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Sample records for dense medium cyclone

  1. DENSE MEDIUM CYCLONE OPTIMIZATON (Technical Report) | SciTech...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    that cannot be upgraded in static dense medium separators, can be found in most modern coal plants and in a variety of mineral plants treating iron ore, dolomite, diamonds, potash...

  2. ULTRASONICALLY-ENHANCED DENSE-MEDIUM CYCLONING FOR FINE COAL AND COAL REFUSE IMPOUNDMENT MATERIALS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dr. Mark S. Klima; Dr. Barbara J. Arnold

    2001-08-01

    The Pennsylvania State University, its project team (Typlex, Inc., DAGER, Inc., and PrepTech, Inc.), and advisory committee members have demonstrated the application of ultrasonic energy during dense-medium cyclining and subsequent recovery of fine coal and coal refuse impoundment materials. The results will help to extend the range of conventional dense-medium cyclining to sizes now typically cleaned in relatively inefficient water-only cyclone and spiral concentrators circuits. This technology also provides a potential approach to produce ultra-clean material as would be used for feedstocks for premium carbon products. This report describes Phase I of the project, which involved laboratory testing of dense-medium cyclining and subsequent medium recovery, with and without ultrasonic treatment, along with fundamental dispersion testing. Dense-medium cycloning was conducted with a 76.2-mm (3-in.) diameter cyclone under various conditions including magnetite grade, medium relative density, inlet pressure, cyclone geometry, and feed coal. Dense-medium recovery testing was carried out with a 305-mm (12-in.) diameter x 152-mm (6-in.) wide wet-drum magnetic separator using the cyclone clean coal and refuse products as the feed material. Fundamental testing of dispersion/reagglomeration phenomena was conducted with coal/clay mixtures. In almost all cases, the dense-medium cyclone was capable of achieving separations down to approximately 0.037 mm. Ultrasonic treatment had a slight effect on reducing the ash content of the clean coal. It was also found that ultrasonic treatment improved the purity of the magnetic fraction during wet-drum magnetic separation. The treatment was particularly beneficial for the cyclone overflow material. The fundamental testing indicated that agitation after ultrasonic treatment is necessary to disperse fine particles and to prevent agglomeration.

  3. DENSE MEDIA CYCLONE OPTIMIZATION (Technical Report) | SciTech...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    fieldwork associated with Task 1 (Baseline Assessment) was completed this quarter. Detailed cyclone inspections completed at all but one plant during maintenance shifts. Analysis...

  4. DENSE MEDIUM CYCLONE OPTIMIZATON Gerald H. Luttrell; Chris J...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    OPTIMIZATON Gerald H. Luttrell; Chris J. Barbee; Peter J. Bethell; Chris J. Wood 01 COAL, LIGNITE, AND PEAT; COAL; DESIGN; DIAMONDS; DOLOMITE; ECONOMICS; EFFICIENCY;...

  5. DENSE MEDIUM CYCLONE OPTIMIZATON (Technical Report) | SciTech...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    separators, can be found in most modern coal plants and in a variety of mineral plants ... Country of Publication: United States Language: English Subject: 01 COAL, LIGNITE, AND ...

  6. High-harmonic generation in a dense medium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Strelkov, V.V.; Platonenko, V.T.; Becker, A.

    2005-05-15

    The high-harmonic generation in a plasma or gas under conditions when the single-atom response is affected by neighboring ions or atoms of the medium is studied theoretically. We solve numerically the three-dimensional Schroedinger equation for a single-electron atom in the combined fields of the neighboring particles and the laser, and average the results over different random positions of the particles using the Monte Carlo method. Harmonic spectra are calculated for different medium densities and laser intensities. We observe a change of the harmonic properties due to a random variation of the harmonic phase induced by the field of the medium, when the medium density exceeds a certain transition density. The transition density is found to depend on the harmonic order, but it is almost independent of the fundamental intensity. It also differs for the two (shorter and longer) quantum paths. The latter effect leads for ionic densities in the transition regime to a narrowing of the harmonic lines and a shortening of the attosecond pulses generated using a group of harmonics.

  7. Cyclone reactor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Converse, Alvin O.; Grethlein, Hans E.; Holland, Joseph E.

    1989-04-04

    A system is provided to produce sugars from a liquid-solid mixture containing biomass, and an acid, wherein the mixture is heated to an appropriate temperature to achieve hydrolysis. The liquid-solid mixture is introduced as a stream into the circular-cylindrical chamber of a cyclone reaction vessel and steam is introduced to the vessel to provide the necessary heat for hydrolysis as well as to establish the liquid-solid mixture in a rotary flow field whereby the liquids and solids of the mixture move along spiral paths within the chamber. The liquid-solid mixture may be introduced at the periphery of the chamber to spiral down toward and be discharged at or near the center of the chamber. Because of differing mass, the solid particles in the mixture move radially inward at a different rate than the liquid and that rate is controlled to maximize the hydrolysis of the solids and to minimize the decomposition of sugars, thus formed.

