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1

Development of High Energy Density Lithium-Sulfur Cells  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

2013 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting

2

Development of High Energy Density Lithium-Sulfur Cells  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

2012 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting

3

Fundamental Studies of Lithium-Sulfur Cell Chemistry  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Studies of Lithium-Sulfur Cell Chemistry PI: Nitash Balsara LBNL June 17, 2014 Project ID ESS224 This presentation does not contain any proprietary, confidential, or otherwise...

4

Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Development of High Energy Density Lithium-Sulfur Cells  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Presentation given by The Pennsylvania State University at 2014 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about development...

5

A Mathematical Model for a LithiumSulfur Cell Karthikeyan Kumaresan,a,  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

S8 l is reduced to S2- in steps. For example, S8 l is reduced to S8 2- , then to S6 2- , S4 2- , S2,4 Figure 1 presents a typical experimental discharge profile at a C/50 rate C = 2.5 Ah . The lithium/sulfur Development The schematic of the lithium/sulfur cell modeled in this work is shown in Fig. 2. The cell is made

6

Additives and Cathode Materials for High-Energy Lithium Sulfur...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Additives and Cathode Materials for High-Energy Lithium Sulfur Batteries Additives and Cathode Materials for High-Energy Lithium Sulfur Batteries 2013 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells...

7

Discharge characteristics of lithium/sulfur dioxide (LiSO{sub 2}) ``D`` cells (SAFT America Inc.)  

SciTech Connect

This report presents data which was generated during a series of discharge tests performed on Lithium/Sulfur Dioxide (LiSO{sub 2}) ``D`` cells manufactured by SAFT America Inc., Cockeysville, Maryland. The discharge tests were run using five different load conditions and six temperature regimes. This report contains graphs depicting cell discharge curves (cell voltage versus time). Test results indicate that the cells performed most consistently at temperatures between 0{degrees} and 60{degrees}C and at 10 mA loads. 1 ref., 43 figs.

Pitre, L.J. Jr.

1990-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

8

Sulfur@Carbon Cathodes for Lithium Sulfur Batteries > Research...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Electrode Channel Flow DEMS Cell Sulfur@Carbon Cathodes for Lithium Sulfur Batteries Better Ham & Cheese: Enhanced Anodes and Cathodes for Fuel Cells Epitaxial Single...

9

Graphene-wrapped sulfur nanospheres with ultra-high sulfur loading for high energy density lithium–sulfur batteries  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Lithium–sulfur (Li–S) battery with high theoretical energy density is one of the most promising energy storage systems for electric vehicles and intermittent renewable energy. However, due to the poor conductivity of the active material, considerable weight of the electrode is occupied by the conductive additives. Here we report a graphene-wrapped sulfur nanospheres composite (S-nanosphere@G) with sulfur content up to 91 wt% as the high energy density cathode material for Li–S battery. The sulfur nanospheres with diameter of 400–500 nm are synthesized through a solution-based approach with the existence of polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP). Then the sulfur nanospheres are uniformly wrapped by conductive graphene sheets through the electrostatic interaction between graphene oxide and PVP, followed by reducing of graphene oxide with hydrazine. The design of graphene wrapped sulfur nanoarchitecture provides flexible conductive graphene coating with void space to accommodate the volume expansion of sulfur and to minimize polysulfide dissolution. As a result, the S-nanosphere@G nanocomposite with 91 wt% sulfur shows a reversible initial capacity of 970 mA h g?1 and an average columbic efficiency > 96% over 100 cycles at a rate of 0.2 C. Taking the total mass of electrode into account, the S-nanosphere@G composite is a promising cathode material for high energy density Li–S batteries.

Ya Liu; Jinxin Guo; Jun Zhang; Qingmei Su; Gaohui Du

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

10

Sulfur-Graphene Oxide Nanocomposite Cathodes for Lithium/Sulfur...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Advanced Materials Advanced Materials Find More Like This Return to Search Sulfur-Graphene Oxide Nanocomposite Cathodes for LithiumSulfur Cells Lawrence Berkeley National...

11

Development of High Energy Density Lithium-Sulfur Cells  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

* Cycle and calendar life * Abuse tolerance 44% completed Partners * EC Power * Johnson Controls * Argonne National Lab Budget * FY 2012: 2,166,675 *DOE share:1,524,373...

12

Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Fundamental Studies of Lithium-Sulfur Cell Chemistry  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Presentation given by Lawrence Berkley National Laboratory at 2014 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about...

13

Manipulating the Surface Reactions in Lithium Sulfur Batteries...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Manipulating the Surface Reactions in Lithium Sulfur Batteries Using Hybrid Anode Structures. Manipulating the Surface Reactions in Lithium Sulfur Batteries Using Hybrid Anode...

14

Recent advances in lithium–sulfur batteries  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Lithium–sulfur (Li–S) batteries have attracted much attention lately because they have very high theoretical specific energy (2500 Wh kg?1), five times higher than that of the commercial LiCoO2/graphite batteries. As a result, they are strong contenders for next-generation energy storage in the areas of portable electronics, electric vehicles, and storage systems for renewable energy such as wind power and solar energy. However, poor cycling life and low capacity retention are main factors limiting their commercialization. To date, a large number of electrode and electrolyte materials to address these challenges have been investigated. In this review, we present the latest fundamental studies and technological development of various nanostructured cathode materials for Li–S batteries, including their preparation approaches, structure, morphology and battery performance. Furthermore, the development of other significant components of Li–S batteries including anodes, electrolytes, additives, binders and separators are also highlighted. Not only does the intention of our review article comprise the summary of recent advances in Li–S cells, but also we cover some of our proposals for engineering of Li–S cell configurations. These systematic discussion and proposed directions can enlighten ideas and offer avenues in the rational design of durable and high performance Li–S batteries in the near future.

Lin Chen; Leon L. Shaw

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

15

Sulfur-graphene oxide material for lithium-sulfur battery cathodes  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Sulfur-graphene oxide material for lithium-sulfur battery cathodes Sulfur-graphene oxide material for lithium-sulfur battery cathodes Theoretical specific energy and theoretical energy density Scanning electron micrograph of the GO-S nanocomposite June 2013 Searching for a safer, less expensive alternative to today's lithium-ion batteries, scientists have turned to lithium-sulfur as a possible chemistry for next-generation batteries. Li/S batteries have several times the energy storage capacity of the best currently available rechargeable Li-ion battery, and sulfur is inexpensive and nontoxic. Current batteries using this chemistry, however, suffer from extremely short cycle life-they don't last through many charge-discharge cycles before they fail. A research team led by Elton Cairns and Yuegang Zhang has developed a new

16

Lithium/Sulfur Batteries Based on Doped Mesoporous Carbon - Energy...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Materials Advanced Materials Find More Like This Return to Search LithiumSulfur Batteries Based on Doped Mesoporous Carbon Oak Ridge National Laboratory Contact ORNL About...

17

Graphene-Wrapped Sulfur Particles as a Rechargeable Lithium–Sulfur Battery Cathode Material with High Capacity and Cycling Stability  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Graphene-Wrapped Sulfur Particles as a Rechargeable Lithium–Sulfur Battery Cathode Material with High Capacity and Cycling Stability ... The resulting graphene–sulfur composite showed high and stable specific capacities up to ?600 mAh/g over more than 100 cycles, representing a promising cathode material for rechargeable lithium batteries with high energy density. ...

Hailiang Wang; Yuan Yang; Yongye Liang; Joshua Tucker Robinson; Yanguang Li; Ariel Jackson; Yi Cui; Hongjie Dai

2011-06-24T23:59:59.000Z

18

Manipulating the Surface Reactions in Lithium Sulfur Batteries Using Hybrid Anode Structures  

SciTech Connect

Lithium-sulfur (Li-S) batteries have recently attracted extensive attention due to the high theoretical energy density and potential low cost. Even so, significant challenges prevent widespread adoption, including continuous dissolution and consumption of active sulfur during cycling. Here we present a fundamentally new design using electrically connected graphite and lithium metal as a hybrid anode to control undesirable surface reactions on the anode. The lithiated graphite placed in front of the lithium metal functions as an artificial self-regulated solid electrolyte interface (SEI) layer to actively control the electrochemical reaction while minimizing the deleterious side reactions on the surface and bulk lithium metal. Continuous corrosion and contamination of lithium anode by dissolved polysulfides is largely mitigated. Excellent electrochemical performance has been observed. Li-S cell incorporating the hybrid design retain a capacity of more than 800 mAh g-1 for 400 cycles, corresponding to only 11% fade and a Coulombic efficiency above 99%. This simple hybrid concept may also provide new lessons for protecting metal anodes in other energy storage devices.

Huang, Cheng; Xiao, Jie; Shao, Yuyan; Zheng, Jianming; Bennett, Wendy D.; Lu, Dongping; Saraf, Laxmikant V.; Engelhard, Mark H.; Ji, Liwen; Zhang, Jiguang; Li, Xiaolin; Graff, Gordon L.; Liu, Jun

2014-01-09T23:59:59.000Z

19

Amylopectin Wrapped Graphene Oxide/Sulfur for Improved Cyclability of Lithium–Sulfur Battery  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Amylopectin Wrapped Graphene Oxide/Sulfur for Improved Cyclability of Lithium–Sulfur Battery ... An amylopectin wrapped graphene oxide-sulfur composite was prepared to construct a 3-dimensionally cross-linked structure through the interaction between amylopectin and graphene oxide, for stabilizing lithium sulfur batteries. ...

Weidong Zhou; Hao Chen; Yingchao Yu; Deli Wang; Zhiming Cui; Francis J. DiSalvo; Héctor D. Abruña

2013-09-05T23:59:59.000Z

20

Challenges and Prospects of Lithium–Sulfur Batteries  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

His research interests are in the area of materials for rechargeable batteries, fuel cells, and solar cells, including novel synthesis approaches for nanomaterials. ... Lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries have the highest energy density among the rechargeable battery chemistries. ...

Arumugam Manthiram; Yongzhu Fu; Yu-Sheng Su

2012-10-25T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "density lithium-sulfur cells" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Formation of Large Polysulfide Complexes during the Lithium-Sulfur Battery Discharge  

SciTech Connect

Sulfur cathodes have much larger capacities than transition-metal-oxide cathodes used in commercial lithium-ion batteries but suffer from unsatisfactory capacity retention and long-term cyclability. Capacity degradation originates from soluble lithium polysulfides gradually diffusing into the electrolyte. Understanding of the formation and dynamics of soluble polysulfides during the discharging process at the atomic level remains elusive, which limits further development of lithium-sulfur (Li-S) batteries. Here we report first-principles molecular dynamics simulations and density functional calculations, through which the discharging products of Li-S batteries are studied. We find that, in addition to simple Li2Sn (1 n 8) clusters generated from single cyclooctasulfur (S8) rings, large Li-S clusters form by collectively coupling several different rings to minimize the total energy. At high lithium concentration, a Li-S network forms at the sulfur surfaces. The results can explain the formation of the soluble Li-S complex, such as Li2S8, Li2S6, and Li2S4, and the insoluble Li2S2 and Li2S structures. In addition, we show that the presence of oxygen impurities in graphene, particularly oxygen atoms bonded to vacancies and edges, may stabilize the lithium polysulfides that may otherwise diffuse into the electrolyte.

Wang, Bin [Vanderbilt University, Nashville; Alhassan, Saeed M. [The Petroleum Institute; Pantelides, Sokrates T [ORNL

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

22

Sulfur nanocrystals anchored graphene composite with highly improved electrochemical performance for lithium–sulfur batteries  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Two kinds of graphene–sulfur composites with 50 wt% of sulfur are prepared using hydrothermal method and thermal mixing, respectively. Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectra mapping show that sulfur nanocrystals with size of ?5 nm dispersed on graphene sheets homogeneously for the sample prepared by hydrothermal method (NanoS@G). While for the thermal mixed graphene–sulfur composite (S–G mixture), sulfur shows larger and uneven size (50–200 nm). X-ray Photoelectron Spectra (XPS) reveals the strong chemical bonding between the sulfur nanocrystals and graphene. Comparing with the S–G mixture, the NanoS@G composite shows highly improved electrochemical performance as cathode for lithium–sulfur (Li–S) battery. The NanoS@G composite delivers an initial capacity of 1400 mAh g?1 with the sulfur utilization of 83.7% at a current density of 335 mA g?1. The capacity keeps above 720 mAh g?1 over 100 cycles. The strong adherence of the sulfur nanocrystals on graphene immobilizes sulfur and polysulfides species and suppressed the “shuttle effect”, resulting higher coulombic efficiency and better capacity retention. Electrochemical impedance also suggests that the strong bonding enabled rapid electronic/ionic transport and improved electrochemical kinetics, therefore good rate capability is obtained. These results demonstrate that the NanoS@G composite is a very promising candidate for high-performance Li–S batteries.

Jun Zhang; Zimin Dong; Xiuli Wang; Xuyang Zhao; Jiangping Tu; Qingmei Su; Gaohui Du

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

23

Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Development of...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Development of High Energy Density Lithium-Sulfur Cells Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Development of High Energy Density Lithium-Sulfur Cells Presentation given by...

24

Graphene-sulfur nanocomposites for rechargeable lithium-sulfur battery electrodes  

SciTech Connect

Rechargeable lithium-sulfur batteries having a cathode that includes a graphene-sulfur nanocomposite can exhibit improved characteristics. The graphene-sulfur nanocomposite can be characterized by graphene sheets with particles of sulfur adsorbed to the graphene sheets. The sulfur particles have an average diameter less than 50 nm..

Liu, Jun; Lemmon, John P; Yang, Zhenguo; Cao, Yuiliang; Li, Xiaolin

2014-06-17T23:59:59.000Z

25

Polyaniline-modified cetyltrimethylammonium bromide-graphene oxide-sulfur nanocomposites with enhanced performance for lithium-sulfur batteries  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Conductive polymer coatings can boost the power storage capacity of lithium-sulfur batteries. We report here on the design and ... polyaniline (PANI)-modified cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB)-graphene oxide ...

Yongcai Qiu; Wanfei Li; Guizhu Li; Yuan Hou; Lisha Zhou; Hongfei Li…

2014-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

26

Additives and Cathode Materials for High-Energy Lithium Sulfur...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

efficiency * Optimize the electrode structure to achieve homogeneous mixing of active materials with electronic conductors - Reduce cell resistance * Evaluate the full cell...

27

Sulfur/three-dimensional graphene composite for high performance lithium–sulfur batteries  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract A sulfur/graphene composite is prepared by loading elemental sulfur into three-dimensional graphene (3D graphene), which is assembled using a metal ions assisted hydrothermal method. When used as cathode materials for lithium–sulfur (Li–S) batteries, the sulfur/graphene composite (S@3D-graphene) with 73 wt % sulfur shows a significantly enhanced cycling performance (>700 mAh g?1 after 100 cycles at 0.1C rate with a Coulombic efficiency > 96%) as well as high rate capability with a capacity up to 500 mAh g?1 at 2C rate (3.35 A g?1). The superior electrochemical performance could be attributed to the highly porous structure of three-dimensional graphene that not only enables stable and continue pathway for rapid electron and ion transportation, but also restrain soluble polysulfides and suppress the “shuttle effect”. Moreover, the robust structure of 3D graphene can keep cathode integrity and accommodate the volume change during high-rate charge/discharge processes, making it a promising candidate as cathode for high performance Li–S batteries.

Chunmei Xu; Yishan Wu; Xuyang Zhao; Xiuli Wang; Gaohui Du; Jun Zhang; Jiangping Tu

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

28

Holistic Cell Design by Berkeley Lab Scientists Leads to High-Performance,  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Holistic Cell Design by Berkeley Lab Scientists Leads to High-Performance, Holistic Cell Design by Berkeley Lab Scientists Leads to High-Performance, Long Cycle-Life Lithium-Sulfur Battery Battery schematic with Silicon-Graphene oxide Long-term cycling results of the lithium-sulfur cell. Sulfur-graphene oxide SEM photo November 2013 Battery could find use in mobile applications, and eventually, electric vehicles with 300-mile range Researchers at the U.S. Department of Energy's Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab) have demonstrated in the laboratory a lithium-sulfur (Li/S) battery that has more than twice the specific energy of lithium-ion batteries, and that lasts for more than 1,500 cycles of charge-discharge with minimal decay of the battery's capacity. This is longest cycle life reported so far for any lithium-sulfur battery.

29

Strong Sulfur Binding with Conducting Magneli-Phase TinO2n-1 Nanomaterials for Improving Lithium-Sulfur Batteries  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

will go through a series of soluble intermediate higher-order polysulfides (Li2S8, Li2S6, and Li2S4 of Li2S2, Li2S, and sulfur.6-8 In order to solve these challenges, there have been recent developmentsStrong Sulfur Binding with Conducting Magneli-Phase TinO2n-1 Nanomaterials for Improving Lithium-Sulfur

Cui, Yi

30

Lithium–sulfur batteries: Influence of C-rate, amount of electrolyte and sulfur loading on cycle performance  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract In the past four years major improvement of the lithium sulfur battery technology has been reported. Novel carbon cathode materials offer high sulfur loading, sulfur utilization and cycle stability. An often neglected aspect is that sulfur loading and amount of electrolyte strongly impact the performance. In this paper, we demonstrate how the amount of electrolyte, sulfur loading, lithium excess and cycling rate influences the cycle stability and sulfur utilization. We chose vertically aligned carbon nanotubes (VA-CNT) as model system with a constant areal loading of carbon. For a high reproducibility, decreased weight of current collector and good mechanical adhesion of the VA-CNTs we present a layer transfer technique that enables a light-weight sulfur cathode. The sulfur loading of the cathode was adjusted from 20 to 80 wt.-%. Keeping the total amount of electrolyte constant and varying the C-rate, we are able to demonstrate that the capacity degradation is reduced for high rates, high amount of electrolyte and low sulfur loading. In addition idle periods in the cycling regiment and lower rates result in an increased degradation. We attribute this to the redox-reaction between reactive lithium and polysulfides that correlates with the cycling time, rather than cycle number.

Jan Brückner; Sören Thieme; Hannah Tamara Grossmann; Susanne Dörfler; Holger Althues; Stefan Kaskel

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

31

Enhanced electrochemical performance by wrapping graphene on carbon nanotube/sulfur composites for rechargeable lithium–sulfur batteries  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract A novel graphene-wrapped carbon nanotube/sulfur structure was designed to improve the electrochemical performance of the lithium–sulfur (Li–S) batteries. Owing to the introduction of the reduced graphene oxide (rGO) with the aim to restrain the polysulfide anions diffusion phenomenon, increase the overall electronic conductivity of the electrode and accommodate volume expansion between the delithiated S and lithiated Li2S phases, the resulted graphene-wrapped carbon nanotube/sulfur (S/CNT@rGO) composite makes the cycling performance of the Li–S batteries better than that without rGO. The S/CNT@rGO composite showed an initial discharge capacity of ~1299 mA h g?1 at 0.2 C rate. After 100 cycles of charge/discharge, the S/CNT@rGO composite retained a high specific capacity of ~670 mA h g?1, much higher than that without rGO (graphene-wrapped carbon nanotube/sulfur composite could be a promising cathode material for high-rate performance Li–S batteries.

Yishan Wu; Chunmei Xu; Jinxin Guo; Qingmei Su; Gaohui Du; Jun Zhang

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

32

Carbon/Sulfur Nanocomposites and Additives for High-Energy Lithium Sulfur Batteries  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

2011 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program, and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation

33

Carbon/Sulfur Nanocomposites and Additives for High-Energy Lithium Sulfur Batteries  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

2012 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting

34

Additives and Cathode Materials for High-Energy Lithium Sulfur Batteries  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

2013 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting

35

Ionic Liquid-Enhanced Solid State Electrolyte Interface (SEI) for Lithium Sulfur Batteries  

SciTech Connect

Li-S battery is a complicated system with many challenges existing before its final market penetration. While most of the reported work for Li-S batteries is focused on the cathode design, we demonstrate in this work that the anode consumption accelerated by corrosive polysulfide solution also critically determines the Li-S cell performance. To validate this hypothesis, ionic liquid (IL) N-methyl-N-butylpyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide (Py14TFSI) has been employed to modify the properties of SEI layer formed on Li metal surface in Li-S batteries. It is found that the IL-enhanced passivation film on the lithium anode surface exhibits much different morphology and chemical compositions, effectively protecting lithium metal from continuous attack by soluble polysulfides. Therefore, both cell impedance and the irreversible consumption of polysulfides on lithium metal are reduced. As a result, the Coulombic efficiency and the cycling stability of Li-S batteries have been greatly improved. After 120 cycles, Li-S battery cycled in the electrolyte containing IL demonstrates a high capacity retention of 94.3% at 0.1 C rate. These results unveil another important failure mechanism for Li-S batteries and shin the light on the new approaches to improve Li-S battery performances.

Zheng, Jianming; Gu, Meng; Chen, Honghao; Meduri, Praveen; Engelhard, Mark H.; Zhang, Jiguang; Liu, Jun; Xiao, Jie

2013-05-16T23:59:59.000Z

36

Chapter 16 - Lithium Battery Energy Storage: State of the Art Including Lithium–Air and Lithium–Sulfur Systems  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Lithium, the lightest and one of the most reactive of metals, having the greatest electrochemical potential (E0 = ?3.045 V), provides very high energy and power densities in batteries. Rechargeable lithium-ion batteries (containing an intercalation negative electrode) have conquered the markets for portable consumer electronics and, recently, for electric vehicles. The electrolyte is usually based on a lithium salt in organic solution. Thin-film batteries use solid oxide or polymer electrolytes. As lithium metal reacts violently with water and can thus cause ignition, modern lithium-ion batteries use carbon negative electrodes and lithium metal oxide positive electrodes. Rechargeable lithium-ion batteries should not be confused with nonrechargeable lithium primary batteries (containing metallic lithium). This chapter covers all aspects of lithium battery chemistry that are pertinent to electrochemical energy storage for renewable sources and grid balancing.

Peter Kurzweil

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

37

Three-Dimensional Flower-Shaped Activated Porous Carbon/Sulfur Composites as Cathode Materials for Lithium–Sulfur Batteries  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

After the active sulfur impregnation, both the FESEM images (Figure 1e,f) and TEM images (Figure 2c) of the FA-PC/S composite demonstrate a flower-shaped 3D superstructure similar to the original FA-PC material. ... Early on, carbonaceous materials dominated the anode and hence most of the possible improvements in the cell were anticipated at the cathode terminal; on the other hand, major developments in anode materials made in the last portion of the decade with the introduction of nanocomposite Sn/C/Co alloys and Si-C composites have demanded higher capacity cathodes to be developed. ... The photodecompn. of methyl orange indicates that such ZnO superstructures possess excellent photocatalytic activity. ...

Lan Zhou; Tao Huang; Aishui Yu

2014-09-19T23:59:59.000Z

38

Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Fundamental Studies...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Fundamental Studies of Lithium-Sulfur Cell Chemistry Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Fundamental Studies of Lithium-Sulfur Cell Chemistry Presentation given by...

39

Cell-Bridge-Based Connection of High Density Sensor Elements Akimasa Okada  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Cell-Bridge-Based Connection of High Density Sensor Elements Akimasa Okada ,Yasutoshi Makino , and Hiroyuki Shinoda In this paper, we propose a novel network system named "cell bridge system" for a high-density flexible sensor and actuator array. The cell bridge system consists of two elements, a "cell bridge

Shinoda, Hiroyuki

40

Research Report Ganglion cell densities in normal and dark-reared turtle retinas  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Research Report Ganglion cell densities in normal and dark-reared turtle retinas Eun-Jin Lee, David 2005 Abstract In dark-reared, neonatal turtle retinas, ganglion cell receptive fields and dendritic on densities and soma sizes of turtle retinal ganglion cells. For this purpose, we marked these cells using

Grzywacz, Norberto

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "density lithium-sulfur cells" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

High Energy Density Li-ion Cells for EVs Based on Novel, High...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Storage Systems Vehicle Technologies Annual Merit Review 6182014 1 High Energy Density Li-ion Cells for EV's Based on Novel, High Voltage Cathode Material Systems Keith D. Kepler...

42

Materials Challenges and Opportunities of Lithium Ion Batteries  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

His research interests are in the area of materials for lithium ion batteries, fuel cells, and solar cells, including novel synthesis approaches for nanomaterials. ... Lithium–sulfur (Li–S) batteries with a high theoretical energy density of ?2500 Wh kg–1 are considered as one promising rechargeable battery chemistry for next-generation energy storage. ...

Arumugam Manthiram

2011-01-10T23:59:59.000Z

43

Estimation of Probe Cell Locations in High-density Synthetic-oligonucleotide DNA Microarrays  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Estimation of Probe Cell Locations in High-density Synthetic-oligonucleotide DNA Microarrays Harry Institute, Durham, NC 27710 1 #12;High-density synthetic-oligonucliotide DNA microarrays (HSDMs), which area required to hybridise an RNA sample to DNA probes. On an HSDM surface, hundreds of thousands

West, Mike

44

Optimization towards high density quantum dots for intermediate band solar cells grown by molecular beam epitaxy  

SciTech Connect

We report high density quantum dots (QDs) formation with optimized growth temperature and V/III ratio. At lower growth temperature, QD density is increased, due to smaller surface migration length of In adatoms. With higher V/III, the QD density is higher but it results in large clusters formation and decreases the QD uniformity. The QD solar cell was fabricated and examined. An extended spectral response in contrast to the GaAs reference cell was presented but the external quantum efficiency at energies higher than GaAs band gap is reduced, resulting from the degradation for the emitter above the strained QD layers.

Zhou, D.; Sharma, G.; Fimland, B. O. [Department of Electronics and Telecommunications, Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), NO-7491 Trondheim (Norway); Thomassen, S. F.; Reenaas, T. W. [Department of Physics, Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), NO-7491 Trondheim (Norway)

2010-02-08T23:59:59.000Z

45

High power density fuel cell comprising an array of microchannels  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A phosphoric acid fuel cell according to one embodiment includes an array of microchannels defined by a porous electrolyte support structure extending between bottom and upper support layers, the microchannels including fuel and oxidant microchannels; fuel electrodes formed along some of the microchannels; and air electrodes formed along other of the microchannels. A method of making a phosphoric acid fuel cell according to one embodiment includes etching an array of microchannels in a substrate, thereby forming walls between the microchannels; processing the walls to make the walls porous, thereby forming a porous electrolyte support structure; forming anode electrodes along some of the walls; forming cathode electrodes along other of the walls; and filling the porous electrolyte support structure with a phosphoric acid electrolyte. Additional embodiments are also disclosed.

Sopchak, David A; Morse, Jeffrey D; Upadhye, Ravindra S; Kotovsky, Jack; Graff, Robert T

2014-05-06T23:59:59.000Z

46

Antimony mediated growth of high-density InAs quantum dots for photovoltaic cells  

SciTech Connect

We report enhanced solar cell performance using high-density InAs quantum dots. The high-density quantum dot was grown by antimony mediated molecular beam epitaxy. In-plane quantum dot density over 1 × 10{sup 11} cm{sup ?2} was achieved by applying a few monolayers of antimony on the GaAs surface prior to quantum dot growth. The formation of defective large clusters was reduced by optimization of the growth temperature and InAs coverage. Comparing with a standard quantum dot solar cell without the incorporation of antimony, the high-density quantum dot solar cell demonstrates a distinct improvement in short-circuit current from 7.4 mA/cm{sup 2} to 8.3 mA/cm{sup 2}.

Tutu, F. K.; Wu, J.; Lam, P.; Tang, M.; Liu, H. [Department of Electronic and Electrical Engineering, University College London, Torrington Place, London WC1E 7JE (United Kingdom)] [Department of Electronic and Electrical Engineering, University College London, Torrington Place, London WC1E 7JE (United Kingdom); Miyashita, N.; Okada, Y. [Research Center for Advanced Science and Technology, The University of Tokyo, 4-6-1 Komaba, Meguro-Ku, Tokyo 153-8904 (Japan)] [Research Center for Advanced Science and Technology, The University of Tokyo, 4-6-1 Komaba, Meguro-Ku, Tokyo 153-8904 (Japan); Wilson, J.; Allison, R. [Defence Science and Technology Laboratory, Portsdown West, Portsdown Hill Road, Fareham Hants PO17 6AD (United Kingdom)] [Defence Science and Technology Laboratory, Portsdown West, Portsdown Hill Road, Fareham Hants PO17 6AD (United Kingdom)

2013-07-22T23:59:59.000Z

47

Durability of Low Pt Fuel Cells Operating at High Power Density  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

SPIRE Program Kickoff SPIRE Program Kickoff Topic 3A. Cell Degradation Studies / Degradation Studies Durability of Low Pt Fuel Cells Operating at High Power Density US DOE Fuel Cell Projects Kickoff Meeting DOE Award: DE-EE0000469 October 1 st , 2009 Program Objectives The objective of this program is to study and identify strategies to assure durability of fuel cells designed to meet DOE cost targets. Technical Barriers Barrier Approach Strategy A. Durability Reinforced, Stabilized Membrane MEA Partner Durability-Enhanced Electrodes Electrocatalyst/MEA Partner Optimized Operating Conditions Parametric model & experimental studies B. Cost Low Pt Loadings (0.2 mg/cm 2 ) Electrocatalyst/MEA Partner High Power Density (>1.0W/cm 2 ) Open Flowfield Stack Metallic Stack Architecture Incumbent Derivative

48

A High Power-Density Mediator-Free Microfluidic Biophotovoltaic Device for Cyanobacterial Cells  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Biophotovoltaics has emerged as a promising technology for generating renewable energy since it relies on living organisms as inexpensive, self-repairing and readily available catalysts to produce electricity from an abundant resource - sunlight. The efficiency of biophotovoltaic cells, however, has remained significantly lower than that achievable through synthetic materials. Here, we devise a platform to harness the large power densities afforded by miniaturised geometries. To this effect, we have developed a soft-lithography approach for the fabrication of microfluidic biophotovoltaic devices that do not require membranes or mediators. Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 cells were injected and allowed to settle on the anode, permitting the physical proximity between cells and electrode required for mediator-free operation. We demonstrate power densities of above 100 mW/m2 for a chlorophyll concentration of 100 {\\mu}M under white light, a high value for biophotovoltaic devices without extrinsic supply of additional...

Bombelli, Paolo; Herling, Therese W; Howe, Christopher J; Knowles, Tuomas P J

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

49

An optical method to quantify the density of ligands for cell adhesion receptors in three-dimensional matrices  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...such models by measuring in situ the...receptors in three-dimensional matrices. The...have used the standard in vitro culture...following. -Measuring the density...2007). -Measuring the density...cells. Three-dimensional matrix environments...removing cells by standard biochemical...

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

50

Quantification of nanoscale density fluctuations using electron microscopy: Light-localization properties of biological cells  

SciTech Connect

We report a study of the nanoscale mass-density fluctuations of heterogeneous optical dielectric media, including nanomaterials and biological cells, by quantifying their nanoscale light-localization properties. Transmission electron microscope images of the media are used to construct corresponding effective disordered optical lattices. Light-localization properties are studied by the statistical analysis of the inverse participation ratio (IPR) of the localized eigenfunctions of these optical lattices at the nanoscale. We validated IPR analysis using nanomaterials as models of disordered systems fabricated from dielectric nanoparticles. As an example, we then applied such analysis to distinguish between cells with different degrees of aggressive malignancy.

Pradhan, Prabhakar; Damania, Dhwanil; Turzhitsky, Vladimir; Subramanian, Hariharan; Backman, Vadim [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois 60208 (United States); Joshi, Hrushikesh M.; Dravid, Vinayak P. [Department of Material Science and Engineering, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois 60208 (United States); Roy, Hemant K. [Department of Internal Medicine, NorthShore University HealthSystem, Evanston, Illinois 60201 (United States); Taflove, Allen [Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois 60208 (United States)

2010-12-13T23:59:59.000Z

51

Epitaxial Single Crystal Nanostructures for Batteries & PVs ...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Electrode Channel Flow DEMS Cell Sulfur@Carbon Cathodes for Lithium Sulfur Batteries Better Ham & Cheese: Enhanced Anodes and Cathodes for Fuel Cells Epitaxial Single...

52

LOW-TEMPERATURE, ANODE-SUPPORTED HIGH POWER DENSITY SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELLS WITH NANOSTRUCTURED ELECTRODES  

SciTech Connect

A simple, approximate analysis of the effect of differing cathode and anode areas on the measurement of cell performance on anode-supported solid oxide fuel cells, wherein the cathode area is smaller than the anode area, is presented. It is shown that the effect of cathode area on cathode polarization, on electrolyte contribution, and on anode resistance, as normalized on the basis of the cathode area, is negligible. There is a small but measurable effect on anode polarization, which results from concentration polarization. Effectively, it is the result of a greater amount of fuel transported to the anode/electrolyte interface in cases wherein the anode area is larger than the cathode area. Experiments were performed on cells made with differing cathode areas and geometries. Cathodic and anodic overpotentials measured using reference electrodes, and the measured ohmic area specific resistances by current interruption, were in good agreement with expectations based on the analysis presented. At 800 C, the maximum power density measured with a cathode area of {approx}1.1 cm{sup 2} was {approx}1.65 W/cm{sup 2} compared to {approx}1.45 W/cm{sup 2} for cathode area of {approx}2 cm{sup 2}, for anode thickness of {approx}1.3 mm, with hydrogen as the fuel and air as the oxidant. At 750 C, the measured maximum power densities were {approx}1.3 W/cm{sup 2} for the cell with cathode area {approx}1.1 cm{sup 2}, and {approx}1.25 W/cm{sup 2} for the cell with cathode area {approx}2 cm{sup 2}.

Anil V. Virkar

2001-06-21T23:59:59.000Z

53

Durability of Low Platinum Fuel Cells Operating at High Power Density  

SciTech Connect

Understanding and improving the durability of cost-competitive fuel cell stacks is imperative to successful deployment of the technology. Stacks will need to operate well beyond today’s state-of-the-art rated power density with very low platinum loading in order to achieve the cost targets set forth by DOE ($15/kW) and ultimately be competitive with incumbent technologies. An accelerated cost-reduction path presented by Nuvera focused on substantially increasing power density to address non-PGM material costs as well as platinum. The study developed a practical understanding of the degradation mechanisms impacting durability of fuel cells with low platinum loading (?0.2mg/cm2) operating at high power density (?1.0W/cm2) and worked out approaches for improving the durability of low-loaded, high-power stack designs. Of specific interest is the impact of combining low platinum loading with high power density operation, as this offers the best chance of achieving long-term cost targets. A design-of-experiments approach was utilized to reveal and quantify the sensitivity of durability-critical material properties to high current density at two levels of platinum loading (the more conventional 0.45 mgPt.cm–1 and the much lower 0.2 mgPt.cm–2) across several cell architectures. We studied the relevance of selected component accelerated stress tests (AST) to fuel cell operation in power producing mode. New stress tests (NST) were designed to investigate the sensitivity to the addition of electrical current on the ASTs, along with combined humidity and load cycles and, eventually, relate to the combined city/highway drive cycle. Changes in the cathode electrochemical surface area (ECSA) and average oxygen partial pressure on the catalyst layer with aging under AST and NST protocols were compared based on the number of completed cycles. Studies showed elevated sensitivity of Pt growth to the potential limits and the initial particle size distribution. The ECSA loss was correlated with the upper potential limit in the cycle tests, although the performance degradation was found to be a strong function of initial Pt loading. A large fraction of the voltage degradation was found due to increased mass transfer overpotentials, especially in the lower Pt loading cells. Increased mass transfer overpotentials were responsible for a large fraction of the voltage degradation at high current densities. Analysis of the impedance and polarization data indicated O2 diffusion in the aged electrode ionomer to be the main source of the increased mass transfer overpotentials. Results from the experimental parametric studies were used to inform and calibrate newly developed durability model, simulating lifetime performance of the fuel cell under variety of load-cycle protocols, electrode loadings and throughout wide range of operating conditions, including elevated-to-3.0A/cm2 current densities. Complete durability model included several sub-models: platinum dissolution-and-growth as well as reaction-diffusion model of cathode electrode, applied sequentially to study the lifetime predictions of ECSA and polarization performance in the ASTs and NSTs. These models establish relations between changes in overpotentials, ECSA and oxygen mass transport in fuel cell cathodes. The model was calibrated using single cells with land-channel and open flowfield architectures. The model was validated against Nuvera Orion® (open flowfield) short stack data in the load cycle durability tests. The reaction-diffusion model was used to correlate the effective mass transfer coefficients for O2 diffusion in cathode ionomer and separately in gas pores with the operating conditions (pressure, temperature, gas velocity in flow field and current density), Pt loading, and ageing related growth in Pt particles and thinning of the electrode. Achievements of both modeling and experimental objectives were demonstrated in a full format, subscale stacks operating in a simulated but fully realistic ambient environment, using system-compatible operating protocols.

Polevaya, Olga [Nuvera Fuel Cells Inc.] [Nuvera Fuel Cells Inc.; Blanchet, Scott [Nuvera Fuel Cells Inc.] [Nuvera Fuel Cells Inc.; Ahluwalia, Rajesh [Argonne National Lab] [Argonne National Lab; Borup, Rod [Los-Alamos National Lab] [Los-Alamos National Lab; Mukundan, Rangachary [Los-Alamos National Lab] [Los-Alamos National Lab

2014-03-19T23:59:59.000Z

54

Journal of Power Sources 153 (2006) 6875 Numerical study of a flat-tube high power density solid oxide fuel cell  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

power density (HPD) solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) is a geometry based on a tubular type SOFC: Flat-tube; High power density (HPD); Solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC); Simulation; Performance; Optimization 1. Introduction A solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC), like any other fuel cell, produces electrical

55

Composite Cathode for High-Power Density Solid Oxide Fuel Cells  

SciTech Connect

Reduction of solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) operating temperature will play a key role in reducing the stack cost by allowing the use of low-cost metallic interconnects and new approaches to sealing, while making applications such as transportation more feasible. Reported results for anode-supported SOFCs show that cathode polarization resistance is the primary barrier to achieving high power densities at operating temperatures of 700 C and lower. This project aims to identify and develop composite cathodes that could reduce SOFC operating temperatures below 700 C. This effort focuses on study and use of (La,Sr)(Co,Fe)O{sub 3} (LSCF) based composite cathodes, which have arguably the best potential to substantially improve on the currently-used, (La,Sr)MnO{sub 3}-Yttria-stabilized Zirconia. During this Phase I, it was successfully demonstrated that high performances can be achieved with LSCF/Gadolinium-Doped Ceria composite cathodes on Ni-based anode supported cells operating at 700 C or lower. We studied electrochemical reactions at LSCF/Yttria-stabilized Zirconia (YSZ) interfaces, and observed chemical reactions between LSCF and YSZ. By using ceria electrolytes or YSZ electrolytes with ceria diffusion barrier layers, the chemical reactions between LSCF and electrolytes were prevented under cathode firing conditions necessary for the optimal adhesion of the cathodes. The protection provided by ceria layer is expected to be adequate for stable long-term cathode performances, but more testing is needed to verify this. Using ceria-based barrier layers, high performance Ni-YSZ anode supported cells have been demonstrated with maximum power densities of 0.8W/cm2 at 700 C and 1.6W/cm{sup 2} at 800 C. Ni-SDC anode supported cells with SDC electrolytes yielded >1W/cm{sup 2} at 600 C. We speculate that the power output of Ni-YSZ anode supported cell at 700 C and lower, was limited by the quality of the Ceria and Ceria YSZ interface. Improvements in the low-temperature performances are expected based on further development of barrier layer fabrication processes and optimization of cathode microstructure.

