Sample records for depleted uranium metal

  1. Status Report and Proposal Concerning the Supply of Depleted Uranium Metal Bands for a Particle Detector

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Status Report and Proposal Concerning the Supply of Depleted Uranium Metal Bands for a Particle Detector

  2. Cost estimate report for the long-term management of depleted uranium hexafluoride : storage of depleted uranium metal.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Folga, S.M.; Kier, P.H.; Thimmapuram, P.R.

    2001-01-24T23:59:59.000Z

    This report contains a cost analysis of the long-term storage of depleted uranium in the form of uranium metal. Three options are considered for storage of the depleted uranium. These options are aboveground buildings, partly underground vaults, and mined cavities. Three cases are presented. In the first case, all the depleted uranium metal that would be produced from the conversion of depleted uranium hexafluoride (UF{sub 6}) generated by the US Department of Energy (DOE) prior to July 1993 would be stored at the storage facility (100% Case). In the second case, half the depleted uranium metal would be stored at this storage facility (50% Case). In the third case, one-quarter of the depleted uranium metal would be stored at the storage facility (25% Case). The technical basis for the cost analysis presented in this report is principally found in the companion report, ANL/EAD/TM-100, ''Engineering Analysis Report for the Long-Term Management of Depleted Uranium Hexafluoride: Storage of Depleted Uranium Metal'', prepared by Argonne National Laboratory.

  3. Characterization of Thermal Properties of Depleted Uranium Metal Microspheres

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Humrickhouse, Carissa Joy

    2012-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

    that combines these previous two methods to characterize the diffusivity of a packed bed of microspheres of depleted uranium (DU) metal, which have a nominal diameter of 250 micrometers. The new apparatus is designated as the Crucible Heater Test Assembly (CHTA...

  4. Engineering analysis report for the long-term management of depleted uranium hexafluoride : storage of depleted uranium metal.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Folga, S.M.; Kier, P.H.; Thimmapuram, P.R.

    2001-01-24T23:59:59.000Z

    This report contains an engineering analysis of long-term storage of uranium metal in boxes as an option for long-term management of depleted uranium hexafluoride (UF{sub 6}). Three storage facilities are considered: buildings, vaults, and mined cavities. Three cases are considered: either all, half, or a quarter of the depleted uranium metal that would be produced from the conversion of depleted UF{sub 6} is stored at the facility. The analysis of these alternatives is based on a box design used in the Final Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement for Alternative Strategies for the Long-Term Management and Use of Depleted Uranium Hexafluoride, report DOE/EIS-0269, published in 1999 by the US Department of Energy. This box design does not appear to effectively use space within the box. Hence, an alternative box design that allows for a reduced storage area is addressed in the appendices for long-term storage in buildings.

  5. Characterization of Thermal Properties of Depleted Uranium Metal Microspheres 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Humrickhouse, Carissa Joy

    2012-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

    of the DU microspheres was 0.431 ± 13% W/m-K compared to approximately 32 W/m-K for solid uranium metal. Characterization of the developed apparatus revealed a method that may be useful for measuring the thermal diffusivity of powders and liquids....

  6. Depleted uranium management alternatives

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hertzler, T.J.; Nishimoto, D.D.

    1994-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report evaluates two management alternatives for Department of Energy depleted uranium: continued storage as uranium hexafluoride, and conversion to uranium metal and fabrication to shielding for spent nuclear fuel containers. The results will be used to compare the costs with other alternatives, such as disposal. Cost estimates for the continued storage alternative are based on a life-cycle of 27 years through the year 2020. Cost estimates for the recycle alternative are based on existing conversion process costs and Capital costs for fabricating the containers. Additionally, the recycle alternative accounts for costs associated with intermediate product resale and secondary waste disposal for materials generated during the conversion process.

  7. Depleted Uranium Technical Brief

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Depleted Uranium Technical Brief United States Environmental Protection Agency Office of Air and Radiation Washington, DC 20460 EPA-402-R-06-011 December 2006 #12;#12;Depleted Uranium Technical Brief EPA of Radiation and Indoor Air Radiation Protection Division ii #12;iii #12;FOREWARD The Depleted Uranium

  8. Use of depleted uranium metal as cask shielding in high-level waste storage, transport, and disposal systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yoshimura, H.R.; Ludwigsen, J.S.; McAllaster, M.E. [and others

    1996-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The US DOE has amassed over 555,000 metric tons of depleted uranium from its uranium enrichment operations. Rather than dispose of this depleted uranium as waste, this study explores a beneficial use of depleted uranium as metal shielding in casks designed to contain canisters of vitrified high-level waste. Two high-level waste storage, transport, and disposal shielded cask systems are analyzed. The first system employs a shielded storage and disposal cask having a separate reusable transportation overpack. The second system employs a shielded combined storage, transport, and disposal cask. Conceptual cask designs that hold 1, 3, 4 and 7 high-level waste canisters are described for both systems. In all cases, cask design feasibility was established and analyses indicate that these casks meet applicable thermal, structural, shielding, and contact-handled requirements. Depleted uranium metal casting, fabrication, environmental, and radiation compatibility considerations are discussed and found to pose no serious implementation problems. About one-fourth of the depleted uranium inventory would be used to produce the casks required to store and dispose of the nearly 15,400 high-level waste canisters that would be produced. This study estimates the total-system cost for the preferred 7-canister storage and disposal configuration having a separate transportation overpack would be $6.3 billion. When credits are taken for depleted uranium disposal cost, a cost that would be avoided if depleted uranium were used as cask shielding material rather than disposed of as waste, total system net costs are between $3.8 billion and $5.5 billion.

  9. Review The Toxicity of Depleted Uranium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wayne Briner

    Abstract: Depleted uranium (DU) is an emerging environmental pollutant that is introduced into the environment primarily by military activity. While depleted uranium is less radioactive than natural uranium, it still retains all the chemical toxicity associated with the original element. In large doses the kidney is the target organ for the acute chemical toxicity of this metal, producing potentially lethal tubular necrosis. In contrast, chronic low dose exposure to depleted uranium may not produce a clear and defined set of symptoms. Chronic low-dose, or subacute, exposure to depleted uranium alters the appearance of milestones in developing organisms. Adult animals that were exposed to depleted uranium during development display persistent alterations in behavior, even after cessation of depleted uranium exposure. Adult animals exposed to depleted uranium demonstrate altered behaviors and a variety of alterations to brain chemistry. Despite its reduced level of radioactivity evidence continues to accumulate that depleted uranium, if ingested, may pose a radiologic hazard. The current state of knowledge concerning DU is discussed.

  10. Depleted uranium disposal options.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Biwer, B. M.; Ranek, N. L.; Goldberg, M.; Avci, H. I.

    2000-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Depleted uranium hexafluoride (UF{sub 6}) has been produced in the United States since the 1940s as part of both the military program and the civilian nuclear energy program. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is the agency responsible for managing most of the depleted UF{sub 6} that has been produced in the United States. The total quantity of depleted UF{sub 6} that DOE has to or will have to manage is approximately 700,000 Mg. Studies have been conducted to evaluate the various alternatives for managing this material. This paper evaluates and summarizes the alternative of disposal as low-level waste (LLW). Results of the analysis indicate that UF{sub 6} needs to be converted to a more stable form, such as U{sub 3}O{sub 8}, before disposal as LLW. Estimates of the environmental impacts of disposal in a dry environment are within the currently applicable standards and regulations. Of the currently operating LLW disposal facilities, available information indicates that either of two DOE facilities--the Hanford Site or the Nevada Test Site--or a commercial facility--Envirocare of Utah--would be able to dispose of up to the entire DOE inventory of depleted UF{sub 6}.

  11. Depleted uranium disposal options evaluation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hertzler, T.J.; Nishimoto, D.D.; Otis, M.D. [Science Applications International Corp., Idaho Falls, ID (United States). Waste Management Technology Div.

    1994-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management, has chartered a study to evaluate alternative management strategies for depleted uranium (DU) currently stored throughout the DOE complex. Historically, DU has been maintained as a strategic resource because of uses for DU metal and potential uses for further enrichment or for uranium oxide as breeder reactor blanket fuel. This study has focused on evaluating the disposal options for DU if it were considered a waste. This report is in no way declaring these DU reserves a ``waste,`` but is intended to provide baseline data for comparison with other management options for use of DU. To PICS considered in this report include: Retrievable disposal; permanent disposal; health hazards; radiation toxicity and chemical toxicity.

  12. Depleted uranium: A DOE management guide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has a management challenge and financial liability in the form of 50,000 cylinders containing 555,000 metric tons of depleted uranium hexafluoride (UF{sub 6}) that are stored at the gaseous diffusion plants. The annual storage and maintenance cost is approximately $10 million. This report summarizes several studies undertaken by the DOE Office of Technology Development (OTD) to evaluate options for long-term depleted uranium management. Based on studies conducted to date, the most likely use of the depleted uranium is for shielding of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) or vitrified high-level waste (HLW) containers. The alternative to finding a use for the depleted uranium is disposal as a radioactive waste. Estimated disposal costs, utilizing existing technologies, range between $3.8 and $11.3 billion, depending on factors such as applicability of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and the location of the disposal site. The cost of recycling the depleted uranium in a concrete based shielding in SNF/HLW containers, although substantial, is comparable to or less than the cost of disposal. Consequently, the case can be made that if DOE invests in developing depleted uranium shielded containers instead of disposal, a long-term solution to the UF{sub 6} problem is attained at comparable or lower cost than disposal as a waste. Two concepts for depleted uranium storage casks were considered in these studies. The first is based on standard fabrication concepts previously developed for depleted uranium metal. The second converts the UF{sub 6} to an oxide aggregate that is used in concrete to make dry storage casks.

  13. Depleted uranium hexafluoride: Waste or resource?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schwertz, N.; Zoller, J.; Rosen, R.; Patton, S. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Bradley, C. [USDOE Office of Nuclear Energy, Science, Technology, Washington, DC (United States); Murray, A. [SAIC (United States)

    1995-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    the US Department of Energy is evaluating technologies for the storage, disposal, or re-use of depleted uranium hexafluoride (UF{sub 6}). This paper discusses the following options, and provides a technology assessment for each one: (1) conversion to UO{sub 2} for use as mixed oxide duel, (2) conversion to UO{sub 2} to make DUCRETE for a multi-purpose storage container, (3) conversion to depleted uranium metal for use as shielding, (4) conversion to uranium carbide for use as high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) fuel. In addition, conversion to U{sub 3}O{sub 8} as an option for long-term storage is discussed.

  14. Depleted uranium plasma reduction system study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rekemeyer, P.; Feizollahi, F.; Quapp, W.J.; Brown, B.W.

    1994-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A system life-cycle cost study was conducted of a preliminary design concept for a plasma reduction process for converting depleted uranium to uranium metal and anhydrous HF. The plasma-based process is expected to offer significant economic and environmental advantages over present technology. Depleted Uranium is currently stored in the form of solid UF{sub 6}, of which approximately 575,000 metric tons is stored at three locations in the U.S. The proposed system is preconceptual in nature, but includes all necessary processing equipment and facilities to perform the process. The study has identified total processing cost of approximately $3.00/kg of UF{sub 6} processed. Based on the results of this study, the development of a laboratory-scale system (1 kg/h throughput of UF6) is warranted. Further scaling of the process to pilot scale will be determined after laboratory testing is complete.

  15. Beneficial Uses of Depleted Uranium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, C. [U.S. Department of Energy, Germantown, MD (United States); Croff, A.G.; Haire, M. J. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1997-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Naturally occurring uranium contains 0.71 wt% {sup 235}U. In order for the uranium to be useful in most fission reactors, it must be enriched the concentration of the fissile isotope {sup 235}U must be increased. Depleted uranium (DU) is a co-product of the processing of natural uranium to produce enriched uranium, and DU has a {sup 235}U concentration of less than 0.71 wt%. In the United States, essentially all of the DU inventory is in the chemical form of uranium hexafluoride (UF{sub 6}) and is stored in large cylinders above ground. If this co-product material were to be declared surplus, converted to a stable oxide form, and disposed, the costs are estimated to be several billion dollars. Only small amounts of DU have at this time been beneficially reused. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has begun the Beneficial Uses of DU Project to identify large-scale uses of DU and encourage its reuse for the primary purpose of potentially reducing the cost and expediting the disposition of the DU inventory. This paper discusses the inventory of DU and its rate of increase; DU disposition options; beneficial use options; a preliminary cost analysis; and major technical, institutional, and regulatory issues to be resolved.

  16. Assessment of Preferred Depleted Uranium Disposal Forms

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Croff, A.G.; Hightower, J.R.; Lee, D.W.; Michaels, G.E.; Ranek, N.L.; Trabalka, J.R.

    2000-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Department of Energy (DOE) is in the process of converting about 700,000 metric tons (MT) of depleted uranium hexafluoride (DUF6) containing 475,000 MT of depleted uranium (DU) to a stable form more suitable for long-term storage or disposal. Potential conversion forms include the tetrafluoride (DUF4), oxide (DUO2 or DU3O8), or metal. If worthwhile beneficial uses cannot be found for the DU product form, it will be sent to an appropriate site for disposal. The DU products are considered to be low-level waste (LLW) under both DOE orders and Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) regulations. The objective of this study was to assess the acceptability of the potential DU conversion products at potential LLW disposal sites to provide a basis for DOE decisions on the preferred DU product form and a path forward that will ensure reliable and efficient disposal.

  17. DOE Seeks Contractor for Depleted Uranium Hexafluoride (DUF6...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Contractor for Depleted Uranium Hexafluoride (DUF6) Operations at Ohio and Kentucky Facilities DOE Seeks Contractor for Depleted Uranium Hexafluoride (DUF6) Operations at Ohio and...

  18. EIS-0360: Depleted Uranium Oxide Conversion Product at the Portsmouth...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    60: Depleted Uranium Oxide Conversion Product at the Portsmouth, Ohio Site EIS-0360: Depleted Uranium Oxide Conversion Product at the Portsmouth, Ohio Site Summary This...

  19. Depleted Uranium Hexafluoride (DUF6) Fully Operational at the...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Depleted Uranium Hexafluoride (DUF6) Fully Operational at the Portsmouth and Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Sites Depleted Uranium Hexafluoride (DUF6) Fully Operational at the...

  20. Molten-Salt Depleted-Uranium Reactor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dong, Bao-Guo; Gu, Ji-Yuan

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The supercritical, reactor core melting and nuclear fuel leaking accidents have troubled fission reactors for decades, and greatly limit their extensive applications. Now these troubles are still open. Here we first show a possible perfect reactor, Molten-Salt Depleted-Uranium Reactor which is no above accident trouble. We found this reactor could be realized in practical applications in terms of all of the scientific principle, principle of operation, technology, and engineering. Our results demonstrate how these reactors can possess and realize extraordinary excellent characteristics, no prompt critical, long-term safe and stable operation with negative feedback, closed uranium-plutonium cycle chain within the vessel, normal operation only with depleted-uranium, and depleted-uranium high burnup in reality, to realize with fission nuclear energy sufficiently satisfying humanity long-term energy resource needs, as well as thoroughly solve the challenges of nuclear criticality safety, uranium resource insuffic...

  1. Demonstration of jackhammer incorporating depleted uranium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fischer, L E; Hoard, R W; Carter, D L; Saculla, M D; Wilson, G V

    2000-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The United States Government currently has an abundance of depleted uranium (DU). This surplus of about 1 billion pounds is the result of an enrichment process using gaseous diffusion to produce enriched and depleted uranium. The enriched uranium has been used primarily for either nuclear weapons for the military or nuclear fuel for the commercial power industry. Most of the depleted uranium remains at the enrichment process plants in the form of depleted uranium hexafluoride (DUF{sub 6}). The Department of Energy (DOE) recently began a study to identify possible commercial applications for the surplus material. One of these potential applications is to use the DU in high-density strikers/hammers in pneumatically driven tools, such as jack hammers and piledrivers to improve their impulse performance. The use of DU could potentially increase tunneling velocity and excavation into target materials with improved efficiency. This report describes the efforts undertaken to analyze the particulars of using DU in two specific striking applications: the jackhammer and chipper tool.

  2. The ultimate disposition of depleted uranium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lemons, T.R. [Uranium Enrichment Organization, Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    1991-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Depleted uranium (DU) is produced as a by-product of the uranium enrichment process. Over 340,000 MTU of DU in the form of UF{sub 6} have been accumulated at the US government gaseous diffusion plants and the stockpile continues to grow. An overview of issues and objectives associated with the inventory management and the ultimate disposition of this material is presented.

  3. Capstone Depleted Uranium Aerosols: Generation and Characterization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Parkhurst, MaryAnn; Szrom, Fran; Guilmette, Ray; Holmes, Tom; Cheng, Yung-Sung; Kenoyer, Judson L.; Collins, John W.; Sanderson, T. Ellory; Fliszar, Richard W.; Gold, Kenneth; Beckman, John C.; Long, Julie

    2004-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

    In a study designed to provide an improved scientific basis for assessing possible health effects from inhaling depleted uranium (DU) aerosols, a series of DU penetrators was fired at an Abrams tank and a Bradley fighting vehicle. A robust sampling system was designed to collect aerosols in this difficult environment and continuously monitor the sampler flow rates. Aerosols collected were analyzed for uranium concentration and particle size distribution as a function of time. They were also analyzed for uranium oxide phases, particle morphology, and dissolution in vitro. The resulting data provide input useful in human health risk assessments.

  4. Depleted Uranium in Kosovo Post-Conflict Environmental Assessment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Unep Scientific; Mission Kosovo

    2.1 UNEP’s role in post-conflict environmental assessment................................................9 2.2 Depleted uranium............................................................10

  5. The Hazard Posed by Depleted Uranium Munitions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Steve Fetter And; Steve Fetter A

    This paper assesses the radiological and chemical hazards resulting from the use of depleted uranium (DU) munitions. Due to the low radioactivity of DU, radiological hazards to individuals would become significant in comparison to natural background radiation doses only in cases of prolonged contact---for example, when shards of a DU penetrator remain embedded in a soldier's body. Although the radiation doses to virtually all civilians would be very low, the cumulative "population dose" resulting from the dispersal of hundreds of tons of DU, as occurred during the Gulf War, could result in up to ten cancer deaths. It is highly unlikely that exposures of persons downwind from the use of DU munitions or consuming food or water contaminated by DU dust would reach the estimated threshold for chemical heavy-metal effects. The exposures of soldiers in vehicles struck by DU munitions could be much higher, however, and persons who subsequently enter such vehicles without adequate respiratory protection could potentially be at risk. Soldiers should be trained to avoid unnecessary exposure to DU, and vehicles struck by DU munitions should be made inaccessible to curious civilians. INTRODUCTION

  6. The ultimate disposition of depleted uranium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Significant amounts of the depleted uranium (DU) created by past uranium enrichment activities have been sold, disposed of commercially, or utilized by defense programs. In recent years, however, the demand for DU has become quite small compared to quantities available, and within the US Department of Energy (DOE) there is concern for any risks and/or cost liabilities that might be associated with the ever-growing inventory of this material. As a result, Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. (Energy Systems), was asked to review options and to develop a comprehensive plan for inventory management and the ultimate disposition of DU accumulated at the gaseous diffusion plants (GDPs). An Energy Systems task team, under the chairmanship of T. R. Lemons, was formed in late 1989 to provide advice and guidance for this task. This report reviews options and recommends actions and objectives in the management of working inventories of partially depleted feed (PDF) materials and for the ultimate disposition of fully depleted uranium (FDU). Actions that should be considered are as follows. (1) Inspect UF{sub 6} cylinders on a semiannual basis. (2) Upgrade cylinder maintenance and storage yards. (3) Convert FDU to U{sub 3}O{sub 8} for long-term storage or disposal. This will include provisions for partial recovery of costs to offset those associated with DU inventory management and the ultimate disposal of FDU. Another recommendation is to drop the term tails'' in favor of depleted uranium'' or DU'' because the tails'' label implies that it is waste.'' 13 refs.

  7. Uranio impoverito: perché? (Depleted uranium: why?)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Germano D'Abramo

    2003-06-05T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper we develop a simple model of the penetration process of a long rod through an uniform target. Applying the momentum and energy conservation laws, we derive an analytical relation which shows how the penetration depth depends upon the density of the rod, given a fixed kinetic energy. This work was sparked off by the necessity of understanding the effectiveness of high density penetrators (e.g. depleted uranium penetrators) as anti-tank weapons.

  8. DOE Announces Transfer of Depleted Uranium to Advance the U.S...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Transfer of Depleted Uranium to Advance the U.S. National Security Interests, Extend Operations at Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant DOE Announces Transfer of Depleted Uranium to...

  9. Depleted uranium hexafluoride management program : data compilation for the Portsmouth site.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hartmann, H. M.

    2001-06-05T23:59:59.000Z

    This report is a compilation of data and analyses for the Portsmouth site, near Portsmouth, Ohio. The data were collected and the analyses were done in support of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) 1999 Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement for Alternative Strategies for the Long-Term Management and Use of Depleted Uranium Hexafluoride (DOE/EIS-0269). The report describes the affected environment at the Portsmouth site and summarizes potential environmental impacts that could result from conducting the following depleted uranium hexafluoride (UF{sub 6}) management activities at the site: continued cylinder storage, preparation of cylinders for shipment, conversion, and long-term storage. DOE's preferred alternative is to begin converting the depleted UF{sub 6} inventory as soon as possible to either uranium oxide, uranium metal, or a combination of both, while allowing for use of as much of this inventory as possible.

  10. Depleted uranium hexafluoride management program : data compilation for the Paducah site.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hartmann, H.

    2001-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

    This report is a compilation of data and analyses for the Paducah site, near Paducah, Kentucky. The data were collected and the analyses were done in support of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) 1999 Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement for Alternative Strategies for the Long-Term Management and Use of Depleted Uranium Hexafluoride (DOE/EIS-0269). The report describes the affected environment at the Paducah site and summarizes potential environmental impacts that could result from conducting the following depleted uranium hexafluoride (UF{sub 6}) activities at the site: continued cylinder storage, preparation of cylinders for shipment, conversion, and long-term storage. DOE's preferred alternative is to begin converting the depleted UF{sub 6} inventory as soon as possible to either uranium oxide, uranium metal, or a combination of both, while allowing for use of as much of this inventory as possible.

  11. alkaline-earth metal uranium: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    predominantly... Sames, William 2011-08-08 59 Characterization of Thermal Properties of Depleted Uranium Metal Microspheres Texas A&M University - TxSpace Summary: Nuclear fuel...

  12. Method for converting uranium oxides to uranium metal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Duerksen, Walter K. (Norris, TN)

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A process is described for converting scrap and waste uranium oxide to uranium metal. The uranium oxide is sequentially reduced with a suitable reducing agent to a mixture of uranium metal and oxide products. The uranium metal is then converted to uranium hydride and the uranium hydride-containing mixture is then cooled to a temperature less than -100.degree. C. in an inert liquid which renders the uranium hydride ferromagnetic. The uranium hydride is then magnetically separated from the cooled mixture. The separated uranium hydride is readily converted to uranium metal by heating in an inert atmosphere. This process is environmentally acceptable and eliminates the use of hydrogen fluoride as well as the explosive conditions encountered in the previously employed bomb-reduction processes utilized for converting uranium oxides to uranium metal.

  13. Depleted uranium as a backfill for nuclear fuel waste package

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Forsberg, C.W.

    1998-11-03T23:59:59.000Z

    A method is described for packaging spent nuclear fuel for long-term disposal in a geological repository. At least one spent nuclear fuel assembly is first placed in an unsealed waste package and a depleted uranium fill material is added to the waste package. The depleted uranium fill material comprises flowable particles having a size sufficient to substantially fill any voids in and around the assembly and contains isotopically-depleted uranium in the +4 valence state in an amount sufficient to inhibit dissolution of the spent nuclear fuel from the assembly into a surrounding medium and to lessen the potential for nuclear criticality inside the repository in the event of failure of the waste package. Last, the waste package is sealed, thereby substantially reducing the release of radionuclides into the surrounding medium, while simultaneously providing radiation shielding and increased structural integrity of the waste package. 6 figs.

  14. Depleted uranium as a backfill for nuclear fuel waste package

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Forsberg, Charles W. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for packaging spent nuclear fuel for long-term disposal in a geological repository. At least one spent nuclear fuel assembly is first placed in an unsealed waste package and a depleted uranium fill material is added to the waste package. The depleted uranium fill material comprises flowable particles having a size sufficient to substantially fill any voids in and around the assembly and contains isotopically-depleted uranium in the +4 valence state in an amount sufficient to inhibit dissolution of the spent nuclear fuel from the assembly into a surrounding medium and to lessen the potential for nuclear criticality inside the repository in the event of failure of the waste package. Last, the waste package is sealed, thereby substantially reducing the release of radionuclides into the surrounding medium, while simultaneously providing radiation shielding and increased structural integrity of the waste package.

  15. Process for electrolytically preparing uranium metal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Haas, Paul A. (Knoxville, TN)

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for making uranium metal from uranium oxide by first fluorinating uranium oxide to form uranium tetrafluoride and next electrolytically reducing the uranium tetrafluoride with a carbon anode to form uranium metal and CF.sub.4. The CF.sub.4 is reused in the fluorination reaction rather than being disposed of as a hazardous waste.

  16. Development of a Novel Depleted Uranium Treatment Process at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gates-Anderson, D; Bowers, J; Laue, C; Fitch, T

    2007-01-22T23:59:59.000Z

    A three-stage process was developed at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory to treat potentially pyrophoric depleted uranium metal wastes. The three-stage process includes waste sorting/rinsing, acid dissolution of the waste metal with a hydrochloric and phosphoric acid solution, and solidification of the neutralized residuals from the second stage with clay. The final product is a solid waste form that can be transported to and disposed of at a permitted low-level radioactive waste disposal site.

  17. Conversion of depleted uranium hexafluoride to a solid uranium compound

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rothman, Alan B. (Willowbrook, IL); Graczyk, Donald G. (Lemont, IL); Essling, Alice M. (Elmhurst, IL); Horwitz, E. Philip (Naperville, IL)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for converting UF.sub.6 to a solid uranium compound such as UO.sub.2 and CaF. The UF.sub.6 vapor form is contacted with an aqueous solution of NH.sub.4 OH at a pH greater than 7 to precipitate at least some solid uranium values as a solid leaving an aqueous solution containing NH.sub.4 OH and NH.sub.4 F and remaining uranium values. The solid uranium values are separated from the aqueous solution of NH.sub.4 OH and NH.sub.4 F and remaining uranium values which is then diluted with additional water precipitating more uranium values as a solid leaving trace quantities of uranium in a dilute aqueous solution. The dilute aqueous solution is contacted with an ion-exchange resin to remove substantially all the uranium values from the dilute aqueous solution. The dilute solution being contacted with Ca(OH).sub.2 to precipitate CaF.sub.2 leaving dilute NH.sub.4 OH.

  18. Process for continuous production of metallic uranium and uranium alloys

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hayden, H.W. Jr.; Horton, J.A.; Elliott, G.R.B.

    1995-06-06T23:59:59.000Z

    A method is described for forming metallic uranium, or a uranium alloy, from uranium oxide in a manner which substantially eliminates the formation of uranium-containing wastes. A source of uranium dioxide is first provided, for example, by reducing uranium trioxide (UO{sub 3}), or any other substantially stable uranium oxide, to form the uranium dioxide (UO{sub 2}). This uranium dioxide is then chlorinated to form uranium tetrachloride (UCl{sub 4}), and the uranium tetrachloride is then reduced to metallic uranium by reacting the uranium chloride with a metal which will form the chloride of the metal. This last step may be carried out in the presence of another metal capable of forming one or more alloys with metallic uranium to thereby lower the melting point of the reduced uranium product. The metal chloride formed during the uranium tetrachloride reduction step may then be reduced in an electrolysis cell to recover and recycle the metal back to the uranium tetrachloride reduction operation and the chlorine gas back to the uranium dioxide chlorination operation. 4 figs.

  19. Process for continuous production of metallic uranium and uranium alloys

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hayden, Jr., Howard W. (Oakridge, TN); Horton, James A. (Livermore, CA); Elliott, Guy R. B. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method is described for forming metallic uranium, or a uranium alloy, from uranium oxide in a manner which substantially eliminates the formation of uranium-containing wastes. A source of uranium dioxide is first provided, for example, by reducing uranium trioxide (UO.sub.3), or any other substantially stable uranium oxide, to form the uranium dioxide (UO.sub.2). This uranium dioxide is then chlorinated to form uranium tetrachloride (UCl.sub.4), and the uranium tetrachloride is then reduced to metallic uranium by reacting the uranium chloride with a metal which will form the chloride of the metal. This last step may be carried out in the presence of another metal capable of forming one or more alloys with metallic uranium to thereby lower the melting point of the reduced uranium product. The metal chloride formed during the uranium tetrachloride reduction step may then be reduced in an electrolysis cell to recover and recycle the metal back to the uranium tetrachloride reduction operation and the chlorine gas back to the uranium dioxide chlorination operation.

  20. Depleted uranium hexafluoride: The source material for advanced shielding systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Quapp, W.J.; Lessing, P.A. [Idaho National Engineering Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Cooley, C.R. [Department of Technology, Germantown, MD (United States)

    1997-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has a management challenge and financial liability problem in the form of 50,000 cylinders containing 555,000 metric tons of depleted uranium hexafluoride (UF{sub 6}) that are stored at the gaseous diffusion plants. DOE is evaluating several options for the disposition of this UF{sub 6}, including continued storage, disposal, and recycle into a product. Based on studies conducted to date, the most feasible recycle option for the depleted uranium is shielding in low-level waste, spent nuclear fuel, or vitrified high-level waste containers. Estimates for the cost of disposal, using existing technologies, range between $3.8 and $11.3 billion depending on factors such as the disposal site and the applicability of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). Advanced technologies can reduce these costs, but UF{sub 6} disposal still represents large future costs. This paper describes an application for depleted uranium in which depleted uranium hexafluoride is converted into an oxide and then into a heavy aggregate. The heavy uranium aggregate is combined with conventional concrete materials to form an ultra high density concrete, DUCRETE, weighing more than 400 lb/ft{sup 3}. DUCRETE can be used as shielding in spent nuclear fuel/high-level waste casks at a cost comparable to the lower of the disposal cost estimates. Consequently, the case can be made that DUCRETE shielded casks are an alternative to disposal. In this case, a beneficial long term solution is attained for much less than the combined cost of independently providing shielded casks and disposing of the depleted uranium. Furthermore, if disposal is avoided, the political problems associated with selection of a disposal location are also avoided. Other studies have also shown cost benefits for low level waste shielded disposal containers.

  1. EIS-0269: Long-Term Management of Depleted Uranium Hexaflouride

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) prepared this programmatic environmental impact statement to assess the potential impacts of alternative management strategies for depleted uranium hexafluoride currently stored at three DOE sites: Paducah site near Paducah, Kentucky; Portsmouth site near Portsmouth, Ohio; and K-25 site on the Oak Ridge Reservation in Oak Ridge, Tennessee.

  2. Conversion and Blending Facility highly enriched uranium to low enriched uranium as metal. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-07-05T23:59:59.000Z

    The mission of this Conversion and Blending Facility (CBF) will be to blend surplus HEU metal and alloy with depleted uranium metal to produce an LEU product. The primary emphasis of this blending operation will be to destroy the weapons capability of large, surplus stockpiles of HEU. The blended LEU product can only be made weapons capable again by the uranium enrichment process. The blended LEU will be produced as a waste suitable for storage or disposal.

  3. Fabrication options for depleted uranium components in shielded containers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Derrington, S.B.; Thompson, J.E.; Coates, C.W.

    1994-01-27T23:59:59.000Z

    Depleted uranium (DU) is an attractive material for the gamma-shielding components in containers designed for the storage, transport, and disposal of high-level radioactive wastes or spent nuclear fuel. The size and weight of these components present fabrication challenges. A broad range of technical expertise, capabilities, and facilities for uranium manufacturing and technology development exist at the Department of Energy laboratories and production facilities and within commercial industry. Several cast and wrought processes are available to fabricate the DU components. Integration of the DU fabrication capabilities and physical limitations for handling the DU components into the early design phase will ensure a fabricable product.

  4. Microstructure of depleted uranium under uniaxial strain conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zurek, A.K.; Embury, J.D.; Kelly, A.; Thissell, W.R.; Gustavsen, R.L.; Vorthman, J.E.; Hixson, R.H.

    1997-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Uranium samples of two different purities were used for spall strength measurements. Samples of depleted uranium were taken from very high purity material (38 ppM carbon) and from material containing 280 ppM C. Experimental conditions were chosen to effectively arrest the microstructural damage at two places in the development to full spall separation. Samples were soft recovered and characterized with respect to the microstructure and the form of damage. This allowed determination of the dependence of spall mechanisms on stress level, stress state, and sample purity. This information is used in developing a model to predict the mode of fracture.

  5. Uranio impoverito: perch'e? (Depleted uranium: why?)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    D'Abramo, G

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper we develop a simple model of the penetration process of a long rod through an uniform target. Applying the momentum and energy conservation laws, we derive an analytical relation which shows how the penetration depth depends upon the density of the rod, given a fixed kinetic energy. This work was sparked off by the necessity of the author of understanding the reasons of the effectiveness of high density penetrators (e.g. depleted uranium penetrators) as anti-tank weapons.

  6. Selection of a management strategy for depleted uranium hexafluoride

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Patton, S.E.; Hanrahan, E.J.; Bradley, C.E.

    1995-09-06T23:59:59.000Z

    A consequence of the uranium enrichment process used in the United States (US) is the accumulation of a significant amount of depleted uranium hexafluoride (UF{sub 6}). Currently, approximately 560,000 metric tons of the material are stored at three different sites. The US Department of Energy (DOE) has recently initiated a program to consider alternative strategies for the cost-effective and environmentally safe long-term management of this inventory of depleted UF{sub 6}. The program involves a technology and engineering assessment of proposed management options (use/reuse, conversion, storage, or disposal) and an analysis of the potential environmental impacts and life-cycle costs of alternative management strategies. The information obtained from the studies will be used by the DOE to select a preferred long-term management strategy. The selection and implementation of a management strategy will involve consideration of a number of important issues such as environmental, health, and safety effects; the balancing of risks versus costs in a context of reduced government spending; socioeconomic implications, including effects on the domestic and international uranium industry; the technical status of proposed uses or technologies; and public involvement in the decision making process. Because of its provisions for considering a wide range of relevant issues and involving the public, this program has become a model for future DOE materials disposition programs. This paper presents an overview of the Depleted Uranium Hexafluoride Management Program. Technical findings of the program to date are presented, and major issues involved in selecting and implementing a management strategy are discussed.

  7. Depleted uranium storage and disposal trade study: Summary report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hightower, J.R.; Trabalka, J.R.

    2000-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objectives of this study were to: identify the most desirable forms for conversion of depleted uranium hexafluoride (DUF6) for extended storage, identify the most desirable forms for conversion of DUF6 for disposal, evaluate the comparative costs for extended storage or disposal of the various forms, review benefits of the proposed plasma conversion process, estimate simplified life-cycle costs (LCCs) for five scenarios that entail either disposal or beneficial reuse, and determine whether an overall optimal form for conversion of DUF6 can be selected given current uncertainty about the endpoints (specific disposal site/technology or reuse options).

  8. Influence of uranium hydride oxidation on uranium metal behaviour

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Patel, N.; Hambley, D. [National Nuclear Laboratory (United Kingdom); Clarke, S.A. [Sellafield Ltd (United Kingdom); Simpson, K.

    2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This work addresses concerns that the rapid, exothermic oxidation of active uranium hydride in air could stimulate an exothermic reaction (burning) involving any adjacent uranium metal, so as to increase the potential hazard arising from a hydride reaction. The effect of the thermal reaction of active uranium hydride, especially in contact with uranium metal, does not increase in proportion with hydride mass, particularly when considering large quantities of hydride. Whether uranium metal continues to burn in the long term is a function of the uranium metal and its surroundings. The source of the initial heat input to the uranium, if sufficient to cause ignition, is not important. Sustained burning of uranium requires the rate of heat generation to be sufficient to offset the total rate of heat loss so as to maintain an elevated temperature. For dense uranium, this is very difficult to achieve in naturally occurring circumstances. Areas of the uranium surface can lose heat but not generate heat. Heat can be lost by conduction, through contact with other materials, and by convection and radiation, e.g. from areas where the uranium surface is covered with a layer of oxidised material, such as burned-out hydride or from fuel cladding. These rates of heat loss are highly significant in relation to the rate of heat generation by sustained oxidation of uranium in air. Finite volume modelling has been used to examine the behaviour of a magnesium-clad uranium metal fuel element within a bottle surrounded by other un-bottled fuel elements. In the event that the bottle is breached, suddenly, in air, it can be concluded that the bulk uranium metal oxidation reaction will not reach a self-sustaining level and the mass of uranium oxidised will likely to be small in relation to mass of uranium hydride oxidised. (authors)

  9. EIS-0329: Proposed Construction, Operation, Decontamination/Decommissioning of Depleted Uranium Hexafluoride Conversion Facilities

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This EIS analyzes DOE's proposal to construct, operate, maintain, and decontaminate and decommission two depleted uranium hexafluoride (DUF 6) conversion facilities, at Portsmouth, Ohio, and Paducah, Kentucky.

  10. Overview of toxicity data and risk assessment methods for evaluating the chemical effects of depleted uranium compounds.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hartmann, H. M.; Monette, F. A.; Avci, H. I.; Environmental Assessment

    2000-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In the United States, depleted uranium is handled or used in several chemical forms by both governmental agencies and private industry (primarily companies producing and machining depleted uranium metal for military applications). Human exposure can occur as a result of handling these compounds, routine low-level effluent releases to the environment from processing facilities, or materials being accidentally released from storage locations or during processing or transportation. Exposure to uranium can result in both chemical and radiological toxicity, but in most instances chemical toxicity is of greater concern. This article discusses the chemical toxic effects from human exposure to depleted uranium compounds that are likely to be handled during the long-term management and use of depleted uranium hexafluoride (UF{sub 6}) inventories in the United States. It also reviews representative publications in the toxicological literature to establish appropriate reference values for risk assessments. Methods are described for evaluating chemical toxicity caused by chronic low-level exposure and acute exposure. Example risk evaluations are provided for illustration. Preliminary results indicate that chemical effects of chronic exposure to uranium compounds under normal operating conditions would be negligibly small. Results also show that acute exposures under certain accident conditions could cause adverse chemical effects among the populations exposed.

  11. Depleted uranium hexafluoride management program : data compilation for the K-25 site.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hartmann, H. M.

    2001-06-05T23:59:59.000Z

    This report is a compilation of data and analyses for the K-25 site on the Oak Ridge Reservation, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The data were collected and the analyses were done in support of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) 1999 Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement for Alternative Strategies for the Long-Term Management and Use of Depleted Uranium Hexafluoride (DOE/EIS-0269). The report describes the affected environment at the K-25 site and summarizes the potential environmental impacts that could result from continued cylinder storage and preparation of cylinders for shipment at the site. It is probable that the cylinders at the K-25 site will be shipped to another site for conversion. Because conversion and long-term storage of the entire inventory at the K-25 site are highly unlikely, these data are not presented in this report. DOE's preferred alternative is to begin converting the depleted uranium hexafluoride inventory as soon as possible to either uranium oxide, uranium metal, or a combination of both, while allowing for use of as much of this inventory as possible.

  12. Determination of Young's modulus and mechanical damping as a function of temperature for depleted uranium-0.75 wt% titanium using the PUCOT 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Keene, Keith Howard

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    the normal background level was detected with a Geiger counter outside the tool cabinet. The main health hazard from depleted uranium is its heavy metal toxicity [3]. Depleted uranium can be lethal if sufficient amounts of finely divided dust or oxide...DETERMINATION OF YOUNG'S MODULUS AND MECHANICAL DAMPING AS A FUNCTION OF TEMPERATURE FOR DEPLETED URANIUM-0. 75 WT% TITANIUM USING THE PUCOT A Thesis bY KEITH HOWARD KEENE Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial...

  13. Including environmental concerns in management strategies for depleted uranium hexafluoride

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goldberg, M. [Argonne National Laboratory, Washington, DC (United States); Avci, H.I. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Bradley, C.E. [USDOE, Washington, DC (United States)

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    One of the major programs within the Office of Nuclear Energy, Science, and Technology of the US Department of Energy (DOE) is the depleted uranium hexafluoride (DUF{sub 6}) management program. The program is intended to find a long-term management strategy for the DUF{sub 6} that is currently stored in approximately 46,400 cylinders at Paducah, KY; Portsmouth, OH; and Oak Ridge, TN, USA. The program has four major components: technology assessment, engineering analysis, cost analysis, and the environmental impact statement (EIS). From the beginning of the program, the DOE has incorporated the environmental considerations into the process of strategy selection. Currently, the DOE has no preferred alternative. The results of the environmental impacts assessment from the EIS, as well as the results from the other components of the program, will be factored into the strategy selection process. In addition to the DOE`s current management plan, other alternatives continued storage, reuse, or disposal of depleted uranium, will be considered in the EIS. The EIS is expected to be completed and issued in its final form in the fall of 1997.

  14. Depleted-Uranium Weapons the Whys and Wherefores

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gsponer, A

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The only military application in which present-day depleted-uranium (DU) alloys out-perform tungsten alloys is long-rod penetration into a main battle-tank's armor. However, this advantage is only on the order of 10% and disappearing when the comparison is made in terms of actual lethality of complete anti-tank systems instead of laboratory-type steel penetration capability. Therefore, new micro- and nano-engineered tungsten alloys may soon out-perform existing DU alloys, enabling the production of tungsten munition which will be better than uranium munition, and whose overall life-cycle cost will be less due to the absence of the problems related to the radioactivity of uranium. The reasons why DU weapons have been introduced and used are analysed from the perspective that their radioactivity must have played an important role in the decision making process. It is found that DU weapons belong to the diffuse category of low-radiological-impact nuclear weapons to which emerging types of low-yield, i.e., fourth...

  15. Military use of depleted uranium assessment of prolonged population exposure

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Giannardi, C

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This work is an exposure assessment for a population living in an area contaminated by use of depleted uranium (DU) weapons. RESRAD 5.91 code is used to evaluate the average effective dose delivered from 1, 10, 20 cm depths of contaminated soil, in a residential farmer scenario. Critical pathway and group are identified in soil inhalation or ingestion and children playing with the soil, respectively. From available information on DU released on targeted sites, both critical and average exposure can leave to toxicological hazards; annual dose limit for population can be exceeded on short-term period (years) for soil inhalation. As a consequence, in targeted sites cleaning up must be planned on the basis of measured concentration, when available, while special cautions have to be adopted altogether to reduce unaware exposures, taking into account the amount of the avertable dose.

  16. FEASIBILITY STUDY OF DUPOLY TO RECYCLE DEPLETED URANIUM.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    ADAMS,J.W.; LAGERAAEN,P.R.; KALB,P.D.; RUTENKROGER,S.P.

    1998-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    DUPoly, depleted uranium (DU) powder microencapsulated in a low-density polyethylene binder, has been demonstrated as an innovative and efficient recycle product, a very durable high density material with significant commercial appeal. DUPoly was successfully prepared using uranium tetrafluoride (UF{sub 4}) ''green salt'' obtained from Fluor Daniel-Fernald, a U.S. Department of Energy reprocessing facility near Cincinnati, Ohio. Samples containing up to 90 wt% UF{sub 4} were produced using a single screw plastics extruder, with sample densities of up to 3.97 {+-} 0.08 g/cm{sup 3} measured. Compressive strength of as-prepared samples (50-90 wt% UF4 ) ranged from 1682 {+-} 116 psi (11.6 {+-} 0.8 MPa) to 3145 {+-} 57 psi (21.7 {+-} 0.4 MPa). Water immersion testing for a period of 90 days produced no visible degradation of the samples. Leach rates were low, ranging from 0.02 % (2.74 x 10{sup {minus}6} gm/gm/d) for 50 wt% UF{sub 4} samples to 0.72 % (7.98 x 10{sup {minus}5} gm/gm/d) for 90 wt% samples. Sample strength was not compromised by water immersion. DUPoly samples containing uranium trioxide (UO{sub 3}), a DU reprocessing byproduct material stockpiled at the Savannah River Site, were gamma irradiated to 1 x 10{sup 9} rad with no visible deterioration. Compressive strength increased significantly, however: up to 200% for samples with 90 wt% UO{sub 3}. Correspondingly, percent deformation (strain) at failure was decreased for all samples. Gamma attenuation data on UO{sub 3} DUPoly samples yielded mass attenuation coefficients greater than those for lead. Neutron removal coefficients were calculated and shown to correlate well with wt% of DU. Unlike gamma attenuation, both hydrogenous and nonhydrogenous materials interact to attenuate neutrons.

  17. Proposal concerning the participation of CERN in the procurement of depleted-uranium sheets for the UA1 calorimeter upgrading

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Proposal concerning the participation of CERN in the procurement of depleted-uranium sheets for the UA1 calorimeter upgrading

  18. alloyed uranium transformation: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    were characterized in this research. Metal uranium powder was produced from pieces of depleted uranium metal acquired from the Y-12 plant via hydriding... Helmreich, Grant...

  19. alloyed uranium sicral: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    were characterized in this research. Metal uranium powder was produced from pieces of depleted uranium metal acquired from the Y-12 plant via hydriding... Helmreich, Grant...

  20. Dupoly process for treatment of depleted uranium and production of beneficial end products

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kalb, Paul D. (Wading River, NY); Adams, Jay W. (Stony Brook, NY); Lageraaen, Paul R. (Seaford, NY); Cooley, Carl R. (Gaithersburg, MD)

    2000-02-29T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention provides a process of encapsulating depleted uranium by forming a homogenous mixture of depleted uranium and molten virgin or recycled thermoplastic polymer into desired shapes. Separate streams of depleted uranium and virgin or recycled thermoplastic polymer are simultaneously subjected to heating and mixing conditions. The heating and mixing conditions are provided by a thermokinetic mixer, continuous mixer or an extruder and preferably by a thermokinetic mixer or continuous mixer followed by an extruder. The resulting DUPoly shapes can be molded into radiation shielding material or can be used as counter weights for use in airplanes, helicopters, ships, missiles, armor or projectiles.

  1. Characterization of Alpha-Phase Sintering of Uranium and Uranium-Zirconium Alloys for Advanced Nuclear Fuel Applications 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Helmreich, Grant

    2012-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

    The sintering behavior of uranium and uranium-zirconium alloys in the alpha phase were characterized in this research. Metal uranium powder was produced from pieces of depleted uranium metal acquired from the Y-12 plant via hydriding...

  2. Characterization of Alpha-Phase Sintering of Uranium and Uranium-Zirconium Alloys for Advanced Nuclear Fuel Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Helmreich, Grant

    2012-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

    The sintering behavior of uranium and uranium-zirconium alloys in the alpha phase were characterized in this research. Metal uranium powder was produced from pieces of depleted uranium metal acquired from the Y-12 plant via hydriding...

  3. Delayed neutron measurements for Th-232, Np-237, Pu-239, Pu-241 and depleted uranium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stone, Joseph C.

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The neutron emission rates from five very pure actinide samples (Th-232, Np-237, Pu-239, Pu-241 and depleted uranium) were measured following equilibrium irradiation in fast and thermal neutron fluxes. The relative abundances (alphas) for the first...

  4. Environmental impacts of options for disposal of depleted uranium tetrafluoride (UF{sub 4}).

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Monette, F. A.; Allison, T.; Avci, H. I.; Biwer, B. M.; Butler, J. P.; Chang, Y.-S.; Chang, J.-J.; Folga, S. M.; Hartmann, H. M.; Lazaro, M. A.; LePoire, D. J.; Tomasko, D.; Van Lonkhuyzen, R. A.; Wilkins, B. D.

    2001-07-02T23:59:59.000Z

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) evaluated options for managing its depleted uranium hexafluoride (UF{sub 6}) inventory in the Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement for the Long-Term Management and Use of Depleted Uranium Hexafluoride (PEIS) of April 1999. Along with the impacts from other management options, the PEIS discussed the environmental impacts from the disposal of depleted uranium oxide, which could result from the chemical conversion of depleted UF{sub 6}. It has been suggested that the depleted UF{sub 6} could also be converted to uranium tetrafluoride (UF{sub 4}) and disposed of. This report considers the potential environmental impacts from the disposal of DOE's depleted UF{sub 6} inventory after its conversion to UF{sub 4}. The impacts were evaluated for the same three disposal facility options that were considered in the PEIS for uranium oxide: shallow earthen structures, belowground vaults, and mines. They were evaluated for a dry environmental setting representative of the western United States. To facilitate comparisons and future decision making, the depleted UF{sub 4} disposal analyses performed and the results presented in this report are at the same level of detail as that in the PEIS.

  5. Composition of the U.S. DOE Depleted Uranium Inventory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Concentration Of Less

    about 2.75 wt% U-235. For further enrichment, the material was shipped to the Oak Ridge and Portsmouth plants. In addition to natural uranium, also uranium recycled from spent fuel was fed into the Paducah enrichment cascade (Table 2 and Fig. 2). The recycled uranium introduced various isotopes not found in natural uranium into the cascade: fission products, such as Technetium-99; transuranics, such as Neptunium-237 and Plutonium-239; and the artificial uranium isotope of Uranium-236. The spent fuel, from which uranium was recycled, originated from the Hanford and Savannah River military plutonium production reactors. This uranium was recycled, although its assay of U-235 was somewhat lower than in natural uranium (Table 2). This obviously must be seen in the context of the Cold War era, when uranium was a scarce resource. Due to the low burn-up of the military reactors, concentrations of artificial U-236 are comparatively low in this recycled uranium. The recycled uranium represents

  6. Development of DU-AGG (Depleted Uranium Aggregate)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lessing, P.A.

    1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Depleted uranium oxide (UO{sub 2} or U0{sub 3}) powder was mixed with fine mineral additives, pressed, and heated to about 1,250{degree}C. The additives were chemically constituted to result in an iron-enriched basalt (IEB). Melting and wetting of the IEB phase caused the urania powder compact to densify (sinter) via a liquid phase sintering mechanism. An inorganic lubricant was found to aid in green-forming of the body. Sintering was successful in oxidizing (air), inert (argon), or reducing (dry hydrogen containing) atmospheres. The use of ground U0{sub 3} powders (93 vol %) followed by sintering in a dry hydrogen-containing atmosphere significantly increased the density of samples (bulk density of 8.40 g/cm{sup 3} and apparent density of 9.48 g/cm{sup 3}, open porosity of 11.43%). An improvement in the microstructure (reduction in open porosity) was achieved when the vol % of U0{sub 3} was decreased to 80%. The bulk density increased to 8.59 g/cm{sup 3}, the apparent density decreased slightly to 8.82 g/cm{sup 3} (due to increase of low density IEB content), while the open porosity decreased to an excellent number of 2.78%. A representative sample derived from 80 vol % U0{sub 3} showed that most pores were closed pores and that, overall, the sample achieved the excellent relative density value of 94.1% of the estimated theoretical density (composite of U0{sub 2} and IEB). It is expected that ground powders of U0{sub 3} could be successfully used to mass produce lowcost aggregate using the green-forming technique of briquetting.

  7. Ultrasonic thickness sampling plan for the depleted uranium hexafluoride program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lyon, B.F.; Lykins, M.L.

