@bose.res.in [Unit for Nanoscience, Department of Condensed Matter Physics and Material Sciences, S. N. Bose National Centre for Basic Sciences, Kolkata (India)

2014-06-09T23:59:59.000Z

352

Atmospheric pressure spatial atomic layer deposition web coating with in situ monitoring of film thickness  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Spectral reflectometry was implemented as a method for in situ thickness monitoring in a spatial atomic layer deposition (ALD) system. Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} films were grown on a moving polymer web substrate at 100?°C using an atmospheric pressure ALD web coating system, with film growth of 0.11–0.13?nm/cycle. The modular coating head design and the in situ monitoring allowed for the characterization and optimization of the trimethylaluminum and water precursor exposures, purge flows, and web speed. A thickness uniformity of ±2% was achieved across the web. ALD cycle times as low as 76?ms were demonstrated with a web speed of 1?m/s and a vertical gap height of 0.5?mm. This atmospheric pressure ALD system with in situ process control demonstrates the feasibility of low-cost, high throughput roll-to-roll ALD.

Yersak, Alexander S.; Lee, Yung C. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Colorado at Boulder, 1045 Regent Drive, 422 UCB, Boulder, Colorado 80309-0422 (United States); Spencer, Joseph A.; Groner, Markus D., E-mail: mgroner@aldnanosolutions.com [ALD NanoSolutions, Inc., 580 Burbank Street, Unit 100, Broomfield, Colorado 80020 (United States)

2014-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

353

Waterless TiO{sub 2} atomic layer deposition using titanium tetrachloride and titanium tetraisopropoxide  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The surface chemistry for TiO{sub 2} atomic layer deposition (ALD) typically utilizes water or other oxidants that can oxidize underlying substrates such as magnetic disks or semiconductors. To avoid this oxidation, waterless or oxidant-free surface chemistry can be used that involves titanium halides and titanium alkoxides. In this study, waterless TiO{sub 2} ALD was accomplished using titanium tetrachloride (TiCl{sub 4}) and titanium tetraisopropoxide (TTIP). In situ transmission Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) studies were employed to study the surface species and the reactions during waterless TiO{sub 2} ALD. At low temperatures between 125 and 225??°C, the FTIR absorbance spectra revealed that the isopropoxide species remained on the surface after TTIP exposures. The TiCl{sub 4} exposures then removed the isopropoxide species and deposited additional titanium species. At high temperatures between 250 and 300??°C, the isopropoxide species were converted to hydroxyl species by ?-hydride elimination. The observation of propene gaseous reaction product by quadrupole mass spectrometry (QMS) confirmed the ?-hydride elimination reaction pathway. The TiCl{sub 4} exposures then easily reacted with the hydroxyl species. QMS studies also observed the 2-chloropropane and HCl gaseous reaction products and monitored the self-limiting nature of the TTIP reaction. Additional studies examined the waterless TiO{sub 2} ALD growth at low and high temperature. Quartz crystal microbalance measurements observed growth rates of ?3?ng/cm{sup 2} at a low temperature of 150??°C. Much higher growth rates of ?15?ng/cm{sup 2} were measured at a higher temperature of 250??°C under similar reaction conditions. X-ray reflectivity analysis measured a growth rate of 0.55 ± 0.05?Å/cycle at 250??°C. X-ray photoelectron depth-profile studies showed that the TiO{sub 2} films contained low Cl concentrations <1 at. %. This waterless TiO{sub 2} ALD process using TiCl{sub 4} and TTIP should be valuable to prevent substrate oxidation during TiO{sub 2} ALD on oxygen-sensitive substrates.

Anderson, Virginia R.; Cavanagh, Andrew S.; Abdulagatov, Aziz I. [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado 80309-0215 (United States); Gibbs, Zachary M. [Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado 80309-0424 (United States); George, Steven M., E-mail: Steven.George@Colorado.Edu [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado 80309-0215 and Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado 80309-0427. (United States)

2014-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

354

In situ analysis of ash deposits from black liquor combustion  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Aerosols formed during combustion of black liquor cause a significant fire-side fouling problem in pulp mill recovery boilers. The ash deposits reduce heat transfer effectiveness, plug gas passages, and contribute to corrosion. Both vapors and condensation aerosols lead to the formation of such deposits. The high ash content of the fuel and the low dew point of the condensate salts lead to a high aerosol and vapor concentration in most boilers. In situ measurements of the chemical composition of these deposits is an important step in gaining a fundamental understanding of the deposition process. Infrared emission spectroscopy is used to characterize the composition of thin film deposits resulting from the combustion of black liquor and the deposition of submicron aerosols and vapors. New reference spectra of Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4}, K{sub 2}SO{sub 4}, Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} and K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} pure component films were recorded and compared with the spectra of the black liquor deposit. All of the black liquor emission bands were identified using a combination of literature data and ab initio calculations. Ab initio calculations also predict the locations and intensities of bands for the alkali vapors of interest. 39 refs., 9 figs.

Bernath, P. [Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States). Combustion Research Facility]|[Univ. of Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Sinquefield, S.A. [Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States). Combustion Research Facility]|[Oregon State Univ., Eugene, OR (United States); Baxter, L.L.; Sclippa, G.; Rohlfing, C. [Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States). Combustion Research Facility; Barfield, M. [Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States). Combustion Research Facility]|[Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States)

1996-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

355

Vermont Employment Growth Incentive (Vermont)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The purpose of the Employment Growth Incentive (VEGI) is to encourage job creation in Vermont by a Vermont company, a Vermont division of a company that plans to grow and expand in Vermont, a...

356

Bacterial Growth H. L. Smith  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Bacterial Growth H. L. Smith 1 Simple Models Bacteria are the dominant form of life on the planet the concentration of the nutrient in the media (grams/liter) and N(t) de

Smith, Hal

357

Electronic passivation of silicon surfaces by thin films of atomic layer deposited gallium oxide  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper proposes the application of gallium oxide (Ga{sub 2}O{sub 3}) thin films to crystalline silicon solar cells. Effective passivation of n- and p-type crystalline silicon surfaces has been achieved by the application of very thin Ga{sub 2}O{sub 3} films prepared by atomic layer deposition using trimethylgallium (TMGa) and ozone (O{sub 3}) as the reactants. Surface recombination velocities as low as 6.1?cm/s have been recorded with films less than 4.5?nm thick. A range of deposition parameters has been explored, with growth rates of approximately 0.2?Å/cycle providing optimum passivation. The thermal activation energy for passivation of the Si-Ga{sub 2}O{sub 3} interface has been found to be approximately 0.5?eV. Depassivation of the interface was observed for prolonged annealing at increased temperatures. The activation energy for depassivation was measured to be 1.9?eV.

Allen, T. G., E-mail: thomas.allen@anu.edu.au; Cuevas, A. [Research School of Engineering, Australian National University, Canberra 0200 (Australia)

2014-07-21T23:59:59.000Z

358

CHARACTERIZATION OF FERRITIC G.M.A. WELD DEPOSITS IN 9percentNi STEEL FOR CRYOGENIC APPLICATIONS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

level of residual stress in the deposit. Grain refinement ofthe deposit also contains the products of residual ele- mentweld deposit. Suppression of deleterious residual element

Mahin, Kim Walker

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

359

Chemical vapor deposition thin films as biopassivation coatings and directly patternable dielectrics  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Organosilicon thin films deposited by pulsed plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PPECVD) and hot-filament chemical vapor deposition (HFCVD) were investigated as potential biopassivation coatings for neural probes. ...

Pryce Lewis, Hilton G. (Hilton Gavin), 1973-

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

360

STRUCTURAL CONTROL AND ANISOTROPY OF MINERALIZATION THE CHUQUICAMATA PORPHYRY COPPER DEPOSIT,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

STRUCTURAL CONTROL AND ANISOTROPY OF MINERALIZATION WITHIN THE CHUQUICAMATA PORPHYRY COPPER DEPOSIT CONTROL AND ANISOTROPY OF MINERALIZATION WITHIN THE CHUQUICAMATA PORPHYRY COPPER DEPOSIT, NORTHERN CHILE the Chuquicamata Porphyry Copper Deposit, northern Chile DEPARTMENT OR SCHOOL: Department of Earth Sciences DEGREE

Beaumont, Christopher

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "deposition growth cxs" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

Initiated chemical vapor deposition of polymeric thin films : mechanism and applications  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Initiated chemical vapor deposition (iCVD) is a novel technique for depositing polymeric thin films. It is able to deposit thin films of application-specific polymers in one step without using any solvents. Its uniqueness ...

Chan, Kelvin, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

362

Method for depositing high-quality microcrystalline semiconductor materials  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process for the plasma deposition of a layer of a microcrystalline semiconductor material is carried out by energizing a process gas which includes a precursor of the semiconductor material and a diluent with electromagnetic energy so as to create a plasma therefrom. The plasma deposits a layer of the microcrystalline semiconductor material onto the substrate. The concentration of the diluent in the process gas is varied as a function of the thickness of the layer of microcrystalline semiconductor material which has been deposited. Also disclosed is the use of the process for the preparation of an N-I-P type photovoltaic device.

Guha, Subhendu (Bloomfield Hills, MI); Yang, Chi C. (Troy, MI); Yan, Baojie (Rochester Hills, MI)

2011-03-08T23:59:59.000Z

363

CX-009549: Categorical Exclusion Determination  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Vapor Transport Deposition for Thin Film III-V Photovoltaics CX(s) Applied: A9, B3.6 Date: 11/09/2012 Location(s): CX: none Offices(s): Golden Field Office

364

Cosmic Growth History and Expansion History  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of the expansion history dark energy equation of state,and growth history constraints on the dark energy equationand growth history constraints on the dark energy equation

Linder, Eric V.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

365

Heteroepitaxial growth of GaN/Si (111) junctions in ammonia-free atmosphere: Charge transport, optoelectronic, and photovoltaic properties  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We report the catalyst-free growth of gallium nitride (GaN) nanostructures on n-Si (111) substrates using physical vapor deposition via thermal evaporation of GaN powder at 1150 Degree-Sign C in the absence of NH{sub 3} gas. Scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive x-ray analysis indicate that the growth rate of GaN nanostructures varies with deposition time. Photoluminescence spectra showed the suppression of the UV emission and the enhancement of the visible band emission with increasing the deposition time. The fabricated GaN nanostructures exhibited p-type behavior at the GaN/Si interface, which can be related to the diffusion of Ga into the Si substrate. The obtained lowest reflection and highest transmittance over a wide wavelength range (450-750 nm) indicate the high quality of the fabricated GaN films. Hall-effect measurements showed that all fabricated films have p-type behavior with decreasing electron concentration from 10{sup 21} to 10{sup 12} cm{sup -3} and increasing the electron mobility from 50 to 225 cm{sup 2}/V s with increasing the growth time. The fabricated solar cell based on the 1 h-deposited GaN nanostructures on n-Si (111) substrate showed a well-defined rectifying behavior with a rectification ratio larger than 8.32 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 3} in dark. Upon illumination (30 mW/cm{sup 2}), the 1 h-deposited heterojunction solar cell device showed a conversion efficiency of 5.78%. The growth of GaN in the absence of NH{sub 3} gas has strong effect on the morphological, optical, and electrical properties and consequently on the efficiency of the solar cell devices made of such layers.

Saron, K. M. A.; Hashim, M. R. [Nano-Optoelectronics Research and Technology Laboratory, School of Physics, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Penang 11800 (Malaysia); Allam, Nageh K. [Energy Materials Laboratory (EML), Department of Physics, School of Sciences and Engineering, The American University in Cairo, New Cairo 11835 (Egypt)

2013-03-28T23:59:59.000Z

366

Controlled polarity of sputter-deposited aluminum nitride on metals observed by aberration corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The polarity determination process of sputter-deposited aluminum nitride (AlN) on metals has been analyzed using aberration corrected atomic resolution scanning transmission electron microscope. Direct growth of c-axis orientated AlN on face centered cubic metals (fcc) (111) with the local epitaxy has been observed, and the polarity was determined at the AlN/metal interface. We found that the AlN polarity can be controlled by the base metal layer: N-polarity AlN grows on Pt(111) while Al-polarity AlN forms on Al(111). Based on these results, the growth mechanism of AlN on metals is discussed.

Harumoto, T. [Department of Metallurgy and Ceramics Science, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1-S8-6 O-okayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8552 (Japan); Department of Materials Science and Technology, Tokyo University of Science, 2641 Yamazaki, Noda, Chiba 278-8510 (Japan); Sannomiya, T.; Matsukawa, Y.; Muraishi, S.; Shi, J.; Nakamura, Y. [Department of Metallurgy and Ceramics Science, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1-S8-6 O-okayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8552 (Japan); Sawada, H. [Japan Electron Optics Laboratory (JEOL) Ltd., 3-1-2 Musashino, Akishima, Tokyo 196-8558 (Japan); Tanaka, T.; Tanishiro, Y.; Takayanagi, K. [Department of Physics, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1-H-51 O-okayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8551 (Japan)

2013-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

367

Effects of Cesium Cations in Lithium Deposition via Self-Healing...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Cesium Cations in Lithium Deposition via Self-Healing Electrostatic Shield Mechanism. Effects of Cesium Cations in Lithium Deposition via Self-Healing Electrostatic Shield...

368

Dendrite-Free Lithium Deposition with Self-Aligned Nanorod Structure...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Dendrite-Free Lithium Deposition with Self-Aligned Nanorod Structure. Dendrite-Free Lithium Deposition with Self-Aligned Nanorod Structure. Abstract: Suppressing lithium (Li)...

369

E-Print Network 3.0 - analysis atmospheric deposition Sample...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

3 Chapter 2: Sources and Deposition of Trace Metals 2.1 Main Sources of Atmospheric Pollution...7 Summary: and dry deposition analysis...