Ilwon Kim; Scott Barnett; Yi Jiang; Manoj Pillai; Nikkia McDonald; Dan Gostovic; Zhongryang Zhan; Jiang Liu

2004-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

56

LOW-TEMPERATURE, ANODE-SUPPORTED HIGH POWER DENSITY SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELLS WITH NANOSTRUCTURED ELECTRODES  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the work done during the entire project period, between October 1, 1999 and March 31, 2003, which includes a six-month no-cost extension. During the project, eight research papers have, either been, published, accepted for publication, or submitted for publication. In addition, several presentations have been made in technical meetings and workshops. The project also has provided support for four graduate students working towards advanced degrees. The principal technical objective of the project was to analyze the role of electrode microstructure on solid oxide fuel cell performance. Prior theoretical work conducted in our laboratory demonstrated that the particle size of composite electrodes has a profound effect on cell performance; the finer the particle size, the lower the activation polarization, the better the performance. The composite cathodes examined consisted of electronically conducting perovskites such as Sr-doped LaMnO{sub 3} (LSM) or Sr-doped LaCoO{sub 3} (LSC), which is also a mixed conductor, as the electrocatalyst, and yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) or rare earth oxide doped CeO{sub 2} as the ionic conductor. The composite anodes examined were mixtures of Ni and YSZ. A procedure was developed for the synthesis of nanosize YSZ by molecular decomposition, in which unwanted species were removed by leaching, leaving behind nanosize YSZ. Anode-supported cells were made using the as-synthesized powders, or using commercially acquired powders. The electrolyte was usually a thin ({approx}10 microns), dense layer of YSZ, supported on a thick ({approx}1 mm), porous Ni + YSZ anode. The cathode was a porous mixture of electrocatalyst and an ionic conductor. Most of the cell testing was done at 800 C with hydrogen as fuel and air as the oxidant. Maximum power densities as high as 1.8 W/cm{sup 2} were demonstrated. Polarization behavior of the cells was theoretically analyzed. A limited amount of cell testing was done using liquid hydrocarbon fuels where reforming was achieved internally. Significant polarization losses also occur at the anode, especially at high fuel utilizations. An analysis of polarization losses requires that various contributions are isolated, and their dependence on pertinent parameters is quantitatively described. An investigation of fuel composition on gas transport through porous anodes was investigated and the role of fuel diluents was explored. This work showed that the molecular weight of the diluent has a significant effect on anode concentration polarization. This further showed that the presence of some molecular hydrogen is necessary to minimize polarization losses. Theoretical analysis has shown that the electrode microstructure has a profound effect on cell performance. In a series of experiments, cathode microstructural parameters were varied, without altering other parameters. Cathode microstructural parameters, especially three phase boundary (TPB) length, were estimated using techniques in quantitative stereology. Cell performance was quantitatively correlated with the relevant microstructural parameters, and charge transfer resistivity was explicitly evaluated. This is the first time that a fundamental parameter, which governs the activation polarization, has been quantitatively determined. An important parameter, which governs the cathodic activation polarization, and thus cell performance, is the ionic conductivity of the composite cathode. The traditional composite cathode is a mixture of LSM and YSZ. It is well known that Sr and Mg-doped LaGaO{sub 3} (LSGM), exhibits higher oxygen ion conductivity compared to YSZ. Cells were fabricated with composite cathodes comprising a mixture of LSM and LSGM. Studies demonstrated that LSGM-based composite cathodes exhibit excellent behavior. Studies have shown that Ni + YSZ is an excellent anode. In fact, in most cells, the principal polarization losses, at least at low fuel utilizations, are associated with the cathode. Theoretical analysis conducted in our group has also shown that anode-supported cells exhibi

Professor Anil V. Virkar

2003-05-23T23:59:59.000Z

57

Density Functional Theory Analysis of Metal/Graphene Systems As a Filter Membrane to Prevent CO Poisoning in Hydrogen Fuel Cells  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Density Functional Theory Analysis of Metal/Graphene Systems As a Filter Membrane to Prevent CO Poisoning in Hydrogen Fuel Cells ... Fuel cells: principles, types, fuels, and applications ... Components for PEM fuel cell systems using hydrogen and CO containing fuels ...

Deborah J. D. Durbin; Cecile Malardier-Jugroot

2010-12-21T23:59:59.000Z

58

Spatially resolved determination of the short-circuit current density of silicon solar cells via lock-in thermography  

SciTech Connect

We present a spatially resolved method to determine the short-circuit current density of crystalline silicon solar cells by means of lock-in thermography. The method utilizes the property of crystalline silicon solar cells that the short-circuit current does not differ significantly from the illuminated current under moderate reverse bias. Since lock-in thermography images locally dissipated power density, this information is exploited to extract values of spatially resolved current density under short-circuit conditions. In order to obtain an accurate result, one or two illuminated lock-in thermography images and one dark lock-in thermography image need to be recorded. The method can be simplified in a way that only one image is required to generate a meaningful short-circuit current density map. The proposed method is theoretically motivated, and experimentally validated for monochromatic illumination in comparison to the reference method of light-beam induced current.

Fertig, Fabian, E-mail: fabian.fertig@ise.fraunhofer.de; Greulich, Johannes; Rein, Stefan [Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy Systems ISE, Heidenhofstr. 2, D-79110 Freiburg (Germany)

2014-05-19T23:59:59.000Z

59

LOW-TEMPERATURE, ANODE-SUPPORTED HIGH POWER DENSITY SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELLS WITH NANOSTRUCTURED ELECTRODES  

SciTech Connect

Anode-supported cells comprising Ni + yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) anode, thin ({approx}10 {micro}m) YSZ electrolyte, and composite cathodes containing a mixture of La{sub 0.8}Sr{sub 0.2}MnO{sub (3-{delta})} (LSM) and La{sub 0.9}Sr{sub 0.1}Ga{sub 0.8}Mg{sub 0.2}O{sub (3-{lambda})} (LSGM) were fabricated. The relative proportions of LSGM and LSM were varied between 30 wt.% LSGM + 70 wt.% LSM and 70 wt.% LSGM + 30 wt.% LSM, while the firing temperature was varied between 1000 and 1200 C. The cathode interlayer composition had a profound effect on cathode performance at 800 C with overpotentials ranging between 60 and 425 mV at 1.0 A/cm{sup 2} and exhibiting a minimum for 50 wt.% LSGM + 50 wt.% LSM. The cathodic overpotential decreased with increasing firing temperature of the composite interlayer in the range 1000 {le} T {le} 1150 C, and then increased dramatically for the interlayer fired at 1200 C. The cell with the optimized cathode interlayer of 50 wt.% LSM + 50 wt.% LSGM fired at 1150 C exhibited an area specific cell resistance of 0.18 {Omega}cm{sup 2} and a maximum power density of 1.4 W/cm{sup 2} at 800 C. Chemical analysis revealed that LSGM reacts with YSZ above 1000 C to form the pyrochlore phase, La{sub 2}Zr{sub 2}O{sub 7}. The formation of the pyrochlore phase at the interface between the LSGM/LSM composite cathode and the YSZ electrolyte limits the firing time and temperature of the cathode interlayer.

Anil V. Virkar

2002-03-26T23:59:59.000Z

60

Fast oscillatory behavior of the excited xenon density in the discharge cells of a plasma display panel  

SciTech Connect

Fast oscillation of the excited xenon density occurs universally after an electrical discharge in the cells of a plasma display panel. A theoretical model based on ion plasma oscillation simulates this oscillatory behavior of the excited xenon density reasonably well. The magnitude and lifetime of the excited xenon density in a metastable state depend highly on the electrode configuration. Particularly, T-type electrodes provide better generation and confinement of excited xenon atoms for an abundant emission of 173 nm ultraviolet light at a high level of efficiency.

Uhm, Han S. [Department of Molecular Science and Technology, Ajou University, Suwon 443-749 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Eun H. [Department of Electrophysics, PDP Research Center, Kwangwoon University, Seoul 139-701 (Korea, Republic of)

2009-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "density lithium-sulfur cells" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Categorical Exclusion Determinations: National Energy Technology Laboratory  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

8, 2011 8, 2011 CX-006926: Categorical Exclusion Determination Next Generation Inverter Design CX(s) Applied: B3.6 Date: 09/28/2011 Location(s): Golden, Colorado Office(s): Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Savannah River Operations Office September 28, 2011 CX-006921: Categorical Exclusion Determination Development of High Energy Density Lithium-Sulfur Cells CX(s) Applied: B3.6 Date: 09/28/2011 Location(s): Milwaukee, Wisconsin Office(s): Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory September 28, 2011 CX-006919: Categorical Exclusion Determination Development of High Energy Density Lithium-Sulfur Cells CX(s) Applied: B3.6 Date: 09/28/2011 Location(s): University Park, Pennsylvania Office(s): Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Savannah River

62

PORTSMOUTH ON-SITE DISPOSAL CELL HIGH DENSITY POLYETHYLENE GEOMEMBRANE LONGEVITY  

SciTech Connect

It is anticipated that high density polyethylene (HDPE) geomembranes will be utilized within the liner and closure cap of the proposed On-Site Disposal Cell (OSDC) at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant. The likely longevity (i.e. service life) of HDPE geomembranes in OSDC service is evaluated within the following sections of this report: (1) Section 2.0 provides an overview of HDPE geomembranes, (2) Section 3.0 outlines potential HDPE geomembranes degradation mechanisms, (3) Section 4.0 evaluates the applicability of HDPE geomembrane degradation mechanisms to the Portsmouth OSDC, (4) Section 5.0 provides a discussion of the current state of knowledge relative to the longevity (service life) of HDPE geomembranes, including the relation of this knowledge to the Portsmouth OSDC, and (5) Section 6.0 provides summary and conclusions relative to the anticipated service life of HDPE geomembranes in OSDC service. Based upon this evaluation it is anticipated that the service life of HDPE geomembranes in OSDC service would be significantly greater than the 200 year service life assumed for the OSDC closure cap and liner HDPE geomembranes. That is, a 200 year OSDC HDPE geomembrane service life is considered a conservative assumption.

Phifer, M.

2012-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

63

Effect of cell cycle stages on the central density of Enterococcus faecium ATCC 9790.  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...increase in refractive index (which is assumed...central density) at completion of the chromosome...increase in refractive index (which is assumed...central density) at completion of the chromosome...increase in refractive index (which is assumed...central density) at completion ofthe chromosome...

P Bourbeau; D Dicker; M L Higgins; L Daneo-Moore

1989-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

64

Variation of carrier concentration and interface trap density in 8MeV electron irradiated c-Si solar cells  

SciTech Connect

The capacitance and conductance measurements were carried out for c-Si solar cells, irradiated with 8 MeV electrons with doses ranging from 5kGy – 100kGy in order to investigate the anomalous degradation of the cells in the radiation harsh environments. Capacitance – Voltage measurements indicate that there is a slight reduction in the carrier concentration upon electron irradiation due to the creation of radiation induced defects. The conductance measurement results reveal that the interface state densities and the trap time constant increases with electron dose due to displacement damages in c-Si solar cells.

Bhat, Sathyanarayana, E-mail: asharao76@gmail.com; Rao, Asha, E-mail: asharao76@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Mangalore Institute of Technology and Engineering, Moodabidri, Mangalore-574225 (India); Krishnan, Sheeja [Department of Physics, Sri Devi Institute of Technology, Kenjar, Mangalore-574142 (India); Sanjeev, Ganesh [Microtron Centre, Department of Physics, Mangalore University, Mangalagangothri-574199 (India); Suresh, E. P. [Solar Panel Division, ISRO Satellite Centre, Bangalore-560017 (India)

2014-04-24T23:59:59.000Z

65

Effect of electrode configuration and electronic conductivity on current density distribution measurements in PEM fuel cells  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. BACKGROUND In this section available literature on attempts to obtain such local current density distribution data is reviewed briefly. Cleghorn et. al. [19] conducted some pioneering current density distribution measurements on typical lab scale PEM fuel... were studied. The authors employed a combination of two load units and a specially designed patch board that acted as a multiplexer to control the voltage at the various segments. Stumper et. al. [20] analyzed three methods for current density...

Natarajan, Dilip; Nguyen, Trung Van

2004-09-03T23:59:59.000Z

66

Design of Safer High-Energy Density Materials for Lithium-Ion Cells  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

2012 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting

67

Development of Large Format Lithium Ion Cells with Higher Energy Density Exceeding 500Wh/L  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

2012 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting

68

Development of Large Format Lithium Ion Cells with Higher Energy Density  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

2013 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting

69

Lateral Current Density Variation in PEM Fuel Cells with Interdigitated Flow Fields.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell is regarded as one of the most promising power systems for the future vehicles. When supplied with air and… (more)

Luo, Song

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

70

Optimization of efficiency and energy density of passive micro fuel cells and galvanic hydrogen generators  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A PEM micro fuel cell system is described which is based on self-breathing PEM micro fuel cells in the power range between 1 mW and 1W. Hydrogen is supplied with on-demand hydrogen production with help of a galvanic cell, that produces hydrogen when Zn reacts with water. The system can be used as a battery replacement for low power applications and has the potential to improve the run time of autonomous systems. The efficiency has been investigated as function of fuel cell construction and tested for several load profiles.

Hahn, Robert; Krumbholz, Steffen; Reichl, Herbert

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

71

Forming high efficiency silicon solar cells using density-graded anti-reflection surfaces  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method (50) is provided for processing a graded-density AR silicon surface (14) to provide effective surface passivation. The method (50) includes positioning a substrate or wafer (12) with a silicon surface (14) in a reaction or processing chamber (42). The silicon surface (14) has been processed (52) to be an AR surface with a density gradient or region of black silicon. The method (50) continues with heating (54) the chamber (42) to a high temperature for both doping and surface passivation. The method (50) includes forming (58), with a dopant-containing precursor in contact with the silicon surface (14) of the substrate (12), an emitter junction (16) proximate to the silicon surface (14) by doping the substrate (12). The method (50) further includes, while the chamber is maintained at the high or raised temperature, forming (62) a passivation layer (19) on the graded-density silicon anti-reflection surface (14).

Yuan, Hao-Chih; Branz, Howard M.; Page, Matthew R.

2014-09-09T23:59:59.000Z

72

Journal of Power Sources 140 (2005) 331339 Numerical study of a flat-tube high power density solid oxide fuel cell  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

) solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) is a new design developed by Siemens Westinghouse, based on their formerly.V. All rights reserved. Keywords: Flat-tube; High power density; Solid oxide fuel cell; Simulation; Heat oxide fuel cell Part I. Heat/mass transfer and fluid flow Yixin Lu1, Laura Schaefer, Peiwen Li2

73

The joint statistics of mildly non-linear cosmological densities and slopes in count-in-cells  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In the context of count-in-cells statistics, the joint probability distribution of the density in two concentric spherical shells is predicted from first first principle for sigmas of the order of one. The agreement with simulation is found to be excellent. This statistics allows us to deduce the conditional one dimensional probability distribution function of the slope within under dense (resp. overdense) regions, or of the density for positive or negative slopes. The former conditional distribution is likely to be more robust in constraining the cosmological parameters as the underlying dynamics is less evolved in such regions. A fiducial dark energy experiment is implemented on such counts derived from Lambda-CDM simulations.

Bernardeau, Francis; Pichon, Christophe

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

74

Highly Conductive Anion Exchange Membrane for High Power Density Fuel-Cell Performance  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

membranes (fueled with H or MeOH) and also to identify candidate alk. ... Anion exchange membranes (AEMs) provide one possible route to low platinum or platinum-free fuel cells with the potential for facile oxidn. of complex fuels beyond hydrogen and methanol. ... Price, S. C.; Ren, X. M.; Jackson, A. C.; Ye, Y. S.; Elabd, Y. A.; Beyer, F. L.Bicontinuous Alkaline Fuel Cell Membranes from Strongly Self-Segregating Block Copolymers Macromolecules 2013, 46, 7332– 7340 ...

Xiaoming Ren; Samuel C. Price; Aaron C. Jackson; Natalie Pomerantz; Frederick L. Beyer

2014-08-05T23:59:59.000Z

75

Enhancement of short-circuit current density in polymer bulk heterojunction solar cells comprising plasmonic silver nanowires  

SciTech Connect

We demonstrate that the influence of plasmonic effects based on silver nanowires (Ag NWs) on the characteristics of polymer solar cells (PSCs). The solution-processed Ag NWs are situated at the interface of anode buffer layer and active layer, which could enhance the performance especially the photocurrent of PSCs by scattering, localized surface plasmon resonance, and surface plasmon polaritons. Plasmonic effects are confirmed by the enhancement of extinction spectra, external quantum efficiency, and steady state photoluminescence. Consequently, the short-circuit current density (J{sub sc}) and power conversion efficiency enhance about 24% and 18%, respectively, under AM1.5 illumination when Ag NWs plasmonic nanostructure incorporated into PSCs.

Yang, Yuzhao; Lin, Xiaofeng; Ou, Jiemei; Chen, Xudong, E-mail: cescxd@mail.sysu.edu.cn, E-mail: stszx@mail.sysu.edu.cn, E-mail: chenyj69@mail.sysu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory for Polymeric Composite and Functional Materials of Ministry of Education of China, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510275 (China); Qing, Jian; Zhong, Zhenfeng; Zhou, Xiang, E-mail: cescxd@mail.sysu.edu.cn, E-mail: stszx@mail.sysu.edu.cn, E-mail: chenyj69@mail.sysu.edu.cn; Chen, Yujie, E-mail: cescxd@mail.sysu.edu.cn, E-mail: stszx@mail.sysu.edu.cn, E-mail: chenyj69@mail.sysu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Optoelectronic Materials and Technologies, School of Physics and Engineering, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510275 (China); Hu, Chenglong [Key Laboratory of Optoelectronic Chemical Materials and Devices of Ministry of Education, Jianghan University, Wuhan 430056 (China)

2014-03-24T23:59:59.000Z

76

Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: High Energy Density Li-ion Cells for EV’s Based on Novel, High Voltage Cathode Material Systems  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Presentation given by Farasis Energy, Inc. at 2014 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about high energy density Li...

77

Oxidized low density lipoprotein increases RANKL level in human vascular cells. Involvement of oxidative stress  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: •Oxidized LDL enhances RANKL level in human smooth muscle cells. •The effect of OxLDL is mediated by the transcription factor NFAT. •UVA, H{sub 2}O{sub 2} and buthionine sulfoximine also increase RANKL level. •All these effects are observed in human fibroblasts and endothelial cells. -- Abstract: Receptor Activator of NF?B Ligand (RANKL) and its decoy receptor osteoprotegerin (OPG) have been shown to play a role not only in bone remodeling but also in inflammation, arterial calcification and atherosclerotic plaque rupture. In human smooth muscle cells, Cu{sup 2+}-oxidized LDL (CuLDL) 10–50 ?g/ml increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) and RANKL level in a dose-dependent manner, whereas OPG level was not affected. The lipid extract of CuLDL reproduced the effects of the whole particle. Vivit, an inhibitor of the transcription factor NFAT, reduced the CuLDL-induced increase in RANKL, whereas PKA and NF?B inhibitors were ineffective. LDL oxidized by myeloperoxidase (MPO-LDL), or other pro-oxidant conditions such as ultraviolet A (UVA) irradiation, incubation with H{sub 2}O{sub 2} or with buthionine sulfoximine (BSO), an inhibitor of glutathione synthesis{sub ,} also induced an oxidative stress and enhanced RANKL level. The increase in RANKL in pro-oxidant conditions was also observed in fibroblasts and endothelial cells. Since RANKL is involved in myocardial inflammation, vascular calcification and plaque rupture, this study highlights a new mechanism whereby OxLDL might, by generation of an oxidative stress, exert a deleterious effect on different cell types of the arterial wall.

Mazière, Cécile, E-mail: maziere.cecile@chu-amiens.fr [Biochemistry Laboratory, South Hospital University, René Laennec Avenue, Amiens 80000 (France)] [Biochemistry Laboratory, South Hospital University, René Laennec Avenue, Amiens 80000 (France); Salle, Valéry [Internal Medicine, North Hospital University, Place Victor Pauchet, Amiens 80000 (France) [Internal Medicine, North Hospital University, Place Victor Pauchet, Amiens 80000 (France); INSERM U1088 (EA 4292), SFR CAP-Santé (FED 4231), University of Picardie – Jules Verne (France); Gomila, Cathy; Mazière, Jean-Claude [Biochemistry Laboratory, South Hospital University, René Laennec Avenue, Amiens 80000 (France)] [Biochemistry Laboratory, South Hospital University, René Laennec Avenue, Amiens 80000 (France)

2013-10-18T23:59:59.000Z

78

ACTIVE CATHODES FOR SUPER-HIGH POWER DENSITY SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELLS THROUGH SPACE CHARGE EFFECTS  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the work done during the third quarter of the project. Effort was directed in two areas: (1) Further development of the model on the role of connectivity on ionic conductivity of porous bodies, including the role of grain boundaries, and its relationship to cathode polarization. Included indirectly through the grain boundary effect is the effect of space charge. (2) Synthesis of LSC + SDC composite cathode powders by combustion synthesis. (3) Fabrication and testing of anode-supported single cells made using synthesized LSC + ScDC composite cathodes.

Anil V. Virkar

2003-11-03T23:59:59.000Z

79

Low platinum, high limiting current density of the PEMFC (proton exchange membrane fuel cell) based on multilayer cathode catalyst approach  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Novel multilayer cathode electrodes structures for PEMFC (proton exchange membrane fuel cell) based on sputtering technique were developed to provide high performance with low loading Pt of 0.05 mg/cm² compared to the standard MEA (membrane electrode assembly) cathode (?0.2–0.3 mg/cm²). Different configurations of cathode catalyst layer were made by altering Pt and CN (Carbon–Nafion) ink carefully prepared on gas diffusion layer containing MPL (micro porous layer). The performances of PEMFC containing the multilayer electrodes were compared based on their measured polarization curves. Higher limiting current densities were achieved compared to standard MEA with platinum loading of 0.2 mg/cm² both at the cathode and the anode sides. Limiting current densities over 1.1 A/cm2, 1.2 A/cm2 and 1.4 A/cm2 were reached whereas maximum powers were in the range of 500 mW/cm² at 600 mW/cm². The good performances obtained can be due to the structural improvement which has contributed to a better catalyst utilization compared to conventional methods. A CN loading inferior to 0.24 mg/cm² between each layer is preferred for multilayer electrode.

Daouda Fofana; Sadesh Kumar Natarajan; Jean Hamelin; Pierre Benard

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

80

ACTIVE CATHODES FOR SUPER-HIGH POWER DENSITY SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELLS THROUGH SPACE CHARGE EFFECTS  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the work done during the first quarter of the project. Effort was directed in three areas: (1) The determination of the role of ionic conductor morphology, used in composite cathodes, on the ionic conductivity of the ionic conductor. It was shown that if the particles are not well sintered, the necks formed between particles will be very narrow, and the resulting conductivity will be too low (resistivity will be too high). Specifically, a mathematical equation was derived to demonstrate the singular nature of conductivity. (2) Nanosize powders of Sc-doped CeO{sub 2} were prepared by combustion synthesis. The rationale is that the particle size of the composite electrode must be as small as possible to ensure a high ionic conductivity--and resulting in high performance in fuel cells. Di-gluconic acid (DGA) was used as fuel. The process led to the formation of nanosize Sc-doped CeO{sub 2}. The powder was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). (3) Samples were sintered to form materials containing various levels of porosity, from {approx}3% to {approx}43%. Conductivity was measured over a range of temperatures by four probe DC method. It was observed that in highly porous samples, the conductivity was far lower than can be expected purely based on total porosity. The difference could be rationalized on the basis of the theoretical model developed.

Professor Anil V. Virkar

2003-04-14T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "density lithium-sulfur cells" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

A high-yield and scaleable adenovirus vector production process based on high density perfusion culture of HEK 293 cells as suspended aggregates  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Cells of the human embryonic kidney cell line (HEK 293) were grown as suspended aggregates in stirred vessels and infected with a recombinant adenovirus vector (Ad-TH-GFP). Regular spherical aggregates with the mean diameter less than 300 ?m and a viable cell density greater than 5 × 106 cells·ml? 1 were readily achieved after 9 day culture in spinner flasks. The HEK 293 cells growing as suspended aggregates could be efficiently infected by Ad-TH-GFP at an MOI of 10 with a prolonging infection time up to 144 hour post-infection (hpi). The time profile of Ad-TH-GFP production was strongly corresponding to the infection process with a virus concentration peak occurred consistently at 144 h after infection. And the infected aggregates essentially maintained spherical in shape, the portion of dissociated cells from the infected aggregates was less than 5% at 144 hpi. Perfusion culture of HEK 293 cells grown as suspended aggregates in a 7.5 L stirred tank bioreactor and infected with Ad-TH-GFP at a density higher than 1 × 107 cells·ml? 1 resulted in a similar Ad-TH-GFP production kinetics, but a much higher virus yield approximately at 5.7 × 1011 GTU ml? 1 at 144 hpi to that of the infected spinner flask cultures. These results demonstrate the feasibility for using suspended cell aggregates as an immobilization system to facilitate perfusion in stirred tank bioreactors, and improve volumetric productivities by eliminating the cell density effect.

Hong Liu; Xing-Mao Liu; Shi-Chong Li; Ben-Chuan Wu; Ling-Ling Ye; Qi-Wei Wang; Zhao-Lie Chen

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

82

High-density cultivation of insect cells and production of recombinant baculovirus using a novel oscillating bioreactor  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A novel two-compartment bioreactor, BelloCell®, was used to cultivate insect cells and a maximum yield of 4.6 × 109 cells was attained. The cells were immobilized in a packed bed fixed in the upper chamber, and t...

Yu-Chen Hu; Jen-Te Lu; Yao-Chi Chung

83

Phosphazene groups modified sulfur composites as active cathode materials for rechargeable lithium/sulfur batteries  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A novel phosphazene groups modified sulfur composites cathode [triphosphazene sulfide composite (PS) or nitroaniline–triphosphazene disulfide composite (NPS)] which can give good affinity with electrolytes was...

J. D. Liu; S. Q. Zhang; S. B. Yang; Z. F. Shi; S. T. Zhang; L. K. Wu

2013-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

84

Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Development of Large Format Lithium Ion Cells with Higher Energy Density  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Presentation given by XALT Energy LLC at 2014 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about development of large format...

85

The Penetration of Anticancer Drugs through Tumor Tissue as a Function of Cellular Adhesion and Packing Density of Tumor Cells  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...and very slow (10% of the rate of penetration through the Teflon membrane...more rapid (30-50% of the rate of penetration through the Teflon membrane...against proximal cells. The rate of penetration of 5-FU through MCLs is comparable...

Rama Grantab; Shankar Sivananthan; and Ian F. Tannock

2006-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

86

3-D particle-in-cell simulations for quasi-phase matched direct laser electron acceleration in density-modulated plasma waveguides  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Quasi-phase matched direct laser acceleration (DLA) of electrons can be realized with guided, radially polarized laser pulses in density-modulated plasma waveguides. A 3-D particle-in-cell model has been developed to describe the interactions among the laser field, injected electrons, and the background plasma in the DLA process. Simulations have been conducted to study the scheme in which seed electron bunches with moderate energies are injected into a plasma waveguide and the DLA is performed by use of relatively low-power (0.5-2 TW) laser pulses. Selected bunch injection delays with respect to the laser pulse, bunch lengths, and bunch transverse sizes have been studied in a series of simulations of DLA in a plasma waveguide. The results show that the injection delay is important for controlling the final transverse properties of short electron bunches, but it also affects the final energy gain. With a long injected bunch length, the enhanced ion-focusing force helps to collimate the electrons and a relativ...

Lin, M -W; Chen, S -H; Jovanovic, I

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

87

Novel and Optimized Materials Phases for High Energy Density...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Novel and Optimized Materials Phases for High Energy Density Batteries Novel and Optimized Materials Phases for High Energy Density Batteries 2013 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells...

88

Nanotechnology Alert. Nanofountain for Treatment of Cancer; Nanocomposites To Improve Computers' Life Span; Lithium Sulfur Batteries Using Nanocarbon  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Nanotechnology Alert. Nanofountain for Treatment of Cancer; Nanocomposites To Improve Computers/29/2009 Nanotechnology Alert. Nanofountain f... frost.com/.../market-service-segment... 1/2 #12;Learn how we can provide/29/2009 Nanotechnology Alert. Nanofountain f... frost.com/.../market-service-segment... 2/2 #12;

Espinosa, Horacio D.

89

Poly(vinylidene fluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene)/poly(methylmethacrylate)/nanoclay composite gel polymer electrolyte for lithium/sulfur batteries  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Herein, we describe the preparation of a gel polymer consisting of a solution of lithium salt in alkyl carbonate mixture solvent dispersed in a matrix of poly(vinylidene fluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene)/poly(meth...

Yongguang Zhang; Yan Zhao; Zhumabay Bakenov…

2014-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

90

Synthesis of poly(ethylene-oxide)/nanoclay solid polymer electrolyte for all solid-state lithium/sulfur battery  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Recently, a number of related investigations have described the use of polymer/nanoclay composites in SPE [16–18...]. As a layered host, nanoclays can provide a large interfacial contact area, which improves the ...

Yongguang Zhang; Yan Zhao; Denise Gosselink; P. Chen

2014-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

91

Sulfur/mesoporous carbon composites combined with ?-MnS as cathode materials for lithium/sulfur batteries  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The working cathode was composed of active materials (S/MnS/MC) (80 wt.%...6, 10 wt.%). N-methyl pyrrolidone (80 wt.%) was added and grounded for 4 h. The resultant slurry was coated onto an aluminum foil with th...

J. D. Liu; X. S. Zheng; Z. F. Shi; S. Q. Zhang

2014-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

92

A novel lithium/sulfur battery based on sulfur/graphene nanosheet composite cathode and gel polymer electrolyte  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A novel sulfur/graphene nanosheet (S/GNS) composite was prepared ... ball milling of sulfur with commercial multi-layer graphene nanosheet, followed by a heat treatment. ... of irregularly interlaced nanosheet-li...

Yongguang Zhang; Yan Zhao; Zhumabay Bakenov

2014-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

93

A simple approach to synthesize nanosized sulfur/graphene oxide materials for high-performance lithium/sulfur batteries  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We report on a simple and facile synthesis route for the sulfur/graphene oxide composite via ultrasonic mixing of the nano-sulfur and graphene oxide aqueous suspensions followed by a low-temperature heat treat...

Yongguang Zhang; Yan Zhao; Zhumabay Bakenov

2014-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

94

News Item  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Holistic Cell Design by Berkeley Lab Scientists Leads to High-Performance, Holistic Cell Design by Berkeley Lab Scientists Leads to High-Performance, Long Cycle-Life Lithium-Sulfur Battery Researchers at Berkeley Lab, including the Molecular Foundry, have demonstrated in the laboratory a lithium-sulfur (Li/S) battery that has more than twice the specific energy of lithium-ion batteries, and that lasts for more than 1,500 cycles of charge-discharge with minimal decay of the battery's capacity. This is the longest cycle life reported so far for any lithium-sulfur battery. Demand for high-performance batteries for electric and hybrid electric vehicles capable of matching the range and power of the combustion engine encourages scientists to develop new battery chemistries that could deliver more power and energy than lithium-ion batteries, currently the best

95

 

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Morgan McCorkle Morgan McCorkle Communications 865.574.7308 New all-solid sulfur-based battery outperforms lithium-ion technology A new all-solid lithium-sulfur battery developed by an Oak Ridge National Laboratory team led by Chengdu Liang has the potential to reduce cost, increase performance and improve safety compared with existing designs. A new all-solid lithium-sulfur battery developed by an Oak Ridge National Laboratory team led by Chengdu Liang has the potential to reduce cost, increase performance and improve safety compared with existing designs. (hi-res image) OAK RIDGE, Tenn., June 5, 2013 - Scientists at the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory have designed and tested an all-solid lithium-sulfur battery with approximately four times the energy density of

96

Definition: Power density | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

density density Jump to: navigation, search Dictionary.png Power density The rate of energy flow (power) per unit volume, area or mass. Common metrics include: horsepower per cubic inch, watts per square meter and watts per kilogram.[1][2] View on Wikipedia Wikipedia Definition Power density (or volume power density or volume specific power) is the amount of power (time rate of energy transfer) per unit volume. In energy transformers like batteries, fuel cells, motors, etc. but also power supply units or similar, power density refers to a volume. It is then also called volume power density which is expressed as W/m. Volume power density is sometimes an important consideration where space is constrained. In reciprocated internal combustion engines, power density- power per swept

97

Design of Safer High-Energy Density Materials for Lithium-Ion...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Safer High-Energy Density Materials for Lithium-Ion Cells Design of Safer High-Energy Density Materials for Lithium-Ion Cells 2012 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle...

98

Identification and Partial Purification of a Low-Molecular-Weight Growth Inhibitor Formed by Density-inhibited, Tumorigenic V79 Chinese Hamster Cells  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...identification and partial purification of a low- molecular-weight...rinsed with running tap water. Cells were then dissolved...growth determination. Purification of Inhibitor by FPLC...volume of distilled water was injected on a Pharmacia...equipment, using distilled water containing 0.1% TFA...

Tatsuhiko Koga; Shuji Nakano; Masaaki Nakayama; Etsushi Kounoue; Seiho Nagafuchi; Yoshiyuki Niho; and Hidenori Yamada

1986-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

99

Page not found | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Error message Error message The page you requested does not exist. For your convenience, a search was performed using the query documents WA 1994 017 GOLDEN TECHNOLOGIES COMPANY Waiver of Domestic a. You are here Home » Page not found Page not found Oops! The page you are looking for doesn't seem to be available. Did you find a broken link? Tell us and we'll fix it. Or maybe you meant to go somewhere else? Use the search box or links below to help guide you. Enter terms documents WA 1994 017 GOLDEN TECHNOLOGIES COMPANY Waiver of Domestic a Search Showing 21771 - 21780 of 31,917 results. Download CX-006921: Categorical Exclusion Determination Development of High Energy Density Lithium-Sulfur Cells CX(s) Applied: B3.6 Date: 09/28/2011 Location(s): Milwaukee, Wisconsin Office(s): Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, National Energy

100

Categorical Exclusion Determinations: Office of Energy Efficiency and  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

8, 2011 8, 2011 CX-006928: Categorical Exclusion Determination Next Generation Inverter Design CX(s) Applied: B3.6 Date: 09/28/2011 Location(s): Oak Ridge, Tennessee Office(s): Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy September 28, 2011 CX-006926: Categorical Exclusion Determination Next Generation Inverter Design CX(s) Applied: B3.6 Date: 09/28/2011 Location(s): Golden, Colorado Office(s): Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Savannah River Operations Office September 28, 2011 CX-006921: Categorical Exclusion Determination Development of High Energy Density Lithium-Sulfur Cells CX(s) Applied: B3.6 Date: 09/28/2011 Location(s): Milwaukee, Wisconsin Office(s): Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory September 28, 2011 CX-006919: Categorical Exclusion Determination

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "density lithium-sulfur cells" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Thermodynamic stability of LaMnO3 and its competing oxides: A hybrid density functional study of an alkaline fuel cell catalyst  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The phase stability of LaMnO3 with respect to its competing oxides is studied using hybrid-exchange density functional theory (DFT) as implemented in crystal09. The underpinning DFT total-energy calculations are embedded in a thermodynamic framework that takes optimal advantage of error cancellation within DFT. It has been found that by using the ab initio thermodynamic techniques described here, the standard Gibbs formation energies can be calculated to a significantly greater accuracy than was previously reported (a mean error of 1.6% with a maximum individual error of ?3.0%). This is attributed to both the methodology for isolating the chemical potentials of the reference states, as well as the use of the Becke, three-parameter, Lee-Yang-Parr (B3LYP) functional to thoroughly investigate the ground-state energetics of the competing oxides.

E. A. Ahmad; L. Liborio; D. Kramer; G. Mallia; A. R. Kucernak; N. M. Harrison

2011-08-30T23:59:59.000Z

102

Laboratory Density Functionals  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We compare several definitions of the density of a self-bound system, such as a nucleus, in relation with its center-of-mass zero-point motion. A trivial deconvolution relates the internal density to the density defined in the laboratory frame. This result is useful for the practical definition of density functionals.

B. G. Giraud

2007-07-26T23:59:59.000Z

103

Carbon/Sulfur Nanocomposites and Additives for High-Energy Lithium...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

CarbonSulfur Nanocomposites and Additives for High-Energy Lithium Sulfur Batteries CarbonSulfur Nanocomposites and Additives for High-Energy Lithium Sulfur Batteries 2011 DOE...

104

Carbon/Sulfur Nanocomposites and Additives for High-Energy Lithium...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

& Publications Additives and Cathode Materials for High-Energy Lithium Sulfur Batteries CarbonSulfur Nanocomposites and Additives for High-Energy Lithium Sulfur Batteries...

105

Ionic Liquid-Enhanced Solid State Electrolyte Interface (SEI...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Liquid-Enhanced Solid State Electrolyte Interface (SEI) for Lithium Sulfur Batteries. Ionic Liquid-Enhanced Solid State Electrolyte Interface (SEI) for Lithium Sulfur Batteries....

106

Symmetric Density Functionals  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Variations in distinct restricted spaces of wave functions generate distinct density functionals. In particular, angular momentum projected Slater determinants define a new density functional, compatible simultaneously with angular momentum quantum number and mean field descriptions.

B. G. Giraud

2005-07-13T23:59:59.000Z

107

Density measurements Viscosity measurements  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Density measurements Viscosity measurements Temperature measurements Pressure measurements Flow rate measurements Velocity measurements Sensors How to measure fluid flow properties ? Am´elie Danlos Ravelet Experimental methods for fluid flows: an introduction #12;Density measurements Viscosity

Ravelet, Florent

108

The reversal of the laser-beam-induced-current contrast with varying illumination density in a Cu{sub 2}ZnSnSe{sub 4} thin-film solar cell  

SciTech Connect

We apply an array of correlated spatially-resolved techniques, including ?-Raman/photoluminescence/reflectance/laser-beam-induced-current in conjunction with scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy, to study the impact of the microscopic-scale thickness inhomogeneity of CdS layer in a Cu{sub 2}ZnSnSe{sub 4} thin-film solar cell. Thicker CdS regions are found to cause more light reflecting loss thus yield lower external quantum efficiencies and energy conversion efficiencies than the general area. However, these regions show much less efficiency degradation at high illumination intensity, leading to an inversion of laser-beam-induced-current contrast in the area mapping. While improving the CdS layer uniformity can boost the device performance, the finding further points out the possibility of operating thin-film photovoltaic devices based on the similar materials (such as CuInGaSe{sub 2}, CdTe, Cu{sub 2}ZnSn(S,Se){sub 4}) under a substantially higher illumination density for concentrated photovoltaic and photo-detection.

Chen, Qiong; Zhang, Yong, E-mail: yong.zhang@uncc.edu [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, and Energy Production and Infrastructure Center (EPIC), The University of North Carolina at Charlotte, Charlotte, North Carolina 28223 (United States)] [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, and Energy Production and Infrastructure Center (EPIC), The University of North Carolina at Charlotte, Charlotte, North Carolina 28223 (United States)

2013-12-09T23:59:59.000Z

109

Inner magnetosphere plasma densities  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The radio plasma imager (RPI) on the IMAGE satellite performs radio sounding in the magnetosphere, transmitting coded signals stepping through the frequency range of interest and receiving the returned echoes. The measurements provide the echo amplitude as a function of frequency and echo delay time on a so-called plasmagram. A newly developed algorithm inverts THE echo traces on a plasmagram to electron density spatial distributions. Based on these observed density distributions, an empirical model is constructed to describe the two-dimensional density distribution in the inner magnetosphere.

