National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for depleted fields depleted

  1. U.S. Natural Gas Number of Underground Storage Depleted Fields Capacity

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    (Number of Elements) Depleted Fields Capacity (Number of Elements) U.S. Natural Gas Number of Underground Storage Depleted Fields Capacity (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 335 2000's 336 351 340 318 320 320 322 326 324 331 2010's 331 329 330 332 333 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 2/29/2016 Next Release Date:

  2. U.S. Working Natural Gas Underground Storage Depleted Fields Capacity

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    (Million Cubic Feet) Depleted Fields Capacity (Million Cubic Feet) U.S. Working Natural Gas Underground Storage Depleted Fields Capacity (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 2000's 3,583,786 3,659,968 2010's 3,733,993 3,769,113 3,720,980 3,839,852 3,844,927 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 2/29/2016 Next Release Date: 3/31/2016

  3. U.S. Natural Gas Underground Storage Depleted Fields Capacity (Million

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Cubic Feet) Depleted Fields Capacity (Million Cubic Feet) U.S. Natural Gas Underground Storage Depleted Fields Capacity (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 6,780,700 2000's 6,788,130 6,768,622 6,747,108 6,733,983 6,776,894 6,667,222 6,711,656 6,801,291 6,805,490 6,917,547 2010's 7,074,773 7,104,948 7,038,245 7,074,916 7,085,773 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure

  4. Depleted uranium management alternatives

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hertzler, T.J.; Nishimoto, D.D.

    1994-08-01

    This report evaluates two management alternatives for Department of Energy depleted uranium: continued storage as uranium hexafluoride, and conversion to uranium metal and fabrication to shielding for spent nuclear fuel containers. The results will be used to compare the costs with other alternatives, such as disposal. Cost estimates for the continued storage alternative are based on a life-cycle of 27 years through the year 2020. Cost estimates for the recycle alternative are based on existing conversion process costs and Capital costs for fabricating the containers. Additionally, the recycle alternative accounts for costs associated with intermediate product resale and secondary waste disposal for materials generated during the conversion process.

  5. Fully depleted back illuminated CCD

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Holland, Stephen Edward (Hercules, CA)

    2001-01-01

    A backside illuminated charge coupled device (CCD) is formed of a relatively thick high resistivity photon sensitive silicon substrate, with frontside electronic circuitry, and an optically transparent backside ohmic contact for applying a backside voltage which is at least sufficient to substantially fully deplete the substrate. A greater bias voltage which overdepletes the substrate may also be applied. One way of applying the bias voltage to the substrate is by physically connecting the voltage source to the ohmic contact. An alternate way of applying the bias voltage to the substrate is to physically connect the voltage source to the frontside of the substrate, at a point outside the depletion region. Thus both frontside and backside contacts can be used for backside biasing to fully deplete the substrate. Also, high resistivity gaps around the CCD channels and electrically floating channel stop regions can be provided in the CCD array around the CCD channels. The CCD array forms an imaging sensor useful in astronomy.

  6. Depleted uranium disposal options evaluation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hertzler, T.J.; Nishimoto, D.D.; Otis, M.D.

    1994-05-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management, has chartered a study to evaluate alternative management strategies for depleted uranium (DU) currently stored throughout the DOE complex. Historically, DU has been maintained as a strategic resource because of uses for DU metal and potential uses for further enrichment or for uranium oxide as breeder reactor blanket fuel. This study has focused on evaluating the disposal options for DU if it were considered a waste. This report is in no way declaring these DU reserves a ``waste,`` but is intended to provide baseline data for comparison with other management options for use of DU. To PICS considered in this report include: Retrievable disposal; permanent disposal; health hazards; radiation toxicity and chemical toxicity.

  7. Beneficial Uses of Depleted Uranium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, C.; Croff, A.G.; Haire, M. J.

    1997-08-01

    Naturally occurring uranium contains 0.71 wt% {sup 235}U. In order for the uranium to be useful in most fission reactors, it must be enriched the concentration of the fissile isotope {sup 235}U must be increased. Depleted uranium (DU) is a co-product of the processing of natural uranium to produce enriched uranium, and DU has a {sup 235}U concentration of less than 0.71 wt%. In the United States, essentially all of the DU inventory is in the chemical form of uranium hexafluoride (UF{sub 6}) and is stored in large cylinders above ground. If this co-product material were to be declared surplus, converted to a stable oxide form, and disposed, the costs are estimated to be several billion dollars. Only small amounts of DU have at this time been beneficially reused. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has begun the Beneficial Uses of DU Project to identify large-scale uses of DU and encourage its reuse for the primary purpose of potentially reducing the cost and expediting the disposition of the DU inventory. This paper discusses the inventory of DU and its rate of increase; DU disposition options; beneficial use options; a preliminary cost analysis; and major technical, institutional, and regulatory issues to be resolved.

  8. Depleted uranium: A DOE management guide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-10-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has a management challenge and financial liability in the form of 50,000 cylinders containing 555,000 metric tons of depleted uranium hexafluoride (UF{sub 6}) that are stored at the gaseous diffusion plants. The annual storage and maintenance cost is approximately $10 million. This report summarizes several studies undertaken by the DOE Office of Technology Development (OTD) to evaluate options for long-term depleted uranium management. Based on studies conducted to date, the most likely use of the depleted uranium is for shielding of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) or vitrified high-level waste (HLW) containers. The alternative to finding a use for the depleted uranium is disposal as a radioactive waste. Estimated disposal costs, utilizing existing technologies, range between $3.8 and $11.3 billion, depending on factors such as applicability of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and the location of the disposal site. The cost of recycling the depleted uranium in a concrete based shielding in SNF/HLW containers, although substantial, is comparable to or less than the cost of disposal. Consequently, the case can be made that if DOE invests in developing depleted uranium shielded containers instead of disposal, a long-term solution to the UF{sub 6} problem is attained at comparable or lower cost than disposal as a waste. Two concepts for depleted uranium storage casks were considered in these studies. The first is based on standard fabrication concepts previously developed for depleted uranium metal. The second converts the UF{sub 6} to an oxide aggregate that is used in concrete to make dry storage casks.

  9. EIA - Natural Gas Pipeline Network - Depleted Reservoir Storage

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Configuration Depleted Reservoir Storage Configuration About U.S. Natural Gas Pipelines - Transporting Natural Gas based on data through 2007/2008 with selected updates Depleted Production Reservoir Underground Natural Gas Storage Well Configuration Depleted Production Reservoir Storage

  10. DOE Seeks Contractor for Depleted Uranium Hexafluoride (DUF6...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Seeks Contractor for Depleted Uranium Hexafluoride (DUF6) Operations at Ohio and Kentucky Facilities DOE Seeks Contractor for Depleted Uranium Hexafluoride (DUF6) Operations at...

  11. DOE Extends Contract to Operate Depleted Uranium Hexafluoride...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Extends Contract to Operate Depleted Uranium Hexafluoride Conversion Plants DOE Extends Contract to Operate Depleted Uranium Hexafluoride Conversion Plants December 24, 2015 -...

  12. Enterprise Assessments Targeted Review of the Paducah Depleted...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Review of the Paducah Depleted Uranium Hexafluoride Conversion Facility Fire Protection Program - September 2015 Enterprise Assessments Targeted Review of the Paducah Depleted...

  13. EIA - Natural Gas Pipeline Network - Depleted Reservoir Storage...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Gas based on data through 20072008 with selected updates Depleted Production Reservoir Underground Natural Gas Storage Well Configuration Depleted Production Reservoir Storage

  14. Clustering and Mechanics in Dense Depletion and Thermal Gels...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Clustering and Mechanics in Dense Depletion and Thermal Gels Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Clustering and Mechanics in Dense Depletion and Thermal Gels Authors: ...

  15. Neutral depletion and the helicon density limit

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Magee, R. M.; Galante, M. E.; Carr, J. Jr.; Lusk, G.; McCarren, D. W.; Scime, E. E.

    2013-12-15

    It is straightforward to create fully ionized plasmas with modest rf power in a helicon. It is difficult, however, to create plasmas with density >10{sup 20} m{sup ?3}, because neutral depletion leads to a lack of fuel. In order to address this density limit, we present fast (1 MHz), time-resolved measurements of the neutral density at and downstream from the rf antenna in krypton helicon plasmas. At the start of the discharge, the neutral density underneath the antenna is reduced to 1% of its initial value in 15 ?s. The ionization rate inferred from these data implies that the electron temperature near the antenna is much higher than the electron temperature measured downstream. Neutral density measurements made downstream from the antenna show much slower depletion, requiring 14 ms to decrease by a factor of 1/e. Furthermore, the downstream depletion appears to be due to neutral pumping rather than ionization.

  16. Assessment of Preferred Depleted Uranium Disposal Forms

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Croff, A.G.; Hightower, J.R.; Lee, D.W.; Michaels, G.E.; Ranek, N.L.; Trabalka, J.R.

    2000-06-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) is in the process of converting about 700,000 metric tons (MT) of depleted uranium hexafluoride (DUF6) containing 475,000 MT of depleted uranium (DU) to a stable form more suitable for long-term storage or disposal. Potential conversion forms include the tetrafluoride (DUF4), oxide (DUO2 or DU3O8), or metal. If worthwhile beneficial uses cannot be found for the DU product form, it will be sent to an appropriate site for disposal. The DU products are considered to be low-level waste (LLW) under both DOE orders and Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) regulations. The objective of this study was to assess the acceptability of the potential DU conversion products at potential LLW disposal sites to provide a basis for DOE decisions on the preferred DU product form and a path forward that will ensure reliable and efficient disposal.

  17. The ultimate disposition of depleted uranium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lemons, T.R.

    1991-12-31

    Depleted uranium (DU) is produced as a by-product of the uranium enrichment process. Over 340,000 MTU of DU in the form of UF{sub 6} have been accumulated at the US government gaseous diffusion plants and the stockpile continues to grow. An overview of issues and objectives associated with the inventory management and the ultimate disposition of this material is presented.

  18. Carbon sequestration in depleted oil shale deposits

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Burnham, Alan K; Carroll, Susan A

    2014-12-02

    A method and apparatus are described for sequestering carbon dioxide underground by mineralizing the carbon dioxide with coinjected fluids and minerals remaining from the extraction shale oil. In one embodiment, the oil shale of an illite-rich oil shale is heated to pyrolyze the shale underground, and carbon dioxide is provided to the remaining depleted oil shale while at an elevated temperature. Conditions are sufficient to mineralize the carbon dioxide.

  19. Mario Molina, Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), and Ozone Depletion

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Mario Molina, Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), and Ozone Depletion Resources with Additional Information In 1973 Mario Molina ... was a postdoctoral researcher working in the laboratory of F. Sherwood Rowland at the University of California at Irvine ... when he made an unsettling discovery. He had been investigating a class of compounds called chlorofluorocarbons, or CFCs. CFCs were used as refrigerants, aerosol sprays, and in making plastic foams. Molina wondered what happened to them once they

  20. Disposition of DOE Excess Depleted Uranium, Natural Uranium, and

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Low-Enriched Uranium | Department of Energy Disposition of DOE Excess Depleted Uranium, Natural Uranium, and Low-Enriched Uranium Disposition of DOE Excess Depleted Uranium, Natural Uranium, and Low-Enriched Uranium The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) owns and manages an inventory of depleted uranium (DU), natural uranium (NU), and low-enriched uranium (LEU) that is currently stored in large cylinders as depleted uranium hexafluoride (DUF6), natural uranium hexafluoride (NUF6), and

  1. Enterprise Assessments Targeted Review of the Paducah Depleted Uranium

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Hexafluoride Conversion Facility Fire Protection Program - September 2015 | Department of Energy Review of the Paducah Depleted Uranium Hexafluoride Conversion Facility Fire Protection Program - September 2015 Enterprise Assessments Targeted Review of the Paducah Depleted Uranium Hexafluoride Conversion Facility Fire Protection Program - September 2015 September 2015 Targeted Review of the Fire Protection Program at the Paducah Depleted Uranium Hexafluoride Conversion Facility The U.S.

  2. DOE Extends Contract to Operate Depleted Uranium Hexafluoride Conversion

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Plants | Department of Energy Extends Contract to Operate Depleted Uranium Hexafluoride Conversion Plants DOE Extends Contract to Operate Depleted Uranium Hexafluoride Conversion Plants December 24, 2015 - 11:06am Addthis LEXINGTON, Ky. (Dec. 24, 2015) - The U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Environmental Management (EM) today announced it is extending its contract for Operations of Depleted Uranium Hexafluoride (DUF6) Conversion Facilities at Paducah, Kentucky and Portsmouth, Ohio for a

  3. DOE Extends Contract to Operate Depleted Uranium Hexafluoride Conversion

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Plants | Department of Energy Contract to Operate Depleted Uranium Hexafluoride Conversion Plants DOE Extends Contract to Operate Depleted Uranium Hexafluoride Conversion Plants December 24, 2015 - 10:00am Addthis Media Contact Brad Mitzelfelt, 859-219-4035 brad.mitzelfelt@lex.doe.gov LEXINGTON, Ky. - The U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Environmental Management (EM) today announced it is extending its contract for Operations of Depleted Uranium Hexafluoride (DUF6) Conversion Facilities

  4. University of Michigan adds Depletion Capability to MPACT

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of Michigan researchers Ben Collins, Ang Zhu, Brendan Kochunas, and Tom Downar. The numerical methods to implement nuclide point depletion and integrate a time dependent...

  5. Gas generation matrix depletion quality assurance project plan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1998-05-01

    The Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) is to provide the necessary expertise, experience, equipment and instrumentation, and management structure to: Conduct the matrix depletion experiments using simulated waste for quantifying matrix depletion effects; and Conduct experiments on 60 cylinders containing simulated TRU waste to determine the effects of matrix depletion on gas generation for transportation. All work for the Gas Generation Matrix Depletion (GGMD) experiment is performed according to the quality objectives established in the test plan and under this Quality Assurance Project Plan (QAPjP).

  6. Recovery of Depleted Uranium Fragments from Soil

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Farr, C.P.; Alecksen, T.J.; Heronimus, R.S.; Simonds, M.H.; Farrar, D.R.; Baker, K.R.; Miller, M.L.

    2008-07-01

    A cost-effective method was demonstrated for recovering depleted uranium (DU) fragments from soil. A compacted clean soil pad was prepared adjacent to a pile of soil containing DU fragments. Soil from the contaminated pile was placed on the pad in three-inch lifts using conventional construction equipment. Each lift was scanned with an automatic scanning system consisting of an array of radiation detectors coupled to a detector positioning system. The data were downloaded into ArcGIS for data presentation. Areas of the pad exhibiting scaler counts above the decision level were identified as likely locations of DU fragments. The coordinates of these locations were downloaded into a PDA that was wirelessly connected to the positioning system. The PDA guided technicians to the locations where hand-held trowels and shovels were used to remove the fragments. After DU removal, the affected areas were re-scanned and the new data patched into the data base to replace the original data. This new data set along with soil sample results served as final status survey data. (authors)

  7. Carrier transport and collection in fully depleted semiconductors by a combined action of the space charge field and the field due to electrode voltages

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rehak, Pavel (Patchogue, NY); Gatti, Emilio (Lesmo, IT)

    1987-01-01

    A semiconductor charge transport device and method for making same, characterized by providing a thin semiconductor wafer having rectifying junctions on its opposing major surfaces and including a small capacitance ohmic contact, in combination with bias voltage means and associated circuit means for applying a predetermined voltage to effectively deplete the wafer in regions thereof between the rectifying junctions and the ohmic contact. A charge transport device of the invention is usable as a drift chamber, a low capacitance detector, or a charge coupled device each constructed according to the methods of the invention for making such devices. Detectors constructed according to the principles of the invention are characterized by having significantly higher particle position indicating resolution than is attainable with prior art detectors, while at the same time requiring substantially fewer readout channels to realize such high resolution.

  8. Carrier transport and collection in fully depleted semiconductors by a combined action of the space charge field and the field due to electrode voltages

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rehak, P.; Gatti, E.

    1987-08-18

    A semiconductor charge transport device and method for making same are disclosed, characterized by providing a thin semiconductor wafer having rectifying junctions on its opposing major surfaces and including a small capacitance ohmic contact, in combination with bias voltage means and associated circuit means for applying a predetermined voltage to effectively deplete the wafer in regions thereof between the rectifying junctions and the ohmic contact. A charge transport device of the invention is usable as a drift chamber, a low capacitance detector, or a charge coupled device each constructed according to the methods of the invention for making such devices. Detectors constructed according to the principles of the invention are characterized by having significantly higher particle position indicating resolution than is attainable with prior art detectors, while at the same time requiring substantially fewer readout channels to realize such high resolution. 16 figs.

  9. Carrier transport and collection in fully depleted semiconductors by a combined action of the space charge field and the field due to electrode voltages

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rehak, P.; Gatti, E.

    1984-02-24

    A semiconductor charge transport device and method for making same, characterized by providing a thin semiconductor wafer having rectifying functions on its opposing major surfaces and including a small capacitance ohmic contact, in combination with bias voltage means and associated circuit means for applying a predetermined voltage to effectively deplete the wafer in regions thereof between the rectifying junctions and the ohmic contact. A charge transport device of the invention is usable as a drift chamber, a low capacitance detector, or a charge coupled device each constructed according to the methods of the invention for making such devices. Detectors constructed according to the principles of the invention are characterized by having significantly higher particle position indicating resolution than is attainable with prior art detectors, while at the same time requiring substantially fewer readout channels to realize such high resolution.

  10. DOE Selects Contractor for Depleted Hexafluoride Conversion Project...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    DOE Selects Contractor for Depleted Hexafluoride Conversion Project Support March 25, 2013 - 12:00pm Addthis Media Contact Bill Taylor, 803-952-8564 Bill.Taylor@srs.gov Cincinnati ...

  11. Hyperspectral stimulated emission depletion microscopy and methods of use thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Timlin, Jerilyn A; Aaron, Jesse S

    2014-04-01

    A hyperspectral stimulated emission depletion ("STED") microscope system for high-resolution imaging of samples labeled with multiple fluorophores (e.g., two to ten fluorophores). The hyperspectral STED microscope includes a light source, optical systems configured for generating an excitation light beam and a depletion light beam, optical systems configured for focusing the excitation and depletion light beams on a sample, and systems for collecting and processing data generated by interaction of the excitation and depletion light beams with the sample. Hyperspectral STED data may be analyzed using multivariate curve resolution analysis techniques to deconvolute emission from the multiple fluorophores. The hyperspectral STED microscope described herein can be used for multi-color, subdiffraction imaging of samples (e.g., materials and biological materials) and for analyzing a tissue by Forster Resonance Energy Transfer ("FRET").

  12. Stimulation Emission Depletion (STED) microscopy | The Ames Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Stimulation Emission Depletion (STED) microscopy What is STED? Stimulation Emission Depletion (STED) microscopy is a super resolution microscopy tool that captures super resolution images on a nanometer scale. A donut-shaped red light switches off surrounding molecules, allowing only those in the center to fluoresce. At the nanoscale, light microscopes cannot tell features apart. Because light moves as waves and the particles of light are so close together, the lens used cannot focus all of the

  13. Retrieval of buried depleted uranium from the T-1 trench

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burmeister, M.; Castaneda, N.; Greengard, T. |; Hull, C.; Barbour, D.; Quapp, W.J.

    1998-07-01

    The Trench 1 remediation project will be conducted this year to retrieve depleted uranium and other associated materials from a trench at Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site. The excavated materials will be segregated and stabilized for shipment. The depleted uranium will be treated at an offsite facility which utilizes a novel approach for waste minimization and disposal through utilization of a combination of uranium recycling and volume efficient uranium stabilization.

  14. DOE Selects Contractor for Depleted Hexafluoride Conversion Project Support

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    | Department of Energy Contractor for Depleted Hexafluoride Conversion Project Support DOE Selects Contractor for Depleted Hexafluoride Conversion Project Support March 25, 2013 - 12:00pm Addthis Media Contact Bill Taylor, 803-952-8564 Bill.Taylor@srs.gov Cincinnati - The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) today awarded a competitive small business task order to Navarro Research and Engineering Inc. of Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The award is a $22 million, time and materials task order with a

  15. Depleted Uranium Hexafluoride (DUF6) Fully Operational at the Portsmouth

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    and Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Sites | Department of Energy Depleted Uranium Hexafluoride (DUF6) Fully Operational at the Portsmouth and Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Sites Depleted Uranium Hexafluoride (DUF6) Fully Operational at the Portsmouth and Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Sites October 20, 2011 - 9:16am Addthis When Babcock & Wilcox Conversion Services took over the DUF6 Project on March 29 of this year, the company had one thing in mind: Bring all seven conversion lines at both plants to

  16. Depleted uranium as a backfill for nuclear fuel waste package

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Forsberg, Charles W.

    1998-01-01

    A method for packaging spent nuclear fuel for long-term disposal in a geological repository. At least one spent nuclear fuel assembly is first placed in an unsealed waste package and a depleted uranium fill material is added to the waste package. The depleted uranium fill material comprises flowable particles having a size sufficient to substantially fill any voids in and around the assembly and contains isotopically-depleted uranium in the +4 valence state in an amount sufficient to inhibit dissolution of the spent nuclear fuel from the assembly into a surrounding medium and to lessen the potential for nuclear criticality inside the repository in the event of failure of the waste package. Last, the waste package is sealed, thereby substantially reducing the release of radionuclides into the surrounding medium, while simultaneously providing radiation shielding and increased structural integrity of the waste package.

  17. Depleted uranium as a backfill for nuclear fuel waste package

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Forsberg, C.W.

    1998-11-03

    A method is described for packaging spent nuclear fuel for long-term disposal in a geological repository. At least one spent nuclear fuel assembly is first placed in an unsealed waste package and a depleted uranium fill material is added to the waste package. The depleted uranium fill material comprises flowable particles having a size sufficient to substantially fill any voids in and around the assembly and contains isotopically-depleted uranium in the +4 valence state in an amount sufficient to inhibit dissolution of the spent nuclear fuel from the assembly into a surrounding medium and to lessen the potential for nuclear criticality inside the repository in the event of failure of the waste package. Last, the waste package is sealed, thereby substantially reducing the release of radionuclides into the surrounding medium, while simultaneously providing radiation shielding and increased structural integrity of the waste package. 6 figs.

  18. Effect of Shim Arm Depletion in the NBSR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hanson A. H.; Brown N.; Diamond, D.J.

    2013-02-22

    The cadmium shim arms in the NBSR undergo burnup during reactor operation and hence, require periodic replacement. Presently, the shim arms are replaced after every 25 cycles to guarantee they can maintain sufficient shutdown margin. Two prior reports document the expected change in the 113Cd distribution because of the shim arm depletion. One set of calculations was for the present high-enriched uranium fuel and the other for the low-enriched uranium fuel when it was in the COMP7 configuration (7 inch fuel length vs. the present 11 inch length). The depleted 113Cd distributions calculated for these cores were applied to the current design for an equilibrium low-enriched uranium core. This report details the predicted effects, if any, of shim arm depletion on the shim arm worth, the shutdown margin, power distributions and kinetics parameters.

  19. EIS-0269: Long-Term Management of Depleted Uranium Hexaflouride

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) prepared this programmatic environmental impact statement to assess the potential impacts of alternative management strategies for depleted uranium hexafluoride currently stored at three DOE sites: Paducah site near Paducah, Kentucky; Portsmouth site near Portsmouth, Ohio; and K-25 site on the Oak Ridge Reservation in Oak Ridge, Tennessee.

  20. CRDIAC: Coupled Reactor Depletion Instrument with Automated Control

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steven K. Logan

    2012-08-01

    When modeling the behavior of a nuclear reactor over time, it is important to understand how the isotopes in the reactor will change, or transmute, over that time. This is especially important in the reactor fuel itself. Many nuclear physics modeling codes model how particles interact in the system, but do not model this over time. Thus, another code is used in conjunction with the nuclear physics code to accomplish this. In our code, Monte Carlo N-Particle (MCNP) codes and the Multi Reactor Transmutation Analysis Utility (MRTAU) were chosen as the codes to use. In this way, MCNP would produce the reaction rates in the different isotopes present and MRTAU would use cross sections generated from these reaction rates to determine how the mass of each isotope is lost or gained. Between these two codes, the information must be altered and edited for use. For this, a Python 2.7 script was developed to aid the user in getting the information in the correct forms. This newly developed methodology was called the Coupled Reactor Depletion Instrument with Automated Controls (CRDIAC). As is the case in any newly developed methodology for modeling of physical phenomena, CRDIAC needed to be verified against similar methodology and validated against data taken from an experiment, in our case AFIP-3. AFIP-3 was a reduced enrichment plate type fuel tested in the ATR. We verified our methodology against the MCNP Coupled with ORIGEN2 (MCWO) method and validated our work against the Post Irradiation Examination (PIE) data. When compared to MCWO, the difference in concentration of U-235 throughout Cycle 144A was about 1%. When compared to the PIE data, the average bias for end of life U-235 concentration was about 2%. These results from CRDIAC therefore agree with the MCWO and PIE data, validating and verifying CRDIAC. CRDIAC provides an alternative to using ORIGEN-based methodology, which is useful because CRDIAC's depletion code, MRTAU, uses every available isotope in its depletion, unlike ORIGEN, which only depletes the isotopes specified by the user. This means that depletions done by MRTAU more accurately reflect reality. MRTAU also allows the user to build new isotope data sets, which means any isotope with nuclear data could be depleted, something that would help predict the outcomes of nuclear reaction testing in materials other than fuel, like beryllium or gold.

  1. 1,2,3-D Diffusion Depletion Multi-Group

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1992-04-20

    CITATION is designed to solve problems using the finite difference representation of neutron diffusion theory, treating up to three space dimensions with arbitrary group to group scattering. X-y-z, theta-r-z, hexagonal z, and triagonal z geometries may be treated. Depletion problems may be solved and fuel managed for multi-cycle analysis. Extensive first order perturbation results may be obtained given microscopic data and nuclide concentrations. Statics problems may be solved and perturbation results obtained with microscopic data.

  2. High-voltage compatible, full-depleted CCD

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Holland, Stephen Edward (Hercules, CA)

    2007-09-18

    A charge coupled device for detecting electromagnetic and particle radiation is described. The device includes a high-resistivity semiconductor substrate, buried channel regions, gate electrode circuitry, and amplifier circuitry. For good spatial resolution and high performance, especially when operated at high voltages with full or nearly full depletion of the substrate, the device can also include a guard ring positioned near channel regions, a biased channel stop, and a biased polysilicon electrode over the channel stop.

  3. Background Fact Sheet Transfer of Depleted Uranium and Subsequent Transactions

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Background Fact Sheet Transfer of Depleted Uranium and Subsequent Transactions At the direction of Energy Secretary Steven Chu, over many months, the Energy Department (DOE) has been working closely with Energy Northwest (ENW), the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA), and USEC Inc. (USEC) to develop a plan to address the challenges at USEC's Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (GDP) that advances America's national security interests, protects taxpayers, and provides benefits for TVA and the Bonneville

  4. Accounting for Depletion of Oil and Gas Resources in Malaysia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Othman, Jamal Jafari, Yaghoob

    2012-12-15

    Since oil and gas are non-renewable resources, it is important to identify the extent to which they have been depleted. Such information will contribute to the formulation and evaluation of appropriate sustainable development policies. This paper provides an assessment of the changes in the availability of oil and gas resources in Malaysia by first compiling the physical balance sheet for the period 2000-2007, and then assessing the monetary balance sheets for the said resource by using the Net Present Value method. Our findings show serious reduction in the value of oil reserves from 2001 to 2005, due to changes in crude oil prices, and thereafter the depletion rates decreased. In the context of sustainable development planning, albeit in the weak sustainability sense, it will be important to ascertain if sufficient reinvestments of the estimated resource rents in related or alternative capitals are being attempted by Malaysia. For the study period, the cumulative resource rents were to the tune of RM61 billion. Through a depletion or resource rents policy, the estimated quantum may guide the identification of a reinvestment threshold (after considering needed capital investment for future development of the industry) in light of ensuring the future productive capacity of the economy at the time when the resource is exhausted.

  5. Accelerated Depletion: Assessing Its Impacts on Domestic Oil and Natural Gas Prices and Production

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2000-01-01

    Analysis of the potential impacts of accelerated depletion on domestic oil and natural gas prices and production.