370

E-Print Network 3.0 - atmospheric deposition flux Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

sewer systems, atmospheric deposition... samples of both dry atmospheric deposits and rainwater. All sampling devices comply with requirements... campaigns have been carried at...

371

E-Print Network 3.0 - arc deposition technology Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

role in the Summary: deposition 2 and filtered cathodic vacuum arc 3.such as optical window coatings, scratch resistive... by different types of vapor deposition...

372

The Time of Sands: Quartz-rich Sand Deposits as a Renewable Resource  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

sand production is from unconsolidated units, but the St.and Midwestern U.S. , unconsolidated sand deposits aresand is produced from unconsolidated deposits or hard,

Shaffer, Nelson R.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

373

E-Print Network 3.0 - adjusted deposit insurance Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

such as checking, savings, trust and money market deposit accounts, as well... as certificates of deposit (CDs) and IRAs. Bank accounts generally are insured by the FDIC up...

374

Geology of the Florida Canyon gold deposit, Pershing County,...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Nevada Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Report: Geology of the Florida Canyon gold deposit, Pershing County, Nevada, in: Gold and Silver...

375

Modeling the dynamics and depositional patterns of sandy rivers  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This thesis seeks to advance our understanding of the dynamic nature, spatial organization and depositional record of topography in sand-bedded rivers. I examine patterns and processes over a wide range of scales, on Earth ...

Jerolmack, Douglas J

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

376

SPATIALLY ORGANIZED PARYLENE NANOWIRES FABRICATED BY OBLIQUE ANGLE VAPOR DEPOSITION  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

surfaces by functionalization through two methods: (i) electroless method of creating a porous Nickel 50-80 nm thin nickel film can be obtained by electroless deposition on the pary

Demirel, Melik C.

377

Chapter 8: Modelling Sediment Records of Atmospherically Deposited Contaminants  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

73 Chapter 8: Modelling Sediment Records of Atmospherically Deposited Contaminants 8.1. Catchment the Water Column...............................................79 8.3 Water Column to Bottom Sediment Transfer......................................80 #12;Chapter 8: Modelling Sediment Records... 74 8

Short, Daniel

378

Sediment distribution and depositional processes on the Carnegie Ridge  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Sediment sampling, bathymetric data, and seismic reflection profiling were used to classify sediment deposition patterns on the Carnegie Ridge. Core sampling was used to relate compositional characteristics between equivalent areas, and seismic...

Pazmino Manrique, Nelson Andres

2005-08-29T23:59:59.000Z

379

High density Ru nanocrystal deposition for nonvolatile memory applications  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

High density Ru nanocrystal deposition for nonvolatile memory applications Damon B. Farmer School density optimizes the charge storing capability of the floating layer, while a high degree of size

380

Initiated chemical vapor deposition of functional polyacrylic thin films  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Initiated chemical vapor deposition (iCVD) was explored as a novel method for synthesis of functional polyacrylic thin films. The process introduces a peroxide initiator, which can be decomposed at low temperatures (<200?C) ...

Mao, Yu, 1975-

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "deposition growth cxs" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Fabrication of solid oxide fuel cell by electrochemical vapor deposition  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

In a high temperature solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC), the deposition of an impervious high density thin layer of electrically conductive interconnector material, such as magnesium doped lanthanum chromite, and of an electrolyte material, such as yttria stabilized zirconia, onto a porous support/air electrode substrate surface is carried out at high temperatures (/approximately/1100/degree/ /minus/ 1300/degree/C) by a process of electrochemical vapor deposition. In this process, the mixed chlorides of the specific metals involved react in the gaseous state with water vapor resulting in the deposit of an impervious thin oxide layer on the support tube/air electrode substrate of between 20--50 microns in thickness. An internal heater, such as a heat pipe, is placed within the support tube/air electrode substrate and induces a uniform temperature profile therein so as to afford precise and uniform oxide deposition kinetics in an arrangement which is particularly adapted for large scale, commercial fabrication of SOFCs.

Riley, B.; Szreders, B.E.

1988-04-26T23:59:59.000Z

382

Electrostatic particle trap for ion beam sputter deposition  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method and apparatus for the interception and trapping of or reflection of charged particulate matter generated in ion beam sputter deposition. The apparatus involves an electrostatic particle trap which generates electrostatic fields in the vicinity of the substrate on which target material is being deposited. The electrostatic particle trap consists of an array of electrode surfaces, each maintained at an electrostatic potential, and with their surfaces parallel or perpendicular to the surface of the substrate. The method involves interception and trapping of or reflection of charged particles achieved by generating electrostatic fields in the vicinity of the substrate, and configuring the fields to force the charged particulate material away from the substrate. The electrostatic charged particle trap enables prevention of charged particles from being deposited on the substrate thereby enabling the deposition of extremely low defect density films, such as required for reflective masks of an extreme ultraviolet lithography (EUVL) system.

Vernon, Stephen P. (Pleasanton, CA); Burkhart, Scott C. (Livermore, CA)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

383

Electrochemical deposition of small molecules for electronic materials   

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The method of the deposition of films of small molecules for use in electronic applications is just as important as the molecule design itself as the film’s morphology and continuity influence the performance of the ...

Allwright, Emily Marieke

2014-11-27T23:59:59.000Z

384

Enabling integration of vapor-deposited polymer thin films  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Initiated Chemical Vapor Deposition (iCVD) is a versatile, one-step process for synthesizing conformal and functional polymer thin films on a variety of substrates. This thesis emphasizes the development of tools to further ...

Petruczok, Christy D. (Christy Danielle)

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

385

Direct Deposit When Message Passing meets Shared Thomas M. Stricker  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Direct Deposit ­ When Message Passing meets Shared Memory Thomas M. Stricker May 19, 2000 CMU-CS-96 Copyright c by Thomas M. Stricker Supported in part by the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency

386

Direct Deposit --When Message Passing meets Shared Thomas M. Stricker  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Direct Deposit -- When Message Passing meets Shared Memory Thomas M. Stricker May 19, 2000 CMU Copyright c flby Thomas M. Stricker Supported in part by the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency

387

Enhancement of fine particle deposition to permeable sediments  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Predictions of deposition rate are integral to the transport of many constituents including contaminants, organic matter, and larvae. Review of the literature demonstrates a general appreciation for the potential control ...

Fries, Jerry Stephen, 1972-

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

388

acid deposition assessment: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

440-200 mesh sand enclosed in pipe 2... Hasan, Syed Mir Ahmed 1964-01-01 92 A Radon Progeny Deposition Model Nuclear Experiment (arXiv) Summary: The next generation...

389

aortic calcific deposits: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

440-200 mesh sand enclosed in pipe 2... Hasan, Syed Mir Ahmed 1964-01-01 144 A Radon Progeny Deposition Model Nuclear Experiment (arXiv) Summary: The next generation...

390

airflow gas deposition: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

also to many other fossil groups... Fischer, A. G.; Teichert, C. 1969-01-30 150 A Radon Progeny Deposition Model Nuclear Experiment (arXiv) Summary: The next generation...

391

ag vein deposit: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 181 A Radon Progeny Deposition Model Nuclear Experiment (arXiv) Summary: The next generation...

392

algal wrack deposits: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

440-200 mesh sand enclosed in pipe 2... Hasan, Syed Mir Ahmed 1964-01-01 107 A Radon Progeny Deposition Model Nuclear Experiment (arXiv) Summary: The next generation...

393

acute soil depositions: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 101 A Radon Progeny Deposition Model Nuclear Experiment (arXiv) Summary: The next generation...

394

atmosfaerisk deposition driftsrapport: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

440-200 mesh sand enclosed in pipe 2... Hasan, Syed Mir Ahmed 1964-01-01 22 A Radon Progeny Deposition Model Nuclear Experiment (arXiv) Summary: The next generation...

395

Quantifying channelized submarine depositional systems from bed to basin scale  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The challenges of directly observing active turbidity currents necessitates the consideration of preserved deposits for deciphering the behavior of these systems. In this thesis, I take advantage 3-D subsurface seismic ...

Lyons, William J., 1965-

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

396

Laser-Based Deposition Technique: Patterning Nanoparticles into Microstructures  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Laser-Based Deposition Technique: Patterning Nanoparticles into Microstructures Edward M. Nadgorny Jaroslaw Drelich Michigan Technological University, Houghton, Michigan, U.S.A. INTRODUCTION The laser- tions of unlike materials, and unconventional substrates. The technique makes use of laser

Drelich, Jaroslaw W.

397

Fabrication of solid oxide fuel cell by electrochemical vapor deposition  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

In a high temperature solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC), the deposition of an impervious high density thin layer of electrically conductive interconnector material, such as magnesium doped lanthanum chromite, and of an electrolyte material, such as yttria stabilized zirconia, onto a porous support/air electrode substrate surface is carried out at high temperatures (approximately 1100.degree.-1300.degree. C.) by a process of electrochemical vapor deposition. In this process, the mixed chlorides of the specific metals involved react in the gaseous state with water vapor resulting in the deposit of an impervious thin oxide layer on the support tube/air electrode substrate of between 20-50 microns in thickness. An internal heater, such as a heat pipe, is placed within the support tube/air electrode substrate and induces a uniform temperature profile therein so as to afford precise and uniform oxide deposition kinetics in an arrangement which is particularly adapted for large scale, commercial fabrication of SOFCs.

Brian, Riley (Willimantic, CT); Szreders, Bernard E. (Oakdale, CT)

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

398

Atmospheric Mercury Deposition during the Last 270 Years: A  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Atmospheric Mercury Deposition during the Last 270 Years: A Glacial Ice Core Record of Natural, and U.S. Geological Survey, Wisconsin District Mercury Research Laboratory, Middleton, Wisconsin 53562 Mercury (Hg) contamination of aquatic ecosystems and subsequent methylmercury bioaccumulation

399

Computational Fluid Dynamics Study of Aerosol Transport and Deposition Mechanisms  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In this work, various aerosol particle transport and deposition mechanisms were studied through the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling, including inertial impaction, gravitational effect, lift force, interception, and turbophoresis, within...

Tang, Yingjie

2012-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

400

Travertine Deposits of Soda Dam, New Mexico, and Their Implications...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Travertine Deposits of Soda Dam, New Mexico, and Their Implications for the Age and Evolution of the Valles Caldera Hydrothermal System Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "deposition growth cxs" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

Particle deposition in ventilation ducts: Connectors, bends anddeveloping flow  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In ventilation duct flow the turbulent flow profile is commonly disturbed or not fully developed and these conditions are likely to influence particle deposition to duct surfaces. Particle deposition rates at eight S-connectors, in two 90{sup o} duct bends and in two ducts where the turbulent flow profile was not fully developed were measured in a laboratory duct system with both galvanized steel and internally insulated ducts with hydraulic diameters of 15.2 cm. In the steel duct system, experiments with nominal particle diameters of 1, 3, 5, 9 and 16 {micro}m were conducted at each of three nominal air speeds: 2.2, 5.3 and 9.0 m/s. In the insulated duct system, deposition of particles with nominal diameters of 1, 3, 5, 8 and 13 {micro}m was measured at nominal air speeds of 2.2, 5.3 and 8.8 m/s. Fluorescent techniques were used to directly measure the deposition velocities of monodisperse fluorescent particles to duct surfaces. Deposition at S-connectors, in bends and in straight ducts with developing turbulence was often greater than deposition in straight ducts with fully developed turbulence for equal particle sizes, air speeds and duct surface orientations. Deposition rates at all locations were found to increase with an increase in particle size or air speed. High deposition rates at S-connectors resulted from impaction and these rates were nearly independent of the orientation of the S-connector. Deposition rates in the two 90{sup o} bends differed by more than an order of magnitude in some cases, probably because of the difference in turbulence conditions at the bend inlets. In straight steel ducts where the turbulent flow profile was developing, the deposition enhancement relative to fully developed turbulence generally increased with air speed and decreased with downstream distance from the duct inlet. This enhancement was greater at the duct ceiling and wall than at the duct floor. In insulated ducts, deposition enhancement was less pronounced overall than in steel ducts. Trends that were observed in steel ducts were present, but weaker, in insulated ducts.

Sippola, Mark R.; Nazaroff, William W.

2004-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

402

Dry deposition of gaseous elemental iodine on water  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

to receptor is essential in hazard evaluation. These processes include diffusion in the atmosphere and deposition on the earth's surface, followed by translocation through bioenvironmental pathways. All nuclear power plants sre constructed near a large... body of water used for cooling, and, at the present time, all nuclear plants release gaseous radioiodine. As a result, deposition of I2 on surface water is sn additional exposure pathway which must be considered when evaluating the hazard...

Allen, Michael Dana

1974-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

403

Molybdenum enhanced low-temperature deposition of crystalline silicon nitride  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process for chemical vapor deposition of crystalline silicon nitride is described which comprises the steps of: introducing a mixture of a silicon source, a molybdenum source, a nitrogen source, and a hydrogen source into a vessel containing a suitable substrate; and thermally decomposing the mixture to deposit onto the substrate a coating comprising crystalline silicon nitride containing a dispersion of molybdenum silicide. 5 figures.

Lowden, R.A.

1994-04-05T23:59:59.000Z

404

Functional Nano-Structures Using Atomic Layer Deposition  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, in particular Suresh Mistry, Pete Bone, Owen Dunn, Ian Ganney, Sue Murkett, Sue Gymer and Tom Mitchell. Special thanks go to Tom for his extensive knowledge and for making the many hours spent in the cleanroom more enjoyable. I also wish to thank Prof. Sir Mark... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54 5.3.1 Principles of electrochemical deposition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54 5.3.2 Deposition of metals and metal oxides . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55 5.4 Solar cell fabrication . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56 5.4.1 Dye...