Reinisch, B W

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

110

Saft America lithium sulfur dioxide battery (p/n 38303301) for flyrt application: Performance discharge test report. Report for August 1991-March 1992  

SciTech Connect

The Battery Technology Group of the Electrochemistry Branch (Code R33) of the Naval Surface Warfare Center, White Oak Detachment, was tasked by the Countermeasures Group of the Naval Research Laboratory to execute a series of performance discharge tests on a Li/SO[sub 2] battery. The battery was designed and assembled by SAFT America (P/N 38303301) to be used for the Flying Radar Target (FLYRT) Demonstration Program. The preliminary battery tests included discharge tests designed to determine the ability of the SAFT America battery to deliver a nominal 600 watts for 10 to 12 minutes within the voltage range of 66 to 100 volts. The battery was tested insulated in some cases to determine the effects of an adiabatic environment on its performance. The battery exceeded the goals set for power and lifetime in all tests. However, events consistently occurred at the end of battery life that raised safety concerns with the present battery design. Data were also analyzed for voltage delay characterization; no serious voltage delay problems were evident.

Banner, J.A.; Davis, P.B.; Peed, E.R.; Winchester, C.S.

1991-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

111

Density | OpenEI  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Density Density Dataset Summary Description This dataset is part of a larger internal dataset at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) that explores various characteristics of large solar electric (both PV and CSP) facilities around the United States. This dataset focuses on the land use characteristics for solar facilities that are either under construction or currently in operation. Source Land-Use Requirements for Solar Power Plants in the United States Date Released June 25th, 2013 (5 months ago) Date Updated Unknown Keywords acres area average concentrating solar power csp Density electric hectares km2 land land requirements land use land-use mean photovoltaic photovoltaics PV solar statistics Data application/vnd.openxmlformats-officedocument.spreadsheetml.sheet icon Master Solar Land Use Spreadsheet (xlsx, 1.5 MiB)

112

Single-Nucleon Densities  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Densities Densities This web page presents single-nucleon densities calculated for a variety of nuclei in the range A=2-10 with some preliminary results for A=11,12. These are from variational Monte Carlo calculations (VMC) using the Argonne v18 two-nucleon and Urbana X three-nucleon potentials (AV18+UX). (Urbana X is intermediate between the Urbana IX and Illinois-7 models; it has the form of UIX supplemented with a two-pion S-wave piece, while the strengths of its terms are taken from the IL7 model. It does NOT have the three-pion-ring term of IL7.) These VMC wave functions are the starting trial functions for a number of recent Green's function Monte Carlo (GFMC) calculations: Brida, et al., Phys. Rev. C 84, 024319 (2011); McCutchan, et al., Phys. Rev. C 86, 024315 (2012);

113

Density Functional Theory for Superconductors  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Density Functional Theory for Superconductors LATHIOTAKIS, A. MARQUES, 1,2,3 LU DERS, L. FAST, 2004 words: theory superconductors; density functional theory; critical temperature; exchange matter physics theoretical chemistry is density functional theory (DFT). foundations were established mid

Gross, E.K.U.

114

Relativistic Nuclear Energy Density Functionals  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......research-article Articles Relativistic Nuclear Energy Density Functionals Dario Vretenar...196, 2012 137 Relativistic Nuclear Energy Density Functionals Dario Vretenar...and P. Ring 2. Relativistic nuclear energy density functionals Even though......

Dario Vretenar; Tamara Niksic; Peter Ring

2012-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

115

Theoretical power density from salinity gradients using reverse electrodialysis  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Reverse electrodialysis (RED) is a technology to generate power from mixing waters with different salinity. The net power density (i.e. power per membrane area) is determined by 1) the membrane potential, 2) the ohmic resistance, 3) the resistance due to changing bulk concentrations, 4) the boundary layer resistance and 5) the power required to pump the feed water. Previous power density estimations often neglected the latter three terms. This paper provides a set of analytical equations to estimate the net power density obtainable from RED stacks with spacers and RED stacks with profiled membranes. With the current technology, the obtained maximum net power density is calculated at 2.7 W/m2. Higher power densities could be obtained by changing the cell design, in particular the membrane resistance and the cell length. Changing these parameters one and two orders of magnitude respectively, the calculated net power density is close to 20 W/m2.

David A. Vermaas; Enver Guler; Michel Saakes; Kitty Nijmeijer

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

116

Energy in density gradient  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Inhomogeneous plasmas and fluids contain energy stored in inhomogeneity and they naturally tend to relax into lower energy states by developing instabilities or by diffusion. But the actual amount of energy in such inhomogeneities has remained unknown. In the present work the amount of energy stored in a density gradient is calculated for several specific density profiles in a cylindric configuration. This is of practical importance for drift wave instability in various plasmas, and in particular in its application in models dealing with the heating of solar corona because the instability is accompanied with stochastic heating, so the energy contained in inhomogeneity is effectively transformed into heat. It is shown that even for a rather moderate increase of the density at the axis in magnetic structures in the corona by a factor 1.5 or 3, the amount of excess energy per unit volume stored in such a density gradient becomes several orders of magnitude greater than the amount of total energy losses per unit ...

Vranjes, J

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

117

Multiple density layered insulator  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A multiple density layered insulator for use with a laser is disclosed wh provides at least two different insulation materials for a laser discharge tube, where the two insulation materials have different thermoconductivities. The multiple layer insulation materials provide for improved thermoconductivity capability for improved laser operation.

Alger, Terry W. (Tracy, CA)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

118

Low density, microcellular foams, preparation, and articles  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A microcellular low-density foam of poly(4-methyl-1-pentene) particularly useful for forming targets for inertial confinement fusion has been developed. Articles made from the foam have been machined to tolerances of 0.0001 inch, although the densities of the fragile foam are low (about 10 to about 100 mg/cc) and the cell sizes are small (about 10 to about 30 ..mu..m). Methods for forming the foam and articles are given. The yield strength of the foam of the invention is higher than was obtained in other structures of this same material.

Young, A.T.

1982-03-03T23:59:59.000Z

119

Gedanken densities and exact constraints in density functional theory  

SciTech Connect

Approximations to the exact density functional for the exchange-correlation energy of a many-electron ground state can be constructed by satisfying constraints that are universal, i.e., valid for all electron densities. Gedanken densities are designed for the purpose of this construction, but need not be realistic. The uniform electron gas is an old gedanken density. Here, we propose a spherical two-electron gedanken density in which the dimensionless density gradient can be an arbitrary positive constant wherever the density is non-zero. The Lieb-Oxford lower bound on the exchange energy can be satisfied within a generalized gradient approximation (GGA) by bounding its enhancement factor or simplest GGA exchange-energy density. This enhancement-factor bound is well known to be sufficient, but our gedanken density shows that it is also necessary. The conventional exact exchange-energy density satisfies no such local bound, but energy densities are not unique, and the simplest GGA exchange-energy density is not an approximation to it. We further derive a strongly and optimally tightened bound on the exchange enhancement factor of a two-electron density, which is satisfied by the local density approximation but is violated by all published GGA's or meta-GGA’s. Finally, some consequences of the non-uniform density-scaling behavior for the asymptotics of the exchange enhancement factor of a GGA or meta-GGA are given.

Perdew, John P. [Department of Physics, Temple University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19122 (United States) [Department of Physics, Temple University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19122 (United States); Department of Chemistry, Temple University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19122 (United States); Ruzsinszky, Adrienn; Sun, Jianwei [Department of Physics, Temple University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19122 (United States)] [Department of Physics, Temple University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19122 (United States); Burke, Kieron [Department of Chemistry and Department of Physics, University of California, Irvine, California 92697 (United States)] [Department of Chemistry and Department of Physics, University of California, Irvine, California 92697 (United States)

2014-05-14T23:59:59.000Z

120

High Energy Density Capacitors  

SciTech Connect

BEEST Project: Recapping is developing a capacitor that could rival the energy storage potential and price of today’s best EV batteries. When power is needed, the capacitor rapidly releases its stored energy, similar to lightning being discharged from a cloud. Capacitors are an ideal substitute for batteries if their energy storage capacity can be improved. Recapping is addressing storage capacity by experimenting with the material that separates the positive and negative electrodes of its capacitors. These separators could significantly improve the energy density of electrochemical devices.

None

2010-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "density lithium-sulfur cells" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Human Plasma Very Low Density Lipoprotein Carries Indian Hedgehog  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Human Plasma Very Low Density Lipoprotein Carries Indian Hedgehog ... At each time point, the viability of the cells was evaluated by MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide), reduction assay,(20) and cell counting with trypan blue. ...

Karla C. S. Queiroz; René A. Tio; Clark J. Zeebregts; Maarten F. Bijlsma; Felix Zijlstra; Bahram Badlou; Marcel de Vries; Carmen V. Ferreira; C. Arnold Spek; Maikel P. Peppelenbosch; Farhad Rezaee

2010-09-14T23:59:59.000Z

122

Development of Large Format Lithium Ion Cells with Higher Energy...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Overall Project Goal: To research, develop and demonstrate large format lithium ion cells with energy density > 500 WhL Barriers addressed: - Low energy density - Cost -...

123

Charge Density Wave Compounds  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Fisher Research Group Fisher Research Group Layered Chalcogenides 29 February 2008 Controlling the Wave by Brad Plummer, SLAC Communications Stanford University researchers working in part at SSRL have discovered a novel set of properties pertaining to a compound of materials called tritellurides. These compounds, composed of three atoms of tellurium and a single atom of one of the rare earth elements, demonstrate unique electronic properties that can be controlled by altering the temperature of the material. The tritellurides display phenomena known as charge density waves (CDW). In a normal conductive metal, electrons persist in a "sea" wherein they are evenly distributed and equally available, or conductive. A CDW occurs under certain circumstances and causes the electrons to clump together, lowering their availability, and thereby lowering the compound's conductivity. Tellurium, when crystallized into quasi-two-dimensional planes and combined with rare earth elements, produces a material with CDWs that can be manipulated and controlled.

124

Nuclear energy density optimization  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We carry out state-of-the-art optimization of a nuclear energy density of Skyrme type in the framework of the Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov theory. The particle-hole and particle-particle channels are optimized simultaneously, and the experimental data set includes both spherical and deformed nuclei. The new model-based, derivative-free optimization algorithm used in this work has been found to be significantly better than standard optimization methods in terms of reliability, speed, accuracy, and precision. The resulting parameter set unedf0 results in good agreement with experimental masses, radii, and deformations and seems to be free of finite-size instabilities. An estimate of the reliability of the obtained parameterization is given, based on standard statistical methods. We discuss new physics insights offered by the advanced covariance analysis.

M. Kortelainen; T. Lesinski; J. Moré; W. Nazarewicz; J. Sarich; N. Schunck; M. V. Stoitsov; S. Wild

2010-08-13T23:59:59.000Z

125

Density Functional Theory for Superconductors  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Density Functional Theory for Superconductors N. N. LATHIOTAKIS,1,2 M. A. L. MARQUES,1,2,3 M. LU; density functional theory; critical temperature; exchange and correlation; phonon and theoretical chemistry is density functional theory (DFT). Its foundations were established in the mid-1960s

Gross, E.K.U.

126

Microbial Fuel Cells—Challenges and Applications  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Microbial Fuel Cells—Challenges and Applications ... Probing the Effect of Ionic Strength on the Functional Robustness of the Triheme Cytochrome PpcA from Geobacter sulfurreducens: A Contribution for Optimizing Biofuel Cell’s Power Density ...

Bruce E. Logan; John M. Regan

2006-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

127

Generation of Gaussian Density Fields  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This document describes analytical and numerical techniques for the generation of Gaussian density fields, which represent cosmological density perturbations. The mathematical techniques involved in the generation of density harmonics in k-space, the filtering of the density fields, and the normalization of the power spectrum to the measured temperature fluctuations of the Cosmic Microwave Background, are presented in details. These techniques are well-known amongst experts, but the current literature lacks a formal description. I hope that this technical report will prove useful to new researchers moving into this field, sparing them the task of reinventing the wheel.

Hugo Martel

2005-06-22T23:59:59.000Z

128

Density Functional Theory (DFT) Simulated Annealing (SA)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. . . . . . . . 9 2009 #12;! " # $ % & - " # $ %' ! " # # $ % & # ( # " ) Density Functional Theory) % Lattice-Boltzmann (LBM) #12;! " # $ % & - " # $ %' ! " # # $ % & # ( # " ) Density Functional Theory (DFT;! " # $ % & - " # $ %' ! " # # $ % & # ( # " ) Density Functional Theory (DFT) Simulated Annealing (SA) Monte Carlo &$ ' ' (GCMC

129

Development of Large Format Lithium Ion Cells with Higher Energy...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Large Format Lithium Ion Cells with Higher Energy Density Exceeding 500WhL Development of Large Format Lithium Ion Cells with Higher Energy Density Exceeding 500WhL 2012 DOE...

130

Innovative Cell Materials and Designs for 300 Mile Range EVs  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Multiple On track Test Cell Multiple On track Delivered year 2013 high energy density cells on 11014 On track Systems Integration Design 93112 On track Test Reports...

131

Characterization of Neuropeptide Y Expressing Cells in the Mouse Retina  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

present in two layers, the inner nuclear layer (INL) and the ganglion cell layer (GCL). The cells in both layers were densely distributed, with those in the INL having a mean density of 1452 65 cells/mm2 , and those in the GCL having a mean density of 644 41 cells/mm2 . The cells in the INL extended

Nirenberg, Sheila

132

Density Log | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Density Log Density Log Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Technique: Density Log Details Activities (6) Areas (6) Regions (0) NEPA(0) Exploration Technique Information Exploration Group: Downhole Techniques Exploration Sub Group: Well Log Techniques Parent Exploration Technique: Well Log Techniques Information Provided by Technique Lithology: provides data on the bulk density of the rock surrounding the well Stratigraphic/Structural: Stratigraphic correlation between well bores. Hydrological: Porosity of the formations loggesd can be calculated for the Density log andprovide an indication potential aquifers. Thermal: Cost Information Low-End Estimate (USD): 0.4040 centUSD 4.0e-4 kUSD 4.0e-7 MUSD 4.0e-10 TUSD / foot Median Estimate (USD): 0.6868 centUSD

133

Density and pair-density scaling for deriving the Euler equation in density-functional and pair-density-functional theory  

SciTech Connect

A link between density and pair density functional theories is presented. Density and pair density scaling are used to derive the Euler equation in both theories. Density scaling provides a constructive way of obtaining approximations for the Pauli potential. The Pauli potential (energy) of the density functional theory is expressed as the difference of the scaled and original exchange-correlation potentials (energies).

Nagy, A. [Department of Theoretical Physics, University of Debrecen, H-4010 Debrecen (Hungary)

2011-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

134

A density-independent glass transition in biological tissues  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Cells must move through tissues in many important biological processes, including embryonic development, cancer metastasis, and wound healing. In these tissues, a cell's motion is often strongly constrained by its neighbors, leading to glassy dynamics. Recent work has demonstrated the existence of a non-equilibrium glass transition in self-propelled particle models for active matter, where the transition is driven by changes in density. However, this may not explain liquid-to-solid transitions in confluent tissues, where there are no gaps between cells and the packing fraction remains fixed and equal to unity. Here we demonstrate the existence of a different type of glass transition that occurs in the well-studied vertex model for confluent tissue monolayers. In this model, the onset of rigidity is governed by changes to single-cell properties such as cell-cell adhesion, cortical tension, and volume compressibility, providing an explanation for a liquid-to-solid transitions in confluent tissues.

Bi, Dapeng; Schwarz, J M; Manning, M Lisa

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

135

A High Density Polarized Hydrogen Gas Target for Storage Rings  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A High Density Polarized Hydrogen Gas Target for Storage Rings K. Zapfe \\Lambday , B. Braun z , H of gaseous polarized hydrogen was formed by injecting polarized H atoms (produced by Stern­Gerlach spin separation) into a storage cell consisting of a cylindrical tube open at both ends. The target was placed

136

Theoretical study of the competition between cell-cell and cell-matrix adhesions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Adhesions between neighboring cells or between cells and their surrounding tissue/matrix play a crucial role in a wide range of biological processes. In order to investigate the competitive mechanisms between cell-cell and cell-matrix adhesions, we here develop a theoretical framework for multiple interacting cells lying on a planar matrix coated with distributed ligands. This model allows us to study, from the viewpoints of energy and statistics, the effects of such physical mechanisms as binding energy of bonds, nonspecific interactions, elastic deformation of cell membranes, and mixing entropy. Our calculations show that cell-matrix adhesion cannot occur when the ligand density on the matrix is lower than a threshold value, and cell-cell adhesion does not happen for a high ligand density. Glycocalyx repulsion plays a more important role in cell-matrix adhesion than in cell-cell adhesion. In addition, it is found that the cell-cell adhesion density decreases as the number of cells increases.

Guang-Kui Xu; Xi-Qiao Feng; Hong-Ping Zhao; Bo Li

2009-07-27T23:59:59.000Z

137

Molecular Structures of Polymer/Sulfur Composites for Lithium...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Structures of PolymerSulfur Composites for Lithium-Sulfur Batteries with Long Cycle Life. Molecular Structures of PolymerSulfur Composites for Lithium-Sulfur Batteries with Long...

138

Controlled Nucleation and Growth Process of Li2S2/Li2S in Lithium...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Nucleation and Growth Process of Li2S2Li2S in Lithium-Sulfur Batteries. Controlled Nucleation and Growth Process of Li2S2Li2S in Lithium-Sulfur Batteries. Abstract:...

139

Rock Density | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

form form View source History View New Pages Recent Changes All Special Pages Semantic Search/Querying Get Involved Help Apps Datasets Community Login | Sign Up Search Page Edit with form History Facebook icon Twitter icon » Rock Density Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Technique: Rock Density Details Activities (2) Areas (2) Regions (0) NEPA(0) Exploration Technique Information Exploration Group: Lab Analysis Techniques Exploration Sub Group: Rock Lab Analysis Parent Exploration Technique: Rock Lab Analysis Information Provided by Technique Lithology: Density of different lithologic units. Stratigraphic/Structural: Hydrological: Thermal: Cost Information Low-End Estimate (USD): 10.001,000 centUSD 0.01 kUSD 1.0e-5 MUSD 1.0e-8 TUSD / sample

140

DENSITY LIMITS IN TOROIDAL PLASMAS MARTIN GREENWALD  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

(RFP) ---- Spheromaks and FRCs · Physics basis for density limit ---- Neutrals ---- Radiation models as fast terminations · Spheromak and FRC don't have density limit data operation at "optimized" density

Greenwald, Martin

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "density lithium-sulfur cells" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Manufacturing of Protected Lithium Electrodes for Advanced Batteries  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Manufacturing of Protected Lithium Electrodes for Advanced Lithium-Air, Lithium-Water, and Lithium-Sulfur Batteries

142

Open problems in nuclear density functional theory  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This note describes five subjects of some interest for the density functional theory in nuclear physics. These are, respectively, i) the need for concave functionals, ii) the nature of the Kohn-Sham potential for the radial density theory, iii) a proper implementation of a density functional for an "intrinsic" rotational density, iv) the possible existence of a potential driving the square root of the density, and v) the existence of many models where a density functional can be explicitly constructed.

B. G. Giraud

2009-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

143

Nuclear energy density optimization: Shell structure  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Background: Nuclear density functional theory is the only microscopical theory that can be applied throughout the entire nuclear landscape. Its key ingredient is the energy density functional.

M. Kortelainen; J. McDonnell; W. Nazarewicz; E. Olsen; P.-G. Reinhard; J. Sarich; N. Schunck; S. M. Wild; D. Davesne; J. Erler; A. Pastore

2014-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

144

Transformations for densities Linear transformations  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

' & $ % Lecture 28 Transformations for densities Linear transformations 1-1 differentiable functions General transformations Expectation of a function 1 #12;' & $ % Transformations for discrete transformation of a U[0, 1] · Take X U[0, 1], so that fX(x) = 1 0 0 and set Y

Adler, Robert J.

145

Low density microcellular carbon foams and method of preparation  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A low density, open-celled microcellular carbon foam is disclosed which is prepared by dissolving a carbonizable polymer or copolymer in a solvent, pouring the solution into a mold, cooling the solution, removing the solvent, and then carbonizing the polymer or copolymer in a high temperature oven to produce the foam. If desired, an additive can be introduced in order to produce a doped carbon foam, and the foams can be made isotropic by selection of a suitable solvent. The low density, microcellular foams produced by this process are particularly useful in the fabrication of inertial confinement fusion targets, but can also be used as catalysts, absorbents, and electrodes.

Arnold, Jr., Charles (Albuquerque, NM); Aubert, James H. (Albuquerque, NM); Clough, Roger L. (Albuquerque, NM); Rand, Peter B. (Albuquerque, NM); Sylwester, Alan P. (Albuquerque, NM)

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

146

Energy-Density Enhancement of Carbon-Nanotube-Based Supercapacitors with Redox Couple in Organic Electrolyte  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Energy-Density Enhancement of Carbon-Nanotube-Based Supercapacitors with Redox Couple in Organic Electrolyte ... The redox molecule also contributes to increasing the cell capacitance by a faradaic redox reaction, and therefore the energy density of the supercapacitor can be significantly increased. ... More specifically, the addition of redox-active decamethylferrocene in an organic electrolyte results in an approximately 27-fold increase in the energy density of carbon-nanotube-based supercapacitors. ...

Jinwoo Park; Byungwoo Kim; Young-Eun Yoo; Haegeun Chung; Woong Kim

2014-11-16T23:59:59.000Z

147

Definition: Density Log | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Density Log Density Log Jump to: navigation, search Dictionary.png Density Log Density logging is a well logging tool that can provide a continuous record of a formation's bulk density along the length of a borehole. In geology, bulk density is a function of the density of the minerals forming a rock (i.e. matrix) and the fluid enclosed in the pore spaces.[1] View on Wikipedia Wikipedia Definition Density logging is a well logging tool that can provide a continuous record of a formation's bulk density along the length of a borehole. In geology, bulk density is a function of the density of the minerals forming a rock and the fluid enclosed in the pore spaces. This is one of three well logging tools that are commonly used to calculate porosity, the other two being sonic logging and neutron porosity logging

148

Plasma probe characteristics in low density hydrogen pulsed plasmas  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Probe theories are only applicable in the regime where the probe's perturbation of the plasma can be neglected. However, it is not always possible to know, a priori, that a particular probe theory can be successfully applied, especially in low density plasmas. This is especially difficult in the case of transient, low density plasmas. Here, we applied probe diagnostics in combination with a 2D particle-in-cell model, to an experiment with a pulsed low density hydrogen plasma. The calculations took into account the full chamber geometry, including the plasma probe as an electrode in the chamber. It was found that the simulations reproduce the time evolution of the probe IV characteristics with good accuracy. The disagreement between the simulated and probe measured plasma density is attributed to the limited applicability of probe theory to measurements of low density pulsed plasmas. Indeed, in the case studied here, probe measurements would lead to a large overestimate of the plasma density. In contrast, the ...

Astakhov, D I; Lee, C J; Ivanov, V V; Krivtsun, V M; Zotovich, A I; Zyryanov, S M; Lopaev, D V; Bijkerk, F

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

149

Nuclear Density Functional Theory and the Equation of State  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A nuclear density functional can be used to find the binding energy and shell structure of nuclei and the energy gap in superconducting nuclear matter. In this paper, we study the possible application of a nuclear density functional theory to nuclear astrophysics. From energy density functional theory, we can deduce the interaction between nucleons to find a rough estimate of the charge radius of the specific nuclei. Compared to the Finite-Range Thomas Fermi model, we include three-body forces, which might be important at densities several times that of nuclear matter density. We also add the momentum dependent interaction to take into account the effective mass of the nucleons. We study matter in the neutron star crust using the Wigner-Seitz cell method. By constructing the mass-radius relation of neutron stars and investigating lepton-rich nuclear matter in proto-neutron stars, we find that the density functional can be used to construct an equation of state of hot dense matter.

Yeunhwan Lim

2011-04-06T23:59:59.000Z

150

High energy density micro plasma bunch from multiple laser interaction with thin target  

SciTech Connect

Three-dimensional particle-in-cell simulation is used to investigate radiation-pressure driven acceleration and compression of small solid-density plasma by intense laser pulses. It is found that multiple impacts by presently available short-pulse lasers on a small hemispheric shell target can create a long-living tiny quasineutral monoenergetic plasma bunch of very high energy density.

Xu, Han [National Laboratory for Parallel and Distributed Processing, College of Computer Science, National University of Defense Technology, Changsha 410073 (China); Shanghai Institute of Optics and Fine Mechanics, Shanghai 201800 (China); Yu, Wei; Luan, S. X.; Xu, Z. Z. [Shanghai Institute of Optics and Fine Mechanics, Shanghai 201800 (China); Yu, M. Y., E-mail: myyu@zju.edu.cn [Physics Department, Institute for Fusion Theory and Simulation, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Institute for Theoretical Physics I, Ruhr University, Bochum D-44780 (Germany); Cai, H. B.; Zhou, C. T. [Institute of Applied Physics and Computational Mathematics, Beijing 100088 (China); Yang, X. H.; Yin, Y.; Zhuo, H. B. [College of Science, National University of Defense Technology, Changsha (China); Wang, J. W. [Shanghai Institute of Optics and Fine Mechanics, Shanghai 201800 (China); Institute of Laser Engineering, Osaka University, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Murakami, M. [Institute of Laser Engineering, Osaka University, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan)

2014-01-13T23:59:59.000Z

151

Detailed Studies of a HighDensity Polarized Hydrogen Gas Target for Storage Rings  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Detailed Studies of a High­Density Polarized Hydrogen Gas Target for Storage Rings Kirsten Zapfe 1 (1996) 293 Abstract A high­density target of polarized atomic hydrogen gas for applications in storage rings was produced by injecting atoms from an atomic beam source into a T­shaped storage cell

152

Energy density of variational states  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We show, in several important and general cases, that a low variational energy density of a trial state is possible even when the trial state represents a different phase from the ground state. Specifically, we ask whether the ground-state energy density of a Hamiltonian whose ground state is in phase A can be approximated to arbitrary accuracy by a wave function, which represents a different phase B. We show this is indeed the case when A has discrete symmetry breaking order in one dimension or topological order in two dimensions, while B is disordered. We argue that, if reasonable conditions of physicality are imposed upon the trial wave function, then this is not possible when A has discrete symmetry breaking in dimensions greater than one and B is symmetric. Some other situations are also discussed.

Leon Balents

2014-12-08T23:59:59.000Z

153

Jacek Dobaczewski Density functional theory and energy  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Jacek Dobaczewski Density functional theory and energy density functionals in nuclear physics Jacek Functional #12;Jacek Dobaczewski Mean-Field Theory Density Functional Theory · mean-field one? Density Functional Theory: A variational method that uses observables as variational parameters. #12;Jacek

Dobaczewski, Jacek

154

Cell Analysis ? High-Energy Density Cathodes and Anodes  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

2010 DOE Vehicle Technologies and Hydrogen Programs Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting, June 7-11, 2010 -- Washington D.C.

155

Cell Analysis ? High-Energy Density Cathodes and Anodes  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

* Investigate the relationships of structure, morphology and performance of cathode and anode materials. * Explore kinetic barriers and utilize the knowledge gained to design and...

156

Parton Densities at the LHC  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This contribution to the Italian "Workshop sui Monte Carlo, la Fisica e le Simulazioni a LHC", held at LNF, Frascati, in February, May and October 2006, summarises the status of parton density functions (PDF's) and the impact of their uncertainties on the LHC physics. Emphasis is given to methods of contraining PDF's using LHC data. Moreover, the advantages of the so-called PDF reweighting technique, which enables to quickly estimate PDF uncertainties with Monte Carlo events, are also presented.

A. Tricoli; for the ATLAS Collaboration

2008-08-19T23:59:59.000Z

157

E-Print Network 3.0 - a549 cells exposed Sample Search Results  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

at Berkeley Collection: Biology and Medicine 47 Hydralazine Rescues PC12 Cells From Acrolein-Mediated Death Summary: JP. 1997. Relationships between cell density, glutathione and...

158

Density functional theory of electrowetting  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The phenomenon of electrowetting, i.e., the dependence of the macroscopic contact angle of a fluid on the electrostatic potential of the substrate, is analyzed in terms of the density functional theory of wetting. It is shown that electrowetting is not an electrocapillarity effect, i.e., it cannot be consistently understood in terms of the variation of the substrate-fluid interfacial tension with the electrostatic substrate potential, but it is related to the depth of the effective interface potential. The key feature, which has been overlooked so far and which occurs naturally in the density functional approach is the structural change of a fluid if it is brought into contact with another fluid. These structural changes occur in the present context as the formation of finite films of one fluid phase in between the substrate and the bulk of the other fluid phase. The non-vanishing Donnan potentials (Galvani potential differences) across such film-bulk fluid interfaces, which generically occur due to an unequal partitioning of ions as a result of differences of solubility contrasts, lead to correction terms in the electrowetting equation, which become relevant for sufficiently small substrate potentials. Whereas the present density functional approach confirms the commonly used electrocapillarity-based electrowetting equation as a good approximation for the cases of metallic electrodes or electrodes coated with a hydrophobic dielectric in contact with an electrolyte solution and an ion-free oil, a significantly reduced tendency for electrowetting is predicted for electrodes coated with a dielectric which is hydrophilic or which is in contact with two immiscible electrolyte solutions.

Markus Bier; Ingrid Ibagon

2014-02-10T23:59:59.000Z

159

Estimation of Density of Biodiesel  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In addition, the numeric value for coefficient e is very small (?0.00001) and the nd(ave) of most biodiesels are not greater than 2. Therefore, the product of e × nd(ave) can be neglected without affecting the accuracy of the calculation and eq 30 is good for estimation of density of biodiesel. ... Interestingly, the %AAD for mixed biodiesel (0.38) is lower than those of pure (0.41%) and total biodiesels. ... (21) The model cannot differentiate a mixed biodiesel from pure biodiesels. ...

Suriya Phankosol; Kaokanya Sudaprasert; Supathra Lilitchan; Kornkanok Aryusuk; Kanit Krisnangkura

2014-06-16T23:59:59.000Z

160

Combining Density Functional Theory and Density Matrix Functional Theory Daniel R. Rohr1  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Combining Density Functional Theory and Density Matrix Functional Theory Daniel R. Rohr1 , Julien and CNRS, 4 place Jussieu, 75252 Paris, France We combine density-functional theory with density cleavage is an ubiquitous process for chemistry. Density-matrix functional theory (DMFT) (see, e.g., Refs

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "density lithium-sulfur cells" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Scalar Nature of the Nuclear Density Functional  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Because of the rotational invariance of the nuclear Hamiltonian, there exists a density functional for nuclei that depends only on two scalar densities. Practical calculations boil down to radial, one-dimensional ones.

B. G. Giraud

2008-01-22T23:59:59.000Z

162

Risk Bounds for Mixture Density Estimation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this paper we focus on the problem of estimating a bounded density using a finite combination of densities from a given class. We consider the Maximum Likelihood Procedure (MLE) and the greedy procedure described by ...

Rakhlin, Alexander

2004-01-27T23:59:59.000Z

163

Biodiesel Density: Experimental Measurements and Prediction Models  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Density is an important biodiesel parameter, with impact on fuel quality. Predicting density is of high relevance for a correct formulation of an adequate blend of raw materials that optimize the cost of biodiesel fuel production while allowing the ...

Maria Jorge Pratas; Samuel V. D. Freitas; Mariana B. Oliveira; Sílvia C. Monteiro; Álvaro S. Lima; João A. P. Coutinho

2011-04-19T23:59:59.000Z

164

The dynamics of variable-density turbulence  

SciTech Connect

The dynamics of variable-density turbulent fluids are studied by direct numerical simulation. The flow is incompressible so that acoustic waves are decoupled from the problem, and implying that density is not a thermodynamic variable. Changes in density occur due to molecular mixing. The velocity field, is in general, divergent. A pseudo-spectral numerical technique is used to solve the equations of motion. Three-dimensional simulations are performed using a grid size of 128{sup 3} grid points. Two types of problems are studied: (1) the decay of isotropic, variable-density turbulence, and (2) buoyancy-generated turbulence in a fluid with large density fluctuations. In the case of isotropic, variable-density turbulence, the overall statistical decay behavior, for the cases studied, is relatively unaffected by the presence of density variations when the initial density and velocity fields are statistically independent. The results for this case are in quantitative agreement with previous numerical and laboratory results. In this case, the initial density field has a bimodal probability density function (pdf) which evolves in time towards a Gaussian distribution. The pdf of the density field is symmetric about its mean value throughout its evolution. If the initial velocity and density fields are statistically dependent, however, the decay process is significantly affected by the density fluctuations. For the case of buoyancy-generated turbulence, variable-density departures from the Boussinesq approximation are studied. The results of the buoyancy-generated turbulence are compared with variable-density model predictions. Both a one-point (engineering) model and a two-point (spectral) model are tested against the numerical data. Some deficiencies in these variable-density models are discussed and modifications are suggested.

Sandoval, D.L.

1995-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

165

Quantum critical benchmark for density functional theory  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Two electrons at the threshold of ionization represent a severe test case for electronic structure theory. A pseudospectral method yields a very accurate density of the two-electron ion with nuclear charge close to the critical value. Highly accurate energy components and potentials of Kohn-Sham density functional theory are given, as well as a useful parametrization of the critical density. The challenges for density functional approximations and the strength of correlation are also discussed.

Paul E. Grabowski; Kieron Burke

2014-08-09T23:59:59.000Z

166

The Critical Density and the Effective Excitation Density of Commonly Observed Molecular Dense Gas Tracers  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The optically thin critical densities and the effective excitation densities to produce a 1 K km/s (or 0.818 Jy km/s $(\\frac{\

Shirley, Yancy L

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

167

Time Dependent Density Functional Theory An introduction  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Time Dependent Density Functional Theory An introduction Francesco Sottile LSI, Ecole Polytechnique) Time Dependent Density Functional Theory Palaiseau, 26 May 2014 1 / 62 #12;Outline 1 Introduction: why and Resources Francesco Sottile (ETSF) Time Dependent Density Functional Theory Palaiseau, 26 May 2014 2 / 62

Botti, Silvana

168

DENSITY FUNCTIONAL THEORY OF FIELD THEORETICAL SYSTEMS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

DENSITY FUNCTIONAL THEORY OF FIELD THEORETICAL SYSTEMS E. Engel Inst. fur Theor. Physik background of relativistic density functional theory is emphasized and its consequences for relativistic Kohn-Sham equations are shown. The local density approximation for the exchange energy functional is reviewed

Engel, Eberhard

169

Density functional theory George F. Bertsch  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Density functional theory George F. Bertsch #3; Institute for Nuclear Theory and Department of Physics University of Tsukuba Tsukuba 305-8577 Japan Abstract Density functional theory is a remarkably Time-dependent density functional theory: the equations 34 A Optical properties

Bertsch George F.

170

DENSITY FUNCTIONAL THEORY, THE MODERN TREATMENT OF  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

DENSITY FUNCTIONAL THEORY, THE MODERN TREATMENT OF ELECTRON CORRELATIONS E.K.U. Gross and Stefan The basic idea of density functional theory is to describe a many-electron system exclusively and completely-consistent scheme, known as the Kohn-Sham scheme [2], is the heart of modern density functional theory

Gross, E.K.U.

171

A composite material of uniformly dispersed sulfur on reduced graphene oxide: Aqueous one-pot synthesis, characterization and excellent performance as the cathode in rechargeable lithium-sulfur batteries  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Sulfur-reduced graphene oxide composite (SGC) materials with uniformly dispersed sulfur on reduced graphene oxide sheets have been prepared by a ... the simultaneous oxidation of sulfide and reduction of graphene

Hui Sun; Gui-Liang Xu; Yue-Feng Xu; Shi-Gang Sun; Xinfeng Zhang…

2012-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

172

The dynamics of variable-density turbulence  

SciTech Connect

The dynamics of variable-density turbulent fluids are studied by direct numerical simulation. The flow is incompressible so that acoustic waves are decoupled from the problem, and implying that density is not a thermodynamic variable. Changes in density occur due to molecular mixing. The velocity field is, in general, divergent. A pseudo-spectral numerical technique is used to solve the equations of motion. Three-dimensional simulations are performed using a grid size of 128{sup 3} grid points. Two types of problems are studied: (1) the decay of isotropic, variable-density turbulence, and (2) buoyancy-generated turbulence in a fluid with large density fluctuations (such that the Boussinesq approximation is not valid). In the case of isotropic, variable-density turbulence, the overall statistical decay behavior, for the cases studied, is relatively unaffected by the presence of density variations when the initial density and velocity fields are statistically independent. The results for this case are in quantitative agreement with previous numerical and laboratory results. In this case, the initial density field has a bimodal probability density function (pdf) which evolves in time towards a Gaussian distribution. The pdf of the density field is symmetric about its mean value throughout its evolution. If the initial velocity and density fields are statistically dependent, however, the decay process is significantly affected by the density fluctuations. For this case, the pdf of the density becomes asymmetric about its mean value during the early stages of its evolution. It is argued that these asymmetries in the pdf of the density field are due to different entrainment rates, into the mixing region, that favor the high speed fluid.

Sandoval, D.L.

1995-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

173

Aerodynamic Focusing Of High-Density Aerosols  

SciTech Connect

High-density micron-sized particle aerosols might form the basis for a number of applications in which a material target with a particular shape might be quickly ionized to form a cylindrical or sheet shaped plasma. A simple experimental device was built in order to study the properties of high-density aerosol focusing for 1#22; m silica spheres. Preliminary results recover previous findings on aerodynamic focusing at low densities. At higher densities, it is demonstrated that the focusing properties change in a way which is consistent with a density dependent Stokes number.

Ruiz, D. E.; Fisch, Nathaniel

2014-02-24T23:59:59.000Z

174

Force-Extension Relationship of Cell-Cell Contacts  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Adherens junctions (AJ) are adhesive motifs joining neighboring cells. The physical contacts are fingerlike structures which grow perpendicular to the cell-cell interface. While their length may vary with the applied force, their density is independent of length. Here we measure AJ contact lengths while varying the mean contractile force of the cell using nocodazole. Using this assay and a simple mechanical model, we measure an effective spring constant of about 30??pN/?m per finger. This measurement may enable the estimation of cell monolayer force distributions from a simple AJ image.

Julien Brevier; Marcel Vallade; Daniel Riveline

2007-06-28T23:59:59.000Z

175

Transport Energy Use and Population Density  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Transport Energy Use and Population Density Transport Energy Use and Population Density Speaker(s): Masayoshi Tanishita Date: July 1, 2004 - 10:00pm Location: Bldg. 90 Seminar Host/Point of Contact: Jonathan Sinton After Peter Newman and Jeffrey Kenworthy published "Cities and Automobile Dependence" in 1989, population density was brought to public attention as an important factor to explain transport mobility and energy use. However, several related issues still remain open: Is an increase in population density more effective than rising gas prices in reducing transport energy use? How much does per capita transport energy use change as population density in cities changes? And what kind of factors influence changes in population density? In this presentation, using city-level data in the US, Japan and other countries, the population-density elasticity of

176

Dot Density Maps Dot density maps, or dot maps, portray the geographic distribution of discrete phenomena  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Dot Density Maps Dot density maps, or dot maps, portray the geographic distribution of discrete for representing geographic patterns. Dot density maps are particularly useful for understanding global distribution of the mapped phenomenon and comparing relative densities of different regions on the map. Dot

Klippel, Alexander

177

KH Computational Physics-2009 Density Functional Theory (DFT) Density Functional Theory  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

KH Computational Physics- 2009 Density Functional Theory (DFT) Density Functional Theory of interacting particles. Kristjan Haule, 2009 ­2­ #12;KH Computational Physics- 2009 Density Functional Theory functional of n. Kristjan Haule, 2009 ­3­ #12;KH Computational Physics- 2009 Density Functional Theory (DFT

Haule, Kristjan

178

Density-functional theory of nonuniform classical liquids: An extended modified weighted-density approximation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Density-functional theory of nonuniform classical liquids: An extended modified weighted-density the approximationstreat long-rangeand short-rangepotentials. I. INTRODUCTION The density-functional theory of nonuniform of density- functional theory to the problem of freezing of classical liquids,4 and in particular

Likos, Christos N.