  6. Inhibition of lytic infection of pseudorabies virus by arginine depletion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, H.-C. [Department of Veterinary Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, National Chung-Hsing University, Taichung 402, Taiwan (China); Kao, Y.-C. [Department of Veterinary Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, National Chung-Hsing University, Taichung 402, Taiwan (China); Chang, T-J. [Department of Veterinary Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, National Chung-Hsing University, Taichung 402, Taiwan (China); Wong, M.-L. [Department of Veterinary Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, National Chung-Hsing University, Taichung 402, Taiwan (China)]. E-mail: mlwong@dragon.nchu.edu.tw

    2005-08-26

    Pseudorabies virus (PRV) is a member of Alphahepesviruses; it is an enveloped virus with a double-stranded DNA genome. Polyamines (such as spermine and spermidine) are ubiquitous in animal cells and participate in cellular proliferation and differentiation. Previous results of our laboratory showed that the PRV can accomplish lytic infection either in the presence of exogenous spermine (or spermidine) or depletion of cellular polyamines. The amino acid arginine is a precursor of polyamine biosynthesis. In this work, we investigated the role of arginine in PRV infection. It was found that the plaque formation of PRV was inhibited by arginase (enzyme catalyzing the conversion of arginine into ornithine and urea) treatment whereas this inhibition can be reversed by exogenous arginine, suggesting that arginine is essential for PRV proliferation. Western blotting was conducted to study the effect of arginine depletion on the levels of structural proteins of PRV in virus-infected cells. Four PRV structural proteins (gB, gE, UL47, and UL48) were chosen for examination, and results revealed that the levels of viral proteins were obviously reduced in long time arginase treatment. However, the overall protein synthesis machinery was apparently not influenced by arginase treatment either in mock or PRV-infected cells. Analyzing with native gel, we found that arginase treatment affected the mobility of PRV structural proteins, suggesting the conformational change of viral proteins by arginine depletion. Heat shock proteins, acting as molecular chaperons, participate in protein folding and translocation. Our results demonstrated that long time arginase treatment could reduce the expression of cellular heat shock proteins 70 (hsc70 and hsp70), and transcriptional suppression of heat shock protein 70 gene promoter was one of the mechanisms involved in this reduced expression.

  7. Depleted uranium storage and disposal trade study: Summary report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hightower, J.R.; Trabalka, J.R.

    2000-02-01

    The objectives of this study were to: identify the most desirable forms for conversion of depleted uranium hexafluoride (DUF6) for extended storage, identify the most desirable forms for conversion of DUF6 for disposal, evaluate the comparative costs for extended storage or disposal of the various forms, review benefits of the proposed plasma conversion process, estimate simplified life-cycle costs (LCCs) for five scenarios that entail either disposal or beneficial reuse, and determine whether an overall optimal form for conversion of DUF6 can be selected given current uncertainty about the endpoints (specific disposal site/technology or reuse options).

  8. Including environmental concerns in management strategies for depleted uranium hexafluoride

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goldberg, M.; Avci, H.I.; Bradley, C.E.

    1995-12-31

    One of the major programs within the Office of Nuclear Energy, Science, and Technology of the US Department of Energy (DOE) is the depleted uranium hexafluoride (DUF{sub 6}) management program. The program is intended to find a long-term management strategy for the DUF{sub 6} that is currently stored in approximately 46,400 cylinders at Paducah, KY; Portsmouth, OH; and Oak Ridge, TN, USA. The program has four major components: technology assessment, engineering analysis, cost analysis, and the environmental impact statement (EIS). From the beginning of the program, the DOE has incorporated the environmental considerations into the process of strategy selection. Currently, the DOE has no preferred alternative. The results of the environmental impacts assessment from the EIS, as well as the results from the other components of the program, will be factored into the strategy selection process. In addition to the DOE`s current management plan, other alternatives continued storage, reuse, or disposal of depleted uranium, will be considered in the EIS. The EIS is expected to be completed and issued in its final form in the fall of 1997.

  9. Ozone-depleting-substance control and phase-out plan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nickels, J.M.; Brown, M.J.

    1994-07-01

    Title VI of the Federal Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 requires regulation of the use and disposal of ozone-depleting substances (ODSs) (e.g., Halon, Freon). Several important federal regulations have been promulgated that affect the use of such substances at the Hanford Site. On April 23, 1993, Executive Order (EO) 12843, Procurement Requirements and Policies for Federal Agencies for Ozone-Depleting Substances (EPA 1993) was issued for Federal facilities to conform to the new US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) regulations implementing the Clean Air Act of 1963 (CAA), Section 613, as amended. To implement the requirements of Title VI the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office (RL), issued a directive to the Hanford Site contractors on May 25, 1994 (Wisness 1994). The directive assigns Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) the lead in coordinating the development of a sitewide comprehensive implementation plan to be drafted by July 29, 1994 and completed by September 30, 1994. The implementation plan will address several areas where immediate compliance action is required. It will identify all current uses of ODSs and inventories, document the remaining useful life of equipment that contains ODS chemicals, provide a phase-out schedule, and provide a strategy that will be implemented consistently by all the Hanford Site contractors. This plan also addresses the critical and required elements of Federal regulations, the EO, and US Department of Energy (DOE) guidance. This plan is intended to establish a sitewide management system to address the clean air requirements.

  10. Draft Supplement Analysis for Location(s) to Dispose of Depleted Uranium Oxide Conversion Product Generated from DOE'S Inventory of Depleted Uranium Hexafluoride

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    DRAFT SUPPLEMENT ANALYSIS FOR LOCATION(S) TO DISPOSE OF DEPLETED URANIUM OXIDE CONVERSION PRODUCT GENERATED FROM DOE'S INVENTORY OF DEPLETED URANIUM HEXAFLUORIDE (DOE/EIS-0359-SA1 AND DOE/EIS-0360-SA1) March 2007 March 2007 i CONTENTS NOTATION........................................................................................................................... iv 1 INTRODUCTION AND BACKGROUND ................................................................. 1 1.1 Why DOE Has Prepared This

  11. DOE Seeks Contractor for Depleted Uranium Hexafluoride (DUF6) Operations at

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Ohio and Kentucky Facilities | Department of Energy Contractor for Depleted Uranium Hexafluoride (DUF6) Operations at Ohio and Kentucky Facilities DOE Seeks Contractor for Depleted Uranium Hexafluoride (DUF6) Operations at Ohio and Kentucky Facilities April 1, 2015 - 3:30pm Addthis Media Contact: Lynette Chafin, 513-246-0461, Lynette.Chafin@emcbc.doe.gov Cincinnati -- The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) today issued a Draft Request for Proposal (RFP) seeking a contractor to perform Depleted

  12. Improved Spatial Resolution in Thick, Fully-Depleted CCDs withEnhanced...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Improved Spatial Resolution in Thick, Fully-Depleted CCDs withEnhanced Red Sensitivity Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Improved Spatial Resolution in Thick,...

  13. EIS-0329: Proposed Construction, Operation, Decontamination/Decommissioning of Depleted Uranium Hexafluoride Conversion Facilities

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This EIS analyzes DOE's proposal to construct, operate, maintain, and decontaminate and decommission two depleted uranium hexafluoride (DUF 6) conversion facilities, at Portsmouth, Ohio, and Paducah, Kentucky.

  14. A ground state depleted laser in neodymium doped yttrium orthosilicate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beach, R.; Albrecht, G.; Solarz, R.; Krupke, W.; Comaskey, B.; Mitchell, S.; Brandle, C.; Berkstresser, G.

    1990-01-16

    A ground state depleted (GSD){sup 1,2} laser has been demonstrated in the form of a Q-switched oscillator operating at 912 nm. Using Nd{sup 3+} as the active ion and Y{sub 2}SiO{sub 5} as the host material, the laser transition is from the lowest lying stark level of the Nd{sup 3t}F{sub 3/2} level to a stark level 355 cm{sup {minus}1} above the lowest lying one in the {sup 4}I{sub 9/2} manifold. The necessity of depleting the ground {sup 4}I{sub 9/2} manifold is evident for this level scheme as transparency requires a 10% inversion. To achieve the high excitation levels required for the efficient operation of this laser, bleach wave pumping using an alexandrite laser at 745 nm has been employed. The existence of a large absorption feature at 810 nm also allows for the possibility of AlGaAs laser diode pumping. Using KNbO{sub 3}, noncritical phase matching is possible at 140{degree}C using d{sub 32} and has been demonstrated. The results of Q-switched laser performance and harmonic generation in KNbO{sub 3} will be presented. Orthosilicate can be grown in large boules of excellent optical quality using a Czochralski technique. Because of the relatively small 912 nm emission cross section of 2-3 {times} 10{sup {minus}20} cm{sup 2} (orientation dependent) fluences of 10-20 J/cm{sup 2} must be circulated in the laser cavity for the efficient extraction of stored energy. This necessitates very aggressive laser damage thresholds. Results from the Reptile laser damage facility at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) will be presented showing Y{sub 2}SiO{sub 5} bulk and AR sol-gel coated surface damage thresholds of greater than 40 J/cm{sup 2} for 10 nsec, 10 Hz, 1.06 {mu} pulses. 16 refs., 18 figs., 6 tabs.

  15. Neutronic and depletion analysis of the Pb-AHTR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fratoni, Massimiliano; Greenspan, Ehud; Peterson, Per F.

    2007-07-01

    The PB-AHTR is a Pebble Bed Advanced High Temperature Reactor that is cooled with the liquid salt flibe (LiF-BeF{sub 2}) rather than helium. This study presents a preliminary neutronic and depletion analysis for the PBAHTR. The attainable burnup is determined as a function of uranium loading per pebble, power density and core dimensions. It is found that the optimal design for a 425 {mu}m UC{sub 0.5}O{sub 1.5} fuel kernel diameter, 10% enriched uranium, features a graphite-to-heavy metal ratio of {approx}360 and its reactivity coefficients are all negative. A comparison with the helium-cooled pebble-bed reactor and with a prismatic-fuel reactor that is cooled with either flibe or helium is also presented. It is found that the PB-AHTR offers similar discharge burnup as the other three designs. As compared to the gas-cooled pebble bed, the PB-AHTR uranium loading and energy generated per pebble are {approx}2.5 times higher. (authors)

  16. Investigation of breached depleted UF{sub 6} cylinders

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DeVan, J.H.

    1991-12-31

    In June 1990, during a three-site inspection of cylinders being used for long-term storage of solid depleted UF{sub 6}, two 14-ton cylinders at Portsmouth, Ohio, were discovered with holes in the barrel section of the cylinders. An investigation team was immediately formed to determine the cause of the failures and their impact on future storage procedures and to recommend corrective actions. Subsequent investigation showed that the failures most probably resulted from mechanical damage that occurred at the time that the cylinders had been placed in the storage yard. In both cylinders evidence pointed to the impact of a lifting lug of an adjacent cylinder near the front stiffening ring, where deflection of the cylinder could occur only by tearing the cylinder. The impacts appear to have punctured the cylinders and thereby set up corrosion processes that greatly extended the openings in the wall and obliterated the original crack. Fortunately, the reaction products formed by this process were relatively protective and prevented any large-scale loss of uranium. The main factors that precipitated the failures were inadequate spacing between cylinders and deviations in the orientations of lifting lugs from their intended horizontal position. After reviewing the causes and effects of the failures, the team`s principal recommendation for remedial action concerned improved cylinder handling and inspection procedures. Design modifications and supplementary mechanical tests were also recommended to improve the cylinder containment integrity during the stacking operation.

  17. Kr Ion Irradiation Study of the Depleted-Uranium Alloys

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J. Gan; D. Keiser; B. Miller; M. Kirk; J. Rest; T. Allen; D. Wachs

    2010-12-01

    Fuel development for the Reduced Enrichment Research and Test Reactor program is tasked with the development of new low-enriched uranium nuclear fuels that can be employed to replace existing highly enriched uranium fuels currently used in some research reactors throughout the world. For dispersion-type fuels, radiation stability of the fuel/cladding interaction product has a strong impact on fuel performance. Three depleted uranium alloys are cast for the radiation stability studies of the fuel/cladding interaction product using Kr ion irradiation to investigate radiation damage from fission products. SEM analysis indicates the presence of the phases of interest: U(Si, Al)3, (U, Mo)(Si, Al)3, UMo2Al20, U6Mo4Al43, and UAl4. Irradiations of TEM disc samples were conducted with 500 keV Kr ions at 200C to ion doses up to 2.5 1015 ions/cm2 (~ 10 dpa) with an Kr ion flux of 1012 ions/cm2-sec (~ 4.0 10-3 dpa/sec). Microstructural evolution of the phases relevant to fuel-cladding interaction products was investigated using transmission electron microscopy.

  18. Natural Gas Depleted Fields Storage Capacity

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    6,917,547 7,074,773 7,104,948 7,038,245 7,074,916 7,085,773 1999-2014 Alaska 83,592 83,592 2013-2014 Alabama 11,000 11,000 13,500 13,500 13,500 13,500 1999-2014 Arkansas 21,760 21,760 21,359 21,853 21,853 21,853 1999-2014 California 513,005 542,511 570,511 592,411 587,711 587,711 1999-2014 Colorado 105,768 105,768 105,858 124,253 122,086 130,186 1999-2014 Illinois 103,606 218,106 220,070 220,070 25,920 25,923 1999-2014 Indiana 32,946 30,003 30,003 30,003 30,003 30,003 1999-2014 Iowa 0 0

  19. Working Gas Capacity of Depleted Fields

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    296,096 311,096 335,396 349,296 364,296 364,296 2008-2014 Colorado 48,129 49,119 48,709 60,582 60,582 63,774 2008-2014 Illinois 51,418 87,368 87,368 87,368 11,768 11,768...

  20. Depleted uranium human health risk assessment, Jefferson Proving Ground, Indiana

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ebinger, M.H.; Hansen, W.R.

    1994-04-29

    The risk to human health from fragments of depleted uranium (DU) at Jefferson Proving Ground (JPG) was estimated using two types of ecosystem pathway models. A steady-state, model of the JPG area was developed to examine the effects of DU in soils, water, and vegetation on deer that were hunted and consumed by humans. The RESRAD code was also used to estimate the effects of farming the impact area and consuming the products derived from the farm. The steady-state model showed that minimal doses to humans are expected from consumption of deer that inhabit the impact area. Median values for doses to humans range from about 1 mrem ({plus_minus}2.4) to 0.04 mrem ({plus_minus}0.13) and translate to less than 1 {times} 10{sup {minus}6} detriments (excess cancers) in the population. Monte Carlo simulation of the steady-state model was used to derive the probability distributions from which the median values were drawn. Sensitivity analyses of the steady-state model showed that the amount of DU in airborne dust and, therefore, the amount of DU on the vegetation surface, controlled the amount of DU ingested by deer and by humans. Human doses from the RESRAD estimates ranged from less than 1 mrem/y to about 6.5 mrem/y in a hunting scenario and subsistence fanning scenario, respectively. The human doses exceeded the 100 mrem/y dose limit when drinking water for the farming scenario was obtained from the on-site aquifer that was presumably contaminated with DU. The two farming scenarios were unrealistic land uses because the additional risk to humans due to unexploded ordnance in the impact area was not figured into the risk estimate. The doses estimated with RESRAD translated to less than 1 {times} 10{sup {minus}6} detriments to about 1 {times} 10{sup {minus}3} detriments. The higher risks were associated only with the farming scenario in which drinking water was obtained on-site.

  1. Second Generation Monolithic Full-depletion Radiation Sensor with Integrated CMOS Circuitry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Segal, J.D.; Kenney, C.J.; Parker, S.I.; Aw, C.H.; Snoeys, W.J.; Wooley, B.; Plummer, J.D.; /Stanford U., Elect. Eng. Dept.

    2011-05-20

    A second-generation monolithic silicon radiation sensor has been built and characterized. This pixel detector has CMOS circuitry fabricated directly in the high-resistivity floatzone substrate. The bulk is fully depleted from bias applied to the backside diode. Within the array, PMOS pixel circuitry forms the first stage amplifiers. Full CMOS circuitry implementing further amplification as well as column and row logic is located in the periphery of the pixel array. This allows a sparse-field readout scheme where only pixels with signals above a certain threshold are readout. We describe the fabrication process, circuit design, system performance, and results of gamma-ray radiation tests.

  2. Dupoly process for treatment of depleted uranium and production of beneficial end products

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kalb, Paul D. (Wading River, NY); Adams, Jay W. (Stony Brook, NY); Lageraaen, Paul R. (Seaford, NY); Cooley, Carl R. (Gaithersburg, MD)

    2000-02-29

    The present invention provides a process of encapsulating depleted uranium by forming a homogenous mixture of depleted uranium and molten virgin or recycled thermoplastic polymer into desired shapes. Separate streams of depleted uranium and virgin or recycled thermoplastic polymer are simultaneously subjected to heating and mixing conditions. The heating and mixing conditions are provided by a thermokinetic mixer, continuous mixer or an extruder and preferably by a thermokinetic mixer or continuous mixer followed by an extruder. The resulting DUPoly shapes can be molded into radiation shielding material or can be used as counter weights for use in airplanes, helicopters, ships, missiles, armor or projectiles.

  3. Accelerated cellular senescence phenotype of GAPDH-depleted human lung carcinoma cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Phadke, Manali; Krynetskaia, Natalia; Mishra, Anurag; Krynetskiy, Evgeny; Jayne Haines Center for Pharmacogenomics, Temple University School of Pharmacy, Philadelphia, PA 19140

    2011-07-29

    Highlights: {yields} We examined the effect of glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate (GAPDH) depletion on proliferation of human carcinoma A549 cells. {yields} GAPDH depletion induces accelerated senescence in tumor cells via AMPK network, in the absence of DNA damage. {yields} Metabolic and genetic rescue experiments indicate that GAPDH has regulatory functions linking energy metabolism and cell cycle. {yields} Induction of senescence in LKB1-deficient lung cancer cells via GAPDH depletion suggests a novel strategy to control tumor cell proliferation. -- Abstract: Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) is a pivotal glycolytic enzyme, and a signaling molecule which acts at the interface between stress factors and the cellular apoptotic machinery. Earlier, we found that knockdown of GAPDH in human carcinoma cell lines resulted in cell proliferation arrest and chemoresistance to S phase-specific cytotoxic agents. To elucidate the mechanism by which GAPDH depletion arrests cell proliferation, we examined the effect of GAPDH knockdown on human carcinoma cells A549. Our results show that GAPDH-depleted cells establish senescence phenotype, as revealed by proliferation arrest, changes in morphology, SA-{beta}-galactosidase staining, and more than 2-fold up-regulation of senescence-associated genes DEC1 and GLB1. Accelerated senescence following GAPDH depletion results from compromised glycolysis and energy crisis leading to the sustained AMPK activation via phosphorylation of {alpha} subunit at Thr172. Our findings demonstrate that GAPDH depletion switches human tumor cells to senescent phenotype via AMPK network, in the absence of DNA damage. Rescue experiments using metabolic and genetic models confirmed that GAPDH has important regulatory functions linking the energy metabolism and the cell cycle networks. Induction of senescence in LKB1-deficient non-small cell lung cancer cells via GAPDH depletion suggests a novel strategy to control tumor cell proliferation.

  4. DOE Announces Transfer of Depleted Uranium to Advance the U.S. National

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Security Interests, Extend Operations at Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant | Department of Energy Transfer of Depleted Uranium to Advance the U.S. National Security Interests, Extend Operations at Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant DOE Announces Transfer of Depleted Uranium to Advance the U.S. National Security Interests, Extend Operations at Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant May 15, 2012 - 4:00pm Addthis News Media Contact (202) 386-4940 WASHINGTON - The Department of Energy - in collaboration

  5. Depletion Aggregation > Batteries & Fuel Cells > Research > The Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Materials Center at Cornell Batteries & Fuel Cells In This Section Battery Anodes Battery Cathodes Depletion Aggregation Membranes Depletion Aggregation We are exploring a number of synthetic strategies to produce nanohybrids systems that carry great promise as structural materials in fuel cells and other electrochemical devices. To that end, we have prepared highly oriented arrays of several inorganic (silicate, graphene and graphitic) nanosheets well dispersed within the Nafion matrix

  6. Optimization of Depletion Modeling and Simulation for the High Flux Isotope Reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Betzler, Benjamin R; Ade, Brian J; Chandler, David; Ilas, Germina; Sunny, Eva E

    2015-01-01

    Monte Carlo based depletion tools used for the high-fidelity modeling and simulation of the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) come at a great computational cost; finding sufficient approximations is necessary to make the use of these tools feasible. The optimization of the neutronics and depletion model for the HFIR is based on two factors: (i) the explicit representation of the involute fuel plates with sets of polyhedra and (ii) the treatment of depletion mixtures and control element position during depletion calculations. A very fine representation (i.e., more polyhedra in the involute plate approximation) does not significantly improve simulation accuracy. The recommended representation closely represents the physical plates and ensures sufficient fidelity in regions with high flux gradients. Including the fissile targets in the central flux trap of the reactor as depletion mixtures has the greatest effect on the calculated cycle length, while localized effects (e.g., the burnup of specific isotopes or the power distribution evolution over the cycle) are more noticeable consequences of including a critical control element search or depleting burnable absorbers outside the fuel region.

  7. Postmidnight depletion of the high-energy tail of the quiet plasmasphere

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Sarno-Smith, Lois K.; Liemohn, Michael W.; Katus, Roxanne M.; Skoug, Ruth M.; Larsen, Brian A.; Thomsen, Michelle F.; Wygant, John R.; Moldwin, Mark B.

    2015-03-06

    The Van Allen Probes Helium Oxygen Proton Electron (HOPE) instrument measures the high energy tail of the thermal plasmasphere allowing study of topside ionosphere and inner magnetosphere coupling. We statistically analyze a 22 month period of HOPE data, looking at quiet times with a Kp index of less than 3. We investigate the high energy range of the plasmasphere, which consists of ions at energies between 1-10 eV and contains approximately 5% of total plasmaspheric density. Both the fluxes and partial plasma densities over this energy range show H+ is depleted the most in the post-midnight sector (1-4 MLT), followedmore » by O+ and then He+. The relative depletion of each species across the post-midnight sector is not ordered by mass, which reveals ionospheric influence. We compare our results with keV energy electron data from HOPE and the Van Allen Probes Electric Fields and Waves (EFW) instrument spacecraft potential to rule out spacecraft charging. Our conclusion is that the post-midnight ion disappearance is due to diurnal ionospheric temperature variation and charge exchange processes« less

  8. Postmidnight depletion of the high-energy tail of the quiet plasmasphere

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sarno-Smith, Lois K.; Liemohn, Michael W.; Katus, Roxanne M.; Skoug, Ruth M.; Larsen, Brian A.; Thomsen, Michelle F.; Wygant, John R.; Moldwin, Mark B.

    2015-03-06

    The Van Allen Probes Helium Oxygen Proton Electron (HOPE) instrument measures the high energy tail of the thermal plasmasphere allowing study of topside ionosphere and inner magnetosphere coupling. We statistically analyze a 22 month period of HOPE data, looking at quiet times with a Kp index of less than 3. We investigate the high energy range of the plasmasphere, which consists of ions at energies between 1-10 eV and contains approximately 5% of total plasmaspheric density. Both the fluxes and partial plasma densities over this energy range show H+ is depleted the most in the post-midnight sector (1-4 MLT), followed by O+ and then He+. The relative depletion of each species across the post-midnight sector is not ordered by mass, which reveals ionospheric influence. We compare our results with keV energy electron data from HOPE and the Van Allen Probes Electric Fields and Waves (EFW) instrument spacecraft potential to rule out spacecraft charging. Our conclusion is that the post-midnight ion disappearance is due to diurnal ionospheric temperature variation and charge exchange processes

  9. Depletion of cellular poly (A) binding protein prevents protein synthesis and leads to apoptosis in HeLa cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thangima Zannat, Mst.; Bhattacharjee, Rumpa B.; Bag, Jnanankur

    2011-05-13

    Highlights: {yields} Depletion of cellular PABP level arrests mRNA translation in HeLa cells. {yields} PABP knock down leads to apoptotic cell death. {yields} PABP depletion does not affect transcription. {yields} PABP depletion does not lead to nuclear accumulation of mRNA. -- Abstract: The cytoplasmic poly (A) binding protein (PABP) is important in mRNA translation and stability. In yeast, depletion of PABP leads to translation arrest. Similarly, the PABP gene in Drosophila is important for proper development. It is however uncertain, whether mammalian PABP is essential for mRNA translation. Here we showed the effect of PABP depletion on mRNA metabolism in HeLa cells by using a small interfering RNA. Our results suggest that depletion of PABP prevents protein synthesis and consequently leads to cell death through apoptosis. Interestingly, no detectable effect of PABP depletion on transcription, transport and stability of mRNA was observed.

  10. Stochastic interactions of two Brownian hard spheres in the presence of depletants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Karzar-Jeddi, Mehdi; Fan, Tai-Hsi; Tuinier, Remco; Taniguchi, Takashi

    2014-06-07

    A quantitative analysis is presented for the stochastic interactions of a pair of Brownian hard spheres in non-adsorbing polymer solutions. The hard spheres are hypothetically trapped by optical tweezers and allowed for random motion near the trapped positions. The investigation focuses on the long-time correlated Brownian motion. The mobility tensor altered by the polymer depletion effect is computed by the boundary integral method, and the corresponding random displacement is determined by the fluctuation-dissipation theorem. From our computations it follows that the presence of depletion layers around the hard spheres has a significant effect on the hydrodynamic interactions and particle dynamics as compared to pure solvent and uniform polymer solution cases. The probability distribution functions of random walks of the two interacting hard spheres that are trapped clearly shift due to the polymer depletion effect. The results show that the reduction of the viscosity in the depletion layers around the spheres and the entropic force due to the overlapping of depletion zones have a significant influence on the correlated Brownian interactions.

  11. Depleted Uranium Hexafluoride Management Program. The technology assessment report for the long-term management of depleted uranium hexafluoride. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zoller, J.N.; Rosen, R.S.; Holliday, M.A.

    1995-06-30

    With the publication of a Request for Recommendations and Advance Notice of Intent in the November 10, 1994 Federal Register, the Department of Energy initiated a program to assess alternative strategies for the long-term management or use of depleted uranium hexafluoride. This Request was made to help ensure that, by seeking as many recommendations as possible, Department management considers reasonable options in the long-range management strategy. The Depleted Uranium Hexafluoride Management Program consists of three major program elements: Engineering Analysis, Cost Analysis, and an Environmental Impact Statement. This Technology Assessment Report is the first part of the Engineering Analysis Project, and assesses recommendations from interested persons, industry, and Government agencies for potential uses for the depleted uranium hexafluoride stored at the gaseous diffusion plants in Paducah, Kentucky, and Portsmouth, Ohio, and at the Oak Ridge Reservation in Tennessee. Technologies that could facilitate the long-term management of this material are also assessed. The purpose of the Technology Assessment Report is to present the results of the evaluation of these recommendations. Department management will decide which recommendations will receive further study and evaluation. These Appendices contain the Federal Register Notice, comments on evaluation factors, independent technical reviewers resumes, independent technical reviewers manual, and technology information packages.

  12. Depleted Uranium Hexafluoride Management Program. The technology assessment report for the long-term management of depleted uranium hexafluoride. Volume 2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zoller, J.N.; Rosen, R.S.; Holliday, M.A.

    1995-06-30

    With the publication of a Request for Recommendations and Advance Notice of Intent in the November 10, 1994 Federal Register, the Department of Energy initiated a program to assess alternative strategies for the long-term management or use of depleted uranium hexafluoride. This Request was made to help ensure that, by seeking as many recommendations as possible, Department management considers reasonable options in the long-range management strategy. The Depleted Uranium Hexafluoride Management Program consists of three major program elements: Engineering Analysis, Cost Analysis, and an Environmental Impact Statement. This Technology Assessment Report is the first part of the Engineering Analysis Project, and assesses recommendations from interested persons, industry, and Government agencies for potential uses for the depleted uranium hexafluoride stored at the gaseous diffusion plants in Paducah, Kentucky, and Portsmouth, Ohio, and at the Oak Ridge Reservation in Tennessee. Technologies that could facilitate the long-term management of this material are also assessed. The purpose of the Technology Assessment Report is to present the results of the evaluation of these recommendations. Department management will decide which recommendations will receive further study and evaluation.

  13. Application of thermal depletion model to geothermal reservoirs...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    method are presented, and possible application to the Salton Sea Geothermal Field, the Raft River System, and to reinjection of supersaturated fluids is discussed. Authors...

  14. Transient effects and pump depletion in stimulated Raman scattering. [Para-hydrogen

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carlsten, J.L.; Wenzel, R.G.; Druehl, K.