Salgård Cunha, Pedro

2014-05-27T23:59:59.000Z

405

Precursors for the polymer-assisted deposition of films  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A polymer assisted deposition process for deposition of metal oxide films is presented. The process includes solutions of one or more metal precursor and soluble polymers having binding properties for the one or more metal precursor. After a coating operation, the resultant coating is heated at high temperatures to yield metal oxide films. Such films can be epitaxial in structure and can be of optical quality. The process can be organic solvent-free.

McCleskey, Thomas M.; Burrell, Anthony K.; Jia, Quanxi; Lin, Yuan

2013-09-10T23:59:59.000Z

406

Rate-dependent morphology of Li2O2 growth in Li-O2 batteries  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Compact solid discharge products enable energy storage devices with high gravimetric and volumetric energy densities, but solid deposits on active surfaces can disturb charge transport and induce mechanical stress. In this Letter we develop a nanoscale continuum model for the growth of Li2O2 crystals in lithium-oxygen batteries with organic electrolytes, based on a theory of electrochemical non-equilibrium thermodynamics originally applied to Li-ion batteries. As in the case of lithium insertion in phase-separating LiFePO4 nanoparticles, the theory predicts a transition from complex to uniform morphologies of Li2O2 with increasing current. Discrete particle growth at low discharge rates becomes suppressed at high rates, resulting in a film of electronically insulating Li2O2 that limits cell performance. We predict that the transition between these surface growth modes occurs at current densities close to the exchange current density of the cathode reaction, consistent with experimental observations.

Horstmann, B; Mitchell, R; Bessler, W G; Shao-Horn, Y; Bazant, M Z

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

407

Visualizing Iron Deposition in Multiple Sclerosis Cadaver Brains  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Aim: To visualize and validate iron deposition in two cases of multiple sclerosis using rapid scanning X-Ray Fluorescence (RS-XRF) and Susceptibility Weighted Imaging (SWI). Material and Methods: Two (2) coronal cadaver brain slices from patients clinically diagnosed with multiple sclerosis underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), specifically SWI to image iron content. To confirm the presence of iron deposits and the absence of zinc-rich myelin in lesions, iron and zinc were mapped using RS-XRF. Results: MS lesions were visualized using FLAIR and correlated with the absence of zinc by XRF. XRF and SWI showed that in the first MS case, there were large iron deposits proximal to the draining vein of the caudate nucleus as well as iron deposits associated with blood vessels throughout the globus pallidus. Less iron was seen in association with lesions than in the basal ganglia. The presence of larger amounts of iron correlated reasonably well between RS-XRF and SWI. In the second case, the basal ganglia appeared normal and acute perivascular iron deposition was absent. Conclusion: Perivascular iron deposition is seen in some but not all MS cases, giving credence to the use of SWI to assess iron involvement in MS pathology in vivo.

Habib, Charbel A.; Zheng Weili; Mark Haacke, E. [Department Of Biomedical Engineering, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI 48202 (United States); Webb, Sam [Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource, Stanford Linear Accelerator Complex National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, California (United States); Nichol, Helen [Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, University of Saskatchewan, 107 Wiggins Rd. Rm A302, Saskatoon, SK S7N5E5 (Canada)

2010-07-23T23:59:59.000Z

408

Natural mercury isotope variation in coal deposits and organic soils  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

There is a need to distinguish among sources of Hg to the atmosphere in order to more fully understand global Hg pollution. In this study we investigate whether coal deposits within the United States, China, and Russia-Kazakhstan, which are three of the five greatest coal-producing regions, have diagnostic Hg isotopic fingerprints that can be used to discriminate among Hg sources. We also investigate the Hg isotopic composition of modern organic soil horizons developed in areas distant from point sources of Hg in North America. Mercury stored in coal deposits displays a wide range of both mass dependent fractionation and mass independent fractionation. {delta}{sup 202}Hg varies in coals by 3{per_thousand} and {Delta}{sup 201}Hg varies by 0.9{per_thousand}. Combining these two Hg isotope signals results in what may be a unique isotopic 'fingerprint' for many coal deposits. Mass independent fractionation of mercury has been demonstrated to occur during photochemical reactions of mercury. This suggests that Hg found in most coal deposits was subjected to photochemical reduction near the Earth's surface prior to deposition. The similarity in MDF and MIF of modern organic soils and coals from North America suggests that Hg deposition from coal may have imprinted an isotopic signature on soils. This research offers a new tool for characterizing mercury inputs from natural and anthropogenic sources to the atmosphere and provides new insights into the geochemistry of mercury in coal and soils. 35 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

Abir, Biswas; Joel D. Blum; Bridget A. Bergquist; Gerald J. Keeler; Zhouqing Xie [University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States). Department of Geological Sciences

2008-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

409

Modeling atmospheric deposition using a stochastic transport model  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An advanced stochastic transport model has been modified to include the removal mechanisms of dry and wet deposition. Time-dependent wind and turbulence fields are generated with a prognostic mesoscale numerical model and are used to advect and disperse individually released particles that are each assigned a mass. These particles are subjected to mass reduction in two ways depending on their physical location. Particles near the surface experience a decrease in mass using the concept of a dry deposition velocity, while the mass of particles located within areas of precipitation are depleted using a scavenging coefficient. Two levels of complexity are incorporated into the particle model. The simple case assumes constant values of dry deposition velocity and scavenging coefficient, while the more complex case varies the values according to meteorology, surface conditions, release material, and precipitation intensity. Instantaneous and cumulative dry and wet deposition are determined from the mass loss due to these physical mechanisms. A useful means of validating the model results is with data available from a recent accidental release of Cesium-137 from a steel-processing furnace in Algeciras, Spain in May, 1998. This paper describes the deposition modeling technique, as well as a comparison of simulated concentration and deposition with measurements taken for the Algeciras release.

Buckley, R.L.

1999-12-17T23:59:59.000Z

410

Epitaxial growth of VO{sub 2} by periodic annealing  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We report the growth of ultrathin VO{sub 2} films on rutile TiO{sub 2} (001) substrates via reactive molecular-beam epitaxy. The films were formed by the cyclical deposition of amorphous vanadium and its subsequent oxidation and transformation to VO{sub 2} via solid-phase epitaxy. Significant metal-insulator transitions were observed in films as thin as 2.3?nm, where a resistance change ?R/R of 25 was measured. Low angle annular dark field scanning transmission electron microscopy was used in conjunction with electron energy loss spectroscopy to study the film/substrate interface and revealed the vanadium to be tetravalent and the titanium interdiffusion to be limited to 1.6?nm.

Tashman, J. W.; Paik, H.; Merz, T. A. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853-1501 (United States); Lee, J. H. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853-1501 (United States); Neutron Science Division, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon 305-353 (Korea, Republic of); Moyer, J. A.; Schiffer, P. [Department of Physics, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States); Frederick Seitz Materials Research Laboratory, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States); Misra, R. [Department of Physics and Materials Research Institute, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania 16802 (United States); Mundy, J. A. [School of Applied and Engineering Physics, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853 (United States); Spila, T. [Frederick Seitz Materials Research Laboratory, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States); Schubert, J. [Peter Grünberg Institute, PGI 9-IT, JARA-FIT, Research Centre Jülich, D-52425 Jülich (Germany); Muller, D. A. [School of Applied and Engineering Physics, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853 (United States); Kavli Institute at Cornell for Nanoscale Science, Ithaca, New York 14853 (United States); Schlom, D. G., E-mail: schlom@cornell.edu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853-1501 (United States); Kavli Institute at Cornell for Nanoscale Science, Ithaca, New York 14853 (United States)

2014-02-10T23:59:59.000Z

411

Method and apparatus for removing and preventing window deposition during photochemical vapor deposition (photo-CVD) processes  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Unwanted build-up of the film deposited on the transparent light-transmitting window of a photochemical vacuum deposition (photo-CVD) chamber is eliminated by flowing an etchant into the part of the photolysis region in the chamber immediately adjacent the window and remote from the substrate and from the process gas inlet. The respective flows of the etchant and the process gas are balanced to confine the etchant reaction to the part of the photolysis region proximate to the window and remote from the substrate. The etchant is preferably one that etches film deposit on the window, does not etch or affect the window itself, and does not produce reaction by-products that are deleterious to either the desired film deposited on the substrate or to the photolysis reaction adjacent the substrate. 3 figs.

Tsuo, S.; Langford, A.A.

1989-03-28T23:59:59.000Z

412

Method and apparatus for removing and preventing window deposition during photochemical vapor deposition (photo-CVD) processes  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Unwanted build-up of the film deposited on the transparent light-transmitting window of a photochemical vacuum deposition (photo-CVD) chamber is eliminated by flowing an etchant into the part of the photolysis region in the chamber immediately adjacent the window and remote from the substrate and from the process gas inlet. The respective flows of the etchant and the process gas are balanced to confine the etchant reaction to the part of the photolysis region proximate to the window and remote from the substrate. The etchant is preferably one that etches film deposit on the window, does not etch or affect the window itself, and does not produce reaction by-products that are deleterious to either the desired film deposited on the substrate or to the photolysis reaction adjacent the substrate.

Tsuo, Simon (Lakewood, CO); Langford, Alison A. (Boulder, CO)

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

413

Economic Growth and Development Economics 777  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Economic Growth and Development Economics 777 July 18, 2008 Fall Semester 2008 Professor J. H. Mc of economic growth and development. We will analyze several different growth models and look at some recent empirical research. Text The text for this course is: Economic Growth (2nd Edition) by Robert J. Barro

Almor, Amit

414

Scaling in the crossover from random to correlated growth  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In systems where deposition rates are high compared to diffusion, desorption and other mechanisms that generate correlations, a crossover from random to correlated growth of surface roughness is expected at a characteristic time t_0. This crossover is analyzed in lattice models via scaling arguments, with support from simulation results presented here and in other authors works. We argue that the amplitudes of the saturation roughness and of the saturation time scale as {t_0}^{1/2} and t_0, respectively. For models with lateral aggregation, which typically are in the Kardar-Parisi-Zhang (KPZ) class, we show that t_0 ~ 1/p, where p is the probability of the correlated aggregation mechanism to take place. However, t_0 ~ 1/p^2 is obtained in solid-on-solid models with single particle deposition attempts. This group includes models in various universality classes, with numerical examples being provided in the Edwards-Wilkinson (EW), KPZ and Villain-Lai-Das Sarma (nonlinear molecular-beam epitaxy) classes. Most applications are for two-component models in which random deposition, with probability 1-p, competes with a correlated aggregation process with probability p. However, our approach can be extended to other systems with the same crossover, such as the generalized restricted solid-on-solid model with maximum height difference S, for large S. Moreover, the scaling approach applies to all dimensions. In the particular case of one-dimensional KPZ processes with this crossover, we show that t_0 ~ nu^{-1} and nu ~ lambda^{2/3}, where nu and lambda are the coefficients of the linear and nonlinear terms of the associated KPZ equations. The applicability of previous results on models in the EW and KPZ classes is discussed.

Fabio D. A. Aarao Reis

2006-02-03T23:59:59.000Z

415

In-situ deposition of high-k dielectrics on III-V compound semiconductor in MOCVD system  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In situ deposition of high-k materials to passivate the GaAs in metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) system was well demonstrated. Both atomic layer deposition (ALD) and chemical vapor deposition (CVD) methods ...

Cheng, Cheng-Wei, Ph.D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

416

Pulsed Laser CVD Investigations of Single-Wall Carbon Nanotube Growth Dynamics  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The nucleation and rapid growth of single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) were explored by pulsed-laser assisted chemical vapor deposition (PLA-CVD). A special high-power, Nd:YAG laser system with tunable pulse width (> 0.5 ms) was implemented to rapidly heat (>30,000 C/s) metal catalyst-covered substrates to different growth temperatures for very brief (sub-second) and controlled time periods as measured by in situ optical pyrometry. Utilizing growth directly on transmission electron microscopy grids, exclusively SWNTs were found to grow under rapid heating conditions, with a minimum nucleation time of >0.10 s. By measuring the length of nanotubes grown by single laser pulses, extremely fast growth rates (up to 100 microns/s) were found to result from the rapid heating and cooling induced by the laser treatment. Subsequent laser pulses were found not to incrementally continue the growth of these nanotubes, but instead activate previously inactive catalyst nanoparticles to grow new nanotubes. Localized growth of nanotubes with variable density was demonstrated through this process, and was applied for the reliable direct-write synthesis of SWNTs onto pre-patterned, catalyst-covered metal electrodes for the synthesis of SWNT field-effect transistors.

Geohegan, David B [ORNL] [ORNL; Liu, Zuqin [ORNL] [ORNL; Styers-Barnett, David J [ORNL] [ORNL; Puretzky, Alexander A [ORNL] [ORNL; Rouleau, Christopher M [ORNL] [ORNL; Yuan, Dongning [Duke University] [Duke University; Ivanov, Ilia N [ORNL] [ORNL; Xiao, Kai [ORNL] [ORNL; Liu, Jie [Duke University] [Duke University

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

417

Nitrogen doping of chemical vapor deposition grown graphene on 4H-SiC (0001)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We present optical, electrical, and structural properties of nitrogen-doped graphene grown on the Si face of 4H-SiC (0001) by chemical vapor deposition method using propane as the carbon precursor and N{sub 2} as the nitrogen source. The incorporation of nitrogen in the carbon lattice was confirmed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy shows carrier behavior characteristic for massless Dirac fermions and confirms the presence of a graphene monolayer in the investigated nitrogen-doped samples. The structural and electronic properties of the material were investigated by Raman spectroscopy. A systematical analysis of the graphene Raman spectra, including D, G, and 2D bands, was performed. In the case of nitrogen-doped samples, an electron concentration on the order of 5–10 × 10{sup 12}?cm{sup ?2} was estimated based upon Raman and Hall effect measurements and no clear dependence of the carrier concentration on nitrogen concentration used during growth was observed. This high electron concentration can be interpreted as both due to the presence of nitrogen in graphitic-like positions of the graphene lattice as well as to the interaction with the substrate. A greater intensity of the Raman D band and increased inhomogeneity, as well as decreased electron mobility, observed for nitrogen-doped samples, indicate the formation of defects and a modification of the growth process induced by nitrogen doping.