    1996-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The United States Department of Energy (DOE) currently manages depleted uranium hexafluoride that is stored in approximately 50,000 carbon steel cylinders located at three DOE sites. The disposition of any particular cylinder for storage, handling, and transfer is based on the condition of the cylinder, where condition is ultimately reflected by the minimum wall thickness of a cylinder. Currently, the wall thickness of a cylinder may be measured using either a hand-held ultrasonic transducers or an automated scanner. At the Portsmouth site, the cylinder program is currently committed to a sampling plan that requires sampling 10% of the cylinders moved during the cylinder relocation efforts. The purpose of this report is to present a statistically-based sampling plan to be considered for use within the three site cylinder management program. This plan is designed to meet the following objectives: (1) allow determination of the current condition of the cylinder populations within the accuracy and confidence specified by cylinder program management, and (2) be sufficient for the models to be used for modeling purposes. The first objective does not require modeling in the sense of making assumptions about the corrosion process for the populations involved. By avoiding such additional assumptions, this may result in stronger statements to be made about the populations in question. Assumptions must be made regarding corrosion of the cylinders through time. The second objective depends on the particular model used. In this report, two basic methods are used in determining sample sizes. The sample sizes are intended to be conservative because it may be that other models are developed for use within the Program.

  8. DUSCOBS - a depleted-uranium silicate backfill for transport, storage, and disposal of spent nuclear fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Forsberg, C.W.; Pope, R.B.; Ashline, R.C.; DeHart, M.D.; Childs, K.W.; Tang, J.S.

    1995-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

    A Depleted Uranium Silicate COntainer Backfill System (DUSCOBS) is proposed that would use small, isotopically-depleted uranium silicate glass beads as a backfill material inside storage, transport, and repository waste packages containing spent nuclear fuel (SNF). The uranium silicate glass beads would fill all void space inside the package including the coolant channels inside SNF assemblies. Based on preliminary analysis, the following benefits have been identified. DUSCOBS improves repository waste package performance by three mechanisms. First, it reduces the radionuclide releases from SNF when water enters the waste package by creating a local uranium silicate saturated groundwater environment that suppresses (1) the dissolution and/or transformation of uranium dioxide fuel pellets and, hence, (2) the release of radionuclides incorporated into the SNF pellets. Second, the potential for long-term nuclear criticality is reduced by isotopic exchange of enriched uranium in SNF with the depleted uranium (DU) in the glass. Third, the backfill reduces radiation interactions between SNF and the local environment (package and local geology) and thus reduces generation of hydrogen, acids, and other chemicals that degrade the waste package system. In addition, the DUSCOBS improves the integrity of the package by acting as a packing material and ensures criticality control for the package during SNF storage and transport. Finally, DUSCOBS provides a potential method to dispose of significant quantities of excess DU from uranium enrichment plants at potential economic savings. DUSCOBS is a new concept. Consequently, the concept has not been optimized or demonstrated in laboratory experiments.

  9. Determination of Depleted Uranium in Environmental Bio-monitor Samples and Soil from Target sites in Western Balkan Region

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sahoo, Sarata K.; Enomoto, Hiroko; Tokonami, Shinji; Ishikawa, Tetsuo [National Institute of Radiological Sciences, 4-9-1 Anagawa, Inage-ku, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan); Ujic, Predrag; Celikovic, Igor; Zunic, Zora S. [Institute of Nuclear Sciences, Vinca, Mike Petrovica Alasa 12-14, 11000 Belgrade (Serbia)

    2008-08-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Lichen and Moss are widely used to assess the atmospheric pollution by heavy metals and radionuclides. In this paper, we report results of uranium and its isotope ratios using mass spectrometric measurements (followed by chemical separation procedure) for mosses, lichens and soil samples from a depleted uranium (DU) target site in western Balkan region. Samples were collected in 2003 from Han Pijesak (Republika Srpska in Bosnia and Hercegovina). Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) measurements show the presence of high concentration of uranium in some samples. Concentration of uranium in moss samples ranged from 5.2-755.43 Bq/Kg. We have determined {sup 235}U/{sup 238}U isotope ratio using thermal ionization mass spectrometry (TIMS) from the samples with high uranium content and the ratios are in the range of 0.002097-0.002380. TIMS measurement confirms presence of DU in some samples. However, we have not noticed any traces of DU in samples containing lesser amount of uranium or from any samples from the living environment of same area.

  10. Summary of the engineering analysis report for the long-term management of depleted uranium hexafluoride

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dubrin, J.W., Rahm-Crites, L.

    1997-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Department of Energy (DOE) is reviewing ideas for the long-term management and use of its depleted uranium hexafluoride. DOE owns about 560,000 metric tons (over a billion pounds) of depleted uranium hexafluoride. This material is contained in steel cylinders located in storage yards near Paducah, Kentucky; Portsmouth, Ohio; and at the East Tennessee Technology Park (formerly the K-25 Site) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. On November 10, 1994, DOE announced its new Depleted Uranium Hexafluoride Management Program by issuing a Request for Recommendations and an Advance Notice of Intent in the Federal Register (59 FR 56324 and 56325). The first part of this program consists of engineering, costs and environmental impact studies. Part one will conclude with the selection of a long-term management plan or strategy. Part two will carry out the selected strategy.

  11. A comparison of two lung clearance models based on the dissolution rates of oxidized depleted uranium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Crist, Kevin Craig

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    by Cuddihy. Predictions fr'om bai. h models based on the dissolution rates of the amount of oxidized depleted uranium that wau'ld be cleared to blood irom the pu lraana ry region i'o'i)owing an i nba !at i cn exposure were compared . It was f:urd ti... to oxidized depleted uranium (DU) aerosol. The ob, ject. ive of th. is i:hesis was three fold: (1) to determine the dissolution rates for two respirable DU samples, (2) to determine the specific pulmonary clearance characteristics of oxidized DU, (3) Co...

  12. Depleted Uranium Hexafluoride Management Program. The technology assessment report for the long-term management of depleted uranium hexafluoride. Volume 2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zoller, J.N.; Rosen, R.S.; Holliday, M.A. [and others] [and others

    1995-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    With the publication of a Request for Recommendations and Advance Notice of Intent in the November 10, 1994 Federal Register, the Department of Energy initiated a program to assess alternative strategies for the long-term management or use of depleted uranium hexafluoride. This Request was made to help ensure that, by seeking as many recommendations as possible, Department management considers reasonable options in the long-range management strategy. The Depleted Uranium Hexafluoride Management Program consists of three major program elements: Engineering Analysis, Cost Analysis, and an Environmental Impact Statement. This Technology Assessment Report is the first part of the Engineering Analysis Project, and assesses recommendations from interested persons, industry, and Government agencies for potential uses for the depleted uranium hexafluoride stored at the gaseous diffusion plants in Paducah, Kentucky, and Portsmouth, Ohio, and at the Oak Ridge Reservation in Tennessee. Technologies that could facilitate the long-term management of this material are also assessed. The purpose of the Technology Assessment Report is to present the results of the evaluation of these recommendations. Department management will decide which recommendations will receive further study and evaluation.

  13. Depleted Uranium Hexafluoride Management Program. The technology assessment report for the long-term management of depleted uranium hexafluoride. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zoller, J.N.; Rosen, R.S.; Holliday, M.A. [and others] [and others

    1995-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    With the publication of a Request for Recommendations and Advance Notice of Intent in the November 10, 1994 Federal Register, the Department of Energy initiated a program to assess alternative strategies for the long-term management or use of depleted uranium hexafluoride. This Request was made to help ensure that, by seeking as many recommendations as possible, Department management considers reasonable options in the long-range management strategy. The Depleted Uranium Hexafluoride Management Program consists of three major program elements: Engineering Analysis, Cost Analysis, and an Environmental Impact Statement. This Technology Assessment Report is the first part of the Engineering Analysis Project, and assesses recommendations from interested persons, industry, and Government agencies for potential uses for the depleted uranium hexafluoride stored at the gaseous diffusion plants in Paducah, Kentucky, and Portsmouth, Ohio, and at the Oak Ridge Reservation in Tennessee. Technologies that could facilitate the long-term management of this material are also assessed. The purpose of the Technology Assessment Report is to present the results of the evaluation of these recommendations. Department management will decide which recommendations will receive further study and evaluation. These Appendices contain the Federal Register Notice, comments on evaluation factors, independent technical reviewers resumes, independent technical reviewers manual, and technology information packages.

  14. Compact reaction cell for homogenizing and down-blending highly enriched uranium metal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McLean, W. II; Miller, P.E.; Horton, J.A.

    1995-05-02T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention is a specialized reaction cell for converting uranium metal to uranium oxide. In a preferred form, the reaction cell comprises a reaction chamber with increasing diameter along its length (e.g. a cylindrical chamber having a diameter of about 2 inches in a lower portion and having a diameter of from about 4 to about 12 inches in an upper portion). Such dimensions are important to achieve the necessary conversion while at the same time affording criticality control and transportability of the cell and product. The reaction chamber further comprises an upper port and a lower port, the lower port allowing for the entry of reactant gases into the reaction chamber, the upper port allowing for the exit of gases from the reaction chamber. A diffuser plate is attached to the lower port of the reaction chamber and serves to shape the flow of gas into the reaction chamber. The reaction cell further comprises means for introducing gases into the reaction chamber and a heating means capable of heating the contents of the reaction chamber. The present invention also relates to a method for converting uranium metal to uranium oxide in the reaction cell of the present invention. The invention is useful for down-blending highly enriched uranium metal by the simultaneous conversion of highly enriched uranium metal and natural or depleted uranium metal to uranium oxide within the reaction cell. 4 figs.

  15. Compact reaction cell for homogenizing and down-blanding highly enriched uranium metal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McLean, II, William (Oakland, CA); Miller, Philip E. (Livermore, CA); Horton, James A. (Livermore, CA)

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention is a specialized reaction cell for converting uranium metal to uranium oxide. In a preferred form, the reaction cell comprises a reaction chamber with increasing diameter along its length (e.g. a cylindrical chamber having a diameter of about 2 inches in a lower portion and having a diameter of from about 4 to about 12 inches in an upper portion). Such dimensions are important to achieve the necessary conversion while at the same time affording criticality control and transportability of the cell and product. The reaction chamber further comprises an upper port and a lower port, the lower port allowing for the entry of reactant gasses into the reaction chamber, the upper port allowing for the exit of gasses from the reaction chamber. A diffuser plate is attached to the lower port of the reaction chamber and serves to shape the flow of gas into the reaction chamber. The reaction cell further comprises means for introducing gasses into the reaction chamber and a heating means capable of heating the contents of the reaction chamber. The present invention also relates to a method for converting uranium metal to uranium oxide in the reaction cell of the present invention. The invention is useful for down-blending highly enriched uranium metal by the simultaneous conversion of highly enriched uranium metal and natural or depleted uranium metal to uranium oxide within the reaction cell.

  16. Engineering analysis for disposal of depleted uranium tetrafluoride (UF{sub 4}).

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Folga, S. M.; Kier, P. H.

    2001-06-22T23:59:59.000Z

    This report presents and evaluates options for disposing of depleted uranium in the chemical form of uranium tetrafluoride (UF{sub 4}). Two depleted uranium inventories are considered. One results from the original U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) inventory of 560,000 metric tons (te) of depleted uranium hexafluoride (UF{sub 6}); the other inventory is the original DOE inventory augmented by 145,000 te of depleted UF{sub 6} from the United States Enrichment Corporation. Preconceptual designs are included for three disposal options: disposal in a vault, disposal in an engineered trench, and disposal in a deep mine cavity. The disposal container is taken to be either a 30-gallon drum or a 55-gallon drum. Descriptions of the facilities associated with the three disposal options are provided. Staffing estimates for the construction and operation of the facilities are also provided. Wastes and emissions from the facilities during construction, operation, and maintenance have been estimated. Parametric studies have also been performed on the basis of 25% and 50% of the original inventory.

  17. Barriers and Issues Related to Achieving Final Disposition of Depleted Uranium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gillas, D. L.; Chambers, B. K.

    2002-02-26T23:59:59.000Z

    Approximately 750,000 metric tons (MT) of surplus depleted uranium (DU) in various chemical forms are stored at several Department of Energy (DOE) sites throughout the United States. Most of the DU is in the form of DU hexafluoride (DUF6) that resulted from uranium enrichment operations over the last several decades. DOE plans to convert the DUF6 to ''a more stable form'' that could be any one or combination of DU tetrafluoride (DUF4 or green salt), DU oxide (DUO3, DUO2, or DU3O8), or metal depending on the final disposition chosen for any given quantity. Barriers to final disposition of this material have existed historically and some continue today. Currently, the barriers are more related to finding uses for this material versus disposing as waste. Even though actions are beginning to convert the DUF6, ''final'' disposition of the converted material has yet to be decided. Unless beneficial uses can be implemented, DOE plans to dispose of this material as waste. This expresses the main barrier to DU disposition; DOE's strategy is to dispose unless uses can be found while the strategy should be only dispose as a last resort and make every effort to find uses. To date, only minimal research programs are underway to attempt to develop non-fuel uses for this material. Other issues requiring resolution before these inventories can reach final disposition (uses or disposal) include characterization, disposal of large quantities, storage (current and future), and treatment options. Until final disposition is accomplished, these inventories must be managed in a safe and environmentally sound manner; however, this is becoming more difficult as materials and facilities age. The most noteworthy final disposition technical issues include the development of reuse and treatment options.

  18. Controlling uranium reactivity March 18, 2008

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meyer, Karsten

    for the last decade. Most of their work involves depleted uranium, a more common form of uraniumMarch 2008 Controlling uranium reactivity March 18, 2008 Uranium is an often misunderstood metal uranium research. In reality, uranium presents a wealth of possibilities for funda- mental chemistry. Many

  19. Summary of the Preliminary Analysis of Savannah River Depleted Uranium Trioxide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NSTec Environmental Management

    2010-10-13T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes a preliminary special analysis of the Savannah River Depleted Uranium Trioxide waste stream (SVRSURANIUM03, Revision 2). The analysis is considered preliminary because a final waste profile has not been submitted for review. The special analysis is performed to determine the acceptability of the waste stream for shallow land burial at the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS) at the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS). The Savannah River Depleted Uranium Trioxide waste stream requires a special analysis because the waste stream’s sum of fractions exceeds one. The 99Tc activity concentration is 98 percent of the NNSS Waste Acceptance Criteria and the largest single contributor to the sum of fractions.

  20. EIS-0360: Depleted Uranium Oxide Conversion Product at the Portsmouth, Ohio Site

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This site-specific EIS analyzes the construction, operation, maintenance, and decontamination and decommissioning of the proposed depleted uranium hexafluoride (DUF6) conversion facility at three alternative locations within the Paducah site; transportation of all cylinders (DUF6, enriched, and empty) currently stored at the East Tennessee Technology Park (ETTP) near Oak Ridge, Tennessee, to Portsmouth; construction of a new cylinder storage yard at Portsmouth (if required) for ETTP cylinders; transportation of depleted uranium conversion products and waste materials to a disposal facility; transportation and sale of the hydrogen fluoride (HF) produced as a conversion coproduct; and neutralization of HF to calcium fluoride and its sale or disposal in the event that the HF product is not sold.

  1. Benefits/impacts of utilizing depleted uranium silicate glass as backfill for spent fuel waste packages

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pope, R.B.; Forsberg, C.W.; Ashline, R.C.; DeHart, M.D.; Childs, K.W.; Tang, J.S.

    1996-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An assessment has been made of the benefits and impacts which can be derived by filling a spent nuclear fuel multi-purpose canister with depleted uranium silicate (DUS) glass at a reactor site. Although the primary purpose of the DUS glass fill would be to enhance repository performance assessment and control criticality of geologic times, a number of benefits to the waste management system can be derived from adding the DUS glass prior to shipment from the reactor site.

  2. ZPR-3 Assembly 6F : A spherical assembly of highly enriched uranium, depleted uranium, aluminum and steel with an average {sup 235}U enrichment of 47 atom %.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lell, R. M.; McKnight, R. D; Schaefer, R. W.; Nuclear Engineering Division

    2010-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Over a period of 30 years, more than a hundred Zero Power Reactor (ZPR) critical assemblies were constructed at Argonne National Laboratory. The ZPR facilities, ZPR-3, ZPR-6, ZPR-9 and ZPPR, were all fast critical assembly facilities. The ZPR critical assemblies were constructed to support fast reactor development, but data from some of these assemblies are also well suited for nuclear data validation and to form the basis for criticality safety benchmarks. A number of the Argonne ZPR/ZPPR critical assemblies have been evaluated as ICSBEP and IRPhEP benchmarks. Of the three classes of ZPR assemblies, engineering mockups, engineering benchmarks and physics benchmarks, the last group tends to be most useful for criticality safety. Because physics benchmarks were designed to test fast reactor physics data and methods, they were as simple as possible in geometry and composition. The principal fissile species was {sup 235}U or {sup 239}Pu. Fuel enrichments ranged from 9% to 95%. Often there were only one or two main core diluent materials, such as aluminum, graphite, iron, sodium or stainless steel. The cores were reflected (and insulated from room return effects) by one or two layers of materials such as depleted uranium, lead or stainless steel. Despite their more complex nature, a small number of assemblies from the other two classes would make useful criticality safety benchmarks because they have features related to criticality safety issues, such as reflection by soil-like material. ZPR-3 Assembly 6 consisted of six phases, A through F. In each phase a critical configuration was constructed to simulate a very simple shape such as a slab, cylinder or sphere that could be analyzed with the limited analytical tools available in the 1950s. In each case the configuration consisted of a core region of metal plates surrounded by a thick depleted uranium metal reflector. The average compositions of the core configurations were essentially identical in phases A - F. ZPR-3 Assembly 6F (ZPR-3/6F), the final phase of the Assembly 6 program, simulated a spherical core with a thick depleted uranium reflector. ZPR-3/6F was designed as a fast reactor physics benchmark experiment with an average core {sup 235}U enrichment of approximately 47 at.%. Approximately 81.4% of the total fissions in this assembly occur above 100 keV, approximately 18.6% occur below 100 keV, and essentially none below 0.625 eV - thus the classification as a 'fast' assembly. This assembly is Fast Reactor Benchmark No. 7 in the Cross Section Evaluation Working Group (CSEWG) Benchmark Specifications and has historically been used as a data validation benchmark assembly. Loading of ZPR-3/6F began in late December 1956, and the experimental measurements were performed in January 1957. The core consisted of highly enriched uranium (HEU) plates, depleted uranium plates, perforated aluminum plates and stainless steel plates loaded into aluminum drawers, which were inserted into the central square stainless steel tubes of a 31 x 31 matrix on a split table machine. The core unit cell consisted of three columns of 0.125 in.-wide (3.175 mm) HEU plates, three columns of 0.125 in.-wide depleted uranium plates, nine columns of 0.125 in.-wide perforated aluminum plates and one column of stainless steel plates. The maximum length of each column of core material in a drawer was 9 in. (228.6 mm). Because of the goal to produce an approximately spherical core, core fuel and diluent column lengths generally varied between adjacent drawers and frequently within an individual drawer. The axial reflector consisted of depleted uranium plates and blocks loaded in the available space in the front (core) drawers, with the remainder loaded into back drawers behind the front drawers. The radial reflector consisted of blocks of depleted uranium loaded directly into the matrix tubes. The assembly geometry approximated a reflected sphere as closely as the square matrix tubes, the drawers and the shapes of fuel and diluent plates allowed. According to the logbook and loading records for ZPR-3/6F

  3. Use of depleted uranium silicate glass to minimize release of radionuclides from spent nuclear fuel waste packages

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Forsberg, C.W.

    1996-01-20T23:59:59.000Z

    A Depleted Uranium Silicate Container Backfill System (DUSCOBS) is proposed that would use small, isotopically-depleted uranium silicate glass beads as a backfill material inside repository waste packages containing spent nuclear fuel (SNF). The uranium silicate glass beads would fill the void space inside the package including the coolant channels inside SNF assemblies. Based on preliminary analysis, the following benefits have been identified. DUSCOBS improves repository waste package performance by three mechanisms. First, it reduces the radionuclide releases from SNF when water enters the waste package by creating a local uranium silicate saturated groundwater environment that suppresses (a) the dissolution and/or transformation of uranium dioxide fuel pellets and, hence, (b) the release of radionuclides incorporated into the SNF pellets. Second, the potential for long-term nuclear criticality is reduced by isotopic exchange of enriched uranium in SNF with the depleted uranium (DU) in the glass. Third, the backfill reduces radiation interactions between SNF and the local environment (package and local geology) and thus reduces generation of hydrogen, acids, and other chemicals that degrade the waste package system. Finally, DUSCOBS provides a potential method to dispose of significant quantities of excess DU from uranium enrichment plants at potential economic savings. DUSCOBS is a new concept. Consequently, the concept has not been optimized or demonstrated in laboratory experiments.

  4. Incentives for the use of depleted uranium alloys as transport cask containment structure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McConnell, P [GRAM, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Salzbrenner, R; Wellman, G W; Sorenson, K B [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Radioactive material transport casks use either lead or depleted uranium (DU) as gamma-ray shielding material. Stainless steel is conventionally used for structural containment. If a DU alloy had sufficient properties to guarantee resistance to failure during both nominal use and accident conditions to serve the dual-role of shielding and containment, the use of other structure materials (i.e., stainless steel) could be reduced. (It is recognized that lead can play no structural role.) Significant reductions in cask weight and dimensions could then be achieved perhaps allowing an increase in payload. The mechanical response of depleted uranium has previously not been included in calculations intended to show that DU-shielded transport casks will maintain their containment function during all conditions. This paper describesa two-part study of depleted uranium alloys: First, the mechanical behavior of DU alloys was determined in order to extend the limited set of mechanical properties reported in the literature. The mechanical properties measured include the tensile behavior the impact energy. Fracture toughness testing was also performed to determine the sensitivity of DU alloys to brittle fracture. Fracture toughness is the inherent material property which quantifies the fracmm resistance of a material. Tensile strength and ductility are significant in terms of other failure modes, however, as win be discussed. These mechanical properties were then input into finite element calculations of cask response to loading conditions to quantify the potential for claiming structural credit for DU. (The term structural credit'' describes whether a material has adequate properties to allow it to assume a positive role in withstanding structural loadings.)

  5. Assessing the risk from the depleted uranium weapons used in Operation Allied Force

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liolios, T E

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The conflict in Yugoslavia has been a source of great concern for the neighboring countries, about the radiological and toxic hazard posed by the alleged presence of depleted uranium in NATO weapons. In the present study a worst-case scenario is assumed mainly to assess the risk for Greece and other neighboring countries of Yugoslavia at similar distances . The risk of the weapons currently in use is proved to be negligible at distances greater than 100 Km. For shorter distances classified data of weapons composition are needed to obtain a reliable assessment.

  6. Proposal for the award of a contract for the supply of 5 mm depleted-uranium plates for the UA1 calorimeter upgrading

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Proposal for the award of a contract for the supply of 5 mm depleted-uranium plates for the UA1 calorimeter upgrading

  7. Proposal for the award of a contract for the supply of 5 mm depleted-uranium plates for the UA1 experiment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Proposal for the award of a contract for the supply of 5 mm depleted-uranium plates for the UA1 experiment

  8. Standard Test Method for Determination of Uranium, Oxygen to Uranium (O/U), and Oxygen to Metal (O/M) in Sintered Uranium Dioxide and Gadolinia-Uranium Dioxide Pellets by Atmospheric Equilibration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Standard Test Method for Determination of Uranium, Oxygen to Uranium (O/U), and Oxygen to Metal (O/M) in Sintered Uranium Dioxide and Gadolinia-Uranium Dioxide Pellets by Atmospheric Equilibration

  9. Characterization of options and their analysis requirements for the long-term management of depleted uranium hexafluoride

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dubrin, J.W.; Rosen, R.S.; Zoller, J.N.; Harri, J.W.; Schwertz, N.L.

    1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Department of Energy (DOE) is examining alternative strategies for the long-term management of depleted uranium hexafluoride (UF{sub 6}) currently stored at the gaseous diffusion plants at Portsmouth, Ohio, and Paducah, Kentucky, and on the Oak Ridge Reservation in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. This paper describes the methodology for the comprehensive and ongoing technical analysis of the options being considered. An overview of these options, along with several of the suboptions being considered, is presented. The long-term management strategy alternatives fall into three broad categories: use, storage, or disposal. Conversion of the depleted UF6 to another form such as oxide or metal is needed to implement most of these alternatives. Likewise, transportation of materials is an integral part of constructing the complete pathway between the current storage condition and ultimate disposition. The analysis of options includes development of pre-conceptual designs; estimates of effluents, wastes, and emissions; specification of resource requirements; and preliminary hazards assessments. The results of this analysis will assist DOE in selecting a strategy by providing the engineering information necessary to evaluate the environmental impacts and costs of implementing the management strategy alternatives.

  10. Packaging and Disposal of a Radium-beryllium Source using Depleted Uranium Polyethylene Composite Shielding

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Keith Rule; Paul Kalb; Pete Kwaschyn

    2003-02-11T23:59:59.000Z

    Two, 111-GBq (3 Curie) radium-beryllium (RaBe) sources were in underground storage at the Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) since 1988. These sources originated from the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL) where they were used to calibrate neutron detection diagnostics. In 1999, PPPL and BNL began a collaborative effort to expand the use of an innovative pilot-scale technology and bring it to full-scale deployment to shield these sources for eventual transport and burial at the Hanford Burial site. The transport/disposal container was constructed of depleted uranium oxide encapsulated in polyethylene to provide suitable shielding for both gamma and neutron radiation. This new material can be produced from recycled waste products (depleted uranium and polyethylene), is inexpensive, and can be disposed with the waste, unlike conventional lead containers, thus reducing exposure time for workers. This paper will provide calculations and information that led to the initial design of the shielding. We will also describe the production-scale processing of the container, cost, schedule, logistics, and many unforeseen challenges that eventually resulted in the successful fabrication and deployment of this shield. We will conclude with a description of the final configuration of the shielding container and shipping package along with recommendations for future shielding designs.

  11. Depleted uranium hexafluoride (DUF{sub 6}) management system--a decision tool

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gasper, J.R.; Sutter, R.J.; Avci, H.I. [and others

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The Depleted Uranium Hexafluoride (DUF{sub 6}) Management System (DMS) is being developed as a decision tool to provide cost and risk data for evaluation of short-and long-term management strategies for depleted uranium. It can be used to assist decision makers on a programmatic or site-specific level. Currently, the DMS allows evaluation of near-term cylinder management strategies such as storage yard improvements, cylinder restocking, and reconditioning. The DMS has been designed to provide the user with maximum flexibility for modifying data and impact factors (e.g., unit costs and risk factors). Sensitivity analysis can be performed on all key parameters such as cylinder corrosion rate, inspection frequency, and impact factors. Analysis may be conducted on a system-wide, site, or yard basis. The costs and risks from different scenarios may be compared in graphic or tabular format. Ongoing development of the DMS will allow similar evaluation of long-term management strategies such as conversion to other chemical forms. The DMS is a Microsoft Windows 3.1 based, stand-alone computer application. It can be operated on a 486 or faster computer with VGA, 4 MB of RAM, and 10 MB of disk space.

  12. Summary of the cost analysis report for the long-term management of depleted uranium hexafluoride

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dubrin, J.W.; Rahm-Crites, L.

    1997-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report is a summary of the Cost Analysis Report which provides comparative cost data for the management strategy alternatives. The PEIS and the Cost Analysis Report will help DOE select a management strategy. The Record of Decision, expected in 1998, will complete the first part of the Depleted Uranium Hexafluoride Management Program. The second part of the Program will look at specific sites and technologies for carrying out the selected strategy. The Cost Analysis Report estimates the primary capital and operating costs for the different alternatives. It reflects the costs of technology development construction of facilities, operation, and decontamination and decommissioning. It also includes potential revenues from the sale of by-products such as anhydrous hydrogen fluoride (ABF). These estimates are based on early designs. They are intended to help in comparing alternatives, rather than to indicate absolute costs for project budgets or bidding purposes. More detailed estimates and specific funding sources will be considered in part two of the Depleted Uranium Hexafluoride Management Program.

  13. Uranium Acquisition | Y-12 National Security Complex

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of Interest (EOI) to acquire up to 6,800 metric tons of Uranium (MTU) of high purity depleted uranium metal (DU) and related material and services. This request for EOI does...

  14. Using Hydro-Cutting to Aid in Remediation of a Firing Range Contaminated with Depleted Uranium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Styvaert, Michael S.; Conley, Richard D.; Watters, David J.

    2003-02-24T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper describes the challenges encountered in decommissioning a firing range that had been used to test fire depleted uranium rounds in the late 1950's and early 1960's. The paper details the operational challenges and innovative solutions involved in remediating and decommissioning a firing range bullet catcher once unexploded ordnance was discovered. It also discusses how the Army dealt with an intertwining web of regulatory and permit issues that arose in treating and disposing of multiple waste streams. The paper will show how the use of a Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Temporary Authorization allowed the Army to deal with the treatment of a variety of waste streams and how hydro-cutting process was used to demilitarize the potentially unexploded rounds.

  15. Remediation application strategies for depleted uranium contaminated soils at the US Army Yuma Proving Ground

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vandel, D.S.; Medina, S.M.; Weidner, J.R.

    1994-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The US Army Yuma Proving Ground (YPG), located in the southwest portion of Arizona conducts firing of projectiles into the Gunpoint (GP-20) firing range. The penetrators are composed of titanium and DU. The purpose of this project was to determine feasible cleanup technologies and disposal alternatives for the cleanup of the depleted uranium (DU) contaminated soils at YPG. The project was split up into several tasks that include (a) collecting and analyzing samples representative of the GP-20 soils, (b) evaluating the data results, (c) conducting a literature search of existing proven technologies for soil remediation, and (0) making final recommendations for implementation of this technology to the site. As a result of this study, several alternatives for the separation, treatment, and disposal procedures are identified that would result in meeting the cleanup levels defined by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission for unrestricted use of soils and would result in a significant cost savings over the life of the firing range.

  16. Preconceptual design studies and cost data of depleted uranium hexafluoride conversion plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jones, E

    1999-07-26T23:59:59.000Z

    One of the more important legacies left with the Department of Energy (DOE) after the privatization of the United States Enrichment Corporation is the large inventory of depleted uranium hexafluoride (DUF6). The DOE Office of Nuclear Energy, Science and Technology (NE) is responsible for the long-term management of some 700,000 metric tons of DUF6 stored at the sites of the two gaseous diffusion plants located at Paducah, Kentucky and Portsmouth, Ohio, and at the East Tennessee Technology Park in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The DUF6 management program resides in NE's Office of Depleted Uranium Hexafluoride Management. The current DUF6 program has largely focused on the ongoing maintenance of the cylinders containing DUF6. However, the long-term management and eventual disposition of DUF6 is the subject of a Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (PEIS) and Public Law 105-204. The first step for future use or disposition is to convert the material, which requires construction and long-term operation of one or more conversion plants. To help inform the DUF6 program's planning activities, it was necessary to perform design and cost studies of likely DUF6 conversion plants at the preconceptual level, beyond the PEIS considerations but not as detailed as required for conceptual designs of actual plants. This report contains the final results from such a preconceptual design study project. In this fast track, three month effort, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and Bechtel National Incorporated developed and evaluated seven different preconceptual design cases for a single plant. The preconceptual design, schedules, costs, and issues associated with specific DUF6 conversion approaches, operating periods, and ownership options were evaluated based on criteria established by DOE. The single-plant conversion options studied were similar to the dry-conversion process alternatives from the PEIS. For each of the seven cases considered, this report contains information on the conversion process, preconceptual plant description, rough capital and operating costs, and preliminary project schedule.

  17. Environmental acceptability of high-performance alternatives for depleted uranium penetrators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kerley, C.R.; Easterly, C.E.; Eckerman, K.F. [and others

    1996-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Army`s environmental strategy for investigating material substitution and management is to measure system environmental gains/losses in all phases of the material management life cycle from cradle to grave. This study is the first in a series of new investigations, applying material life cycle concepts, to evaluate whether there are environmental benefits from increasing the use of tungsten as an alternative to depleted uranium (DU) in Kinetic Energy Penetrators (KEPs). Current military armor penetrators use DU and tungsten as base materials. Although DU alloys have provided the highest performance of any high-density alloy deployed against enemy heavy armor, its low-level radioactivity poses a number of environmental risks. These risks include exposures to the military and civilian population from inhalation, ingestion, and injection of particles. Depleted uranium is well known to be chemically toxic (kidney toxicity), and workplace exposure levels are based on its renal toxicity. Waste materials containing DU fragments are classified as low-level radioactive waste and are regulated by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. These characteristics of DU do not preclude its use in KEPs. However, long-term management challenges associated with KEP deployment and improved public perceptions about environmental risks from military activities might be well served by a serious effort to identify, develop, and substitute alternative materials that meet performance objectives and involve fewer environmental risks. Tungsten, a leading candidate base material for KEPS, is potentially such a material because it is not radioactive. Tungsten is less well studied, however, with respect to health impacts and other environmental risks. The present study is designed to contribute to the understanding of the environmental behavior of tungsten by synthesizing available information that is relevant to its potential use as a penetrator.

  18. Radiation- and Depleted Uranium-Induced Carcinogenesis Studies: Characterization of the Carcinogenic Process and Development of Medical Countermeasures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. C. Miller; D. Beltran; R. Rivas; M. Stewart; R. J. Merlot; P. B. Lison

    External or internal contamination from radioactive elements during military operations or a terrorist attack is a serious threat to military and civilian populations. External radiation exposure could result from conventional military scenarios including nuclear weapons use and low-dose exposures during radiation accidents or terrorist attacks. Alternatively, internal radiation exposure could result from depleted uranium exposure via DU shrapnel wounds or inhalation. The long-term health effects of these types of radiation exposures are not well known. Furthermore, development of pharmacological countermeasures to low-dose external and internal radiological contamination is essential to the health and safety of both military and civilian populations. The purpose of these studies is to evaluate low-dose radiation or DU-induced carcinogenesis using in vitro and in vivo models, and to test safe and efficacious medical countermeasures. A third goal of these studies is to identify biomarkers of both exposure and disease development. Initially, we used a human cell model (human osteoblast cells, HOS) to evaluate the carcinogenic potential of DU in vitro by assessing morphological transformation, genotoxicity (chromosomal aberrations), mutagenic (HPRT loci), and genomic instability. As a comparison, low-dose cobalt radiation, broad-beam alpha particles, and other military-projectile metals, i.e., tungsten mixtures, are being examined. Published data from

  19. BLENDING LOW ENRICHED URANIUM WITH DEPLETED URANIUM TO CREATE A SOURCE MATERIAL ORE THAT CAN BE PROCESSED FOR THE RECOVERY OF YELLOWCAKE AT A CONVENTIONAL URANIUM MILL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schutt, Stephen M.; Hochstein, Ron F.; Frydenlund, David C.; Thompson, Anthony J.

    2003-02-27T23:59:59.000Z

    Throughout the United States Department of Energy (DOE) complex, there are a number of streams of low enriched uranium (LEU) that contain various trace contaminants. These surplus nuclear materials require processing in order to meet commercial fuel cycle specifications. To date, they have not been designated as waste for disposal at the DOE's Nevada Test Site (NTS). Currently, with no commercial outlet available, the DOE is evaluating treatment and disposal as the ultimate disposition path for these materials. This paper will describe an innovative program that will provide a solution to DOE that will allow disposition of these materials at a cost that will be competitive with treatment and disposal at the NTS, while at the same time recycling the material to recover a valuable energy resource (yellowcake) for reintroduction into the commercial nuclear fuel cycle. International Uranium (USA) Corporation (IUSA) and Nuclear Fuel Services, Inc. (NFS) have entered into a commercial relationship to pursue the development of this program. The program involves the design of a process and construction of a plant at NFS' site in Erwin, Tennessee, for the blending of contaminated LEU with depleted uranium (DU) to produce a uranium source material ore (USM Ore{trademark}). The USM Ore{trademark} will then be further processed at IUC's White Mesa Mill, located near Blanding, Utah, to produce conventional yellowcake, which can be delivered to conversion facilities, in the same manner as yellowcake that is produced from natural ores or other alternate feed materials. The primary source of feed for the business will be the significant sources of trace contaminated materials within the DOE complex. NFS has developed a dry blending process (DRYSM Process) to blend the surplus LEU material with DU at its Part 70 licensed facility, to produce USM Ore{trademark} with a U235 content within the range of U235 concentrations for source material. By reducing the U235 content to source material levels in this manner, the material will be suitable for processing at a conventional uranium mill under its existing Part 40 license to remove contaminants and enable the product to re-enter the commercial fuel cycle. The tailings from processing the USM Ore{trademark} at the mill will be permanently disposed of in the mill's tailings impoundment as 11e.(2) byproduct material. Blending LEU with DU to make a uranium source material ore that can be returned to the nuclear fuel cycle for processing to produce yellowcake, has never been accomplished before. This program will allow DOE to disposition its surplus LEU and DU in a cost effective manner, and at the same time provide for the recovery of valuable energy resources that would be lost through processing and disposal of the materials. This paper will discuss the nature of the surplus LEU and DU materials, the manner in which the LEU will be blended with DU to form a uranium source material ore, and the legal means by which this blending can be accomplished at a facility licensed under 10 CFR Part 70 to produce ore that can be processed at a conventional uranium mill licensed under 10 CFR Part 40.

  20. Evaluation of the Acceptability of Potential Depleted Uranium Hexafluoride Conversion Products at the Envirocare Disposal Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Croff, A.G.

    2001-01-11T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this report is to review and document the capability of potential products of depleted UF{sub 6} conversion to meet the current waste acceptance criteria and other regulatory requirements for disposal at the facility in Clive, Utah, owned by Envirocare of Utah, Inc. The investigation was conducted by identifying issues potentially related to disposal of depleted uranium (DU) products at Envirocare and conducting an initial analysis of them. Discussions were then held with representatives of Envirocare, the state of Utah (which is a NRC Agreement State and, thus, is the cognizant regulatory authority for Envirocare), and DOE Oak Ridge Operations. Provisional issue resolution was then established based on the analysis and discussions and documented in a draft report. The draft report was then reviewed by those providing information and revisions were made, which resulted in this document. Issues that were examined for resolution were (1) license receipt limits for U isotopes; (2) DU product classification as Class A waste; (3) use of non-DOE disposal sites for disposal of DOE material; (4) historical NRC views; (5) definition of chemical reactivity; (6) presence of mobile radionuclides; and (7) National Environmental Policy Act coverage of disposal. The conclusion of this analysis is that an amendment to the Envirocare license issued on October 5, 2000, has reduced the uncertainties regarding disposal of the DU product at Envirocare to the point that they are now comparable with uncertainties associated with the disposal of the DU product at the Nevada Test Site that were discussed in an earlier report.

  1. Electrolytic process for preparing uranium metal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Haas, Paul A. (Knoxville, TN)

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An electrolytic process for making uranium from uranium oxide using Cl.sub.2 anode product from an electrolytic cell to react with UO.sub.2 to form uranium chlorides. The chlorides are used in low concentrations in a melt comprising fluorides and chlorides of potassium, sodium and barium in the electrolytic cell. The electrolysis produces Cl.sub.2 at the anode that reacts with UO.sub.2 in the feed reactor to form soluble UCl.sub.4, available for a continuous process in the electrolytic cell, rather than having insoluble UO.sub.2 fouling the cell.

  2. High temperature behavior of metallic inclusions in uranium dioxide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, R.L.

    1980-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The object of this thesis was to construct a temperature gradient furnace to simulate the thermal conditions in the reactor fuel and to study the migration of metallic inclusions in uranium oxide under the influence of temperature gradient. No thermal migration of molybdenum and tungsten inclusions was observed under the experimental conditions. Ruthenium inclusions, however, dissolved and diffused atomically through grain boundaries in slightly reduced uranium oxide. An intermetallic compound (probably URu/sub 3/) was formed by reaction of Ru and UO/sub 2-x/. The diffusivity and solubility of ruthenium in uranium oxide were measured.

  3. Potential benefits and impacts on the CRWMS transportation system of filling spent fuel shipping casks with depleted uranium silicate glass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pope, R.B.; Forsberg, C.W.; DeHart, M.D.; Childs, K.W.; Tang, J.S.

    1996-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A new technology, the Depleted Uranium Silicate COntainer Fill System (DUSCOFS), is proposed to improve the performance and reduce the uncertainties of geological disposal of spent nuclear fuel (SNF), thus reducing both radionuclide release rates from the waste package and the potential for repository nuclear criticality events. DUSCOFS may also provide benefits for SNF storage and transport if it is loaded into the container early in the waste management cycle. Assessments have been made of the benefits to be derived by placing depleted uranium silicate (DUS) glass into SNF containers for enhancing repository performance assessment and controlling criticality over geologic times in the repository. Also, the performance, benefits, and impacts which can be derived if the SNF is loaded into a multi-purpose canister with DUS glass at a reactor site have been assessed. The DUSCOFS concept and the benefits to the waste management cycle of implementing DUSCOFS early in the cycle are discussed in this paper.

  4. PACKAGING AND DISPOSAL OF A RADIUM BERYLLIUM SOURCE USING DEPLETED URANIUM POLYETHYLENE COMPOSITE SHIELDING.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    RULE,K.; KALB,P.; KWASCHYN,P.

    2003-02-23T23:59:59.000Z

    Two, 111 GBq (3 Curie) radium-beryllium (RaBe) sources were in underground storage at the Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) since 1988. These sources originated from Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL) where they were used to calibrate neutron detection diagnostics. In 1999, PPPL and BNL began a collaborative effort to expand the use of an innovative pilot-scale technology and bring it to full-scale deployment to shield these sources for eventual transport and burial at the Hanford Burial site. The transport/disposal container was constructed of depleted uranium oxide encapsulated in polyethylene to provide suitable shielding for both gamma and neutron radiation. This new material can be produced from recycled waste products (DU and polyethylene), is inexpensive, and can be disposed with the waste, unlike conventional lead containers, thus reducing exposure time for workers. This paper will provide calculations and information that led to the initial design of the shielding. We will also describe the production-scale processing of the container, cost, schedule, logistics, and many unforeseen challenges that eventually resulted in the successful fabrication and deployment of this shield. We will conclude with a description of the final configuration of the shielding container and shipping package along with recommendations for future shielding designs.

  5. Proceedings of a workshop on uses of depleted uranium in storage, transportation and repository facilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    A workshop on the potential uses of depleted uranium (DU) in the repository was organized to coordinate the planning of future activities. The attendees, the original workshop objective and the agenda are provided in Appendices A, B and C. After some opening remarks and discussions, the objectives of the workshop were revised to: (1) exchange information and views on the status of the Department of Energy (DOE) activities related to repository design and planning; (2) exchange information on DU management and planning; (3) identify potential uses of DU in the storage, transportation, and disposal of high-level waste and spent fuel; and (4) define the future activities that would be needed if potential uses were to be further evaluated and developed. This summary of the workshop is intended to be an integrated resource for planning of any future work related to DU use in the repository. The synopsis of the first day`s presentations is provided in Appendix D. Copies of slides from each presenter are presented in Appendix E.

  6. Modeling exposure to depleted uranium in support of decommissioning at Jefferson Proving Ground, Indiana

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ebinger, M.H. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Oxenburg, T.P. [Army Test and Evaluation Command, Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD (United States)

    1997-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Jefferson Proving Ground was used by the US Army Test and Evaluation Command for testing of depleted uranium munitions and closed in 1995 under the Base Realignment and Closure Act. As part of the closure of JPG, assessments of potential adverse health effects to humans and the ecosystem were conducted. This paper integrates recent information obtained from site characterization surveys at JPG with environmental monitoring data collected from 1983 through 1994 during DU testing. Three exposure scenarios were evaluated for potential adverse effects to human health: an occasional use scenario and two farming scenarios. Human exposure was minimal from occasional use, but significant risk were predicted from the farming scenarios when contaminated groundwater was used by site occupants. The human health risk assessments do not consider the significant risk posed by accidents with unexploded ordnance. Exposures of white-tailed deer to DU were also estimated in this study, and exposure rates result in no significant increase in either toxicological or radiological risks. The results of this study indicate that remediation of the DU impact area would not substantially reduce already low risks to humans and the ecosystem, and that managed access to JPG is a reasonable model for future land use options.

  7. Uranium Metal Reaction Behavior in Water, Sludge, and Grout Matrices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Delegard, Calvin H.; Schmidt, Andrew J.

    2008-09-25T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes information and data on the reaction behavior of uranium metal in water, in water-saturated simulated and genuine K Basin sludge, and in grout matrices. This information and data are used to establish the technical basis for metallic uranium reaction behavior for the K Basin Sludge Treatment Project (STP). The specific objective of this report is to consolidate the various sources of information into a concise document to serve as a high-level reference and road map for customers, regulators, and interested parties outside the STP (e.g., external reviewers, other DOE sites) to clearly understand the current basis for the corrosion of uranium metal in water, sludge, and grout.

  8. Uranium Metal Reaction Behavior in Water, Sludge, and Grout Matrices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Delegard, Calvin H.; Schmidt, Andrew J.

    2009-05-27T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes information and data on the reaction behavior of uranium metal in water, in water-saturated simulated and genuine K Basin sludge, and in grout matrices. This information and data are used to establish the technical basis for metallic uranium reaction behavior for the K Basin Sludge Treatment Project (STP). The specific objective of this report is to consolidate the various sources of information into a concise document to serve as a high-level reference and road map for customers, regulators, and interested parties outside the STP (e.g., external reviewers, other DOE sites) to clearly understand the current basis for the corrosion of uranium metal in water, sludge, and grout.

  9. Determination of Young's modulus and mechanical damping as a function of temperature for depleted uranium-0.75 wt% titanium using the PUCOT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Keene, Keith Howard

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    DETERMINATION OF YOUNG'S MODULUS AND MECHANICAL DAMPING AS A FUNCTION OF TEMPERATURE FOR DEPLETED URANIUM-0. 75 WT% TITANIUM USING THE PUCOT A Thesis bY KEITH HOWARD KEENE Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial... fulfillment of requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 1986 Major Subject: Mechanical Engineerinq DETERMINATION OF YOUNG'S MODULUS AND MECHANICAL DAMPING AS A FUNCTION OF TEMPERATURE FOR DEPLETED URANIUM-0. 75 WT% TITANIUM USING THE PUCOT A...

  10. Bacterial Community Succession During in situ Uranium Bioremediation: Spatial Similarities Along Controlled Flow Paths

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hwang, Chiachi

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    problem, and the use of depleted uranium and other heavyenvironmental hazard. Depleted uranium is weakly radioactive

  11. Evaluation of depleted uranium in the environment at Aberdeen Proving Grounds, Maryland and Yuma Proving Grounds, Arizona. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kennedy, P.L.; Clements, W.H.; Myers, O.B.; Bestgen, H.T.; Jenkins, D.G. [Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (United States). Dept. of Fishery and Wildlife Biology

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report represents an evaluation of depleted uranium (DU) introduced into the environment at the Aberdeen Proving Grounds (APG), Maryland and Yuma Proving Grounds (YPG) Arizona. This was a cooperative project between the Environmental Sciences and Statistical Analyses Groups at LANL and with the Department of Fishery and Wildlife Biology at Colorado State University. The project represents a unique approach to assessing the environmental impact of DU in two dissimilar ecosystems. Ecological exposure models were created for each ecosystem and sensitivity/uncertainty analyses were conducted to identify exposure pathways which were most influential in the fate and transport of DU in the environment. Research included field sampling, field exposure experiment, and laboratory experiments. The first section addresses DU at the APG site. Chapter topics include bioenergetics-based food web model; field exposure experiments; bioconcentration by phytoplankton and the toxicity of U to zooplankton; physical processes governing the desorption of uranium from sediment to water; transfer of uranium from sediment to benthic invertebrates; spead of adsorpion by benthic invertebrates; uptake of uranium by fish. The final section of the report addresses DU at the YPG site. Chapters include the following information: Du transport processes and pathway model; field studies of performance of exposure model; uptake and elimination rates for kangaroo rates; chemical toxicity in kangaroo rat kidneys.

  12. The galvanic corrosion behavior of depleted uranium in synthetic seawater coupled to aluminum, magnesium, and mild steel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McIntyre, J.F.; LeFeave, E.P.; Musselman, K.A.

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The galvanic corrosion behavior of a depleted uranium-titanium alloy (Du-.75Ti) coupled to MgZk60A-T5, AA-7075-T6, bare steel-4340, and coated steel-4340 exposed to ASTM seawater was investigated by monitoring the galvanic current with time. Gravimetric measurements, polarization resistance measurements, and concepts of ''mixed-potential'' theory were used to calculate corrosion rates. It was demonstrated that galvanic currents must be monitored over extended periods of time to detect changes in the galvanic corrosion behavior. Good agreement was obtained for corrosion rates calculated using the concepts of ''mixed-potential'' theory and those obtained from gravimetric measurements.

  13. Effects of Solid-to-Solution Ratio on Uranium(VI) Adsorption and Its

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Roden, Eric E.

    grade uranium standard (depleted uranium). Synthetic Effects of Solid-to-Solution Ratio on Uranium(VI) Adsorption and Its Implications T A O C H E N G interacting ligands. Introduction The migration of uranium(VI), as well as other radionuclides and metal

  14. Uranium Oxide as a Highly Reflective Coating from 150-350 eV

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hart, Gus

    of depleted uranium metal (less than 0.2% U-235). After sputtering, the uranium was allowed to oxidize1 Uranium Oxide as a Highly Reflective Coating from 150-350 eV Richard L. Sandberg, David D. Allred.byu.edu ABSTRACT We present the measured reflectances (beamline 6.3.2, ALS at LBNL) of naturally oxidized uranium

  15. Hydrologic transport of depleted uranium associated with open air dynamic range testing at Los Alamos National Laboratory, New Mexico, and Eglin Air Force Base, Florida

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Becker, N.M. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Vanta, E.B. [Wright Laboratory Armament Directorate, Eglin Air Force Base, FL (United States)

    1995-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Hydrologic investigations on depleted uranium fate and transport associated with dynamic testing activities were instituted in the 1980`s at Los Alamos National Laboratory and Eglin Air Force Base. At Los Alamos, extensive field watershed investigations of soil, sediment, and especially runoff water were conducted. Eglin conducted field investigations and runoff studies similar to those at Los Alamos at former and active test ranges. Laboratory experiments complemented the field investigations at both installations. Mass balance calculations were performed to quantify the mass of expended uranium which had transported away from firing sites. At Los Alamos, it is estimated that more than 90 percent of the uranium still remains in close proximity to firing sites, which has been corroborated by independent calculations. At Eglin, we estimate that 90 to 95 percent of the uranium remains at test ranges. These data demonstrate that uranium moves slowly via surface water, in both semi-arid (Los Alamos) and humid (Eglin) environments.

  16. A comparison of delayed radiobiological effects of depleted-uranium munitions versus fourth-generation nuclear weapons

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gsponer, A; Vitale, B; Gsponer, Andre; Hurni, Jean-Pierre; Vitale, Bruno

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    It is shown that the radiological burden due to the battle-field use of circa 400 tons of depleted-uranium munitions in Iraq (and of about 40 tons in Yugoslavia) is comparable to that arising from the hypothetical battle-field use of more than 600 kt (respectively 60 kt) of high-explosive equivalent pure-fusion fourth-generation nuclear weapons. Despite the limited knowledge openly available on existing and future nuclear weapons, there is sufficient published information on their physical principles and radiological effects to make such a comparison. In fact, it is shown that this comparison can be made with very simple and convincing arguments so that the main technical conclusions of the paper are undisputable -- although it would be worthwhile to supplement the hand calculations presented in the paper by more detailed computer simulations in order to consolidate the conclusions and refute any possible objections.

  17. Determination of Uranium Metal Concentration in Irradiated Fuel Storage Basin Sludge Using Selective Dissolution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Delegard, Calvin H.; Sinkov, Sergey I.; Chenault, Jeffrey W.; Schmidt, Andrew J.; Welsh, Terri L.; Pool, Karl N.

    2014-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Uranium metal corroding in water-saturated sludges now held in the US Department of Energy Hanford Site K West irradiated fuel storage basin can create hazardous hydrogen atmospheres during handling, immobilization, or subsequent transport and storage. Knowledge of uranium metal concentration in sludge thus is essential to safe sludge management and process design, requiring an expeditious routine analytical method to detect uranium metal concentrations as low as 0.03 wt% in sludge even in the presence of 30 wt% or higher total uranium concentrations.