    1983-01-01

    Stimulated rotational Raman scattering in a 300-K multipass cell filled with para-H/sub 2/ with a single-mode CO/sub 2/-pumped laser is studied using a frequency-narrowed optical parametric oscillator (OPO) as a probe laser at the Stokes frequency for the S/sub 0/(O) transition. Amplification and pump depletion are examined as a function of incident pump energy. The pump depletion shows clear evidence of transient behavior. A theoretical treatment of transient stimulated Raman scattering, including effects of both pump depletion and medium saturation is presented. In a first approximation, diffraction effects are neglected, and only plane-wave interactions are considered. The theoretical results are compared to the experimental pulse shapes.

  15. Monopolistic recycling of oil revenue and intertemporal bias in oil depletion and trade

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hillman, A.L.; Long, N.V.

    1985-08-01

    This paper investigates oil depletion and trade when monopolistic oil producers also exercise monopoly power in the capital market. A two-period model views collusively organized oil producers with an initial trade surplus and a subsequent deficit. When monopoly power in the capital market is applied to the disadvantage of borrowers, less oil is initially made available to oil importers than if the interest rate had been competitively determined. This depletion bias, however, is reversed if, because of incentives for capital accumulation, it is to the advantage of the oil producers to subsidize lending to the oil importers. In either case the bias in oil depletion due to monopolistic recycling of oil revenue is greater, the more vulnerable are oil importer's incomes to a curtailment of oil supplies. 25 references.

  16. Summary of the engineering analysis report for the long-term management of depleted uranium hexafluoride

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dubrin, J.W., Rahm-Crites, L.

    1997-09-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) is reviewing ideas for the long-term management and use of its depleted uranium hexafluoride. DOE owns about 560,000 metric tons (over a billion pounds) of depleted uranium hexafluoride. This material is contained in steel cylinders located in storage yards near Paducah, Kentucky; Portsmouth, Ohio; and at the East Tennessee Technology Park (formerly the K-25 Site) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. On November 10, 1994, DOE announced its new Depleted Uranium Hexafluoride Management Program by issuing a Request for Recommendations and an Advance Notice of Intent in the Federal Register (59 FR 56324 and 56325). The first part of this program consists of engineering, costs and environmental impact studies. Part one will conclude with the selection of a long-term management plan or strategy. Part two will carry out the selected strategy.

  17. 1,2 or 3-D Few-Group Diffusion Depletion

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1982-12-01

    The PDQ series of programs is designed to solve the neutron diffusion-depletion problem in one, two or three dimensions. The three-dimensional spatial calculation may be either explicit or discontinuous trial function synthesis. Up to five lethargy groups are permitted. Adjoint, fixed source, one iteration, additive fixed source, eigenvalue, and boundary value calculations may be performed. The programs utilize the HARMONY system for time-dependent representation of cross section variation and generalized depletion chain solutions. Geometries availablemore » include rectangular, cylindrical, spherical, and hexagonal. All allow variable mesh in all dimensions. Various control searches as well as temperature and xenon feedback are provided.« less

  18. Electron depletion via cathode spot dispersion of dielectric powder into an overhead plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gillman, Eric D. [Naval Research Laboratory, 4555 Overlook Ave SW, Washington, District of Columbia 20375 (United States)] [Naval Research Laboratory, 4555 Overlook Ave SW, Washington, District of Columbia 20375 (United States); Foster, John E. [Department of Nuclear Engineering and Radiological Sciences (NERS), University of Michigan, 2355 Bonisteel Blvd., Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States)] [Department of Nuclear Engineering and Radiological Sciences (NERS), University of Michigan, 2355 Bonisteel Blvd., Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States)

    2013-11-15

    The effectiveness of cathode spot delivered dielectric particles for the purpose of plasma depletion is investigated. Here, cathode spot flows kinetically entrain and accelerate dielectric particles originally at rest into a background plasma. The time variation of the background plasma density is tracked using a cylindrical Langmuir probe biased approximately at electron saturation. As inferred from changes in the electron saturation current, depletion fractions of up to 95% are observed. This method could be exploited as a means of communications blackout mitigation for manned and unmanned reentering spacecraft as well as any high speed vehicle enveloped by a dense plasma layer.

  19. Running Out Of and Into Oil. Analyzing Global Oil Depletion and Transition Through 2050

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Greene, David L.; Hopson, Janet L.; Li, Jia

    2003-10-01

    This report presents a risk analysis of world conventional oil resource production, depletion, expansion, and a possible transition to unconventional oil resources such as oil sands, heavy oil and shale oil over the period 2000 to 2050. Risk analysis uses Monte Carlo simulation methods to produce a probability distribution of outcomes rather than a single value.

  20. DOE Issues Request for Quotations for Depleted Uranium Hexafluoride Conversion Technical Services

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Cincinnati – The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) today issued a Request for Quotation (RFQ) for engineering and operations technical services to support the Portsmouth Paducah Project Office and the oversight of operations of the Depleted Uranium Hexafluoride (DUF6) Conversion Project located in Paducah KY, and Portsmouth OH.

  1. FORIG: a modification of the ORIGEN2 isotope-generation and depletion code for fusion problems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blink, J.A.

    1982-03-03

    This report describes how to use the FORIG computer code to solve isotope-generation and depletion problems in fusion and fission reactors. FORIG is an adaptation of ORIGEN2 to run on a Cray-1 computer, and to accept more extensive activation cross sections.

  2. Top-gate organic depletion and inversion transistors with doped channel and injection contact

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Xuhai; Kasemann, Daniel Leo, Karl

    2015-03-09

    Organic field-effect transistors constitute a vibrant research field and open application perspectives in flexible electronics. For a commercial breakthrough, however, significant performance improvements are still needed, e.g., stable and high charge carrier mobility and on-off ratio, tunable threshold voltage, as well as integrability criteria such as n- and p-channel operation and top-gate architecture. Here, we show pentacene-based top-gate organic transistors operated in depletion and inversion regimes, realized by doping source and drain contacts as well as a thin layer of the transistor channel. By varying the doping concentration and the thickness of the doped channel, we control the position of the threshold voltage without degrading on-off ratio or mobility. Capacitance-voltage measurements show that an inversion channel can indeed be formed, e.g., an n-doped channel can be inverted to a p-type inversion channel with highly p-doped contacts. The Cytop polymer dielectric minimizes hysteresis, and the transistors can be biased for prolonged cycles without a shift of threshold voltage, indicating excellent operation stability.

  3. EIS-0360: Depleted Uranium Oxide Conversion Product at the Portsmouth, Ohio Site

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This site-specific EIS analyzes the construction, operation, maintenance, and decontamination and decommissioning of the proposed depleted uranium hexafluoride (DUF6) conversion facility at three alternative locations within the Paducah site; transportation of all cylinders (DUF6, enriched, and empty) currently stored at the East Tennessee Technology Park (ETTP) near Oak Ridge, Tennessee, to Portsmouth; construction of a new cylinder storage yard at Portsmouth (if required) for ETTP cylinders; transportation of depleted uranium conversion products and waste materials to a disposal facility; transportation and sale of the hydrogen fluoride (HF) produced as a conversion coproduct; and neutralization of HF to calcium fluoride and its sale or disposal in the event that the HF product is not sold.

  4. An assessment of alternatives and technologies for replacing ozone- depleting substances at DOE facilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Purcell, C.W.; Miller, K.B.; Friedman, J.R.; Rapoport, R.D.; Conover, D.R.; Hendrickson, P.L.; Koss, T.C.

    1992-10-01

    Title VI of the Clean Air Act, as amended, mandates a production phase-out for ozone-depleting substances (ODSs). These requirements will have a significant impact on US Department of Energy (DOE) facilities. Currently, DOE uses ODSs in three major activities: fire suppression (halon), refrigeration and cooling (chlorofluorocarbons [CFCs]), and cleaning that requires solvents (CFCs, methyl chloroform, and carbon tetrachloride). This report provides basic information on methods and strategies to phase out use of ODSs at DOE facilities.

  5. Potential hazards of compressed air energy storage in depleted natural gas reservoirs.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cooper, Paul W.; Grubelich, Mark Charles; Bauer, Stephen J.

    2011-09-01

    This report is a preliminary assessment of the ignition and explosion potential in a depleted hydrocarbon reservoir from air cycling associated with compressed air energy storage (CAES) in geologic media. The study identifies issues associated with this phenomenon as well as possible mitigating measures that should be considered. Compressed air energy storage (CAES) in geologic media has been proposed to help supplement renewable energy sources (e.g., wind and solar) by providing a means to store energy when excess energy is available, and to provide an energy source during non-productive or low productivity renewable energy time periods. Presently, salt caverns represent the only proven underground storage used for CAES. Depleted natural gas reservoirs represent another potential underground storage vessel for CAES because they have demonstrated their container function and may have the requisite porosity and permeability; however reservoirs have yet to be demonstrated as a functional/operational storage media for compressed air. Specifically, air introduced into a depleted natural gas reservoir presents a situation where an ignition and explosion potential may exist. This report presents the results of an initial study identifying issues associated with this phenomena as well as possible mitigating measures that should be considered.

  6. Performance upgrades to the MCNP6 burnup capability for large scale depletion calculations

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Fensin, M. L.; Galloway, J. D.; James, M. R.

    2015-04-11

    The first MCNP based inline Monte Carlo depletion capability was officially released from the Radiation Safety Information and Computational Center as MCNPX 2.6.0. With the merger of MCNPX and MCNP5, MCNP6 combined the capability of both simulation tools, as well as providing new advanced technology, in a single radiation transport code. The new MCNP6 depletion capability was first showcased at the International Congress for Advancements in Nuclear Power Plants (ICAPP) meeting in 2012. At that conference the new capabilities addressed included the combined distributive and shared memory parallel architecture for the burnup capability, improved memory management, physics enhancements, and newmore » predictability as compared to the H.B Robinson Benchmark. At Los Alamos National Laboratory, a special purpose cluster named “tebow,” was constructed such to maximize available RAM per CPU, as well as leveraging swap space with solid state hard drives, to allow larger scale depletion calculations (allowing for significantly more burnable regions than previously examined). As the MCNP6 burnup capability was scaled to larger numbers of burnable regions, a noticeable slowdown was realized.This paper details two specific computational performance strategies for improving calculation speedup: (1) retrieving cross sections during transport; and (2) tallying mechanisms specific to burnup in MCNP. To combat this slowdown new performance upgrades were developed and integrated into MCNP6 1.2.« less

  7. Micelle-induced depletion interaction and resultant structure in charged colloidal nanoparticle system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ray, D.; Aswal, V. K.; Kohlbrecher, J.

    2015-04-28

    The evolution of the interaction and the resultant structure in the mixed system of anionic silica nanoparticles (Ludox LS30) and non-ionic surfactant decaethylene glycol monododecylether (C12E10), undergoing phase separation, have been studied using small-angle neutron scattering and dynamic light scattering. The measurements have been carried out for a fixed concentration of nanoparticle (1?wt.?%) with varying concentration of surfactant (0 to 1?wt.?%), in the absence and presence of an electrolyte. It is found that the micelles of non-ionic surfactant adsorb on the nanoparticle in the absence of electrolyte (form stable system), whereas these micelles become non-adsorbing in the presence of electrolyte (show phase separation). The phase separation arises because of C12E10 micelles, causing depletion interaction between nanoparticles and leading to their aggregation. The interaction is modeled by double Yukawa potential accounting for attractive depletion as well as repulsive electrostatic forces. Both the interactions (attraction and repulsion) are found to be of long-range. The nanoparticle aggregation (phase separation) is governed by the increase in the magnitude and the range of the depletion attraction with the increase in the surfactant concentration. The nanoparticle aggregates formed are quite large in size (order of micron) and are characterized by the surface fractal having simple cubic packing of nanoparticles within the aggregates.

  8. Semiconductor-based photoelectrochemical water splitting at the limit of very wide depletion region

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Mingzhao; Lyons, John L.; Yan, Danhua H.; Hybertsen, Mark S.

    2015-11-23

    In semiconductor-based photoelectrochemical (PEC) water splitting, carrier separation and delivery largely relies on the depletion region formed at the semiconductor/water interface. As a Schottky junction device, the trade-off between photon collection and minority carrier delivery remains a persistent obstacle for maximizing the performance of a water splitting photoelectrode. Here, it is demonstrated that the PEC water splitting efficiency for an n-SrTiO3 (n-STO) photoanode is improved very significantly despite its weak indirect band gap optical absorption (α < 10⁴ cm⁻¹), by widening the depletion region through engineering its doping density and profile. Graded doped n-SrTiO3 photoanodes are fabricated with their bulk heavily doped with oxygen vacancies but their surface lightly doped over a tunable depth of a few hundred nanometers, through a simple low temperature re-oxidation technique. The graded doping profile widens the depletion region to over 500 nm, thus leading to very efficient charge carrier separation and high quantum efficiency (>70%) for the weak indirect transition. As a result, this simultaneous optimization of the light absorption, minority carrier (hole) delivery, and majority carrier (electron) transport by means of a graded doping architecture may be useful for other indirect band gap photocatalysts that suffer from a similar problem of weak optical absorption.

  9. Power distributions in fresh and depleted LEU and HEU cores of the MITR reactor.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wilson, E.H.; Horelik, N.E.; Dunn, F.E.; Newton, T.H., Jr.; Hu, L.; Stevens, J.G.

    2012-04-04

    The Massachusetts Institute of Technology Reactor (MITR-II) is a research reactor in Cambridge, Massachusetts designed primarily for experiments using neutron beam and in-core irradiation facilities. It delivers a neutron flux comparable to current LWR power reactors in a compact 6 MW core using Highly Enriched Uranium (HEU) fuel. In the framework of its non-proliferation policies, the international community presently aims to minimize the amount of nuclear material available that could be used for nuclear weapons. In this geopolitical context, most research and test reactors both domestic and international have started a program of conversion to the use of Low Enriched Uranium (LEU) fuel. A new type of LEU fuel based on an alloy of uranium and molybdenum (UMo) is expected to allow the conversion of U.S. domestic high performance reactors like the MITR-II reactor. Toward this goal, core geometry and power distributions are presented. Distributions of power are calculated for LEU cores depleted with MCODE using an MCNP5 Monte Carlo model. The MCNP5 HEU and LEU MITR models were previously compared to experimental benchmark data for the MITR-II. This same model was used with a finer spatial depletion in order to generate power distributions for the LEU cores. The objective of this work is to generate and characterize a series of fresh and depleted core peak power distributions, and provide a thermal hydraulic evaluation of the geometry which should be considered for subsequent thermal hydraulic safety analyses.

  10. Performance upgrades to the MCNP6 burnup capability for large scale depletion calculations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fensin, M. L.; Galloway, J. D.; James, M. R.

    2015-04-11

    The first MCNP based inline Monte Carlo depletion capability was officially released from the Radiation Safety Information and Computational Center as MCNPX 2.6.0. With the merger of MCNPX and MCNP5, MCNP6 combined the capability of both simulation tools, as well as providing new advanced technology, in a single radiation transport code. The new MCNP6 depletion capability was first showcased at the International Congress for Advancements in Nuclear Power Plants (ICAPP) meeting in 2012. At that conference the new capabilities addressed included the combined distributive and shared memory parallel architecture for the burnup capability, improved memory management, physics enhancements, and new predictability as compared to the H.B Robinson Benchmark. At Los Alamos National Laboratory, a special purpose cluster named “tebow,” was constructed such to maximize available RAM per CPU, as well as leveraging swap space with solid state hard drives, to allow larger scale depletion calculations (allowing for significantly more burnable regions than previously examined). As the MCNP6 burnup capability was scaled to larger numbers of burnable regions, a noticeable slowdown was realized.This paper details two specific computational performance strategies for improving calculation speedup: (1) retrieving cross sections during transport; and (2) tallying mechanisms specific to burnup in MCNP. To combat this slowdown new performance upgrades were developed and integrated into MCNP6 1.2.

  11. Semiconductor-based photoelectrochemical water splitting at the limit of very wide depletion region

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Liu, Mingzhao; Lyons, John L.; Yan, Danhua H.; Hybertsen, Mark S.

    2015-11-23

    In semiconductor-based photoelectrochemical (PEC) water splitting, carrier separation and delivery largely relies on the depletion region formed at the semiconductor/water interface. As a Schottky junction device, the trade-off between photon collection and minority carrier delivery remains a persistent obstacle for maximizing the performance of a water splitting photoelectrode. Here, it is demonstrated that the PEC water splitting efficiency for an n-SrTiO3 (n-STO) photoanode is improved very significantly despite its weak indirect band gap optical absorption (α < 10⁴ cm⁻¹), by widening the depletion region through engineering its doping density and profile. Graded doped n-SrTiO3 photoanodes are fabricated with their bulkmore » heavily doped with oxygen vacancies but their surface lightly doped over a tunable depth of a few hundred nanometers, through a simple low temperature re-oxidation technique. The graded doping profile widens the depletion region to over 500 nm, thus leading to very efficient charge carrier separation and high quantum efficiency (>70%) for the weak indirect transition. As a result, this simultaneous optimization of the light absorption, minority carrier (hole) delivery, and majority carrier (electron) transport by means of a graded doping architecture may be useful for other indirect band gap photocatalysts that suffer from a similar problem of weak optical absorption.« less

  12. Design and Implementation of a C02 Flood Utilizing Advanced Reservoir Characterization and Horizontal Injection Wells in a Shallow Shelf Carbonate Approaching Waterflood Depletion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-08-01

    The objective is to utilize reservoir characteristics and advanced technologies to optimize the design of a carbon dioxide (CO2) project for the South Cowden Unit (SCU) located in Ector County, Texas. The SCU is a mature, relatively small, shallow shelf carbonate unit nearing waterflood depletion. Also the project seeks to demonstrate the performance and economic viability of the project in the field.

  13. Depleted and Recyclable Uranium in the United States: Inventories and Options

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schneider, Erich; Scopatza, Anthony; Deinert, Mark

    2007-07-01

    International consumption of uranium currently outpaces production by nearly a factor of two. Secondary supplies from dismantled nuclear weapons, along with civilian and governmental stockpiles, are being used to make up the difference but supplies are limited. Large amounts of {sup 235}U are contained in spent nuclear fuel as well as in the tails left over from past uranium enrichment. The usability of these inhomogeneous uranium supplies depends on their isotopics. We present data on the {sup 235}U content of spent nuclear fuel and depleted uranium tails in the US and discuss the factors that affect its marketability and alternative uses. (authors)

  14. Interdisciplinary Investigation of CO2 Sequestration in Depleted Shale Gas Formations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zoback, Mark; Kovscek, Anthony; Wilcox, Jennifer

    2013-09-30

    This project investigates the feasibility of geologic sequestration of CO2 in depleted shale gas reservoirs from an interdisciplinary viewpoint. It is anticipated that over the next two decades, tens of thousands of wells will be drilled in the 23 states in which organic-rich shale gas deposits are found. This research investigates the feasibility of using these formations for sequestration. If feasible, the number of sites where CO2 can be sequestered increases dramatically. The research embraces a broad array of length scales ranging from the ~10 nanometer scale of the pores in the shale formations to reservoir scale through a series of integrated laboratory and theoretical studies.

  15. Effects of Bismuth on Wide-Depletion-Width GaInNAs Solar Cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ptak, A. J.; France, R.; Jiang, C.-S.; Reedy, R. C.

    2008-05-01

    GaInNAs solar cells could be useful in next-generation multijunction solar cells if issues surrounding low photocurrents and photovoltages are surmounted. Wide-depletion-width devices generate significant photocurrent using a p-i-n structure grown by molecular beam epitaxy, but these depletion widths are only realized in a region of parameter space that leads to rough surface morphologies. Here, bismuth is explored as a surfactant for the growth of GaInNAs solar cells. Very low fluxes of Bi are effective at maintaining smooth surfaces, even at high growth temperatures and In contents. However, Bi also increases the net donor concentration in these materials, manifested in our n-on-p device structures as a pn-junction that moves deeper into the base layer with increasing Bi fluxes. Quantum efficiency modeling and scanning kelvin probe microscopy measurements confirm the type conversion of the base layer from p type to n type. Bi incorporation in GaAsBi samples shows signs of surface segregation, leading to a finite buildup time, and this effect may lead to slow changes in the electrical properties of the GaInNAs(Bi) devices. Bi also appears to create a defect level, although this defect level is not deleterious enough to increase the dark current in the devices.

  16. Depleted uranium oxides and silicates as spent nuclear fuel waste package fill materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Forsberg, C.W.

    1996-09-10

    A new repository waste package (WP) concept for spent nuclear fuel (SNF) is being investigated that uses depleted uranium (DU) to improve performance and reduce the uncertainties of geological disposal of SNF. The WP would be filled with SNF and then filled with depleted uranium (DU) ({approximately}0.2 wt % {sup 235}U) dioxide (UO{sub 2}) or DU silicate-glass beads. Fission products and actinides can not escape the SNF UO{sub 2} crystals until the UO{sub 2} dissolves or is transformed into other chemical species. After WP failure, the DU fill material slows dissolution by three mechanisms: (1) saturation of AT groundwater with DU and suppression of SNF dissolution, (2) maintenance of chemically reducing conditions in the WP that minimize SNF solubility by sacrificial oxidation of DU from the +4 valence state, and (3) evolution of DU to lower-density hydrated uranium silicates. The fill expansion seals the WP from water flow. The DU also isotopically exchanges with SNF uranium as the SNF degrades to reduce long-term nuclear-criticality concerns.

  17. The depletion of Interleukin-8 causes cell cycle arrest and increases the efficacy of docetaxel in breast cancer cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shao, Nan; Chen, Liu-Hua; Ye, Run-Yi; Lin, Ying; Wang, Shen-Ming

    2013-02-15

    Highlights: ? IL-8 depletion affects cell cycle distribution. ? Intrinsic IL-8 mediates breast cancer cell migration and invasion. ? IL-8 siRNA down regulates key factors that control survival and metastatic pathway. ? IL-8 depletion reduces integrin ?3 expression. ? IL-8 depletion increases the chemosensitivity to docetaxel. -- Abstract: IL-8 is a multi-functional pro-inflammatory chemokine, which is highly expressed in cancers, such as ER-negative breast cancer. The present study demonstrates the pervasive role of IL-8 in the malignant progression of ER-negative breast cancer. IL-8 siRNA inhibited proliferation and delayed the G1 to S cell cycle progression in MDA-MB-231 and BT549 cells. IL-8 silencing resulted in the upregulation of the CDK inhibitor p27, the downregulation of cyclin D1, and the reduction of phosphorylated-Akt and NF-?B activities. IL-8 depletion also increased the chemosensitivity to docetaxel. These results indicate a role for IL-8 in promoting tumor cell survival and resistance to docetaxel and highlight the potential therapeutic significance of IL-8 depletion in ER-negative breast cancer patients.

  18. Manufacturing Process Development to Produce Depleted Uranium Wire for EBAM Feedstock

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alexander, David John; Clarke, Kester Diederik; Coughlin, Daniel Robert; Scott, Jeffrey E.

    2015-06-30

    Wire produced from depleted uranium (DU) is needed as feedstock for the Electron-Beam Additive Manufacturing (EBAM) process. The goal is to produce long lengths of DU wire with round or rectangular cross section, nominally 1.5 mm (0.060 inches). It was found that rolling methods, rather than swaging or drawing, are preferable for production of intermediate quantities of DU wire. Trials with grooveless rolling have shown that it is suitable for initial reductions of large stock. Initial trials with grooved rolling have been successful, for certain materials. Modified square grooves (square round-bottom vee grooves) with 12.5 % reduction of area per pass have been selected for the reduction process.

  19. Multi-images deconvolution improves signal-to-noise ratio on gated stimulated emission depletion microscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Castello, Marco; Diaspro, Alberto; Vicidomini, Giuseppe

    2014-12-08

    Time-gated detection, namely, only collecting the fluorescence photons after a time-delay from the excitation events, reduces complexity, cost, and illumination intensity of a stimulated emission depletion (STED) microscope. In the gated continuous-wave- (CW-) STED implementation, the spatial resolution improves with increased time-delay, but the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) reduces. Thus, in sub-optimal conditions, such as a low photon-budget regime, the SNR reduction can cancel-out the expected gain in resolution. Here, we propose a method which does not discard photons, but instead collects all the photons in different time-gates and recombines them through a multi-image deconvolution. Our results, obtained on simulated and experimental data, show that the SNR of the restored image improves relative to the gated image, thereby improving the effective resolution.

  20. Theophylline prevents NAD{sup +} depletion via PARP-1 inhibition in human pulmonary epithelial cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moonen, Harald J.J. . E-mail: h.moonen@grat.unimaas.nl; Geraets, Liesbeth; Vaarhorst, Anika; Bast, Aalt; Wouters, Emiel F.M.; Hageman, Geja J.

    2005-12-30

    Oxidative DNA damage, as occurs during exacerbations in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), highly activates the nuclear enzyme poly(ADP-ribose)polymerase-1 (PARP-1). This can lead to cellular depletion of its substrate NAD{sup +}, resulting in an energy crisis and ultimately in cell death. Inhibition of PARP-1 results in preservation of the intracellular NAD{sup +} pool, and of NAD{sup +}-dependent cellular processes. In this study, PARP-1 activation by hydrogen peroxide decreased intracellular NAD{sup +} levels in human pulmonary epithelial cells, which was found to be prevented in a dose-dependent manner by theophylline, a widely used compound in the treatment of COPD. This enzyme inhibition by theophylline was confirmed in an ELISA using purified human PARP-1 and was found to be competitive by nature. These findings provide new mechanistic insights into the therapeutic effect of theophylline in oxidative stress-induced lung pathologies.

  1. Revenue ruling 73-538: the service's assault on percentage depletion for ''D'' miners

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barnes, D.A.

    1983-01-01

    In this article, the author examines the Internal Revenue Service's ruling that storage and loading for shipment at the mine site are nonmining processes for ores and minerals described in section 613(c)(4)(D) of the Internal Revenue Code. He explains the tax consequences of the ruling and discusses the correctness of the position taken by the Internal Revenue Service in light of the relevant case law and the language and legislative history of the statute. The effect of the ruling is to reduce the percentage depletion deduction available to many miners of ores and minerals described in section 613(c)(4)(D), including miners of lead, zinc, copper, gold, silver, uranium, fluorspar, potash, soda ash, garnet and tungsten. (JMT)

  2. Strategy for Characterizing Transuranics and Technetium Contamination in Depleted UF{sub 6} Cylinders

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hightower, J.R.

    2000-10-26

    This report summarizes results of a study performed to develop a strategy for characterization of low levels of radioactive contaminants [plutonium (Pu), neptunium (Np), americium (Am), and technetium (Tc)] in depleted uranium hexafluoride (DUF{sub 6}) cylinders at the gaseous diffusion plants in Oak Ridge, Tennessee; Paducah, Kentucky; and Piketon, Ohio. In these gaseous diffusion plants, this radioactivity came from enriching recycled uranium (the so-called ''reactor returns'') from Savannah River, South Carolina, and Hanford, Washington, reactors. Results of this study will be used to support a request for proposals to design, build, and operate facilities to convert the DUF{sub 6} to more chemically stable forms. These facilities would need to be designed to handle any transuranic contaminants that might be present in order to (1) protect the workers' health and safety and (2) protect the public and the environment.

  3. Cadmium Depletion Impacts on Hardening Neutron6 Spectrum for Advanced Fuel Testing in ATR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gray S. Chang

    2011-05-01

    For transmuting long-lived isotopes contained in spent nuclear fuel into shorter-lived fission products effectively is in a fast neutron spectrum reactor. In the absence of a fast spectrum test reactor in the United States of America (USA), initial irradiation testing of candidate fuels can be performed in a thermal test reactor that has been modified to produce a test region with a hardened neutron spectrum. A test region is achieved with a Cadmium (Cd) filter which can harden the neutron spectrum to a spectrum similar (although still somewhat softer) to that of the liquid metal fast breeder reactor (LMFBR). A fuel test loop with a Cd-filter has been installed within the East Flux Trap (EFT) of the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). A detailed comparison analyses between the cadmium (Cd) filter hardened neutron spectrum in the ATR and the LMFBR fast neutron spectrum have been performed using MCWO. MCWO is a set of scripting tools that are used to couple the Monte Carlo transport code MCNP with the isotope depletion and buildup code ORIGEN-2.2. The MCWO-calculated results indicate that the Cd-filter can effectively flatten the Rim-Effect and reduce the linear heat rate (LHGR) to meet the advanced fuel testing project requirements at the beginning of irradiation (BOI). However, the filtering characteristics of Cd as a strong absorber quickly depletes over time, and the Cd-filter must be replaced for every two typical operating cycles within the EFT of the ATR. The designed Cd-filter can effectively depress the LHGR in experimental fuels and harden the neutron spectrum enough to adequately flatten the Rim Effect in the test region.