Urban, J. M.; Binder, J.; Wysmo?ek, A. [Faculty of Physics, University of Warsaw, ul. Ho?a 69, 00-681 Warsaw (Poland); D?browski, P.; Strupi?ski, W. [Institute of Electronic Materials Technology, ul. Wólczy?ska 133, 01-919 Warsaw (Poland); Kopciuszy?ski, M.; Ja?ochowski, M. [Institute of Physics, Maria Curie-Sk?odowska University, pl. M. Curie-Sk?odowskiej 1, 20-031 Lublin (Poland); Klusek, Z. [Faculty of Physics and Applied Informatics, University of ?ód?, ul. Pomorska 149/153, 90-236 ?ód? (Poland); Baranowski, J. M. [Faculty of Physics, University of Warsaw, ul. Ho?a 69, 00-681 Warsaw (Poland); Institute of Electronic Materials Technology, ul. Wólczy?ska 133, 01-919 Warsaw (Poland)

2014-06-21T23:59:59.000Z

418

Methods for improved growth of group III nitride buffer layers  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Methods are disclosed for growing high crystal quality group III-nitride epitaxial layers with advanced multiple buffer layer techniques. In an embodiment, a method includes forming group III-nitride buffer layers that contain aluminum on suitable substrate in a processing chamber of a hydride vapor phase epitaxy processing system. A hydrogen halide or halogen gas is flowing into the growth zone during deposition of buffer layers to suppress homogeneous particle formation. Some combinations of low temperature buffers that contain aluminum (e.g., AlN, AlGaN) and high temperature buffers that contain aluminum (e.g., AlN, AlGaN) may be used to improve crystal quality and morphology of subsequently grown group III-nitride epitaxial layers. The buffer may be deposited on the substrate, or on the surface of another buffer. The additional buffer layers may be added as interlayers in group III-nitride layers (e.g., GaN, AlGaN, AlN).

Melnik, Yurity; Chen, Lu; Kojiri, Hidehiro

2014-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

419

Understanding the deposition mechanism of pulsed laser deposited B-C films using dual-targets  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Boron carbide thin films with stoichiometry (boron-carbon atomic ratio) range of 0.1???8.9 were fabricated via pulsed laser deposition by using boron-carbon dual-targets. However, this experimental data on stoichiometry were smaller than the computer simulation values. The discrepancy was investigated by studies on composition and microstructure of the thin films and targets by scanning electron microscopy, excitation laser Raman spectroscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The results indicate that the boron liquid droplets were formed by phase explosion after laser irradiation on boron sector. Part of the boron droplets would be lost via ejection in the direction of laser beam, which is tilted 45° to the surface of substrate.

Zhang, Song [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Technology for Material Synthesis and Processing, Wuhan University of Technology, 122 Luoshi Road, Wuhan 430070 (China); School of Optical and Electronic Information, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, 1037 Louyu Road, Wuhan 430074 (China); He, Zhiqiang; Wang, Chuanbin; Shen, Qiang; Zhang, Lianmeng [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Technology for Material Synthesis and Processing, Wuhan University of Technology, 122 Luoshi Road, Wuhan 430070 (China); Ji, Xiaoli, E-mail: kobe@whut.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Silicate Materials for Architectures, Wuhan University of Technology, 122 Luoshi Road, Wuhan 430070 (China); Lu, Wenzhong [School of Optical and Electronic Information, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, 1037 Louyu Road, Wuhan 430074 (China)

2014-04-21T23:59:59.000Z

420

Nucleation kinetics during homoepitaxial growth of TiN(001) by reactive magnetron sputtering Marcel A. Wall, David G. Cahill, I. Petrov, D. Gall, and J. E. Greene  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Nucleation kinetics during homoepitaxial growth of TiN(001) by reactive magnetron sputtering Marcel to study the nucleation of homoepitaxial TiN layers grown on TiN(001) by ultrahigh vacuum reactive kinet- ics of TiN, a two-component refractory ceramic, on TiN 001 . TiN, typically deposited by reactive

Gall, Daniel

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421

Ash Deposit Formation and Deposit Properties. A Comprehensive Summary of Research Conducted at Sandia's Combustion Research Facility  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report summarizes experimental and theoretical work performed at Sandia's Combustion Research Facility over the past eight years on the fate of inorganic material during coal combustion. This work has been done under four broad categories: coal characterization, fly ash formation, ash deposition, and deposit property development. The objective was to provide sufficient understanding of these four areas to be able to predict coal behavior in current and advanced conversion systems. This work has led to new characterization techniques for fuels that provide, for the first time, systematic and species specific information regarding the inorganic material. The transformations of inorganic material during combustion can be described in terms of the net effects of the transformations of these individual species. Deposit formation mechanisms provide a framework for predicting deposition rates for abroad range of particle sizes. Predictions based on these rates many times are quite accurate although there are important exceptions. A rigorous framework for evaluating deposit has been established. Substantial data have been obtained with which to exercise this framework, but this portion of the work is less mature than is any other. Accurate prediction of deposit properties as functions of fuel properties, boiler design, and boiler operating conditions represents the single most critical area where additional research is needed.

Larry L. Baxter

2000-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

422

Epitaxial strontium titanate films grown by atomic layer deposition on SrTiO{sub 3}-buffered Si(001) substrates  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Epitaxial strontium titanate (STO) films have been grown by atomic layer deposition (ALD) on Si(001) substrates with a thin STO buffer layer grown by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE). Four unit cells of STO grown by MBE serve as the surface template for ALD growth. The STO films grown by ALD are crystalline as-deposited with minimal, if any, amorphous SiO{sub x} layer at the STO-Si interface. The growth of STO was achieved using bis(triisopropylcyclopentadienyl)-strontium, titanium tetraisopropoxide, and water as the coreactants at a substrate temperature of 250 Degree-Sign C. In situ x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis revealed that the ALD process did not induce additional Si-O bonding at the STO-Si interface. Postdeposition XPS analysis also revealed sporadic carbon incorporation in the as-deposited films. However, annealing at a temperature of 250 Degree-Sign C for 30 min in moderate to high vacuum (10{sup -6}-10{sup -9} Torr) removed the carbon species. Higher annealing temperatures (>275 Degree-Sign C) gave rise to a small increase in Si-O bonding, as indicated by XPS, but no reduced Ti species were observed. X-ray diffraction revealed that the as-deposited STO films were c-axis oriented and fully crystalline. A rocking curve around the STO(002) reflection gave a full width at half maximum of 0.30 Degree-Sign {+-} 0.06 Degree-Sign for film thicknesses ranging from 5 to 25 nm. Cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy revealed that the STO films were continuous with conformal growth to the substrate and smooth interfaces between the ALD- and MBE-grown STO. Overall, the results indicate that thick, crystalline STO can be grown on Si(001) substrates by ALD with minimal formation of an amorphous SiO{sub x} layer using a four-unit-cell STO buffer layer grown by MBE to serve as the surface template.

McDaniel, Martin D.; Posadas, Agham; Ngo, Thong Q.; Dhamdhere, Ajit; Smith, David J.; Demkov, Alexander A.; Ekerdt, John G. [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Texas at Austin, 1 University Station C0400, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States); Department of Physics, University of Texas at Austin, 1 University Station C1600, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States); Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Texas at Austin, 1 University Station C0400, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States); Department of Physics, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona 85287-1504 (United States); Department of Physics, University of Texas at Austin, 1 University Station C1600, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States); Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Texas at Austin, 1 University Station C0400, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States)

2013-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

423

Nonlinear structural crack growth monitoring  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method and apparatus are provided for the detection, through nonlinear manipulation of data, of an indicator of imminent failure due to crack growth in structural elements. The method is a process of determining energy consumption due to crack growth and correlating the energy consumption with physical phenomena indicative of a failure event. The apparatus includes sensors for sensing physical data factors, processors or the like for computing a relationship between the physical data factors and phenomena indicative of the failure event, and apparatus for providing notification of the characteristics and extent of such phenomena.

Welch, Donald E. (Oak Ridge, TN); Hively, Lee M. (Philadelphia, TN); Holdaway, Ray F. (Clinton, TN)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

424

Digital electronic bone growth stimulator  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A device is described for stimulating bone tissue by applying a low level alternating current signal directly to the patient`s skin. A crystal oscillator, a binary divider chain and digital logic gates are used to generate the desired waveforms that reproduce the natural electrical characteristics found in bone tissue needed for stimulating bone growth and treating osteoporosis. The device, powered by a battery, contains a switch allowing selection of the correct waveform for bone growth stimulation or osteoporosis treatment so that, when attached to the skin of the patient using standard skin contact electrodes, the correct signal is communicated to the underlying bone structures. 5 figs.

Kronberg, J.W.

1995-05-09T23:59:59.000Z

425

Digital electronic bone growth stimulator  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A device for stimulating bone tissue by applying a low level alternating current signal directly to the patient's skin. A crystal oscillator, a binary divider chain and digital logic gates are used to generate the desired waveforms that reproduce the natural electrical characteristics found in bone tissue needed for stimulating bone growth and treating osteoporosis. The device, powered by a battery, contains a switch allowing selection of the correct waveform for bone growth stimulation or osteoporosis treatment so that, when attached to the skin of the patient using standard skin contact electrodes, the correct signal is communicated to the underlying bone structures.

Kronberg, James W. (Aiken, SC)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

426

Photovoltaic cells fabricated by electrophoretic deposition of CdSe nanocrystals  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Photovoltaic cells fabricated by electrophoretic deposition of CdSe nanocrystals Nathanael J. Smith Electrophoretic deposition was used to deposit CdSe nanocrystals on TiO2 for use in photovoltaic cells formed. A solar cell constructed using electrophoretic deposition exhibited a photovoltaic response from

Smith, Nathanael J.

427

Criticality safety concerns of uranium deposits in cascade equipment  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Paducah and Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plants enrich uranium in the {sup 235}U isotope by diffusing gaseous uranium hexafluoride (UF{sub 6}) through a porous barrier. The UF{sub 6} gaseous diffusion cascade utilized several thousand {open_quotes}stages{close_quotes} of barrier to produce highly enriched uranium (HEU). Historically, Portsmouth has enriched the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant`s product (typically 1.8 wt% {sup 235}U) as well as natural enrichment feed stock up to 97 wt%. Due to the chemical reactivity of UF{sub 6}, particularly with water, the formation of solid uranium deposits occur at a gaseous diffusion plant. Much of the equipment operates below atmospheric pressure, and deposits are formed when atmospheric air enters the cascade. Deposits may also be formed from UF{sub 6} reactions with oil, UF{sub 6} reactions with the metallic surfaces of equipment, and desublimation of UF{sub 6}. The major deposits form as a result of moist air in leakage due to failure of compressor casing flanges, blow-off plates, seals, expansion joint convolutions, and instrument lines. This report describes criticality concerns and deposit disposition.

Plaster, M.J. [Lockheed Martin Utility Services, Inc., Piketon, OH (United States)

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

428

Phenolic acids as bioindicators of fly ash deposit revegetation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The floristic composition, the abundance, and the cover of pioneer plant species of spontaneously formed plant communities and the content of total phenolics and phenolic acids, as humus constituents, of an ash deposit after 7 years of recultivation were studied. The restoration of both the soil and the vegetation on the ash deposits of the 'Nikola Tesla-A' thermoelectric power plant in Obrenovac (Serbia) is an extremely slow process. Unfavorable physical and chemical characteristics, the toxicity of fly ash, and extreme microclimatic conditions prevented the development of compact plant cover. The abundance and cover of plants increased from the central part of the deposit towards its edges. Festuca rubra L., Crepis setosa Hall., Erigeron canadensis L., Cirsium arvense (L.) Scop., Calamagrostis epigeios (L.) Roth., and Tamarix gallica L. were the most abundant species, thus giving the highest cover. Humus generated during the decomposition process of plant remains represents a completely new product absent in the ash as the starting material. The amount of total phenolics and phenolic acids in fly ash increased from the center of the deposit towards its edges in correlation with the increase in plant abundance and cover. The presence of phenolic acids indicates the ongoing process of humus formation in the ash, in which the most abundant pioneer plants of spontaneously formed plant communities play the main role. Phenolic compounds can serve as reliable bioindicators in an assessment of the success of the recultivation process of thermoelectric power plants' ash deposits.

L. Djurdjevic; M. Mitrovic; P. Pavlovic; G. Gajic; O. Kostic [Institute for Biological Research 'Sinisa Stankovic,' Belgrade (Serbia and Montenegro). Department of Ecology

2006-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

429

1988 Wet deposition temporal and spatial patterns in North America  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The focus of this report is on North American wet deposition temporal patterns from 1979 to 1988 and spatial patterns for 1988. It is the third in a series of reports that investigate the patterns of annual precipitation-weighted average concentration and annual deposition for nine ion species: hydrogen, sulfate, nitrate, ammonium, calcium, chloride, sodium, potassium, and magnesium. Mosaic maps, based on surface estimation using kriging, display concentration and deposition spatial patterns of pH, hydrogen, sulfate, nitrate, ammonium, and calcium ion species for 1988 annual, winter, and summer periods. Temporal pattern analyses use a subset of 35 sites over a 10-year (1979--1988) period and an expanded subset of 137 sites, with greater spatial coverage, over a 7-year (1982--1988) period. The 10-year period represents the longest period with wet deposition monitoring data available that has a sufficient number of sites with data of known quality to allow a descriptive summary of annual temporal patterns. Sen's median trend estimate and Kendall's seasonal tau (KST) test are calculated for each ion species concentration and deposition at each site in both subsets.