  18. actinide-bearing metal fuel: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    for California diesel fuel; unknown authors 24 Characterization of Thermal Properties of Depleted Uranium Metal Microspheres Texas A&M University - TxSpace Summary: Nuclear fuel...

  19. Draft Environmental Impact Statement for Construction and Operation of a Depleted Uranium Hexafluoride Conversion Facility at the Portsmouth, Ohio, Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    N /A

    2003-11-28T23:59:59.000Z

    This document is a site-specific environmental impact statement (EIS) for construction and operation of a proposed depleted uranium hexafluoride (DUF{sub 6}) conversion facility at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Portsmouth site in Ohio (Figure S-1). The proposed facility would convert the DUF{sub 6} stored at Portsmouth to a more stable chemical form suitable for use or disposal. The facility would also convert the DUF{sub 6} from the East Tennessee Technology Park (ETTP) site near Oak Ridge, Tennessee. In a Notice of Intent (NOI) published in the Federal Register on September 18, 2001 (Federal Register, Volume 66, page 48123 [66 FR 48123]), DOE announced its intention to prepare a single EIS for a proposal to construct, operate, maintain, and decontaminate and decommission two DUF{sub 6} conversion facilities at Portsmouth, Ohio, and Paducah, Kentucky, in accordance with the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA) (United States Code, Title 42, Section 4321 et seq. [42 USC 4321 et seq.]) and DOE's NEPA implementing procedures (Code of Federal Regulations, Title 10, Part 1021 [10 CFR Part 1021]). Subsequent to award of a contract to Uranium Disposition Services, LLC (hereafter referred to as UDS), Oak Ridge, Tennessee, on August 29, 2002, for design, construction, and operation of DUF{sub 6} conversion facilities at Portsmouth and Paducah, DOE reevaluated its approach to the NEPA process and decided to prepare separate site-specific EISs. This change was announced in a Federal Register Notice of Change in NEPA Compliance Approach published on April 28, 2003 (68 FR 22368); the Notice is included as Attachment B to Appendix C of this EIS. This EIS addresses the potential environmental impacts from the construction, operation, maintenance, and decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) of the proposed conversion facility at three alternative locations within the Portsmouth site; from the transportation of all ETTP cylinders (DUF{sub 6}, low-enriched UF6 [LEU-UF{sub 6}], and empty) to Portsmouth; from the transportation of depleted uranium conversion products to a disposal facility; and from the transportation, sale, use, or disposal of the fluoride-containing conversion products (hydrogen fluoride [HF] or calcium fluoride [CaF{sub 2}]). An option of shipping the ETTP cylinders to Paducah is also considered. In addition, this EIS evaluates a no action alternative, which assumes continued storage of DUF{sub 6} in cylinders at the Portsmouth and ETTP sites. A separate EIS (DOE/EIS-0359) evaluates potential environmental impacts for the proposed Paducah conversion facility.

  20. Draft Environmental Impact Statement for Construction and Operation of a Depleted Uranium Hexafluoride Conversion Facility at the Paducah, Kentucky, Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    N /A

    2003-11-28T23:59:59.000Z

    This document is a site-specific environmental impact statement (EIS) for construction and operation of a proposed depleted uranium hexafluoride (DUF{sub 6}) conversion facility at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Paducah site in northwestern Kentucky (Figure S-1). The proposed facility would convert the DUF{sub 6} stored at Paducah to a more stable chemical form suitable for use or disposal. In a Notice of Intent (NOI) published in the ''Federal Register'' (FR) on September 18, 2001 (''Federal Register'', Volume 66, page 48123 [66 FR 48123]), DOE announced its intention to prepare a single EIS for a proposal to construct, operate, maintain, and decontaminate and decommission two DUF{sub 6} conversion facilities at Portsmouth, Ohio, and Paducah, Kentucky, in accordance with the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA) (''United States Code'', Title 42, Section 4321 et seq. [42 USC 4321 et seq.]) and DOE's NEPA implementing procedures (''Code of Federal Regulations'', Title 10, Part 1021 [10 CFR Part 1021]). Subsequent to award of a contract to Uranium Disposition Services, LLC (hereafter referred to as UDS), Oak Ridge, Tennessee, on August 29, 2002, for design, construction, and operation of DUF{sub 6} conversion facilities at Portsmouth and Paducah, DOE reevaluated its approach to the NEPA process and decided to prepare separate site-specific EISs. This change was announced in a ''Federal Register'' Notice of Change in NEPA Compliance Approach published on April 28, 2003 (68 FR 22368); the Notice is included as Attachment B to Appendix C of this EIS. This EIS addresses the potential environmental impacts from the construction, operation, maintenance, and decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) of the proposed conversion facility at three alternative locations within the Paducah site; from the transportation of depleted uranium conversion products to a disposal facility; and from the transportation, sale, use, or disposal of the fluoride-containing conversion products (hydrogen fluoride [HF] or calcium fluoride [CaF{sub 2}]). Although not part of the proposed action, an option of shipping all cylinders (DUF{sub 6}, low-enriched UF{sub 6} [LEU-UF{sub 6}], and empty) stored at the East Tennessee Technology Park (ETTP) near Oak Ridge, Tennessee, to Paducah rather than to Portsmouth is also considered. In addition, this EIS evaluates a no action alternative, which assumes continued storage of DUF{sub 6} in cylinders at the Paducah site. A separate EIS (DOE/EIS-0360) evaluates the potential environmental impacts for the proposed Portsmouth conversion facility.

  1. Bacterial Community Succession During in situ Uranium Bioremediation: Spatial Similarities Along Controlled Flow Paths

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hwang, Chiachi

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    problem, and the use of depleted uranium and other heavyenvironmental hazard. Depleted uranium is weakly radioactiveMB. (2004). Depleted and natural uranium: chemistry and

  2. Feasibility study on consolidation of Fernald Environmental Management Project depleted uranium materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

    In 1991, the DOE made a decision to close the FMPC located in Fernald, Ohio, and end its production mission. The site was renamed FEMP to reflect Fernald`s mission change from uranium production to environmental restoration. As a result of this change, the inventory of strategic uranium materials maintained at Fernald by DOE DP will need to be relocated to other DOE sites. Although considered a liability to the Fernald Plant due to its current D and D mission, the FEMP DU represents a potentially valuable DOE resource. Recognizing its value, it may be important for the DOE to consolidate the material at one site and place it in a safe long-term storage condition until a future DOE programmatic requirement materializes. In August 1995, the DOE Office of Nuclear Weapons Management requested, Lockheed Martin Energy Systems (LMES) to assess the feasibility of consolidating the FEMP DU materials at the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR). This feasibility study examines various phases associated with the consolidation of the FEMP DU at the ORR. If useful short-term applications for the DU fail to materialize, then long-term storage (up to 50 years) would need to be provided. Phases examined in this report include DU material value; potential uses; sampling; packaging and transportation; material control and accountability; environmental, health and safety issues; storage; project management; noneconomic factors; schedule; and cost.

  3. A novel hohlraum with ultrathin depleted-uranium-nitride coating layer for low hard x-ray emission and high radiation temperature

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guo, Liang; Xing, Peifeng; Li, Sanwei; Yi, Taimin; Kuang, Longyu; Li, Zhichao; Li, Renguo; Wu, Zheqing; Jing, Longfei; Zhang, Wenhai; Zhan, Xiayu; Yang, Dong; Jiang, Bobi; Yang, Jiamin; Liu, Shenye; Jiang, Shaoen; Li, Yongsheng; Liu, Jie; Huo, Wenyi; Lan, Ke

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An ultra-thin layer of uranium nitrides (UN) has been coated on the inner surface of the depleted uranium hohlraum (DUH), which has been proved by our experiment can prevent the oxidization of Uranium (U) effectively. Comparative experiments between the novel depleted uranium hohlraum and pure golden (Au) hohlraum are implemented on Shenguang III prototype laser facility. Under the laser intensity of 6*10^14 W/cm2, we observe that, the hard x-ray (> 1.8 keV) fraction of this uranium hohlraum decreases by 61% and the peak intensity of total x-ray flux (0.1 keV ~ 5 keV) increases by 5%. Two dimensional radiation hydrodynamic code LARED are exploited to interpret the above observations. Our result for the first time indicates the advantage of the UN-coated DUH in generating the uniform x-ray field with a quasi Planckian spectrum and thus has important implications in optimizing the ignition hohlraum design.

  4. acute tryptophan depletion: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    for Psychopharmacology ISSN 0269-8811 SAGE Publications Ltd 12 Review The Toxicity of Depleted Uranium CiteSeer Summary: Abstract: Depleted uranium (DU) is an emerging...

  5. Long-term fate of depleted uranium at Aberdeen and Yuma Proving Grounds: Human health and ecological risk assessments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ebinger, M.H.; Beckman, R.J.; Myers, O.B. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Kennedy, P.L.; Clements, W.; Bestgen, H.T. [Colorado State Univ., Ft. Collins, CO (United States). Dept. of Fishery and Wildlife Biology

    1996-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the immediate and long-term consequences of depleted uranium (DU) in the environment at Aberdeen Proving Ground (APG) and Yuma Proving Ground (YPG) for the Test and Evaluation Command (TECOM) of the US Army. Specifically, we examined the potential for adverse radiological and toxicological effects to humans and ecosystems caused by exposure to DU at both installations. We developed contaminant transport models of aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems at APG and terrestrial ecosystems at YPG to assess potential adverse effects from DU exposure. Sensitivity and uncertainty analyses of the initial models showed the portions of the models that most influenced predicted DU concentrations, and the results of the sensitivity analyses were fundamental tools in designing field sampling campaigns at both installations. Results of uranium (U) isotope analyses of field samples provided data to evaluate the source of U in the environment and the toxicological and radiological doses to different ecosystem components and to humans. Probabilistic doses were estimated from the field data, and DU was identified in several components of the food chain at APG and YPG. Dose estimates from APG data indicated that U or DU uptake was insufficient to cause adverse toxicological or radiological effects. Dose estimates from YPG data indicated that U or DU uptake is insufficient to cause radiological effects in ecosystem components or in humans, but toxicological effects in small mammals (e.g., kangaroo rats and pocket mice) may occur from U or DU ingestion. The results of this study were used to modify environmental radiation monitoring plans at APG and YPG to ensure collection of adequate data for ongoing ecological and human health risk assessments.

  6. Prompt Neutron Decay for Delayed Critical Bare and Natural-Uranium-Reflected Metal Spheres of Plutonium and Highly Enriched Uranium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mihalczo, John T [ORNL

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Prompt neutron decay at delayed criticality was measured by Oak Ridge National Laboratory for uranium-reflected highly enriched uranium (HEU) and Pu metal spheres (FLATTOP), for an unreflected Pu metal (4.5% {sup 240}Pu) sphere (JEZEBEL) at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) and for an unreflected HEU metal sphere at Oak Ridge Critical Experiments Facility. The average prompt neutron decay constants from hundreds of Rossi-{alpha} and randomly pulsed neutron measurements with {sup 252}Cf at delayed criticality are as follows: 3.8458 {+-} 0.0016 x 10{sup 5} s{sup -1}, 2.2139 {+-} 0.0022 x 10{sup 5} s{sup -1}, 6.3126 {+-} 0.0100 x 10{sup 5} s{sup -1}, and 1.1061 {+-} 0.0009 x 10{sup 6} s{sup -1}, respectively. These values agree with previous measurements by LANL for FLATTOP, JEZEBEL, and GODIVA I as follows: 3.82 {+-} 0.02 x 10{sup 5} s{sup -1} for a uranium core; 2.14 {+-} 0.05 x 10{sup 5} s{sup -1} and 2.29 x 10{sup 5} s{sup -1} (uncertainty not reported) for a plutonium core; 6.4 {+-} 0.1 x 10{sup 5} s{sup -1}, and 1.1 {+-} 0.1 x 10{sup 6} s{sup -1}, respectively, but have smaller uncertainties because of the larger number of measurements. For the FLATTOP and JEZEBEL assemblies, the measurements agree with calculations. Traditionally, the calculated decay constants for the bare uranium metal sphere GODIVA I and the Oak Ridge Uranium Metal Sphere were higher than experimental by {approx}10%. Other energy-dependent quantities for the bare uranium sphere agree within 1%.

  7. PHOTOPHORETIC SEPARATION OF METALS AND SILICATES: THE FORMATION OF MERCURY-LIKE PLANETS AND METAL DEPLETION IN CHONDRITES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wurm, Gerhard [Fakultaet fuer Physik, Universitaet Duisburg-Essen, Lotharstr. 1, D-47057 Duisburg (Germany); Trieloff, Mario [Institut fuer Geowissenschaften, Universitaet Heidelberg, Im Neuenheimer Feld 234-236, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Rauer, Heike, E-mail: gerhard.wurm@uni-due.de [Institut fuer Planetenforschung, Extrasolare Planeten und Atmosphaeren, Deutsches Zentrum fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt (DLR), Rutherfordstrasse 2, D-12489 Berlin (Germany)

    2013-05-20T23:59:59.000Z

    Mercury's high uncompressed mass density suggests that the planet is largely composed of iron, either bound within metal (mainly Fe-Ni) or iron sulfide. Recent results from the MESSENGER mission to Mercury imply a low temperature history of the planet which questions the standard formation models of impact mantle stripping or evaporation to explain the high metal content. Like Mercury, the two smallest extrasolar rocky planets with mass and size determination, CoRoT-7b and Kepler-10b, were found to be of high density. As they orbit close to their host stars, this indicates that iron-rich inner planets might not be a nuisance of the solar system but be part of a general scheme of planet formation. From undifferentiated chondrites, it is also known that the metal to silicate ratio is highly variable, which must be ascribed to preplanetary fractionation processes. Due to this fractionation, most chondritic parent bodies-most of them originated in the asteroid belt-are depleted in iron relative to average solar system abundances. The astrophysical processes leading to metal silicate fractionation in the solar nebula are essentially unknown. Here, we consider photophoretic forces. As these forces particularly act on irradiated solids, they might play a significant role in the composition of planetesimals forming at the inner edge of protoplanetary disks. Photophoresis can separate high thermal conductivity materials (iron) from lower thermal conductivity solids (silicate). We suggest that the silicates are preferentially pushed into the optically thick disk. Subsequent planetesimal formation at the edge moving outward leads to metal-rich planetesimals close to the star and metal depleted planetesimals farther out in the nebula.

  8. Depleted uranium risk assessment for Jefferson Proving Ground using data from environmental monitoring and site characterization. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ebinger, M.H.; Hansen, W.R.

    1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report documents the third risk assessment completed for the depleted uranium (DU) munitions testing range at Jefferson Proving Ground (JPG), Indiana, for the U.S. Army Test and Evaluation command. Jefferson Proving Ground was closed in 1995 under the Base Realignment and Closure Act and the testing mission was moved to Yuma Proving Ground. As part of the closure of JPG, assessments of potential adverse health effects to humans and the ecosystem were conducted. This report integrates recent information obtained from site characterization surveys at JPG with environmental monitoring data collected from 1983 through 1994 during DU testing. Three exposure scenarios were evaluated for potential adverse effects to human health: an occasional use scenario and two farming scenarios. Human exposure was minimal from occasional use, but significant risk were predicted from the farming scenarios when contaminated groundwater was used by site occupants. The human health risk assessments do not consider the significant risk posed by accidents with unexploded ordnance. Exposures of white-tailed deer to DU were also estimated in this study, and exposure rates result in no significant increase in either toxicological or radiological risks. The results of this study indicate that remediation of the DU impact area would not substantially reduce already low risks to humans and the ecosystem, and that managed access to JPG is a reasonable model for future land use options.

  9. URANIUM METAL POWDER PRODUCTION, PARTICLE DISTRIBUTION ANALYSIS, AND REACTION RATE STUDIES OF A HYDRIDE-DEHYDRIDE PROCESS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sames, William

    2011-08-08T23:59:59.000Z

    -12 plant in Oak Ridge, Tennessee for providing the depleted uranium used in this project. vi NOMENCLATURE ? Reaction Fraction ACV Atmosphere Containment Vessel AFCI Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative FCML Fuel Cycle and Materials Laboratory...

  10. Radiochronological Age of a Uranium Metal Sample from an Abandoned Facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meyers, L A; Williams, R W; Glover, S E; LaMont, S P; Stalcup, A M; Spitz, H B

    2012-03-16T23:59:59.000Z

    A piece of scrap uranium metal bar buried in the dirt floor of an old, abandoned metal rolling mill was analyzed using multi-collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy (MC-ICP-MS). The mill rolled uranium rods in the 1940s and 1950s. Samples of the contaminated dirt in which the bar was buried were also analyzed. The isotopic composition of uranium in the bar and dirt samples were both the same as natural uranium, though a few samples of dirt also contained recycled uranium; likely a result of contamination with other material rolled at the mill. The time elapsed since the uranium metal bar was last purified can be determined by the in-growth of the isotope {sup 230}Th from the decay of {sup 234}U, assuming that only uranium isotopes were present in the bar after purification. The age of the metal bar was determined to be 61 years at the time of this analysis and corresponds to a purification date of July 1950 {+-} 1.5 years.

  11. Methods for Investigating Gas Bubble Formation in Uranium-Zirconium Alloys

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mews, Kathryn Ann Wright

    2013-05-06T23:59:59.000Z

    cycle. Liquid sodium fast spectrum reactors are an essential link in closing the fuel cycle with their ability to burn transuranics and depleted uranium, their transmutation possibilities, and their breeder applications. Development of metal fuels... uranium and plutonium also require certain permitting and handling precautions. In order to facilitate the experimental work in the facilities available at Texas A&M, the use of these materials was discounted. Instead, unirradiated, depleted uranium...

  12. Control of structure and reactivity by ligand design : applications to small molecule activation by low-valent uranium complexes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lam, Oanh Phi

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    coordination chemistry is depleted uranium, a by-product innuclear reactors. Depleted uranium Figure 1-1. The periodic

  13. Uranium Certified Reference Materials Price List | U.S. DOE Office...

    Office of Science (SC) Website

    Hexafluoride (4.5% U-235) 1700 g 59,420 . .pdf file (50KB) . .pdf file (63KB) A 115 Uranium (Depleted) Metal (0.99977 g Ug) 75 g 2,980 . .pdf file (121KB) . .pdf file...

  14. Nuclear reactor fuel structure containing uranium alloy wires embedded in a metallic matrix plate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Travelli, A.

    1985-10-25T23:59:59.000Z

    A flat or curved plate structure, to be used as fuel in a nuclear reactor, comprises elongated fissionable wires or strips embedded in a metallic continuous non-fissionable matrix plate. The wires or strips are made predominantly of a malleable uranium alloy, such as uranium silicide, uranium gallide or uranium germanide. The matrix plate is made predominantly of aluminum or an aluminum alloy. The wires or strips are located in a single row at the midsurface of the plate, parallel with one another and with the length dimension of the plate. The wires or strips are separated from each other, and from the surface of the plate, by sufficient thicknesses of matrix material, to provide structural integrity and effective fission product retention, under neutron irradiation. This construction makes it safely feasible to provide a high uranium density, so that the uranium enrichment with uranium 235 may be reduced below about 20%, to deter the reprocessing of the uranium for use in nuclear weapons.

  15. Nuclear reactor fuel structure containing uranium alloy wires embedded in a metallic matrix plate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Travelli, Armando (Hinsdale, IL)

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A flat or curved plate structure, to be used as fuel in a nuclear reactor, comprises elongated fissionable wires or strips embedded in a metallic continuous non-fissionable matrix plate. The wires or strips are made predominantly of a malleable uranium alloy, such as uranium silicide, uranium gallide or uranium germanide. The matrix plate is made predominantly of aluminum or an aluminum alloy. The wires or strips are located in a single row at the midsurface of the plate, parallel with one another and with the length dimension of the plate. The wires or strips are separated from each other, and from the surface of the plate, by sufficient thicknesses of matrix material, to provide structural integrity and effective fission product retention, under neutron irradiation. This construction makes it safely feasible to provide a high uranium density, so that the uranium enrichment with uranium 235 may be reduced below about 20%, to deter the reprocessing of the uranium for use in nuclear weapons.

  16. INFORMATION: Management Alert on Environmental Management's Select Strategy for Disposition of Savannah River Site Depleted Uranium Oxides

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2010-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Administration and the Congress, through policy statements and passage of the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (Recovery Act), have signaled that they hope that proactive actions by agency Inspectors General will help ensure that Federal Recovery Act activities are transparent, effective and efficient. In that context, the purpose of this management alert is to share with you concerns that have been raised to the Office of Inspector General regarding the planned disposition of the Savannah River Site's (SRS) inventory of Depleted Uranium (DU) oxides. This inventory, generated as a by-product of the nuclear weapons production process and amounting to approximately 15,600 drums of DU oxides, has been stored at SRS for decades. A Department source we deem reliable and credible recently came to the Office of Inspector General expressing concern that imminent actions are planned that may not provide for the most cost effective disposition of these materials. During April 2009, the Department chose to use funds provided under the Recovery Act to accelerate final disposition of the SRS inventory of DU oxides. After coordination with State of Utah regulators, elected officials and the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, the Department initiated a campaign to ship the material to a facility operated by EnergySolutions in Clive, Utah. Although one shipment of a portion of the material has already been sent to the EnergySolutions facility, the majority of the product remains at SRS. As had been planned, both for the shipment already made and those planned in the near term, the EnergySolutions facility was to have been the final disposal location for the material. Recently, a member of Congress and various Utah State officials raised questions regarding the radioactive and other constituents present in the DU oxides to be disposed of at the Clive, Utah, facility. These concerns revolved around the characterization of the material and its acceptability under existing licensing criteria. As a consequence, the Governor of Utah met with Department officials to voice concerns regarding further shipments of the material and to seek return of the initial shipment of DU oxides to SRS. Utah's objections and the Department's agreement to accede to the State's demands effectively prohibit the transfer of the remaining material from South Carolina to Utah. In response, the Department evaluated its options and issued a draft decision paper on March 1, 2010, which outlined an alternative for temporary storage until the final disposition issue could be resolved. Under the terms of the proposed option, the remaining shipments from SRS are to be sent on an interim basis to a facility owned by Waste Control Specialists (WCS) in Andrews, Texas. Clearly, this choice carries with it a number of significant logistical burdens, including substantial additional costs for, among several items, repackaging at SRS, transportation to Texas, storage at the interim site, and, repackaging and transportation to the yet-to-be-determined final disposition point. The Department source expressed the concern that the proposal to store the material on an interim basis in Texas was inefficient and unnecessary, asserting: (1) that the materials could remain at SRS until a final disposition path is identified, and that this could be done safely, securely and cost effectively; and, (2) that the nature of the material was not subject to existing compliance agreements with the State of South Carolina, suggesting the viability of keeping the material in storage at SRS until a permanent disposal site is definitively established. We noted that, while the Department's decision paper referred to 'numerous project and programmatic factors that make it impractical to retain the remaining inventory at Savannah River,' it did not outline the specific issues involved nor did it provide any substantive economic or environmental analysis supporting the need for the planned interim storage action. The only apparent driver in this case was a Recovery Act-related goal esta

  17. Uranium and other heavy metals in soil and vegetation from the Hanford environs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Price, K.R.; Kinnison, R.R.

    1982-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Strong winds that could transport contaminated dust and other materials offsite from the Hanford 300 Area typically blow from the west or southwest. Samples were collected from an offsite study area located across the Columbia River and downwind from the 300 Area to estimate the concentrations of uranium and other heavy metals in soils and vegetation. Results were compared to similar measurements collected at control sites located both on and off the Hanford Site. These comparisons were used to test hypotheses that uranium and other heavy metals had been transported offsite by wind-blown dust or other materials. The conclusion from this study was that operations at the 300 Area have not resulted in a detectable impact on the offsite environs across the river. The concentration of uranium in soil samples from the study area was statistically greater than comparable samples from control sites, but there was no evidence that the uranium in the study-area samples was other than naturally occurring. There was no statistical difference in the concentration of lead, silver, zinc or copper in soil samples from the study area as compared to the control sites. No statistically significant differences in uranium or other heavy metals were noted among vegetation samples from the various sampling sites.

  18. acute uranium intoxication: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    consists of replacing the water with 20 Garland Jr., Theodore 8 Review The Toxicity of Depleted Uranium CiteSeer Summary: Abstract: Depleted uranium (DU) is an emerging...

  19. Streamlined approach for environmental restoration plan for corrective action unit 430, buried depleted uranium artillery round No. 1, Tonopah test range

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1996-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This plan addresses actions necessary for the restoration and closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) No. 430, Buried Depleted Uranium (DU) Artillery Round No. 1 (Corrective Action Site No. TA-55-003-0960), a buried and unexploded W-79 Joint Test Assembly (JTA) artillery test projectile with high explosives (HE), at the U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV) Tonopah Test Range (TTR) in south-central Nevada. It describes activities that will occur at the site as well as the steps that will be taken to gather adequate data to obtain a notice of completion from Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP). This plan was prepared under the Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER) concept, and it will be implemented in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) and the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Industrial Sites Quality Assurance Project Plan.

  20. Biological assessment of the effects of construction and operation of a depleted uranium hexafluoride conversion facility at the Paducah, Kentucky, site.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Van Lonkhuyzen, R.

    2005-09-09T23:59:59.000Z

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Depleted Uranium Hexafluoride (DUF{sub 6}) Management Program evaluated alternatives for managing its inventory of DUF{sub 6} and issued the ''Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement for Alternative Strategies for the Long-Term Management and Use of Depleted Uranium Hexafluoride'' (DUF{sub 6} PEIS) in April 1999 (DOE 1999). The DUF{sub 6} inventory is stored in cylinders at three DOE sites: Paducah, Kentucky; Portsmouth, Ohio; and East Tennessee Technology Park (ETTP), near Oak Ridge, Tennessee. In the Record of Decision for the DUF{sub 6} PEIS, DOE stated its decision to promptly convert the DUF6 inventory to a more stable chemical form. Subsequently, the U.S. Congress passed, and the President signed, the ''2002 Supplemental Appropriations Act for Further Recovery from and Response to Terrorist Attacks on the United States'' (Public Law No. 107-206). This law stipulated in part that, within 30 days of enactment, DOE must award a contract for the design, construction, and operation of a DUF{sub 6} conversion plant at the Department's Paducah, Kentucky, and Portsmouth, Ohio, sites, and for the shipment of DUF{sub 6} cylinders stored at ETTP to the Portsmouth site for conversion. This biological assessment (BA) has been prepared by DOE, pursuant to the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA) and the Endangered Species Act of 1974, to evaluate potential impacts to federally listed species from the construction and operation of a conversion facility at the DOE Paducah site.

  1. Depleted uranium dioxide melting in cold crucible melter and production of granules from the melt for use in casks for spent nuclear fuel and radioactive wastes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gotovchikov, Vitaly; Seredenko, V.A.; Shatalov, V.V.; Mironov, B.S.; Kaplenkov, V.N.; Seredenko, A.V.; Saranchin, V.K.; Shulgin, A.S.; Kalmakov, Danila [All-Russian Research Institute of Chemical Technology (ARRICT), Kashirskoe Shosse 33, Moscow 115230 (Russian Federation); Haire, M.J.; Forsberg, C.W. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory - ORNL, 1 Bethel Valley Rd, Oak Ridge, TN 37830 (United States)

    2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Available in abstract form only. Full text of publication follows: This paper describes the results of joint research program of Russian Research Institute of Chemical Technology and Oak Ridge National Laboratory to develop new materials for build spent nuclear fuel (SNF) storage, transport, and disposal casks using shielding made with depleted uranium dioxide (DUO{sub 2}) in a DUO{sub 2}-steel cermet or a DUCRETE with DUAGG (DUO{sub 2} aggregate) with selective additives in cement matrix. The preparation of DUO{sub 2} particles and aggregates for shielding could be produced from technologies that are extrapolated from the costly multi-step nuclear fuel pellet technologies. Melting the DUO{sub 2} and allowing it to freeze will produce a product near 100% theoretical density and assure that the product produces no volatile materials upon subsequent heating. Melting is a one step process that provides an opportunity to include additives in the DUO{sub 2} to modify its chemical or nuclear properties. The proposed work is directed to develop cold-wall induction heated melters (ICCM) for this specific application. Experiments on melting DUO{sub 2} were carried out in high frequency ICCM with cold crucible. It was experimentally proved an opportunity to produce molten DUO{sub 2} from mixed oxides (DU{sub 3}O{sub 8}) by reducing melting in ICCM. This will allow using DU{sub 3}O{sub 8} generated in direct conversion of depleted uranium hexafluoride as source material for melted and granulated DUO{sub 2} production. Experiments on the addition of alloying components - gadolinium oxide and others into DUO{sub 2} melt while in crucible to improve neutron and gamma radiation-shielding and operation properties of the final solids were carried out. (authors)

  2. Gas Generation from K East Basin Sludges and Irradiated Metallic Uranium Fuel Particles Series III Testing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schmidt, Andrew J.; Delegard, Calvin H.; Bryan, Samuel A.; Elmore, Monte R.; Sell, Rachel L.; Silvers, Kurt L.; Gano, Susan R.; Thornton, Brenda M.

    2003-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The path forward for managing of Hanford K Basin sludge calls for it to be packaged, shipped, and stored at T Plant until final processing at a future date. An important consideration for the design and cost of retrieval, transportation, and storage systems is the potential for heat and gas generation through oxidation reactions between uranium metal and water. This report, the third in a series (Series III), describes work performed at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to assess corrosion and gas generation from irradiated metallic uranium particles (fuel particles) with and without K Basin sludge addition. The testing described in this report consisted of 12 tests. In 10 of the tests, 4.3 to 26.4 g of fuel particles of selected size distribution were placed into 60- or 800-ml reaction vessels with 0 to 100 g settled sludge. In another test, a single 3.72-g fuel fragment (i.e., 7150-mm particle) was placed in a 60 ml reaction vessel with no added sludge. The twelfth test contained only sludge. The fuel particles were prepared by crushing archived coupons (samples) from an irradiated metallic uranium fuel element. After loading the sludge materials (whether fuel particles, mixtures of fuel particles and sludge, or sludge-only) into reaction vessels, the solids were covered with an excess of K Basin water, the vessels closed and connected to a gas measurement manifold, and the vessels back-flushed with inert neon cover gas. The vessels were then heated to a constant temperature. The gas pressures and temperatures were monitored continuously from the times the vessels were purged. Gas samples were collected at various times during the tests, and the samples analyzed by mass spectrometry. Data on the reaction rates of uranium metal fuel particles with water as a function of temperature and particle size were generated. The data were compared with published studies on metallic uranium corrosion kinetics. The effects of an intimate overlying sludge layer (''blanket'') on the uranium metal corrosion rates were also evaluated.

  3. adepleted uranium hexafluoride: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and purified uranium ore into uranium hexafluoride (UF 6), or the reduction of depleted uranium tetrafluoride (UF 4) to UF 6. SFC contends that these unknown authors 15...

  4. active uranium americium: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and purified uranium ore into uranium hexafluoride (UF 6), or the reduction of depleted uranium tetrafluoride (UF 4) to UF 6. SFC contends that these unknown authors 5...

  5. anthropogenic uranium concentration: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and purified uranium ore into uranium hexafluoride (UF 6), or the reduction of depleted uranium tetrafluoride (UF 4) to UF 6. SFC contends that these unknown authors 12...

  6. abandoned uranium mill: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and purified uranium ore into uranium hexafluoride (UF 6), or the reduction of depleted uranium tetrafluoride (UF 4) to UF 6. SFC contends that these unknown authors 3...

  7. anaconda uranium mill: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and purified uranium ore into uranium hexafluoride (UF 6), or the reduction of depleted uranium tetrafluoride (UF 4) to UF 6. SFC contends that these unknown authors 3...

  8. URANIUM METAL POWDER PRODUCTION, PARTICLE DISTRIBUTION ANALYSIS, AND REACTION RATE STUDIES OF A HYDRIDE-DEHYDRIDE PROCESS 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sames, William

    2011-08-08T23:59:59.000Z

    Work was done to study a hydride-dehydride method for producing uranium metal powder. Particle distribution analysis was conducted using digital microscopy and grayscale image analysis software. The particle size was found to be predominantly...

  9. Electron Beam Welding of a Depleted Uranium Alloy to Niobium Using a Calibrated Electron Beam Power Density Distribution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elmer, J.W.; Teruya, A.T.; Terrill, P.E.

    2000-08-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Electron beam test welds were made joining flat plates of commercially pure niobium to a uranium-6wt%Nb (binary) alloy. The welding parameters and joint design were specifically developed to minimize mixing of the niobium with the U-6%Nb alloy. A Modified Faraday Cup (MFC) technique using computer-assisted tomography was employed to determine the precise power distribution of the electron beam so that the welding parameters could be directly transferred to other welding machines and/or to other facilities.

  10. Mitigation of Hydrogen Gas Generation from the Reaction of Water with Uranium Metal in K Basins Sludge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sinkov, Sergey I.; Delegard, Calvin H.; Schmidt, Andrew J.

    2010-01-29T23:59:59.000Z

    Means to decrease the rate of hydrogen gas generation from the chemical reaction of uranium metal with water were identified by surveying the technical literature. The underlying chemistry and potential side reactions were explored by conducting 61 principal experiments. Several methods achieved significant hydrogen gas generation rate mitigation. Gas-generating side reactions from interactions of organics or sludge constituents with mitigating agents were observed. Further testing is recommended to develop deeper knowledge of the underlying chemistry and to advance the technology aturation level. Uranium metal reacts with water in K Basin sludge to form uranium hydride (UH3), uranium dioxide or uraninite (UO2), and diatomic hydrogen (H2). Mechanistic studies show that hydrogen radicals (H·) and UH3 serve as intermediates in the reaction of uranium metal with water to produce H2 and UO2. Because H2 is flammable, its release into the gas phase above K Basin sludge during sludge storage, processing, immobilization, shipment, and disposal is a concern to the safety of those operations. Findings from the technical literature and from experimental investigations with simple chemical systems (including uranium metal in water), in the presence of individual sludge simulant components, with complete sludge simulants, and with actual K Basin sludge are presented in this report. Based on the literature review and intermediate lab test results, sodium nitrate, sodium nitrite, Nochar Acid Bond N960, disodium hydrogen phosphate, and hexavalent uranium [U(VI)] were tested for their effects in decreasing the rate of hydrogen generation from the reaction of uranium metal with water. Nitrate and nitrite each were effective, decreasing hydrogen generation rates in actual sludge by factors of about 100 to 1000 when used at 0.5 molar (M) concentrations. Higher attenuation factors were achieved in tests with aqueous solutions alone. Nochar N960, a water sorbent, decreased hydrogen generation by no more than a factor of three while disodium phosphate increased the corrosion and hydrogen generation rates slightly. U(VI) showed some promise in attenuating hydrogen but only initial testing was completed. Uranium metal corrosion rates also were measured. Under many conditions showing high hydrogen gas attenuation, uranium metal continued to corrode at rates approaching those observed without additives. This combination of high hydrogen attenuation with relatively unabated uranium metal corrosion is significant as it provides a means to eliminate uranium metal by its corrosion in water without the accompanying hazards otherwise presented by hydrogen generation.

  11. acute catecholamine depletion: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    about NM biosynthesis, and it is not known where Sulzer, David 9 Review The Toxicity of Depleted Uranium CiteSeer Summary: Abstract: Depleted uranium (DU) is an emerging...

  12. anthropogenic uranium enrichments: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Websites Summary: Flats Plutonium and Uranium Weapons-Grade Plutonium Enriched Uranium Depleted Uranium Plutonium-238 0.01 - 0.05% Uranium-234 0.1 - 1.02% Uranium-234...

  13. Analytical laboratories method No. 6002 - determination of wt% U-236 in depleted uranium hexafluoride (UF/sub 6/)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1986-07-18T23:59:59.000Z

    A rapid, comparison-type determination for wt% U-236 is performed on all depleted (0.20 wt% U-235) product ingots. A composite sample representing up to 30 ingots is prepared and fluorinated to UF/sub 6/ for the analysis. The U-236/(U-235 + U-235 + U-238) ratio in the UF/sub 6/ sample is compared to the same ratio in a UF/sub 6/ standard containing approximately 0.0100 wt% U-236. If the observed ratio of the sample is less than observed for the standard, the result < 0.0100 wt% U-236 is reported for all ingots in the composite sample. Eight minutes if required for one composite sample analysis.

  14. Depleted uranium dioxide melting in cold crucible melter and production of granules from the melt for use in casks for spent nuclear fuel and radioactive wastes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gotovchikov, V.T.; Seredenko, V.A.; Shatalov, V.V.; Mironov, B.S.; Kaplenkov, V.N.; Seredenko, A.V.; Saranchin, V.K.; Shulgin, A.S. [All-Russian Research Institute of Chemical Technology (ARRICT), Moscow (Russian Federation); Haire, M.J.; Forsberg, C.W. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper describes the results of a joint research program between the Russian Research Institute of Chemical Technology and Oak Ridge National Laboratory in the United States to develop new radiation shielding materials for use in the construction of casks for spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and radioactive wastes. Research and development is underway to develop SNF storage, transport, and disposal casks using shielding made with two new depleted uranium dioxide (DUO{sub 2}) materials: a DUO{sub 2}-steel cermet, and, DUCRETE with DUAGG (DUO{sub 2} aggregate). Melting the DUO{sub 2} and allowing it to freeze will produce a near 100% theoretical density product and assures that the product produces no volatile materials upon subsequent heating. Induction cold-crucible melters (ICCM) are being developed for this specific application. An ICCM is, potentially, a high throughput low-cost process. Schematics of a pilot facility were developed for the production of molten DUO{sub 2} from DU{sub 3}O{sub 8} to produce granules <1 mm in diameter in a continuous mode of operation. Thermodynamic analysis was conducted for uranium-oxygen system in the temperature range from 300 to 4000 K in various gas mediums. Temperature limits of stability for various uranium oxides were determined. Experiments on melting DUO{sub 2} were carried out in a high frequency ICCM in a cold crucible with a 120 mm in diameter. The microstructure of molten DUO{sub 2} was studied and lattice parameters were determined. It was experimentally proved, and validated by X-ray analysis, that an opportunity exists to produce molten DUO{sub 2} from mixed oxides (primarily DU{sub 3}O{sub 8}) by reduction melting in ICCM. This will allow using DU{sub 3}O{sub 8} directly to make DUO{sub 2}-a separate unit operation to produce UO{sub 2} feed material is not needed. Experiments were conducted concerning the addition of alloying components, gadolinium et al. oxides, into the DUO{sub 2} melt while in the crucible. These additives improve neutron and gamma radiation shielding and operation properties of the final solids. Cermet samples of 50 wt % DUO{sub 2} were produced. (authors)

  15. Benchmark Evaluation of Uranium Metal Annuli and Cylinders with Beryllium Reflectors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    John D. Bess

    2010-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An extensive series of delayed critical experiments were performed at the Oak Ridge Critical Experiments Facility using enriched uranium metal during the 1960s and 1970s in support of criticality safety operations at the Y-12 Plant. These experiments were designed to evaluate the storage, casting, and handling limits of the Y-12 Plant and to provide data for the verification of cross sections and calculation methods utilized in nuclear criticality safety applications. Many of these experiments have already been evaluated and included in the International Criticality Safety Benchmark Evaluation Project (ICSBEP) Handbook: unreflected (HEU-MET-FAST-051), graphite-reflected (HEU-MET-FAST-071), and polyethylene-reflected (HEU-MET-FAST-076). Three of the experiments consisted of highly-enriched uranium (HEU, ~93.2% 235U) metal parts reflected by beryllium metal discs. The first evaluated experiment was constructed from a stack of 7-in.-diameter, 4-1/8-in.-high stack of HEU discs top-reflected by a 7-in.-diameter, 5-9/16-in.-high stack of beryllium discs. The other two experiments were formed from stacks of concentric HEU metal annular rings surrounding a 7-in.diameter beryllium core. The nominal outer diameters were 13 and 15 in. with a nominal stack height of 5 and 4 in., respectively. These experiments have been evaluated for inclusion in the ICSBEP Handbook.

  16. Overview of the Capstone Depleted Uranium Study of Aerosols from Impact with Armored Vehicles: Test Setup and Aerosol Generation, Characterization, and Application in Assessing Dose and Risk

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Parkhurst, MaryAnn; Guilmette, Raymond A.

    2009-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Capstone Depleted Uranium (DU) Aerosol Characterization and Risk Assessment Study was conducted to generate data about DU aerosols generated during the perforation of armored combat vehicles with large-caliber DU penetrators, and to apply the data in assessments of human health risks to personnel exposed to these aerosols, primarily through inhalation, during the 1991 Gulf War or in future military operations. The Capstone study consisted of two components: 1) generating, sampling and characterizing DU aerosols by firing at and perforating combat vehicles and 2) applying the source-term quantities and characteristics of the aerosols to the evaluation of doses and risks. This paper reviews the background of the study including the bases for the study, previous reviews of DU particles and health assessments from DU used by the U.S. military, the objectives of the study components, the participants and oversight teams, and the types of exposures it was intended to evaluate. It then discusses exposure scenarios used in the dose and risk assessment and provides an overview of how the field tests and dose and risk assessments were conducted.

  17. Experimental partitioning of uranium between liquid iron sulfide and liquid silicate: Implications for radioactivity in the Earth's core

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Minarik, William

    Experimental partitioning of uranium between liquid iron sulfide and liquid silicate: Implications Measurable uranium (U) is found in metal sulfide liquids in equilibrium with molten silicate at conditions shows that K is depleted in the Earth by $50%, while U and Th are slightly enriched (Palme and O

  18. WISE Uranium Project - Fact Sheet

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hazards From Depleted

    t in the depleted uranium. For this purpose, we first need to calculate the mass balance of the enrichment process. We then calculate the inhalation doses from the depleted uranium and compare the dose contributions from the nuclides of interest. Mass balance for uranium enrichment at Paducah [DOE_1984, p.35] Feed Product Tails Other Mass [st] 758002 124718 621894 11390 Mass fraction 100.00% 16.45% 82.04% 1.50% Concentration of plutonium in tails (depleted uranium) from enrichment of reprocessed uranium, assuming that all plutonium were transfered to the tails: Concentration of neptunium in tails from enrichment of reprocessed uranium uranium, assuming that all neptunium were transfered to the tails: - 2 - Schematic of historic uranium enrichment process at Paducah [DOE_1999b] - -7 For comparison, we first calculate the inhalation dose from depleted uranium produced from natural uranium. We assume that the short-lived decay products have reached secular equilibrium with th

  19. Magnetic Exchange Coupling and Single-Molecule Magnetism in Uranium Complexes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rinehart, Jeffrey Dennis

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    greater than 99% U-238 (depleted uranium), which has no neturanium, since this actinide element offers minimal radioactivity (in depleted

  20. DFT modeling of adsorption onto uranium metal using large-scale parallel computing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davis, N.; Rizwan, U. [Department of Nuclear, Plasma, and Radiological Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL (United States)

    2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    There is a dearth of atomistic simulations involving the surface chemistry of 7-uranium which is of interest as the key fuel component of a breeder-burner stage in future fuel cycles. Recent availability of high-performance computing hardware and software has rendered extended quantum chemical surface simulations involving actinides feasible. With that motivation, data for bulk and surface 7-phase uranium metal are calculated in the plane-wave pseudopotential density functional theory method. Chemisorption of atomic hydrogen and oxygen on several un-relaxed low-index faces of 7-uranium is considered. The optimal adsorption sites (calculated cohesive energies) on the (100), (110), and (111) faces are found to be the one-coordinated top site (8.8 eV), four-coordinated center site (9.9 eV), and one-coordinated top 1 site (7.9 eV) respectively, for oxygen; and the four-coordinated center site (2.7 eV), four-coordinated center site (3.1 eV), and three-coordinated top2 site (3.2 eV) for hydrogen. (authors)

  1. Floodplain/wetland assessment of the effects of construction and operation ofa depleted uranium hexafluoride conversion facility at the Paducah, Kentucky,site.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Van Lonkhuyzen, R.

    2005-09-09T23:59:59.000Z

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Depleted Uranium Hexafluoride (DUF{sub 6}) Management Program evaluated alternatives for managing its inventory of DUF{sub 6} and issued the ''Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement for Alternative Strategies for the Long-Term Management and Use of Depleted Uranium Hexafluoride'' (DUF{sub 6} PEIS) in April 1999 (DOE 1999). The DUF{sub 6} inventory is stored in cylinders at three DOE sites: Paducah, Kentucky; Portsmouth, Ohio; and East Tennessee Technology Park (ETTP), near Oak Ridge, Tennessee. In the Record of Decision for the DUF{sub 6} PEIS, DOE stated its decision to promptly convert the DUF{sub 6} inventory to a more stable chemical form. Subsequently, the U.S. Congress passed, and the President signed, the ''2002 Supplemental Appropriations Act for Further Recovery from and Response to Terrorist Attacks on the United States'' (Public Law No. 107-206). This law stipulated in part that, within 30 days of enactment, DOE must award a contract for the design, construction, and operation of a DUF{sub 6} conversion plant at the Department's Paducah, Kentucky, and Portsmouth, Ohio, sites, and for the shipment of DUF{sub 6} cylinders stored at ETTP to the Portsmouth site for conversion. This floodplain/wetland assessment has been prepared by DOE, pursuant to Executive Order 11988 (''Floodplain Management''), Executive Order 11990 (Protection of Wetlands), and DOE regulations for implementing these Executive Orders as set forth in Title 10, Part 1022, of the ''Code of Federal Regulations'' (10 CFR Part 1022 [''Compliance with Floodplain and Wetland Environmental Review Requirements'']), to evaluate potential impacts to floodplains and wetlands from the construction and operation of a conversion facility at the DOE Paducah site. Reconstruction of the bridge crossing Bayou Creek would occur within the Bayou Creek 100-year floodplain. Replacement of bridge components, including the bridge supports, however, would not be expected to result in measurable long-term changes to the floodplain. Approximately 0.16 acre (0.064 ha) of palustrine emergent wetlands would likely be eliminated by direct placement of fill material within Location A. Some wetlands that are not filled may be indirectly affected by an altered hydrologic regime, due to the proximity of construction, possibly resulting in a decreased frequency or duration of inundation or soil saturation and potential loss of hydrology necessary to sustain wetland conditions. Indirect impacts could be minimized by maintaining a buffer near adjacent wetlands. Wetlands would likely be impacted by construction at Location B; however, placement of a facility in the northern portion of this location would minimize wetland impacts. Construction at Location C could potentially result in impacts to wetlands, however placement of a facility in the southeastern portion of this location may best avoid direct impacts to wetlands. The hydrologic characteristics of nearby wetlands could be indirectly affected by adjacent construction. Executive Order 11990, ''Protection of Wetlands'', requires federal agencies to minimize the destruction, loss, or degradation of wetlands, and to preserve and enhance the natural and beneficial uses of wetlands. DOE regulations for implementing Executive Order 11990 as well as Executive Order 11988, ''Floodplain Management'', are set forth in 10 CFR Part 1022. Mitigation for unavoidable impacts may be developed in coordination with the appropriate regulatory agencies. Unavoidable impacts to wetlands that are within the jurisdiction of the USACE may require a CWA Section 404 Permit, which would trigger the requirement for a CWA Section 401 Water Quality Certification from the Commonwealth of Kentucky. A mitigation plan may be required prior to the initiation of construction. Cumulative impacts to floodplains and wetlands are anticipated to be negligible to minor under the proposed action, in conjunction with the effects of existing conditions and other activities. Habitat disturbance would involve settings commonly found i

  2. Porous membrane electrochemical cell for uranium and transuranic recovery from molten salt electrolyte

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Willit, James L. (Batavia, IL)

    2010-09-21T23:59:59.000Z

    An improved process and device for the recovery of the minor actinides and the transuranic elements (TRU's) from a molten salt electrolyte. The process involves placing the device, an electrically non-conducting barrier between an anode salt and a cathode salt. The porous barrier allows uranium to diffuse between the anode and cathode, yet slows the diffusion of uranium ions so as to cause depletion of uranium ions in the catholyte. This allows for the eventual preferential deposition of transuranics present in spent nuclear fuel such as Np, Pu, Am, Cm. The device also comprises an uranium oxidation anode. The oxidation anode is solid uranium metal in the form of spent nuclear fuel. The spent fuel is placed in a ferric metal anode basket which serves as the electrical lead or contact between the molten electrolyte and the anodic uranium metal.

  3. Porous membrane electrochemical cell for uranium and transuranic recovery from molten salt electrolyte

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Willit, James L. (Ratavia, IL)

    2007-09-11T23:59:59.000Z

    An improved process and device for the recovery of the minor actinides and the transuranic elements (TRU's) from a molten salt electrolyte. The process involves placing the device, an electrically non-conducting barrier between an anode salt and a cathode salt. The porous barrier allows uranium to diffuse between the anode and cathode, yet slows the diffusion of uranium ions so as to cause depletion of uranium ions in the catholyte. This allows for the eventual preferential deposition of transuranics present in spent nuclear fuel such as Np, Pu, Am, Cm. The device also comprises an uranium oxidation anode. The oxidation anode is solid uranium metal in the form of spent nuclear fuel. The spent fuel is placed in a ferric metal anode basket which serves as the electrical lead or contact between the molten electrolyte and the anodic uranium metal.

  4. Safe Operating Procedure SAFETY PROTOCOL: URANIUM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Farritor, Shane

    involve the use of natural or depleted uranium. Natural isotopes of uranium are U-238, U-235 and U-234 (see Table 1 for natural abundances). Depleted uranium contains less of the isotopes: U-235 and U-234. The specific activity of depleted uranium (5.0E-7 Ci/g) is less than that of natural uranium (7.1E-7 Ci

  5. Novel Transformations using Uranium and Group 5 Metal Complexes Supported by 1,1'-diamidoferrocene Ligands

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lopez, Michael Joseph

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Chemistry by Michael Joseph Lopez ABSTRACT OF THE THESIS Novel Transformations using Uranium andchemistry has grown significantly in the past decade. 1 Uranium

  6. Novel Transformations using Uranium and Group 5 Metal Complexes Supported by 1,1'-diamidoferrocene Ligands

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lopez, Michael Joseph

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    chemistry has grown significantly in the past decade. 1 UraniumChemistry by Michael Joseph Lopez ABSTRACT OF THE THESIS Novel Transformations using Uranium

  7. Sustained Removal of Uranium From Contaminated Groundwater Following Stimulation of Dissimilatory Metal Reduction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    N'Guessan, A. Lucie; Vrionis, Helen A.; Resch, Charles T.; Long, Philip E.; Lovley, Derek R.

    2008-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Previous field studies on in situ bioremediation of uraniumcontaminatedgroundwaterinanaquiferinRifle, Coloradoidentified two distinct phases following the addition of acetate to stimulate microbial respiration. In phase I, Geobacter species are the predominant organisms, Fe(III) is reduced, and microbial reduction of soluble U(VI) to insoluble U(IV) removes uranium from the groundwater. In phase II, Fe(III) is depleted, sulfate is reduced, and sulfate-reducing bacteria predominate. Long-term monitoring revealed an unexpected third phase duringwhichU(VI) removal continues even after acetate additions are stopped. All three of these phases were successfully reproduced in flow-through sediment columns.When sediments from the third phase were heat sterilized, the capacity for U(VI) removal was lost. In the live sediments U(VI) removed from the groundwater was recovered as U(VI) in the sediments.This contrasts to the recovery of U(IV) in sediments resulting from the reduction of U(VI) to U(IV) during the Fe(III) reduction phase in acetate-amended sediments. Analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences in the sediments in which U(VI) was being adsorbed indicated that members of the Firmicutes were the predominant organisms whereas no Firmicutes sequences were detected in background sediments which did not have the capacity to sorb U(VI), suggesting that the U(VI) adsorption might be due to the presence of these living organisms or at least their intact cell components. This unexpected enhanced adsorption of U(VI) onto sediments following the stimulation of microbial growth in the subsurface may potentially enhance the cost effectiveness of in situ uranium bioremediation.