  4. Environmental acceptability of high-performance alternatives for depleted uranium penetrators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kerley, C.R.; Easterly, C.E.; Eckerman, K.F.

    1996-08-01

    The Army`s environmental strategy for investigating material substitution and management is to measure system environmental gains/losses in all phases of the material management life cycle from cradle to grave. This study is the first in a series of new investigations, applying material life cycle concepts, to evaluate whether there are environmental benefits from increasing the use of tungsten as an alternative to depleted uranium (DU) in Kinetic Energy Penetrators (KEPs). Current military armor penetrators use DU and tungsten as base materials. Although DU alloys have provided the highest performance of any high-density alloy deployed against enemy heavy armor, its low-level radioactivity poses a number of environmental risks. These risks include exposures to the military and civilian population from inhalation, ingestion, and injection of particles. Depleted uranium is well known to be chemically toxic (kidney toxicity), and workplace exposure levels are based on its renal toxicity. Waste materials containing DU fragments are classified as low-level radioactive waste and are regulated by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. These characteristics of DU do not preclude its use in KEPs. However, long-term management challenges associated with KEP deployment and improved public perceptions about environmental risks from military activities might be well served by a serious effort to identify, develop, and substitute alternative materials that meet performance objectives and involve fewer environmental risks. Tungsten, a leading candidate base material for KEPS, is potentially such a material because it is not radioactive. Tungsten is less well studied, however, with respect to health impacts and other environmental risks. The present study is designed to contribute to the understanding of the environmental behavior of tungsten by synthesizing available information that is relevant to its potential use as a penetrator.

  5. CRC DEPLETION CALCULATIONS FOR THE NON-RODDED ASSEMBLIES IN BATCHES 1, 2, AND 3 OF CRYSTAL RIVER UNIT 3

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kenneth D. Wright

    1997-07-29

    The purpose of this design analysis is to document the SAS2H depletion calculations of certain non-rodded fuel assemblies from batches 1, 2, and 3 of the Crystal River Unit 3 pressurized water reactor (PWR) that are required for Commercial Reactor Critical (CRC) evaluations to support development of the disposal criticality methodology. A non-rodded assembly is one which never contains a control rod assembly (CRA) or an axial power shaping rod assembly (APSRA) during its irradiation history. The objective of this analysis is to provide SAS2H generated isotopic compositions for each fuel assembly's depleted fuel and depleted burnable poison materials. These SAS2H generated isotopic compositions are acceptable for use in CRC benchmark reactivity calculations containing the various fuel assemblies.

  6. CRC DEPLETION CALCULATIONS FOR THE RODDED ASSEMBLIES IN BATCHES 1, 2, 3, AND 1X OF CRYSTAL RIVER UNIT 3

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kenneth D. Wright

    1997-09-03

    The purpose of this design analysis is to document the SAS2H depletion calculations of certain rodded fuel assemblies from batches 1, 2, 3, and 1X of the Crystal River Unit 3 pressurized water reactor (PWR) that are required for Commercial Reactor Critical (CRC) evaluations to support the development of the disposal criticality methodology. A rodded assembly is one that contains a control rod assembly (CRA) or an axial power shaping rod assembly (APSRA) for some period of time during its irradiation history. The objective of this analysis is to provide SAS2H calculated isotopic compositions of depleted fuel and depleted burnable poison for each fuel assembly to be used in subsequent CRC reactivity calculations containing the fuel assemblies.

  7. CRC DEPLETION CALCULATIONS FOR THE NON-RODDED ASSEMBLIES IN BATCHES 4 AND 5 OF CRYSTAL RIVER UNIT 3

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kenneth D. Wright

    1997-07-30

    The purpose of this design analysis is to document the SAS2H depletion calculations of certain non-rodded fuel assemblies from batches 4 and 5 of the Crystal River Unit 3 pressurized water reactor (PWR) that are required for commercial Reactor Critical (CRC) evaluations to support the development of the disposal criticality methodology. A non-rodded assembly is one which never contains a control rod assembly (CRA) or an axial power shaping rod assembly (APSRA) during its irradiation history. The objective of this analysis is to provide SAS2H generated isotopic compositions for each fuel assembly's depleted fuel and depleted burnable poison materials. These SAS2H generated isotopic compositions are acceptable for use in CRC benchmark reactivity calculations containing the various fuel assemblies.

  8. Design and Implementation of a CO(2) Flood Utilizing Advanced Reservoir Characterization and Horizontal Injection Wells in Shallow Shelf Carbonate Approaching Waterflood Depletion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harpole, K.J.; Dollens, K.B.; Durrett, E.G.; Bles, J.S

    1997-10-31

    The first objective is to utilize reservoir characterization and advanced technologies to optimize the design of a carbon dioxide (CO) project for the South Cowden Unit (SCU) located in Ector County, Texas. The SCU is a mature, relatively small, shallow shelf carbonate unit nearing waterflood depletion. The second objective is to demonstrate the performance and economic viability of the project in the field. All work this quarter falls within the demonstration project.

  9. Enterprise Assessments Targeted Review of the Paducah Depleted Uranium Hexafluoride Conversion Facility Fire Protection Program … September 2015

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Targeted Review of the Paducah Depleted Uranium Hexafluoride Conversion Facility Fire Protection Program September 2015 Office of Nuclear Safety and Environmental Assessments Office of Environment, Safety and Health Assessments Office of Enterprise Assessments U.S. Department of Energy i Table of Contents Acronyms ..................................................................................................................................................... ii Executive Summary

  10. DOE Issues Final Request for Proposal for the Operation of Depleted Uranium Hexafluoride (DUF6) Conversion Facilities

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Cincinnati -- The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) today issued a Final Request for Proposal (RFP), for the Operation of Depleted Uranium Hexafluoride (DUF6) Conversion Facilities at Paducah, Kentucky and Portsmouth, Ohio. A cost-plus award fee and firm-fixed-price contract line item contract will be awarded from this Final RFP.

  11. Number of Existing Natural Gas Depleted Fields Storage

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    331 331 329 330 332 333 1999-2014 Alaska 5 5 2013-2014 Alabama 1 1 1 1 1 1 1999-2014 Arkansas 2 2 2 2 2 2 1999-2014 California 13 13 13 14 13 13 1999-2014 Colorado 9 9 9 10 10 10 1999-2014 Illinois 10 11 11 11 9 9 1999-2014 Indiana 10 9 9 10 10 10 1999-2014 Kansas 18 18 18 18 18 17 1999-2014 Kentucky 20 20 20 20 20 21 1999-2014 Louisiana 8 8 8 7 8 8 1999-2014 Maryland 1 1 1 1 1 1 1999-2014 Michigan 43 43 43 43 43 43 1999-2014 Mississippi 6 6 6 6 6 6 1999-2014 Montana 5 5 5 5 5 5 1999-2014

  12. DEPLETION OF MOLECULAR GAS BY AN ACCRETION OUTBURST IN A PROTOPLANETARY DISK

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Banzatti, A.; Pontoppidan, K. M.; Muzerolle, J. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Bruderer, S. [Max-Planck-Institut fr Extraterrestrische Physik, Giessenbachstr. 1, D-85748 Garching bei Mnchen (Germany); Meyer, M. R., E-mail: banzatti@stsci.edu [ETH Zrich, Institut fr Astronomie, Wolfgang-Pauli-Strasse 27, CH-8093 Zrich (Switzerland)

    2015-01-01

    We investigate new and archival 3-5 ?m high-resolution (?3 km s{sup 1}) spectroscopy of molecular gas in the inner disk of the young solar-mass star EX Lupi, taken during and after the strong accretion outburst of 2008. The data were obtained using the CRIRES spectrometer at the European Southern Observatory Very Large Telescope in 2008 and 2014. In 2008, emission lines from CO, H{sub 2}O, and OH were detected with broad profiles tracing gas near and within the corotation radius (0.02-0.3 AU). In 2014, the spectra display marked differences. The CO lines, while still detected, are much weaker, and the H{sub 2}O and OH lines have disappeared altogether. At 3 ?m a veiled stellar photospheric spectrum is observed. Our analysis finds that the molecular gas mass in the inner disk has decreased by an order of magnitude since the outburst, matching a similar decrease in the accretion rate onto the star. We discuss these findings in the context of a rapid depletion of material accumulated beyond the disk corotation radius during quiescent periods, as proposed by models of episodic accretion in EXor-type young stars.

  13. Modulated Tool-Path Chip Breaking For Depleted Uranium Machining Operations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barkman, W. E.; Babelay Jr., E. F.; Smith, K. S.; Assaid T. S.; McFarland, J. T.; Tursky, D. A.

    2010-04-15

    Turning operations involving depleted uranium frequently generate long, stringy chips that present a hazard to both the machinist and the machine tool. While a variety of chip-breaking techniques are available, they generally depend on a mechanism that increases the bending of the chip or the introduction of a one dimensional vibration that produces an interrupted cutting pattern. Unfortunately, neither of these approaches is particularly effective when making a 'light depth-of-cut' on a contoured workpiece. The historical solution to this problem has been for the machinist to use long-handled tweezers to 'pull the chip' and try to keep it submerged in the chip pan; however, this approach is not practical for all machining operations. This paper discusses a research project involving the Y-12 National Security Complex and the University of North Carolina at Charlotte in which unique, oscillatory part programs are used to continuously create an interrupted cut that generates pre-defined, user-selectable chip lengths.

  14. Proceedings of a workshop on uses of depleted uranium in storage, transportation and repository facilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-12-31

    A workshop on the potential uses of depleted uranium (DU) in the repository was organized to coordinate the planning of future activities. The attendees, the original workshop objective and the agenda are provided in Appendices A, B and C. After some opening remarks and discussions, the objectives of the workshop were revised to: (1) exchange information and views on the status of the Department of Energy (DOE) activities related to repository design and planning; (2) exchange information on DU management and planning; (3) identify potential uses of DU in the storage, transportation, and disposal of high-level waste and spent fuel; and (4) define the future activities that would be needed if potential uses were to be further evaluated and developed. This summary of the workshop is intended to be an integrated resource for planning of any future work related to DU use in the repository. The synopsis of the first day`s presentations is provided in Appendix D. Copies of slides from each presenter are presented in Appendix E.

  15. Imaging the Solar Cell P-N Junction and Depletion Region Using Secondary Electron Contrast

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heath, J. T.; Jiang, C. S.; Al-Jassim, M. M.

    2011-01-01

    We report on secondary electron (SE) images of cross-sectioned multicrystalline Si and GaAs/GaInP solar cell devices, focusing on quantifying the relationship between the apparent n{sup +}-p contrast and characteristic electronic features of the device. These samples allow us to compare the SE signal from devices which have very different physical characteristics: differing materials, diffused junction versus abrupt junction, heterojunction versus homojunction. Despite these differences, we find that the SE image contrast for both types of sample, and as a function of reverse bias across the diode, closely agrees with PC1D simulations of the bulk electrostatic potential in the device, accurately yielding the depletion edge and width. A spatial derivative of the SE data shows a local maximum at the metallurgical junction. Such data are valuable, for example, in studying the conformity of a diffused junction to the textured surface topography. These data also extend our understanding of the origin of the SE contrast.

  16. Running Out of and Into Oil: Analyzing Global Oil Depletion and Transition Through 2050

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Greene, D.L.

    2003-11-14

    This report presents a risk analysis of world conventional oil resource production, depletion, expansion, and a possible transition to unconventional oil resources such as oil sands, heavy oil and shale oil over the period 2000 to 2050. Risk analysis uses Monte Carlo simulation methods to produce a probability distribution of outcomes rather than a single value. Probability distributions are produced for the year in which conventional oil production peaks for the world as a whole and the year of peak production from regions outside the Middle East. Recent estimates of world oil resources by the United States Geological Survey (USGS), the International Institute of Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA), the World Energy Council (WEC) and Dr. C. Campbell provide alternative views of the extent of ultimate world oil resources. A model of oil resource depletion and expansion for twelve world regions is combined with a market equilibrium model of conventional and unconventional oil supply and demand to create a World Energy Scenarios Model (WESM). The model does not make use of Hubbert curves but instead relies on target reserve-to-production ratios to determine when regional output will begin to decline. The authors believe that their analysis has a bias toward optimism about oil resource availability because it does not attempt to incorporate political or environmental constraints on production, nor does it explicitly include geologic constraints on production rates. Global energy scenarios created by IIASA and WEC provide the context for the risk analysis. Key variables such as the quantity of undiscovered oil and rates of technological progress are treated as probability distributions, rather than constants. Analyses based on the USGS and IIASA resource assessments indicate that conventional oil production outside the Middle East is likely to peak sometime between 2010 and 2030. The most important determinants of the date are the quantity of undiscovered oil, the rate at which unconventional oil production can be expanded, and the rate of growth of reserves and enhanced recovery. Analysis based on data produced by Campbell indicates that the peak of non-Middle East production will occur before 2010. For total world conventional oil production, the results indicate a peak somewhere between 2020 and 2050. Key determinants of the peak in world oil production are the rate at which the Middle East region expands its output and the minimum reserves-to-production ratios producers will tolerate. Once world conventional oil production peaks, first oil sands and heavy oil from Canada, Venezuela and Russia, and later some other source such as shale oil from the United States must expand if total world oil consumption is to continue to increase. Alternative sources of liquid hydrocarbon fuels, such as coal or natural gas are also possible resources but not considered in this analysis nor is the possibility of transition to a hydrogen economy. These limitations were adopted to simplify the transition analysis. Inspection of the paths of conventional oil production indicates that even if world oil production does not peak before 2020, output of conventional oil is likely to increase at a substantially slower rate after that date. The implication is that there will have to be increased production of unconventional oil after that date if world petroleum consumption is to grow.

  17. Ozone depletion, developing countries, and human rights: Seeking better ground on which to fight for protection of the ozone layer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Williams, V.

    1995-12-31

    I urge you not to take a complacent view of the situation. The state of depletion of the ozone layer continues to be alarming... In February, 1993, the ozone levels over North America and most of Europe were 20 percent below normal... Even now, millions of tons of CFC [chlorofluorocarbon] products are en route to their fatal stratospheric rendezvous... This exponential increase calls for increased reflection on the state of the ozone layer and calls for bold decisions.

  18. FORIG: a computer code for calculating radionuclide generation and depletion in fusion and fission reactors. User's manual

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blink, J.A.

    1985-03-01

    In this manual we describe the use of the FORIG computer code to solve isotope-generation and depletion problems in fusion and fission reactors. FORIG runs on a Cray-1 computer and accepts more extensive activation cross sections than ORIGEN2 from which it was adapted. This report is an updated and a combined version of the previous ORIGEN2 and FORIG manuals. 7 refs., 15 figs., 13 tabs.

  19. Diffraction barrier breakthrough in coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy by additional probe-beam-induced phonon depletion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu Wei; Niu Hanben

    2011-02-15

    We provide an approach to significantly break the diffraction limit in coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) microscopy via an additional probe-beam-induced photon depletion (APIPD). The additional probe beam, whose profile is doughnut shaped and whose wavelength is different from the Gaussian probe beam, depletes the phonons to yield an unwanted anti-Stokes signal within a certain bandwidth at the rim of the diffraction-limited spot. When the Gaussian probe beam that follows immediately arrives, no anti-Stokes signal is generated in this region, resembling stimulated emission depletion (STED) microscopy, and the spot-generating useful anti-Stokes signals by this beam are substantially suppressed to a much smaller dimension. Scanning the spot renders three-dimensional, label-free, and chemically selective CARS images with subdiffraction resolution. Also, resolution-enhanced images of the molecule, specified by its broadband even-total CARS spectral signals not only by one anti-Stokes signal for its special chemical bond, can be obtained by employing a supercontinuum source.

  20. Use of depleted uranium silicate glass to minimize release of radionuclides from spent nuclear fuel waste packages

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Forsberg, C.W.

    1996-01-20

    A Depleted Uranium Silicate Container Backfill System (DUSCOBS) is proposed that would use small, isotopically-depleted uranium silicate glass beads as a backfill material inside repository waste packages containing spent nuclear fuel (SNF). The uranium silicate glass beads would fill the void space inside the package including the coolant channels inside SNF assemblies. Based on preliminary analysis, the following benefits have been identified. DUSCOBS improves repository waste package performance by three mechanisms. First, it reduces the radionuclide releases from SNF when water enters the waste package by creating a local uranium silicate saturated groundwater environment that suppresses (a) the dissolution and/or transformation of uranium dioxide fuel pellets and, hence, (b) the release of radionuclides incorporated into the SNF pellets. Second, the potential for long-term nuclear criticality is reduced by isotopic exchange of enriched uranium in SNF with the depleted uranium (DU) in the glass. Third, the backfill reduces radiation interactions between SNF and the local environment (package and local geology) and thus reduces generation of hydrogen, acids, and other chemicals that degrade the waste package system. Finally, DUSCOBS provides a potential method to dispose of significant quantities of excess DU from uranium enrichment plants at potential economic savings. DUSCOBS is a new concept. Consequently, the concept has not been optimized or demonstrated in laboratory experiments.

  1. H. R. 4670: a bill to amend the Internal Revenue Code of 1954 to increase the depletion allowance for oil and natural gas, and to allow percentage depletion for stripper well production of integrated producers. Introduced in the House of Representatives, Ninety-Ninth Congress, Second Session, April 23, 1986

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1986-01-01

    An amendment to the Internal Revenue Code of 1954 increases the depletion allowance for oil and natural gas and allows percentage depletion for stripper well production of integrated producers. The bill was referred to the House Committee on Ways and Means after its introduction.

  2. Hydrologic transport of depleted uranium associated with open air dynamic range testing at Los Alamos National Laboratory, New Mexico, and Eglin Air Force Base, Florida

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Becker, N.M.; Vanta, E.B.

    1995-05-01

    Hydrologic investigations on depleted uranium fate and transport associated with dynamic testing activities were instituted in the 1980`s at Los Alamos National Laboratory and Eglin Air Force Base. At Los Alamos, extensive field watershed investigations of soil, sediment, and especially runoff water were conducted. Eglin conducted field investigations and runoff studies similar to those at Los Alamos at former and active test ranges. Laboratory experiments complemented the field investigations at both installations. Mass balance calculations were performed to quantify the mass of expended uranium which had transported away from firing sites. At Los Alamos, it is estimated that more than 90 percent of the uranium still remains in close proximity to firing sites, which has been corroborated by independent calculations. At Eglin, we estimate that 90 to 95 percent of the uranium remains at test ranges. These data demonstrate that uranium moves slowly via surface water, in both semi-arid (Los Alamos) and humid (Eglin) environments.

  3. Characterization of options and their analysis requirements for the long-term management of depleted uranium hexafluoride

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dubrin, J.W.; Rosen, R.S.; Zoller, J.N.; Harri, J.W.; Schwertz, N.L.

    1995-12-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) is examining alternative strategies for the long-term management of depleted uranium hexafluoride (UF{sub 6}) currently stored at the gaseous diffusion plants at Portsmouth, Ohio, and Paducah, Kentucky, and on the Oak Ridge Reservation in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. This paper describes the methodology for the comprehensive and ongoing technical analysis of the options being considered. An overview of these options, along with several of the suboptions being considered, is presented. The long-term management strategy alternatives fall into three broad categories: use, storage, or disposal. Conversion of the depleted UF6 to another form such as oxide or metal is needed to implement most of these alternatives. Likewise, transportation of materials is an integral part of constructing the complete pathway between the current storage condition and ultimate disposition. The analysis of options includes development of pre-conceptual designs; estimates of effluents, wastes, and emissions; specification of resource requirements; and preliminary hazards assessments. The results of this analysis will assist DOE in selecting a strategy by providing the engineering information necessary to evaluate the environmental impacts and costs of implementing the management strategy alternatives.

  4. ZPR-3 Assembly 11 : A cylindrical sssembly of highly enriched uranium and depleted uranium with an average {sup 235}U enrichment of 12 atom % and a depleted uranium reflector.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lell, R. M.; McKnight, R. D.; Tsiboulia, A.; Rozhikhin, Y.; National Security; Inst. of Physics and Power Engineering

    2010-09-30

    Over a period of 30 years, more than a hundred Zero Power Reactor (ZPR) critical assemblies were constructed at Argonne National Laboratory. The ZPR facilities, ZPR-3, ZPR-6, ZPR-9 and ZPPR, were all fast critical assembly facilities. The ZPR critical assemblies were constructed to support fast reactor development, but data from some of these assemblies are also well suited for nuclear data validation and to form the basis for criticality safety benchmarks. A number of the Argonne ZPR/ZPPR critical assemblies have been evaluated as ICSBEP and IRPhEP benchmarks. Of the three classes of ZPR assemblies, engineering mockups, engineering benchmarks and physics benchmarks, the last group tends to be most useful for criticality safety. Because physics benchmarks were designed to test fast reactor physics data and methods, they were as simple as possible in geometry and composition. The principal fissile species was {sup 235}U or {sup 239}Pu. Fuel enrichments ranged from 9% to 95%. Often there were only one or two main core diluent materials, such as aluminum, graphite, iron, sodium or stainless steel. The cores were reflected (and insulated from room return effects) by one or two layers of materials such as depleted uranium, lead or stainless steel. Despite their more complex nature, a small number of assemblies from the other two classes would make useful criticality safety benchmarks because they have features related to criticality safety issues, such as reflection by soil-like material. ZPR-3 Assembly 11 (ZPR-3/11) was designed as a fast reactor physics benchmark experiment with an average core {sup 235}U enrichment of approximately 12 at.% and a depleted uranium reflector. Approximately 79.7% of the total fissions in this assembly occur above 100 keV, approximately 20.3% occur below 100 keV, and essentially none below 0.625 eV - thus the classification as a 'fast' assembly. This assembly is Fast Reactor Benchmark No. 8 in the Cross Section Evaluation Working Group (CSEWG) Benchmark Specificationsa and has historically been used as a data validation benchmark assembly. Loading of ZPR-3 Assembly 11 began in early January 1958, and the Assembly 11 program ended in late January 1958. The core consisted of highly enriched uranium (HEU) plates and depleted uranium plates loaded into stainless steel drawers, which were inserted into the central square stainless steel tubes of a 31 x 31 matrix on a split table machine. The core unit cell consisted of two columns of 0.125 in.-wide (3.175 mm) HEU plates, six columns of 0.125 in.-wide (3.175 mm) depleted uranium plates and one column of 1.0 in.-wide (25.4 mm) depleted uranium plates. The length of each column was 10 in. (254.0 mm) in each half of the core. The axial blanket consisted of 12 in. (304.8 mm) of depleted uranium behind the core. The thickness of the depleted uranium radial blanket was approximately 14 in. (355.6 mm), and the length of the radial blanket in each half of the matrix was 22 in. (558.8 mm). The assembly geometry approximated a right circular cylinder as closely as the square matrix tubes allowed. According to the logbook and loading records for ZPR-3/11, the reference critical configuration was loading 10 which was critical on January 21, 1958. Subsequent loadings were very similar but less clean for criticality because there were modifications made to accommodate reactor physics measurements other than criticality. Accordingly, ZPR-3/11 loading 10 was selected as the only configuration for this benchmark. As documented below, it was determined to be acceptable as a criticality safety benchmark experiment. A very accurate transformation to a simplified model is needed to make any ZPR assembly a practical criticality-safety benchmark. There is simply too much geometric detail in an exact (as-built) model of a ZPR assembly, even a clean core such as ZPR-3/11 loading 10. The transformation must reduce the detail to a practical level without masking any of the important features of the critical experiment. And it must do this without increasing the total uncertain

  5. Grain boundary depletion and migration during selective oxidation of Cr in a Ni-5Cr binary alloy exposed to high-temperature hydrogenated water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schreiber, Daniel K.; Olszta, Matthew J.; Bruemmer, Stephen M.

    2014-10-01

    High-resolution microscopy of a high-purity Ni-5Cr alloy exposed to 360C hydrogenated water reveals intergranular selective oxidation of Cr accompanied by local Cr depletion and diffusion-induced grain boundary migration (DIGM). The corrosion-product oxide consists of a porous, interconnected network of Cr2O3 platelets with no further O ingress into the metal ahead. Extensive grain boundary depletion of Cr (to <0.05at.%) is observed typically 20100 nm wide as a result of DIGM and reaching depths of many micrometers beyond the oxidation front.

  6. HIGHLY DEPLETED ETHANE AND MILDLY DEPLETED METHANOL IN COMET 21P/GIACOBINI-ZINNER: APPLICATION OF A NEW EMPIRICAL {nu}{sub 2}-BAND MODEL FOR CH{sub 3}OH NEAR 50 K

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DiSanti, M. A.; Bonev, B. P.; Villanueva, G. L.; Mumma, M. J.

    2013-01-20

    We obtained infrared spectra of Comet 21P/Giacobini-Zinner (hereafter 21P/GZ) using NIRSPEC at Keck II on UT 2005 June 3, approximately one month before perihelion, that simultaneously sampled H{sub 2}O, C{sub 2}H{sub 6}, and CH{sub 3}OH. Our production rate for H{sub 2}O (3.885 {+-} 0.074 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 28} molecules s{sup -1}) was consistent with that measured during other apparitions of 21P/GZ as retrieved from optical, infrared, and radio observations. Our analysis also provided values for rotational temperature (T {sub rot} = 51 {+-} 3 K) and the abundance ratio of ortho and para spin populations for water (OPR = 2.99 {+-} 0.23, implying a spin temperature exceeding 50 K). Six Q-branches in the {nu}{sub 7} band of C{sub 2}H{sub 6} provided a production rate (5.27 {+-} 0.90 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 25} s{sup -1}) that corresponded to an abundance ratio of 0.136 {+-} 0.023 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -2} relative to H{sub 2}O, confirming the previously reported strong depletion of C{sub 2}H{sub 6} from IR observations during the 1998 apparition, and in qualitative agreement with the depletion of C{sub 2} known from optical studies of 21P/GZ. For CH{sub 3}OH, we applied our recently published quantum model for the {nu}{sub 3} band to obtain a rotational temperature (48{sup +10}/{sub -7} K) consistent with that obtained for H{sub 2}O. In addition, we developed a new empirical model for the CH{sub 3}OH {nu}{sub 2} band, based on observations of Comet 8P/Tuttle with NIRSPEC. The application of our {nu}{sub 2} model to 21P/GZ yielded a production rate in agreement with that obtained from the {nu}{sub 3} band. Combining results from both {nu}{sub 2} and {nu}{sub 3} bands provided a production rate (47.5 {+-} 4.4 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 25} s{sup -1}) that corresponded to an abundance ratio of 1.22 {+-} 0.11 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -2} relative to H{sub 2}O in 21P/GZ, indicating mild depletion of CH{sub 3}OH. Together with observations of 21P/GZ in 1998, our study provides a measure of primary volatile production rates for this Jupiter family comet over multiple apparitions using high-resolution IR spectroscopy.

  7. Design and implementation of a CO{sub 2} flood utilizing advanced reservoir characterization and horizontal injection wells in a shallow shelf carbonate approaching waterflood depletion. Technical progress report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chimahusky, J.S.

    1996-04-19

    The first objective is to utilize reservoir characterization and advanced technologies to optimize the design of a CO{sub 2} project for the South Cowden Unit (SCU) located in Ector County, Texas. The SCU is a mature, relatively small, shallow shelf carbonate unit nearing waterflood depletion. The second objective is to demonstrate the performance and economic viability of the project in the field. This report includes work on the reservoir characterization and project design objective and the demonstration project objective.

  8. Design and implementation of a CO{sub 2} flood utilizing advanced reservoir characterization and horizontal injection wells in a shallow shelf carbonate approaching waterflood depletion. Quarterly report, July 1 - September 30, 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chimahusky, J.S.

    1996-10-01

    The first objective is to utilize reservoir characterization and advanced technologies to optimize the design of a carbon dioxide project for the South Cowden Unit (SCU) located in Ector County, Texas. The SCU is a mature, relatively small, shallow shelf carbonate unit nearing waterflood depletion. The second object is to demonstrate the performance and economic viability of the project in the field. The report include work on the reservoir characterization and project design objective and demonstration project objective.