Simpson, J.C.; Olsen, A.R.; Bittner, E.A.

1992-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

430

1988 Wet deposition temporal and spatial patterns in North America  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The focus of this report is on North American wet deposition temporal patterns from 1979 to 1988 and spatial patterns for 1988. It is the third in a series of reports that investigate the patterns of annual precipitation-weighted average concentration and annual deposition for nine ion species: hydrogen, sulfate, nitrate, ammonium, calcium, chloride, sodium, potassium, and magnesium. Mosaic maps, based on surface estimation using kriging, display concentration and deposition spatial patterns of pH, hydrogen, sulfate, nitrate, ammonium, and calcium ion species for 1988 annual, winter, and summer periods. Temporal pattern analyses use a subset of 35 sites over a 10-year (1979--1988) period and an expanded subset of 137 sites, with greater spatial coverage, over a 7-year (1982--1988) period. The 10-year period represents the longest period with wet deposition monitoring data available that has a sufficient number of sites with data of known quality to allow a descriptive summary of annual temporal patterns. Sen`s median trend estimate and Kendall`s seasonal tau (KST) test are calculated for each ion species concentration and deposition at each site in both subsets.

Simpson, J.C.; Olsen, A.R.; Bittner, E.A.

1992-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

431

Modeling of thermophoretic deposition of aerosols in nuclear reactor containments  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Aerosol released in postulated or real nuclear reactor accidents can deposit on containment surfaces via motion induced by temperature gradients in addition to the motion due to diffusion and gravity. The deposition due to temperature gradients is known as thermophoretic deposition, and it is currently modeled in codes such as CONTAIN in direct analogy with heat transfer, but there have been questions about such analogies. This paper focuses on a numerical solution of the particle continuity equation in laminar flow condition characteristics of natural convection. First, the thermophoretic deposition rate is calculated as a function of the Prandtl and Schmidt numbers, the thermophoretic coefficient K, and the temperature difference between the atmosphere and the wall. Then, the cases of diffusion alone and a boundary-layer approximation (due to Batchelor and Shen) to the full continuity equation are considered. It is noted that an analogy with heat transfer does not hold, but for the circumstances considered in this paper, the deposition rates from the diffusion solution and the boundary-layer approximation can be added to provide reasonably good agreement (maximum deviation 30%) with the full solution of the particle continuity equation. Finally, correlations useful for implementation in the reactor source term codes are provided.

Fernandes, A.; Loyalka, S.K. [Univ. of Missouri, Columbia, MO (United States)

1996-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

432

MODELING OF THERMOPHORETIC SOOT DEPOSITION ANDHYDROCARBON CONDENSATION IN EGR COOLERS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

EGR coolers are effective to reduce NOx emissions from diesel engines due to lower intake charge temperature. EGR cooler fouling reduces heat transfer capacity of the cooler significantly and increases pressure drop across the cooler. Engine coolant provided at 40-90 C is used to cool EGR coolers. The presence of a cold surface in the cooler causes particulate soot deposition and hydrocarbon condensation. The experimental data also indicates that the fouling is mainly caused by soot and hydrocarbons. In this study, a 1-D model is extended to simulate particulate soot and hydrocarbon deposition on a concentric tube EGR cooler with a constant wall temperature. The soot deposition caused by thermophoresis phenomena is taken into account the model. Condensation of a wide range of hydrocarbon molecules are also modeled but the results show condensation of only heavy molecules at coolant temperature. Thermal properties of fouled layer are calculated based on mass fraction of deposited soot and hydrocarbons. The experiments with the same conditions ran to validate the model. Hot EGR gases flow through the inner pipe and the coolant circulates around it in the outer pipe to keep a constant wall temperature. Effectiveness, deposited soot mass, condensed hydrocarbon mass, and pressure drop across the cooler are the parameters that have been compared. The results of the model are in a reasonably good agreement with the experimental results although there are some fields that need to be studied in future to improve the model.

Abarham, Mehdi [University of Michigan; Hoard, John W. [University of Michigan; Assanis, Dennis [University of Michigan; Styles, Dan [Ford Motor Company; Curtis, Eric W. [Ford Motor Company; Ramesh, Nitia [Ford Motor Company; Sluder, Scott [ORNL; Storey, John Morse [ORNL

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

433

ANEMOS: A computer code to estimate air concentrations and ground deposition rates for atmospheric nuclides emitted from multiple operating sources  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This code estimates concentrations in air and ground deposition rates for Atmospheric Nuclides Emitted from Multiple Operating Sources. ANEMOS is one component of an integrated Computerized Radiological Risk Investigation System (CRRIS) developed for the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) for use in performing radiological assessments and in developing radiation standards. The concentrations and deposition rates calculated by ANEMOS are used in subsequent portions of the CRRIS for estimating doses and risks to man. The calculations made in ANEMOS are based on the use of a straight-line Gaussian plume atmospheric dispersion model with both dry and wet deposition parameter options. The code will accommodate a ground-level or elevated point and area source or windblown source. Adjustments may be made during the calculations for surface roughness, building wake effects, terrain height, wind speed at the height of release, the variation in plume rise as a function of downwind distance, and the in-growth and decay of daughter products in the plume as it travels downwind. ANEMOS can also accommodate multiple particle sizes and clearance classes, and it may be used to calculate the dose from a finite plume of gamma-ray-emitting radionuclides passing overhead. The output of this code is presented for 16 sectors of a circular grid. ANEMOS can calculate both the sector-average concentrations and deposition rates at a given set of downwind distances in each sector and the average of these quantities over an area within each sector bounded by two successive downwind distances. ANEMOS is designed to be used primarily for continuous, long-term radionuclide releases. This report describes the models used in the code, their computer implementation, the uncertainty associated with their use, and the use of ANEMOS in conjunction with other codes in the CRRIS. A listing of the code is included in Appendix C.

Miller, C.W.; Sjoreen, A.L.; Begovich, C.L.; Hermann, O.W.

1986-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

434

The Cutaneous Epidermal Growth Factor Network: Can it be Translated Clinically to Stimulate Hair Growth?  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of epidermal growth factor on hair growth in the mouse. Jstem cell character in hair follicles. Science. 2006;312:Notch signalling pathway in hair growth. Mech Dev. 1998;78:

Alexandrescu, Doru T; Kauffman, C Lisa; Dasanu, Constantin A

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

435

Giant planet formation: episodic impacts vs. gradual core growth  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We describe the growth of gas giant planets in the core accretion scenario. The core growth is not modeled as a gradual accretion of planetesimals but as episodic impacts of large mass ratios, i.e. we study impacts of 0.02 - 1 Earth masses onto cores of 1-15 Earth masses. Such impacts could deliver the majority of solid matter in the giant impact regime. We focus on the thermal response of the envelope to the energy delivery. Previous studies have shown that sudden shut off of core accretion can dramatically speed up gas accretion. We therefore expect that giant impacts followed by periods of very low core accretion will result in a net increase in gas accretion rate. This study aims at modelling such a sequence of events and to understand the reaction of the envelope to giant impacts in more detail. To model this scenario, we spread the impact energy deposition over a time that is long compared to the sound crossing time, but very short compared to the Kelvin-Helmholtz time. The simulations are done in spher...

Broeg, Christopher

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

436

Deposition of device quality low H content, amorphous silicon films  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A high quality, low hydrogen content, hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) film is deposited by passing a stream of silane gas (SiH{sub 4}) over a high temperature, 2,000 C, tungsten (W) filament in the proximity of a high temperature, 400 C, substrate within a low pressure, 8 mTorr, deposition chamber. The silane gas is decomposed into atomic hydrogen and silicon, which in turn collides preferably not more than 20--30 times before being deposited on the hot substrate. The hydrogenated amorphous silicon films thus produced have only about one atomic percent hydrogen, yet have device quality electrical, chemical, and structural properties, despite this lowered hydrogen content. 7 figs.

Mahan, A.H.; Carapella, J.C.; Gallagher, A.C.

1995-03-14T23:59:59.000Z

437

Nanosecond laser-induced phase transitions in pulsed laser deposition-deposited GeTe films  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Phase transformations between amorphous and crystalline states induced by irradiation of pulsed laser deposition grown GeTe thin films with nanosecond laser pulses at 248?nm and pulse duration of 20?ns are studied. Structural and optical properties of the Ge-Te phase-change films were studied by X-ray diffraction and optical reflectivity measurements as a function of the number of laser pulses between 0 and 30 pulses and of the laser fluence up to 195 mJ/cm{sup 2}. A reversible phase transition by using pulse numbers ??5 at a fluence above the threshold fluence between 11 and 14 mJ/cm{sup 2} for crystallization and single pulses at a fluence between 162 and 182 mJ/cm{sup 2} for amorphization could be proved. For laser fluences from 36 up to 130 mJ/cm{sup 2}, a high optical contrast of 14.7% between the amorphous and crystalline state is measured. A simple model is used that allows the discussion on the distribution of temperature in dependency on the laser fluence.

Sun, Xinxing, E-mail: xinxing.sun@iom-leipzig.de; Thelander, Erik; Lorenz, Pierre; Gerlach, Jürgen W.; Decker, Ulrich; Rauschenbach, Bernd [Leibniz Institute of Surface Modification, Permoserstr. 15, D-04318, Leipzig (Germany)

2014-10-07T23:59:59.000Z

438

Combustion chemical vapor deposited coatings for thermal barrier coating systems  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The new deposition process, combustion chemical vapor deposition, shows a great deal of promise in the area of thermal barrier coating systems. This technique produces dense, adherent coatings, and does not require a reaction chamber. Coatings can therefore be applied in the open atmosphere. The process is potentially suitable for producing high quality CVD coatings for use as interlayers between the bond coat and thermal barrier coating, and/or as overlayers, on top of thermal barrier coatings. In this report, the evaluation of alumina and ceria coatings on a nickel-chromium alloy is described.

Hampikian, J.M.; Carter, W.B. [Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States). School of Materials Science and Engineering

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

439

Vertebrate fossils from late Cenozoic deposits of central Kansas  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

- posits of gravel, sand, clay, silt and volcanic ash inthe area surrounding McPherson, Kansas. Pleisto- cene age was assumed for these deposits, and both O. P. HAY (1925, p. 244) and OSBORN (1936, p. 373) assigned them to the Aftonian interglacial stage...- posits of gravel, sand, clay, silt and volcanic ash inthe area surrounding McPherson, Kansas. Pleisto- cene age was assumed for these deposits, and both O. P. HAY (1925, p. 244) and OSBORN (1936, p. 373) assigned them to the Aftonian interglacial stage...

Hibbard, C. W.

1952-03-20T23:59:59.000Z

440

Paragenesis and Geochronology of the Nopal I Uranium Deposit, Mexico  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Uranium deposits can, by analogy, provide important information on the long-term performance of radioactive waste forms and radioactive waste repositories. Their complex mineralogy and variable elemental and isotopic compositions can provide important information, provided that analyses are obtained on the scale of several micrometers. Here, we present a structural model of the Nopal I deposit as well as petrography at the nanoscale coupled with preliminary U-Th-Pb ages and O isotopic compositions of uranium-rich minerals obtained by Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (SIMS). This multi-technique approach promises to provide ''natural system'' data on the corrosion rate of uraninite, the natural analogue of spent nuclear fuel.

M. Fayek; M. Ren

2007-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "deposition growth cxs" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

Growth mechanism and properties of ZnO nanorods synthesized by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and ul- traviolet (UV) optoelectronic devices. ZnO can be found easily as n-type because of Zn. Trans- parent electrodes in optoelectronic devices should have high visible transmittance, low

Cao, Hui

442

Quantum Chemical Simulations Reveal Acetylene-Based Growth Mechanisms in the Chemical Vapor Deposition Synthesis of Carbon Nanotubes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Nonequilibrium quantum chemical molecular dynamics (QM/MD) simulation of early stages in the nucleation process of carbon nanotubes from acetylene feedstock on an Fe38 cluster was performed based on the density-functional tight-binding (DFTB) potential. Representative chemical reactions were studied by complimentary static DFTB and density functional theory (DFT) calculations. Oligomerization and cross-linking reactions between carbon chains were found as the main reaction pathways similar to that suggested in previous experimental work. The calculations highlight the inhibiting effect of hydrogen for the condensation of carbon ring networks, and a propensity for hydrogen disproportionation, thus enriching the hydrogen content in already hydrogen-rich species and abstracting hydrogen content in already hydrogen-deficient clusters. The ethynyl radical C2H was found as a reactive, yet continually regenerated species, facilitating hydrogen transfer reactions across the hydrocarbon clusters. The nonequilibrium QM/MD simulations show the prevalence of a pentagon-first nucleation mechanism where hydrogen may take the role of one arm of an sp2 carbon Y-junction. The results challenge the importance of the metal carbide formation for SWCNT cap nucleation in the VLS model and suggest possible alternative routes following hydrogen-abstraction acetylene addition (HACA)-like mechanisms commonly discussed in combustion synthesis.