179

Population Density Population density (persons per square kilometer) layers, for 1990  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Population Density Africa Population density (persons per square kilometer) layers, for 1990 the 12 population density classes. Source information: http://sedac.ciesin.columbia.edu/gpw/. ´ Robinson://sedac.ciesin.columbia.edu/place/ Publish Date: 03/13/07 0 1,000 km Population Density 2000 0 Persons \\ Sq.Km 0-2 Persons \\ Sq.Km 2

Columbia University

180

Low density, microcellular, dopable, agar/gelatin foams for pulsed power experiments  

SciTech Connect

Low-density, microcellular foams prepared from the natural polymers agar and gelatin have been developed for pulsed-power physics experiments. Numerous experiments were supported with foams having densities at or below 10 mg/cm{sup 3}. For some of the experiments, the agar/gelatin foam was uniformly doped with metallic elements using soluble salts. Depending on the method of preparation, cell sizes were typically below 10 microns and for one process were below 1.0 micron.

McNamara, W.F. [Orion International Technologies, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Aubert, J.H. [Sandia National Lab., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

1997-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "density lithium-sulfur cells" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Quartz resonator fluid density and viscosity monitor  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A pair of thickness-shear mode resonators, one smooth and one with a textured surface, allows fluid density and viscosity to be independently resolved. A textured surface, either randomly rough or regularly patterned, leads to trapping of liquid at the device surface. The synchronous motion of this trapped liquid with the oscillating device surface allows the device to weigh the liquid; this leads to an additional response that depends on liquid density. This additional response enables a pair of devices, one smooth and one textured, to independently resolve liquid density and viscosity; the difference in responses determines the density while the smooth device determines the density-viscosity product, and thus, the pair determines both density and viscosity.

Martin, Stephen J. (Albuquerque, NM); Wiczer, James J. (Albuquerque, NM); Cernosek, Richard W. (Albuquerque, NM); Frye, Gregory C. (Cedar Crest, NM); Gebert, Charles T. (Albuquerque, NM); Casaus, Leonard (Bernalillo, NM); Mitchell, Mary A. (Tijeras, NM)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

182

Cell-based array for deep sub-micron technologies  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this thesis I explore transistor topologies for high density cell-based arrays that allows for dense computation blocks, small memory cells, and strong signal drivers. This involves simulating different circuit types ...

Oey, James Boe-Kian, 1980-

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

183

Development of Large Format Lithium Ion Cells with Higher Energy...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program Review ES-127 Development of Large Format Lithium Ion Cells with Higher Energy Density Erin O'Driscoll (PI) Han Wu (Presenter) Dow Kokam May 13,...

184

Buoyancy-generated variable-density turbulence  

SciTech Connect

Both a one-point (engineering) and a two-point (spectral) model are tested against numerical data. Deficiencies in these variable-density models are disucssed and modifications are suggested. Attention is restricted to turbulent interactions of two miscible, incompressible Newtonian fluids of different densities. Departures from the limits of validity of the Boussinesq approximation are examined. Results of the buoyancy-generated turbulence are compared with variable-density model predictions. 3 figs, 6 refs.

Sandoval, D.L. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)]|[Washington Univ. (United States); Clark, T.T. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Riley, J.J. [Washington Univ. (United States)

1996-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

185

Considering Air Density in Wind Power Production  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In the wind power production calculations the air density is usually considered as constant in time. Using the CIPM-2007 equation for the density of moist air as a function of air temperature, air pressure and relative humidity, we show that it is worth taking the variation of the air density into account, because higher accuracy can be obtained in the calculation of the power production for little effort.

Farkas, Zénó

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

186

Considering Air Density in Wind Power Production  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In the wind power production calculations the air density is usually considered as constant in time. Using the CIPM-2007 equation for the density of moist air as a function of air temperature, air pressure and relative humidity, we show that it is worth taking the variation of the air density into account, because higher accuracy can be obtained in the calculation of the power production for little effort.

Zénó Farkas

2011-03-11T23:59:59.000Z

187

Dark Matter Density in Disk Galaxies  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

I show that the predicted densities of the inner dark matter halos in LCDM models of structure formation appear to be higher than estimates from real galaxies and constraints from dynamical friction on bars. This inconsistency would not be a problem for the LCDM model if physical processes that are omitted in the collisionless collapse simulations were able to reduce the dark matter density in the inner halos. I review the mechanisms proposed to achieve the needed density reduction.

J. A. Sellwood

2008-07-12T23:59:59.000Z

188

Density Measurements of Argonne Premium Coal Samples  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Density Measurements of Argonne Premium Coal Samples ... Constitution of Illinois No. 6 Argonne Premium Coal: A Review ... Constitution of Illinois No. 6 Argonne Premium Coal: A Review ...

He Huang; Keyu Wang; David M. Bodily; V. J. Hucka

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

189

Some challenges for Nuclear Density Functional Theory  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We discuss some of the challenges that the DFT community faces in its quest for the truly universal energy density functional applicable over the entire nuclear chart.

T. Duguet; K. Bennaceur; T. Lesinski; J. Meyer

2006-06-20T23:59:59.000Z

190

3-D capacitance density imaging system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A three-dimensional capacitance density imaging of a gasified bed or the like in a containment vessel is achieved using a plurality of electrodes provided circumferentially about the bed in levels and along the bed in channels. The electrodes are individually and selectively excited electrically at each level to produce a plurality of current flux field patterns generated in the bed at each level. The current flux field patterns are suitably sensed and a density pattern of the bed at each level determined. By combining the determined density patterns at each level, a three-dimensional density image of the bed is achieved. 7 figs.

Fasching, G.E.

1988-03-18T23:59:59.000Z

191

High Energy Density Ultracapacitors | Department of Energy  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Program, and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation es038smith2011p.pdf More Documents & Publications High Energy Density Ultracapacitors High...

192

Mixing device for materials with large density differences  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An auger-tube pump mixing device for mixing materials with large density differences while maintaining low stirring RPM and low power consumption. The mixing device minimizes the formation of vortexes and minimizes the incorporation of small bubbles in the liquid during mixing. By avoiding the creation of a vortex the device provides efficient stirring of full containers without spillage over the edge. Also, the device solves the problem of effective mixing in vessels where the liquid height is large compared to the diameter. Because of the gentle stirring or mixing by the device, it has application for biomedical uses where cell damage is to be avoided.

Gregg, David W. (Moraga, CA)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

193

Mixing device for materials with large density differences  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An auger-tube pump mixing device is disclosed for mixing materials with large density differences while maintaining low stirring RPM and low power consumption. The mixing device minimizes the formation of vortexes and minimizes the incorporation of small bubbles in the liquid during mixing. By avoiding the creation of a vortex the device provides efficient stirring of full containers without spillage over the edge. Also, the device solves the problem of effective mixing in vessels where the liquid height is large compared to the diameter. Because of the gentle stirring or mixing by the device, it has application for biomedical uses where cell damage is to be avoided. 2 figs.

Gregg, D.W.

1994-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

194

The effect of end-cell stability on the confinement of the central-cell plasma in TMX  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In the Tandem Mirror Experiment (TMX), the central-cell losses provide the warm unconfined plasma necessary to stabilize the drift-cyclotron loss-cone instability in the end cells. This places a theoretical limit on central-cell confinement, which is expressed as a limit on the end-cell to central-cell density ratio. As this density ratio increases in a TMX experiment, large increases of end-cell ion-cyclotron-frequency plasma fluctuations are observed. These fluctuations cause the central-cell confinement to decrease, in agreement with a theoretical model.

R.P. Drake; T.A. Casper; J.F. Clauser; F.H. Coensgen; D.L. Correll; W.F. Cummins; J.C. Davis; J.H. Foote; A.H. Futch; R.K. Goodman; D.P. Grubb; R.S. Hornady; W.E. Nexsen; T.C. Simonen; B.W. Stallard

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

195

Microinstabilities in weak density gradient tokamak systems  

SciTech Connect

A prominent characteristic of auxiliary-heated tokamak discharges which exhibit improved (''H-mode type'') confinement properties is that their density profiles tend to be much flatter over most of the plasma radius. Depsite this favorable trend, it is emphasized here that, even in the limit of zero density gradient, low-frequency microinstabilities can persist due to the nonzero temperature gradient.

Tang, W.M.; Rewoldt, G.; Chen, L.

1986-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

196

Density Estimation Trees in High Energy Physics  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Density Estimation Trees can play an important role in exploratory data analysis for multidimensional, multi-modal data models of large samples. I briefly discuss the algorithm, a self-optimization technique based on kernel density estimation, and some applications in High Energy Physics.

Anderlini, Lucio

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

197

Contact-mediated cell-assisted cell proliferation in a model eukaryotic single-cell organism: An explanation for the lag phase in shaken cell culture  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In cell culture, when cells are inoculated into fresh media, there can be a period of slow (or lag phase) growth followed by a transition to exponential growth. This period of slow growth is usually attributed to the cells’ adaptation to a new environment. However, we argue that, based on observations of shaken suspension culture of Dictyostelium discoideum, a model single-cell eukaryote, this transition is due to a density effect. Attempts to demonstrate the existence of implicit cell signaling via long-range diffusible messengers (i.e., soluble growth factors) through cell-medium separation and microfluidic flow perturbation experiments produced negative results. This, in turn, led to the development of a signaling model based on direct cell-to-cell contacts. Employing a scaling argument for the collision rate due to fluid shear, we reasonably estimate the crossover density for the transition into the exponential phase and fit the observed growth kinetics.

Carl Franck; Wui Ip; Albert Bae; Nathan Franck; Elijah Bogart; Thanhbinh Thi Le

2008-04-11T23:59:59.000Z

198

How to Calculate Molecular Column Density  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The calculation of the molecular column density from molecular spectral (rotational or ro-vibrational) transition measurements is one of the most basic quantities derived from molecular spectroscopy. Starting from first principles where we describe the basic physics behind the radiative and collisional excitation of molecules and the radiative transfer of their emission, we derive a general expression for the molecular column density. As the calculation of the molecular column density involves a knowledge of the molecular energy level degeneracies, rotational partition functions, dipole moment matrix elements, and line strengths, we include generalized derivations of these molecule-specific quantities. Given that approximations to the column density equation are often useful, we explore the optically thin, optically thick, and low-frequency limits to our derived general molecular column density relation. We also evaluate the limitations of the common assumption that the molecular excitation temperature is con...

Mangum, Jeffrey G

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

199

Density functional theory for carbon dioxide crystal  

SciTech Connect

We present a density functional approach to describe the solid?liquid phase transition, interfacial and crystal structure, and properties of polyatomic CO{sub 2}. Unlike previous phase field crystal model or density functional theory, which are derived from the second order direct correlation function, the present density functional approach is based on the fundamental measure theory for hard-sphere repulsion in solid. More importantly, the contributions of enthalpic interactions due to the dispersive attractions and of entropic interactions arising from the molecular architecture are integrated in the density functional model. Using the theoretical model, the predicted liquid and solid densities of CO{sub 2} at equilibrium triple point are in good agreement with the experimental values. Based on the structure of crystal-liquid interfaces in different planes, the corresponding interfacial tensions are predicted. Their respective accuracies need to be tested.

Chang, Yiwen; Mi, Jianguo, E-mail: mijg@mail.buct.edu.cn; Zhong, Chongli [State Key Laboratory of Organic-Inorganic Composites, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029 (China)

2014-05-28T23:59:59.000Z

200

Density of Spray-Formed Materials  

SciTech Connect

Spray Forming is an advanced materials processing technology that transforms molten metal into a near-net-shape solid by depositing atomized droplets onto a substrate. Depending on the application, the spray-formed material may be used in the as-deposited condition or it may undergo post-deposition processing. Regardless, the density of the as-deposited material is an important issue. Porosity is detrimental because it can significantly reduce strength, toughness, hardness and other properties. While it is not feasible to achieve fully-dense material in the as-deposited state, density greater than 99% of theoretical density is possible if the atomization and impact conditions are optimized. Thermal conditions at the deposit surface and droplet impact angle are key processing parameters that influence the density of the material. This paper examines the factors that contribute to porosity formation during spray forming and illustrates that very high as-deposited density is achieved by optimizing processing parameters.

Kevin M. McHugh; Volker Uhlenwinkel; Nils Ellendr

2008-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "density lithium-sulfur cells" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Neutral depletion and the helicon density limit  

SciTech Connect

It is straightforward to create fully ionized plasmas with modest rf power in a helicon. It is difficult, however, to create plasmas with density >10{sup 20} m{sup ?3}, because neutral depletion leads to a lack of fuel. In order to address this density limit, we present fast (1 MHz), time-resolved measurements of the neutral density at and downstream from the rf antenna in krypton helicon plasmas. At the start of the discharge, the neutral density underneath the antenna is reduced to 1% of its initial value in 15 ?s. The ionization rate inferred from these data implies that the electron temperature near the antenna is much higher than the electron temperature measured downstream. Neutral density measurements made downstream from the antenna show much slower depletion, requiring 14 ms to decrease by a factor of 1/e. Furthermore, the downstream depletion appears to be due to neutral pumping rather than ionization.

Magee, R. M.; Galante, M. E.; Carr, J. Jr.; Lusk, G.; McCarren, D. W.; Scime, E. E. [West Virginia University, Morgantown, West Virginia 26506 (United States)] [West Virginia University, Morgantown, West Virginia 26506 (United States)

2013-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

202

Ions in solution: Density corrected density functional theory (DC-DFT)  

SciTech Connect

Standard density functional approximations often give questionable results for odd-electron radical complexes, with the error typically attributed to self-interaction. In density corrected density functional theory (DC-DFT), certain classes of density functional theory calculations are significantly improved by using densities more accurate than the self-consistent densities. We discuss how to identify such cases, and how DC-DFT applies more generally. To illustrate, we calculate potential energy surfaces of HO·Cl{sup ?} and HO·H{sub 2}O complexes using various common approximate functionals, with and without this density correction. Commonly used approximations yield wrongly shaped surfaces and/or incorrect minima when calculated self consistently, while yielding almost identical shapes and minima when density corrected. This improvement is retained even in the presence of implicit solvent.

Kim, Min-Cheol; Sim, Eunji, E-mail: esim@yonsei.ac.kr [Department of Chemistry and Institute of Nano-Bio Molecular Assemblies, Yonsei University, 50 Yonsei-ro Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Chemistry and Institute of Nano-Bio Molecular Assemblies, Yonsei University, 50 Yonsei-ro Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Burke, Kieron [Department of Chemistry, University of California, Irvine, California 92697 (United States)] [Department of Chemistry, University of California, Irvine, California 92697 (United States)

2014-05-14T23:59:59.000Z

203

Alkaline regenerative fuel cell systems for energy storage  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents the results of a preliminary design study of a Regenerative Fuel Cell Energy Storage system for application to future low-earth orbit space missions. This high energy density storage system is based on state-of-the-art alkaline electrolyte cell technology and incorporates dedicated fuel cell and electrolysis cell modules. 11 refs.

Schubert, F.H.; Reid, M.A.; Martin, R.E.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

204

Lower crustal density estimation using the density-slowness relationship: a preliminary study  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

-facies metamorphic rocks. Velocity-density data was compiled from the literature for pressures greater than 600 MPa and linear fits of density on slowness were made. No correction was made for the effect of temperature. Densities were then estimated for a number...

Jones, Gary Wayne

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

205

Testing the kinetic energy functional: Kinetic energy density as a density functional  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

is to the exchange-correlation energy as a functional of the density. A large part of the total energy, the kinetic contexts. For finite systems these forms integrate to the same global ki- netic energy, but they differTesting the kinetic energy functional: Kinetic energy density as a density functional Eunji Sim

Burke, Kieron

206

Silicon Cells | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Cells Cells Jump to: navigation, search Name Silicon Cells Place United Kingdom Product Technology developer based upon a low cost method of processing silicon to produce a new generation of high energy density batteries. References Silicon Cells[1] LinkedIn Connections CrunchBase Profile No CrunchBase profile. Create one now! This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Silicon Cells is a company located in United Kingdom . References ↑ "Silicon Cells" Retrieved from "http://en.openei.org/w/index.php?title=Silicon_Cells&oldid=351081" Categories: Clean Energy Organizations Companies Organizations Stubs What links here Related changes Special pages Printable version Permanent link Browse properties About us Disclaimers Energy blogs

207

Density Prediction of Uranium-6 Niobium Ingots  

SciTech Connect

The densities of uranium-6 niobium (U-Nb) alloys have been compiled from a variety of literature sources such as Y-12 and Rocky Flats datasheets. We also took advantage of the 42 well-pedigreed, homogeneous baseline U-Nb alloys produced under the Enhanced Surveillance Program for density measurements. Even though U-Nb alloys undergo two-phase transitions as the Nb content varies from 0 wt. % to 8 wt %, the theoretical and measured densities vary linearly with Nb content. Therefore, the effect of Nb content on the density was modeled with a linear regression. From this linear regression, a homogeneous ingot of U-6 wt.% Nb would have a density of 17.382 {+-} 0.040 g/cc (95% CI). However, ingots produced at Y-12 are not homogeneous with respect to the Nb content. Therefore, using the 95% confidence intervals, the density of a Y-12 produced ingot would vary from 17.310 {+-} 0.043 g/cc at the center to 17.432 {+-} 0.039 g/cc at the edge. Ingots with larger Nb inhomogeneities will also have larger variances in the density.

D.F.Teter; P.K. Tubesing; D.J.Thoma; E.J.Peterson

2003-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

208

Chiral dynamics and peripheral transverse densities  

SciTech Connect

In the partonic (or light-front) description of relativistic systems the electromagnetic form factors are expressed in terms of frame-independent charge and magnetization densities in transverse space. This formulation allows one to identify the chiral components of nucleon structure as the peripheral densities at transverse distances b = O(M{sub {pi}}{sup -1}) and compute them in a parametrically controlled manner. A dispersion relation connects the large-distance behavior of the transverse charge and magnetization densities to the spectral functions of the Dirac and Pauli form factors near the two--pion threshold at timelike t = 4 M{ sub {pi}}{sup 2}, which can be computed in relativistic chiral effective field theory. Using the leading-order approximation we (a) derive the asymptotic behavior (Yukawa tail) of the isovector transverse densities in the "chiral" region b = O(M{sub {pi}}{sup -1}) and the "molecular" region b = O(M{sub N}{sup 2}/M{sub {pi}}{sup 3}); (b) perform the heavy-baryon expansion of the transverse densities; (c) explain the relative magnitude of the peripheral charge and magnetization densities in a simple mechanical picture; (d) include Delta isobar intermediate states and study the peripheral transverse densities in the large-N{ sub c} limit of QCD; (e) quantify the region of transverse distances where the chiral components of the densities are numerically dominant; (f) calculate the chiral divergences of the b{sup 2}-weighted moments of the isovector transverse densities (charge and anomalous magnetic radii) in the limit M{sub {pi}} -> 0 and determine their spatial support. Our approach provides a concise formulation of the spatial structure of the nucleon's chiral component and offers new insights into basic properties of the chiral expansion. It relates the information extracted from low-t elastic form factors to the generalized parton distributions probed in peripheral high-energy scattering processes.

Granados, Carlos G. [Uppsala University (Sweden); Weiss, Christian [JLAB, Newport News, VA (United States)

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

209

Tokamak Equilibria with Reversed Current Density  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Observations of nearly zero toroidal current in the central region of tokamaks (the “current hole”) raises the question of the existence of toroidal equilibria with very low or reversed current in the core. The solutions of the Grad-Shafranov equilibrium equation with hollow toroidal current density profile including negative current density in the plasma center are investigated. Solutions of the corresponding eigenvalue problem provide simple examples of such equilibrium configurations. More realistic equilibria with toroidal current density reversal are computed using a new equilibrium problem formulation and computational algorithm which do not assume nested magnetic surfaces.

A. A. Martynov; S. Yu. Medvedev; L. Villard

2003-08-21T23:59:59.000Z

210

Instabilities in the Nuclear Energy Density Functional  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In the field of Energy Density Functionals (EDF) used in nuclear structure and dynamics, one of the unsolved issues is the stability of the functional. Numerical issues aside, some EDFs are unstable with respect to particular perturbations of the nuclear ground-state density. The aim of this contribution is to raise questions about the origin and nature of these instabilities, the techniques used to diagnose and prevent them, and the domain of density functions in which one should expect a nuclear EDF to be stable.

M. Kortelainen; T. Lesinski

2010-02-05T23:59:59.000Z

211

High Power Density Integrated Traction Machine Drive  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

2011 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program, and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation

212

wave power density | OpenEI  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

power density power density Dataset Summary Description This project estimates the naturally available and technically recoverable U.S. wave energy resources, using a 51-month Wavewatch III hindcast database developed especially for this study by National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA's) National Centers for Environmental Prediction. For total resource estimation, wave power density in terms of kilowatts per meter is aggregated across a unit diameter circle. Source Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) Date Released December 05th, 2011 (2 years ago) Date Updated Unknown Keywords EPRI MHK NREL ocean Virginia Tech wave wave power density Data application/pdf icon Download Full Report (pdf, 8.8 MiB) Quality Metrics Level of Review Some Review Comment

213

Viscosity and Density of Reference Fluid.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The viscosity and density of bis(8-methylnonyl) benzene-1,2- dicarboxylate {diisodecyl phthalate (DIDP)}, with a nominal viscosity at T = 298 K and p = 0.1 MPa… (more)

Almotari, Masaed Moti M

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

214

Separation of carbon nanotubes in density gradients  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The separation of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs), by chirality and/or diameter, using centrifugation of compositions of SWNTs in and surface active components in density gradient media.

Hersam, Mark C. (Evanston, IL); Stupp, Samuel I. (Chicago, IL); Arnold, Michael S. (Northbrook, IL)

2012-02-07T23:59:59.000Z

215

Density controlled carbon nanotube array electrodes  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

CNT materials comprising aligned carbon nanotubes (CNTs) with pre-determined site densities, catalyst substrate materials for obtaining them and methods for forming aligned CNTs with controllable densities on such catalyst substrate materials are described. The fabrication of films comprising site-density controlled vertically aligned CNT arrays of the invention with variable field emission characteristics, whereby the field emission properties of the films are controlled by independently varying the length of CNTs in the aligned array within the film or by independently varying inter-tubule spacing of the CNTs within the array (site density) are disclosed. The fabrication of microelectrode arrays (MEAs) formed utilizing the carbon nanotube material of the invention is also described.

Ren, Zhifeng F. (Newton, MA); Tu, Yi (Belmont, MA)

2008-12-16T23:59:59.000Z

216

Separation of carbon nanotubes in density gradients  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The separation of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs), by chirality and/or diameter, using centrifugation of compositions of SWNTs in and surface active components in density gradient media.

Hersam, Mark C. (Evanston, IL); Stupp, Samuel I. (Chicago, IL); Arnold, Michael S. (Northbrook, IL)

2010-02-16T23:59:59.000Z

217

LANDAU'S NECESSARY DENSITY CONDITIONS FOR LCA GROUPS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

LANDAU'S NECESSARY DENSITY CONDITIONS FOR LCA GROUPS KARLHEINZ GR�OCHENIG, GITTA KUTYNIOK's conditions to the setting of locally compact abelian (LCA) groups, relying in an analogous way on the basics

Seip, Kristian

218

LANDAU'S NECESSARY DENSITY CONDITIONS FOR LCA GROUPS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

LANDAU'S NECESSARY DENSITY CONDITIONS FOR LCA GROUPS KARLHEINZ GR¨OCHENIG, GITTA KUTYNIOK's conditions to the setting of locally compact abelian (LCA) groups, relying in an analogous way on the basics

Kutyniok, Gitta

219

Fact #661: February 7, 2011 Population Density  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

The density of the population in the U.S., measured as the number of people per square mile, affects the way goods and people are transported. The newly released 2010 Census data show that, on a...

220

Electron densities from the Brueckner Doubles method  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The concept of the Brueckner orbital is examined, following a resurgence of ... distinction between Self Consistent Field, Natural and Brueckner orbitals are discussed. Total electron densities are ... are studie...

Caroline M. van Heusden; Rika Kobayashi; Roger D. Amos…

1993-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "density lithium-sulfur cells" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
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221

Coal fractionation by density for coking purposes  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Scarce coal with good coking properties may be obtained by separating less valuable coal into different density fractions. The use of valuable fractions released in enrichment ensures optimal coking-batch composi...

S. G. Gagarin

2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

222

High density effective theory on the lattice  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Long-range interactions in finite density QCD necessitate a non-perturbative approach in order to reliably map out the key features and spectrum of the QCD phase diagram. However, the complex nature of the fermion determinant in this sector prohibits the use of established Monte Carlo techniques that utilize importance sampling. Whilst significant progress has been made in the low density, high temperature region, this remains a considerable challenge at mid to high density. At large chemical potential, QCD can be approximated using high density effective theory which is free from the sign problem at leading order. We investigate the implementation of this theory on the lattice in conjunction with existing re-weighting techniques.

A. Dougall

2007-10-08T23:59:59.000Z

223

On coherence in parametric density estimation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......1990 research-article Miscellanea On coherence in parametric density estimation J...KullbackLeibler directed divergence has this coherence property whereas the corresponding symmetric...estimation is also discussed. Admissibility|Coherence|Kullback-Leibler divergence|Predictive......

J. AITCHISON

1990-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

224

Alpha track density using a semiconductor detector  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of factors including variation in the initial dielectric thickness, and other undefined parameters. In addition, the resultant radon concentration reading is dependent upon the calibration factor used to interpret the track density reading. Obtaining...

Hamilton, Ian Scott

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

225

High Energy Density Ultracapacitors | Department of Energy  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting, June 7-11, 2010 -- Washington D.C. es038smith2010o.pdf More Documents & Publications High Energy Density Ultracapacitors High...

226

High Energy Density Ultracapacitors | Department of Energy  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting, May 18-22, 2009 -- Washington D.C. esp22smith.pdf More Documents & Publications High Energy Density Ultracapacitors High Energy...

227

High energy density, thin-lm, rechargeable lithium batteries for marine eld operations  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

High energy density, thin-®lm, rechargeable lithium batteries for marine ®eld operations Biying February 2001 Abstract All solid state, thin-®lm batteries with the cell con®guration of VOx, no binder) cathode consisted of a dense ®lm of vanadium oxide (200 nm thick), deposited on aluminum foil

Sadoway, Donald Robert

228

Buoyancy-generated variable-density turbulence  

SciTech Connect

Because of the importance of turbulence mixing in many applications, a number of turbulence mixing models have been proposed for variable- density flows. These engineering models (one- point statistical models) typically include the transport of the turbulent kinetic energy and the turbulent energy dissipation rate (i.e., k - {epsilon} models). The model presented by Besnard, Harlow, Rauenzahn and Zemach (1992) (herein referred to as BHRZ) is a one-point model intended to describe variable-density turbulent flows. Transport equations for the Reynolds stress tensor, R{sub ij}, and the turbulent energy dissipation rate, the density-velocity correlation, a{sub i}, and the density-specific volume correlation, b are derived. This model employs- techniques and concepts from incompressible, constant- density turbulence modeling and incorporates ideas from two-phase flow models. Clark and Spitz (1994) present a two-point model for variable-density turbulence. Their derivation is based on transport equations that, are based 0481 on two-point- generalizations of R{sub ij}, a{sub ij}, and b. These equations are Fourier transformed with respect to the separation distance between the two points. Transport equations are derived for R{sub ij}, a{sub i}, b. As in the one-point model, this model contains many ad-hoc assumptions and unknown model coefficients that must be determined by comparison with experimental and numerical data. However, the two-point formalism requires fewer equilibrium assumptions then does a single-point model. Our primary concern in this paper lies in the nonlinear processes of turbulence and the influence of large density variations (not within the Boussinesq limit) on these processes. To. isolate the effects of variable-density on the turbulence we restrict our flow to be incompressible, statistically homogeneous buoyancy-generated. turbulence. To our knowledge there have not been any simulations reported for this problem.

Sandoval, D.L.; Clark, T.T.; Riley, J.J.

1996-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

229

Origin of Tokamak Density Limit Scalings  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The onset criterion for radiation driven islands [P.?H. Rebut and M. Hugon, Plasma Physics and Controlled Nuclear Fusion Research 1984: Proc. 10th Int. Conf. London, 1984, (IAEA, Vienna, 1985), Vol. 2] in combination with a simple cylindrical model of tokamak current channel behavior is consistent with the empirical scaling of the tokamak density limit [M. Greenwald, Nucl. Fusion 28, 2199 (1988)]. Many other unexplained phenomena at the density limit are consistent with this novel physics mechanism.

D. A. Gates and L. Delgado-Aparicio

2012-04-20T23:59:59.000Z

230

The Chemistry of Atherogenic High Density Lipoprotein  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

TRL Bouyant triglyceride-rich lipoprotein C18 Carbon tail of eighteen atoms CE Capillary electrophoresis CETP Cholesterol ester transfer protein CM Chylomicrons CsCdY dicesium cadmium ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid CAD Coronary artery disease CVD... Cardiovascular disease DGU Density gradient ultracentrifugation I-DGU Immunospecific-density gradient ultracentrifugation DMSO Dimethyl sulfoxide DS Dextran sulfate dTRL Dense triglyceride rich lipoprotein EDTA Ethyelenediaminetetraacetic acid HDL High...

Moore, D'Vesharronne J.

2012-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

231

Bone Mineral Density in Women with Depression  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...illness and the normal women were individually matched for age, body-mass index, and menstrual status; women with many of the risk factors associated with decreased bone mineral density were excluded; dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry was used to measure bone density at the spine, hip, and radius; and bone... Major depression is a complex disorder reflecting genetic, developmental, and environmental factors. Although its pathophysiology is not clearly understood, depression is associated with hypothalamic dysfunction — specifically, hypercortisolism, the ...

Michelson D.; Stratakis C.; Hill L.

1996-10-17T23:59:59.000Z

232

Atomic layer deposition of ZnO on ultralow-density nanoporous silica aerogel monoliths  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We report on atomic layer deposition of an ? 2 -nm-thick ZnO layer on the inner surface of ultralow-density ( ? 0.5 % of the full density) nanoporoussilica aerogel monoliths with an extremely large effective aspect ratio of ? 10 5 (defined as the ratio of the monolith thickness to the average pore size). The resultant monoliths are formed by amorphous- SiO 2 core/wurtzite-ZnO shell nanoparticles which are randomly oriented and interconnected into an open-cell network with an apparent density of ? 3 % and a surface area of ? 10 0 m 2 g ? 1 . Secondary ion mass spectrometry and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy imaging reveal excellent uniformity and crystallinity of ZnO coating. Oxygen K -edge and Zn L 3 -edge soft x-ray absorption near-edge structure spectroscopy shows broadened O p - as well as Zn s - and d -projected densities of states in the conduction band.

S. O. Kucheyev; J. Biener; Y. M. Wang; T. F. Baumann; K. J. Wu; T. van Buuren; A. V. Hamza; J. H. Satcher Jr.; J. W. Elam; M. J. Pellin

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

233

Nuclear energy density optimization: Shell structure  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Nuclear density functional theory is the only microscopical theory that can be applied throughout the entire nuclear landscape. Its key ingredient is the energy density functional. In this work, we propose a new parameterization UNEDF2 of the Skyrme energy density functional. The functional optimization is carried out using the POUNDerS optimization algorithm within the framework of the Skyrme Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov theory. Compared to the previous parameterization UNEDF1, restrictions on the tensor term of the energy density have been lifted, yielding a very general form of the energy density functional up to second order in derivatives of the one-body density matrix. In order to impose constraints on all the parameters of the functional, selected data on single-particle splittings in spherical doubly-magic nuclei have been included into the experimental dataset. The agreement with both bulk and spectroscopic nuclear properties achieved by the resulting UNEDF2 parameterization is comparable with UNEDF1. While there is a small improvement on single-particle spectra and binding energies of closed shell nuclei, the reproduction of fission barriers and fission isomer excitation energies has degraded. As compared to previous UNEDF parameterizations, the parameter confidence interval for UNEDF2 is narrower. In particular, our results overlap well with those obtained in previous systematic studies of the spin-orbit and tensor terms. UNEDF2 can be viewed as an all-around Skyrme EDF that performs reasonably well for both global nuclear properties and shell structure. However, after adding new data aiming to better constrain the nuclear functional, its quality has improved only marginally. These results suggest that the standard Skyrme energy density has reached its limits and significant changes to the form of the functional are needed.

M. Kortelainen; J. McDonnell; W. Nazarewicz; E. Olsen; P. -G. Reinhard; J. Sarich; N. Schunck; S. M. Wild; D. Davesne; J. Erler; A. Pastore

2013-12-06T23:59:59.000Z

234

ORBITAL-FREE KINETIC-ENERGY DENSITY FUNCTIONAL THEORY  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Chapter 5 ORBITAL-FREE KINETIC-ENERGY DENSITY FUNCTIONAL THEORY Yan Alexander Wang and Emily A Theory (DFT), there was the Thomas-Fermi (TF) model, which uses the electron density ¢¡ r£ (a function-dependent DFT Density-Functional Theory DI density-independent DM1 first-order reduced density matrix EDF energy

Wang, Yan Alexander

235

A Bayesian Probability Calculus for Density Matrices  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

One of the main concepts in quantum physics is a density matrix, which is a symmetric positive definite matrix of trace one. Finite probability distributions are a special case where the density matrix is restricted to be diagonal. Density matrices are mixtures of dyads, where a dyad has the form uu' for any any unit column vector u. These unit vectors are the elementary events of the generalized probability space. Perhaps the simplest case to see that something unusual is going on is the case of uniform density matrix, i.e. 1/n times identity. This matrix assigns probability 1/n to every unit vector, but of course there are infinitely many of them. The new normalization rule thus says that sum of probabilities over any orthonormal basis of directions is one. We develop a probability calculus based on these more general distributions that includes definitions of joints, conditionals and formulas that relate these, i.e. analogs of the theorem of total probability, various Bayes rules for the calculation of posterior density matrices, etc. The resulting calculus parallels the familiar 'classical' probability calculus and always retains the latter as a special case when all matrices are diagonal. Whereas the classical Bayesian methods maintain uncertainty about which model is 'best', the generalization maintains uncertainty about which unit direction has the largest variance. Surprisingly the bounds also generalize: as in the classical setting we bound the negative log likelihood of the data by the negative log likelihood of the MAP estimator.

Manfred K. Warmuth; Dima Kuzmin

2014-08-09T23:59:59.000Z

236

OXIDATION OF DRY HYDROCARBONS AT HIGH-POWER DENSITY ANODES  

SciTech Connect

This work builds upon discoveries by the University of Pennsylvania and others pertaining to the oxidation of dry hydrocarbon fuels in high temperature solid oxide fuel cells. The work reported here was restricted primarily to dry methane and confirms that YSZ-based cells, having ceria in the anode as a catalyst and copper in the anode as a current collector, can operate on dry methane for extended periods. Thirty-three lab-scale cells of various designs were fabricated and operated under a variety of conditions. The longest-lived cell gave stable performance on dry methane at 800 C for over 305 hours. Only slight carbon deposition was noted at the completion of the test. A corresponding nickel/YSZ-based anode would have lasted for less than an hour under these test conditions (which included open circuit potential measurements) before carbon fouling essentially destroyed the cell. The best performing cell achieved 112 mW/cm{sub 2} on dry methane at 800 C. Several problems were encountered with carbon fouling and declining open circuit voltages in many of the test cells after switching from operation on hydrogen to dry methane. Although not rigorously confirmed by experimentation, the results suggested that air infiltration through less than perfect perimeter seals or pinholes in the electrolytes, or both gave rise to conditions that caused the carbon fouling and OCV decline. Small amounts of air reacting with methane in a partial oxidation reaction could produce carbon monoxide that, in turn, would deposit the carbon. If this mechanism is confirmed, it implies that near perfect hardware is required for extended operation. Some evidence was also found for the formation of electrical shorts, probably from carbon deposits bridging the electrolyte. Work with odorized methane and with methane containing 100-ppm hydrogen sulfide confirmed that copper is stable at 800 C in dry hydrocarbon fuels in the presence of sulfur. In a number of cases, but not exclusively, the performance life on dry methane with sulfur compounds was much longer than with dry methane alone. The effect of sulfur compounds in these cases appeared to correlate with inhibition of carbon deposition. Mixed results were obtained for the effect of the sulfur compounds on power density. Progress also was made in understanding the mechanisms involved in direct utilization of dry natural gas. Evidence was developed for three possible mechanisms for dry methane utilization in addition to the usually cited mechanism--direct oxidation of methane by oxygen anions. Further work is required at a fundamental level before the knowledge gained here can be translated into higher levels of performance.

K.Krist; O. Spaldon-Stewart; R. Remick

2004-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

237

High-Energy-Density Plasmas, Fluids  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

High-Energy-Density Plasmas, Fluids High-Energy-Density Plasmas, Fluids /science-innovation/_assets/images/icon-science.jpg High-Energy-Density Plasmas, Fluids National security depends on science and technology. The United States relies on Los Alamos National Laboratory for the best of both. No place on Earth pursues a broader array of world-class scientific endeavors. TRIDENT target chamber Sasi Palaniyappan, right, and Rahul Shah left inside a target chamber where the TRIDENT short pulse laser is aimed at a very thin diamond- foil target, a fraction of a micrometer thick. The laser delivers a power on target of 150 Terawatts focused into a 7 micrometer spot, yielding laser brilliance over 100 times more intense than needed to make the target electrons fully relativistic. These experiments test novel methods of producing intense

238

Neutron Matter from Low to High Density  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Neutron matter is an intriguing nuclear system with multiple connections to other areas of physics. Considerable progress has been made over the last two decades in exploring the properties of pure neutron fluids. Here we begin by reviewing work done to explore the behavior of very low density neutron matter, which forms a strongly paired superfluid and is thus similar to cold Fermi atoms, though at energy scales differing by many orders of magnitude. We then increase the density, discussing work that ties the study of neutron matter with the determination of the properties of neutron-rich nuclei and neutron-star crusts. After this, we review the impact neutron matter at even higher densities has on the mass-radius relation of neutron stars, thereby making contact with astrophysical observations.

Gandolfi, Stefano; Carlson, J

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

239

Hall viscosity, spin density, and torsion  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We investigate the relationship between Hall viscosity, spin density and response to geometric torsion. For the most general effective action for relativistic gapped systems, the presence of non-universal terms implies that there is no relationship between torsion response and Hall viscosity. We also consider free relativistic and non-relativistic microscopic actions and again verify the existence of analogous non-universal couplings. Explicit examples demonstrate that torsion response is unrelated to both Hall viscosity and spin density. We also argue that relativistic gapped theories must have vanishing Hall viscosity in Lorentz invariant vacuums.