  9. Draft Environmental Impact Statement for Construction and Operation of a Depleted Uranium Hexafluoride Conversion Facility at the Portsmouth, Ohio, Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    N /A

    2003-11-28

    This document is a site-specific environmental impact statement (EIS) for construction and operation of a proposed depleted uranium hexafluoride (DUF{sub 6}) conversion facility at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Portsmouth site in Ohio (Figure S-1). The proposed facility would convert the DUF{sub 6} stored at Portsmouth to a more stable chemical form suitable for use or disposal. The facility would also convert the DUF{sub 6} from the East Tennessee Technology Park (ETTP) site near Oak Ridge, Tennessee. In a Notice of Intent (NOI) published in the Federal Register on September 18, 2001 (Federal Register, Volume 66, page 48123 [66 FR 48123]), DOE announced its intention to prepare a single EIS for a proposal to construct, operate, maintain, and decontaminate and decommission two DUF{sub 6} conversion facilities at Portsmouth, Ohio, and Paducah, Kentucky, in accordance with the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA) (United States Code, Title 42, Section 4321 et seq. [42 USC 4321 et seq.]) and DOE's NEPA implementing procedures (Code of Federal Regulations, Title 10, Part 1021 [10 CFR Part 1021]). Subsequent to award of a contract to Uranium Disposition Services, LLC (hereafter referred to as UDS), Oak Ridge, Tennessee, on August 29, 2002, for design, construction, and operation of DUF{sub 6} conversion facilities at Portsmouth and Paducah, DOE reevaluated its approach to the NEPA process and decided to prepare separate site-specific EISs. This change was announced in a Federal Register Notice of Change in NEPA Compliance Approach published on April 28, 2003 (68 FR 22368); the Notice is included as Attachment B to Appendix C of this EIS. This EIS addresses the potential environmental impacts from the construction, operation, maintenance, and decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) of the proposed conversion facility at three alternative locations within the Portsmouth site; from the transportation of all ETTP cylinders (DUF{sub 6}, low-enriched UF6 [LEU-UF{sub 6}], and empty) to Portsmouth; from the transportation of depleted uranium conversion products to a disposal facility; and from the transportation, sale, use, or disposal of the fluoride-containing conversion products (hydrogen fluoride [HF] or calcium fluoride [CaF{sub 2}]). An option of shipping the ETTP cylinders to Paducah is also considered. In addition, this EIS evaluates a no action alternative, which assumes continued storage of DUF{sub 6} in cylinders at the Portsmouth and ETTP sites. A separate EIS (DOE/EIS-0359) evaluates potential environmental impacts for the proposed Paducah conversion facility.

  10. Draft Environmental Impact Statement for Construction and Operation of a Depleted Uranium Hexafluoride Conversion Facility at the Paducah, Kentucky, Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    N /A

    2003-11-28

    This document is a site-specific environmental impact statement (EIS) for construction and operation of a proposed depleted uranium hexafluoride (DUF{sub 6}) conversion facility at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Paducah site in northwestern Kentucky (Figure S-1). The proposed facility would convert the DUF{sub 6} stored at Paducah to a more stable chemical form suitable for use or disposal. In a Notice of Intent (NOI) published in the ''Federal Register'' (FR) on September 18, 2001 (''Federal Register'', Volume 66, page 48123 [66 FR 48123]), DOE announced its intention to prepare a single EIS for a proposal to construct, operate, maintain, and decontaminate and decommission two DUF{sub 6} conversion facilities at Portsmouth, Ohio, and Paducah, Kentucky, in accordance with the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA) (''United States Code'', Title 42, Section 4321 et seq. [42 USC 4321 et seq.]) and DOE's NEPA implementing procedures (''Code of Federal Regulations'', Title 10, Part 1021 [10 CFR Part 1021]). Subsequent to award of a contract to Uranium Disposition Services, LLC (hereafter referred to as UDS), Oak Ridge, Tennessee, on August 29, 2002, for design, construction, and operation of DUF{sub 6} conversion facilities at Portsmouth and Paducah, DOE reevaluated its approach to the NEPA process and decided to prepare separate site-specific EISs. This change was announced in a ''Federal Register'' Notice of Change in NEPA Compliance Approach published on April 28, 2003 (68 FR 22368); the Notice is included as Attachment B to Appendix C of this EIS. This EIS addresses the potential environmental impacts from the construction, operation, maintenance, and decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) of the proposed conversion facility at three alternative locations within the Paducah site; from the transportation of depleted uranium conversion products to a disposal facility; and from the transportation, sale, use, or disposal of the fluoride-containing conversion products (hydrogen fluoride [HF] or calcium fluoride [CaF{sub 2}]). Although not part of the proposed action, an option of shipping all cylinders (DUF{sub 6}, low-enriched UF{sub 6} [LEU-UF{sub 6}], and empty) stored at the East Tennessee Technology Park (ETTP) near Oak Ridge, Tennessee, to Paducah rather than to Portsmouth is also considered. In addition, this EIS evaluates a no action alternative, which assumes continued storage of DUF{sub 6} in cylinders at the Paducah site. A separate EIS (DOE/EIS-0360) evaluates the potential environmental impacts for the proposed Portsmouth conversion facility.

  11. Assessment of the Portsmouth/Paducah Project Office Conduct of Operations Oversight of the Depleted Uranium Hexafluoride Conversion Plants, May 2012

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Assessment of the Portsmouth/Paducah Project Office Conduct of Operations Oversight of the Depleted Uranium Hexafluoride Conversion Plants May 2012 Office of Safety and Emergency Management Evaluations Office of Enforcement and Oversight Office of Health, Safety and Security U.S. Department of Energy i Table of Contents 1.0 Purpose ................................................................................................................................................... 1 2.0 Background

  12. Preliminary formation analysis for compressed air energy storage in depleted natural gas reservoirs : a study for the DOE Energy Storage Systems Program.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gardner, William Payton

    2013-06-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop an engineering and operational understanding of CAES performance for a depleted natural gas reservoir by evaluation of relative permeability effects of air, water and natural gas in depleted natural gas reservoirs as a reservoir is initially depleted, an air bubble is created, and as air is initially cycled. The composition of produced gases will be evaluated as the three phase flow of methane, nitrogen and brine are modeled. The effects of a methane gas phase on the relative permeability of air in a formation are investigated and the composition of the produced fluid, which consists primarily of the amount of natural gas in the produced air are determined. Simulations of compressed air energy storage (CAES) in depleted natural gas reservoirs were carried out to assess the effect of formation permeability on the design of a simple CAES system. The injection of N2 (as a proxy to air), and the extraction of the resulting gas mixture in a depleted natural gas reservoir were modeled using the TOUGH2 reservoir simulator with the EOS7c equation of state. The optimal borehole spacing was determined as a function of the formation scale intrinsic permeability. Natural gas reservoir results are similar to those for an aquifer. Borehole spacing is dependent upon the intrinsic permeability of the formation. Higher permeability allows increased injection and extraction rates which is equivalent to more power per borehole for a given screen length. The number of boreholes per 100 MW for a given intrinsic permeability in a depleted natural gas reservoir is essentially identical to that determined for a simple aquifer of identical properties. During bubble formation methane is displaced and a sharp N2methane boundary is formed with an almost pure N2 gas phase in the bubble near the borehole. During cycling mixing of methane and air occurs along the boundary as the air bubble boundary moves. The extracted gas mixture changes as a function of time and proximity of the bubble boundary to the well. For all simulations reported here, with a formation radius above 50 m the maximum methane composition in the produced gas phase was less than 0.5%. This report provides an initial investigation of CAES in a depleted natural gas reservoir, and the results will provide useful guidance in CAES system investigation and design in the future.

  13. Three dimensional dust-acoustic solitary waves in an electron depleted dusty plasma with two-superthermal ion-temperature

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Borhanian, J.; Shahmansouri, M.

    2013-01-15

    A theoretical investigation is carried out to study the existence and characteristics of propagation of dust-acoustic (DA) waves in an electron-depleted dusty plasma with two-temperature ions, which are modeled by kappa distribution functions. A three-dimensional cylindrical Kadomtsev-Petviashvili equation governing evolution of small but finite amplitude DA waves is derived by means of a reductive perturbation method. The influence of physical parameters on solitary wave structure is examined. Furthermore, the energy integral equation is used to study the existence domains of the localized structures. It is found that the present model can be employed to describe the existence of positive as well as negative polarity DA solitary waves by selecting special values for parameters of the system, e.g., superthermal index of cold and/or hot ions, cold to hot ion density ratio, and hot to cold ion temperature ratio. This model may be useful to understand the excitation of nonlinear DA waves in astrophysical objects.

  14. Benchmark of SCALE (SAS2H) isotopic predictions of depletion analyses for San Onofre PWR MOX fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hermann, O.W.

    2000-02-01

    The isotopic composition of mixed-oxide (MOX) fuel, fabricated with both uranium and plutonium, after discharge from reactors is of significant interest to the Fissile Materials Disposition Program. The validation of the SCALE (SAS2H) depletion code for use in the prediction of isotopic compositions of MOX fuel, similar to previous validation studies on uranium-only fueled reactors, has corresponding significance. The EEI-Westinghouse Plutonium Recycle Demonstration Program examined the use of MOX fuel in the San Onofre PWR, Unit 1, during cycles 2 and 3. Isotopic analyses of the MOX spent fuel were conducted on 13 actinides and {sup 148}Nd by either mass or alpha spectrometry. Six fuel pellet samples were taken from four different fuel pins of an irradiated MOX assembly. The measured actinide inventories from those samples has been used to benchmark SAS2H for MOX fuel applications. The average percentage differences in the code results compared with the measurement were {minus}0.9% for {sup 235}U and 5.2% for {sup 239}Pu. The differences for most of the isotopes were significantly larger than in the cases for uranium-only fueled reactors. In general, comparisons of code results with alpha spectrometer data had extreme differences, although the differences in the calculations compared with mass spectrometer analyses were not extremely larger than that of uranium-only fueled reactors. This benchmark study should be useful in estimating uncertainties of inventory, criticality and dose calculations of MOX spent fuel.

  15. Influence of hydraulic and geomorphologic components of a semi-arid watershed on depleted-uranium transport

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Becker, N.M.

    1991-01-01

    Investigations were undertaken to determine the fate and transport of depleted uranium away from high explosive firing sites at Los Alamos National Laboratory in north-central New Mexico. Investigations concentrated on a small, semi-arid watershed which drains 5 firing sites. Sampling for uranium in spring/summer/fall runoff, snowmelt runoff, in fallout, and in soil and in sediments revealed that surface water is the main transport mechanism. Although the watershed is less than 8 km{sup 2}, flow discontinuity was observed between the divide and the outlet; flow discontinuity occurs in semi-arid and arid watersheds, but was unexpected at this scale. This region, termed a discharge sink, is an area where all flow infiltrates and all sediment, including uranium, deposits during nearly all flow events; it is estimated that the discharge sink has provided the locale for uranium detention during the last 23 years. Mass balance calculations indicate that over 90% of uranium expended still remains at or nearby the firing sites. Leaching experiments determined that uranium can rapidly dissolve from the solid phase. It is postulated that precipitation and runoff which percolate vertically through uranium-contaminated soil and sediment are capable of transporting uranium in the dissolved phase to deeper strata. This may be the key transport mechanism which moves uranium out of the watershed.

  16. revealing H{sub 2}D{sup +} depletion and compact structure in starless and protostellar cores with ALMA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Friesen, R. K.; Di Francesco, J.; Bourke, T. L.; Caselli, P.; Jrgensen, J. K.; Pineda, J. E.; Wong, M.

    2014-12-10

    We present Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) observations of the submillimeter dust continuum and H{sub 2}D{sup +} 1{sub 10}-1{sub 11} emission toward two evolved, potentially protostellar cores within the Ophiuchus molecular cloud, Oph A SM1 and SM1N. The data reveal small-scale condensations within both cores, with mass upper limits of M ? 0.02 M {sub ?} (?20 M {sub Jup}). The SM1 condensation is consistent with a nearly symmetric Gaussian source with a width of only 37 AU. The SM1N condensation is elongated and extends 500 AU along its major axis. No evidence for substructure is seen in either source. A Jeans analysis indicates that these sources are unlikely to fragment, suggesting that both will form single stars. H{sub 2}D{sup +} is only detected toward SM1N, offset from the continuum peak by ?150-200 AU. This offset may be due to either heating from an undetected, young, low-luminosity protostellar source or first hydrostatic core, or HD (and consequently H{sub 2}D{sup +}) depletion in the cold center of the condensation. We propose that SM1 is protostellar and that the condensation detected by ALMA is a warm (T ? 30-50 K) accretion disk. The less concentrated emission of the SM1N condensation suggests that it is still starless, but we cannot rule out the presence of a low-luminosity source, perhaps surrounded by a pseudodisk. These data observationally reveal the earliest stages of the formation of circumstellar accretion regions and agree with theoretical predictions that disk formation can occur very early in the star formation process, coeval with or just after the formation of a first hydrostatic core or protostar.

  17. Assessment of Reusing 14-ton, Thin-Wall, Depleted UF{sub 6} Cylinders as LLW Disposal Containers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    O'Connor, D.G.

    2000-11-30

    Approximately 700,000 MT of DUF{sub 6} is stored, or will be produced under a current agreement with the USEC, at the Paducah site in Kentucky, Portsmouth site in Ohio, and ETTP site in Tennessee. On July 21, 1998, the 105th Congress approved Public Law 105-204 (Ref; 1), which directed that facilities be built at the Kentucky and Ohio sites to convert DUF{sub 6} to a stable form for disposition. On July 6, 1999, the Department of Energy (DOE) issued the ''Final Plan for the Conversion of Depleted Uranium Hexafluoride as Required by Public Law 105-204 (Ref. 2), in which DOE committed to develop a Depleted Uranium Hexafluoride Materials Use Roadmap''. On September 1, 2000, DOE issued the Draft Depleted Uranium Hexafluoride Materials Use Roadmap (Ref. 3) (Roadmap), which provides alternate paths for the long-term storage, beneficial use, and eventual disposition of each product form and material that will result from the DUF{sub 6} conversion activity. One of the paths being considered for DUF{sub 6} cylinders is to reuse the empty cylinders as containers to transport and dispose of LLW, including the converted DU. The Roadmap provides results of the many alternate uses and disposal paths for conversion products and the empty DUF{sub 6} storage cylinders. As a part of the Roadmap, evaluations were conducted of cost savings, technical maturity, barriers to implementation, and other impacts. Results of these evaluations indicate that using the DUF{sub 6} storage cylinders as LLW disposal containers could provide moderate cost savings due to the avoided cost of purchasing LLW packages and the avoided cost of disposing of the cylinders. No significant technical or institutional issues were identified that would make using cylinders as LLW packages less effective than other disposition paths. Over 58,000 cylinders have been used, or will be used, to store DUF{sub 6}. Over 51,000 of those cylinders are 14TTW cylinders with a nominal wall thickness of 5/16-m (0.79 cm). These- 14TTW cylinders, which have a nominal diameter of 48 inches and nominally contain 14 tons (12.7 MT) of DUF{sub 6}, were originally designed and fabricated for temporary storage of DUF{sub 6}. They were fabricated from pressure-vessel-grade steels according to the provisions of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code (Ref. 4). Cylinders are stored in open yards at the three sites and, due to historical storage techniques, were subject to corrosion. Roughly 10,000 of the 14TTW cylinders are considered substandard (Ref. 5) due to corrosion and other structural anomalies caused by mishandling. This means that approximately 40,000 14TTW cylinders could be made available as containers for LLW disposal In order to demonstrate the use of 14TTW cylinders as LLW disposal containers, several qualifying tasks need to be performed. Two demonstrations are being considered using 14TTW cylinders--one demonstration using contaminated soil and one demonstration using U{sub 3}O{sub 8}. The objective of this report are to determine how much information is known that could be used to support the demonstrations, and how much additional work will need to be done in order to conduct the demonstrations. Information associated with the following four qualifying tasks are evaluated in this report. (1) Perform a review of structural assessments that have been conducted for 14TTW. (2) Develop a procedure for filling 14TTW cylinders with LLW that have been previously washed. (3) Evaluate the transportation requirements for shipping 14TTW cylinders containing LLW. (4) Evaluate the WAC that will be imposed by the NTS. Two assumptions are made to facilitate this evaluation of using DUF{sub 6} cylinders as LLW disposal containers. (1) Only 14TTW cylinders will be considered for use as LLW containers, and (2) The NTS will be the LLW disposal site.

  18. IDENTIFICATION OF AN {sup 84}Sr-DEPLETED CARRIER IN PRIMITIVE METEORITES AND IMPLICATIONS FOR THERMAL PROCESSING IN THE SOLAR PROTOPLANETARY DISK

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paton, Chad; Schiller, Martin; Bizzarro, Martin E-mail: schiller@snm.ku.dk

    2013-02-01

    The existence of correlated nucleosynthetic heterogeneities in solar system reservoirs is now well demonstrated for numerous nuclides. However, it has proven difficult to discriminate between the two disparate processes that can explain such correlated variability: incomplete mixing of presolar material or secondary processing of a well-mixed disk. Using stepwise acid-leaching of the Ivuna CI-chondrite, we show that unlike other nuclides such as {sup 54}Cr and {sup 50}Ti, Sr-isotope variability is the result of a carrier depleted in {sup 84}Sr. The carrier is most likely presolar SiC, which is known to have both high Sr-concentrations relative to solar abundances and extremely depleted {sup 84}Sr compositions. Thus, variability in {sup 84}Sr in meteorites and their components can be attributed to varying contributions from presolar SiC. The observed {sup 84}Sr excesses in calcium-aluminum refractory inclusions (CAIs) suggest their formation from an SiC-free gaseous reservoir, whereas the {sup 84}Sr depletions present in differentiated meteorites require their formation from material with an increased concentration of SiC relative to CI chondrites. The presence of a positive correlation between {sup 84}Sr and {sup 54}Cr, despite being hosted in carriers of negative and positive anomalies, respectively, is not compatible with incomplete mixing of presolar material but instead suggests that the solar system's nucleosynthetic heterogeneity reflects selective thermal processing of dust. Based on vaporization experiments of SiC under nebular conditions, the lack of SiC material in the CAI-forming gas inferred from our data requires that the duration of thermal processing of dust resulting in the vaporization of CAI precursors was extremely short-lived, possibly lasting only hours to days.

  19. ZPR-3 Assembly 6F : A spherical assembly of highly enriched uranium, depleted uranium, aluminum and steel with an average {sup 235}U enrichment of 47 atom %.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lell, R. M.; McKnight, R. D; Schaefer, R. W.; Nuclear Engineering Division

    2010-09-30

    Over a period of 30 years, more than a hundred Zero Power Reactor (ZPR) critical assemblies were constructed at Argonne National Laboratory. The ZPR facilities, ZPR-3, ZPR-6, ZPR-9 and ZPPR, were all fast critical assembly facilities. The ZPR critical assemblies were constructed to support fast reactor development, but data from some of these assemblies are also well suited for nuclear data validation and to form the basis for criticality safety benchmarks. A number of the Argonne ZPR/ZPPR critical assemblies have been evaluated as ICSBEP and IRPhEP benchmarks. Of the three classes of ZPR assemblies, engineering mockups, engineering benchmarks and physics benchmarks, the last group tends to be most useful for criticality safety. Because physics benchmarks were designed to test fast reactor physics data and methods, they were as simple as possible in geometry and composition. The principal fissile species was {sup 235}U or {sup 239}Pu. Fuel enrichments ranged from 9% to 95%. Often there were only one or two main core diluent materials, such as aluminum, graphite, iron, sodium or stainless steel. The cores were reflected (and insulated from room return effects) by one or two layers of materials such as depleted uranium, lead or stainless steel. Despite their more complex nature, a small number of assemblies from the other two classes would make useful criticality safety benchmarks because they have features related to criticality safety issues, such as reflection by soil-like material. ZPR-3 Assembly 6 consisted of six phases, A through F. In each phase a critical configuration was constructed to simulate a very simple shape such as a slab, cylinder or sphere that could be analyzed with the limited analytical tools available in the 1950s. In each case the configuration consisted of a core region of metal plates surrounded by a thick depleted uranium metal reflector. The average compositions of the core configurations were essentially identical in phases A - F. ZPR-3 Assembly 6F (ZPR-3/6F), the final phase of the Assembly 6 program, simulated a spherical core with a thick depleted uranium reflector. ZPR-3/6F was designed as a fast reactor physics benchmark experiment with an average core {sup 235}U enrichment of approximately 47 at.%. Approximately 81.4% of the total fissions in this assembly occur above 100 keV, approximately 18.6% occur below 100 keV, and essentially none below 0.625 eV - thus the classification as a 'fast' assembly. This assembly is Fast Reactor Benchmark No. 7 in the Cross Section Evaluation Working Group (CSEWG) Benchmark Specifications and has historically been used as a data validation benchmark assembly. Loading of ZPR-3/6F began in late December 1956, and the experimental measurements were performed in January 1957. The core consisted of highly enriched uranium (HEU) plates, depleted uranium plates, perforated aluminum plates and stainless steel plates loaded into aluminum drawers, which were inserted into the central square stainless steel tubes of a 31 x 31 matrix on a split table machine. The core unit cell consisted of three columns of 0.125 in.-wide (3.175 mm) HEU plates, three columns of 0.125 in.-wide depleted uranium plates, nine columns of 0.125 in.-wide perforated aluminum plates and one column of stainless steel plates. The maximum length of each column of core material in a drawer was 9 in. (228.6 mm). Because of the goal to produce an approximately spherical core, core fuel and diluent column lengths generally varied between adjacent drawers and frequently within an individual drawer. The axial reflector consisted of depleted uranium plates and blocks loaded in the available space in the front (core) drawers, with the remainder loaded into back drawers behind the front drawers. The radial reflector consisted of blocks of depleted uranium loaded directly into the matrix tubes. The assembly geometry approximated a reflected sphere as closely as the square matrix tubes, the drawers and the shapes of fuel and diluent plates allowed. According to the logbook and loading records for ZPR-3/6F

  20. Steady State Sputtering Yields and Surface Compositions of Depleted Uranium and Uranium Carbide bombarded by 30 keV Gallium or 16 keV Cesium Ions.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Siekhaus, W. J.; Teslich, N. E.; Weber, P. K.

    2014-10-23

    Depleted uranium that included carbide inclusions was sputtered with 30-keV gallium ions or 16-kev cesium ions to depths much greater than the ions range, i.e. using steady-state sputtering. The recession of both the uraniums and uranium carbides surfaces and the ion corresponding fluences were used to determine the steady-state target sputtering yields of both uranium and uranium carbide, i.e. 6.3 atoms of uranium and 2.4 units of uranium carbide eroded per gallium ion, and 9.9 uranium atoms and 3.65 units of uranium carbide eroded by cesium ions. The steady state surface composition resulting from the simultaneous gallium or cesium implantation and sputter-erosion of uranium and uranium carbide were calculated to be U??Ga??, (UC)??Ga?? and U??Cs?, (UC)??Cs??, respectively.

  1. Streamlined approach for environmental restoration plan for corrective action unit 430, buried depleted uranium artillery round No. 1, Tonopah test range

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1996-09-01

    This plan addresses actions necessary for the restoration and closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) No. 430, Buried Depleted Uranium (DU) Artillery Round No. 1 (Corrective Action Site No. TA-55-003-0960), a buried and unexploded W-79 Joint Test Assembly (JTA) artillery test projectile with high explosives (HE), at the U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV) Tonopah Test Range (TTR) in south-central Nevada. It describes activities that will occur at the site as well as the steps that will be taken to gather adequate data to obtain a notice of completion from Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP). This plan was prepared under the Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER) concept, and it will be implemented in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) and the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Industrial Sites Quality Assurance Project Plan.

  2. Source Term Modeling for Evaluating the Potential Impacts to Groundwater of Fluids Escaping from a Depleted Oil Reservoir Used for Carbon Sequestration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cantrell, Kirk J.; Brown, Christopher F.

    2014-06-13

    In recent years depleted oil reservoirs have received special interest as carbon storage reservoirs because of their potential to offset costs through collaboration with enhanced oil recovery projects. Modeling is currently being conducted to evaluate potential risks to groundwater associated with leakage of fluids from depleted oil reservoirs used for storage of CO2. Modeling results reported here focused on understanding how toxic organic compounds found in oil will distribute between the various phases within a storage reservoir after introduction of CO2, understanding the migration potential of these compounds, and assessing potential groundwater impacts should leakage occur. Two model scenarios were conducted to evaluate how organic components in oil will distribute among the phases of interest (oil, CO2, and brine). The first case consisted of 50 wt.% oil and 50 wt.% water; the second case was 90 wt.% CO2 and 10 wt.% oil. Several key organic compounds were selected for special attention in this study based upon their occurrence in oil at significant concentrations, relative toxicity, or because they can serve as surrogate compounds for other more highly toxic compounds for which required input data are not available. The organic contaminants of interest (COI) selected for this study were benzene, toluene, naphthalene, phenanthrene, and anthracene. Partitioning of organic compounds between crude oil and supercritical CO2 was modeled using the Peng-Robinson equation of state over temperature and pressure conditions that represent the entire subsurface system (from those relevant to deep geologic carbon storage environments to near surface conditions). Results indicate that for a typical set of oil reservoir conditions (75C, and 21,520 kPa) negligible amounts of the COI dissolve into the aqueous phase. When CO2 is introduced into the reservoir such that the final composition of the reservoir is 90 wt.% CO2 and 10 wt.% oil, a significant fraction of the oil dissolves into the vapor phase. As the vapor phase moves up through the stratigraphic column, pressures and temperatures decrease, resulting in significant condensation of oil components. The heaviest organic components condense early in this process (at higher pressures and temperatures), while the lighter components tend to remain in the vapor phase until much lower pressures and temperatures are reached. Based on the model assumptions, the final concentrations of COI to reach an aquifer at 1,520 kPa and 25C were quite significant for benzene and toluene, whereas the concentrations of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons that reach the aquifer were very small. This work demonstrates a methodology that can provide COI source term concentrations in CO2 leaking from a reservoir and entering an overlying aquifer for use in risk assessments.

  3. 4-Methylumbelliferone inhibits hyaluronan synthesis by depletion of cellular UDP-glucuronic acid and downregulation of hyaluronan synthase 2 and 3

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kultti, Anne; Pasonen-Seppaenen, Sanna; Jauhiainen, Marjo; Rilla, Kirsi J.; Kaernae, Riikka; Pyoeriae, Emma; Tammi, Raija H.; Tammi, Markku I.

    2009-07-01

    Hyaluronan accumulation on cancer cells and their surrounding stroma predicts an unfavourable disease outcome, suggesting that hyaluronan enhances tumor growth and spreading. 4-Methylumbelliferone (4-MU) inhibits hyaluronan synthesis and retards cancer spreading in experimental animals through mechanisms not fully understood. These mechanisms were studied in A2058 melanoma cells, MCF-7 and MDA-MB-361 breast, SKOV-3 ovarian and UT-SCC118 squamous carcinoma cells by analysing hyaluronan synthesis, UDP-glucuronic acid (UDP-GlcUA) content, and hyaluronan synthase (HAS) mRNA levels. The maximal inhibition in hyaluronan synthesis ranged 22-80% in the cell lines tested. Active glucuronidation of 4-MU produced large quantities of 4-MU-glucuronide, depleting the cellular UDP-GlcUA pool. The maximal reduction varied between 38 and 95%. 4-MU also downregulated HAS mRNA levels: HAS3 was 84-60% lower in MDA-MB-361, A2058 and SKOV-3 cells. HAS2 was the major isoenzyme in MCF-7 cells and lowered by 81%, similar to 88% in A2058 cells. These data indicate that both HAS substrate and HAS2 and/or HAS3 mRNA are targeted by 4-MU. Despite different target point sensitivities, the reduction of hyaluronan caused by 4-MU was associated with a significant inhibition of cell migration, proliferation and invasion, supporting the importance of hyaluronan synthesis in cancer, and the therapeutic potential of hyaluronan synthesis inhibition.

