National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for dent electron energy

  1. Peter Dent, Electron Energy Corporation, Strategies for More...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Peter Dent, Electron Energy Corporation, Strategies for More Effective Critical Materials Use Peter Dent, Electron Energy Corporation, Strategies for More Effective Critical Materials ...

  2. Genesis Electronics | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Solar Product: Technology company, focusing on consumer applications for solar energy and alternative energy sources. References: Genesis Electronics1 This article is a stub. You...

  3. Electronics Stewardship | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Electronics Stewardship Electronics Stewardship DOE is committed to responsible environmental stewardship of its electronics, including computers, displays, printers and cell phones. In order to comply with Executive Order 13693, Planning for Federal Sustainability in the Next Decade, and other statutory requirements, DOE policy and actions support the following principles of electronic stewardship: procuring environmentally sustainable electronics, including EPEAT-registered, ENERGY STAR

  4. DE-NT-0004654 | netl.doe.gov

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    The Instrumented Pipeline Initiative DE-NT-0004654 Goal The goal of the Instrumented Pipeline Initiative (IPI) is to address sensor system needs for low-cost monitoring and inspection as identified in the Department of Energy (DOE) National Gas Infrastructure Research & Development (R&D) Delivery Reliability Program Roadmap. This project intends to develop a new sensing and continuous monitoring system with alternative use as an inspection method. Performers Concurrent Technologies

  5. Dented Diamonds, Carbon Cages and Exceptional Potential | U.S. DOE Office

    Office of Science (SC) Website

    of Science (SC) Dented Diamonds, Carbon Cages and Exceptional Potential News News Home Featured Articles 2016 2015 2014 2013 2012 2011 2010 2009 2008 2007 2006 2005 Science Headlines Science Highlights Presentations & Testimony News Archives Communications and Public Affairs Contact Information Office of Science U.S. Department of Energy 1000 Independence Ave., SW Washington, DC 20585 P: (202) 586-5430 08.27.12 Dented Diamonds, Carbon Cages and Exceptional Potential Office of Science

  6. Searchable Electronic Department of Energy Acquisition Regulation...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Searchable Electronic Department of Energy Acquisition Regulation Searchable Electronic Department of Energy Acquisition Regulation Updated July 2, 2013. The EDEAR is current ...

  7. Solera Sustainable Energies Company formerly Phantom Electron...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Solera Sustainable Energies Company formerly Phantom Electron Corp Jump to: navigation, search Name: Solera Sustainable Energies Company (formerly Phantom Electron Corp) Place:...

  8. Energy Storage & Power Electronics 2008 Peer Review - Power Electronic...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Power Electronics (PE) Systems Presentations Energy Storage & Power Electronics 2008 Peer ... Compact SiC-Based Power Converter System - Timothy Lin, Aegis.pdf (370.13 KB) ...

  9. Energy Storage & Power Electronics 2008 Peer Review - Power Electronics

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    (PE) Systems Presentations | Department of Energy Power Electronics (PE) Systems Presentations Energy Storage & Power Electronics 2008 Peer Review - Power Electronics (PE) Systems Presentations The 2008 Peer Review Meeting for the DOE Energy Storage and Power Electronics Program (ESPE) was held in Washington DC on Sept. 29-30, 2008. Current and completed program projects were presented and reviewed by a group of industry professionals. The 2008 agenda was composed of 28 projects that

  10. Appliances and Electronics | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    appliances Home office and electronics. Follow Us followontwitter.png followonfacebook.png Appliance & Electronics Blogs Save Energy on Appliances this Holiday Season...

  11. Vickers Electronics Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Vickers Electronics Ltd Jump to: navigation, search Name: Vickers Electronics Ltd Place: United Kingdom Product: Manchester-based company which installs an Energy Management System...

  12. Numerical models for static denting and dynamic puncture of gas transmission linepipe and their validation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zarea, M.F.; Toumbas, D.N.; Philibert, C.E.; Deo, I.

    1996-12-31

    Gas transmission pipe resistance to external damage is a subject of great attention at Gaz de France and in Europe. Existing results cover part of the necessary criteria for the residual life of damaged pipelines, but more knowledge is needed on defect creation. The authors propose to complement existing experimental work which is limited to the explored range of parameters by validated numerical models. The first, simple static denting model aims at optimizing the conditions for calculating the residual stress distribution needed to assess the fatigue life of dents and dents and gouges. The second, more complex dynamic puncture model calculates both the puncture force and the puncture energy for a given pipe, excavator and tooth geometry. These models can contribute to enhance the external damage prevention policies of transmission pipeline operators.

  13. Electronics Stewardship | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Electronics Stewardship Electronics Stewardship Mission The team promotes sustainable management of LM's electronic equipment, as deemed appropriate for LM operations and approved ...

  14. Appliances and Electronics | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Saver » Appliances and Electronics Appliances and Electronics Choose efficient appliances and use them wisely to save money and energy. | Photo courtesy of Dennis Schroeder/NREL. Choose efficient appliances and use them wisely to save money and energy. | Photo courtesy of Dennis Schroeder/NREL. You can save money and energy at home by choosing energy efficient appliances and electronics and reducing the amount you use them. Explore the following topics to reduce your electricity use and

  15. Energy Efficient Electronics Cooling Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steve O'Shaughnessey; Tim Louvar; Mike Trumbower; Jessica Hunnicutt; Neil Myers

    2012-02-17

    Parker Precision Cooling Business Unit was awarded a Department of Energy grant (DE-EE0000412) to support the DOE-ITP goal of reducing industrial energy intensity and GHG emissions. The project proposed by Precision Cooling was to accelerate the development of a cooling technology for high heat generating electronics components. These components are specifically related to power electronics found in power drives focused on the inverter, converter and transformer modules. The proposed cooling system was expected to simultaneously remove heat from all three of the major modules listed above, while remaining dielectric under all operating conditions. Development of the cooling system to meet specific customer's requirements and constraints not only required a robust system design, but also new components to support long system functionality. Components requiring further development and testing during this project included pumps, fluid couplings, cold plates and condensers. All four of these major categories of components are required in every Precision Cooling system. Not only was design a key area of focus, but the process for manufacturing these components had to be determined and proven through the system development.

  16. Electron Solar Energy Formerly Envigra Inc | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Solar Energy Formerly Envigra Inc Jump to: navigation, search Name: Electron Solar Energy (Formerly Envigra Inc) Place: Miami, Florida Zip: 33137 Sector: Solar Product: US-based...

  17. Tokyo Electron | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Electron Jump to: navigation, search Name: Tokyo Electron Place: Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan Zip: 107-8481 Product: As a leading global supplier of semiconductor production equipment,...

  18. Manasa Electronics | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Manasa Electronics Jump to: navigation, search Name: Manasa Electronics Place: Ghaziabad, Uttar Pradesh, India Zip: 201 005 Sector: Solar Product: Ghaziabad-based manufacturer of...

  19. Estimating Appliance and Home Electronic Energy Use | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Electricity & Fuel » Appliances & Electronics » Estimating Appliance and Home Electronic Energy Use Estimating Appliance and Home Electronic Energy Use Our appliance and electronic energy use calculator allows you to estimate your annual energy use and cost to operate specific products. The wattage values provided are samples only; actual wattage of products varies depending on product age and features. Enter a wattage value for your own product for the most accurate estimate. Wattage

  20. Kk electronic A S | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Sector: Wind energy Product: Provides electronic wind turbine controllers. Coordinates: 56.137415, 8.97689 Show Map Loading map... "minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemap...

  1. ElectronVault | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Woodside, California Zip: 94062 Product: ElectronVault is developing battery-agnostic energy storage systems for transport applications. Coordinates: 40.747061, -73.902726...

  2. Forward Electronics | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    focussed on optoelectronics, information appliances, consumer electronics and communication. Coordinates: 25.080441, 121.564194 Show Map Loading map......

  3. New Superhard Form of Carbon Dents Diamond | U.S. DOE Office...

    Office of Science (SC) Website

    New Superhard Form of Carbon Dents Diamond Advanced Scientific Computing Research (ASCR) ... New Superhard Form of Carbon Dents Diamond Squeezing creates new class of material built ...

  4. Advance Electronics | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    transient suppressors, automatic voltage stablisers, voltmeters oscilloscopes, and signal generators. References: Advance Electronics1 This article is a stub. You can help...

  5. Tyco Electronics | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Product: Pennsylvania-based passive component manufacturer. The firm produces power storage devices. References: Tyco Electronics1 This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI...

  6. Cookson Electronics | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Place: Providence, Rhode Island Zip: 2903 Product: Rhode Island-based materials science company. The division produces PV junction boxes. References: Cookson Electronics1...

  7. Searchable Electronic Department of Energy Acquisition Regulation |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Searchable Electronic Department of Energy Acquisition Regulation Searchable Electronic Department of Energy Acquisition Regulation Updated July 2, 2013. The EDEAR is current through the Final Rule published May 3, 2013 at 78 FR 25817 If you have any questions concerning this page, please contact Barbara Binney in the Contract and Financial Assistance Policy Division, Office of Acquisition and Project Management. EDEAR July 2 2013 final.pdf (3.36 MB) More Documents &

  8. Rose Electronics | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    and enclosure products. Ni-Cd, Ni-MH, Li-Ion, Li-Polymer, Sealed Lead, Alkaline and Lithium Primary chemistries. References: Rose Electronics1 This article is a stub. You can...

  9. Power Electronics | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... Device Letters, IEEE. Sept 2010 Lu, B.; Palacios ,T. "High Breakdown ( > 1500 V ) AlGaNGaN HEMTs by Substrate-Transfer Technology" Electron Device Letters, IEEE. Sept 2010. Lu, ...

  10. Appliances & Electronics | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Science & Innovation » Energy Efficiency » Homes » Appliances & Electronics Appliances & Electronics Looking for ways to save energy? <a href="/node/587248">Check out these tips</a> -- which include using a power strip and switching to ENERGY STAR appliances -- that every homeowner should try. Looking for ways to save energy? Check out these tips -- which include using a power strip and switching to ENERGY STAR appliances -- that every homeowner should try.

  11. Atmosphere to Electrons | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Atmosphere to Electrons Atmosphere to Electrons Atmosphere to Electrons Atmosphere to Electrons (A2e) is a multi-year U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) research initiative targeting significant reductions in the cost of wind energy through an improved understanding of the complex physics governing electricity generation by wind plants. The goal of A2e is to ensure future wind plants are sited, built, and operated in a way that produces the most cost-effective, usable electric power. To achieve

  12. DE-NT0005669 | netl.doe.gov

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    9 Heat flow and gas hydrates on the continental margin of India DE-NT0005669 Last Reviewed ... The goals of this project are to construct maps of apparent and residual heat flow through ...

  13. Appliances & Electronics | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    href"node587248">Check out these tips -- which include using a power strip and switching to ENERGY STAR appliances -- that every homeowner should try. Looking for ways to...

  14. Intermediate energy nuclear physics with electrons

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moniz, Ernest J.

    1987-10-10

    Inclusive electron scattering has made an enormous contribution to our understanding of hadron and of nuclear structure and to defining the questions which are driving the field in new directions. With intense CW intermediate energy electron beams and with the opportunity to exploit spin observables, central contributions to many of the most crucial questions are anticipated. (AIP)

  15. FREE ELECTRON LASERS AND HIGH-ENERGY ELECTRON COOLING.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    LITVINENKO,V.N.

    2007-08-31

    Cooling intense high-energy hadron beams remains a major challenge in modern accelerator physics. Synchrotron radiation of such beams is too feeble to provide significant cooling: even in the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) with 7 TeV protons, the longitudinal damping time is about thirteen hours. Decrements of traditional electron cooling decrease rapidly as the high power of beam energy, and an effective electron cooling of protons or antiprotons at energies above 100 GeV seems unlikely. Traditional stochastic cooling still cannot catch up with the challenge of cooling high-intensity bunched proton beams--to be effective, its bandwidth must be increased by about two orders-of-magnitude. Two techniques offering the potential to cool high-energy hadron beams are optical stochastic cooling (OSC) and coherent electron cooling (CEC)--the latter is the focus of this paper. In the early 1980s, CEC was suggested as a possibility for using various instabilities in an electron beam to enhance its interaction with hadrons (i.e., cooling them). The capabilities of present-day accelerator technology, Energy Recovery Linacs (ERLs), and high-gain Free-Electron Lasers (FELs), finally caught up with the idea and provided the all necessary ingredients for realizing such a process. In this paper, we discuss the principles, and the main limitations of the CEC process based on a high-gain FEL driven by an ERL. We also present, and summarize in Table 1, some numerical examples of CEC for ions and protons in RHIC and the LHC.

  16. How Do You Save Energy With Your Electronics? | Department of...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Do You Save Energy With Your Electronics? How Do You Save Energy With Your Electronics? ... Do you have any tips for saving energy with your home electronics? You have the chance to ...

  17. In-Situ Electron Microscopy of Electrical Energy Storage Materials...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    More Documents & Publications In-Situ Electron Microscopy of Electrical Energy Storage Materials In-Situ Electron Microscopy of Electrical Energy Storage Materials Investigations ...

  18. In-Situ Electron Microscopy of Electrical Energy Storage Materials...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    More Documents & Publications In-Situ Electron Microscopy of Electrical Energy Storage Materials In-Situ Electron Microscopy of Electrical Energy Storage Materials In-situ ...

  19. Electron energy spectrum and maximum disruption angle under multi...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Conference: Electron energy spectrum and maximum disruption angle under multi-photon beamstrahlung Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Electron energy spectrum and maximum ...

  20. Electron energy spectrum and maximum disruption angle under multi...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Electron energy spectrum and maximum disruption angle under multi-photon beamstrahlung Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Electron energy spectrum and maximum disruption ...

  1. Next-Generation Power Electronics: Reducing Energy Waste and...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Next-Generation Power Electronics: Reducing Energy Waste and Powering the Future Next-Generation Power Electronics: Reducing Energy Waste and Powering the Future January 15, 2014 - ...

  2. Energy Storage & Power Electronics 2008 Peer Review- Energy Storage Systems (ESS) Presentations

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Energy Storage Systems (ESS) Presentations from the 2008 Energy Storage and Power Electronics peer review.

  3. DE-NT0005638 | netl.doe.gov

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    DE-NT0005638 Remote Sensing and Sea-Truth Measurements of Methane Flux to the Atmosphere DE-NT0005638 Last Reviewed 2/23/2012 Project Goal The goal of this project is to improve estimates of methane flux from submarine seeps and associated gas hydrate deposits on continental margins by compiling a remote sensing inventory of active gas and oil vents, and completing sea-truth measurement of flux from representative vents in the Gulf of Mexico. Proposed study sites GC184 (540m), GC852 (1400m),

  4. DE-NT0005666 | netl.doe.gov

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    DE-NT0005666 Characterization of Methane Degradation and Methane-Degrading Microbes in Alaska Coastal Waters DE-NT0005666 Last Reviewed 5/15/2012 Project Goal The goal of this project is gain a better understanding of methane degradation and methane-degrading microbes in order to improve predictive models of methane fluxes in the Arctic. Performer University of Delaware, College of Marine and Earth Studies, Lewes, DE 19968 Map of proposed study area. The area boxed in red is the main region to

  5. DE-NT0006558 | netl.doe.gov

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    DE-NT0006558 Integrating Natural Gas Hydrates in the Global Carbon Cycle DE-NT0006558 Last Reviewed 5/29/2012 Project Goal The goal of this project is to develop a two-dimensional, basin-scale model for the deep sediment biosphere with methane dynamics to provide a better picture of the distribution of hydrates on the sea floor and their vulnerability to warming of the deep ocean, thus integrating methane hydrates into the global carbon cycle. Performers University of Chicago - Chicago, IL 60637

  6. Analysis Of Dynamic Dent Resistance Of Auto Body Panel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Deolgaonkar, S. S.; Nandedkar, V. M.

    2007-04-07

    In automotive industry there is increasing demand for higher quality exterior panels, better functional properties and lower weight. The demand for weight reduction has led to thinner sheets, greater use of high strength steels and a change from steel to aluminum grades. This thickness reduction, which causes decrease in the dent resistance, promoted examination of the dent resistance against static and dynamic concentrated loads. This paper describes an investigation of the suitability of explicit dynamic FE analysis as a mean to determine the dynamic dent properties of the panel. This investigation is carried out on the body panel of utility vehicle and covers two parts, in first experimental analysis is carried out on developed test rig, which is interfaced with the computer. This test rig measures deflection with accuracy of .001mm. The experimental results are then compared with the simulation results, which is the second part. Simulation is carried with non-linear transient dynamic explicit analysis using Ansys -Ls Dyna. The experimental results show great accuracy with simulation results. The effect of change in thickness and geometry of the existing fender is then studied with help of simulation technique. By considering the best possible option overall weight of fender is reduced by 7.07 % by keeping the dent resistance of the panel constant.

  7. External control of electron energy distributions in a dual tandem...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    DOE PAGES Search Results Publisher's Accepted Manuscript: External control of electron ... 27, 2016 Prev Next Title: External control of electron energy distributions in a ...

  8. Jiangsu Yizheng Electron Tube Co Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Name: Jiangsu Yizheng Electron Tube Co.,Ltd Place: Jiangsu Province, China Product: Energy saving high pressure sodium (HPS) light manufacturer References: Jiangsu Yizheng Electron...

  9. Florida Power Electronics Center FPEC | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Electronics Center FPEC Jump to: navigation, search Name: Florida Power Electronics Center (FPEC) Place: Orlando, Florida Sector: Renewable Energy Product: Research institute based...

  10. Energy Storage & Power Electronics 2008 Peer Review - Agenda...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    & Power Electronics 2008 Peer Review - AgendaPresentation List Energy Storage & Power Electronics 2008 Peer Review - AgendaPresentation List The 2008 Peer Review Meeting for the ...

  11. Energy Storage Systems 2007 Peer Review - Power Electronics Presentati...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Power Electronics Presentations Energy Storage Systems 2007 Peer Review - Power Electronics ... 2007 Peer Review - SiC Power Converter System Thermal Mgmt and High Temp Packaging - ...

  12. SkyPower Pekon Electronics JV | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    search Name: SkyPower-Pekon Electronics JV Place: India Sector: Wind energy Product: Joint venture for development of Indian wind farms. References: SkyPower-Pekon Electronics...

  13. Energy Efficient Computers, Home Office Equipment, and Electronics |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Electricity & Fuel » Appliances & Electronics » Energy Efficient Computers, Home Office Equipment, and Electronics Energy Efficient Computers, Home Office Equipment, and Electronics Use sleep mode and power management features on your computer to save money on your energy bill. Use sleep mode and power management features on your computer to save money on your energy bill. Many people work from home at least one day per week. Working from home saves energy and

  14. Estimating Appliance and Home Electronic Energy Use | Department...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and electronic energy use calculator allows you to estimate your annual energy use and cost to operate specific products. The wattage values provided are samples only; actual...

  15. How Do You Reduce Energy Use from Computers and Electronics?...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    discussed some ways to reduce the energy used by computers and electronics. Some tips include ensuring your computer is configured for optimal energy savings, turning off devices...

  16. Tokyo Electron PV | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    PV Jump to: navigation, search Name: Tokyo Electron PV Place: Nirasaki City, Yamanashi, Japan Product: Japanese electronics giants Tokyo Electron and Sharp have announced their...

  17. DE-NT0005667 | netl.doe.gov

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    DOE/NETL Methane Hydrate Projects Assessing the Efficacy of the Aerobic Methanotropic Biofilter in Methane Hydrate Environments Last Reviewed 1/8/2013 DE-NT0005667 Goal The goal of this project is to assess the efficacy of aerobic methanotrophy in preventing the escape of methane from marine, hydrate-bearing reservoirs to the atmosphere and ultimately to better define the role of aerobic methanotrophy in the global carbon cycle. Methane seeps with the resulting methane plume, Geophysical

  18. DE-NT0005683 | netl.doe.gov

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    North Slope Decision Support for Water Resource Planning and Management Last Reviewed 6/26/2013 DE-NT0005683 Goal The goal of this project is to develop a general scientific, engineering, and technological support system for water resources planning and management related to oil and gas development on the North Slope of Alaska. Such a system will aid in developing solutions to economic, environmental, and cultural concerns. Performers University of Alaska Fairbanks Systems, Fairbanks, AK

  19. High energy electron beams for ceramic joining

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Turman, B.N.; Glass, S.J.; Halbleib, J.A.; Helmich, D.R.; Loehman, R.E.; Clifford, J.R.

    1994-12-31

    Joining of structural ceramics is possible using high melting point metals such as Mo and Pt that are heated with a high energy electron beam, with the potential for high temperature joining. A 10 MeV electron beam can penetrate through 1 cm of ceramic, offering the possibility of buried interface joining. Because of transient heating and the lower heat capacity of the metal relative to the ceramic, a pulsed high power beam has the potential for melting the metal without decomposing or melting the ceramic. We have demonstrated the feasibility of the process with a series of 10 MeV, 1 kW electron beam experiments. Shear strengths up to 28 MPa have been measured. This strength is comparable to that reported in the literature for bonding silicon nitride to molybdenum with copper-silver-titanium braze, but weaker than that reported for Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}-Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} with gold-nickel braze. The bonding mechanism appears to be a thin silicide layer.

  20. Ionization By Impact Electrons in Solids: Electron Mean Free Path Fitted Over A Wide Energy Range

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ziaja, B; London, R A; Hajdu, J

    2005-06-09

    We propose a simple formula for fitting the electron mean free paths in solids both at high and at low electron energies. The free-electron-gas approximation used for predicting electron mean free paths is no longer valid at low energies (E < 50 eV), as the band structure effects become significant at those energies. Therefore we include the results of the band structure calculations in our fit. Finally, we apply the fit to 9 elements and 2 compounds.

  1. Sharp Electronics Corporation USA | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Electronics Corporation USA Jump to: navigation, search Name: Sharp Electronics Corporation (USA) Place: Huntington Beach, California Zip: 92647 Product: North American division of...

  2. Green Electronics Council | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Electronics Council Jump to: navigation, search Name: Green Electronics Council Place: Portland, Oregon Product: Oregon-based program that supports the design, manufacture, use and...

  3. Suzhou Good Ark Electronics | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Good Ark Electronics Jump to: navigation, search Name: Suzhou Good-Ark Electronics Place: Suzhou, Jiangsu Province, China Zip: 215011 Product: Good-Ark mainly offers diodes, bridge...

  4. Central Electronics Limited CEL | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Electronics Limited CEL Jump to: navigation, search Name: Central Electronics Limited (CEL) Place: Sahibabad, Uttar Pradesh, India Zip: 201010 Sector: Solar Product: String...

  5. MGI Electronics LLC | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    MGI Electronics LLC Jump to: navigation, search Name: MGI Electronics LLC Place: Temple, Arizona Zip: 85282 Product: US-based manufacturer of wafer transfer and PV cell handling...

  6. MEMC Electronic Materials Inc | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    MEMC Electronic Materials Inc Jump to: navigation, search Name: MEMC Electronic Materials Inc Place: St. Peters, Missouri Zip: 63376 Product: US-based manufacturer of silicon-based...

  7. Consumer Electronics Association Comment | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Comment Consumer Electronics Association Comment The Consumer Electronics Association (CEA) is the preeminent trade association promoting growth in the $285 billion U.S. consumer electronics industry. CEA comments re DOE Regulatory Burden RFI_7-17-15 (164.06 KB) More Documents & Publications Consumer Electronics Association Comments

  8. Comments of consumer electronics association | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    consumer electronics association Comments of consumer electronics association The Consumer Electronics Association ("CEA") respectfully submits these comments in response to the Department of Energy's ("DOE") Request for Information ("RFI") in the captioned proceeding. Comments of consumer electronics association (591.03 KB) More Documents & Publications Re: NBP RFI: Data Access A POLICY FRAMEWORK FOR THE 21st CENTURY GRID: Enabling Our Secure Energy Future

  9. Energy Storage Systems 2007 Peer Review - Power Electronics Presentations |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Power Electronics Presentations Energy Storage Systems 2007 Peer Review - Power Electronics Presentations The U.S. DOE Energy Storage Systems Program (ESS) held an annual peer review on September 27, 2007 in San Francisco, CA. Eighteen presentations were divided into categories; those related to power electronics are below. Other presentation categories were: Economics - Benefit Studies and Environment Benefit Studies Utility & Commercial Applications of Advanced

  10. Integrated Dynamic Electron Solutions, Inc. | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Integrated Dynamic Electron Solutions, Inc. America's Next Top Energy Innovator Challenge 333 likes Integrated Dynamic Electron Solutions, Inc. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Dynamic Transmission Electron Microscopes DTEM reveal unprecedented details of the mechanisms underlying a host of nanoscale systems that are at the core of our current and future energy economy. A vast and growing number of materials utilized in the energy sector rely on nanostructured materials and their unique

  11. Electron beam energy chirp control with a rectangular corrugated...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: Electron beam energy chirp control with a rectangular corrugated structure at the Linac Coherent Light Source Authors: Zhang, Zhen ; Bane, Karl ; Ding, Yuantao ; Huang, ...

  12. Zicom Electronic Security Systems Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Security Systems Ltd. Place: Mumbai, Maharashtra, India Zip: 400093 Sector: Solar, Wind energy Product: Mumbai-based electronic security systems integrator. The firm plans to...

  13. Federal Electronics Challenge Gold Award | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    On June 18th, DOE Headquarters was presented the Federal Electronics Challenge Gold Award for exemplary performance in Green Computing, including green procurement, energy ...

  14. Consumer Electronics Association Comments | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Comments Consumer Electronics Association Comments The Consumer Electronics Association (CEA) is the preeminent trade association promoting growth in the $285 billion U.S. consumer electronics industry. CEA represents more than 2,000 corporate members involved in the design, development, manufacturing, distribution and integration of audio, video, in-vehicle electronics, wireless and landline communications, information technology, home networking, multimedia and accessory products, as well as

  15. Electron energy recovery system for negative ion sources

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dagenhart, W.K.; Stirling, W.L.

    1979-10-25

    An electron energy recovery system for negative ion sources is provided. The system, employing crossed electric and magnetic fields, separates the electrons from the ions as they are extracted from the ion source plasma generator and before the ions are accelerated to their full energy. With the electric and magnetic fields oriented 90/sup 0/ to each other, the electrons remain at approximately the electrical potential at which they were generated. The electromagnetic forces cause the ions to be accelerated to the full accelerating supply voltage energy while being deflected through an angle of less than 90/sup 0/. The electrons precess out of the accelerating field region into an electron recovery region where they are collected at a small fraction of the full accelerating supply energy. It is possible, by this method, to collect > 90% of the electrons extracted along with the negative ions from a negative ion source beam at < 4% of full energy.

  16. Reflection High-Energy Electron Diffraction Beam-Induced Structural...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Reflection High-Energy Electron Diffraction Beam-Induced Structural and Property Changes on WO3 Thin Films Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Reflection High-Energy ...

  17. Home Office and Electronics | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Laptops are far more efficient than desktop computers, especially ENERGY STAR qualified models. Use Smart Power Strips to Save Energy. 2 of 2 Use Smart Power Strips to Save Energy. ...

  18. Delta Electronics Inc | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Zip: 114 Product: Provider of power management solutions, electronics components, visual displays, and networkwireless solutions. Coordinates: 25.080441, 121.564194 Show...

  19. Micro Power Electronics Inc | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Micro Power Electronics Inc Place: Hillsboro, Oregon Zip: 97124-7165 Product: Leading battery system integrator. Coordinates: 43.651735, -90.341144 Show Map Loading map......

  20. LPKF Laser Electronics AG | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    German developer of systems and process solutions targeted to the electronics and automotive industries. Coordinates: 52.420475, 9.598595 Show Map Loading map......

  1. LG Electronics Inc | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    manufacturer of electronics and telecommunication products; PV thin-film cell manufacturing is under consideration. Coordinates: 37.557121, 126.977379 Show Map Loading...

  2. Yamaichi Electronics Co Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Co Ltd Jump to: navigation, search Name: Yamaichi Electronics Co Ltd Place: Tokyo, Japan Zip: 143-8515 Product: Tokyo-based company that manufactures electrical connectors,...

  3. Electronic Educational Devices EED | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    search Name: Electronic Educational Devices (EED) Place: Colorado Product: Colorado-USA-based manufacturer of higher-end watt meters for plug-in devices. References:...

  4. Everlight Electronics Co Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    to: navigation, search Name: Everlight Electronics Co Ltd Place: Taipei, Taiwan Product: LED and Infrared Light Manufacturer, also has activities in PV cell manufacture through the...

  5. Site-specific electronic configurations of Fe 3d states by energy loss by channeled electrons

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tatsumi, Kazuyoshi; Muto, Shunsuke; Nishida, Ikuo; Rusz, Jan

    2010-05-17

    Site-specific configurations of Fe 3d electrons in a spinel ferrite were investigated by electron energy loss spectroscopy under electron channeling conditions. Site-specific spectra were extracted by applying a multivariate curve resolution (MCR) technique to the data set. An electronic difference in the Fe sites caused by ligand field splitting of trivalent Fe was probed. This demonstrated the promise of site-specific valence and spin state analysis in spintronics applications of spinel ferrites.

  6. In-Situ Electron Microscopy of Electrical Energy Storage Materials |

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Department of Energy 1 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program, and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation es095_unocic_2011_o.pdf (1.17 MB) More Documents & Publications In-Situ Electron Microscopy of Electrical Energy Storage Materials In-Situ Electron Microscopy of Electrical Energy Storage Materials In-situ characterization and diagnostics of mechanical degradation in electrodes

  7. Electron energy recovery system for negative ion sources

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dagenhart, William K.; Stirling, William L.

    1982-01-01

    An electron energy recovery system for negative ion sources is provided. The system, employs crossed electric and magnetic fields to separate the electrons from ions as they are extracted from a negative ion source plasma generator and before the ions are accelerated to their full kinetic energy. With the electric and magnetic fields oriented 90.degree. to each other, the electrons are separated from the plasma and remain at approximately the electrical potential of the generator in which they were generated. The electrons migrate from the ion beam path in a precessing motion out of the ion accelerating field region into an electron recovery region provided by a specially designed electron collector electrode. The electron collector electrode is uniformly spaced from a surface of the ion generator which is transverse to the direction of migration of the electrons and the two surfaces are contoured in a matching relationship which departs from a planar configuration to provide an electric field component in the recovery region which is parallel to the magnetic field thereby forcing the electrons to be directed into and collected by the electron collector electrode. The collector electrode is maintained at a potential slightly positive with respect to the ion generator so that the electrons are collected at a small fraction of the full accelerating supply voltage energy.

  8. Study on electron beam in a low energy plasma focus

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Khan, Muhammad Zubair; Ling, Yap Seong; San, Wong Chiow

    2014-03-05

    Electron beam emission was investigated in a low energy plasma focus device (2.2 kJ) using copper hollow anode. Faraday cup was used to estimate the energy of the electron beam. XR100CR X-ray spectrometer was used to explore the impact of the electron beam on the target observed from top-on and side-on position. Experiments were carried out at optimized pressure of argon gas. The impact of electron beam is exceptionally notable with two different approaches using lead target inside hollow anode in our plasma focus device.

  9. Energy Spread Reduction of Electron Beams Produced via Laser Wake

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pollock, Bradley Bolt

    2012-01-01

    Laser wakefield acceleration of electrons holds great promise for producing ultra-compact stages of GeV scale, high quality electron beams for applications such as x-ray free electron lasers and high energy colliders. Ultra-high intensity laser pulses can be self-guided by relativistic plasma waves over tens of vacuum diffraction lengths, to give >1 GeV energy in cm-scale low density plasma using ionization-induced injection to inject charge into the wake at low densities. This thesis describes a series of experiments which investigates the physics of LWFA in the self-guided blowout regime. Beginning with high density gas jet experiments the scaling of the LWFA-produced electron beam energy with plasma electron density is found to be in excellent agreement with both phenomenological theory and with 3-D PIC simulations. It is also determined that self-trapping of background electrons into the wake exhibits a threshold as a function of the electron density, and at the densities required to produce electron beams with energies exceeding 1 GeV a different mechanism is required to trap charge into low density wakes. By introducing small concentrations of high-Z gas to the nominal He background the ionization-induced injection mechanism is enabled. Electron trapping is observed at densities as low as 1.3 x 1018 cm-3 in a gas cell target, and 1.45 GeV electrons are demonstrated for the first time from LWFA. This is currently the highest electron energy ever produced from LWFA. The ionization-induced trapping mechanism is also shown to generate quasi-continuous electron beam energies, which is undesirable for accelerator applications. By limiting the region over which ionization-induced trapping occurs, the energy spread of the electron beams can be controlled. The development of a novel two-stage gas cell target provides the capability to tailor the gas composition in the longitudinal direction, and confine the trapping process to occur only in a

  10. Properties of the electron cloud in a high-energy positron and electron storage ring

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Harkay, K. C.; Rosenberg, R. A.

    2003-03-20

    Low-energy, background electrons are ubiquitous in high-energy particle accelerators. Under certain conditions, interactions between this electron cloud and the high-energy beam can give rise to numerous effects that can seriously degrade the accelerator performance. These effects range from vacuum degradation to collective beam instabilities and emittance blowup. Although electron-cloud effects were first observed two decades ago in a few proton storage rings, they have in recent years been widely observed and intensely studied in positron and proton rings. Electron-cloud diagnostics developed at the Advanced Photon Source enabled for the first time detailed, direct characterization of the electron-cloud properties in amore » positron and electron storage ring. From in situ measurements of the electron flux and energy distribution at the vacuum chamber wall, electron-cloud production mechanisms and details of the beam-cloud interaction can be inferred. A significant longitudinal variation of the electron cloud is also observed, due primarily to geometrical details of the vacuum chamber. Furthermore, such experimental data can be used to provide realistic limits on key input parameters in modeling efforts, leading ultimately to greater confidence in predicting electron-cloud effects in future accelerators.« less

  11. Magnetek Power Electronics Group | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    handling, telecoms, elevators, renewable energy projects, power grid monitoring and control and industrial controls. Coordinates: 39.817671, -74.533983 Show Map Loading...

  12. Electronics Stewardship & Data Centers | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Electronics Stewardship & Data Centers Electronics Stewardship & Data Centers DOE is committed to responsible environmental stewardship of its electronics, including computers, displays, printers and cell phones. DOE is also committed to the energy efficient management and optimization of all of its data centers. In order to comply with Executive Order 13693, Planning for Federal Sustainability in the Next Decade, Memorandum on Data Center Optimization Initiative (DCOI), and statutory

  13. The transfer between electron bulk kinetic energy and thermal energy in collisionless magnetic reconnection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lu, San; Lu, Quanming; Huang, Can; Wang, Shui

    2013-06-15

    By performing two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations, we investigate the transfer between electron bulk kinetic and electron thermal energy in collisionless magnetic reconnection. In the vicinity of the X line, the electron bulk kinetic energy density is much larger than the electron thermal energy density. The evolution of the electron bulk kinetic energy is mainly determined by the work done by the electric field force and electron pressure gradient force. The work done by the electron gradient pressure force in the vicinity of the X line is changed to the electron enthalpy flux. In the magnetic island, the electron enthalpy flux is transferred to the electron thermal energy due to the compressibility of the plasma in the magnetic island. The compression of the plasma in the magnetic island is the consequence of the electromagnetic force acting on the plasma as the magnetic field lines release their tension after being reconnected. Therefore, we can observe that in the magnetic island the electron thermal energy density is much larger than the electron bulk kinetic energy density.

  14. Light-harvesting, Excitation Energy/Electron Transfer, and Photoregulation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    in Artificial Photosynthetic Systems Light-harvesting, Excitation Energy/Electron Transfer, and Photoregulation in Artificial Photosynthetic Systems Authors: Terazono, Y., Moore, T. A., Moore, A.L., and Gust, D. Title: Light-harvesting, Excitation Energy/Electron Transfer, and Photoregulation in Artificial Photosynthetic Systems Source: Year: 2012 Volume: In: Multiporphyrin Arrays: Fundamentals and Applications edited by Dongho Kim, Pan Stanford Publishing Pages: 349-387 ABSTRACT: This

  15. Atmosphere to Electrons | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    AUDIT REPORT: OAI-FS-16-08 AUDIT REPORT: OAI-FS-16-08 April 21, 2016 The Department of Energy's Improper Payment Reporting in the Fiscal Year 2015 Agency Financial Report This report presents the results of an audit of the Department of Energy's Improper Payment Reporting in the Fiscal Year 2015 Agency Financial Report. To fulfill the Office of Inspector General's audit responsibilities, we contracted with the independent public accounting firm of KPMG LLP (KPMG) to express an opinion on whether

  16. Evaluation of Miscellaneous and Electronic Device Energy Use in Hospitals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Black, Douglas R.; Lanzisera, Steven M.; Lai, Judy; Brown, Richard E.; Singer, Brett C.

    2012-09-01

    Miscellaneous and electronic loads (MELs) consume about one-thirdof the primary energy used in US buildings, and their energy use is increasing faster than other end-uses. In healthcare facilities, 30percent of the annual electricity was used by MELs in 2008. This paper presents methods and challenges for estimating medical MELs energy consumption along with estimates of energy use in a hospital by combining device-level metered data with inventories and usage information. An important finding is that common, small devices consume large amounts of energy in aggregate and should not be ignored when trying to address hospital energy use.

  17. An electron energy loss spectrometer designed for studies of electronic energy losses and spin waves in the large momentum regime

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ibach, H.; Rajeswari, J.; Schneider, C. M.

    2011-12-15

    Based on 143 deg. electrostatic deflectors we have realized a new spectrometer for electron energy loss spectroscopy which is particularly suitable for studies on surface spin waves and other low energy electronic energy losses. Contrary to previous designs high resolution is maintained even for diffuse inelastic scattering due to a specific management of the angular aberrations in combination with an angle aperture. The performance of the instrument is demonstrated with high resolution energy loss spectra of surface spin waves on a cobalt film deposited on the Cu(100) surface.

  18. Electron energy loss spectroscopy of gold nanoparticles on graphene

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DeJarnette, Drew; Roper, D. Keith

    2014-08-07

    Plasmon excitation decay by absorption, scattering, and hot electron transfer has been distinguished from effects induced by incident photons for gold nanoparticles on graphene monolayer using electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS). Gold nano-ellipses were evaporated onto lithographed graphene, which was transferred onto a silicon nitride transmission electron microscopy grid. Plasmon decay from lithographed nanoparticles measured with EELS was compared in the absence and presence of the graphene monolayer. Measured decay values compared favorably with estimated radiative and non-radiative contributions to decay in the absence of graphene. Graphene significantly enhanced low-energy plasmon decay, increasing mode width 38%, but did not affect higher energy plasmon or dark mode decay. This decay beyond expected radiative and non-radiative mechanisms was attributed to hot electron transfer, and had quantum efficiency of 20%, consistent with previous reports.

  19. Electron energy spectrum in circularly polarized laser irradiated overdense plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, C. S.; Tripathi, V. K.; Shao, Xi; Kumar, Pawan

    2014-10-15

    A circularly polarized laser normally impinged on an overdense plasma thin foil target is shown to accelerate the electrons in the skin layer towards the rear, converting the quiver energy into streaming energy exactly if one ignores the space charge field. The energy distribution of electrons is close to Maxwellian with an upper cutoff ?{sub max}=mc{sup 2}[(1+a{sub 0}{sup 2}){sup 1/2}?1], where a{sub 0}{sup 2}=(1+(2?{sup 2}/?{sub p}{sup 2})|a{sub in}|{sup 2}){sup 2}?1, |a{sub in}| is the normalized amplitude of the incident laser of frequency ?, and ?{sub p} is the plasma frequency. The energetic electrons create an electrostatic sheath at the rear and cause target normal sheath acceleration of protons. The energy gain by the accelerated ions is of the order of ?{sub max}.

  20. Electron beam directed energy device and methods of using same

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Retsky, Michael W.

    2007-10-16

    A method and apparatus is disclosed for an electron beam directed energy device. The device consists of an electron gun with one or more electron beams. The device includes one or more accelerating plates with holes aligned for beam passage. The plates may be flat or preferably shaped to direct each electron beam to exit the electron gun at a predetermined orientation. In one preferred application, the device is located in outer space with individual beams that are directed to focus at a distant target to be used to impact and destroy missiles. The aimings of the separate beams are designed to overcome Coulomb repulsion. A method is also presented for directing the beams to a target considering the variable terrestrial magnetic field. In another preferred application, the electron beam is directed into the ground to produce a subsurface x-ray source to locate and/or destroy buried or otherwise hidden objects including explosive devices.

  1. Energy Storage & Power Electronics 2008 Peer Review - Energy...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    (1.31 MB) ESPE 2008 Peer Review - 300kW Energy Storage Demonstration Project - Ib Olsen, Gaia Power.pdf (242.3 KB) ESPE 2008 Peer Review - Lead-Carbon Devices for Utility ...

  2. Numerical simulation of electron energy loss near inhomogeneous dielectrics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Garcia de Abajo, F.J.

    1997-12-01

    The nonrelativistic energy loss suffered by fast electrons passing near dielectric interfaces of arbitrary shape is calculated by solving Poisson{close_quote}s equation using the boundary-charge method. The potential induced by a moving electron is expressed in terms of surface-charge distributions placed at the interfaces. These surface charges, obtained by self-consistently solving the resulting integral equation, act back on the electron producing a retarding force and hence energy loss. The dielectrics are described by frequency-dependent dielectric functions. Two particular cases are discussed in further detail: interfaces invariant under translation along one particular direction and axially symmetric interfaces. Previous results for simple geometries, such as planes, spheres, and cylinders, based upon analytical solutions, are fully reproduced within this approach. Calculations are presented for electrons moving near wedges, coupled parallel cylinders, coupled spheres, and toroidal surfaces. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  3. Probing battery chemistry with liquid cell electron energy loss spectroscopy

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Unocic, Raymond R.; Baggetto, Loic; Veith, Gabriel M.; Unocic, Kinga A.; Sacci, Robert L.; Dudney, Nancy J.; More, Karren Leslie; Aguiar, Jeffery A.

    2015-09-15

    Electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) was used to determine the chemistry and oxidation state of LiMn2O4 and Li4Ti5O12 thin film battery electrodes in liquid cells for in situ scanning/transmission electron microscopy (S/TEM). Using the L2,3 white line intensity ratio method we determine the oxidation state of Mn and Ti in a liquid electrolyte solvent and discuss experimental parameters that influence measurement sensitivity.

  4. Energy Spectrum of Cosmic-Ray Electrons at TeV Energies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aharonian, F.; Akhperjanian, A. G.; Sahakian, V.; Barres de Almeida, U.; Chadwick, P. M.; Cheesebrough, A.; Dickinson, H. J.; Hadjichristidis, C.; Keogh, D.; McComb, T. J. L.; Nolan, S. J.; Orford, K. J.; Osborne, J. L.; Rayner, S. M.; Rulten, C. B.; Spangler, D.; Ward, M.; Bazer-Bachi, A. R.; Borrel, V.; Olive, J-F.

    2008-12-31

    The very large collection area of ground-based {gamma}-ray telescopes gives them a substantial advantage over balloon or satellite based instruments in the detection of very-high-energy (>600 GeV) cosmic-ray electrons. Here we present the electron spectrum derived from data taken with the High Energy Stereoscopic System (H.E.S.S.) of imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes. In this measurement, the first of this type, we are able to extend the measurement of the electron spectrum beyond the range accessible to direct measurements. We find evidence for a substantial steepening in the energy spectrum above 600 GeV compared to lower energies.

  5. Energy exchange in strongly coupled plasmas with electron drift

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Akbari-Moghanjoughi, M.; Ghorbanalilu, M.

    2015-11-15

    In this paper, the generalized viscoelastic collisional quantum hydrodynamic model is employed in order to investigate the linear dielectric response of a quantum plasma in the presence of strong electron-beam plasma interactions. The generalized Chandrasekhar's relativistic degeneracy pressure together with the electron-exchange and Coulomb interaction effects are taken into account in order to extend current research to a wide range of plasma number density relevant to big planetary cores and astrophysical compact objects. The previously calculated shear viscosity and the electron-ion collision frequencies are used for strongly coupled ion fluid. The effect of the electron-beam velocity on complex linear dielectric function is found to be profound. This effect is clearly interpreted in terms of the wave-particle interactions and their energy-exchange according to the sign of the imaginary dielectric function, which is closely related to the wave attenuation coefficient in plasmas. Such kinetic effect is also shown to be in close connection with the stopping power of a charged-particle beam in a quantum plasma. The effect of many independent plasma parameters, such as the ion charge-state, electron beam-velocity, and relativistic degeneracy, is shown to be significant on the growing/damping of plasma instability or energy loss/gain of the electron-beam.

  6. Electronic effects in high-energy radiation damage in tungsten

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zarkadoula, Eva; Duffy, Dorothy M.; Nordlund, Kai; Seaton, M. A.; Todorov, I. T.; Weber, William J.; Trachenko, Kostya

    2015-01-01

    Even though the effects of the electronic excitations during high-energy radiation damage processes are not currently understood, it is shown that their role in the interaction of radiation with matter is important. We perform molecular dynamics simulations of high-energy collision cascades in bcc-tungsten using the coupled two-temperature molecular dynamics (2T-MD) model that incorporates both the effects of electronic stopping and electron–phonon interaction. We compare the combination of these effects on the induced damage with only the effect of electronic stopping, and conclude in several novel insights. In the 2T-MD model, the electron–phonon coupling results in less damage production in themore » molten region and in faster relaxation of the damage at short times. We show these two effects lead to a significantly smaller amount of the final damage at longer times.« less

  7. Controlled cooling of an electronic system for reduced energy consumption

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    David, Milnes P.; Iyengar, Madhusudan K.; Schmidt, Roger R.