Eres, Gyula [ORNL] [ORNL; Wang, Ying [Nagoya University, Japan] [Nagoya University, Japan; Gao, Xingfa [Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, China] [Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, China; Qian, Hu-Jun [Jilin University, Changchun] [Jilin University, Changchun; Ohta, Yasuhito [Fukui Institute of Fundamental Chemistry, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8103, Japan] [Fukui Institute of Fundamental Chemistry, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8103, Japan; Wu, Xiaona [Nagoya University, Japan] [Nagoya University, Japan; Morokuma, Keiji [Fukui Institute of Fundamental Chemistry, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8103, Japan] [Fukui Institute of Fundamental Chemistry, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8103, Japan; Irle, Stephan [WPI-Institute of Transformative Bio-Molecules and Department of Chemistry, Nagoya University, Japan] [WPI-Institute of Transformative Bio-Molecules and Department of Chemistry, Nagoya University, Japan

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

443

Characterization of photoluminescent (Y{sub 1{minus}x}Eu{sub x}){sub 2}O{sub 3} thin-films prepared by metallorganic chemical vapor deposition  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Europium doped yttrium oxide, (Y{sub 1{minus}x}Eu{sub x}){sub 2}O{sub 3}, thin-films were deposited on silicon and sapphire substrates by metallorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD). The films were grown in a MOCVD chamber reacting yttrium and europium tris(2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-3,5,-heptanedionates) precursors in an oxygen atmosphere at low pressures (5 Torr) and low substrate temperatures (500--700 C). The films deposited at 500 C were flat and composed of nanocrystalline regions of cubic Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}, grown in a textured [100] or [110] orientation to the substrate surface. Films deposited at 600 C developed from the flat, nanocrystalline morphology into a plate-like growth morphology oriented in the [111] with increasing deposition time. Monoclinic Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}:Eu{sup 3+} was observed in x-ray diffraction for deposition temperatures {ge}600 C on both (111) Si and (001) sapphire substrates. This was also confirmed by the photoluminescent emission spectra.

McKittrick, J.; Bacalski, C.F.; Hirata, G.A. [Univ. of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA (United States); Hubbard, K.M.; Pattillo, S.G.; Salazar, K.V.; Trkula, M. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States). Materials Science and Technology Div.

1998-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

444

Stress corrosion crack growth in porous sandstones.   

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Stress corrosion crack growth occurs when the chemical weakening of strained crack tip bonds facilitates crack propagation. I have examined the effect of chemical processes on the growth of a creack population by carrying out triaxial compression...

Ojala, Ira O

445

Estimating phytoplankton growth rates from compositional data  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

I build on the deterministic phytoplankton growth model of Sosik et al. by introducing process error, which simulates real variation in population growth and inaccuracies in the structure of the matrix model. Adding a ...

Thomas, Lorraine (Lorraine Marie)

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

446

Fabrication of AlN/BN bishell hollow nanofibers by electrospinning and atomic layer deposition  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Aluminum nitride (AlN)/boron nitride (BN) bishell hollow nanofibers (HNFs) have been fabricated by successive atomic layer deposition (ALD) of AlN and sequential chemical vapor deposition (CVD) of BN on electrospun polymeric nanofibrous template. A four-step fabrication process was utilized: (i) fabrication of polymeric (nylon 6,6) nanofibers via electrospinning, (ii) hollow cathode plasma-assisted ALD of AlN at 100?°C onto electrospun polymeric nanofibers, (iii) calcination at 500?°C for 2 h in order to remove the polymeric template, and (iv) sequential CVD growth of BN at 450?°C. AlN/BN HNFs have been characterized for their chemical composition, surface morphology, crystal structure, and internal nanostructure using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and selected area electron diffraction. Measurements confirmed the presence of crystalline hexagonal BN and AlN within the three dimensional (3D) network of bishell HNFs with relatively low impurity content. In contrast to the smooth surface of the inner AlN layer, outer BN coating showed a highly rough 3D morphology in the form of BN nano-needle crystallites. It is shown that the combination of electrospinning and plasma-assisted low-temperature ALD/CVD can produce highly controlled multi-layered bishell nitride ceramic hollow nanostructures. While electrospinning enables easy fabrication of nanofibrous template, self-limiting reactions of plasma-assisted ALD and sequential CVD provide control over the wall thicknesses of AlN and BN layers with sub-nanometer accuracy.

Haider, Ali; Kayaci, Fatma; Uyar, Tamer; Biyikli, Necmi, E-mail: biyikli@unam.bilkent.edu.tr [National Nanotechnology Research Center (UNAM), Bilkent University, Bilkent, Ankara 06800 (Turkey); Institute of Materials Science and Nanotechnology, Bilkent University, Bilkent, Ankara 06800 (Turkey); Ozgit-Akgun, Cagla [National Nanotechnology Research Center (UNAM), Bilkent University, Bilkent, Ankara 06800 (Turkey); Okyay, Ali Kemal [National Nanotechnology Research Center (UNAM), Bilkent University, Bilkent, Ankara 06800 (Turkey); Institute of Materials Science and Nanotechnology, Bilkent University, Bilkent, Ankara 06800 (Turkey); Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Bilkent University, Bilkent, Ankara 06800 (Turkey)

2014-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

447

Method for crystal growth control  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The growth of a crystalline body of a selected material is controlled so that the body has a selected cross-sectional shape. The apparatus is of the type which includes the structure normally employed in known capillary die devices as well as means for observing at least the portion of the surfaces of the growing crystalline body and the meniscus (of melt material from which the body is being pulled) including the solid/liquid/vapor junction in a direction substantially perpendicular to the meniscus surface formed at the junction when the growth of the crystalline body is under steady state conditions. The cross-sectional size of the growing crystalline body can be controlled by determining which points exhibit a sharp change in the amount of reflected radiation of a preselected wavelength and controlling the speed at which the body is being pulled or the temperature of the growth pool of melt so as to maintain those points exhibiting a sharp change at a preselected spatial position relative to a predetermined reference position. The improvement comprises reference object means positioned near the solid/liquid/vapor junction and capable of being observed by the means for observing so as to define said reference position so that the problems associated with convection current jitter are overcome.

Yates, Douglas A. (Burlington, MA); Hatch, Arthur E. (Waltham, MA); Goldsmith, Jeff M. (Medford, MA)

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

448

Pressure effect on the magnetization of Sr{sub 2}FeMoO{sub 6} thin films grown by pulsed laser deposition  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Thin films of Sr{sub 2}FeMoO{sub 6} (SFMO) are grown on SrTiO{sub 3} (001) substrates by pulsed laser deposition. The best films provide 3.2{mu}{sub B}/f.u. at 5 K, a Curie temperature above 400 K, low roughness, high crystallinity, and low splashing. Therefore, the use of such SFMO electrodes in magnetic tunnel junctions patterned with conventional lithography is promising. Pseudomorphic epitaxial growth is obtained for thicknesses under 50 nm. Above this thickness the films do not relax homogeneously. A coherent and systematic variation of the magnetization with the deposition conditions is obtained, which highlights a high reproducibility. Under a reasonable O{sub 2} partial pressure to avoid parasite phases, the limiting factor for high magnetization is the total pressure or the deposition rate. Therefore, the deposition rate is suspected to have a strong influence on the Fe/Mo ordering. Highly magnetic samples are obtained under a low gas flow of either a 20% O{sub 2}+N{sub 2} or a 0.3% O{sub 2}+Ar.

Fix, T.; Versini, G.; Loison, J.L.; Colis, S.; Schmerber, G.; Pourroy, G.; Dinia, A. [Institut de Physique et de Chimie des Materiaux de Strasbourg (IPCMS) Unite Mixte de Recherche 7504 du Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (UMR 7504 du CNRS), Universite Louis Pasteur-Ecole Europeenne de Chimie, Polymeres et Materiaux de Strasbourg - ULP-ECPM, 23 rue du Loess BP43 F-67034 Strasbourg (France)

2005-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

449

Structural characterisation of BaTiO{sub 3} thin films deposited on SrRuO{sub 3}/YSZ buffered silicon substrates and silicon microcantilevers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We report on the progress towards an all epitaxial oxide layer technology on silicon substrates for epitaxial piezoelectric microelectromechanical systems. (101)-oriented epitaxial tetragonal BaTiO{sub 3} (BTO) thin films were deposited at two different oxygen pressures, 5.10{sup ?2} mbar and 5.10{sup ?3} mbar, on SrRuO{sub 3}/Yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) buffered silicon substrates by pulsed laser deposition. The YSZ layer full (001) orientation allowed the further growth of a fully (110)-oriented conductive SrRuO{sub 3} electrode as shown by X-ray diffraction. The tetragonal structure of the BTO films, which is a prerequisite for the piezoelectric effect, was identified by Raman spectroscopy. In the BTO film deposited at 5.10{sup ?2} mbar strain was mostly localized inside the BTO grains whereas at 5.10{sup ?3} mbar, it was localized at the grain boundaries. The BTO/SRO/YSZ layers were finally deposited on Si microcantilevers at an O{sub 2} pressure of 5.10{sup ?3} mbar. The strain level was low enough to evaluate the BTO Young modulus. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was used to investigate the epitaxial quality of the layers and their epitaxial relationship on plain silicon wafers as well as on released microcantilevers, thanks to Focused-Ion-Beam TEM lamella preparation.

Colder, H.; Jorel, C., E-mail: corentin.jorel@unicaen.fr; Méchin, L. [GREYC, UMR 6072, CNRS, ENSICAEN, UCBN, 6 bd du Maréchal Juin, 14050 Caen Cedex (France); Domengès, B. [LAMIPS, CRISMAT-NXP Semiconductors-Presto Engineering laboratory, CNRS-UMR 6508, ENSICAEN, UCBN, 2 rue de la Girafe, 14 000 Caen (France); Marie, P.; Boisserie, M. [CIMAP, UMR 6252, CNRS, ENSICAEN, UCBN, CEA, 6 bd du Maréchal Juin, 14050 Caen Cedex (France); Guillon, S.; Nicu, L. [LAAS, CNRS, Univ de Toulouse, 7 avenue du Colonel Roche, 31400 Toulouse (France); Galdi, A. [GREYC, UMR 6072, CNRS, ENSICAEN, UCBN, 6 bd du Maréchal Juin, 14050 Caen Cedex (France); Department of Industrial Engineering, CNR-SPIN Salerno, Università di Salerno, 84084 Fisciano, Salerno (Italy)

2014-02-07T23:59:59.000Z

450

Stratigraphy and environment of deposition of the San Miguel lignite deposit northern McMullen and southeastern Atascosa counties, Texas  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

deposits. Coastal swamp deposits occur within the lignite interval, a zone of lignite and clay of 3. 7 m (12 ft) ave age thickness. The 1'g. . ite interval has an overall strike-trend with local dip-trending segments. The lignite represents accumulation...). . . . . . . . . ~ ~ ~ 26 12 ~2 f ' ' 2~2'6' 2 ~l f* MK-26, 14. 2 m (46. 75 ft) . 26 13 Regional stratigraphic correlation of the upper and middle Eocene of the Gulf Coast. 28 Electric log correlations in Atascosa and Live Oak counties of Texas. 29 15 Interpretation...

Snedden, John William

1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

451

Reduced models of algae growth Heikki Haario,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Reduced models of algae growth Heikki Haario, Leonid Kalachev Marko Laine, Lappeenranta University of the phenomena studied. Here, in the case of algae growth modelling, we show how a systematic model reduction may: Algae growth modelling, asymptotic methods, model reduction, MCMC, Adaptive Markov chain Monte Carlo. 1

Bardsley, John

452

Prevention of deleterious deposits in a coal liquefaction system  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process for preventing the formation of deleterious coke deposits on the walls of coal liquefaction reactor vessels involves passing hydrogen and a feed slurry comprising feed coal and recycle liquid solvent to a coal liquefaction reaction zone while imparting a critical mixing energy of at least 3500 ergs per cubic centimeter of reaction zone volume per second to the reacting slurry.

Carr, Norman L. (Allison Park, PA); Prudich, Michael E. (Pittsburgh, PA); King, Jr., William E. (Gibsonia, PA); Moon, William G. (Cheswick, PA)

1984-07-03T23:59:59.000Z

453

Microbial and Colloidal Deposition to Solid Surfaces: Effect of Heterogeneity  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in porous media using a heavy water system. Moreover, toColloid deposition trends in heavy water (10 mM KCl) 3.3.4a D 2 O/H 2 O/KCl (heavy water) mixture. Chapter “Colloidal

Chen, Gexin

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

454

Direct chemical vapor deposition of graphene on dielectric surfaces  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A substrate is provided that has a metallic layer on a substrate surface of a substrate. A film made of a two dimensional (2-D) material, such as graphene, is deposited on a metallic surface of the metallic layer. The metallic layer is dewet and/or removed to provide the film on the substrate surface.

Zhang, Yuegang; Ismach, Ariel

2014-04-29T23:59:59.000Z

455

Atmospheric deposition of ^Be by rain events, in central Argentina  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Atmospheric deposition of ^Be by rain events, in central Argentina Juri Ayub, J. , Di Gregorio, B Aplicada San Luis. UniversidadNacional de San Luis - CONICET. Ejercito de los Andes 950. Argentina. 2 Buenos Aires, Argentina 3. Escuela de Cienciay Tecnologia, Universidad Nacional de San Martin. Martin de

Nacional de San Luis, Universidad

456

Apparatus for depositing hard coating in a nozzle orifice  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention is directed to a process for coating the interior surfaces of an orifice in a substrate that forms a slurry fuel injection nozzle. In a specific embodiment, the nozzle is part of a fuel injection system for metering a coal-water slurry into a large, medium-speed, multi-cylinder diesel engine. In order to retard erosion of the orifice, the substrate is placed in a chemical vapor deposition (CVD) reaction chamber. A reaction gas is passed into the chamber at a gas temperature below its reaction temperature and is directed through the orifice in the substrate. The gas reaction temperature is a temperature at and above which the reaction gas deposits as a coating, and the reaction gas is of a composition whereby improved resistance to erosion by flow of the particulates in the slurry fuel is imparted by the deposited coating. Only the portion of the substrate in proximity to the orifice to be coated is selectively heated to at least the gas reaction temperature for effecting coating of the orifice's interior surfaces by the vapor deposited coating formed from the reaction gas.