  4. ZPR-3 Assembly 12 : A cylindrical assembly of highly enriched uranium, depleted uranium and graphite with an average {sup 235}U enrichment of 21 atom %.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lell, R. M.; McKnight, R. D.; Perel, R. L.; Wagschal, J. J.; Nuclear Engineering Division; Racah Inst. of Physics

    2010-09-30

    Over a period of 30 years, more than a hundred Zero Power Reactor (ZPR) critical assemblies were constructed at Argonne National Laboratory. The ZPR facilities, ZPR-3, ZPR-6, ZPR-9 and ZPPR, were all fast critical assembly facilities. The ZPR critical assemblies were constructed to support fast reactor development, but data from some of these assemblies are also well suited for nuclear data validation and to form the basis for criticality safety benchmarks. A number of the Argonne ZPR/ZPPR critical assemblies have been evaluated as ICSBEP and IRPhEP benchmarks. Of the three classes of ZPR assemblies, engineering mockups, engineering benchmarks and physics benchmarks, the last group tends to be most useful for criticality safety. Because physics benchmarks were designed to test fast reactor physics data and methods, they were as simple as possible in geometry and composition. The principal fissile species was {sup 235}U or {sup 239}Pu. Fuel enrichments ranged from 9% to 95%. Often there were only one or two main core diluent materials, such as aluminum, graphite, iron, sodium or stainless steel. The cores were reflected (and insulated from room return effects) by one or two layers of materials such as depleted uranium, lead or stainless steel. Despite their more complex nature, a small number of assemblies from the other two classes would make useful criticality safety benchmarks because they have features related to criticality safety issues, such as reflection by soil-like material. ZPR-3 Assembly 12 (ZPR-3/12) was designed as a fast reactor physics benchmark experiment with an average core {sup 235}U enrichment of approximately 21 at.%. Approximately 68.9% of the total fissions in this assembly occur above 100 keV, approximately 31.1% occur below 100 keV, and essentially none below 0.625 eV - thus the classification as a 'fast' assembly. This assembly is Fast Reactor Benchmark No. 9 in the Cross Section Evaluation Working Group (CSEWG) Benchmark Specifications and has historically been used as a data validation benchmark assembly. Loading of ZPR-3 Assembly 12 began in late Jan. 1958, and the Assembly 12 program ended in Feb. 1958. The core consisted of highly enriched uranium (HEU) plates, depleted uranium plates and graphite plates loaded into stainless steel drawers which were inserted into the central square stainless steel tubes of a 31 x 31 matrix on a split table machine. The core unit cell consisted of two columns of 0.125 in.-wide (3.175 mm) HEU plates, seven columns of 0.125 in.-wide depleted uranium plates and seven columns of 0.125 in.-wide graphite plates. The length of each column was 9 in. (228.6 mm) in each half of the core. The graphite plates were included to produce a softer neutron spectrum that would be more characteristic of a large power reactor. The axial blanket consisted of 12 in. (304.8 mm) of depleted uranium behind the core. The thickness of the radial blanket was approximately 12 in. and the length of the radial blanket in each half of the matrix was 21 in. (533.4 mm). The assembly geometry approximated a right circular cylinder as closely as the square matrix tubes allowed. According to the logbook and loading records for ZPR-3/12, the reference critical configuration was loading 10 which was critical on Feb. 5, 1958. The subsequent loadings were very similar but less clean for criticality because there were modifications made to accommodate reactor physics measurements other than criticality. Accordingly, ZPR-3/12 loading 10 was selected as the only configuration for this benchmark. As documented below, it was determined to be acceptable as a criticality safety benchmark experiment. An accurate transformation to a simplified model is needed to make any ZPR assembly a practical criticality-safety benchmark. There is simply too much geometric detail in an exact (as-built) model of a ZPR assembly, even a clean core such as ZPR-3/12 loading 10. The transformation must reduce the detail to a practical level without masking any of the important features of the critical experiment. And it must d

  5. Floodplain/wetland assessment of the effects of construction and operation ofa depleted uranium hexafluoride conversion facility at the Paducah, Kentucky,site.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Van Lonkhuyzen, R.

    2005-09-09

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Depleted Uranium Hexafluoride (DUF{sub 6}) Management Program evaluated alternatives for managing its inventory of DUF{sub 6} and issued the ''Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement for Alternative Strategies for the Long-Term Management and Use of Depleted Uranium Hexafluoride'' (DUF{sub 6} PEIS) in April 1999 (DOE 1999). The DUF{sub 6} inventory is stored in cylinders at three DOE sites: Paducah, Kentucky; Portsmouth, Ohio; and East Tennessee Technology Park (ETTP), near Oak Ridge, Tennessee. In the Record of Decision for the DUF{sub 6} PEIS, DOE stated its decision to promptly convert the DUF{sub 6} inventory to a more stable chemical form. Subsequently, the U.S. Congress passed, and the President signed, the ''2002 Supplemental Appropriations Act for Further Recovery from and Response to Terrorist Attacks on the United States'' (Public Law No. 107-206). This law stipulated in part that, within 30 days of enactment, DOE must award a contract for the design, construction, and operation of a DUF{sub 6} conversion plant at the Department's Paducah, Kentucky, and Portsmouth, Ohio, sites, and for the shipment of DUF{sub 6} cylinders stored at ETTP to the Portsmouth site for conversion. This floodplain/wetland assessment has been prepared by DOE, pursuant to Executive Order 11988 (''Floodplain Management''), Executive Order 11990 (Protection of Wetlands), and DOE regulations for implementing these Executive Orders as set forth in Title 10, Part 1022, of the ''Code of Federal Regulations'' (10 CFR Part 1022 [''Compliance with Floodplain and Wetland Environmental Review Requirements'']), to evaluate potential impacts to floodplains and wetlands from the construction and operation of a conversion facility at the DOE Paducah site. Reconstruction of the bridge crossing Bayou Creek would occur within the Bayou Creek 100-year floodplain. Replacement of bridge components, including the bridge supports, however, would not be expected to result in measurable long-term changes to the floodplain. Approximately 0.16 acre (0.064 ha) of palustrine emergent wetlands would likely be eliminated by direct placement of fill material within Location A. Some wetlands that are not filled may be indirectly affected by an altered hydrologic regime, due to the proximity of construction, possibly resulting in a decreased frequency or duration of inundation or soil saturation and potential loss of hydrology necessary to sustain wetland conditions. Indirect impacts could be minimized by maintaining a buffer near adjacent wetlands. Wetlands would likely be impacted by construction at Location B; however, placement of a facility in the northern portion of this location would minimize wetland impacts. Construction at Location C could potentially result in impacts to wetlands, however placement of a facility in the southeastern portion of this location may best avoid direct impacts to wetlands. The hydrologic characteristics of nearby wetlands could be indirectly affected by adjacent construction. Executive Order 11990, ''Protection of Wetlands'', requires federal agencies to minimize the destruction, loss, or degradation of wetlands, and to preserve and enhance the natural and beneficial uses of wetlands. DOE regulations for implementing Executive Order 11990 as well as Executive Order 11988, ''Floodplain Management'', are set forth in 10 CFR Part 1022. Mitigation for unavoidable impacts may be developed in coordination with the appropriate regulatory agencies. Unavoidable impacts to wetlands that are within the jurisdiction of the USACE may require a CWA Section 404 Permit, which would trigger the requirement for a CWA Section 401 Water Quality Certification from the Commonwealth of Kentucky. A mitigation plan may be required prior to the initiation of construction. Cumulative impacts to floodplains and wetlands are anticipated to be negligible to minor under the proposed action, in conjunction with the effects of existing conditions and other activities. Habitat disturbance would involve settings commonly found i

  6. The IAEA Coordinated Research Program on HTGR Reactor Physics, Thermal-hydraulics and Depletion Uncertainty Analysis: Description of the Benchmark Test Cases and Phases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Frederik Reitsma; Gerhard Strydom; Bismark Tyobeka; Kostadin Ivanov

    2012-10-01

    The continued development of High Temperature Gas Cooled Reactors (HTGRs) requires verification of design and safety features with reliable high fidelity physics models and robust, efficient, and accurate codes. The uncertainties in the HTR analysis tools are today typically assessed with sensitivity analysis and then a few important input uncertainties (typically based on a PIRT process) are varied in the analysis to find a spread in the parameter of importance. However, one wish to apply a more fundamental approach to determine the predictive capability and accuracies of coupled neutronics/thermal-hydraulics and depletion simulations used for reactor design and safety assessment. Today there is a broader acceptance of the use of uncertainty analysis even in safety studies and it has been accepted by regulators in some cases to replace the traditional conservative analysis. Finally, there is also a renewed focus in supplying reliable covariance data (nuclear data uncertainties) that can then be used in uncertainty methods. Uncertainty and sensitivity studies are therefore becoming an essential component of any significant effort in data and simulation improvement. In order to address uncertainty in analysis and methods in the HTGR community the IAEA launched a Coordinated Research Project (CRP) on the HTGR Uncertainty Analysis in Modelling early in 2012. The project is built on the experience of the OECD/NEA Light Water Reactor (LWR) Uncertainty Analysis in Best-Estimate Modelling (UAM) benchmark activity, but focuses specifically on the peculiarities of HTGR designs and its simulation requirements. Two benchmark problems were defined with the prismatic type design represented by the MHTGR-350 design from General Atomics (GA) while a 250 MW modular pebble bed design, similar to the INET (China) and indirect-cycle PBMR (South Africa) designs are also included. In the paper more detail on the benchmark cases, the different specific phases and tasks and the latest status and plans are presented.

  7. Design and Implementation of a CO2 Flood Utilizing Advanced Reservoir Characterization and Horizontal Injection Wells In a Shallow Shelf Carbonate Approaching Waterflood Depletion, Class II

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wier, Don R. Chimanhusky, John S.; Czirr, Kirk L.; Hallenbeck, Larry; Gerard, Matthew G.; Dollens, Kim B.; Owen, Rex; Gaddis, Maurice; Moshell, M.K.

    2002-11-18

    The purpose of this project was to economically design an optimum carbon dioxide (CO2) flood for a mature waterflood nearing its economic abandonment. The original project utilized advanced reservoir characterization and CO2 horizontal injection wells as the primary methods to redevelop the South Cowden Unit (SCU). The development plans; project implementation and reservoir management techniques were to be transferred to the public domain to assist in preventing premature abandonment of similar fields.

  8. Partial substitution of Mo{sup 6+} by S{sup 6+} in the fast oxide ion conductor La{sub 2}Mo{sub 2}O{sub 9}: Synthesis, structure and sulfur depletion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mhadhbi, Noureddine; Corbel, Gwenaeel; Lacorre, Philippe; Bulou, Alain

    2012-06-15

    Powder-solid state reaction route using La{sub 2}(SO{sub 4}){sub 3} as sulfur source was used to prepare compositions of the solid solution La{sub 2}Mo{sub 2-y}S{sub y}O{sub 9}. Single phases were only obtained in the substitution range extending up to y=0.8 (40 mol% S) at the annealing temperature of 850 Degree-Sign C with regard to the limit of stability of the lanthanum sulphate reactant. Within the synthesis conditions, a stabilization of the high temperature {beta}-form is observed from and above y=0.1 (5 mol% S). Temperature-controlled X-ray diffraction and thermogravimetric analyses have shown that La{sub 2}Mo{sub 2-y}S{sub y}O{sub 9} raw powders undergo thermal decompositions in two steps. Heating above 900 Degree-Sign C, a sulfur depletion to the benefit of molybdenum in La{sub 2}Mo{sub 2-y}S{sub y}O{sub 9} raw powders leads to the formation of La{sub 2}SO{sub 6}. At higher temperature, the exsolved La{sub 2}SO{sub 6} phase then decomposes into La{sub 2}O{sub 3}, which in turn reacts with the sulfur-depleted La{sub 2}Mo{sub 2}O{sub 9} phase to form La{sub 2}MoO{sub 6}. The present study also reveals that depending on the substitution rate y, the sulfur depletion can be induced by ball-milling of raw powders. Along the La{sub 2}Mo{sub 2-y}S{sub y}O{sub 9} series, the isovalent substitution of molybdenum by sulfur tends to restrict in magnitude, or even to suppress above 400 Degree-Sign C, the distortive thermal expansion of the cubic {beta}-type structure, thus strongly decreasing the conductance at high temperature. - Graphical abstract: La{sub 2}O{sub 3}-MoO{sub 3}-'SO{sub 3}' ternary phase diagram showing the exsolution path at low temperature (white arrows) and the total decomposition path at high temperature (black arrows) of {beta}-La{sub 2}Mo{sub 2-y}S{sub y}O{sub 9} raw powders. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Isovalent substitution of molybdenum by sulfur in La{sub 2}Mo{sub 2}O{sub 9} up to 40 mol%. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Stabilization of the {beta}-form for a sulfur content greater than or equal to 5 mol%. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Decomposition by sulfur exsolution induced by thermal treatment or ball-milling. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Reduction or even cancellation of the distortive thermal expansion above 400 Degree-Sign C. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Decrease of conductance at high T involved by the low thermal expansion above 400 Degree-Sign C.

  9. DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION OF A CO2 FLOOD UTILIZING ADVANCED RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION AND HORIZONTAL INJECTION WELLS IN A SHALLOW SHELF CARBONATE APPROACHING WATERFLOOD DEPLETION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    K.J. Harpole; Ed G. Durrett; Susan Snow; J.S. Bles; Carlon Robertson; C.D. Caldwell; D.J. Harms; R.L. King; B.A. Baldwin; D. Wegener; M. Navarrette

    2002-09-01

    The purpose of this project was to economically design an optimum carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) flood for a mature waterflood nearing its economic abandonment. The original project utilized advanced reservoir characterization and CO{sub 2} horizontal injection wells as the primary methods to redevelop the South Cowden Unit (SCU). The development plans; project implementation and reservoir management techniques were to be transferred to the public domain to assist in preventing premature abandonment of similar fields. The Unit was a mature waterflood with water cut exceeding 95%. Oil must be mobilized through the use of a miscible or near-miscible fluid to recover significant additional reserves. Also, because the unit was relatively small, it did not have the benefit of economies of scale inherent in normal larger scale projects. Thus, new and innovative methods were required to reduce investment and operating costs. Two primary methods used to accomplish improved economics were use of reservoir characterization to restrict the flood to the higher quality rock in the unit and use of horizontal injection wells to cut investment and operating costs. The project consisted of two budget phases. Budget Phase I started in June 1994 and ended late June 1996. In this phase Reservoir Analysis, Characterization Tasks and Advanced Technology Definition Tasks were completed. Completion enabled the project to be designed, evaluated, and an Authority for Expenditure (AFE) for project implementation submitted to working interest owners for approval. Budget Phase II consisted of the implementation and execution of the project in the field. Phase II was completed in July 2001. Performance monitoring, during Phase II, by mid 1998 identified the majority of producing wells which under performed their anticipated withdrawal rates. Newly drilled and re-activated wells had lower offtake rates than originally forecasted. As a result of poor offtake, higher reservoir pressure was a concern for the project as it limited CO{sub 2} injectivity. To reduce voidage balance, and reservoir pressure, a disposal well was therefore drilled. Several injection surveys indicated the CO{sub 2} injection wells had severe conformance issues. After close monitoring of the project to the end of 1999, it was evident the project would not recover the anticipated tertiary reserves. The main reasons for under-performance were poor in zone CO{sub 2} injection into the upper San Andres layers, poorer offtake rates from newly drilled replacement wells and a higher than required reservoir pressure. After discussion internally within Phillips, externally with the Department of Energy (DOE) and SCU partners, a redevelopment of South Cowden was agreed upon to commence in year 2000. The redevelopment essentially abandoned the original development for Budget Phase II in favor of a revised approach. This involved conformance techniques to resolve out of zone CO{sub 2} injection and use of horizontal wells to improve in zone injectivity and productivity. A phased approach was used to ensure short radius lateral drilling could be implemented effectively at South Cowden. This involved monitoring drilling operations and then production response to determine if larger investments during the second phase were justified. Redevelopment Phase 1 was completed in May 2000. It was deemed a success in regard to finding suitable/cost-effective technology for drilling horizontal laterals and finding a technique that could sustain long-term productivity from the upper layers of the San Andres reservoir. Four existing vertical producing wells were isolated from their existing completions and sidetracked with horizontal laterals into the upper layers of the San Andres. Overall average offtake rates for the four wells increased by a factor of 12 during the first four months after completion of Phase 1. Phase 2 of the redevelopment focused on current CO{sub 2} vertical injection wells. Techniques were applied to resolve near well conformance concerns and then either single or dual laterals were dril

  10. Mario Molina, Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), and Ozone Depletion

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Prize-winning Research, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) The Science and Policies of the Ozone Layer -- A Historical Perspective, IDEaS - Nobel Laureate Mario J....

  11. Reversible Exsolution of Nanometric Fe2O3 Particles in BaFe2-x(PO4)2 (0 ? x ? 2/3):The Logic of Vacancy Ordering in Novel Metal-Depleted Two-Dimensional Lattices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alcover, Ignacio Blazquez; David, Rnald; Daviero-Minaud, Sylvie; Filimonov, Dmitry; Huv, Marielle; Roussel, Pascal; Kabbour, Houria; Mentr, Olivier

    2015-08-12

    We show here that the exsolution of Fe2+ ions out of two-dimensional (2D) honeycomb layers of BaFe2(PO4)2 into iron-deficient BaFe2x(PO4)2 phases and nanometric ?-Fe2O3 (typically 50 nm diameter at the grain surface) is efficient and reversible until x = 2/3 in mild oxidizing/reducing conditions. It corresponds to the renewable conversion of 12 wt % of the initial mass into iron oxide. After analyzing single crystal X-ray diffraction data of intermediate members x = 2/7, x = 1/3, x = 1/2 and the ultimate Fe-depleted x = 2/3 term, we then observed a systematic full ordering between Fe ions and vacancies (VFe) that denote unprecedented easy in-plane metal diffusion driven by the Fe2+/Fe3+ redox. Besides the discovery of a diversity of original depleted triangular ?{Fe2/3+2xO6} topologies, we propose a unified model correlating the x Fe-removal and the experimental Fe/VFe ordering into periodic one-dimensional motifs paving the layers, gaining insights into predictive crystahemistry of complex low dimensional oxides. When we increased the x values it led to a progressive change of the materials from 2D ferromagnets (Fe2+) to 2D ferrimagnets (Fe2/3+) to antiferromagnets for x = 2/3 (Fe3+).

  12. Supercell Depletion Studies for Prismatic High Temperature Reactors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J. Ortensi

    2012-10-01

    The traditional two-step method of analysis is not accurate enough to represent the neutronic effects present in the prismatic high temperature reactor concept. The long range coupling of the various regions in high temperature reactors poses a set of challenges that are not seen in either LWRs or fast reactors. Unlike LWRs, which exhibit large, localized effects, the dominant effects in PMRs are, for the most part, distributed over larger regions, but with lower magnitude. The 1-D in-line treatment currently used in pebble bed reactor analysis is not sufficient because of the 2-D nature of the prismatic blocks. Considerable challenges exist in the modeling of blocks in the vicinity of reflectors, which, for current small modular reactor designs with thin annular cores, include the majority of the blocks. Additional challenges involve the treatment of burnable poisons, operational and shutdown control rods. The use of a large domain for cross section preparation provides a better representation of the neutron spectrum, enables the proper modeling of BPs and CRs, allows the calculation of generalized equivalence theory parameters, and generates a relative power distribution that can be used in compact power reconstruction. The purpose of this paper is to quantify the effects of the reflector, burnable poison, and operational control rods on an LEU design and to delineate an analysis approach for the Idaho National Laboratory. This work concludes that the use of supercells should capture these long-range effects in the preparation of cross sections and along with a set of triangular meshes to treat BPs, and CRs a high fidelity neutronics computation is attainable.

  13. Enterprise Assessments Targeted Review of the Paducah Depleted...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... two or more firefighters enter a building, at least two ... angle rescue, demolition search and rescue). (See ... This process does not evaluate risk in terms of fire ...

  14. Depleted Uranium Hexafluoride (DUF6) Fully Operational at the...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... Because much of the equipment had not been operated since installation, we expected a lot of gremlins and breakdowns, and in fact, we got them." The DUF6 Project paused briefly ...

  15. Conversion of depleted uranium hexafluoride to a solid uranium compound

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rothman, Alan B. (Willowbrook, IL); Graczyk, Donald G. (Lemont, IL); Essling, Alice M. (Elmhurst, IL); Horwitz, E. Philip (Naperville, IL)

    2001-01-01

    A process for converting UF.sub.6 to a solid uranium compound such as UO.sub.2 and CaF. The UF.sub.6 vapor form is contacted with an aqueous solution of NH.sub.4 OH at a pH greater than 7 to precipitate at least some solid uranium values as a solid leaving an aqueous solution containing NH.sub.4 OH and NH.sub.4 F and remaining uranium values. The solid uranium values are separated from the aqueous solution of NH.sub.4 OH and NH.sub.4 F and remaining uranium values which is then diluted with additional water precipitating more uranium values as a solid leaving trace quantities of uranium in a dilute aqueous solution. The dilute aqueous solution is contacted with an ion-exchange resin to remove substantially all the uranium values from the dilute aqueous solution. The dilute solution being contacted with Ca(OH).sub.2 to precipitate CaF.sub.2 leaving dilute NH.sub.4 OH.

  16. Optimization to reduce fuel consumption in charge depleting mode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Roos, Bryan Nathaniel; Martini, Ryan D.

    2014-08-26

    A powertrain includes an internal combustion engine, a motor utilizing electrical energy from an energy storage device, and a plug-in connection. A Method for controlling the powertrain includes monitoring a fuel cut mode, ceasing a fuel flow to the engine based upon the fuel cut mode, and through a period of operation including acceleration of the powertrain, providing an entirety of propelling torque to the powertrain with the electrical energy from the energy storage device based upon the fuel cut mode.

  17. Effects of magnetic fields on lithium evolution in F and G stars

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, T. D.; Bi, S. L.; Yang, W. M.; Liu, K.; Tian, Z. J.; Ge, Z. S., E-mail: litanda@mail.bnu.edu.cn, E-mail: bisl@bnu.edu.cn [Astronomy Department, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China)

    2014-02-01

    To study the effects of magnetic fields on lithium depletion and to explain the characteristics of lithium evolution in F- and G-type stars in open clusters, we construct a stellar model that includes a Tayler-Spruit dynamo-type field. Through examining the features of extra-mixing caused by magnetic fields in stellar interiors and the relationship between lithium depletion and the input parameters (i.e., mass, metallicity, and the initial rotational condition), we find that the magnetic model produces extra-mixing processes different from other models. During pre-main sequence, the model exhibits very efficient extra-mixing, resulting in strong lithium depletion. As a star evolves, the efficiency of extra-mixing rapidly decreases and lithium depletion slows down at old ages. By setting up different initial rotating conditions, the model predicts dispersions of lithium abundance in both main sequence and pre-main sequence stages. The dispersion begins when a radiative core forms in the interior. The number sees a rapid growth afterward, reaching 0.1-0.5 dex at zero age main sequence in G and late-F stars. The increase of dispersion continues in the main sequence, which is slight in G and late-F stars while significant in mid-F stars. Finally, a comparison is carried out between the theoretical results and the observed data in four open clusters. Good agreements are obtained.

  18. DOE Announces Transfer of Depleted Uranium to Advance the U.S...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    A more detailed description of the project is available HERE. The project will ensure a supply of U.S.-origin unobligated uranium to support the NNSA tritium production for up to ...

  19. Observation of stratospheric trace gases related to ozone depletion in the Antarctic spring

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    De Zafra, R.L.; Parrish, A.; Solomon, P.; Barrett, J.W.; Connor, B.; Jaramillo, M. )

    1987-01-01

    During the first National Ozone Expedition (NOZE I), which ran from 21 August to early November 1986 at McMurdo Station, the authors made frequent measurements of chlorine monoxide (CIO), ozone (O{sub 3}), nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O), and occasional measurements of hydrogen cyanide. Observations were made with a ground-based millimeters wave spectrometer capable of detecting and measuring the pressure broadened rotational emission lines of these molecules in the 260-280 gigahertz frequency range. The spectral bandpass and resolution of the instrument is sufficient to recover altitude distributions over a range of approximately 20-55 kilometers and to detect emission from as low as approximately 13-15 kilometers. Results are given and discussed on the levels of chlorine monoxide, nitrous oxide, and ozone found.

  20. Running into an out of oil: Scenarios of global oil use and resource depletion to 2050

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Greene, David L.; Hopson, Janet L.; Li, Jia

    2002-07-23

    Is a transition from conventional oil imminent? Is it likely to lock the world into a high-carbon energy future? This report attempts to shed some light on these questions.

  1. Depletion Analysis of Modular High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor Loaded with LEU/Thorium Fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sonat Sen; Gilles Youinou

    2013-02-01

    Thorium based fuel has been considered as an option to uranium-based fuel, based on considerations of resource utilization (Thorium is more widely available when compared to Uranium). The fertile isotope of Thorium (Th-232) can be converted to fissile isotope U-233 by neutron capture during the operation of a suitable nuclear reactor such as High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor (HTGR). However, the fertile Thorium needs a fissile supporter to start and maintain the conversion process such as U-235 or Pu-239. This report presents the results of a study that analyzed the thorium utilization in a prismatic HTGR, namely Modular High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (MHTGR) that was designed by General Atomics (GA). The collected for the modeling of this design come from Chapter 4 of MHTGR Preliminary Safety Information Document that GA sent to Department of Energy (DOE) on 1995. Both full core and unit cell models were used to perform this analysis using SCALE 6.1 and Serpent 1.1.18. Because of the long mean free paths (and migration lengths) of neutrons in HTRs, using a unit cell to represent a whole core can be non-trivial. The sizes of these cells were set to match the spectral index between unit cell and full core domains. It was found that for the purposes of this study an adjusted unit cell model is adequate. Discharge isotopics and one-group cross-sections were delivered to the transmutation analysis team. This report provides documentation for these calculations

  2. Improved Spatial Resolution in Thick, Fully-Depleted CCDs withEnhanced...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Christopher J. ; Holland, Stephen E. ; Karcher, Armin ; Kolbe,William F. ; Lorenzon, Wolfgang ; Roe, Natalie A. Publication Date: 2006-03-09 OSTI Identifier: 932675 Report...

  3. DOE Issues Final Request for Proposal for the Operation of Depleted...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    the DUF6 from the inventory at Paducah and Portsmouth to uranium oxide at design throughput of the conversion facilities, reusing andor transporting and disposing of the DUF6...

  4. Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus entry mechanism requires late endosome formation and resists cell membrane cholesterol depletion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kolokoltsov, Andrey A.; Fleming, Elisa H.; Davey, Robert A. . E-mail: radavey@utmb.edu

    2006-04-10

    Virus envelope proteins determine receptor utilization and host range. The choice of receptor not only permits specific targeting of cells that express it, but also directs the virus into specific endosomal trafficking pathways. Disrupting trafficking can result in loss of virus infectivity due to redirection of virions to non-productive pathways. Identification of the pathway or pathways used by a virus is, thus, important in understanding virus pathogenesis mechanisms and for developing new treatment strategies. Most of our understanding of alphavirus entry has focused on the Old World alphaviruses, such as Sindbis and Semliki Forest virus. In comparison, very little is known about the entry route taken by more pathogenic New World alphaviruses. Here, we use a novel contents mixing assay to identify the cellular requirements for entry of a New World alphavirus, Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV). Expression of dominant negative forms of key endosomal trafficking genes shows that VEEV must access clathrin-dependent endocytic vesicles for membrane fusion to occur. Unexpectedly, the exit point is different from Old World alphaviruses that leave from early endosomes. Instead, VEEV also requires functional late endosomes. Furthermore, unlike the Old World viruses, VEEV entry is insensitive to cholesterol sequestration from cell membranes and may reflect a need to access an endocytic compartment that lacks cholesterol. This indicates fundamental differences in the entry route taken by VEEV compared to Old World alphaviruses.

  5. Horizontal-well pilot waterflood tests shallow, abandoned field

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McAlpine, J.L. ); Joshi, S.D. )

    1991-08-05

    This paper reports on the suitability of using horizontal wells in a waterflood of shallow, partially depleted sands which will be tested in the Jennings field in Oklahoma. The vertical wells drilled in the Jennings field intersect several well-known formations such as Red Fork, Misner, and Bartlesville sand. Most of these formations have been produced over a number of years, and presently no wells are producing in the field. In the 1940s, 1950s, and 1960s, wells were drilled on 10-acre spacing, and the last well was plugged in 1961. The field was produced only on primary production and produced approximately 1 million bbl of oil. Because the field was not waterflooded, a large potential exists to produce from the field using secondary methods. To improve the economics for the secondary process, a combination of horizontal and vertical wells was considered.