    2016-08-09

    Energy efficient control of a cooling system cooling an electronic system is provided. The control includes automatically determining at least one adjusted control setting for at least one adjustable cooling component of a cooling system cooling the electronic system. The automatically determining is based, at least in part, on power being consumed by the cooling system and temperature of a heat sink to which heat extracted by the cooling system is rejected. The automatically determining operates to reduce power consumption of the cooling system and/or the electronic system while ensuring that at least one targeted temperature associated with the cooling system or the electronic system is within a desired range. The automatically determining may be based, at least in part, on one or more experimentally obtained models relating the targeted temperature and power consumption of the one or more adjustable cooling components of the cooling system.

  8. Probing battery chemistry with liquid cell electron energy loss spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Unocic, Raymond R.; Baggetto, Loic; Veith, Gabriel M.; Unocic, Kinga A.; Sacci, Robert L.; Dudney, Nancy J.; More, Karren Leslie; Aguiar, Jeffery A.

    2015-09-15

    Electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) was used to determine the chemistry and oxidation state of LiMn2O4 and Li4Ti5O12 thin film battery electrodes in liquid cells for in situ scanning/transmission electron microscopy (S/TEM). Using the L2,3 white line intensity ratio method we determine the oxidation state of Mn and Ti in a liquid electrolyte solvent and discuss experimental parameters that influence measurement sensitivity.

  9. Probing Battery Chemistry with Liquid Cell Electron Energy Loss Spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Unocic, Raymond R.; Baggetto, Loic; Veith, Gabriel M.; Aguiar, Jeffery A.; Unocic, Kinga A.; Sacci, Robert L.; Dudney, Nancy J.; More, Karren L.

    2015-11-25

    We demonstrate the ability to apply electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) to follow the chemistry and oxidation states of LiMn2O4 and Li4Ti5O12 battery electrodes within a battery solvent. The use and importance of in situ electrochemical cells coupled with a scanning/transmission electron microscope (S/TEM) has expanded and been applied to follow changes in battery chemistry during electrochemical cycling. Furthermore, we discuss experimental parameters that influence measurement sensitivity and provide a framework to apply this important analytical method to future in situ electrochemical studies.

  10. Determining the static electronic and vibrational energy correlations via two-dimensional electronic-vibrational spectroscopy

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Dong, Hui; Lewis, Nicholas H. C.; Oliver, Thomas A. A.; Fleming, Graham R.

    2015-05-07

    Changes in the electronic structure of pigments in protein environments and of polar molecules in solution inevitably induce a re-adaption of molecular nuclear structure. Both changes of electronic and vibrational energies can be probed with visible or infrared lasers, such as two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy or vibrational spectroscopy. The extent to which the two changes are correlated remains elusive. The recent demonstration of two-dimensional electronic-vibrational (2DEV) spectroscopy potentially enables a direct measurement of this correlation experimentally. However, it has hitherto been unclear how to characterize the correlation from the spectra. In this report, we present a theoretical formalism to demonstrate themore » slope of the nodal line between the excited state absorption and ground state bleach peaks in the spectra as a characterization of the correlation between electronic and vibrational transition energies. In conclusion, we also show the dynamics of the nodal line slope is correlated to the vibrational spectral dynamics. Additionally, we demonstrate the fundamental 2DEV spectral line-shape of a monomer with newly developed response functions« less

  11. Low energy electrons and swift ion track structure in PADC

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fromm, Michel; Quinto, Michele A.; Weck, Philippe F.; Champion, Christophe

    2015-05-27

    The current work aims at providing an accurate description of the ion track-structure in poly-allyl dyglycol carbonate (PADC) by using an up-to-date Monte-Carlo code-called TILDA-V (a French acronym for Transport dIons Lourds Dans lAqua & Vivo). In this simulation the ion track-structure in PADC is mainly described in terms of ejected electrons with a particular attention done to the Low Energy Electrons (LEEs). After a brief reminder of the most important channels through which LEEs are prone to break a chemical bond, we will report on the simulated energetic distributions of LEEs along an ion track in PADC for particular incident energies located on both sides of the Bragg-peak position. Lastly, based on the rare data dealing with LEEs interaction with polymers or organic molecules, we will emphasise the role played by the LEEs in the formation of a latent track in PADC, and more particularly the one played by the sub-ionization electrons.

  12. Low energy electrons and swift ion track structure in PADC

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Fromm, Michel; Quinto, Michele A.; Weck, Philippe F.; Champion, Christophe

    2015-05-27

    The current work aims at providing an accurate description of the ion track-structure in poly-allyl dyglycol carbonate (PADC) by using an up-to-date Monte-Carlo code-called TILDA-V (a French acronym for Transport d’Ions Lourds Dans l’Aqua & Vivo). In this simulation the ion track-structure in PADC is mainly described in terms of ejected electrons with a particular attention done to the Low Energy Electrons (LEEs). After a brief reminder of the most important channels through which LEEs are prone to break a chemical bond, we will report on the simulated energetic distributions of LEEs along an ion track in PADC for particularmore » incident energies located on both sides of the Bragg-peak position. Lastly, based on the rare data dealing with LEEs interaction with polymers or organic molecules, we will emphasise the role played by the LEEs in the formation of a latent track in PADC, and more particularly the one played by the sub-ionization electrons.« less

  13. Low energy electrons and swift ion track structure in PADC

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fromm, Michel; Quinto, Michele A.; Weck, Philippe F.; Champion, Christophe

    2015-05-27

    The current work aims at providing an accurate description of the ion track-structure in poly-allyl dyglycol carbonate (PADC) by using an up-to-date Monte-Carlo code-called TILDA-V (a French acronym for Transport d’Ions Lourds Dans l’Aqua & Vivo). In this simulation the ion track-structure in PADC is mainly described in terms of ejected electrons with a particular attention done to the Low Energy Electrons (LEEs). After a brief reminder of the most important channels through which LEEs are prone to break a chemical bond, we will report on the simulated energetic distributions of LEEs along an ion track in PADC for particular incident energies located on both sides of the Bragg-peak position. Lastly, based on the rare data dealing with LEEs interaction with polymers or organic molecules, we will emphasise the role played by the LEEs in the formation of a latent track in PADC, and more particularly the one played by the sub-ionization electrons.

  14. High resolution electron energy loss spectroscopy with two-dimensional energy and momentum mapping

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhu, Xuetao; Cao, Yanwei; Zhang, Shuyuan; Jia, Xun; Guo, Qinlin; Yang, Fang; Zhu, Linfan; Zhang, Jiandi; Plummer, E. W.; Guo, Jiandong

    2015-08-15

    High resolution electron energy loss spectroscopy (HREELS) is a powerful technique to probe vibrational and electronic excitations at surfaces. The dispersion relation of surface excitations, i.e., energy as a function of momentum, has in the past, been obtained by measuring the energy loss at a fixed angle (momentum) and then rotating sample, monochromator, or analyzer. Here, we introduce a new strategy for HREELS, utilizing a specially designed lens system with a double-cylindrical Ibach-type monochromator combined with a commercial VG Scienta hemispherical electron energy analyzer, which can simultaneously measure the energy and momentum of the scattered electrons. The new system possesses high angular resolution (<0.1°), detecting efficiency and sampling density. The capabilities of this system are demonstrated using Bi{sub 2}Sr{sub 2}CaCu{sub 2}O{sub 8+δ}. The time required to obtain a complete dispersion spectrum is at least one order of magnitude shorter than conventional spectrometers, with improved momentum resolution and no loss in energy resolution.

  15. Spin-polarized electron energy loss spectroscopy on Fe(100) thin...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Spin-polarized electron energy loss spectroscopy on Fe(100) thin films grown on Ag(100) Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Spin-polarized electron energy loss spectroscopy ...

  16. FELs and High-energy Electron Cooling (Conference) | SciTech...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    FELs and High-energy Electron Cooling Citation Details In-Document Search Title: FELs and High-energy Electron Cooling You are accessing a document from the Department of ...

  17. Electronic properties of Mn-phthalocyanine–C{sub 60} bulk heterojunctions: Combining photoemission and electron energy-loss spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roth, Friedrich; Lupulescu, Cosmin; Darlatt, Erik; Gottwald, Alexander; Eberhardt, Wolfgang

    2015-11-14

    The electronic properties of co-evaporated mixtures (blends) of manganese phthalocyanine and the fullerene C{sub 60} (MnPc:C{sub 60}) have been studied as a function of the concentration of the two constituents using two supplementary electron spectroscopic methods, photoemission spectroscopy (PES) and electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS) in transmission. Our PES measurements provide a detailed picture of the electronic structure measured with different excitation energies as well as different mixing ratios between MnPc and C{sub 60}. Besides a relative energy shift, the occupied electronic states of the two materials remain essentially unchanged. The observed energy level alignment is different compared to that of the related CuPc:C{sub 60} bulk heterojunction. Moreover, the results from our EELS investigations show that, despite the rather small interface interaction, the MnPc related electronic excitation spectrum changes significantly by admixing C{sub 60} to MnPc thin films.

  18. Advanced Power Electronics Interfaces for Distributed Energy Workshop Summary: August 24, 2006, Sacramento, California

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Treanton, B.; Palomo, J.; Kroposki, B.; Thomas, H.

    2006-10-01

    The Advanced Power Electronics Interfaces for Distributed Energy Workshop, sponsored by the California Energy Commission Public Interest Energy Research program and organized by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, was held Aug. 24, 2006, in Sacramento, Calif. The workshop provided a forum for industry stakeholders to share their knowledge and experience about technologies, manufacturing approaches, markets, and issues in power electronics for a range of distributed energy resources. It focused on the development of advanced power electronic interfaces for distributed energy applications and included discussions of modular power electronics, component manufacturing, and power electronic applications.

  19. Compel Electronics GmbH | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Electronics GmbH Jump to: navigation, search Name: Compel Electronics GmbH Place: Germany Product: Germany-based manufacturer of electronic cables and interconnections. The...

  20. Precessed electron beam electron energy loss spectroscopy of graphene: Beyond channelling effects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yedra, Ll.; Estradé, S.; Torruella, P.; Eljarrat, A.; Peiró, F.; Darbal, A. D.; Weiss, J. K.

    2014-08-04

    The effects of beam precession on the Electron Energy Loss Spectroscopy (EELS) signal of the carbon K edge in a 2 monolayer graphene sheet are studied. In a previous work, we demonstrated the use of precession to compensate for the channeling-induced reduction of EELS signal when in zone axis. In the case of graphene, no enhancement of EELS signal is found in the usual experimental conditions, as graphene is not thick enough to present channeling effects. Interestingly, though it is found that precession makes it possible to increase the collection angle, and, thus, the overall signal, without a loss of signal-to-background ratio.

  1. A stochastic reorganizational bath model for electronic energy transfer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fujita, Takatoshi E-mail: aspuru@chemistry.harvard.edu; Huh, Joonsuk; Aspuru-Guzik, Aln E-mail: aspuru@chemistry.harvard.edu

    2014-06-28

    Environmentally induced fluctuations of the optical gap play a crucial role in electronic energy transfer dynamics. One of the simplest approaches to incorporate such fluctuations in energy transfer dynamics is the well known Haken-Strobl-Reineker (HSR) model, in which the energy-gap fluctuation is approximated as white noise. Recently, several groups have employed molecular dynamics simulations and excited-state calculations in conjunction to account for excitation energies thermal fluctuations. On the other hand, since the original work of HSR, many groups have employed stochastic models to simulate the same transfer dynamics. Here, we discuss a rigorous connection between the stochastic and the atomistic bath models. If the phonon bath is treated classically, time evolution of the exciton-phonon system can be described by Ehrenfest dynamics. To establish the relationship between the stochastic and atomistic bath models, we employ a projection operator technique to derive the generalized Langevin equations for the energy-gap fluctuations. The stochastic bath model can be obtained as an approximation of the atomistic Ehrenfest equations via the generalized Langevin approach. Based on this connection, we propose a novel scheme to take account of reorganization effects within the framework of stochastic models. The proposed scheme provides a better description of the population dynamics especially in the regime of strong exciton-phonon coupling. Finally, we discuss the effect of the bath reorganization in the absorption and fluorescence spectra of ideal J-aggregates in terms of the Stokes shifts. We find a simple expression that relates the reorganization contribution to the Stokes shifts the reorganization shift to the ideal or non-ideal exciton delocalization in a J-aggregate. The reorganization shift can be described by three parameters: the monomer reorganization energy, the relaxation time of the optical gap, and the exciton delocalization length. This

  2. In Focus: Dented Diamonds, Carbon Cages, and Exceptional Potential...

    Office of Science (SC) Website

    This work, featured in the Office of Science's In Focus, was supported by the Energy Frontier Research in Extreme Environments (EFree) center, an EFRC led by Ho-kwang Mao at the ...

  3. The impacts of electronic state hybridization on the binding energy of single phosphorus donor electrons in extremely downscaled silicon nanostructures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    The Anh, Le Manoharan, Muruganathan; Moraru, Daniel; Tabe, Michiharu; Mizuta, Hiroshi

    2014-08-14

    We present the density functional theory calculations of the binding energy of the Phosphorus (P) donor electrons in extremely downscaled single P-doped Silicon (Si) nanorods. In past studies, the binding energy of donor electrons was evaluated for the Si nanostructures as the difference between the ionization energy for the single P-doped Si nanostructures and the electron affinity for the un-doped Si nanostructures. This definition does not take into account the strong interaction of donor electron states and Si electron states explicitly at the conductive states and results in a monotonous increase in the binding energy by reducing the nanostructure's dimensions. In this paper, we introduce a new approach to evaluate the binding energy of donor electrons by combining the projected density of states (PDOS) analysis and three-dimensional analysis of associated electron wavefunctions. This enables us to clarify a gradual change of the spatial distribution of the 3D electron wavefunctions (3DWFs) from the donor electron ground state, which is fully localized around the P donor site to the first conductive state, which spreads over the outer Si nanorods contributing to current conduction. We found that the energy of the first conductive state is capped near the top of the atomistic effective potential at the donor site with respect to the surrounding Si atoms in nanorods smaller than about 27 a{sub 0}. This results in the binding energy of approximately 1.5?eV, which is virtually independent on the nanorod's dimensions. This fact signifies a good tolerance of the binding energy, which governs the operating temperature of the single dopant-based transistors in practice. We also conducted the computationally heavy transmission calculations of the single P-doped Si nanorods connected to the source and drain electrodes. The calculated transmission spectra are discussed in comparison with the atomistic effective potential distributions and the PDOS-3DWFs method.

  4. Design Considerations for High Energy Electron -- Positron Storage Rings

    DOE R&D Accomplishments [OSTI]

    Richter, B.

    1966-11-01

    High energy electron-positron storage rings give a way of making a new attack on the most important problems of elementary particle physics. All of us who have worked in the storage ring field designing, building, or using storage rings know this. The importance of that part of storage ring work concerning tests of quantum electrodynamics and mu meson physics is also generally appreciated by the larger physics community. However, I do not think that most of the physicists working tin the elementary particle physics field realize the importance of the contribution that storage ring experiments can make to our understanding of the strongly interacting particles. I would therefore like to spend the next few minutes discussing the sort of things that one can do with storage rings in the strongly interacting particle field.

  5. Modeling the high-energy electronic state manifold of adenine: Calibration for nonlinear electronic spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nenov, Artur Giussani, Angelo; Segarra-Martí, Javier; Jaiswal, Vishal K.; Rivalta, Ivan; Cerullo, Giulio; Mukamel, Shaul; Garavelli, Marco E-mail: marco.garavelli@ens-lyon.fr

    2015-06-07

    Pump-probe electronic spectroscopy using femtosecond laser pulses has evolved into a standard tool for tracking ultrafast excited state dynamics. Its two-dimensional (2D) counterpart is becoming an increasingly available and promising technique for resolving many of the limitations of pump-probe caused by spectral congestion. The ability to simulate pump-probe and 2D spectra from ab initio computations would allow one to link mechanistic observables like molecular motions and the making/breaking of chemical bonds to experimental observables like excited state lifetimes and quantum yields. From a theoretical standpoint, the characterization of the electronic transitions in the visible (Vis)/ultraviolet (UV), which are excited via the interaction of a molecular system with the incoming pump/probe pulses, translates into the determination of a computationally challenging number of excited states (going over 100) even for small/medium sized systems. A protocol is therefore required to evaluate the fluctuations of spectral properties like transition energies and dipole moments as a function of the computational parameters and to estimate the effect of these fluctuations on the transient spectral appearance. In the present contribution such a protocol is presented within the framework of complete and restricted active space self-consistent field theory and its second-order perturbation theory extensions. The electronic excited states of adenine have been carefully characterized through a previously presented computational recipe [Nenov et al., Comput. Theor. Chem. 1040–1041, 295-303 (2014)]. A wise reduction of the level of theory has then been performed in order to obtain a computationally less demanding approach that is still able to reproduce the characteristic features of the reference data. Foreseeing the potentiality of 2D electronic spectroscopy to track polynucleotide ground and excited state dynamics, and in particular its expected ability to provide

  6. El Ma Electronic Machining srl | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Ma Electronic Machining srl Jump to: navigation, search Name: El.Ma. Electronic Machining srl Place: Riva del Garda (TN), Italy Zip: 38066 Sector: Hydro, Hydrogen, Solar, Wind...

  7. Mitsubishi Electric and Electronics USA Inc | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    and Electronics USA Inc Jump to: navigation, search Name: Mitsubishi Electric and Electronics USA Inc Place: Cypress, California Zip: 90630 Sector: Solar Product: Markets and...

  8. Beijing Sevenstar Electronics Co Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Sevenstar Electronics Co Ltd Jump to: navigation, search Name: Beijing Sevenstar Electronics Co., Ltd Place: Beijing Municipality, China Zip: 100016 Sector: Solar Product:...

  9. Beijing Zhongkexin Electronics Equipment Co Ltd | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Zhongkexin Electronics Equipment Co Ltd Jump to: navigation, search Name: Beijing Zhongkexin Electronics Equipment Co Ltd Place: Beijing Municipality, China Zip: 101111 Product: A...

  10. Shiv Shakti Electronics Pvt Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Shiv Shakti Electronics Pvt Ltd Jump to: navigation, search Name: Shiv Shakti Electronics Pvt Ltd Place: New Delhi, Delhi (NCT), India Zip: 110020 Product: Manufacturer of PV...

  11. Tianjin Tai Yang Photo electronic Technology Co Ltd | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Tai Yang Photo electronic Technology Co Ltd Jump to: navigation, search Name: Tianjin Tai Yang Photo-electronic Technology Co., Ltd Place: Tianjin Municipality, China Sector: Solar...

  12. Komex Electronics Material Inc KEMI | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Komex Electronics Material Inc KEMI Jump to: navigation, search Name: Komex Electronics Material Inc (KEMI) Place: Seoul, Seoul, Korea (Republic) Zip: 135709 Sector: Solar Product:...

  13. Shanghai Jiujing Electronics Material Co Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Jiujing Electronics Material Co Ltd Jump to: navigation, search Name: Shanghai Jiujing Electronics Material Co Ltd Place: Shanghai Municipality, China Zip: 201617 Product: A...

  14. Imaging surface atomic structure with energy dependent electron diffraction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tobin, J.

    1994-11-15

    The general concepts and approaches to extracting structural information from imaging with electron diffraction are outlined.

  15. Electron Microscopy > Analytical Resources > Research > The Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Materials Center at Cornell Analytical Resources In This Section Differential Electrochemical Mass Spectroscopy (DEMS) Electron Microscopy X-Ray Diffraction Electron Microscopy Aberration-Corrected Electron Microscope Facility Electron microscopy provides atomic-resolution images of the structure, composition and bonding of our fuel cells and their components. Three-dimensional images of catalyst particles and their support materials are constructed using electron tomography - a similar

  16. Tips: Home Office and Electronics | Department of Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Use Smart Power Strips to Save Energy. 2 of 2 Use Smart Power Strips to Save Energy. Many ... but it may increase your home energy bills unless you use energy-saving office equipment. ...

  17. Independent control of electron energy and density using a rotating magnetic field in inductively coupled plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kondo, Takahiro; Ohta, Masayuki; Ito, Tsuyohito; Okada, Shigefumi

    2013-09-21

    Effects of a rotating magnetic field (RMF) on the electron energy distribution function (EEDF) and on the electron density are investigated with the aim of controlling the radical composition of inductively coupled plasmas. By adjusting the RMF frequency and generation power, the desired electron density and electron energy shift are obtained. Consequently, the amount and fraction of high-energy electrons, which are mostly responsible for direct dissociation processes of raw molecules, will be controlled externally. This controllability, with no electrode exposed to plasma, will enable us to control radical components and their flux during plasma processing.

  18. Energy Storage & Power Electronics 2008 Peer Review - Agenda/Presentation

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    List | Department of Energy & Power Electronics 2008 Peer Review - Agenda/Presentation List Energy Storage & Power Electronics 2008 Peer Review - Agenda/Presentation List The 2008 Peer Review Meeting for the DOE Energy Storage and Power Electronics Program (ESPE) was held in Washington DC on Sept. 29-30, 2008. Current and completed program projects were presented and reviewed by a group of industry professionals. The 2008 agenda was composed of 28 projects that covered a broad range

  19. Sharp Electronics Europe GmbH | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Europe GmbH Jump to: navigation, search Name: Sharp Electronics (Europe) GmbH Place: Hamburg, Germany Zip: 20097 Sector: Solar Product: German-based company Sharp Electronics GmbH...

  20. Boehm Electronic Systems Slowakei s r o | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Boehm Electronic Systems Slowakei s r o Jump to: navigation, search Name: Boehm Electronic Systems Slowakei s.r.o. Place: Nove Mesto nad Vahom, Slovakia Zip: 91501 Product:...

  1. Aspects of Electron-Phonon Self-Energy Revealed From Angle-Resolved...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Subject: 72 PHYSICS OF ELEMENTARY PARTICLES AND FIELDS; PHOTOEMISSION; SELF-ENERGY; EMISSION SPECTROSCOPY; ELECTRONS; PHONONS Other,OTHER Word Cloud More Like This Full Text ...

  2. Electron Polarimetry at Low Energies in Hall C at Jefferson Lab

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gaskell, David J.

    2013-11-01

    Although the majority of Jefferson Lab experiments require multi-GeV electron beams, there have been a few opportunities to make electron beam polarization measurements at rather low energies. This proceedings will discuss some of the practical difficulties encountered in performing electron polarimetry via Mo/ller scattering at energies on the order of a few hundred MeV. Prospects for Compton polarimetry at very low energies will also be discussed. While Mo/ller scattering is likely the preferred method for electron polarimetry at energies below 500 MeV, there are certain aspects of the polarimeter and experiment design that must be carefully considered.

  3. Imaging doped silicon test structures using low energy electron microscopy.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nakakura, Craig Yoshimi; Anderson, Meredith Lynn; Kellogg, Gary Lee

    2010-01-01

    This document is the final SAND Report for the LDRD Project 105877 - 'Novel Diagnostic for Advanced Measurements of Semiconductor Devices Exposed to Adverse Environments' - funded through the Nanoscience to Microsystems investment area. Along with the continuous decrease in the feature size of semiconductor device structures comes a growing need for inspection tools with high spatial resolution and high sample throughput. Ideally, such tools should be able to characterize both the surface morphology and local conductivity associated with the structures. The imaging capabilities and wide availability of scanning electron microscopes (SEMs) make them an obvious choice for imaging device structures. Dopant contrast from pn junctions using secondary electrons in the SEM was first reported in 1967 and more recently starting in the mid-1990s. However, the serial acquisition process associated with scanning techniques places limits on the sample throughput. Significantly improved throughput is possible with the use of a parallel imaging scheme such as that found in photoelectron emission microscopy (PEEM) and low energy electron microscopy (LEEM). The application of PEEM and LEEM to device structures relies on contrast mechanisms that distinguish differences in dopant type and concentration. Interestingly, one of the first applications of PEEM was a study of the doping of semiconductors, which showed that the PEEM contrast was very sensitive to the doping level and that dopant concentrations as low as 10{sup 16} cm{sup -3} could be detected. More recent PEEM investigations of Schottky contacts were reported in the late 1990s by Giesen et al., followed by a series of papers in the early 2000s addressing doping contrast in PEEM by Ballarotto and co-workers and Frank and co-workers. In contrast to PEEM, comparatively little has been done to identify contrast mechanisms and assess the capabilities of LEEM for imaging semiconductor device strictures. The one exception is the

  4. Additive effects of electronic and nuclear energy loss in irradiation-induced amorphization of zircon

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zarkadoula, Eva; Toulemonde, Marcel; Weber, William J.

    2015-12-29

    We used a combination of ion cascades and the unified thermal spike model to study the electronic effects from 800 keV Kr and Xe ion irradiation in zircon. We compared the damage production for four cases: (a) due to ion cascades alone, (b) due to ion cascades with the electronic energy loss activated as a friction term, (c) due to the thermal spike from the combined electronic and nuclear energy losses, and (d) due to ion cascades with electronic stopping and the electron-phonon interactions superimposed. As a result, we found that taking the electronic energy loss out as a friction term results in reduced damage, while the electronic electron-phonon interactions have additive impact on the final damage created per ion.

  5. Additive effects of electronic and nuclear energy loss in irradiation-induced amorphization of zircon

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zarkadoula, Eva; Toulemonde, Marcel; Weber, William J.

    2015-12-29

    We used a combination of ion cascades and the unified thermal spike model to study the electronic effects from 800 keV Kr and Xe ion irradiation in zircon. We compared the damage production for four cases: (a) due to ion cascades alone, (b) due to ion cascades with the electronic energy loss activated as a friction term, (c) due to the thermal spike from the combined electronic and nuclear energy losses, and (d) due to ion cascades with electronic stopping and the electron-phonon interactions superimposed. As a result, we found that taking the electronic energy loss out as a frictionmore » term results in reduced damage, while the electronic electron-phonon interactions have additive impact on the final damage created per ion.« less

  6. Energy levels of the electrons localized over the surface of an inert film with address electrodes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Petrin, A. B.

    2013-03-15

    The problem of searching for the potential energy and the energy spectrum of the electrons localized over the surface of a thin liquid or solid inert film due to address electrodes placed under the film is considered.

  7. Electrons in a relativistic-intensity laser field: generation of zeptosecond electromagnetic pulses and energy spectrum of the accelerated electrons

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Andreev, A A; Galkin, A L; Kalashnikov, M P; Korobkin, V V; Romanovsky, Mikhail Yu; Shiryaev, O B

    2011-08-31

    We study the motion of an electron and emission of electromagnetic waves by an electron in the field of a relativistically intense laser pulse. The dynamics of the electron is described by the Newton equation with the Lorentz force in the right-hand side. It is shown that the electrons may be ejected from the interaction region with high energy. The energy spectrum of these electrons and the technique of using the spectrum to assess the maximal intensity in the focus are analysed. It is found that electromagnetic radiation of an electron moving in an intense laser field occurs within a small angle around the direction of the electron trajectory tangent. The tangent quickly changes its direction in space; therefore, electromagnetic radiation of the electron in the far-field zone in a certain direction in the vicinity of the tangent is a short pulse with a duration as short as zeptoseconds. The calculation of the temporary and spectral distribution of the radiation field is carried out. (superintense laser fields)

  8. How Do You Save Energy With Your Electronics? | Department of...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    at consumer.webmaster@nrel.gov. Addthis Related Articles What Motivates You to Save Energy? How Can You Save Energy While Spring Cleaning? What Are Your Reasons for Saving Energy

  9. Apower Electronics Co Ltd AEC | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    China Product: Guangdong Province - based company which researches, makes and sells Lithium Polymer batteries. References: Apower Electronics Co, Ltd. (AEC)1 This article is a...

  10. EPA - NPDES Electronic Notice of Intent webpage | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    contains the electronic Notice of Intent requirements and application for NPDES. Author Environmental Protection Agency Published Environmental Protection Agency, 2014 DOI Not...

  11. Suntrack P4Q Electronics SL | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    SL Jump to: navigation, search Name: Suntrack (P4Q Electronics SL) Place: Alonsotegi, Spain Zip: 48810 Sector: Solar Product: Spain-based firm that manufactures...

  12. Dalian Sengu New Power Electronic Co Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    axis wind turbines, solar components, solar-wind complementary power supply system, LED lighting system. References: Dalian Sengu New Power Electronic Co Ltd1 This article...

  13. REN Electron srl formerly FIMI Group srl | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    FIMI Group srl) Place: Carugate (MI), Italy Zip: 20061 Sector: Solar Product: Italian solar installers. References: REN Electron srl (formerly FIMI Group srl)1 This...

  14. China Electronics Technology Group Corporation CETC | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Technology Group Corporation CETC Jump to: navigation, search Name: China Electronics Technology Group Corporation (CETC) Place: Beijing Municipality, China Zip: 100846 Product:...

  15. China Electronic Engineering Design Institute CEEDI | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Engineering Design Institute CEEDI Jump to: navigation, search Name: China Electronic Engineering Design Institute (CEEDI) Place: Beijing, Beijing Municipality, China Zip: 100840...

  16. Gemballa Electronics GmbH | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    GmbH Jump to: navigation, search Name: Gemballa Electronics GmbH Place: Kaltenkirchen, Germany Zip: 24586 Product: Germany-based produces semiconductor and silicon components. The...

  17. LG Display Everlight Electronics JV | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    China Product: China-based joint venture focused on the production of LED backlight packaging. References: LG Display & Everlight Electronics JV1 This article is a stub. You...

  18. Jiaxing Advansil Electronic Co Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Advansil Electronic Co Ltd Place: Tongxiang, Zhejiang Province, China Product: A Chinese PV wafer manufacturer Coordinates: 30.62871, 120.539719 Show Map Loading map......

  19. Rajasthan Electronics Instruments Ltd REIL | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Ltd. (REIL) Place: Jaipur, Rajasthan, India Zip: 302012 Sector: Solar Product: A joint venture between Govt of India and govt. of rajasthan; manufacturers of electronic...

  20. Active electron energy distribution function control in direct current discharge using an auxiliary electrode

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schweigert, I. V.; George Washington University, Washington, DC 20052 ; Kaganovich, I. D.; Demidov, V. I.; St. Petersburg State University, St. Petersburg

    2013-10-15

    The electron energy distribution functions are studied in the low voltage dc discharge with a constriction, which is a diaphragm with an opening. The dc discharge glows in helium and is sustained by the electron current emitted from a heated cathode. We performed kinetic simulations of dc discharge characteristics and electron energy distribution functions for different gas pressures (0.8 Torr-4 Torr) and discharge current of 0.1 A. The results of these simulations indicate the ability to control the shape of the electron energy distribution functions by variation of the diaphragm opening radius.

  1. Energy-dependent dynamics of keV to MeV electrons in the inner...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Energy-dependent dynamics of keV to MeV electrons in the inner zone, outer zone, and slot regions Title: Energy-dependent dynamics of keV to MeV electrons in the inner zone, outer ...

  2. Plasma parameters and electron energy distribution functions in a magnetically focused plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Samuell, C. M.; Blackwell, B. D.; Howard, J.; Corr, C. S. [Plasma Research Laboratory, Research School of Physics and Engineering, Australian National University, Canberra (Australia)

    2013-03-15

    Spatially resolved measurements of ion density, electron temperature, floating potential, and the electron energy distribution function (EEDF) are presented for a magnetically focused plasma. The measurements identify a central plasma column displaying Maxwellian EEDFs at an electron temperature of about 5 eV indicating the presence of a significant fraction of electrons in the inelastic energy range (energies above 15 eV). It is observed that the EEDF remains Maxwellian along the axis of the discharge with an increase in density, at constant electron temperature, observed in the region of highest magnetic field strength. Both electron density and temperature decrease at the plasma radial edge. Electron temperature isotherms measured in the downstream region are found to coincide with the magnetic field lines.

  3. Determining the band gap and mean kinetic energy of atoms from reflection electron energy loss spectra

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vos, M.; Marmitt, G. G.; Finkelstein, Y.; Moreh, R.

    2015-09-14

    Reflection electron energy loss spectra from some insulating materials (CaCO{sub 3}, Li{sub 2}CO{sub 3}, and SiO{sub 2}) taken at relatively high incoming electron energies (5–40 keV) are analyzed. Here, one is bulk sensitive and a well-defined onset of inelastic excitations is observed from which one can infer the value of the band gap. An estimate of the band gap was obtained by fitting the spectra with a procedure that includes the recoil shift and recoil broadening affecting these measurements. The width of the elastic peak is directly connected to the mean kinetic energy of the atom in the material (Doppler broadening). The experimentally obtained mean kinetic energies of the O, C, Li, Ca, and Si atoms are compared with the calculated ones, and good agreement is found, especially if the effect of multiple scattering is taken into account. It is demonstrated experimentally that the onset of the inelastic excitation is also affected by Doppler broadening. Aided by this understanding, we can obtain a good fit of the elastic peak and the onset of inelastic excitations. For SiO{sub 2}, good agreement is obtained with the well-established value of the band gap (8.9 eV) only if it is assumed that the intensity near the edge scales as (E − E{sub gap}){sup 1.5}. For CaCO{sub 3}, the band gap obtained here (7 eV) is about 1 eV larger than the previous experimental value, whereas the value for Li{sub 2}CO{sub 3} (7.5 eV) is the first experimental estimate.

  4. A coupled effect of nuclear and electronic energy loss on ion irradiation damage in lithium niobate

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Liu, Peng; Zhang, Yanwen; Xue, Haizhou; Jin, Ke; Crespillo, Miguel L.; Wang, Xuelin; Weber, William J.

    2016-01-09

    Understanding irradiation effects induced by elastic energy loss to atomic nuclei and inelastic energy loss to electrons in a crystal, as well as the coupled effect between them, is a scientific challenge. Damage evolution in LiNbO3 irradiated by 0.9 and 21 MeV Si ions at 300 K has been studied utilizing Rutherford backscattering spectrometry in channeling mode. During the low-energy ion irradiation process, damage accumulation produced due to elastic collisions is described utilizing a disorder accumulation model. Moreover, low electronic energy loss is shown to induce observable damage that increases with ion fluence. For the same electronic energy loss, themore » velocity of the incident ion could affect the energy and spatial distribution of excited electrons, and therefore effectively modify the diameter of the ion track. Furthermore, nonlinear additive phenomenon of irradiation damage induced by high electronic energy loss in pre-damaged LiNbO3 has been observed. The result indicates that pre-existing damage induced from nuclear energy loss interacts synergistically with inelastic electronic energy loss to promote the formation of amorphous tracks and lead to rapid phase transformation, much more efficient than what is observed in pristine crystal solely induced by electronic energy loss. As a result, this synergistic effect is attributed to the fundamental mechanism that the defects produced by the elastic collisions result in a decrease in thermal conductivity, increase in the electron-phonon coupling, and further lead to higher intensity in thermal spike from intense electronic energy deposition along high-energy ion trajectory.« less

  5. Surface modification of structural materials by low-energy high-current pulsed electron beam treatment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Panin, A. V. E-mail: kms@ms.tsc.ru; Kazachenok, M. S. E-mail: kms@ms.tsc.ru; Sinyakova, E. A.; Borodovitsina, O. M.; Ivanov, Yu. F.; Leontieva-Smirnova, M. V.

    2014-11-14

    Microstructure formation in surface layers of pure titanium and ferritic-martensitic steel subjected to electron beam treatment is studied. It is shown that low energy high-current pulsed electron beam irradiation leads to the martensite structure within the surface layer of pure titanium. Contrary, the columnar ferrite grains grow during solidification of ferritic-martensitic steel. The effect of electron beam energy density on the surface morphology and microstructure of the irradiated metals is demonstrated.

  6. TEE-0025 - In the Matter of LG Electronics, Inc. | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    5 - In the Matter of LG Electronics, Inc. TEE-0025 - In the Matter of LG Electronics, Inc. This Decision and Order considers an Application for Exception filed by LG Electronics, Inc. (LG) seeking exception relief from the provisions of 10 C.F.R. Part 430, Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Energy Conservation Standards for Refrigerators, Refrigerator-Freezers and Freezers (Refrigerator Efficiency Standards). In its exception request, LG asserts that the firm would suffer a gross

  7. TOF Electron Energy Analyzer for Spin and Angular Resolved Photoemission Spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lebedev, Gennadi; Jozwiak, Chris; Andresen, Nord; Lanzara, Alessandra; Hussain, Zahid

    2008-07-09

    Current pulsed laser and synchrotron x-ray sources provide new opportunities for Time-Of- Flight (TOF) based photoemission spectroscopy to increase photoelectron energy resolution and efficiency compared to current standard techniques. The principals of photoelectron timing front formation, temporal aberration minimization, and optimization of electron beam transmission are presented. We have developed these concepts into a high resolution Electron Optical Scheme (EOS) of a TOF Electron Energy Analyzer (TOF-EEA) for photoemission spectroscopy. The EOS of the analyzer includes an electrostatic objective lens, three columns of transport lenses and a 90 degree energy band pass filter (BPF). The analyzer has two modes of operation: Spectrometer Mode (SM) with straight passage of electrons through the EOS undeflected by the BPF, allowing the entire spectrum to be measured, and Monochromator Mode (MM) in which the BPF defines a certain energy window inside the scope of the electron energy spectrum.

  8. The role of electronic energy loss in ion beam modification of materials

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Weber, William J.; Duffy, Dorothy M.; Thome, Lionel; Zhang, Yanwen

    2014-10-05

    The interaction of energetic ions with solids results in energy loss to both atomic nuclei and electrons in the solid. In this article, recent advances in understanding and modeling the additive and competitive effects of nuclear and electronic energy loss on the response of materials to ion irradiation are reviewed. Experimental methods and large-scale atomistic simulations are used to study the separate and combined effects of nuclear and electronic energy loss on ion beam modification of materials. The results demonstrate that nuclear and electronic energy loss can lead to additive effects on irradiation damage production in some materials; while inmore » other materials, the competitive effects of electronic energy loss leads to recovery of damage induced by elastic collision cascades. Lastly, these results have significant implications for ion beam modification of materials, non-thermal recovery of ion implantation damage, and the response of materials to extreme radiation environments.« less

  9. An electron/ion spectrometer with the ability of low energy electron measurement for fast ignition experiments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ozaki, T.; Sakagami, H. [National Institute for Fusion Science, 322-6, Oroshi, Toki, Gifu 509-5292 (Japan); Kojima, S.; Arikawa, Y.; Shiraga, H.; Fujioka, S. [Institute of Laser Engineering, Osaka University, 2-6, Yamada-oka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Kato, R., E-mail: ozaki@nifs.ac.jp [Institute of Scientific and Industrial Research, Osaka University, 8-1, Mihogaoka, Ibaraki, Osaka 567-0047 (Japan)

    2014-11-15

    An electron energy spectrometer (ESM) is one of the most fundamental diagnostics in the fast ignition experiment. It is necessary to observe the spectra down to a low energy range in order to obtain the accurate deposition efficiency toward the core. Here, we realize the suitable ESM by using a ferrite magnet with a moderate magnetic field of 0.3 T and a rectangular magnetic circuit covered with a steel plate in the inlet side.

  10. Estimating Appliance and Home Electronic Energy Use | Department...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Estimate the energy consumption and cost to operate an appliance when making a purchase. Investing in an energy-efficient product may save you money in the long run. | Photo...

  11. In Situ Electron Energy-Loss Spectroscopy in Liquids (Journal...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Subject: catalysis (homogeneous), catalysis (heterogeneous), energy storage (including batteries and capacitors), hydrogen and fuel cells, defects, charge transport, membrane, ...

  12. Energy Secretary Chu to Visit Delphi Power Electronics Plant in Kokomo

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Indiana | Department of Energy Visit Delphi Power Electronics Plant in Kokomo Indiana Energy Secretary Chu to Visit Delphi Power Electronics Plant in Kokomo Indiana July 14, 2010 - 12:00am Addthis Washington D.C. - On Friday, July 16, Energy Secretary Steven Chu will travel to Kokomo, Indiana to tour Delphi Automotive Systems manufacturing plant with Mayor Greg Goodnight. Remarks will be given following the tour. The trip is part of a nationwide initiative led by President Obama and members

  13. Two-Phase Heat Exchanger for Power Electronics Cooling - Energy...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Find More Like This Return to Search Two-Phase Heat Exchanger for Power Electronics ... Heat dissipation is a limiting factor in reducing the size and cost of the power ...

  14. Graphene, Hydrogen and Next-Generation Electronics | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Graphene, Hydrogen and Next-Generation Electronics Graphene, Hydrogen and Next-Generation Electronics July 22, 2011 - 5:32pm Addthis Graphene grains in several different shapes, controlled by hydrogen. | Courtesy of Oak Ridge National Laboratory Graphene grains in several different shapes, controlled by hydrogen. | Courtesy of Oak Ridge National Laboratory A team of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and New Mexico State University researchers have developed a new approach to growing graphene

  15. 2010 Emissions from an Electronics Perspective | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Emissions from an Electronics Perspective 2010 Emissions from an Electronics Perspective 2005 Diesel Engine Emissions Reduction (DEER) Conference Presentations and Posters 2005_deer_kesse.pdf (666.58 KB) More Documents & Publications Model-Based Transient Calibration Optimization for Next Generation Diesel Engines Demonstrating Fuel Consumption and Emissions Reductions with Next Generation Model-Based Diesel Engine Control Integration of Control System Components for Optimum Engine Respon

  16. Beijing Eastwest Electronics Technology Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Ltd Place: Beijing, Beijing Municipality, China Zip: 100029 Sector: Solar, Wind energy Product: Dedicated to the design, installation, development and maintaince of solar PV and...

  17. Shanghai Electric Xantrex Power Electronics Co Ltd | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Product: JV company that will design, manufacture and sell solar and wind power inverters and control-monitoring system for the renewable energy market in China from a...

  18. PLZT film capacitors for power electronics and energy storage...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    The dielectric properties and energy storage performance of the resulting samples were determined under a high level of applied electric field. X-ray diffraction stress analysis ...

  19. Kraft Rt Kraft Electronics Inc | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Equipment manufacturer for the clean energy industry, currently focused on thin-film solar cell production equipment. Coordinates: 47.506225, 19.06482 Show Map Loading...

  20. SB Electronics Breaks Ground on New Factory | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    SB Electronics Breaks Ground on New Factory SB Electronics Breaks Ground on New Factory April 29, 2010 - 5:22pm Addthis U.S. Rep. Peter Welch (from left), Vermont Lt. Gov. Brian Dubie, SBE board member Win Hunter, SBE board chair Stan Fishkin, Assi U.S. Rep. Peter Welch (from left), Vermont Lt. Gov. Brian Dubie, SBE board member Win Hunter, SBE board chair Stan Fishkin, Assi Paul Lester Paul Lester Digital Content Specialist, Office of Public Affairs A Vermont company broke ground on a new

  1. Electronic Docket Room (e-Docket Room) | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Electronic Docket Room (e-Docket Room) Electronic Docket Room (e-Docket Room) E-Docket -- Browse Searchable Database of Current and Historical Applications Submitted to DOE (click SHOW for drop down menu) Authorizations/Orders Granted by the Department -- NOTE: 1977 thru 2016 will take you to an external link. 1977 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013

  2. High energy density capacitors for power electronic applications using nano-structure multilayer technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barbee, T.W. Jr.; Johnson, G.W.

    1995-09-01

    Power electronics applications are currently limited by capacitor size and performance. Only incremental improvements are anticipated in existing capacitor technologies, while significant performance advances are required in energy density and overall performance to meet the technical needs of the applications which are important for U.S. economic competitiveness. One application, the Power Electronic Building Block (PEBB), promises a second electronics revolution in power electronic design. High energy density capacitors with excellent electrical thermal and mechanical performance represent an enabling technology in the PEBB concept. We propose a continuing program to research and develop LLNL`s nano-structure multilayer technologies for making high voltage, high energy density capacitors. Our controlled deposition techniques are capable of synthesizing extraordinarily smooth sub-micron thick layers of dielectric and conductor materials. We have demonstrated that, with this technology, high voltage capacitors with an order of magnitude improvement in energy density are achievable.

  3. Precision shape modification of nanodevices with a low-energy electron beam

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zettl, Alex; Yuzvinsky, Thomas David; Fennimore, Adam

    2010-03-09

    Methods of shape modifying a nanodevice by contacting it with a low-energy focused electron beam are disclosed here. In one embodiment, a nanodevice may be permanently reformed to a different geometry through an application of a deforming force and a low-energy focused electron beam. With the addition of an assist gas, material may be removed from the nanodevice through application of the low-energy focused electron beam. The independent methods of shape modification and material removal may be used either individually or simultaneously. Precision cuts with accuracies as high as 10 nm may be achieved through the use of precision low-energy Scanning Electron Microscope scan beams. These methods may be used in an automated system to produce nanodevices of very precise dimensions. These methods may be used to produce nanodevices of carbon-based, silicon-based, or other compositions by varying the assist gas.

  4. DOE Science Showcase - Free-Electron Lasers | OSTI, US Dept of Energy

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information Free-Electron Lasers Free-Electron Lasers absorb and release energy at any wavelength and can be controlled more precisely than conventional lasers by producing intense powerful light in brief bursts with extreme precision. This innovative technology has opened doors to a vast array of possibilities for manufacturing and for basic research. Read more in the white paper In OSTI Collections: Free-Electron Lasers by Dr. William Watson, Physicist,

  5. On the role of electron energy distribution function in double frequency heating of electron cyclotron resonance ion source plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schachter, L. Dobrescu, S.; Stiebing, K. E.

    2014-02-15

    Double frequency heating (DFH) is a tool to improve the output of highly charged ions particularly from modern electron cyclotron resonance ion source installations with very high RF-frequencies. In order to gain information on the DFH-mechanism and on the role of the lower injected frequency we have carried out a series of dedicated experiments where we have put emphasis on the creation of a discrete resonance surface also for this lower frequency. Our well-established method of inserting an emissive MD (metal-dielectric) liner into the plasma chamber of the source is used in these experiments as a tool of investigation. In this way, the electron temperature and density for both ECR zones is increased in a controlled manner, allowing conclusions on the role of the change of the electron-energy-distribution function with and without DFH.