Flynn, Paul L. (Fairview, PA); Giammarise, Anthony W. (Erie, PA)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

457

Apparatus for depositing hard coating in a nozzle orifice  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention is directed to a process for coating the interior surfaces of an orifice in a substrate that forms a slurry fuel injection nozzle. In a specific embodiment, the nozzle is part of a fuel injection system for metering a coal-water slurry into a large, medium-speed, multi-cylinder diesel engine. In order to retard erosion of the orifice, the substrate is placed in a chemical vapor deposition (CVD) reaction chamber. A reaction gas is passed into the chamber at a gas temperature below its reaction temperature and is directed through the orifice in the substrate. The gas reaction temperature is a temperature at and above which the reaction gas deposits as a coating, and the reaction gas is of a composition whereby improved resistance to erosion by flow of the particulates in the slurry fuel is imparted by the deposited coating. Only the portion of the substrate in proximity to the orifice to be coated is selectively heated to at least the gas reaction temperature for effecting coating of the orifice`s interior surfaces by the vapor deposited coating formed from the reaction gas. 2 figs.

Flynn, P.L.; Giammarise, A.W.

1995-02-21T23:59:59.000Z

458

Process for depositing hard coating in a nozzle orifice  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention is directed to a process for coating the interior surfaces of an orifice in a substrate that forms a slurry fuel injection nozzle. In a specific embodiment, the nozzle is part of a fuel injection system for metering a coal-water slurry into a large, medium-speed, multi-cylinder diesel engine. In order to retard erosion of the orifice, the substrate is placed in a chemical vapor deposition (CVD) reaction chamber. A reaction gas is passed into the chamber at a gas temperature below its reaction temperature and is directed through the orifice in the substrate. The gas reaction temperature is a temperature at and above which the reaction gas deposits as a coating, and the reaction gas is of a composition whereby improved resistance toerosion by flow of the particulates in the slurry fuel is imparted by the deposited coating. Only the portion of the substrate in proximity to the orifice to be coated is selectively heated to at least the gas reaction temperature for effecting coating of the orifice's interior surfaces by the vapor deposited coating formed from the reaction gas.

Flynn, Paul L. (5139 Fox Park Dr., Fairview, PA 16415); Giammarise, Anthony W. (527 Lincoln Ave., Erie, PA 16505)

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

459

Development of Highly Selective Oxidation Catalysts by Atomic Layer Deposition  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This factsheet describes a research project whose goal is to use Atomic Layer Deposition to construct nanostructured catalysts to improve the effectiveness of oxidative dehydrogenation of alkanes. More effective catalysts could enable higher specific conversion rates and result in drastic energy savings - up to 25 trillion Btu per year by 2020.

460

Bitumen-bearing deposits of the United States  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Descriptions, resources, and petrophysical properties of bitumen-bearing rocks, or tar sands, in the United States are summarized by state and their locations indicated on the accompanying maps. One hundred ninety-eight identified deposits in 17 states yield a total bitumen resource estimated to be 57 billion barrels.

Crysdale, B.L.; Schenk, C.J.

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "deposition growth cxs" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


461

Assessing the extent of carbonate deposition in early rift settings  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

different lake levels can be compared to evaluate how changes in size, shape, and lake configuration might that they could produce carbonate deposits of po- tential economic interest. Three of the areas--Great Salt Lake sedimentology, petroleum geology, and marine geology. He received his Ph.D. from the Vrije Universiteit

Purkis, Sam

462

Deposition of Biological Aerosols on HVAC Heat Exchangers  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

LBNL-47669 Deposition of Biological Aerosols on HVAC Heat Exchangers Jeffrey Siegel and Iain Walker of Biological Aerosols on HVAC Heat Exchangers Jeffrey A. Siegel Iain S. Walker, Ph.D. ASHRAE Student Member that are found in commercial and residential HVAC systems of 1 - 6 m/s (200 - 1200 ft/min), particle diameters

463

Process for depositing hard coating in a nozzle orifice  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention is directed to a process for coating the interior surfaces of an orifice in a substrate that forms a slurry fuel injection nozzle. In a specific embodiment, the nozzle is part of a fuel injection system for metering a coal-water slurry into a large, medium-speed, multi-cylinder diesel engine. In order to retard erosion of the orifice, the substrate is placed in a chemical vapor deposition (CVD) reaction chamber. A reaction gas is passed into the chamber at a gas temperature below its reaction temperature and is directed through the orifice in the substrate. The gas reaction temperature is a temperature at and above which the reaction gas deposits as a coating, and the reaction gas is of a composition whereby improved resistance to erosion by flow of the particulates in the slurry fuel is imparted by the deposited coating. Only the portion of the substrate in proximity to the orifice to be coated is selectively heated to at least the gas reaction temperature for effecting coating of the orifice's interior surfaces by the vapor deposited coating formed from the reaction gas. 2 figures.

Flynn, P.L.; Giammarise, A.W.

1991-10-29T23:59:59.000Z

464

Journal of Mechanisms and Robotics Hybrid Deposition Manufacturing: Design  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

combines additive manufacturing (AM) processes such as FDM with material deposition and embedded components applications. Additive manufacturing techniques are used to print both permanent components and sacrificial, leveraging the benefits of additive manufacturing and expanding the range of design options for robotic

Dollar, Aaron M.

465

POLLEN DISPERSAL AND DEPOSITION ON THE QUELCCAYA ICE CAp, PERU  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

POLLEN DISPERSAL AND DEPOSITION ON THE QUELCCAYA ICE CAp, PERU Carl A. Reese and Kam-biu Liu: The relatively young science of tropical ice-core palynology has proven effective in the study of paleoenvironments by its ability to produce long-term and high- resolution paleoclimatic data. However, no studies

Liu, Kam-biu

466

Deposition of biological aerosols on HVAC heat exchangers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Many biologically active materials are transported as bioaerosols 1-10 {micro}m in diameter. These particles can deposit on cooling and heating coils and lead to serious indoor air quality problems. This paper investigates several of the mechanisms that lead to aerosol deposition on fin and tube heat exchangers. A model has been developed that incorporates the effects of several deposition mechanisms, including impaction, Brownian and turbulent diffusion, turbophoresis, thermophoresis, diffusiophoresis, and gravitational settling. The model is applied to a typical range of air velocities that are found in commercial and residential HVAC systems 1 - 6 m/s (200 - 1200 ft/min), particle diameters from 1 - 8 {micro}m, and fin spacings from 3.2 - 7.9 fins/cm (8 - 16 fins/inch or FPI). The results from the model are compared to results from an experimental apparatus that directly measures deposition on a 4.7 fins/cm (12 FPI) coil. The model agrees reasonably well with this measured data and suggests that cooling coils are an important sink for biological aerosols and consequently a potential source of indoor air quality problems.

Siegel, Jeffrey; Walker, Ian

2001-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

467

Biocompatibility of atomic layer-deposited alumina thin films  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. These results sug- gest that patterning a substrate with hydrophilic and hydro- phobic groups can control cell and excellent dielectric properties for bio- micro electro mechanical systems (Bio-MEMS) in sensors, actuators of atomic layer-deposited (ALD) alumina (Al2O3) and hydro- phobic coatings. While these coatings

George, Steven M.

468

Atmospheric Mercury Deposition Impacts of Future Electric Power Generation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Atmospheric Mercury Deposition Impacts of Future Electric Power Generation Mark D. Cohen Physical fish consumption, and significant portions of the general population are believed to be consuming toxicologically significant levels of mercury (e.g., National Research Council, 2000). Historical discharges ­ e

469

CX-010873: Categorical Exclusion Determination  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Ammonothermal Bulk Gallium Nitride Crystal Growth for Energy Efficient Lightning and Power Electronics CX(s) Applied: B3.6 Date: 05/22/2013 Location(s): California Offices(s): Advanced Research Projects Agency-Energy

470

Growth and characterization of copper nanoclusters embedded in SiCmatrix  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Nanocrystalline copper clusters embedded in silicon carbidewere made by island growth during sputter deposition. The distributionand morphology of metal clusters were observed by high-resolutiontransmission electron microscopy. To investigate chemical bonding at thecopper silicon carbide interface, we studied the electronic states ofcopper and silicon using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). It wasfound that the formation of copper silicide was suppressed in this systemand that small shifts in binding energy were observed for different sizesof clusters, which was different from the chemical shift for coppersilicide formation.

Shin, Dong-Woon; Wang, Shan, X.; Marshall, Ann F.; Kimura,Wataru; Dong, Chungli; Augustsson, A.; Guo, Jinghua

2006-01-20T23:59:59.000Z

471

Morphology and structure evolution of tin-doped indium oxide thin films deposited by radio-frequency magnetron sputtering: The role of the sputtering atmosphere  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The microstructure and morphology evolution of tin-doped indium oxide (ITO) thin films deposited by radio-frequency magnetron sputtering in different sputtering atmospheres were investigated by X-ray diffraction, X-ray reflectivity, and atomic force microscopy. The surface roughness w increases with increasing film thickness d{sub f}, and exhibits a power law behavior w???d{sub f}{sup ?}. The roughness decreases with increasing O{sub 2} flow, while it increases with increasing H{sub 2} flow. The growth exponent ? is found to be 0.35, 0.75, and 0.98 for depositions in Ar/10%O{sub 2}, pure Ar, and Ar/10%H{sub 2} atmospheres, respectively. The correlation length ? increases with film thickness also with a power law according to ????d{sub f}{sup z} with exponents z?=?0.36, 0.44, and 0.57 for these three different gas atmospheres, respectively. A combination of local and non-local growth modes in 2?+?1 dimensions is discussed for the ITO growth in this work.

Nie, Man, E-mail: man.nie@helmholtz-berlin.de; Mete, Tayfun; Ellmer, Klaus [Department of Solar Fuels and Energy Storage Materials, Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin für Materialien und Energie GmbH, Hahn-Meitner-Platz 1, D14109 Berlin (Germany)

2014-04-21T23:59:59.000Z

472

Korea's Green Growth Strategy: Mitigating Climate Change and...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Korea's Green Growth Strategy: Mitigating Climate Change and Developing New Growth Engines Jump to: navigation, search Name Korea's Green Growth Strategy: Mitigating Climate Change...

473

Structural, magnetic, and electronic properties of GdTiO{sub 3} Mott insulator thin films grown by pulsed laser deposition  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We report on the optimization process to synthesize epitaxial thin films of GdTiO{sub 3} on SrLaGaO{sub 4} substrates by pulsed laser deposition. Optimized films are free of impurity phases and are fully strained. They possess a magnetic Curie temperature T{sub C}?=?31.8?K with a saturation magnetization of 4.2??{sub B} per formula unit at 10?K. Transport measurements reveal an insulating response, as expected. Optical spectroscopy indicates a band gap of ?0.7?eV, comparable to the bulk value. Our work adds ferrimagnetic orthotitanates to the palette of perovskite materials for the design of emergent strongly correlated states at oxide interfaces using a versatile growth technique such as pulsed laser deposition.

Grisolia, M. N.; Bruno, F. Y.; Sando, D.; Jacquet, E.; Barthélémy, A.; Bibes, M., E-mail: manuel.bibes@thalesgroup.com [Unité Mixte de Physique, CNRS-Thales, 1 Av. Augustin Fresnel, Campus de l'Ecole Polytechnique, 91120 Palaiseau, France and Université Paris-Sud, 91405 Orsay (France); Zhao, H. J. [Physics Department and Institute for Nanoscience and Engineering, University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, Arkansas 72701 (United States); Laboratory of Dielectric Materials, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Chen, X. M. [Laboratory of Dielectric Materials, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Bellaiche, L. [Physics Department and Institute for Nanoscience and Engineering, University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, Arkansas 72701 (United States)

2014-10-27T23:59:59.000Z

474

Research on thermophoretic and inertial aspects of ash particle deposition on heat exchanger surfaces in coal-fired equipment. Final technical report, September 1, 1986--April 30, 1990  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The overall goal of this research in the area of ash transport was to advance the capability of making reliable engineering predictions of the dynamics and consequences of net deposit growth for surfaces exposed to the products of coal combustion. To accomplish this for a wide variety of combustor types, coal types, and operating conditions, this capability must be based on a quantitative understanding of each of the important mechanisms of mineral matter transport, as well as the nature of the interactions between these substances and the prevailing ``fireside`` surface of the deposit. This level of understanding and predictive capability could ultimately be translated into very significant cost reductions for coal-fired equipment design, development and operation.

Rosner, D.E.

1990-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

475

Depositional environment of downdip Yegua (Eocene) sandstones, Jackson County, Texas  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

as the geometry of the growth fault alters the reservoir morphology, The sandstones are fine to medium grained. Grain size within beds fines upward from 0. 40 mm at the base to 0. 13 mm at the top. The sandstones contain an average of 50% quartz... along the downthrown side of a growth fault that has 550 ft (167. 6 m) of throw. The channels form dip-trending bodies on the updip side of the growth fault, but form a strike trending, elongate body on the downthrown side of the fault...