  8. AN EXPLANATION FOR THE DIFFERENT X-RAY TO OPTICAL COLUMN DENSITIES IN THE ENVIRONMENTS OF GAMMA RAY BURSTS: A PROGENITOR EMBEDDED IN A DENSE MEDIUM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krongold, Yair [Instituto de Astronomia, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Apartado Postal 70-264, 04510 Mexico DF (Mexico); Prochaska, J. Xavier, E-mail: xavier@ucolick.org [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, UCO/Lick Observatory, University of California, 1156 High Street, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States)

    2013-09-10

    We study the {approx}> 10 ratios in the X-ray to optical column densities inferred from afterglow spectra of gamma ray bursts (GRBs) due to gas surrounding their progenitors. We present time-evolving photoionization calculations for these afterglows and explore different conditions of their environment. We find that homogenous models of the environment (constant density) predict X-ray columns similar to those found in the optical spectra, with the bulk of the opacity being produced by neutral material at large distances from the burst. This result is independent of gas density or metallicity. Only models assuming a progenitor immersed in a dense ({approx}10{sup 2-4} cm{sup -3}) cloud of gas (with radius {approx}10 pc), with a strong, declining gradient of density for the surrounding interstellar medium (ISM) are able to account for the large X-ray to optical column density ratios. However, to avoid an unphysical correlation between the size of this cloud and the size of the ionization front produced by the GRB, the models also require that the circumburst medium is already ionized prior to the burst. The inferred cloud masses are {approx}< 10{sup 6} M{sub Sun }, even if low metallicities in the medium are assumed (Z {approx} 0.1 Z{sub Sun }). These cloud properties are consistent with those found in giant molecular clouds and our results support a scenario in which the progenitors reside within intense star formation regions of galaxies. Finally, we show that modeling over large samples of GRB afterglows may offer strong constraints on the range of properties in these clouds, and the host galaxy ISM.

  9. Compact cyclone filter train for radiological and hazardous environments

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bench, T.R.

    1998-04-28

    A compact cyclone filter train is disclosed for the removal of hazardous and radiological particles from a gaseous fluid medium. This filter train permits a small cyclone separator to be used in a very small space envelope due to the arrangement of the filter housing adjacent to the separator with the cyclone separator and the filters mounted on a plate. The entire unit will have a hoist connection at the center of gravity so that the entire unit including the separator, the filters, and the base can be lifted and repositioned as desired. 3 figs.

  10. Compact cyclone filter train for radiological and hazardous environments

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bench, Thomas R.

    1998-01-01

    A compact cyclone filter train for the removal of hazardous and radiologi particles from a gaseous fluid medium which permits a small cyclone separator to be used in a very small space envelope due to the arrangement of the filter housing adjacent to the separator with the cyclone separator and the filters mounted on a plate. The entire unit will have a hoist connection at the center of gravity so that the entire unit including the separator, the filters, and the base can be lifted and repositioned as desired.

  11. Influence of the finite linewidth of the laser radiation spectrum on the shape of the coherent population trapping resonance line in an optically dense medium with a buffer gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barantsev, K. A. Popov, E. N.; Litvinov, A. N.

    2015-11-15

    The theory of coherent population trapping resonance is developed for the finite linewidth of the laser radiation spectrum in an optically dense medium of Λ atoms in a cell with a buffer gas. Equations are derived for the atomic density matrix and laser emission spectrum transfer in a cell with working and buffer gases at a finite temperature. The dependence of the quality factor of coherent population trapping resonance on the linewidth of the laser radiation spectrum is studied by measuring transmitted radiation and fluorescence signals.

  12. DENSE MEDIA CYCLONE OPTIMIZATION (Technical Report) | SciTech...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    MATHEMATICS, COMPUTING, AND INFORMATION SCIENCE; EXPENDITURES; EXPERT SYSTEMS; OPTIMIZATION; REPORTING REQUIREMENTS; SIMULATION Word Cloud More Like This Full Text preview...

  13. DENSE MEDIA CYCLONE OPTIMIZATION (Technical Report) | SciTech...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    AND MISCELLANEOUSMATHEMATICS, COMPUTING, AND INFORMATION SCIENCE; EXPERT SYSTEMS; OPTIMIZATION; PERSONNEL; SIMULATION; TESTING Word Cloud More Like This Full Text preview image...

  14. DENSE MEDIA CYCLONE OPTIMIZATION (Technical Report) | SciTech...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    MATHEMATICS, COMPUTING, AND INFORMATION SCIENCE; EXPERT SYSTEMS; MAINTENANCE; OPTIMIZATION; PERFORMANCE; TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER; TRAINING Word Cloud More Like This Full Text...

  15. DENSE MEDIA CYCLONE OPTIMIZATION (Technical Report) | SciTech...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    United States Language: English Subject: 01 COAL, LIGNITE, AND PEAT; COAL; OPTIMIZATION; PARTICLE SIZE; PERFORMANCE; RESOLUTION; SEGREGATION Word Cloud More Like This Full...