  8. Disposition of Surplus Highly Enriched Uranium

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    four alternatives that would eliminate the weapons-usability of HEU by blending it with depleted uranium, natural uranium, or low-enriched uranium (LEU) to create LEU, either as...

  9. Disposition of Depleted Uranium Oxide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Crandall, J.L.

    2001-08-13T23:59:59.000Z

    This document summarizes environmental information which has been collected up to June 1983 at Savannah River Plant. Of particular interest is an updating of dose estimates from changes in methodology of calculation, lower cesium transport estimates from Steel Creek, and new sports fish consumption data for the Savannah River. The status of various permitting requirements are also discussed.

  10. Final Report - Gas Generation Testing of Uranium Metal in Simulated K Basin Sludge and in Grouted Sludge Waste Forms

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Delegard, Calvin H.; Schmidt, Andrew J.; Sell, Rachel L.; Sinkov, Sergei I.; Bryan, Samuel A.; Gano, Sue; Thornton, Brenda M.

    2004-08-19T23:59:59.000Z

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is being considered for the disposal of K Basin sludge as RH-TRU. Because the hydrogen gas concentration in the 55-gallon RH-TRU sealed drums to be transported to WIPP is limited by flammability safety, the number of containers and shipments likely will be driven by the rate of hydrogen generated by the uranium metal-water reaction (U + 2 H{sub 2}O {yields} UO{sub 2} + 2 H{sub 2}) in combination with the hydrogen generated from water and organic radiolysis. Gas generation testing was conducted with uranium metal particles of known surface area, in simulated K West (KW) Basin canister sludge and immobilized in candidate grout solidification matrices. This study evaluated potential for Portland cement and magnesium phosphate grouts to inhibit the reaction of water with uranium metal in the sludge and thereby permit higher sludge loading to the disposed waste form. The best of the grouted waste forms decreased the uranium metal-water reaction by a factor of four.

  11. Investigations of factors affecting the use of uranium metal as a source of alpha particles for the evaluation of alpha track detectors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Voirin, Marc

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    , an uranium foil was used as the alpha particle source. The foil created new problems which needed to be studied in detail. Among these problems, the effect of the thickness of the oxide layer on the uranium metal foil surface was the most important. To study...

  12. URANIUM MILLING ACTIVITIES AT SEQUOYAH FUELS CORPORATION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    unknown authors

    Sequoyah Fuels Corporation (SFC) describes previous operations at its Gore, Oklahoma, uranium conversion facility as: (1) the recovery of uranium by concentration and purification processes; and (2) the conversion of concentrated and purified uranium ore into uranium hexafluoride (UF 6), or the reduction of depleted uranium tetrafluoride (UF 4) to UF 6. SFC contends that these

  13. atp depletion precedes: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    evolves, because new precedents are generated by the form... Smolin, Lee 2012-01-01 15 Depleted Uranium Technical Brief Environmental Sciences and Ecology Websites Summary: and...

  14. analogues deplete androgen: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    with androgens has been shown to increase growth rate in fishes (Ron et al., 1995 13 Depleted Uranium Technical Brief Environmental Sciences and Ecology Websites Summary: and...

  15. antioxidant defence depletion: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and defence reactions. Priya Roy; Ramamurthy Dhandapani Department Of Microbiology 15 Depleted Uranium Technical Brief Environmental Sciences and Ecology Websites Summary: and...

  16. administration depletes mitochondrial: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    recombination is widespread in plant mtDNA. Recombinant molecules have Nicolas Galtier 6 Depleted Uranium Technical Brief Environmental Sciences and Ecology Websites Summary: and...

  17. approaching waterflood depletion: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    are shown in Table 5 of the Appendix. Figure... Pettitt, Bobby Eugene 1963-01-01 19 Depleted Uranium Technical Brief Environmental Sciences and Ecology Websites Summary: and...

  18. DOE Selects Contractor for Depleted Hexafluoride Conversion Project...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    to the DOE Portsmouth Paducah Project Office (PPPO) in Lexington, Kentucky and the Depleted Uranium Hexafluoride (DUF6) Conversion Project in Paducah, Kentucky and...

  19. aerosol depletion test: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    damage and realize optimum well productivity. To address... Chen, Guoqiang 2002-01-01 10 Depleted Uranium Technical Brief Environmental Sciences and Ecology Websites Summary: and...

  20. Safety and core design of large liquid-metal cooled fast breeder reactors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Qvist, Staffan Alexander

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    with burnup of a depleted-uranium fueled sodium-cooled B&Bwith burnup of a depleted-uranium fueled sodium-cooled B&Bbalance integral of a depleted-uranium fueled sodium-cooled

  1. SUB-LEU-METAL-THERM-001 SUBCRITICAL MEASUREMENTS OF LOW ENRICHED TUBULAR URANIUM METAL FUEL ELEMENTS BEFORE & AFTER IRRADIATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    SCHWINKENDORF, K.N.

    2006-05-12T23:59:59.000Z

    With the shutdown of the Hanford PUREX (Plutonium-Uranium Extraction Plant) reprocessing plant in the 1970s, adequate storage capacity for spent Hanford N Reactor fuel elements in the K and N Reactor pools became a concern. To maximize space utilization in the pools, accounting for fuel burnup was considered. Calculations indicated that at typical fuel exposures for N Reactor, the spent-fuel critical mass would be twice the critical mass for green fuel. A decision was reached to test the calculational result with a definitive experiment. If the results proved positive, storage capacity could be increased and N Reactor operation could be prolonged. An experiment to be conducted in the N Reactor spent-fuel storage pool was designed and assembled and the services of the Battelle Northwest Laboratories (BNWL) (now Pacific Northwest National Laboratory [PNNL]) critical mass laboratory were procured for the measurements. The experiments were performed in April 1975 in the Hanford N Reactor fuel storage pool. The fuel elements were MKIA fuel assemblies, comprising two concentric tubes of low-enriched metallic uranium. Two separate sets of measurements were performed: one with ''green'' (fresh) fuel and one with spent fuel. Both the green and spent fuel, were measured in the same geometry. The spent-fuel MKIA assemblies had an average burnup of 2865 MWd (megawatt days)/t. A constraint was imposed restricting the measurements to a subcritical limit of k{sub eff} = 0.97. Subcritical count rate data was obtained with pulsed-neutron and approach-to-critical measurements. Ten (10) configurations with green fuel and nine (9) configurations with spent fuel are described and evaluated. Of these, 3 green fuel and 4 spent fuel loading configurations were considered to serve as benchmark models. However, shortcomings in experimental data failed to meet the high standards for a benchmark problem. Nevertheless, the data provided by these subcritical measurements can supply useful information to analysts evaluating spent fuel subcriticality. The original purpose of the subcritical measurements was to validate computer model predictions that spent N Reactor fuel of a particular, typical exposure (2740 MWd/t) had a critical mass equal to twice that of unexposed fuel of the same type. The motivation for performing this work was driven by the need to increase spent fuel storage limits. These subcritical measurements confirmed the computer model predictions.

  2. Thermal Properties of Uranium-Molybdenum Alloys: Phase Decomposition Effects of Heat Treatments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Creasy, John Thomas

    2012-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Molybdenum alloys were cast at the Idaho National Laboratory at the FASB facility in the Materials and Fuels Center (MFC). Depleted uranium metal feedstock (<0.21 wt.% 235U, 99.8% purity) and molybdenum foil (Alfa Aesar, 99.95% purity) were charged into a...

  3. Two delayed critical uranium (93.2) metal cylindrical annuli with central Be moderation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mihalczo, J.T.; Bentzinger, D.L.

    1997-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Two cylindrical annuli of uranium metal were assembled to delayed criticality in 1963 with beryllium metal in the center to study the effects of beryllium to provide data for verification of neutron transport theory methods including cross section data for criticality safety calculations. These systems were assembled on a vertical assembly machine in the East cell of the Oak Ridge Critical Experiments Facility. The annuli was divided into two halves with the upper fixed half supported by a 0.010-in-thick, 30-in-diam stainless steel (type 304) diaphragm. The lower half which was hydraulically movable was supported on a very low mass tower consisting of mainly three 0.125-in-thick vertical pieces 120{degree} apart. These systems, when assembled to delayed criticality, were located in 35 x 35 x 30 ft. high experimental room, 11.7 ft from the 5-ft-thick West wall, 12.7 ft. from the 2-ft-thick North wall and 9.2 ft. above the concrete floor. When assembled the positive reactor period measured was +403 sec for the nominal 15-in-OD assembly and +31 sec for nominal 13-in-OD assembly. The reactivity effects of nearby materials such as the support ring (+) for the diaphragm, the diaphragm ({minus}) and the lower support stand(+) were evaluated. The total reactivity worths of the nearby support materials were 8.9 and 5.4 cents for the 15-in-OD and 13-in-OD assemblies, respectively. The reactivity effect of each of the components was measured for the nominal 13-in-OD assembly and they were {minus}11.2 cents for the diaphragm, +4.4 cents for the support ring, and +12.2 cents for the support stand.

  4. albarrana uranium ores: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and purified uranium ore into uranium hexafluoride (UF 6), or the reduction of depleted uranium tetrafluoride (UF 4) to UF 6. SFC contends that these unknown authors 7 A...

  5. SUB-LEU-METAL-THERM-001 SUBCRITICAL MEASUREMENTS OF LOW ENRICHED TUBULAR URANIUM METAL FUEL ELEMENTS BEFORE & AFTER IRRADIATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    TOFFER, H.

    2006-07-18T23:59:59.000Z

    With the shutdown of the Hanford PUREX (Plutonium-Uranium Extraction Plant) reprocessing plant in the 1970s, adequate storage capacity for spent Hanford N Reactor fuel elements in the K and N Reactor pools became a concern. To maximize space utilization in the pools, accounting for fuel burnup was considered. Fuel that had experienced a neutron environment in a reactor is known as spent, exposed, or irradiated fuel. In contrast fuel that has not yet been placed in a reactor is known as green, unexposed, or unirradiated fuel. Calculations indicated that at typical fuel exposures for N Reactor, the spent-fuel critical mass would be twice the critical mass for green fuel. A decision was reached to test the calculational result with a definitive experiment. If the results proved positive, storage capacity could be increased and N Reactor operation could be prolonged. An experiment to be conducted in the N Reactor spent-fuel storage pool was designed and assembled (References 1 and 2) and the services of the Battelle Northwest Laboratories (BNWL) (now Pacific Northwest National Laboratory [PNNL]) critical mass laboratory were procured for the measurements (Reference 3). The experiments were performed in April 1975 in the Hanford N Reactor fuel storage pool. The fuel elements were MKIA fuel assemblies, comprised of two concentric tubes of low-enriched metallic uranium. Two separate sets of measurements were performed: one with unirradiated fuel and one with irradiated fuel. Both the unirradiated and irradiated fuel, were measured in the same geometry. The spent-fuel MKIA assemblies had an average burnup of 2865 MWd (megawatt days)/t. A constraint was imposed restricting the measurements to a subcritical limit of k{sub eff} = 0.97. Subcritical count rate data was obtained with pulsed-neutron and approach-to-critical measurements. Ten (10) configurations with green fuel and nine (9) configurations with spent fuel are described and evaluated. Of these, three (3) green fuel and four (4) spent fuel loading configurations were considered to serve as benchmark models. However, shortcomings in experimental data, such as the uncertainty in fuel exposure impact on reactivity and the pulse neutron data evaluation methodology, failed to meet the high standards for a benchmark problem. Nevertheless, the data provided by these subcritical measurements supply useful information to analysts evaluating spent fuel subcriticality. The original purpose of the subcritical measurements was to validate computer model predictions that spent N Reactor fuel of a particular, typical exposure (2740 MWd/t) had a critical mass equal to twice that of unexposed fuel of the same type. The motivation for performing this work was driven by the need to increase spent fuel storage limits. These subcritical measurements confirmed the computer model predictions.

  6. Recycling Of Uranium- And Plutonium-Contaminated Metals From Decommissioning Of The Hanau Fuel Fabrication Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kluth, T.; Quade, U.; Lederbrink, F. W.

    2003-02-26T23:59:59.000Z

    Decommissioning of a nuclear facility comprises not only actual dismantling but also, above all, management of the resulting residual materials and waste. Siemens Decommissioning Projects (DP) in Hanau has been involved in this task since 1995 when the decision was taken to decommission and dismantle the Hanau Fuel Fabrication Plant. Due to the decommissioning, large amounts of contaminated steel scrap have to be managed. The contamination of this metal scrap can be found almost exclusively in the form of surface contamination. Various decontamination technologies are involved, as there are blasting and wiping. Often these methods are not sufficient to meet the free release limits. In these cases, SIEMENS has decided to melt the scrap at Siempelkamp's melting plant. The plant is licensed according to the German Radiation Protection Ordinance Section 7 (issue of 20.07.2001). The furnace is a medium frequency induction type with a load capacity of 3.2 t and a throughput of 2 t/h for steel melting. For safety reasons, the furnace is widely operated by remote handling. A highly efficient filter system of cyclone, bag filter and HEPA-filter in two lines retains the dust and aerosol activity from the off-gas system. The slag is solidified at the surface of the melt and gripped before pouring the liquid iron into a chill. Since 1989, in total 15,000 t have been molten in the plant, 2,000 t of them having been contaminated steel scrap from the decommissioning of fuel fabrication plants. Decontamination factors could be achieved between 80 and 100 by the high affinity of the uranium to the slag former. The activity is transferred to the slag up to nearly 100 %. Samples taken from metal, slag and dust are analyzed by gamma measurements of the 186 keV line of U235 and the 1001 keV line of Pa234m for U238. All produced ingots showed a remaining activity less than 1 Bq/g and could be released for industrial reuse.

  7. Interacting delayed critical 38.1-cm-diam uranium (93.2) metal cylinders at large distance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mihalczo, J.T. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, TN (United States)

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    A delayed critical experiment was performed with two 38.10-cm-diam, {approximately}7.62-cm-thick unmoderated and unreflected uranium metal cylinders to study the interaction of two loosely coupled large flat cylinders. Previously tightly coupled, two component uranium metal assemblies of 27.93-cm-diam cylinders had been assembled to delayed criticality and the results reported. For this experiment, the uranium metal density was 18.75 g U/cm{sup 3}, and the enrichment was 93.15 wt% {sup 235}U. The two right circular cylinders were coaxial and separated 1.3 m; thus the fractional solid angle subtended by one cylinder as seen from the other is {approximately}5 X 10{sup -3}. This delayed critical configuration is a useful experiment for assessing the convergence of Monte Carlo calculations of the neutron multiplication factor because it is a very loosely coupled system, a problem that has been designated as {open_quotes}k{sub eff} of the world{close_quotes}. The neutron multiplication factor of one of the interacting cylinders is 0.994, and the solid angle seen by the other cylinder is such that very few neutrons starting in one cylinder reach the other cylinder. This assembly was configured on a vertical assembly machine in the east cell of the Oak Ridge Critical Experiments Facility in 1965 and was unreported until this paper. The east cell of this facility is a 10.6- x 10.6- x 9.1-m room with thick concrete walls. The lower cylinder of this assembly was located 3.5 m from the 1.5-m-thick west wall, 3.9 m from the 0.61-m-thick north wall, and 2.8 m above the concrete floor. The calculation of two such loosely coupled cylinders by Monte Carlo methods can be a problem because the interaction between cylinders is so small.

  8. Molecular Analysis of Rates of Metal Reduction andMetabolic State of Geobacter Species During in situ Uranium Bioremediation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lovley, Derek R.

    2005-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes progress from June 2004 through April 2005. Research focused on monitoring the in situ rates of metabolism and the metabolic state of Geobacteraceae during in situ bioremediation of uranium at the field study site in Rifle, Colorado. As detailed below, it was demonstrated for the first time that it is possible to quantify in situ levels of transcripts for key metabolic genes and from this information infer not only rates of electron transfer to metals, but also nutrient limitations which might be limiting this process.

  9. Method for the recovery of uranium values from uranium tetrafluoride

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kreuzmann, Alvin B. (Cincinnati, OH)

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention is a novel method for the recovery of uranium from dry, particulate uranium tetrafluoride. In one aspect, the invention comprises reacting particulate uranium tetrafluoride and calcium oxide in the presence of gaseous oxygen to effect formation of the corresponding alkaline earth metal uranate and alkaline earth metal fluoride. The product uranate is highly soluble in various acidic solutions wherein the product fluoride is virtually insoluble therein. The product mixture of uranate and alkaline earth metal fluoride is contacted with a suitable acid to provide a uranium-containing solution, from which the uranium is recovered. The invention can achieve quantitative recovery of uranium in highly pure form.

  10. Method for the recovery of uranium values from uranium tetrafluoride

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kreuzmann, A.B.

    1982-10-27T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention is a novel method for the recovery of uranium from dry, particulate uranium tetrafluoride. In one aspect, the invention comprises reacting particulate uranium tetrafluoride and calcium oxide in the presence of gaseous oxygen to effect formation of the corresponding alkaline earth metal uranate and alkaline earth metal fluoride. The product uranate is highly soluble in various acidic solutions whereas the product fluoride is virtually insoluble therein. The product mixture of uranate and alkaline earth metal fluoride is contacted with a suitable acid to provide a uranium-containing solution, from which the uranium is recovered. The invention can achieve quantitative recovery of uranium in highly pure form.

  11. Conceptual design study on very small long-life gas cooled fast reactor using metallic natural Uranium-Zr as fuel cycle input

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Monado, Fiber, E-mail: fiber.monado@gmail.com [Nuclear Physics and Biophysics Research Group, Dept. of Physics, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Bandung Institute of Technology, Bandung, Indonesia and Dept. of Physics, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Sriwijaya University (Indonesia); Ariani, Menik [Dept. of Physics, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Sriwijaya University (Indonesia); Su'ud, Zaki; Waris, Abdul; Basar, Khairul; Permana, Sidik [Nuclear Physics and Biophysics Research Group, Dept. of Physics, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Bandung Institute of Technology, Bandung (Indonesia); Aziz, Ferhat [National Nuclear Energy Agency of Indonesia (BATAN) (Indonesia); Sekimoto, Hiroshi [CRINES, Tokyo Institute of Technology, O-okoyama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8550 (Japan)

    2014-02-12T23:59:59.000Z

    A conceptual design study of very small 350 MWth Gas-cooled Fast Reactors with Helium coolant has been performed. In this study Modified CANDLE burn-up scheme was implemented to create small and long life fast reactors with natural Uranium as fuel cycle input. Such system can utilize natural Uranium resources efficiently without the necessity of enrichment plant or reprocessing plant. The core with metallic fuel based was subdivided into 10 regions with the same volume. The fresh Natural Uranium is initially put in region-1, after one cycle of 10 years of burn-up it is shifted to region-2 and the each region-1 is filled by fresh Natural Uranium fuel. This concept is basically applied to all axial regions. The reactor discharge burn-up is 31.8% HM. From the neutronic point of view, this design is in compliance with good performance.

  12. DISSOLUTION OF METAL OXIDES AND SEPARATION OF URANIUM FROM LANTHANIDES AND ACTINIDES IN SUPERCRITICAL CARBON DIOXIDE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Donna L. Quach; Bruce J. Mincher; Chien M. Wai

    2013-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper investigates the feasibility of extracting and separating uranium from lanthanides and other actinides by using supercritical fluid carbon dioxide (sc-CO2) as a solvent modified with tri-n-butylphosphate (TBP) for the development of a counter current stripping technique, which would be a more efficient and environmentally benign technology for spent nuclear fuel reprocessing compared to traditional solvent extraction. Several actinides (U, Pu, and Np) and europium were extracted in sc-CO2 modified with TBP over a range of nitric acid concentrations and then the actinides were exposed to reducing and complexing agents to suppress their extractability. According to this study, uranium/europium and uranium/plutonium extraction and separation in sc-CO2 modified with TBP is successful at nitric acid concentrations of less than 6 M and at nitric acid concentrations of less than 3 M with acetohydroxamic acid or oxalic acid, respectively. A scheme for recycling uranium from spent nuclear fuel by using sc-CO2 and counter current stripping columns is presented.

  13. Dissolution of metal oxides and separation of uranium from lanthanides and actinides in supercritical carbon dioxide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Quach, D.L.; Wai, C.M. [Department of Chemistry, University of Idaho, Moscow, Idaho 83844 (United States); Mincher, B.J. [Idaho National Lab, Idaho Falls, Idaho (United States)

    2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper investigates the feasibility of extracting and separating uranium from lanthanides and other actinides by using supercritical fluid carbon dioxide (sc-CO{sub 2}) as a solvent modified with tri-n-butylphosphate (TBP) for the development of a counter current stripping technique, which would be a more efficient and environmentally benign technology for spent nuclear fuel reprocessing compared to traditional solvent extraction. Several actinides (U, Pu, and Np) and europium were extracted in sc-CO{sub 2} modified with TBP over a range of nitric acid concentrations and then the actinides were exposed to reducing and complexing agents to suppress their extractability. According to this study, uranium/europium and uranium/plutonium extraction and separation in sc-CO{sub 2} modified with TBP is successful at nitric acid concentrations of less than 6 M and at nitric acid concentrations of less than 3 M with acetohydroxamic acid or oxalic acid, respectively. A scheme for recycling uranium from spent nuclear fuel by using sc-CO{sub 2} and counter current stripping columns is presented. (authors)

  14. Summary of the Special Analysis of Savannah River Depleted Uranium Trioxide Demonstrating the Before and After Impacts on the DOE Order 435.1 Performance Objective and the Peak Dose

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shott, G.J.

    2011-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes the special analysis (SA) of the Savannah River Depleted Uranium Trioxide waste stream (SVRSURANIUM03, Revision 1) demonstrating the before and after impacts of the waste stream to the DOE Order 435.1 performance objective at the disposal facility, and the peak dose. The Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP) requested this SA and asked the Nevada Site Office (NSO) to run the SA deterministically and assume that all the model conditions remain the same regardless of the length of time to the peak dose. Although the NDEP accepts that DOE Order 435.1 requires a compliance period of 1,000 years, it also requested to know what year, if any, the specific DOE performance objectives will be exceeded. Given the NDEP’s requested model conditions, the SA demonstrates the Rn-222 peak dose will occur in about 2 million years and will exceed the performance objective in about 6,000 years. The 0.25 mSv y-1 all-pathway performance objective was not exceeded for the resident scenario after reaching the 4 million year peak dose.

  15. Concetration and Distribution of Depleted Uranium (DU) and Beryllium (Be) in Soil and Air on Illeginni Island at Kwajalein Atoll after the Final Land-Impact Test

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robison, W L; Hamilton, T F; Martinelli, R E; Gouveia, F J; Kehl, S R; Lindman, T R; Yakuma, S C

    2010-04-22T23:59:59.000Z

    Re-entry vehicles on missiles launched from Vandenberg Air Force base in California re-enter at the Western Test Range, the Regan Test Site (RTS) at Kwajalein Atoll. An Environmental Assessment (EA) was written at the beginning of the program to assess potential impact of DU and Be, the major RV materials of interest from a health and environmental perspective, for both ocean and land impacts. The chemical and structural form of Be and DU in RVs is such that they are insoluble in soil water and seawater. Thus, they are not toxic to plant life on the isalnd (no soil to plant uptake.) Similarly, due to their insolubility in sea water there is no uptake of either element by fish, mollusks, shellfish, sea mammals, etc. No increase in either element has been observed in sea life around Illeginnin Island where deposition of DU and Be has occured. The critical terrestrial exposure pathway for U and Be is inhalation. Concentration of both elements in air over the test period (1989 to 2006) is lower by a factor of nearly 10,000 than the most restrictive U.S. guideline for the general public. Uranium concentrations in air are also lower by factors of 10 to 100 than concentrations of U in air in the U.S. measured by the EPA (Keith et al., 1999). U and Be concentrations in air downwind of deposition areas on Illeginni Island are essentially indistinguishable from natural background concentrations of U in air at the atolls. Thus, there are no health related issues associated with people using the island.

  16. Mitigation of Hydrogen Gas Generation from the Reaction of Uranium Metal with Water in K Basin Sludge and Sludge Waste Forms

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sinkov, Sergey I.; Delegard, Calvin H.; Schmidt, Andrew J.

    2011-06-08T23:59:59.000Z

    Prior laboratory testing identified sodium nitrate and nitrite to be the most promising agents to minimize hydrogen generation from uranium metal aqueous corrosion in Hanford Site K Basin sludge. Of the two, nitrate was determined to be better because of higher chemical capacity, lower toxicity, more reliable efficacy, and fewer side reactions than nitrite. The present lab tests were run to determine if nitrate’s beneficial effects to lower H2 generation in simulated and genuine sludge continued for simulated sludge mixed with agents to immobilize water to help meet the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) waste acceptance drainable liquid criterion. Tests were run at ~60°C, 80°C, and 95°C using near spherical high-purity uranium metal beads and simulated sludge to emulate uranium-rich KW containerized sludge currently residing in engineered containers KW-210 and KW-220. Immobilization agents tested were Portland cement (PC), a commercial blend of PC with sepiolite clay (Aquaset II H), granulated sepiolite clay (Aquaset II G), and sepiolite clay powder (Aquaset II). In all cases except tests with Aquaset II G, the simulated sludge was mixed intimately with the immobilization agent before testing commenced. For the granulated Aquaset II G clay was added to the top of the settled sludge/solution mixture according to manufacturer application directions. The gas volumes and compositions, uranium metal corrosion mass losses, and nitrite, ammonia, and hydroxide concentrations in the interstitial solutions were measured. Uranium metal corrosion rates were compared with rates forecast from the known uranium metal anoxic water corrosion rate law. The ratios of the forecast to the observed rates were calculated to find the corrosion rate attenuation factors. Hydrogen quantities also were measured and compared with quantities expected based on non-attenuated H2 generation at the full forecast anoxic corrosion rate to arrive at H2 attenuation factors. The uranium metal corrosion rates in water alone and in simulated sludge were near or slightly below the metal-in-water rate while nitrate-free sludge/Aquaset II decreased rates by about a factor of 3. Addition of 1 M nitrate to simulated sludge decreased the corrosion rate by a factor of ~5 while 1 M nitrate in sludge/Aquaset II mixtures decreased the corrosion rate by ~2.5 compared with the nitrate-free analogues. Mixtures of simulated sludge with Aquaset II treated with 1 M nitrate had uranium corrosion rates about a factor of 8 to 10 lower than the water-only rate law. Nitrate was found to provide substantial hydrogen mitigation for immobilized simulant sludge waste forms containing Aquaset II or Aquaset II G clay. Hydrogen attenuation factors of 1000 or greater were determined at 60°C for sludge-clay mixtures at 1 M nitrate. Hydrogen mitigation for tests with PC and Aquaset II H (which contains PC) were inconclusive because of suspected failure to overcome induction times and fully enter into anoxic corrosion. Lessening of hydrogen attenuation at ~80°C and ~95°C for simulated sludge and Aquaset II was observed with attenuation factors around 100 to 200 at 1 M nitrate. Valuable additional information has been obtained on the ability of nitrate to attenuate hydrogen gas generation from solution, simulant K Basin sludge, and simulant sludge with immobilization agents. Details on characteristics of the associated reactions were also obtained. The present testing confirms prior work which indicates that nitrate is an effective agent to attenuate hydrogen from uranium metal corrosion in water and simulated K Basin sludge to show that it is also effective in potential candidate solidified K Basin waste forms for WIPP disposal. The hydrogen mitigation afforded by nitrate appears to be sufficient to meet the hydrogen generation limits for shipping various sludge waste streams based on uranium metal concentrations and assumed waste form loadings.

  17. activity-dependent vmat-mediated depletion: Topics by E-print...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    by which this main- tenance is achieved. Its functions include Huettner, James E. 3 Depleted Uranium Technical Brief Environmental Sciences and Ecology Websites Summary: and...

  18. ampt-induced monoamine depletion: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    monoaminergic and peptidergic signaling due (more) Wragg, Rachel T. 2010-01-01 8 Depleted Uranium Technical Brief Environmental Sciences and Ecology Websites Summary: and...

  19. acid depleted space-flown: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    D Hermier 1, D Catheline 2,D Hermier D Catheline Paris-Sud XI, Universit de 2 Depleted Uranium Technical Brief Environmental Sciences and Ecology Websites Summary: and...

  20. androgen depletion up-regulates: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    with androgens has been shown to increase growth rate in fishes (Ron et al., 1995 17 Depleted Uranium Technical Brief Environmental Sciences and Ecology Websites Summary: and...

  1. alarming oxygen depletion: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    T. Doan; Q. Cao; L. Selavo; Y. Wu; L. Fang; Z. He; S. Lin; J. Stankovic 2006-01-01 37 Depleted Uranium Technical Brief Environmental Sciences and Ecology Websites Summary: and...

  2. abandoned uranium mines: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    residents. 3.1.1 On-Site Recreation Since most uranium locations are on federal lands 91 Depleted Uranium Technical Brief Environmental Sciences and Ecology Websites Summary: and...

  3. arlit uranium mines: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    integration and pre-processing Part 2: Association rule mining Part Christen, Peter 32 Depleted Uranium Technical Brief Environmental Sciences and Ecology Websites Summary: and...

  4. analogue uranium decorporation: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    which are uniquely quantum mechanical. Daniel Collins; Sandu Popescu 2001-07-16 19 Depleted Uranium Technical Brief Environmental Sciences and Ecology Websites Summary: and...

  5. area uranium plume: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    in 1974. 57 Coordinate geometry specific to the Babylon... Kelley, Van Alan 2012-06-07 52 Depleted Uranium Technical Brief Environmental Sciences and Ecology Websites Summary: and...

  6. area uranium stabilization: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    gyroscope which meets the stringent stability requirements for high accuracy Hart, Gus 26 Depleted Uranium Technical Brief Environmental Sciences and Ecology Websites Summary: and...

  7. EIS-0359: Uranium Hexafluoride Conversion Facility at the Paducah...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    operation, maintenance, and decontamination and decommissioning of the proposed depleted uranium hexafluoride (DUF6) conversion facility at three locations within the...

  8. arsenic manganese uranium: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    (Mn) is enriched in surface soils at the (more) Herndon, Elizabeth 2012-01-01 56 Depleted Uranium Technical Brief Environmental Sciences and Ecology Websites Summary: and...

  9. alaska national uranium: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Department of the Interior National Park Service Natural Resource Loso, Michael G. 98 Depleted Uranium Technical Brief Environmental Sciences and Ecology Websites Summary: and...

  10. adsorbing uranium compounds: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Interest in magnetic bioseparations has (more) Willett, Thomas Clifford 2009-01-01 30 Depleted Uranium Technical Brief Environmental Sciences and Ecology Websites Summary: and...

  11. ambrosia lake uranium: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    a national priority. The resulting Great Lakes Restoration Initiative (GLRI 27 Depleted Uranium Technical Brief Environmental Sciences and Ecology Websites Summary: and...

  12. antei uranium deposit: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of the requirement for the degree of MASTER... Miller, Michael Eugene 1979-01-01 15 Depleted Uranium Technical Brief Environmental Sciences and Ecology Websites Summary: and...

  13. atomized uranium silicide: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    conditions on the atomic nucleus surface are discussed as well. R. Tsekov 2014-06-18 38 Depleted Uranium Technical Brief Environmental Sciences and Ecology Websites Summary: and...

  14. aqueuous uranium complexes: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    methods that take into account relevant interactions. Gershenson, Carlos 2011-01-01 11 Depleted Uranium Technical Brief Environmental Sciences and Ecology Websites Summary: and...

  15. actinide doped uranium: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    analysis. A vacuum box system was designed (more) Gostic, Julie Marisa 2009-01-01 25 Depleted Uranium Technical Brief Environmental Sciences and Ecology Websites Summary: and...

  16. Thermal Reactions of Uranium Metal, UO2, U3O8, UF4, and UO2F2 with NF3 to Produce UF6

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McNamara, Bruce K.; Scheele, Randall D.; Kozelisky, Anne E.; Edwards, Matthew K.

    2009-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    he objective of this paper is to demonstrate that NF3 fluorinates uranium metal, UO2, UF4, UO3, U3O8, and UO2F2•2H2O to produce the volatile UF6 at temperatures between 100 and 500?C. Thermogravimetric reaction profiles are described that reflect changes in the uranium oxidation state and discrete chemical speciation. Differences in the onset temperatures for each system indicate that NF3-substrate interactions are important for the temperature at which NF3 reacts: U metal > UO3 > UO2 > UO2F2 > UF4 and in fact may indicate different fluorination mechanisms for these various substrates. These studies demonstrate that NF3 is a potential replacement fluorinating agent in the existing nuclear fuel cycle and in oft-proposed actinide volatility reprocessing.

  17. Radiochemical Analysis Methodology for uranium Depletion Measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scatena-Wachel DE

    2007-01-09T23:59:59.000Z

    This report provides sufficient material for a test sponsor with little or no radiochemistry background to understand and follow physics irradiation test program execution. Most irradiation test programs employ similar techniques and the general details provided here can be applied to the analysis of other irradiated sample types. Aspects of program management directly affecting analysis quality are also provided. This report is not an in-depth treatise on the vast field of radiochemical analysis techniques and related topics such as quality control. Instrumental technology is a very fast growing field and dramatic improvements are made each year, thus the instrumentation described in this report is no longer cutting edge technology. Much of the background material is still applicable and useful for the analysis of older experiments and also for subcontractors who still retain the older instrumentation.

  18. Uranium dioxide electrolysis

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Willit, James L. (Batavia, IL); Ackerman, John P. (Prescott, AZ); Williamson, Mark A. (Naperville, IL)

    2009-12-29T23:59:59.000Z

    This is a single stage process for treating spent nuclear fuel from light water reactors. The spent nuclear fuel, uranium oxide, UO.sub.2, is added to a solution of UCl.sub.4 dissolved in molten LiCl. A carbon anode and a metallic cathode is positioned in the molten salt bath. A power source is connected to the electrodes and a voltage greater than or equal to 1.3 volts is applied to the bath. At the anode, the carbon is oxidized to form carbon dioxide and uranium chloride. At the cathode, uranium is electroplated. The uranium chloride at the cathode reacts with more uranium oxide to continue the reaction. The process may also be used with other transuranic oxides and rare earth metal oxides.

  19. Disposition of DOE Excess Depleted Uranium, Natural Uranium, and

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't Your Destiny:Revised Finding of No53197E T ADRAFT ENVIRONMENTALCombustion SystemLow-Enriched

  20. Uranium resources: Issues and facts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Delene, J.G.

    1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Although there are several secondary issues, the most important uranium resource issue is, ``will there be enough uranium available at a cost which will allow nuclear power to be competitive in the future?`` This paper will attempt to answer this question by discussing uranium supply, demand, and economics from the perspective of the United States. The paper will discuss: how much uranium is available; the sensitivity of nuclear power costs to uranium price; the potential future demand for uranium in the Unites States, some of the options available to reduce this demand, the potential role of the Advanced Liquid Metal Cooled Reactor (ALMR) in reducing uranium demand; and potential alternative uranium sources and technologies.

  1. High loading uranium fuel plate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wiencek, Thomas C. (Bolingbrook, IL); Domagala, Robert F. (Indian Head Park, IL); Thresh, Henry R. (Palos Heights, IL)

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Two embodiments of a high uranium fuel plate are disclosed which contain a meat comprising structured uranium compound confined between a pair of diffusion bonded ductile metal cladding plates uniformly covering the meat, the meat having a uniform high fuel loading comprising a content of uranium compound greater than about 45 Vol. % at a porosity not greater than about 10 Vol. %. In a first embodiment, the meat is a plurality of parallel wires of uranium compound. In a second embodiment, the meat is a dispersion compact containing uranium compound. The fuel plates are fabricated by a hot isostatic pressing process.

  2. Monitoring Uranium Transformations Determined by the Evolution of Biogeochemical Processes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marsh, Terence L.

    2013-07-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Our contribution to the larger project (ANL) was the phylogenetic analysis of evolved communities capable of reducing metals including uranium.

  3. Photochemical route to actinide-transition metal bonds: synthesis, characterization and reactivity of a series of thorium and uranium heterobimetallic complexes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ward, Ashleigh; Lukens, Wayne; Lu, Connie; Arnold, John

    2014-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A series of actinide-transition metal heterobimetallics has been prepared, featuring thorium, uranium and cobalt. Complexes incorporating the binucleating ligand N[-(NHCH2PiPr2)C6H4]3 and Th(IV) (4) or U(IV) (5) with a carbonyl bridged [Co(CO)4]- unit were synthesized from the corresponding actinide chlorides (Th: 2; U: 3) and Na[Co(CO)4]. Irradiation of the isocarbonyls with ultraviolet light resulted in the formation of new species containing actinide-metal bonds in good yields (Th: 6; U: 7); this photolysis method provides a new approach to a relatively rare class of complexes. Characterization by single-crystal X-ray diffraction revealed that elimination of the bridging carbonyl is accompanied by coordination of a phosphine arm from the N4P3 ligand to the cobalt center. Additionally, actinide-cobalt bonds of 3.0771(5) and 3.0319(7) for the thorium and uranium complexes, respectively, were observed. The solution state behavior of the thorium complexes was evaluated using 1H, 1H-1H COSY, 31P and variable-temperature NMR spectroscopy. IR, UV-Vis/NIR, and variable-temperature magnetic susceptibility measurements are also reported.

  4. Effect of Shim Arm Depletion in the NBSR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hanson A. H.; Brown N.; Diamond, D.J.

    2013-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

    The cadmium shim arms in the NBSR undergo burnup during reactor operation and hence, require periodic replacement. Presently, the shim arms are replaced after every 25 cycles to guarantee they can maintain sufficient shutdown margin. Two prior reports document the expected change in the 113Cd distribution because of the shim arm depletion. One set of calculations was for the present high-enriched uranium fuel and the other for the low-enriched uranium fuel when it was in the COMP7 configuration (7 inch fuel length vs. the present 11 inch length). The depleted 113Cd distributions calculated for these cores were applied to the current design for an equilibrium low-enriched uranium core. This report details the predicted effects, if any, of shim arm depletion on the shim arm worth, the shutdown margin, power distributions and kinetics parameters.

  5. Microstructural Evolution and Radiation Effects of Uranium-Bearing Diffusion Couples 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wei, Chao-Chen

    2014-12-12T23:59:59.000Z

    bombarded regions. Additionally, the mechanism of intermetallics formation (e.g.Fe23Zr6) and radiation stability were discussed. Second, a matrix of uranium-bearing couples is established. 1) Depleted uranium (DU) was bonded with polycrystalline iron...

  6. Uranium and other heavy metals in the plant-animal-human food chain near abandoned mining sites and structures in an American Indian community in northwestern New Mexico

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Samuel-Nakamura, Christine

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    in the Navajo Churchrock mining district. Environmentalpeople and uranium mining. Albuquerque, NM: University of2002). The history of uranium mining and the Navajo people.

  7. Analytical and experimental investigations of the behavior of thermal neutrons in lattices of uranium metal rods in heavy water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Simms, Richard

    1963-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Measurements of the intracellular distribution of the activation of foils by neutrons were made in lattices of 1/4-inch diameter, 1.03% U-235, uranium rods moderated by heavy water, with bare and cadmium-covered foils of ...

  8. Bioremediation of uranium contaminated soils and wastes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Francis, A.J.

    1998-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Contamination of soils, water, and sediments by radionuclides and toxic metals from uranium mill tailings, nuclear fuel manufacturing and nuclear weapons production is a major concern. Studies of the mechanisms of biotransformation of uranium and toxic metals under various microbial process conditions has resulted in the development of two treatment processes: (1) stabilization of uranium and toxic metals with reduction in waste volume and (2) removal and recovery of uranium and toxic metals from wastes and contaminated soils. Stabilization of uranium and toxic metals in wastes is accomplished by exploiting the unique metabolic capabilities of the anaerobic bacterium, Clostridium sp. The radionuclides and toxic metals are solubilized by the bacteria directly by enzymatic reductive dissolution, or indirectly due to the production of organic acid metabolites. The radionuclides and toxic metals released into solution are immobilized by enzymatic reductive precipitation, biosorption and redistribution with stable mineral phases in the waste. Non-hazardous bulk components of the waste volume. In the second process uranium and toxic metals are removed from wastes or contaminated soils by extracting with the complexing agent citric acid. The citric-acid extract is subjected to biodegradation to recover the toxic metals, followed by photochemical degradation of the uranium citrate complex which is recalcitrant to biodegradation. The toxic metals and uranium are recovered in separate fractions for recycling or for disposal. The use of combined chemical and microbiological treatment process is more efficient than present methods and should result in considerable savings in clean-up and disposal costs.

  9. Uranium deposits of Brazil

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1991-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Brazil is a country of vast natural resources, including numerous uranium deposits. In support of the country`s nuclear power program, Brazil has developed the most active uranium industry in South America. Brazil has one operating reactor (Angra 1, a 626-MWe PWR), and two under construction. The country`s economic challenges have slowed the progress of its nuclear program. At present, the Pocos de Caldas district is the only active uranium production. In 1990, the Cercado open-pit mine produced approximately 45 metric tons (MT) U{sub 3}O{sub 8} (100 thousand pounds). Brazil`s state-owned uranium production and processing company, Uranio do Brasil, announced it has decided to begin shifting its production from the high-cost and nearly depleted deposits at Pocos de Caldas, to lower-cost reserves at Lagoa Real. Production at Lagoa Real is schedules to begin by 1993. In addition to these two districts, Brazil has many other known uranium deposits, and as a whole, it is estimated that Brazil has over 275,000 MT U{sub 3}O{sub 8} (600 million pounds U{sub 3}O{sub 8}) in reserves.

  10. Determination of Young's modulus, shear modulus and mechanical damping as a function of temperature and microstructure for Uranium-2wt% Molybdenum using the PUCOT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Varughese, Joseph Verghese

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Verghese Varughese, B. S. , Texas A&M University Chairman of Advisory Committee: Dr. Alan Wolfenden A research program has been completed at Texas A&M University in which dynamic Young's and shear modulus measurements were made for depleted Uranium-2wt... INTRODUCTION The need for mankind to utilize his abundant natural resources has led him to numerous research programs with depleted uranium. Depleted uranium ( U-238 ) is a by-product of the nuclear industry. Natural uranium contains about 0. 7...

  11. arginase-induced l-arginine depletion: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    in presence or absence of L-arginine. N-hydroxy-nor-l- arginine (nor-NOHA) and alpha 13 Depleted Uranium Technical Brief Environmental Sciences and Ecology Websites Summary: and...

  12. allogeneic t-cell depleted: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    T cells expressed aid mRNA as well as AID protein. We Paris-Sud XI, Universit de 52 Depleted Uranium Technical Brief Environmental Sciences and Ecology Websites Summary: and...

  13. Prompt neutron decay for very loosely coupled delayed critical 38.1-cm-diam uranium (93.2) metal cylinders

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mihalczo, J.T. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, TN (United States)

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    A delayed critical very loosely coupled configuration of coaxial right circular 38.1-cm-diam, {approximately}7.62-cm-thick uranium (93.15 wt% {sup 235}U) metal cylinders was assembled in 1965 at the Oak Ridge Critical Experiments Facility to study interaction effects for unmoderated and unreflected uranium metal and described in 1996. Each of the two interacting cylinders was carefully adjusted by inverse kinetics rod drop (IKRD) measurements to have the same subcritical reactivity ({approximately} 85{cents}). For these reactivity determinations, each cylinder was alternately and separately assembled to delayed criticality with a small piece of polyethylene reflector present on the top surface. The system was raised to the appropriate power level by the use of a small additional reflector worth {approximately}10{cents} until delayed neutron precursors reached equilibrium. All reflectors were rapidly removed, and the subcriticality was obtained by IKRD interpretational algorithms. Several adjustments of the mass and configuration of each cylinder were required until the configuration of each cylinder had a subcritical reactivity of 85 {cents}. These adjustments were made by small variations in the mass of each of the cylinders so that the mass of the upper cylinder was 163.1 kg and that of the lower cylinder was 162.8 kg. Once each individual cylinder reactivity was adjusted to 85 {cents} subcritical, the distance between the flat surfaces of each of the two cylinders was adjusted to achieve delayed criticality. The delayed critical spacing between cylinders was 1.3 m. At this spacing for delayed criticality, the coupling reactivity exactly compensates for the subcriticality of the individual cylinders. Thus, the coupling reactivity is 85 {cents}, and using a delayed neutron fraction of 0.0066, the coupling reactivity in k units is 0.0056. This paper describes the prompt neutron decay constant measurements for this assembly.

  14. Uranium Powder Production Via Hydride Formation and Alpha Phase Sintering of Uranium and Uranium-zirconium Alloys for Advanced Nuclear Fuel Applications 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Garnetti, David J.

    2010-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

    The research in this thesis covers the design and implementation of a depleted uranium (DU) powder production system and the initial results of a DU-Zr-Mg alloy alpha phase sintering experiment where the Mg is a surrogate ...

  15. Uranium Tris-aryloxide Derivatives Supported by Triazacyclononane: Engendering a Reactive Uranium(III)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meyer, Karsten

    , we are currently investigating the coordina- tion chemistry of uranium metal centers with classicalUranium Tris-aryloxide Derivatives Supported by Triazacyclononane: Engendering a Reactive Uranium, and Karsten Meyer* Contribution from the Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, UniVersity of California

  16. Radionuclide inventories : ORIGEN2.2 isotopic depletion calculation for high burnup low-enriched uranium and weapons-grade mixed-oxide pressurized-water reactor fuel assemblies.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gauntt, Randall O.; Ross, Kyle W. (Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM); Smith, James Dean; Longmire, Pamela

    2010-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory computer code, ORIGEN2.2 (CCC-371, 2002), was used to obtain the elemental composition of irradiated low-enriched uranium (LEU)/mixed-oxide (MOX) pressurized-water reactor fuel assemblies. Described in this report are the input parameters for the ORIGEN2.2 calculations. The rationale for performing the ORIGEN2.2 calculation was to generate inventories to be used to populate MELCOR radionuclide classes. Therefore the ORIGEN2.2 output was subsequently manipulated. The procedures performed in this data reduction process are also described herein. A listing of the ORIGEN2.2 input deck for two-cycle MOX is provided in the appendix. The final output from this data reduction process was three tables containing the radionuclide inventories for LEU/MOX in elemental form. Masses, thermal powers, and activities were reported for each category.

  17. australian uranium mining: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    poetry that focuses on working-class life and (more) Attfield, Sarah Jane 2007-01-01 89 Depleted Uranium Technical Brief Environmental Sciences and Ecology Websites Summary: and...

  18. australian uranium projects: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    poetry that focuses on working-class life and (more) Attfield, Sarah Jane 2007-01-01 70 Depleted Uranium Technical Brief Environmental Sciences and Ecology Websites Summary: and...

  19. assessing uranium bioremediation: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    M. Monteoliva-sanchez; M. J. Lopez 1992-01-01 5 Assessing the risk from the depleted uranium weapons used in Operation Allied Force CERN Preprints Summary: The...

  20. ash doped uranium: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    57Maple, Hard85Magnolia 58Yellow Poplar86Oak, Chestnut 59Maple, Soft91Oak, White 12 Depleted Uranium Technical Brief Environmental Sciences and Ecology Websites Summary: and...

  1. Solid State Phase Transformations in Uranium-Zirconium Alloys

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Irukuvarghula, Sandeep

    2013-08-06T23:59:59.000Z

    Depleted Uranium WDS Wavelength Dispersive Spectroscopy DIC Di erential Interference Contrast BSE Back Scattered Electron image SS Stainless Steel MIC Microscopy and Imaging Center OR Orientation Relationship EDS Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy UNLV...

  2. Dynamics of microbial community composition and function during in-situ bioremediation of a uranium-contaminated aquifer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nostrand, J.D. Van

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    associated with bioremediation of uranium to submicromolarsolubility during bioremediation of uranium- contaminated14. Lovley, D. R. 1995. Bioremediation of organic and metal

  3. Corrosion-resistant uranium

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hovis, V.M. Jr.; Pullen, W.C.; Kollie, T.G.; Bell, R.T.

    1981-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention is directed to the protecting of uranium and uranium alloy articles from corrosion by providing the surfaces of the articles with a layer of an ion-plated metal selected from aluminum and zinc to a thickness of at least 60 microinches and then converting at least the outer surface of the ion-plated layer of aluminum or zinc to aluminum chromate or zinc chromate. This conversion of the aluminum or zinc to the chromate form considerably enhances the corrosion resistance of the ion plating so as to effectively protect the coated article from corrosion.

  4. Modeling Uranium-Proton Ion Exchange in Biosorption

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Volesky, Bohumil

    seaweed biomass was used to remove the heavy metal uranium from the aqueous solution. Uranium biosorptionModeling Uranium-Proton Ion Exchange in Biosorption J I N B A I Y A N G A N D B O H U M I L V O L E, Quebec, Canada H3A 2B2 Biosorption of uranium metal ions by a nonliving protonated Sargassum fluitans

  5. Isotopic studies of sources of uranium in sediments of the Ashtabula River, Ohio, U.S.A.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ketterer, M.E.; Wetzel, W.C.; Layman, R.R.; Matisoff, G.; Bonniwell, E.C.

    2000-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Uranium contamination of anthropogenic origin has been identified in unconsolidated sediment of a 1.5 km portion of the Ashtabula River near its confluence with Lake Erie. Uranium concentrations as high as 188 {mu}g/g dry sediment are present. A small tributary of the Ashtabula River, Fields Brook, is the apparent point of origin of the uranium in the Ashtabula River sediments. {sup 137}Cs dating of a sediment core indicates that the U contamination occurred during the post-1964 time frame. The horizons of elevated U concentration also exhibit > 10x elevations in Zr, Nb, Hf, Ta, and W. {sup 238}U/{sup 235}U isotopic ratios indicate that the uranium is largely but not exclusively of natural composition. Distinct horizons of slightly {sup 235}U-depleted ({sup 238}U/{sup 235}U > 137.88) and slightly {sup 235}U-enriched ({sup 238}U/{sup 235}U < 137.88) uranium are also present. {sup 210}Pb activities and {sup 232}Th/{sup 230}Th isotopic measurements indicate that a significant portion of the uranium contains {sup 238}U daughters in approximate secular equilibrium. It is inferred that at least two distinct sources of anthropogenic U contamination exist: (a) discharges from the processing of enriched and depleted U metal by a DOE contractor facility and (B) U-bearing wastes from the production of TiO{sub 2} from limonite and associated minerals. These isotopic methodologies are potentially useful in settings where releases of nonnatural {sup 238}U/{sup 235}U composition materials and/or naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) have taken place.

  6. Electrochemical method of producing eutectic uranium alloy and apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Horton, James A. (Livermore, CA); Hayden, H. Wayne (Oakridge, TN)

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus and method for continuous production of liquid uranium alloys through the electrolytic reduction of uranium chlorides. The apparatus includes an electrochemical cell formed from an anode shaped to form an electrolyte reservoir, a cathode comprising a metal, such as iron, capable of forming a eutectic uranium alloy having a melting point less than the melting point of pure uranium, and molten electrolyte in the reservoir comprising a chlorine or fluorine containing salt and uranium chloride. The method of the invention produces an eutectic uranium alloy by creating an electrolyte reservoir defined by a container comprising an anode, placing an electrolyte in the reservoir, the electrolyte comprising a chlorine or fluorine containing salt and uranium chloride in molten form, positioning a cathode in the reservoir where the cathode comprises a metal capable of forming an uranium alloy having a melting point less than the melting point of pure uranium, and applying a current between the cathode and the anode.