  6. Determination of the displacement energy of O, Si and Zr under electron beam irradiation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Edmondson, Philip D; Weber, William J; Namavar, Fereydoon; Zhang, Yanwen

    2012-01-01

    The response of nanocrystalline, stabilizer-free cubic zirconia thin films on a Si substrate to electron beam irradiation with energies of 4, 110 and 200 keV and fluences up to {approx}1.5 x 10{sup 22} e m{sup -2} has been studied to determine the displacement energies. The 110 and 200 keV irradiations were performed in situ using a transmission electron microscope; the 4 keV irradiations were performed ex situ using an electron gun. In all three irradiations, no structural modification of the zirconia was observed, despite the high fluxes and fluences. However the Si substrate on which the zirconia film was deposited was amorphized under the 200 keV electron irradiation. Examination of the electron-solid interactions reveals that the kinetic energy transfer from the 200 keV electrons to the silicon lattice is sufficient to cause atomic displacements, resulting in amorphization. The kinetic energy transfer from the 200 keV electrons to the oxygen sub-lattice of the zirconia may be sufficient to induce defect production, however, no evidence of defect production was observed. The displacement cross-section value of Zr was found to be {approx}400 times greater than that of O indicating that the O atoms are effectively screened from the electrons by the Zr atoms, and, therefore, the displacement of O is inefficient.

  7. Determination of the Displacement Energies of O, Si and Zr Under Electron Beam Irradiation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Edmondson, P. D.; Weber, William J.; Namavar, Fereydoon; Zhang, Yanwen

    2012-03-01

    The response of nanocrystalline, stabilizer-free cubic zirconia thin films on a Si substrate to electron beam irradiation with energies of 4, 110 and 200 keV and fluences up to ~1.5 x 10e m has been studied to determine the displacement energies. The 110 and 200 keV irradiations were performed in situ using a transmission electron microscope; the 4 keV irradiations were performed ex situ using an electron gun. In all three irradiations, no structural modification of the zirconia was observed, despite the high fluxes and fluences. However the Si substrate on which the zirconia film was deposited was amorphized under the 200 keV electron irradiation. Examination of the electronsolid interactions reveals that the kinetic energy transfer from the 200 keV electrons to the silicon lattice is sufficient to cause atomic displacements, resulting in amorphization. The kinetic energy transfer from the 200 keV electrons to the oxygen sub-lattice of the zirconia may be sufficient to induce defect production, however, no evidence of defect production was observed. The displacement cross-section value of Zr was found to be ~400 times greater than that of O indicating that the O atoms are effectively screened from the electrons by the Zr atoms, and, therefore, the displacement of O is inefficient.

  8. High-energy electrons from the muon decay in orbit: Radiative corrections

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Szafron, Robert; Czarnecki, Andrzej

    2015-12-07

    We determine the Ο(α) correction to the energy spectrum of electrons produced in the decay of muons bound in atoms. We focus on the high-energy end of the spectrum that constitutes a background for the muon-electron conversion and will be precisely measured by the upcoming experiments Mu2e and COMET. As a result, the correction suppresses the background by about 20%.

  9. High-energy electrons from the muon decay in orbit: Radiative corrections

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Szafron, Robert; Czarnecki, Andrzej

    2015-05-19

    We determine the ?(?) correction to the energy spectrum of electrons produced in the decay of muons bound in atoms. We focus on the high-energy end of the spectrum that constitutes a background for the muon-electron conversion and will be precisely measured by the upcoming experiments Mu2e and COMET. As a result, the correction suppresses the background by about 20%.

  10. Runaway electron energy measurement using hard x-ray spectroscopy in 'Damavand' tokamak

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rasouli, C.; Farahbod, A. H.; Rasouli, H.; Lamehi, M.; Iraji, D.; Akhtari, K.; Modarresi, H.

    2009-01-15

    Set of experiments has been developed to study existing runaway electrons in ''Damavand'' tokamak plasma upon characteristics of hard x-ray emissions produced by collision of the runaway electrons with the plasma particles and limiters. As a first step, spatial distribution of hard x-ray emissions on the equatorial plane of the torus was considered. Obtained spectra of hard x-ray emissions for different alignments of shielded detector indicate isotropic emissivity in the equatorial plane. This is in agreement with wide angle cone of bremsstrahlung radiations, deduced from the mean value of energy of the runaway electrons. The mean energy was calculated from the slope of the energy spectrum of hard x-ray photons. In the second stage in order to investigate time evolution of energy of the runaway electrons, similar technique were applied to obtain hard x-ray energy in every 3 ms intervals, from the beginning to the end of plasma. The mean energy of the runaway electrons increases during the ramp up phase and reaches its maximum between 3 and 9 ms after plasma formation. Also considering the time dependence of the counted photons in each energy range shows that energetic photons are emitted during the ramp up phase of the plasma current in Damavand tokamak.

  11. An efficient implementation of the localized operator partitioning method for electronic energy transfer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nagesh, Jayashree; Brumer, Paul; Izmaylov, Artur F.

    2015-02-28

    The localized operator partitioning method [Y. Khan and P. Brumer, J. Chem. Phys. 137, 194112 (2012)] rigorously defines the electronic energy on any subsystem within a molecule and gives a precise meaning to the subsystem ground and excited electronic energies, which is crucial for investigating electronic energy transfer from first principles. However, an efficient implementation of this approach has been hindered by complicated one- and two-electron integrals arising in its formulation. Using a resolution of the identity in the definition of partitioning, we reformulate the method in a computationally efficient manner that involves standard one- and two-electron integrals. We apply the developed algorithm to the 9 − ((1 − naphthyl) − methyl) − anthracene (A1N) molecule by partitioning A1N into anthracenyl and CH{sub 2} − naphthyl groups as subsystems and examine their electronic energies and populations for several excited states using configuration interaction singles method. The implemented approach shows a wide variety of different behaviors amongst the excited electronic states.

  12. Conceptual MEIC electron ring injection scheme using CEBAF as a full energy injector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guo, Jiquan; Lin, Fanglei; Rimmer, Robert A.; Wang, Haipeng; Wang, Shaoheng; Zhang, Yuhong

    2015-09-01

    The Medium-energy Electron-Ion Collider (MEIC) proposed by Jefferson Lab is planning to use the newly upgraded 12 GeV CEBAF 1497 MHz SRF CW recirculating linac as a full-energy injector for the electron collider ring. The electron collider ring is proposed to reuse the 476MHz PEP-II RF system to achieve high installed voltage and high beam power. The MEIC electron injection requires 3-10 (or 12) GeV beam in 3-4µs long bunch trains with low duty factor and high peak current, resulting in strong transient beam loading for the CEBAF. In this paper, we propose an injection scheme that can match the two systems' frequencies with acceptable injection time, and also address the transient beam loading issue in CEBAF. The scheme is compatible with future upgrade to 952.6 MHz SRF system in the electron ring.

  13. A Monte Carlo study of reflection electron energy loss spectroscopy spectrum of a carbon contaminated surface

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Da, B.; Li, Z. Y.; Chang, H. C.; Ding, Z. J.; Mao, S. F.

    2014-09-28

    It has been experimentally found that the carbon surface contamination influences strongly the spectrum signals in reflection electron energy loss spectroscopy (REELS) especially at low primary electron energy. However, there is still little theoretical work dealing with the carbon contamination effect in REELS. Such a work is required to predict REELS spectrum for layered structural sample, providing an understanding of the experimental phenomena observed. In this study, we present a numerical calculation result on the spatially varying differential inelastic mean free path for a sample made of a carbon contamination layer of varied thickness on a SrTiO{sub 3} substrate. A Monte Carlo simulation model for electron interaction with a layered structural sample is built by combining this inelastic scattering cross-section with the Mott's cross-section for electron elastic scattering. The simulation results have clearly shown that the contribution of the electron energy loss from carbon surface contamination increases with decreasing primary energy due to increased individual scattering processes along trajectory parts carbon contamination layer. Comparison of the simulated spectra for different thicknesses of the carbon contamination layer and for different primary electron energies with experimental spectra clearly identifies that the carbon contamination in the measured sample was in the form of discontinuous islands other than the uniform film.

  14. Criticality of the electron-nucleus cusp condition to local effective potential-energy theories

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pan Xiaoyin; Sahni, Viraht

    2003-01-01

    Local(multiplicative) effective potential energy-theories of electronic structure comprise the transformation of the Schroedinger equation for interacting Fermi systems to model noninteracting Fermi or Bose systems whereby the equivalent density and energy are obtained. By employing the integrated form of the Kato electron-nucleus cusp condition, we prove that the effective electron-interaction potential energy of these model fermions or bosons is finite at a nucleus. The proof is general and valid for arbitrary system whether it be atomic, molecular, or solid state, and for arbitrary state and symmetry. This then provides justification for all prior work in the literature based on the assumption of finiteness of this potential energy at a nucleus. We further demonstrate the criticality of the electron-nucleus cusp condition to such theories by an example of the hydrogen molecule. We show thereby that both model system effective electron-interaction potential energies, as determined from densities derived from accurate wave functions, will be singular at the nucleus unless the wave function satisfies the electron-nucleus cusp condition.

  15. Spatial nonuniformity of electron energy in a microwave atmospheric-pressure microplasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhu Liguo; Zhang Zhibo; Zhu Ximing; Pu Yikang; Li Zeren

    2009-04-13

    The characteristics of the electron energy in a microwave atmospheric-pressure argon microplasma are investigated by a spatially resolved optical emission spectroscopy. By adding tiny amount of xenon (<1 ppm) as tracer gas into the argon discharge, it is found that the spatial distribution of the electrons with energy >8.3 eV is quite different from that of the electrons with energy >11.5 eV. Spatial distribution of the population ratio between 4p and 5p levels of Ar atom is also determined. Furthermore, with a collisional-radiative model, it is found that the spatial variation of this population ratio is mainly attributed to the spatial nonuniformity of the effective electron temperature.

  16. Intermediate energy electron impact excitation of composite vibrational modes in phenol

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Neves, R. F. C.; Jones, D. B.; Lopes, M. C. A.; Nixon, K. L.; Oliveira, E. M. de; Lima, M. A. P.; Costa, R. F. da; Varella, M. T. do N.; Bettega, M. H. F.; Silva, G. B. da; Brunger, M. J.

    2015-05-21

    We report differential cross section results from an experimental investigation into the electron impact excitation of a number of the low-lying composite (unresolved) vibrational modes in phenol (C{sub 6}H{sub 5}OH). The measurements were carried out at incident electron energies in the range 15–40 eV and for scattered-electron angles in the range 10–90°. The energy resolution of those measurements was typically ∼80 meV. Calculations, using the GAMESS code, were also undertaken with a B3LYP/aug-cc-pVDZ level model chemistry, in order to enable us to assign vibrational modes to the features observed in our energy loss spectra. To the best of our knowledge, the present cross sections are the first to be reported for vibrational excitation of the C{sub 6}H{sub 5}OH molecule by electron impact.

  17. Electronic structure, molecular bonding and potential energy surfaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ruedenberg, K.

    1993-12-01

    By virtue of the universal validity of the generalized Born-Oppenheimer separation, potential energy surfaces (PES`) represent the central conceptual as well as quantitative entities of chemical physics and provide the basis for the understanding of most physicochemical phenomena in many diverse fields. The research in this group deals with the elucidation of general properties of PES` as well as with the quantitative determination of PES` for concrete systems, in particular pertaining to reactions involving carbon, oxygen, nitrogen and hydrogen molecules.

  18. Energy Department to Fund Master’s and Doctoral Training in Power Electronics

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    As part of the Obama Administration’s commitment to accelerating American manufacturing and Energy Secretary Ernest Moniz’s support of STEM education to create the next generation of engineers and manufacturers, the Energy Department has announced up to $10 million available to establish one or more graduate-level training programs at colleges and universities for engineers in power electronics.

  19. Electron energy partition in the ‘above-the-looptop’ solar hard X-ray sources

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oka, Mitsuo; Guo, Fan

    2015-07-21

    The presentation begins by considering the non-thermal fraction of electron energies (Rε) in 'above-the-looptop' (ALT). Several spectral models area considered: isothermal model, power-law, and the newly derived kappa distribution. Technically, all 3 non-thermal models can fit the data. In the discussion of flare scenario, energy partition, energization mechanism, and collisionality are considered. It is concluded that the kappa distribution works (Rε ≲ 50%), magnetic reconnection scenario works, and Coulomb collisions may reduce the non-thermal fraction of electron energies.

  20. Synergy of inelastic and elastic energy loss. Temperature effects and electronic stopping power dependence

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zarkadoula, Eva; Xue, Haizhou; Zhang, Yanwen; Weber, William J.

    2015-06-16

    A combination of an inelastic thermal spike model suitable for insulators and molecular dynamics simulations is used to study the effects of temperature and electronic energy loss on ion track formation, size and morphology in SrTiO3 systems with pre-existing disorder. We find temperature dependence of the ion track size. In addition, we find a threshold in the electronic energy loss for a given pre-existing defect concentration, which indicates a threshold in the synergy between the inelastic and elastic energy loss.

  1. Synergy of inelastic and elastic energy loss. Temperature effects and electronic stopping power dependence

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zarkadoula, Eva; Xue, Haizhou; Zhang, Yanwen; Weber, William J.

    2015-06-16

    A combination of an inelastic thermal spike model suitable for insulators and molecular dynamics simulations is used to study the effects of temperature and electronic energy loss on ion track formation, size and morphology in SrTiO3 systems with pre-existing disorder. We find temperature dependence of the ion track size. In addition, we find a threshold in the electronic energy loss for a given pre-existing defect concentration, which indicates a threshold in the synergy between the inelastic and elastic energy loss.

  2. RF System Requirements for a Medium-Energy Electron-Ion Collider (MEIC) at JLab

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rimmer, Robert A; Hannon, Fay E; Guo, Jiquan; Huang, Shichun; Huang, Yulu; Wang, Haipeng; Wang, S

    2015-09-01

    JLab is studying options for a medium energy electron-ion collider that could fit on the JLab site and use CEBAF as a full-energy electron injector. A new ion source, linac and booster would be required, together with collider storage rings for the ions and electrons. In order to achieve the maximum luminosity these will be high-current storage rings with many bunches. We present the high-level RF system requirements for the storage rings, ion booster ring and high-energy ion beam cooling system, and describe the technology options under consideration to meet them. We also present options for staging that might reduce the initial capital cost while providing a smooth upgrade path to a higher final energy. The technologies under consideration may also be useful for other proposed storage ring colliders or ultimate light sources.

  3. Energy deposition, heat flow, and rapid solidification during laser and electron beam irradiation of materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    White, C.W.; Aziz, M.J.

    1985-10-01

    The fundamentals of energy deposition, heat flow, and rapid solidification during energy deposition from lasers and electron beams is reviewed. Emphasis is placed on the deposition of energy from pulsed sources (10 to 100 ns pulse duration time) in order to achieve high heating and cooling rates (10/sup 8/ to 10/sup 10/ /sup 0/C/s) in the near surface region. The response of both metals and semiconductors to pulsed energy deposition is considered. Guidelines are presented for the choice of energy source, wavelength, and pulse duration time.

  4. A low energy ion source for electron capture spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tusche, C.; Kirschner, J.

    2014-06-15

    We report on the design of an ion source for the production of single and double charged Helium ions with kinetic energies in the range from 300 eV down to 5 eV. The construction is based on a commercial sputter ion gun equipped with a Wien-filter for mass/charge separation. Retardation of the ions from the ionizer potential (2 keV) takes place completely within the lens system of the sputter gun, without modification of original parts. For 15 eV He{sup +} ions, the design allows for beam currents up to 30 nA, limited by the space charge repulsion in the beam. For He{sup 2+} operation, we obtain a beam current of 320 pA at 30 eV, and 46 pA at 5 eV beam energy, respectively. In addition, operating parameters can be optimized for a significant contribution of metastable He*{sup +} (2s) ions.

  5. Progress on the design of the polarized Medium-energy Electron Ion Collider at JLAB

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lin, F.; Bogacz, A.; Brindza, P.; Camsonne, A.; Daly, E.; Derbenev, Ya. S.; Douglas, D.; Ent, R.; Gaskell, D.; Geng, R.; Grames, J.; Guo, J.; Harwood, L.; Hutton, A.; Jordan, K.; Kimber, A.; Krafft, G.; Li, R.; Michalski, T.; Morozov, V. S.; Nadel-Turonski, P.; /Jefferson Lab /Argonne /DESY /Moscow , Inst. Phys. Tech., Dolgoprydny /Dubna, JINR /Northern Illinois U. /Old Doominion U. /Novosibirsk, GOO Zaryad /SLAC /Texas A-M

    2015-07-14

    The Medium-energy Electron Ion Collider (MEIC) at JLab is designed to provide high luminosity and high polarization needed to reach new frontiers in the exploration of nuclear structure. The luminosity, exceeding 1033 cm-2s-1 in a broad range of the center-of-mass (CM) energy and maximum luminosity above 1034 cm-2s-1, is achieved by high-rate collisions of short small-emittance low-charge bunches made possible by high-energy electron cooling of the ion beam and synchrotron radiation damping of the electron beam. The polarization of light ion species (p, d, 3He) can be easily preserved and manipulated due to the unique figure-8 shape of the collider rings. A fully consistent set of parameters have been developed considering the balance of machine performance, required technical development and cost. This paper reports recent progress on the MEIC accelerator design including electron and ion complexes, integrated interaction region design, figure-8-ring-based electron and ion polarization schemes, RF/SRF systems and ERL-based high-energy electron cooling. Luminosity performance is also presented for the MEIC baseline design.

  6. Estimation of the electron density and radiative energy losses in a calcium plasma source based on an electron cyclotron resonance discharge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Potanin, E. P. Ustinov, A. L.

    2013-06-15

    The parameters of a calcium plasma source based on an electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) discharge were calculated. The analysis was performed as applied to an ion cyclotron resonance system designed for separation of calcium isotopes. The plasma electrons in the source were heated by gyrotron microwave radiation in the zone of the inhomogeneous magnetic field. It was assumed that, in such a combined trap, the energy of the extraordinary microwave propagating from the high-field side was initially transferred to a small group of resonance electrons. As a result, two electron components with different transverse temperatures-the hot resonance component and the cold nonresonance component-were created in the plasma. The longitudinal temperatures of both components were assumed to be equal. The entire discharge space was divided into a narrow ECR zone, where resonance electrons acquired transverse energy, and the region of the discharge itself, where the gas was ionized. The transverse energy of resonance electrons was calculated by solving the equations for electron motion in an inhomogeneous magnetic field. Using the law of energy conservation and the balance condition for the number of hot electrons entering the discharge zone and cooled due to ionization and elastic collisions, the density of hot electrons was estimated and the dependence of the longitudinal temperature T{sub e Parallel-To} of the main (cold) electron component on the energy fraction {beta} lost for radiation was obtained.

  7. Science Requirements and Conceptual Design for a Polarized Medium Energy Electron-Ion Collider at Jlab

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abeyratne, S; Ahmed, S; Barber, D; Bisognano, J; Bogacz, A; Castilla, A; Chevtsov, P; Corneliussen, S; Deconinck, W; Degtiarenko, P; Delayen, J; Derbenev, Ya; DeSilva, S; Douglas, D; Dudnikov, V; Ent, R; Erdelyi, B; Evtushenko, P; Fujii, Yu; Filatov, Yury; Gaskell, D; Geng, R; Guzey, V; Horn, T; Hutton, A; Hyde, C; Johnson, R; Kim, Y; Klein, F; Kondratenko, A; Kondratenko, M; Krafft, G; Li, R; Lin, F; Manikonda, S; Marhauser, F; McKeown, R; Morozov, V; Dadel-Turonski, P; Nissen, E; Ostroumov, P; Pivi, M; Pilat, F; Poelker, M; Prokudin, A; Rimmer, R; Satogata, T; Sayed, H; Spata, M; Sullivan, M; Tennant, C; Terzic, B; Tiefenback, M; Wang, M; Wang, S; Weiss, C; Yunn, B; Zhang, Y

    2012-08-01

    Researchers have envisioned an electron-ion collider with ion species up to heavy ions, high polarization of electrons and light ions, and a well-matched center-of-mass energy range as an ideal gluon microscope to explore new frontiers of nuclear science. In its most recent Long Range Plan, the Nuclear Science Advisory Committee (NSAC) of the US Department of Energy and the National Science Foundation endorsed such a collider in the form of a 'half-recommendation.' As a response to this science need, Jefferson Lab and its user community have been engaged in feasibility studies of a medium energy polarized electron-ion collider (MEIC), cost-effectively utilizing Jefferson Lab's already existing Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF). In close collaboration, this community of nuclear physicists and accelerator scientists has rigorously explored the science case and design concept for this envisioned grand instrument of science. An electron-ion collider embodies the vision of reaching the next frontier in Quantum Chromodynamics - understanding the behavior of hadrons as complex bound states of quarks and gluons. Whereas the 12 GeV Upgrade of CEBAF will map the valence-quark components of the nucleon and nuclear wave functions in detail, an electron-ion collider will determine the largely unknown role sea quarks play and for the first time study the glue that binds all atomic nuclei. The MEIC will allow nuclear scientists to map the spin and spatial structure of quarks and gluons in nucleons, to discover the collective effects of gluons in nuclei, and to understand the emergence of hadrons from quarks and gluons. The proposed electron-ion collider at Jefferson Lab will collide a highly polarized electron beam originating from the CEBAF recirculating superconducting radiofrequency (SRF) linear accelerator (linac) with highly polarized light-ion beams or unpolarized light- to heavy-ion beams from a new ion accelerator and storage complex. Since the very

  8. Neutral beamline with ion energy recovery based on magnetic blocking of electrons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stirling, William L.

    1982-01-01

    A neutral beamline generator with energy recovery of the full-energy ion ponent of the beam based on magnetic blocking of electrons is provided. Ions from a positive ion source are accelerated to the desired beam energy from a slightly positive potential level with respect to ground through a neutralizer cell by means of a negative acceleration voltage. The unneutralized full-energy ion component of the beam exiting the neutralizer are retarded and slightly deflected and the electrons in the neutralizer are blocked by a magnetic field generated transverse to the beamline. An electron collector in the form of a coaxial cylinder surrounding and protruding axial a few centimeters beyond the neutralizer exit terminates the electrons which exit the neutralizer in an E x B drift to the collector when the collector is biased a few hundred volts positive with respect to the neutralizer voltage. The neutralizer is operated at the negative acceleration voltage, and the deflected full energy ions are decelerated and the charge collected at ground potential thereby expending none of their energy received from the acceleration power supply.

  9. A highly miniaturized electron and ion energy spectrometer prototype for the rapid analysis of space plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bedington, R.; Kataria, D. O.; Smith, A.

    2014-02-15

    MEMS (Micro Electro-Mechanical Systems) plasma analyzers are a promising possibility for future space missions but conventional instrument designs are not necessarily well suited to micro-fabrication. Here, a candidate design for a MEMS-based instrument has been prototyped using electron-discharge machining. The device features 10 electrostatic analyzers that, with a single voltage applied to it, allow five different energies of electron and five different energies of positive ion to be simultaneously sampled. It has been simulated using SIMION and the electron response characteristics tested in an instrument calibration chamber. Small deviations found in the electrode spacing of the as-built prototype were found to have some effect on the electron response characteristics but do not significantly impede its performance.

  10. Modification Of The Electron Energy Distribution Function During Lithium Experiments On The National Spherical Torus Experiment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jaworski, M A; Gray, T K; Kaita, R; Kallman, J; Kugel, H; LeBlanc, B; McLean, A; Sabbagh, S A; Soukanovskii, V; Stotler, D P

    2011-06-03

    The National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) has recently studied the use of a liquid lithium divertor (LLD). Divertor Langmuir probes have also been installed for making measurements of the local plasma conditions. A non-local probe interpretation method is used to supplement the classical probe interpretation and obtain measurements of the electron energy distribution function (EEDF) which show the occurrence of a hot-electron component. Analysis is made of two discharges within a sequence that exhibited changes in plasma fueling efficiency. It is found that the local electron temperature increases and that this increase is most strongly correlated with the energy contained within the hot-electron population. Preliminary interpretative modeling indicates that kinetic effects are likely in the NSTX.

  11. Cross sections for electron scattering by propane in the low- and intermediate-energy ranges

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Souza, G. L. C. de; Lee, M.-T.; Sanches, I. P.; Rawat, P.; Iga, I.; Santos, A. S. dos; Machado, L. E.; Sugohara, R. T.; Brescansin, L. M.; Homem, M. G. P.; Lucchese, R. R.

    2010-07-15

    We present a joint theoretical-experimental study on electron scattering by propane (C{sub 3}H{sub 8}) in the low- and intermediate-energy ranges. Calculated elastic differential, integral, and momentum transfer as well as total (elastic + inelastic) and total absorption cross sections are reported for impact energies ranging from 2 to 500 eV. Also, experimental absolute elastic cross sections are reported in the 40- to 500-eV energy range. A complex optical potential is used to represent the electron-molecule interaction dynamics. A theoretical method based on the single-center-expansion close-coupling framework and corrected by the Pade approximant is used to solve the scattering equations. The experimental angular distributions of the scattered electrons are converted to absolute cross sections using the relative flow technique. The comparison of our calculated with our measured results, as well as with other experimental and theoretical data available in the literature, is encouraging.

  12. The Effect Of Electronic Energy Loss On Irradiation-induced Grain Growth In Nanocrystalline Oxides

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Yanwen; Aidhy, Dilpuneet S.; Varga, Tamas; Moll, Sandra; Edmondson, Philip D.; Namavar, Fereydoon; Jin, Ke; Ostrouchov, Christopher N.; Weber, William J.

    2014-03-03

    Grain growth of nanocrystalline materials is generally thermally activated, but can also be driven by irradiation at much lower temperature. In nanocrystalline ceria and zirconia, energetic ions deposit their energy to both atomic nuclei and electrons. Our experimental results have shown that irradiationinduced grain growth is dependent on the total energy deposited, where electronic energy loss and elastic collisions between atomic nuclei both contribute to the production of disorder and grain growth. Our atomistic simulations reveal that a high density of disorder near grain boundaries leads to locally rapid grain movement. The additive effect from both electronic excitation and atomic collision cascades on grain growth demonstrated in this work opens up new possibilities for controlling grain sizes to improve functionality of nanocrystalline materials.

  13. Electron residual energy due to stochastic heating in field-ionized plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Khalilzadeh, Elnaz; Yazdanpanah, Jam Chakhmachi, Amir; Jahanpanah, Jafar; Yazdani, Elnaz

    2015-11-15

    The electron residual energy originated from the stochastic heating in under-dense field-ionized plasma is investigated here. Initially, the optical response of plasma is modeled by using two counter-propagating electromagnetic waves. In this case, the solution of motion equation of a single electron indicates that by including the ionization, the electron with higher residual energy compared with that without ionization could be obtained. In agreement with chaotic nature of the motion, it is found that the electron residual energy will be significantly changed by applying a minor change in the initial conditions. Extensive kinetic 1D-3V particle-in-cell simulations have been performed in order to resolve full plasma reactions. In this way, two different regimes of plasma behavior are observed by varying the pulse length. The results indicate that the amplitude of scattered fields in a proper long pulse length is high enough to act as a second counter-propagating wave and trigger the stochastic electron motion. On the contrary, the analyses of intensity spectrum reveal the fact that the dominant scattering mechanism tends to Thomson rather than Raman scattering by increasing the pulse length. A covariant formalism is used to describe the plasma heating so that it enables us to measure electron temperature inside and outside of the pulse region.

  14. ELECTRON ENERGY PARTITION IN THE ABOVE-THE-LOOPTOP SOLAR HARD X-RAY SOURCES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oka, Mitsuo; Krucker, Säm; Hudson, Hugh S.; Saint-Hilaire, Pascal

    2015-02-01

    Solar flares produce non-thermal electrons with energies up to tens of MeVs. To understand the origin of energetic electrons, coronal hard X-ray (HXR) sources, in particular above-the-looptop sources, have been studied extensively. However, it still remains unclear how energies are partitioned between thermal and non-thermal electrons within the above-the-looptop source. Here we show that the kappa distribution, when compared to conventional spectral models, can better characterize the above-the-looptop HXRs (≳15 keV) observed in four different cases. The widely used conventional model (i.e., the combined thermal plus power-law distribution) can also fit the data, but it returns unreasonable parameter values due to a non-physical sharp lower-energy cutoff E{sub c}. In two cases, extreme-ultraviolet data were available from SDO/AIA and the kappa distribution was still consistent with the analysis of differential emission measure. Based on the kappa distribution model, we found that the 2012 July 19 flare showed the largest non-thermal fraction of electron energies about 50%, suggesting equipartition of energies. Considering the results of particle-in-cell simulations, as well as density estimates of the four cases studied, we propose a scenario in which electron acceleration is achieved primarily by collisionless magnetic reconnection, but the electron energy partition in the above-the-looptop source depends on the source density. In low-density above-the-looptop regions (few times 10{sup 9} cm{sup –3}), the enhanced non-thermal tail can remain and a prominent HXR source is created, whereas in higher-densities (>10{sup 10} cm{sup –3}), the non-thermal tail is suppressed or thermalized by Coulomb collisions.

  15. A novel low energy electron microscope for DNA sequencing and surface analysis

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Mankos, M.; Shadman, K.; Persson, H. H. J.; N’Diaye, A. T.; Schmid, A. K.; Davis, R. W.

    2014-01-31

    Monochromatic, aberration-corrected, dual-beam low energy electron microscopy (MAD-LEEM) is a novel technique that is directed towards imaging nanostructures and surfaces with sub-nanometer resolution. The technique combines a monochromator, a mirror aberration corrector, an energy filter, and dual beam illumination in a single instrument. The monochromator reduces the energy spread of the illuminating electron beam, which significantly improves spectroscopic and spatial resolution. Simulation results predict that the novel aberration corrector design will eliminate the second rank chromatic and third and fifth order spherical aberrations, thereby improving the resolution into the sub-nanometer regime at landing energies as low as one hundred electron-Volts.more » The energy filter produces a beam that can extract detailed information about the chemical composition and local electronic states of non-periodic objects such as nanoparticles, interfaces, defects, and macromolecules. The dual flood illumination eliminates charging effects that are generated when a conventional LEEM is used to image insulating specimens. A potential application for MAD-LEEM is in DNA sequencing, which requires high resolution to distinguish the individual bases and high speed to reduce the cost. The MAD-LEEM approach images the DNA with low electron impact energies, which provides nucleobase contrast mechanisms without organometallic labels. Furthermore, the micron-size field of view when combined with imaging on the fly provides long read lengths, thereby reducing the demand on assembling the sequence. Finally, experimental results from bulk specimens with immobilized single-base oligonucleotides demonstrate that base specific contrast is available with reflected, photo-emitted, and Auger electrons. Image contrast simulations of model rectangular features mimicking the individual nucleotides in a DNA strand have been developed to translate measurements of contrast on bulk DNA to the

  16. Ultraviolet stimulated electron source for use with low energy plasma instrument calibration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Henderson, Kevin; Harper, Ron; Funsten, Herb; MacDonald, Elizabeth [Space Science and Applications, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States)

    2012-07-15

    We have developed and demonstrated a versatile, compact electron source that can produce a mono-energetic electron beam up to 50 mm in diameter from 0.1 to 30 keV with an energy spread of <10 eV. By illuminating a metal cathode plate with a single near ultraviolet light emitting diode, a spatially uniform electron beam with 15% variation over 1 cm{sup 2} can be generated. A uniform electric field in front of the cathode surface accelerates the electrons into a beam with an angular divergence of <1 Degree-Sign at 1 keV. The beam intensity can be controlled from 10 to 10{sup 9} electrons cm{sup -2} s{sup -1}.

  17. Systematic low-energy effective field theory for electron-doped antiferromagnets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bruegger, C.; Kaempfer, F.; Moser, M.; Wiese, U.-J.; Hofmann, C. P.; Pepe, M.

    2007-06-01

    In contrast to hole-doped systems which have hole pockets centered at ({+-}({pi}/2a),{+-}({pi}/2a)), in lightly electron-doped antiferromagnets the charged quasiparticles reside in momentum space pockets centered at (({pi}/a),0) or (0,({pi}/a)). This has important consequences for the corresponding low-energy effective field theory of magnons and electrons which is constructed in this paper. In particular, in contrast to the hole-doped case, the magnon-mediated forces between two electrons depend on the total momentum P-vector of the pair. For P-vector=0, the one-magnon exchange potential between two electrons at distance r is proportional to 1/r{sup 4}, while in the hole case, it has a 1/r{sup 2} dependence. The effective theory predicts that spiral phases are absent in electron-doped antiferromagnets.

  18. Production of energetic neutral particles and low energy electrons from four anode rods ion source

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mostafa, O. A.; El-Khabeary, H.; Abdel Reheem, A. M.

    2013-11-15

    The factors affecting the energetic neutral current, the low energy electron current, and the positive ion current emerging from a four-anode-rods ion source have been studied using argon gas. The neutral and electron current were measured using a simple, new technique. It was found that the energetic neutral current and the electron current depend on the positive ion current and the gas pressure. The ratio of the neutral and electron current to the positive ion current increases by increasing the gas pressure. Also it was found that at a pressure equal to 9 10{sup ?4} mmHg, the ratio of the neutral to the positive ion current reaches 2.34 while the ratio of the electron current to the positive ion current reaches 1.7.

  19. Electronic Atlas Maps U.S. Renewable Energy Resources - News Releases |

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    NREL Electronic Atlas Maps U.S. Renewable Energy Resources January 6, 2012 A new geospatial application developed by the U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) allows users to easily and accurately map potential renewable energy resources in the United States. The interactive tool, RE Atlas, is free to use and available online at http://maps.nrel.gov/re_atlas. "Ease of use and breadth of data make RE Atlas an excellent tool for policymakers, planners,

  20. Microelectrode for energy and current control of nanotip field electron emitters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lüneburg, S.; Müller, M. Paarmann, A. Ernstorfer, R.

    2013-11-18

    Emerging experiments and applications in electron microscopy, holography, and diffraction benefit from miniaturized electron guns for compact experimental setups. We present a highly compact microelectrode integrated field emitter that consists of a tungsten nanotip coated with a few micrometers thick polyimide film followed by a several nanometers thick gold film, both positioned behind the exposed emitter apex by approximately 10–30 μm. The control of the electric field strength at the nanometer scale tip apex allows suppression, extraction, and energy tuning of field-emitted electrons. The performance of the microelectrode is demonstrated experimentally and supported by numerical simulations.

  1. Low-energy run of Fermilab Electron Cooler's beam generation system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Prost, Lionel; Shemyakin, Alexander; Fedotov, Alexei; Kewisch, Jorg; /Brookhaven

    2010-08-01

    As a part of a feasibility study of using the Fermilab Electron Cooler for a low-energy Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) run at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), the cooler operation at 1.6 MeV electron beam energy was tested in a short beam line configuration. The main result of the study is that the cooler beam generation system is suitable for BNL needs. In a striking difference with running 4.3 MeV beam, no unprovoked beam recirculation interruptions were observed.

  2. Low energy antineutrino detection using neutrino capture on electron capture decaying nuclei

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cocco, Alfredo G.; Mangano, Gianpiero; Messina, Marcello

    2009-03-01

    In this paper we present a study of the interaction of a low energy electron antineutrino on nuclei that undergo electron capture. We show that the two corresponding crossed reactions have a sizable cross section and are both suitable for detection of low energy antineutrino. However, only in the case where very specific conditions on the Q value of the decay are met or significant improvements on the performances of ion storage rings are achieved, these reactions could be exploited in the future to address the long standing problem of a direct detection of cosmological neutrino background.

  3. Solar energy conversion via hot electron internal photoemission in metallic nanostructures: Efficiency estimates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leenheer, Andrew J.; Narang, Prineha; Atwater, Harry A.; Lewis, Nathan S.

    2014-04-07

    Collection of hot electrons generated by the efficient absorption of light in metallic nanostructures, in contact with semiconductor substrates can provide a basis for the construction of solar energy-conversion devices. Herein, we evaluate theoretically the energy-conversion efficiency of systems that rely on internal photoemission processes at metal-semiconductor Schottky-barrier diodes. In this theory, the current-voltage characteristics are given by the internal photoemission yield as well as by the thermionic dark current over a varied-energy barrier height. The Fowler model, in all cases, predicts solar energy-conversion efficiencies of <1% for such systems. However, relaxation of the assumptions regarding constraints on the escape cone and momentum conservation at the interface yields solar energy-conversion efficiencies as high as 1%10%, under some assumed (albeit optimistic) operating conditions. Under these conditions, the energy-conversion efficiency is mainly limited by the thermionic dark current, the distribution of hot electron energies, and hot-electron momentum considerations.

  4. OSTIblog Articles in the electronic access Topic | OSTI, US Dept of Energy

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information electronic access Topic Customized Services for the Department of Energy Research Community by Debbie Nuchols 16 Jul, 2009 in Products and Content While the majority of the Office of Scientific and Technical Information's (OSTI) activities are focused on making the Department of Energy's (DOE) scientific and technical information widely accessible, OSTI also provides special services to the Department and its contractor community. For example,

  5. Neutral beamline with ion energy recovery based on magnetic blocking of electrons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stirling, W.L.

    1980-07-01

    A neutral beamline generator with energy recovery of the full-energy ion component of the beam based on magnetic blocking of electrons is provided. Ions from a positive ion source are accelerated to the desired beam energy from a slightly positive potential level with respect to ground through a neutralizer cell by means of a negative acceleration voltage. The unneutralized full-energy ion component of the beam exiting the neutralizer are retarded and slightly deflected and the elecrons in the neutralizer are blocked by a magnetic field generated transverse to the beamline. An electron collector in the form of a coaxial cylinder surrounding and protruding axial a few centimeters beyond the neutralizer exit terminates the electrons which exit the neutralizer in an E x B drift to the collector when the collector is biased a few hundred volts positive with respect to the neutralizer voltage. The neutralizer is operated at the negative acceleration voltage. The neutralizer is operated at the negative acceleration voltage, and the deflected full energy ions are decelerated and the charge collected at ground potential thereby expending none of their energy received from the acceleration power supply.

  6. Energy-loss- and thickness-dependent contrast in atomic-scale electron energy-loss spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tan, Haiyan; Zhu, Ye; Dwyer, Christian; Xin, Huolin L.

    2014-12-31

    Atomic-scale elemental maps of materials acquired by core-loss inelastic electron scattering often exhibit an undesirable sensitivity to the unavoidable elastic scattering, making the maps counter-intuitive to interpret. Here, we present a systematic study that scrutinizes the energy-loss and sample-thickness dependence of atomic-scale elemental maps acquired using 100 keV incident electrons in a scanning transmission electron microscope. For single-crystal silicon, the balance between elastic and inelastic scattering means that maps generated from the near-threshold Si-L signal (energy loss of 99 eV) show no discernible contrast for a thickness of 0.5? (? is the electron mean-free path, here approximately 110 nm). At greater thicknesses we observe a counter-intuitive negative contrast. Only at much higher energy losses is an intuitive positive contrast gradually restored. Our quantitative analysis shows that the energy-loss at which a positive contrast is restored depends linearly on the sample thickness. This behavior is in very good agreement with our double-channeling inelastic scattering calculations. We test a recently-proposed experimental method to correct the core-loss inelastic scattering and restore an intuitive positive chemical contrast. The method is demonstrated to be reliable over a large range of energy losses and sample thicknesses. The corrected contrast for near-threshold maps is demonstrated to be (desirably) inversely proportional to sample thickness. As a result, implications for the interpretation of atomic-scale elemental maps are discussed.

  7. Energy-loss- and thickness-dependent contrast in atomic-scale electron energy-loss spectroscopy

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Tan, Haiyan; Zhu, Ye; Dwyer, Christian; Xin, Huolin L.

    2014-12-31

    Atomic-scale elemental maps of materials acquired by core-loss inelastic electron scattering often exhibit an undesirable sensitivity to the unavoidable elastic scattering, making the maps counter-intuitive to interpret. Here, we present a systematic study that scrutinizes the energy-loss and sample-thickness dependence of atomic-scale elemental maps acquired using 100 keV incident electrons in a scanning transmission electron microscope. For single-crystal silicon, the balance between elastic and inelastic scattering means that maps generated from the near-threshold Si-L signal (energy loss of 99 eV) show no discernible contrast for a thickness of 0.5λ (λ is the electron mean-free path, here approximately 110 nm). Atmore » greater thicknesses we observe a counter-intuitive “negative” contrast. Only at much higher energy losses is an intuitive “positive” contrast gradually restored. Our quantitative analysis shows that the energy-loss at which a positive contrast is restored depends linearly on the sample thickness. This behavior is in very good agreement with our double-channeling inelastic scattering calculations. We test a recently-proposed experimental method to correct the core-loss inelastic scattering and restore an intuitive “positive” chemical contrast. The method is demonstrated to be reliable over a large range of energy losses and sample thicknesses. The corrected contrast for near-threshold maps is demonstrated to be (desirably) inversely proportional to sample thickness. As a result, implications for the interpretation of atomic-scale elemental maps are discussed.« less

  8. Unfolding the high energy electron flux from CRRES fluxmeter measurements. Master`s thesis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McKellar, B.D.

    1996-12-01

    The Combined Release and Radiation Effects Satellite (CRRES) was launched on 25 July 1990 to collect measurements in the earth`s radiation belts. One instrument, the High Energy Electron Fluxmeter (HEEF), measured the flux of electrons in 10 channels with energies between 1 MeV and 10 MeV. The channel sensitivities, Ri(E), have been calibrated and partially re-calibrated. The authors explore the errors introduced in unfolding the electron flux spectrum from the channel measurements and the propagation and growth of calibration and measurement errors. Using numerical experimentation, they fold the responses with known spectra to obtain simulated measurements, add random measurement and calibration errors, and unfold the spectra as 10-bin histograms which are compared with histograms of the original spectra. The authors observe that the shape (of the response functions) is the major factor in the growth of error in unfolding and in determining which type of error dominates the unfolding process. They conclude that successful unfolding of the electron flux is critically dependent upon the shape of the response functions. The re-calibration of the REEF must be accurately completed if reliable unfolds of the high energy electron flux are to be obtained.

  9. Scaled Opposite Spin Second Order Moller-Plesset Correlation Energy: An Economical Electronic Structure Method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jung, Yousung; Lochan, Rohini C.; Dutoi, Anthony D.; Head-Gordon, Martin

    2004-08-02

    A simplified approach to treating the electron correlation energy is suggested in which only the alpha-beta component of the second order Moller-Plesset energy is evaluated, and then scaled by an empirical factor which is suggested to be 1.3. This scaled opposite spin second order energy (SOS-MP2) yields results for relative energies and derivative properties that are statistically improved over the conventional MP2 method. Furthermore, the SOS-MP2 energy can be evaluated without the 5th order computational steps associated with MP2 theory, even without exploiting any spatial locality. A 4th order algorithm is given for evaluating the opposite spin MP2 energy using auxiliary basis expansions, and a Laplace approach, and timing comparisons are given.

  10. Measurement of runaway electron energy distribution function during high-Z gas injection into runaway electron plateaus in DIII-D

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hollmann, E. M.; Moyer, R. A.; Rudakov, D. L.; Parks, P. B.; Eidietis, N. W.; Paz-Soldan, C.; Commaux, N.; Shiraki, D.; Austin, M. E.; Lasnier, C. J.

    2015-05-15

    The evolution of the runaway electron (RE) energy distribution function f{sub ε} during massive gas injection into centered post-disruption runaway electron plateaus has been reconstructed. Overall, f{sub ε} is found to be much more skewed toward low energy than predicted by avalanche theory. The reconstructions also indicate that the RE pitch angle θ is not uniform, but tends to be large at low energies and small θ ∼ 0.1–0.2 at high energies. Overall power loss from the RE plateau appears to be dominated by collisions with background free and bound electrons, leading to line radiation. However, the drag on the plasma current appears to be dominated by collisions with impurity ions in most cases. Synchrotron emission appears not to be significant for overall RE energy dissipation but may be important for limiting the peak RE energy.

  11. Exploring the vibrational fingerprint of the electronic excitation energy via molecular dynamics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Deyne, Andy Van Yperen-De; Pauwels, Ewald; Ghysels, An; Waroquier, Michel; Van Speybroeck, Veronique; Hemelsoet, Karen; De Meyer, Thierry; Department of Textiles, Ghent University, Technologiepark 907, 9052 Zwijnaarde ; De Clerck, Karen

    2014-04-07

    A Fourier-based method is presented to relate changes of the molecular structure during a molecular dynamics simulation with fluctuations in the electronic excitation energy. The method implies sampling of the ground state potential energy surface. Subsequently, the power spectrum of the velocities is compared with the power spectrum of the excitation energy computed using time-dependent density functional theory. Peaks in both spectra are compared, and motions exhibiting a linear or quadratic behavior can be distinguished. The quadratically active motions are mainly responsible for the changes in the excitation energy and hence cause shifts between the dynamic and static values of the spectral property. Moreover, information about the potential energy surface of various excited states can be obtained. The procedure is illustrated with three case studies. The first electronic excitation is explored in detail and dominant vibrational motions responsible for changes in the excitation energy are identified for ethylene, biphenyl, and hexamethylbenzene. The proposed method is also extended to other low-energy excitations. Finally, the vibrational fingerprint of the excitation energy of a more complex molecule, in particular the azo dye ethyl orange in a water environment, is analyzed.