  16. DENSE MEDIA CYCLONE OPTIMIZATION (Technical Report) | SciTech...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Language: English Subject: 01 COAL, LIGNITE, AND PEAT; COAL PREPARATION PLANTS; OPTIMIZATION; PERSONNEL; PLANNING; PROCUREMENT; VIRGINIA Word Cloud More Like This Full Text...

  17. DENSE MEDIA CYCLONE OPTIMIZATION (Technical Report) | SciTech...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    of Energy (US) Country of Publication: United States Language: English Subject: 32 ENERGY CONSERVATION, CONSUMPTION, AND UTILIZATION; 01 COAL, LIGNITE, AND PEAT;...

  18. DENSE MEDIA CYCLONE OPTIMIZATION (Technical Report) | SciTech...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    that compares the performance of the density traces to that of different sizes of coal particles is now complete. The experimental results show that the tracer data can...

  19. DENSE MEDIA CYCLONE OPTIMIZATION (Technical Report) | SciTech...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Tech Purchasing Office, and (iii) initiation of preliminary site visits to several coal preparation plants to discuss test work with industrial personnel. After a brief (2...

  20. The galactic census of high- and medium-mass protostars. II. Luminosities and evolutionary states of a complete sample of dense gas clumps

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ma, Bo; Tan, Jonathan C.; Barnes, Peter J.

    2013-12-10

    The Census of High- and Medium-mass Protostars (CHaMP) is the first large-scale (280° < l < 300°, –4° < b < 2°), unbiased, subparsec resolution survey of Galactic molecular clumps and their embedded stars. Barnes et al. presented the source catalog of ∼300 clumps based on HCO{sup +}(1-0) emission, used to estimate masses M. Here we use archival midinfrared-to-millimeter continuum data to construct spectral energy distributions. Fitting two-temperature gray-body models, we derive bolometric luminosities, L. We find that the clumps have 10 ≲ L/L {sub ☉} ≲ 10{sup 6.5} and 0.1 ≲ L/M/[L {sub ☉}/M {sub ☉}] ≲ 10{sup 3}, consistent with a clump population spanning a range of instantaneous star-formation efficiencies from 0 to ∼50%. We thus expect L/M to be a useful, strongly varying indicator of clump evolution during the star cluster formation process. We find correlations of the ratio of warm-to-cold component fluxes and of cold component temperature with L/M. We also find a near-linear relation between L/M and Spitzer-IRAC specific intensity (surface brightness); thus, this relation may also be useful as a star-formation efficiency indicator. The lower bound of the clump L/M distribution suggests that the star-formation efficiency per free-fall time is ε{sub ff} < 0.2. We do not find strong correlations of L/M with mass surface density, velocity dispersion, or virial parameter. We find a linear relation between L and L{sub HCO{sup +}(1--0)}, although with large scatter for any given individual clump. Fitting together with extragalactic systems, the linear relation still holds, extending over 10 orders of magnitude in luminosity. The complete nature of the CHaMP survey over a several kiloparsec-scale region allows us to derive a measurement at an intermediate scale, bridging those of individual clumps and whole galaxies.

  1. THE INTERSTELLAR MEDIUM IN DISTANT STAR-FORMING GALAXIES: TURBULENT PRESSURE, FRAGMENTATION, AND CLOUD SCALING RELATIONS IN A DENSE GAS DISK AT z = 2.3

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Swinbank, A. M.; Smail, Ian; Papadopoulos, P. P.; Cox, P.; Krips, M.; Neri, R.; Ivison, R. J.; Thomson, A. P.; Richard, J.; Ebeling, H.

    2011-11-20

    We have used the Institut de Radioastronomie Millimetrique (IRAM) Plateau de Bure Interferometer and the Expanded Very Large Array to obtain a high-resolution map of the CO(6-5) and CO(1-0) emission in the lensed, star-forming galaxy SMM J2135-0102 at z = 2.32. The kinematics of the gas are well described by a model of a rotationally supported disk with an inclination-corrected rotation speed, v{sub rot} = 320 {+-} 25 km s{sup -1}, a ratio of rotational-to-dispersion support of v/{sigma} = 3.5 {+-} 0.2, and a dynamical mass of (6.0 {+-} 0.5) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 10} M{sub Sun} within a radius of 2.5 kpc. The disk has a Toomre parameter, Q = 0.50 {+-} 0.15, suggesting that the gas will rapidly fragment into massive clumps on scales of L{sub J} {approx} 400 pc. We identify star-forming regions on these scales and show that they are {approx}10 Multiplication-Sign denser than those in quiescent environments in local galaxies, and significantly offset from the local molecular cloud scaling relations (Larson's relations). The large offset compared to local molecular cloud line-width-size scaling relations implies that supersonic turbulence should remain dominant on scales {approx}100 Multiplication-Sign smaller than in the kinematically quiescent interstellar medium (ISM) of the Milky Way, while the molecular gas in SMM J2135 is expected to be {approx}50 Multiplication-Sign denser than that in the Milky Way on all scales. This is most likely due to the high external hydrostatic pressure we measure for the ISM, P{sub tot}/k{sub B} {approx} (2 {+-} 1) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 7} K cm{sup -3}. In such highly turbulent ISM, the subsonic regions of gravitational collapse (and star formation) will be characterized by much higher critical densities, n{sub crit} > = 10{sup 8} cm{sup -3}, a factor {approx}>1000 Multiplication-Sign more than the quiescent ISM of the Milky Way.