Geracie, Michael; Roberts, Matthew M

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

240

Density Perturbations in the Ekpyrotic Scenario  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We study the generation of density perturbations in the ekpyrotic scenario for the early universe, including gravitational backreaction. We expose interesting subtleties that apply to both inflationary and ekpyrotic models. Our analysis includes a detailed proposal of how the perturbations generated in a contracting phase may be matched across a `bounce' to those in an expanding hot big bang phase. For the physical conditions relevant to the ekpyrotic scenario, we re-obtain our earlier result of a nearly scale-invariant spectrum of energy density perturbations. We find that the perturbation amplitude is typically small, as desired to match observation.

Justin Khoury; Burt A. Ovrut; Paul J. Steinhardt; Neil Turok

2001-09-06T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "density lithium-sulfur cells" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Josephson oscillations of charge density waves  

SciTech Connect

The formation of charge density waves in solids was originally proposed as a possible mechanism for superconductivity by Froehlich. Although the experimentally discovered materials with charge density waves (CDW)s are found to have finite resistivity as a result of impurity pinning, they nevertheless reveal many interesting features including motion which is analogous to a resistively shunted Josephson junction of superconductors. The noise spectrum of CDW systems is reviewed with particular emphasis on interactions with normal as well as magnetic impurities. Future prospects for observing an amplitude variation of the noise signals induced by a magnetic field are proposed.

Ruvalds, J.; Tua, P.F.

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

242

Energy and Momentum Density in Field Theory  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

It is shown that the energy density commutator condition in its simplest form is valid for interacting spin 0, ½, 1 field systems, but not for higher spin fields. The action principle is extended, for this purpose, to arbitrary coordinate frames. There is a discussion of four categories of fields and some explicit consideration of spin 32 as the simplest example that gives additional terms in the energy density commutator. As the fundamental equation of relativistic quantum field theory, the commutator condition makes explicit the greater physical complexity of higher spin fields.

Julian Schwinger

1963-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

243

In situ PEM fuel cell water measurements  

SciTech Connect

Efficient PEM fuel cell performance requires effective water management. The materials used, their durability, and the operating conditions under which fuel cells run, make efficient water management within a practical fuel cell system a primary challenge in developing commercially viable systems. We present experimental measurements of water content within operating fuel cells. in response to operational conditions, including transients and freezing conditions. To help understand the effect of components and operations, we examine water transport in operating fuel cells, measure the fuel cell water in situ and model the water transport within the fuel cell. High Frequency Resistance (HFR), AC Impedance and Neutron imaging (using NIST's facilities) were used to measure water content in operating fuel cells with various conditions, including current density, relative humidity, inlet flows, flow orientation and variable GDL properties. Ice formation in freezing cells was also monitored both during operation and shut-down conditions.

Borup, Rodney L [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mukundan, Rangachary [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Davey, John R [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Spendalow, Jacob S [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

244

Time Dependent Density Functional Theory Application to Extended Systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Time Dependent Density Functional Theory Application to Extended Systems Francesco Sottile Facility (ETSF) Donostia, 25 July 2007 Time Dependent Density Functional Theory Francesco Sottile #12 Density Functional Theory Francesco Sottile #12;Linear Periodic systems ALDA The Quest for the Holy

Botti, Silvana

245

Mechanical constraints enhance electrical energy densities of soft dielectrics  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Mechanical constraints enhance electrical energy densities of soft dielectrics Lin Zhang, Qiming, the dielectric will breakdown electrically. The breakdown limits the electrical energy density of the dielectric electric fields and thus increase their electrical energy densities. The mechanical constraints suppress

Ferrari, Silvia

246

High-power-density spot cooling using bulk thermoelectrics  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

3D electrothermal model, the cooling power densities of themax , and increasing the cooling power densities 2–24 times.the advantages of high cooling power densities and is less

Zhang, Y; Shakouri, A; Zeng, G H

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

247

High power density AEM combustion for TPV applications  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Various emitter designs and compositions are investigated to improve the performance and reduce the cost of thermophotovoltaic (TPV) devices. In order to maximize the overall system efficiency of combustion-powered TPV devices it is desirable to design an emitter system that will provide a high and uniform volumetric heat release producing a high intensity and uniform in-band photons flux thus enabling reduced size and weight of TPV generators. Quantum Group Inc. (QGI) has developed a high power density radiant burner/emitter technology which we have called Advanced Emissive Matrix (AEM). The AEM system is applicable to broad-band and narrow-band TPV approaches. Several AEM combustors-both broad-band and narrow-band-have been built tested and have consistently demonstrated extremely high power density (up to 30 W/cm3). Radiant emissions greater than 27 W/cm2 were measured from an AEM combustor fired with natural gas at 15% excess air. This level of radiant heat flux enables the utilization of concentrator-type PV cells which is a method of reducing cost size and weight of TPV devices. Additionally it was found that the AEM structure could be engineered to provide a desired radiant emission profile. The influence of the primary combustion parameters on emitter performance will also be presented. Therefore integration of the narrow-band emitter materials into an AEM combustor results in the delivery of high intensity selective and uniform photons to the PV cell face that improves TPV device performance.

Aleksandr S. Kushch; Steven M. Skinner

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

248

neutron density. The neutron density (nn) of the source was modeled by solving the simul-  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

neutron density. The neutron density (nn) of the source was modeled by solving the simul- taneousT is the thermal neutron velocity, l is the decay constant, Ns is the s-process abun- dance, bs� is the maxwellian-averaged neutron capture cross-section, and t0 is the average neutron exposure (21). The branching decay of 186Re

West, Stuart

249

On the Determination of the Mean Cosmic Matter Density and the Amplitude of Density Fluctuations  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The cosmological implications from a new estimate of the local X-ray galaxy cluster abundance are summarized. The results are then compared to independent observations. It is suggested that `low' values for the mean cosmic matter density and the amplitude of mass density fluctuations currently do not appear unreasonable observationally.

Thomas H. Reiprich

2002-07-02T23:59:59.000Z

250

Development of alkaline fuel cells.  

SciTech Connect

This project focuses on the development and demonstration of anion exchange membrane (AEM) fuel cells for portable power applications. Novel polymeric anion exchange membranes and ionomers with high chemical stabilities were prepared characterized by researchers at Sandia National Laboratories. Durable, non-precious metal catalysts were prepared by Dr. Plamen Atanassov's research group at the University of New Mexico by utilizing an aerosol-based process to prepare templated nano-structures. Dr. Andy Herring's group at the Colorado School of Mines combined all of these materials to fabricate and test membrane electrode assemblies for single cell testing in a methanol-fueled alkaline system. The highest power density achieved in this study was 54 mW/cm2 which was 90% of the project target and the highest reported power density for a direct methanol alkaline fuel cell.

Hibbs, Michael R.; Jenkins, Janelle E.; Alam, Todd Michael; Janarthanan, Rajeswari [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO; Horan, James L. [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO; Caire, Benjamin R. [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO; Ziegler, Zachary C. [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO; Herring, Andrew M. [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO; Yang, Yuan [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO; Zuo, Xiaobing [Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL; Robson, Michael H. [University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM; Artyushkova, Kateryna [University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM; Patterson, Wendy [University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM; Atanassov, Plamen Borissov [University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM

2013-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

251

FUEL CELLS – SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELLS | Gas Distribution  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A uniform distribution of the reactants over the total available electrode surfaces in solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) is a prerequisite for the proper operation of the fuel cell. The gas distribution plays a dominant role not only in the current density distribution but also in the temperature distribution over the cell areas and in the stack and modules. Several transport mechanisms for mass transport occurring in the SOFC are introduced and discussed. General flow configurations and structures for the gas distribution at three different levels, i.e., stack/module, cell/tube, and electrode/electrolyte, are discussed for both tubular and planar type cells and illustrated with examples of concentration and temperature profiles.

L.G.J. de Haart; M. Spiller

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

252

TEMPO-based Catholyte for High Energy Density Nonaqueous Redox...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

TEMPO-based Catholyte for High Energy Density Nonaqueous Redox Flow Batteries. TEMPO-based Catholyte for High Energy Density Nonaqueous Redox Flow Batteries. Abstract: We will...

253

Engineering Density of States of Earth Abundant Semiconductors...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Density of States of Earth Abundant Semiconductors for Enhanced Thermoelectric Power Factor Engineering Density of States of Earth Abundant Semiconductors for Enhanced...

254

High Energy Density Laboratory Plasmas Program | National Nuclear...  

National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

Photo Gallery Jobs Apply for Our Jobs Our Jobs Working at NNSA Blog Home High Energy Density Laboratory Plasmas Program High Energy Density Laboratory Plasmas Program...

255

E-Print Network 3.0 - adenoma cell systems Sample Search Results  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

in early carcinogenesis Summary: systems of minute difference in disorder. 3.2. IPR study of cell lines: nanoscale mass-density fluctuation... University, Evanston, IL...

256

Density Functional Theory Approach to Nuclear Fission  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The Skyrme nuclear energy density functional theory (DFT) is used to model neutron-induced fission in actinides. This paper focuses on the numerical implementation of the theory. In particular, it reports recent advances in DFT code development on leadership class computers, and presents a detailed analysis of the numerical accuracy of DFT solvers for near-scission calculations.

N. Schunck

2013-01-20T23:59:59.000Z

257

Modern applications of covariant density functional theory  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Modern applications of Covariant Density Functional Theory (CDFT) are discussed. First we show a systematic investigation of fission barriers in actinide nuclei within constraint relativistic mean field theory allowing for triaxial deformations. In the second part we discuss a microscopic theory of quantum phase transitions (QPT) based on the relativistic generator coordinate method.

P. Ring; H. Abusara; A. V. Afanasjev; G. A. Lalazissis; T. Niksic; D. Vretenar

2011-09-19T23:59:59.000Z

258

Thermal conductivity of low density carbon aerogels  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Carbon aerogels with densities ranging from 0.182 to 0.052 g/cm3, pore sizes ranging from 88 to 227 nm, and particle diameters ranging from 20 to 13 nm were prepared. Thermal conductivity measurements by laser fl...

Junzong Feng; Jian Feng; Changrui Zhang

2012-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

259

Estimating density of Florida Key deer  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

for this species since 1968; however, a need to evaluate the precision of existing and alternative survey methods (i.e., road counts, mark-recapture, infrared-triggered cameras [ITC]) was desired by USFWS. I evaluated density estimates from unbaited ITCs and road...

Roberts, Clay Walton

2006-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

260

Density Perturbations for Running Cosmological Constant  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The dynamics of density and metric perturbations is investigated for the previously developed model where the decay of the vacuum energy into matter (or vice versa) is due to the renormalization group (RG) running of the cosmological constant (CC) term. The evolution of the CC depends on the single parameter \

Julio C. Fabris; Ilya L. Shapiro; Joan Sola

2007-01-26T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "density lithium-sulfur cells" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Drawing Electron Density Maps Tutorial : J. Reibenspies  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

file Choose the difference map #12;Step 2 · If necessary generate full molecule in XSEED or XP shift key to pan) #12;Step 4 · All ball and stick plot to spice it up ZOOMED #12;Step 5 · Save screen the electron density in the macocyclic void in order to understand the disorder #12;Step one · In the INS

Meagher, Mary

262

Master's Thesis Density Functional Theory for  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of the information found during my work. v #12;vi #12;Contents Abstract #12;Abstract This thesis presents a number of results for basic quantum mechanical models intended to be used in the development of density functional theory for systems with edges. Following previous work

Armiento, Rickard

263

Energy enhancement of proton acceleration in combinational radiation pressure and bubble by optimizing plasma density  

SciTech Connect

The combinational laser radiation pressure and plasma bubble fields to accelerate protons are researched through theoretical analysis and numerical simulations. The dephasing length of the accelerated protons bunch in the front of the bubble and the density gradient effect of background plasma on the accelerating phase are analyzed in detail theoretically. The radiation damping effect on the accelerated protons energy is also considered. And it is demonstrated by two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations that the protons bunch energy can be increased by using the background plasma with negative density gradient. However, radiation damping makes the maximal energy of the accelerated protons a little reduction.

Bake, Muhammad Ali; Xie Baisong [Key Laboratory of Beam Technology and Materials Modification of the Ministry of Education, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); College of Nuclear Science and Technology, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Shan Zhang [Department of Mathematics and Physics, Shijiazhuang Tiedao University, Shijiazhuang 050043 (China); Hong Xueren [College of Nuclear Science and Technology, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); College of Physics and Electronic Engineering, Northwest Normal University, Lanzhou 730070 (China); Wang Hongyu [Department of Physics, Anshan Normal University, Anshan 114005 (China); Shanghai Bright-Tech Information Technology Co. Ltd, Shanghai 200136 (China)

2012-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

264

Energy-Density Relation for Nuclear Matter  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In most previous calculations of nuclear matter the energy has been calculated only at the equilibrium density, which density has been determined by a minimum condition. In the present paper the author's theory of nuclear matter is applied to a study of the complete energy-density relation of nuclear matter, in the neighborhood of the equilibrium density. The emphasis here is not upon duplicating the accepted value for the equilibrium binding energy, but rather upon a study of the leading (diagonal) contribution of the quasi-particle interaction term g1(k1k2|k3k4), which is the matrix element of a reaction matrix G1. It is shown that g1(k1k2|k1k2) must be evaluated partly by using observed nucleon-nucleon scattering phase shifts and partly by calculating the close-in behavior of the two-nucleon wave function, and that this second part receives a large contribution from the deuteron state. Curves are given for the dependence of g1(k1k2|k1k2) on the density and the center-of-mass momentum. It is also shown that g1(k1k2|k1k2) is sensitive to the size of the nucleon repulsive core, but not upon the character of the attraction, when agreement with scattering data has first been achieved. Finally, a comparison of g1(k1k2|k1k2) with the prediction of first-order perturbation theory is made.

Franz Mohling

1962-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

265

Electrode for a lithium cell  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This invention relates to a positive electrode for an electrochemical cell or battery, and to an electrochemical cell or battery; the invention relates more specifically to a positive electrode for a non-aqueous lithium cell or battery when the electrode is used therein. The positive electrode includes a composite metal oxide containing AgV.sub.3O.sub.8 as one component and one or more other components consisting of LiV.sub.3O.sub.8, Ag.sub.2V.sub.4O.sub.11, MnO.sub.2, CF.sub.x, AgF or Ag.sub.2O to increase the energy density of the cell, optionally in the presence of silver powder and/or silver foil to assist in current collection at the electrode and to improve the power capability of the cell or battery.

Thackeray, Michael M. (Naperville, IL); Vaughey, John T. (Elmhurst, IL); Dees, Dennis W. (Downers Grove, IL)

2008-10-14T23:59:59.000Z

266

COMPUTATIONAL FLUID DYNAMICS MODELING OF SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELLS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

COMPUTATIONAL FLUID DYNAMICS MODELING OF SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELLS Ugur Pasaogullari and Chao-dimensional model has been developed to simulate solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC). The model fully couples current density operation. INTRODUCTION Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) are among possible candidates

267

Review of Fuels for Direct Carbon Fuel Cells  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Review of Fuels for Direct Carbon Fuel Cells ... After optimization for minimum activation polarization, the authors then produced impedance spectra to assess cell performance and achieved a peak power density of around 18 and 53 mW cm–2 at 700 and 800 °C, respectively. ... solid oxide fuel cell system under 600° just by optimizing the anode microstructure and operating conditions. ...

Adam C. Rady; Sarbjit Giddey; Sukhvinder P. S. Badwal; Bradley P. Ladewig; Sankar Bhattacharya

2012-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

268

The problem of the universal density functional and the density matrix functional theory  

SciTech Connect

The analysis in this paper shows that the Hohenberg-Kohn theorem is the constellation of two statements: (i) the mathematically rigorous Hohenberg-Kohn lemma, which demonstrates that the same ground-state density cannot correspond to two different potentials of an external field, and (ii) the hypothesis of the existence of the universal density functional. Based on the obtained explicit expression for the nonrel-ativistic particle energy in a local external field, we prove that the energy of the system of more than two non-interacting electrons cannot be a functional of the inhomogeneous density. This result is generalized to the system of interacting electrons. It means that the Hohenberg-Kohn lemma cannot provide justification of the universal density functional for fermions. At the same time, statements of the density functional theory remain valid when considering any number of noninteracting ground-state bosons due to the Bose condensation effect. In the framework of the density matrix functional theory, the hypothesis of the existence of the universal density matrix functional corresponds to the cases of noninteracting particles and to interaction in the Hartree-Fock approximation.

Bobrov, V. B., E-mail: vic5907@mail.ru; Trigger, S. A., E-mail: satron@mail.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, Joint Institute for High Temperatures (Russian Federation)

2013-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

269

Hydrogen density of states and defects densities in a-Si:H  

SciTech Connect

The properties of hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) and its devices depend fundamentally on the density of states (DOS) in the gap due to dangling bonds. It is generally believed that the density of dangling bonds is controlled by a chemical equilibrium with the weak Si-Si bonds which form the localized valence band tail states. Further details are given of a unified model of the hydrogen density of states and defect pool of a-Si:H. The model is compared to other defect models and extended to describe a-Si alloys and the creation of valence band tail states during growth.

Deane, S.C.; Powell, M.J. [Philips Research Labs., Redhill, Surrey (United Kingdom); Robertson, J. [Cambridge Univ. (United Kingdom). Engineering Dept.

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

270

Uniqueness of magnetotomography for fuel cells and fuel cell stacks  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The criterion for the applicability of any tomographic method is its ability to construct the desired inner structure of a system from external measurements, i.e. to solve the inverse problem. Magnetotomography applied to fuel cells and fuel cell stacks aims at determining the inner current densities from measurements of the external magnetic field. This is an interesting idea since in those systems the inner electric current densities are large, several hundred mA per cm2and therefore relatively high external magnetic fields can be expected. Still the question remains how uniquely the inverse problem can be solved. Here we present a proof that by exploiting Maxwell's equations extensively the inverse problem of magnetotomography becomes unique under rather mild assumptions and we show that these assumptions are fulfilled in fuel cells and fuel cell stacks. Moreover, our proof holds true for any other device fulfilling the assumptions listed here. Admittedly, our proof has one caveat: it does not contain an estimate of the precision requirements the measurements need to fulfil for enabling reconstruction of the inner current densities from external magnetic fields.

H Lustfeld; J Hirschfeld; M Reißel; B Steffen

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

271

Progress in fuel cells for transportation applications  

SciTech Connect

The current and projected states of development of fuel cells are described in terms of availability, performance, and cost. The applicability of various fuel cell types to the transportation application is discussed, and projections of power densities, weights, and volumes of fuel cell systems are made into the early 1990s. Research currently being done to advance fuel cells for vehicular application is described. A summary of near-term design parameters for a fuel cell transit line is given, including bus performance requirements, fuel cell power plant configuration, and battery peaking requirements. The objective of this paper is to determine a fuel cell technology suitable for near-term use as a vehicular power plant. The emphasis of the study is on indirect methanol fuel cell systems.

Murray, H.S.

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

272

LowerLower--Cost Fuel CellsCost Fuel Cells Allen J. Bard, Arumugam Manthiram,Allen J. Bard, Arumugam Manthiram,  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

density 4 Hydrogen polymer electrolyteHydrogen polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC)membrane fuel1 LowerLower--Cost Fuel CellsCost Fuel Cells Allen J. Bard, Arumugam Manthiram,Allen J. BardMaterials Science and Engineering Program 2 CONVENTIONAL POWER PLANT DIRECT FUEL CELL POWER PLANT Heat

Lightsey, Glenn

273

Global coherence of dust density waves  

SciTech Connect

The coherence of self-excited three-dimensional dust density waves has been experimentally investigated by comparing global and local wave properties. For that purpose, three-dimensional dust clouds have been confined in a radio frequency plasma with thermophoretic levitation. Global wave properties have been measured from the line-of-sight integrated dust density obtained from homogenous light extinction measurements. Local wave properties have been obtained from thin, two-dimensional illuminated laser slices of the cloud. By correlating the simultaneous global and local wave properties, the spatial coherence of the waves has been determined. We find that linear waves with small amplitudes tend to be fragmented, featuring an incoherent wave field. Strongly non-linear waves with large amplitudes, however, feature a strong spatial coherence throughout the dust cloud, indicating a high level of synchronization.

Killer, Carsten; Melzer, André [Institut für Physik, Ernst-Moritz-Arndt-Universität Greifswald, 17489 Greifswald (Germany)

2014-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

274

Ultra-high density diffraction grating  

SciTech Connect

A diffraction grating structure having ultra-high density of grooves comprises an echellette substrate having periodically repeating recessed features, and a multi-layer stack of materials disposed on the echellette substrate. The surface of the diffraction grating is planarized, such that layers of the multi-layer stack form a plurality of lines disposed on the planarized surface of the structure in a periodical fashion, wherein lines having a first property alternate with lines having a dissimilar property on the surface of the substrate. For example, in one embodiment, lines comprising high-Z and low-Z materials alternate on the planarized surface providing a structure that is suitable as a diffraction grating for EUV and soft X-rays. In some embodiments, line density of between about 10,000 lines/mm to about 100,000 lines/mm is provided.

Padmore, Howard A.; Voronov, Dmytro L.; Cambie, Rossana; Yashchuk, Valeriy V.; Gullikson, Eric M.

2012-12-11T23:59:59.000Z

275

The string of variable density: Further results  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We analyze the problem of calculating the solutions and the spectrum of a string with arbitrary density and fixed ends. We build a perturbative scheme which uses a basis of WKB-type functions and obtain explicit expressions for the eigenvalues and eigenfunctions of the string. Using this approach we show that it is possible to derive the asymptotic (high energy) behavior of the string, obtaining explicit expressions for the first three coefficients (the first two can also be obtained with the WKB method). Finally, using an iterative approach we also obtain analytical expressions for the low energy behavior of the eigenvalues and eigenfunctions of a string with rapidly oscillating density, recovering (in a simpler way) results in the literature.

Paolo Amore

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

276

The string of variable density: further results  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We analyze the problem of calculating the solutions and the spectrum of a string with arbitrary density and fixed ends. We build a perturbative scheme which uses a basis of WKB-type functions and obtain explicit expressions for the eigenvalues and eigenfunctions of the string. Using this approach we show that it is possible to derive the asymptotic (high energy) behavior of the string, obtaining explicit expressions for the first three coefficients (the first two can also be obtained with the WKB method). Finally using an iterative approach we also obtain analytical expressions for the low energy behavior of the eigenvalues and eigenfunctions of a string with rapidly oscillating density, recovering (in a simpler way) results in the literature.

Paolo Amore

2010-10-24T23:59:59.000Z

277

DENSITY FUNCTIONAL THEORY OF NORMAL AND SUPERCONDUCTING ELECTRON LIQUIDS: EXPLICIT  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

DENSITY FUNCTIONAL THEORY OF NORMAL AND SUPERCONDUCTING ELECTRON LIQUIDS: EXPLICIT FUNCTIONALS VIAÃ?th University Nathan, Queensland 4111, Australia Abstract The basic idea of density functional theory is to map potential which is a functional of the density. The central task of density functional theory is to #12;nd

Gross, E.K.U.

278

ELECTRON DENSITY FLUCTUATIONS AND FLUCTUATION-INDUCED TRANSPORT  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109 6 Fluctuations and Fluctuation-Induced Particle Transport 110 6.1 Electron Density Fluctuations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ....

279

Carbon/Sulfur Nanocomposites and Additives for High-Energy Lithium...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

May 2011 CarbonSulfur Nanocomposites and Additives for High-Energy Lithium Sulfur Batteries "This presentation does not contain any proprietary, confidential, or otherwise...

280

Manufacturing of Protected Lithium Electrodes for Advanced Lithium...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Lithium Electrodes for Advanced Lithium-Air, Lithium-Water, and Lithium-Sulfur Batteries, April 2013 Manufacturing of Protected Lithium Electrodes for Advanced Lithium-Air,...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "density lithium-sulfur cells" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

Long-Living Polymer Electrolytes | Department of Energy  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

More Documents & Publications Composite Electrolyte to Stabilize Metallic Lithium Anodes CarbonSulfur Nanocomposites and Additives for High-Energy Lithium Sulfur...

282

Energy-momentum Density of Gravitational Waves  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this paper, we elaborate the problem of energy-momentum in general relativity by energy-momentum prescriptions theory. Our aim is to calculate energy and momentum densities for the general form of gravitational waves. In this connection, we have extended the previous works by using the prescriptions of Bergmann and Tolman. It is shown that they are finite and reasonable. In addition, using Tolman prescription, exactly, leads to same results that have been obtained by Einstein and Papapetrou prescriptions.

Amir M. Abbassi; Saeed Mirshekari

2014-11-29T23:59:59.000Z

283

Density matrix minimization with $\\ell_1$ regularization  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We propose a convex variational principle to find sparse representation of low-lying eigenspace of symmetric matrices. In the context of electronic structure calculation, this corresponds to a sparse density matrix minimization algorithm with $\\ell_1$ regularization. The minimization problem can be efficiently solved by a split Bergman iteration type algorithm. We further prove that from any initial condition, the algorithm converges to a minimizer of the variational principle.

Rongjie Lai; Jianfeng Lu; Stanley Osher

2014-03-06T23:59:59.000Z

284

Density waves in a transverse electric field  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In a quasi-one-dimensional conductor with an open Fermi surface, a charge- or a spin-density-wave phase can be destroyed by an electric field perpendicular to the direction of high conductivity. This mechanism, due to the breakdown of electron-hole symmetry, is very similar to the orbital destruction of superconductivity by a magnetic field, due to time-reversal symmetry.

Gilles Montambaux

1996-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

285

Energy-Momentum Density of Gravitational Waves  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this paper, we elaborate the problem of energy-momentum in general relativity by energy-momentum prescriptions theory. Our aim is to calculate energy and momentum densities for the general form of gravitational waves. In this connection, we have extended the previous works by using the prescriptions of Bergmann and Tolman. It is shown that they are finite and reasonable. In addition, using Tolman prescription, exactly, leads to same results that have been obtained by Einstein and Papapetrou prescriptions.

Amir M. Abbassi; Saeed Mirshekari

2009-08-03T23:59:59.000Z

286

High Energy Density Utracapacitors: Low-Cost, High Energy and Power Density, Nanotube-Enhanced Ultracapacitors  

SciTech Connect

Broad Funding Opportunity Announcement Project: FastCAP is improving the performance of an ultracapacitor—a battery-like electronic device that can complement, and possibly even replace, an HEV or EV battery pack. Ultracapacitors have many advantages over conventional batteries, including long lifespans (over 1 million cycles, as compared to 10,000 for conventional batteries) and better durability. Ultracapacitors also charge more quickly than conventional batteries, and they release energy more quickly. However, ultracapacitors have fallen short of batteries in one key metric: energy density—high energy density means more energy storage. FastCAP is redesigning the ultracapacitor’s internal structure to increase its energy density. Ultracapacitors traditionally use electrodes made of irregularly shaped, porous carbon. FastCAP’s ultracapacitors are made of tiny, aligned carbon nanotubes. The nanotubes provide a regular path for ions moving in and out of the ultracapacitor’s electrode, increasing the overall efficiency and energy density of the device.

None

2010-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

287

Early Type Galaxy Core Phase Densities  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Early type galaxies, ellipticals and S0's, have two distinct core density profiles, either a power law or nearly flat in projection. The two core types are distributed with substantial overlap in luminosity, radius, mass and velocity dispersion, however, the cores separate into two distinct distributions in their coarse grain phase density, Q_0 = rho/sigma^3,suggesting that dynamical processes played a dominant role in their origin. The transition phase density separating the two elliptical types is approximately 0.003 M_sun pc^-3 km^-3 s^3,. The Q_0*M_c^2 vs M_c diagram shows that globular clusters, nuclear star clusters and power-law cores fall on what is likely a "collisional" sequence of inspiralling globular clusters. on which the relative core mass excess varies as the bulk stellar mass to the -0.34+/-0.08 power, close to predictions, albeit with a correlation coefficient of -0.46. Both power-law and cored galaxies lie on a single sequence of approximately Q_0 ~r_c^-2.2, suggesting that transport proces...

Carlbeg, Raymond

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

288

The string of variable density: Further results  

SciTech Connect

We analyze the problem of calculating the solutions and the spectrum of a string with arbitrary density and fixed ends. We build a perturbative scheme which uses a basis of WKB-type functions and obtain explicit expressions for the eigenvalues and eigenfunctions of the string. Using this approach we show that it is possible to derive the asymptotic (high energy) behavior of the string, obtaining explicit expressions for the first three coefficients (the first two can also be obtained with the WKB method). Finally, using an iterative approach we also obtain analytical expressions for the low energy behavior of the eigenvalues and eigenfunctions of a string with rapidly oscillating density, recovering (in a simpler way) results in the literature. - Highlights: > We devise a perturbative approach to finding the modes of a string with arbitrary density. > We obtain explicitly the first three coefficients of the asymptotic high energy expansion. > We apply our findings to a series of examples, obtaining both analytical and numerical results.

Amore, Paolo, E-mail: paolo.amore@gmail.com

2011-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

289

Full charge-density calculation of the surface energy of metals  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We have calculated the surface energy and the work function of the 4d metals by means of an energy functional based on a self-consistent, spherically symmetric atomic-sphere potential. In this approach the kinetic energy is calculated completely within the atomic-sphere approximation (ASA) by means of a spherically symmetrized charge density, while the Coulomb and exchange-correlation contributions are calculated by means of the complete, nonspherically symmetric charge density within nonoverlapping, space-filling Wigner-Seitz cells. The functional is used to assess the convergence and the accuracy of the linear-muffin-tin-orbitals (LMTO) method and the ASA in surface calculations. We find that the full charge-density functional improves the agreement with recent full-potential LMTO calculations to a level where the average deviation in surface energy over the 4d series is down to 10%.

L. Vitos; J. Kollár; H. L. Skriver

1994-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

290

Microstructured Hydrogen Fuel Cells  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Micro fuel cells ; Polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells ; Proton exchange membrane fuel cells ...

Luc G. Frechette

2014-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

291

Synthetic Nano-Low Density Lipoprotein as Targeted Drug DeliveryVehicle for Glioblastoma Multiforme  

SciTech Connect

This paper discribes a synthetic low density lipoprotein(LDL) made by complexing a 29 amino acid that consists of a lipid bindingdomain and the LDL receptor binding domain with a lipid microemulsion.The nano-LDL particles were intermdiate in size between LDL and HDL andbound to LDL receptors on GBM brain tumor cells. Synthetic nano-LDLuptake by GBM cells was LDL receptor specific and dependent on cellreceptor number. It is suggested that these synthetic particles can serveas a delivery vehicle for hydophobic anti-tumor drugs by targeting theLDL receptor.

Nikanjam, Mina; Blakely, Eleanor A.; Bjornstad, Kathleen A.; Shu,Xiao; Budinger, Thomas F.; Forte, Trudy M.

2006-06-14T23:59:59.000Z

292

A stacked memory device on logic 3D technology for ultra-high-density data storage  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We have demonstrated, for the first time, a novel three-dimensional (3D) memory chip architecture of stacked-memory-devices-on-logic (SMOL) achieving up to 95% of cell-area efficiency by directly building up memory devices on top of front-end CMOS devices. In order to realize the SMOL, a unique 3D Flash memory device and vertical integration structure have been successfully developed. The SMOL architecture has great potential to achieve tera-bit level memory density by stacking memory devices vertically and maximizing cell-area efficiency. Furthermore, various emerging devices could replace the 3D memory device to develop new 3D chip architectures.

Jiyoung Kim; Augustin J Hong; Sung Min Kim; Kyeong-Sik Shin; Emil B Song; Yongha Hwang; Faxian Xiu; Kosmas Galatsis; Chi On Chui; Rob N Candler; Siyoung Choi; Joo-Tae Moon; Kang L Wang

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

293

Fabrication of thin-wall hollow nickel spheres and low density syntactic foams  

SciTech Connect

A process has been developed to fabricate thin-wall hollow spheres from conventional oxide powders at room temperature. The polymer- bonded powder shells are fired in air to sinter the walls, leaving the shells either impervious or porous. Alternatively, the oxide shells can be preferentially reduced to produce thin-wall hollow metal spheres which can be bonded together to produce an ultra light weight closed-cell foam. Processing and properties of this class of low density structures will be discussed.

Clancy, R.B.; Sanders, T.H. Jr.; Cochran, J.K.

1991-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

294

Joint Density-Functional Theory of Electrochemistry > Research...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Enhanced Anodes and Cathodes for Fuel Cells Epitaxial Single Crystal Nanostructures for Batteries & PVs High Performance Alkaline Fuel Cell Membranes Improving Fuel Cell...

295

Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #661: February 7, 2011 Population Density  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

1: February 7, 1: February 7, 2011 Population Density to someone by E-mail Share Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #661: February 7, 2011 Population Density on Facebook Tweet about Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #661: February 7, 2011 Population Density on Twitter Bookmark Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #661: February 7, 2011 Population Density on Google Bookmark Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #661: February 7, 2011 Population Density on Delicious Rank Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #661: February 7, 2011 Population Density on Digg Find More places to share Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #661: February 7, 2011 Population Density on AddThis.com... Fact #661: February 7, 2011 Population Density The density of the population in the U.S., measured as the number of people

296

2006 Alkaline Membrane Fuel Cell Workshop Final Report  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

single cell with a current density on the order of 150 mAcm2 is desired, appropriate heat removal designs need to be explored, as well as the use of efficient pumps and blowers....

297

Lithium Source For High Performance Li-ion Cells  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

New cathode and anode electrodes are required to improve the energy density of Li-ion cells for transportation technologies. The cost of Li-ion systems for transportation...

298

Landau's necessary density conditions for LCA groups  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

H. Landau's necessary density conditions for sampling and interpolation may be viewed as a general principle resting on a basic fact of Fourier analysis: The complex exponentials $e^{i kx}$ ($k$ in $\\mathbb{Z}$) constitute an orthogonal basis for $L^2([-\\pi,\\pi])$. The present paper extends Landau's conditions to the setting of locally compact abelian (LCA) groups, relying in an analogous way on the basics of Fourier analysis. The technicalities--in either case of an operator theoretic nature--are however quite different. We will base our proofs on the comparison principle of J. Ramanathan and T. Steger.

Gröchenig, K; Seip, K

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

299

Nuclear Energy Density Optimization: UNEDF2  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The parameters of the UNEDF2 nuclear energy density functional (EDF) model were obtained in an optimization to experimental data consisting of nuclear binding energies, proton radii, odd-even mass staggering data, fission-isomer excitation energies, and single particle energies. In addition to parameter optimization, sensitivity analysis was done to obtain parameter uncertainties and correlations. The resulting UNEDF2 is an all-around EDF. However, the sensitivity analysis also demonstrated that the limits of current Skyrme-like EDFs have been reached and that novel approaches are called for.

Kortelainen, M; Nazarewicz, W; Olsen, E; Reinhard, P -G; Sarich, J; Schunck, N; Wild, S M; Davesne, D; Erler, J; Pastore, A

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

300

Nuclear Energy Density Optimization: UNEDF2  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The parameters of the UNEDF2 nuclear energy density functional (EDF) model were obtained in an optimization to experimental data consisting of nuclear binding energies, proton radii, odd-even mass staggering data, fission-isomer excitation energies, and single particle energies. In addition to parameter optimization, sensitivity analysis was done to obtain parameter uncertainties and correlations. The resulting UNEDF2 is an all-around EDF. However, the sensitivity analysis also demonstrated that the limits of current Skyrme-like EDFs have been reached and that novel approaches are called for.

M. Kortelainen; J. McDonnell; W. Nazarewicz; E. Olsen; P. -G. Reinhard; J. Sarich; N. Schunck; S. M. Wild; D. Davesne; J. Erler; A. Pastore

2014-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "density lithium-sulfur cells" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Symmetry energy in nuclear density functional theory  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The nuclear symmetry energy represents a response to the neutron-proton asymmetry. In this survey we discuss various aspects of symmetry energy in the framework of nuclear density functional theory, considering both non-relativistic and relativistic self-consistent mean-field realizations side-by-side. Key observables pertaining to bulk nucleonic matter and finite nuclei are reviewed. Constraints on the symmetry energy and correlations between observables and symmetry-energy parameters, using statistical covariance analysis, are investigated. Perspectives for future work are outlined in the context of ongoing experimental efforts.

W. Nazarewicz; P. -G. Reinhard; W. Satula; D. Vretenar

2013-07-22T23:59:59.000Z

302

20% efficiency silicon solar cells  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Further improvements in crystalline silicon solar cell performance have been obtained by combining the high levels of surface recombination control demonstrated in earlier passivated emitter solar cells with an improved optical approach. This approach involves the use of microgrooved surfaces which retain the advantages of pyramidally textured surfaces while avoiding some disadvantages of the latter. The approach results in a 5–6% improvement in cell short?circuit current density for cells fabricated on 0.1 and 0.2 ??cm (?p type) substrates. This results in an energy conversion efficiency for these devices above 20% under standard terrestrial test conditions (AM1.5 100 mW/cm2) for the first time.

A. W. Blakers; M. A. Green

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

303

Enzymatic Biofuel Cell for Oxidation of Glucose to CO2  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Enzymatic biofuel cells have the ability to convert energy derived from biofuels to electrical energy by means of the catalytic activity of oxidoreductase enzymes. ... However, enzymatic biofuel cells have been plagued by low energy density due to incomplete oxidation of biofuels. ... This review describes the wealth of fuel diversity in enzymic biofuel cells, along with the use of multi-enzyme cascades for deep or complete oxidn. of biofuels at the anode of enzymic biofuel cells. ...

Shuai Xu; Shelley D. Minteer

2011-12-06T23:59:59.000Z

304

Solar Cell Light Trapping beyond the Ray Optic Limit Dennis M. Callahan,* Jeremy N. Munday,  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Solar Cell Light Trapping beyond the Ray Optic Limit Dennis M. Callahan,* Jeremy N. Munday: Photovoltaic cell, solar cell, local density of optical states (LDOS), light trapping, plasmonic, nanophotonic light trapping, as the solar cell absorber layer thickness is reduced, absorption is also reduced

Atwater, Harry

305

Overview of Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Activities  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Activities Activities FUEL CELL TECHNOLOGIES PROGRAM HTAC Meeting Sunita Satyapal U.S. Department of Energy Fuel Cell Technologies Program Program Manager February 17, 2011 2 | Fuel Cell Technologies Program Source: US DOE 3/19/2013 eere.energy.gov * Overview - EERE Priorities * FY12 Budget * Examples of Collaboration & Leveraging Activities - Office of Science, DOD, DOT, SBIRs, International - Conferences and Workshops * Analysis Update * Recent HTAC Input & Future Needs Agenda 3 | Fuel Cell Technologies Program Source: US DOE 3/19/2013 eere.energy.gov High Impact Innovation Examples of Innovative Applied R&D Developed high surface area nanostructures for fuel cell electrodes that helped increase fuel cell power density and reduce fuel cell system cost by >45%

306

Covariant density functional theory for antimagnetic rotation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Following the previous letter on the first microscopic description of the antimagnetic rotation (AMR) in 105Cd, a systematic investigation and detailed analysis for the AMR band in the frame-work of tilted axis cranking (TAC) model based on covariant density functional theory are carried out. After performing the microscopic and self-consistentTAC calculations with an given density functional, the configuration for the observed AMR band in 105Cd is obtained from the single-particle Routhians. With the configuration thus obtained, the tilt angle for a given rotational frequency is determined self-consistently by minimizing the total Routhian with respect to the tilt angle. In such a way, the energy spectrum, total angular momenta, kinetic and dynamic moments of inertia, and the B(E2) values for the AMR band in 105Cd are calculated. Good agreement with the data is found. By investigating microscopically the contributions from neutrons and protons to the total angular momentum, the "two-shears-like" mechanism in the AMR band is clearly illus-trated. Finally, the currents leading to time-odd mean fields in the Dirac equation are presented and discussed in detail. It is found that they are essentially determined by the valence particles and/or holes. Their spatial distribution and size depend onthe specific single-particle orbitals and the rotational frequency.