  7. Enclosure 1 -CCP-AK-INL-004, Table 5-2 (1 page) Table 5-2. Isotopic Compositions of Rocky Flats Plutonium and Uranium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Flats Plutonium and Uranium Weapons-Grade Plutonium Enriched Uranium Depleted Uranium Plutonium-238 0.01 ­ 0.05% Uranium-234 0.1 ­ 1.02% Uranium-234 0.0006% Plutonium-239 92.8 ­ 94.4% Uranium-235 90 ­ 94% Uranium-235 0.2 ­ 0.3% Plutonium-240 4.85 ­ 6.5% Uranium-236 0.4 ­ 0.5% Uranium-238 99.7 ­ 99.8% Plutonium

  8. Discovery of HE 1523-0901, a Strongly r-Process Enhanced Metal-Poor Star with Detected Uranium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anna Frebel; Norbert Christlieb; John E. Norris; Christopher Thom; Timothy C. Beers; Jaehyon Rhee

    2007-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We present age estimates for the newly discovered very r-process enhanced metal-poor star HE 1523-0901 ([Fe/H]=-2.95) based on the radioactive decay of Th and U. The bright (V=11.1) giant was found amongst a sample of bright metal-poor stars selected from the Hamburg/ESO survey. From an abundance analysis of a high-resolution (R=75,000) VLT/UVES spectrum we find HE 1523-0901 to be strongly overabundant in r-process elements ([r/Fe]=1.8). The abundances of heavy neutron-capture elements (Z>56) measured in HE 1523-0901 match the scaled solar r-process pattern extremely well. We detect the strongest optical U line at 3859.57 A. For the first time, we are able to employ several different chronometers, such as the U/Th, U/Ir, Th/Eu and Th/Os ratios to measure the age of a star. The weighted average age of HE 1523-0901 is 13.2 Gyr. Several sources of uncertainties are assessed in detail.

  9. BIOREMEDIATION OF URANIUM CONTAMINATED SOILS AND WASTES.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    FRANCIS,A.J.

    1998-09-17T23:59:59.000Z

    Contamination of soils, water, and sediments by radionuclides and toxic metals from uranium mill tailings, nuclear fuel manufacturing and nuclear weapons production is a major concern. Studies of the mechanisms of biotransformation of uranium and toxic metals under various microbial process conditions has resulted in the development of two treatment processes: (i) stabilization of uranium and toxic metals with reduction in waste volume and (ii) removal and recovery of uranium and toxic metals from wastes and contaminated soils. Stabilization of uranium and toxic metals in wastes is accomplished by exploiting the unique metabolic capabilities of the anaerobic bacterium, Clostridium sp. The radionuclides and toxic metals are solubilized by the bacteria directly by enzymatic reductive dissolution, or indirectly due to the production of organic acid metabolites. The radionuclides and toxic metals released into solution are immobilized by enzymatic reductive precipitation, biosorption and redistribution with stable mineral phases in the waste. Non-hazardous bulk components of the waste such as Ca, Fe, K, Mg and Na released into solution are removed, thus reducing the waste volume. In the second process uranium and toxic metals are removed from wastes or contaminated soils by extracting with the complexing agent citric acid. The citric-acid extract is subjected to biodegradation to recover the toxic metals, followed by photochemical degradation of the uranium citrate complex which is recalcitrant to biodegradation. The toxic metals and uranium are recovered in separate fractions for recycling or for disposal. The use of combined chemical and microbiological treatment process is more efficient than present methods and should result in considerable savings in clean-up and disposal costs.

  10. Uranium industry annual 1997

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1998-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report provides statistical data on the U.S. uranium industry`s activities relating to uranium raw materials and uranium marketing.

  11. URANIUM IN ALKALINE ROCKS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Murphy, M.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    chemical elements uranium zirconium niobium beryllium rarerare earths, niobium, zirconium, uranium, and thorium.respect, uranium and thorium are niobium in carbonatitcs.

  12. Use of Savannah River Site facilities for blend down of highly enriched uranium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bickford, W.E.; McKibben, J.M.

    1994-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Westinghouse Savannah River Company was asked to assess the use of existing Savannah River Site (SRS) facilities for the conversion of highly enriched uranium (HEU) to low enriched uranium (LEU). The purpose was to eliminate the weapons potential for such material. Blending HEU with existing supplies of depleted uranium (DU) would produce material with less than 5% U-235 content for use in commercial nuclear reactors. The request indicated that as much as 500 to 1,000 MT of HEU would be available for conversion over a 20-year period. Existing facilities at the SRS are capable of producing LEU in the form of uranium trioxide (UO{sub 3}) powder, uranyl nitrate [UO{sub 2}(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}] solution, or metal. Additional processing, and additional facilities, would be required to convert the LEU to uranium dioxide (UO{sub 2}) or uranium hexafluoride (UF{sub 3}), the normal inputs for commercial fuel fabrication. This study`s scope does not include the cost for new conversion facilities. However, the low estimated cost per kilogram of blending HEU to LEU in SRS facilities indicates that even with fees for any additional conversion to UO{sub 2} or UF{sub 6}, blend-down would still provide a product significantly below the spot market price for LEU from traditional enrichment services. The body of the report develops a number of possible facility/process combinations for SRS. The primary conclusion of this study is that SRS has facilities available that are capable of satisfying the goals of a national program to blend HEU to below 5% U-235. This preliminary assessment concludes that several facility/process options appear cost-effective. Finally, SRS is a secure DOE site with all requisite security and safeguard programs, personnel skills, nuclear criticality safety controls, accountability programs, and supporting infrastructure to handle large quantities of special nuclear materials (SNM).

  13. subcollector Schottky collector contact & interconnect metals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rodwell, Mark J. W.

    base collector depletion layer subcollector ohmic metal (a) base collector depletion layer Schottky metal base emitter collector collector We emitter base emitter emitter We Wc Wc (b) Schottky collector contact & interconnect metals Emitter & collector Ohmics undoped collector depletion layer base N

  14. Method of removing niobium from uranium-niobium alloy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pollock, E.N.; Schlier, D.S.; Shinopulos, G.

    1992-01-28T23:59:59.000Z

    This patent describes a method of removing niobium from a uranium-niobium alloy. It comprises dissolving the uranium-niobium alloy metal pieces in a first aqueous solution containing an acid selected from the group consisting of hydrochloric acid and sulfuric acid and fluoboric acid as a catalyst to provide a second aqueous solution, which includes uranium (U{sup +4}), acid radical ions, the acids insolubles including uranium oxides and niobium oxides; adding nitric acid to the insolubles to oxidize the niobium oxides to yield niobic acid and to complete the solubilization of any residual uranium; and separating the niobic acid from the nitric acid and solubilized uranium.

  15. Material property correlations for uranium mononitride

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hayes, Steven Lowe

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    . 1 1770 - 2083 20. 7 - 34. 4 158, 1773 13-54 Test Environment Fuel Manafact- uring Route Test conducted in vaccuum (10~-5 ton) Cold pressed and sintered. Test conducted in 200 torr nitrogen atmosphere Isostatically Hot Pressed. Test... conductivity, high uranium density, stable irradiation behavior and compatibility with liquid metal coolants and refractory metal structural materials all combine to make uranium mononitride (UN) a very attractive nuclear fuel for use in high temperature...

  16. The non-aqueous chemistry of uranium has been an active area of exploration in recent decades1,2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cai, Long

    -purity depleted uranium produced as a by-product of nuclear isotope enrichment programmes. The early actinideThe non-aqueous chemistry of uranium has been an active area of exploration in recent decades1 for uranium will be created in part by the quest of researchers to understand the properties and potential

  17. Coated metal articles and method of making

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Boller, Ernest R. (Van Buren Township, IN); Eubank, Lowell D. (Wilmington, DE)

    2004-07-06T23:59:59.000Z

    The method of protectively coating metallic uranium which comprises dipping the metallic uranium in a molten alloy comprising about 20-75% of copper and about 80-25% of tin, dipping the coated uranium promptly into molten tin, withdrawing it from the molten tin and removing excess molten metal, thereupon dipping it into a molten metal bath comprising aluminum until it is coated with this metal, then promptly withdrawing it from the bath.

  18. Coated Metal Articles and Method of Making

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Boller, Ernest R.; Eubank, Lowell D.

    2004-07-06T23:59:59.000Z

    The method of protectively coating metallic uranium which comprises dipping the metallic uranium in a molten alloy comprising about 20-75% of copper and about 80-25% of tin, dipping the coated uranium promptly into molten tin, withdrawing it from the molten tin and removing excess molten metal, thereupon dipping it into a molten metal bath comprising aluminum until it is coated with this metal, then promptly withdrawing it from the bath.

  19. Identifying Nuclear Material via Prompt Photo-Neutron Multiplicity Measurements Paul A. Hausladen, John T. Mihalczo

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pennycook, Steve

    measurements of prompt neutron emissions were performed, both for depleted uranium (DU) metal and Pb enriched uranium. #385 #12;

  20. Pulsed DD Neutron Generator Measurements for HEU Oxide Fuel Pins Using Liquid Scintillators with Pulse Shape Discrimination

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pennycook, Steve

    measurements have been performed on high-enriched uranium (HEU) oxide fuel pins and depleted uranium metal

  1. Scrap uranium recycling via electron beam melting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McKoon, R.

    1993-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A program is underway at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) to recycle scrap uranium metal. Currently, much of the material from forging and machining processes is considered radioactive waste and is disposed of by oxidation and encapsulation at significant cost. In the recycling process, uranium and uranium alloys in various forms will be processed by electron beam melting and continuously cast into ingots meeting applicable specifications for virgin material. Existing vacuum processing facilities at LLNL are in compliance with all current federal and state environmental, safety and health regulations for the electron beam melting and vaporization of uranium metal. One of these facilities has been retrofitted with an auxiliary electron beam gun system, water-cooled hearth, crucible and ingot puller to create an electron beam melt furnace. In this furnace, basic process R&D on uranium recycling will be performed with the goal of eventual transfer of this technology to a production facility.

  2. Method for fabricating laminated uranium composites

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chapman, L.R.

    1983-08-03T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention is directed to a process for fabricating laminated composites of uranium or uranium alloys and at least one other metal or alloy. The laminated composites are fabricated by forming a casting of the molten uranium with the other metal or alloy which is selectively positioned in the casting and then hot-rolling the casting into a laminated plate in or around which the casting components are metallurgically bonded to one another to form the composite. The process of the present invention provides strong metallurgical bonds between the laminate components primarily since the bond disrupting surface oxides on the uranium or uranium alloy float to the surface of the casting to effectively remove the oxides from the bonding surfaces of the components.

  3. A Rotating Electrode System for the Generation of Metal Alloy Microspheres

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thompson, Chad 1984-

    2012-11-28T23:59:59.000Z

    refueling; a challenge that incurs many specialized nuclear fuel issues due to very high fuel burnup [2]. Conventional fast breeder reactors use some form of enriched uranium fuel to breed plutonium into a blanket of depleted uranium surrounding... criticality, it too will be removed and reprocessed. Similar to conventional fast breeder reactors, the TWR will use starter fuel that contains enriched uranium to breed plutonium into a surrounding blanket of depleted uranium. However, unlike...

  4. Session 9.3: Advances in Depleted Uranium Technology

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Robert R. Price; M. Jonathan Haire; Allen G. Croff; Robert R. Price; M. Jonathan Haire; Allen G. Croff

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The submitted manuscript has been authored by a contractor of the U.S. Government under contract DE-AC05-00OR22725. Accordingly, the U.S. Government retains a nonexclusive, royalty-free license to publish or reproduce the published form of this contribution, or allow others to do so, for U.S. Government purposes.

  5. Background Fact Sheet Transfer of Depleted Uranium and Subsequent Transactions

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33Frequently20,000 RussianBy:WhetherNovember 13, 2009Oak Ridge NationalBackground Fact Sheet

  6. DOE Issues Request for Quotations for Depleted Uranium Hexafluoride

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't Your Destiny: Theof"Wave theJulyD&DDepartment offor EnergyDepartment ofFermiConversion

  7. Depleted Uranium Hexafluoride (DUF6) Fully Operational at the Portsmouth

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't Your Destiny:Revised Finding of No53197E T A * S H I E L D * A LFederalCooperation onUnitsand

  8. Soil colloid mobilization and metal transport Shea Buettner

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arnold, Jonathan

    of the Department of Energy's Savannah River Site (SRS) near Aiken, SC in 1954, over 44,000 kg of depleted uranium of anthropogenic uranium from sediments to surface waters during episodic storm events. J. Environ. Qual. 25. Uranium in the Savannah River Site Environment WSRC-RP-92-315. WSRC. Thompson, A.; Chadwick, O.A.; Boman

  9. The uranium cylinder assay system for enrichment plant safeguards

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, Karen A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Swinhoe, Martyn T [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Marlow, Johnna B [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Menlove, Howard O [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Rael, Carlos D [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Iwamoto, Tomonori [JNFL; Tamura, Takayuki [JNFL; Aiuchi, Syun [JNFL

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Safeguarding sensitive fuel cycle technology such as uranium enrichment is a critical component in preventing the spread of nuclear weapons. A useful tool for the nuclear materials accountancy of such a plant would be an instrument that measured the uranium content of UF{sub 6} cylinders. The Uranium Cylinder Assay System (UCAS) was designed for Japan Nuclear Fuel Limited (JNFL) for use in the Rokkasho Enrichment Plant in Japan for this purpose. It uses total neutron counting to determine uranium mass in UF{sub 6} cylinders given a known enrichment. This paper describes the design of UCAS, which includes features to allow for unattended operation. It can be used on 30B and 48Y cylinders to measure depleted, natural, and enriched uranium. It can also be used to assess the amount of uranium in decommissioned equipment and waste containers. Experimental measurements have been carried out in the laboratory and these are in good agreement with the Monte Carlo modeling results.

  10. a. ASTM Standard C787-11, Standard Specification for Uranium...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    in support of a request for proposals to design, build, and operate facilities to convert depleted uranium hexafluoride (DUF 6 ) to more chemically stable forms. On page C-8 in the...

  11. Plutonium recovery from spent reactor fuel by uranium displacement

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ackerman, J.P.

    1992-03-17T23:59:59.000Z

    A process is described for separating uranium values and transuranic values from fission products containing rare earth values when the values are contained together in a molten chloride salt electrolyte. A molten chloride salt electrolyte with a first ratio of plutonium chloride to uranium chloride is contacted with both a solid cathode and an anode having values of uranium and fission products including plutonium. A voltage is applied across the anode and cathode electrolytically to transfer uranium and plutonium from the anode to the electrolyte while uranium values in the electrolyte electrolytically deposit as uranium metal on the solid cathode in an amount equal to the uranium and plutonium transferred from the anode causing the electrolyte to have a second ratio of plutonium chloride to uranium chloride. Then the solid cathode with the uranium metal deposited thereon is removed and molten cadmium having uranium dissolved therein is brought into contact with the electrolyte resulting in chemical transfer of plutonium values from the electrolyte to the molten cadmium and transfer of uranium values from the molten cadmium to the electrolyte until the first ratio of plutonium chloride to uranium chloride is reestablished.

  12. Plutonium recovery from spent reactor fuel by uranium displacement

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ackerman, John P. (Downers Grove, IL)

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for separating uranium values and transuranic values from fission products containing rare earth values when the values are contained together in a molten chloride salt electrolyte. A molten chloride salt electrolyte with a first ratio of plutonium chloride to uranium chloride is contacted with both a solid cathode and an anode having values of uranium and fission products including plutonium. A voltage is applied across the anode and cathode electrolytically to transfer uranium and plutonium from the anode to the electrolyte while uranium values in the electrolyte electrolytically deposit as uranium metal on the solid cathode in an amount equal to the uranium and plutonium transferred from the anode causing the electrolyte to have a second ratio of plutonium chloride to uranium chloride. Then the solid cathode with the uranium metal deposited thereon is removed and molten cadmium having uranium dissolved therein is brought into contact with the electrolyte resulting in chemical transfer of plutonium values from the electrolyte to the molten cadmium and transfer of uranium values from the molten cadmium to the electrolyte until the first ratio of plutonium chloride to uranium chloride is reestablished.

  13. EIS-0359: Uranium Hexafluoride Conversion Facility at the Paducah, Kentucky Site

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This site-specific EIS considers the construction, operation, maintenance, and decontamination and decommissioning of the proposed depleted uranium hexafluoride (DUF6) conversion facility at three locations within the Paducah site; transportation of depleted uranium conversion products and waste materials to a disposal facility; transportation and sale of the hydrogen fluoride (HF) produced as a conversion co-product; and neutralization of HF to calcium fluoride and its sale or disposal in the event that the HF product is not sold.

  14. Ozone Depletion 2. O 3 generation and depletion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schofield, Jeremy

    Ozone Depletion Outline: 1. O 3 , O 2 evolution 2. O 3 generation and depletion 3. Antarctic ozone 2 converted to ozone via: O 2 h#23; ! 2O #3; O #3; +O 2 ! O 3 + heat #15; O 3 absorbs near #21;#1;l #15; Decreasing l increases transmittance Imagine all ozone in atmosphere forming a thin layer

  15. Uranium industry annual 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1997-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Uranium Industry Annual 1996 (UIA 1996) provides current statistical data on the US uranium industry`s activities relating to uranium raw materials and uranium marketing. The UIA 1996 is prepared for use by the Congress, Federal and State agencies, the uranium and nuclear electric utility industries, and the public. Data on uranium raw materials activities for 1987 through 1996 including exploration activities and expenditures, EIA-estimated reserves, mine production of uranium, production of uranium concentrate, and industry employment are presented in Chapter 1. Data on uranium marketing activities for 1994 through 2006, including purchases of uranium and enrichment services, enrichment feed deliveries, uranium fuel assemblies, filled and unfilled market requirements, uranium imports and exports, and uranium inventories are shown in Chapter 2. A feature article, The Role of Thorium in Nuclear Energy, is included. 24 figs., 56 tabs.

  16. Decarburization of uranium via electron beam processing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McKoon, R H

    1998-10-23T23:59:59.000Z

    For many commercial and military applications, the successive Vacuum Induction Melting of uranium metal in graphite crucibles results in a product which is out of specification in carbon. The current recovery method involves dissolution of the metal in acid and chemical purification. This is both expensive and generates mixed waste. A study was undertaken at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory to investigate the feasibility of reducing the carbon content of uranium metal using electron beam techniques. Results will be presented on the rate and extent of carbon removal as a function of various operating parameters.

  17. Actinide metal processing

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sauer, N.N.; Watkin, J.G.

    1992-03-24T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for converting an actinide metal such as thorium, uranium, or plutonium to an actinide oxide material by admixing the actinide metal in an aqueous medium with a hypochlorite as an oxidizing agent for sufficient time to form the actinide oxide material and recovering the actinide oxide material is described together with a low temperature process for preparing an actinide oxide nitrate such as uranyl nitrate. Additionally, a composition of matter comprising the reaction product of uranium metal and sodium hypochlorite is provided, the reaction product being an essentially insoluble uranium oxide material suitable for disposal or long term storage.

  18. Actinide metal processing

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sauer, Nancy N. (Los Alamos, NM); Watkin, John G. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A process of converting an actinide metal such as thorium, uranium, or plnium to an actinide oxide material by admixing the actinide metal in an aqueous medium with a hypochlorite as an oxidizing agent for sufficient time to form the actinide oxide material and recovering the actinide oxide material is provided together with a low temperature process of preparing an actinide oxide nitrate such as uranyl nitrte. Additionally, a composition of matter comprising the reaction product of uranium metal and sodium hypochlorite is provided, the reaction product being an essentially insoluble uranium oxide material suitable for disposal or long term storage.

  19. Uranium chloride extraction of transuranium elements from LWR fuel

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Miller, William E. (Naperville, IL); Ackerman, John P. (Downers Grove, IL); Battles, James E. (Oak Forest, IL); Johnson, Terry R. (Wheaton, IL); Pierce, R. Dean (Naperville, IL)

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A process of separating transuranium actinide values from uranium values present in spent nuclear oxide fuels containing rare earth and noble metal fission products as well as other fission products is disclosed. The oxide fuel is reduced with Ca metal in the presence of Ca chloride and a U-Fe alloy which is liquid at about 800.degree. C. to dissolve uranium metal and the noble metal fission product metals and transuranium actinide metals and rare earth fission product metals leaving Ca chloride having CaO and fission products of alkali metals and the alkali earth metals and iodine dissolved therein. The Ca chloride and CaO and the fission products contained therein are separated from the U-Fe alloy and the metal values dissolved therein. The U-Fe alloy having dissolved therein reduced metals from the spent nuclear fuel is contacted with a mixture of one or more alkali metal or alkaline earth metal halides selected from the class consisting of alkali metal or alkaline earth metal and Fe or U halide or a combination thereof to transfer transuranium actinide metals and rare earth metals to the halide salt leaving the uranium and some noble metal fission products in the U-Fe alloy and thereafter separating the halide salt and the transuranium metals dissolved therein from the U-Fe alloy and the metals dissolved therein.

  20. Uranium chloride extraction of transuranium elements from LWR fuel

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Miller, W.E.; Ackerman, J.P.; Battles, J.E.; Johnson, T.R.; Pierce, R.D.

    1992-08-25T23:59:59.000Z

    A process of separating transuranium actinide values from uranium values present in spent nuclear oxide fuels containing rare earth and noble metal fission products as well as other fission products is disclosed. The oxide fuel is reduced with Ca metal in the presence of Ca chloride and a U-Fe alloy which is liquid at about 800 C to dissolve uranium metal and the noble metal fission product metals and transuranium actinide metals and rare earth fission product metals leaving Ca chloride having CaO and fission products of alkali metals and the alkali earth metals and iodine dissolved therein. The Ca chloride and CaO and the fission products contained therein are separated from the U-Fe alloy and the metal values dissolved therein. The U-Fe alloy having dissolved therein reduced metals from the spent nuclear fuel is contacted with a mixture of one or more alkali metal or alkaline earth metal halides selected from the class consisting of alkali metal or alkaline earth metal and Fe or U halide or a combination thereof to transfer transuranium actinide metals and rare earth metals to the halide salt leaving the uranium and some noble metal fission products in the U-Fe alloy and thereafter separating the halide salt and the transuranium metals dissolved therein from the U-Fe alloy and the metals dissolved therein. 1 figure.

  1. URANIUM IN ALKALINE ROCKS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Murphy, M.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Greenland," in Uranium Exploration Geology, Int. AtomicMigration of Uranium and Thorium—Exploration Significance,"interesting for future uranium exploration. The c r i t e r

  2. Bugs boost Cold War clean-up: Bacteria could scrub uranium from sites contaminated decades ago. updated at midnight GMTtoday is friday, november 14

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lovley, Derek

    2003 · Fungus catches radioactive fallout 8 May 2002 · Depleted uranium soils battlefields 12 MarchBugs boost Cold War clean-up: Bacteria could scrub uranium from sites contaminated decades ago boost Cold War clean-up Bacteria could scrub uranium from sites contaminated decades ago. 13 October

  3. In situ remediation of uranium contaminated groundwater

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dwyer, B.P.; Marozas, D.C. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    In an effort to develop cost-efficient techniques for remediating uranium contaminated groundwater at DOE Uranium Mill Tailing Remedial Action (UMTRA) sites nationwide, Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) deployed a pilot scale research project at an UMTRA site in Durango, CO. Implementation included design, construction, and subsequent monitoring of an in situ passive reactive barrier to remove Uranium from the tailings pile effluent. A reactive subsurface barrier is produced by emplacing a reactant material (in this experiment - various forms of metallic iron) in the flow path of the contaminated groundwater. Conceptually the iron media reduces and/or adsorbs uranium in situ to acceptable regulatory levels. In addition, other metals such as Se, Mo, and As have been removed by the reductive/adsorptive process. The primary objective of the experiment was to eliminate the need for surface treatment of tailing pile effluent. Experimental design, and laboratory and field preliminary results are discussed with regard to other potential contaminated groundwater treatment applications.

  4. In situ remediation of uranium contaminated groundwater

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dwyer, B.P.; Marozas, D.C.

    1997-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In an effort to develop cost-efficient techniques for remediating uranium contaminated groundwater at DOE Uranium Mill Tailing Remedial Action (UMTRA) sites nationwide, Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) deployed a pilot scale research project at an UMTRA site in Durango, CO. Implementation included design, construction, and subsequent monitoring of an in situ passive reactive barrier to remove Uranium from the tailings pile effluent. A reactive subsurface barrier is produced by emplacing a reactant material (in this experiment various forms of metallic iron) in the flow path of the contaminated groundwater. Conceptually the iron media reduces and/or adsorbs uranium in situ to acceptable regulatory levels. In addition, other metals such as Se, Mo, and As have been removed by the reductive/adsorptive process. The primary objective of the experiment was to eliminate the need for surface treatment of tailing pile effluent. Experimental design, and laboratory and field results are discussed with regard to other potential contaminated groundwater treatment applications.

  5. Fingerprinting Uranium | EMSL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Fingerprinting Uranium Fingerprinting Uranium Researchers show how to use x-rays to identify mobile, stationary forms of atomic pollutant PNNL and University of North Texas...

  6. Uranium Powder Production Via Hydride Formation and Alpha Phase Sintering of Uranium and Uranium-zirconium Alloys for Advanced Nuclear Fuel Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Garnetti, David J.

    2010-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

    The research in this thesis covers the design and implementation of a depleted uranium (DU) powder production system and the initial results of a DU-Zr-Mg alloy alpha phase sintering experiment where the Mg is a surrogate for Pu and Am. The powder...

  7. --No Title--

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Plant spanned roughly 65,000 square feet and operated several decades ago to convert depleted uranium hexafluoride (DUF 6 ) into uranium metal and uranium tetrafluoride (UF 4...

  8. Special Training Materials | Y-12 National Security Complex

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Uranium in many forms (metal, oxides) and enrichments (highly enriched uranium, low enriched uranium, natural and depleted) Cesium-137 Cobalt-60 Strontium-90 Others as needed...

  9. Uranium Industry Annual, 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-10-28T23:59:59.000Z

    The Uranium Industry Annual provides current statistical data on the US uranium industry for the Congress, Federal and State agencies, the uranium and electric utility industries, and the public. The feature article, ``Decommissioning of US Conventional Uranium Production Centers,`` is included. Data on uranium raw materials activities including exploration activities and expenditures, resources and reserves, mine production of uranium, production of uranium concentrate, and industry employment are presented in Chapter 1. Data on uranium marketing activities including domestic uranium purchases, commitments by utilities, procurement arrangements, uranium imports under purchase contracts and exports, deliveries to enrichment suppliers, inventories, secondary market activities, utility market requirements, and uranium for sale by domestic suppliers are presented in Chapter 2.

  10. In-well sediment incubators to evaluate microbial community stability and dynamics following bioimmobilization of uranium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baldwin, B.R.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    al. (2004). In situ bioremediation of technetium and uraniumet al. (2008). Bioremediation of metals and radionuclides:genes during in situ bioremediation of uranium-contaminated

  11. americium-containing uranium plutonium: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    a fascinating ele- ment. Last year, we learned that some com- pounds of plutonium superconduct at sur- prisingly Steinberger, Bernhard 90 Standard specification for uranium metal...

  12. Synthesis of Uranium Trichloride for the Pyrometallurgical Processing of Used Nuclear Fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    B.R. Westphal; J.C. Price; R.D. Mariani

    2011-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The pyroprocessing of used nuclear fuel via electrorefining requires the continued addition of uranium trichloride to sustain operations. Uranium trichloride is utilized as an oxidant in the system to allow separation of uranium metal from the minor actinides and fission products. The inventory of uranium trichloride had diminished to a point that production was necessary to continue electrorefiner operations. Following initial experimentation, cupric chloride was chosen as a reactant with uranium metal to synthesize uranium trichloride. Despite the variability in equipment and charge characteristics, uranium trichloride was produced in sufficient quantities to maintain operations in the electrorefiner. The results and conclusions from several experiments are presented along with a set of optimized operating conditions for the synthesis of uranium trichloride.

  13. Rotational Mixing and Lithium Depletion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pinsonneault, M H

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    I review basic observational features in Population I stars which strongly implicate rotation as a mixing agent; these include dispersion at fixed temperature in coeval populations and main sequence lithium depletion for a range of masses at a rate which decays with time. New developments related to the possible suppression of mixing at late ages, close binary mergers and their lithium signature, and an alternate origin for dispersion in young cool stars tied to radius anomalies observed in active young stars are discussed. I highlight uncertainties in models of Population II lithium depletion and dispersion related to the treatment of angular momentum loss. Finally, the origins of rotation are tied to conditions in the pre-main sequence, and there is thus some evidence that enviroment and planet formation could impact stellar rotational properties. This may be related to recent observational evidence for cluster to cluster variations in lithium depletion and a connection between the presence of planets and s...

  14. Process for producing enriched uranium having a {sup 235}U content of at least 4 wt. % via combination of a gaseous diffusion process and an atomic vapor laser isotope separation process to eliminate uranium hexafluoride tails storage

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Horton, J.A.; Hayden, H.W. Jr.

    1995-05-30T23:59:59.000Z

    An uranium enrichment process capable of producing an enriched uranium, having a {sup 235}U content greater than about 4 wt. %, is disclosed which will consume less energy and produce metallic uranium tails having a lower {sup 235}U content than the tails normally produced in a gaseous diffusion separation process and, therefore, eliminate UF{sub 6} tails storage and sharply reduce fluorine use. The uranium enrichment process comprises feeding metallic uranium into an atomic vapor laser isotope separation process to produce an enriched metallic uranium isotopic mixture having a {sup 235} U content of at least about 2 wt. % and a metallic uranium residue containing from about 0.1 wt. % to about 0.2 wt. % {sup 235} U; fluorinating this enriched metallic uranium isotopic mixture to form UF{sub 6}; processing the resultant isotopic mixture of UF{sub 6} in a gaseous diffusion process to produce a final enriched uranium product having a {sup 235}U content of at least 4 wt. %, and up to 93.5 wt. % or higher, of the total uranium content of the product, and a low {sup 235}U content UF{sub 6} having a {sup 235}U content of about 0.71 wt. % of the total uranium content of the low {sup 235}U content UF{sub 6}; and converting this low {sup 235}U content UF{sub 6} to metallic uranium for recycle to the atomic vapor laser isotope separation process. 4 figs.

  15. Process for producing enriched uranium having a .sup.235 U content of at least 4 wt. % via combination of a gaseous diffusion process and an atomic vapor laser isotope separation process to eliminate uranium hexafluoride tails storage

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Horton, James A. (Livermore, CA); Hayden, Jr., Howard W. (Oakridge, TN)

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An uranium enrichment process capable of producing an enriched uranium, having a .sup.235 U content greater than about 4 wt. %, is disclosed which will consume less energy and produce metallic uranium tails having a lower .sup.235 U content than the tails normally produced in a gaseous diffusion separation process and, therefore, eliminate UF.sub.6 tails storage and sharply reduce fluorine use. The uranium enrichment process comprises feeding metallic uranium into an atomic vapor laser isotope separation process to produce an enriched metallic uranium isotopic mixture having a .sup.235 U content of at least about 2 wt. % and a metallic uranium residue containing from about 0.1 wt. % to about 0.2 wt. % .sup.235 U; fluorinating this enriched metallic uranium isotopic mixture to form UF.sub.6 ; processing the resultant isotopic mixture of UF.sub.6 in a gaseous diffusion process to produce a final enriched uranium product having a .sup.235 U content of at least 4 wt. %, and up to 93.5 wt. % or higher, of the total uranium content of the product, and a low .sup.235 U content UF.sub.6 having a .sup.235 U content of about 0.71 wt. % of the total uranium content of the low .sup.235 U content UF.sub.6 ; and converting this low .sup.235 U content UF.sub.6 to metallic uranium for recycle to the atomic vapor laser isotope separation process.

  16. Measurement of enriched uranium and uranium-aluminum fuel materials with the AWCC

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krick, M.S.; Menlove, H.O.; Zick, J.; Ikonomou, P.

    1985-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The active well coincidence counter (AWCC) was calibrated at the Chalk River Nuclear Laboratories (CRNL) for the assay of 93%-enriched fuel materials in three categories: (1) uranium-aluminum billets, (2) uranium-aluminum fuel elements, and (3) uranium metal pieces. The AWCC was a standard instrument supplied to the International Atomic Energy Agency under the International Safeguards Project Office Task A.51. Excellent agreement was obtained between the CRNL measurements and previous Los Alamos National Laboratory measurements on similar mockup fuel material. Calibration curves were obtained for each sample category. 2 refs., 8 figs., 15 tabs.

  17. alloy nuclear fuels: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    were characterized in this research. Metal uranium powder was produced from pieces of depleted uranium metal acquired from the Y-12 plant via hydriding... Helmreich, Grant...

  18. Desorption of uranium from amidoxime fiber adsorbent

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goto, Akira; Morooka, Shigeharu; Fukamachi, Masakazu; Kusakabe, Katsuki (Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan)); Kago, Tokihiro (Towa Univ., Fukuoka (Japan))

    1993-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An amidoxime fibrous adsorbent is contacted with uranium-enriched seawater (10 ppm); about 10 mg uranium is loaded per 1 g dry fiber. Then the rate and yield of uranium desorption from the fiber are determined with various eluents. Acid solutions are superior to alkali carbonate solutions as eluents. With a 0.1 mol[center dot]L[sup [minus]1] HCl solution, desorption is completed in 2 hours regardless of the presence of uranium in the leaching solution up to 15 ppm ([approx]6 [times] 10[sup [minus]5]mol[center dot]L[sup [minus]1]). Serial operation of the adsorption-desorption cycle four times does not affect desorption efficiency, but the addition of heavy metal ions to the eluent at a level of 1.8 [times] 10[sup [minus]3]mol[center dot]L[sup [minus]1] significantly decreases desorption efficiency. 13 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  19. Uranium industry annual 1998

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1999-04-22T23:59:59.000Z

    The Uranium Industry Annual 1998 (UIA 1998) provides current statistical data on the US uranium industry`s activities relating to uranium raw materials and uranium marketing. It contains data for the period 1989 through 2008 as collected on the Form EIA-858, ``Uranium Industry Annual Survey.`` Data provides a comprehensive statistical characterization of the industry`s activities for the survey year and also include some information about industry`s plans and commitments for the near-term future. Data on uranium raw materials activities for 1989 through 1998, including exploration activities and expenditures, EIA-estimated reserves, mine production of uranium, production of uranium concentrate, and industry employment, are presented in Chapter 1. Data on uranium marketing activities for 1994 through 2008, including purchases of uranium and enrichment services, enrichment feed deliveries, uranium fuel assemblies, filled and unfilled market requirements, and uranium inventories, are shown in Chapter 2. The methodology used in the 1998 survey, including data edit and analysis, is described in Appendix A. The methodologies for estimation of resources and reserves are described in Appendix B. A list of respondents to the ``Uranium Industry Annual Survey`` is provided in Appendix C. The Form EIA-858 ``Uranium Industry Annual Survey`` is shown in Appendix D. For the readers convenience, metric versions of selected tables from Chapters 1 and 2 are presented in Appendix E along with the standard conversion factors used. A glossary of technical terms is at the end of the report. 24 figs., 56 tabs.

  20. Uranium industry annual 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-07-05T23:59:59.000Z

    The Uranium Industry Annual 1994 (UIA 1994) provides current statistical data on the US uranium industry`s activities relating to uranium raw materials and uranium marketing during that survey year. The UIA 1994 is prepared for use by the Congress, Federal and State agencies, the uranium and nuclear electric utility industries, and the public. It contains data for the 10-year period 1985 through 1994 as collected on the Form EIA-858, ``Uranium Industry Annual Survey.`` Data collected on the ``Uranium Industry Annual Survey`` (UIAS) provide a comprehensive statistical characterization of the industry`s activities for the survey year and also include some information about industry`s plans and commitments for the near-term future. Where aggregate data are presented in the UIA 1994, care has been taken to protect the confidentiality of company-specific information while still conveying accurate and complete statistical data. A feature article, ``Comparison of Uranium Mill Tailings Reclamation in the United States and Canada,`` is included in the UIA 1994. Data on uranium raw materials activities including exploration activities and expenditures, EIA-estimated resources and reserves, mine production of uranium, production of uranium concentrate, and industry employment are presented in Chapter 1. Data on uranium marketing activities, including purchases of uranium and enrichment services, and uranium inventories, enrichment feed deliveries (actual and projected), and unfilled market requirements are shown in Chapter 2.

  1. Nuclear power fleets and uranium resources recovered from phosphates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gabriel, S.; Baschwitz, A.; Mathonniere, G. [CEA, DEN/DANS/I-tese, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Current light water reactors (LWR) burn fissile uranium, whereas some future reactors, as Sodium fast reactors (SFR) will be capable of recycling their own plutonium and already-extracted depleted uranium. This makes them a feasible solution for the sustainable development of nuclear energy. Nonetheless, a sufficient quantity of plutonium is needed to start up an SFR, with the plutonium already being produced in light water reactors. The availability of natural uranium therefore has a direct impact on the capacity of the reactors (both LWR and SFR) that we can build. It is therefore important to have an accurate estimate of the available uranium resources in order to plan for the world's future nuclear reactor fleet. This paper discusses the correspondence between the resources (uranium and plutonium) and the nuclear power demand. Sodium fast reactors will be built in line with the availability of plutonium, including fast breeders when necessary. Different assumptions on the global uranium resources are taken into consideration. The largely quoted estimate of 22 Mt of uranium recovered for phosphate rocks can be seriously downscaled. Based on our current knowledge of phosphate resources, 4 Mt of recoverable uranium already seems to be an upper bound value. The impact of the downscaled estimate on the deployment of a nuclear fleet is assessed accordingly. (authors)

  2. Performance Assessment Transport Modeling of Uranium at the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site at the Nevada National Security Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NSTec Radioactive Waste

    2010-10-12T23:59:59.000Z

    Following is a brief summary of the assumptions that are pertinent to the radioactive isotope transport in the GoldSim Performance Assessment model of the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site, with special emphasis on the water-phase reactive transport of uranium, which includes depleted uranium products.

  3. Electrochemical method of producing eutectic uranium alloy and apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Horton, J.A.; Hayden, H.W.

    1995-01-10T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus and method are disclosed for continuous production of liquid uranium alloys through the electrolytic reduction of uranium chlorides. The apparatus includes an electrochemical cell formed from an anode shaped to form an electrolyte reservoir, a cathode comprising a metal, such as iron, capable of forming a eutectic uranium alloy having a melting point less than the melting point of pure uranium, and molten electrolyte in the reservoir comprising a chlorine or fluorine containing salt and uranium chloride. The method of the invention produces an eutectic uranium alloy by creating an electrolyte reservoir defined by a container comprising an anode, placing an electrolyte in the reservoir, the electrolyte comprising a chlorine or fluorine containing salt and uranium chloride in molten form, positioning a cathode in the reservoir where the cathode comprises a metal capable of forming an uranium alloy having a melting point less than the melting point of pure uranium, and applying a current between the cathode and the anode. 2 figures.

  4. Method for the production of uranium chloride salt

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Westphal, Brian R.; Mariani, Robert D.

    2013-07-02T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for the production of UCl.sub.3 salt without the use of hazardous chemicals or multiple apparatuses for synthesis and purification is provided. Uranium metal is combined in a reaction vessel with a metal chloride and a eutectic salt- and heated to a first temperature under vacuum conditions to promote reaction of the uranium metal with the metal chloride for the production of a UCl.sub.3 salt. After the reaction has run substantially to completion, the furnace is heated to a second temperature under vacuum conditions. The second temperature is sufficiently high to selectively vaporize the chloride salts and distill them into a condenser region.

  5. Matrix Infrared Spectroscopic and Computational Investigations of Novel Small Uranium Containing Molecules - Final Technical Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Andrews, Lester

    2014-10-17T23:59:59.000Z

    Direct reactions of f-element uranium, thorium and lanthanide metal atoms were investigated with small molecules. These metal atoms were generated by laser ablation and mixed with the reagent molecules then condensed with noble gases at 4K. The products were analyzed by absorption of infrared light to measure vibrational frequencies which were confirmed by quantum chemical calculations. We have learned more about the reactivity of uranium atoms with common molecules, which will aid in the develolpment of further applications of uranium.

  6. Uranium industry annual 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1996-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Uranium Industry Annual 1995 (UIA 1995) provides current statistical data on the U.S. uranium industry`s activities relating to uranium raw materials and uranium marketing. The UIA 1995 is prepared for use by the Congress, Federal and State agencies, the uranium and nuclear electric utility industries, and the public. It contains data for the period 1986 through 2005 as collected on the Form EIA-858, ``Uranium Industry Annual Survey``. Data collected on the ``Uranium Industry Annual Survey`` provide a comprehensive statistical characterization of the industry`s plans and commitments for the near-term future. Where aggregate data are presented in the UIA 1995, care has been taken to protect the confidentiality of company-specific information while still conveying accurate and complete statistical data. Data on uranium raw materials activities for 1986 through 1995 including exploration activities and expenditures, EIA-estimated reserves, mine production of uranium, production of uranium concentrate, and industry employment are presented in Chapter 1. Data on uranium marketing activities for 1994 through 2005, including purchases of uranium and enrichment services, enrichment feed deliveries, uranium fuel assemblies, filled and unfilled market requirements, uranium imports and exports, and uranium inventories are shown in Chapter 2. The methodology used in the 1995 survey, including data edit and analysis, is described in Appendix A. The methodologies for estimation of resources and reserves are described in Appendix B. A list of respondents to the ``Uranium Industry Annual Survey`` is provided in Appendix C. For the reader`s convenience, metric versions of selected tables from Chapters 1 and 2 are presented in Appendix D along with the standard conversion factors used. A glossary of technical terms is at the end of the report. 14 figs., 56 tabs.

  7. Measurement and Analysis of Fission Rates in a Spherical Mockup of Uranium and Polyethylene

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tong-Hua, Zhu; Xin-Xin, Lu; Rong, Liu; Zi-Jie, Han; Li, Jiang; Mei, Wang

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Measurements of the reaction rate distribution were carried out using two kinds of Plate Micro Fission Chamber(PMFC). The first is a depleted uranium chamber and the second an enriched uranium chamber. The material in the depleted uranium chamber is strictly the same as the material in the uranium assembly. With the equation solution to conduct the isotope contribution correction, the fission rate of 238U and 235U were obtained from the fission rate of depleted uranium and enriched uranium. And then, the fission count of 238U and 235U in an individual uranium shell was obtained. In this work, MCNP5 and continuous energy cross sections ENDF/BV.0 were used for the analysis of fission rate distribution and fission count. The calculated results were compared with the experimental ones. The calculation of fission rate of DU and EU were found to agree with the measured ones within 10% except at the positions in polyethylene region and the two positions near the outer surface. Beacause the fission chamber was not co...

  8. GeoChip-based analysis of functional microbial communities in a bioreduced uranium-contaminated aquifer during reoxidation by oxygen

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Van Nostrand, J.D.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    associated with bioremediation of uranium to submicromolar33. Lovley, D. R. 1995. Bioremediation of organic and metalSZ: implications for bioremediation at tetrachloroethene- (

  9. Chloride Depletion in Aged Sea Salt Particles

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Chloride Depletion in Aged Sea Salt Particles Chloride Depletion in Aged Sea Salt Particles Print Wednesday, 06 February 2013 00:00 Particles or aerosols can be directly released...

  10. Power distributions in fresh and depleted LEU and HEU cores of the MITR reactor.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wilson, E.H.; Horelik, N.E.; Dunn, F.E.; Newton, T.H., Jr.; Hu, L.; Stevens, J.G. (Nuclear Engineering Division); (2MIT Nuclear Reactor Laboratory and Nuclear Science and Engineering Department)

    2012-04-04T23:59:59.000Z

    The Massachusetts Institute of Technology Reactor (MITR-II) is a research reactor in Cambridge, Massachusetts designed primarily for experiments using neutron beam and in-core irradiation facilities. It delivers a neutron flux comparable to current LWR power reactors in a compact 6 MW core using Highly Enriched Uranium (HEU) fuel. In the framework of its non-proliferation policies, the international community presently aims to minimize the amount of nuclear material available that could be used for nuclear weapons. In this geopolitical context, most research and test reactors both domestic and international have started a program of conversion to the use of Low Enriched Uranium (LEU) fuel. A new type of LEU fuel based on an alloy of uranium and molybdenum (UMo) is expected to allow the conversion of U.S. domestic high performance reactors like the MITR-II reactor. Toward this goal, core geometry and power distributions are presented. Distributions of power are calculated for LEU cores depleted with MCODE using an MCNP5 Monte Carlo model. The MCNP5 HEU and LEU MITR models were previously compared to experimental benchmark data for the MITR-II. This same model was used with a finer spatial depletion in order to generate power distributions for the LEU cores. The objective of this work is to generate and characterize a series of fresh and depleted core peak power distributions, and provide a thermal hydraulic evaluation of the geometry which should be considered for subsequent thermal hydraulic safety analyses.

  11. Methods and results for stress analyses on 14-ton, thin-wall depleted UF{sub 6} cylinders

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kirkpatrick, J.R.; Chung, C.K.; Frazier, J.L.; Kelley, D.K.

    1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Uranium enrichment operations at the three US gaseous diffusion plants produce depleted uranium hexafluoride (DUF{sub 6}) as a residential product. At the present time, the inventory of DUF{sub 6} in this country is more than half a million tons. The inventory of DUF{sub 6} is contained in metal storage cylinders, most of which are located at the gaseous diffusion plants. The principal objective of the project is to ensure the integrity of the cylinders to prevent causing an environmental hazard by releasing the contents of the cylinders into the atmosphere. Another objective is to maintain the cylinders in such a manner that the DUF{sub 6} may eventually be converted to a less hazardous material for final disposition. An important task in the DUF{sub 6} cylinders management project is determining how much corrosion of the walls can be tolerated before the cylinders are in danger of being damaged during routine handling and shipping operations. Another task is determining how to handle cylinders that have already been damaged in a manner that will minimize the chance that a breach will occur or that the size of an existing breach will be significantly increased. A number of finite element stress analysis (FESA) calculations have been done to analyze the stresses for three conditions: (1) while the cylinder is being lifted, (2) when a cylinder is resting on two cylinders under it in the customary two-tier stacking array, and (3) when a cylinder is resting on tis chocks on the ground. Various documents describe some of the results and discuss some of the methods whereby they have been obtained. The objective of the present report is to document as many of the FESA cases done at Oak Ridge for 14-ton thin-wall cylinders as possible, giving results and a description of the calculations in some detail.

  12. Extracting metals directly from metal oxides

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wai, C.M.; Smart, N.G.; Phelps, C.

    1997-02-25T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of extracting metals directly from metal oxides by exposing the oxide to a supercritical fluid solvent containing a chelating agent is described. Preferably, the metal is an actinide or a lanthanide. More preferably, the metal is uranium, thorium or plutonium. The chelating agent forms chelates that are soluble in the supercritical fluid, thereby allowing direct removal of the metal from the metal oxide. In preferred embodiments, the extraction solvent is supercritical carbon dioxide and the chelating agent is selected from the group consisting of {beta}-diketones, halogenated {beta}-diketones, phosphinic acids, halogenated phosphinic acids, carboxylic acids, halogenated carboxylic acids, and mixtures thereof. In especially preferred embodiments, at least one of the chelating agents is fluorinated. The method provides an environmentally benign process for removing metals from metal oxides without using acids or biologically harmful solvents. The chelate and supercritical fluid can be regenerated, and the metal recovered, to provide an economic, efficient process. 4 figs.

  13. Extracting metals directly from metal oxides

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wai, Chien M. (Moscow, ID); Smart, Neil G. (Moscow, ID); Phelps, Cindy (Moscow, ID)

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of extracting metals directly from metal oxides by exposing the oxide to a supercritical fluid solvent containing a chelating agent is described. Preferably, the metal is an actinide or a lanthanide. More preferably, the metal is uranium, thorium or plutonium. The chelating agent forms chelates that are soluble in the supercritical fluid, thereby allowing direct removal of the metal from the metal oxide. In preferred embodiments, the extraction solvent is supercritical carbon dioxide and the chelating agent is selected from the group consisting of .beta.-diketones, halogenated .beta.-diketones, phosphinic acids, halogenated phosphinic acids, carboxylic acids, halogenated carboxylic acids, and mixtures thereof. In especially preferred embodiments, at least one of the chelating agents is fluorinated. The method provides an environmentally benign process for removing metals from metal oxides without using acids or biologically harmful solvents. The chelate and supercritical fluid can be regenerated, and the metal recovered, to provide an economic, efficient process.

  14. Recovery of uranium from seawater. 7; Concentration and separation of uranium in acidic eluate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Egawa, H.; Nonaka, T. (Dept. of Applied Chemistry, Faculty of Engineering, Kumamoto Univ., Kurokami 2-39-1, Kumamoto 860 (JP)); Nakayama, M. (Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kumamoto Univ., Oe-Honmachi 5-1, Kumamoto 862 (JP))

    1990-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper reports on macroporous chelating resins (RSP, RSPO, RCSP, and RCSPO) containing dihydroxphosphino and/or -phosphono groups were examined for the concentration and separation of uranium from acidic eluates of macroporous chelating resin containing amidoxime groups. RSP and RSPO had a high adsorption capacity for uranium even in 0.25-0.50 mol {center dot} dm{sup {minus}3} H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}. Uranium adsorbed on the resins was eluted easily as a uranyl carbonate complex by use of 0.25 mol {center dot} dm{sup {minus}3} Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}. In this effluent, other metal ions were hardly present. The use of RSP and RSPO was very effective in concentrating uranium from seawater and separating it from most other elements.

  15. Optical Constants ofOptical Constants of Uranium Nitride Thin FilmsUranium Nitride Thin Films

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hart, Gus

    Optical Constants ofOptical Constants of Uranium Nitride Thin FilmsUranium Nitride Thin FilmsDelta--Beta Scatter Plot at 220 eVBeta Scatter Plot at 220 eV #12;Why Uranium Nitride?Why Uranium Nitride? UraniumUranium, uranium,Bombard target, uranium, with argon ionswith argon ions Uranium atoms leaveUranium atoms leave

  16. Isotopic Analysis of Uranium in NIST SRM Glass by Femtosecond Laser Ablation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Duffin, Andrew M.; Hart, Garret L.; Hanlen, Richard C.; Eiden, Gregory C.

    2013-05-19T23:59:59.000Z

    We employed femtosecond Laser Ablation Multicollector Inductively Coupled Mass Spectrometry for the 11 determination of uranium isotope ratios in a series of standard reference material glasses (NIST 610, 612, 614, and 12 616). This uranium concentration in this series of SRM glasses is a combination of isotopically natural uranium in 13 the materials used to make the glass matrix and isotopically depleted uranium added to increase the uranium 14 elemental concentration across the series. Results for NIST 610 are in excellent agreement with literature values. 15 However, other than atom percent 235U, little information is available for the remaining glasses. We present atom 16 percent and isotope ratios for 234U, 235U, 236U, and 238U for all four glasses. Our results show deviations from the 17 certificate values for the atom percent 235U, indicating the need for further examination of the uranium isotopes in 18 NIST 610-616. Our results are fully consistent with a two isotopic component mixing between the depleted 19 uranium spike and natural uranium in the bulk glass.

  17. Investigation of breached depleted UF{sub 6} cylinders

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barber, E.J.; Butler, T.R.; DeVan, J.H.; Googin, J.M.; Taylor, M.S.; Dyer, R.H.; Russell, J.R.

    1991-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In June 1990, during a three-site inspection of cylinders being used for long-term storage of solid depleted UF{sub 6}, two 14-ton steel cylinders at Portsmouth, Ohio, were discovered with holes in the barrel section of the cylinders. Both holes, concealed by UF{sub 4} reaction products identical in color to the cylinder coating, were similarly located near the front stiffening ring. The UF{sub 4} appeared to have self-sealed the holes, thus containing nearly all of the uranium contents. Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., Vice President K.W. Sommerfeld immediately formed an investigation team to: (1) identify the most likely cause of failure for the two breached cylinders, (2) determine the impact of these incidents on the three-site inventory, and (3) provide recommendations and preventive measures. This document discusses the results of this investigation.