  2. HOMOLOGOUS CYCLONES IN THE QUIET SUN

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yu, Xinting; Zhang, Jun; Li, Ting; Zhang, Yuzong; Yang, Shuhong E-mail: zjun@nao.cas.cn E-mail: yuzong@nao.cas.cn

    2014-02-20

    Through observations with the Solar Dynamics Observatory Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) and Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager, we tracked one rotating network magnetic field (RNF) near the solar equator. It lasted for more than 100 hr, from 2013 February 23 to 28. During its evolution, three cyclones were found to be rooted in this structure. Each cyclone event lasted for about 8 to 10 hr. While near the polar region, another RNF was investigated. It lasted for a shorter time (?70 hr), from 2013 July 7 to 9. There were two cyclones rooted in the RNF and each lasted for 8 and 11 hr, respectively. For the two given examples, the cyclones have a similar dynamic evolution, and thus we put forward a new term: homologous cyclones. The detected brightening in AIA 171 maps indicates the release of energy, which is potentially available to heat the corona.

  3. Quantum dense key distribution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Degiovanni, I.P.; Ruo Berchera, I.; Castelletto, S.; Rastello, M.L.; Bovino, F.A.; Colla, A.M.; Castagnoli, G.

    2004-03-01

    This paper proposes a protocol for quantum dense key distribution. This protocol embeds the benefits of a quantum dense coding and a quantum key distribution and is able to generate shared secret keys four times more efficiently than the Bennet-Brassard 1984 protocol. We hereinafter prove the security of this scheme against individual eavesdropping attacks, and we present preliminary experimental results, showing its feasibility.

  4. Cyclone reduction of taconite. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Taylor, P.R.; Bartlett, R.W.; Abdel-latif, M.A.; Hou, X.; Kumar, P.

    1995-05-01

    A cyclone reactor system for the partial reduction and melting of taconite concentrate fines has been engineered, designed and operated. A non-transferred arc plasma torch was employed as a heat source. Taconite fines, carbon monoxide, and carbon dioxide were fed axially into the reactor, while the plasma gas was introduced tangentially into the cyclone. The average reactor temperature was maintained at above 1400{degrees}C, and reduction experiments were performed under various conditions. The influence of the following parameters on the reduction of taconite was investigated experimentally; carbon monoxide to carbon dioxide inlet feed ratio, carbon monoxide inlet partial pressure, and average reactor temperature. The interactions of the graphite lining with carbon dioxide and taconite were also studied. An attempt was made to characterize the flow behavior of the molten product within the cyclone. The results suggest that the system may approach a plug flow reactor, with little back mixing. Finally, a fundamental mathematical model was developed. The model describes the flow dynamics of gases and solid particles in a cyclone reactor, energy exchange, mass transfer, and the chemical kinetics associated with cyclone smelting of taconite concentrate fines. The influence of the various parameters on the reduction and melting of taconite particles was evaluated theoretically.

  5. Cyclone separator having boundary layer turbulence control

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Krishna, Coimbatore R.; Milau, Julius S.

    1985-01-01

    A cyclone separator including boundary layer turbulence control that is operable to prevent undue build-up of particulate material at selected critical areas on the separator walls, by selectively varying the fluid pressure at those areas to maintain the momentum of the vortex, thereby preventing particulate material from inducing turbulence in the boundary layer of the vortical fluid flow through the separator.

  6. Dense gas-compatible enzymes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kao, Fu-jung; Laintz, Kenneth E.; Sawan, Samuel P.; Sivils, L. Dale; Spall, W. Dale

    1998-07-21

    An enzymatic reaction system including a modified enzyme, and a dense gas system; modified enzymes; and methods of reacting modified enzymes in a dense gas system or liquid carbon dioxide.

  7. Babcock and Wilcox cyclone furnace vitrification. Technology demonstration summary

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-09-01

    A Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) Demonstration of the Babcock and Wilcox Cyclone Furnace Vitrification Technology was conducted in November 1991. This Demonstration occurred at the Babcock and Wilcox (B and W) Alliance Research Center (ARC) in Alliance, OH. The B and W cyclone furnace may be used for thermal treatment of soils contaminated with organics, metals, and radionuclides. The cyclone furnace is designed to destroy organic contaminants and to immobilize metals and radionuclides in a vitrified soil matrix (slag).