P. W. Zhao; J. Peng; H. Z. Liang; P. Ring; J. Meng

2012-05-04T23:59:59.000Z

307

Longitudinal density monitor for the LHC  

The longitudinal density monitor (LDM) is primarily intended for the measurement of the particle population in nominally empty rf buckets. These so-called satellite or ghost bunches can cause problems for machine protection as well as influencing the luminosity calibration of the LHC. The high dynamic range of the system allows measurement of ghost bunches with as little as 0.01% of the main bunch population at the same time as characterization of the main bunches. The LDM is a single-photon counting system using visible synchrotron light. The photon detector is a silicon avalanche photodiode operated in Geiger mode, which allows the longitudinal distribution of the LHC beams to be measured with a resolution of 90 ps. Results from the LDM are presented, including a proposed method for constructing a 3-dimensional beam density map by scanning the LDM sensor in the transverse plane. In addition, we present a scheme to improve the sensitivity of the system by using an optical switching technique.

Jeff, A.; Andersen, M.; Boccardi, A.; Bozyigit, S.; Bravin, E.; Lefevre, T.; Rabiller, A.; Roncarolo, F.; Welsch, C. P.; Fisher, A. S.

2012-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

308

Longitudinal density monitor for the LHC  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The longitudinal density monitor (LDM) is primarily intended for the measurement of the particle population in nominally empty rf buckets. These so-called satellite or ghost bunches can cause problems for machine protection as well as influencing the luminosity calibration of the LHC. The high dynamic range of the system allows measurement of ghost bunches with as little as 0.01% of the main bunch population at the same time as characterization of the main bunches. The LDM is a single-photon counting system using visible synchrotron light. The photon detector is a silicon avalanche photodiode operated in Geiger mode, which allows the longitudinal distribution of the LHC beams to be measured with a resolution of 90 ps. Results from the LDM are presented, including a proposed method for constructing a 3-dimensional beam density map by scanning the LDM sensor in the transverse plane. In addition, we present a scheme to improve the sensitivity of the system by using an optical switching technique.

A. Jeff; M. Andersen; A. Boccardi; S. Bozyigit; E. Bravin; T. Lefevre; A. Rabiller; F. Roncarolo; C. P. Welsch; A. S. Fisher

2012-03-23T23:59:59.000Z

309

Measurement of particulate densities in air  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Clean air is one of the most important issues that govern the health of all live forms. However presently there are not many quick and simple methods for measuring impurities like particulates in air. These impurities have an enormous diversity in their physical and chemical structure. They may be unburned carbon particles from a diesel engine exhaust and chimney pollen grains in the spring air or asbestos in a factory. This paper shows that changes in the composition of the air cause a change in the speed of sound. Therefore by measuring the change in the speed of sound it is possible to monitor the density of particulates in the air. Preliminary tests are conducted on various smoke–air mixtures. The results demonstrate that this methodology is very sensitive to any changes in the composition of the air. Its implementation is very simple and efficient and costs much less than the conventional method currently used in the auto industry. This technique will be used to calculate the mass density of the particulates resulting from a diesel engine and results thus obtained will be compared with those calculated using other methods.

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

310

Fuel Cells  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Fuel Cells Fuel Cells Converting chemical energy of hydrogenated fuels into electricity Project Description Invented in 1839, fuels cells powered the Gemini and Apollo space missions, as well as the space shuttle. Although fuel cells have been successfully used in such applications, they have proven difficult to make more cost-effective and durable for commercial applications, particularly for the rigors of daily transportation. Since the 1970s, scientists at Los Alamos have managed to make various scientific breakthroughs that have contributed to the development of modern fuel cell systems. Specific efforts include the following: * Finding alternative and more cost-effective catalysts than platinum. * Enhancing the durability of fuel cells by developing advanced materials and

311

Constrained Density-Functional Theory--Configuration Interaction  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this thesis, I implemented a method for performing electronic structure calculations, "Constrained Density Functional Theory-- Configuration Interaction" (CDFT-CI), which builds upon the computational strengths of Density ...

Kaduk, Benjamin James

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

312

Wood-Fiber/High-Density-Polyethylene Composites: Compounding Process  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Wood-Fiber/High-Density-Polyethylene Composites: Compounding Process J. Z. Lu,1 Q. Wu,1 I. I parameters for the wood-fiber/high-density-polyethylene blends at 60 rpm were a temperature of 180°C

313

Density scaling and anisotropy in supersonic MHD turbulence  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We study the statistics of density for supersonic turbulence in a medium with magnetic pressure larger than the gaseous pressure. This study is motivated by molecular cloud research. Our simulations exhibit clumpy density structures, which contrast increases with the Mach number. At 10 Machs densities of some clumps are three orders of magnitude higher than the mean density. These clumps give rise to flat and approximately isotropic density spectrum corresponding to the random distribution of clumps in space. We claim that the clumps originate from our random, isotropic turbulence driving. When the contribution from those clumps is suppressed by studying logarithm of density, the density statistics exhibit scale-dependent anisotropy consistent with the models where density structures arise from shearing by Alfv\\'en waves. It is noteworthy that originally such models were advocated for the case of low-Mach, nearly incompressible turbulence.

A. Beresnyak; A. Lazarian; J. Cho

2005-02-25T23:59:59.000Z

314

High density Ru nanocrystal deposition for nonvolatile memory applications  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

High density Ru nanocrystal deposition for nonvolatile memory applications Damon B. Farmer School density optimizes the charge storing capability of the floating layer, while a high degree of size

315

Density content of nuclear symmetry energy from nuclear observables  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The nuclear symmetry energy at a given density measures the energy transferred in converting symmetric nuclear matter into the pure neutron matter. The density content of nuclear symmetry energy remains poorly co...

B K AGRAWAL

2014-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

316

ATMOSPHERIC DENSITY ESTIMATION USING SATELLITE PRECISION ORBIT EPHEMERIDES  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The current atmospheric density models are not capable enough to accurately model the atmospheric density, which varies continuously in the upper atmosphere mainly due to the changes in solar and geomagnetic activity. Inaccurate atmospheric modeling...

Arudra, Anoop Kumar

2011-04-22T23:59:59.000Z

317

Further Developments in Orbit Ephemeris Derived Neutral Density  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

effect the unmodeled density variations have on orbit propagation. These results are also binned by solar and geomagnetic activity level. The primary input into the orbit determination scheme used to produce the POE derived density estimates is a...

Locke, Travis Cole

2012-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

318

Neutron scattering study of human serum low density lipoprotein  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Neutron scattering study of human serum low density...human serum have been determined by neutron scattering. From measurements in various H2O...protein emerging from the lipid core. Neutron scattering study of human serum low density...

H B Stuhrmann; A Tardieu; L Mateu; C Sardet; V Luzzati; L Aggerbeck; A M Scanu

1975-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

319

Fuel Cells  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Fuel Cells Fuel Cells The Solid State Energy Conversion Alliance (SECA) program is responsible for coordinating Federal efforts to facilitate development of a commercially relevant and robust solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) system. Specific objectives include achieving an efficiency of greater than 60 percent, meeting a stack cost target of $175 per kW, and demonstrating lifetime performance degradation of less than 0.2 percent per

320

Fuel Cells  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Fuel Cells The Solid State Energy Conversion Alliance (SECA) program is responsible for coordinating Federal efforts to facilitate development of a commercially relevant and robust...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "density lithium-sulfur cells" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

Energy density fluctuations in early universe  

SciTech Connect

The primordial nucleosinthesys of the element can be influenced by the transitions of phase that take place after the Big Bang, such as the QCD transition. In order to study the effect of this phase transition, in this work we compute the time evolution of thermodynamical quantities of the early universe, focusing on temperature and energy density fluctuations, by solving the relevant equations of motion using as input the lattice QCD equation of state to describe the strongly interacting matter in the early universe plasma. We also study the effect of a primordial strong magnetic field by means of a phenomenological equation of state. Our results show that small inhomogeneities of strongly interacting matter in the early Universe are moderately damped during the crossover.

Guardo, G. L.; Ruggieri, M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Catania, Catania (Italy); Greco, V. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Catania, Catania, Italy and INFN - Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Catania (Italy)

2014-05-09T23:59:59.000Z

322

High energy density redox flow device  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Redox flow devices are described in which at least one of the positive electrode or negative electrode-active materials is a semi-solid or is a condensed ion-storing electroactive material, and in which at least one of the electrode-active materials is transported to and from an assembly at which the electrochemical reaction occurs, producing electrical energy. The electronic conductivity of the semi-solid is increased by the addition of conductive particles to suspensions and/or via the surface modification of the solid in semi-solids (e.g., by coating the solid with a more electron conductive coating material to increase the power of the device). High energy density and high power redox flow devices are disclosed. The redox flow devices described herein can also include one or more inventive design features. In addition, inventive chemistries for use in redox flow devices are also described.

Chiang, Yet-Ming; Carter, W. Craig; Ho, Bryan Y; Duduta, Mihai; Limthongkul, Pimpa

2014-05-13T23:59:59.000Z

323

Fabrication of nanoscale charge density wave systems  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Nanoscale charge density wave systems of quasi-one-dimensional o ? TaS 3 crystals were fabricated.Goldelectrodes 400 nm wide were made by standard lift-off technique on o ? TaS 3 nanocrystals prepared by deposition on silicon substrates. Interface resistance was higher than 100 G ? just after evaporation and were significantly reduced by electron-beam irradiation. The electrodes were tested down to 80 mK and were found quite durable for cryogenic measurement. The temperature dependence of the resistance of the nanocrystal was represented as the variable-range-hopping-type conduction with one dimension over the wide range of temperature from 4.2 to 100 K. This behavior was different from that of conventional bulk samples.

Katsuhiko Inagaki; Takeshi Toshima; Satoshi Tanda; Kazuhiko Yamaya; Shinya Uji

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

324

Energy density fluctuations in Early Universe  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The primordial nucleosinthesys of the element can be influenced by the transitions of phase that take place after the Big Bang, such as the QCD transition. In order to study the effect of this phase transition, in this work we compute the time evolution of thermodynamical quantities of the early universe, focusing on temperature and energy density fluctuations, by solving the relevant equations of motion using as input the lattice QCD equation of state to describe the strongly interacting matter in the early universe plasma. We also study the effect of a primordial strong magnetic field by means of a phenomenological equation of state. Our results show that small inhomogeneities of strongly interacting matter in the early Universe are moderately damped during the crossover.

Guardo, G L; Ruggieri, M

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

325

Generalized local-density approximation for spherical potentials  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

An alternative density functional for the spherical approximation of cell potentials is formulated. It relies on overlapping atomic spheres for the calculation of the kinetic energy, similar to the atomic sphere approximation (ASA), however, a shape correction is used that has the same form as the interstitial treatment in the nonoverlapping muffin-tin (MT) approach. The intersite Coulomb energy is evaluated using the Madelung energy as computed in the MT approach, while the on-site Coulomb energy is calculated using the ASA. The Kohn-Sham equations for the functional are then solved self-consistently. The ASA is known to give poor elastic constants and good point defect energies. Conversely the MT approach gives good elastic constants and poor point defect energies. The proposed new functional maintains the simplicity of the spherical potentials found in the ASA and MT approaches, but gives good values for both elastic constants and point defects. This solution avoids a problem, absent in the ASA but suffered by the MT approximation, of incorrect distribution of site charges when charge transfer is large. Relaxation of atomic positions is thus facilitated. Calculations confirm that the approach gives similar elastic constants to the MT approximation, and defect formation energies similar to those obtained with ASA.

X.-G. Zhang and D. M. C. Nicholson

1999-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

326

DENSITY ENHANCEMENTS AND VOIDS FOLLOWING PATCHY RECONNECTION  

SciTech Connect

We show, through a simple patchy reconnection model, that retracting reconnected flux tubes may present elongated regions relatively devoid of plasma, as well as long lasting, dense central hot regions. Reconnection is assumed to happen in a small patch across a Syrovatskii (non-uniform) current sheet (CS) with skewed magnetic fields. The background magnetic pressure has its maximum at the center of the CS plane and decreases toward its edges. The reconnection patch creates two V-shaped reconnected tubes that shorten as they retract in opposite directions, due to magnetic tension. One of them moves upward toward the top edge of the CS, and the other one moves downward toward the top of the underlying arcade. Rotational discontinuities (RDs) propagate along the legs of the tubes and generate parallel supersonic flows that collide at the center of the tube. There, gas-dynamic shocks that compress and heat the plasma are launched outwardly. The descending tube moves through the bottom part of the CS where it expands laterally in response to the decreasing background magnetic pressure. This effect may decrease plasma density by 30%-50% of background levels. This tube will arrive at the top of the arcade that will slow it to a stop. Here, the perpendicular dynamics is halted, but the parallel dynamics continues along its legs; the RDs are shut down, and the gas is rarified to even lower densities. The hot post-shock regions continue evolving, determining a long lasting hot region on top of the arcade. We provide an observational method based on total emission measure and mean temperature that indicates where in the CS the tube has been reconnected.

Guidoni, S. E.; Longcope, D. W., E-mail: guidoni@physics.montana.edu [Department of Physics, Montana State University, Bozeman, MT 59717-3840 (United States)

2011-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

327

Fuel Cell Systems Sensors Air Management Benchmarking Modeling  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Systems Systems F u e l P r o c e s s o r Sensors Air Management Benchmarking Modeling Patrick Davis Patrick Davis Targets and Status 50 kWe (net) Integrated Fuel Cell Power System 5000 2000 1000 Hours Durability 45 125 275 $/kW Cost (including H2 storage) 650 500 400 W/L Power density (w/o H2 stor) Operating on direct hydrogen 5000 2000 1000 Hours Durability 45 125 325 $/kW Cost 325 250 140 W/L Power density Operating on Tier 2 gasoline containing 30 ppm sulfur, average 2010 2005 2003 status Units Characteristics Projects Fuel Cell Power Systems Analysis ANL NREL TIAX Directed Technologies, Inc. TIAX TIAX * Fuel Cell Systems Analysis * Fuel Cell Vehicle Systems Analysis * Cost Analyses of Fuel Cell Stacks/ Systems * DFMA Cost Estimates of Fuel Cell/ Reformer Systems at Low, Medium, & High Production Rates * Assessment of Fuel Cell Auxiliary

328

Superfluid Local Density Approximation: A Density Functional Theory Approach to the Nuclear Pairing Problem  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

I describe the foundation of a Density Functional Theory approach to include pairing correlations, which was applied to a variety of systems ranging from dilute fermions, to neutron stars and finite nuclei. Ground state properties as well as properties of excited states and time-dependent phenomena can be achieved in this manner within a formalism based on microscopic input.

Aurel Bulgac

2012-04-10T23:59:59.000Z

329

Density-Enthalpy Phase Diagram 0D Boiler Simulation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Density-Enthalpy Phase Diagram 0D Boiler Simulation Finite Element Method Further Research Finite Transitions #12;Density-Enthalpy Phase Diagram 0D Boiler Simulation Finite Element Method Further Research;Density-Enthalpy Phase Diagram 0D Boiler Simulation Finite Element Method Further Research Goal

Vuik, Kees

330

HIGHLIGHT OF THE MONTH Orbital Functionals in Density Functional Theory  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

HIGHLIGHT OF THE MONTH Orbital Functionals in Density Functional Theory: The Optimized E#11;ectiveurzburg, Am Hubland, D-97074 Wurzburg, Germany The success of density functional theory hinges the development of modern density functional theory. In present-day language, the exact OEP should be called

Gross, E.K.U.

331

Electronic excitations in complex systems: beyond density functional theory  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Electronic excitations in complex systems: beyond density functional theory for real materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 3 Time-dependent density functional theory 19 3.1 The Runge-Gross theorem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 4 Model kernels from many-body perturbation theory 29 4.1 Time-dependent density functional theory

Botti, Silvana

332

A Guided Tour of TimeDependent Density Functional Theory  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A Guided Tour of Time­Dependent Density Functional Theory Kieron Burke 1 and E.K.U. Gross 2 1 outlook. 1 Introduction and User's Guide Density functional theory is the study of the one in density functional theory, driven largely by its applications in quantum chemistry[3]. This is due

Gross, E.K.U.

333

EFFECTIVE MAXWELL EQUATIONS FROM TIME-DEPENDENT DENSITY FUNCTIONAL THEORY  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

EFFECTIVE MAXWELL EQUATIONS FROM TIME-DEPENDENT DENSITY FUNCTIONAL THEORY WEINAN E, JIANFENG LU and magnetic fields are derived starting from time-dependent density functional theory. Effective permittivity with the density functional theory [2­4] instead of the many-body Schr¨odinger or Dirac equations. This is because

Bigelow, Stephen

334

Density Functional Theory applied to the solid state...  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Density Functional Theory applied to the solid state... An introduction to VASP Jeremie Zaffran 2nd Marom (PhD) #12;Contents I- DFT and its functionals A. On the density functional theory... B #12;I- DFT and its functionals #12;I-DFT and its functionals A- On the density functional theory Why

Adler, Joan

335

Benchmark density functional theory calculations for nanoscale conductance  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Benchmark density functional theory calculations for nanoscale conductance M. Strange,a I. S. The transmission functions are calculated using two different density functional theory methods, namely state density functional theory DFT . The resulting NEGF- DFT formalism provides a numerically efficient

Thygesen, Kristian

336

1 Density Functional Theory for Emergents Robert O. Jones  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1 Density Functional Theory for Emergents Robert O. Jones Peter-Gr¨unberg-Institut PGI-1 and German the widespread use of density functional (DF) theory in materials science and chemistry and the physical insight as basic variable 3 3 An "approximate practical method" 5 4 Density functional formalism 7 4.1 Single

337

THE MANY-ELECTRON ENERGY IN DENSITY FUNCTIONAL THEORY  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

THE MANY-ELECTRON ENERGY IN DENSITY FUNCTIONAL THEORY From Exchange-Correlation Functional Design to the configuration of its electrons. Computer programs based on density functional theory (DFT) can calculate applicable within the field of computational density functional theory. Sammanfattning Att förutsäga

Armiento, Rickard

338

RELATIVISTIC DENSITY FUNCTIONAL THEORY: FOUNDATIONS AND BASIC FORMALISM  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1 Chapter 10 RELATIVISTIC DENSITY FUNCTIONAL THEORY: FOUNDATIONS AND BASIC FORMALISM E. Engela a An overview of relativistic density functional theory (RDFT) is presented with special emphasis on its field-Cluster schemes in recent years density functional theory (DFT) still represents the method of choice

Engel, Eberhard

339

ORIGINAL PAPER BambooFiber Filled High Density Polyethylene Composites  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

ORIGINAL PAPER Bamboo­Fiber Filled High Density Polyethylene Composites: Effect of Coupling Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2008 Abstract High density polyethylene (HDPE)/bamboo composites in the future study. Keywords Bamboo Á High density polyethylene Á Coupling treatment Á Nanoclay Introduction

340

Quantum coherent switch utilizing commensurate nanoelectrode and charge density periodicities  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A quantum coherent switch having a substrate formed from a density wave (DW) material capable of having a periodic electron density modulation or spin density modulation, a dielectric layer formed onto a surface of the substrate that is orthogonal to an intrinsic wave vector of the DW material; and structure for applying an external spatially periodic electrostatic potential over the dielectric layer.

Harrison, Neil (Santa Fe, NM); Singleton, John (Los Alamos, NM); Migliori, Albert (Santa Fe, NM)

2008-08-05T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "density lithium-sulfur cells" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Density of the Values Set of the Tau Function  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

It is shown that the density of the values set {Tau(n): n > x/log x. The currently known density is #{Tau(n) : n > x^(1/2+o(1)), and the expected density is #{Tau(n) : n 2, which arises as a singular case of this analysis, is discussed within.

N. A. Carella

2014-04-10T23:59:59.000Z

342

E-Print Network 3.0 - atomic oxygen densities Sample Search Results  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

densities Search Powered by Explorit Topic List Advanced Search Sample search results for: atomic oxygen densities...

343

E-Print Network 3.0 - atomic oxygen density Sample Search Results  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

density Search Powered by Explorit Topic List Advanced Search Sample search results for: atomic oxygen density...

344

Different methods for particle diameter determination of low density and high density lipoproteins-Comparison and evaluation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Predominance of small dense Low Density Lipoprotein (LDL) is associated with a two to threefold increase in risk for Coronary Heart Disease (CVD). Small, dense HDL (High Density Lipoprotein) particles protect small dense LDL from oxidative stress...

Vaidyanathan, Vidya

2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

345

Fuel Cells  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Materials Science » Materials Science » Fuel Cells Fuel Cells Research into alternative forms of energy, especially energy security, is one of the major national security imperatives of this century. Get Expertise Melissa Fox Applied Energy Email Catherine Padro Sensors & Electrochemical Devices Email Fernando Garzon Sensors & Electrochemical Devices Email Piotr Zelenay Sensors & Electrochemical Devices Email Rod Borup Sensors & Electrochemical Devices Email Karen E. Kippen Experimental Physical Sciences Email Like a battery, a fuel cell consists of two electrodes separated by an electrolyte-in polymer electrolyte fuel cells, the separator is made of a thin polymeric membrane. Unlike a battery, a fuel cell does not need recharging-it continues to produce electricity as long as fuel flows

346

Coarse-grained spin density-functional theory: infinite-volume limit via the hyperfinite  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Coarse-grained spin density functional theory (SDFT) is a version of SDFT which works with number/spin densities specified to a limited resolution --- averages over cells of a regular spatial partition --- and external potentials constant on the cells. This coarse-grained setting facilitates a rigorous investigation of the mathematical foundations which goes well beyond what is currently possible in the conventional formualation. Problems of existence, uniqueness and regularity of representing potentials in the coarse-grained SDFT setting are here studied using techniques of (Robinsonian) nonstandard analysis. Every density which is nowhere spin-saturated is V-representable, and the set of representing potentials is the functional derivative, in an appropriate generalized sense, of the Lieb interal energy functional. Quasi-continuity and closure properties of the set-valued representing potentials map are also established. The extent of possible non-uniqueness is similar to that found in non-rigorous studies of the conventional theory, namely non-uniqueness can occur for states of collinear magnetization which are eigenstates of $S_z$.

Paul E. Lammert

2015-02-09T23:59:59.000Z

347

DENSITY AND ECCENTRICITY OF KEPLER PLANETS  

SciTech Connect

We analyze the transit timing variations (TTV) obtained by the Kepler mission for 22 sub-Jovian planet pairs (19 published, 3 new) that lie close to mean motion resonances. We find that the TTV phases for most of these pairs lie close to zero, consistent with an eccentricity distribution that has a very low root-mean-squared value of e {approx} 0.01; but about a quarter of the pairs possess much higher eccentricities, up to e {approx} 0.1-0.4. For the low-eccentricity pairs, we are able to statistically remove the effect of eccentricity to obtain planet masses from TTV data. These masses, together with those measured by radial velocity, yield a best-fit mass-radius relation M {approx} 3 M{sub Circled-Plus }(R/R{sub Circled-Plus }). This corresponds to a constant surface escape velocity of {approx}20 km s{sup -1}. We separate the planets into two distinct groups: ''mid-sized'' (those greater than 3 R{sub Circled-Plus }) and 'compact' (those smaller). All mid-sized planets are found to be less dense than water and therefore must contain extensive H/He envelopes that are comparable in mass to that of their cores. We argue that these planets have been significantly sculpted by photoevaporation. Surprisingly, mid-sized planets, a minority among Kepler candidates, are discovered exclusively around stars more massive than 0.8 M{sub Sun }. The compact planets, on the other hand, are often denser than water. Combining our density measurements with those from radial velocity studies, we find that hotter compact planets tend to be denser, with the hottest ones reaching rock density. Moreover, hotter planets tend to be smaller in size. These results can be explained if the compact planets are made of rocky cores overlaid with a small amount of hydrogen, {<=}1% in mass, with water contributing little to their masses or sizes. Photoevaporation has exposed bare rocky cores in cases of the hottest planets. Our conclusion that these planets are likely not water worlds contrasts with some previous studies. While mid-sized planets most likely accreted their hydrogen envelope from the proto-planetary disks, compact planets could have obtained theirs via either accretion or outgassing. The presence of the two distinct classes suggests that 3 R{sub Circled-Plus} could be identified as the dividing line between 'hot Neptunes' and 'super-Earths'.

Wu Yanqin [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Toronto, ON M5S 3H4 (Canada); Lithwick, Yoram [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL 60208 (United States)

2013-07-20T23:59:59.000Z

348

Miscibility, solubility, viscosity, and density measurements for R-236fa with potential lubricants. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The report gives results of miscibility, solubility, viscosity, and density measurements for refrigerant R-236fa and two potential lubricants. (The data are needed to determine the suitability of refrigerant/lubricant combinations for use in refrigeration systems.) The tested oils were pentaerythritol ester mixed-acid (ISO68), hereafter SW-68 manufactured by Castrol, and polyol ester mixed-acid (ISO46), hereafter Arctic-46 manufactured by Mobil. Miscibility was measured in a series of miniature test cells submerged in a constant temperature bath, precisely controlled over a temperature range of -50 to 90 C. Solubility, viscosity, and density data were also obtained for R-236fa mixed with the two oils for a refrigerant concentration of 0 to 40 wt % refrigerant over a temperature range of 30 to 100 C. This research shows that: (1) solubility, viscosity, and density are functions of temperature and concentration, (2) solubility increases with increasing temperature and refrigerant concentration (i.e., mass fraction of refrigerant). (3) viscosity decreases with increasing temperature and refrigerant concentration, and (4) density decreases with increasing temperature but increases with increasing refrigerant concentration. R-114 and naphthenic mineral oil were also tested.

Kang, H.M.; Pate, M.B.

1999-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

349

Experimental density measurements of bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate at elevated temperatures and pressures  

SciTech Connect

Experimental high-temperature, high-pressure (HTHP) density data for bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) are reported in this study. DEHP is a popular choice as a reference fluid for viscosity calibrations in the HTHP region. However, reliable HTHP density values are needed for accurate viscosity calculations for certain viscometers (e.g. rolling ball). HTHP densities are determined at T = (373, 424, 476, 492, and 524) K and P to 270 MPa using a variable-volume, high-pressure view cell. The experimental density data are satisfactorily correlated by the modified Tait equation with a mean absolute percent deviation (?) of 0.15. The experimental data are modeled with the Peng–Robinson (PREoS), volume-translated PREoS (VT-PREoS), and perturbed chain statistical associating fluid theory (PC-SAFT EoS) models. The required parameters for the two PREoS and the PC-SAFT EoS models are determined using group contribution methods. The PC-SAFT EoS performs the best of the three models with a ? of 2.12. The PC-SAFT EoS is also fit to the experimental data to obtain a new set of pure component parameters that yield a ? of 0.20 for these HTHP conditions.

Bamgbade, Babatunde A.; Wu, Yue; Baled, Hseen O.; Enick, Robert M.; Burgess, Ward A.

2013-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

350

Probing the density dependence of symmetry energy at subsaturation density with HICs  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The reaction mechanism of the central collisions and peripheral collisions for $^{112,124}Sn+^{112,124}Sn$ at $E/A=50MeV$ is investigated within the framework of the Improved Quantum Molecular Dynamics model. The results show that multifragmentation process is an important mechanism at this energy region, and the influence of the cluster emission on the double n/p ratios and the isospin transport ratio are important. Furthermore, three observables, double n/p ratios, isospin diffusion and the rapidity distribution of the ratio $R_{7}$ for $^{112,124}Sn+^{112,124}Sn$ at E/A=50MeV are analyzed with the Improved Quantum Molecular Dynamics model. The results show that these three observables are sensitive to the density dependence of the symmetry energy. By comparing the calculation results to the data, the consistent constraint on the density dependence of the symmetry energy from these three observables is obtained.

Zhang, Yingxun; Li, Zhuxia; Danielewicz, P; Lynch, W G; Lu, Xiaohua

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

351

Probing the density dependence of symmetry energy at subsaturation density with HICs  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The reaction mechanism of the central collisions and peripheral collisions for $^{112,124}Sn+^{112,124}Sn$ at $E/A=50MeV$ is investigated within the framework of the Improved Quantum Molecular Dynamics model. The results show that multifragmentation process is an important mechanism at this energy region, and the influence of the cluster emission on the double n/p ratios and the isospin transport ratio are important. Furthermore, three observables, double n/p ratios, isospin diffusion and the rapidity distribution of the ratio $R_{7}$ for $^{112,124}Sn+^{112,124}Sn$ at E/A=50MeV are analyzed with the Improved Quantum Molecular Dynamics model. The results show that these three observables are sensitive to the density dependence of the symmetry energy. By comparing the calculation results to the data, the consistent constraint on the density dependence of the symmetry energy from these three observables is obtained.

Yingxun Zhang; M. B. Tsang; Zhuxia Li; P. Danielewicz; W. G. Lynch; Xiaohua Lu

2009-11-09T23:59:59.000Z

352

Building a Universal Nuclear Energy Density Functional  

SciTech Connect

During the period of Dec. 1 2006 – Jun. 30, 2012, the UNEDF collaboration carried out a comprehensive study of all nuclei, based on the most accurate knowledge of the strong nuclear interaction, the most reliable theoretical approaches, the most advanced algorithms, and extensive computational resources, with a view towards scaling to the petaflop platforms and beyond. The long-term vision initiated with UNEDF is to arrive at a comprehensive, quantitative, and unified description of nuclei and their reactions, grounded in the fundamental interactions between the constituent nucleons. We seek to replace current phenomenological models of nuclear structure and reactions with a well-founded microscopic theory that delivers maximum predictive power with well-quantified uncertainties. Specifically, the mission of this project has been three-fold: ? First, to find an optimal energy density functional (EDF) using all our knowledge of the nucleonic Hamiltonian and basic nuclear properties; ? Second, to apply the EDF theory and its extensions to validate the functional using all the available relevant nuclear structure and reaction data; ? Third, to apply the validated theory to properties of interest that cannot be measured, in particular the properties needed for reaction theory.

Carlson, Joe A. [Michigan State University; Furnstahl, Dick; Horoi, Mihai; Lust, Rusty; Nazaewicc, Witek; Ng, Esmond; Thompson, Ian; Vary, James

2012-12-30T23:59:59.000Z

353

Design of maximum density aggregate grading  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

An aggregate grading that yields maximum solid density and maximum particle interlock is highly desirable for both bound mixtures, such as asphalt concrete and plain and reinforced concrete, and for unbound mixtures such as those used in base courses. Maximum particle interlock leads to high strength. Whereas minimum voids in a certain material composition is conducive to high strength and low compression. Aggregate grading may be obtained, for instance, from the ASTM, which is based on experience or may be designed according to Lees’ method. In the present work five different types of aggregates were used, each with a variety of chosen grading. It was found that Lees’ method produced the lowest porosity of all types of aggregates as well as for the various employed gradings. Lees’ rational method of aggregate grading, however, is a very lengthy and time-consuming procedure. Therefore, programming of Lees’ method is an essential step to make such an excellent method available to practicing engineers. A program named ‘ratmix’ was developed and has incorporated 58 design graphs of the Lees’ method. ratmix is a comprehensive program for Lees’ rational method; it conducts interpolation for intermediate points within the design graphs as well as between graphs of different properties.

Yahia A Abdel-Jawad; Waddah Salman Abdullah

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

354

wind power density | OpenEI  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

density density Dataset Summary Description This dataset was developed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) for the U.S. Source National Renewable Energy Lab (NREL) Date Released Unknown Date Updated Unknown Keywords afghanistan dataset GIS Wind Power wind power density Data application/zip icon Wind Power Density at 50-m Above Ground Level GIS Data (zip, 1.4 MiB) Quality Metrics Level of Review Some Review Comment Temporal and Spatial Coverage Frequency Time Period License License Other or unspecified, see optional comment below Comment DISCLAIMER NOTICE This GIS data was developed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory ("NREL"), which is operated by the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC for the U.S. Department of Energy ("DOE"). The user is granted the right, without any fee or cost, to use, copy, modify, alter, enhance and distribute this data for any purpose whatsoever, provided that this entire notice appears in all copies of the data. Further, the user of this data agrees to credit NREL in any publications or software that incorporate or use the data. Access to and use of the GIS data shall further impose the following obligations on the User. The names DOE/NREL may not be used in any advertising or publicity to endorse or promote any product or commercial entity using or incorporating the GIS data unless specific written authorization is obtained from DOE/NREL. The User also understands that DOE/NREL shall not be obligated to provide updates, support, consulting, training or assistance of any kind whatsoever with regard to the use of the GIS data. THE GIS DATA IS PROVIDED "AS IS" AND ANY EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE ARE DISCLAIMED. IN NO EVENT SHALL DOE/NREL BE LIABLE FOR ANY SPECIAL, INDIRECT OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES OR ANY DAMAGES WHATSOEVER, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO CLAIMS ASSOCIATED WITH THE LOSS OF DATA OR PROFITS, WHICH MAY RESULT FROM AN ACTION IN CONTRACT, NEGLIGENCE OR OTHER TORTIOUS CLAIM THAT ARISES OUT OF OR IN CONNECTION WITH THE ACCESS OR USE OF THE GIS DATA. The User acknowledges that access to the GIS data is subject to U.S. Export laws and regulations and any use or transfer of the GIS data must be authorized under those regulations. The User shall not use, distribute, transfer, or transmit GIS data or any products incorporating the GIS data except in compliance with U.S. export regulations. If requested by DOE/NREL, the User agrees to sign written assurances and other export-related documentation as may be required to comply with U.S. export regulations. DISCLAIMER NOTICE This GIS data was developed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory ("NREL"), which is operated by the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC for the U.S. Department of Energy ("DOE"). The user is granted the right, without any fee or cost, to use, copy, modify, alter, enhance and distribute this data for any purpose whatsoever, provided that this entire notice appears in all copies of the data. Further, the user of this data agrees to credit NREL in any publications or software that incorporate or use the data. Access to and use of the GIS data shall further impose the following obligations on the User. The names DOE/NREL may not be used in any advertising or publicity to endorse or promote any product or commercial entity using or incorporating the GIS data unless specific written authorization is obtained from DOE/NREL. The User also understands that DOE/NREL shall not be obligated to provide updates, support, consulting, training or assistance of any kind whatsoever with regard to the use of the GIS data. THE GIS DATA IS PROVIDED "AS IS" AND ANY EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE ARE DISCLAIMED. IN NO EVENT SHALL DOE/NREL BE LIABLE FOR ANY SPECIAL, INDIRECT OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES OR ANY DAMAGES WHATSOEVER, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO CLAIMS ASSOCIATED WITH THE LOSS OF DATA OR PROFITS, WHICH MAY RESULT FROM AN ACTION IN CONTRACT, NEGLIGENCE OR OTHER TORTIOUS CLAIM THAT ARISES OUT OF OR IN CONNECTION WITH THE ACCESS OR USE OF THE GIS DATA. The User acknowledges that access to the GIS data is subject to U.S. Export laws and regulations and any use or transfer of the GIS data must be authorized under those regulations. The User shall not use, distribute, transfer, or transmit GIS data or any products incorporating the GIS data except in compliance with U.S. export regulations. If requested by DOE/NREL, the User agrees to sign written assurances and other export-related documentation as may be required to comply with U.S. export regulations.

355

On direct and indirect methanol fuel cells for transportation applications  

SciTech Connect

Power densities in electrolyte Direct Methanol Fuel Cells have been achieved which are only three times lower than those achieved with similar reformate/air fuel cells. Remaining issues are: improved anode catalyst activity, demonstrated long-term stable performance, and high fuel efficiencies.

Ren, Xiaoming; Wilson, M.S.; Gottesfeld, S.

1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

356

Fuel Cell Power Systems Analysis Patrick DavisPatrick Davis  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Power Systems · Balance-of-plant (compressors, humidifiers, heat exchangers, sensors, controls) · Cost hydrogen 500020001000HoursDurability 45125325$/kWCost 325250140W/LPower density Operating on Tier 2 · Fuel Cell Vehicle Systems Analysis · Cost Analyses of Fuel Cell Stacks/ Systems · DFMA Cost Estimates

357

Current density partitioning in time-dependent current density functional theory  

SciTech Connect

We adapt time-dependent current density functional theory to allow for a fragment-based solution of the many-electron problem of molecules in the presence of time-dependent electric and magnetic fields. Regarding a molecule as a set of non-interacting subsystems that individually evolve under the influence of an auxiliary external electromagnetic vector-scalar potential pair, the partition 4-potential, we show that there are one-to-one mappings between this auxiliary potential, a sharply-defined set of fragment current densities, and the total current density of the system. The partition electromagnetic (EM) 4-potential is expressed in terms of the real EM 4-potential of the system and a gluing EM 4-potential that accounts for exchange-correlation effects and mutual interaction forces between fragments that are required to yield the correct electron dynamics. We prove the zero-force theorem for the fragmented system, establish a variational formulation in terms of action functionals, and provide a simple illustration for a charged particle in a ring.

Mosquera, Martín A. [Department of Chemistry, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 (United States)] [Department of Chemistry, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 (United States); Wasserman, Adam, E-mail: awasser@purdue.edu [Department of Chemistry, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 (United States) [Department of Chemistry, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 (United States); Department of Physics, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 (United States)

2014-05-14T23:59:59.000Z

358

High energy density redox flow device  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Redox flow devices are described including a positive electrode current collector, a negative electrode current collector, and an ion-permeable membrane separating said positive and negative current collectors, positioned and arranged to define a positive electroactive zone and a negative electroactive zone; wherein at least one of said positive and negative electroactive zone comprises a flowable semi-solid composition comprising ion storage compound particles capable of taking up or releasing said ions during operation of the cell, and wherein the ion storage compound particles have a polydisperse size distribution in which the finest particles present in at least 5 vol % of the total volume, is at least a factor of 5 smaller than the largest particles present in at least 5 vol % of the total volume.

Chiang, Yet-Ming; Carter, William Craig; Duduta, Mihai; Limthongkul, Pimpa

2014-05-13T23:59:59.000Z

359

Solution Ionic Strength Engineering As a Generic Strategy to Coat Graphene Oxide (GO) on Various Functional Particles and Its  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

in improving the properties of particle materials. KEYWORDS: Graphene oxide, sulfur, lithium-sulfur batteriesSolution Ionic Strength Engineering As a Generic Strategy to Coat Graphene Oxide (GO) on Various Functional Particles and Its Application in High-Performance Lithium-Sulfur (Li-S) Batteries Jiepeng Rong

Zhou, Chongwu

360

Expancel Foams: Fabrication and Characterization of a New Reduced Density Cellular Material for Structural Applications  

SciTech Connect

This study was initiated to produce a low-density centering medium for use in experiments investigating the response of materials to shock-loading. While the main drivers for material selection were homogeneity, dimensional stability, performance and cost, other secondary requirements included fine cell size, the ability to manufacture 5--10 cm-sized parts and an extremely compressed development time. The authors chose a non-traditional methodology using a hollow, expandable, polymeric microballoon material system called Expancel{reg_sign}. These microballoons are made from a copolymer of polyacrylonitrile (PAN) and polymethacrylonitrile (PMAN) and use iso-pentane as the blowing agent. The average diameter (by volume) of the unexpanded powder is approximately 13 {micro}m, while the average of the expanded powder is 35--55 {micro}m, with a few large microballoons approaching 150--200 p.m. A processing method was developed that established a pre-mixed combination of unexpanded and expanded Expancel at a ratio such that the tap (or vibration) density of the mixed powders was the same as that desired of the final part. Upon heating above the tack temperature of the polymer, this zero-rise approach allowed only expansion of the unexpanded powder to fill the interstices between the pre-expanded balloons. The mechanical action of the expanding powder combined with the elevated processing temperature yielded flee-standing and mechanically robust parts. Although mechanical properties of these foams were not a key performance requirement, the data allowed for the determination of the best temperature to heat the samples. Processing the foam at higher temperatures enhanced both modulus and strength. The maximum allowable temperature was limited by dimensional stability and shrinkback considerations. Tomographic analysis of foam billets revealed very flat density profiles. Parts of any density between the low density expanded powder (approximately 0.013 g/cm{sup 3}) and the higher density unexpanded powder (approximately 0.5 g/cm{sup 3}) can be produced using this technique. The extremely wide range of accessible densities, ease of processing, relatively inexpensive materials, uniformity of the density, scaleable nature of the process should make this technology highly competitive for a variety of Defense Programs and commercial applications.