  6. field

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    09%2A en Ten-Year Site Plans (TYSP) http:www.nnsa.energy.govaboutusouroperationsinfopsinfopstysp

    field field-type-text field-field-page-name">
  7. field

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    09%2A en Ten-Year Site Plans (TYSP) http:nnsa.energy.govaboutusouroperationsinfopsinfopstysp

    field field-type-text field-field-page-name">
  8. Field-effect P-N junction

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Regan, William; Zettl, Alexander

    2015-05-05

    This disclosure provides systems, methods, and apparatus related to field-effect p-n junctions. In one aspect, a device includes an ohmic contact, a semiconductor layer disposed on the ohmic contact, at least one rectifying contact disposed on the semiconductor layer, a gate including a layer disposed on the at least one rectifying contact and the semiconductor layer and a gate contact disposed on the layer. A lateral width of the rectifying contact is less than a semiconductor depletion width of the semiconductor layer. The gate contact is electrically connected to the ohmic contact to create a self-gating feedback loop that is configured to maintain a gate electric field of the gate.

  9. Report on the Field Performance of A123Systemss HymotionTM Plug-in Conversion Module for the Toyota Prius

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huang Iu; John Smart

    2009-04-01

    A123Systemss HymotionTM L5 Plug-in Conversion Module (PCM) is a supplemental battery system that converts the Toyota Prius hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) into a plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV). The Hymotion system uses a lithium ion battery pack with 4.5 kWh of useable energy capacity. It recharges by plugging into a standard 110/120V outlet. The system is designed to more than double the Prius fuel efficiency for 30-40 miles of charge depleting range. If the Hymotion pack is fully depleted, the Prius operates as a normal HEV in charge sustaining mode. The Hymotion L5 PCM is the first commercially available aftermarket product complying with CARB emissions and NHTSA impact standards. Since 2006, over 50 initial production Hymotion Plug-in Conversion Modules have been installed in private fleet vehicles across the United States and Canada. With the help of the Idaho National Laboratory, which conducts the U.S. Department of Energys (DOE) Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity (AVTA), A123Systems collects real-time vehicle data from each fleet vehicle using on-board data loggers. These data are analyzed to determine vehicle performance. This paper presents the results of this field evaluation. Data to be presented includes the L5 Prius charge depleting range, gasoline fuel efficiency, and electrical energy efficiency. Effects of driving conditions, driving style, and charging patterns on fuel efficiency are also presented. Data show the Toyota Prius equipped with the Hymotion Plug-in Conversion Module is capable of achieving over 100 mpg in certain driving conditions when operating in charge depleting mode.

  10. A NEW SUB-PERIOD-MINIMUM CATACLYSMIC VARIABLE WITH PARTIAL HYDROGEN DEPLETION AND EVIDENCE OF SPIRAL DISK STRUCTURE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Littlefield, C.; Garnavich, P.; Magno, K.; Applegate, A.; Pogge, R.; Irwin, J.; Marion, G. H.; Kirshner, R.; Vinko, J.

    2013-06-15

    We present time-resolved spectroscopy and photometry of CSS 120422:111127+571239 (=SBS 1108+574), a recently discovered SU UMa-type dwarf nova whose 55 minute orbital period is well below the cataclysmic variable (CV) period minimum of {approx}78 minutes. In contrast with most other known CVs, its spectrum features He I emission of comparable strength to the Balmer lines, implying a hydrogen abundance less than 0.1 of long-period CVs-but still at least 10 times higher than that in AM CVn stars. Together, the short orbital period and remarkable helium-to-hydrogen ratio suggest that mass transfer in CSS 120422 began near the end of the donor star's main-sequence lifetime, meaning that this CV is a strong candidate progenitor of an AM CVn system as described by Podsiadlowski et al. Moreover, a Doppler tomogram of the H{alpha} line reveals two distinct regions of enhanced emission. While one is the result of the stream-disk impact, the other is probably attributable to spiral disk structure generated when material in the outer disk achieves a 2:1 orbital resonance with respect to the donor.

  11. HIGH PRECISION ABUNDANCES OF THE OLD SOLAR TWIN HIP 102152: INSIGHTS ON Li DEPLETION FROM THE OLDEST SUN

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Monroe, TalaWanda R.; Melendez, Jorge; Tucci Maia, Marcelo; Freitas, Fabricio C.; Yong, David; Asplund, Martin; Alves-Brito, Alan; Casagrande, Luca; Bergemann, Maria; Bedell, Megan; Bean, Jacob; Lind, Karin; Castro, Matthieu; Do Nascimento, Jose-Dias; Bazot, Michael

    2013-09-10

    We present the first detailed chemical abundance analysis of the old 8.2 Gyr solar twin, HIP 102152. We derive differential abundances of 21 elements relative to the Sun with precisions as high as 0.004 dex ({approx}<1%), using ultra high-resolution (R = 110,000), high S/N UVES spectra obtained on the 8.2 m Very Large Telescope. Our determined metallicity of HIP 102152 is [Fe/H] = -0.013 {+-} 0.004. The atmospheric parameters of the star were determined to be 54 K cooler than the Sun, 0.09 dex lower in surface gravity, and a microturbulence identical to our derived solar value. Elemental abundance ratios examined versus dust condensation temperature reveal a solar abundance pattern for this star, in contrast to most solar twins. The abundance pattern of HIP 102152 appears to be the most similar to solar of any known solar twin. Abundances of the younger, 2.9 Gyr solar twin, 18 Sco, were also determined from UVES spectra to serve as a comparison for HIP 102152. The solar chemical pattern of HIP 102152 makes it a potential candidate to host terrestrial planets, which is reinforced by the lack of giant planets in its terrestrial planet region. The following non-local thermodynamic equilibrium Li abundances were obtained for HIP 102152, 18 Sco, and the Sun: log {epsilon} (Li) = 0.48 {+-} 0.07, 1.62 {+-} 0.02, and 1.07 {+-} 0.02, respectively. The Li abundance of HIP 102152 is the lowest reported to date for a solar twin, and allows us to consider an emerging, tightly constrained Li-age trend for solar twin stars.

  12. Ultra-low field NMR for detection and characterization of 235 UF6

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Espy, Michelle A; Magnelind, Per E; Matlashov, Andrei N; Urbaitis, Algis V; Volegov, Petr L

    2009-01-01

    We have demonstrated the first ultra-low field (ULF) nuclear magnetic resonance measurements of uranium hexafluoride (UF{sub 6}), both depleted and 70% enriched, which is used in the uranium enrichment process. A sensitive non-invasive detection system would have an important role in non-proliferation surveillance. A two-frequency technique was employed to remove the transients induced by rapidly switching off the 50 mT pre-polarization field. A mean transverse relaxation time T{sub 2} of 24 ms was estimated for the un-enriched UF{sub 6} sample measured at a mean temperature of 80 C. Nuclear magnetic resonance at ULF has several advantages including the ability to measure through metal, such as pipes, and simple magnetic field generation hardware. We present here recent data and discuss the potential for non-proliferation monitoring of enrichment and flow velocity.

  13. Geological input to reservoir simulation, Champion Field, offshore Brunei

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carter, R.; Salahudin, S.; Ho, T.C.

    1994-07-01

    Brunei Shell Petroleum's giant Champion field is in a mature stage of development with about 23 yr of production history to date. The field comprises a complex sequence of Miocene shallow marine and deltaic layered clastic reservoirs cut by numerous growth faults. This study was aimed at providing a quantified estimate of the effect of lateral and vertical discontinuities within the I and J reservoirs on the recovery for both depletion drive and in a waterflood, with a view to identifying the optimal method of completing the development of the oil reserves in this area. Geological input to the ECLIPSE simulator was aimed at quantifying two key parameters: (1) STOIIP connected to the well bore and (2) permeability contrast. Connected STOIIP is a function of the domain size of interconnected sand bodies, and this parameter was quantified by the use of detailed sedimentology resulting in sand-body facies maps for each reservoir sublayer. Permeability contrast was quantified by using a wireline-log based algorithm, calibrated against core data, which improved the existing accuracy of permeability estimates in this part of the field. Results of simulation runs illustrate the importance of quantifying geologic heterogeneity and provide valuable information for future field development planning.

  14. Reservoir fracture mapping using microearthquakes: Austin chalk, Giddings field, TX and 76 field, Clinton Co., KY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Phillips, W.S.; Rutledge, J.T.; Gardner, T.L.; Fairbanks, T.D.; Miller, M.E.; Schuessler, B.K.

    1996-11-01

    Patterns of microearthquakes detected downhole defined fracture orientation and extent in the Austin chalk, Giddings field, TX and the 76 field, Clinton Co., KY. We collected over 480 and 770 microearthquakes during hydraulic stimulation at two sites in the Austin chalk, and over 3200 during primary production in Clinton Co. Data were of high enough quality that 20%, 31% and 53% of the events could be located, respectively. Reflected waves constrained microearthquakes to the stimulated depths at the base of the Austin chalk. In plan view, microearthquakes defined elongate fracture zones extending from the stimulation wells parallel to the regional fracture trend. However, widths of the stimulated zones differed by a factor of five between the two Austin chalk sites, indicating a large difference in the population of ancillary fractures. Post-stimulation production was much higher from the wider zone. At Clinton Co., microearthquakes defined low-angle, reverse-fault fracture zones above and below a producing zone. Associations with depleted production intervals indicated the mapped fractures had been previously drained. Drilling showed that the fractures currently contain brine. The seismic behavior was consistent with poroelastic models that predicted slight increases in compressive stress above and below the drained volume.

  15. Effect of uncertain hydraulic conductivity on the fate and transport of BTEX compounds at a field site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lu, Guoping; Zheng, Chunmiao; Wolfsberg, Andrew

    2002-01-05

    A Monte Carlo analysis was conducted to investigate the effect of uncertain hydraulic conductivity on the fate and transport of BTEX compounds (benzene, toluene, ethyl benzene, and xylene) at a field site on Hill Air Force Base, Utah. Microbially mediated BTEX degradation has occurred at the site through multiple terminal electron-accepting processes, including aerobic respiration, denitrification, Fe(III) reduction, sulfate reduction, and methanogenesis degradation. Multiple realizations of the hydraulic conductivity field were generated and substituted into a multispecies reactive transport model developed and calibrated for the Hill AFB site in a previous study. Simulation results show that the calculated total BTEX masses (released from a constant-concentration source) that remain in the aquifer at the end of the simulation period statistically follow a lognormal distribution. In the first analysis (base case), the calculated total BTEX mass varies from a minimum of 12% less and a maximum of 60% more than that of the previously calibrated model. This suggests that the uncertainty in hydraulic conductivity can lead to significant uncertainties in modeling the fate and transport of BTEX. Geometric analyses of calculated plume configurations show that a higher BTEX mass is associated with wider lateral spreading, while a lower mass is associated with longer longitudinal extension. More BTEX mass in the aquifer causes either a large depletion of dissolved oxygen (DO) and NO{sub 3}{sup -}, or a large depletion of DO and a large production of Fe{sup 2+}, with moderately depleted NO{sub 3}{sup -}. In an additional analysis, the effect of varying degrees of aquifer heterogeneity and associated uncertainty is examined by considering hydraulic conductivity with different variances and correlation lengths. An increase in variance leads to a higher average BTEX mass in the aquifer, while an increase in correlation length results in a lower average. This observation is explained by relevant partitioning of BTEX into the aquifer from the LNAPL source. Although these findings may only be applicable to the field conditions considered in this study, the methodology used and insights gained are of general interest and relevance to other fuel-hydrocarbon natural-attenuation sites.

  16. RCPO1 - A Monte Carlo program for solving neutron and photon transport problems in three dimensional geometry with detailed energy description and depletion capability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ondis, L.A., II; Tyburski, L.J.; Moskowitz, B.S.

    2000-03-01

    The RCP01 Monte Carlo program is used to analyze many geometries of interest in nuclear design and analysis of light water moderated reactors such as the core in its pressure vessel with complex piping arrangement, fuel storage arrays, shipping and container arrangements, and neutron detector configurations. Written in FORTRAN and in use on a variety of computers, it is capable of estimating steady state neutron or photon reaction rates and neutron multiplication factors. The energy range covered in neutron calculations is that relevant to the fission process and subsequent slowing-down and thermalization, i.e., 20 MeV to 0 eV. The same energy range is covered for photon calculations.

  17. Ethane enrichment and propane depletion in subsurface gases indicate gas hydrate occurrence in marine sediments at southern Hydrate Ridge offshore Oregon

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Milkov, Alexei V.; Claypool, G E.; Lee, Young-Joo; Torres, Marta E.; Borowski, W S.; Tomaru, H; Sassen, Roger; Long, Philip E.

    2004-07-02

    The recognition of finely disseminated gas hydrate in deep marine sediments heavily depends on various indirect techniques because this mineral quickly decomposes upon recovery from in situ pressure and temperature conditions. Here, we discuss molecular properties of closely spaced gas voids (formed as a result of core recovery) and gas hydrates from an area of relatively low gas flux at the flanks of the southern Hydrate Ridge Offshore Oregon (ODP Sites 1244, 1245 and 1247).

  18. EIS-0359: DOE Notice of Availability of the Draft Supplement Analysis

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Disposal of Depleted Uranium Oxide Conversion Produce Generated from DOE's Inventory of Depleted Uranium Hexafluoride

  19. Effect of Secondary Electron Emission on Electron Cross-Field Current in EB Discharges

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yevgeny Raitses, Igor D. Kaganovich, Alexander Khrabrov, Dmytro Sydorenko, Nathaniel J. Fisch and Andrei Smolyakov

    2011-02-10

    This paper reviews and discusses recent experimental, theoretical, and numerical studies of plasma-wall interaction in a weakly collisional magnetized plasma bounded with channel walls made from different materials. A lowpressure ExB plasma discharge of the Hall thruster was used to characterize the electron current across the magnetic field and its dependence on the applied voltage and electron-induced secondary electron emission (SEE) from the channel wall. The presence of a depleted, anisotropic electron energy distribution function with beams of secondary electrons was predicted to explain the enhancement of the electron cross-field current observed in experiments. Without the SEE, the electron crossfield transport can be reduced from anomalously high to nearly classical collisional level. The suppression of SEE was achieved using an engineered carbon velvet material for the channel walls. Both theoretically and experimentally, it is shown that the electron emission from the walls can limit the maximum achievable electric field in the magnetized plasma. With nonemitting walls, the maximum electric field in the thruster can approach a fundamental limit for a quasineutral plasma.

  20. Geothermal injection treatment: process chemistry, field experiences, and design options

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kindle, C.H.; Mercer, B.W.; Elmore, R.P.; Blair, S.C.; Myers, D.A.

    1984-09-01

    The successful development of geothermal reservoirs to generate electric power will require the injection disposal of approximately 700,000 gal/h (2.6 x 10/sup 6/ 1/h) of heat-depleted brine for every 50,000 kW of generating capacity. To maintain injectability, the spent brine must be compatible with the receiving formation. The factors that influence this brine/formation compatibility and tests to quantify them are discussed in this report. Some form of treatment will be necessary prior to injection for most situations; the process chemistry involved to avoid and/or accelerate the formation of precipitate particles is also discussed. The treatment processes, either avoidance or controlled precipitation approaches, are described in terms of their principles and demonstrated applications in the geothermal field and, when such experience is limited, in other industrial use. Monitoring techniques for tracking particulate growth, the effect of process parameters on corrosion and well injectability are presented. Examples of brine injection, preinjection treatment, and recovery from injectivity loss are examined and related to the aspects listed above.

  1. Fusion proton diagnostic for the C-2 field reversed configuration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Magee, R. M. Clary, R.; Korepanov, S.; Smirnov, A.; Garate, E.; Knapp, K.; Tkachev, A.

    2014-11-15

    Measurements of the flux of fusion products from high temperature plasmas provide valuable insights into the ion energy distribution, as the fusion reaction rate is a very sensitive function of ion energy. In C-2, where field reversed configuration plasmas are formed by the collision of two compact toroids and partially sustained by high power neutral beam injection [M. Binderbauer et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 045003 (2010); M. Tuszewski et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 255008 (2012)], measurements of DD fusion neutron flux are used to diagnose ion temperature and study fast ion confinement and dynamics. In this paper, we will describe the development of a new 3 MeV proton detector that will complement existing neutron detectors. The detector is a large area (50?cm{sup 2}), partially depleted, ion implanted silicon diode operated in a pulse counting regime. While the scintillator-based neutron detectors allow for high time resolution measurements (?100 kHz), they have no spatial or energy resolution. The proton detector will provide 10 cm spatial resolution, allowing us to determine if the axial distribution of fast ions is consistent with classical fast ion theory or whether anomalous scattering mechanisms are active. We will describe in detail the diagnostic design and present initial data from a neutral beam test chamber.

  2. Total Natural Gas Underground Storage Capacity

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Salt Caverns Storage Capacity Aquifers Storage Capacity Depleted Fields Storage Capacity Total Working Gas Capacity Working Gas Capacity of Salt Caverns Working Gas Capacity of Aquifers Working Gas Capacity of Depleted Fields Total Number of Existing Fields Number of Existing Salt Caverns Number of Existing Aquifers Number of Depleted Fields Period: Monthly Annual Download Series History Download Series History Definitions, Sources & Notes Definitions, Sources & Notes Show Data By: Data

  3. Total Natural Gas Underground Storage Capacity

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Salt Caverns Storage Capacity Aquifers Storage Capacity Depleted Fields Storage Capacity Total Working Gas Capacity Working Gas Capacity of Salt Caverns Working Gas Capacity of Aquifers Working Gas Capacity of Depleted Fields Total Number of Existing Fields Number of Existing Salt Caverns Number of Existing Aquifers Number of Depleted Fields Period: Monthly Annual Download Series History Download Series History Definitions, Sources & Notes Definitions, Sources & Notes Show Data By: Data

  4. Alaska Underground Natural Gas Storage Capacity

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    2013 2014 View History Total Storage Capacity 83,592 83,592 2013-2014 Depleted Fields 83,592 83,592 2013-2014 Total Working Gas Capacity 67,915 67,915 2013-2014 Depleted Fields 67,915 67,915 2013-2014 Total Number of Existing Fields 5 5 2013-2014 Depleted Fields 5 5 2013

  5. Innovative DOE Technology Demonstrates Potential for Significant Increases

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    in Safe and Responsible Production from Depleted U.S. Oil Fields | Department of Energy Innovative DOE Technology Demonstrates Potential for Significant Increases in Safe and Responsible Production from Depleted U.S. Oil Fields Innovative DOE Technology Demonstrates Potential for Significant Increases in Safe and Responsible Production from Depleted U.S. Oil Fields April 25, 2012 - 1:00pm Addthis Washington, DC - The U.S. Department of Energy announced today that an innovative technology has

  6. Approaches to identifying reservoir heterogeneity and reserve growth opportunities from subsurface data: The Oficina Formation, Budare field, Venezuela

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hamilton, D.S.; Raeuchle, S.K.; Holtz, M.H.

    1997-08-01

    We applied an integrated geologic, geophysical, and engineering approach devised to identify heterogeneities in the subsurface that might lead to reserve growth opportunities in our analysis of the Oficina Formation at Budare field, Venezuela. The approach involves 4 key steps: (1) Determine geologic reservoir architecture; (2) Investigate trends in reservoir fluid flow; (3) Integrate fluid flow trends with reservoir architecture; and (4) Estimate original oil-in-place, residual oil saturation, and remaining mobile oil, to identify opportunities for reserve growth. There are three main oil-producing reservoirs in the Oficina Formation that were deposited in a bed-load fluvial system, an incised valley-fill, and a barrier-strandplain system. Reservoir continuity is complex because, in addition to lateral facies variability, the major Oficina depositional systems were internally subdivided by high-frequency stratigraphic surfaces. These surfaces define times of intermittent lacustrine and marine flooding events that punctuated the fluvial and marginal marine sedimentation, respectively. Syn and post depositional faulting further disrupted reservoir continuity. Trends in fluid flow established from initial fluid levels, response to recompletion workovers, and pressure depletion data demonstrated barriers to lateral and vertical fluid flow caused by a combination of reservoir facies pinchout, flooding shale markers, and the faults. Considerable reserve growth potential exists at Budare field because the reservoir units are highly compartment by the depositional heterogeneity and structural complexity. Numerous reserve growth opportunities were identified in attics updip of existing production, in untapped or incompletely drained compartments, and in field extensions.

  7. A pilot-scale field study on the anaerobic biotreatment of soil impacted with highly chlorinated benzenes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ramanand, K.; Foulke, B.; Delnicki, W.A.; Ying, A.C.; Baek, N.H.; Coats, M.L.; Duffy, J.J.

    1995-12-31

    An on-site pilot-scale demonstration of anaerobic biodegradation of highly chlorinated benzenes was successfully performed at a chemical manufacturing industrial facility in Niagara Falls, New York. The field investigation was conducted in 6-yd{sup 3} capacity soil boxes. Approximately 4 yd{sup 3} of soil impacted with chlorinated compounds was placed in each soil box. Chlorinated benzenes with 3 or more chlorines accounted for about 85% of the total chemistry in the soil. The soil box amended with water, nutrients, and acclimated soil microbial inoculum exhibited greater than 78% reduction in the levels of highly chlorinated compounds after one year of field study. The total concentrations of hexa-, penta-, tetra-, and trichlorobenzenes decreased from 920 mg/kg to less than 190 mg/kg, while the total concentrations of di-, and monochlorobenzene increased from 8 mg/kg to greater than 400 mg/kg during one year of field operation. The control soil that did not receive any external nutrient or microbial amendments maintained the same percentage of the highly chlorinated benzenes after one year and di-, and monochlorobenzene never exceeded more than 4 mg/kg at any given time period. The anaerobic activity was further confirmed by monitored parameters such as nutrient consumption (butyrate, nitrogen, organic matter), sulfate depletion, and methane production.

  8. An integrated approach to seismic stimulation of oil reservoirs: laboratory, field and theoretical results from DOE/industry collaborations.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roberts, P. M.; Majer, Ernest Luther; Lo, W. C.; Sposito, Garrison,; Daley, T. M.

    2003-01-01

    It has been observed repeatedly that low-frequency (10-500 Hz) seismic stress waves can enhance oil production from depleted reservoirs . Until recently, the majority of these observations have been anecdotal or at the proof-of-concept level. The physics coupling stress waves to multiphase fluid flow behavior in porous media is still poorly understood, even though numerous underlying physical mechanisms have been proposed to explain the observations . Basic research on the phenomenon is being conducted through a U .S. Department of Energy funded collaboration between Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, the University of California at Berkeley, Los Alamos National Laboratory and the U .S . oil and gas industry . The project has focused on three main areas of research: (1) laboratory core flow experiments, (2) field seismic monitoring of downhole stimulation tests, and (3) theoretical modeling of the coupled stress/flow phenomenon . The major goal is to obtain a comprehensive scientific understanding of the seismic stimulation phenomenon so that field application technologies can be improved. Initial developments and experimental results in all three research focus areas confirm historic observations that the stimulated flow phenomenon is real and that a fundamental scientific understanding can be obtained through continued research . Examples of project results and developments are presented here.

  9. Applications of stable isotopes in hydrological studies of Mt. Apo geothermal field, Philippines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Salonga, N.D.; Aragon, G.M.; Nogara, J.B.; Sambrano, B.G.

    1996-12-31

    The local precipitation in Mt. Apo is depleted of heavy isotopes owing to high elevation and landward location of the field. Rainwaters infiltrate the shallow grounds, circulate in short distances with almost no interaction with the host bed rocks, and effuse in the surface as cold springs. Lakes and rivers are affected by surface evaporation while the acid SO{sub 4} springs are affected by both evaporation and steam-heating. Only the neutral-pH Cl springs have the signature of the deep thermal fluids. The parent fluids of the deep thermal brine contain Cl of 4,800 to 5,000 mg/kg, {delta}{sup 18}O of -4.62 to -4.13 {per_thousand} and {delta}{sup 2}H of -60.0 to -57.8 {per_thousand}. Inside the Sandawa Collapse, boiling of the parent fluids resulted in a two-phase reservoir with lighter isotope contents. The thermal fluids laterally flow towards the west where they are affected by cooling and mixing of cold waters. Deep water recharge has {delta}{sup 18}O of -10.00 {per_thousand} and {delta}{sup 2}H = -61.20 {per_thousand} which come from the upper slopes of Sandawa Collapse (1580-1700 mASL).

  10. Coiled tubing stimulations eliminate hole failures & condensate losses in Arun field

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bunnell, F.D.; Daud, M.M.

    1995-12-31

    Stimulation practices have evolved considerably over the life of the Arun Field. From the original HCl matrix treatments in the late 70`s to the organic matrix and acid fracture treatments through the early 90`s these techniques have proven effective. Beginning in recent years however, some problems have been observed. Problems include collapsing shales plugging one well and sharp drops in the condensate/gas ratio following stimulation in others. Open hole completions with a limited casing/cement barrier between the over pressured shale and the depleting Arun reservoir are subject to shale collapse and plugging when directly exposed to acid during conventional stimulations. Most Arun completions are subject to post stimulation condensate losses due to increasingly difficult conditions for effective diversion of acid treatment fluids. Acid stimulation using coiled tubing techniques effectively addresses these problems. In seven stimulations performed to date shale failures and condensate losses have been eliminated. Direct acid washing across deeper intervals helps protect the acid sensitive barrier in open hole completions and effectively treats the lower, condensate rich zones.

  11. Residual-oil-saturation-technology test, Bell Creek Field, Montana. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1981-06-01

    A field test was conducted of the technology available to measure residual oil saturation following waterflood secondary oil recovery processes. The test was conducted in a new well drilled solely for that purpose, located immediately northwest of the Bell Creek Micellar Polymer Pilot. The area where the test was conducted was originally drilled during 1968, produced by primary until late 1970, and was under line drive waterflood secondary recovery until early 1976, when the area was shut in at waterflood depletion. This report presents the results of tests conducted to determine waterflood residual oil saturation in the Muddy Sandstone reservoir. The engineering techniques used to determine the magnitude and distribution of the remaining oil saturation included both pressure and sidewall cores, conventional well logs (Dual Laterolog - Micro Spherically Focused Log, Dual Induction Log - Spherically Focused Log, Borehole Compensated Sonic Log, Formation Compensated Density-Compensated Neutron Log), Carbon-Oxygen Logs, Dielectric Logs, Nuclear Magnetism Log, Thermal Decay Time Logs, and a Partitioning Tracer Test.

  12. Economic evaluation on CO₂-EOR of onshore oil fields in China

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wei, Ning; Li, Xiaochun; Dahowski, Robert T.; Davidson, Casie L.; Liu, Shengnan; Zha, Yongjin

    2015-06-01

    Carbon dioxide enhanced oil recovery (CO₂-EOR) and sequestration in depleted oil reservoirs is a plausible option for utilizing anthropogenic CO₂ to increase oil production while storing CO₂ underground. Evaluation of the storage resources and cost of potential CO₂-EOR projects is an essential step before the commencement of large-scale deployment of such activities. In this paper, a hybrid techno-economic evaluation method, including a performance model and cost model for onshore CO₂-EOR projects, has been developed based on previous studies. Total 296 onshore oil fields, accounting for about 70% of total mature onshore oil fields in China, were evaluated by the techno-economic method. The key findings of this study are summarized as follows: (1) deterministic analysis shows there are approximately 1.1 billion tons (7.7 billion barrels) of incremental crude oil and 2.2 billion tons CO₂ storage resource for onshore CO₂-EOR at net positive revenue within the Chinese oil fields reviewed under the given operating strategy and economic assumptions. (2) Sensitivity study highlights that the cumulative oil production and cumulative CO₂ storage resource are very sensitive to crude oil price, CO₂ cost, project lifetime, discount rate and tax policy. High oil price, short project lifetime, low discount rate, low CO₂ cost, and low tax policy can greatly increase the net income of the oil enterprise, incremental oil recovery and CO₂ storage resource. (3) From this techno-economic evaluation, the major barriers to large-scale deployment of CO₂-EOR include complex geological conditions, low API of crude oil, high tax policy, and lack of incentives for the CO₂-EOR project.