  18. Investigation of breached depleted UF sub 6 cylinders

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barber, E.J.; Butler, T.R.; DeVan, J.H.; Googin, J.M.; Taylor, M.S.; Dyer, R.H.; Russell, J.R.

    1991-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In June 1990, during a three-site inspection of cylinders being used for long-term storage of solid depleted UF{sub 6}, two 14-ton steel cylinders at Portsmouth, Ohio, were discovered with holes in the barrel section of the cylinders. Both holes, concealed by UF{sub 4} reaction products identical in color to the cylinder coating, were similarly located near the front stiffening ring. The UF{sub 4} appeared to have self-sealed the holes, thus containing nearly all of the uranium contents. Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., Vice President K.W. Sommerfeld immediately formed an investigation team to: (1) identify the most likely cause of failure for the two breached cylinders, (2) determine the impact of these incidents on the three-site inventory, and (3) provide recommendations and preventive measures. This document discusses the results of this investigation.

  19. Uranium hexafluoride public risk

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fisher, D.R.; Hui, T.E.; Yurconic, M.; Johnson, J.R.

    1994-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The limiting value for uranium toxicity in a human being should be based on the concentration of uranium (U) in the kidneys. The threshold for nephrotoxicity appears to lie very near 3 {mu}g U per gram kidney tissue. There does not appear to be strong scientific support for any other improved estimate, either higher or lower than this, of the threshold for uranium nephrotoxicity in a human being. The value 3 {mu}g U per gram kidney is the concentration that results from a single intake of about 30 mg soluble uranium by inhalation (assuming the metabolism of a standard person). The concentration of uranium continues to increase in the kidneys after long-term, continuous (or chronic) exposure. After chronic intakes of soluble uranium by workers at the rate of 10 mg U per week, the concentration of uranium in the kidneys approaches and may even exceed the nephrotoxic limit of 3 {mu}g U per gram kidney tissue. Precise values of the kidney concentration depend on the biokinetic model and model parameters assumed for such a calculation. Since it is possible for the concentration of uranium in the kidneys to exceed 3 {mu}g per gram tissue at an intake rate of 10 mg U per week over long periods of time, we believe that the kidneys are protected from injury when intakes of soluble uranium at the rate of 10 mg U per week do not continue for more than two consecutive weeks. For long-term, continuous occupational exposure to low-level, soluble uranium, we recommend a reduced weekly intake limit of 5 mg uranium to prevent nephrotoxicity in workers. Our analysis shows that the nephrotoxic limit of 3 {mu}g U per gram kidney tissues is not exceeded after long-term, continuous uranium intake at the intake rate of 5 mg soluble uranium per week.

  20. Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory 1996 Site Environmental Report Vol. I

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    radioactive. uranium, depleted Uranium consisting primarilyoccurring in nature, depleted uranium is man-made. uranium,

  1. Uranium Mill Tailings Management

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nelson, J.D.

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This book presents the papers given at the Fifth Symposium on Uranium Mill Tailings Management. Advances made with regard to uranium mill tailings management, environmental effects, regulations, and reclamation are reviewed. Topics considered include tailings management and design (e.g., the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project, environmental standards for uranium mill tailings disposal), surface stabilization (e.g., the long-term stability of tailings, long-term rock durability), radiological aspects (e.g. the radioactive composition of airborne particulates), contaminant migration (e.g., chemical transport beneath a uranium mill tailings pile, the interaction of acidic leachate with soils), radon control and covers (e.g., radon emanation characteristics, designing surface covers for inactive uranium mill tailings), and seepage and liners (e.g., hydrologic observations, liner requirements).

  2. Preparation of uranium compounds

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kiplinger, Jaqueline L; Montreal, Marisa J; Thomson, Robert K; Cantat, Thibault; Travia, Nicholas E

    2013-02-19T23:59:59.000Z

    UI.sub.3(1,4-dioxane).sub.1.5 and UI.sub.4(1,4-dioxane).sub.2, were synthesized in high yield by reacting turnings of elemental uranium with iodine dissolved in 1,4-dioxane under mild conditions. These molecular compounds of uranium are thermally stable and excellent precursor materials for synthesizing other molecular compounds of uranium including alkoxide, amide, organometallic, and halide compounds.

  3. How soft repulsion enhances the depletion mechanism

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lorenzo Rovigatti; Nicoletta Gnan; Alberto Parola; Emanuela Zaccarelli

    2014-11-12T23:59:59.000Z

    We investigate binary mixtures of large colloids interacting through soft potentials with small, ideal depletants. We show that softness has a dramatic effect on the resulting colloid-colloid effective potential when the depletant-to-colloid size ratio $q$ is small, with significant consequences on the colloidal phase behaviour. We also provide an exact relation that allows us to obtain the effective pair potential for {\\it any} type of colloid-depletant interactions in the case of ideal depletants, without having to rely on complicated and expensive full-mixture simulations. We also show that soft repulsion among depletants further enhances the tendency of colloids to aggregate. Our theoretical and numerical results demonstrate that --- in the limit of small $q$ --- soft mixtures cannot be mapped onto hard systems and hence soft depletion is not a mere extension of the widely used Asakura-Oosawa potential.

  4. 300 Area Uranium Stabilization Through Polyphosphate Injection: Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vermeul, Vincent R.; Bjornstad, Bruce N.; Fritz, Brad G.; Fruchter, Jonathan S.; Mackley, Rob D.; Newcomer, Darrell R.; Mendoza, Donaldo P.; Rockhold, Mark L.; Wellman, Dawn M.; Williams, Mark D.

    2009-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of the treatability test was to evaluate the efficacy of using polyphosphate injections to treat uranium-contaminated groundwater in situ. A test site consisting of an injection well and 15 monitoring wells was installed in the 300 Area near the process trenches that had previously received uranium-bearing effluents. This report summarizes the work on the polyphosphate injection project, including bench-scale laboratory studies, a field injection test, and the subsequent analysis and interpretation of the results. Previous laboratory tests have demonstrated that when a soluble form of polyphosphate is injected into uranium-bearing saturated porous media, immobilization of uranium occurs due to formation of an insoluble uranyl phosphate, autunite [Ca(UO2)2(PO4)2•nH2O]. These tests were conducted at conditions expected for the aquifer and used Hanford soils and groundwater containing very low concentrations of uranium (10-6 M). Because autunite sequesters uranium in the oxidized form U(VI) rather than forcing reduction to U(IV), the possibility of re-oxidation and subsequent re-mobilization is negated. Extensive testing demonstrated the very low solubility and slow dissolution kinetics of autunite. In addition to autunite, excess phosphorous may result in apatite mineral formation, which provides a long-term source of treatment capacity. Phosphate arrival response data indicate that, under site conditions, the polyphosphate amendment could be effectively distributed over a relatively large lateral extent, with wells located at a radial distance of 23 m (75 ft) reaching from between 40% and 60% of the injection concentration. Given these phosphate transport characteristics, direct treatment of uranium through the formation of uranyl-phosphate mineral phases (i.e., autunite) could likely be effectively implemented at full field scale. However, formation of calcium-phosphate mineral phases using the selected three-phase approach was problematic. Although amendment arrival response data indicate some degree of overlap between the reactive species and thus potential for the formation of calcium-phosphate mineral phases (i.e., apatite formation), the efficiency of this treatment approach was relatively poor. In general, uranium performance monitoring results support the hypothesis that limited long-term treatment capacity (i.e., apatite formation) was established during the injection test. Two separate overarching issues affect the efficacy of apatite remediation for uranium sequestration within the 300 Area: 1) the efficacy of apatite for sequestering uranium under the present geochemical and hydrodynamic conditions, and 2) the formation and emplacement of apatite via polyphosphate technology. In addition, the long-term stability of uranium sequestered via apatite is dependent on the chemical speciation of uranium, surface speciation of apatite, and the mechanism of retention, which is highly susceptible to dynamic geochemical conditions. It was expected that uranium sequestration in the presence of hydroxyapatite would occur by sorption and/or surface complexation until all surface sites have been depleted, but that the high carbonate concentrations in the 300 Area would act to inhibit the transformation of sorbed uranium to chernikovite and/or autunite. Adsorption of uranium by apatite was never considered a viable approach for in situ uranium sequestration in and of itself, because by definition, this is a reversible reaction. The efficacy of uranium sequestration by apatite assumes that the adsorbed uranium would subsequently convert to autunite, or other stable uranium phases. Because this appears to not be the case in the 300 Area aquifer, even in locations near the river, apatite may have limited efficacy for the retention and long-term immobilization of uranium at the 300 Area site..

  5. Conversion and Blending Facility highly enriched uranium to low enriched uranium as oxide. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-07-05T23:59:59.000Z

    This Conversion and Blending Facility (CBF) will have two missions: (1) convert HEU materials into pure HEU oxide and (2) blend the pure HEU oxide with depleted and natural uranium oxide to produce an LWR grade LEU product. The primary emphasis of this blending operation will be to destroy the weapons capability of large, surplus stockpiles of HEU. The blended LEU product can only be made weapons capable again by the uranium enrichment process. To the extent practical, the chemical and isotopic concentrations of blended LEU product will be held within the specifications required for LWR fuel. Such blended LEU product will be offered to the United States Enrichment Corporation (USEC) to be sold as feed material to the commercial nuclear industry. Otherwise, blended LEU will be produced as a waste suitable for storage or disposal.

  6. U.S. Department of Energy Categorical Exclusion ...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Cleaning of Depleted Uranium metal Savannah River Site AikenAikenSouth Carolina Depleted Uranium (DU) metal will be 1) degreased using either ethanol or hexane 2) dried, then 3)...

  7. CHARACTERIZATION OF URANIUM, URANIUM OXIDE AND SILICON MULTILAYER THIN FILMS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hart, Gus

    CHARACTERIZATION OF URANIUM, URANIUM OXIDE AND SILICON MULTILAYER THIN FILMS by David T. Oliphant. Woolley Dean, College of Physical and Mathematical Sciences #12;ABSTRACT CHARACTERIZATION OF URANIUM, URANIUM OXIDE AND SILICON MULTILAYER THIN FILMS David T. Oliphant Department of Physics and Astronomy

  8. Development of Novel Sorbents for Uranium Extraction from Seawater

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lin, Wenbin; Taylor-Pashow, Kathryn

    2014-01-08T23:59:59.000Z

    As the uranium resource in terrestrial ores is limited, it is difficult to ensure a long-term sustainable nuclear energy technology. The oceans contain approximately 4.5 billion tons of uranium, which is one thousand times the amount of uranium in terrestrial ores. Development of technologies to recover the uranium from seawater would greatly improve the uranium resource availability, sustaining the fuel supply for nuclear energy. Several methods have been previously evaluated including solvent extraction, ion exchange, flotation, biomass collection, and adsorption; however, none have been found to be suitable for reasons such as cost effectiveness, long term stability, and selectivity. Recent research has focused on the amidoxime functional group as a promising candidate for uranium sorption. Polymer beads and fibers have been functionalized with amidoxime functional groups, and uranium adsorption capacities as high as 1.5 g U/kg adsorbent have recently been reported with these types of materials. As uranium concentration in seawater is only ~3 ppb, great improvements to uranium collection systems must be made in order to make uranium extraction from seawater economically feasible. This proposed research intends to develop transformative technologies for economic uranium extraction from seawater. The Lin group will design advanced porous supports by taking advantage of recent breakthroughs in nanoscience and nanotechnology and incorporate high densities of well-designed chelators into such nanoporous supports to allow selective and efficient binding of uranyl ions from seawater. Several classes of nanoporous materials, including mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs), mesoporous carbon nanoparticles (MCNs), meta-organic frameworks (MOFs), and covalent-organic frameworks (COFs), will be synthesized. Selective uranium-binding liagnds such as amidoxime will be incorporated into the nanoporous materials to afford a new generation of sorbent materials that will be evaluated for their uranium extraction efficiency. The initial testing of these materials for uranium binding will be carried out in the Lin group, but more detailed sorption studies will be carried out by Dr. Taylor-Pashow of Savannah River National Laboratory in order to obtain quantitative uranyl sorption selectivity and kinetics data for the proposed materials. The proposed nanostructured sorbent materials are expected to have higher binding capacities, enhanced extraction kinetics, optimal stripping efficiency for uranyl ions, and enhanced mechanical and chemical stabilities. This transformative research will significantly impact uranium extraction from seawater as well as benefit DOE’s efforts on environmental remediation by developing new materials and providing knowledge for enriching and sequestering ultralow concentrations of other metals.

  9. EPA Update: NESHAP Uranium Activities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    EPA Update: NESHAP Uranium Activities Reid J. Rosnick Environmental Protection Agency Radiation Protection Division (6608J) Washington, DC 20460 NMA/NRC Uranium Recovery Workshop July 2, 2009 #12 for underground uranium mining operations (Subpart B) EPA regulatory requirements for operating uranium mill

  10. Depleted argon from underground sources

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Back, H.O.; /Princeton U.; Alton, A.; /Augustana U. Coll.; Calaprice, F.; Galbiati, C.; Goretti, A.; /Princeton U.; Kendziora, C.; /Fermilab; Loer, B.; /Princeton U.; Montanari, D.; /Fermilab; Mosteiro, P.; /Princeton U.; Pordes, S.; /Fermilab

    2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Argon is a powerful scintillator and an excellent medium for detection of ionization. Its high discrimination power against minimum ionization tracks, in favor of selection of nuclear recoils, makes it an attractive medium for direct detection of WIMP dark matter. However, cosmogenic {sup 39}Ar contamination in atmospheric argon limits the size of liquid argon dark matter detectors due to pile-up. The cosmic ray shielding by the earth means that Argon from deep underground is depleted in {sup 39}Ar. In Cortez Colorado a CO{sub 2} well has been discovered to contain approximately 500ppm of argon as a contamination in the CO{sub 2}. In order to produce argon for dark matter detectors we first concentrate the argon locally to 3-5% in an Ar, N{sub 2}, and He mixture, from the CO{sub 2} through chromatographic gas separation. The N{sub 2} and He will be removed by continuous cryogenic distillation in the Cryogenic Distillation Column recently built at Fermilab. In this talk we will discuss the entire extraction and purification process; with emphasis on the recent commissioning and initial performance of the cryogenic distillation column purification.

  11. Method for cleaning bomb-reduced uranium derbies

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Banker, John G. (Boulder, CO); Wigginton, Hubert L. (Oak Ridge, TN); Beck, David E. (Knoxville, TN); Holcombe, Cressie E. (Knoxville, TN)

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The concentration of carbon in uranium metal ingots induction cast from derbies prepared by the bomb-reduction of uranium tetrafluoride in the presence of magnesium is effectively reduced to less than 100 ppm by removing residual magnesium fluoride from the surface of the derbies prior to casting. This magnesium fluoride is removed from the derbies by immersing them in an alkali metal salt bath which reacts with and decomposes the magnesium fluoride. A water quenching operation followed by a warm nitric acid bath and a water rinse removes the residual salt and reaction products from the derbies.

  12. Supporting Information (SI) TITLE: SPECTROSCOPIC EVIDENCE FOR URANIUM BEARING PRECIPITATES IN VADOSE ZONE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1 Supporting Information (SI) TITLE: SPECTROSCOPIC EVIDENCE FOR URANIUM BEARING PRECIPITATES, and -XRF, -XAS, and -XRD Analyses. SI-2: Total metal(loid) HF digestion and chemical analyses of uranium, T. R. A Practical Handbook of Seawater Analysis; Second ed.; Fisheries Research Board of Canada

  13. India's Worsening Uranium Shortage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Curtis, Michael M.

    2007-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    As a result of NSG restrictions, India cannot import the natural uranium required to fuel its Pressurized Heavy Water Reactors (PHWRs); consequently, it is forced to rely on the expediency of domestic uranium production. However, domestic production from mines and byproduct sources has not kept pace with demand from commercial reactors. This shortage has been officially confirmed by the Indian Planning Commission’s Mid-Term Appraisal of the country’s current Five Year Plan. The report stresses that as a result of the uranium shortage, Indian PHWR load factors have been continually decreasing. The Uranium Corporation of India Ltd (UCIL) operates a number of underground mines in the Singhbhum Shear Zone of Jharkhand, and it is all processed at a single mill in Jaduguda. UCIL is attempting to aggrandize operations by establishing new mines and mills in other states, but the requisite permit-gathering and development time will defer production until at least 2009. A significant portion of India’s uranium comes from byproduct sources, but a number of these are derived from accumulated stores that are nearing exhaustion. A current maximum estimate of indigenous uranium production is 430t/yr (230t from mines and 200t from byproduct sources); whereas, the current uranium requirement for Indian PHWRs is 455t/yr (depending on plant capacity factor). This deficit is exacerbated by the additional requirements of the Indian weapons program. Present power generation capacity of Indian nuclear plants is 4350 MWe. The power generation target set by the Indian Department of Atomic Energy (DAE) is 20,000 MWe by the year 2020. It is expected that around half of this total will be provided by PHWRs using indigenously supplied uranium with the bulk of the remainder provided by breeder reactors or pressurized water reactors using imported low-enriched uranium.

  14. Main story ? December EM Recovery Act newsletter

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Built in the mid-1950s and operated off and on until 1973, the complex converted depleted uranium hexafluoride to uranium metal, as well as uranium oxides and metal. About...

  15. Hot Extrusion of Alpha Phase Uranium-Zirconium Alloys for TRU Burning Fast Reactors 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hausaman, Jeffrey Stephen

    2012-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

    is that metal powders may be mixed and enclosed in process canisters to produce the desired composition and contain volatile components. Uranium powder was produced for the extrusion process by utilizing a hydride-dehydride process that was developed...

  16. Hot Extrusion of Alpha Phase Uranium-Zirconium Alloys for TRU Burning Fast Reactors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hausaman, Jeffrey Stephen

    2012-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

    is that metal powders may be mixed and enclosed in process canisters to produce the desired composition and contain volatile components. Uranium powder was produced for the extrusion process by utilizing a hydride-dehydride process that was developed...

  17. 300 AREA URANIUM CONTAMINATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    BORGHESE JV

    2009-07-02T23:59:59.000Z

    {sm_bullet} Uranium fuel production {sm_bullet} Test reactor and separations experiments {sm_bullet} Animal and radiobiology experiments conducted at the. 331 Laboratory Complex {sm_bullet} .Deactivation, decontamination, decommissioning,. and demolition of 300 Area facilities

  18. Strategy for Characterizing Transuranics and Technetium Contamination in Depleted UF{sub 6} Cylinders

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hightower, J.R.

    2000-10-26T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes results of a study performed to develop a strategy for characterization of low levels of radioactive contaminants [plutonium (Pu), neptunium (Np), americium (Am), and technetium (Tc)] in depleted uranium hexafluoride (DUF{sub 6}) cylinders at the gaseous diffusion plants in Oak Ridge, Tennessee; Paducah, Kentucky; and Piketon, Ohio. In these gaseous diffusion plants, this radioactivity came from enriching recycled uranium (the so-called ''reactor returns'') from Savannah River, South Carolina, and Hanford, Washington, reactors. Results of this study will be used to support a request for proposals to design, build, and operate facilities to convert the DUF{sub 6} to more chemically stable forms. These facilities would need to be designed to handle any transuranic contaminants that might be present in order to (1) protect the workers' health and safety and (2) protect the public and the environment.

  19. Selective elution of uranium from amidoxime polymer. I

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hirotsu, T.; Katoh, S.; Sugasaka, K.; Takai, N.; Seno, M.; Itagaki, T.

    1987-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The separative elution of uranium from an amidoxime polymer was examined by the column method with hydrochloric acid solutions. The amidoxime polymer was immersed in seawater for 40 d for preparation of an uranium-loaded polymer sample for the elution experiments; the metal ions adsorbed were Mg(II), Ca(II), Fe(III), Ni(II), Cu(II), and Zn(II) as well as UO/sub 2/(VI). It was found from the pH dependence of elution extent by a batch method that the order of elution pH values is Fe(III) < UO/sub 2/(VI) < Cu(II) < Ni(II) < Zn(II) < Ca(II) < Mg(II). In the elution by a column method, Mg(II), Ca(II), Zn(II), and Ni(II) were eluted completely by 0.1 M HCl and the eluate of enriched uranium was obtained by a succeeding elution with 0.5 or 1 M HCl. This eluate contained Cu(II) and Fe(III), which could be removed in the succeeding step. The elution treatment with hydrochloric acid solutions hardly affected the adsorptivity for uranium in seawater. It was suggested that the elution of uranium with hydrochloric acid solutions from amidoxime polymers is satisfactorily applicable to uranium elution in the recovery of uranium from seawater with amidoxime polymers.

  20. Aluminum and polymeric coatings for protection of uranium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Colmenares, C.; McCreary, T.; Monaco, S.; Walkup, C.; Gleeson, G.; Kervin, J.; Smith, R.L.; McCaffrey, C.

    1983-12-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Ion-plated aluminum films on uranium will not provide adequate protection for 25 years. Magnetron-plated aluminum films on uranium are much better than ion-plated ones. Kel-F 800 films on uranium can provide adequate protection for 25 years. Their use in production must be delayed until the following factors are sorted out: water permeability in Kel-F 800 must be determined between 30 and 60/sup 0/C; the effect of UF/sub 3/, at the Kel-F/metal interface, on the permeability of water must be assessed; and the effect of crystallinity on water permeability must be evaluated. Applying Kel-F films on aluminum ion-plated uranium provides a good interim solution for long term storage.

  1. Uranium Exerts Acute Toxicity by Binding to Pyrroloquinoline Quinone Cofactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michael R. VanEngelen; Robert I. Szilagyi; Robin Gerlach; Brady E. Lee; William A. Apel; Brent M. Peyton

    2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Uranium as an environmental contaminant has been shown to be toxic to eukaryotes and prokaryotes; however, no specific mechanisms of uranium toxicity have been proposed so far. Here a combination of in vivo, in vitro, and in silico studies are presented describing direct inhibition of pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ)-dependent growth and metabolism by uranyl cations. Electrospray-ionization mass spectroscopy, UV-vis optical spectroscopy, competitive Ca2+/uranyl binding studies, relevant crystal structures, and molecular modeling unequivocally indicate the preferred binding of uranyl simultaneously to the carboxyl oxygen, pyridine nitrogen, and quinone oxygen of the PQQ molecule. The observed toxicity patterns are consistent with the biotic ligand model of acute metal toxicity. In addition to the environmental implications, this work represents the first proposed molecular mechanism of uranium toxicity in bacteria, and has relevance for uranium toxicity in many living systems.

  2. Draft Supplement Analysis for Location(s) to Dispose of Depleted Uranium Oxide Conversion Product Generated from DOE'S Inventory of Depleted Uranium Hexafluoride

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742EnergyOn AprilA Approved:AdministrationAnalysisDarby/%2AO 474.2 ChgQuestions and AnswersDRAFT

  3. Biogeochemical Processes In Ethanol Stimulated Uranium Contaminated...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Processes In Ethanol Stimulated Uranium Contaminated Subsurface Sediments. Biogeochemical Processes In Ethanol Stimulated Uranium Contaminated Subsurface Sediments. Abstract: A...

  4. Analysis of Serum Total and Free PSA Using Immunoaffinity Depletion...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Immunoaffinity Depletion Coupled to SRM: Correlation with Clinical Immunoassay Tests. Analysis of Serum Total and Free PSA Using Immunoaffinity Depletion Coupled to SRM:...

  5. Gold, silver and uranium from seas and oceans

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Necker, M.B.

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This book reports on the emerging technology on the extraction of scarce and valuable metals from the seas, oceans, sea sediments and dilute solutions, and particularly of gold, silver and uranium, that has been surveyed and critically evaluated. The emphasis has been laid on gold and uranium since they are the most coveted metals. Co-recovery of these elements with others which are present in seawater, e.g. lithium, vanadium, magnesium, has also been described. The seas, oceans and sea sediments comprise enormous amounts of valuable metals worth trillions of dollars. Because of very high dilution the conventional technological methods for their recovery cannot be applied. Intensive R and D and engineering studies are underway. They undoubtedly will advance the day when a profitable recovery of the scarce and valuable metals from the seas, oceans, sea sediments, and other dilute solutions, will become a reality.

  6. Molten salt extraction of transuranic and reactive fission products from used uranium oxide fuel

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Herrmann, Steven Douglas

    2014-05-27T23:59:59.000Z

    Used uranium oxide fuel is detoxified by extracting transuranic and reactive fission products into molten salt. By contacting declad and crushed used uranium oxide fuel with a molten halide salt containing a minor fraction of the respective uranium trihalide, transuranic and reactive fission products partition from the fuel to the molten salt phase, while uranium oxide and non-reactive, or noble metal, fission products remain in an insoluble solid phase. The salt is then separated from the fuel via draining and distillation. By this method, the bulk of the decay heat, fission poisoning capacity, and radiotoxicity are removed from the used fuel. The remaining radioactivity from the noble metal fission products in the detoxified fuel is primarily limited to soft beta emitters. The extracted transuranic and reactive fission products are amenable to existing technologies for group uranium/transuranic product recovery and fission product immobilization in engineered waste forms.

  7. Final report to the strategic environmental research and development program on near-net shape casting of uranium-6% niobium alloys

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gourdin, W.H.

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Fabrication methods traditionally used in the fabrication of depleted uranium parts within the Department of Energy (DOE) are extremely wasteful, with only 3% of the starting material actually appearing as finished product. The current effort, funded by the Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program (SERDP) at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque (SNLA), and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), was conceived as a means to drastically reduce this inefficiency and the accompanying waste by demonstrating the technology to cast simple parts close to their final shape in molds made from a variety of materials. As a part of this coordinated study, LLNL was given, and has achieved, two primary objectives: (1) to demonstrate the feasibility of using refractory metal for reusable molds in the production of castings of uranium-6 wt% niobium alloy (U-6Nb); and (2) to demonstrate the utility of detailed simulations of thermal and fluid flow characteristics in the understanding and improvement of the near-net shape casting process. In both cases, our efforts were focused on a flat plate castings, which serve as simple prototypical parts. This report summarizes the results of LLNL work in each area.

  8. Preparation and Characterization of Uranium Oxides in Support of the K Basin Sludge Treatment Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sinkov, Sergey I.; Delegard, Calvin H.; Schmidt, Andrew J.

    2008-07-08T23:59:59.000Z

    Uraninite (UO2) and metaschoepite (UO3·2H2O) are the uranium phases most frequently observed in K Basin sludge. Uraninite arises from the oxidation of uranium metal by anoxic water and metaschoepite arises from oxidation of uraninite by atmospheric or radiolytic oxygen. Studies of the oxidation of uraninite by oxygen to form metaschoepite were performed at 21°C and 50°C. A uranium oxide oxidation state characterization method based on spectrophotometry of the solution formed by dissolving aqueous slurries in phosphoric acid was developed to follow the extent of reaction. This method may be applied to determine uranium oxide oxidation state distribution in K Basin sludge. The uraninite produced by anoxic corrosion of uranium metal has exceedingly fine particle size (6 nm diameter), forms agglomerates, and has the formula UO2.004±0.007; i.e., is practically stoichiometric UO2. The metaschoepite particles are flatter and wider when prepared at 21°C than the particles prepared at 50°C. These particles are much smaller than the metaschoepite observed in prolonged exposure of actual K Basin sludge to warm moist oxidizing conditions. The uraninite produced by anoxic uranium metal corrosion and the metaschoepite produced by reaction of uraninite aqueous slurries with oxygen may be used in engineering and process development testing. A rapid alternative method to determine uranium metal concentrations in sludge also was identified.

  9. Uranium-titanium-niobium alloy

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ludtka, Gail M. (Oak Ridge, TN); Ludtka, Gerard M. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A uranium alloy having small additions of Ti and Nb shows improved strength and ductility in cross section of greater than one inch over prior uranium alloy having only Ti as an alloying element.

  10. Fabrication of Cerium Oxide and Uranium Oxide Microspheres for Space Nuclear Power Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jeffrey A. Katalenich; Michael R. Hartman; Robert C. O'Brien

    2013-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Cerium oxide and uranium oxide microspheres are being produced via an internal gelation sol-gel method to investigate alternative fabrication routes for space nuclear fuels. Depleted uranium and non-radioactive cerium are being utilized as surrogates for plutonium-238 (Pu-238) used in radioisotope thermoelectric generators and for enriched uranium required by nuclear thermal rockets. While current methods used to produce Pu-238 fuels at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) involve the generation of fine powders that pose a respiratory hazard and have a propensity to contaminate glove boxes, the sol-gel route allows for the generation of oxide microsphere fuels through an aqueous route. The sol-gel method does not generate fine powders and may require fewer processing steps than the LANL method with less operator handling. High-quality cerium dioxide microspheres have been fabricated in the desired size range and equipment is being prepared to establish a uranium dioxide microsphere production capability.

  11. Uranium hexafluoride handling. Proceedings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The United States Department of Energy, Oak Ridge Field Office, and Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., are co-sponsoring this Second International Conference on Uranium Hexafluoride Handling. The conference is offered as a forum for the exchange of information and concepts regarding the technical and regulatory issues and the safety aspects which relate to the handling of uranium hexafluoride. Through the papers presented here, we attempt not only to share technological advances and lessons learned, but also to demonstrate that we are concerned about the health and safety of our workers and the public, and are good stewards of the environment in which we all work and live. These proceedings are a compilation of the work of many experts in that phase of world-wide industry which comprises the nuclear fuel cycle. Their experience spans the entire range over which uranium hexafluoride is involved in the fuel cycle, from the production of UF{sub 6} from the naturally-occurring oxide to its re-conversion to oxide for reactor fuels. The papers furnish insights into the chemical, physical, and nuclear properties of uranium hexafluoride as they influence its transport, storage, and the design and operation of plant-scale facilities for production, processing, and conversion to oxide. The papers demonstrate, in an industry often cited for its excellent safety record, continuing efforts to further improve safety in all areas of handling uranium hexafluoride. Selected papers were processed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  12. Material accountancy for metallic fuel pin casting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bucher, R.G.; Orechwa, Y.; Beitel, J.C.

    1995-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The operation of the Fuel Conditioning Facility (FCF) is based on the electrometallurgical processing of spent metallic reactor fuel. The pin casting operation, although only one of several operations in FCF, was the first to be on-line. As such, it has served to demonstrate the material accountancy system in many of its facets. This paper details, for the operation of the pin casting process with depleted uranium, the interaction between the mass tracking system (MTG) and some of the ancillary computer codes which generate pertinent information for operations and material accountancy. It is necessary to distinguish between two types of material balance calculations -- closeout for operations and material accountancy for safeguards. The two have much in common, for example, the mass tracking system database and the calculation of an inventory difference, but, in general, are not congruent with regard to balance period and balance spatial domain. Moreover, the objective, assessment, and reporting requirements of the calculated inventory difference are very different in the two cases.

  13. Investigation of breached depleted UF{sub 6} cylinders

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DeVan, J.H. [Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    1991-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    In June 1990, during a three-site inspection of cylinders being used for long-term storage of solid depleted UF{sub 6}, two 14-ton cylinders at Portsmouth, Ohio, were discovered with holes in the barrel section of the cylinders. An investigation team was immediately formed to determine the cause of the failures and their impact on future storage procedures and to recommend corrective actions. Subsequent investigation showed that the failures most probably resulted from mechanical damage that occurred at the time that the cylinders had been placed in the storage yard. In both cylinders evidence pointed to the impact of a lifting lug of an adjacent cylinder near the front stiffening ring, where deflection of the cylinder could occur only by tearing the cylinder. The impacts appear to have punctured the cylinders and thereby set up corrosion processes that greatly extended the openings in the wall and obliterated the original crack. Fortunately, the reaction products formed by this process were relatively protective and prevented any large-scale loss of uranium. The main factors that precipitated the failures were inadequate spacing between cylinders and deviations in the orientations of lifting lugs from their intended horizontal position. After reviewing the causes and effects of the failures, the team`s principal recommendation for remedial action concerned improved cylinder handling and inspection procedures. Design modifications and supplementary mechanical tests were also recommended to improve the cylinder containment integrity during the stacking operation.

  14. Investigation of breached depleted UF sub 6 cylinders

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DeVan, J.H.

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In June 1990, during a three-site inspection of cylinders being used for long-term storage of solid depleted UF{sub 6}, two 14-ton cylinders at Portsmouth, Ohio, were discovered with holes in the barrel section of the cylinders. An investigation team was immediately formed to determine the cause of the failures and their impact on future storage procedures and to recommend corrective actions. Subsequent investigation showed that the failures most probably resulted from mechanical damage that occurred at the time that the cylinders had been placed in the storage yard. In both cylinders evidence pointed to the impact of a lifting lug of an adjacent cylinder near the front stiffening ring, where deflection of cylinder could occur only by tearing the cylinder. The impacts appear to have punctured the cylinders and thereby set up corrosion processes that greatly extended the openings in the wall and obliterated the original crack. Fortunately, the reaction products formed by this process were relatively protective and prevented any large-scale loss of uranium. The main factors that precipitated the failures were inadequate spacing between cylinders and deviations in the orientations of lifting lugs from their intended horizontal position. After reviewing the causes and effects of the failures, the team's principal recommendation for remedial action concerned improved cylinder handling and inspection procedures. Design modifications and supplementary mechanical tests were also recommended to improve the cylinder containment integrity during the stacking operation. 4 refs., 2 figs.

  15. Preserving Ultra-Pure Uranium-233

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krichinsky, Alan M [ORNL; Goldberg, Dr. Steven A. [DOE SC - Chicago Office; Hutcheon, Dr. Ian D. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL)

    2011-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Uranium-233 ({sup 233}U) is a synthetic isotope of uranium formed under reactor conditions during neutron capture by natural thorium ({sup 232}Th). At high purities, this synthetic isotope serves as a crucial reference material for accurately quantifying and characterizing uranium-bearing materials assays and isotopic distributions for domestic and international nuclear safeguards. Separated, high purity {sup 233}U is stored in vaults at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). These materials represent a broad spectrum of {sup 233}U from the standpoint of isotopic purity - the purest being crucial for precise analyses in safeguarding uranium. All {sup 233}U at ORNL is currently scheduled to be disposed of by down-blending with depleted uranium beginning in 2015. This will reduce safety concerns and security costs associated with storage. Down-blending this material will permanently destroy its potential value as a certified reference material for use in uranium analyses. Furthermore, no credible options exist for replacing {sup 233}U due to the lack of operating production capability and the high cost of restarting currently shut down capabilities. A study was commissioned to determine the need for preserving high-purity {sup 233}U. This study looked at the current supply and the historical and continuing domestic need for this crucial isotope. It examined the gap in supplies and uses to meet domestic needs and extrapolated them in the context of international safeguards and security activities - superimposed on the recognition that existing supplies are being depleted while candidate replacement material is being prepared for disposal. This study found that the total worldwide need by this projection is at least 850 g of certified {sup 233}U reference material over the next 50 years. This amount also includes a strategic reserve. To meet this need, 18 individual items totaling 959 g of {sup 233}U were identified as candidates for establishing a lasting supply of certified reference materials (CRM), all having an isotopic purity of at least 99.4% {sup 233}U and including materials up to 99.996% purity. Current plans include rescuing the purest {sup 233}U materials during a 3-year project beginning in FY 2012 in three phases involving preparations, handling preserved materials, and cleanup. The first year will involve preparations for handling the rescued material for sampling, analysis, distribution, and storage. Such preparations involve modifying or developing work control documents and physical preparations in the laboratory, which include preparing space for new material-handling equipment and procuring and (in some cases) refurbishing equipment needed for handling {sup 233}U or qualifying candidate CRM. Once preparations are complete, an evaluation of readiness will be conducted by independent reviewers to verify that the equipment, work controls, and personnel are ready for operations involving handling radioactive materials with nuclear criticality safety as well as radiological control requirements. The material-handling phase will begin in FY 2013 and be completed early in FY 2014, as currently scheduled. Material handling involves retrieving candidate CRM items from the ORNL storage facility and shipping them to another laboratory at ORNL; receiving and handling rescued items at the laboratory (including any needed initial processing, acquisition and analysis of samples from each item, and preparation for shipment); and shipping bulk material to destination labs or to a yet-to-be-designated storage location. There are seven groups of {sup 233}U identified for handling based on isotopic purity that require the utmost care to prevent cross-contamination. The last phase, cleanup, also will be completed in 2014. It involves cleaning and removing the equipment and material-handling boxes and characterizing, documenting, and disposing of waste. As part of initial planning, the cost of rescuing candidate {sup 233}U items was estimated roughly. The annualized costs were found to be $1,228K in FY 2012, $1,375K in FY 2013,

  16. Uranium immobilization and nuclear waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Duffy, C.J.; Ogard, A.E.

    1982-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Considerable information useful in nuclear waste storage can be gained by studying the conditions of uranium ore deposit formation. Further information can be gained by comparing the chemistry of uranium to nuclear fission products and other radionuclides of concern to nuclear waste disposal. Redox state appears to be the most important variable in controlling uranium solubility, especially at near neutral pH, which is characteristic of most ground water. This is probably also true of neptunium, plutonium, and technetium. Further, redox conditions that immobilize uranium should immobilize these elements. The mechanisms that have produced uranium ore bodies in the Earth's crust are somewhat less clear. At the temperatures of hydrothermal uranium deposits, equilibrium models are probably adequate, aqueous uranium (VI) being reduced and precipitated by interaction with ferrous-iron-bearing oxides and silicates. In lower temperature roll-type uranium deposits, overall equilibrium may not have been achieved. The involvement of sulfate-reducing bacteria in ore-body formation has been postulated, but is uncertain. Reduced sulfur species do, however, appear to be involved in much of the low temperature uranium precipitation. Assessment of the possibility of uranium transport in natural ground water is complicated because the system is generally not in overall equilibrium. For this reason, Eh measurements are of limited value. If a ground water is to be capable of reducing uranium, it must contain ions capable of reducing uranium both thermodynamically and kinetically. At present, the best candidates are reduced sulfur species.

  17. New type of amidoxime-group-containing adsorbent for the recovery of uranium from seawater

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Omichi, H.; Katakai, A.; Sugo, T.; Okamoto, J.

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A new type of adsorbent containing amidoxime groups for the recovery of uranium from seawater was synthesized by the radiation-induced graft polymerization of acrylonitrile onto polymeric fiber followed by amidoximation with hydroxylamine. When amidoxime groups were introduced superficially on the fiber, the amount of uranium adsorbed by the amidoxime groups was higher than that with the amidoxime groups introduced homogeneously in the fiber. The introduction of the poly(acrylic acid) chain and the increase in temperature and flow rate in the adsorption process were effective in increasing the amount of adsorbed uranium. Although alkali metals and alkaline earth metals were found in the adsorbent, the concentration factors for these metals were less than 1/10/sup 3/ of that for uranium. The present adsorbent had a high stability to various treatments such as contact with alkali and seawater. 24 references, 9 figures, 3 tables.

  18. The New MCNP6 Depletion Capability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fensin, Michael Lorne [Los Alamos National Laboratory; James, Michael R. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hendricks, John S. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Goorley, John T. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-06-19T23:59:59.000Z

    The first MCNP based inline Monte Carlo depletion capability was officially released from the Radiation Safety Information and Computational Center as MCNPX 2.6.0. Both the MCNP5 and MCNPX codes have historically provided a successful combinatorial geometry based, continuous energy, Monte Carlo radiation transport solution for advanced reactor modeling and simulation. However, due to separate development pathways, useful simulation capabilities were dispersed between both codes and not unified in a single technology. MCNP6, the next evolution in the MCNP suite of codes, now combines the capability of both simulation tools, as well as providing new advanced technology, in a single radiation transport code. We describe here the new capabilities of the MCNP6 depletion code dating from the official RSICC release MCNPX 2.6.0, reported previously, to the now current state of MCNP6. NEA/OECD benchmark results are also reported. The MCNP6 depletion capability enhancements beyond MCNPX 2.6.0 reported here include: (1) new performance enhancing parallel architecture that implements both shared and distributed memory constructs; (2) enhanced memory management that maximizes calculation fidelity; and (3) improved burnup physics for better nuclide prediction. MCNP6 depletion enables complete, relatively easy-to-use depletion calculations in a single Monte Carlo code. The enhancements described here help provide a powerful capability as well as dictate a path forward for future development to improve the usefulness of the technology.

  19. Neutral depletion and the helicon density limit

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Magee, R. M.; Galante, M. E.; Carr, J. Jr.; Lusk, G.; McCarren, D. W.; Scime, E. E. [West Virginia University, Morgantown, West Virginia 26506 (United States)] [West Virginia University, Morgantown, West Virginia 26506 (United States)

    2013-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    It is straightforward to create fully ionized plasmas with modest rf power in a helicon. It is difficult, however, to create plasmas with density >10{sup 20} m{sup ?3}, because neutral depletion leads to a lack of fuel. In order to address this density limit, we present fast (1 MHz), time-resolved measurements of the neutral density at and downstream from the rf antenna in krypton helicon plasmas. At the start of the discharge, the neutral density underneath the antenna is reduced to 1% of its initial value in 15 ?s. The ionization rate inferred from these data implies that the electron temperature near the antenna is much higher than the electron temperature measured downstream. Neutral density measurements made downstream from the antenna show much slower depletion, requiring 14 ms to decrease by a factor of 1/e. Furthermore, the downstream depletion appears to be due to neutral pumping rather than ionization.

  20. Literature information applicable to the reaction of uranium oxides with chlorine to prepare uranium tetrachloride

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Haas, P.A.

    1992-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The reaction of uranium oxides and chlorine to prepare anhydrous uranium tetrachloride (UCl{sub 4}) are important to more economical preparation of uranium metal. The most practical reactions require carbon or carbon monoxide (CO) to give CO or carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) as waste gases. The chemistry of U-O-Cl compounds is very complex with valances of 3, 4, 5, and 6 and with stable oxychlorides. Literature was reviewed to collect thermochemical data, phase equilibrium information, and results of experimental studies. Calculations using thermodynamic data can identify the probable reactions, but the results are uncertain. All the U-O-Cl compounds have large free energies of formation and the calculations give uncertain small differences of large numbers. The phase diagram for UCl{sub 4}-UO{sub 2} shows a reaction to form uranium oxychloride (UOCl{sub 2}) that has a good solubility in molten UCl{sub 4}. This appears more favorable to good rates of reaction than reaction of solids and gases. There is limited information on U-O-Cl salt properties. Information on the preparation of titanium, zirconium, silicon, and thorium tetrachlorides (TiCl{sub 4}, ZrCl{sub 4}, SiCl{sub 4}, ThCl{sub 4}) by reaction of oxides with chlorine (Cl{sub 2}) and carbon has application to the preparation of UCl{sub 4}.

  1. Cumulative theoretical uncertainties in lithium depletion boundary age

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tognelli, Emanuele; Degl'Innocenti, Scilla

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We performed a detailed analysis of the main theoretical uncertainties affecting the age at the lithium depletion boundary (LDB). To do that we computed almost 12000 pre-main sequence models with mass in the range [0.06, 0.4] M_sun by varying input physics (nuclear reaction cross-sections, plasma electron screening, outer boundary conditions, equation of state, and radiative opacity), initial chemical elements abundances (total metallicity, helium and deuterium abundances, and heavy elements mixture), and convection efficiency (mixing length parameter, alpha_ML). As a first step, we studied the effect of varying these quantities individually within their extreme values. Then, we analysed the impact of simultaneously perturbing the main input/parameters without an a priori assumption of independence. Such an approach allowed us to build for the first time the cumulative error stripe, which defines the edges of the maximum uncertainty region in the theoretical LDB age. We found that the cumulative error stripe ...

  2. Uranium from Seawater Program Review; Fuel Resources Uranium from Seawater Program DOE Office of Nuclear Energy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    For nuclear energy to remain sustainable in the United States, economically viable sources of uranium beyond terrestrial ores must be developed. The goal of this program is to develop advanced adsorbents that can extract uranium from seawater at twice the capacity of the best adsorbent developed by researchers at the Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), 1.5 mg U/g adsorbent. A multidisciplinary team from Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, and the University of Texas at Austin was assembled to address this challenging problem. Polymeric adsorbents, based on the radiation grafting of acrylonitrile and methacrylic acid onto high surface-area polyethylene fibers followed by conversion of the nitriles to amidoximes, have been developed. These poly(acrylamidoxime-co-methacrylic acid) fibers showed uranium adsorption capacities for the extraction of uranium from seawater that exceed 3 mg U/g adsorbent in testing at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Marine Sciences Laboratory. The essence of this novel technology lies in the unique high surface-area trunk material that considerably increases the grafting yield of functional groups without compromising its mechanical properties. This technology received an R&D100 Award in 2012. In addition, high surface area nanomaterial adsorbents are under development with the goal of increasing uranium adsorption capacity by taking advantage of the high surface areas and tunable porosity of carbon-based nanomaterials. Simultaneously, de novo structure-based computational design methods are being used to design more selective and stable ligands and the most promising candidates are being synthesized, tested and evaluated for incorporation onto a support matrix. Fundamental thermodynamic and kinetic studies are being carried out to improve the adsorption efficiency, the selectivity of uranium over other metals, and the stability of the adsorbents. Understanding the rate-limiting step of uranium uptake from seawater is also essential in designing an effective uranium recovery system. Finally, economic analyses have been used to guide these studies and highlight what parameters, such as capacity, recyclability, and stability, have the largest impact on the cost of extraction of uranium from seawater. Initially, the cost estimates by the JAEA for extraction of uranium from seawater with braided polymeric fibers functionalized with amidoxime ligands were evaluated and updated. The economic analyses were subsequently updated to reflect the results of this project while providing insight for cost reductions in the adsorbent development through “cradle-to-grave” case studies for the extraction process. This report highlights the progress made over the last three years on the design, synthesis, and testing of new materials to extract uranium for seawater. This report is organized into sections that highlight the major research activities in this project: (1) Chelate Design and Modeling, (2) Thermodynamics, Kinetics and Structure, (3) Advanced Polymeric Adsorbents by Radiation Induced Grafting, (4) Advanced Nanomaterial Adsorbents, (5) Adsorbent Screening and Modeling, (6) Marine Testing, and (7) Cost and Energy Assessment. At the end of each section, future research directions are briefly discussed to highlight the challenges that still remain to reduce the cost of extractions of uranium for seawater. Finally, contributions from the Nuclear Energy University Programs (NEUP), which complement this research program, are included at the end of this report.

  3. Validation of a Monte Carlo based depletion methodology via High Flux Isotope Reactor HEU post-irradiation examination measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chandler, David [ORNL; Maldonado, G Ivan [ORNL; Primm, Trent [ORNL

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this study is to validate a Monte Carlo based depletion methodology by comparing calculated post-irradiation uranium isotopic compositions in the fuel elements of the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) core to values measured using uranium mass-spectrographic analysis. Three fuel plates were analyzed: two from the outer fuel element (OFE) and one from the inner fuel element (IFE). Fuel plates O-111-8, O-350-1, and I-417-24 from outer fuel elements 5-O and 21-O and inner fuel element 49-I, respectively, were selected for examination. Fuel elements 5-O, 21-O, and 49-1 were loaded into HFIR during cycles 4, 16, and 35, respectively (mid to late 1960s). Approximately one year after each of these elements were irradiated, they were transferred to the High Radiation Level Examination Laboratory (HRLEL) where samples from these fuel plates were sectioned and examined via uranium mass-spectrographic analysis. The isotopic composition of each of the samples was used to determine the atomic percent of the uranium isotopes. A Monte Carlo based depletion computer program, ALEPH, which couples the MCNP and ORIGEN codes, was utilized to calculate the nuclide inventory at the end-of-cycle (EOC). A current ALEPH/MCNP input for HFIR fuel cycle 400 was modified to replicate cycles 4, 16, and 35. The control element withdrawal curves and flux trap loadings were revised, as well as the radial zone boundaries and nuclide concentrations in the MCNP model. The calculated EOC uranium isotopic compositions for the analyzed plates were found to be in good agreement with measurements, which reveals that ALEPH/MCNP can accurately calculate burn-up dependent uranium isotopic concentrations for the HFIR core. The spatial power distribution in HFIR changes significantly as irradiation time increases due to control element movement. Accurate calculation of the end-of-life uranium isotopic inventory is a good indicator that the power distribution variation as a function of space and time is accurately calculated, i.e. an integral check. Hence, the time dependent heat generation source terms needed for reactor core thermal hydraulic analysis, if derived from this methodology, have been shown to be accurate for highly enriched uranium (HEU) fuel.

  4. Uranium from seawater

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gregg, D.; Folkendt, M.

    1982-09-21T23:59:59.000Z

    A novel process for recovering uranium from seawater is proposed and some of the critical technical parameters are evaluated. The process, in summary, consists of two different options for contacting adsorbant pellets with seawater without pumping the seawater. It is expected that this will reduce the mass handling requirements, compared to pumped seawater systems, by a factor of approximately 10/sup 5/, which should also result in a large reduction in initial capital investment. Activated carbon, possibly in combination with a small amount of dissolved titanium hydroxide, is expected to be the preferred adsorbant material instead of the commonly assumed titanium hydroxide alone. The activated carbon, after exposure to seawater, can be stripped of uranium with an appropriate eluant (probably an acid) or can be burned for its heating value (possible in a power plant) leaving the uranium further enriched in its ash. The uranium, representing about 1% of the ash, is then a rich ore and would be recovered in a conventional manner. Experimental results have indicated that activated carbon, acting alone, is not adequately effective in adsorbing the uranium from seawater. We measured partition coefficients (concentration ratios) of approximately 10/sup 3/ in seawater instead of the reported values of 10/sup 5/. However, preliminary tests carried out in fresh water show considerable promise for an extraction system that uses a combination of dissolved titanium hydroxide (in minute amounts) which forms an insoluble compound with the uranyl ion, and the insoluble compound then being sorbed out on activated carbon. Such a system showed partition coefficients in excess of 10/sup 5/ in fresh water. However, the system was not tested in seawater.

  5. Nuclear conflict and ozone depletion Quick summary

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Toohey, Darin W.

    Nuclear conflict and ozone depletion Quick summary o Regional nuclear war could cause global which traps pollutants o Nuclear weapons cause explosions, which then causes things around the vicinity to start burning, which in turn releases black carbon; it is not the nuclear material or fallout causing

  6. THE RIMINI PROTOCOL Oil Depletion Protocol

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Keeling, Stephen L.

    Soaring oil prices have drawn attention to the issue of the relative supply and demand for crude oil1 THE RIMINI PROTOCOL an Oil Depletion Protocol ~ Heading Off Economic Chaos and Political Conflict During the Second Half of the Age of Oil As proposed at the 2003 Pio Manzu Conference

  7. Commonness, population depletion and conservation biology

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Queensland, University of

    and alleviate significant depletion events. Priority species Judgements about extinction risk are key drivers to be targets for conservation invest- ment. Indeed, high extinction risk typifies the most iconic species, flagship or indicator species [2­4]), the use of extinction risk to set conservation priorities has

  8. Method of preparation of uranium nitride

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kiplinger, Jaqueline Loetsch; Thomson, Robert Kenneth James

    2013-07-09T23:59:59.000Z

    Method for producing terminal uranium nitride complexes comprising providing a suitable starting material comprising uranium; oxidizing the starting material with a suitable oxidant to produce one or more uranium(IV)-azide complexes; and, sufficiently irradiating the uranium(IV)-azide complexes to produce the terminal uranium nitride complexes.

  9. BIOSORPTION OF URANIUM ON SARGASSUM BIOMASS JINBAI YANG and BOHUMIL VOLESKY*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Volesky, Bohumil

    (Ashley and Roach, 1990; Macaskie, 1991). Uranium is one of the most seriously threa- tening heavy metals contami- nation poses a threat in some surface and ground- waters (Laul, 1992; White, 1983). Various non in binding heavy metal ions of gold, cadmium, copper and zinc etc. (Volesky and Holan, 1995). The high sorp

  10. Method for fabricating uranium foils and uranium alloy foils

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hofman, Gerard L. (Downers Grove, IL); Meyer, Mitchell K. (Idaho Falls, ID); Knighton, Gaven C. (Moore, ID); Clark, Curtis R. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    2006-09-05T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of producing thin foils of uranium or an alloy. The uranium or alloy is cast as a plate or sheet having a thickness less than about 5 mm and thereafter cold rolled in one or more passes at substantially ambient temperatures until the uranium or alloy thereof is in the shape of a foil having a thickness less than about 1.0 mm. The uranium alloy includes one or more of Zr, Nb, Mo, Cr, Fe, Si, Ni, Cu or Al.