  12. Plasma response to electron energy filter in large volume plasma device

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sanyasi, A. K.; Awasthi, L. M.; Mattoo, S. K.; Srivastava, P. K.; Singh, S. K.; Singh, R.; Kaw, P. K. [Institute for Plasma Research, Gandhinagar, 382 428 Gujarat (India)] [Institute for Plasma Research, Gandhinagar, 382 428 Gujarat (India)

    2013-12-15

    An electron energy filter (EEF) is embedded in the Large Volume Plasma Device plasma for carrying out studies on excitation of plasma turbulence by a gradient in electron temperature (ETG) described in the paper of Mattoo et al. [S. K. Mattoo et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 255007 (2012)]. In this paper, we report results on the response of the plasma to the EEF. It is shown that inhomogeneity in the magnetic field of the EEF switches on several physical phenomena resulting in plasma regions with different characteristics, including a plasma region free from energetic electrons, suitable for the study of ETG turbulence. Specifically, we report that localized structures of plasma density, potential, electron temperature, and plasma turbulence are excited in the EEF plasma. It is shown that structures of electron temperature and potential are created due to energy dependence of the electron transport in the filter region. On the other hand, although structure of plasma density has origin in the particle transport but two distinct steps of the density structure emerge from dominance of collisionality in the source-EEF region and of the Bohm diffusion in the EEF-target region. It is argued and experimental evidence is provided for existence of drift like flute Rayleigh-Taylor in the EEF plasma.

  13. Competing Effects Of Electronic And Nuclear Energy Loss On Microstructural Evolution In Ionic-covalent Materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Yanwen; Varga, Tamas; Ishimaru, Manabu; Edmondson, P. D.; Xue, H.; Liu, Peng; Moll, Sandra; Hardiman, Christopher M.; Shannon, Steven; Weber, William J.

    2014-05-01

    Ever increasing energy needs have raised the demands for advanced fuels and cladding materials that withstand the extreme radiation environments with improved accident tolerance over a long period of time. Ceria (CeO2) is a well known ionic conductor that is isostructural with urania and plutonia-based nuclear fuels. In the context of nuclear fuels, immobilization and transmutation of actinides, CeO2 is a model system for radiation effect studies. Covalent silicon carbide (SiC) is a candidate for use as structural material in fusion, cladding material for fission reactors, and an inert matrix for the transmutation of plutonium and other radioactive actinides. Understanding microstructural change of these ionic-covalent materials to irradiation is important for advanced nuclear energy systems. While displacements from nuclear energy loss may be the primary contribution to damage accumulation in a crystalline matrix and a driving force for the grain boundary evolution in nanostructured materials, local non-equilibrium disorder and excitation through electronic While displacements from nuclear energy loss may be the primary contribution to damage accumulation in a crystalline matrix and a driving force for the grain boundary evolution in nanostructured materials, local non-equilibrium disorder and excitation through electronic energy loss may, however, produce additional damage or anneal pre-existing defect. At intermediate transit energies where electronic and nuclear energy losses are both significant, synergistic, additive or competitive processes may evolve that affect the dynamic response of materials to irradiation. The response of crystalline and nanostructured CeO2 and SiC to ion irradiation are studied under different nuclear and electronic stopping powers to describe some general material response in this transit energy regime. Although fast radiation-induced grain growth in CeO2 is evident with no phase transformation, different fluence and dose dependence

  14. Optimal electron, phonon, and magnetic characteristics for low energy thermally induced magnetization switching

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Atxitia, U.; Ostler, T. A.; Chantrell, R. W.; Chubykalo-Fesenko, O.

    2015-11-09

    Using large-scale computer simulations, we thoroughly study the minimum energy required to thermally induced magnetization switching (TIMS) after the application of a femtosecond heat pulse in transition metal-rare earth ferrimagnetic alloys. We find that for an energy efficient TIMS, a low ferrimagnetic net magnetization with a strong temperature dependence is the relevant factor for the magnetic system. For the lattice and electron systems, the key physics for efficient TIMS is a large electron-phonon relaxation time. Importantly, we show that as the cooling time of the heated electrons is increased, the minimum power required to produce TIMS can be reduced by an order of magnitude. Our results show the way to low power TIMS by appropriate engineering of magnetic heterostructures.

  15. Using Wireless Power Meters to Measure Energy Use of Miscellaneous and Electronic Devices in Buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    UC Berkeley, Berkeley, CA USA; Brown, Richard; Lanzisera, Steven; Cheung, Hoi Ying; Lai, Judy; Jiang, Xiaofan; Dawson-Haggerty, Stephen; Taneja, Jay; Ortiz, Jorge; Culler, David

    2011-05-24

    Miscellaneous and electronic devices consume about one-third of the primary energy used in U.S. buildings, and their energy use is increasing faster than other end-uses. Despite the success of policies, such as Energy Star, that promote more efficient miscellaneous and electronic products, much remains to be done to address the energy use of these devices if we are to achieve our energy and carbon reduction goals. Developing efficiency strategies for these products depends on better data about their actual usage, but very few studies have collected field data on the long-term energy used by a large sample of devices due to the difficulty and expense of collecting device-level energy data. This paper describes the development of an improved method for collecting device-level energy and power data using small, relatively inexpensive wireless power meters. These meters form a mesh network based on Internet standard protocols and can form networks of hundreds of metering points in a single building. Because the meters are relatively inexpensive and do not require manual data downloading, they can be left in the field for months or years to collect long time-series energy use data. In addition to the metering technology, we also describe a field protocol used to collect comprehensive, robust data on the miscellaneous and electronic devices in a building. The paper presents sample results from several case study buildings, in which all the plug-in devices for several homes were metered, and a representative sample of several hundred plug-in devices in a commercial office building were metered for several months.

  16. Performance of large electron energy filter in large volume plasma device

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Singh, S. K.; Srivastava, P. K.; Awasthi, L. M.; Mattoo, S. K.; Sanyasi, A. K.; Kaw, P. K. [Institute for Plasma Research, Gandhinagar 382 428, Gujarat (India)] [Institute for Plasma Research, Gandhinagar 382 428, Gujarat (India); Singh, R. [Institute for Plasma Research, Gandhinagar 382 428, Gujarat (India) [Institute for Plasma Research, Gandhinagar 382 428, Gujarat (India); WCI Center for Fusion Theory, National Fusion Research Institute Gwahangno 113, Yu-seong-gu, Daejeon, 305-333 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-03-15

    This paper describes an in-house designed large Electron Energy Filter (EEF) utilized in the Large Volume Plasma Device (LVPD) [S. K. Mattoo, V. P. Anita, L. M. Awasthi, and G. Ravi, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72, 3864 (2001)] to secure objectives of (a) removing the presence of remnant primary ionizing energetic electrons and the non-thermal electrons, (b) introducing a radial gradient in plasma electron temperature without greatly affecting the radial profile of plasma density, and (c) providing a control on the scale length of gradient in electron temperature. A set of 19 independent coils of EEF make a variable aspect ratio, rectangular solenoid producing a magnetic field (B{sub x}) of 100?G along its axis and transverse to the ambient axial field (B{sub z} ? 6.2?G) of LVPD, when all its coils are used. Outside the EEF, magnetic field reduces rapidly to 1?G at a distance of 20 cm from the center of the solenoid on either side of target and source plasma. The EEF divides LVPD plasma into three distinct regions of source, EEF and target plasma. We report that the target plasma (n{sub e} ? 2 10{sup 11}?cm{sup ?3} and T{sub e} ? 2?eV) has no detectable energetic electrons and the radial gradients in its electron temperature can be established with scale length between 50?and?600 cm by controlling EEF magnetic field. Our observations reveal that the role of the EEF magnetic field is manifested by the energy dependence of transverse electron transport and enhanced transport caused by the plasma turbulence in the EEF plasma.

  17. Reciprocal space mapping by spot profile analyzing low energy electron diffraction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meyer zu Heringdorf, Frank-J.; Horn-von Hoegen, Michael

    2005-08-15

    We present an experimental approach for the recording of two-dimensional reciprocal space maps using spot profile analyzing low energy electron diffraction (SPA-LEED). A specialized alignment procedure eliminates the shifting of LEED patterns on the screen which is commonly observed upon variation of the electron energy. After the alignment, a set of one-dimensional sections through the diffraction pattern is recorded at different energies. A freely available software tool is used to assemble the sections into a reciprocal space map. The necessary modifications of the Burr-Brown computer interface of the two Leybold and Omicron type SPA-LEED instruments are discussed and step-by-step instructions are given to adapt the SPA 4.1d software to the changed hardware. Au induced faceting of 4 deg. vicinal Si(001) is used as an example to demonstrate the technique.

  18. Creation of transversely polarized high-energy electrons and positrons in crystals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baryshevskii, V.B.; Tikhomirov, V.V.

    1983-07-01

    It is shown that when high-energy ..gamma.. quanta pass through a crystal at small angles to the crystallographic planes (axes) a new phenomenon arises: creation of transversely polarized electrons and positrons by unpolarized ..gamma.. quanta. Estimates based on the theory developed in this paper for this phenomenon show that it can be used to obtain transversely polarized electrons and positrons with degree of polarization 50--90% and with energies of hundreds and thousands GeV in the case of incidence of the ..gamma.. quanta on atomic planes, and starting with an energy of several tens of GeV in the case of incidence on atomic axes. Concrete calculations are made of the polarization, number, and angular distributions of positrons produced by 350-GeV ..gamma.. quanta incident on the (110) family of planes of a tungsten plate of thickness 3 x 10 cm. The features of the manifestation of the described phenomenon in bent crystals are analyzed.

  19. Electron

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    density measurement by differential interferometry W. X. Ding, D. L. Brower, B. H. Deng, and T. Yates Electrical Engineering Department, University of California-Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California 90095 ͑Received 5 May 2006; presented on 10 May 2006; accepted 16 June 2006; published online 26 September 2006͒ A novel differential interferometer is being developed to measure the electron density gradient and its fluctuations. Two separate laser beams with slight spatial offset and frequency

  20. Energy levels, transition probabilities, and electron impact excitations for La XXX

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhong, J.Y. . E-mail: jyzhong@aphy.iphy.ac.cn; Zhao, G.; Zhang, J.

    2006-09-15

    energy levels, spontaneous radiative decay rates, and electron impact collision strengths are calculated for La XXX. The data refer to 107 fine-structure levels belonging to the configurations (1s{sup 2}2s{sup 2}2p{sup 6})3s{sup 2}3p{sup 6}3d{sup 10}, 3s{sup 2}3p{sup 6}3d{sup 9}4l, 3s{sup 2}3p{sup 5}3d{sup 10}4l, and 3s3p{sup 6}3d{sup 10}4l (l = s, p, d, f). The collision strengths are calculated with a 20-collision-energy grid in terms of the energy of the scattered electron between 10 and 10,000 eV by using the distorted-wave approximation. Effective collision strengths are obtained at seven electron temperatures: T {sub e} (eV) = 10, 100, 300, 500, 800, 1000, and 1500 by integrating the collision strengths over a Maxwellian electron distribution. Coupled with these atomic data, a hydrodynamic code MED103 can be used to simulate the Ni-like La X-ray laser at 8.8 nm.

  1. Electron

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Electron thermal transport within magnetic islands in the reversed-field pinch a... H. D. Stephens, 1,b͒ D. J. Den Hartog, 1,3 C. C. Hegna, 1,2 and J. A. Reusch 1 1 Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 1150 University Ave., Madison, Wisconsin 53706, USA 2 Department of Engineering Physics, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 1500 Engineering Drive, Madison, Wisconsin 53706, USA 3 Center for Magnetic Self-Organization in Laboratory and Astrophysical Plasmas, University of

  2. Electronic properties of graphene nano-flakes: Energy gap, permanent dipole, termination effect, and Raman spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Singh, Sandeep Kumar Peeters, F. M.; Neek-Amal, M.

    2014-02-21

    The electronic properties of graphene nano-flakes (GNFs) with different edge passivation are investigated by using density functional theory. Passivation with F and H atoms is considered: C{sub N{sub c}} X{sub N{sub x}} (X = F or H). We studied GNFs with 10 < N{sub c} < 56 and limit ourselves to the lowest energy configurations. We found that: (i) the energy difference Δ between the highest occupied molecular orbital and the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital decreases with N{sub c}, (ii) topological defects (pentagon and heptagon) break the symmetry of the GNFs and enhance the electric polarization, (iii) the mutual interaction of bilayer GNFs can be understood by dipole-dipole interaction which were found sensitive to the relative orientation of the GNFs, (iv) the permanent dipoles depend on the edge terminated atom, while the energy gap is independent of it, and (v) the presence of heptagon and pentagon defects in the GNFs results in the largest difference between the energy of the spin-up and spin-down electrons which is larger for the H-passivated GNFs as compared to F-passivated GNFs. Our study shows clearly the effect of geometry, size, termination, and bilayer on the electronic properties of small GNFs. This study reveals important features of graphene nano-flakes which can be detected using Raman spectroscopy.

  3. Nonlinear dust acoustic waves in a mixed nonthermal high energy-tail electron distribution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Younsi, Smain; Tribeche, Mouloud

    2008-07-15

    Large amplitude as well as weakly nonlinear dust acoustic waves in a mixed nonthermal high-energy-tail electron distribution are investigated. The effects of charge variation and electron deviation from Boltzmann distribution on the large amplitude dust acoustic soliton are then considered. The dust charge variation leads to an additional enlargement of the dust acoustic soliton, which is more pronounced as the electrons evolve far away from Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution. Under certain conditions, the dust charge fluctuation may provide an alternate physical mechanism causing anomalous dissipation, the strength of which becomes important and may prevail over that of dispersion as the suprathermal character of the plasma becomes important. The results complement and provide new insights into our previously published results on this problem [K. Aoutou, M. Tribeche, and T. H. Zerguini, Phys. Plasmas 15, 013702 (2008)].

  4. Intensity scaling of hot electron energy coupling in cone-guided fast ignition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chrisman, B.; Sentoku, Y.; Kemp, A. J.

    2008-05-15

    A critical issue for the fast ignition of inertial fusion targets, where compressed fuel is ignited by injection of an intense short laser pulse, is whether the hot electrons produced in the interaction are in an energy range conducive to efficient heating of the core. This work presents the first comprehensive two-dimensional kinetic simulation of the cone-guided approach to fast ignition. Simulation results predict the hot electron temperature to be much lower than previously expected, which indicates the possibility of using them for optimum core heating. Furthermore, the roles of collisional versus kinetic processes for transport and heating mechanisms of the core plasmas are clarified. The core heating efficiency scales linearly with intensity at ranges of 10{sup 19}-10{sup 20} W/cm{sup 2}, but falls below this range due to deflection of hot electrons in strong magnetic filaments behind the cone target.

  5. High Energy Electron Signals from Dark Matter Annihilation in the Sun

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schuster, Philip; Toro, Natalia; Weiner, Neal; Yavin, Itay; /New York U., CCPP

    2012-04-09

    In this paper we discuss two mechanisms by which high energy electrons resulting from dark matter annihilations in or near the Sun can arrive at the Earth. Specifically, electrons can escape the sun if DM annihilates into long-lived states, or if dark matter scatters inelastically, which would leave a halo of dark matter outside of the sun. Such a localized source of electrons may affect the spectra observed by experiments with narrower fields of view oriented towards the sun, such as ATIC, differently from those with larger fields of view such as Fermi. We suggest a simple test of these possibilities with existing Fermi data that is more sensitive than limits from final state radiation. If observed, such a signal will constitute an unequivocal signature of dark matter.

  6. HOT ELECTRON ENERGY DISTRIBUTIONS FROM ULTRA-INTENSE LASER SOLID INTERACTIONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, H; Wilks, S C; Kruer, W; Patel, P; Shepherd, R

    2008-10-08

    Measurements of electron energy distributions from ultra-intense (>10{sup 19} W/cm{sup 2}) laser-solid interactions using an electron spectrometer are presented. These measurements were performed on the Vulcan petawatt laser at Rutherford Appleton Laboratory and the Callisto laser at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The effective hot electron temperatures (T{sub hot}) have been measured for laser intensities (I{lambda}{sup 2}) from 10{sup 18} W/cm{sup 2} {micro}m{sup 2} to 10{sup 21} W/cm{sup 2} {micro}m{sup 2} for the first time, and T{sub hot} is found to increase as (I{lambda}{sup 2}){sup 0.34} {+-} 0.4. This scaling agrees well with the empirical scaling published by Beg et al. (1997), and is explained by a simple physical model that gives good agreement with experimental results and particle-in-cell simulations.

  7. Quantification of ordering at a solid-liquid interface using plasmon electron energy loss spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gandman, Maria; Kauffmann, Yaron; Kaplan, Wayne D.

    2015-02-02

    We present an in situ electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) study of ordering of liquid Al at various Al-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} interfaces. This technique utilizes precise measurements of the shifts in bulk plasmon resonance and their sensitivity to the valence electron density. Plasmon EELS combined with high resolution transmission electron microscopy provides information regarding the chemical composition in liquid Al at Al-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} interfaces. Preferential oxygen segregation to the (0006) Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} plane was verified, and the (101{sup ¯}2) Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} plane was found to contain the lowest amount of segregated species.

  8. Excitation of vibrational quanta in furfural by intermediate-energy electrons

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jones, D. B.; Neves, R. F. C.; Lopes, M. C. A.; Costa, R. F. da; Varella, M. T. do N.; Bettega, M. H. F.; Lima, M. A. P.; García, G.; and others

    2015-12-14

    We report cross sections for electron-impact excitation of vibrational quanta in furfural, at intermediate incident electron energies (20, 30, and 40 eV). The present differential cross sections are measured over the scattered electron angular range 10°–90°, with corresponding integral cross sections subsequently being determined. Furfural is a viable plant-derived alternative to petrochemicals, being produced via low-temperature plasma treatment of biomass. Current yields, however, need to be significantly improved, possibly through modelling, with the present cross sections being an important component of such simulations. To the best of our knowledge, there are no other cross sections for vibrational excitation of furfural available in the literature, so the present data are valuable for this important molecule.

  9. Fragment transition density method to calculate electronic coupling for excitation energy transfer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Voityuk, Alexander A.

    2014-06-28

    A general approach, the Fragment Transition Density (FTD) scheme, is introduced to estimate electronic coupling for excitation energy transfer in a molecular system. Within this method, the excitation energies and transition densities of the system are used to derive the coupling matrix element. The scheme allows one to treat systems where exciton donor and acceptor are close together and their exchange interaction and orbital overlap are significant. The FTD method can be applied in combination with any quantum mechanical approach to treat excited states of general nature including single-, double-, and higher excitations. Using FTD approach, we derive excitonic couplings for several systems computed with the CIS, TD DFT and MS-CASPT2 methods. In particular, it is shown that the estimated coupling values in DNA ?-stacks are strongly affected by the short-range electronic interaction of adjacent nucleobases.

  10. Electronic structure of nitinol surfaces oxidized by low-energy ion bombardment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Petravic, M. Varasanec, M.; Peter, R.; Kavre, I.; Metikos-Hukovic, M.; Yang, Y.-W.

    2014-06-28

    We have studied the electronic structure of nitinol exposed to low-energy oxygen-ion bombardment, using x-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS) and near-edge x-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) spectroscopy. XPS spectra reveal a gradual transformation of nitinol surfaces into TiO{sub 2} with increased dose of implanted oxygen. No oxidation of Ni atoms has been detected. NEXAFS spectra around O K-edge and Ti L{sub 2,3}-edge, reflecting the element-specific partial density of empty electronic states, exhibit features, which can be attributed to the creation of molecular orbitals, crystal field splitting, and the absence of long-range order, characteristic of the amorphous TiO{sub 2}. Based on these results, we discuss the oxidation kinetics of nitinol under low-energy oxygen-ion bombardment.

  11. Competing effects of electronic and nuclear energy loss on microstructural evolution in ionic-covalent materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Yanwen; Varga, Tamas; Ishimaru, Dr. Manabu; Edmondson, Dr. Philip; Xue, Haizhou; Liu, Peng; Moll, Sandra; Namavar, Fereydoon; Hardiman, Chris; Shannon, Prof. Steven; Weber, William J

    2014-01-01

    Ever increasing energy needs have raised the demands for advanced fuels and cladding materials that withstand the extreme radiation environments with improved accident tolerance over a long period of time. Ceria (CeO2) is a well known ionic conductor that is isostructural with urania and plutonia-based nuclear fuels. In the context of nuclear fuels, immobilization and transmutation of actinides, CeO2 is a model system for radiation effect studies. Covalent silicon carbide (SiC) is a candidate for use as structural material in fusion, cladding material for fission reactors, and an inert matrix for the transmutation of plutonium and other radioactive actinides. Understanding microstructural change of these ionic-covalent materials to irradiation is important for advanced nuclear energy systems. While displacements from nuclear energy loss may be the primary contribution to damage accumulation in a crystalline matrix and a driving force for the grain boundary evolution in nanostructured materials, local non-equilibrium disorder and excitation through electronic energy loss may, however, produce additional damage or anneal pre-existing defect. At intermediate transit energies where electronic and nuclear energy losses are both significant, synergistic, additive or competitive processes may evolve that affect the dynamic response of materials to irradiation. The response of crystalline and nanostructured CeO2 and SiC to ion irradiation are studied under different nuclear and electronic stopping powers to describe some general material response in this transit energy regime. Although fast radiation-induced grain growth in CeO2 is evident with no phase transformation, different fluence and dose dependence on the growth rate is observed under Si and Au irradiations. While grain shrinkage and amorphization are observed in the nano-engineered 3C SiC with a high-density of stacking faults embedded in nanosize columnar grains, significantly enhanced radiation resistance is

  12. Electron-impact excitation of xenon at incident energies between 15 and 80 eV

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Filipovic-acute-accent, D.; Marinkovic-acute-accent, B.; Pejcev, V.; Vuskovic-acute-accent, a.L.

    1988-01-15

    Normalized, absolute differential cross sections (DCS's) have been measured for the 20 lowest electronic states of xenon. Incident electron energies were 15, 20, 30, and 80 eV and the scattering angles ranged from 5/sup 0/ to 150/sup 0/. The energy resolution was 40 meV. Absolute elastic DCS's have been obtained by normalizing the relative values to the recently published absolute elastic DCS's by Register et al. (J. Phys. B 19, 1685 (1986)). Elastic-to-inelastic intensity ratios, at different incident energies for the 6s((3/2)/sub 1/ state were determined. These ratios were utilized as secondary standards to establish the absolute scale for the other inelastic processes in accordance with intensity ratios of lines in energy-loss spectra. The absolute inelastic DCS's were extrapolated to 0/sup 0/ and 180/sup 0/ and integrated to yield the integral cross sections (ICS's). A comparison of the present DCS's with the only available measurements at 20 eV impact energy shows satisfactory agreement in shape but considerable difference in absolute value.

  13. Live wires: direct extracellular electron exchange for bioenergy and the bioremediation of energy-related contamination

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lovley, DR

    2011-12-01

    Microorganisms that can form direct electrical connections with insoluble minerals, electrodes, or other microorganisms can play an important role in some traditional as well as novel bioenergy strategies and can be helpful in the remediation of environmental contamination resulting from the use of more traditional energy sources. The surprising discovery that microorganisms in the genus Geobacter are capable of forming highly conductive networks of filaments that transfer electrons along their length with organic metallic-like conductivity, rather than traditional molecule to molecule electron exchange, provides an explanation for the ability of Geobacter species to grow in subsurface environments with insoluble Fe(III) oxides as the electron acceptor, and effectively remediate groundwater contaminated with hydrocarbon fuels or uranium and similar contaminants associated with the mining and processing of nuclear fuel. A similar organic metallic-like conductivity may be an important mechanism for microorganisms to exchange electrons in syntrophic associations, such as those responsible for the conversion of organic wastes to methane in anaerobic digesters, a proven bioenergy technology. Biofilms with conductivities rivaling those of synthetic polymers help Geobacter species generate the high current densities in microbial fuel cells producing electric current from organic compounds. Electron transfer in the reverse direction, i.e. from electrodes to microbes, is the basis for microbial electrosynthesis, in which microorganisms reduce carbon dioxide to fuels and other useful organic compounds with solar energy in a form of artificial photosynthesis that is more efficient and avoids many of the environmental sustainability concerns associated with biomass-based bioenergy strategies. The ability of Geobacter species to produce highly conductive electronic networks that function in water opens new possibilities in the emerging field of bioelectronics.

  14. Crystal surface symmetry from zone-axis patterns in reflection high-energy-electron diffraction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shannon, M.D.; Eades, J.A.; Meichle, M.E.; Turner, P.S.; Buxton, B.F.

    1984-11-26

    New experimental techniques, sensitive to crystal surface symmetry, for reflection high-energy-electron diffraction have been developed and applied to the (001) surface of MgO. The techniques map the variation of the intensity of one or more diffracted beams as a function of the incident-beam orientation. The symmetry of these surface zone-axis patterns has been studied theoretically and confirmed experimentally. The techniques are expected to provide a sensitive means of surface characterization.

  15. Implications of high-energy photons and electrons on target preheat at Z

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Derzon, M.; Nash, T.; Chandler, G.

    1998-06-01

    High-energy photons and electrons on the Z accelerator will deposit energy into a capsule and fuel; this may create a potential preheat problem for ICF. In this paper the authors discuss heating of the capsule and fuel by high-energy photons and electrons. The fuel is heated to <2 eV, in a time-integrated sense, on Z by these particles. Because peak implosion occurs at the peak in the soft x-ray emission on Z, the heating at times of interest is reduced roughly an order of magnitude to {approximately}0.2 eV for times of interest and fuel preheat from this mechanism is concluded to be small. These estimates are generated from time-integrated bremsstrahlung measurements. The uncertainty in the heating is high because the electron spectrum is not known directly, but inferred. In addition the influence of the particles between 5 keV and 60 keV is not known. Given the uncertainties the authors do not know the impact on the feasibility of internal dynamic hohlraums on z-pinch driven ICF implosions on X-1. The authors discuss these issues and suggest directions for further study.

  16. Insight into the photoelectron angular dependent energy distribution of negative-electron-affinity InP photocathodes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Zhanghui; Jiang, Xiangwei; Dong, Shan; Li, Jingbo Li, Shushen; Wang, Linwang

    2014-01-13

    Energy distribution and angular distribution of the photoelectrons from InP photocathodes are investigated using a precise Monte Carlo model. It is found that ?-valley electrons contribute to the first peak of the energy distribution curve, but the second peak is contributed by both ?-valley and L-valley electrons rather than only L-valley electrons. L valley electrons are shown to have a smaller angular spread than ?-valley electrons, which is attributed to the much higher potential energy of L-valley minimum. The further simulation indicates that the performance of InP photocathodes can be improved by increasing the hole concentration or decreasing the temperature, but the activation layer thickness variation only has very slight influence on either energy or angular distribution.

  17. Radiation effects in nuclear materials: Role of nuclear and electronic energy losses and their synergy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomé, Lionel; Debelle, Aurelien; Garrido, Frederico; Mylonas, Stamatis; Décamps, B.; Bachelet, C.; Sattonnay, G.; Pellegrino, S.; Miro, S.; Trocellier, P.; Serruys, Y.; Velisa, G.; Grygiel, C.; Monnet, I.; Toulemonde, Marcel; Simon, P.; Jagielski, Jacek; Jozwik-Biala, Iwona; Nowicki, Lech; Behar, M.; Weber, William J; Zhang, Yanwen; Backman, Marie; Nordlund, Kai; Djurabekova, Flyura

    2013-01-01

    Ceramic oxides and carbides are promising matrices for the immobilization and/or transmutation of nuclear wastes, cladding materials for gas-cooled fission reactors and structural components for fusion reactors. For these applications there is a need of fundamental data concerning the behavior of nuclear ceramics upon irradiation. This article is focused on the presentation of a few remarkable examples regarding ion-beam modifications of nuclear ceramics with an emphasis on the mechanisms leading to damage creation and phase transformations. Results obtained by combining advanced techniques (Rutherford backscattering spectrometry and channeling, X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy) concern irradiations in a broad energy range (from keV to GeV) with the aim of exploring both nuclear collision (Sn) and electronic excitation (Se) regimes. Finally, the daunting challenge of the demonstration of the existence of synergistic effects between Sn and Se is tackled by discussing the healing due to intense electronic energy deposition (SHIBIEC) and by reporting results recently obtained in dual-beam irradiation (DBI) experiments.

  18. Semiconductor Nanotechnology: Novel Materials and Devices for Electronics, Photonics, and Renewable Energy Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goodnick, Stephen; Korkin, Anatoli; Krstic, Predrag S; Mascher, Peter; Preston, John; Zaslavsky, Alex

    2010-03-01

    Electronic and photonic information technology and renewable energy alternatives, such as solar energy, fuel cells and batteries, have now reached an advanced stage in their development. Cost-effective improvements to current technological approaches have made great progress, but certain challenges remain. As feature sizes of the latest generations of electronic devices are approaching atomic dimensions, circuit speeds are now being limited by interconnect bottlenecks. This has prompted innovations such as the introduction of new materials into microelectronics manufacturing at an unprecedented rate and alternative technologies to silicon CMOS architectures. Despite the environmental impact of conventional fossil fuel consumption, the low cost of these energy sources has been a long-standing economic barrier to the development of alternative and more efficient renewable energy sources, fuel cells and batteries. In the face of mounting environmental concerns, interest in such alternative energy sources has grown. It is now widely accepted that nanotechnology offers potential solutions for securing future progress in information and energy technologies. The Canadian Semiconductor Technology Conference (CSTC) forum was established 25 years ago in Ottawa as an important symbol of the intrinsic strength of the Canadian semiconductor research and development community, and the Canadian semiconductor industry as a whole. In 2007, the 13th CSTC was held in Montreal, moving for the first time outside the national capital region. The first three meetings in the series of Nano and Giga Challenges in Electronics and Photonics NGCM2002 in Moscow, NGCM2004 in Krakow, and NGC2007 in Phoenix were focused on interdisciplinary research from the fundamentals of materials science to the development of new system architectures. In 2009 NGC2009 and the 14th Canadian Semiconductor Technology Conference (CSTC2009) were held as a joint event, hosted by McMaster University (10 14 August

  19. Chopped sample heating for quantitative profile analysis of low energy electron diffraction spots at high temperatures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kury, P.; Zahl, P.; Horn-von Hoegen, M.; Voges, C.; Frischat, H.; Guenter, H.-L.; Pfnuer, H.; Henzler, M.

    2004-11-01

    Spot profile analysis low energy electron diffraction (SPA-LEED) is one of the most versatile and powerful methods for the determination of the structure and morphology of surfaces even at elevated temperatures. In setups where the sample is heated directly by an electric current, the resolution of the diffraction images at higher temperatures can be heavily degraded due to the inhomogeneous electric and magnetic fields around the sample. Here we present an easily applicable modification of the common data acquisition hardware of the SPA-LEED, which enables the system to work in a pulsed heating mode: Instead of heating the sample with a constant current, a square wave is used and electron counting is only performed when the current through the sample vanishes. Thus, undistorted diffration images can be acquired at high temperatures.

  20. A CW normal-conductive RF gun for free electron laser and energy recovery linac applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baptiste, Kenneth; Corlett, John; Kwiatkowski, Slawomir; Lidia, Steven; Qiang, Ji; Sannibale, Fernando; Sonnad, Kiran; Staples, John; Virostek, Steven; Wells, Russell

    2008-10-08

    Currently proposed energy recovery linac and high average power free electron laser projects require electron beam sources that can generate up to {approx} 1 nC bunch charges with less than 1 mmmrad normalized emittance at high repetition rates (greater than {approx} 1 MHz). Proposed sources are based around either high voltage DC or microwave RF guns, each with its particular set of technological limits and system complications. We propose an approach for a gun fully based on mature RF and mechanical technology that greatly diminishes many of such complications. The concepts for such a source as well as the present RF and mechanical design are described. Simulations that demonstrate the beam quality preservation and transport capability of an injector scheme based on such a gun are also presented.

  1. The slingshot effect: A possible new laser-driven high energy acceleration mechanism for electrons

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fiore, Gaetano; Fedele, Renato; Angelis, Umberto de

    2014-11-15

    We show that under appropriate conditions the impact of a very short and intense laser pulse onto a plasma causes the expulsion of surface electrons with high energy in the direction opposite to the one of the propagations of the pulse. This is due to the combined effects of the ponderomotive force and the huge longitudinal field arising from charge separation (“slingshot effect”). The effect should also be present with other states of matter, provided the pulse is sufficiently intense to locally cause complete ionization. An experimental test seems to be feasible and, if confirmed, would provide a new extraction and acceleration mechanism for electrons, alternative to traditional radio-frequency-based or laser-wake-field ones.

  2. Earth's magnetic field as a radiator to detet cosmic ray electrons of energy >10/sup 12/ eV

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stephens, S.A.; Balasubrahmanyan, V.K.

    1983-10-01

    We have examined in detail the synchrotron emission by electrons of energy greater than a few TeV in the earth's magnetic field. The photon spectrum lies in the X-ray and ..gamma.. ray region. As the emission takes place in a narrow cone along the direction of the electron, the photons would be incident nearly along a straight line on a detector. This unique feature provides the signature to identify the electron unambiguously. The mean energy of the photons being proportional to the square of the electron energy allows us to determine the energy accurately. Though it may appear that one needs to know the arrival direction of electrons to obtain its energy, we have shown that an omnidirectional detector can be satisfactorily used to estimate the energy. We also show that the colleting power of the detector is a sensitive function of the area of the detector A, the energy of electron E/sub 0/, and the number of photons required to identify an electron n/sub ..gamma../; asymptotically the collecting power is proportional to A/sup 1.43/ E/sub 0/n/sub ..gamma..//sup -1.8/. An instrument, with an energy threshold for the detection of photons can be used to measure reliably the integral flux of electrons, even if it has limited energy resolution. We have calculated the event rate expected by using an ideal balloon-borne detector capable of detecting above 20 keV at 4 g cm/sup -2/ of atmospheric depth over Palestine Texas, and compared with the expected rates using instruments based on currently available techniques of detection.

  3. High-energy high-luminosity electron-ion collider eRHIC

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Litvinenko, V.N.; Ben-Zvi, I.; Hammons, L.; Hao, Y.; Webb, S.; et al

    2011-08-09

    In this paper, we describe a future electron-ion collider (EIC), based on the existing Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) hadron facility, with two intersecting superconducting rings, each 3.8 km in circumference. The replacement cost of the RHIC facility is about two billion US dollars, and the eRHIC will fully take advantage and utilize this investment. We plan adding a polarized 5-30 GeV electron beam to collide with variety of species in the existing RHIC accelerator complex, from polarized protons with a top energy of 325 GeV, to heavy fully-striped ions with energies up to 130 GeV/u. Brookhaven's innovative design, is based on one of the RHIC's hadron rings and a multi-pass energy-recovery linac (ERL). Using the ERL as the electron accelerator assures high luminosity in the 10{sup 33}-10{sup 34} cm{sup -2} sec{sup -1} range, and for the natural staging of eRHIC, with the ERL located inside the RHIC tunnel. The eRHIC will provide electron-hadron collisions in up to three interaction regions. We detail the eRHIC's performance in Section 2. Since first paper on eRHIC paper in 2000, its design underwent several iterations. Initially, the main eRHIC option (the so-called ring-ring, RR, design) was based on an electron ring, with the linac-ring (LR) option as a backup. In 2004, we published the detailed 'eRHIC 0th Order Design Report' including a cost-estimate for the RR design. After detailed studies, we found that an LR eRHIC has about a 10-fold higher luminosity than the RR. Since 2007, the LR, with its natural staging strategy and full transparency for polarized electrons, became the main choice for eRHIC. In 2009, we completed technical studies of the design and dynamics for MeRHIC with 3-pass 4 GeV ERL. We learned much from this evaluation, completed a bottom-up cost estimate for this $350M machine, but then shelved the design. In the same year, we turned again to considering the cost-effective, all-in-tunnel six-pass ERL for our design of the high

  4. Energy Department Awards $6 Million to Universities in Tennessee and Virginia to Advance Master's and Doctoral Training in Power Electronics

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) today announced the two universities selected to receive nearly $6 million to establish one or more graduate-level training programs for engineers in power electronics.

  5. Role of suprathermal electrons during nanosecond laser energy deposit in fused silica

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grua, P.; Hébert, D.; Lamaignère, L.; Rullier, J.-L.

    2014-08-25

    An accurate description of interaction between a nanosecond laser pulse and a wide band gap dielectric, such as fused silica, requires the understanding of energy deposit induced by temperature changes occurring in the material. In order to identify the fundamental processes involved in laser-matter interaction, we have used a 1D computational model that allows us to describe a wide set of physical mechanisms and intended for comparison with specially designed “1D experiments.” We have pointed out that suprathermal electrons are very likely implicated in heat conduction, and this assumption has allowed the model to reproduce the experiments.

  6. Low-energy electron diffraction study of the thermal expansion of Ag(111)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Soares, E.A.; Leatherman, G.S.; Diehl, R.D.; Van Hove, M.A.

    2000-05-19

    The temperature dependence of the first three interlayer distances of the Ag(111) surface was studied by low-energy electron diffraction (LEED) over the temperature range 128K to 723 K. The first three interlayer spacings and the effective Debye temperatures were extracted from the LEED analysis. At the lowest temperature, the first two interlayer spacings are slightly (0.5 percent) contracted. All three interlayer spacings increase with temperature, finally reaching expansions relative to the bulk of about 0.8 percent at the highest temperature studied. The effective surface Debye temperature is lowest for the outermost layer, increasing toward the bulk value for successive layers.

  7. Electronic-excitation energy transfer in heterogeneous dye solutions under laser excitation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Levshin, L.V.; Mukushev, B.T.; Saletskii, A.M.

    1995-10-01

    An experimental study has been made of electronic-excitation energy transfer (EEET) among dye molecules of different types for different exciting-fight wavelengths and temperatures. Upon selective laser excitation of the donor, the inhomogeneous broadening of molecular levels increases the probability of EEET from the donor to acceptor molecules. The efficiency of this process is directly proportional to the acceptor molecule concentration and is temperature dependent. The EEET is accompanied by the spectral migration of energy among donor molecules, which reduces the fluorescence quantum efficiency of the donor. Increasing the frequency of the exciting light decreases in the donor fluorescence quantum efficiency. An increase in the acceptor molecule concentration results in a decrease of the spectral migration of excitation in the donor molecule system. 5 refs., 5 figs.

  8. Fundamental studies of energy-and hole/electron- transfer in hydroporphyrin architectures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bocian, David F.

    2014-08-20

    The long-term objective of the Bocian/Holten/Lindsey research program is to design, synthesize, and characterize tetrapyrrole-based molecular architectures that absorb sunlight, funnel energy, and separate charge with high efficiency and in a manner compatible with current and future solar-energy conversion schemes. The synthetic tetrapyrroles include porphyrins and hydroporphyrins; the latter classes of molecules encompass analogues of the naturally occurring chlorophylls and bacteriochlorophylls (e.g., chlorins, bacteriochlorins, and their derivatives). The attainment of the goals of the research program requires the close interplay of molecular design and synthesis (Lindsey group), static and time-resolved optical spectroscopic measurements (Holten group), and electrochemical, electron paramagnetic resonance, and resonance Raman studies, as well as density functional theory calculations (Bocian Group). The proposed research encompasses four interrelated themes: (1) Determination of the rates of ground-state hole/electron transfer between (hydro)porphyrins in multipigment arrays as a function of array size, distance between components, linker type, site of linker connection, and frontier molecular orbital composition. (2) Examination of excited-state energy transfer among hydroporphyrins in multipigment arrrays, including both pairwise and non-adjacent transfer, with a chief aim to identify the relative contributions of through-space (Förster) and through-bond (Dexter) mechanisms of energy transfer, including the roles of site of linker connection and frontier molecular orbital composition. (3) Elucidation of the role of substituents in tuning the spectral and electronic properties of bacteriochlorins, with a primary aim of learning how to shift the long-wavelength absorption band deeper into the near-infrared region. (4) Continued development of the software package PhotochemCAD for spectral manipulations and calculations through the compilation of a database

  9. Elastic scattering of low-energy electrons by 1,4-dioxane

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barbosa, Alessandra Souza; Bettega, Mrcio H. F.

    2014-05-14

    We report calculated cross sections for elastic collisions of low-energy-electrons with 1,4-dioxane. Our calculations employed the Schwinger multichannel method with pseudopotentials and were carried out in the static-exchange and static-exchange plus polarization approximations for energies up to 30 eV. Our results show the presence of three shape resonances belonging to the B{sub u}, A{sub u}, and B{sub g} symmetries and located at 7.0 eV, 8.4 eV, and 9.8 eV, respectively. We also report the presence of a Ramsauer-Townsend minimum located at around 0.05 eV. We compare our calculated cross sections with experimental data and R-matrix and independent atom model along with the additivity rule corrected by using screening coefficients theoretical results for 1,4-dioxane obtained by Palihawadana et al. [J. Chem. Phys. 139, 014308 (2013)]. The agreement between the present and the R-matrix theoretical calculations of Palihawadana et al. is relatively good at energies below 10 eV. Our calculated differential cross sections agree well with the experimental data, showing only some discrepancies at higher energies.

  10. In Focus: Dented Diamonds, Carbon Cages, and Exceptional Potential | U.S.

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Department of Energy In Austin, Energy Secretary Moniz Announces New ARPA-E Solar Projects In Austin, Energy Secretary Moniz Announces New ARPA-E Solar Projects February 6, 2014 - 8:19am Addthis News Media Contact (202) 586-4940 Today, Energy Secretary Ernest Moniz is in Austin, Texas, to amplify President Obama's State of the Union remarks on energy and technology innovation. Find excerpts of the Secretary's remarks at the University of Texas at Austin as prepared for delivery and watch the

  11. Guiding of low-energy electrons by highly ordered Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanocapillaries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Milosavljevic, A. R.; Vikor, Gy.; Pesic, Z. D.; Kolarz, P.; Sevic, D.; Marinkovic, B. P.; Matefi-Tempfli, S.; Matefi-Tempfli, M.; Piraux, L.

    2007-03-15

    We report an experimental study of guided transmission of low-energy (200-350 eV) electrons through highly ordered Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanocapillaries with large aspect ratio (140 nm diameter and 15 {mu}m length). The nanochannel array was prepared using self-ordering phenomena during a two-step anodization process of a high-purity aluminum foil. The experimental results clearly show the existence of the guiding effect, as found for highly charged ions. The guiding of the electron beam was observed for tilt angles up to 12 degree sign . As seen for highly charged ions, the guiding efficiency increases with decreasing electron incident energy. The transmission efficiency appeared to be significantly lower than observed for highly charged ions and, moreover, the intensity of transmitted electrons significantly decreases with decreasing impact energy.

  12. Non-thermal electron acceleration in low Mach number collisionless shocks. I. Particle energy spectra and acceleration mechanism

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guo, Xinyi; Narayan, Ramesh; Sironi, Lorenzo

    2014-10-20

    Electron acceleration to non-thermal energies in low Mach number (M{sub s} ? 5) shocks is revealed by radio and X-ray observations of galaxy clusters and solar flares, but the electron acceleration mechanism remains poorly understood. Diffusive shock acceleration, also known as first-order Fermi acceleration, cannot be directly invoked to explain the acceleration of electrons. Rather, an additional mechanism is required to pre-accelerate the electrons from thermal to supra-thermal energies, so they can then participate in the Fermi process. In this work, we use two- and three-dimensional particle-in-cell plasma simulations to study electron acceleration in low Mach number shocks. We focus on the particle energy spectra and the acceleration mechanism in a reference run with M{sub s} = 3 and a quasi-perpendicular pre-shock magnetic field. We find that about 15% of the electrons can be efficiently accelerated, forming a non-thermal power-law tail in the energy spectrum with a slope of p ? 2.4. Initially, thermal electrons are energized at the shock front via shock drift acceleration (SDA). The accelerated electrons are then reflected back upstream where their interaction with the incoming flow generates magnetic waves. In turn, the waves scatter the electrons propagating upstream back toward the shock for further energization via SDA. In summary, the self-generated waves allow for repeated cycles of SDA, similarly to a sustained Fermi-like process. This mechanism offers a natural solution to the conflict between the bright radio synchrotron emission observed from the outskirts of galaxy clusters and the low electron acceleration efficiency usually expected in low Mach number shocks.

  13. Nuclear physics with a medium-energy Electron-Ion Collider

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    A. Accardi, V. Guzey, A. Prokudin, C. Weiss

    2012-06-01

    A polarized ep/eA collider (Electron-Ion Collider, or EIC) with variable center-of-mass energy {radical}s {approx} 20-70 GeV and a luminosity {approx}10{sup 34} cm{sup -2} s{sup -1} would be uniquely suited to address several outstanding questions of Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD) and the microscopic structure of hadrons and nuclei: (i) the three-dimensional structure of the nucleon in QCD (sea quark and gluon spatial distributions, orbital motion, polarization, correlations); (ii) the fundamental color fields in nuclei (nuclear parton densities, shadowing, coherence effects, color transparency); (iii) the conversion of color charge to hadrons (fragmentation, parton propagation through matter, in-medium jets). We briefly review the conceptual aspects of these questions and the measurements that would address them, emphasizing the qualitatively new information that could be obtained with the collider. Such a medium-energy EIC could be realized at Jefferson Lab after the 12 GeV Upgrade (MEIC), or at Brookhaven National Lab as the low-energy stage of eRHIC.

  14. Band gap and defect states of MgO thin films investigated using reflection electron energy loss spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heo, Sung; Cho, Eunseog; Lee, Hyung-Ik; Park, Gyeong Su; Kang, Hee Jae; Nagatomi, T.; Choi, Pyungho; Choi, Byoung-Deog

    2015-07-15

    The band gap and defect states of MgO thin films were investigated by using reflection electron energy loss spectroscopy (REELS) and high-energy resolution REELS (HR-REELS). HR-REELS with a primary electron energy of 0.3 keV revealed that the surface F center (FS) energy was located at approximately 4.2 eV above the valence band maximum (VBM) and the surface band gap width (E{sub g}{sup S}) was approximately 6.3 eV. The bulk F center (F{sub B}) energy was located approximately 4.9 eV above the VBM and the bulk band gap width was about 7.8 eV, when measured by REELS with 3 keV primary electrons. From a first-principles calculation, we confirmed that the 4.2 eV and 4.9 eV peaks were F{sub S} and F{sub B}, induced by oxygen vacancies. We also experimentally demonstrated that the HR-REELS peak height increases with increasing number of oxygen vacancies. Finally, we calculated the secondary electron emission yields (γ) for various noble gases. He and Ne were not influenced by the defect states owing to their higher ionization energies, but Ar, Kr, and Xe exhibited a stronger dependence on the defect states owing to their small ionization energies.