L. Whinnery; S. Goods; B. Even

2000-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "density lithium-sulfur cells" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

NETL: News Release - GE Sets Benchmarks for Fuel Cell Performance  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

August 8, 2005 August 8, 2005 GE Sets Benchmarks for Fuel Cell Performance Achievements Move Efficient, Clean SOFC Technology Closer to Mainstream Energy Markets TORRANCE, CA - In the race to speed solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) technology out of niche markets and into widespread commercial use, GE Hybrid Power Generation Systems has kicked fuel cell performance into high gear. Recent advancements have dramatically improved baseline cell performance and accelerate GE's prospects for achieving the system efficiency and cost objectives of DOE's Solid State Energy Alliance (SECA) program. Packing more power into smaller volumes is one of the breakthroughs needed to reduce the cost and expand the use of efficient, environmentally friendly fuel cells. But increasing power density isn't the only goal; as power density increases, fuel cells must continue to efficiently and reliably convert fuel to electric power.

362

DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program Record 11009: Revised Portable Power Fuel Cell Targets  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

1009 Date: May 26, 2011 1009 Date: May 26, 2011 Title: Revised Portable Power Fuel Cell Targets Originator: Jacob Spendelow, Donna Ho, Dimitrios Papageorgopoulos Approved by: Sunita Satyapal Date: July 18, 2011 Research and development targets for fuel cells deployed in portable power applications have been updated to the values listed in Tables 1-3. Table 1. Fuel cell system targets for portable power applications under 2 W 1 Units 2011 Status 2013 2015 Specific Power 2 W/kg 5 8 10 Power Density 2 W/L 7 10 13 Specific Energy 2,3 Wh/kg 110 200 230 Energy Density 2,3 Wh/L 150 250 300 Cost 4 $/system 150 130 70 Durability 5,6 hours 1500 3000 5000 Mean Time Between Failures 6,7 hours 500 1500 5000 Table 2. Fuel cell system targets for 10 - 50 W portable power applications

363

Density Inhomogeneities and Electron Mobility in Supercritical Xenon  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Density Inhomogeneities and Electron Mobility in Supercritical Xenon Density Inhomogeneities and Electron Mobility in Supercritical Xenon Richard A. Holroyd, Kengo Itoh, and Masaru Nishikawa J. Chem. Phys. 118, 706-710 (2003) [Find paper at Scitation] Abstract: The low-field mobility of electrons in supercritical Xe has been measured isothermally as a function of density above the critical temperature (289.7 K). At 293 K the mobility varies from a high of 890 cm2/Vs at 9.2 x 1021 atoms/cm3 to a minimum value of 4.6 cm2/Vs at a density of 3.5 x 1021 atoms/cm3, which is just below the critical density. The density dependence of the mobility is reasonably well predicted by the deformation potential model if the adiabatic compressibility is used to characterize the electron-medium interactions. Approximate agreement indicates that

364

Textured-surface quartz resonator fluid density and viscosity monitor  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A pair of thickness-shear mode resonators, one smooth and one with a textured surface, allows fluid density and viscosity to be independently resolved. A textured surface, either randomly rough or regularly patterned, leads to trapping of liquid at the device surface. The synchronous motion of this trapped liquid with the oscillating device surface allows the device to weigh the liquid; this leads to an additional response that depends on liquid density. This additional response enables a pair of devices, one smooth and one textured, to independently resolve liquid density and viscosity; the difference in responses determines the density while the smooth device determines the density-viscosity product, and thus, the pair determines both density and viscosity.

Martin, Stephen J. (Albuquerque, NM); Wiczer, James J. (Albuquerque, NM); Cernosek, Richard W. (Albuquerque, NM); Frye, Gregory C. (Cedar Crest, NM); Gebert, Charles T. (Albuquerque, NM); Casaus, Leonard (Bernalillo, NM); Mitchell, Mary A. (Tijeras, NM)

1998-08-25T23:59:59.000Z

365

High-Precision Thermodynamics and Hagedorn Density of States  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We compute the entropy density of the confined phase of QCD without quarks on the lattice to very high accuracy. The results are compared to the entropy density of free glueballs, where we include all the known glueball states below the two-particle threshold. We find that an excellent, parameter-free description of the entropy density between 0.7Tc and Tc is obtained by extending the spectrum with the exponential spectrum of the closed bosonic string.

Harvey B. Meyer

2009-05-26T23:59:59.000Z

366

Particle-Number Projection and the Density Functional Theory  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In the framework of the Density Functional Theory for superconductors, we study the restoration of the particle number symmetry by means of the projection technique. Conceptual problems are outlined and numerical difficulties are discussed. Both are related to the fact that neither the many-body Hamiltonian nor the wave function of the system appear explicitly in the Density Functional Theory. Similar obstacles are encountered in self-consistent theories utilizing density-dependent effective interactions.

J. Dobaczewski; M. V. Stoitsov; W. Nazarewicz; P. -G. Reinhard

2007-08-03T23:59:59.000Z

367

Crystallization of polyethylene by modified weighted density approximation(MWDA)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this article, we use the modified weighted density approximation to study the crystallization of polyethylene. We also use a direct correlation function of polyethylene based on RISM theory. The free energy of a polyethylene is calculated using density functional theory. The crystallization and solid and liquid density are calculated and finally compared with the prism simulation and experimental results. That shown the result obtained by MWDA is in better agreement, compared with the experimental result than the prism.

Razeghizadeh, Alireza; Lavafpour, Farhad

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

368

Crystallization of polyethylene by modified weighted density approximation(MWDA)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this article, we use the modified weighted density approximation to study the crystallization of polyethylene. We also use a direct correlation function of polyethylene based on RISM theory. The free energy of a polyethylene is calculated using density functional theory. The crystallization and solid and liquid density are calculated and finally compared with the prism simulation and experimental results. That shown the result obtained by MWDA is in better agreement, compared with the experimental result than the prism.

Alireza Razeghizadeh; Vahdat Rafee; Farhad Lavafpour

2015-02-07T23:59:59.000Z

369

Observation of ionization fronts in low density foam targets  

SciTech Connect

Ionization fronts have been observed in low density chlorinated foam targets and low density foams confined in gold tubes using time resolved {ital K}-shell absorption spectroscopy. The front was driven by an intense pulse of soft x-rays produced by high power laser irradiation. The density and temperature profiles inferred from the radiographs provided detailed measurement of the conditions. The experimental data were compared to radiation hydrodynamics simulations and reasonable agreement was obtained. {copyright} {ital 1999 American Institute of Physics.}

Hoarty, D. [Imperial College of Science, Technology and Medicine, London (United Kingdom)] [Imperial College of Science, Technology and Medicine, London (United Kingdom); [Radiation Physics Department, AWE Aldermaston, Reading, Berkshire (United Kingdom); Willi, O.; Barringer, L.; Vickers, C. [Imperial College of Science, Technology and Medicine, London (United Kingdom)] [Imperial College of Science, Technology and Medicine, London (United Kingdom); Watt, R. [P24, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States)] [P24, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Nazarov, W. [Chemistry Department, University of Dundee (United Kingdom)] [Chemistry Department, University of Dundee (United Kingdom)

1999-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

370

Nuclear symmetry energy at subnormal densities from measured nuclear masses  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The symmetry energy coefficients for nuclei with mass number A=20–250 are extracted from more than 2000 measured nuclear masses. With the semiempirical connection between the symmetry energy coefficients of finite nuclei and the nuclear symmetry energy at reference densities, we investigate the density dependence of the symmetry energy of nuclear matter at subnormal densities. The obtained results are compared with those extracted from other methods.

Min Liu; Ning Wang; Zhu-Xia Li; Feng-Shou Zhang

2010-12-13T23:59:59.000Z

371

Nuclear symmetry energy at subnormal densities from measured nuclear masses  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The symmetry energy coefficients for nuclei with mass number A=20~250 are extracted from more than 2000 measured nuclear masses. With the semi-empirical connection between the symmetry energy coefficients of finite nuclei and the nuclear symmetry energy at reference densities, we investigate the density dependence of symmetry energy of nuclear matter at subnormal densities. The obtained results are compared with those extracted from other methods.

Min Liu; Ning Wang; Zhuxia Li; Fengshou Zhang

2010-11-17T23:59:59.000Z

372

Unambiguous exchange-correlation energy density Kieron Burke,a)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

density approximation LDA , the conventional form is eXC unif (r) , the exchange-correlation energy the following definition of an energy density: eXC wave fn. r d3 r P r,r r r 2 r r 1 2 2 r,r s r,r r r , 2 whereUnambiguous exchange-correlation energy density Kieron Burke,a) Federico G. Cruz, and Kin-Chung Lam

Burke, Kieron

373

A Further Generalized Lagrangian Density and Its Special Cases  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

By summarizing and extending the Lagrangian densities of the general relativity and the Kibble's gauge theory of gravitation,a further generalized Lagrangian density for a gravitational system is obtained and analyzed in greater detail, which can be used for studying more extensive range of gravitation. Many special cases can be derived from this generalized Lagrangian density, their general characters and peculiarities will be briefly described.

Fang-Pei Chen

2007-07-22T23:59:59.000Z

374

Isolation and culture of protoplasts from cotton cell cultures  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, however, it is difficult to observe the growth of individual protoplasts and fusion often occurs. Raveh et al. (44) were able to plate cells at a lower density by underlining the freshly isolated protoplasts with a feeder layer of x... the cold hardiness of plants (48). The most exciting uses of protoplasts involve somatic 13 hybridization and foreign DNA uptake systems. Somatic hybridization or cell fusion between two genetically different cells has been demonstrated in tobacco (8...

Finer, John James

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

375

'Nano'tubes, Surface Area & NanoSolar Cells  

K-12 Energy Lesson Plans and Activities Web site (EERE)

This unit takes students through several introductory lessons designed to gain a better understanding of the 'nano' scale as it relates to the creation of a (dye-sensitized) solar cell (DSSC). The introductory lessons guide students through activities covering volume, surface area and density and exploration of the relationship between these factors. The unit culminates with students building a Gratzel cell, a solar cell employing a layer of nanospheres of TiO2 as the semiconductor and blackberry juice as the light absorber in a non-Si-based solar cell. Students are able to build a small solar cell and test its efficiency.

376

Using Radio Waves to Control Fusion Plasma Density  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

simulation shows turbulent density fluctuations in the core of the Alcator C-Mod tokamak during strong electron heating. Image: Darin Ernst, MIT Recent fusion experiments on...

377

Long-wavelength density turbulence in the TFTR tokamak  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Long-wavelength (k??itokamak plasma with auxiliary heating. Density fluctuations of n?/n>0.5% exist for k?tokamaks.

R. J. Fonck; G. Cosby; R. D. Durst; S. F. Paul; N. Bretz; S. Scott; E. Synakowski; G. Taylor

1993-06-14T23:59:59.000Z

378

Relationship of Quantum Entanglement to Density Functional Theory  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The maximum von Neumann entropy principle subject to given constraints of mean values of some physical observables determines the density matrix. Similarly the stationary action principle in the case of time-dependent (dissipative) situations under similar constraints yields the density matrix. The free energy and measures of entanglement are expressed in terms of such a density matrix and thus define respective functionals of the mean values. In the light of several model calculations, it is found that the density matrix contains information about both quantum entanglement and phase transitions even though there may not be any direct relationship implied by one on the other.

A. K. Rajagopal; R. W. Rendell

2005-12-13T23:59:59.000Z

379

Time-dependent density-functional theory for open systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

By introducing the self-energy density functionals for the dissipative interactions between the reduced system and its environment, we develop a time-dependent density-functional theory formalism based on an equation of motion for the Kohn-Sham reduced single-electron density matrix of the reduced system. Two approximate schemes are proposed for the self-energy density functionals, the complete second order approximation and the wide-band limit approximation. A numerical method based on the wide-band limit approximation is subsequently developed and implemented to simulate the steady and transient current through various realistic molecular devices. Simulation results are presented and discussed.

Xiao Zheng; Fan Wang; Chi Yung Yam; Yan Mo; GuanHua Chen

2007-02-27T23:59:59.000Z

380

Photon number density operator iE^?A^  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A photon number density operator proportional to the dot product of the electric field and the vector potential is introduced as an alternative to the Mandel operator. In the Lorentz gauge it is the time component of the four-vector obtained by contracting the electromagnetic field tensor with the vector potential. Its other components can be interpreted as a current-density vector, and these number and current-density operators satisfy a continuity equation. The photon density operators introduced here are all products of operators that satisfy Maxwell’s equations and whose Lorentz and gauge transformation properties are well known.

M. Hawton and T. Melde

1995-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "density lithium-sulfur cells" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Density Functional Theory Study of Oxygen Reduction Activity...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Study of Oxygen Reduction Activity on Ultrathin Platinum Nanotubes. Density Functional Theory Study of Oxygen Reduction Activity on Ultrathin Platinum Nanotubes. Abstract: The...

382

Distribution of Radiation Density in a Homogeneous Cloudy Laye  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

A. M. Obukhov Institute of Atmospheric Physics Russian Academy of Sciences Moscow, Russia The program block (Monte-Carlo method) allowing calculating radiation density in...

383

Magnetic Susceptibility of an Electron Gas at High Density  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The magnetic susceptibility of an electron gas at high density is determined using the exact theory of Gell-Mann and Brueckner.

K. A. Brueckner and K. Sawada

1958-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

384

SciTech Connect: Chiral dynamics and peripheral transverse densities  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

the bsup 2-weighted moments of the isovector transverse densities (charge and anomalous magnetic radii) in the limit Msub pi -> 0 and determine their spatial support. Our...

385

TEMPORAL VARIATIONS OF FRACTURE DIRECTIONS AND FRACTURE DENSITIES...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

TEMPORAL VARIATIONS OF FRACTURE DIRECTIONS AND FRACTURE DENSITIES IN THE COSO GEOTHERMAL FIELD FROM ANALYSES OF SHEAR-WAVE SPLITTING Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference...

386

A Comprehensive Study Of Fracture Patterns And Densities In The...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Study Of Fracture Patterns And Densities In The Geysers Geothermal Reservoir Using Microearthquake Shear-Wave Splitting Tomography Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference...

387

Covariance analysis for Energy Density Functionals and instabilities  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present the covariance analysis of two successful nuclear energy density functionals, (i) a non-relativistic Skyrme functional built from a zero-range effective interaction, and (ii) a relativistic nuclear energy density functional based on density dependent meson-nucleon couplings. Such a study is crucial for assessing the information content of an observable when predicted by a given model. The covariance analysis is a useful tool for understanding the limitations of a model, the correlations between observables and the statistical errors. We also provide a brief review, partly connected with the covariance analysis, of some instabilities displayed by several energy density functionals of current use in nuclear physics.

Roca-Maza, X; Colò, G

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

388

Developing a Lower Cost and Higher Energy Density Alternative...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

for Advanced Batteries ADVANCED MANUFACTURING OFFICE Developing a Lower Cost and Higher Energy Density Alternative to Lithium-Ion Batteries Introduction As the world moves toward...

389

The Reduced Density Matrix Method for Electronic Structure ...  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The Reduced Density Matrix Method for Electronic Structure Calculations and the Role of Three-Index Representability Conditions. Zhengji Zhao (zz217 ***at*** ...

Zhengji Zhao

390

Optimization Online - Density-based Globally Convergent Trust ...  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Jul 10, 2005 ... Density-based Globally Convergent Trust-Region Methods for Self-Consistent Field Electronic Structure Calculations. Juliano B. Francisco ...

Juliano B. Francisco

2005-07-10T23:59:59.000Z

391

Constraints on the density dependence of the symmetry energy  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Collisions involving 112Sn and 124Sn nuclei have been simulated with the improved Quantum Molecular Dynamics transport model. The results of the calculations reproduce isospin diffusion data from two different observables and the ratios of neutron and proton spectra. By comparing these data to calculations performed over a range of symmetry energies at saturation density and different representations of the density dependence of the symmetry energy, constraints on the density dependence of the symmetry energy at sub-normal density are obtained. Results from present work are compared to constraints put forward in other recent analysis.

M. B. Tsang; Yingxun Zhang; P. Danielewicz; M. Famiano; Zhuxia Li; W. G. Lynch; A. W. Steiner

2008-11-19T23:59:59.000Z

392

Constraints on the Density Dependence of the Symmetry Energy  

SciTech Connect

Collisions involving {sup 112}Sn and {sup 124}Sn nuclei have been simulated with the improved quantum molecular dynamics transport model. The results of the calculations reproduce isospin diffusion data from two different observables and the ratios of neutron and proton spectra. By comparing these data to calculations performed over a range of symmetry energies at saturation density and different representations of the density dependence of the symmetry energy, constraints on the density dependence of the symmetry energy at subnormal density are obtained. The results from the present work are compared to constraints put forward in other recent analyses.

Tsang, M. B.; Danielewicz, P.; Lynch, W. G.; Steiner, A. W. [Joint Institute of Nuclear Astrophysics and National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan 48824 (United States); Physics and Astronomy Department, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan 48824 (United States); Zhang Yingxun [Joint Institute of Nuclear Astrophysics and National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan 48824 (United States); China Institute of Atomic Energy, P.O. Box 275 (18), Beijing 102413 (China); Famiano, M. [Physics Department, Western Michigan University, Kalamazoo, Michigan 49008 (United States); Li, Zhuxia [China Institute of Atomic Energy, P.O. Box 275 (18), Beijing 102413 (China)

2009-03-27T23:59:59.000Z

393

Constraints on the density dependence of the symmetry energy  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Collisions involving 112Sn and 124Sn nuclei have been simulated with the improved Quantum Molecular Dynamics transport model. The results of the calculations reproduce isospin diffusion data from two different observables and the ratios of neutron and proton spectra. By comparing these data to calculations performed over a range of symmetry energies at saturation density and different representations of the density dependence of the symmetry energy, constraints on the density dependence of the symmetry energy at sub-normal density are obtained. Results from present work are compared to constraints put forward in other recent analysis.

Tsang, M B; Danielewicz, P; Famiano, M; Li, Zhuxia; Lynch, W G; Steiner, A W

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

394

Design and Control of High Power Density Motor Drive.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??This dissertation aims at developing techniques to achieve high power density in motor drives under the performance requirements for transportation system. Four main factors influencing… (more)

Jiang, Dong

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

395

Density Functional Study of the Structure, Stability and Oxygen...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Study of the Structure, Stability and Oxygen Reduction Activity of Ultrathin Platinum Nanowires. Density Functional Study of the Structure, Stability and Oxygen Reduction Activity...

396

COHERENCE AND INTERMITTENCY OF ELECTRON DENSITY IN SMALL-SCALE  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

OF ELECTRON DENSITY IN SMALL-SCALE INTERSTELLAR TURBULENCE P. W. Terry and K. W. Smith Center for Magnetic Self-Organization in Laboratory and Astrophysical Plasmas and...

397

Amplifying Magnetic Fields in High Energy Density Plasmas | U...  

Office of Science (SC) Website

Amplifying Magnetic Fields in High Energy Density Plasmas Fusion Energy Sciences (FES) FES Home About Research Facilities Science Highlights Benefits of FES Funding Opportunities...

398

Innovative High Energy Density Capacitor Design Offers Potential...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

like TroyCap's High Density Energy Nanolaminate Capacitor (HEDCAP) that may offer new clean energy applications to meet the nation's strategic energy goals and secure...

399

Congruent energy density trends of fish and birds reflect ecosystem ...  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We used long-term biomonitoring data to calculate whole-body energy densities for Lake Huron rainbow smelt (Osmerus mordax), lake trout (Salvelinus ...

400

Generation of high-energy-density ion bunches by ultraintense laser-cone-target interaction  

SciTech Connect

A scheme in which carbon ion bunches are accelerated to a high energy and density by a laser pulse (?10{sup 21}?W/cm{sup 2}) irradiating cone targets is proposed and investigated using particle-in-cell simulations. The laser pulse is focused by the cone and drives forward an ultrathin foil located at the cone's tip. In the course of the work, best results were obtained employing target configurations combining a low-Z cone with a multispecies foil transversely shaped to match the laser intensity profile.

Yang, X. H.; Zhuo, H. B., E-mail: hongbin.zhuo@gmail.com; Ma, Y. Y.; Zou, D. B.; Yu, T. P.; Ge, Z. Y.; Yin, Y.; Shao, F. Q. [College of Science, National University of Defense Technology, Changsha 410073 (China); Yu, W. [Shanghai Institute of Optics and Fine Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China); Xu, H., E-mail: xuhanemail@gmail.com [State Key Laboratory of High Performance Computing, National University of Defense Technology, Changsha 410073 (China); Borghesi, M., E-mail: m.borghesi@qub.ac.uk [School of Mathematics and Physics, Queen's University of Belfast, Belfast BT7 1NN (United Kingdom); Institute of Physics of the ASCR, ELI-Beamlines Project, Na Slovance 2, 18221 Prague (Czech Republic)

2014-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "density lithium-sulfur cells" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

Full charge-density scheme with a kinetic-energy correction: Application to ground-state properties of the 4d metals  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We present a full charge-density technique to evaluate total energies from the output of self-consistent linear muffin-tin orbitals (LMTO) calculations in the atomic-sphere approximation (ASA). The Coulomb energy is calculated exactly from the complete, nonspherically symmetric charge density defined within nonoverlapping, space-filling Wigner-Seitz cells; the exchange-correlation energy is evaluated by means of the local-density approximation or the generalized gradient approximation applied to the complete charge-density; and the ASA kinetic energy is corrected for the nonspherically symmetric charge density by a gradient expansion. The technique retains most of the simplicity and the computational efficiency of the LMTO-ASA method, and calculations of atomic volumes and elastic constants of the 4d elements show that it has the accuracy of full-potential methods.

L. Vitos; J. Kollár; H. L. Skriver

1997-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

402

The Impact of Residential Density on Vehicle Usage and Energy Consumption  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Residential Density on Vehicle Usage and Energy ConsumptionResidential Density on Vehicle Usage and Energy ConsumptionResidential Density on Vehicle Usage and Energy Consumption

Golob, Thomas F; Brownstone, David

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

403

The impact of residential density on vehicle usage and fuel consumption  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

residential density on vehicle usage and energy consumption.of residential density on vehicle usage and fuel consumptionresidential density on vehicle usage and fuel consumption*

Kim, Jinwon; Brownstone, David

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

404

A Microfluidic Cell Concentrator Jay Warrick, Ben Casavant, Megan Frisk, and David Beebe*  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

parameter and is typically controlled using the process of centrifugation and resuspension. However, if the number of cells is small enough, the resuspension volume needed to achieve a desired density can become to work with such small volumes: bubbles can interfere with cell handling and resuspension, cells may

Beebe, David J.

405

Simulation of the Buxton-Clarke Model for Organic Photovoltaic Cells  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Simulation of the Buxton-Clarke Model for Organic Photovoltaic Cells J.W. Jerome Department 02912 USA Abstract--Modeling of organic photovoltaic (OPV) cells can be achieved by adaptation of drift-V curves and carrier current densities. I. INTRODUCTION Organic solar cells are the topic of extensive

Jerome, Joseph W.

406

High Power Impulse Magnetron Sputtering deposition of Pt inside fuel cell electrodes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1 High Power Impulse Magnetron Sputtering deposition of Pt inside fuel cell electrodes S Cuynet1 as a cathode of a proton exchange membrane fuel cell. An increase of 80 % at 0.65 V of the PEMFC power density) 272001" #12;2 Proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFC) have the potential to provide

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

407

Growth of Pt nanoparticle for proton-exchange-membrane fuel cells by  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

at anode side of a polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cell. With a Pt loading of 25 g-Pt/cm2 , current, PEM fuel cell, Mass specific power density, Electrochemical active surface area, Oxygen reduction PEMFC Growth of Pt nanoparticle for proton-exchange-membrane fuel cells

408

Stresa, Italy, 26-28 April 2006 RECENT DEVELOPMENTS IN MEMS-BASED MICRO FUEL CELLS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

cell achieved a maximum power density of 58 mW cm-2 at room temperature with hydrogen as fuel. 1Stresa, Italy, 26-28 April 2006 RECENT DEVELOPMENTS IN MEMS-BASED MICRO FUEL CELLS Tristan Pichonat ABSTRACT Micro fuel cells (µ-FC) represent promising power sources for portable applications. Today, one

Boyer, Edmond

409

Sodium/Phosphorus-Sulfur Cells I. Cell Performance Paul L. Ridgway,  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Sodium/Phosphorus-Sulfur Cells Sodium/Phosphorus-Sulfur Cells I. Cell Performance Paul L. Ridgway, Frank R. McLarnon, and Elton J. Cairns* Energy and Environment Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, and Department of Chemical Engineering, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720, USA ABSTRACT Sodium/°-alumina/phosphorus-sulfur cells utilizing P/S ratios of 0, 0.143, 0.332, and 1.17 at temperatures from 350 to 500°C were studied by measurement of the equilibrium cell voltages at open circuit, and the steady-state cell voltages at current densities up to 70 mA/cm2. States of charge, represented by sodium atom fraction in the P-S electrode, ranged from 0 to 0.4. Open-circuit voltages up to 2.65 V were measured. Theoretical specific energies up to 825 Wh/kg were cal-

410

Surface properties of liquid mercury: a comparison of density-dependent and density-independent force fields  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The surface properties of liquid mercury (Hg) at a temperature of 293 K are investigated by classical Molecular Dynamics simulation using density-independent (DI) and density-dependent (DD) force fields. The latter force fields were introduced to improve the description of surface properties. Both force fields yield lower values of the surface tension in comparison to experimental data. Moreover, the density-dependent force field results in an anomalous thermodynamic behavior. These findings are rationalized by liquid-state theory. An optimized, density-independent force field is proposed that yields a higher surface tension and, at the same time, provides an accurate description of the liquid-vapor coexistence.

A. Iakovlev; D. Bedrov; M. Müller

2014-12-08T23:59:59.000Z

411

Systems, methods and computer-readable media for modeling cell performance fade of rechargeable electrochemical devices  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A system includes an electrochemical cell, monitoring hardware, and a computing system. The monitoring hardware periodically samples performance characteristics of the electrochemical cell. The computing system determines cell information from the performance characteristics of the electrochemical cell. The computing system also develops a mechanistic level model of the electrochemical cell to determine performance fade characteristics of the electrochemical cell and analyzing the mechanistic level model to estimate performance fade characteristics over aging of a similar electrochemical cell. The mechanistic level model uses first constant-current pulses applied to the electrochemical cell at a first aging period and at three or more current values bracketing a first exchange current density. The mechanistic level model also is based on second constant-current pulses applied to the electrochemical cell at a second aging period and at three or more current values bracketing the second exchange current density.

Gering, Kevin L

2013-08-27T23:59:59.000Z

412

Electrochemical cell  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An improved secondary electrochemical cell is disclosed having a negative electrode of lithium aluminum, a positive electrode of iron sulfide, a molten electrolyte of lithium chloride and potassium chloride, and the combination that the fully charged theoretical capacity of the negative electrode is in the range of 0.5-1.0 that of the positive electrode. The cell thus is negative electrode limiting during discharge cycling. Preferably, the negative electrode contains therein, in the approximate range of 1-10 volume % of the electrode, an additive from the materials of graphitized carbon, aluminum-iron alloy, and/or magnesium oxide.

Kaun, Thomas D. (New Lenox, IL)

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

413

TESTING AND PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF NASA 5 CM BY 5 CM BI-SUPPORTED SOLID OXIDE ELECTROLYSIS CELLS OPERATED IN BOTH FUEL CELL AND STEAM ELECTROLYSIS MODES  

SciTech Connect

A series of 5 cm by 5 cm bi-supported Solid Oxide Electrolysis Cells (SOEC) were produced by NASA for the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) and tested under the INL High Temperature Steam Electrolysis program. The results from the experimental demonstration of cell operation for both hydrogen production and operation as fuel cells is presented. An overview of the cell technology, test apparatus and performance analysis is also provided. The INL High Temperature Steam Electrolysis laboratory has developed significant test infrastructure in support of single cell and stack performance analyses. An overview of the single cell test apparatus is presented. The test data presented in this paper is representative of a first batch of NASA's prototypic 5 cm by 5 cm SOEC single cells. Clearly a significant relationship between the operational current density and cell degradation rate is evident. While the performance of these cells was lower than anticipated, in-house testing at NASA Glenn has yielded significantly higher performance and lower degradation rates with subsequent production batches of cells. Current post-test microstructure analyses of the cells tested at INL will be published in a future paper. Modification to cell compositions and cell reduction techniques will be altered in the next series of cells to be delivered to INL with the aim to decrease the cell degradation rate while allowing for higher operational current densities to be sustained. Results from the testing of new batches of single cells will be presented in a future paper.

R. C. O'Brien; J. E. O'Brien; C. M. Stoots; X. Zhang; S. C. Farmer; T. L. Cable; J. A. Setlock

2011-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

414

MARKOV CHAIN APPROXIMATIONS FOR TRANSITION DENSITIES OF LEVY PROCESSES  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

MARKOV CHAIN APPROXIMATIONS FOR TRANSITION DENSITIES OF L´EVY PROCESSES ALEKSANDAR MIJATOVI for the existence of transition densities of X, we establish sharp convergence rates of the normalised probability class with applications in diverse areas such as mathematical finance, risk management, insurance

415

HIGHLY COMPRESSED ION BEAMS FOR HIGH ENERGY DENSITY SCIENCE  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

HIGHLY COMPRESSED ION BEAMS FOR HIGH ENERGY DENSITY SCIENCE A. Friedman1,2 , J.J.Barnard1,2 , R Energy Density regimes required for Inertial Fu- sion Energy and other applications. An interim goal we are pursuing, low to medium mass ions with energies just above the Bragg peak are directed onto

Wurtele, Jonathan

416

Complex structure of electron and density functional theory  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Effective model for electron as two particle system is considered. The first particle in the system is chargeless mass of electron. The second one is massless charge of electron. Based on this model it is shown that density of energy for the particle is proportional to the probability density and the following formula stands $\\rho_E(x)=mc^2\\rho(x)$.

K. Koshelev

2013-01-08T23:59:59.000Z

417

Density functional theory for self-bound systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The density functional theory is extended to account for self-bound systems. To this end the Hohenberg-Kohn theorem is formulated for the intrinsic density and a Kohn-Sham like procedure for an $N$--body system is derived using the adiabatic approximation to account for the center of mass motion.

Nir Barnea

2007-11-06T23:59:59.000Z

418

Connections on statistical manifolds of density operators by geometry of  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of statistical manifolds, that is of manifolds whose points can be identified with density functions with respect to a certain measure µ. The classical references for the theory can be found in the books [1, 2, 4Connections on statistical manifolds of density operators by geometry of noncommutative Lp -spaces

Isola, Tommaso

419

OPTIMIZATION OF LAYER DENSITIES FOR MULTILAYERED INSULATION SYSTEMS  

SciTech Connect

Numerous tests of various multilayer insulation systems have indicated that there are optimal densities for these systems. However, the only method of calculating this optimal density was by a complex physics based algorithm developed by McIntosh. In the 1970's much data were collected on the performance of these insulation systems with many different variables analyzed. All formulas generated included number of layers and layer density as geometric variables in solving for the heat flux, none of them was in a differentiable form for a single geometric variable. It was recently discovered that by converting the equations from heat flux to thermal conductivity using Fourier's Law, the equations became functions of layer density, temperatures, and material properties only. The thickness and number of layers of the blanket were merged into a layer density. These equations were then differentiated with respect to layer density. By setting the first derivative equal to zero, and solving for the layer density, the critical layer density was determined. This method was checked and validated using test data from the Multipurpose Hydrogen Testbed which was designed using Mcintosh's algorithm.

Johnson, W. L. [NASA Kennedy Space Center, KT-E Kennedy Space Center, FL 32899 (United States)

2010-04-09T23:59:59.000Z

420

Irradiation effects in high-density polyethylene Jussi Polvia  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Irradiation effects in high-density polyethylene Jussi Polvia , Kai Nordlunda a simulations, we have studied the irradiation effects in high density polyethylene. We determined the threshold energy for creating defects in the polyethylene lattice as a function of the incident angle. We found

Nordlund, Kai

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "density lithium-sulfur cells" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

CONCRETE OPTIMISATION WITH REGARD TO PACKING DENSITY AND RHEOLOGY  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

/organizers): .............. Keywords: packing density, rheology, grading curve, optimisation, self-compacting concrete, roller-compactedCONCRETE OPTIMISATION WITH REGARD TO PACKING DENSITY AND RHEOLOGY François de Larrard LCPC Centre concrete. Author contacts Authors E-Mail Fax Postal address LCPC Centre de Nantes François de Larrard

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

422

Effect of air density variations on greenhouse temperature model  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Basically, a greenhouse temperature model is determined based on the balances of mass and energy. In most of the available models, the air density is considered constant. This fact limits the model because of the natural existing relationship between ... Keywords: Air density, Greenhouse, Humidity, Nonlinear systems, Temperature

Javier Leal Iga; Jorge Leal Iga; Carlos Leal Iga; Ramiro Ayala Flores

2008-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

423

Dynamical instabilities in density-dependent hadronic relativistic models  

SciTech Connect

Unstable modes in asymmetric nuclear matter (ANM) at subsaturation densities are studied in the framework of relativistic mean-field density-dependent hadron models. The size of the instabilities that drive the system are calculated and a comparison with results obtained within the nonlinear Walecka model is presented. The distillation and antidistillation effects are discussed.

Santos, A. M.; Brito, L.; Providencia, C. [Centro de Fisica Teorica, Department of Physics, University of Coimbra, P-3004-516 Coimbra (Portugal)

2008-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

424

Modeling human location data with mixtures of kernel densities  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Location-based data is increasingly prevalent with the rapid increase and adoption of mobile devices. In this paper we address the problem of learning spatial density models, focusing specifically on individual-level data. Modeling and predicting a spatial ... Keywords: anomaly/novelty detection, kernel density estimation, probabilistic methods, social media, spatial, user modeling

Moshe Lichman, Padhraic Smyth

2014-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

425

Testing Uniformity versus a Monotone Density Michael Woodroofe 1  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Testing Uniformity versus a Monotone Density Michael Woodroofe 1 The University of Michigan Jiayang Sun 2 Case Western Reserve University Abstract The paper is concerned with testing uniformity versus a monotone density. This problem arises at least in two important contexts, after transformations, testing

Sun, Jiayang

426

THE STAR FORMATION LAW AT LOW SURFACE DENSITY  

SciTech Connect

We investigate the nature of the star formation law at low gas surface densities using a sample of 19 low surface brightness (LSB) galaxies with existing H I maps in the literature, UV imaging from the Galaxy Evolution Explorer satellite, and optical images from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. All of the LSB galaxies have (NUV - r) colors similar to those for higher surface brightness star-forming galaxies of similar luminosity indicating that their average star formation histories are not very different. Based upon four LSB galaxies with both UV and far-infrared (FIR) data, we find FIR/UV ratios significantly less than 1, implying low amounts of internal UV extinction in LSB galaxies. We use the UV images and H I maps to measure the star formation rate (SFR) and hydrogen gas surface density within the same region for all the galaxies. The LSB galaxy star formation rate surface densities lie below the extrapolation of the power law fit to the SFR surface density as a function of the total gas density for higher surface brightness galaxies. Although there is more scatter, the LSB galaxies also lie below a second version of the star formation law in which the SFR surface density is correlated with the gas density divided by the orbital time in the disk. The downturn seen in both star formation laws is consistent with theoretical models that predict lower star formation efficiencies in LSB galaxies due to the declining molecular fraction with decreasing density.

Wyder, Ted K.; Martin, D. Christopher; Barlow, Tom A.; Foster, Karl; Friedman, Peter G.; Morrissey, Patrick; Neill, James D. [California Institute of Technology, MC 278-17, 1200 E. California Blvd., Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Neff, Susan G. [Laboratory for Astronomy and Solar Physics, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD, 20771 (United States); Schiminovich, David [Department of Astronomy, Columbia University, New York, NY 10027 (United States); Seibert, Mark; Madore, Barry F. [Observatories of the Carnegie Institution of Washington, 813 Santa Barbara Street, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); Bianchi, Luciana [Center for Astrophysical Sciences, Johns Hopkins University, 3400 N. Charles Street, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Donas, Jose; Milliard, Bruno [Laboratoire d'Astrophysique de Marseille, BP 8, Traverse du Siphon, 13376 Marseille Cedex 12 (France); Heckman, Timothy M.; Szalay, Alex S. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Johns Hopkins University, Homewood Campus, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Lee, Young-Wook; Yi, Sukyoung K. [Center for Space Astrophysics, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Rich, R. Michael [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States)

2009-05-10T23:59:59.000Z

427

Locating a Recycling Center: The General Density Case Jannett Highfill  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Locating a Recycling Center: The General Density Case Jannett Highfill Department of Economics) 677-3374. #12;2 Locating a Recycling Center: The General Density Case Abstract: The present paper considers a municipality that has a landfill (fixed in location) and plans to optimally locate a "recycling

Mou, Libin

428

High density Integrated Optoelectronic Circuits for High Speed Photonic Microsystems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

High density Integrated Optoelectronic Circuits for High Speed Photonic Microsystems K. Minoglou.minoglou@imel.demorkitos.gr Abstract. The study of high density integrated optoelectronic circuits involves the development of hybrid integration technologies and the generation of models for the optoelectronic devices. To meet these goals

Kouroupetroglou, Georgios

429

Relativistic plasma nanophotonics for ultrahigh energy density physics  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Relativistic plasma nanophotonics for ultrahigh energy density physics Michael A. Purvis1 volumetrically heat dense matter into a new ultrahot plasma regime. Electron densities nearly 100 times greater) and gigabar press- ures only exceeded in the central hot spot of highly compressed thermonuclear fusion

Rocca, Jorge J.

430

Envelope of Fracture Density Dragana Todorovic-Marinic*  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Envelope of Fracture Density Dragana Todorovic-Marinic* Veritas DGC Ltd., Calgary, Alberta, Canada that interpretation of fractures can be improved by using the envelope of the fracture density. It has been shown that open, fluid (or gas) filled fractures can be identified through the use of the AVAZ method (Gray et. al

Santos, Juan

431

Level densities for nuclei with 20<~A<~41  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Some commonly used level density compilations are compared with one another and with data in the mass range 20~20?MeV) data. This new compilation is used as a benchmark for testing theoretical calculations of level densities utilizing the two-body interaction with moment methods.