  11. Evaluation of integrated data sets: four examples. [Uranium deposits (exploration)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bolivar, S.L.; Freeman, S.B.; Weaver, T.A.

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Several large data sets have been integrated and utilized for rapid evaluation on a reconnaissance scale for the Montrose 1/sup 0/ x 2/sup 0/ quadrangle, Colorado. The data sets include Landsat imagery, hydrogeochemical and stream sediment analyses, airborne geophysical data, known mineral occurrences, and a geologic map. All data sets were registered to a 179 x 119 rectangular grid and projected onto Universal Transverse Mercator coordinates. A grid resolution of 1 km was used. All possible combinations of three, for most data sets, were examined for general geologic correlations by utilizing a color microfilm output. In addition, gray-level pictures of statistical output, e.g., factor analysis, have been employed to aid evaluations. Examples for the data sets dysprosium-calcium, lead-copper-zinc, and equivalent uranium-uranium in water-uranium in sediment are described with respect to geologic applications, base-metal regimes, and geochemical associations.

  12. Uranium for hydrogen storage applications : a materials science perspective.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shugard, Andrew D.; Tewell, Craig R.; Cowgill, Donald F.; Kolasinski, Robert D.

    2010-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Under appropriate conditions, uranium will form a hydride phase when exposed to molecular hydrogen. This makes it quite valuable for a variety of applications within the nuclear industry, particularly as a storage medium for tritium. However, some aspects of the U+H system have been characterized much less extensively than other common metal hydrides (particularly Pd+H), likely due to radiological concerns associated with handling. To assess the present understanding, we review the existing literature database for the uranium hydride system in this report and identify gaps in the existing knowledge. Four major areas are emphasized: {sup 3}He release from uranium tritides, the effects of surface contamination on H uptake, the kinetics of the hydride phase formation, and the thermal desorption properties. Our review of these areas is then used to outline potential avenues of future research.

  13. 220 words

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    for summer 2011 demolition. Used from the early 1950s to the early 1970s to convert depleted uranium hexafluoride into uranium metal and uranium tetrafluoride, it had been...

  14. April 2011 Recovery News

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Plant spanned roughly 65,000 square feet and operated from 1953-62 and 1968-73 to convert depleted uranium hexafluoride (UF 6 ) into uranium metal and uranium tetrafluoride. It is...

  15. Recovery of uranium from seawater

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sugasaka, K. (Government Industrial Research Inst., Shikoku, Japan); Katoh, S.; Takai, N.; Takahashi, H.; Umezawa, Y.

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Seawater contains various elements in solution. Deuterium, lithium, and uranium are the important ingredients for energy application at present and in the future. This paper deals with the recovery of uranium from seawater, with emphasis on the development of an adsorbent with high selectivity and rate of adsorption for uranium. Polyacrylamidoxime chelating resins were synthesized from various co-polymers of acrylonitrile and cross-linking agents. The resulting resins with the chelating amidoxime group showed selective adsorption for uranium in seawater. The amount of uranium adsorbed from seawater at room temperature reached 3.2 mg/g resin after 180 days. Polyacrylamidoxime fiber, which was prepared from polyacrylonitrile fiber and hydroxylamine, showed a high rate of adsorption for uranium. The polyacrylamidoxime fiber conditioned with 1 M HC1 and 1 M NaOH adsorbed 4 mg U/g fiber from seawater in ten days. 9 figures, 6 tables.

  16. Uranium effluent testing for the Oak Ridge Toxic Substances Control Act mixed waste incinerator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shor, J.T. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Bostick, W.D.; Hoffmann, D.P.; Gibson, L.V. Jr. [Oak Ridge K-25 Site, TN (United States); Ho, T.C. [Lamar Univ., Beaumont, TX (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    1993-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Oak Ridge K-25 Site Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) Incinerator has been undergoing a series of routine tests to determine uranium partitioning to the stack, scrubber waters, and bottom ash. This paper discusses the results of the most recent experiment in which relatively high rates of uranium stack gas emissions were identified: 6.11 g/h or 8 wt % based on the uranium feed. These data are compared with earlier data, and an empirical correlation is suggested between the stack emissions of uranium and the product of the uranium and chlorine concentration of the feed. This is consistent with certain findings with other metals, in which increasing chlorine feed contents led to increasing emissions.

  17. Uranium in prehistoric Indian pottery

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Filberth, Ernest William

    1976-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    URANIUM IN PREHISTORIC INDIAN POTTERY A Thesis by ERNEST WILLIAM FILBERTH Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1976 Major Subject...: Chemistry URANIUM IN PREHISTORIC INDIAN POTTERY A Thesis by ERNEST WILLIAM FILBERTH Approved as to style and content by: (Chairman of Committee) (Head of Department) (Member) (Membe (Member) (Member) December 1976 ABSTRACT Uranium in Prehistoric...

  18. Heteroepitaxial Self Assembling Noble Metal Nanoparticles in Monocrystalline Silicon

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Martin, Michael S.

    2013-08-13T23:59:59.000Z

    , such as measuring X-rays emitted by U-235, by selecting materials that have high absorption related to electron energy level transitions at selected energies. For instance, it might be possible to make depleted uranium nanoparticles in silicon, which could have...

  19. Radiological Conditions in Areas of Kuwait with Residues of Depleted Uranium RADIOLOGICAL ASSESSMENT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    unknown authors

    Under the terms of Article III of its Statute, the IAEA is authorized to establish standards of safety for protection against ionizing radiation and to provide for the application of these standards to peaceful nuclear activities. The regulatory related publications by means of which the IAEA establishes safety standards and measures are issued in the IAEA Safety Standards Series. This series covers nuclear safety, radiation safety, transport safety and waste safety, and also general safety (that is, of relevance in two or more of the four areas), and the categories within it are Safety Fundamentals, Safety Requirements and Safety Guides. Safety Fundamentals (blue lettering) present basic objectives, concepts and principles of safety and protection in the development and application of nuclear energy for peaceful purposes. Safety Requirements (red lettering) establish the requirements that must be met to ensure safety. These requirements, which are expressed as ‘shall ’ statements, are governed by the objectives and principles presented in the Safety Fundamentals. Safety Guides (green lettering) recommend actions, conditions or procedures for meeting safety requirements. Recommendations in Safety Guides are expressed as ‘should ’ statements, with the implication that it is necessary to take the measures recommended or equivalent alternative measures to comply with the requirements. The IAEA’s safety standards are not legally binding on Member States but may be adopted by them, at their own discretion, for use in national regulations in respect of their own activities. The standards are binding on the IAEA in relation to its own operations and on States in relation to operations assisted by the IAEA. Information on the IAEA’s safety standards programme (including editions in languages other than English) is available at the IAEA Internet site www.iaea.org/ns/coordinet

  20. A comparison of two lung clearance models based on the dissolution rates of oxidized depleted uranium 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Crist, Kevin Craig

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    INTRODUCT1ON . RF VIEbl OF LITLRAiURE Page y1 V111 I4ETHODOI OBY Respi ral le Aeroso I 'enera Lion Dissolution Experiment Ana I y( es RESULTS DISCUSSION CONCLUSIONS RFCONINENDAi ION REFERI=NCES 17 18 21 24 47 APPEND'X A C'lassif. ication...!Ilpl e DU9 Test of Hypothesis ('Go=0) for 5'lopes Obtained from Linear Beg!. essicns (Figs. 8 and 9) 37 VII Determination oi Average Dissolution Rate and a 97. 5 Percent Confidence Interval on That Average for DL!5 and DU9 VIII Resuii. s from...

  1. DOE Announces Transfer of Depleted Uranium to Advance the U.S. National

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613PortsmouthBartlesvilleAbout » ContactDepartment of Energy| DepartmentRequirements

  2. DOE Seeks Contractor for Depleted Uranium Hexafluoride (DUF6) Operations at

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYouTube YouTube Note: Since the YouTube| Department ofDepartment of Energy to Invest up to $40 Million inOhio and

  3. Carbon sequestration in depleted oil shale deposits

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Burnham, Alan K; Carroll, Susan A

    2014-12-02T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and apparatus are described for sequestering carbon dioxide underground by mineralizing the carbon dioxide with coinjected fluids and minerals remaining from the extraction shale oil. In one embodiment, the oil shale of an illite-rich oil shale is heated to pyrolyze the shale underground, and carbon dioxide is provided to the remaining depleted oil shale while at an elevated temperature. Conditions are sufficient to mineralize the carbon dioxide.

  4. Disposition of Surplus Highly Enriched Uranium

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    of Surplus Highly Enriched Uranium Environmental Impact Statement kternationd Atomic Energy Agency Idaho Nationrd Engineering Laborato low-enriched uranium low-level waste...

  5. Uranium Processing Facility Site Readiness Subproject Completed...

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Field Offices Welcome to the NNSA Production Office NPO News Releases Uranium Processing Facility Site Readiness Subproject Completed ... Uranium Processing Facility Site...

  6. Unexpected, Stable Form of Uranium Detected | EMSL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Unexpected, Stable Form of Uranium Detected Unexpected, Stable Form of Uranium Detected Insights on underappreciated reaction could shed light on environmental cleanup options...

  7. Uranium Weapons Components Successfully Dismantled | National...

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Our Jobs Our Jobs Working at NNSA Blog Home About Us Our History NNSA Timeline Uranium Weapons Components Successfully Dismantled Uranium Weapons Components Successfully...

  8. Adsorptive Stripping Voltammetric Measurements of Trace Uranium...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Adsorptive Stripping Voltammetric Measurements of Trace Uranium at the Bismuth Film Electrode. Adsorptive Stripping Voltammetric Measurements of Trace Uranium at the Bismuth Film...

  9. Uranium Enrichment Decontamination and Decommissioning Fund's...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Uranium Enrichment Decontamination and Decommissioning Fund's Fiscal Year 2008 and 2007 Financial Statement Audit, OAS-FS-10-05 Uranium Enrichment Decontamination and...

  10. Dynamic measurements of Young's and shear moduli and mechanical damping as a function of temperature and microstructure for Uranium-6% Niobium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lowry, David Raymond

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    in the form of fissionable U-235, while the remainder is almost entirely U-238. Because of radioactive decay, the enriched uranium is also becoming depleted uranium. The availibility of DU is estimated to have increased from 252. 5 to 433. 2 metric tons...DYNAMIC MEASUREMENTS OF YOUNG'S AND SHEAR MODULI AND MECHANICAL DAMPING AS A FUNCTION OF TEMPERATURE AND MICROSTRUCTURE FOR URANIUM-6 /o NIOBIUM A Thesis by DAVID RAYMOND LOWRY Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University...

  11. Purification of uranium alloys by differential solubility of oxides and production of purified fuel precursors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McLean, W. II; Miller, P.E.

    1997-12-16T23:59:59.000Z

    A method is described for purifying metallic alloys of uranium for use as nuclear reactor fuels in which the metal alloy is first converted to an oxide and then dissolved in nitric acid. Initial removal of metal oxide impurities not soluble in nitric acid is accomplished by filtration or other physical means. Further purification can be accomplished by carbonate leaching of uranyl ions from the partially purified solution or using traditional methods such as solvent extraction. 3 figs.

  12. Purification of uranium alloys by differential solubility of oxides and production of purified fuel precursors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McLean, II, William (Oakland, CA); Miller, Philip E. (Livermore, CA)

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for purifying metallic alloys of uranium for use as nuclear reactor fuels in which the metal alloy is first converted to an oxide and then dissolved in nitric acid. Initial removal of metal oxide impurities not soluble in nitric acid is accomplished by filtration or other physical means. Further purification can be accomplished by carbonate leaching of uranyl ions from the partially purified solution or using traditional methods such as solvent extraction.

  13. Microbiological, Geochemical and Hydrologic Processes Controlling Uranium Mobility: An Integrated Field-Scale Subsurface Research Challenge Site at Rifle, Colorado, Quality Assurance Project Plan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fix, N. J.

    2008-01-07T23:59:59.000Z

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is cleaning up and/or monitoring large, dilute plumes contaminated by metals, such as uranium and chromium, whose mobility and solubility change with redox status. Field-scale experiments with acetate as the electron donor have stimulated metal-reducing bacteria to effectively remove uranium [U(VI)] from groundwater at the Uranium Mill Tailings Site in Rifle, Colorado. The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory and a multidisciplinary team of national laboratory and academic collaborators has embarked on a research proposed for the Rifle site, the object of which is to gain a comprehensive and mechanistic understanding of the microbial factors and associated geochemistry controlling uranium mobility so that DOE can confidently remediate uranium plumes as well as support stewardship of uranium-contaminated sites. This Quality Assurance Project Plan provides the quality assurance requirements and processes that will be followed by the Rifle Integrated Field-Scale Subsurface Research Challenge Project.

  14. New Insights into the Mechanism of Bacterial Metal Respiration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DiChristina, Thomas J.

    2004-04-17T23:59:59.000Z

    This project goal is to identify genes and gene products required for microbial metal reduction: reductive dissolution of iron; reductive dissolution of manganese; reductive precipitation of selenium; reductive precipitation of uranium; and reductive precipitation of technetium.

  15. 2013 Domestic Uranium Production Report

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Administration (EIA), the statistical and analytical agency within the U.S. Department of Energy. By law, EIA.S. Energy Information Administration | 2013 Domestic Uranium Production Report iii Preface The U.S. Energy://www.eia.doe.gov/glossary/. #12;U.S. Energy Information Administration | 2013 Domestic Uranium Production Report iv Contents

  16. Method for making a uranium chloride salt product

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Miller, William E. (Naperville, IL); Tomczuk, Zygmunt (Lockport, IL)

    2004-10-05T23:59:59.000Z

    The subject apparatus provides a means to produce UCl.sub.3 in large quantities without incurring corrosion of the containment vessel or associated apparatus. Gaseous Cl is injected into a lower layer of Cd where CdCl.sub.2 is formed. Due to is lower density, the CdCl.sub.2 rises through the Cd layer into a layer of molten LiCl--KCL salt where a rotatable basket containing uranium ingots is suspended. The CdCl.sub.2 reacts with the uranium to form UCl.sub.3 and Cd. Due to density differences, the Cd sinks down to the liquid Cd layer and is reused. The UCl.sub.3 combines with the molten salt. During production the temperature is maintained at about 600.degree. C. while after the uranium has been depleted the salt temperature is lowered, the molten salt is pressure siphoned from the vessel, and the salt product LiCl--KCl-30 mol % UCl.sub.3 is solidified.

  17. Uranium Marketing Annual Report -

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40Coal Stocks at Commercial and InstitutionalArea:Mnt(N)3. Deliveries of uranium

  18. Uranium Marketing Annual Report -

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40Coal Stocks at Commercial and InstitutionalArea:Mnt(N)3. Deliveries of uranium4.

  19. Uranium Marketing Annual Report -

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40Coal Stocks at Commercial and InstitutionalArea:Mnt(N)3. Deliveries2.5.3. Uranium

  20. Characterization of electron beam melted uranium - 6% niobium ingots

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McKoon, R.H.

    1997-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

    A study was undertaken at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory to characterize uranium, 6{percent} niobium ingots produced via electron beam melting,hearth refining and continuous casting and to compare this material with conventional VIM/skull melt /VAR material. Samples of both the ingot and feed material were analyzed for niobium, trace metallic elements, carbon, oxygen and nitrogen. Ingot samples were also inspected metallographically and via microprobe analysis.

  1. ERDC/ELTR-12-25 Army Range Technology Program

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    US Army Corps of Engineers

    ERDC/ELTR-12-25 Army Range Technology Program Large-Scale Physical Separation of Depleted Uranium-Scale Physical Separation of Depleted Uranium from Soil Steven Larson, Victor Medina, John Ballard, Chris Griggs) at Yuma Proving Ground (YPG) to evaluate this technique for removal of depleted uranium (DU) metal from

  2. OXYGEN DEPLETION IN THE INTERSTELLAR MEDIUM: IMPLICATIONS FOR GRAIN MODELS AND THE DISTRIBUTION OF ELEMENTAL OXYGEN

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Whittet, D. C. B. [New York Center for Astrobiology, and Department of Physics, Applied Physics and Astronomy, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, 110 Eighth Street, Troy, NY 12180 (United States)

    2010-02-20T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper assesses the implications of a recent discovery that atomic oxygen is being depleted from diffuse interstellar gas at a rate that cannot be accounted for by its presence in silicate and metallic oxide particles. To place this discovery in context, the uptake of elemental O into dust is considered over a wide range of environments, from the tenuous intercloud gas and diffuse clouds sampled by the depletion observations to dense clouds where ice mantles and gaseous CO become important reservoirs of O. The distribution of O in these contrasting regions is quantified in terms of a common parameter, the mean number density of hydrogen (n{sub H}). At the interface between diffuse and dense phases (just before the onset of ice-mantle growth) as much as {approx}160 ppm of the O abundance is unaccounted for. If this reservoir of depleted oxygen persists to higher densities it has implications for the oxygen budget in molecular clouds, where a shortfall of the same order is observed. Of various potential carriers, the most plausible appears to be a form of O-bearing carbonaceous matter similar to the organics found in cometary particles returned by the Stardust mission. The 'organic refractory' model for interstellar dust is re-examined in the light of these findings, and it is concluded that further observations and laboratory work are needed to determine whether this class of material is present in quantities sufficient to account for a significant fraction of the unidentified depleted oxygen.

  3. Melting characteristics of the stainless steel generated from the uranium conversion plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Choi, W.K.; Song, P.S.; Oh, W.Z.; Jung, C.H. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (Korea, Republic of); Min, B.Y. [Chungnam National University, 220 Gung-Dong, Yusung-Gu Taejon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The partition ratio of cerium (Ce) and uranium (U) in the ingot, slag and dust phases has been investigated for the effect of the slag type, slag concentration and basicity in an electric arc melting process. An electric arc furnace (EAF) was used to melt the stainless steel wastes, simulated by uranium oxide and the real wastes from the uranium conversion plant in Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI). The composition of the slag former used to capture the contaminants such as uranium, cerium, and cesium during the melt decontamination process generally consisted of silica (SiO{sub 2}), calcium oxide (CaO) and aluminum oxide (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}). Also, Calcium fluoride (CaF{sub 2} ), nickel oxide (NiO), and ferric oxide (Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}) were added to provide an increase in the slag fluidity and oxidative potential. Cerium was used as a surrogate for the uranium because the thermochemical and physical properties of cerium are very similar to those of uranium. Cerium was removed from the ingot phase to slag phase by up to 99% in this study. The absorption ratio of cerium was increased with an increase of the amount of the slag former. And the maximum removal of cerium occurred when the basicity index of the slag former was 0.82. The natural uranium (UO{sub 2}) was partitioned from the ingot phase to the slag phase by up to 95%. The absorption of the natural uranium was considerably dependent on the basicity index of the slag former and the composition of the slag former. The optimum condition for the removal of the uranium was about 1.5 for the basicity index and 15 wt% of the slag former. According to the increase of the amount of slag former, the absorption of uranium oxide in the slag phase was linearly increased due to an increase of its capacity to capture uranium oxide within the slag phase. Through experiments with various slag formers, we verified that the slag formers containing calcium fluoride (CaF{sub 2}) and a high amount of silica were more effective for a melt decontamination of stainless steel wastes contaminated with uranium. During the melting tests with stainless steel wastes from the uranium conversion plant(UCP ) in KAERI, we found that the results of the uranium decontamination were very similar to those of the uranium oxide from the melting of stimulated metal wastes. (authors)

  4. SHEEP MOUNTAIN URANIUM PROJECT CROOKS GAP, WYOMING

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    SHEEP MOUNTAIN URANIUM PROJECT CROOKS GAP, WYOMING US EPA Project Meeting April 7 2011April 7, 2011/Titan Uranium, VP Development · Deborah LebowAal/EPA Region 8 Air Program Introduction to Titan Uranium USA;PROJECT OVERVIEW ·Site Location·Site Location ·Fremont , Wyoming ·Existing Uranium Mine Permit 381C

  5. APPENDIX J Partition Coefficients For Uranium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    APPENDIX J Partition Coefficients For Uranium #12;Appendix J Partition Coefficients For Uranium J.1.0 Background The review of uranium Kd values obtained for a number of soils, crushed rock and their effects on uranium adsorption on soils are discussed below. The solution pH was also used as the basis

  6. Another Cold War-era building at the Department of Energys...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    as the Metals Plant. It operated from 1953 to 1962, and from 1968 to 1973, to convert depleted uranium hexafluoride, or UF 6 , into uranium metal. Two of the five structures...

  7. Continuing investigations for technology assessment of /sup 99/Mo production from LEU (low enriched Uranium) targets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vandergrift, G.F.; Kwok, J.D.; Marshall, S.L.; Vissers, D.R.; Matos, J.E.

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Currently much of the world's supply of /sup 99m/Tc for medical purposes is produced from /sup 99/Mo derived from the fissioning of high enriched uranium (HEU). The need for /sup 99m/Tc is continuing to grow, especially in developing countries, where needs and national priorities call for internal production of /sup 99/Mo. This paper presents the results of our continuing studies on the effects of substituting low enriched Uranium (LEU) for HEU in targets for the production of fission product /sup 99/Mo. Improvements in the electrodeposition of thin films of uranium metal are reported. These improvements continue to increase the appeal for the substitution of LEU metal for HEU oxide films in cylindrical targets. The process is effective for targets fabricated from stainless steel or hastaloy. A cost estimate for setting up the necessary equipment to electrodeposit uranium metal on cylindrical targets is reported. Further investigations on the effect of LEU substitution on processing of these targets are also reported. Substitution of uranium silicides for the uranium-aluminum alloy or uranium aluminide dispersed fuel used in other current target designs will allow the substitution of LEU for HEU in these targets with equivalent /sup 99/Mo-yield per target and no change in target geometries. However, this substitution will require modifications in current processing steps due to (1) the insolubility of uranium silicides in alkaline solutions and (2) the presence of significant quantities of silicate in solution. Results to date suggest that both concerns can be handled and that substitution of LEU for HEU can be achieved.

  8. Enrichment Determination of Uranium in Shielded Configurations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Crye, Jason Michael [ORNL] [ORNL; Hall, Howard L [ORNL] [ORNL; McConchie, Seth M [ORNL] [ORNL; Mihalczo, John T [ORNL] [ORNL; Pena, Kirsten E [ORNL] [ORNL

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The determination of the enrichment of uranium is required in many safeguards and security applications. Typical methods of determining the enrichment rely on detecting the 186 keV gamma ray emitted by {sup 235}U. In some applications, the uranium is surrounded by external shields, and removal of the shields is undesirable. In these situations, methods relying on the detection of the 186 keV gamma fail because the gamma ray is shielded easily. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has previously measured the enrichment of shielded uranium metal using active neutron interrogation. The method consists of measuring the time distribution of fast neutrons from induced fissions with large plastic scintillator detectors. To determine the enrichment, the measurements are compared to a calibration surface that is created from Monte Carlo simulations where the enrichment in the models is varied. In previous measurements, the geometry was always known. ORNL is extending this method to situations where the geometry and materials present are not known in advance. In the new method, the interrogating neutrons are both time and directionally tagged, and an array of small plastic scintillators measures the uncollided interrogating neutrons. Therefore, the attenuation through the item along many different paths is known. By applying image reconstruction techniques, an image of the item is created which shows the position-dependent attenuation. The image permits estimating the geometry and materials present, and these estimates are used as input for the Monte Carlo simulations. As before, simulations predict the time distribution of induced fission neutrons for different enrichments. Matching the measured time distribution to the closest prediction from the simulations provides an estimate of the enrichment. This presentation discusses the method and provides results from recent simulations that show the importance of knowing the geometry and materials from the imaging system.

  9. Production of Depleted UO2Kernels for the Advanced Gas-Cooled Reactor Program for Use in TRISO Coating Development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Collins, J.L.

    2004-12-02T23:59:59.000Z

    The main objective of the Depleted UO{sub 2} Kernels Production Task at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) was to conduct two small-scale production campaigns to produce 2 kg of UO{sub 2} kernels with diameters of 500 {+-} 20 {micro}m and 3.5 kg of UO{sub 2} kernels with diameters of 350 {+-} 10 {micro}m for the U.S. Department of Energy Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative Program. The final acceptance requirements for the UO{sub 2} kernels are provided in the first section of this report. The kernels were prepared for use by the ORNL Metals and Ceramics Division in a development study to perfect the triisotropic (TRISO) coating process. It was important that the kernels be strong and near theoretical density, with excellent sphericity, minimal surface roughness, and no cracking. This report gives a detailed description of the production efforts and results as well as an in-depth description of the internal gelation process and its chemistry. It describes the laboratory-scale gel-forming apparatus, optimum broth formulation and operating conditions, preparation of the acid-deficient uranyl nitrate stock solution, the system used to provide uniform broth droplet formation and control, and the process of calcining and sintering UO{sub 3} {center_dot} 2H{sub 2}O microspheres to form dense UO{sub 2} kernels. The report also describes improvements and best past practices for uranium kernel formation via the internal gelation process, which utilizes hexamethylenetetramine and urea. Improvements were made in broth formulation and broth droplet formation and control that made it possible in many of the runs in the campaign to produce the desired 350 {+-} 10-{micro}m-diameter kernels, and to obtain very high yields.

  10. The End of Cheap Uranium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Michael Dittmar

    2011-06-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Historic data from many countries demonstrate that on average no more than 50-70% of the uranium in a deposit could be mined. An analysis of more recent data from Canada and Australia leads to a mining model with an average deposit extraction lifetime of 10+- 2 years. This simple model provides an accurate description of the extractable amount of uranium for the recent mining operations. Using this model for all larger existing and planned uranium mines up to 2030, a global uranium mining peak of at most 58 +- 4 ktons around the year 2015 is obtained. Thereafter we predict that uranium mine production will decline to at most 54 +- 5 ktons by 2025 and, with the decline steepening, to at most 41 +- 5 ktons around 2030. This amount will not be sufficient to fuel the existing and planned nuclear power plants during the next 10-20 years. In fact, we find that it will be difficult to avoid supply shortages even under a slow 1%/year worldwide nuclear energy phase-out scenario up to 2025. We thus suggest that a worldwide nuclear energy phase-out is in order. If such a slow global phase-out is not voluntarily effected, the end of the present cheap uranium supply situation will be unavoidable. The result will be that some countries will simply be unable to afford sufficient uranium fuel at that point, which implies involuntary and perhaps chaotic nuclear phase-outs in those countries involving brownouts, blackouts, and worse.

  11. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Excess Uranium Management: Effects of DOE...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Excess Uranium Management: Effects of DOE Transfers of Excess Uranium on Domestic Uranium Mining, Conversion, and Enrichment Industries; Request for Information AGENCY: Office of...

  12. Uranium(VI) Diffusion in Low-Permeability Subsurface Materials...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Uranium(VI) Diffusion in Low-Permeability Subsurface Materials. Uranium(VI) Diffusion in Low-Permeability Subsurface Materials. Abstract: Uranium(VI) diffusion was investigated in...

  13. Proteogenomic monitoring of Geobacter physiology during stimulated uranium bioremediation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wilkins, M.J.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Phillips.  1992.  Bioremediation of  uranium contamination in situ uranium bioremediation.  Microbial Biotechnology 2:genes during in situ bioremediation of uranium?contaminated 

  14. THE THEORY OF URANIUM ENRICHMENT BY THE GAS CENTRIFUGE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Olander, Donald R.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    1979) in "Uranium Enrichment", S. Villani, Ed. , Springer-E. (1973) "Uranium Enrichment by Gas Centrifuge" Mills andTHE THEORY OF URANIUM ENRICHMENT BY THE GAS CENTRIFUGE

  15. Stimulating the In Situ Activity of Geobacter Species to Remove Uranium from the Groundwater of a Uranium-Contaminated Aquifer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anderson, R. T.; Vrionis, Helen A.; Ortiz-Bernad, Irene; Resch, Charles T.; Long, Philip E.; Dayvault, R. D.; Karp, Ken; Marutzky, Sammy J.; Metzler, Donald R.; Peacock, Aaron D.; White, David C.; Lowe, Mary; Lovley, Derek R.

    2003-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The potential for removing uranium from contaminated groundwater by stimulating the in situ activity of dissimilatory metal-reducing microorganisms was evaluated in a uranium-contaminated aquifer located in Rifle, Colo. Acetate (1 to 3 mM) was injected into the subsurface over a 3-month period via an injection gallery composed of 20 injection wells, which was installed upgradient from a series of 15 monitoring wells. U(VI) concentrations decreased in as little as 9 days after acetate injection was initiated, and within 50 days uranium had declined below the prescribed treatment level of 0.18 _M in some of the monitoring wells. Analysis of 16S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) sequences and phospholipid fatty acid profiles demonstrated that the initial loss of uranium from the groundwater was associated with an enrichment of Geobacter species in the treatment zone. Fe(II) in the groundwater also increased during this period, suggesting that U(VI) reduction was coincident with Fe(III) reduction. As the acetate injection continued over 50 days there was a loss of sulfate from the groundwater and an accumulation of sulfide and the composition of the microbial community changed. Organisms with 16S rDNA sequences most closely related to those of sulfate reducers became predominant, and Geobacter species became a minor component of the community. This apparent switch from Fe(III) reduction to sulfate reduction as the terminal electron accepting process for the oxidation of the injected acetate was associated with an increase in uranium concentration in the groundwater. These results demonstrate that in situ bioremediation of uranium-contaminated groundwater is feasible but suggest that the strategy should be optimized to better maintain long-term activity of Geobacter species.

  16. Uranium Pyrophoricity Phenomena and Prediction (FAI/00-39)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    PLYS, M.G.

    2000-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this report is to provide a topical reference on the phenomena and prediction of uranium pyrophoricity for the Hanford Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Project with specific applications to SNF Project processes and situations. Spent metallic uranium nuclear fuel is currently stored underwater at the K basins in the Hanford 100 area, and planned processing steps include: (1) At the basins, cleaning and placing fuel elements and scrap into stainless steel multi-canister overpacks (MCOs) holding about 6 MT of fuel apiece; (2) At nearby cold vacuum drying (CVD) stations, draining, vacuum drying, and mechanically sealing the MCOs; (3) Shipping the MCOs to the Canister Storage Building (CSB) on the 200 Area plateau; and (4) Welding shut and placing the MCOs for interim (40 year) dry storage in closed CSB storage tubes cooled by natural air circulation through the surrounding vault. Damaged fuel elements have exposed and corroded fuel surfaces, which can exothermically react with water vapor and oxygen during normal process steps and in off-normal situations, A key process safety concern is the rate of reaction of damaged fuel and the potential for self-sustaining or runaway reactions, also known as uranium fires or fuel ignition. Uranium metal and one of its corrosion products, uranium hydride, are potentially pyrophoric materials. Dangers of pyrophoricity of uranium and its hydride have long been known in the U.S. Department of Energy (Atomic Energy Commission/DOE) complex and will be discussed more below; it is sufficient here to note that there are numerous documented instances of uranium fires during normal operations. The motivation for this work is to place the safety of the present process in proper perspective given past operational experience. Steps in development of such a perspective are: (1) Description of underlying physical causes for runaway reactions, (2) Modeling physical processes to explain runaway reactions, (3) Validation of the method against experimental data, (4) Application of the method to plausibly explain operational experience, and (5) Application of the method to present process steps to demonstrate process safety and margin. Essentially, the logic above is used to demonstrate that runaway reactions cannot occur during normal SNF Project process steps, and to illustrate the depth of the technical basis for such a conclusion. Some off-normal conditions are identified here that could potentially lead to runaway reactions. However, this document is not intended to provide an exhaustive analysis of such cases. In summary, this report provides a ''toolkit'' of models and approaches for analysis of pyrophoricity safety issues at Hanford, and the technical basis for the recommended approaches. A summary of recommended methods appears in Section 9.0.

  17. 230Th-234U Age-Dating Uranium by Mass Spectrometry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Williams, R W; Gaffney, A M

    2012-04-18T23:59:59.000Z

    This is the standard operating procedure used by the Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry Group of the Chemical Sciences Division at LLNL for the preparation of a sample of uranium oxide or uranium metal for {sup 230}Th-{sup 234}U age-dating. The method described here includes the dissolution of a sample of uranium oxide or uranium metal, preparation of a secondary dilution, spiking of separate aliquots for uranium and thorium isotope dilution measurements, and purification of uranium and thorium aliquots for mass spectrometry. This SOP may be applied to uranium samples of unknown purity as in a nuclear forensic investigation, and also to well-characterized samples such as, for example, U{sub 3}O{sub 8} and U-metal certified reference materials. The sample of uranium is transferred to a quartz or PFA vial, concentrated nitric acid is added and the sample is heated on a hotplate at approximately 100 C for several hours until it dissolves. The sample solution is diluted with water to make the solution approximately 4 M HNO{sub 3} and hydrofluoric acid is added to make it 0.05 M HF. A secondary dilution of the primary uranium solution is prepared. Separate aliquots for uranium and thorium isotope dilution measurements are taken and spiked with {sup 233}U and {sup 229}Th, respectively. The spiked aliquot for uranium isotope dilution analysis is purified using EiChrom UTEVA resin. The spiked aliquot for thorium isotope dilution analysis is purified by, first, a 1.8 mL AG1x8 resin bed in 9 M HCl on which U adsorbs and Th passes through; second, adsorbing Th on a 1 mL AG1x8 resin bed in 8 M HNO{sub 3} and then eluting it with 9 M HCl followed by 0.1 M HCl + 0.005 M HF; and third, by passing the Th through a final 1.0 mL AG1x8 resin bed in 9 M HCl. The mass spectrometry is performed using the procedure 'Th and U Mass Spectrometry for {sup 230}Th-{sup 234}U Age Dating'.

  18. Criticality safety concerns of uranium deposits in cascade equipment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Plaster, M.J. [Lockheed Martin Utility Services, Inc., Piketon, OH (United States)

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The Paducah and Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plants enrich uranium in the {sup 235}U isotope by diffusing gaseous uranium hexafluoride (UF{sub 6}) through a porous barrier. The UF{sub 6} gaseous diffusion cascade utilized several thousand {open_quotes}stages{close_quotes} of barrier to produce highly enriched uranium (HEU). Historically, Portsmouth has enriched the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant`s product (typically 1.8 wt% {sup 235}U) as well as natural enrichment feed stock up to 97 wt%. Due to the chemical reactivity of UF{sub 6}, particularly with water, the formation of solid uranium deposits occur at a gaseous diffusion plant. Much of the equipment operates below atmospheric pressure, and deposits are formed when atmospheric air enters the cascade. Deposits may also be formed from UF{sub 6} reactions with oil, UF{sub 6} reactions with the metallic surfaces of equipment, and desublimation of UF{sub 6}. The major deposits form as a result of moist air in leakage due to failure of compressor casing flanges, blow-off plates, seals, expansion joint convolutions, and instrument lines. This report describes criticality concerns and deposit disposition.

  19. Directional depletion interactions in shaped particles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. Scala; P. G. De Sanctis Lucentini

    2014-10-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Entropic forces in colloidal suspensions and in polymer-colloid systems are of long-standing and continuing interest. Experiments show how entropic forces can be used to control the self-assembly of colloidal particles. Significant advances in colloidal synthesis made in the past two decades have enabled the preparation of high quality nano-particles with well-controlled sizes, shapes, and compositions, indicating that such particles can be utilized as "artificial atoms" to build new materials. To elucidate the effects of the shape of particles upon the magnitude of entropic interaction, we analyse the entropic interactions of two cut-spheres. We show that the solvent induces a strong directional depletion attraction among flat faces of the cut-spheres. Such an effect highlights the possibility of using the shape of particles to control directionality and strength of interaction.

  20. Laser induced phosphorescence uranium analysis

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bushaw, Bruce A. (Kennewick, WA)

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method is described for measuring the uranium content of aqueous solutions wherein a uranyl phosphate complex is irradiated with a 5 nanosecond pulse of 425 nanometer laser light and resultant 520 nanometer emissions are observed for a period of 50 to 400 microseconds after the pulse. Plotting the natural logarithm of emission intensity as a function of time yields an intercept value which is proportional to uranium concentration.

  1. Laser induced phosphorescence uranium analysis

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bushaw, B.A.

    1983-06-10T23:59:59.000Z

    A method is described for measuring the uranium content of aqueous solutions wherein a uranyl phosphate complex is irradiated with a 5 nanosecond pulse of 425 nanometer laser light and resultant 520 nanometer emissions are observed for a period of 50 to 400 microseconds after the pulse. Plotting the natural logarithm of emission intensity as a function of time yields an intercept value which is proportional to uranium concentration.

  2. Lithium Depletion of Nearby Young Stellar Associations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Erin Mentuch; Alexis Brandeker; Marten H. van Kerkwijk; Ray Jayawardhana; Peter H. Hauschildt

    2008-08-26T23:59:59.000Z

    We estimate cluster ages from lithium depletion in five pre-main-sequence groups found within 100 pc of the Sun: TW Hydrae Association, Eta Chamaeleontis Cluster, Beta Pictoris Moving Group, Tucanae-Horologium Association and AB Doradus Moving Group. We determine surface gravities, effective temperatures and lithium abundances for over 900 spectra through least squares fitting to model-atmosphere spectra. For each group, we compare the dependence of lithium abundance on temperature with isochrones from pre-main-sequence evolutionary tracks to obtain model dependent ages. We find that the Eta Chamaelontis Cluster and the TW Hydrae Association are the youngest, with ages of 12+/-6 Myr and 12+/-8 Myr, respectively, followed by the Beta Pictoris Moving Group at 21+/-9 Myr, the Tucanae-Horologium Association at 27+/-11 Myr, and the AB Doradus Moving Group at an age of at least 45 Myr (where we can only set a lower limit since the models -- unlike real stars -- do not show much lithium depletion beyond this age). Here, the ordering is robust, but the precise ages depend on our choice of both atmospheric and evolutionary models. As a result, while our ages are consistent with estimates based on Hertzsprung-Russell isochrone fitting and dynamical expansion, they are not yet more precise. Our observations do show that with improved models, much stronger constraints should be feasible: the intrinsic uncertainties, as measured from the scatter between measurements from different spectra of the same star, are very low: around 10 K in effective temperature, 0.05 dex in surface gravity, and 0.03 dex in lithium abundance.

  3. First-principles calculations of the stability and incorporation of helium, xenon and krypton in uranium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    B. Beeler; B. Good; S. Rashkeev; M. Baskes; M. Okuniewski

    2012-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    While metallic fuels have a long history of reactor use, their fundamental physical and thermodynamic properties are not well understood. Many metallic nuclear fuels are body-centered cubic alloys of uranium that swell under fission conditions, creating fission product gases such as helium, xenon and krypton. In this paper, helium, xenon, and krypton point defects are investigated in the a and ? phases of metallic uranium using first principles calculations. A density functional theory (DFT) framework is utilized with projector augmented-wave (PAW) pseudopotentials. Formation and incorporation energies of He, Xe, and Kr are calculated at various defect positions for the prediction of fission gas behavior in uranium. In most cases, defect energies follow a size effect, with helium incorporation and formation energies being the smallest. The most likely position for the larger Xe and Kr atoms in uranium is the substitutional site. Helium atoms are likely to be found in a wide variety of defect positions due to the comparable formation energies of all defect configurations analyzed. This is the first detailed study of the stability and incorporation of fission gases in uranium.

  4. Modeling CO2 Sequestration in a Saline Reservoir and Depleted...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Modeling CO 2 Sequestration in a Saline Reservoir and Depleted Oil Reservoir to Evaluate The Regional CO 2 Sequestration Potential of The Ozark Plateau Aquifer System,...

  5. Microscale Depletion of High Abundance Proteins in Human Biofluids...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    by nonspecific binding to the column matrix. Additionally, the cost of the depletion media can be prohibitive for larger scale studies. Modern LC-MS instrumentation provides...

  6. EIA - Natural Gas Pipeline Network - Depleted Reservoir Storage...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Configuration About U.S. Natural Gas Pipelines - Transporting Natural Gas based on data through 20072008 with selected updates Depleted Production Reservoir Underground...

  7. Stimulating the in situ activity of Geobacter species to remove uranium from the groundwater of a uranium-contaminated aquifer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Robert T. Anderson; Helen A. Vrionis; Irene Ortiz-bernad; Charles T. Resch; Philip E. Long; Richard Dayvault; Ken Karp; Sam Marutzky; Donald R. Metzler; Aaron Peacock; David C. White; Mary Lowe; Derek R. Lovley

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The potential for removing uranium from contaminated groundwater by stimulating the in situ activity of dissimilatory metal-reducing microorganisms was evaluated in a uranium-contaminated aquifer located in Rifle, Colo. Acetate (1 to 3 mM) was injected into the subsurface over a 3-month period via an injection gallery composed of 20 injection wells, which was installed upgradient from a series of 15 monitoring wells. U(VI) concentrations decreased in as little as 9 days after acetate injection was initiated, and within 50 days uranium had declined below the prescribed treatment level of 0.18 ?M in some of the monitoring wells. Analysis of 16S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) sequences and phospholipid fatty acid profiles demonstrated that the initial loss of uranium from the groundwater was associated with an enrichment of Geobacter species in the treatment zone. Fe(II) in the groundwater also increased during this period, suggesting that U(VI) reduction was coincident with Fe(III) reduction. As the acetate injection continued over 50 days there was a loss of sulfate from the groundwater and an accumulation of sulfide and the composition of the microbial community changed. Organisms with 16S rDNA sequences most closely related to those of sulfate reducers became predominant,

  8. Containment and storage of uranium hexafluoride at US Department of Energy uranium enrichment plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barlow, C.R.; Alderson, J.H.; Blue, S.C.; Boelens, R.A.; Conkel, M.E.; Dorning, R.E.; Ecklund, C.D.; Halicks, W.G.; Henson, H.M.; Newman, V.S.; Philpot, H.E.; Taylor, M.S.; Vournazos, J.P. [Oak Ridge K-25 Site, TN (United States). UEO Enrichment Technical Operations Div.; Russell, J.R. [USDOE Oak Ridge Field Office, TN (United States); Pryor, W.A. [PAI Corp., Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Ziehlke, K.T. [MJB Technical Associates (United States)

    1992-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Isotopically depleted UF{sub 6} (uranium hexafluoride) accumulates at a rate five to ten times greater than the enriched product and is stored in steel vessels at the enrichment plant sites. There are approximately 55,000 large cylinders now in storage at Paducah, Kentucky; Portsmouth, Ohio; and Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Most of them contain a nominal 14 tons of depleted UF{sub 6}. Some of these cylinders have been in the unprotected outdoor storage environment for periods approaching 40 years. Storage experience, supplemented by limited corrosion data, suggests a service life of about 70 years under optimum conditions for the 48-in. diameter, 5/16-in.-wall pressure vessels (100 psi working pressure), using a conservative industry-established 1/4-in.-wall thickness as the service limit. In the past few years, however, factors other than atmospheric corrosion have become apparent that adversely affect the serviceability of small numbers of the storage containers and that indicate the need for a managed program to ensure maintenance ofcontainment integrity for all the cylinders in storage. The program includes periodic visual inspections of cylinders and storage yards with documentation for comparison with other inspections, a group of corrosion test programs to permit cylinder life forecasts, and identification of (and scheduling for remedial action) situations in which defects, due to handling damage or accelerated corrosion, can seriously shorten the storage life or compromise the containment integrity of individual cylinders. The program also includes rupture testing to assess the effects of certain classes of damage on overall cylinder strength, aswell as ongoing reviews of specifications, procedures, practices, and inspection results to effect improvements in handling safety, containment integrity, and storage life.

  9. Process for alloying uranium and niobium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holcombe, C.E.; Northcutt, W.G.; Masters, D.R.; Chapman, L.R.

    1990-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Alloys such as U-6Nb are prepared by forming a stacked sandwich array of uranium sheets and niobium powder disposed in layers between the sheets, heating the array in a vacuum induction melting furnace to a temperature such as to melt the uranium, holding the resulting mixture at a temperature above the melting point of uranium until the niobium dissolves in the uranium, and casting the uranium-niobium solution. Compositional uniformity in the alloy product is enabled by use of the sandwich structure of uranium sheets and niobium powder.

  10. Process for alloying uranium and niobium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holcombe, C.E.; Northcutt, W.G.; Masters, D.R.; Chapman, L.R.

    1991-04-09T23:59:59.000Z

    This patent describes alloys such as U-6Nb prepared by forming a stacked sandwich array of uranium sheets and niobium powder disposed in layers between the sheets, heating the array in a vacuum induction melting furnace to a temperature such as to melt the uranium, holding the resulting mixture at a temperature above the melting point of uranium until the niobium dissolves in the uranium, and casting the uranium-niobium solution. Compositional uniformity in the alloy product is enabled by use of the sandwich structure of uranium sheets and niobium powder.

  11. Detection of uranium-based nuclear weapons using neutron-induced fission

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moss, C.E.; Byrd, R.C.; Feldman, W.C.; Auchampaugh, G.F.; Estes, G.P. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Ewing, R.I.; Marlow, K.W. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1991-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Although plutonium-based nuclear weapons can usually be detected by their spontaneous emission of neutrons and gammas, the radiation emitted by weapons based entirely on highly-enriched uranium can often be easily shielded. Verification of a treaty that limits the number of such weapons may require an active technique, such as interrogating the suspect assembly with an external neutron source and measuring the number of fission neutrons produced. Difficulties include distinguishing between source and fission neutrons, the variations in yield for different materials and geometries, and the possibility of non-nuclear weapons that may contain significant amounts of fissionable depleted uranium. We describe simple measurements that test the induced-fission technique using an isotopic Am-Li source, an novel energy-sensitive neutron detector, and several small assemblies containing {sup 235}U, {sup 238}U, lead, and polyethylene. In all cases studied, the neutron yields above the source energy are larger for the {sup 235}U assemblies than for assemblies containing only lead or depleted uranium. For more complex geometries, corrections for source transmission may be necessary. The results are promising enough to recommend further experiments and calculations using examples of realistic nuclear and non-nuclear weapons. 5 refs., 11 figs.

  12. Detection of uranium-based nuclear weapons using neutron-induced fission

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moss, C.E.; Byrd, R.C.; Feldman, W.C.; Auchampaugh, G.F.; Estes, G.P. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)); Ewing, R.I.; Marlow, K.W. (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States))

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Although plutonium-based nuclear weapons can usually be detected by their spontaneous emission of neutrons and gammas, the radiation emitted by weapons based entirely on highly-enriched uranium can often be easily shielded. Verification of a treaty that limits the number of such weapons may require an active technique, such as interrogating the suspect assembly with an external neutron source and measuring the number of fission neutrons produced. Difficulties include distinguishing between source and fission neutrons, the variations in yield for different materials and geometries, and the possibility of non-nuclear weapons that may contain significant amounts of fissionable depleted uranium. We describe simple measurements that test the induced-fission technique using an isotopic Am-Li source, an novel energy-sensitive neutron detector, and several small assemblies containing {sup 235}U, {sup 238}U, lead, and polyethylene. In all cases studied, the neutron yields above the source energy are larger for the {sup 235}U assemblies than for assemblies containing only lead or depleted uranium. For more complex geometries, corrections for source transmission may be necessary. The results are promising enough to recommend further experiments and calculations using examples of realistic nuclear and non-nuclear weapons. 5 refs., 11 figs.

  13. Accepting Mixed Waste as Alternate Feed Material for Processing and Disposal at a Licensed Uranium Mill

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Frydenland, D. C.; Hochstein, R. F.; Thompson, A. J.

    2002-02-26T23:59:59.000Z

    Certain categories of mixed wastes that contain recoverable amounts of natural uranium can be processed for the recovery of valuable uranium, alone or together with other metals, at licensed uranium mills, and the resulting tailings permanently disposed of as 11e.(2) byproduct material in the mill's tailings impoundment, as an alternative to treatment and/or direct disposal at a mixed waste disposal facility. This paper discusses the regulatory background applicable to hazardous wastes, mixed wastes and uranium mills and, in particular, NRC's Alternate Feed Guidance under which alternate feed materials that contain certain types of mixed wastes may be processed and disposed of at uranium mills. The paper discusses the way in which the Alternate Feed Guidance has been interpreted in the past with respect to processing mixed wastes and the significance of recent changes in NRC's interpretation of the Alternate Feed Guidance that sets the stage for a broader range of mixed waste materials to be processed as alternate feed materials. The paper also reviews the le gal rationale and policy reasons why materials that would otherwise have to be treated and/or disposed of as mixed waste, at a mixed waste disposal facility, are exempt from RCRA when reprocessed as alternate feed material at a uranium mill and become subject to the sole jurisdiction of NRC, and some of the reasons why processing mixed wastes as alternate feed materials at uranium mills is preferable to direct disposal. Finally, the paper concludes with a discussion of the specific acceptance, characterization and certification requirements applicable to alternate feed materials and mixed wastes at International Uranium (USA) Corporation's White Mesa Mill, which has been the most active uranium mill in the processing of alternate feed materials under the Alternate Feed Guidance.

  14. Standard practice for removal of uranium or plutonium, or both, for impurity assay in uranium or plutonium materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Standard practice for removal of uranium or plutonium, or both, for impurity assay in uranium or plutonium materials

  15. Ozone-depleting substances and the greenhouse gases HFCs, PFCs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ozone-depleting substances and the greenhouse gases HFCs, PFCs and SF6 Danish consumption contribution to the debate on environmental policy in Denmark. #12;3 Contents 1 SUMMARY 5 1.1 OZONE OZONE-DEPLETING SUBSTANCES 19 3.1 IMPORTS AND EXPORTS 19 3.1.1 CFCs 19 3.1.2 Tetrachloromethane 19 3

  16. Learning about ozone depletion Paul J. Crutzen & Michael Oppenheimer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oppenheimer, Michael

    Learning about ozone depletion Paul J. Crutzen & Michael Oppenheimer Received: 12 January 2007 ozone depletion has been much studied as a case history in the interaction between environmental science the photochemistry of ozone in order to illustrate how scientific learning has the potential to mislead policy makers

  17. Crude Depletion Conditions for XKCM1 Arshad Desai

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mitchison, Tim

    Crude Depletion Conditions for XKCM1 Arshad Desai 3/17/95 Problems: The main problem with immunodepletion of crude CSF extracts is that they activate during or soon after immunodepletion. Empirically well in crude). However, we have never been able to cycle a depleted crude - all assays were performed

  18. Pumping induced depletion from two streams Dongmin Sun a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhan, Hongbin

    Author's personal copy Pumping induced depletion from two streams Dongmin Sun a , Hongbin Zhan b-domain and becomes identical to that of Hunt [Hunt B. Unsteady stream depletion from ground water pumping. Ground of the shortest distance from the pumping well to the other stream over the shortest distance between the two

  19. Stream depletion by groundwater pumping from leaky Vitaly A. Zlotnik

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tartakovsky, Daniel M.

    Stream depletion by groundwater pumping from leaky aquifers Vitaly A. Zlotnik Department Maximum Stream Depletion Rate, which is defined as a maximum fraction of the pumping rate supplied focused on hy- draulic connection between a stream and an aquifer for pumping wells in alluvial valleys

  20. Evaluating mechanisms of nutrient depletion and 13 C enrichment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sigman, Daniel M.