  13. Economic evaluation on CO₂-EOR of onshore oil fields in China

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Wei, Ning; Li, Xiaochun; Dahowski, Robert T.; Davidson, Casie L.; Liu, Shengnan; Zha, Yongjin

    2015-06-01

    Carbon dioxide enhanced oil recovery (CO₂-EOR) and sequestration in depleted oil reservoirs is a plausible option for utilizing anthropogenic CO₂ to increase oil production while storing CO₂ underground. Evaluation of the storage resources and cost of potential CO₂-EOR projects is an essential step before the commencement of large-scale deployment of such activities. In this paper, a hybrid techno-economic evaluation method, including a performance model and cost model for onshore CO₂-EOR projects, has been developed based on previous studies. Total 296 onshore oil fields, accounting for about 70% of total mature onshore oil fields in China, were evaluated by the techno-economicmore » method. The key findings of this study are summarized as follows: (1) deterministic analysis shows there are approximately 1.1 billion tons (7.7 billion barrels) of incremental crude oil and 2.2 billion tons CO₂ storage resource for onshore CO₂-EOR at net positive revenue within the Chinese oil fields reviewed under the given operating strategy and economic assumptions. (2) Sensitivity study highlights that the cumulative oil production and cumulative CO₂ storage resource are very sensitive to crude oil price, CO₂ cost, project lifetime, discount rate and tax policy. High oil price, short project lifetime, low discount rate, low CO₂ cost, and low tax policy can greatly increase the net income of the oil enterprise, incremental oil recovery and CO₂ storage resource. (3) From this techno-economic evaluation, the major barriers to large-scale deployment of CO₂-EOR include complex geological conditions, low API of crude oil, high tax policy, and lack of incentives for the CO₂-EOR project.« less

  14. EIS-0360: DOE Notice of Availability of the Draft Supplement Analysis

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Disposal of Depleted Uranium Oxide Conversion Produce Generated from DOE's Inventory of Depleted Uranium Hexafluoride, Clive, Utah

  15. Application of geochemical techniques to deduce the reservoir performance of the Palinpinon Geothermal Field, Philippines - an update

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ramos-Candelaria, M.N.; Garcia, S.E.; Hermoso, D.Z.

    1997-12-31

    Regular monitoring of various geochemical parameters in the water and vapor phases of the production wells at the Palinpinon I and II sectors of the Southern Negros Geothermal Field have been useful in the identification of the dominant reservoir processes occurring related to the present exploitation strategy. Observed geochemical and physical changes in the output of production wells have dictated production and injection strategies adopted to maximize production to meet the steam requirements of the power plant. Correlation of both physical and chemical data have identified the following reservoir processes: (1) Injection breakthrough via the Ticala Fault of the highly mineralized (Cl {approximately}8,000-10,500 mg/kg), isotopically enriched ({delta}{sup 18}O = -3.00{per_thousand}, {delta}{sup 2} H = -39{per_thousand}), and gas depleted brine for wells in the SW and central Puhagan. Injection breakthrough is also occurring in Palinpinon II and has resulted in temperature drops of 5-10{degrees}C.2. Pressure drawdown enhanced boiling in the liquid reservoir with steam separation of 220-240{degrees}C, feeding wells tapping the natural steam zone. However, enhanced drawdown has induced the entry of shallow acid steam condensate fluids in some wells (e.g. OK-7, PN-29D, PN-18D), which if not arrested could reduce production.

  16. Importance of aerosol composition, mixing state, and morphology for heterogeneous ice nucleation: A combined field and laboratory approach

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baustian, Kelly J.; Cziczo, Daniel J.; Wise, M. A.; Pratt, Kerri; Kulkarni, Gourihar R.; Hallar, Anna G.; Tolbert, Margaret A.

    2012-03-30

    In this study chemical compositions of background aerosol and ice nuclei were examined through laboratory investigations using Raman spectroscopy and field measurements by single-particle mass spectrometry. Aerosol sampling took place at Storm Peak Laboratory in Steamboat Springs, Colorado (elevation of 3210 m). A cascade impactor was used to collect coarse-mode aerosol particles for laboratory analysis by Raman spectroscopy; the composition, mixing state, and heterogeneous ice nucleation activity of individual particles were examined. For in situ analysis of fine-mode aerosol, ice nucleation on ambient particles was observed using a compact ice nucleation chamber. Ice crystals were separated from unactivated aerosol using a pumped counterflow virtual impactor, and ice nuclei were analyzed using particle analysis by laser mass spectrometry. For both fine and coarse modes, the ice nucleating particle fractions were enriched in minerals and depleted in sulfates and nitrates, compared to the background aerosol sampled. The vast majority of particles in both the ambient and ice active aerosol fractions contained a detectable amount of organic material. Raman spectroscopy showed that organic material is sometimes present in the form of a coating on the surface of inorganic particles. We find that some organic-containing particles serve as efficient ice nuclei while others do not. For coarse-mode aerosol, organic particles were only observed to initiate ice formation when oxygen signatures were also present in their spectra.

  17. Summary of Field Measurement on UF6 Cylinders Using Electro-Mechanically Cooled Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McGinnis, Brent R; Smith, Steven E; Solodov, Alexander A; Whitaker, J Michael; Morgan, James B; MayerII, Richard L.; Montgomery, J. Brent

    2009-01-01

    Measurement of the enrichment of solid state UF6 stored within large metal cylinders is a task commonly performed by plant operators and inspectors. The measurement technologies typically used range from low-resolution, high-efficiency sodium iodide detectors to high-resolution, moderate-efficiency high-purity germanium (HPGe) detectors. The technology used and methods deployed are dependent upon the material being measured, environmental conditions, time constraints, and measurement-precision requirements. Operators and inspectors typically use specially designed, HPGe detectors that are cooled with liquid nitrogen in situations where high-resolution measurements are required. However, the requirement for periodically refilling the system with liquid nitrogen makes remote usage cumbersome and slow. The task of cooling the detector reduces the available time for the inspector to perform other safeguards activities while on site. If the inspector has to reduce the count time for each selected cylinder to ensure that all preselected cylinders are measured during the inspection, the resulting measurement uncertainties may be increased, making it more difficult to detect and verify potential discrepancies in the operator's declarations. However, recent advances in electromechanically cooled HPGe detectors may provide the inspector with an improved verification tool by eliminating the need for liquid nitrogen. This report provides a summary of test results for field measurements performed using electromechanically cooled HPGe detectors on depleted, natural, and low-enriched uranium cylinders. The results of the study provide valuable information to inspectors and operators regarding the capabilities and limitations of electromechanically cooled systems based on true field-measurement conditions.

  18. Ions confined in spherical dielectric cavities modeled by a splitting field-theory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lue, Leo; Linse, Per

    2015-04-14

    The properties of ions confined within spherical dielectric cavities are examined by a splitting field-theory and Monte Carlo simulations. Three types of cavities are considered: one possessing a uniform surface charge density, one with a uniform volume charge density, and one containing mobile ions. In all cases, mobile counterions are present within the dielectric sphere. The splitting theory is based on dividing the electrostatic interaction into long- and short-wavelength contributions and applying different approximations on the two contributions. The splitting theory works well for the case where the dielectric constant of the confining sphere is equal to or less than that of the medium external to the sphere. Nevertheless, by extending the theory with a virial expansion, the predictions are improved. However, when the dielectric constant of the confining sphere is greater than that of the medium outside the sphere, the splitting theory performs poorly, only qualitatively agreeing with the simulation data. In this case, the strong-coupling expansion does not seem to work well, and a modified mean-field theory where the counterions interact directly with only their own image charge gives improved predictions. The splitting theory works best for the system with a uniform surface charge density and worst for the system with a uniform volume charge density. Increasing the number of ions within the sphere, at a fixed radius, tends to increase the ion density near the surface of the sphere and leads to a depletion region in the sphere interior; however, varying the ion number does not lead to any qualitative changes in the performance of the splitting theory.

  19. Radionuclide inventories : ORIGEN2.2 isotopic depletion calculation for high burnup low-enriched uranium and weapons-grade mixed-oxide pressurized-water reactor fuel assemblies.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gauntt, Randall O.; Ross, Kyle W.; Smith, James Dean; Longmire, Pamela

    2010-04-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory computer code, ORIGEN2.2 (CCC-371, 2002), was used to obtain the elemental composition of irradiated low-enriched uranium (LEU)/mixed-oxide (MOX) pressurized-water reactor fuel assemblies. Described in this report are the input parameters for the ORIGEN2.2 calculations. The rationale for performing the ORIGEN2.2 calculation was to generate inventories to be used to populate MELCOR radionuclide classes. Therefore the ORIGEN2.2 output was subsequently manipulated. The procedures performed in this data reduction process are also described herein. A listing of the ORIGEN2.2 input deck for two-cycle MOX is provided in the appendix. The final output from this data reduction process was three tables containing the radionuclide inventories for LEU/MOX in elemental form. Masses, thermal powers, and activities were reported for each category.

  20. A modeling study of the effect of depth of burial of depleted uranium and thorium on radon gas flux at a dry desert alluvial soil radioactive waste management site (RWMS)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lindstrom, F.T.; Cawlfield, D.E.; Emer, D.F.; Shott, G.J.

    1993-08-01

    An integral part of designing low-level waste (LLW) disposal pits and their associated closure covers in very dry desert alluvium is the use of a radon gas transport and fate model. Radon-222 has the potential to be a real heath hazard. The production of radon-222 results from the radioactive decay (a particle emission) of radium-226 in the uranium-235 and 238 Bateman chains. It is also produced in the thorium-230 series. Both long lived radionuclides have been proposed for disposal in the shallow land burial pits in Area 5 RWMS compound of Nevada Test Site (NTS). The constructed physics based model includes diffusion and barometric pressure-induced advection of an M-chain of radionuclides. The usual Bateman decay mechanics are included for each radionuclide. Both linear reversible and linear irreversible first order sorption kinetics are assumed for each radionuclide. This report presents the details of using the noble gas transport model, CASCADR9, in an engineering design study mode. Given data on the low-level waste stream, which constitutes the ultimate source of radon-222 in the RWMS, CASCADR9 is used to generate the surface flux (pCi/cm{sup 2}-sec) of radon-222 under the realistic atmospheric and alluvial soil conditions found in the RWMS at Area 5, of the NTS. Specifically, this study examines the surface flux of radon-222 as a function of the depth of burial below the land surface.

  1. Tennessee Underground Natural Gas Storage Capacity

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    1,200 0 NA NA 1998-2014 Salt Caverns 0 0 1999-2014 Aquifers 0 0 1999-2014 Depleted Fields 1,200 0 0 1999-2014 Total Working Gas Capacity 860 0 0 2008-2014 Salt Caverns 0 0 2012-2014 Aquifers 0 0 2012-2014 Depleted Fields 860 0 0 2008-2014 Total Number of Existing Fields 1 1 1 1 1 1 1998-2014 Depleted Fields 1 1 1 1 1 1

  2. The Basics of Underground Natural Gas Storage

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    States is in depleted natural gas or oil fields that are close to consumption centers. Conversion of a field from production to storage duty takes advantage of existing wells,...

  3. Table Definitions, Sources, and Explanatory Notes

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Capacity Definitions Key Terms Definition Aquifer Storage Field A sub-surface facility for storing natural gas, consisting of water-bearing sands topped by an impermeable cap rock. Depleted Reservoir Storage Field A sub-surface natural geological reservoir, usually a depleted gas or oil field, used for storing natural gas. Natural Gas A gaseous mixture of hydrocarbon compounds, the primary one being methane. Salt Dome Storage Field (Salt Cavern) A storage facility that is a cavern hollowed out

  4. Far Field Modeling Methods For Characterizing Surface Detonations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Garrett, A.

    2015-10-08

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) analyzed particle samples collected during experiments that were designed to replicate tests of nuclear weapons components that involve detonation of high explosives (HE). SRNL collected the particle samples in the HE debris cloud using innovative rocket propelled samplers. SRNL used scanning electronic microscopy to determine the elemental constituents of the particles and their size distributions. Depleted uranium composed about 7% of the particle contents. SRNL used the particle size distributions and elemental composition to perform transport calculations that indicate in many terrains and atmospheric conditions the uranium bearing particles will be transported long distances downwind. This research established that HE tests specific to nuclear proliferation should be detectable at long downwind distances by sampling airborne particles created by the test detonations.

  5. THE JAMES CLERK MAXWELL TELESCOPE NEARBY GALAXIES LEGACY SURVEY. II. WARM MOLECULAR GAS AND STAR FORMATION IN THREE FIELD SPIRAL GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Warren, B. E.; Wilson, C. D.; Sinukoff, E.; Israel, F. P.; Van der Werf, P. P.; Serjeant, S.; Bendo, G. J.; Clements, D. L.; Brinks, E.; Irwin, J. A.; Knapen, J. H.; Leech, J.; Tan, B. K.; Matthews, H. E.; Muehle, S.; Mortimer, A. M. J.; Petitpas, G.; Spekkens, K.; Tilanus, R. P. J.; Usero, A. E-mail: wilson@physics.mcmaster.c E-mail: israel@strw.leidenuniv.n

    2010-05-01

    We present the results of large-area {sup 12}CO J = 3-2 emission mapping of three nearby field galaxies, NGC 628, NGC 3521, and NGC 3627, completed at the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope as part of the Nearby Galaxies Legacy Survey. These galaxies all have moderate to strong {sup 12}CO J = 3-2 detections over large areas of the fields observed by the survey, showing resolved structure and dynamics in their warm/dense molecular gas disks. All three galaxies were part of the Spitzer Infrared Nearby Galaxies Survey sample, and as such have excellent published multiwavelength ancillary data. These data sets allow us to examine the star formation properties, gas content, and dynamics of these galaxies on sub-kiloparsec scales. We find that the global gas depletion time for dense/warm molecular gas in these galaxies is consistent with other results for nearby spiral galaxies, indicating this may be independent of galaxy properties such as structures, gas compositions, and environments. Similar to the results from The H I Nearby Galaxy Survey, we do not see a correlation of the star formation efficiency with the gas surface density consistent with the Schmidt-Kennicutt law. Finally, we find that the star formation efficiency of the dense molecular gas traced by {sup 12}CO J = 3-2 is potentially flat or slightly declining as a function of molecular gas density, the {sup 12}CO J = 3-2/J = 1-0 ratio (in contrast to the correlation found in a previous study into the starburst galaxy M83), and the fraction of total gas in molecular form.

  6. Tracer Testing At Coso Geothermal Area (2006) | Open Energy Informatio...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    and two-phase tracers in fluid-depleted geothermal fields. References Mella, M.; Rose, P.; McCulloch, J.; Buck, C. (1 January 2006) A Tracer Test Using Ethanol as a...

  7. Field Demonstration of Horizontal Infill Drilling Using Cost-effective Integrated Reservoir Modeling--Mississippian Carbonates, Central Kansas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Saibal Bhattacharya

    2005-08-31

    Mississippian carbonate reservoirs have produced in excess of 1 billion barrels of oil in Kansas accounting for over 16% of the state's production. With declining production from other age reservoirs, the contribution of Mississippian reservoirs to Kansas's oil production has risen to 43% as of 2004. However, solution-enhanced features such as vertical shale intervals extending from the karst erosional surface at the top introduce complexities/compartmentalizations in Mississippian carbonate reservoirs. Coupled with this, strong water drives charge many of these reservoirs resulting in limited drainage from vertical wells due to high water cuts after an initial period of low water production. Moreover, most of these fields are operated by small independent operators without access to the knowledge bank of modern research in field characterization and exploitation/development practices. Thus, despite increasing importance of Mississippian fields to Kansas production, these fields are beset with low recovery factors and high abandonment rates leaving significant resources in the ground. Worldwide, horizontal infill wells have been successful in draining compartmentalized reservoirs with limited pressure depletion. The intent of this project was to demonstrate the application of horizontal wells to successfully exploit the remaining potential in mature Mississippian fields of the mid-continent. However, it is of critical importance that for horizontal wells to be economically successful, they must be selectively targeted. This project demonstrated the application of initial and secondary screening methods, based on publicly available data, to quickly shortlist fields in a target area for detailed studies to evaluate their potential to infill horizontal well applications. Advanced decline curve analyses were used to estimate missing well-level production data and to verify if the well produced under unchanging bottom-hole conditions--two commonly occurring data constraints afflicting mature Mississippian fields. A publicly accessible databank of representative petrophysical properties and relationships was developed to overcome the paucity of such data that is critical to modeling the storage and flow in these reservoirs. Studies in 3 Mississippian fields demonstrated that traditional reservoir models built by integrating log, core, DST, and production data from existing wells on 40-acre spacings are unable to delineate karst-induced compartments, thus making 3D-seismic data critical to characterize these fields. Special attribute analyses on 3D data were shown to delineate reservoir compartments and predict those with pay porosities. Further testing of these techniques is required to validate their applicability in other Mississippian reservoirs. This study shows that detailed reservoir characterization and simulation on geomodels developed by integrating wireline log, core, petrophysical, production and pressure, and 3D-seismic data enables better evaluation of a candidate field for horizontal infill applications. In addition to reservoir compartmentalization, two factors were found to control the economic viability of a horizontal infill well in a mature Mississippian field: (a) adequate reservoir pressure support, and (b) an average well spacing greater than 40-acres.

  8. Field Guide

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Ecologist for a Day Field Guide Program supported by: ©2011, Savannah River Ecology Laboratory - Outreach Program INVERTEBRATES Page 1 Brown Millipede Burgundy Millipede Red Millipede Green Centipede Small Gray Millipede Carrion Beetle Larva Red Centipede Orb Weaver Trapdoor Spider W lf S id Harvestman (Daddy long legs) S i d Mi th Wolf Spiders Harvestman (Daddy-long-legs) Spined Micrathena MOUS SPIDER Black and Yellow Argiope Widow Spider Crab Spider Cross Spider ©2011, Savannah River Ecology

  9. Field O

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    -- ! Department of Energy Field O ffice, O s k Ridge P.O . Box 2001 Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37031- 0723 April 20. 1993 Dr. Robert Kulikowskf Director, Bureau of Radiation Control New York City Department of Health 111 Livingston Street Brooklyn, New York 11201 Dear Dr. Kulfkowskf: BAKER AN0 W ILLIAM W AREHOUSES SITE - CORPLETION O F CLEANUP ACTIVITIES The purpose of this notice is to inform you about further scheduled c leanup activities to be conducted by the Department of Energy (WE) at 513-519

  10. Milestones Keep DUF6 Plants Moving Ahead | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Milestones Keep DUF6 Plants Moving Ahead Milestones Keep DUF6 Plants Moving Ahead May 30, 2013 - 12:00pm Addthis Cylinders containing depleted uranium hexafluoride. Cylinders containing depleted uranium hexafluoride. The depleted uranium hexafluoride conversion plant in Paducah. The depleted uranium hexafluoride conversion plant in Paducah. Workers inspect cylinders containing depleted uranium hexafluoride. Workers inspect cylinders containing depleted uranium hexafluoride. The operating room at

  11. EIS-0283-SA-03: Supplement Analysis | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Analysis Transportation of Depleted Uranium Hexafluoride for Conversion to Depleted Uranium Oxide This SA evaluates a proposal to transport cylinders of DUF from the Paducah...

  12. Internal split field generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Thundat; Thomas George (Knoxville, TN); Van Neste, Charles W. (Kingston, TN); Vass, Arpad Alexander (Oak Ridge, TN)

    2012-01-03

    A generator includes a coil of conductive material. A stationary magnetic field source applies a stationary magnetic field to the coil. An internal magnetic field source is disposed within a cavity of the coil to apply a moving magnetic field to the coil. The stationary magnetic field interacts with the moving magnetic field to generate an electrical energy in the coil.

  13. EIS-0360: Final Environmental Impact Statement

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Construction and Operation of a Depleted Uranium Hexafluoride Conversion Facility at the Portsmouth, Ohio, Site

  14. EIS-0359: Final Environmental Impact Statement

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Construction and Operation of a Depleted Uranium Hexafluoride Conversion Facility at the Paducah, Kentucky, Site

  15. EIS-0360: EPA Notice of Availability of the Draft Environmental Impact Statement

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Construction and Operation of a Depleted Uranium Hexafluoride Conversion Facility at the Portsmouth, Ohio, Site

  16. EIS-0359: EPA Notice of Availability of the Draft Environmental Impact Statement

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Construction and Operation of a Depleted Uranium Hexafluoride Conversion Facility at the Paducah, Kentucky Site

  17. EIS-0360: Record of Decision

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Construction and Operation of a Depleted Uranium Hexafluoride Conversion Facility at the Portsmouth, Ohio, Site

  18. EIS-0359: Record of Decision

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Construction and Operation of a Depleted Uranium Hexafluoride Conversion Facility at the Paducah, Kentucky, Site

  19. EIS-0359: Draft Environmental Impact Statement

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Construction and Operation of a Depleted Uranium Hexafluoride Conversion Facility at the Paducah, Kentucky, Site

  20. Audit Report: OAS-RA-10-07

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Management Alert on Environmental Management's Select Strategy for Disposition of Savannah River Site Depleted Uranium Oxides

  1. EIS-0360: EPA Notice of Availability of the Final Environmental Impact Statement

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Construction and Operation of a Depleted Uranium Hexafluoride Conversion Facility at the Portsmouth, Ohio, Site

  2. External split field generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Thundat, Thomas George (Knoxville, TN); Van Neste, Charles W. (Kingston, TN); Vass, Arpad Alexander (Oak Ridge, TN)

    2012-02-21

    A generator includes a coil disposed about a core. A first stationary magnetic field source may be disposed on a first end portion of the core and a second stationary magnetic field source may be disposed on a second end portion of core. The first and second stationary magnetic field sources apply a stationary magnetic field to the coil. An external magnetic field source may be disposed outside the coil to apply a moving magnetic field to the coil. Electrical energy is generated in response to an interaction between the coil, the moving magnetic field, and the stationary magnetic field.

  3. livermore field office

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    donation to those in need.

    Livermore Field Office sets core values as part of continuous improvement process http:nnsa.energy.govbloglivermore-field-office-sets-cor...

  4. Pennsylvania Underground Natural Gas Storage Capacity

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    776,964 776,822 776,845 774,309 774,309 774,309 1988-2014 Salt Caverns 0 0 1999-2014 Aquifers 0 0 1999-2014 Depleted Fields 776,964 776,822 776,845 774,309 774,309 774,309 1999-2014 Total Working Gas Capacity 431,137 431,086 433,110 434,179 433,214 433,214 2008-2014 Salt Caverns 0 0 2012-2014 Aquifers 942 938 938 2012-2014 Depleted Fields 431,137 431,086 433,110 433,236 432,276 432,276 2008-2014 Total Number of Existing Fields 51 51 51 51 51 51 1989-2014 Aquifers 1 1 1 2012-2014 Depleted Fields

  5. Maryland Underground Natural Gas Storage Capacity

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    4,000 64,000 64,000 64,000 64,000 64,000 1988-2014 Salt Caverns 0 0 1999-2014 Depleted Fields 64,000 64,000 64,000 64,000 64,000 64,000 1999-2014 Total Working Gas Capacity 18,300 18,300 18,300 18,300 18,300 18,300 2008-2014 Salt Caverns 0 0 2012-2014 Depleted Fields 18,300 18,300 18,300 18,300 18,300 18,300 2008-2014 Total Number of Existing Fields 1 1 1 1 1 1 1989-2014 Depleted Fields 1 1 1 1 1 1

  6. Montana Underground Natural Gas Storage Capacity

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    76,301 376,301 376,301 376,301 376,301 376,301 1988-2014 Salt Caverns 0 0 1999-2014 Aquifers 0 0 1999-2014 Depleted Fields 376,301 376,301 376,301 376,301 376,301 376,301 1999-2014 Total Working Gas Capacity 197,508 197,501 197,501 197,501 197,501 197,501 2008-2014 Salt Caverns 0 0 2012-2014 Aquifers 0 0 2012-2014 Depleted Fields 197,508 197,501 197,501 197,501 197,501 197,501 2008-2014 Total Number of Existing Fields 5 5 5 5 5 5 1989-2014 Depleted Fields 5 5 5 5 5 5

  7. Nebraska Underground Natural Gas Storage Capacity

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    4,850 34,850 34,850 34,850 34,850 34,850 1988-2014 Salt Caverns 0 0 1999-2014 Depleted Fields 34,850 34,850 34,850 34,850 34,850 34,850 1999-2014 Total Working Gas Capacity 13,619 14,819 14,819 14,819 14,819 14,819 2008-2014 Salt Caverns 0 0 2012-2014 Depleted Fields 13,619 14,819 14,819 14,819 14,819 14,819 2008-2014 Total Number of Existing Fields 1 1 1 1 1 1 1989-2014 Depleted Fields 1 1 1 1 1 1

  8. New Mexico Underground Natural Gas Storage Capacity

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    80,000 84,300 84,300 89,100 89,100 89,100 1988-2014 Salt Caverns 0 0 1999-2014 Aquifers 0 0 1999-2014 Depleted Fields 80,000 84,300 84,300 89,100 89,100 89,100 1999-2014 Total Working Gas Capacity 55,300 59,000 59,000 63,300 59,738 59,738 2008-2014 Salt Caverns 0 0 2012-2014 Aquifers 0 0 2012-2014 Depleted Fields 55,300 59,000 59,000 63,300 59,738 59,738 2008-2014 Total Number of Existing Fields 2 2 2 2 2 2 1989-2014 Aquifers 0 0 1999-2014 Depleted Fields 2 2 2 2 2 2

  9. Ohio Underground Natural Gas Storage Capacity

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    580,380 580,380 580,380 577,944 577,944 577,944 1988-2014 Salt Caverns 0 0 1999-2014 Aquifers 0 0 1999-2014 Depleted Fields 580,380 580,380 580,380 577,944 577,944 577,944 1999-2014 Total Working Gas Capacity 225,154 228,350 230,350 230,350 230,828 230,828 2008-2014 Salt Caverns 0 0 2012-2014 Aquifers 0 0 2012-2014 Depleted Fields 225,154 228,350 230,350 230,350 230,828 230,828 2008-2014 Total Number of Existing Fields 24 24 24 24 24 24 1989-2014 Depleted Fields 24 24 24 24 24 24

  10. Oregon Underground Natural Gas Storage Capacity

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    29,565 29,565 29,565 28,750 29,565 29,565 1989-2014 Salt Caverns 0 0 1999-2014 Aquifers 0 0 1999-2014 Depleted Fields 29,565 29,565 29,565 28,750 29,565 29,565 1999-2014 Total Working Gas Capacity 15,935 15,935 15,935 15,510 15,935 15,935 2008-2014 Salt Caverns 0 0 2012-2014 Aquifers 0 0 2012-2014 Depleted Fields 15,935 15,935 15,935 15,510 15,935 15,935 2008-2014 Total Number of Existing Fields 7 7 7 7 7 7 1989-2014 Depleted Fields 7 7 7 7 7 7

  11. Colorado Underground Natural Gas Storage Capacity

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    105,768 105,768 105,858 124,253 122,086 130,186 1988-2014 Salt Caverns 0 0 1999-2014 Aquifers 0 0 1999-2014 Depleted Fields 105,768 105,768 105,858 124,253 122,086 130,186 1999-2014 Total Working Gas Capacity 48,129 49,119 48,709 60,582 60,582 63,774 2008-2014 Salt Caverns 0 0 2012-2014 Aquifers 0 0 2012-2014 Depleted Fields 48,129 49,119 48,709 60,582 60,582 63,774 2008-2014 Total Number of Existing Fields 9 9 9 10 10 10 1989-2014 Depleted Fields 9 9 9 10 10 10

  12. Arkansas Underground Natural Gas Storage Capacity

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    1,760 21,760 21,359 21,853 21,853 21,853 1988-2014 Salt Caverns 0 0 1999-2014 Aquifers 0 0 1999-2014 Depleted Fields 21,760 21,760 21,359 21,853 21,853 21,853 1999-2014 Total Working Gas Capacity 13,898 13,898 12,036 12,178 12,178 12,178 2008-2014 Salt Caverns 0 0 2012-2014 Aquifers 0 0 2012-2014 Depleted Fields 13,898 13,898 12,036 12,178 12,178 12,178 2008-2014 Total Number of Existing Fields 2 2 2 2 2 2 1989-2014 Depleted Fields 2 2 2 2 2 2

  13. MOSRC Field Definitions 01202016 MOSRC Field Definitions

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    MOSRC Field Definitions 01202016 MOSRC Field Definitions 1/5 1/20/2016 Field Name Definition Prime Contract Procurement Instrument Identifier The unique Prime Contractor identifier as it is recorded on the original (or base) contract in FPDS-NG. This must be a valid DOE M&O PIID, as recorded in FPDS-NG. Prime Contract DUNS Number The Prime Contractor's Dun and Bradstreet Data Universal Numbering System (DUNS) as it is recorded on the prime contract in FPDS-NG. Subcontract DUNS Number The

  14. Nevada Field Office

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    field-items">
    field-item odd">