  15. ON THE ELECTRON ENERGY DISTRIBUTION INDEX OF SWIFT GAMMA-RAY BURST AFTERGLOWS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Curran, P. A.; De Pasquale, M.; Page, M. J.; Evans, P. A.; Van der Horst, A. J.

    2010-06-20

    The electron energy distribution index, p, is a fundamental parameter of the synchrotron emission from a range of astronomical sources. Here we examine one such source of synchrotron emission, gamma-ray burst (GRB) afterglows observed by the Swift satellite. Within the framework of the blast wave model, we examine the constraints placed on the distribution of p by the observed X-ray spectral indices and parameterize the distribution. We find that the observed distribution of spectral indices are inconsistent with an underlying distribution of p composed of a single discrete value but consistent with a Gaussian distribution centered at p = 2.36 and having a width of 0.59. Furthermore, accepting that the underlying distribution is a Gaussian, we find that the majority ({approx_gt}94%) of GRB afterglows in our sample have cooling break frequencies less than the X-ray frequency.

  16. Ballistic electrons in an open square geometry: Selective probing of resonant-energy states

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zozoulenko, I.V.; Schuster, R.; Berggren, K.-.; Ensslin, K.

    1997-04-01

    We report on the interplay between classical trajectories and quantum-mechanical effects in a square geometry. At low magnetic fields the four-terminal resistance is dominated by phenomena that depend on ballistic trajectories in a classical billiard. Superimposed on these classical effects are quantum interference effects manifested by highly periodic conductance oscillations. Numerical analysis shows that these oscillations are directly related to excitations of particular eigenstates in the square. In spite of open leads, transport through an open cavity is effectively mediated by just a few (or even a single) resonant-energy states. The leads injecting electrons into the cavity play a decisive role in a selection of the particular set of states excited in the dot. The above selection rule sets a specific frequency of the oscillations seen in the experiment. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  17. Low-Energy Electron Capture in Collisions of C3+ with He

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu, Y.; Qi, Y. Y.; Yan, J.; Wang, J. G.; Li, Y.; Buenker, R. J.; Kato, D.; Krstic, Predrag S

    2009-01-01

    Charge transfer processes due to collisions of ground-state C{sup 3+}(1s{sup 2}2s {sup 2}S) ions with He atoms are studied using the quantum-mechanical molecular-orbital close-coupling method for energies in the range 10{sup -4}-2 x 10{sup 3} eV/u. The ab initio adiabatic potentials and radial couplings utilized in the calculations are obtained from the multireference single- and double-excitation configuration interaction approach. Total and state-selective single-electron capture cross sections and rate coefficients are calculated and compared with the available experimental and theoretical data. A good agreement is found between the measured cross sections and the present calculations. However, the previous calculations of total rate coefficients using the Landau-Zener model are one to two orders of magnitude smaller than the present results.

  18. High intensity electron cyclotron resonance proton source for low energy high intensity proton accelerator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roychowdhury, P.; Chakravarthy, D. P.

    2009-12-15

    Electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) proton source at 50 keV, 50 mA has been designed, developed, and commissioned for the low energy high intensity proton accelerator (LEHIPA). Plasma characterization of this source has been performed. ECR plasma was generated with 400-1100 W of microwave power at 2.45 GHz, with hydrogen as working gas. Microwave was fed in the plasma chamber through quartz window. Plasma density and temperature was studied under various operating conditions, such as microwave power and gas pressure. Langmuir probe was used for plasma characterization using current voltage variation. The typical hydrogen plasma density and electron temperature measured were 7x10{sup 11} cm{sup -3} and 6 eV, respectively. The total ion beam current of 42 mA was extracted, with three-electrode extraction geometry, at 40 keV of beam energy. The extracted ion current was studied as a function of microwave power and gas pressure. Depending on source pressure and discharge power, more than 30% total gas efficiency was achieved. The optimization of the source is under progress to meet the requirement of long time operation. The source will be used as an injector for continuous wave radio frequency quadrupole, a part of 20 MeV LEHIPA. The required rms normalized emittance of this source is less than 0.2 {pi} mm mrad. The simulated value of normalized emittance is well within this limit and will be measured shortly. This paper presents the study of plasma parameters, first beam results, and the status of ECR proton source.

  19. Fast ignition: Dependence of the ignition energy on source and target parameters for particle-in-cell-modelled energy and angular distributions of the fast electrons

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bellei, C.; Divol, L.; Kemp, A. J.; Key, M. H.; Larson, D. J.; Strozzi, D. J.; Marinak, M. M.; Tabak, M.; Patel, P. K.

    2013-05-15

    The energy and angular distributions of the fast electrons predicted by particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations differ from those historically assumed in ignition designs of the fast ignition scheme. Using a particular 3D PIC calculation, we show how the ignition energy varies as a function of source-fuel distance, source size, and density of the pre-compressed fuel. The large divergence of the electron beam implies that the ignition energy scales with density more weakly than the ρ{sup −2} scaling for an idealized beam [S. Atzeni, Phys. Plasmas 6, 3316 (1999)], for any realistic source that is at some distance from the dense deuterium-tritium fuel. Due to the strong dependence of ignition energy with source-fuel distance, the use of magnetic or electric fields seems essential for the purpose of decreasing the ignition energy.

  20. Shenzhen Bang Bell Electronics Co Ltd BBE LED | Open Energy Informatio...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Bang Bell Electronics Co Ltd BBE LED Jump to: navigation, search Name: Shenzhen Bang-Bell Electronics Co Ltd (BBE LED) Place: Shenzhen, Guangdong Province, China Zip: 518110...

  1. Electronic-to-vibrational energy transfer from Br* to CO2 and electronic-to-vibrational laser feasibility studies. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Katapski, S.M.

    1992-11-01

    The energy transfer mechanism from photo-excited bromine atoms (Br(2P sub 1/2)) to C02 is investigated in a pulsed fluorescence experiment. An excimer-pumped pulsed dye laser operating at 480 nm is used to photolyze molecular bromine, resulting in the creation of one excited state bromine atom, Br(2P sub 1/2), and one ground state atom, Br(2P sub 3/2). The electronically-excited bromine atoms (referred to as Br*) collide with and excite vibrational modes in the ground electronic state of CO2. Measurements are made of the Br* lifetimes and associated quenching processes, and the electronic-to-vibrational (E yields V) energy transfer rate from Br* to CO2. The feasibility of subsequent stimulated emission from the CO2 on the (101)-(100)(4.3 micron) transition is studied, and attempts are made to achieve lasing. Limitations of the experimental apparatus prevented achieving stimulated emission on the 4.3 micron transition. Recommendations are made for improvements in the analysis and apparatus for further research.... Bromine, Spin-orbit relaxation, Quenching, E-V energy transfer.

  2. Chapter 6: Innovating Clean Energy Technologies in Advanced Manufacturing | Wide Bandgap Semiconductors for Power Electronics Technology Assessment

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Wide Bandgap Semiconductors for Power Electronics Chapter 6: Technology Assessments NOTE: This technology assessment is available as an appendix to the 2015 Quadrennial Technology Review (QTR). Wide Bandgap Semiconductors for Power Electronics is one of fourteen manufacturing-focused technology assessments prepared in support of Chapter 6: Innovating Clean Energy Technologies in Advanced Manufacturing. For context within the 2015 QTR, key connections between this technology assessment, other QTR

  3. Energy band alignment and electronic states of amorphous carbon surfaces in vacuo and in aqueous environment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Caro, Miguel A.; Mtt, Jukka; Lopez-Acevedo, Olga; Laurila, Tomi

    2015-01-21

    In this paper, we obtain the energy band positions of amorphous carbon (aC) surfaces in vacuum and in aqueous environment. The calculations are performed using a combination of (i) classical molecular dynamics (MD), (ii) Kohn-Sham density functional theory with the Perdew-Burke-Ernzerhof (PBE) exchange-correlation functional, and (iii) the screened-exchange hybrid functional of Heyd, Scuseria, and Ernzerhof (HSE). PBE allows an accurate generation of a-C and the evaluation of the local electrostatic potential in the a-C/water system, HSE yields an improved description of energetic positions which is critical in this case, and classical MD enables a computationally affordable description of water. Our explicit calculation shows that, both in vacuo and in aqueous environment, the a-C electronic states available in the region comprised between the H{sub 2}/H{sub 2}O and O{sub 2}/H{sub 2}O levels of water correspond to both occupied and unoccupied states within the a-C pseudogap region. These are localized states associated to sp{sup 2} sites in a-C. The band realignment induces a shift of approximately 300?meV of the a-C energy band positions with respect to the redox levels of water.

  4. Effect of multipole excitations in electron energy-loss spectroscopy of surface plasmon modes in silver nanowires

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhou, Xiuli; Norris, Theodore B.; Hörl, Anton; Trügler, Andreas; Hohenester, Ulrich; Herzing, Andrew A.

    2014-12-14

    We have characterized the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) in silver nanowires using spatially resolved electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) in the scanning transmission electron microscope. Non-symmetric EELS spectra due to high-k SPR propagation along the nanowire and spectral shifts due to higher-order mode excitation are observed when the beam is positioned near the tip of the nanowire. When the beam is far from the tip region and on the side of nanowire, no spectral shifts are observed as the beam is scanned in the radial direction of the nanowire. The experimental spectra are compared with three different theoretical approaches: direct numerical calculation of the energy loss, analytical models for energy loss, and numerical simulations using an optical model. All three models reproduce the spectral shifts as the electron beam approaches the cap of the nanowire. The analytical model reveals the origin of the shifts in high-order plasmon mode excitation.

  5. Excitonic splitting and coherent electronic energy transfer in the gas-phase benzoic acid dimer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ottiger, Philipp; Leutwyler, Samuel

    2012-11-28

    The benzoic acid dimer, (BZA){sub 2}, is a paradigmatic symmetric hydrogen bonded dimer with two strong antiparallel hydrogen bonds. The excitonic S{sub 1}/S{sub 2} state splitting and coherent electronic energy transfer within supersonically cooled (BZA){sub 2} and its {sup 13}C-, d{sub 1}-, d{sub 2}-, and {sup 13}C/d{sub 1}- isotopomers have been investigated by mass-resolved two-color resonant two-photon ionization spectroscopy. The (BZA){sub 2}-(h-h) and (BZA){sub 2}-(d-d) dimers are C{sub 2h} symmetric, hence only the S{sub 2} Leftwards-Arrow S{sub 0} transition can be observed, the S{sub 1} Leftwards-Arrow S{sub 0} transition being strictly electric-dipole forbidden. A single {sup 12}C/{sup 13}C or H/D isotopic substitution reduces the symmetry of the dimer to C{sub s}, so that the isotopic heterodimers (BZA){sub 2}-{sup 13}C, (BZA){sub 2}-(h-d), (BZA){sub 2}-(h{sup 13}C-d), and (BZA){sub 2}-(h-d{sup 13}C) show both S{sub 1} Leftwards-Arrow S{sub 0} and S{sub 2} Leftwards-Arrow S{sub 0} bands. The S{sub 1}/S{sub 2} exciton splitting inferred is {Delta}{sub exc}= 0.94 {+-} 0.1 cm{sup -1}. This is the smallest splitting observed so far for any H-bonded gas-phase dimer. Additional isotope-dependent contributions to the splittings, {Delta}{sub iso}, arise from the change of the zero-point vibrational energy upon electronic excitation and range from {Delta}{sub iso}= 3.3 cm{sup -1} upon {sup 12}C/{sup 13}C substitution to 14.8 cm{sup -1} for carboxy H/D substitution. The degree of excitonic localization/delocalization can be sensitively measured via the relative intensities of the S{sub 1} Leftwards-Arrow S{sub 0} and S{sub 2} Leftwards-Arrow S{sub 0} origin bands; near-complete localization is observed even for a single {sup 12}C/{sup 13}C substitution. The S{sub 1}/ S{sub 2} energy gap of (BZA){sub 2} is {Delta}{sub calc}{sup exc}=11 cm{sup -1} when calculated by the approximate second-order perturbation theory (CC2) method. Upon correction for vibronic

  6. Production of Highly Polarized Positrons Using Polarized Electrons at MeV Energies

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Abbott, D.; Adderley, P.; Adeyemi, A.; Aguilera, P.; Ali, M.; Areti, H.; Baylac, M.; Benesch, J.; Bosson, G.; Cade, B.; et al

    2016-05-27

    The Polarized Electrons for Polarized Positrons experiment at the injector of the Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility has demonstrated for the first time the efficient transfer of polarization from electrons to positrons produced by the polarized bremsstrahlung radiation induced by a polarized electron beam in a high-Z target. Positron polarization up to 82% have been measured for an initial electron beam momentum of 8.19~MeV/c, limited only by the electron beam polarization. We report that this technique extends polarized positron capabilities from GeV to MeV electron beams, and opens access to polarized positron beam physics to a wide community.

  7. Experimental study of magnetically confined hollow electron beams in the Tevatron as collimators for intense high-energy hadron beams

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stancari, G.; Annala, G.; Shiltsev, V.; Still, D.; Valishev, A.; Vorobiev, L.; /Fermilab

    2011-03-01

    Magnetically confined hollow electron beams for controlled halo removal in high-energy colliders such as the Tevatron or the LHC may extend traditional collimation systems beyond the intensity limits imposed by tolerable losses. They may also improve collimation performance by suppressing loss spikes due to beam jitter and by increasing capture efficiency. A hollow electron gun was designed and tested at Fermilab for this purpose. It was installed in one of the Tevatron electron lenses in the summer of 2010. We present the results of the first experimental tests of the hollow-beam collimation concept on 980-GeV antiproton bunches in the Tevatron.

  8. Reflection High-Energy Electron Diffraction Beam-Induced Structural and Property Changes on WO3 Thin Films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Du, Yingge; Zhang, Hongliang; Varga, Tamas; Chambers, Scott A.

    2014-08-08

    Reduction of transition metal oxides can greatly change their physical and chemical properties. Using deposition of WO3 as a case study, we demonstrate that reflection high-energy electron diffraction (RHEED), a surface-sensitive tool widely used to monitor thin-film deposition processes, can significantly affect the cation valence and physical properties of the films through electron-beam induced sample reduction. The RHEED beam is found to increase film smoothness during epitaxial growth of WO3, as well as change the electronic properties of the film through preferential removal of surface oxygen.

  9. Reflection high-energy electron diffraction beam-induced structural and property changes on WO{sub 3} thin films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Du, Y. Varga, T.; Zhang, K. H. L.; Chambers, S. A.

    2014-08-04

    Reduction of transition metal oxides can greatly change their physical and chemical properties. Using deposition of WO{sub 3} as a case study, we demonstrate that reflection high-energy electron diffraction (RHEED), a surface-sensitive tool widely used to monitor thin-film deposition processes, can significantly affect the cation valence and physical properties of the films through electron-beam induced sample reduction. The RHEED beam is found to increase film smoothness during epitaxial growth of WO{sub 3}, as well as change the electronic properties of the film through preferential removal of surface oxygen.

  10. Analysis of transient electron energy in a micro dielectric barrier discharge for a high performance plasma display panel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Uchida, Giichiro; Kajiyama, Hiroshi; Shinoda, Tsutae; Uchida, Satoshi

    2010-01-15

    We present here analysis of electron energy of a micro dielectric barrier discharge (micro-DBD) for alternating-current plasma display panel (ac-PDP) with Ne/Xe gas mixture by using the optical emission spectroscopy (OES). The OES method is quite useful to evaluate a variety of electron energy in a high pressure DBD ignited in a PDP small cell. Experiment shows that the ratio of Ne emission intensity (I{sub Ne}) relative to Xe emission intensity (I{sub Xe}) drastically decreases with time. This temporal profile is well consistent with dynamic behavior of electron temperature in a micro-DBD, calculated in one-dimensional fluid model. I{sub Ne}/I{sub Xe} also decreases with an increase in Xe gas pressure and a decrease in applied voltage especially in the initial stage of discharge, and these reflect the basic features of electron temperature in a micro-DBD. The influences of plasma parameters such as electron temperature on luminous efficacy are also theoretically analyzed using one-dimensional fluid model. The low electron temperature, which is attained at high Xe gas pressure, realizes the efficient Xe excitation for vacuum ultraviolet radiation. The high Xe-pressure condition also induces the rapid growth of discharge and consequent high plasma density, resulting in high electron heating efficiency.

  11. In the OSTI Collections: Free-Electron Lasers | OSTI, US Dept of Energy

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information Free-Electron Lasers Existing Free-Electron Lasers Using Free-Electron Lasers for Measurement and Defense New Free-Electron Laser Designs References Research Organizations Reports available from OSTI's Information Bridge While most types of laser produce coherent light from electric charges bound within atoms, molecules, or solids, unbound charges are the light source in free-electron lasers. Lasers of this type can operate at higher frequencies

  12. Low-loss electron energy loss spectroscopy: An atomic-resolution complement to optical spectroscopies and application to graphene

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kapetanakis, Myron; Zhou, Wu; Oxley, Mark P.; Lee, Jaekwang; Prange, Micah P.; Pennycook, Stephen J.; Idrobo Tapia, Juan Carlos; Pantelides, Sokrates T.

    2015-09-25

    Photon-based spectroscopies have played a central role in exploring the electronic properties of crystalline solids and thin films. They are a powerful tool for probing the electronic properties of nanostructures, but they are limited by lack of spatial resolution. On the other hand, electron-based spectroscopies, e.g., electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS), are now capable of subangstrom spatial resolution. Core-loss EELS, a spatially resolved analog of x-ray absorption, has been used extensively in the study of inhomogeneous complex systems. In this paper, we demonstrate that low-loss EELS in an aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscope, which probes low-energy excitations, combined with a theoretical framework for simulating and analyzing the spectra, is a powerful tool to probe low-energy electron excitations with atomic-scale resolution. The theoretical component of the method combines density functional theory–based calculations of the excitations with dynamical scattering theory for the electron beam. We apply the method to monolayer graphene in order to demonstrate that atomic-scale contrast is inherent in low-loss EELS even in a perfectly periodic structure. The method is a complement to optical spectroscopy as it probes transitions entailing momentum transfer. The theoretical analysis identifies the spatial and orbital origins of excitations, holding the promise of ultimately becoming a powerful probe of the structure and electronic properties of individual point and extended defects in both crystals and inhomogeneous complex nanostructures. The method can be extended to probe magnetic and vibrational properties with atomic resolution.

  13. Low-loss electron energy loss spectroscopy: An atomic-resolution complement to optical spectroscopies and application to graphene

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Kapetanakis, Myron; Zhou, Wu; Oxley, Mark P.; Lee, Jaekwang; Prange, Micah P.; Pennycook, Stephen J.; Idrobo Tapia, Juan Carlos; Pantelides, Sokrates T.

    2015-09-25

    Photon-based spectroscopies have played a central role in exploring the electronic properties of crystalline solids and thin films. They are a powerful tool for probing the electronic properties of nanostructures, but they are limited by lack of spatial resolution. On the other hand, electron-based spectroscopies, e.g., electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS), are now capable of subangstrom spatial resolution. Core-loss EELS, a spatially resolved analog of x-ray absorption, has been used extensively in the study of inhomogeneous complex systems. In this paper, we demonstrate that low-loss EELS in an aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscope, which probes low-energy excitations, combined with amore » theoretical framework for simulating and analyzing the spectra, is a powerful tool to probe low-energy electron excitations with atomic-scale resolution. The theoretical component of the method combines density functional theory–based calculations of the excitations with dynamical scattering theory for the electron beam. We apply the method to monolayer graphene in order to demonstrate that atomic-scale contrast is inherent in low-loss EELS even in a perfectly periodic structure. The method is a complement to optical spectroscopy as it probes transitions entailing momentum transfer. The theoretical analysis identifies the spatial and orbital origins of excitations, holding the promise of ultimately becoming a powerful probe of the structure and electronic properties of individual point and extended defects in both crystals and inhomogeneous complex nanostructures. The method can be extended to probe magnetic and vibrational properties with atomic resolution.« less

  14. Advanced Power Electronic Interfaces for Distributed Energy Systems Part 1: Systems and Topologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kramer, W.; Chakraborty, S.; Kroposki, B.; Thomas, H.

    2008-03-01

    This report summarizes power electronic interfaces for DE applications and the topologies needed for advanced power electronic interfaces. It focuses on photovoltaic, wind, microturbine, fuel cell, internal combustion engine, battery storage, and flywheel storage systems.

  15. Dependence of the Electron Beam Energy and Types of Surface to Determine EBSD Indexing Reliability in Yttria-Stabilized Zirconia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Saraf, Laxmikant V.

    2012-04-01

    Electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) is a powerful technique for the surface microstructure analysis. EBSD analysis of cubic yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) in two and three dimensions (2-D, 3-D) is demonstrated using sequential slicing from a focused ion beam (FIB) followed by EBSD mapping to represent 3-D reconstructed high density grain structure with random orientation. The statistics related to accuracy of EBSD band detection shows that probability of accurate grain orientation detection increased significantly when the electron beam energy is increased from 10 kV to 30 kV. As a result of better sampling with increased interaction volume, a disparity between local and average grain orientation angle also exhibited the dependence of the electron beam energy to determine the accuracy of grain orientation. To study the accuracy and quality of EBSD band detection as a function of surface roughness and over layer formation, rapid EBSD measurement tests are performed on (a) YSZ surfaces ion-polished at ion beam energies of 65 nA at 30 kV and 1 nA at 30 kV and (b) carbon coated versus uncoated YSZ surfaces. The EBSD results at both 10 kV and 30 kV electron beam energies indicate that EBSD band detection accuracy is negatively affected by surface roughness and amorphous over layer formation.

  16. Effect of non-uniform electron energy distribution function on plasma production in large arc driven negative ion source

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shibata, T.; Koga, S.; Terasaki, R.; Hatayama, A.; Inoue, T.; Dairaku, M.; Kashiwagi, M.; Taniguchi, M.; Tobari, H.; Tsuchida, K.; Umeda, N.; Watanabe, K.

    2012-02-15

    Spatially non-uniform electron energy distribution function (EEDF) in an arc driven negative ion source (JAEA 10A negative ion source: 10 A NIS) is calculated numerically by a three-dimensional Monte Carlo kinetic model for electrons to understand spatial distribution of plasma production (such as atomic and ionic hydrogen (H{sup 0}/H{sup +}) production) in source chamber. The local EEDFs were directly calculated from electron orbits including electromagnetic effects and elastic/inelastic collision forces. From the EEDF, spatial distributions of H{sup 0}/H{sup +} production rate were obtained. The results suggest that spatial non-uniformity of H{sup 0}/H{sup +} productions is enhanced by high energy component of EEDF.

  17. Two-Phase Cooling Technology for Power Electronics | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    2 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting ape037_moreno_2012_p.pdf (1013.93 KB) More Documents & Publications Two-Phase Cooling of Power Electronics Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Two-Phase Cooling of Power Electronics Two-Phase Cooling Technology for Power Electronics with Novel Coolants

  18. Power Electronics for Distributed Energy Systems and Transmission and Distribution Applications: Assessing the Technical Needs for Utility Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tolbert, L.M.

    2005-12-21

    Power electronics can provide utilities the ability to more effectively deliver power to their customers while providing increased reliability to the bulk power system. In general, power electronics is the process of using semiconductor switching devices to control and convert electrical power flow from one form to another to meet a specific need. These conversion techniques have revolutionized modern life by streamlining manufacturing processes, increasing product efficiencies, and increasing the quality of life by enhancing many modern conveniences such as computers, and they can help to improve the delivery of reliable power from utilities. This report summarizes the technical challenges associated with utilizing power electronics devices across the entire spectrum from applications to manufacturing and materials development, and it provides recommendations for research and development (R&D) needs for power electronics systems in which the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) could make a substantial impact toward improving the reliability of the bulk power system.

  19. Manufacturing Energy and Carbon Footprint - Sector: Computer, Electronics and Appliances (NAICS 334, 335), January 2014 (MECS 2010)

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Computers, Electronics and Electrical Equipment (NAICS 334, 335) Process Energy Electricity and Steam Generation Losses Process Losses 5 Nonprocess Losses 493 46 Steam Distribution Losses 4 41 Nonprocess Energy 80 Electricity Generation Steam Generation 493 0 Prepared for the U.S. Department of Energy, Advanced Manufacturing Office by Energetics Incorporated 103 105 137 Generation and Transmission Losses Generation and Transmission Losses 0 276 208 193 24 217 413 0 19 0.0 23.9 23.9 1.4 14.4 12.4

  20. Anion A HX Clusters with Reduced Electron Binding Energies: Proton vs Hydrogen Atom Relocation Upon Electron Detachment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Xue B.; Kass, Steven R.

    2014-12-10

    Clustering an anion with one or more neutral molecules is a stabilizing process that enhances the oxidation potential of the complex relative to the free ion. Several hydrogen bond clusters (i.e., A HX, where A = H2PO4 and CF3CO2 and HX = MeOH, PhOH, and Me2NOH or Et2NOH) are examined by photoelectron spectroscopy and M06-2X and CCSD(T) computations. Remarkably, these species are experimentally found to have adiabatic detachment energies that are smaller than those for the free ion and reductions of 0.47 to 1.87 eV are predicted computationally. Hydrogen atom and proton transfers upon vertical photodetachment are two limiting extremes on the neutral surface in a continuum of mechanistic pathways that account for these results, and the whole gamut of possibilities are predicted to occur.

  1. Covalent bonds are created by the drive of electron waves to lower their kinetic energy through expansion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schmidt, Michael W; Ivanic, Joseph; Ruedenberg, Klaus

    2014-05-28

    An analysis based on the variation principle shows that in the molecules H2 +, H2, B2, C2, N2, O2, F2, covalent bonding is driven by the attenuation of the kinetic energy that results from the delocalization of the electronic wave function. For molecular geometries around the equilibrium distance, two features of the wave function contribute to this delocalization: (i) Superposition of atomic orbitals extends the electronic wave function from one atom to two or more atoms; (ii) intra-atomic contraction of the atomic orbitals further increases the inter-atomic delocalization. The inter-atomic kinetic energy lowering that (perhaps counter-intuitively) is a consequence of the intra-atomic contractions drives these contractions (which per se would increase the energy). Since the contractions necessarily encompass both, the intra-atomic kinetic and potential energy changes (which add to a positive total), the fact that the intra-atomic potential energy change renders the total potential binding energy negative does not alter the fact that it is the kinetic delocalization energy that drives the bond formation.

  2. Constraints on the Low-Energy Cutoff in the Electron Distributionof the PKS 0637--752 Jet

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mueller, M.; /SLAC /KIPAC, Menlo Park

    2007-06-26

    We re-analyze the Chandra X-ray spectrum of the kpc-scale jet in PKS 0637-752 to investigate the possible low energy cutoff in the relativistic electron spectrum producing the non-thermal radiation in the scenario of inverse Compton emission off the cosmic microwave background. This was among the first objects targeted by the Chandra Observatory and gives a unique opportunity to study the low energy X-ray emission free of contamination. As previously noted, the spectrum can be fit by a power law, with the slope predicted by the radio spectrum, modified by low energy absorption through the Galaxy as determined from the spectrum of the quasar core and by HI 21 cm observations. We report evidence for a broad excess of emission below 1 keV, but are unable to constrain the shape very well. If we assume that this soft excess is unrelated to the electron population responsible for the power law emission, and that the electron spectrum cuts off at an energy of {gamma}{sub min}m{sub e}c{sup 2}, then we must have {gamma}{sub min} ({Lambda}/10) {approx}< 75 due to the absence of any low energy turn-over in the X-ray spectrum. This predicts that the observed radio spectrum should extend unbroken down below 2 MHz for the estimated jet restframe magnetic field B = 10 {micro} G. In addition, the observed optical flux can be used to place a lower limit on {gamma}{sub min}; the constraint is not very strong, but does suggest that {gamma}{sub min} must be higher than 1 to avoid overproducing the optical emission. The implication of these limits on the jet luminosity is discussed. An alternative phenomenological description of the soft excess is offered where the low-energy end of the electron spectrum is modified to account for the excess.

  3. Critical Materials Workshop Final Participant List

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Andrew Day Ocean7 Water Purification Corporation Peter Dent Electron Energy Corporation Jordan Doria Ingersoll Rand Matt Douglas National Nuclear Security Administration Glen ...

  4. Consumer Electronics

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    & Events Expand News & Events Skip navigation links Residential Residential Lighting Energy Star Appliances Consumer Electronics Heat Pump Water Heaters Electric Storage Water...

  5. The Design of a Large Booster Ring for the Medium Energy Electron-Ion Collider at Jlab

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Edward Nissen, Todd Satogata, Yuhong Zhang

    2012-07-01

    In this paper, we present the current design of the large booster ring for the Medium energy Electron-Ion Collider at Jefferson Lab. The booster ring takes 3 GeV protons or ions of equivalent rigidity from a pre-booster ring, and accelerates them to 20 GeV for protons or equivalent energy for light to heavy ions before sending them to the ion collider ring. The present design calls for a figure-8 shape of the ring for superior preservation of ion polarization. The ring is made of warm magnets and shares a tunnel with the two collider rings. Acceleration is achieved by warm RF systems. The linear optics has been designed with the transition energy above the highest beam energy in the ring so crossing of transition energy will be avoided. Preliminary beam dynamics studies including chromaticity compensation are presented in this paper.

  6. Energies of Electronic States of Ni (II) Ion in NiO-Al2O3 Catalyst Prepared by Impregnation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Obadovic, D. Z.; Kiurski, J.; Marinkovic-Neducin, R. P.

    2007-04-23

    The behavior of NiO-Al2O3 catalysts is strongly dependent on the preparation method, as well as on pretreatment conditions. In the present work we investigated the influences of Ni(II) ion on NiO-Al2O3 catalysts properties due to the preparation by impregnation method. Based on experimental diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) data of electronic d-d transitions of Ni (II) promoter ion the energies of electronic states in spinel-like structure were calculated, and the most probable scheme of molecular orbital have been proposed.

  7. Surface structure determinations of crystalline ionic thin films grown on transition metal single crystal surfaces by low energy electron diffraction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roberts, J.G.

    2000-05-01

    The surface structures of NaCl(100), LiF(100) and alpha-MgCl2(0001) adsorbed on various metal single crystals have been determined by low energy electron diffraction (LEED). Thin films of these salts were grown on metal substrates by exposing the heated metal surface to a molecular flux of salt emitted from a Knudsen cell. This method of investigating thin films of insulators (ionic salts) on a conducting substrate (metal) circumvents surface charging problems that plagued bulk studies, thereby allowing the use of electron-based techniques to characterize the surface.

  8. The World's First Free-Electron X-ray Laser | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    The World's First Free-Electron X-ray Laser The World's First Free-Electron X-ray Laser August 17, 2010 - 6:19pm Addthis The World's First Free-Electron X-ray Laser John Schueler John Schueler Former New Media Specialist, Office of Public Affairs Yesterday, Secretary Chu participated in the dedication of the world's first free-electron and most powerful X-ray laser, the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS). In light of this occasion (pun intended), we posted an in-depth look at the innovative

  9. Technical Note: Improvements in GEANT4 energy-loss model and the effect on low-energy electron transport in liquid water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kyriakou, I.; Incerti, S.

    2015-07-15

    Purpose: The GEANT4-DNA physics models are upgraded by a more accurate set of electron cross sections for ionization and excitation in liquid water. The impact of the new developments on low-energy electron transport simulations by the GEANT4 Monte Carlo toolkit is examined for improving its performance in dosimetry applications at the subcellular and nanometer level. Methods: The authors provide an algorithm for an improved implementation of the Emfietzoglou model dielectric response function of liquid water used in the GEANT4-DNA existing model. The algorithm redistributes the imaginary part of the dielectric function to ensure a physically motivated behavior at the binding energies, while retaining all the advantages of the original formulation, e.g., the analytic properties and the fulfillment of the f-sum-rule. In addition, refinements in the exchange and perturbation corrections to the Born approximation used in the GEANT4-DNA existing model are also made. Results: The new ionization and excitation cross sections are significantly different from those of the GEANT4-DNA existing model. In particular, excitations are strongly enhanced relative to ionizations, resulting in higher W-values and less diffusive dose-point-kernels at sub-keV electron energies. Conclusions: An improved energy-loss model for the excitation and ionization of liquid water by low-energy electrons has been implemented in GEANT4-DNA. The suspiciously low W-values and the unphysical long tail in the dose-point-kernel have been corrected owing to a different partitioning of the dielectric function.

  10. Effect of proton irradiation energy on AlGaN/GaN metal-oxide semiconductor high electron mobility transistors

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Ahn, S.; Dong, C.; Zhu, W.; Kim, B. -j.; Hwang, Ya-Hsi; Ren, F.; Pearton, S. J.; Yang, Gwangseok; Kim, J.; Patrick, Erin; et al

    2015-08-18

    The effects of proton irradiation energy on dc characteristics of AlGaN/GaN metal-oxide semiconductor high electron mobility transistors (MOSHEMTs) using Al2O3 as the gate dielectric were studied. Al2O3/AlGaN/GaN MOSHEMTs were irradiated with a fixed proton dose of 5 × 1015 cm-2 at different energies of 5, 10, or 15 MeV. More degradation of the device dc characteristics was observed for lower irradiation energy due to the larger amount of nonionizing energy loss in the active region of the MOSHEMTs under these conditions. The reductions in saturation current were 95.3%, 68.3%, and 59.8% and reductions in maximum transconductance were 88%, 54.4%, andmore » 40.7% after 5, 10, and 15 MeV proton irradiation, respectively. Both forward and reverse gate leakage current were reduced more than one order of magnitude after irradiation. The carrier removal rates for the irradiation energies employed in this study were in the range of 127–289 cm-1. These are similar to the values reported for conventional metal-gate high-electron mobility transistors under the same conditions and show that the gate dielectric does not affect the response to proton irradiation for these energies.« less

  11. Quantitative analysis of electron energy loss spectra and modelling of optical properties of multilayer systems for extreme ultraviolet radiation regime

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gusenleitner, S.; Hauschild, D.; Reinert, F.; Handick, E.

    2014-03-28

    Ruthenium capped multilayer coatings for use in the extreme ultraviolet (EUV) radiation regime have manifold applications in science and industry. Although the Ru cap shall protect the reflecting multilayers, the surface of the heterostructures suffers from contamination issues and surface degradation. In order to get a better understanding of the effects of these impurities on the optical parameters, reflection electron energy loss spectroscopy (REELS) measurements of contaminated and H cleaned Ru multilayer coatings were taken at various primary electron beam energies. Experiments conducted at low primary beam energies between 100?eV and 1000?eV are very surface sensitive due to the short inelastic mean free path of the electrons in this energy range. Therefore, influences of the surface condition on the above mentioned characteristics can be appraised. In this paper, it can be shown that carbon and oxide impurities on the mirror surface decrease the transmission of the Ru cap by about 0.75% and the overall reflectance of the device is impaired as the main share of the non-transmitted EUV light is absorbed in the contamination layer.

  12. Power Electronics Thermal Management R&D; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Waye, Scot

    2015-06-10

    Presentation containing an update for the Power Electronics Thermal Management project in the Electric Drive Train task funded by the Vehicle Technology Office of DOE. This presentation outlines the purpose, plan, and results of research thus far for cooling and material selection strategies to manage heat in power electronic assemblies such as inverters, converters, and chargers.

  13. High energy Coulomb-scattered electrons for relativistic particle beams and diagnostics

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Thieberger, P.; Altinbas, Z.; Carlson, C.; Chasman, C.; Costanzo, M.; Degen, C.; Drees, K. A.; Fischer, W.; Gassner, D.; Gu, X.; et al

    2016-03-29

    A new system used for monitoring energetic Coulomb-scattered electrons as the main diagnostic for accurately aligning the electron and ion beams in the new Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) electron lenses is described in detail. The theory of electron scattering from relativistic ions is developed and applied to the design and implementation of the system used to achieve and maintain the alignment. Commissioning with gold and 3He beams is then described as well as the successful utilization of the new system during the 2015 RHIC polarized proton run. Systematic errors of the new method are then estimated. Lastly, some possiblemore » future applications of Coulomb-scattered electrons for beam diagnostics are briefly discussed.« less

  14. North-south asymmetry for high-energy cosmic-ray electrons measured with the PAMELA experiment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Karelin, A. V.; Adriani, O.; Barbarino, G. C.; Bazilevskaya, G. A.; Bellotti, R.; Boezio, M.; Bogomolov, E. A.; Bonechi, L.; Bongi, M.; Bonvicini, V.; Bottai, S.; Bruno, A.; Vacchi, A.; Vannuccini, E.; Vasilyev, G. I.; Voronov, S. A.; Galper, A. M.; Danilchenko, I. A.; Donato, C. De; Santis, C. De; and others

    2013-08-15

    The north-south asymmetry for cosmic-ray particles was measured with one instrument of the PAMELA satellite-borne experiment in the period June 2006-May 2009. The analysis has been performed by two independent methods: by comparing the count rates in regions with identical geomagnetic conditions and by comparing the experimental distribution of particle directions with the simulated distribution that would be in the case of an isotropic particle flux. The dependences of the asymmetry on energy release in the PAMELA calorimeter and on time have been constructed. The asymmetry (N{sub n} - N{sub s})/(N{sub n} + N{sub s}) is 0.06 {+-} 0.004 at the threshold energy release in the calorimeter and gradually decreases with increasing energy release. The observed effect is shown to be produced by electrons in the energy range 10-100 GeV.

  15. Talbot-Lau X-ray Deflectometer electron density diagnostic for laser and pulsed power high energy density plasma experiments

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Valdivia, M. P.; Stutman, D.; Stoeckl, C.; Mileham, C.; Begishev, I.; Theobald, W.; Bromage, J.; Regan, S. P.; Klein, S. R.; Munoz-Cordoves, G.; et al

    2016-04-21

    Talbot-Lau X-ray Deflectometry has been developed as an electron density diagnostic for High Energy Density plasmas. The technique can deliver x-ray refraction, attenuation, elemental composition, and scatter information from a single Moiré image. An 8 keV Talbot-Lau interferometer was deployed using laser and x-pinch backlighters. Grating survival and electron density mapping was demonstrated for 25-29 J, 8-30 ps laser pulses using copper foil targets. Moire pattern formation and grating survival was also observed using a copper x-pinch driven at 400 kA, ~1 kA/ns. Lastly, these results demonstrate the potential of TXD as an electron density diagnostic for HED plasmas.

  16. Investigation of the oxidation states of Cu additive in colored borosilicate glasses by electron energy loss spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, Guang Cheng, Shaodong; Li, Chao; Ma, Chuansheng; Zhong, Jiasong; Xiang, Weidong; Wang, Zhao

    2014-12-14

    Three optically transparent colorful (red, green, and blue) glasses were synthesized by the sol-gel method. Nano-sized precipitates were found in scanning electron microscopy images. The precipitates were analyzed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and high resolution TEM. The measured lattice parameters of these precipitates were found to fit the metallic copper in red glass but deviate from single valenced Cu oxides in green and blue glasses. The chemistry of these nano-sized particles was confirmed by electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS). By fitting the EELS spectra obtained from the precipitates with the linear combination of reference spectra from Cu reference compounds, the oxidation states of Cu in the precipitates have been derived. First principle calculations suggested that the Cu nano-particles, which are in the similar oxidation states as our measurement, would show green color in the visible light range.

  17. Total energy study of the microscopic structure and electronic properties of tetragonal perovskite SrTiO{sub 3}

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rubio-Ponce, A.; Olgun, D.

    2014-05-15

    To study the structural and electronic properties of cubic perovskite SrTiO{sub 3} and its stress-induced tetragonal phase, we have performed total energy calculations and studied the effect of oxygen vacancies on the electronic properties of tetragonal perovskite SrTiO{sub 3}. The method used was the relativistic full-potential linearized augmented plane wave (FLAPW) method. To obtain the geometry that minimizes the total energy, we relaxed the internal atomic sites of the tetragonal cell. As a result of this procedure, we have found that the titanium atoms move toward the plane of the vacancy by 0.03 , and the apical oxygen atoms move to the same plane by approximately 0.14 . These results are discussed in comparison with experimental data.

  18. Low energy electron emission from surface-interface states of SiO{sub 2}:Ge films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zatsepin, A. F. Buntov, E. A. Mikhailovich, A. P. Slesarev, A. I.; Fitting, H.-J.; Schmidt, B.

    2014-10-21

    In this paper we present the results of optically stimulated electron emission (OSEE) investigation of thin SiO{sub 2} films implanted with Ge{sup +} ions. The emission models of Urbach rule and power Kane-dependence are used to fit OSEE spectra at different excitation energy ranges. The materials under study may find a number of technological applications in optical devices and ultraviolet sensors. Samples attestation was performed by electron microscopy and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). XPS data revealed strong dependence between the Si, Ge and O atoms state and annealing time. Observed correlations between parameter values of Urbach- and Kane-related models suggest the implantation-induced changeover of both the vibronic subsystem and energy band structure.

  19. Investigations of high-energy electrons of the microwave discharge plasma at configuration of the 'Magnetor' Bi-dipole magnetic confinement system by X-ray radiation analyses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krashevskaya, G. V. Kurnaev, V. A.; Salakhutdinov, G. Kh.; Tsventoukh, M. M.

    2011-12-15

    The results of the investigations of a group of fast electrons in a microwave discharge plasma in the 'Magnetor' magnetic trap are presented. The data on the presence and location of this group of electrons is important for estimating the total plasma pressure taking the previous probe measurements into account. Fast electrons are found to be localized within the magnetic separatrix in the region of confinement of the main plasma. The maximal energy of fast electrons is higher than 25 keV.

  20. Using Plasmon Peaks in Electron Energy-Loss Spectroscopy to Determine the Physical and Mechanical Properties of Nanoscale Materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Howe, James M.

    2013-05-09

    In this program, we developed new theoretical and experimental insights into understanding the relationships among fundamental universality and scaling phenomena, the solid-state physical and mechanical properties of materials, and the volume plasmon energy as measured by electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS). Particular achievements in these areas are summarized as follows: (i) Using a previously proposed physical model based on the universal binding-energy relation (UBER), we established close phenomenological connections regarding the influence of the valence electrons in materials on the longitudinal plasma oscillations (plasmons) and various solid-state properties such as the optical constants (including absorption and dispersion), elastic constants, cohesive energy, etc. (ii) We found that carbon materials, e.g., diamond, graphite, diamond-like carbons, hydrogenated and amorphous carbon films, exhibit strong correlations in density vs. Ep (or maximum of the volume plasmon peak) and density vs. hardness, both from available experimental data and ab initio DFT calculations. This allowed us to derive a three-dimensional relationship between hardness and the plasmon energy, that can be used to determine experimentally both hardness and density of carbon materials based on measurements of the plasmon peak position. (iii) As major experimental accomplishments, we demonstrated the possibility of in-situ monitoring of changes in the physical properties of materials with conditions, e.g., temperature, and we also applied a new plasmon ratio-imaging technique to map multiple physical properties of materials, such as the elastic moduli, cohesive energy and bonding electron density, with a sub-nanometer lateral resolution. This presents new capability for understanding material behavior. (iv) Lastly, we demonstrated a new physical phenomenon - electron-beam trapping, or ?¢????electron tweezers?¢??? - of a solid metal nanoparticle inside a liquid metal

  1. Electronic Coupling Dependence of Ultrafast Interfacial Electron...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Electron Transfer on Nanocrystalline Thin Films and Single Crystal Lian, Tianquan 14 SOLAR ENERGY The long-term goal of the proposed research is to understand electron transfer...

  2. Atmosphere to Electrons: Update on Strategic Plan for Wind Plant Reliability; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Keller, J.; Westergaard, C.

    2015-02-01

    An update on the Reliability focus area of the Atmosphere to Electrons (A2e) center is provided, including highlighted projects from each of the four major work packages.

  3. A battery-operated, stabilized, high-energy pulsed electron gun for the production of rare gas excimers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barcellan, L.; Carugno, G.; Berto, E.; Galet, G.; Galeazzi, G.; Borghesani, A. F.

    2011-09-15

    We report on the design of a new type of hot-filament electron gun delivering fairly high current (a few hundreds of {mu} A) at high voltage (up to 100 kV) in continuous or pulsed mode. Its novel features are that the filament is heated by means of a pack of rechargeable batteries floated atop the high-voltage power supply in order to get rid of bulky isolation transformers, and that the filament current and, hence, the electron gun current, is controlled by a feedback circuit including a superluminescent diode decoupled from the high voltage by means of an optical fiber. This electron gun is intended for general purposes, although we have especially developed it to meet the needs of our experiment on the infrared emission spectroscopy of rare gas excimers. Our experiment requires that the charge injection into the sample is pulsed and constant and stable in time. The new electron gun can deliver several tens of nC per pulse of electrons of energy up to 100 keV into the sample cell. The new design also eliminates ripples in the emission current and ensures up to 12 h of stable performance.