  8. Enhanced Productivity of Chemical Processes Using Dense Fluidized Beds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sibashis Banerjee; Alvin Chen; Rutton Patel; Dale Snider; Ken Williams; Timothy O'Hern; Paul Tortora

    2008-02-29

    The work detailed in this report addresses Enabling Technologies within Computational Technology by integrating a breakthrough particle-fluid computational technology into traditional Process Science and Engineering Technology. The work completed under this DOE project addresses five major development areas 1) gas chemistry in dense fluidized beds 2) thermal cracking of liquid film on solids producing gas products 3) liquid injection in a fluidized bed with particle-to-particle liquid film transport 4) solid-gas chemistry and 5) first level validation of models. Because of the nature of the research using tightly coupled solids and fluid phases with a Lagrangian description of the solids and continuum description of fluid, the work provides ground-breaking advances in reactor prediction capability. This capability has been tested against experimental data where available. The commercial product arising out of this work is called Barracuda and is suitable for a wide (dense-to-dilute) range of industrial scale gas-solid flows with and without reactions. Commercial applications include dense gas-solid beds, gasifiers, riser reactors and cyclones.

  9. Ocean Barrier Layers Effect on Tropical Cyclone Intensification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Balaguru, Karthik; Chang, P.; Saravanan, R.; Leung, Lai-Yung R.; Xu, Zhao; Li, M.; Hsieh, J.

    2012-09-04

    Improving a tropical cyclone's forecast and mitigating its destructive potential requires knowledge of various environmental factors that influence the cyclone's path and intensity. Herein, using a combination of observations and model simulations, we systematically demonstrate that tropical cyclone intensification is significantly affected by salinity-induced barrier layers, which are 'quasi-permanent' features in the upper tropical oceans. When tropical cyclones pass over regions with barrier layers, the increased stratification and stability within the layer reduce storm-induced vertical mixing and sea surface temperature cooling. This causes an increase in enthalpy flux from the ocean to the atmosphere and, consequently, an intensification of tropical cyclones. On average, the tropical cyclone intensification rate is nearly 50% higher over regions with barrier layers, compared to regions without. Our finding, which underscores the importance of observing not only the upper-ocean thermal structure but also the salinity structure in deep tropical barrier layer regions, may be a key to more skillful predictions of tropical cyclone intensities through improved ocean state estimates and simulations of barrier layer processes. As the hydrological cycle responds to global warming, any associated changes in the barrier layer distribution must be considered in projecting future tropical cyclone activity.

  10. Tropical cyclone motion and recurvature in TCM-90. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fitzpatrick, M.E.

    1992-01-01

    Rawinsonde and satellite data collected during the Tropical Cyclone Motion (TCM90) experiment, which was conducted during the summer of 1990 in the Western North pacific, is used to examine tropical cyclone steering motion and recurvature. TCM-90 composite results are compared with those found in a composite study using twenty-one years (1957-77) of Western North Pacific rawinsonde data during the same August-September period and also for all months during this same 21-year period. Both data sets indicate that the composite deep-layer-mean (850-300 mb) winds 5-7 deg from the cyclone center provide an important component of the steering flow for tropical cyclones. However, despite the rawinsonde data enhancements of the TCM-90 experiment, data limitations prevented an accurate observation of steering flow conditions at individual time periods or for the average of only 5-10 time periods when composited together.

  11. DOE - Office of Legacy Management -- Carnegie-Mellon Institute Cyclone

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    Facility - PA 09 Carnegie-Mellon Institute Cyclone Facility - PA 09 FUSRAP Considered Sites Site: Carnegie-Mellon Institute Cyclone Facility ( PA.09 ) Eliminated from further consideration under FUSRAP Designated Name: Not Designated Alternate Name: Carnegie-Mellon University, Nuclear Research Center Carnegie Institute of Technology PA.09-1 PA.09-2 Location: Saxonburg , Pennsylvania PA.09-1 Evaluation Year: Circa 1987 PA.09-2 Site Operations: Conducted experiments and studies of the effects

  12. Solids flow rate measurement in dense slurries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Porges, K.G.; Doss, E.D.

    1993-09-01

    Accurate and rapid flow rate measurement of solids in dense slurries remains an unsolved technical problem, with important industrial applications in chemical processing plants and long-distance solids conveyance. In a hostile two-phase medium, such a measurement calls for two independent parameter determinations, both by non-intrusive means. Typically, dense slurries tend to flow in laminar, non-Newtonian mode, eliminating most conventional means that usually rely on calibration (which becomes more difficult and costly for high pressure and temperature media). These issues are reviewed, and specific solutions are recommended in this report. Detailed calculations that lead to improved measuring device designs are presented for both bulk density and average velocity measurements. Cross-correlation, chosen here for the latter task, has long been too inaccurate for practical applications. The cause and the cure of this deficiency are discussed using theory-supported modeling. Fluid Mechanics are used to develop the velocity profiles of laminar non-Newtonian flow in a rectangular duct. This geometry uniquely allows the design of highly accurate `capacitive` devices and also lends itself to gamma transmission densitometry on an absolute basis. An absolute readout, though of less accuracy, is also available from a capacitive densitometer and a pair of capacitive sensors yields signals suitable for cross-correlation velocity measurement.