    Evaluating mechanisms of nutrient depletion and 13 C enrichment in the intermediate-depth Atlantic to evaluate competing hypotheses for the cause of observed nutrient depletion and 13 C enrichment isotopic equilibration at low temperatures (i.e., 13C enrichment). Although this export adds nutrients

  1. Science Blog -Bacterium cleans up uranium, generates electricity Create an account

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lovley, Derek

    Science Blog - Bacterium cleans up uranium, generates electricity Create an account :: Home electricity Department of Energy-funded researchers have decoded and analyzed the genome of a bacterium with the potential to bioremediate radioactive metals and generate electricity. In an article published

  2. Conversion and Blending Facility highly enriched uranium to low enriched uranium as uranyl nitrate hexahydrate. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-07-05T23:59:59.000Z

    This Conversion and Blending Facility (CBF) will have two missions: (1) convert HEU materials to pure HEU uranyl nitrate (UNH) and (2) blend pure HEU UNH with depleted and natural UNH to produce HEU UNH crystals. The primary emphasis of this blending operation will be to destroy the weapons capability of large, surplus stockpiles of HEU. The blended LEU product can only be made weapons capable again by the uranium enrichment process. To the extent practical, the chemical and isotopic concentrations of blended LEU product will be held within the specifications required for LWR fuel. Such blended LEU product will be offered to the United States Enrichment Corporation (USEC) to be sold as feed material to the commercial nuclear industry. Otherwise, blended LEU Will be produced as a waste suitable for storage or disposal.

  3. Uranium 2007 resources, production and demand

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development. Paris

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Based on official information received from 40 countries, Uranium 2007 provides a comprehensive review of world uranium supply and demand as of 1st January 2007, as well as data on global uranium exploration, resources, production and reactor-related requirements. It provides substantive new information from major uranium production centres in Africa, Australia, Central Asia, Eastern Europe and North America. Projections of nuclear generating capacity and reactor-related uranium requirements through 2030 are also featured, along with an analysis of long-term uranium supply and demand issues. It finds that with rising demand and declining inventories, uranium prices have increased dramatically in recent years. As a result, the uranium industry is undergoing a significant revival, bringing to an end a period of over 20 years of underinvestment.

  4. A uranium-titanium-niobium alloy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ludtka, G.M.; Ludtka, G.M.

    1990-02-23T23:59:59.000Z

    A uranium alloy having small additions of Ti and Nb shows improved strength and ductility in cross section of greater than one inch over prior uranium alloy having only Ti as an alloying element.

  5. Inherently safe in situ uranium recovery

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Krumhansl, James L; Brady, Patrick V

    2014-04-29T23:59:59.000Z

    An in situ recovery of uranium operation involves circulating reactive fluids through an underground uranium deposit. These fluids contain chemicals that dissolve the uranium ore. Uranium is recovered from the fluids after they are pumped back to the surface. Chemicals used to accomplish this include complexing agents that are organic, readily degradable, and/or have a predictable lifetime in an aquifer. Efficiency is increased through development of organic agents targeted to complexing tetravalent uranium rather than hexavalent uranium. The operation provides for in situ immobilization of some oxy-anion pollutants under oxidizing conditions as well as reducing conditions. The operation also artificially reestablishes reducing conditions on the aquifer after uranium recovery is completed. With the ability to have the impacted aquifer reliably remediated, the uranium recovery operation can be considered inherently safe.

  6. Supercontinuum Stimulated Emission Depletion Fluorescence Lifetime Imaging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lesoine, Michael; Bose, Sayantan; Petrich, Jacob; Smith, Emily

    2012-06-13T23:59:59.000Z

    Supercontinuum (SC) stimulated emission depletion (STED) fluorescence lifetime imaging is demonstrated by using time-correlated single-photon counting (TCSPC) detection. The spatial resolution of the developed STED instrument was measured by imaging monodispersed 40-nm fluorescent beads and then determining their fwhm, and was 36 ± 9 and 40 ± 10 nm in the X and Y coordinates, respectively. The same beads measured by confocal microscopy were 450 ± 50 and 430 ± 30 nm, which is larger than the diffraction limit of light due to underfilling the microscope objective. Underfilling the objective and time gating the signal were necessary to achieve the stated STED spatial resolution. The same fluorescence lifetime (2.0 ± 0.1 ns) was measured for the fluorescent beads by using confocal or STED lifetime imaging. The instrument has been applied to study Alexa Fluor 594-phalloidin labeled F-actin-rich projections with dimensions smaller than the diffraction limit of light in cultured cells. Fluorescence lifetimes of the actin-rich projections range from 2.2 to 2.9 ns as measured by STED lifetime imaging.

  7. Fate of Noble Metals during the Pyroprocessing of Spent Nuclear Fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    B.R. Westphal; D. Vaden; S.X. Li; G.L. Fredrickson; R.D. Mariani

    2009-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    During the pyroprocessing of spent nuclear fuel by electrochemical techniques, fission products are separated as the fuel is oxidized at the anode and refined uranium is deposited at the cathode. Those fission products that are oxidized into the molten salt electrolyte are considered active metals while those that do not react are considered noble metals. The primary noble metals encountered during pyroprocessing are molybdenum, zirconium, ruthenium, rhodium, palladium, and technetium. Pyroprocessing of spent fuel to date has involved two distinctly different electrorefiner designs, in particular the anode to cathode configuration. For one electrorefiner, the anode and cathode collector are horizontally displaced such that uranium is transported across the electrolyte medium. As expected, the noble metal removal from the uranium during refining is very high, typically in excess of 99%. For the other electrorefiner, the anode and cathode collector are vertically collocated to maximize uranium throughput. This arrangement results in significantly less noble metals removal from the uranium during refining, typically no better than 20%. In addition to electrorefiner design, operating parameters can also influence the retention of noble metals, albeit at the cost of uranium recovery. Experiments performed to date have shown that as much as 100% of the noble metals can be retained by the cladding hulls while affecting the uranium recovery by only 6%. However, it is likely that commercial pyroprocessing of spent fuel will require the uranium recovery to be much closer to 100%. The above mentioned design and operational issues will likely be driven by the effects of noble metal contamination on fuel fabrication and performance. These effects will be presented in terms of thermal properties (expansion, conductivity, and fusion) and radioactivity considerations. Ultimately, the incorporation of minor amounts of noble metals from pyroprocessing into fast reactor metallic fuel will be shown to be of no consequence to reactor performance.

  8. Selective Recovery of Enriched Uranium from Inorganic Wastes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kimura, R. T.

    2003-02-26T23:59:59.000Z

    Uranium as U(IV) and U(VI) can be selectively recovered from liquids and sludge containing metal precipitates, inorganic salts, sand and silt fines, debris, other contaminants, and slimes, which are very difficult to de-water. Chemical processes such as fuel manufacturing and uranium mining generate enriched and natural uranium-bearing wastes. This patented Framatome ANP (FANP) uranium recovery process reduces uranium losses, significantly offsets waste disposal costs, produces a solid waste that meets mixed-waste disposal requirements, and does not generate metal-contaminated liquids. At the head end of the process is a floating dredge that retrieves liquids, sludge, and slimes in the form of a slurry directly from the floor of a lined surface impoundment (lagoon). The slurry is transferred to and mixed in a feed tank with a turbine mixer and re-circulated to further break down the particles and enhance dissolution of uranium. This process uses direct steam injection and sodium hypochlorite addition to oxidize and dissolves any U(IV). Cellulose is added as a non-reactive filter aid to help filter slimes by giving body to the slurry. The slurry is pumped into a large recessed-chamber filter press then de-watered by a pressure cycle-controlled double-diaphragm pump. U(VI) captured in the filtrate from this process is then precipitated by conversion to U(IV) in another Framatome ANP-patented process which uses a strong reducing agent to crystallize and settle the U(IV) product. The product is then dewatered in a small filter press. To-date, over 3,000 Kgs of U at 3% U-235 enrichment were recovered from a 8100 m2 hypalon-lined surface impoundment which contained about 10,220 m3 of liquids and about 757 m3 of sludge. A total of 2,175 drums (0.208 m3 or 55 gallon each) of solid mixed-wastes have been packaged, shipped, and disposed. In addition, 9463 m3 of low-U liquids at <0.001 KgU/m3 were also further processed and disposed.

  9. CX-008615: Categorical Exclusion Determination | Department of...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Exclusion Determination CX-008615: Categorical Exclusion Determination Cleaning of Depleted Uranium Metal CX(s) Applied: B3.6 Date: 06262012 Location(s): South Carolina...

  10. Method for mobilization of hazardous metal ions in soils

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dugan, Patrick R. (Idaho Falls, ID); Pfister, Robert M. (Powell, OH)

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A microbial process for removing heavy metals such as bismuth, cadmium, lead, thorium, uranium and other transuranics from soils and sediments, utilizing indigenous, or isolates of indigenous, microorganisms and reducing agents, such as cysteine or sodium thioglycollate, or complexing agents such as the amino acid glycine, to effect the mobilization or release of the metals from the soil particles.

  11. D Riso-R-429 Automated Uranium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    -induced delayed-neutron coun- ting is applied preferably in large geochemical exploration pro- grammes. UraniumCM i D Riso-R-429 Automated Uranium Analysis by Delayed-Neutron Counting H. Kunzendorf, L. Lűvborg AUTOMATED URANIUM ANALYSIS BY DELAYED-NEUTRON COUNTING H. Kunzendorf, L. Lűvborg and E.M. Christiansen

  12. Remediation and Recovery of Uranium from Contaminated

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lovley, Derek

    that Geobacter species can effectively remove uranium from contaminated groundwater by reducing soluble U emplaced in flow- through columns of uranium-contaminated sediments readily removed U(VI) from the groundwater, and 87% of the uranium that had been removed was recovered from the electrode surface after

  13. High strength uranium-tungsten alloys

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dunn, Paul S. (Santa Fe, NM); Sheinberg, Haskell (Los Alamos, NM); Hogan, Billy M. (Los Alamos, NM); Lewis, Homer D. (Bayfield, CO); Dickinson, James M. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Alloys of uranium and tungsten and a method for making the alloys. The amount of tungsten present in the alloys is from about 4 wt % to about 35 wt %. Tungsten particles are dispersed throughout the uranium and a small amount of tungsten is dissolved in the uranium.

  14. High strength uranium-tungsten alloy process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dunn, Paul S. (Santa Fe, NM); Sheinberg, Haskell (Los Alamos, NM); Hogan, Billy M. (Los Alamos, NM); Lewis, Homer D. (Bayfield, CO); Dickinson, James M. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Alloys of uranium and tungsten and a method for making the alloys. The amount of tungsten present in the alloys is from about 4 wt % to about 35 wt %. Tungsten particles are dispersed throughout the uranium and a small amount of tungsten is dissolved in the uranium.

  15. Uranium Watch REGULATORY CONFUSION: FEDERALAND STATE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Uranium Watch Report REGULATORY CONFUSION: FEDERALAND STATE ENFORCEMENT OF 40 C.F.R. PART 61 SUBPART W INTRODUCTION 1. This Uranium Watch Report, Regulatory Confusion: Federal and State Enforcement at the White Mesa Uranium Mill, San Juan County, Utah. 2. The DAQ, a Division of the Utah Department

  16. Clean Air Act Requirements: Uranium Mill Tailings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    EPA'S Clean Air Act Requirements: Uranium Mill Tailings Radon Emissions Rulemaking Reid J. Rosnick requirements for operating uranium mill tailings (Subpart W) Status update on Subpart W activities Outreach/Communications #12;3 EPA Regulatory Requirements for Operating Uranium Mill Tailings (Clean Air Act) · 40 CFR 61

  17. URANIUM MILL TAILINGS RADON FLUX CALCULATIONS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    URANIUM MILL TAILINGS RADON FLUX CALCULATIONS PIĂ?ON RIDGE PROJECT MONTROSE COUNTY, COLORADO Inc. (Golder) was commissioned by EFRC to evaluate the operations of the uranium mill tailings storage in this report were conducted using the WISE Uranium Mill Tailings Radon Flux Calculator, as updated on November

  18. The Complete Burning of Weapons Grade Plutonium and Highly Enriched Uranium with (Laser Inertial Fusion-Fission Energy) LIFE Engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Farmer, J C; Diaz de la Rubia, T; Moses, E

    2008-12-23T23:59:59.000Z

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF) project, a laser-based Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) experiment designed to achieve thermonuclear fusion ignition and burn in the laboratory, is under construction at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and will be completed in April of 2009. Experiments designed to accomplish the NIF's goal will commence in late FY2010 utilizing laser energies of 1 to 1.3 MJ. Fusion yields of the order of 10 to 20 MJ are expected soon thereafter. Laser initiated fusion-fission (LIFE) engines have now been designed to produce nuclear power from natural or depleted uranium without isotopic enrichment, and from spent nuclear fuel from light water reactors without chemical separation into weapons-attractive actinide streams. A point-source of high-energy neutrons produced by laser-generated, thermonuclear fusion within a target is used to achieve ultra-deep burn-up of the fertile or fissile fuel in a sub-critical fission blanket. Fertile fuels including depleted uranium (DU), natural uranium (NatU), spent nuclear fuel (SNF), and thorium (Th) can be used. Fissile fuels such as low-enrichment uranium (LEU), excess weapons plutonium (WG-Pu), and excess highly-enriched uranium (HEU) may be used as well. Based upon preliminary analyses, it is believed that LIFE could help meet worldwide electricity needs in a safe and sustainable manner, while drastically shrinking the nation's and world's stockpile of spent nuclear fuel and excess weapons materials. LIFE takes advantage of the significant advances in laser-based inertial confinement fusion that are taking place at the NIF at LLNL where it is expected that thermonuclear ignition will be achieved in the 2010-2011 timeframe. Starting from as little as 300 to 500 MW of fusion power, a single LIFE engine will be able to generate 2000 to 3000 MWt in steady state for periods of years to decades, depending on the nuclear fuel and engine configuration. Because the fission blanket in a fusion-fission hybrid system is subcritical, a LIFE engine can burn any fertile or fissile nuclear material, including unenriched natural or depleted U and SNF, and can extract a very high percentage of the energy content of its fuel resulting in greatly enhanced energy generation per metric ton of nuclear fuel, as well as nuclear waste forms with vastly reduced concentrations of long-lived actinides. LIFE engines could thus provide the ability to generate vast amounts of electricity while greatly reducing the actinide content of any existing or future nuclear waste and extending the availability of low cost nuclear fuels for several thousand years. LIFE also provides an attractive pathway for burning excess weapons Pu to over 99% FIMA (fission of initial metal atoms) without the need for fabricating or reprocessing mixed oxide fuels (MOX). Because of all of these advantages, LIFE engines offer a pathway toward sustainable and safe nuclear power that significantly mitigates nuclear proliferation concerns and minimizes nuclear waste. An important aspect of a LIFE engine is the fact that there is no need to extract the fission fuel from the fission blanket before it is burned to the desired final level. Except for fuel inspection and maintenance process times, the nuclear fuel is always within the core of the reactor and no weapons-attractive materials are available outside at any point in time. However, an important consideration when discussing proliferation concerns associated with any nuclear fuel cycle is the ease with which reactor fuel can be converted to weapons usable materials, not just when it is extracted as waste, but at any point in the fuel cycle. Although the nuclear fuel remains in the core of the engine until ultra deep actinide burn up is achieved, soon after start up of the engine, once the system breeds up to full power, several tons of fissile material is present in the fission blanket. However, this fissile material is widely dispersed in millions of fuel pebbles, which can be tagged as individual accountable items, and thus made difficult to diver

  19. Uranium mill tailings and radon

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hanchey, L A

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The major health hazard from uranium mill tailings is presumed to be respiratory cancer resulting from the inhalation of radon daughter products. A review of studies on inhalation of radon and its daughters indicates that the hazard from the tailings is extremely small. If the assumptions used in the studies are correct, one or two people per year in the US may develop cancer as a result of radon exhaled from all the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Program sites. The remedial action should reduce the hazard from the tailings by a factor of about 100.

  20. Surface Decontamination of System Components in Uranium Conversion Plant at KAERI

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Choi, W. K.; Kim, K. N.; Won, H. J.; Jung, C. H.; Oh, W. Z.

    2003-02-25T23:59:59.000Z

    A chemical decontamination process using nitric acid solution was selected as in-situ technology for recycle or release with authorization of a large amount of metallic waste including process system components such as tanks, piping, etc., which is generated by dismantling a retired uranium conversion plant at Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI). The applicability of nitric acid solution for surface decontamination of metallic wastes contaminated with uranium compounds was evaluated through the basic research on the dissolution of UO2 and ammonium uranyl carbonate (AUC) powder. Decontamination performance was verified by using the specimens contaminated with such uranium compounds as UO2 and AUC taken from the uranium conversion plant. Dissolution rate of UO2 powder is notably enhanced by the addition of H2O2 as an oxidant even in the condition of a low concentration of nitric acid and low temperature compared with those in a nitric acid solution without H2O2. AUC powders dissolve easily in nitric acid solutions until the solution pH attains about 2.5 {approx} 3. Above that solution pH, however, the uranium concentration in the solution is lowered drastically by precipitation as a form of U3(NH3)4O9 . 5H2O. Decontamination performance tests for the specimens contaminated with UO2 and AUC were quite successful with the application of decontamination conditions obtained through the basic studies on the dissolution of UO2 and AUC powders.

  1. Uranium Enrichment Standards of the Y-12 Nuclear Detection and Sensor Testing Center

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cantrell, J.

    2012-05-23T23:59:59.000Z

    The Y-12 National Security Complex has recently fabricated and characterized a new series of metallic uranium standards for use in the Nuclear Detection and Sensor Testing Center (NDSTC). Ten uranium metal disks with enrichments varying from 0.2 to 93.2% {sup 235}U were designed to provide researchers access to a wide variety of measurement scenarios in a single testing venue. Special care was taken in the selection of the enrichments in order to closely bracket the definitions of reactor fuel at 4% {sup 235}U and that of highly enriched uranium (HEU) at 20% {sup 235}U. Each standard is well characterized using analytical chemistry as well as a series of gamma-ray spectrometry measurements. Gamma-ray spectra of these standards are being archived in a reference library for use by customers of the NDSTC. A software database tool has been created that allows for easier access and comparison of various spectra. Information provided through the database includes: raw count data (including background spectra), regions of interest (ROIs), and full width half maximum calculations. Input is being sought from the user community on future needs including enhancements to the spectral database and additional Uranium standards, shielding configurations and detector types. A related presentation are planned for the INMM 53rd Annual Meeting (Hull, et al.), which describe new uranium chemical compound standards and testing opportunities at Y-12 Nuclear Detection and Sensor Testing Center (NDSTC).

  2. The Soviet uranium industry and exports of nuclear materials and services

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sagers, M.J.

    1990-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The USSR has been offering Western countries, through long-term contracts, services in the processing and enrichment of uranium for their nuclear power industries since 1973. Although known for some time from Western sources, this was confirmed by Boris Semyenov, First Deputy Chairman of the USSR State Committee for the Utilization of Atomic Energy, in 1989. Other sources state that the first service contract was signed in 1971, with initial deliveries beginning in 1973, and that altogether, there are now about 10-12 long-term contracts with firms in various Western European countries that extend to the year 2000 or in some cases to 2010. Although these services are said to remain the mainstay of business with the capitalist countries of the West, the export of enriched uranium materials produced from domestic ore began in 1988. Clients include firms in both the US and Western Europe. Evidently, the severe balance-of-payments problems in Soviet foreign trade operations in recent years have led the Soviets to push alternatives to oil exports as much as possible, notably metals and minerals and chemicals and fertilizers, and this has now extended to the Soviet uranium industry. The paper discusses the USSR uranium industry, uranium mining, uranium enrichment, and plutonium production.

  3. Physical and mechanical metallurgy of uranium and uranium alloys

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eckelmeyer, K.H. [Sandia National Labs. (United States)

    1998-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Engineering disadvantages of unalloyed uranium include relatively low strength, low ductility, and poor oxidation and corrosion resistance. As-cast uranium typically exhibits very large grains that cause nonuniform deformation and low tensile ductility. Uranium is often alloyed to improve its corrosion resistance and mechanical properties. Titanium is most commonly used to increase strength; niobium and molybdenum, to increase oxidation and corrosion resistance; and vanadium, to refine alpha grain size in castings. Under equilibrium conditions these elements are extensively soluble in the high-temperature gamma phase, slightly soluble in the intermediate temperature beta phase, and essentially insoluble in the low-temperature alpha phase. Uranium alloys are vacuum solution heat treated in the gamma range to dissolve the alloying elements and remove hydrogen. The subsequent microstructures and properties are determined by the cooling rate from the solution treatment temperature. Oxidation and corrosion resistance increases with increasing the amount of alloy in solid solution. As a result, alloys such as U-6%Nb and U-10%Mo are often used in applications requiring good corrosion resistance.

  4. Electron Backscatter Diffraction (EBSD) Characterization of Uranium and Uranium Alloys

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McCabe, Rodney J. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Kelly, Ann Marie [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Clarke, Amy J. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Field, Robert D. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Wenk, H. R. [University of California, Berkeley

    2012-07-25T23:59:59.000Z

    Electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) was used to examine the microstructures of unalloyed uranium, U-6Nb, U-10Mo, and U-0.75Ti. For unalloyed uranium, we used EBSD to examine the effects of various processes on microstructures including casting, rolling and forming, recrystallization, welding, and quasi-static and shock deformation. For U-6Nb we used EBSD to examine the microstructural evolution during shape memory loading. EBSD was used to study chemical homogenization in U-10Mo, and for U-0.75Ti, we used EBSD to study the microstructure and texture evolution during thermal cycling and deformation. The studied uranium alloys have significant microstructural and chemical differences and each of these alloys presents unique preparation challenges. Each of the alloys is prepared by a sequence of mechanical grinding and polishing followed by electropolishing with subtle differences between the alloys. U-6Nb and U-0.75Ti both have martensitic microstructures and both require special care in order to avoid mechanical polishing artifacts. Unalloyed uranium has a tendency to rapidly oxidize when exposed to air and a two-step electropolish is employed, the first step to remove the damaged surface layer resulting from the mechanical preparation and the second step to passivate the surface. All of the alloying additions provide a level of surface passivation and different one and two step electropolishes are employed to create good EBSD surfaces. Because of its low symmetry crystal structure, uranium exhibits complex deformation behavior including operation of multiple deformation twinning modes. EBSD was used to observe and quantify twinning contributions to deformation and to examine the fracture behavior. Figure 1 shows a cross section of two mating fracture surfaces in cast uranium showing the propensity of deformation twinning and intergranular fracture largely between dissimilarly oriented grains. Deformation of U-6Nb in the shape memory regime occurs by the motion of twin boundaries formed during the martensitic transformation. Deformation actually results in a coarsening of the microstructure making EBSD more practical following a limited amount of strain. Figure 2 shows the microstructure resulting from 6% compression. Casting of U-10Mo results in considerable chemical segregation as is apparent in Figure 2a. The segregation subsists through rolling and heat treatment processes as shown in Figure 2b. EBSD was used to study the effects of homogenization time and temperature on chemical heterogeneity. It was found that times and temperatures that result in a chemically homogeneous microstructure also result in a significant increase in grain size. U-0.75Ti forms an acicular martinsite as shown in Figure 4. This microstructure prevails through cycling into the higher temperature solid uranium phases.

  5. Removal of uranium from aqueous HF solutions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pulley, Howard (West Paducah, KY); Seltzer, Steven F. (Paducah, KY)

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This invention is a simple and effective method for removing uranium from aqueous HF solutions containing trace quantities of the same. The method comprises contacting the solution with particulate calcium fluoride to form uranium-bearing particulates, permitting the particulates to settle, and separting the solution from the settled particulates. The CaF.sub.2 is selected to have a nitrogen surface area in a selected range and is employed in an amount providing a calcium fluoride/uranium weight ratio in a selected range. As applied to dilute HF solutions containing 120 ppm uranium, the method removes at least 92% of the uranium, without introducing contaminants to the product solution.

  6. Process for alloying uranium and niobium

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Holcombe, Cressie E. (Farragut, TN); Northcutt, Jr., Walter G. (Oak Ridge, TN); Masters, David R. (Knoxville, TN); Chapman, Lloyd R. (Knoxville, TN)

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Alloys such as U-6Nb are prepared by forming a stacked sandwich array of uraniun sheets and niobium powder disposed in layers between the sheets, heating the array in a vacuum induction melting furnace to a temperature such as to melt the uranium, holding the resulting mixture at a temperature above the melting point of uranium until the niobium dissolves in the uranium, and casting the uranium-niobium solution. Compositional uniformity in the alloy product is enabled by use of the sandwich structure of uranium sheets and niobium powder.

  7. An analysis of uranium dispersal and health effects using a Gulf War case study.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marshall, Albert Christian

    2005-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The study described in this report used mathematical modeling to estimate health risks from exposure to depleted uranium (DU) during the 1991 Gulf War for both U.S. troops and nearby Iraqi civilians. The analysis found that the risks of DU-induced leukemia or birth defects are far too small to result in an observable increase in these health effects among exposed veterans or Iraqi civilians. Only a few veterans in vehicles accidentally struck by U.S. DU munitions are predicted to have inhaled sufficient quantities of DU particulate to incur any significant health risk (i.e., the possibility of temporary kidney damage from the chemical toxicity of uranium and about a 1% chance of fatal lung cancer). The health risk to all downwind civilians is predicted to be extremely small. Recommendations for monitoring are made for certain exposed groups. Although the study found fairly large calculational uncertainties, the models developed and used are generally valid. The analysis was also used to assess potential uranium health hazards for workers in the weapons complex. No illnesses are projected for uranium workers following standard guidelines; nonetheless, some research suggests that more conservative guidelines should be considered.

  8. Powder Metallurgy of Uranium Alloy Fuels for TRU-Burning Reactors Final Technical Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sean M. McDeavitt

    2011-04-29T23:59:59.000Z

    Overview Fast reactors were evaluated to enable the transmutation of transuranic isotopes generated by nuclear energy systems. The motivation for this was that TRU isotopes have high radiotoxicity and relatively long half-lives, making them unattractive for disposal in a long-term geologic repository. Fast reactors provide an efficient means to utilize the energy content of the TRUs while destroying them. An enabling technology that requires research and development is the fabrication metallic fuel containing TRU isotopes using powder metallurgy methods. This project focused upon developing a powder metallurgical fabrication method to produce U-Zr-transuranic (TRU) alloys at relatively low processing temperatures (500șC to 600șC) using either hot extrusion or alpha-phase sintering for charecterization. Researchers quantified the fundamental aspects of both processing methods using surrogate metals to simulate the TRU elements. The process produced novel solutions to some of the issues relating to metallic fuels, such as fuel-cladding chemical interactions, fuel swelling, volatility losses during casting, and casting mold material losses. Workscope There were two primary tasks associated with this project: 1. Hot working fabrication using mechanical alloying and extrusion • Design, fabricate, and assemble extrusion equipment • Extrusion database on DU metal • Extrusion database on U-10Zr alloys • Extrusion database on U-20xx-10Zr alloys • Evaluation and testing of tube sheath metals 2. Low-temperature sintering of U alloys • Design, fabricate, and assemble equipment • Sintering database on DU metal • Sintering database on U-10Zr alloys • Liquid assisted phase sintering on U-20xx-10Zr alloys Appendices Outline Appendix A contains a Fuel Cycle Research & Development (FCR&D) poster and contact presentation where TAMU made primary contributions. Appendix B contains MSNE theses and final defense presentations by David Garnetti and Grant Helmreich outlining the beginning of the materials processing setup. Also included within this section is a thesis proposal by Jeff Hausaman. Appendix C contains the public papers and presentations introduced at the 2010 American Nuclear Society Winter Meeting. Appendix A—MSNE theses of David Garnetti and Grant Helmreich and proposal by Jeff Hausaman A.1 December 2009 Thesis by David Garnetti entitled “Uranium Powder Production Via Hydride Formation and Alpha Phase Sintering of Uranium and Uranium-Zirconium Alloys for Advanced Nuclear Fuel Applications” A.2 September 2009 Presentation by David Garnetti (same title as document in Appendix B.1) A.3 December 2010 Thesis by Grant Helmreich entitled “Characterization of Alpha-Phase Sintering of Uranium and Uranium-Zirconium Alloys for Advanced Nuclear Fuel Applications” A.4 October 2010 Presentation by Grant Helmreich (same title as document in Appendix B.3) A.5 Thesis Proposal by Jeffrey Hausaman entitled “Hot Extrusion of Alpha Phase Uranium-Zirconium Alloys for TRU Burning Fast Reactors” Appendix B—External presentations introduced at the 2010 ANS Winter Meeting B.1 J.S. Hausaman, D.J. Garnetti, and S.M. McDeavitt, “Powder Metallurgy of Alpha Phase Uranium Alloys for TRU Burning Fast Reactors,” Proceedings of 2010 ANS Winter Meeting, Las Vegas, Nevada, USA, November 7-10, 2010 B.2 PowerPoint Presentation Slides from C.1 B.3 G.W. Helmreich, W.J. Sames, D.J. Garnetti, and S.M. McDeavitt, “Uranium Powder Production Using a Hydride-Dehydride Process,” Proceedings of 2010 ANS Winter Meeting, Las Vegas, Nevada, USA, November 7-10, 2010 B.4. PowerPoint Presentation Slides from C.3 B.5 Poster Presentation from C.3 Appendix C—Fuel cycle research and development undergraduate materials and poster presentation C.1 Poster entitled “Characterization of Alpha-Phase Sintering of Uranium and Uranium-Zirconium Alloys” presented at the Fuel Cycle Technologies Program Annual Meeting C.2 April 2011 Honors Undergraduate Thesis by William Sames, Research Fellow, entitled “Uranium Metal Powder Production, Particle Dis

  9. A concept of a nonfissile uranium hexafluoride overpack for storage, transport, and processing of corroded cylinders

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pope, R.B.; Cash, J.M. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Singletary, B.H. [Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    1996-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    There is a need to develop a means of safely transporting breached 48-in. cylinders containing depleted uranium hexafluoride (UF{sub 6}) from current storage locations to locations where the contents can be safely removed. There is also a need to provide a method of safely and easily transporting degraded cylinders that no longer meet the US Department of Transportation (DOT) and American National Standards Institute, Inc., (ANSI) requirements for shipments of depleted UF{sub 6}. A study has shown that an overpack can be designed and fabricated to satisfy these needs. The envisioned overpack will handle cylinder models 48G, 48X, and 48Y and will also comply with the ANSI N14.1 and the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Sect. 8 requirements.

  10. Stabilization of Electrocatalytic Metal Nanoparticles at Metal...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Electrocatalytic Metal Nanoparticles at Metal-Metal Oxide-Graphene Triple Junction Points. Stabilization of Electrocatalytic Metal Nanoparticles at Metal-Metal Oxide-Graphene...

  11. Uranium 2014 resources, production and demand

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development. Paris

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Published every other year, Uranium Resources, Production, and Demand, or the "Red Book" as it is commonly known, is jointly prepared by the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency and the International Atomic Energy Agency. It is the recognised world reference on uranium and is based on official information received from 43 countries. It presents the results of a thorough review of world uranium supplies and demand and provides a statistical profile of the world uranium industry in the areas of exploration, resource estimates, production and reactor-related requirements. It provides substantial new information from all major uranium production centres in Africa, Australia, Central Asia, Eastern Europe and North America. Long-term projections of nuclear generating capacity and reactor-related uranium requirements are provided as well as a discussion of long-term uranium supply and demand issues. This edition focuses on recent price and production increases that could signal major changes in the industry.

  12. Uranium 2011 resources, production and demand

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development. Paris

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In the wake of the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident, questions are being raised about the future of the uranium market, including as regards the number of reactors expected to be built in the coming years, the amount of uranium required to meet forward demand, the adequacy of identified uranium resources to meet that demand and the ability of the sector to meet reactor requirements in a challenging investment climate. This 24th edition of the “Red Book”, a recognised world reference on uranium jointly prepared by the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency and the International Atomic Energy Agency, provides analyses and information from 42 producing and consuming countries in order to address these and other questions. It offers a comprehensive review of world uranium supply and demand as well as data on global uranium exploration, resources, production and reactor-related requirements. It also provides substantive new information on established uranium production centres around the world and in countri...

  13. Uranium 2005 resources, production and demand

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development. Paris

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Published every other year, Uranium Resources, Production, and Demand, or the "Red Book" as it is commonly known, is jointly prepared by the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency and the International Atomic Energy Agency. It is the recognised world reference on uranium and is based on official information received from 43 countries. This 21st edition presents the results of a thorough review of world uranium supplies and demand as of 1st January 2005 and provides a statistical profile of the world uranium industry in the areas of exploration, resource estimates, production and reactor-related requirements. It provides substantial new information from all major uranium production centres in Africa, Australia, Central Asia, Eastern Europe and North America. Projections of nuclear generating capacity and reactor-related uranium requirements through 2025 are provided as well as a discussion of long-term uranium supply and demand issues. This edition focuses on recent price and production increases that could signal major c...

  14. Computer Simulation of Reservoir Depletion and Oil Flow from the Macondo Well Following the Deepwater

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Computer Simulation of Reservoir Depletion and Oil Flow from the Macondo Well Following, 2010, Computer simulation of reservoir depletion and oil flow from the Macondo well following......................................................................................................................................... 7 Reservoir Depletion

  15. Continental Shelf Research 25 (2005) 13211337 Authigenesis of trace metals in energetic

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Emerson, Steven R.

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ineffective at readsorbing Cd in seawater due to surface-site competition by Mg and Ca. If the remobilization shelves; Resuspended sediments; Trace metals; Cadmium; Molybdenum; Uranium ARTICLE IN PRESS www

  16. Can Ionic Liquids Be Used As Templating Agents For Controlled Design of Uranium-Containing Nanomaterials?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Visser, A.; Bridges, N.; Tosten, M.

    2013-04-09T23:59:59.000Z

    Nanostructured uranium oxides have been prepared in ionic liquids as templating agents. Using the ionic liquids as reaction media for inorganic nanomaterials takes advantage of the pre-organized structure of the ionic liquids which in turn controls the morphology of the inorganic nanomaterials. Variation of ionic liquid cation structure was investigated to determine the impact on the uranium oxide morphologies. For two ionic liquid cations, increasing the alkyl chain length increases the aspect ratio of the resulting nanostructured oxides. Understanding the resulting metal oxide morphologies could enhance fuel stability and design.

  17. Raman Spectroscopy of UH3 from the Hydrogen Corrosion of Uranium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smyrl, N. R.; Stowe, A. C.; Powell, G. L.

    2011-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Hydrogen reacts with a uranium surface to form a fine, pyrophoric metal power (UH{sub 3}). Few spectroscopic studies have been conducted to study this reaction. Advances in Raman spectroscopy permit the application of the Raman method to formally difficult areas of chemistry such as the hydrogen corrosion of uranium: availability of multiple laser excitation wavelengths; fiber optics delivery and collection systems; upgraded instrumentation and detection techniques; and development of special enclosed in situ reactor cells. UH{sub 3} vibrations are expected to occur at low frequencies due to extended U-H-U structure.

  18. Global microRNA depletion suppresses tumor angiogenesis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Sidi

    MicroRNAs delicately regulate the balance of angiogenesis. Here we show that depletion of all microRNAs suppresses tumor angiogenesis. We generated microRNA-deficient tumors by knocking out Dicer1. These tumors are highly ...

  19. Hyperspectral stimulated emission depletion microscopy and methods of use thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Timlin, Jerilyn A; Aaron, Jesse S

    2014-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A hyperspectral stimulated emission depletion ("STED") microscope system for high-resolution imaging of samples labeled with multiple fluorophores (e.g., two to ten fluorophores). The hyperspectral STED microscope includes a light source, optical systems configured for generating an excitation light beam and a depletion light beam, optical systems configured for focusing the excitation and depletion light beams on a sample, and systems for collecting and processing data generated by interaction of the excitation and depletion light beams with the sample. Hyperspectral STED data may be analyzed using multivariate curve resolution analysis techniques to deconvolute emission from the multiple fluorophores. The hyperspectral STED microscope described herein can be used for multi-color, subdiffraction imaging of samples (e.g., materials and biological materials) and for analyzing a tissue by Forster Resonance Energy Transfer ("FRET").

  20. The economics of fuel depletion in fast breeder reactor blankets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brewer, Shelby Templeton

    1972-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A fast breeder reactor fuel depletion-economics model was developed and applied to a number of 1000 MWe UMBR case studies, involving radial blanket-radial reflector design, radial blanket fuel management, and sensitivity ...

  1. Metal accumulation rates in sediments of the Mid-Atlantic ridge near 37°N

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Salter, Patricia Fae

    1977-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    . Typical Uranium and Thorium Alpha Spectra Obtained for the FAMOUS Area Sediments. 35 7. The Naturally Occurring Uranium-Thorium Series Nuclides. . . . . . . . . . 54 8. Sedimentation Rates for the Gravity Cores in the FAMOUS Area. . . . . 58 9. Metal... and PETERSON, 1969; BOSTROM, 1976; BENDER et al. , 1971; CRONAN, 1972; DYMOND et al. , 1973; PIPER, 1973). This association of metal-enriched sediments with active ocean ridges suggests the presence of a chemical influence from some process related...

  2. Pulmonary toxicity after exposure to military-relevant heavy metal tungsten alloy particles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roedel, Erik Q., E-mail: Erik.Roedel@amedd.army.mil [Department of General Surgery, Tripler Army Medical Center, Honolulu, HI 96859 (United States); Cafasso, Danielle E., E-mail: Danielle.Cafasso@amedd.army.mil [Department of General Surgery, Tripler Army Medical Center, Honolulu, HI 96859 (United States); Lee, Karen W.M., E-mail: Karen.W.Lee@amedd.army.mil [Department of Clinical Investigation, Tripler Army Medical Center, Honolulu, HI 96859 (United States); Pierce, Lisa M., E-mail: Lisa.Pierce@amedd.army.mil [Department of Clinical Investigation, Tripler Army Medical Center, Honolulu, HI 96859 (United States)

    2012-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Significant controversy over the environmental and public health impact of depleted uranium use in the Gulf War and the war in the Balkans has prompted the investigation and use of other materials including heavy metal tungsten alloys (HMTAs) as nontoxic alternatives. Interest in the health effects of HMTAs has peaked since the recent discovery that rats intramuscularly implanted with pellets containing 91.1% tungsten/6% nickel/2.9% cobalt rapidly developed aggressive metastatic tumors at the implantation site. Very little is known, however, regarding the cellular and molecular mechanisms associated with the effects of inhalation exposure to HMTAs despite the recognized risk of this route of exposure to military personnel. In the current study military-relevant metal powder mixtures consisting of 92% tungsten/5% nickel/3% cobalt (WNiCo) and 92% tungsten/5% nickel/3% iron (WNiFe), pure metals, or vehicle (saline) were instilled intratracheally in rats. Pulmonary toxicity was assessed by cytologic analysis, lactate dehydrogenase activity, albumin content, and inflammatory cytokine levels in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid 24 h after instillation. The expression of 84 stress and toxicity-related genes was profiled in lung tissue and bronchoalveolar lavage cells using real-time quantitative PCR arrays, and in vitro assays were performed to measure the oxidative burst response and phagocytosis by lung macrophages. Results from this study determined that exposure to WNiCo and WNiFe induces pulmonary inflammation and altered expression of genes associated with oxidative and metabolic stress and toxicity. Inhalation exposure to both HMTAs likely causes lung injury by inducing macrophage activation, neutrophilia, and the generation of toxic oxygen radicals. -- Highlights: ? Intratracheal instillation of W–Ni–Co and W–Ni–Fe induces lung inflammation in rats. ? W–Ni–Co and W–Ni–Fe alter expression of oxidative stress and toxicity genes. ? W–Ni–Co induces a greater oxidative burst response than W–Ni–Fe in lung macrophages.

  3. EXPRESSION OF INTEREST/SOURCES SOUGHT EXPRESSION OF INTEREST...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    CNS has the need to acquire up to 6,800 metric tons Uranium (MTU) of high purity depleted uranium metal (DU) and related material and services. Sources are sought for: 1....

  4. Reports on investigations of uranium anomalies. National Uranium Resource Evaluation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goodknight, C.S.; Burger, J.A. (comps.) [comps.

    1982-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    During the National Uranium Resource Evaluation (NURE) program, conducted for the US Department of Energy (DOE) by Bendix Field Engineering Corporation (BFEC), radiometric and geochemical surveys and geologic investigations detected anomalies indicative of possible uranium enrichment. Data from the Aerial Radiometric and Magnetic Survey (ARMS) and the Hydrogeochemical and Stream-Sediment Reconnaissance (HSSR), both of which were conducted on a national scale, yielded numerous anomalies that may signal areas favorable for the occurrence of uranium deposits. Results from geologic evaluations of individual 1/sup 0/ x 2/sup 0/ quadrangles for the NURE program also yielded anomalies, which could not be adequately checked during scheduled field work. Included in this volume are individual reports of field investigations for the following six areas which were shown on the basis of ARMS, HSSR, and (or) geologic data to be anomalous: (1) Hylas zone and northern Richmond basin, Virginia; (2) Sischu Creek area, Alaska; (3) Goodman-Dunbar area, Wisconsin; (4) McCaslin syncline, Wisconsin; (5) Mt. Withington Cauldron, Socorro County, New Mexico; (6) Lake Tecopa, Inyo County, California. Field checks were conducted in each case to verify an indicated anomalous condition and to determine the nature of materials causing the anomaly. The ultimate objective of work is to determine whether favorable conditions exist for the occurrence of uranium deposits in areas that either had not been previously evaluated or were evaluated before data from recent surveys were available. Most field checks were of short duration (2 to 5 days). The work was done by various investigators using different procedures, which accounts for variations in format in their reports. All papers have been abstracted and indexed.

  5. MARSAME Appendix C C. EXAMPLES OF COMMON RADIONUCLIDES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ra and progeny Depleted uranium collimators Metal Foundry 40 K 60 Co 137 Cs Thorium series control devices) 226 Ra and progeny Depleted uranium January 2009 C-1 NUREG-1575, Supp. 1 #12;Appendix C-thorium alloys Nickel-thorium alloys 147 Pm (lighted dials and gauges) 226 Ra and progeny (radium dials) Depleted

  6. Global terrestrial uranium supply and its policy implications : a probabilistic projection of future uranium costs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Matthews, Isaac A

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An accurate outlook on long-term uranium resources is critical in forecasting uranium costresource relationships, and for energy policy planning as regards the development and deployment of nuclear fuel cycle alternatives. ...

  7. Grain boundary depletion and migration during selective oxidation of Cr in a Ni-5Cr binary alloy exposed to high-temperature hydrogenated water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schreiber, Daniel K.; Olszta, Matthew J.; Bruemmer, Stephen M.

    2014-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    High-resolution microscopy of a high-purity Ni-5Cr alloy exposed to 360°C hydrogenated water reveals intergranular selective oxidation of Cr accompanied by local Cr depletion and diffusion-induced grain boundary migration (DIGM). The corrosion-product oxide consists of a porous, interconnected network of Cr2O3 platelets with no further O ingress into the metal ahead. Extensive grain boundary depletion of Cr (to <0.05at.%) is observed typically 20–100 nm wide as a result of DIGM and reaching depths of many micrometers beyond the oxidation front.

  8. Mechanisms of Radionuclide-Hyroxycarboxylic Acid Interactions for Decontamination of Metallic Surfaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    A.J. Francis; C.J. Dodge; J.B. Gillow; G.P. Halada; C.R. Clayton

    2002-04-24T23:59:59.000Z

    Is this EMSP program we investigated the key fundamental issues involved in the use of simple and safe methods for the removal of radioactive contamination from equipment and facilities using hydroxycarboxylic acids. Specifically, we investigate (i) the association of uranium with various iron oxides commonly formed on corroding plain carbon steel surfaces, (ii) the association of uranium with corroding metal coupons under a variety of conditions, and (iii) the decontamination of the uranium contaminated metal coupons by citric acid or citric acid formulations containing oxalic acid and hydrogen peroxide.

  9. Co-Designing Sustainable Communities: The Identification and Incorporation of Social Performance Metrics in Native American Sustainable Housing and Renewable Energy System Design

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shelby, Ryan

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of uranium and depleted uranium exposure on reproduction andTeratogenicity of depleted uranium aerosols: A review from

  10. Fire testing of bare uranium hexafluoride cylinders

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pryor, W.A. [PAI Corp., Oak Rige, TN (United States)

    1991-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    In 1965, the Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant (ORGDP), now the K-25 Site, conducted a series of tests in which bare cylinders of uranium hexafluoride (UF{sub 6}) were exposed to engulfing oil fires for the US Atomic Energy Commission (AEC), now the US Department of Energy (DOE). The tests are described and the results, conclusions, and observations are presented. Two each of the following types of cylinders were tested: 3.5-in.-diam {times} 7.5-in.-long cylinders of Monel (Harshaw), 5.0-in.-diam {times} 30-in.-long cylinders of Monel, and 8-in.-diam {times} 48-in.-long cylinders of nickel. The cylinders were filled approximately to the standard UF{sub 6} fill limits of 5, 55, and 250 lb, respectively, with a U-235 content of 0.22%. The 5-in.- and 8-in.-diam cylinders were tested individually with and without their metal valve covers. For the 3.5-in.-diam Harshaw cylinders and the 5.0-in.-diam cylinder without a valve cover the valves failed and UF{sub 6} was released. The remaining cylinders ruptured explosively in time intervals ranging from about 8.5 to 11 min.

  11. Fire testing of bare uranium hexafluoride cylinders

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pryor, W.A. [PAI Corp., Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    1991-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    In 1965, the Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant (ORGDP), now the K-25 Site, conducted a series of tests in which bare cylinders of uranium hexafluoride (UF{sub 6}) were exposed to engulfing oil fires for the US Atomic Energy Commission (AEC), now the US Department of Energy (DOE). The tests are described and the results, conclusions, and observations are presented. Two each of the following types of cylinders were tested: 3.5-in.-diam {times} 7.5-in.-long cylinders of Monel (Harshaw), 5.0-in.-diam {times} x 30-in.-long cylinders of Monel, and 8-in.-diam {times} 48-in.-long cylinders of nickel. The cylinders were filled approximately to the standard UF{sub 6} fill limits of 5, 55, and 250 lb, respectively, with a U-235 content of 0.22%. The 5-in.- and 8-in.-diam cylinders were tested individually with and without their metal valve covers. For the 3.5-in.-diam Harshaw cylinders and the 5.0-in.-diam cylinder without a valve cover, the valves failed and UF{sub 6} was released. The remaining 6 cylinders ruptured explosively in time intervals ranging from about 8.5 to 11 min.

  12. Uranium 2009 resources, production and demand

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development. Paris

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    With several countries currently building nuclear power plants and planning the construction of more to meet long-term increases in electricity demand, uranium resources, production and demand remain topics of notable interest. In response to the projected growth in demand for uranium and declining inventories, the uranium industry – the first critical link in the fuel supply chain for nuclear reactors – is boosting production and developing plans for further increases in the near future. Strong market conditions will, however, be necessary to trigger the investments required to meet projected demand. The "Red Book", jointly prepared by the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency and the International Atomic Energy Agency, is a recognised world reference on uranium. It is based on information compiled in 40 countries, including those that are major producers and consumers of uranium. This 23rd edition provides a comprehensive review of world uranium supply and demand as of 1 January 2009, as well as data on global ur...

  13. L'URANIUM ET LES ARMES L'URANIUM APPAUVRI. Pierre Roussel*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    L'URANIUM ET LES ARMES � L'URANIUM APPAUVRI. Pierre Roussel* Institut de Physique Nucléaire, CNRS massivement dans la guerre du Golfe, des obus anti- chars ont été utilisés, avec des "charges d'uranium, avec une charge de 300 g d'uranium et tiré par des avions, l'autre de 120 mm de diamÚtre avec une

  14. Uranium in prehistoric Indian pottery 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Filberth, Ernest William

    1976-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    . 2 to 25 ppm (Katz 1951). From thermal equilibrium calculations on the earth's core, mantle, and crust, and through actual analysis of samples, uranium was found to be concentrated in the earth's crust. According to modern geological thought..., as the uniformly molten earth cooled, its matter became separated into one vapor phase and three concentric condensed phases: the siderosphere (the earth's core, probably primarily molten iron), the chalcosphere forming the intermediate shell (the mantle...

  15. Dry process fluorination of uranium dioxide using ammonium bifluoride

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yeamans, Charles Burnett, 1978-

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An experimental study was conducted to determine the practicality of various unit operations for fluorination of uranium dioxide. The objective was to prepare ammonium uranium fluoride double salts from uranium dioxide and ...

  16. Analytical solution for Joule-Thomson cooling during CO2 geo-sequestration in depleted oil and gas reservoirs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mathias, S.A.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    sequestration in depleted oil and gas reservoirs Simon A.1. Introduction Depleted oil and gas reservoirs (DOGRs)

  17. Review of uranium bioassay techniques

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bogard, J.S.

    1996-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A variety of analytical techniques is available for evaluating uranium in excreta and tissues at levels appropriate for occupational exposure control and evaluation. A few (fluorometry, kinetic phosphorescence analysis, {alpha}-particle spectrometry, neutron irradiation techniques, and inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry) have also been demonstrated as capable of determining uranium in these materials at levels comparable to those which occur naturally. Sample preparation requirements and isotopic sensitivities vary widely among these techniques and should be considered carefully when choosing a method. This report discusses analytical techniques used for evaluating uranium in biological matrices (primarily urine) and limits of detection reported in the literature. No cost comparison is attempted, although references are cited which address cost. Techniques discussed include: {alpha}-particle spectrometry; liquid scintillation spectrometry, fluorometry, phosphorometry, neutron activation analysis, fission-track counting, UV-visible absorption spectrophotometry, resonance ionization mass spectrometry, and inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry. A summary table of reported limits of detection and of the more important experimental conditions associated with these reported limits is also provided.

  18. Refurbishment of uranium hexafluoride cylinder storage yards C-745-K, L, M, N, and P and construction of a new uranium hexafluoride cylinder storage yard (C-745-T) at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant, Paducah, Kentucky

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1996-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP) is a uranium enrichment facility owned by the US Department of Energy (DOE). A residual of the uranium enrichment process is depleted uranium hexafluoride (UF6). Depleted UF6, a solid at ambient temperature, is stored in 32,200 steel cylinders that hold a maximum of 14 tons each. Storage conditions are suboptimal and have resulted in accelerated corrosion of cylinders, increasing the potential for a release of hazardous substances. Consequently, the DOE is proposing refurbishment of certain existing yards and construction of a new storage yard. This environmental assessment (EA) evaluates the impacts of the proposed action and no action and considers alternate sites for the proposed new storage yard. The proposed action includes (1) renovating five existing cylinder yards; (2) constructing a new UF6 storage yard; handling and onsite transport of cylinders among existing yards to accommodate construction; and (4) after refurbishment and construction, restacking of cylinders to meet spacing and inspection requirements. Based on the results of the analysis reported in the EA, DOE has determined that the proposed action is not a major Federal action that would significantly affect the quality of the human environment within the context of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969. Therefore, DOE is issuing a Finding of No Significant Impact. Additionally, it is reported in this EA that the loss of less than one acre of wetlands at the proposed project site would not be a significant adverse impact.

  19. Colorimetric detection of uranium in water

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    DeVol, Timothy A. (Clemson, SC); Hixon, Amy E. (Piedmont, SC); DiPrete, David P. (Evans, GA)

    2012-03-13T23:59:59.000Z

    Disclosed are methods, materials and systems that can be used to determine qualitatively or quantitatively the level of uranium contamination in water samples. Beneficially, disclosed systems are relatively simple and cost-effective. For example, disclosed systems can be utilized by consumers having little or no training in chemical analysis techniques. Methods generally include a concentration step and a complexation step. Uranium concentration can be carried out according to an extraction chromatographic process and complexation can chemically bind uranium with a detectable substance such that the formed substance is visually detectable. Methods can detect uranium contamination down to levels even below the MCL as established by the EPA.

  20. Final Uranium Leasing Program Programmatic Environmental Impact...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Leasing Program, under which DOE administers tracts of land in western Colorado for exploration, development, and the extraction of uranium and vanadium ores. ULP PEIS...