Po-lin Huang; S. M. Grimes; T. N. Massey

2000-07-19T23:59:59.000Z

432

Innovative High Energy Density Capacitor Design Offers Potential for Clean  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Innovative High Energy Density Capacitor Design Offers Potential Innovative High Energy Density Capacitor Design Offers Potential for Clean Energy Applications Innovative High Energy Density Capacitor Design Offers Potential for Clean Energy Applications June 10, 2011 - 4:46pm Addthis Similar system to the clustering tool that will manufacture TroyCap’s High Energy Density Nanolaminate Capacitor | Credit: TroyC Similar system to the clustering tool that will manufacture TroyCap's High Energy Density Nanolaminate Capacitor | Credit: TroyC Ben Squires Analyst, Office of Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy Can you imagine a photovoltaic module that's able to generate and store electricity on its own? Or an electric vehicle (EV) powered by a technology more durable than the advanced batteries in today's EVs? Malvern,

433

Rock Density At Alum Area (DOE GTP) | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Rock Density At Alum Area (DOE GTP) Rock Density At Alum Area (DOE GTP) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Rock Density At Alum Geothermal Area (DOE GTP) Exploration Activity Details Location Alum Geothermal Area Exploration Technique Rock Density Activity Date Usefulness not indicated DOE-funding Unknown References (1 January 2011) GTP ARRA Spreadsheet Retrieved from "http://en.openei.org/w/index.php?title=Rock_Density_At_Alum_Area_(DOE_GTP)&oldid=402985" Categories: Exploration Activities DOE Funded Activities ARRA Funded Activities What links here Related changes Special pages Printable version Permanent link Browse properties About us Disclaimers Energy blogs Linked Data Developer services OpenEI partners with a broad range of international organizations to grow

434

Innovative High Energy Density Capacitor Design Offers Potential for Clean  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

High Energy Density Capacitor Design Offers Potential High Energy Density Capacitor Design Offers Potential for Clean Energy Applications Innovative High Energy Density Capacitor Design Offers Potential for Clean Energy Applications June 10, 2011 - 4:46pm Addthis Similar system to the clustering tool that will manufacture TroyCap’s High Energy Density Nanolaminate Capacitor | Credit: TroyC Similar system to the clustering tool that will manufacture TroyCap's High Energy Density Nanolaminate Capacitor | Credit: TroyC Ben Squires Analyst, Office of Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy Can you imagine a photovoltaic module that's able to generate and store electricity on its own? Or an electric vehicle (EV) powered by a technology more durable than the advanced batteries in today's EVs? Malvern, Pennsylvania's TroyCap, LLC is using nanolaminate technology patented by

435

Symmetry Energy as a Function of Density and Mass  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Energy in nuclear matter is, in practice, completely characterized at different densities and asymmetries, when the density dependencies of symmetry energy and of energy of symmetric matter are specified. The density dependence of the symmetry energy at subnormal densities produces mass dependence of nuclear symmetry coefficient and, thus, can be constrained by that latter dependence. We deduce values of the mass dependent symmetry coefficients, by using excitation energies to isobaric analog states. The coefficient systematic, for intermediate and high masses, is well described in terms of the symmetry coefficient values of a_a^V=(31.5-33.5) MeV for the volume coefficient and a_a^S=(9-12) MeV for the surface coefficient. These two further correspond to the parameter values describing density dependence of symmetry energy, of L~95 MeV and K_{sym}~25 MeV.

Pawel Danielewicz; Jenny Lee

2007-08-21T23:59:59.000Z

436

Symmetry Energy as a Function of Density and Mass  

SciTech Connect

Energy in nuclear matter is, in practice, completely characterized at different densities and asymmetries, when the density dependencies of symmetry energy and of energy of symmetric matter are specified. The density dependence of the symmetry energy at subnormal densities produces mass dependence of nuclear symmetry coefficient and, thus, can be constrained by that latter dependence. We deduce values of the mass dependent symmetry coefficients, by using excitation energies to isobaric analog states. The coefficient systematic, for intermediate and high masses, is well described in terms of the symmetry coefficient values of a{sub a}{sup V} = (31.5-33.5) MeV for the volume coefficient and a{sub a}{sup S} = (9-12) MeV for the surface coefficient. These two further correspond to the parameter values describing density dependence of symmetry energy, of L{approx}95 MeV and K{sub sym}{approx}25 MeV.

Danielewicz, Pawel; Lee, Jenny [National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory and Department of Physics and Astronomy, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan 48824 (United States)

2007-10-26T23:59:59.000Z

437

Symmetry Energy as a Function of Density and Mass  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Energy in nuclear matter is, in practice, completely characterized at different densities and asymmetries, when the density dependencies of symmetry energy and of energy of symmetric matter are specified. The density dependence of the symmetry energy at subnormal densities produces mass dependence of nuclear symmetry coefficient and, thus, can be constrained by that latter dependence. We deduce values of the mass dependent symmetry coefficients, by using excitation energies to isobaric analog states. The coefficient systematic, for intermediate and high masses, is well described in terms of the symmetry coefficient values of a_a^V=(31.5-33.5) MeV for the volume coefficient and a_a^S=(9-12) MeV for the surface coefficient. These two further correspond to the parameter values describing density dependence of symmetry energy, of L~95 MeV and K_{sym}~25 MeV.

Danielewicz, Pawel

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

438

Energy per Particle of Neutron Matter near Nuclear Density  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The energy per particle of neutron matter in the density range 1013 to 1015 gcm3 was calculated self-consistently using recent nuclear potentials: the Bressel-Kerman-Rouben potential and the boundary-condition model of Feshbach and Lomon. At low densities the results are in good agreement with other calculations of the energy density of neutron matter. At higher densities, the predicted energy density depends more strongly on the specific potential used. More recent potentials yield somewhat lower pressures for neutron matter (hence a smaller mass range for neutron stars) than those predicted with the Levinger-Simmons potential which has been used as the basis for calculations of neutron-star structure.

Sara L. Schlenker and E. L. Lomon

1971-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

439

Categorical Exclusion Determinations: B3.6 | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

September 28, 2011 September 28, 2011 CX-006938: Categorical Exclusion Determination Developing Lithium-Ion Cells for Electric Vehicle Batteries CX(s) Applied: B3.6 Date: 09/28/2011 Location(s): Daejeon, South Korea, Other Location Office(s): Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Savannah River Operations Office September 28, 2011 CX-006925: Categorical Exclusion Determination Development and Commercialization of a Novel Low-Cost Carbon Fiber CX(s) Applied: B3.6 Date: 09/28/2011 Location(s): Missouri, North Carolina, South Carolina, Texas, Washington Office(s): Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory September 28, 2011 CX-006932: Categorical Exclusion Determination Development of High-Energy Lithium-Sulfur Battery Cells CX(s) Applied: B3.6

440

Photovoltaic cell  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

In a photovoltaic cell structure containing a visibly transparent, electrically conductive first layer of metal oxide, and a light-absorbing semiconductive photovoltaic second layer, the improvement comprising a thin layer of transition metal nitride, carbide or boride interposed between said first and second layers.

Gordon, Roy G. (Cambridge, MA); Kurtz, Sarah (Somerville, MA)

1984-11-27T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "density lithium-sulfur cells" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

Transfected cathepsin D stimulates high density cancer cell growth by inactivating secreted growth inhibitors  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Texas (P30-CA54174), the Susan G. Komen Breast Cancer Foundation (POP 2000 704), and the National Cancer Institute, Redes En Accion (U01-CA86117). Citation Information: Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2011;20(10 Suppl):B51.

E Liaudet; D Derocq; H Rochefort; M Garcia

1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

442

A High Power-Density Mediator-Free Microfluidic Biophotovoltaic Device for Cyanobacterial Cells  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

¨ller, L. Rajah, J. N. Skepper, M. Vendrus- colo, and T. P. J. Knowles, Appl Phys Lett 102, 184102 (2013). 39T. Yagishita, S. Sawayama, K.-I. Tsukahara, and T. Ogi, Bio- electrochem Bioenerg 43, 177 (1997). 40M. Torimura, A. Miki, A. Wadano, K. Kano, and T...

Bombelli, Paolo; Mueller, Thomas; Herling, Therese W.; Howe, Christopher J.; Knowles, Tuomas P. J.

2014-09-16T23:59:59.000Z

443

Quantification of Nanoscale Density Fluctuations in Biological Cells/Tissues: Inverse Participation Ratio (IPR) Analysis of  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Ratio (IPR) Analysis of Transmission Electron Microscopy Images and Implications for Early-Stage Cancer analysis of the inverse participation ratio (IPR) of the eigenfunctions of these optical lattices at the nanoscales. First, the IPR analysis is validated in experiments with models of disordered systems fabricated

Pradhan, Prabhakar

444

Density-based separation in multiphase systems provides a simple method to identify sickle cell disease  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...print a holder to punch reproducible holes in the sides of the microhematocrit tubes. The holder was designed with AutoCAD (AutoDesk). We load each holder with microhematocrit tubes and use standard metal pushpins (Staples) to punch holes in the sides...

Ashok A. Kumar; Matthew R. Patton; Jonathan W. Hennek; Si Yi Ryan Lee; Gaetana D’Alesio-Spina; Xiaoxi Yang; Julie Kanter; Sergey S. Shevkoplyas; Carlo Brugnara; George M. Whitesides

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

445

Effect of current density on poisoning rate of Co-containing fuel cell cathodes by chromium  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Variation of electrochemical performance of a La0.58Sr0.4Co0.2Fe0.8O3 (LSCF) cathode due to chromium gas-phase deposition has been studied at 800°C. The highest degradation rate is observed under open circuit con...

E. Yu. Konysheva

2014-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

446

Density labeling of mammalian cell DNA and RNA with nitrogen-15  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Habel, October, 3, 1968 Heavy DNA can be isolated from...ability to fractionate heavy and light DNA in CsCl...L-glutamine, completely heavy RNA and DNA should be...Chemical Co., St. Louis, Missouri. Radioisotopes were obtained...overlaid with paraffin oil, and centrifuged in the...

N A Crane; N P Salzman

1968-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

447

ACTIVE CATHODES FOR SUPER-HIGH POWER DENSITY SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELLS THROUGH SPACE CHARGE EFFECTS  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the work done during the fifth quarter of the project. Effort was directed in two areas: (1) Further development of the model on the role of connectivity on ionic conductivity of porous bodies, including the role of grain boundaries and space charge region. (2) Fabrication of porous samaria-doped ceria (SDC) and investigation of the effect of thermal treatment on its conductivity. The model developed accounts for transport through three regions: (a) Transport through the bulk of the grain, RI, which includes parallel transport through space charge region. (b) Transport through the space charge region adjacent to the neck (grain boundary), RII. (c) Transport through the structural part of the neck (grain boundary), RIII. The work on the model development involves calculation RI, RII, RIII, and the sum of these three terms, which is the total resistance, as a function of the grain radius ranging between 0.5 and 5 microns and as a function of the relative neck size, described in terms of the angle theta, ranging between 5 and 45{sup o}. Three values of resistivity of the space charge region were chosen; space charge resistivity greater than grain resistivity, equal to grain resistivity, and lower than grain resistivity. Experimental work was conducted on samaria (Sm{sub 2}O{sub 3})-doped ceria (SDC) samples of differing porosity levels, before and after thermal treatment at 1200 C. The conductivity in the annealed samples was lower, consistent with enhanced Debye length. This shows the important role of space charge on ionic transport, and its implications concerning cathode polarization.

Anil V. Virkar

2004-03-08T23:59:59.000Z

448

ACTIVE CATHODES FOR SUPER-HIGH POWER DENSITY SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELLS THROUGH SPACE CHARGE EFFECTS  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the work done during the second quarter of the project. Effort is directed in two areas: (1) The use of a novel method to achieve a given porosity level with high contiguity and thus conductivity. (2) Relate the measured conductivity to porosity and contiguity. The rationale for these experiments was to develop cathodes with high ionic conductivity, so that the effective polarization resistance will be concomitantly lowered.

Anil V. Virkar

2003-10-11T23:59:59.000Z

449

ACTIVE CATHODES FOR SUPER-HIGH POWER DENSITY SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELLS THROUGH SPACE CHARGE EFFECTS  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the work done during the sixth quarter of the project. Effort was directed in three areas: (1) Further development of the model on the role of connectivity on ionic conductivity of porous bodies, including the role of grain boundaries and space charge region. (2) Calculation of the effect of space charge and morphology of porous bodies on the effective charge transfer resistance of porous composite cathodes. (3) The investigation of the three electrode system for the measurement of cathodic polarization using amperometric sensors.

Anil V. Virkar

2004-05-17T23:59:59.000Z

450

ACTIVE CATHODES FOR SUPER-HIGH POWER DENSITY SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELLS THROUGH SPACE CHARGE EFFECTS  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the work done during the fourth quarter of the project. Effort was directed in two areas, namely, continued further development of the model on the role of connectivity on ionic conductivity of porous bodies, including the role of grain boundaries and space charge, and its relationship to cathode polarization; and fabrication of samaria-doped ceria porous (SDC). The work on the model development involves calculation of the effect of space charge on transport through porous bodies. Three specific cases have been examined: (1) Space charge resistivity greater than the grain resistivity, (2) Space charge resistivity equal to the grain resistivity, and (3) Space charge resistivity lower than the grain resistivity. The model accounts for transport through three regions: the bulk of the grain, the space charge region, and the structural part of the grain boundary. The effect of neck size has been explicitly incorporated. In future work, the effective resistivity will be incorporated into the effective cathode polarization resistance. The results will then be compared with experiments.

Anil V. Virkar

2003-12-12T23:59:59.000Z

451

High Energy Density Na-S/NiCl2 Hybrid Battery  

SciTech Connect

High temperature (250-350°C) sodium-beta alumina batteries (NBBs) are attractive energy storage devices for renewable energy integration and other grid related applications. Currently, two technologies are commercially available in NBBs, e.g., sodium-sulfur (Na-S) battery and sodium-metal halide (ZEBRA) batteries. In this study, we investigated the combination of these two chemistries with a mixed cathode. In particular, the cathode of the cell consisted of molten NaAlCl4 as a catholyte and a mixture of Ni, NaCl and Na2S as active materials. During cycling, two reversible plateaus were observed in cell voltage profiles, which matched electrochemical reactions for Na-S and Na-NiCl2 redox couples. An irreversible reaction between sulfur species and Ni was identified during initial charge at 280°C, which caused a decrease in cell capacity. The final products on discharge included Na2Sn with 1< n < 3, which differed from Na2S3 found in traditional Na-S battery. Reduction of sulfur in the mixed cathode led to an increase in overall energy density over ZEBRA batteries. Despite of the initial drop in cell capacity, the mixed cathode demonstrated relatively stable cycling with more than 95% of capacity retained over 60 cycles under 10mA/cm2. Optimization of the cathode may lead to further improvements in battery performance.

Lu, Xiaochuan; Lemmon, John P.; Kim, Jin Yong; Sprenkle, Vincent L.; Yang, Zhenguo (Gary) [Gary

2013-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

452

Density functional theory and evolution algorithm calculations of elastic properties of AlON  

SciTech Connect

Different models for aluminum oxynitride (AlON) were calculated using density functional theory and optimized using an evolutionary algorithm. Evolutionary algorithm and density functional theory (DFT) calculations starting from several models of AlON with different Al or O vacancy locations and different positions for the N atoms relative to the vacancy were carried out. The results show that the constant anion model [McCauley et al., J. Eur. Ceram. Soc. 29(2), 223 (2009)] with a random distribution of N atoms not adjacent to the Al vacancy has the lowest energy configuration. The lowest energy structure is in a reasonable agreement with experimental X-ray diffraction spectra. The optimized structure of a 55 atom unit cell was used to construct 220 and 440 atom models for simulation cells using DFT with a Gaussian basis set. Cubic elastic constant predictions were found to approach the experimentally determined AlON single crystal elastic constants as the model size increased from 55 to 440 atoms. The pressure dependence of the elastic constants found from simulated stress-strain relations were in overall agreement with experimental measurements of polycrystalline and single crystal AlON. Calculated IR intensity and Raman spectra are compared with available experimental data.

Batyrev, I. G.; Taylor, D. E.; Gazonas, G. A.; McCauley, J. W. [U.S. Army Research Laboratory, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland 21005 (United States)

2014-01-14T23:59:59.000Z

453

STP Resources for Statistical & Thermal Physics Density of States of the Two-Dimensional Ising Model  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

STP Resources for Statistical & Thermal Physics Density of States of the Two-Dimensional Ising Model: STP IsingDensityOfStates FIG. 1: Plot of the density of states generated by stp IsingDensityOfStates. I. INTRODUCTION The STP IsingDensityOfStates program computes the density of states of the two

Holzwarth, Natalie

454

Bar-Halo Friction in Galaxies III: Halo Density Changes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The predicted central densities of dark matter halos in LCDM models exceed those observed in some galaxies. Weinberg & Katz argue that angular momentum transfer from a rotating bar in the baryonic disk can lower the halo density, but they also contend that N-body simulations of this process will not reveal the true continuum result unless many more than the usual numbers of particles are employed. Adopting their simplified model of a rotating rigid bar in a live halo, I have been unable to find any evidence to support their contention. I find that both the angular momentum transferred and the halo density change are independent of the number of particles over the range usually employed up to that advocated by these authors. I show that my results do not depend on any numerical parameters, and that field methods perform equally with grid methods. I also identify the reasons that the required particle number suggested by Weinberg & Katz is excessive. I further show that when countervailing compression by baryonic settling is ignored, moderate bars can reduce the mean density of the inner halo by 20% - 30%. Long, massive, skinny bars can reduce the mean inner density by a factor ~10. The largest density reductions are achieved at the expense of removing most of the angular momentum likely to reside in the baryonic component. Compression of the halo by baryonic settling must reduce, and may even overwhelm, the density reduction achievable by bar friction.

J. A. Sellwood

2006-10-16T23:59:59.000Z

455

Nanocrystal Solar Cells  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

research on organic photovoltaic cells since small molecule10 years prior (4). Photovoltaic cells with an active layerof the associated photovoltaic cells. 2.4 Charge transport

Gur, Ilan

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

456

Intracellularly injected cobaltous ions accumulate at synaptic densities  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...412 ( 1972 ). PRUVES, D, J CELL BIOL 55 : 205 ( 1972 ). RADEMAKERS, LHP, IDENTIFICATION OF A SECRETOMOTOR CENTER IN BRAIN OF...in-tensification of ultrathin sections [L. H. P. M. Rademakers, Cell. Tiss. Res. 184, 381 (1977); J. S. Altman...

CE Phillips

1980-03-28T23:59:59.000Z

457

High-Density Discharges in the Alcator Tokamak  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Peak plasma densities in excess of 1015 cm-3 have been obtained in the Alcator tokamak with 60<~BT<85 kG. The highest average density so far achieved is n¯e=6×1014 cm-3; the corresponding n0?E=2×1013 cm-3 s. These ultrahigh-density discharges exhibit (i) nearly complete energy equilibration between electrons and ions, (ii) severe attenuation of energetic-neutral-particle fluxes, (iii) a minor role of impurities, and (iv) energy-confinement properties consistent with neoclassical estimates.

M. Gaudreau; A. Gondhalekar; M. H. Hughes; D. Overskei; D. S. Pappas; R. R. Parker; S. M. Wolfe; E. Apgar; H. I. Helava; I. H. Hutchinson; E. S. Marmar; K. Molvig

1977-11-14T23:59:59.000Z

458

Density dependence of reactor performance with thermal confinement scalings  

SciTech Connect

Energy confinement scalings for the thermal component of the plasma published thus far have a different dependence on plasma density and input power than do scalings for the total plasma energy. With such thermal scalings, reactor performance (measured by Q, the ratio of the fusion power to the sum of the ohmic and auxiliary input powers) worsens with increasing density. This dependence is the opposite of that found using scalings based on the total plasma energy, indicating that reactor operation concepts may need to be altered if this density dependence is confirmed in future research.

Stotler, D.P.

1992-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

459

Exact evaluation of density matrix elements for the Heisenberg chain  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We have obtained all the density matrix elements on six lattice sites for the spin-1/2 Heisenberg chain via the algebraic method based on the quantum Knizhnik-Zamolodchikov equations. Several interesting correlation functions, such as chiral correlation functions, dimer-dimer correlation functions, etc... have been analytically evaluated. Furthermore we have calculated all the eigenvalues of the density matrix and analyze the eigenvalue-distribution. As a result the exact von Neumann entropy for the reduced density matrix on six lattice sites has been obtained.

Jun Sato; Masahiro Shiroishi; Minoru Takahashi

2006-11-06T23:59:59.000Z

460

Energy Density Inhomogeneities with Polynomial $f(R)$ Cosmology  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this paper, we study the effects of polynomial $f(R)$ model on the stability of homogeneous energy density in self-gravitating spherical stellar object. For this purpose, we construct couple of evolution equations which relate the Weyl tensor with matter parameters. We explore different factors responsible for density inhomogeneities with non-dissipative dust, isotropic as well as anisotropic fluids and dissipative dust cloud. We find that shear, pressure, dissipative parameters and $f(R)$ terms affect the existence of inhomogeneous energy density.

Sharif, M

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "density lithium-sulfur cells" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


461

Unbiased estimators of wildlife population densities using aural information  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. Using L' = 1. 99, and p = 1/3, from (30) an estimate of the density is n 108. 85 f A ] 99(3)(4QQQ)(] /3) . 0136 dove pairs/acre s = 1. 36 dove pairs/100 acres. 25 This is the same estimate we obtained using DI. The reason for this is explained...(7. 50) 1. 12 ? (2 422) (3) (40) (1(3) (0. 96, l. 28) 3. 4 Suggestions for Improvements At present, the call-count technique for estimating the density of mourning doves seems satisfactory for establishing a relative density index, but to get a good...

Durland, Eric Newton

1969-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

462

Sensitivity of nuclear stopping towards density dependent symmetry energy  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The effect of density dependent symmetry energy on nuclear-stopping is studied using isospin-dependent quantum molecular dynamics model(IQMD). We have used the reduced isospin-dependent cross-section with soft(S) equation of state for the systems having different isostopic content, to explore the various aspects of nuclear stopping. The aim is to pin down the nature of the nuclear stopping with density dependent symmetry energy. Nuclear stopping is found to be sensitive towards the various forms of the density dependent symmetry energy. The nuclear stopping tends to decrease for the stiffer equation of state (EOS), i.e. larger values of gamma.

Karan Singh Vinayak; Suneel Kumar

2011-10-11T23:59:59.000Z

463

Nuclear Energy Density Functionals Constrained by Low-Energy QCD  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A microscopic framework of nuclear energy density functionals is reviewed, which establishes a direct relation between low-energy QCD and nuclear structure, synthesizing effective field theory methods and principles of density functional theory. Guided by two closely related features of QCD in the low-energy limit: a) in-medium changes of vacuum condensates, and b) spontaneous breaking of chiral symmetry; a relativistic energy density functional is developed and applied in studies of ground-state properties of spherical and deformed nuclei.

Dario Vretenar

2008-02-06T23:59:59.000Z

464

Symmetry energy at subnuclear densities deduced from nuclear masses  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We examine how nuclear masses are related to the density dependence of the symmetry energy. Using a macroscopic nuclear model we calculate nuclear masses in a way dependent on the equation of state of asymmetric nuclear matter. We find by comparison with empirical two-proton separation energies that a smaller symmetry energy at subnuclear densities, corresponding to a larger density symmetry coefficient L, is favored. This tendency, which is clearly seen for nuclei that are neutron-rich, nondeformed, and light, can be understood from the property of the surface symmetry energy in a compressible liquid-drop picture.

Kazuhiro Oyamatsu; Kei Iida

2010-04-19T23:59:59.000Z

465

The Density Effect for the Ionization Loss in Various Materials  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The density effect for the ionization loss of charged particles has been calculated for a number of metals, scintillating materials, gases at various pressures, and photographic emulsion, using a dispersion model involving an appropriate number of dispersion oscillators for each substance. The results are presented in the form of graphs which can be used to correct the ionization loss for the density effect. The theoretical curves for silver chloride and anthracene are in reasonable agreement with experiments on the ionization loss of ?-mesons. A general derivation of the equations for the density effect is given.

R. M. Sternheimer

1952-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

466

The effect of the driving frequency on the confinement of beam electrons and plasma density in low pressure capacitive discharges  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The effect of changing the driving frequency on the plasma density and the electron dynamics in a capacitive radio-frequency argon plasma operated at low pressures of a few Pa is investigated by Particle in Cell/Monte Carlo Collisions simulations and analytical modeling. In contrast to previous assumptions the plasma density does not follow a quadratic dependence on the driving frequency in this non-local collisionless regime. Instead, a step-like increase at a distinct driving frequency is observed. Based on the analytical power balance model, in combination with a detailed analysis of the electron kinetics, the density jump is found to be caused by an electron heating mode transition from the classical $\\alpha$-mode into a low density resonant heating mode characterized by the generation of two energetic electron beams at each electrode per sheath expansion phase. These electron beams propagate through the bulk without collisions and interact with the opposing sheath. In the low density mode, the second bea...

Wilczek, S; Schulze, J; Schuengel, E; Brinkmann, R P; Derzsi, A; Korolov, I; Donkó, Z; Mussenbrock, T

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

467

Novel Approach to Advanced Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Anode Catalysts  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Dinh (PI) Dinh (PI) Thomas Gennett National Renewable Energy Laboratory October 1, 2009 Novel Approach to Advanced Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Anode Catalysts This presentation does not contain any proprietary, confidential, or otherwise restricted information Objectives Develop cost-effective, reliable, durable fuel cells for portable power applications (e.g., cell phones, computers, etc.) that meet all DOE targets. Note that the energy density (Wh/L), volumetric (W/L), and specific power (W/kg) all depend on knowing the weight and volume of the entire DMFC system as well as the volume and concentration of fuel, which are system specific (power application and manufacturer dependent). In our model study the surface power density levels on HOPG will allow for indirect evaluation of our system to DOE's energy density

468

Mitigating Breakdown in High Energy Density Perovskite Polymer Nanocomposite Capacitors  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

2012 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting

469

Novel and Optimized Materials Phases for High Energy Density Batteries  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

2013 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting

470

Stationary Fuel Cells: Overview of Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Activities...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Stationary Fuel Cells: Overview of Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Activities Stationary Fuel Cells: Overview of Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Activities Presentation covers stationary fuel cells...

471

Fuel Cell Technologies Overview: 2011 Fuel Cell Seminar | Department...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Fuel Cell Technologies Overview: 2011 Fuel Cell Seminar Fuel Cell Technologies Overview: 2011 Fuel Cell Seminar Presentation by Sunita Satyapal at the Fuel Cell Seminar on November...

472

Fuel Cell Technologies Overview: 2011 Fuel Cell Seminar | Department...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Overview: 2011 Fuel Cell Seminar Fuel Cell Technologies Overview: 2011 Fuel Cell Seminar Presentation by Sunita Satyapal at the Fuel Cell Seminar on November 1, 2011. Fuel Cell...

473

FUEL CELLS – DIRECT ALCOHOL FUEL CELLS | Direct Ethylene Glycol Fuel Cells  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Direct ethylene glycol fuel cells, in which the oxidation of ethylene glycol and the reduction of oxygen take place at the anode and the cathode, respectively, are promising candidates as electric power sources of portable devices such as the cellular phone and the laptop computer. The advantages of ethylene glycol are high activity, high energy density, low volatility, and high boiling point compared with other organic fuels such as methanol and ethanol. In this article, the construction of direct ethylene glycol fuel cells, the electrooxidation of ethylene glycol in acid and alkaline solutions, cathode catalysts, and operating conditions such as temperature, pH of the electrolytes, and the concentration of ethylene glycol are described.

Z. Ogumi; K. Miyazaki

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

474

Soil Density/Moisture Gauge | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Soil Density/Moisture Gauge Soil Density/Moisture Gauge Soil Density/Moisture Gauge This scenario provides the planning instructions, guidance, and evaluation forms necessary to conduct an exercise involving a highway shipment of a soil moisture/density gauge (Class 7 - Radioactive). This exercise manual is one in a series of five scenarios developed by the Department of Energy Transportation Emergency Preparedness Program (TEPP). Responding agencies may include several or more of the following: local municipal and county fire, police, sheriff and Emergency Medical Services (EMS) personnel; state, local, and federal emergency response teams; emergency response contractors; and other emergency response resources that could potentially be provided by the carrier and the originating facility (shipper).

475

Using Density Equalizing Map Projection (DEMP) in Epidemiologic  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Using Density Equalizing Map Projection (DEMP) in Epidemiologic Using Density Equalizing Map Projection (DEMP) in Epidemiologic Surveillance: An Analysis of Female Breast Cancer Incidence in the San Francisco Bay Area Speaker(s): Christine Erdman Date: April 5, 2001 - 12:00pm Location: Bldg. 90 Seminar Host/Point of Contact: David Faulkner This study examined the spatial distribution of female breast cancer incidence in the San Francisco Bay Area (California, U.S.A.) in relation to various demographic variables using cartograms for control of population density. Using a cartogram technique known as density equalized map projection (DEMP), census tract boundaries of geopolitical maps are transformed such that the resultant census tract areas are proportional to their population at risk. With spatial confounding removed, the maps become

476

Measuring Densities of Solids and Liquids Using Magnetic Levitation: Fundamentals  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Measuring Densities of Solids and Liquids Using Magnetic Levitation: Fundamentals ... This article also describes the fundamental limitations of this technique. ... The Measurement, Instrumentation, and Sensors Handbook; CRC Press and IEEE Press: Boca Raton, FL, 1999. ...

Katherine A. Mirica; Sergey S. Shevkoplyas; Scott T. Phillips; Malancha Gupta; George M. Whitesides

2009-07-02T23:59:59.000Z

477

Display of probability densities for data from a continuous distribution  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Based on cumulative distribution functions, Fourier series expansion and Kolmogorov tests, we present a simple method to display probability densities for data drawn from a continuous distribution. It is often more efficient than using histograms.

Bernd A. Berg

2011-05-03T23:59:59.000Z

478

Direct Experimental Determination of Spectral Densities of Molecular Complexes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Determining the spectral density of a molecular system immersed in a proteomic scaffold and in contact to a solvent is a fundamental challenge in the coarse-grained description of, e.g., electron and energy transfer dynamics. Once the spectral density is characterized, all the time scales are captured and no artificial separation between fast and slow processes need be invoked. Based on the fluorescence Stokes shift function, we utilize a simple and robust strategy to extract the spectral density of a number of molecular complexes from available experimental data. Specifically, we show that experimental data for dye molecules in several solvents, amino acid proteins in water, and some photochemical systems (e.g., rhodopsin and green fluorescence proteins), are well described by a three-parameter family of sub-Ohmic spectral densities that are characterized by a fast initial Gaussian-like decay followed by a slow algebraic-like decay rate at long times.

Pachon, Leonardo A

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

479

Why are Fluid Densities So Low in Carbon Nanotubes?  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The equilibrium density of fluids under nanoconfinement can differ substantially from their bulk density. Using a mean-field approach to describe the energetic landscape near the carbon nanotube (CNT) wall, we obtain analytical results describing the lengthscales associated with the layering observed at the fluid-CNT interface. When combined with molecular simulation results for the fluid density in the layered region, this approach allows us to derive a closed-form prediction for the overall equilibrium fluid density as a function of the CNT radius that is in excellent agreement with molecular dynamics simulations. We also show how aspects of this theory can be extended to describe water confined within CNTs and find good agreement with results from the literature.

Wang, Gerald J

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

480

Optimal-transport formulation of electronic density-functional theory  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The most challenging scenario for Kohn-Sham density functional theory, that is when the electrons move relatively slowly trying to avoid each other as much as possible because of their repulsion (strong-interaction limit), is reformulated here as an optimal transport (or mass transportation theory) problem, a well established field of mathematics and economics. In practice, we show that solving the problem of finding the minimum possible internal repulsion energy for $N$ electrons in a given density $\\rho(\\rv)$ is equivalent to find the optimal way of transporting $N-1$ times the density $\\rho$ into itself, with cost function given by the Coulomb repulsion. We use this link to put the strong-interaction limit of density functional theory on firm grounds and to discuss the potential practical aspects of this reformulation.

Giuseppe Buttazzo; Luigi De Pascale; Paola Gori-Giorgi

2012-05-21T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "density lithium-sulfur cells" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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481

Magnetic moments of octet baryons at finite density and temperature  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We investigate the change of magnetic moments of octet baryons in nuclear matter at a finite density and temperature. Quark-meson coupling models are employed in describing properties of octet baryons and their interactions. Magnetic moments of octet baryons are found to increase non-negligibly as density and temperature increase, and we find that temperature dependence can be strongly correlated with the quark-hadron phase transition. Model dependence is also examined by comparing the results from the quark-meson coupling (QMC) model to those by the modified QMC (MQMC) model where the bag constant is assumed to depend on density. Both models predict sizable dependence on density and temperature, but the MQMC model shows a more drastic change of magnetic moments. Feasible changes of the nucleon mass by strong magnetic fields are also reported in the given models.

C. Y. Ryu; C. H. Hyun; M. -K. Cheoun

2010-08-12T23:59:59.000Z

482

Contour extraction by mixture density description obtained from region clustering  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This paper describes a contour extraction scheme which refines a roughly estimated initial contour to outline a precise object boundary. In our approach, mixture density descriptions, which are parametric desc...

Minoru Etoh; Yoshiaki Shirai; Minoru Asada

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

483

Contributions of charge-density research to medicinal chemistry  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Contributions of experimental and selected theoretical charge-density research to medicinal chemistry are reviewed; combining experimental methods from high-resolution small-molecule and macromolecular crystallography with theory proves to be fruitful.

Dittrich, B.

2014-09-23T23:59:59.000Z

484

Why are Fluid Densities So Low in Carbon Nanotubes?  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The equilibrium density of fluids under nanoconfinement can differ substantially from their bulk density. Using a mean-field approach to describe the energetic landscape near the carbon nanotube (CNT) wall, we obtain analytical results describing the lengthscales associated with the layering observed at the fluid-CNT interface. When combined with molecular simulation results for the fluid density in the layered region, this approach allows us to derive a closed-form prediction for the overall equilibrium fluid density as a function of the CNT radius that is in excellent agreement with molecular dynamics simulations. We also show how aspects of this theory can be extended to describe water confined within CNTs and find good agreement with results from the literature.

Gerald J. Wang; Nicolas G. Hadjiconstantinou

2014-09-27T23:59:59.000Z

485

Assessing the performance of recent density functionals for bulk solids  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We assess the performance of recent density functionals for the exchange-correlation energy of a nonmolecular solid, by applying accurate calculations with the GAUSSIAN, BAND, and VASP codes to a test set of 24 solid metals ...

Csonka, Gabor I.

486

Uncertainty analysis of densities and isotopics: Handling correlations  

SciTech Connect

This paper discusses two cases of correlated parameters in uncertainty analyses: (1) the case of measured mass, density, and volume or spatial dimension correlations; and (2) the case of measured material isotopics, where increasing one atom fraction must cause the others to decrease. In the first case, an equation is derived that has a term due to uncertain density, a term due to uncertain dimensions, and a term due to the correlation between density and dimensions. In a numerical test problem, this equation gives the same result as the standard equation that treats mass and dimensions independently. In the case of isotopics, an equation is derived relating the uncertainty due to uncertain isotopic fractions to the sensitivities to isotopic densities, which are easier to calculate. The equation is verified in a test problem. (authors)

Favorite, J. A.; Armstrong, J. C. [X-Computational Physics Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, P.O. Box 1663, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Burr, T. [Computer, Computational, and Statistical Sciences Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, P.O. Box 1663, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States)

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

487

Non-local crime density estimation incorporating housing information  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...BW . 1986 Density estimation for statistics and data analysis, Monographs on Statistics and Applied Probability, vol. 26. London, UK: Chapman...Regression. Springer Series in Statistics Berlin, Germany: Springer. 4 Wilson...

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

488

Density of states and order parameter in dirty anisotropic superconductors  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We analyze in detail how the scattering by nonmagnetic impurities affects the shape and amplitude of the order parameter (OF) and the density of states in anisotropic superconductors in the framework of BCS theory. Special attention is paid...

Pokrovsky, SV; Pokrovsky, Valery L.

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

489

Low density lipoprotein fraction assay for cardiac disease risk  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A variable rate density gradient electrophoric gel is described which separates LDL subfractions with the precision of ultracentrifugation techniques. Also, an innovative bottom inlet mixing chamber particularly useful for producing these gels is described. 8 figs.

Krauss, R.M.; Blanche, P.J.; Orr, J.

1999-07-20T23:59:59.000Z

490

The gravimetric density formula for a spherical shell  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Hearst, 1977). ACKNOWLEDGMENTS This work was performed under the auspices of the U .S . Energy Research and Developm ent Adm inis tration, under contract No. W -7405-Eng-48. REFERENCES Hammer, S., 1950, Density determinations by underground gravity...

J. R. Hearst; R. C. Carlson

491

Probing the density content of the nuclear symmetry energy  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In this paper, we shall mainly focus on the behaviour of symmetry energy slope parameter L at densities close to ? 0. The value of L(? 0) has been shown [5] to be strongly correlat...

B K AGRAWAL; J N DE; S K SAMADDAR

2014-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

492

Does Cosmological Vacuum Energy Density have an Electric Reason ?  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Rather uncomplicated calculations by hand display a surprising connection between the energy density of the vacuum and the diameter and age of the universe. Among other things, the result explains the observation of the accelerated expansion of the universe.

Claus W. Turtur

2004-03-11T23:59:59.000Z

493

Field determination of the densities of lake ice sheets  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Oct 3, 1975 ... mating the mean density of the white ice component of such a sheet makes use of the buoyancy equation for floating ice in the form h' ' p'i =.

2000-01-04T23:59:59.000Z

494

Efficient modeling techniques for atomistic-based electronic density calculations  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This paper presents an effective combination of various modeling and numerical techniques for enabling fast large-scale first-principle electronic density calculations. A real-space mesh technique framework is...

Deyin Zhang; Eric Polizzi

2008-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

495

A density functional study of actinyl containing complexes.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Density functional (DFT) methods are first used to study 22 of the most stable solution-phase UN4O12 isomers containing uranyl nitrate, UO2(NO3)2. Based on relative free… (more)

Berard, Joel J.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

496

High energy density physics generated by intense heavy ion beams  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Intense ion beams from accelerators are now available to generate high energy density matter and to study astrophysical phenomena in the laboratory under controlled and reproducible conditions. A detailed unde...

D. H. H. Hoffmann; V. E. Fortov; M. Kuster; V. Mintsev…

2009-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

497

Turbulence Patch Identification in Potential Density or Temperature Profiles  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The Thorpe analysis is a recognized method used to identify and characterize turbulent regions within stably stratified fluids. By comparing an observed profile of potential temperature or potential density to a reference profile obtained by ...

Richard Wilson; Hubert Luce; Francis Dalaudier; Jacques Lefrère

2010-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

498

High Energy Density Science with High Peak Power Light Sources  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

High energy density (HED) science is a growing sub-field of plasma and condensed matter physics. I will examine how recent technological developments in high peak power, petawatt-class...

Ditmire, Todd

499

Magnetic Fields in High-Density Stellar Matter  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

I briefly review some aspects of the effect of magnetic fields in the high density regime relevant to neutron stars, focusing mainly on compact star structure and composition, superconductivity, combustion processes, and gamma ray bursts.

German Lugones

2005-04-20T23:59:59.000Z

500

Deriving Atmospheric Density Estimates Using Satellite Precision Orbit Ephemerides  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Model regardless of solar and geomagnetic activity levels. The POE density estimates were obtained with the desired accuracy for a ±10% variation in the ballistic coefficient used to initialize the process. Fit span length showed little influence...

Hiatt, Andrew Timothy

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z