  13. Opposed-flow virtual cyclone for particle concentration

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rader, Daniel J.; Torczynski, John R.

    2000-12-05

    An opposed-flow virtual cyclone for aerosol collation which can accurately collect, classify, and concentrate (enrich) particles in a specific size range. The opposed-flow virtual cyclone is a variation on the virtual cyclone and has its inherent advantages (no-impact particle separation in a simple geometry), while providing a more robust design for concentrating particles in a flow-through type system. The opposed-flow virtual cyclone consists of two geometrically similar virtual cyclones arranged such that their inlet jets are inwardly directed and symmetrically opposed relative to a plane of symmetry located between the two inlet slits. A top plate bounds both jets on the "top" side of the inlets, while the other or lower wall curves "down" and away from each inlet jet. Each inlet jet will follow the adjacent lower wall as it turns away, and that particles will be transferred away from the wall and towards the symmetry plane by centrifugal action. After turning, the two jets merge smoothly along the symmetry line and flow parallel to it through the throat. Particles are transferred from the main flows, across a dividing streamline, and into a central recirculating region, where particle concentrations become greatly increased relative to the main stream.

  14. Dense, finely, grained composite materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dunmead, Stephen D. (Davis, CA); Holt, Joseph B. (San Jose, CA); Kingman, Donald D. (Danville, CA); Munir, Zuhair A. (Davis, CA)

    1990-01-01

    Dense, finely grained composite materials comprising one or more ceramic phase or phase and one or more metallic and/or intermetallic phase or phases are produced by combustion synthesis. Spherical ceramic grains are homogeneously dispersed within the matrix. Methods are provided, which include the step of applying mechanical pressure during or immediately after ignition, by which the microstructures in the resulting composites can be controllably selected.

  15. Cyclone reactor with internal separation and axial recirculation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Becker, F.E.; Smolensky, L.A.

    1988-07-19

    A cyclone combustor apparatus contains a circular partition plate containing a central circular aperture is described. The partition plate divides the apparatus into a cylindrical precombustor chamber and a combustor chamber. A coal-water slurry is passed axially into the inlet end of the precombustor chamber, and primary air is passed tangentially into said chamber to establish a cyclonic air flow. Combustion products pass through the partition plate aperture and into the combustor chamber. Secondary air may also be passed tangentially into the combustor chamber adjacent the partition plate to maintain the cyclonic flow. Flue gas is passed axially out of the combustor chamber at the outlet end and ash is withdrawn tangentially from the combustor chamber at the outlet end. A first mixture of flue gas and ash may be tangentially withdrawn from the combustor chamber at the outlet end and recirculated to the axial inlet of the precombustor chamber with the coal-water slurry. A second mixture may be tangentially withdrawn from the outlet end and passed to a heat exchanger for cooling. Cooled second mixture is then recirculated to the axial inlet of the precombustor chamber. In another embodiment a single cyclone combustor chamber is provided with both the recirculation streams of the first mixture and the second mixture. 10 figs.

  16. Cyclone reactor with internal separation and axial recirculation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Becker, Frederick E.; Smolensky, Leo A.

    1989-01-01

    A cyclone combustor apparatus contains a circular partition plate containing a central circular aperture. The partition plate divides the apparatus into a cylindrical precombustor chamber and a combustor chamber. A coal-water slurry is passed axially into the inlet end of the precombustor chamber, and primary air is passed tangentially into said chamber to establish a cyclonic air flow. Combustion products pass through the partition plate aperture and into the combustor chamber. Secondary air may also be passed tangentially into the combustor chamber adjacent the partition plate to maintain the cyclonic flow. Flue gas is passed axially out of the combustor chamber at the outlet end and ash is withdrawn tangentially from the combuston chamber at the outlet end. A first mixture of flue gas and ash may be tangentially withdrawn from the combustor chamber at the outlet end and recirculated to the axial inlet of the precombustor chamber with the coal-water slurry. A second mixture of flue gas and ash may be tangentially withdrawn from the outlet end of the combustor chamber and passed to a heat exchanger for cooling. Cooled second mixture is then recirculated to the axial inlet of the precombustor chamber. In another embodiment a single cyclone combustor chamber is provided with both the recirculation streams of the first mixture and the second mixture.

  17. Uniformly dense polymeric foam body

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Whinnery, Jr., Leroy

    2003-07-15

    A method for providing a uniformly dense polymer foam body having a density between about 0.013 g/cm.sup.3 to about 0.5 g/cm.sup.3 is disclosed. The method utilizes a thermally expandable polymer microsphere material wherein some of the microspheres are unexpanded and some are only partially expanded. It is shown that by mixing the two types of materials in appropriate ratios to achieve the desired bulk final density, filling a mold with this mixture so as to displace all or essentially all of the internal volume of the mold, heating the mold for a predetermined interval at a temperature above about 130.degree. C., and then cooling the mold to a temperature below 80.degree. C. the molded part achieves a bulk density which varies by less then about .+-.6% everywhere throughout the part volume.