  4. AlSb/InAs HIGH ELECTRON MOBILITY TRANSISTORS - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Electricity Transmission Electricity Transmission Advanced Materials Advanced Materials Find More Like This Return to Search AlSb/InAs HIGH ELECTRON MOBILITY TRANSISTORS Naval Research Laboratory Contact NRL About This Technology Technology Marketing Summary The Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) has developed materials growth and fabrication technology for the manufacture of high-speed, low power AlSb/InAs high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs) that exhibit state-of-the-art low-power

  5. Atomic and electronic structures of SrTiO3/GaAs heterointerfaces: An 80-kV atomic-resolution electron energy-loss spectroscopy study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Qiao, Q.; Klie, Robert F; Ogut, Serdar; Idrobo Tapia, Juan C

    2012-01-01

    We have examined the atomic and electronic structures of epitaxially grown, ultrathin SrTiO{sub 3} (100) films on GaAs (001) using 80-kV aberration-corrected atomic-resolution Z-contrast imaging and electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS) to develop a fundamental understanding of the interfacial structure-property relationships. We find that the interface is atomically abrupt and no surface reconstruction of the GaAs (001) surface is observed. Using atomic-column resolved EELS, we examine the oxygen vacancy and Ti concentrations in the SrTiO{sub 3} film and across the heterointerface. We show that Ti diffuses into the first few monolayers of GaAs. Using a combination of EELS and first-principles calculations, we present evidence for the formation of As oxides at the interface depending on the thin-film growth conditions. These findings are used to explain the differences in the transport behavior of the films.

  6. Electromagnetic radiation from positive-energy bound electrons in the Coulomb field of a nucleus at rest in a strong uniform magnetic field

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arsenyev, S. A.; Koryagin, S. A.

    2012-06-15

    A classical analysis is presented of the electromagnetic radiation emitted by positive-energy electrons performing bound motion in the Coulomb field of a nucleus at rest in a strong uniform magnetic field. Bounded trajectories exist and span a wide range of velocity directions near the nucleus (compared to free trajectories with similar energies) when the electron Larmor radius is smaller than the distance at which the electron-nucleus Coulomb interaction energy is equal to the mechanical energy of an electron. The required conditions occur in magnetic white dwarf photospheres and have been achieved in experiments on production of antihydrogen. Under these conditions, the radiant power per unit volume emitted by positive-energy bound electrons is much higher than the analogous characteristic of bremsstrahlung (in particular, in thermal equilibrium) at frequencies that are below the electron cyclotron frequency but higher than the inverse transit time through the interaction region in a close collision in the absence of a magnetic field. The quantum energy discreteness of positive-energy bound states restricts the radiation from an ensemble of bound electrons (e.g., in thermal equilibrium) to nonoverlapping spectral lines, while continuum radiative transfer is dominated by linearly polarized bremsstrahlung.

  7. State-selective electron capture in {sup 3}He{sup 2+} + He collisions at intermediate impact energies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alessi, M.; Otranto, S.; Focke, P.

    2011-01-15

    In this work we have measured single-electron capture in collisions of {sup 3}He{sup 2+} projectiles incident on a helium target for energies of 13.3-100 keV/amu with the cold-target recoil-ion momentum spectroscopy setup implemented at the Centro Atomico Bariloche. State-selective single-capture cross sections were measured as a function of the impact energy. They were found to agree with previous existing data from the Frankfurt group, starting at the impact energy of 60 keV/amu; as well as with recent data, at 7.5 keV/amu, from the Lanzhou group. The present experimental results are also contrasted to the classical trajectory Monte Carlo method with dynamical screening.

  8. Performance Modeling and Testing of Distributed Electronics in PV Systems; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Deline, C.

    2015-03-18

    Computer modeling is able to predict the performance of distributed power electronics (microinverters, power optimizers) in PV systems. However, details about partial shade and other mismatch must be known in order to give the model accurate information to go on. This talk will describe recent updates in NREL’s System Advisor Model program to model partial shading losses with and without distributed power electronics, along with experimental validation results. Computer modeling is able to predict the performance of distributed power electronics (microinverters, power optimizers) in PV systems. However, details about partial shade and other mismatch must be known in order to give the model accurate information to go on. This talk will describe recent updates in NREL’s System Advisor Model program to model partial shading losses.

  9. Degradation and decoloration of textiles wastewater by electron beam irradiation: Effect of energy, current and absorbed dose

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bakar, Khomsaton Abu; Zulkafli,; Hashim, Siti A'aisah; Ahmad, Pauzi

    2014-09-03

    In this study, electron beam accelerator (EB) was used to treat textiles wastewater from Rawang Industrial Park, Selangor. The objectives were to determine effective energy, beam current and absorbed dose required for decoloration and degradation of the textiles effluent. The textiles effluent was irradiated in a batch with various energy of 1MeV to 3MeV at constant beam current of 30mA. It was observed that removal of color and COD increases with higher beam energy. The EB energy of 1MeV effectively to removed 58% color and 19% COD. For textile effluent sample irradiated at fix energy of 1MeV and 3Mev but at different beam current 10mA, 20mA and 30mA. It was observed that removal of color and COD increases with the increased of beam current at each energy. However removal of color was significantly better at 1Mev as compared to 3Mev. In the case of textiles effluent, irradiated at doses of 17, 20,25,30, 35, 100 and 200kGy using 30 kW power of EB (1Mev, 30mA), results shows removal of BOD{sub 5}, COD and color were in the range 9%-33%, 14%-38% and 43%-78% respectively.

  10. Hot electron energy coupling in ultra-intense laser matter interaction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kemp, A J; Sentoku, Y; Tabak, M

    2008-04-15

    We investigate the hydrodynamic response of plasma gradients during the interaction with ultra-intense energetic laser pulses, using one-dimensional kinetic particle simulations. As energetic laser pulses are capable of compressing the preformed plasma over short times, the coupling efficiency as well as the temperature of hot electrons drop, leading to localized heating near the point of absorption. We describe the cause of this drop, explain the electron spectra and identify the parametric region where strong compression occurs. Finally, we discuss implications for fast ignition and other applications.

  11. Next-Generation Power Electronics: Reducing Energy Waste and Powering the Future

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    From unleashing more powerful and energy-efficient laptops, cell phones and motors, to shrinking utility-scale inverters from 8,000 pound substations to the size of a suitcase, wide bandgap semiconductors could be one of the keys to our clean energy future.

  12. MEASURING NEBULAR TEMPERATURES: THE EFFECT OF NEW COLLISION STRENGTHS WITH EQUILIBRIUM AND {kappa}-DISTRIBUTED ELECTRON ENERGIES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nicholls, David C.; Dopita, Michael A.; Sutherland, Ralph S.; Kewley, Lisa J.; Palay, Ethan

    2013-08-15

    In this paper we develop tools for observers to use when analyzing nebular spectra for temperatures and metallicities, with two goals: to present a new, simple method to calculate equilibrium electron temperatures for collisionally excited line flux ratios, using the latest atomic data; and to adapt current methods to include the effects of possible non-equilibrium ''{kappa}'' electron energy distributions. Adopting recent collision strength data for [O III], [S III], [O II], [S II], and [N II], we find that existing methods based on older atomic data seriously overestimate the electron temperatures, even when considering purely Maxwellian statistics. If {kappa} distributions exist in H II regions and planetary nebulae as they do in solar system plasmas, it is important to investigate the observational consequences. This paper continues our previous work on the {kappa} distribution. We present simple formulaic methods that allow observers to (1) measure equilibrium electron temperatures and atomic abundances using the latest atomic data, and (2) to apply simple corrections to existing equilibrium analysis techniques to allow for possible non-equilibrium effects. These tools should lead to better consistency in temperature and abundance measurements, and a clearer understanding of the physics of H II regions and planetary nebulae.

  13. Energy-dependent dynamics of keV to MeV electrons in the inner zone, outer zone, and slot regions

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Reeves, Geoffrey D.; Friedel, Reiner H. W.; Larsen, Brian A.; Skoug, Ruth M.; Funsten, Herbert O.; Claudepierre, Seth G.; Fennell, Joseph F.; Turner, Drew L.; Denton, Mick H.; Spence, Harlan E.; et al

    2016-01-28

    Here, we present observations of the radiation belts from the Helium Oxygen Proton Electron and Magnetic Electron Ion Spectrometer particle detectors on the Van Allen Probes satellites that illustrate the energy dependence and L shell dependence of radiation belt enhancements and decays. We survey events in 2013 and analyze an event on 1 March in more detail. The observations show the following: (a) at all L shells, lower energy electrons are enhanced more often than higher energies; (b) events that fill the slot region are more common at lower energies; (c) enhancements of electrons in the inner zone are moremore » common at lower energies; and (d) even when events do not fully fill the slot region, enhancements at lower energies tend to extend to lower L shells than higher energies. During enhancement events the outer zone extends to lower L shells at lower energies while being confined to higher L shells at higher energies. The inner zone shows the opposite with an outer boundary at higher L shells for lower energies. Both boundaries are nearly straight in log(energy) versus L shell space. At energies below a few 100 keV, radiation belt electron penetration through the slot region into the inner zone is commonplace, but the number and frequency of “slot filling” events decreases with increasing energy. The inner zone is enhanced only at energies that penetrate through the slot. Energy- and L shell-dependent losses (that are consistent with whistler hiss interactions) return the belts to more quiescent conditions.« less

  14. High energy electron beam curing of epoxy resin systems incorporating cationic photoinitiators

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Janke, C.J.; Lopata, V.J.; Havens, S.J.; Dorsey, G.F.; Moulton, R.J.

    1999-03-02

    A mixture of epoxy resins such as a semi-solid triglycidyl ether of tris (hydroxyphenyl) methane and a low viscosity bisphenol A glycidyl ether and a cationic photoinitiator such as a diaryliodonium salt is cured by irradiating with a dosage of electron beams from about 50 to about 150 kGy, forming a cross-linked epoxy resin polymer.

  15. Technical report on "BES Early Career. Control Graphene Electronic Structure for Energy Technology"

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Feng

    2015-07-11

    Graphene, a one-atom thick sheet of carbon, exhibits incredible structural flexibility, electrical transport, and optical responses. And remarkably, the graphene electronic structure can be varied through interlayer coupling, nanoscale patterning, and electrical gating. In this project we made significant contribution to better understand and control physical properties of graphene and other novel two-dimensional layered materials.

  16. Helium, Iron and Electron Particle Transport and Energy Transport Studies on the TFTR Tokamak

    DOE R&D Accomplishments [OSTI]

    Synakowski, E. J.; Efthimion, P. C.; Rewoldt, G.; Stratton, B. C.; Tang, W. M.; Grek, B.; Hill, K. W.; Hulse, R. A.; Johnson, D .W.; Mansfield, D. K.; McCune, D.; Mikkelsen, D. R.; Park, H. K.; Ramsey, A. T.; Redi, M. H.; Scott, S. D.; Taylor, G.; Timberlake, J.; Zarnstorff, M. C. (Princeton Univ., NJ (United States). Plasma Physics Lab.); Kissick, M. W. (Wisconsin Univ., Madison, WI (United States))

    1993-03-01

    Results from helium, iron, and electron transport on TFTR in L-mode and Supershot deuterium plasmas with the same toroidal field, plasma current, and neutral beam heating power are presented. They are compared to results from thermal transport analysis based on power balance. Particle diffusivities and thermal conductivities are radially hollow and larger than neoclassical values, except possibly near the magnetic axis. The ion channel dominates over the electron channel in both particle and thermal diffusion. A peaked helium profile, supported by inward convection that is stronger than predicted by neoclassical theory, is measured in the Supershot The helium profile shape is consistent with predictions from quasilinear electrostatic drift-wave theory. While the perturbative particle diffusion coefficients of all three species are similar in the Supershot, differences are found in the L-Mode. Quasilinear theory calculations of the ratios of impurity diffusivities are in good accord with measurements. Theory estimates indicate that the ion heat flux should be larger than the electron heat flux, consistent with power balance analysis. However, theoretical values of the ratio of the ion to electron heat flux can be more than a factor of three larger than experimental values. A correlation between helium diffusion and ion thermal transport is observed and has favorable implications for sustained ignition of a tokamak fusion reactor.

  17. High energy electron beam curing of epoxy resin systems incorporating cationic photoinitiators

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Janke, Christopher J.; Lopata, Vincent J.; Havens, Stephen J.; Dorsey, George F.; Moulton, Richard J.

    1999-01-01

    A mixture of epoxy resins such as a semi-solid triglycidyl ether of tris (hydroxyphenyl) methane and a low viscosity bisphenol A glycidyl ether and a cationic photoinitiator such as a diaryliodonium salt is cured by irradiating with a dosage of electron beams from about 50 to about 150 kGy, forming a cross-linked epoxy resin polymer.

  18. Dynamics of the microstructure of current channels and the generation of high-energy electrons in nanosecond discharges in air

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Karelin, V. I.; Trenkin, A. A. Fedoseev, I. G.

    2015-12-15

    The results of the three-dimensional numerical simulation of the dynamics of the microstructure of high-voltage nanosecond discharges in air at atmospheric pressure are presented. It is established that the fast (at a time of ≈10 ns) broadening and significant decrease in the gas concentration in the microchannels occur as a result of the ohmic heating of microchannels with the diameter of 1–30 μm. It was shown that the broadening of microchannels in a nanosecond diffusive discharge provides an increase in the ratio of the electric field strength to the gas concentration in microchannels to values sufficient for the generation highenergy electron beams and X-ray bremsstrahlung in them. Features of the dynamics of the system of microchannels and its effect on the efficiency of the generation of high-energy electrons in discharges developing in the microstructuring regime of the current channels are considered.

  19. Generation of 500 MeV-1 GeV energy electrons from laser wakefield acceleration via ionization induced injection using CO{sub 2} mixed in He

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mo, M. Z.; Ali, A.; Fedosejevs, R.; Fourmaux, S.; Lassonde, P.; Kieffer, J. C.

    2013-04-01

    Laser wakefield acceleration of 500 MeV to 1 GeV electron bunches has been demonstrated using ionization injection in mixtures of 4% to 10% of CO{sub 2} in He. 80 TW laser pulses were propagated through 5 mm gas jet targets at electron densities of 0.4-1.5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 19}cm{sup -3}. Ionization injection led to lower density thresholds, a higher total electron charge, and an increased probability of producing electrons above 500 MeV in energy compared to self-injection in He gas alone. Electrons with GeV energies were also observed on a few shots and indicative of an additional energy enhancement mechanism.

  20. Injection of electrons with predominantly perpendicular energy into an area of toroidal field ripple in a tokamak plasma to improve plasma confinement

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ono, Masayuki; Furth, Harold

    1993-01-01

    An electron injection scheme for controlling transport in a tokamak plasma. Electrons with predominantly perpendicular energy are injected into a ripple field region created by a group of localized poloidal field bending magnets. The trapped electrons then grad-B drift vertically toward the plasma interior until they are detrapped, charging the plasma negative. Calculations indicate that the highly perpendicular velocity electrons can remain stable against kinetic instabilities in the regime of interest for tokamak experiments. The penetration distance can be controlled by controlling the "ripple mirror ratio", the energy of the injected electrons, and their v.sub..perp. /v.sub.51 ratio. In this scheme, the poloidal torque due to the injected radial current is taken by the magnets and not by the plasma. Injection is accomplished by the flat cathode containing an ECH cavity to pump electrons to high v.sub..perp..

  1. Biofuels from Solar Energy and Bacteria: Electrofuels Via Direct Electron Transfer from Electrodes to Microbes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2010-07-01

    Electrofuels Project: UMass is feeding renewable electricity to bacteria to provide the microorganisms with the energy they need to turn carbon dioxide (CO2) directly into liquid fuels. UMass’ energy-to-fuels conversion process is anticipated to be more efficient than current biofuels approaches in part because this process will leverage the high efficiency of photovoltaics to convert solar energy into electricity. UMass is using bacteria already known to produce biofuel from electric current and CO2 and working to increase the amount of electric current those microorganisms will accept and use for biofuels production. In collaboration with scientists at University of California, San Diego, the UMass team is also investigating the use of hydrogen sulfide as a source of energy to power biofuel production.

  2. Electron energy distribution functions measured by Langmuir probe with optical emission spectroscopy in very high frequency capacitive discharge in nitrogen

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abdel-Fattah, E.; Bazavan, M.; Sugai, H.

    2012-11-15

    By using a rf compensated Langmuir probe and optical emission spectroscopy, the effects of driving frequency (13.56-50 MHz) on the electron energy probability function (EEPF), electron density, electron temperature, and the vibrational and rotational temperatures in capacitively coupled nitrogen discharge were investigated. Measurements were performed in the pressure range 60-200 mTorr, and at a fixed voltage of 140 V (peak-to-peak). With increasing the driving frequency, the dissipated power and electron density markedly increased along with the intensity of the optical emission lines belonging to the 2nd positive (337.1 nm) and 1st negative systems (391.4 nm) of N{sub 2}. The EEPF at low pressure 60 mTorr is two-temperature (bi-Maxwellian) distribution, irrespective of the driving frequency, in contrast with argon and helium discharges in the similar conditions. The mechanism forming such bi-Maxwellian shape was explained by two combined effects: one is the collisionless sheath-heating effect enhancing the tail electron population, and the other is the collision-induced reduction of electrons at the energy 2-4 eV where the collision cross-section for the vibrational excitation has a resonantly large peak. The two-temperature EEPF structure was basically retained at moderate pressure 120 mTorr and high pressure 200 mTorr. The vibrational temperature T{sub vib} and rotational temperature T{sub rot} are measured for the sequence ({Delta}{nu}=-2) of N{sub 2} second positive system (C{sup 3}{Pi}{sub u}{yields}B{sup 3}{Pi}{sub g}) using the method of comparing the measured and calculated spectra with a chi-squared minimization procedure. It was found that, both of T{sub vib} and T{sub rot} are a weakly dependent on driving frequency at low pressure 60 mTorr. At higher pressure (120 and 200 mTorr), T{sub vib} rises monotonically with the driving frequency, whereas the T{sub rot} slightly decreases with frequency below 37 MHz, beyond which it relatively increases or

  3. Energy relaxation and separation of a hot electron-hole pair in organic aggregates from a time-dependent wavepacket diffusion method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Han, Lu; Liang, WanZhen; Zhao, Yi; Zhong, Xinxin

    2014-06-07

    The time-dependent wavepacket diffusive method [X. Zhong and Y. Zhao, J. Chem. Phys. 138, 014111 (2013)] is extended to investigate the energy relaxation and separation of a hot electron-hole pair in organic aggregates with incorporation of Coulomb interaction and electron-phonon coupling. The pair initial condition generated by laser pulse is represented by a Gaussian wavepacket with a central momentum. The results reveal that the hot electron energy relaxation is very well described by two rate processes with the fast rate much larger than the slow one, consistent with experimental observations, and an efficient electron-hole separation is accomplished accompanying the fast energy relaxation. Furthermore, although the extra energy indeed helps the separation by overcoming the Coulomb interaction, the width of initial wavepacket is much sensitive to the separation efficiency and the narrower wavepacket generates the more separated charges. This behavior may be useful to understand the experimental controversy of the hot carrier effect on charge separation.

  4. Oxygen chemisorption on Cu(19 19 1) studied by spot profile analysis low-energy electron diffraction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brandstetter, T.; Draxler, M.; Hohage, M.; Zeppenfeld, P.

    2007-12-15

    Cu(110) and the vicinal Cu(19 19 1) surfaces were characterized by recording maps of the reciprocal space by means of spot profile analysis low-energy electron diffraction (SPA-LEED). For both surfaces, kinematic simulations were performed to get insight into the main features of the experimental data. Furthermore, it is shown that chemisorption of oxygen and subsequent annealing lead to the formation of a Cu-CuO stripe phase and induce faceting of the Cu(19 19 1) surface. The evolution from the clean Cu(19 19 1) surface to the coexistence of the (110) and (111) facets with increasing oxygen exposure was characterized by SPA-LEED.

  5. X-ray Tube with Magnetic Electron Steering - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Industrial Technologies Industrial Technologies Find More Like This Return to Search X-ray Tube with Magnetic Electron Steering Sandia National Laboratories Contact SNL About This Technology Publications: PDF Document Publication Market Sheet (802 KB) Technology Marketing Summary Sandia National Laboratories has created an improved efficiency compact X-ray source to address a wide range of applications. The high average power large area X-ray tube provides increased X-ray generation efficiency

  6. Study of dust particle charging in weakly ionized inert gases taking into account the nonlocality of the electron energy distribution function

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Filippov, A. V. Dyatko, N. A.; Kostenko, A. S.

    2014-11-15

    The charging of dust particles in weakly ionized inert gases at atmospheric pressure has been investigated. The conditions under which the gas is ionized by an external source, a beam of fast electrons, are considered. The electron energy distribution function in argon, krypton, and xenon has been calculated for three rates of gas ionization by fast electrons: 10{sup 13}, 10{sup 14}, and 10{sup 15} cm{sup ?1}. A model of dust particle charging with allowance for the nonlocal formation of the electron energy distribution function in the region of strong plasma quasi-neutrality violation around the dust particle is described. The nonlocality is taken into account in an approximation where the distribution function is a function of only the total electron energy. Comparative calculations of the dust particle charge with and without allowance for the nonlocality of the electron energy distribution function have been performed. Allowance for the nonlocality is shown to lead to a noticeable increase in the dust particle charge due to the influence of the group of hot electrons from the tail of the distribution function. It has been established that the screening constant virtually coincides with the smallest screening constant determined according to the asymptotic theory of screening with the electron transport and recombination coefficients in an unperturbed plasma.

  7. Nano-structure multilayer technology fabrication of high energy density capacitors for the power electronic building book

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barbee, T.W.; Johnson, G.W.; Wagner, A.V.

    1997-10-21

    Commercially available capacitors do not meet the specifications of the Power Electronic Building Block (PEBB) concept. We have applied our propriety nanostructure multilayer materials technology to the fabrication of high density capacitors designed to remove this impediment to PEBB progress. Our nanostructure multilayer capacitors will also be enabling technology in many industrial and military applications. Examples include transient suppression (snubber capacitors), resonant circuits, and DC filtering in PEBB modules. Additionally, weapon applications require compact energy storage for detonators and pulsed-power systems. Commercial applications run the gamut from computers to lighting to communications. Steady progress over the last five years has brought us to the threshold of commercial manufacturability. We have demonstrated a working dielectric energy density of > 11 J/cm3 in 20 nF devices designed for 1 kV operation.

  8. Numerical integration for ab initio many-electron self energy calculations within the GW approximation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Fang; Lin, Lin; Vigil-Fowler, Derek; Lischner, Johannes; Kemper, Alexander F.; Sharifzadeh, Sahar; Jornada, Felipe H. da; Deslippe, Jack; Yang, Chao; and others

    2015-04-01

    We present a numerical integration scheme for evaluating the convolution of a Green's function with a screened Coulomb potential on the real axis in the GW approximation of the self energy. Our scheme takes the zero broadening limit in Green's function first, replaces the numerator of the integrand with a piecewise polynomial approximation, and performs principal value integration on subintervals analytically. We give the error bound of our numerical integration scheme and show by numerical examples that it is more reliable and accurate than the standard quadrature rules such as the composite trapezoidal rule. We also discuss the benefit of using different self energy expressions to perform the numerical convolution at different frequencies.

  9. Method for morphological control and encapsulation of materials for electronics and energy applications

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ivanov, Ilia N.; Simpson, John T.

    2013-06-11

    An electronic device comprises a drawn glass tube having opposing ends, a semiconductive material disposed inside of the drawn glass tube, and a first electrode and a second electrode disposed at the opposing ends of the drawn glass tube. A method of making an electrical device comprises disposing a semiconductive material inside of a glass tube, and drawing the glass tube with the semiconductive material disposed therein to form a drawn glass tube. The method of making an electrical device also comprises disposing a first electrode and a second electrode on the opposing ends of the drawn glass tube to form an electric device.

  10. Measurement and simulation of the impact of coherent synchrotron radiation on the Jefferson Laboratory energy recovery linac electron beam

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Hall, C C.; Biedron, S G.; Edelen, A L.; Milton, S V.; Benson, S; Douglas, D; Li, R; Tennant, C D.; Carlsten, B E.

    2015-03-09

    In an experiment conducted on the Jefferson Laboratory IR free-electron laser driver, the effects of coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) on beam quality were studied. The primary goal of this work was to explore CSR output and effect on the beam with variation of the bunch compression in the IR recirculator. Here we examine the impact of CSR on the average energy loss as a function of bunch compression as well as the impact of CSR on the energy spectrum of the bunch. Simulation of beam dynamics in the machine, including the one-dimensional CSR model, shows very good agreement with themore » measured effect of CSR on the average energy loss as a function of compression. Finally, a well-defined structure is observed in the energy spectrum with a feature in the spectrum that varies as a function of the compression. This effect is examined in simulations, as well, and a simple explanation for the variation is proposed.« less

  11. Three energy scales in the superconducting state of hole-doped cuprates detected by electronic Raman scattering

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Benhabib, S.; Gu, G. D.; Gallais, Y.; Cazayous, M.; Measson, M. -A.; Zhong, R. D.; Schneeloch, J.; Forget, A.; Colson, D.; Sacuto, A.

    2015-10-06

    We explore by electronic Raman scattering the superconducting state of the Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+δ (Bi-2212) crystal by performing a fine-tuned doping study. We find three distinct energy scales in A1g, B1g, and B2g symmetries which show three distinct doping dependencies. Above p=0.22, the three energies merge; below p=0.12, the A1g scale is no longer detectable, while the B1g and B2g scales become constant in energy. In between, the A1g and B1g scales increase monotonically with underdoping, while the B2g one exhibits a maximum at p=0.16. The three superconducting energy scales appear to be a universal feature of hole-doped cuprates. Furthermore, we proposemore » that the nontrivial doping dependencies of the three scales originate from the Fermi-surface changes and reveal competing orders inside the superconducting dome.« less

  12. Three energy scales in the superconducting state of hole-doped cuprates detected by electronic Raman scattering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Benhabib, S.; Gu, G. D.; Gallais, Y.; Cazayous, M.; Measson, M. -A.; Zhong, R. D.; Schneeloch, J.; Forget, A.; Colson, D.; Sacuto, A.

    2015-10-06

    We explore by electronic Raman scattering the superconducting state of the Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+δ (Bi-2212) crystal by performing a fine-tuned doping study. We find three distinct energy scales in A1g, B1g, and B2g symmetries which show three distinct doping dependencies. Above p=0.22, the three energies merge; below p=0.12, the A1g scale is no longer detectable, while the B1g and B2g scales become constant in energy. In between, the A1g and B1g scales increase monotonically with underdoping, while the B2g one exhibits a maximum at p=0.16. The three superconducting energy scales appear to be a universal feature of hole-doped cuprates. Furthermore, we propose that the nontrivial doping dependencies of the three scales originate from the Fermi-surface changes and reveal competing orders inside the superconducting dome.

  13. Time evolution of endpoint energy of Bremsstrahlung spectra and ion production from an electron cyclotron resonance ion source

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tarvainen, Ollie; Ropponen, Tommi; Jones, Peter; Kalvas, Taneli

    2008-01-01

    Electron cyclotron resonance ion sources (ECRIS) are used to produce high charge state heavy ion beams for the use of nuclear and materials science, for instance. The most powerful ECR ion sources today are superconducting. One of the problems with superconducting ECR ion sources is the use of high radio frequency (RF) power which results in bremsstrahlung radiation adding an extra heat load to the cryostat. In order to understand the electron heating process and timescales in the ECR plasma, time evolution measurement of ECR bremsstrahlung was carried out. In the measurements JYFL 14 GHz ECRIS was operated in a pulsed mode and bremsstrahlung data from several hundred RF pulses was recorded. Time evolution of ion production was also studied and compared to one of the electron heating theories. To analyze the measurement data at C++ program was developed. Endpoint energies of the bremsstrahlung spectra as a function of axial magnetic field strength, pressure and RF power are presented and ion production timescales obtained from the measurements are compared to bremsstrahlung emission timescales and one of the stochastic heating theories.

  14. An x-ray backlit Talbot-Lau deflectometer for high-energy-density electron density diagnostics

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Valdivia, M. P.; Stutman, D.; Stoeckl, C.; Theobald, W.; Mileham, C.; Begishev, I. A.; Bromage, J.; Regan, S. P.

    2016-02-10

    X-ray phase-contrast techniques can measure electron density gradients in high-energy-density plasmas through refraction induced phase shifts. An 8 keV Talbot-Lau interferometer consisting of free standing ultrathin gratings was deployed at an ultra-short, high-intensity laser system using K-shell emission from a 1-30 J, 8 ps laser pulse focused on thin Cu foil targets. Grating survival was demonstrated for 30 J, 8 ps laser pulses. The first x-ray deflectometry images obtained under laser backlighting showed up to 25% image contrast and thus enabled detection of electron areal density gradients with a maximum value of 8.1 ± 0.5 × 1023 cm₋3 in amore » low-Z millimeter sized sample. An electron density profile was obtained from refraction measurements with an error of <8%. We found the 50 ± 15 μm spatial resolution achieved across the full field of view was limited by the x-ray source-size, similar to conventional radiography.« less

  15. Computer simulation of dislocation dechanneling in bent crystals at tera-electron-volt energies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Biryukov, V.

    1995-08-01

    The dislocation dechanneling of protons in the high-GeV and TeV energy ranges in long curved crystals has been investigated by means of computer simulation. The prospects for multi-TeV applications of bent crystals are discussed.

  16. Colossal Magnetoresistive Manganite Based Fast Bolometric X-ray Sensors for Total Energy Measurements of Free Electron Lasers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yong, G J; Kolagani, R M; Adhikari, S; Mundle, R M; Cox, D W; Davidson III, A L; Liang, Y; Drury, O B; Hau-Riege, S P; Gardner, C; Ables, E; Bionta, R M; Friedrich, S

    2008-12-17

    Bolometric detectors based on epitaxial thin films of rare earth perovskite manganites have been proposed as total energy monitors for X-ray pulses at the Linac Coherent Light Source free electron laser. We demonstrate such a detector scheme based on epitaxial thin films of the perovskite manganese oxide material Nd{sub 0.67}Sr{sub x0.33}MnO{sub 3}, grown by pulsed laser deposition on buffered silicon substrates. The substrate and sensor materials are chosen to meet the conflicting requirements of radiation hardness, sensitivity, speed and linearity over a dynamic range of three orders of magnitude. The key challenge in the material development is the integration of the sensor material with Si. Si is required to withstand the free electron laser pulse impact and to achieve a readout speed three orders of magnitude faster than conventional cryoradiometers for compatibility with the Linac Coherent Light Source pulse rate. We discuss sensor material development and the photoresponse of prototype devices. This Linac Coherent Light Source total energy monitor represents the first practical application of manganite materials as bolometric sensors.

  17. On the Site-Decomposition of Magnetocrystalline Anisotropy Energy Using Ome-Electron Eigenstates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aberg, Daniel; Sadigh, Babak; Benedict, Lorin X.

    2015-10-26

    We discuss two di erent schemes for decomposing the magnetocrystalline anisotropy energy into atomic site-speci c contributions, and show that one of these, which uses projected single-particle states, is inherently ill-de ned in practical applications. We therefore argue that the other decomposition scheme, involving ground state matrix elements of the spin-orbit operator, is preferable for the numerical prediction of one-site contributions to the anisotropy.

  18. High-energy Electron Scattering and the Charge Distributions of Selected Nuclei

    DOE R&D Accomplishments [OSTI]

    Hahn, B.; Ravenhall, D. G.; Hofstadter, R.

    1955-10-01

    Experimental results are presented of electron scattering by Ca, V, Co, In, Sb, Hf, Ta, W, Au, Bi, Th, and U, at 183 Mev and (for some of the elements) at 153 Mev. For those nuclei for which asphericity and inelastic scattering are absent or unimportant, i.e., Ca, V, Co, In, Sb, Au, and Bi, a partial wave analysis of the Dirac equation has been performed in which the nuclei are represented by static, spherically symmetric charge distributions. Smoothed uniform charge distributions have been assumed; these are characterized by a constant charge density in the central region of the nucleus, with a smoothed-our surface. Essentially two parameters can be determined, related to the radium and to the surface thickness. An examination of the Au experiments show that the functional forms of the surface are not important, and that the charge density in the central regions is probably fairly flat, although it cannot be determined very accurately.

  19. Excitation of the 3p states in electron-sodium scattering at intermediate energies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kamali, M. Z. M.; Wong, B. R.; Chin, J. H.; Ratnavelu, K.

    2014-03-05

    A coupled-channel-optical method (CCOM), to investigate the excitation of the 3p states for e{sup ?}-Na scattering at intermediate energies, is reported. Nine atomic states( Na(3s), Na(3p), Na(4s), Na(3d), Na(4p), Na(5s), Na(4d), Na(5p), Na(5d) ) together with three optical potentials are used in this work. The inelastic differential cross sections (DCS) as well as the reduced Stokes parameters are compared with latest theoretical data and experimental measurements.

  20. Spectroscopy at the high-energy electron beam ion trap (Super EBIT)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Widmann, K.; Beiersdorfer, P.; Crespo Lopez-Urrutia, J.R.

    1996-07-10

    The following progress report presents some of the x-ray measurements performed during the last year on the Livermore SuperEBIT facility. The measurements include: direct observation of the spontaneous emission of the hyperfine transition in ground state hydrogenlike holmium, {sup 165}Ho{sup 66{plus}}; measurements of the n {equals} 2 {r_arrow} 2 transition energies in neonlike thorium, Th{sup 80{plus}}, through lithiumlike thorium, Th{sup 87{plus}}, testing the predictions of quantum electrodynamical contributions in high-Z ions up to the 0.4{percent} level; measurements of the isotope shift of the n= 2 {r_arrow} 2 transition energies between lithiumlike through carbonize uranium, {sup 233}U{sup 89{plus}...86{plus}} and {sup 238}U{sup 89{plus}...86{plus}}, inferring the variation of the mean- square nuclear charge radius; and high-resolution measurements of the K{alpha} radiation of heliumlike xenon, Xe{sup 52 {plus}}, using a transmission-type crystal spectrometer, resolving for the first time the ls2p{sup 3}P{sub 1} {r_arrow} 1S{sup 2} {sup 1}S{sub 0} and ls2s{sup 3}S{sub 1} {r_arrow} 1S{sup 2} {sup 1}S{sub 0} transitions individually. 41 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  1. Capturing relativistic wakefield structures in plasmas using ultrashort high-energy electrons as a probe

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zhang, C. J.; Hua, J. F.; Xu, X. L.; Li, F.; Pai, C. -H.; Wan, Y.; Wu, Y. P.; Gu, Y. Q.; Mori, W. B.; Joshi, C.; et al

    2016-07-11

    A new method capable of capturing coherent electric field structures propagating at nearly the speed of light in plasma with a time resolution as small as a few femtoseconds is proposed. This method uses a few femtoseconds long relativistic electron bunch to probe the wake produced in a plasma by an intense laser pulse or an ultra-short relativistic charged particle beam. As the probe bunch traverses the wake, its momentum is modulated by the electric field of the wake, leading to a density variation of the probe after free-space propagation. This variation of probe density produces a snapshot of themore » wake that can directly give many useful information of the wake structure and its evolution. Furthermore, this snapshot allows detailed mapping of the longitudinal and transverse components of the wakefield. We develop a theoretical model for field reconstruction and verify it using 3-dimensional particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations. This model can accurately reconstruct the wakefield structure in the linear regime, and it can also qualitatively map the major features of nonlinear wakes. As a result, the capturing of the injection in a nonlinear wake is demonstrated through 3D PIC simulations as an example of the application of this new method.« less

  2. Beam Line Design and Beam Physics Study of Energy Recovery Linac Free Electron Laser at Peking University

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guimei Wang

    2011-12-31

    Energy recovering linac (ERL) offers an attractive alternative for generating intense beams of charged particles by approaching the operational efficiency of a storage ring while maintaining the superior beam quality typical of a linear accelerator. In ERLs, the decelerated beam cancels the beam loading effects of the accelerated beam with high repetition rate. Therefore, ERLs can, in principle, accelerate very high average currents with only modest amounts of RF power. So the efficiency of RF power to beam is much higher. Furthermore, the energy of beam to dump is lower, so it will reduce dump radiation. With the successful experiments in large maximum-to-injection energy ratio up to 51:1 and high power FEL up to 14kW, the use of ERL, especially combining with superconducting RF technology, provides a potentially powerful new paradigm for generation of the charged particle beams used in MW FEL, synchrotron radiation sources, high-energy electron cooling devices and so on. The 3+1/2 DC-SC photo injector and two 9cell TESLA superconducting cavity for IR SASE FEL in PKU provides a good platform to achieve high average FEL with Energy Recovery. The work of this thesis is on Beam line design and Beam dynamics study of Energy Recovery Linac Free Electron Laser for Peking University. It is the upgrade of PKU facility, which is under construction. With ERL, this facility can work in CW mode, so it can operate high average beam current without RF power constraint in main linac and generate high average FEL power. Moreover, it provides a test facility to study the key technology in ERL. System parameters are optimized for PKU ERL-FEL. The oscillation FEL output power is studied with different bunch charge, transverse emittance, bunch length and energy spread. The theory of optimal RF power and Q{sub ext} with ERL and without ERL is analyzed and applied to PKU injector and linac including microphonic effect. pace charge effect in the injector and merger is studied for beam

  3. Contributions to the second workshop on medium energy electron cooling - MEEC96

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    MacLachlan, J.

    1997-09-01

    MEEC96 was a workshop devoted primarily to discussion within four working groups, not a mini-conference of prepared reports. Therefore, although there are contributions bearing the name of a single author, much of what was learned came in extemporaneous discussion of the issues posed to the participants. The original plan to produce formal proceedings has been dropped because of the limited number of participants willing to write up their own contributions and because of the difficulty of converting free-wheeling discussion to the written word. The premsise for the 1996 gathering was to set a critique of Fermilab`s R&D effort at cooling a ring of 8 GeV {bar p}`s. Separate abstracts have been submitted to the energy database for contributions to this workshop.

  4. Infrared fluorescence studies of electronic-to-vibrational energy transfer in a Br2:NO system. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hawks, M.R.

    1993-12-01

    Steady-state photolysis techniques were used to study electronic-to-vibrational energy transfer mechanisms from atomic bromine to nitric oxide. Molecular bromine was photodissociated by 488nm radiation to produce equal parts Br(2p(sub 1/2)) and Br(2p (sub 3/2)). Side fluorescence intensity from Br(2p (sub 1/2)) at 2.7 microns and from NO (v =1) and 2 around 5.3 microns measured as a function of bromine pressure and nitric oxide pressure. The branching ratio collisional transfer into the first and second states of NO was determined, and previously reported rates for quenching of NO by molecular bromine were verified. Nitric oxide, Bromine, E-V transfer, Infrared fluorescence, Photolysis.

  5. Technical Note: Relation between dual-energy subtraction of CT images for electron density calibration and virtual monochromatic imaging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Saito, Masatoshi

    2015-07-15

    Purpose: For accurate tissue inhomogeneity correction in radiotherapy treatment planning, the author previously proposed a simple conversion of the energy-subtracted computed tomography (CT) number to an electron density (ΔHU–ρ{sub e} conversion), which provides a single linear relationship between ΔHU and ρ{sub e} over a wide ρ{sub e} range. The purpose of the present study was to reveal the relation between the ΔHU image for ρ{sub e} calibration and a virtually monochromatic CT image by performing numerical analyses based on the basis material decomposition in dual-energy CT. Methods: The author determined the weighting factor, α{sub 0}, of the ΔHU–ρ{sub e} conversion through numerical analyses of the International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements Report-46 human body tissues using their attenuation coefficients and given ρ{sub e} values. Another weighting factor, α(E), for synthesizing a virtual monochromatic CT image from high- and low-kV CT images, was also calculated in the energy range of 0.03 < E < 5 MeV, assuming that cortical bone and water were the basis materials. The mass attenuation coefficients for these materials were obtained using the XCOM photon cross sections database. The effective x-ray energies used to calculate the attenuation were chosen to imitate a dual-source CT scanner operated at 80–140 and 100–140 kV/Sn. Results: The determined α{sub 0} values were 0.455 for 80–140 kV/Sn and 0.743 for 100–140 kV/Sn. These values coincided almost perfectly with the respective maximal points of the calculated α(E) curves located at approximately 1 MeV, in which the photon-matter interaction in human body tissues is exclusively the incoherent (Compton) scattering. Conclusions: The ΔHU image could be regarded substantially as a CT image acquired with monoenergetic 1-MeV photons, which provides a linear relationship between CT numbers and electron densities.

  6. Ultrafast harmonic rf kicker design and beam dynamics analysis for an energy recovery linac based electron circulator cooler ring

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Huang, Yulu; Wang, Haipeng; Rimmer, Robert A.; Wang, Shaoheng; Guo, Jiquan

    2016-08-01

    An ultrafast kicker system is being developed for the energy recovery linac (ERL) based electron circulator cooler ring (CCR) in the proposed Jefferson Lab Electron Ion Collider (JLEIC, previously named MEIC). In the CCR, the injected electron bunches can be recirculated while performing ion cooling for 10–30 turns before the extraction, thus reducing the recirculation beam current in the ERL to 1/10–1/30 (150mA–50 mA) of the cooling beam current (up to 1.5 A). Assuming a bunch repetition rate of 476.3 MHz and a recirculating factor of 10 in the CCR, the kicker is required to operate at a pulse repetitionmore » rate of 47.63 MHz with pulse width of around 2 ns, so that only every 10th bunch in the CCR will experience a transverse kick while the rest of the bunches will not be disturbed. Such a kicker pulse can be synthesized by ten harmonic modes of the 47.63 MHz kicker pulse repetition frequency, using up to four quarter wavelength resonator (QWR) based deflecting cavities. In this paper, several methods to synthesize such a kicker waveform will be discussed and a comparison of their beam dynamics performance is made using ELEGANT. Four QWR cavities are envisaged with high transverse shunt impedance requiring less than 100 W of total rf power for a Flat-Top kick pulse. Multipole fields due to the asymmetry of this type of cavity are analyzed. The transverse emittance growth due to the sextupole component is simulated in ELEGANT. In conclusion, off-axis injection and extraction issues and beam optics using a multicavity kick-drift scheme will also be discussed.« less

  7. Light-induced electron transfer vs. energy transfer in molecular thin-film systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Renschler, C. L.; Faulkner, L. R.

    1980-01-01

    Quenching of fluoranthene (FA) singlets by tetrabromo-o-benzoquinone (TBBQ) and N,N,N',N'-tetramethyl-p-phenylenediamine (TMPD) was studied both in xylene solutions and in spin-cast polystyrene (PS) films. Emphasis was placed on time-resolved fluorescence transients resulting from pulsed excitation. Linear Stern-Volmer plots were obtained for quenching in solution and gave diffusion-controlled rate constants, of 1.45 x 10/sup 10/ M/sup -1/ sec/sup -1/ and 1.53 x 10/sup 10/ M/sup -1/ sec/sup -1/ for TBBQ and TMPD, respectively. TBBQ was found to quench FA singlets in PS over the studied concentration range 12 mM < (TBBQ) < 48 mM, but in its presence FA singlets decayed nonexponentially. The results were interpreted quantitatively in terms of pure Foerster's transfer from FA to TBBQ without diffusion of excitons. The critical transfer radius R/sub 0/ was experimentally determined to be 24.3 A, which is in good agreement with the theoretical value of 23 A calculated from spectral data. Quenching of FA singlets in PS films was found to be independent of FA concentration over a 300 mM to 1200 mM FA concentration range for a constant TBBQ concentration of 24.0 mM. TMPD was only slightly effective as a quencher of FA singlets in PS because it apparently behaves strictly as a contact quencher based on reversible charge transfer. The implications of these results for the design of systems intended to exploit light-induced electron transfer are discussed.

  8. Investigation of deep levels in n-type 4H-SiC epilayers irradiated with low-energy electrons

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Danno, Katsunori; Kimoto, Tsunenobu

    2006-12-01

    Deep levels in n-type 4H-SiC epilayers have been investigated by deep level transient spectroscopy (DLTS). The Z{sub 1/2} and EH{sub 6/7} centers are dominant in as-grown samples. After electron irradiation at 116 keV, by which only carbon atoms may be displaced, the Z{sub 1/2} and EH{sub 6/7} concentrations are significantly increased. The Z{sub 1/2} and EH{sub 6/7} centers are stable up to 1500-1600 deg. C and their concentrations are decreased by annealing at 1600-1700 deg. C. In the irradiated samples, the trap concentrations of the Z{sub 1/2} and EH{sub 6/7} centers are increased with the 0.7 power of the electron fluence. The concentrations of the Z{sub 1/2} and EH{sub 6/7} centers are very close to each other in all kinds of samples, as-grown, as-irradiated, and annealed ones, even though the condition of growth, irradiation (energy and fluence), and annealing has been changed. This result suggests that both Z{sub 1/2} and EH{sub 6/7} centers microscopically contain the same defect such as a carbon vacancy.

  9. EUV studies of N/sub 2/ and O/sub 2/ produced by low energy electron impact

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Morgan, H.D.; Mentall, J.E.

    1983-02-15

    The emission spectrum of atomic nitrogen (NI), singly ionized atomic nitrogen (NII), atomic oxygen (OI), singly ionized atomic oxygen (OII), and molecular nitrogen (N/sub 2/) dominates the day airglow and aurora spectrum in the extreme ultraviolet. However, analysis of the excitation of these lines is not possible due to the lack of laboratory or theoretical data for the relevant processes. Absolute emission excitation cross sections resulting from low energy electron impact on N/sub 2/ and O/sub 2/ have been measured in the extreme vacuum ultraviolet (500--1200 A). Electron energies were from 0 to 300 eV. Numerous bands of N/sub 2/ were found between 800 and 1000 A. These band systems are of particular interest because their optical oscillator strengths are unusually large and should have large emission cross sections. Excitation functions were measured for the N/sub 2/ c' /sup 1/..sigma../sup +//sub u/ ..-->.. X /sup 1/..sigma../sup +//sub g/ v' = 0-v'' = 0 band emission, the NII 916 A multiplet, the OI 879 A multiplet, and the OII 834 A multiplet. In addition, cross sections were measured at 200 eV only for several of the band emissions plus the NI 1135 A, NI 1164 A, NI 1177 A, NII 776 A, NII 1084 A, OI 1152 A, OI 1041 A, OI 1027 A, OI 999 A, OI 989 A, OI 879 A, OII 834 A, OII 616 A, OII 555 A, OII 539 A, and OII 718 A multiplets.