Whitten, Christopher James

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

476

From "Stages" of Business Growth to a Dynamic States Model of Entrepreneurial Growth and Change  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

From "Stages" of Business Growth to a Dynamic States Model of Entrepreneurial Growth and Change and Gumpert, 1985), and virtually all economic models of business creation follow firm birth with firm growth models of new business growth assume a limited number of distinct stages through #12;3 which businesses

Mottram, Nigel

477

Growth promotants in feeding pigs and poultry. I. Growth and feed efficiency responses  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Review Growth promotants in feeding pigs and poultry. I. Growth and feed efficiency responses growth promoters of antibiotic type authorised in the Euro- pean Union as additives for pig and poultry) growth promoter / antibiotic / pig / poultry Résumé - Les promoteurs de croissance dans l

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

478

Oriented Y-type hexagonal ferrite thin films prepared by chemical solution deposition  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Thin films of Ba{sub 2}Zn{sub 2}Fe{sub 12}O{sub 22} (Y) hexaferrite were prepared through the chemical solution deposition method on SrTiO{sub 3}(1 1 1) (ST) single crystal substrates using epitaxial SrFe{sub 12}O{sub 19} (M) hexaferrite thin layer as a seed template layer. The process of crystallization was mainly investigated by means of X-ray diffraction and atomic force microscopy. A detailed inspection revealed that growth of seed layer starts through the break-up of initially continuous film into isolated grains with expressive shape anisotropy and hexagonal habit. The vital parameters of the seed layer, i.e. thickness, substrate coverage, crystallization conditions and temperature ramp were optimized with the aim to obtain epitaxially crystallized Y phase. X-ray diffraction Pole figure measurements and ? scans reveal perfect parallel in-plane alignment of SrTiO{sub 3} substrate and both hexaferrite phases. - Graphical abstract: XRD pole figure and AFM patterns of Ba{sub 2}Zn{sub 2}Fe{sub 12}O{sub 22} thin film epitaxially grown on SrTiO{sub 3}(1 1 1) single crystal using seeding layer templating. - Highlights: • Single phase Y-type hexagonal ferrite thin films were prepared by CSD method. • Seed M layer breaks into isolated single crystal islands and serves as a template. • Large seed grains grow by consuming the grains within the bulk of recoated film. • We explained the observed orientation relation of epitaxial domains. • Epitaxial growth on SrTiO{sub 3}(1 1 1) with relation (0 0 1){sub M,Y}//(1 1 1){sub ST}+[1 0 0]{sub M,Y}//[2 ?1 ?1]{sub ST}.

Buršík, J., E-mail: bursik@iic.cas.cz [Institute of Inorganic Chemistry of the AS CR, v.v.i., 250 68 Husinec-?ež 1001 (Czech Republic); Kužel, R. [Charles University in Prague, Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Ke Karlovu 5, 121 16 Praha 2 (Czech Republic); Knížek, K.; Drbohlav, I. [Institute of Physics of the AS CR, v.v.i., Na Slovance 2, 182 21 Praha 8 (Czech Republic)

2013-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

479

Spallation in ductile void growth  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A mathematical model of ductile void growth under the application of a mean tensile stress is applied to the problem of spallation in solids. Calculation of plate-impact spallation in copper (peak compressive stress approx. 29 kbar) shows good agreement with the dynamically measured spall signal. A second calculation, using identical material parameters, of explosively produced spallation in copper (peak compressive stress approx. 250 kbar) does very well in reproducing experimentally observed multiple spall thicknesses as observed by dynamic x-radiographic techniques. This theoretical model thus appears applicable to a wide range of dynamic uniaxial-strain loading conditions, bridging a gap that has been thought to exist for some time.

Johnson, J.N.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

480

Apparatus for monitoring crystal growth  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A system and method are disclosed for monitoring the growth of a crystalline body from a liquid meniscus in a furnace. The system provides an improved human/machine interface so as to reduce operator stress, strain and fatigue while improving the conditions for observation and control of the growing process. The system comprises suitable optics for forming an image of the meniscus and body wherein the image is anamorphic so that the entire meniscus can be viewed with good resolution in both the width and height dimensions. The system also comprises a video display for displaying the anamorphic image. The video display includes means for enhancing the contrast between any two contrasting points in the image. The video display also comprises a signal averager for averaging the intensity of at least one preselected portions of the image. The value of the average intensity, can in turn be utilized to control the growth of the body. The system and method are also capable of observing and monitoring multiple processes.

Sachs, Emanual M. (Watertown, MA)

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "deposition growth cxs" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


481

Method of monitoring crystal growth  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A system and method are disclosed for monitoring the growth of a crystalline body from a liquid meniscus in a furnace. The system provides an improved human/machine interface so as to reduce operator stress, strain and fatigue while improving the conditions for observation and control of the growing process. The system comprises suitable optics for forming an image of the meniscus and body wherein the image is anamorphic so that the entire meniscus can be viewed with good resolution in both the width and height dimensions. The system also comprises a video display for displaying the anamorphic image. The video display includes means for enhancing the contrast between any two contrasting points in the image. The video display also comprises a signal averager for averaging the intensity of at least one preselected portions of the image. The value of the average intensity, can in turn be utilized to control the growth of the body. The system and method are also capable of observing and monitoring multiple processes.

Sachs, Emanual M. (Watertown, MA)

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

482

Oxidative chemical vapor deposition of conductive polymers for use in novel photovoltaic device architectures  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The conductive polymer poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene), (PEDOT), deposited via oxidative chemical vapor deposition (oCVD) has been investigated for use in organic electronic devices. The oCVD process as well as the ...

Howden, Rachel M. (Rachel Mary)

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

483

Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition on Living Substrates: Development, Characterization, and Biological Applications  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This dissertation proposed the idea of “plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition on living substrates (PECVD on living substrates)” to bridge the gap between the thin film deposition technology and the biological and living substrates. This study...

Tsai, Tsung-Chan 1982-

2012-12-05T23:59:59.000Z

484

Adhesion improvement of electroless copper depositions on titanium nitride by low temperature annealing  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

copper depositions onto titanium nitride, a diffusion barrier material. In particular, an effort is made to characterize the adhesion of the electronics copper deposit on titanium nitride and the improvement of the adhesion produced by low temperature...

Eiserer, Rex Anthony

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

485

Correction to "Sulfuric acid deposition from stratospheric geoengineering with sulfate aerosols"  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Correction to "Sulfuric acid deposition from stratospheric geoengineering with sulfate aerosols (2010), Correction to "Sulfuric acid deposition from stratospheric geoengineering with sulfate aerosols from stratospheric geoengineering with sulfate aerosols" (Journal of Geophysical Research, 114, D14109

Robock, Alan

486

Effects of surface properties on solder bump formation by direct droplet deposition  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Recent advances in microdroplet generation and deposition processes have made it possible to directly form solder bumps on integrated circuits using micron-sized molten metal droplets. The direct droplet deposition bumping ...

Hsiao, Wen Kai, 1972-

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

487

Amine functionalization by initiated chemical vapor deposition (iCVD) for interfacial adhesion and film cohesion  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Amine functional polymer thin films provide a versatile platform for subsequent functionalization because of their diverse reactivity. Initiated chemical vapor deposition (iCVD) is a polymer chemical vapor deposition ...

Xu, Jingjing, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

488

Metalorganic chemical vapor deposition of carbon-free ZnO using...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Metalorganic chemical vapor deposition of carbon-free ZnO using the bis(2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-3,5-heptanedionato)zinc precursor. Metalorganic chemical vapor deposition of carbon-free...

489

Investigation of electrophoretic deposition as a fabrication technique for high performance composites  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Electrophoretic deposition (EPD) is a colloidal processing method for the deposition of materials from charged nanoparticles suspended in solution with the application of an external electric field. It is an increasingly ...

Palmer, Timothy R. (Timothy Richard)

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

490

A Model for Phosphosilicate Glass Deposition via POCl3 for Control...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Phosphosilicate Glass Deposition via POCl3 for Control of Phosphorus Dose in Si. A Model for Phosphosilicate Glass Deposition via POCl3 for Control of Phosphorus Dose in Si....

491

Atomic oxygen flux determined by mixed-phase Ag/Ag2O deposition...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

oxygen flux determined by mixed-phase AgAg2O deposition. Atomic oxygen flux determined by mixed-phase AgAg2O deposition. Abstract: The flux of atomic oxygen generated in a...

492

Chemistry of Petroleum Crude Oil Deposits: Sodium Naphthenates 2009 NHMFL Science Highlight for NSF  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Chemistry of Petroleum Crude Oil Deposits: Sodium Naphthenates 2009 NHMFL Science Highlight for NSF-355. Chemistry of Petroleum Crude Oil Deposits: Sodium Naphthenates 2009 NHMFL Science Highlight for NSF DMR

Weston, Ken

493

Microdosimetric characterization of energy-deposition patterns near the ends of alpha tracks  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The purpose of this study was the characterization of energy-deposition patterns in short segments near the ends of alpha particle tracks. Energy-deposition patterns in structures having dimensions on the order of nanometers were observed. Near...

Guetersloh, Stephen Brant

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

494

Ferroelectric and ferromagnetic properties of epitaxial BiFeO{sub 3}-BiMnO{sub 3} films on ion-beam-assisted deposited TiN buffered flexible Hastelloy  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Growth of multifunctional thin films on flexible substrates is of great technological significance since such a platform is needed for flexible electronics. In this study, we report the growth of biaxially aligned (BiFeO{sub 3}){sub 0.5}:(BiMnO{sub 3}){sub 0.5} [BFO-BMO] films on polycrystalline Hastelloy by using a biaxially aligned TiN as a seed layer deposited by ion-beam-assisted deposited and a La{sub 0.7}Sr{sub 0.3}MnO{sub 3} (LSMO) as a buffer layer deposited by pulsed laser deposition. The LSMO is used not only as a buffer layer but also as the bottom electrode of the BFO-BMO films. X-ray diffraction showed that the BFO-BMO films are biaxially oriented along both in-plane and out-of-plane directions. The BFO-BMO films on flexible metal substrates showed a polarization of 22.9??C/cm{sup 2}. The magnetization of the BFO-BMO/LSMO is 62?emu/cc at room temperature.

Xiong, J., E-mail: jiexiong@uestc.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Electronic Thin Films and Integrated Devices, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu 610054 (China); Los Alamos National Laboratory, Center for Integrated Nanotechnologies, Division of Materials Physics and Applications, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Matias, V.; Jia, Q. X. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Center for Integrated Nanotechnologies, Division of Materials Physics and Applications, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Tao, B. W.; Li, Y. R. [State Key Laboratory of Electronic Thin Films and Integrated Devices, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu 610054 (China)

2014-05-07T23:59:59.000Z

495

Synthesis of SiO{sub 2}/?-SiC/graphite hybrid composite by low temperature hot filament chemical vapor deposition  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

?-SiC thin films were synthesized directly on graphite by hot filament chemical vapor deposition at low temperature. SiH{sub 4} diluted in hydrogen was employed as the silicon source, while graphite was functioned as both substrate and carbon source for the as-grown ?-SiC films. X-ray diffraction and Fourier transform infrared analysis indicate that SiO{sub 2}/?-SiC/graphite hybrid composite was formed after post annealing treatment, and its crystalline quality can be remarkably improved under optimized annealing conditions. The possible growth mechanism was proposed based on in situ etching of graphite by reactive hydrogen radicals at the atomic level.

Zhang, Zhikun; Bi, Kaifeng; Liu, Yanhong; Qin, Fuwen; Liu, Hongzhu [School of Physics and Optoelectronic Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China)] [School of Physics and Optoelectronic Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Bian, Jiming, E-mail: jmbian@dlut.edu.cn [School of Physics and Optoelectronic Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China) [School of Physics and Optoelectronic Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Key Laboratory of Inorganic Coating Materials, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200050 (China); Zhang, Dong [New Energy Source Research Center of Shenyang Institute of Engineering, Shengyang 110136 (China)] [New Energy Source Research Center of Shenyang Institute of Engineering, Shengyang 110136 (China); Miao, Lihua [School of Physics and Optoelectronic Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China) [School of Physics and Optoelectronic Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Department of Computer and Mathematical Basic Teaching, Shenyang Medical College, Shenyan 110034 (China)

2013-11-18T23:59:59.000Z

496

The optimization of interfaces in InAsSb/InGaAs strained-layer superlattices grown by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We have prepared InAsSb/InGaAs strained-layer superlattice (SLS) semiconductors by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) under a variety of conditions. Presence of an InGaAsSb interface layer is indicated by x-ray diffraction patterns. Optimized growth conditions involved the use of low pressure, short purge times, and no reactant flow during the purges. MOCVD was used to prepare an optically pumped, single heterostructure InAsSb/InGaAs SLS/InPSb laser which emitted at 3.9 {mu}m with a maximum operating temperature of approximately 100 K.

Biefeld, R.M.; Baucom, K.C.; Kurtz, S.R.

1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

497

In situ study of HfO{sub 2} atomic layer deposition on InP(100)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The interfacial chemistry of the native oxide and chemically treated InP samples during atomic layer deposition (ALD) HfO{sub 2} growth at 250 Degree-Sign C has been studied by in situ X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The In-oxide concentration is seen to gradually decrease on the native oxide and acid etched samples. No significant changes of the P-oxide concentrations are detected, while the P-oxides chemical states are seen to change gradually during the initial cycles of ALD on the native oxide and the chemically treated samples. (NH{sub 4}){sub 2}S treatment strongly decreases In-oxide and P-oxide concentrations prior to ALD and maintains low concentrations during the ALD process.

Dong, H.; Brennan, B.; Kim, J.; Hinkle, C. L.; Wallace, R. M. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Texas at Dallas, Richardson, Texas 75080 (United States)] [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Texas at Dallas, Richardson, Texas 75080 (United States); Zhernokletov, D. [Department of Physics, University of Texas at Dallas, Richardson, Texas 75080 (United States)] [Department of Physics, University of Texas at Dallas, Richardson, Texas 75080 (United States)

2013-04-29T23:59:59.000Z