  18. Gas reburn retrofit on an industrial cyclone boiler

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Farzan, H.; Latham, C.E.; Maringo, G.J.

    1996-01-01

    Eastman Kodak Company`s cyclone boiler (Unit No. 43), located in Rochester, New York, is being retrofitted with the gas reburning technology developed by Babcock & Wilcox (B & W) to reduce NO{sub x} emissions in order to comply with the Title I, ozone nonattainment, of the Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) of 1990. The required NO{sub x} reduction from baseline levels necessary to meet the presumptive limit set in New York`s regulation is about 47%. Eastman Kodak and the Gas Research Institute (GRI) are cosponsoring this project. B & W is the prime contractor and contract negotiations with Chevron as the gas supplier are presently being finalized. Equipment installation for the gas reburn system is scheduled for a September 1995 outage. No. 43 Boiler`s maximum continuous rating (MCR) is 550,000 pounds per hour of steam flow or approximately equivalent to 60 MW{sub e}. Because of the compact boiler design, there is insufficient gas residence time to use pulverized coal or oil as the reburn fuel, thus making it a prime candidate for gas reburn. Kodak currently has four cyclone boilers. Based on successful completion of this gas reburn project, modifying the other three cyclone boilers with gas reburn technology is anticipated. The paper will describe B & W`s gas reburn data from a cyclone-equipped pilot facility (B & W`s Small Boiler Simulator), gas reburn design information specific to Eastman Kodak No. 43 Boiler, and numerical modeling experiences based on the pilot-scale Small Boiler Simulator (SBS) results along with those from a full-scale commercial boiler.

  19. Ultrafast Spectroscopy of Warm Dense Matter

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Ultrafast Spectroscopy of Warm Dense Matter Ultrafast Spectroscopy of Warm Dense Matter Print Wednesday, 25 April 2012 00:00 Being neither solid, liquid, gas, nor plasma, warm dense matter (WDM) occupies a no man's land in the map of material phases. Its temperature can range between that of planetary cores (tens of thousands K) to that of stellar cores (hundreds of thousands K). Not only is it prevalent throughout the universe, it is relevant to inertial confinement fusion (ICF) and material

  20. Elasticity-induced force reversal between active spinning particles in dense passive media

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Aragones, J. L.; Steimel, J. P.; Alexander-Katz, A.

    2016-04-26

    The self-organization of active particles is governed by their dynamic effective interactions. Such interactions are controlled by the medium in which such active agents reside. Here we study the interactions between active agents in a dense non-active medium. Our system consists of actuated, spinning, active particles embedded in a dense monolayer of passive, or non-active, particles. We demonstrate that the presence of the passive monolayer alters markedly the properties of the system and results in a reversal of the forces between active spinning particles from repulsive to attractive. The origin of such reversal is due to the coupling between themore » active stresses and elasticity of the system. Finally, this discovery provides a mechanism for the interaction between active agents in complex and structured media, opening up opportunities to tune the interaction range and directionality via the mechanical properties of the medium.« less

  1. Magnetic Phases in Dense Quark Matter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Incera, Vivian de la

    2007-10-26

    In this paper I discuss the magnetic phases of the three-flavor color superconductor. These phases can take place at different field strengths in a highly dense quark system. Given that the best natural candidates for the realization of color superconductivity are the extremely dense cores of neutron stars, which typically have very large magnetic fields, the magnetic phases here discussed could have implications for the physics of these compact objects.

  2. Ultrafast Spectroscopy of Warm Dense Matter

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Spectroscopy of Warm Dense Matter Print Being neither solid, liquid, gas, nor plasma, warm dense matter (WDM) occupies a no man's land in the map of material phases. Its temperature can range between that of planetary cores (tens of thousands K) to that of stellar cores (hundreds of thousands K). Not only is it prevalent throughout the universe, it is relevant to inertial confinement fusion (ICF) and material performance under extreme conditions. However, because of its extreme temperatures and

  3. Ultrafast Spectroscopy of Warm Dense Matter

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Ultrafast Spectroscopy of Warm Dense Matter Print Being neither solid, liquid, gas, nor plasma, warm dense matter (WDM) occupies a no man's land in the map of material phases. Its temperature can range between that of planetary cores (tens of thousands K) to that of stellar cores (hundreds of thousands K). Not only is it prevalent throughout the universe, it is relevant to inertial confinement fusion (ICF) and material performance under extreme conditions. However, because of its extreme

  4. Ultrafast Spectroscopy of Warm Dense Matter

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Ultrafast Spectroscopy of Warm Dense Matter Print Being neither solid, liquid, gas, nor plasma, warm dense matter (WDM) occupies a no man's land in the map of material phases. Its temperature can range between that of planetary cores (tens of thousands K) to that of stellar cores (hundreds of thousands K). Not only is it prevalent throughout the universe, it is relevant to inertial confinement fusion (ICF) and material performance under extreme conditions. However, because of its extreme

  5. METHOD OF PRODUCING DENSE CONSOLIDATED METALLIC REGULUS

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Magel, T.T.