  10. Power Electronics Block Set

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2008-12-31

    The software consists of code that will allow rapid prototyping of advanced power electronics for use in renewable energy systems.

  11. Langmuir probe diagnostics of electron energy distributions with optical emission spectroscopy in capacitively coupled rf discharge in nitrogen

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abdel-Fattah, E.; Bazavan, M.; Sugai, H.

    2011-12-01

    Measurements with a rf compensated Langmuir probe and optical emission spectroscopy are carried out in capacitively coupled rf (13.56 MHz) pure nitrogen N{sub 2} discharges at fixed rf voltage over a wide range of pressure, 30 to 400 mTorr. The electron energy probability function (EEPF) measured below 100 mTorr resembles a bi-Maxwellian-type distribution. At pressure range of 100-200 mTorr, the EEPF has non-Maxwellian distribution with a ''dip'' near 4.5 eV. At the highest pressure of 400 mTorr, the EEPF evolves into a Druyvestein-like distribution and the ''dip'' disappears. The electron density significantly decreases with increase in the N{sub 2} pressure. On the other hand, the electron temperatures gradually decrease with an increase in N{sub 2} pressure, reaching minimum at 150 mTorr, beyond which it abruptly increases. Such evolution of the EEPFs shape with gas pressure has been discussed in terms of non-local electron kinetics and heating mode transition. The emission intensities of nitrogen (0-0) band of second positive system at 337.1 nm and (0-0) band of first negative systems at 391.4 nm are used to determine the dependence of their radiative states N{sub 2}(C{sup 3}{Pi}{sub u}) and N{sub 2}{sup +}(B{sup 2}{Sigma}{sub u}{sup +}) with nitrogen pressure. It is observed that the pressure influences the radiative states differently owing to their different populating mechanisms. The vibrational temperature T{sub {nu}ib} and rotational temperature T{sub rot} are measured for the sequence ({Delta}{nu}=-2) of N{sub 2} second positive system (C{sup 3}{Pi}{yields}B{sup 3}{Pi}{sub g}) using the method of comparing the measured and calculated spectra with a chi-squared minimization procedure. It was found that both T{sub {nu}ib} and T{sub rot} have similar dependences with N{sub 2} pressure; peaked at 100 mTorr beyond which it monotonically decreases with increase in the N{sub 2} pressure. The correlation between the observed maximum value of T{sub {nu}ib} around

  12. A low energy electron microscopy study of the initial growth, structure, and thermal stability of 4,4{sup '}-biphenyldicarboxylic acid domains on Cu(001)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Khokhar, Fawad S.; Gastel, Raoul van; Schwarz, Daniel; Zandvliet, Harold J. W.; Poelsema, Bene

    2011-09-28

    The growth of 4,4{sup '}-biphenyldicarboxylic acid (BDA) on Cu(001) has been studied using low energy electron microscopy and selective area low energy electron diffraction. The emergence of large islands and hydrogen bonding to perpendicularly oriented, adjacent molecules is confirmed. The two benzene rings of adsorbed BDA are twisted along the molecular axis. Unconventional growth of the domains, followed by a second nucleation stage, is observed at room temperature. This unanticipated feature is attributed to the accumulation of stress in the islands. Ostwald ripening in the films and the decay of BDA domains at 448 K exhibits features that are consistent with diffusion limited behavior.

  13. U.S. Virgin Islands Leadership Embraces Inclusiveness to Ensure Community Ownership of Clean Energy Vision

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    0: Committing to an Energy Transition U.S. Virgin Islands Leadership Embraces Inclusiveness to Ensure Community Ownership of Clean Energy Vision Getting the Right People in the Room at the Outset Getting the right people in the room is critical to ensuring buy-in from key stakeholders when setting the vision for an energy project or initiative. Like many island communities, the U.S. Virgin Islands (USVI) was almost 100% depen- dent on imported oil for electricity, water desalinization, and

  14. Power Electronics and Controls

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Electronics and Controls - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing Nuclear Energy Defense Waste Management Programs Advanced

  15. The degree of 5f electron localization in URu2Si2: electron energy-loss spectroscopy and spin-orbit sum rule analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jeffries, J R; Moore, K T; Butch, N P; Maple, M B

    2010-05-19

    We examine the degree of 5f electron localization in URu{sub 2}Si{sub 2} using spin-orbit sum rule analysis of the U N{sub 4,5} (4d {yields} 5f) edge. When compared to {alpha}-U metal, US, USe, and UTe, which have increasing localization of the 5f states, we find that the 5f states of URu{sub 2}Si{sub 2} are more localized, although not entirely. Spin-orbit analysis shows that intermediate coupling is the correct angular momentum coupling mechanism for URu{sub 2}Si{sub 2} when the 5f electron count is between 2.6 and 2.8. These results have direct ramifications for theoretical assessment of the hidden order state of URu{sub 2}Si{sub 2}, where the degree of localization of the 5f electrons and their contribution to the Fermi surface are critical.

  16. Otter Tail County, Minnesota: Energy Resources | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    County, Minnesota Battle Lake, Minnesota Bluffton, Minnesota Clitherall, Minnesota Dalton, Minnesota Deer Creek, Minnesota Dent, Minnesota Elizabeth, Minnesota Erhard,...

  17. Vertical and adiabatic excitations in anthracene from quantum Monte Carlo: Constrained energy minimization for structural and electronic excited-state properties in the JAGP ansatz

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dupuy, Nicolas; Bouaouli, Samira; Mauri, Francesco Casula, Michele; Sorella, Sandro

    2015-06-07

    We study the ionization energy, electron affinity, and the ? ? ?{sup ?} ({sup 1}L{sub a}) excitation energy of the anthracene molecule, by means of variational quantum Monte Carlo (QMC) methods based on a Jastrow correlated antisymmetrized geminal power (JAGP) wave function, developed on molecular orbitals (MOs). The MO-based JAGP ansatz allows one to rigorously treat electron transitions, such as the HOMO ? LUMO one, which underlies the {sup 1}L{sub a} excited state. We present a QMC optimization scheme able to preserve the rank of the antisymmetrized geminal power matrix, thanks to a constrained minimization with projectors built upon symmetry selected MOs. We show that this approach leads to stable energy minimization and geometry relaxation of both ground and excited states, performed consistently within the correlated QMC framework. Geometry optimization of excited states is needed to make a reliable and direct comparison with experimental adiabatic excitation energies. This is particularly important in ?-conjugated and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, where there is a strong interplay between low-lying energy excitations and structural modifications, playing a functional role in many photochemical processes. Anthracene is an ideal benchmark to test these effects. Its geometry relaxation energies upon electron excitation are of up to 0.3 eV in the neutral {sup 1}L{sub a} excited state, while they are of the order of 0.1 eV in electron addition and removal processes. Significant modifications of the ground state bond length alternation are revealed in the QMC excited state geometry optimizations. Our QMC study yields benchmark results for both geometries and energies, with values below chemical accuracy if compared to experiments, once zero point energy effects are taken into account.

  18. Pyroelectric-field driven defects diffusion along c-axis in ZnO nanobelts under high-energy electron beam irradiation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ding, Yong Liu, Ying; Niu, Simiao; Wu, Wenzhuo; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2014-10-21

    When ZnO nanobelts are exposed to a high-dose electron probe of several nanometers to hundred nanometers in diameter inside a transmission electron microscope, due to the radiolysis effect, part of oxygen atoms will be ejected into the vacuum and leaving a Zn-ion rich surface with a pit appearance at both the electron-entrance and electron-exit surfaces. At the same time, a temperature distribution is created around the electron probe due to local beam heating effect, which generates a unidirectional pyroelectric field. This pyroelectric field is strong enough to drive Zn ions moving along its positive c-axis direction as interstitial ions. In the first case, for the ZnO nanobelts with c-axis lie in their large surfaces, defects due to the aggregation of Zn interstitial ions will be formed at some distances of 3050 nm approximately along the c-axis direction from the electron beam illuminated area. Alternatively, for the ZnO nanobelts with (0001) planes as their large surfaces, the incident electron beam is along its c-axis and the generated pyroelectric field will drive the interstitial Zn-ions to aggregate at the Zn terminated (0001) surface where the local electrical potential is the lowest. Such electron beam induced damage in ZnO nanostructures is suggested as a result of Zn ion diffusion driven by the temperature gradient induced pyroelectric field along c-axis. Our study shows a radiation damage caused by electron beam in transmission electron microscopy, especially when the electron energy is high.

  19. Single electron beam rf feedback free electron laser

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brau, C.A.; Stein, W.E.; Rockwood, S.D.

    1981-02-11

    A free electron laser system and electron beam system for a free electron laser which uses rf feedback to enhance efficiency are described. Rf energy is extracted from a single electron beam by decelerating cavities and energy is returned to accelerating cavities using rf returns, such as rf waveguides, rf feedthroughs, resonant feedthroughs, etc. This rf energy is added to rf klystron energy to reduce the required input energy and thereby enhance energy efficiency of the system.

  20. ISSUANCE 2016-03-24: Notice of Application from Green Electronics for a Small Business Exemption Regarding Certain Products from the Department of Energy’s External Power Supply Energy Conservation Standards

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Notice of Application from Green Electronics for a Small Business Exemption Regarding Certain Products from the Department of Energy’s External Power Supply Energy Conservation Standards

  1. Generation of very low energy-spread electron beams using low-intensity laser pulses in a low-density plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Upadhyay, Ajay K.; Samant, Sushil Arun; Sarkar, Deepangkar; Krishnagopal, Srinivas; Jha, Pallavi

    2011-03-15

    The possibility of obtaining high-energy electron beams of high quality by using a low-density homogeneous plasma and a low-intensity laser (just above the self-injection threshold in the bubble regime) has been explored. Three-dimensional simulations are used to demonstrate, for the first time, an energy-spread of less than 1%, from self-trapping. More specifically, for a plasma density of 2x10{sup 18} cm{sup -3} and a laser intensity of a{sub 0}=2, a high-energy (0.55 GeV), ultrashort (1.4 fs) electron beam with very low energy-spread (0.55%) and high current (3 kA) is obtained. These parameters satisfy the requirements for drivers of short-wavelength free-electron lasers. It is also found that the quality of the electron beam depends strongly on the plasma length, which therefore needs to be optimized carefully to get the best performance in the experiments.

  2. Temporal evolution of the energy spectrum of ultrarelativistic electrons under the action of synchrotron losses and turbulent acceleration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Samsonov, A.M.; Fedorenko, V.N.

    1981-01-01

    A solution of the kinetic equation for the isotropic part of the distribution function of ultrarelativistic electrons is obtained which describes the temporal evolution of their spectrum under the action of synchrotron losses and turbulent acceleration. The initial distribution is assigned in the form of a power-law spectrum. The properties of the turbulence are assigned by the coefficient of turbulent acceleration D(epsilon) = D/sub 0/epsilon/sup 3/, which is consistent with the coefficient of synchrotron losses b(epsilon) = b/sub 0/epsilon/sup 2/, so as to assure the isotropization of the distribution function without significant particle acceleration. The solution preserves the initial spectrum up to certain values of the time t and energy epsilon, connected by the inequality b/sub 0/epsilont<>b/sub 1/ and D/sub 0/<

  3. Electron density profile measurements at a self-focusing ion beam with high current density and low energy extracted through concave electrodes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fujiwara, Y. Nakamiya, A.; Sakakita, H.; Innovative Plasma Technologies Group, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology , Ibaraki ; Hirano, Y.; Laboratory of Physics, College of Science and Technologies, Nihon University, Tokyo ; Kiyama, S.; Koguchi, H.

    2014-02-15

    The self-focusing phenomenon has been observed in a high current density and low energy ion beam. In order to study the mechanism of this phenomenon, a special designed double probe to measure the electron density and temperature is installed into the chamber where the high current density ion beam is injected. Electron density profile is successfully measured without the influence of the ion beam components. Estimated electron temperature and density are ?0.9 eV and ?8 10{sup 8} cm{sup ?3} at the center of ion beam cross section, respectively. It was found that a large amount of electrons are spontaneously accumulated in the ion beam line in the case of self-forcing state.

  4. Catalac free electron laser

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brau, Charles A. (Los Alamos, NM); Swenson, Donald A. (Los Alamos, NM); Boyd, Jr., Thomas J. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1982-01-01

    A catalac free electron laser using a rf linac (catalac) which acts as a catalyst to accelerate an electron beam in an initial pass through the catalac and decelerate the electron beam during a second pass through the catalac. During the second pass through the catalac, energy is extracted from the electron beam and transformed to energy of the accelerating fields of the catalac to increase efficiency of the device. Various embodiments disclose the use of post linacs to add electron beam energy extracted by the wiggler and the use of supplementary catalacs to extract energy at various energy peaks produced by the free electron laser wiggler to further enhance efficiency of the catalac free electron laser. The catalac free electron laser can be used in conjunction with a simple resonator, a ring resonator or as an amplifier in conjunction with a master oscillator laser.

  5. Catalac free electron laser

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brau, C.A.; Swenson, D.A.; Boyd, T.J. Jr.

    1979-12-12

    A catalac free electron laser using a rf linac (catalac) which acts as a catalyst to accelerate an electron beam in an initial pass through the catalac and decelerate the electron beam during a second pass through the catalac is described. During the second pass through the catalac, energy is extracted from the electron beam and transformed to energy of the accelerating fields of the catalac to increase efficiency of the device. Various embodiments disclose the use of post linacs to add electron beam energy extracted by the wiggler and the use of supplementary catalacs to extract energy at various energy peaks produced by the free electron laser wiggler to further enhance efficiency of the catalac free electron laser. The catalac free electron laser can be used in conjunction with a simple resonator, a ring resonator, or as an amplifier in conjunction with a master oscillator laser.

  6. The role of radiative reabsorption on the electron energy distribution functions in H{sub 2}/He plasma expansion through a tapered nozzle

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    D'Ammando, Giuliano Capitelli, Mario

    2014-09-15

    A collisional-radiative model for the H{sub 2}/He plasma, coupled to a Boltzmann solver for the free electron kinetics is used to investigate the non-equilibrium conditions created in the expansion of an high-temperature plasma flow through a converging-diverging nozzle, starting from the steady state composition at T{sub 0}=10?000?K and p{sub 0}=1?atm in the reservoir. It is shown that the plasma optical thickness plays a major role on the evolution of macroscopic quantities and internal distributions along the nozzle axis. Structured electron energy distribution functions, characterized by long plateaux and humps, are created due to superelastic collisions of cold electrons and electronically excited atomic hydrogen. The magnitudes of the plateaux are orders of magnitude higher in an optically thick plasma compared with a thin plasma, while the electron-electron collisions play a role in smoothing the peaks created by superelastic collisions between cold electrons and H(n>2)

  7. Calculations of atomic sputtering and displacement cross-sections in solid elements by electrons with energies from threshold to 1. 5 MV

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bradley, C.R.

    1988-12-01

    The kinetics of knock-on collisions of relativistic electrons with nuclei and details of the numerical evaluation of differential, recoil, and total Mott cross-sections are reviewed and discussed. The effects of electron beam induced displacement and sputtering, in the transmission electron microscope (TEM) environment, on microanalysis are analyzed with particular emphasis placed on the removal of material by knock-on sputtering. The mass loss predicted due to transmission knock-on sputtering is significant for many elements under conditions frequently encountered in microanalysis. Total Mott cross-sections are tabulated for all naturally occurring solid elements up to Z = 92 at displacement energies of one, two, four, and five times the sublimation energy and for accelerating voltages accessible in the transmission electron microscope. Fortran source code listings for the calculation of the differential Mott cross-section as a function of electron scattering angle (dMottCS), as a function of nuclear recoil angle (RECOIL), and the total Mott cross-section (TOTCS) are included. 48 refs., 21 figs., 12 tabs.

  8. First-principles investigation on the electronic efficiency and binding energy of the contacts formed by graphene and poly-aromatic hydrocarbon anchoring groups

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Yang; Tu, Xingchen; Wang, Hao; Hou, Shimin; Sanvito, Stefano

    2015-04-28

    The electronic efficiency and binding energy of contacts formed between graphene electrodes and poly-aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) anchoring groups have been investigated by the non-equilibrium Greens function formalism combined with density functional theory. Our calculations show that PAH molecules always bind in the interior and at the edge of graphene in the AB stacking manner, and that the binding energy increases following the increase of the number of carbon and hydrogen atoms constituting the PAH molecule. When we move to analyzing the electronic transport properties of molecular junctions with a six-carbon alkyne chain as the central molecule, the electronic efficiency of the graphene-PAH contacts is found to depend on the energy gap between the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) and the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) of the corresponding PAH anchoring group, rather than its size. To be specific, the smaller is the HOMO-LUMO gap of the PAH anchoring group, the higher is the electronic efficiency of the graphene-PAH contact. Although the HOMO-LUMO gap of a PAH molecule depends on its specific configuration, PAH molecules with similar atomic structures show a decreasing trend for their HOMO-LUMO gap as the number of fused benzene rings increases. Therefore, graphene-conjugated molecule-graphene junctions with high-binding and high-conducting graphene-PAH contacts can be realized by choosing appropriate PAH anchor groups with a large area and a small HOMO-LUMO gap.

  9. Circular free-electron laser

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brau, Charles A.; Kurnit, Norman A.; Cooper, Richard K.

    1984-01-01

    A high efficiency, free electron laser utilizing a circular relativistic electron beam accelerator and a circular whispering mode optical waveguide for guiding optical energy in a circular path in the circular relativistic electron beam accelerator such that the circular relativistic electron beam and the optical energy are spatially contiguous in a resonant condition for free electron laser operation. Both a betatron and synchrotron are disclosed for use in the present invention. A free electron laser wiggler is disposed around the circular relativistic electron beam accelerator for generating a periodic magnetic field to transform energy from the circular relativistic electron beam to optical energy.

  10. Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing Nuclear Energy Defense Waste Management Programs Advanced Nuclear Energy Nuclear Energy

  11. Rf Feedback free electron laser

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brau, Charles A.; Swenson, Donald A.; Boyd, Jr., Thomas J.

    1981-01-01

    A free electron laser system and electron beam system for a free electron laser which use rf feedback to enhance efficiency. Rf energy is extracted from an electron beam by decelerating cavities and returned to accelerating cavities using rf returns such as rf waveguides, rf feedthroughs, etc. This rf energy is added to rf klystron energy to lower the required input energy and thereby enhance energy efficiency of the system.

  12. Rf feedback free electron laser

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brau, C.A.; Swenson, D.A.; Boyd, T.J. Jr.

    1979-11-02

    A free electron laser system and electron beam system for a free electron laser are provided which use rf feedback to enhance efficiency. Rf energy is extracted from an electron beam by decelerating cavities and returned to accelerating cavities using rf returns such as rf waveguides, rf feedthroughs, etc. This rf energy is added to rf klystron energy to lower the required input energy and thereby enhance energy efficiency of the system.

  13. Modeling Photovoltaic Module-Level Power Electronics in the System Advisor Model; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2015-07-01

    Module-level power electronics, such as DC power optimizers, microinverters, and those found in AC modules, are increasing in popularity in smaller-scale photovoltaic (PV) systems as their prices continue to decline. Therefore, it is important to provide PV modelers with guidelines about how to model these distributed power electronics appropriately in PV modeling software. This paper extends the work completed at NREL that provided recommendations to model the performance of distributed power electronics in NREL’s popular PVWatts calculator [1], to provide similar guidelines for modeling these technologies in NREL's more complex System Advisor Model (SAM). Module-level power electronics - such as DC power optimizers, microinverters, and those found in AC modules-- are increasing in popularity in smaller-scale photovoltaic (PV) systems as their prices continue to decline. Therefore, it is important to provide PV modelers with guidelines about how to model these distributed power electronics appropriately in PV modeling software.

  14. Energy Storage | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Thus, energy storage and power electronics hold substantial promise for transforming the electric power industry. High voltage power electronics, such as switches, inverters, and ...

  15. Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    2 - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing Nuclear Energy Defense Waste Management Programs Advanced Nuclear Energy Nuclear

  16. Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    3 - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing Nuclear Energy Defense Waste Management Programs Advanced Nuclear Energy Nuclear

  17. Energy Efficient Removal of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) and Organic Hazardous Air Pollutants (o-HAPs) from Industrial Waste Streams by Direct Electron Oxidation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Testoni, A. L.

    2011-10-19

    This research program investigated and quantified the capability of direct electron beam destruction of volatile organic compounds and organic hazardous air pollutants in model industrial waste streams and calculated the energy savings that would be realized by the widespread adoption of the technology over traditional pollution control methods. Specifically, this research determined the quantity of electron beam dose required to remove 19 of the most important non-halogenated air pollutants from waste streams and constructed a technical and economic model for the implementation of the technology in key industries including petroleum refining, organic & solvent chemical production, food & beverage production, and forest & paper products manufacturing. Energy savings of 75 - 90% and green house gas reductions of 66 - 95% were calculated for the target market segments.

  18. MECS 2006- Computer, Electronics and Appliances

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Manufacturing Energy Footprint for Computer, Electronics and Appliances (NAICS 334, 335) Sector with Total Energy Input, October 2012 (MECS 2006)

  19. Understanding the bond-energy, hardness, and adhesive force from the phase diagram via the electron work function

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lu, Hao; Huang, Xiaochen; Li, Dongyang

    2014-11-07

    Properties of metallic materials are intrinsically determined by their electron behavior. However, relevant theoretical treatment involving quantum mechanics is complicated and difficult to be applied in materials design. Electron work function (EWF) has been demonstrated to be a simple but fundamental parameter which well correlates properties of materials with their electron behavior and could thus be used to predict material properties from the aspect of electron activities in a relatively easy manner. In this article, we propose a method to extract the electron work functions of binary solid solutions or alloys from their phase diagrams and use this simple approach to predict their mechanical strength and surface properties, such as adhesion. Two alloys, Fe-Ni and Cu-Zn, are used as samples for the study. EWFs extracted from phase diagrams show same trends as experimentally observed ones, based on which hardness and surface adhesive force of the alloys are predicted. This new methodology provides an alternative approach to predict material properties based on the work function, which is extractable from the phase diagram. This work may also help maximize the power of phase diagram for materials design and development.

  20. Manufacturing Energy and Carbon Footprint - Sector: Computer, Electronics and Appliances (NAICS 334, 335), October 2012 (MECS 2006)

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    335) Process Energy Electricity and Steam Generation Losses Process Losses 6 Nonprocess Losses 527 48 Steam Distribution Losses 5 43 Nonprocess Energy 89 Electricity Generation Steam Generation 527 1 Prepared for the Advanced Manufacturing Office (AMO) by Energetics Incorporated 103 114 138 Generation and Transmission Losses Generation and Transmission Losses 0 298 Onsite Generation 217 199 29 228 436 1 23 0.0 26.4 26.4 1.8 1.6 1.6 16.6 13.0 31 4.9 31.3 1.7 Fuel Total Energy Energy use data

  1. Local field effects at Li K edges in electron energy-loss spectra of Li, Li{sub 2}O and LiF

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mauchamp, V.; Moreau, P.; Ouvrard, G.; Boucher, F.

    2008-01-15

    Local field effects (LFEs) in low-losses of electron energy-loss spectra of Li, Li{sub 2}O, and LiF were calculated using the density functional theory under the generalized gradient approximation. By including the lithium 1s semicore state in the pseudopotentials, the amplitude of LFE was assessed all the way up to the Li K edge (from 0 to 80 eV). They are found to be much larger for semicore levels (2s of oxygen, 2s of fluorine, and 1s of lithium) than for the valence electron energy-loss region. LFEs at the Li K edge are studied in detail. In particular, for q=0 they are shown to increase with the inhomogeneities of the compounds (from Li to LiF). The influence of the magnitude and the direction of q is also presented. Both parameters have negligible effect in the case of Li metal but changes are quite substantial for Li{sub 2}O and LiF. This is in agreement with the isotropy and the delocalization of the metallic bonding as compared to the ionic one. LFEs at the Li K edge are, however, whatever the compound, much smaller than those observed at transition metal M{sub 2,3} edges situated at similar energy positions. This result can be accounted for by considering the wave functions associated with the initial and final states involved in both edges. For lithium battery materials, most often presenting a transition metal edge close to the Li K edge, these findings imply significant consequences with respect to the interpretation of their electron energy-loss spectroscopy spectra. In particular, LFE can be expected to be stronger in positive electrodes than in negative ones.

  2. Electron-lattice interactions strongly renormalize the charge-transfer energy in the spin-chain cuprate Li2CuO2

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Johnston, Steve; Monney, Claude; Bisogni, Valentina; Zhou, Ke-Jin; Kraus, Roberto; Behr, Günter; Strocov, Vladimir N.; Málek, Jiři; Drechsler, Stefan-Ludwig; Geck, Jochen; et al

    2016-02-17

    Strongly correlated insulators are broadly divided into two classes: Mott–Hubbard insulators, where the insulating gap is driven by the Coulomb repulsion U on the transition-metal cation, and charge-transfer insulators, where the gap is driven by the charge-transfer energy Δ between the cation and the ligand anions. The relative magnitudes of U and Δ determine which class a material belongs to, and subsequently the nature of its low-energy excitations. These energy scales are typically understood through the local chemistry of the active ions. Here we show that the situation is more complex in the low-dimensional charge-transfer insulator Li2CuO2, where Δ hasmore » a large non-electronic component. Combining resonant inelastic X-ray scattering with detailed modelling, we determine how the elementary lattice, charge, spin and orbital excitations are entangled in this material. This results in a large lattice-driven renormalization of Δ, which significantly reshapes the fundamental electronic properties of Li2CuO2.« less

  3. Electron: Cluster interactions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scheidemann, A.A.; Kresin, V.V.; Knight, W.D.

    1994-02-01

    Beam depletion spectroscopy has been used to measure absolute total inelastic electron-sodium cluster collision cross sections in the energy range from E {approximately} 0.1 to E {approximately} 6 eV. The investigation focused on the closed shell clusters Na{sub 8}, Na{sub 20}, Na{sub 40}. The measured cross sections show an increase for the lowest collision energies where electron attachment is the primary scattering channel. The electron attachment cross section can be understood in terms of Langevin scattering, connecting this measurement with the polarizability of the cluster. For energies above the dissociation energy the measured electron-cluster cross section is energy independent, thus defining an electron-cluster interaction range. This interaction range increases with the cluster size.

  4. Dynamical heavy-quark recombination and the nonphotonic single-electron puzzle at energies available at the BNL Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ayala, Alejandro; Magnin, J.; Montano, Luis Manuel; Sanchez, G. Toledo

    2009-12-15

    We show that the single, nonphotonic electron nuclear modification factor R{sub AA}{sup e} is affected by the thermal enhancement of the heavy-baryon-to-heavy-meson ratio in relativistic heavy-ion collisions with respect to proton-proton collisions. We make use of the dynamical quark recombination model to compute such a ratio and show that this produces a sizable suppression factor for R{sub AA}{sup e} at intermediate transverse momenta. We argue that this suppression factor needs to be considered, in addition to the energy loss contribution, in calculations of R{sub AA}{sup e}.

  5. ENERGY

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    U.S. Department of ENERGY Department of Energy Quadrennial Technology Review-2015 Framing Document http:energy.govqtr 2015-01-13 Page 2 The United States faces serious ...

  6. SU-E-T-537: Comparison of Intra-Operative Soft X-Rays to Low Energy Electron Beams for Treatment of Superficial Lesions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chinsky, B; Diak, A; Gros, S; Sethi

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Superficial soft x-ray applicators have recently been designed for use with existing intra-operative radiotherapy systems. These applicators may be used in treating superficial lesions which are conventionally treated with electron beams. The purpose of this abstract is to compare dose distributions of an intra-operative 50kV x-ray unit with low energy electrons for the treatment of superficial lesions. Methods: Dosimetric parameters for 1 and 3-cm diameter Intrabeam superficial x-ray applicators were measured with EBT3 Gafchromic film in a solid water phantom. Depth dose distributions and profiles (d=2, 5, 10 and 15mm) were obtained by prescribing a dose of 400cGy at 5mm depth below the phantom surface. Corresponding dose profiles for 6-MeV electrons were acquired from a Varian Clinac 21EX at 100 SSD. H and D calibration curves were generated for each modality for 0-800cGy. Results: Dose coverage, penumbra, dose uniformity, surface dose, and dose fall-off were examined. Compared to electrons, Intrabeam lateral dose coverage at 5mm depth was 70% larger with a much sharper (1/4) penumbra. Electron isodose levels bulged with depth, whereas Intrabeam isodose levels exhibited a convex cone shape. The Intrabeam dose profiles demonstrated horns in the dose distribution up to a 5mm depth and an exponential dose fall-off. Relative surface dose was higher for the Intrabeam applicators. Treatment times were comparable for both modalities. Conclusions: The very small penumbra of Intrabeam at shallow depths could be useful in treating superficial lesions adjacent to critical structures. The exponential dose fall-off of Intrabeam makes it appealing in the sparing of structures beyond the lesion. However, for lesions past a depth of 5mm, electrons would be desirable as they penetrate farther and provide skin sparing. Intrabeam may be preferable for sites that are difficult to treat with electrons due to mechanical and physical limitations.

  7. Compact disposal of high-energy electron beams using passive or laser-driven plasma decelerating stage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bonatto, A.; Schroeder, C.B.; Vay, J.-L.; Geddes, C.R.; Benedetti, C.; Esarey and, E.; Leemans, W.P.

    2014-07-13

    A plasma decelerating stage is investigated as a compact alternative for the disposal of high-energy beams (beam dumps). This could benefit the design of laser-driven plasma accelerator (LPA) applications that require transportability and or high-repetition-rate operation regimes. Passive and laser-driven (active) plasma-based beam dumps are studied analytically and with particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations in a 1D geometry. Analytical estimates for the beam energy loss are compared to and extended by the PIC simulations, showing that with the proposed schemes a beam can be efficiently decelerated in a centimeter-scale distance.

  8. Limiting Effects in the Transverse-to-Longitudinal Emittance Exchange Technique for Low Energy Relativistic Electron Beams

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rihaoui, M.M.; Piot, P.; Power, J.G.; Gai, W.; /Argonne

    2009-05-01

    Transverse to longitudinal phase space manipulation hold great promises, e.g., as a potential technique for repartitioning the emittances of a beam. A proof-of-principle experiment to demonstrate the exchange of a low longitudinal emittance with a larger transverse emittance is in preparation at the Argonne Wakefield Accelerator using a {approx}12 MeV electron beam. In this paper we explore the limiting effects of this phase space manipulation method including high order and collective effects. A realistic start-to-end simulation of the planned proof-of-principle experiment including sensitivity studies is also presented.

  9. Model for conductivity compensation of moderately doped n- and p-4H-SiC by high-energy electron bombardment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kozlovski, V. V.; Lebedev, A. A.; Bogdanova, E. V.

    2015-04-21

    The model of conductivity compensation in SiC under irradiation with high-energy electrons is presented. The following processes are considered to cause a decrease in the free carrier concentration: (i) formation of deep traps by intrinsic point defects, Frenkel pairs produced by irradiation; (ii) 'deactivation' of the dopant via formation of neutral complexes including a dopant atom and a radiation-induced point defect; and (iii) formation of deep compensating traps via generation of charged complexes constituted by a dopant atom and a radiation-induced point defect. To determine the compensation mechanism, dose dependences of the deep compensation of moderately doped SiC (CVD) under electron irradiation have been experimentally studied. It is demonstrated that, in contrast to n-FZ-Si, moderately doped SiC (CVD) exhibits linear dependences (with a strongly nonlinear dependence observed for Si). Therefore, the conductivity compensation in silicon carbide under electron irradiation occurs due to deep traps formed by primary radiation defects (vacancies and interstitial atoms) in the silicon and carbon sublattices. It is known that the compensation in silicon is due to the formation of secondary radiation defects that include a dopant atom. It is shown that, in contrast to n-SiC (CVD), primary defects in only the carbon sublattice of moderately doped p-SiC (CVD) cannot account for the compensation process. In p-SiC, either primary defects in the silicon sublattice or defects in both sublattices are responsible for the conductivity compensation.

  10. On Possible Interpretations of the High Energy Electron-Positron Spectrum Measured by the Fermi Large Area Telescope

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grasso, D.; Profumo, S.; Strong, A.W.; Baldini, L.; Bellazzini, R.; Bloom, E.D.; Bregeon, J.; Di Bernardo, G.; Gaggero, D.; Giglietto, N.; Kamae, T.; Latronico, L.; Longo, F.; Mazziotta, M.N.; Moiseev, A.A.; Morselli, A.; Ormes, J.F.; Pesce-Rollins, M.; Pohl, M.; Razzano, M.; Sgro, C.

    2009-05-15

    The Fermi-LAT experiment recently reported high precision measurements of the spectrum of cosmic-ray electrons-plus-positrons (CRE) between 20 GeV and 1 TeV. The spectrum shows no prominent spectral features, and is significantly harder than that inferred from several previous experiments. Here we discuss several interpretations of the Fermi results based either on a single large scale Galactic CRE component or by invoking additional electron-positron primary sources, e.g. nearby pulsars or particle Dark Matter annihilation. We show that while the reported Fermi-LAT data alone can be interpreted in terms of a single component scenario, when combined with other complementary experimental results, specifically the CRE spectrum measured by H.E.S.S. and especially the positron fraction reported by PAMELA between 1 and 100 GeV, that class of models fails to provide a consistent interpretation. Rather, we find that several combinations of parameters, involving both the pulsar and dark matter scenarios, allow a consistent description of those results. We also briefly discuss the possibility of discriminating between the pulsar and dark matter interpretations by looking for a possible anisotropy in the CRE flux.

  11. Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Energy Energy National security depends on science and technology. The United States relies on Los Alamos National Laboratory for the best of both. No place on Earth pursues a broader array of world-class scientific endeavors. Energy Overview Charlie McMillan, Director of Los Alamos National Laboratory 0:50 Director McMillan on energy security With energy use increasing across the nation and the world, Los Alamos National Laboratory is using its world-class scientific capabilities to enhance

  12. Spectrometer for shot-to-shot photon energy characterization in the multi-bunch mode of the free electron laser at Hamburg

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Palutke, S. Wurth, W.; Gerken, N. C.; Mertens, K.; Klumpp, S.; Martins, M.; Mozzanica, A.; Schmitt, B.; Wunderer, C.; Graafsma, H.; Meiwes-Broer, K.-H.

    2015-11-15

    The setup and first results from commissioning of a fast online photon energy spectrometer for the vacuum ultraviolet free electron laser at Hamburg (FLASH) at DESY are presented. With the use of the latest advances in detector development, the presented spectrometer reaches readout frequencies up to 1 MHz. In this paper, we demonstrate the ability to record online photon energy spectra on a shot-to-shot base in the multi-bunch mode of FLASH. Clearly resolved shifts in the mean wavelength over the pulse train as well as shot-to-shot wavelength fluctuations arising from the statistical nature of the photon generating self-amplified spontaneous emission process have been observed. In addition to an online tool for beam calibration and photon diagnostics, the spectrometer enables the determination and selection of spectral data taken with a transparent experiment up front over the photon energy of every shot. This leads to higher spectral resolutions without the loss of efficiency or photon flux by using single-bunch mode or monochromators.

  13. Advanced Power Electronic Interfaces for Distributed Energy Systems, Part 2: Modeling, Development, and Experimental Evaluation of Advanced Control Functions for Single-Phase Utility-Connected Inverter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chakraborty, S.; Kroposki, B.; Kramer, W.

    2008-11-01

    Integrating renewable energy and distributed generations into the Smart Grid architecture requires power electronic (PE) for energy conversion. The key to reaching successful Smart Grid implementation is to develop interoperable, intelligent, and advanced PE technology that improves and accelerates the use of distributed energy resource systems. This report describes the simulation, design, and testing of a single-phase DC-to-AC inverter developed to operate in both islanded and utility-connected mode. It provides results on both the simulations and the experiments conducted, demonstrating the ability of the inverter to provide advanced control functions such as power flow and VAR/voltage regulation. This report also analyzes two different techniques used for digital signal processor (DSP) code generation. Initially, the DSP code was written in C programming language using Texas Instrument's Code Composer Studio. In a later stage of the research, the Simulink DSP toolbox was used to self-generate code for the DSP. The successful tests using Simulink self-generated DSP codes show promise for fast prototyping of PE controls.

  14. NREL: Measurements and Characterization - Electron Probe Microanalysis

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Electron Probe Microanalysis Electron Probe Microanalysis is an elemental analysis technique which uses a focused beam of high energy electrons to non-destructively ionize a solid specimen surface for inducing emission of characteristic x-rays. Electron probe microanalysis is used to map the chemical composition of the top surface layer of solid-state materials. As with scanninge electron microscopy, electron probe microanalysis (EPMA) probes the surface of a sample with high-energy electrons,

  15. Comparison of TG-43 and TG-186 in breast irradiation using a low energy electronic brachytherapy source

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    White, Shane A.; Landry, Guillaume; Reniers, Brigitte; Fonseca, Gabriel Paiva; Beaulieu, Luc; Verhaegen, Frank

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: The recently updated guidelines for dosimetry in brachytherapy in TG-186 have recommended the use of model-based dosimetry calculations as a replacement for TG-43. TG-186 highlights shortcomings in the water-based approach in TG-43, particularly for low energy brachytherapy sources. The Xoft Axxent is a low energy (<50 kV) brachytherapy system used in accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI). Breast tissue is a heterogeneous tissue in terms of density and composition. Dosimetric calculations of seven APBI patients treated with Axxent were made using a model-based Monte Carlo platform for a number of tissue models and dose reporting methods and compared to TG-43 based plans. Methods: A model of the Axxent source, the S700, was created and validated against experimental data. CT scans of the patients were used to create realistic multi-tissue/heterogeneous models with breast tissue segmented using a published technique. Alternative water models were used to isolate the influence of tissue heterogeneity and backscatter on the dose distribution. Dose calculations were performed using Geant4 according to the original treatment parameters. The effect of the Axxent balloon applicator used in APBI which could not be modeled in the CT-based model, was modeled using a novel technique that utilizes CAD-based geometries. These techniques were validated experimentally. Results were calculated using two dose reporting methods, dose to water (D{sub w,m}) and dose to medium (D{sub m,m}), for the heterogeneous simulations. All results were compared against TG-43-based dose distributions and evaluated using dose ratio maps and DVH metrics. Changes in skin and PTV dose were highlighted. Results: All simulated heterogeneous models showed a reduced dose to the DVH metrics that is dependent on the method of dose reporting and patient geometry. Based on a prescription dose of 34 Gy, the average D{sub 90} to PTV was reduced by between ?4% and ?40%, depending on the scoring

  16. Spectral restoration in high resolution electron energy loss spectroscopy based on iterative semi-blind Lucy-Richardson algorithm applied to rutile surfaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lazzari, Rmi Li, Jingfeng Jupille, Jacques

    2015-01-15

    A new spectral restoration algorithm of reflection electron energy loss spectra is proposed. It is based on the maximum likelihood principle as implemented in the iterative Lucy-Richardson approach. Resolution is enhanced and point spread function recovered in a semi-blind way by forcing cyclically the zero loss to converge towards a Dirac peak. Synthetic phonon spectra of TiO{sub 2} are used as a test bed to discuss resolution enhancement, convergence benefit, stability towards noise, and apparatus function recovery. Attention is focused on the interplay between spectral restoration and quasi-elastic broadening due to free carriers. A resolution enhancement by a factor up to 6 on the elastic peak width can be obtained on experimental spectra of TiO{sub 2}(110) and helps revealing mixed phonon/plasmon excitations.

  17. The influence of electron energy quantization in a space-charge region on the accumulation capacitance of InAs metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kovchavtsev, A. P. Tsarenko, A. V.; Guzev, A. A.; Polovinkin, V. G.; Nastovjak, A. E.; Valisheva, N. A.; Aksenov, M. S.

    2015-09-28

    The influence of electron energy quantization in a space-charge region on the accumulation capacitance of the InAs-based metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitors (MOSCAPs) has been investigated by modeling and comparison with the experimental data from Au/anodic layer(4-20 nm)/n-InAs(111)A MOSCAPs. The accumulation capacitance for MOSCAPs has been calculated by the solution of Poisson equation with different assumptions and the self-consistent solution of Schrödinger and Poisson equations with quantization taken into account. It was shown that the quantization during the MOSCAPs accumulation capacitance calculations should be taken into consideration for the correct interface states density determination by Terman method and the evaluation of gate dielectric thickness from capacitance-voltage measurements.

  18. Electron radiography

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Merrill, Frank E.; Morris, Christopher

    2005-05-17

    A system capable of performing radiography using a beam of electrons. Diffuser means receive a beam of electrons and diffuse the electrons before they enter first matching quadrupoles where the diffused electrons are focused prior to the diffused electrons entering an object. First imaging quadrupoles receive the focused diffused electrons after the focused diffused electrons have been scattered by the object for focusing the scattered electrons. Collimator means receive the scattered electrons and remove scattered electrons that have scattered to large angles. Second imaging quadrupoles receive the collimated scattered electrons and refocus the collimated scattered electrons and map the focused collimated scattered electrons to transverse locations on an image plane representative of the electrons' positions in the object.

  19. NEW STRONG-LINE ABUNDANCE DIAGNOSTICS FOR H II REGIONS: EFFECTS OF κ-DISTRIBUTED ELECTRON ENERGIES AND NEW ATOMIC DATA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dopita, Michael A.; Sutherland, Ralph S.; Nicholls, David C.; Kewley, Lisa J.; Vogt, Frédéric P. A.

    2013-09-01

    Recently, Nicholls et al., inspired by in situ observations of solar system astrophysical plasmas, suggested that the electrons in H II regions are characterized by a κ-distribution of energies rather than a simple Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution. Here, we have collected together new atomic data within a modified photoionization code to explore the effects of both the new atomic data and the κ-distribution on the strong-line techniques used to determine chemical abundances in H II regions. By comparing the recombination temperatures (T {sub rec}) with the forbidden line temperatures (T {sub FL}), we conclude that κ ∼ 20. While representing only a mild deviation from equilibrium, this result is sufficient to strongly influence abundances determined using methods that depend on measurements of the electron temperature from forbidden lines. We present a number of new emission line ratio diagnostics that cleanly separate the two parameters determining the optical spectrum of H II regions—the ionization parameter q or U and the chemical abundance, 12+log(O/H). An automated code to extract these parameters is presented. Using the homogeneous data set from van Zee et al., we find self-consistent results between all of these different diagnostics. The systematic errors between different line ratio diagnostics are much smaller than those found in the earlier strong-line work. Overall, the effect of the κ-distribution on the strong-line abundances derived solely on the basis of theoretical models is rather small.

  20. Low energy electron diffraction (LEED) and sum frequency generation (SFG) vibrational spectroscopy studies of solid-vacuum, solid-air and solid-liquid interfaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hoffer, Saskia

    2002-08-19

    Electron based surface probing techniques can provide detailed information about surface structure or chemical composition in vacuum environments. The development of new surface techniques has made possible in situ molecular level studies of solid-gas interfaces and more recently, solid-liquid interfaces. The aim of this dissertation is two-fold. First, by using novel sample preparation, Low Energy Electron Diffraction (LEED) and other traditional ultra high vacuum (UHV) techniques are shown to provide new information on the insulator/vacuum interface. The surface structure of the classic insulator NaCl has been determined using these methods. Second, using sum frequency generation (SFG) surface specific vibrational spectroscopy studies were performed on both the biopolymer/air and electrode/electrolyte interfaces. The surface structure and composition of polyetherurethane-silicone copolymers were determined in air using SFG, atomic force microscopy (AFM), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). SFG studies of the electrode (platinum, gold and copper)/electrolyte interface were performed as a function of applied potential in an electrochemical cell.

  1. Vecarius | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    that seeks to leverage advanced materials, power electronics, energy harvesting, and energy storage technologies to capture lost heat energy in internal combustion engine and...

  2. Controlling Graphene's Electronic Structure

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    momentum because the electrons are restricted to motion in a two-dimensional plane. The Dirac crossing points are at energy ED. 2D Perfection in a 3D World Graphene, a perfect...

  3. Electronic Recordkeeping System Questionnaire

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    5 (04/2015) U.S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Electronic Recordkeeping System Questionnaire INSTRUCTIONS: System owners should work in consultation with their organization's records contacts to ensure the accurate completion of a separate questionnaire for each electronic recordkeeping system. Federal regulations require proper address of recordkeeping requirements and disposition before approving new electronic information systems (EIS) or enhancements to existing EISes. OMB Circular A-130 requires

  4. Towards demonstration of electron cooling with bunched electron beam

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fedotov, A.

    2012-01-11

    All electron cooling systems which were in operation so far employed electron beam generated with an electrostatic electron gun in DC operating mode, immersed in a longitudinal magnetic field. At low energies magnetic field is also being used to transport electron beam through the cooling section from the gun to the collector. At higher energies (few MeV), it was shown that one can have simpler electron beam transport without continuous magnetic field. Because of a rather weak magnetic field on the cathode and in the cooling section the latter approach was referred to as 'non-magnetized cooling', since there was no suppression of the transverse angular spread of the electron beam with the magnetic field in the cooling section. Such a cooler successfully operated at FNAL (2005-11) at electron beam energy of 4.3 MeV. Providing cooling at even higher energies would be easier with RF acceleration of electron beam, and thus using bunched electron beam for cooling. Significant efforts were devoted to explore various aspects of such bunched electron beam cooling as part of R and D of high-energy electron cooling for RHIC. However, experimental studies of such cooling are still lacking. Establishing this technique experimentally would be extremely useful for future high-energy applications. Presently there is an ongoing effort to build Proof-of-Principle (PoP) experiment of Coherent Electron Cooling (CEC) at RHIC, which promises to be superior to conventional electron cooling for high energies. Since the CEC experiment is based on bunched electron beam and it has sections where electron beam co-propagates with the ion beam at the same velocity, it also provides a unique opportunity to explore experimentally conventional electron cooling but for the first time with a bunched electron beam. As a result, it allows us to explore techniques needed for the high-energy electron cooling such as 'painting' with a short electron beam and control of ion beam distribution under

  5. Electronic Mail Analysis Capability

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2001-01-08

    Establishes the pilot program to test the Department of Energy (DOE) Electronic Mail Analysis Capability (EMAC), which will be used to monitor and analyze outgoing and incoming electronic mail (e-mail) from the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) and DOE laboratories that are engaged in nuclear weapons design or work involving special nuclear material. No cancellation.

  6. Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Energy Energy Research into alternative forms of energy, and improving and securing the power grid, is a major national security imperative. News Releases Science Briefs Photos Picture of the Week Publications Social Media Videos Fact Sheets Pajarito Powder, LLC, a fuel-cell-catalyst company based in Albuquerque, is one of the voucher recipients that will partner with Los Alamos. Fuel-cell technology companies win small-business aid Pajarito Powder, LLC, (Albuquerque), NanoSonic (Pembroke, Va.)

  7. Energy

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    ..) ".. _,; ,' . ' , ,; Depar?.me.nt ,of.' Energy Washington; DC 20585 : . ' , - $$ o"\ ' ~' ,' DEC ?;$ ;y4,,, ~ ' .~ The Honorable John Kalwitz , 200 E. Wells Street Milwaukee, W~isconsin 53202, . . i :. Dear,Mayor 'Kalwitz: " . " Secretary of Energy Hazel' O'Leary has announceha new,approach 'to,openness in " the Department of Ene~rgy (DOE) and its communications with'the public. In -. support of~this initiative, we areipleased to forward the enclosed information

  8. Technical Note: Exploring the limit for the conversion of energy-subtracted CT number to electron density for high-atomic-number materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Saito, Masatoshi; Tsukihara, Masayoshi

    2014-07-15

    Purpose: For accurate tissue inhomogeneity correction in radiotherapy treatment planning, the authors had previously proposed a novel conversion of the energy-subtracted CT number to an electron density (ΔHU–ρ{sub e} conversion), which provides a single linear relationship between ΔHU and ρ{sub e} over a wide ρ{sub e} range. The purpose of this study is to address the limitations of the conversion method with respect to atomic number (Z) by elucidating the role of partial photon interactions in the ΔHU–ρ{sub e} conversion process. Methods: The authors performed numerical analyses of the ΔHU–ρ{sub e} conversion for 105 human body tissues, as listed in ICRU Report 46, and elementary substances with Z = 1–40. Total and partial attenuation coefficients for these materials were calculated using the XCOM photon cross section database. The effective x-ray energies used to calculate the attenuation were chosen to imitate a dual-source CT scanner operated at 80–140 kV/Sn under well-calibrated and poorly calibrated conditions. Results: The accuracy of the resultant calibrated electron density,ρ{sub e}{sup cal}, for the ICRU-46 body tissues fully satisfied the IPEM-81 tolerance levels in radiotherapy treatment planning. If a criterion of ρ{sub e}{sup cal}/ρ{sub e} − 1 is assumed to be within ±2%, the predicted upper limit of Z applicable for the ΔHU–ρ{sub e} conversion under the well-calibrated condition is Z = 27. In the case of the poorly calibrated condition, the upper limit of Z is approximately 16. The deviation from the ΔHU–ρ{sub e} linearity for higher Z substances is mainly caused by the anomalous variation in the photoelectric-absorption component. Conclusions: Compensation among the three partial components of the photon interactions provides for sufficient linearity of the ΔHU–ρ{sub e} conversion to be applicable for most human tissues even for poorly conditioned scans in which there exists a large variation of effective x

  9. Electron Cooling Study for MEIC

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    He, Zhang; Douglas, David R.; Derbenev, Yaroslav S.; Zhang, Yuhong

    2015-09-01

    Electron cooling of the ion beams is one critical R&D to achieve high luminosities in JLab's MEIC proposal. In the present MEIC design, a multi-staged cooling scheme is adapted, which includes DC electron cooling in the booster ring and bunched beam electron cooling in the collider ring at both the injection energy and the collision energy. We explored the feasibility of using both magnetized and non-magnetized electron beam for cooling, and concluded that a magnetized electron beam is necessary. Electron cooling simulation results for the newly updated MEIC design is also presented.

  10. Deep Inelastic Electron Scattering: Experimental

    DOE R&D Accomplishments [OSTI]

    Friedman, J. I.

    1971-10-01

    This report reviews and brings up to date the experimental information on high energy inelastic electron scattering from proton and neutron.

  11. Lasers, Electron Beams and New Years Resolutions

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The electron beam that powers Jefferson Lab's Free-Electron Laser pumped out a record power input of 500 kilvolts using an innovative energy-recovery system that amplifies energy with far less power.

  12. Leader Electronics: Data Request (2010-SE-2301)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE requested test data from Leader Electronics Inc. for various models of external power supplies after Leader Electronics certified energy values that did not meet federal energy conservation standards.

  13. Energy

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    M onthly Energy Re< view Ila A a m 0 II 8 IIIW *g U In this issue: New data on nuclear electricity in Eastern Europe (Table 10.4) 9'Ij a - Ordering Information This publication...

  14. Future Science Needs and Opportunities for Electron Scattering: Next-Generation Instrumentation and Beyond. Report of the Basic Energy Sciences Workshop on Electron Scattering for Materials Characterization, March 1-2, 2007

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, D. J.; Williams, D. B.; Anderson, I. M.; Schmid, A. K.; Zaluzec, N. J.

    2007-03-02

    To identify emerging basic science and engineering research needs and opportunities that will require major advances in electron-scattering theory, technology, and instrumentation.

  15. FinalReport for completed IPP-0110 and 0110A Projects:"High Energy Ion Technology of Interfacial Thin Film Coatings for Electronic, Optical and Industrial Applications"

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, Ian

    2009-09-01

    The DOE-supported IPP (Initiatives for Proliferation Prevention) Project, IPP-0110, and its accompanying 'add-on project' IPP-0110A, entitled 'High Energy Ion Technology of Interfacial Thin Film Coatings for Electronic, Optical and Industrial Applications' was a collaborative project involving the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) as the U.S. DOE lab; the US surface modification company, Phygen, Inc., as the US private company involved; and the High Current Electronics Institute (HCEI) of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Tomsk, Siberia, Russia, as the NIS Institute involved. Regular scientific research progress meetings were held to which personnel came from all participating partners. The meetings were held mostly at the Phygen facilities in Minneapolis, Minnesota (with Phygen as host) with meetings also held at Tomsk, Russia (HCEI as host), and at Berkeley, California (LBNL as host) In this way, good exposure of all researchers to the various different laboratories involved was attained. This report contains the Final Reports (final deliverables) from the Russian Institute, HCEI. The first part is that for IPP-0110A (the 'main part' of the overall project) and the second part is that for the add-on project IPP-0110A. These reports are detailed, and contain all aspects of all the research carried out. The project was successful in that all deliverables as specified in the proposals were successfully developed, tested, and delivered to Phygen. All of the plasma hardware was designed, made and tested at HCEI, and the performance was excellent. Some of the machine and performance parameters were certainly of 'world class'. The goals and requirements of the IPP Project were well satisfied. I would like to express my gratitude to the DOE IPP program for support of this project throughout its entire duration, and for the unparalleled opportunity thereby provided for all of the diverse participants in the project to join in this collaborative research. The

  16. SU-E-J-19: Accuracy of Dual-Energy CT-Derived Relative Electron Density for Proton Therapy Dose Calculation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mullins, J; Duan, X; Kruse, J; Herman, M; Bues, M

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To determine the suitability of dual-energy CT (DECT) to calculate relative electron density (RED) of tissues for accurate proton therapy dose calculation. Methods: DECT images of RED tissue surrogates were acquired at 80 and 140 kVp. Samples (RED=0.19−2.41) were imaged in a water-equivalent phantom in a variety of configurations. REDs were calculated using the DECT numbers and inputs of the high and low energy spectral weightings. DECT-derived RED was compared between geometric configurations and for variations in the spectral inputs to assess the sensitivity of RED accuracy versus expected values. Results: RED accuracy was dependent on accurate spectral input influenced by phantom thickness and radius from the phantom center. Material samples located at the center of the phantom generally showed the best agreement to reference RED values, but only when attenuation of the surrounding phantom thickness was accounted for in the calculation spectra. Calculated RED changed by up to 10% for some materials when the sample was located at an 11 cm radius from the phantom center. Calculated REDs under the best conditions still differed from reference values by up to 5% in bone and 14% in lung. Conclusion: DECT has previously been used to differentiate tissue types based on RED and Z for binary tissue-type segmentation. To improve upon the current standard of empirical conversion of CT number to RED for treatment planning dose calculation, DECT methods must be able to calculate RED to better than 3% accuracy throughout the image. The DECT method is sensitive to the accuracy of spectral inputs used for calculation, as well as to spatial position in the anatomy. Effort to address adjustments to the spectral calculation inputs based on position and phantom attenuation will be required before DECT-determined RED can achieve a consistent level of accuracy for application in dose calculation.

  17. YPP Energy Co Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    South Jeolla, Korea (Republic) Sector: Renewable Energy Product: Korean manufacturer of control electronics for renewable energy system; PV project developer. Coordinates:...

  18. Miami, Florida: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    of South Florida LLC Biofuels Digest Cambridge Project Development Caribbean Energy Resources Corp ClimeCo Corporation Electron Solar Energy Formerly Envigra Inc Enventure...

  19. Energy Science

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Energy Science Energy Science Print Our current fossil-fuel-based system is causing potentially catastrophic changes to our planet. The quest for renewable, nonpolluting sources of energy requires us to understand, predict, and ultimately control matter and energy at the electronic, atomic, and molecular levels. Light-source facilities-the synchrotrons of today and the next-generation light sources of tomorrow-are the scientific tools of choice for exploring the electronic and atomic structure

  20. Monthly Energy Review

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    December 23, 1997 Electronic Access Monthly Energy Review (MER) data are also available through these electronic means: * ASCII text, Lotus (wk1), and Excel (xls) versions of the...

  1. First-principles electronic structure and formation energies of group V and VII impurities in the ?-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} alloys

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xia, Congxin; Jia, Yu; Zhang, Qiming

    2014-09-21

    Based on density functional theory, the electronic structures, formation energy, and transition level of the selected group V and VII impurities in ?-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} are investigated by means of first-principles methods. Numerical results show that the group V and VII atoms-doped ?-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} can be energetically favorable under the Fe-rich condition. Group V atom substituting O atom can induce the acceptor impurity level, while the deep donor impurity states are formed inside the band gap when group VII atom substitute O atom in the ?-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}. Moreover, our results show that halogen atom F substituting O atom should be very easy in the ?-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}. In addition, our results also show that for both group V and VII atom-doped ?-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}, the upper sides of valence band are modified obviously, while the conduction band edge does not change.

  2. The structures and dynamics of atomic and molecular adsorbates on metal surfaces by scanning tunneling microscopy and low energy electron diffraction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yoon, Hyungsuk Alexander

    1996-12-01

    Studies of surface structure and dynamics of atoms and molecules on metal surfaces are presented. My research has focused on understanding the nature of adsorbate-adsorbate and adsorbate-substrate interactions through surface studies of coverage dependency and coadsorption using both scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and low energy electron diffraction (LEED). The effect of adsorbate coverage on the surface structures of sulfur on Pt(111) and Rh(111) was examined. On Pt(111), sulfur forms p(2x2) at 0.25 ML of sulfur, which transforms into a more compressed ({radical}3x{radical}3)R30{degrees} at 0.33 ML. On both structures, it was found that sulfur adsorbs only in fcc sites. When the coverage of sulfur exceeds 0.33 ML, it formed more complex c({radical}3x7)rect structure with 3 sulfur atoms per unit cell. In this structure, two different adsorption sites for sulfur atoms were observed - two on fcc sites and one on hcp site within the unit cell.

  3. Power Electronics | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    critical components in PV systems and the larger electric grid, are used to convert electricity from one form to another and deliver it from generation to end consumption. ...

  4. Vimal Electronics | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Gujarat, India Zip: 382044 Product: Manufactures inverters and PV-powered lights and battery chargers. Coordinates: 22.99514, 72.61741 Show Map Loading map......

  5. Coherent electron cooling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Litvinenko,V.

    2009-05-04

    Cooling intense high-energy hadron beams remains a major challenge in modern accelerator physics. Synchrotron radiation is still too feeble, while the efficiency of two other cooling methods, stochastic and electron, falls rapidly either at high bunch intensities (i.e. stochastic of protons) or at high energies (e-cooling). In this talk a specific scheme of a unique cooling technique, Coherent Electron Cooling, will be discussed. The idea of coherent electron cooling using electron beam instabilities was suggested by Derbenev in the early 1980s, but the scheme presented in this talk, with cooling times under an hour for 7 TeV protons in the LHC, would be possible only with present-day accelerator technology. This talk will discuss the principles and the main limitations of the Coherent Electron Cooling process. The talk will describe the main system components, based on a high-gain free electron laser driven by an energy recovery linac, and will present some numerical examples for ions and protons in RHIC and the LHC and for electron-hadron options for these colliders. BNL plans a demonstration of the idea in the near future.

  6. ADMINISTRATIVE RECORDS SCHEDULE 20: ELECTRONIC RECORDS | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy them ADMINISTRATIVE RECORDS SCHEDULE 20: ELECTRONIC RECORDS (29.38

  7. Counting graphene layers with very slow electrons

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Frank, Lud?k; Mikmekov, Elika; Mllerov, Ilona; Lejeune, Michal

    2015-01-05

    The study aimed at collection of data regarding the transmissivity of freestanding graphene for electrons across their full energy scale down to the lowest energies. Here, we show that the electron transmissivity of graphene drops with the decreasing energy of the electrons and remains below 10% for energies below 30?eV, and that the slow electron transmissivity value is suitable for reliable determination of the number of graphene layers. Moreover, electrons incident below 50?eV release adsorbed hydrocarbon molecules and effectively clean graphene in contrast to faster electrons that decompose these molecules and create carbonaceous contamination.

  8. MEIC electron cooling program

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Derbenev, Yaroslav S.; Zhang, Yuhong

    2014-12-01

    Cooling of proton and ion beams is essential for achieving high luminosities (up to above 1034 cm-2s-1) for MEIC, a Medium energy Electron-Ion Collider envisioned at JLab [1] for advanced nuclear science research. In the present conceptual design, we utilize the conventional election cooling method and adopted a multi-staged cooling scheme for reduction of and maintaining low beam emittances [2,3,4]. Two electron cooling facilities are required to support the scheme: one is a low energy (up to 2 MeV) DC cooler installed in the MEIC ion pre-booster (with the proton kinetic energy up to 3 GeV); the other is amore » high electron energy (up to 55 MeV) cooler in the collider ring (with the proton kinetic energy from 25 to 100 GeV). The high energy cooler, which is based on the ERL technology and a circulator ring, utilizes a bunched electron beam to cool bunched proton or ion beams. To complete the MEIC cooling concept and a technical design of the ERL cooler as well as to develop supporting technologies, an R&D program has been initiated at Jefferson Lab and significant progresses have been made since then. In this study, we present a brief description of the cooler design and a summary of the progress in this cooling R&D.« less

  9. Electron Transfer

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    3 Pierre Kennepohl1,2 and Edward Solomon1* 1Department of Chemistry, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 Electron transfer, or the act of moving an electron from one place to another, is amongst the simplest of chemical processes, yet certainly one of the most critical. The process of efficiently and controllably moving electrons around is one of the primary regulation mechanisms in biology. Without stringent control of electrons in living organisms, life could simply not exist. For example,

  10. Transmission electron microscope CCD camera

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Downing, Kenneth H.

    1999-01-01

    In order to improve the performance of a CCD camera on a high voltage electron microscope, an electron decelerator is inserted between the microscope column and the CCD. This arrangement optimizes the interaction of the electron beam with the scintillator of the CCD camera while retaining optimization of the microscope optics and of the interaction of the beam with the specimen. Changing the electron beam energy between the specimen and camera allows both to be optimized.

  11. Compact electron beam focusing column

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Persaud, Arun; Leung, Ka-Ngo; Reijonen, Jani

    2001-07-13

    A novel design for an electron beam focusing column has been developed at LBNL. The design is based on a low-energy spread multicusp plasma source which is used as a cathode for electron beam production. The focusing column is 10 mm in length. The electron beam is focused by means of electrostatic fields. The column is designed for a maximum voltage of 50 kV. Simulations of the electron trajectories have been performed by using the 2-D simulation code IGUN and EGUN. The electron temperature has also been incorporated into the simulations. The electron beam simulations, column design and fabrication will be discussed in this presentation.

  12. Experimental investigations of electron density and ion energy distributions in dual-frequency capacitively coupled plasmas for Ar/CF{sub 4} and Ar/O{sub 2}/CF{sub 4} discharges

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Jia; Liu, Yong-Xin; Gao, Fei; Wang, You-Nian, E-mail: ynwang@dlut.edu.cn [School of Physics and Optoelectronic Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Bi, Zhen-Hua [School of Physics and Materials Engineering, Dalian Nationalities University, Dalian 116600 (China)

    2014-01-07

    The electron density and ion energy distribution (IED) are investigated in low-pressure dual-frequency capacitively coupled Ar/CF{sub 4} (90%/10%) and Ar/O{sub 2}/CF{sub 4} (80%/10%/10%) plasmas. The relations between controllable parameters, such as high-frequency (HF) power, low-frequency (LF) power and gas pressure, and plasma parameters, such as electron density and IEDs, are studied in detail by utilizing a floating hairpin probe and an energy resolved quadrupole mass spectrometer, respectively. In our experiment, the electron density is mainly determined by the HF power and slightly influenced by the LF power. With increasing gas pressure, the electron density first goes up rapidly to a maximum value and then decreases at various HF and LF powers. The HF power also plays a considerable role in affecting the IEDs under certain conditions and the ion energy independently controlled by the LF source is discussed here. For clarity, some numerical results obtained from a two-dimensional fluid model are presented.

  13. Measurement of groove features and dimensions of the vertical test cathode and the choke joint of the superconducting electron gun cavity of the Energy Recovery LINAC

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hammons, L.; Ke, M.

    2011-10-13

    A testing program for the superconducting electron gun cavity that has been designed for the Energy Recovery LINAC is being planned. The goal of the testing program is to characterize the RF properties of the gun cavity at superconducting temperatures and, in particular, to study multipacting that is suspected to be occurring in the choke joint of the cavity where the vertical test cathode is inserted. The testing program will seek to understand the nature and cause of this multipacting and attempt to eliminate it, if possible, by supplying sufficient voltage to the cavity. These efforts are motivated by the multipacting issues that have been observed in the processing of the fine-grain niobium gun cavity. This cavity, which is being processed at Thomas Jefferson National Laboratory for Brookhaven, has encountered multipacting at a gradient of approximately 3 MV/m and, to date, has resisted efforts at elimination. Because of this problem, a testing program is being established here in C-AD that will use the large-grain niobium gun cavity that currently resides at Brookhaven and has been used for room-temperature measurements. The large-grain and fine-cavities are identical in every aspect of construction and only differ in niobium grain size. Thus, it is believed that testing and conditioning of the large-grain cavity should yield important insights about the fine-grain cavity. One element of this testing program involves characterizing the physical features of the choke joint of the cavity where the multipacting is believed to be occurring and, in particular the grooves of the joint. The configuration of the cavity and the vertical test cathode is shown in Figure 1. In addition, it is important to characterize the groove of the vertical test cathode. The grooved nature of these two components was specifically designed to prevent multipacting. However, it is suspected that, because of the chemical processing that the fine-grain gun cavity underwent along with the

  14. SU-D-19A-06: The Effect of Beam Parameters On Very High-Energy Electron Radiotherapy: A Planning Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Palma, B; Bazalova, M; Qu, B; Loo, B; Maxim, P; Hardemark, B; Hynning, E

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: We evaluated the effect of very high-energy electron (VHEE) beam parameters on the planning of a lung cancer case by means of Monte Carlo simulations. Methods: We simulated VHEE radiotherapy plans using the EGSnrc/BEAMnrc-DOSXYZnrc code. We selected a lung cancer case that was treated with 6MV photon VMAT to be planned with VHEE. We studied the effect of beam energy (80 MeV, 100 MeV, and 120 MeV), number of equidistant beams (16 or 32), and beamlets sizes (3 mm, 5 mm or 7 mm) on PTV coverage, sparing of organs at risk (OARs) and dose conformity. Inverse-planning optimization was performed in a research version of RayStation (RaySearch Laboratories AB) using identical objective functions and constraints for all VHEE plans. Results: Similar PTV coverage and dose conformity was achieved by all the VHEE plans. The 100 MeV and 120 MeV VHEE plans were equivalent amongst them and were superior to the 80 MeV plan in terms of OARs sparing. The effect of using 16 or 32 equidistant beams was a mean difference in average dose of 2.4% (0%–7.7%) between the two plans. The use of 3 mm beamlet size systematically reduced the dose to all the OARs. Based on these results we selected the 100MeV-16beams-3mm-beamlet-size plan to compare it against VMAT. The selected VHEE plan was more conformal than VMAT and improved OAR sparing (heart and trachea received 125% and 177% lower dose, respectively) especially in the low-dose region. Conclusion: We determined the VHEE beam parameters that maximized the OAR dose sparing and dose conformity of the actually delivered VMAT plan of a lung cancer case. The selected parameters could be used for the planning of other treatment sites with similar size, shape, and location. For larger targets, a larger beamlet size might be used without significantly increasing the dose. B Palma: None. M Bazalova: None. B Hardemark: Employee, RaySearch Americas. E Hynning: Employee, RaySearch Americas. B Qu: None. B Loo Jr.: Research support, Ray

  15. Free electron laser

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Villa, Francesco

    1990-01-01

    A high gain, single-pass free electron laser formed of a high brilliance electron injector source, a linear accelerator which imparts high energy to the electron beam, and an undulator capable of extremely high magnetic fields, yet with a very short period. The electron injector source is the first stage (gap) of the linear accelerator or a radial line transformer driven by fast circular switch. The linear accelerator is formed of a plurality of accelerating gaps arranged in series. These gaps are energized in sequence by releasing a single pulse of energy which propagates simultaneously along a plurality of transmission lines, each of which feeds the gaps. The transmission lines are graduated in length so that pulse power is present at each gap as the accelerated electrons pass therethrough. The transmission lines for each gap are open circuited at their ends. The undualtor has a structure similar to the accelerator, except that the transmission lines for each gap are substantially short circuited at their ends, thus converting the electric field into magnetic field. A small amount of resistance is retained in order to generate a small electric field for replenishing the electron bunch with the energy lost as it traverses through the undulator structure.

  16. Electrons and Mirror Symmetry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kumar, Krishna

    2007-04-04

    The neutral weak force between an electron and a target particle, mediated by the Z boson, can be isolated by measuring the fractional change under a mirror reflection of the scattering probability of relativistic longitudinally polarized electrons off unpolarized targets. This technique yields neutral weak force measurements at a length scale of 1 femtometer, in contrast to high energy collider measurements that probe much smaller length scales. Study of the variation of the weak force over a range of length scales provides a stringent test of theory, complementing collider measurements. We describe a recent measurement of the neutral weak force between two electrons by the E158 experiment at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center. While the weak force between an electron and positron has been extensively studied, that between two electrons had never directly been measured. We conclude by discussing prospects for even more precise measurements at future facilities.

  17. Electrons and Mirror Symmetry

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Kumar, Krishna

    2009-09-01

    The neutral weak force between an electron and a target particle, mediated by the Z boson, can be isolated by measuring the fractional change under a mirror reflection of the scattering probability of relativistic longitudinally polarized electrons off unpolarized targets. This technique yields neutral weak force measurements at a length scale of 1 femtometer, in contrast to high energy collider measurements that probe much smaller length scales. Study of the variation of the weak force over a range of length scales provides a stringent test of theory, complementing collider measurements. We describe a recent measurement of the neutral weak force between two electrons by the E158 experiment at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center. While the weak force between an electron and positron has been extensively studied, that between two electrons had never directly been measured. We conclude by discussing prospects for even more precise measurements at future facilities.

  18. Search for a heavy gauge boson $W$ ' in the final state with an electron and large missing transverse energy in $pp$ collisions at $\\sqrt{s}=7$ TeV

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Khachatryan, Vardan; et al.

    2011-03-01

    A search for a heavy gauge boson W' has been conducted by the CMS experiment at the LHC in the decay channel with an electron and large transverse energy imbalance, using proton-proton collision data corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 36 inverse picobarns. No excess above standard model expectations is seen in the transverse mass distribution of the electron-(missing E_T) system. Assuming standard-model-like couplings and decay branching fractions, a W' boson with a mass less than 1.36 TeV/c^2 is excluded at 95% confidence level.

  19. Aerogels for electronics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hrubesh, L.W.

    1994-10-01

    In addition to their other exceptional properties, aerogels also exhibit unusual dielectric and electronic properties due to their nano-sized structures and high porosities. For example, aerogels have the lowest dielectric constants measured for a solid material (having values approaching 1.0); they have exceptionally high dielectric resistivities and strengths (i.e., ability to insulate very high voltages); they exhibit low dielectric loss at microwave frequencies; and some aerogels are electrically conductive and photoconductive. These properties are being exploited to provide the next generation of materials for energy storage, low power consumption, and ultra-fast electronics. We are working toward adapting these unusual materials for microelectronic applications, particularly, making thin aerogel films for dielectric substrates and for energy storage devices such as supercapacitors. Measurements are presented in this paper for the dielectric and electronic properties of aerogels, including the dielectric constant, loss factor, dielectric and electrical conductivity, volume resistivity, and dielectric strength. We also describe methods to form and characterize thin aerogel films which are being developed for numerous electronic applications. Finally, some of the electronic applications proposed for aerogels are presented. Commercialization of aerogels for electronics must await further feasibility, prototype development, and cost studies, but they are one of the key materials and are sure to have a major impact on future electronics.

  20. Precision electron polarimetry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chudakov, Eugene A.

    2013-11-01

    A new generation of precise Parity-Violating experiments will require a sub-percent accuracy of electron beam polarimetry. Compton polarimetry can provide such accuracy at high energies, but at a few hundred MeV the small analyzing power limits the sensitivity. M{\\o}ller polarimetry provides a high analyzing power independent on the beam energy, but is limited by the properties of the polarized targets commonly used. Options for precision polarimetry at ~300 MeV will be discussed, in particular a proposal to use ultra-cold atomic hydrogen traps to provide a 100\\%-polarized electron target for M{\\o}ller polarimetry.

  1. Electronics Design and Fabrication | Argonne National Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Electronics Design and Fabrication Electronics Design and Fabrication The HEP Electronics Support Group provides electronics engineering, design, fabrication, and support services for a wide variety of research projects at the laboratory. Historically, the group has been part of the High Energy Physics (HEP) division, providing electronics support for HEP experiments around the world. Several years ago, we expanded our operations to provide electronics design and support services for the entire

  2. NREL: Measurements and Characterization - Scanning Electron Microscopy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Electron Microscopy Researcher using field-emission scanning electron microscope. Field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM) JEOL 6320F. This FE-SEM equipped with a cold field-emission source and in-lens detectors is designed for ultra-high resolution at low accelerating voltage. Compositional mapping by energy-dispersive microscopy and Electron Backscattered Diffraction are available. In basic scanning electron microscopy (SEM), a beam of highly energetic (0.1-50 keV) electrons is

  3. Energy distribution of nonequilibrium electrons and optical phonons in GaAs under band-to-band pumping by intense short pulses of light

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Altybaev, G. S.; Kumekov, S. E. Mahmudov, A. A.

    2009-03-15

    Deviation from the Fermi distribution of nonequilibrium electrons and distribution of 'hot' optical phonons in GaAs under band-to-band pumping by picosecond pulses of light are calculated.

  4. Computation of the free energy due to electron density fluctuation of a solute in solution: A QM/MM method with perturbation approach combined with a theory of solutions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Suzuoka, Daiki; Takahashi, Hideaki Morita, Akihiro

    2014-04-07

    We developed a perturbation approach to compute solvation free energy ?? within the framework of QM (quantum mechanical)/MM (molecular mechanical) method combined with a theory of energy representation (QM/MM-ER). The energy shift ? of the whole system due to the electronic polarization of the solute is evaluated using the second-order perturbation theory (PT2), where the electric field formed by surrounding solvent molecules is treated as the perturbation to the electronic Hamiltonian of the isolated solute. The point of our approach is that the energy shift ?, thus obtained, is to be adopted for a novel energy coordinate of the distribution functions which serve as fundamental variables in the free energy functional developed in our previous work. The most time-consuming part in the QM/MM-ER simulation can be, thus, avoided without serious loss of accuracy. For our benchmark set of molecules, it is demonstrated that the PT2 approach coupled with QM/MM-ER gives hydration free energies in excellent agreements with those given by the conventional method utilizing the Kohn-Sham SCF procedure except for a few molecules in the benchmark set. A variant of the approach is also proposed to deal with such difficulties associated with the problematic systems. The present approach is also advantageous to parallel implementations. We examined the parallel efficiency of our PT2 code on multi-core processors and found that the speedup increases almost linearly with respect to the number of cores. Thus, it was demonstrated that QM/MM-ER coupled with PT2 deserves practical applications to systems of interest.

  5. ADMINISTRATIVE RECORDS SCHEDULE 20: ELECTRONIC RECORDS | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy them. The electronic records may either be created or received ADMINISTRATIVE RECORDS SCHEDULE 20: ELECTRONIC RECORDS (42.03

  6. Legos for the Fabrication of Atomically Precise Electronic Circuits...

    Office of Science (SC) Website

    circuits for faster, more energy efficient electronics and advanced solar cells. ... used to produce high performance circuits for use in future electronics and solar cells. ...

  7. Repetitively pumped electron beam device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schlitt, L.G.

    1979-07-24

    Disclosed is an apparatus for producing fast, repetitive pulses of controllable length of an electron beam by phased energy storage in a transmission line of length matched to the number of pulses and specific pulse lengths desired. 12 figs.

  8. Repetitively pumped electron beam device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schlitt, Leland G. [Livermore, CA

    1979-07-24

    Apparatus for producing fast, repetitive pulses of controllable length of an electron beam by phased energy storage in a transmission line of length matched to the number of pulses and specific pulse lengths desired.

  9. Electronic structure of superconductivity refined

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Electronic structure of superconductivity refined Electronic structure of superconductivity refined A team of physicists propose a new model that expands on a little understood aspect of the electronic structure in high-temperature superconductors. July 10, 2008 Los Alamos National Laboratory sits on top of a once-remote mesa in northern New Mexico with the Jemez mountains as a backdrop to research and innovation covering multi-disciplines from bioscience, sustainable energy sources, to plasma

  10. Tips: Appliances | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Smart Appliances Learn about appliances that can automatically shift your use to off-peak hours, saving you money. Home Office and Electronics Select energy-efficient electronics ...

  11. Monthly Energy Review, January 1998

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    January 27, 1998 Electronic Access Monthly Energy Review (MER) data are also available through these electronic means: * ASCII text, Lotus (wk1), and Excel (xls) versions of the...

  12. Monthly Energy Review, October 1997

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    October 27, 1997 Electronic Access Monthly Energy Review (MER) data are also available through these electronic means: * ASCII text, Lotus (wk1), and Excel (xls) versions of the...

  13. Monthly Energy Review, September 1998

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    September 25, 1998 Electronic Access Monthly Energy Review (MER) data are also avail- able through these electronic means: * ASCII text, Lotus (wk1), and Excel (xls) versions of...

  14. Monthly Energy Review, November 1997

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    November 24, 1997 Electronic Access Monthly Energy Review (MER) data are also available through these electronic means: * ASCII text, Lotus (wk1), and Excel (xls) versions of the...

  15. Internal electron conversion of the isomeric {sup 57}Fe nucleus state with an energy of 14.4 keV excited by the radiation of the plasma of a high-power femtosecond laser pulse

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Golovin, G V; Savel'ev-Trofimov, Andrei B; Uryupina, D S; Volkov, Roman V

    2011-03-31

    We recorded the spectrum of delayed secondary electrons ejected from the target, which was coated with a layer of iron enriched with the {sup 57}Fe isotope to 98%, under its irradiation by fluxes of broadband X-ray radiation and fast electrons from the plasma produced by a femtosecond laser pulse at an intensity of 10{sup 17} W cm{sup -2}. Maxima were identified at energies of 5.6, 7.2, and 13.6 keV in the spectrum obtained for a delay of 90 - 120 ns. The two last-listed maxima owe their origin to the internal electron conversion of the isomeric level with an energy of 14.4 keV and a lifetime of 98 ns to the K and L shells of atomic iron, respectively; the first-named level arises from a cascade K - L{sub 2}L{sub 3} Auger process. Photoexcitaion by the X-ray plasma radiation is shown to be the principal channel of the isomeric level excitation. (interaction of laser radiation with matter)

  16. Superthermal electron distribution measurements from polarized electron cyclotron emission

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Luce, T.C.; Efthimion, P.C.; Fisch, N.J.

    1988-06-01

    Measurements of the superthermal electron distribution can be made by observing the polarized electron cyclotron emission. The emission is viewed along a constant magnetic field surface. This simplifies the resonance condition and gives a direct correlation between emission frequency and kinetic energy of the emitting electron. A transformation technique is formulated which determines the anisotropy of the distribution and number density of superthermals at each energy measured. The steady-state distribution during lower hybrid current drive and examples of the superthermal dynamics as the runaway conditions is varied are presented for discharges in the PLT tokamak. 15 refs., 8 figs.

  17. Generation of anomalously energetic suprathermal electrons by an electron beam interacting with a nonuniform plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sydorenko, D.; Kaganovich, I. D.; Chen, L.; Ventzek, P. L. G.

    2015-12-15

    Generation of anomalously energetic suprathermal electrons was observed in simulation of a high-voltage dc discharge with electron emission from the cathode. An electron beam produced by the emission interacts with the nonuniform plasma in the discharge via a two-stream instability. The energy transfer from the beam to the plasma electrons is ensured by the plasma nonuniformity. The electron beam excites plasma waves whose wavelength and phase speed gradually decrease towards anode. The waves with short wavelength near the anode accelerate plasma bulk electrons to suprathermal energies. The sheath near the anode reflects some of the accelerated electrons back into the plasma. These electrons travel through the plasma, reflect near the cathode, and enter the accelerating area again but with a higher energy than before. Such particles are accelerated to energies much higher than after the first acceleration. This mechanism plays a role in explaining earlier experimental observations of energetic suprathermal electrons in similar discharges.

  18. High Efficiency Driving Electronics for General Illumination...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Driving Electronics for General Illumination LED Luminaires Upadhyay, Anand 32 ENERGY CONSERVATION, CONSUMPTION, AND UTILIZATION New generation of standalone LED driver platforms...

  19. Electronic Spin Transition in Nanosize Stoichiometric Lithium...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: Electronic Spin Transition in Nanosize Stoichiometric Lithium Cobalt Oxide Authors: ... Language: English Subject: energy storage (including batteries and capacitors), defects, ...

  20. Time-dependent quantum wave packet study of the Ar+H{sub 2}{sup +}{yields}ArH{sup +}+H reaction on a new ab initio potential energy surface for the ground electronic state (1{sup 2}A Prime )

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hu Mei; Liu Xinguo; Tan Ruishan; Li Hongzheng; Xu Wenwu

    2013-05-07

    A new global potential energy surface for the ground electronic state (1{sup 2}A Prime ) of the Ar+H{sub 2}{sup +}{yields}ArH{sup +}+H reaction has been constructed by multi-reference configuration interaction method with Davidson correction and a basis set of aug-cc-pVQZ. Using 6080 ab initio single-point energies of all the regions for the dynamics, a many-body expansion function form has been used to fit these points. The quantum reactive scattering dynamics calculations taking into account the Coriolis coupling (CC) were carried out on the new potential energy surface over a range of collision energies (0.03-1.0 eV). The reaction probabilities and integral cross sections for the title reaction were calculated. The significance of including the CC quantum scattering calculation has been revealed by the comparison between the CC and the centrifugal sudden approximation calculation. The calculated cross section is in agreement with the experimental result at collision energy 1.0 eV.

  1. Electron tube

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Suyama, Motohiro; Fukasawa, Atsuhito; Arisaka, Katsushi; Wang, Hanguo

    2011-12-20

    An electron tube of the present invention includes: a vacuum vessel including a face plate portion made of synthetic silica and having a surface on which a photoelectric surface is provided, a stem portion arranged facing the photoelectric surface and made of synthetic silica, and a side tube portion having one end connected to the face plate portion and the other end connected to the stem portion and made of synthetic silica; a projection portion arranged in the vacuum vessel, extending from the stem portion toward the photoelectric surface, and made of synthetic silica; and an electron detector arranged on the projection portion, for detecting electrons from the photoelectric surface, and made of silicon.

  2. NREL: Measurements and Characterization - Field Emission Auger Electron

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Spectroscopy with Scanning Auger Microscopy Field Emission Auger Electron Spectroscopy with Scanning Auger Microscopy In Auger electron spectroscopy (AES), we bombard a sample surface with a focused beam of high-energy (2- to 10-kV) electrons. The incident electrons lose energy to the sample atoms, generating Auger electrons that have discrete kinetic energies characteristic of the emitting atoms. This technique is particularly useful for determining the elemental composition of the surface

  3. Electronic Coupling Dependence of Ultrafast Interfacial Electron...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Electronic Coupling Dependence of Ultrafast Interfacial Electron Transfer on Nanocrystalline Thin Films and Single Crystal Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Electronic ...

  4. Electronic system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Robison, G H; Dickson, J F

    1960-11-15

    An electronic system is designed for indicating the occurrence of a plurality of electrically detectable events within predetermined time intervals. The system comprises separate input means electrically associated with the events under observation an electronic channel associated with each input means, including control means and indicating means; timing means adapted to apply a signal from the input means after a predetermined time to the control means to deactivate each of the channels; and means for resetting the system to its initial condition after the observation of each group of events. (D.L.C.)

  5. ELECTRONIC SYSTEM

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Robison, G.H. et al.

    1960-11-15

    An electronic system is described for indicating the occurrence of a plurality of electrically detectable events within predetermined time intervals. It is comprised of separate input means electrically associated with the events under observation: an electronic channel associated with each input means including control means and indicating means; timing means associated with each of the input means and the control means and adapted to derive a signal from the input means and apply it after a predetermined time to the control means to effect deactivation of each of the channels; and means for resetting the system to its initial condition after observation of each group of events.

  6. Compact femtosecond electron diffractometer with 100 keV electron bunches approaching the single-electron pulse duration limit

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Waldecker, Lutz Bertoni, Roman; Ernstorfer, Ralph

    2015-01-28

    We present the design and implementation of a highly compact femtosecond electron diffractometer working at electron energies up to 100 keV. We use a multi-body particle tracing code to simulate electron bunch propagation through the setup and to calculate pulse durations at the sample position. Our simulations show that electron bunches containing few thousands of electrons per bunch are only weakly broadened by space-charge effects and their pulse duration is thus close to the one of a single-electron wavepacket. With our compact setup, we can create electron bunches containing up to 5000 electrons with a pulse duration below 100 fs on the sample. We use the diffractometer to track the energy transfer from photoexcited electrons to the lattice in a thin film of titanium. This process takes place on the timescale of few-hundred femtoseconds and a fully equilibrated state is reached within 1 ps.

  7. Electron density and electron temperature measurement in a bi-Maxwellian electron distribution using a derivative method of Langmuir probes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Choi, Ikjin; Chung, ChinWook [Department of Electrical Engineering, Hanyang University, 17 Haengdang-dong, Seongdong-gu, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Electrical Engineering, Hanyang University, 17 Haengdang-dong, Seongdong-gu, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of); Youn Moon, Se [High-Enthalpy Plasma Research Center, Chonbuk National University, 567 Baekje-daero, Deokjin-gu, Jeonju, Jeollabuk-do 561-756 (Korea, Republic of)] [High-Enthalpy Plasma Research Center, Chonbuk National University, 567 Baekje-daero, Deokjin-gu, Jeonju, Jeollabuk-do 561-756 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-08-15

    In plasma diagnostics with a single Langmuir probe, the electron temperature T{sub e} is usually obtained from the slope of the logarithm of the electron current or from the electron energy probability functions of current (I)-voltage (V) curve. Recently, Chen [F. F. Chen, Phys. Plasmas 8, 3029 (2001)] suggested a derivative analysis method to obtain T{sub e} by the ratio between the probe current and the derivative of the probe current at a plasma potential where the ion current becomes zero. Based on this method, electron temperatures and electron densities were measured and compared with those from the electron energy distribution function (EEDF) measurement in Maxwellian and bi-Maxwellian electron distribution conditions. In a bi-Maxwellian electron distribution, we found the electron temperature T{sub e} obtained from the method is always lower than the effective temperatures T{sub eff} derived from EEDFs. The theoretical analysis for this is presented.

  8. Portland, Oregon: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    (Oregon) First Wind (Formerly UPC Wind) (Oregon) Green Electronics Council Green Empowerment Greenwood Resources Iberdrola Renewables Iberdrola Renewables formerly PPM Energy...

  9. Hillsboro, Oregon: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Registered Energy Companies in Hillsboro, Oregon ClearEdge Power formerly Quantum Leap Technology Jax Industries Micro Power Electronics Inc SpectraWatt References ...

  10. Cypress, California: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Registered Energy Companies in Cypress, California Mitsubishi Electric and Electronics USA Inc References US Census Bureau Incorporated place and minor civil division...

  11. Experimental results of an electron cyclotron resonance oxygen source and a low energy beam transport system for 1 MeV integral split ring radio frequency quadruple accelerator upgrade project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peng, S. X.; Zhang, M.; Song, Z. Z.; Xu, R.; Zhao, J.; Yuan, Z. X.; Yu, J. X.; Chen, J.; Guo, Z. Y.

    2008-02-15

    To meet the requirements of developing separated function radio frequency quadruple (rfq) and upgrading the 1 MeV integral split ring rfq accelerator, an electron cyclotron resonance O{sup +} ion source and low energy beam transport (LEBT) system have been developed. Using two Einzel lenses to focus the beam, more than 6 mA O{sup +} peak beam current with energy of 22 keV can be easily obtained at the end of LEBT when the duty faction is at 1/6. The normalized root-mean-square emittance of 90% of the beam is about 0.12{pi} mm mrad. By changing the focusing power of lenses, the beam waist can be shifted from 80 mm before the beam diaphragm 2 to 80 mm after it. The experimental results will be presented in this article.

  12. Energy 101: Geothermal Energy | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Geothermal Energy Energy 101: Geothermal Energy

  13. Computers, Electronics and Electrical Equipment (2010 MECS) | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Computers, Electronics and Electrical Equipment (2010 MECS) Computers, Electronics and Electrical Equipment (2010 MECS) Manufacturing Energy and Carbon Footprint for Computers, Electronics and Electrical Equipment Sector (NAICS 334, 335) Energy use data source: 2010 EIA MECS (with adjustments) Footprint Last Revised: February 2014 View footprints for other sectors here. Manufacturing Energy and Carbon Footprint Computers, Electronics and Electrical Equipment (123.71 KB) More Documents

  14. SolidEnergy Systems | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    SolidEnergy Systems National Clean Energy Business Plan Competition SolidEnergy Systems Massachusetts Institute of Technology The Polymer Ionic Liquid (PIL) lithium battery combines the safety and energy density of a solid polymer lithium battery and the high performance of a lithium-ion battery. The battery developed by SolidEnergy achieves high energy density that works safely over a wide temperature range, which makes it ideal for electric vehicles and consumer electronics where both energy

  15. Including the Effects of Electronic Excitations and Electron-Phonon Coupling in Cascade Simulations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Duffy, Dorothy |

    2008-07-01

    Radiation damage has traditionally been modeled using cascade simulations however such simulations generally neglect the effects of electron-ion interactions, which may be significant in high energy cascades. A model has been developed which includes the effects of electronic stopping and electron-phonon coupling in Molecular Dynamics simulations by means of an inhomogeneous Langevin thermostat. The energy lost by the atoms to electronic excitations is gained by the electronic system and the energy evolution of the electronic system is modeled by the heat diffusion equation. Energy is exchanged between the electronic system and the atoms in the Molecular Dynamics simulation by means of a Langevin thermostat, the temperature of which is the local electronic temperature. The model is applied to a 10 keV cascade simulation for Fe. (authors)

  16. Verteco Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    focused on the distributed energy sector. It provides power electronic solutions for wind power, grid connected photovoltaic arrays, fuel cells, small hydro, and tidal energy power...

  17. Monthly Energy Review - October 1999

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    October 26, 1999 Electronic Access The Monthly Energy Review is available on the Energy Information Administration's website in a variety of formats: * ASCII text, Lotus (wk1), and...

  18. Monthly Energy Review - April 2001

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    April 30, 2001 Electronic Access The Monthly Energy Review (MER) is available on the Energy Information Administration (EIA) website in a wide variety of formats at: http:...

  19. Monthly Energy Review - June 2000

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    June 27, 2000 Electronic Access The Monthly Energy Review is available on the Energy Information Administration's website in a variety of formats: * ASCII text, Lotus (wk1), and...

  20. Monthly Energy Review - April 200

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    April 26, 2000 Electronic Access The Monthly Energy Review is available on the Energy Information Administration's website in a variety of formats: * ASCII text, Lotus (wk1), and...