    1959-08-11

    A methcd is presented for reducing dense metal compositions while simultaneously separating impurities from the reduced dense metal and casting the reduced parified dense metal, such as uranium, into well consolidated metal ingots. The reduction is accomplished by heating the dense metallic salt in the presence of a reducing agent, such as an alkali metal or alkaline earth metal in a bomb type reacting chamber, while applying centrifugal force on the reacting materials. Separation of the metal from the impurities is accomplished essentially by the incorporation of a constricted passageway at the vertex of a conical reacting chamber which is in direct communication with a collecting chamber. When a centrifugal force is applled to the molten metal and slag from the reduction in a direction collinear with the axis of the constricted passage, the dense molten metal is forced therethrough while the less dense slag is retained within the reaction chamber, resulting in a simultaneous separation of the reduced molten metal from the slag and a compacting of the reduced metal in a homogeneous mass.

  6. Equilibration dynamics and conductivity of warm dense hydrogen...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    and conductivity of warm dense hydrogen Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Equilibration dynamics and conductivity of warm dense hydrogen You are accessing a document ...

  7. Implementation and Re nement of a Comprehensive Model for Dense...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Model for Dense Granular Flows Dense granular ows are ubiquitous in both natural and industrial processes. They manifest three di erent ow regimes, each exhibiting its own...

  8. Computer Simulations Indicate Calcium Carbonate Has a Dense Liquid...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Computer Simulations Indicate Calcium Carbonate Has a Dense Liquid Phase Computer Simulations Indicate Calcium Carbonate Has a Dense Liquid Phase Berkeley Lab research could help...

  9. Equilibration dynamics and conductivity of warm dense hydrogen...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Equilibration dynamics and conductivity of warm dense hydrogen Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Equilibration dynamics and conductivity of warm dense hydrogen Authors: ...

  10. Electronic Structure of Warm Dense Matter via Multicenter Green...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Electronic Structure of Warm Dense Matter via Multicenter Green's Function Technique Research Personnel Modeling The proposed research addresses the Warm Dense Matter area...

  11. A Reassessment of the Integrated Impact of Tropical Cyclones on Surface Chlorophyll in the Western Subtropical North Atlantic

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Foltz, Gregory R.; Balaguru, Karthik; Leung, Lai-Yung R.

    2015-02-28

    The impact of tropical cyclones on surface chlorophyll concentration is assessed in the western subtropical North Atlantic Ocean during 19982011. Previous studies in this area focused on individual cyclones and gave mixed results regarding the importance of tropical cyclone-induced mixing for changes in surface chlorophyll. Using a more integrated and comprehensive approach that includes quantification of cyclone-induced changes in mixed layer depth, here it is shown that accumulated cyclone energy explains 22% of the interannual variability in seasonally-averaged (JuneNovember) chlorophyll concentration in the western subtropical North Atlantic, after removing the influence of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO). The variance explained by tropical cyclones is thus about 70% of that explained by the NAO, which has well-known impacts in this region. It is therefore likely that tropical cyclones contribute significantly to interannual variations of primary productivity in the western subtropical North Atlantic during the hurricane season.

  12. Low NO sub x /SO sub x Burner retrofit for utility cyclone boilers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    The objective of this project is to demonstrate the LNS Burner as retrofitted to the host cyclone boiler for effective low-cost control of NO{sub x} and SO{sub x} emissions while firing a bituminous coal. The LNS Burner employs a simple, innovative combustion process to burn pulverized coal at high temperatures and provides effective, low-cost control of sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) and nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) emissions. The coal ash contains sulfur and is removed in the form of molten slag and flyash. Cyclone-fired boiler units are typically older units firing high-sulfur bituminous coals at very high temperatures which results in very high NO{sub x} and SO{sub x} emissions. The addition of conventional emission control equipment, such as wet scrubbers, to these older cyclone units in order to meet current and future environmental regulations is generally not economic. Further, the units are generally not compatible with low sulfur coal switching for S0{sub 2} control or selective catalytic reduction technologies for NO{sub x} control. Because the LNS Burner operates at the same very high temperatures as a typical cyclone boiler and produces a similar slag product, it may offer a viable retrofit option for cyclone boiler emission control. This was confirmed by the Cyclone Boiler Retrofit Feasibility Study carried out by TransAlta and an Operating Committee formed of cyclone boiler owners in 1989. An existing utility cyclone boiler, was then selected for the evaluation of the cost and performance study. It was concluded that the LNS Burner retrofit would be a cost-effective option for control of cyclone boiler emissions. A full-scale demonstration of the LNS Burner retrofit was selected in October 1988 as part of the DOE's Clean Coal Technology Program Round II.

  13. Synthetic laser medium

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stokowski, S.E.

    1987-10-20

    A laser medium is particularly useful in high average power solid state lasers. The laser medium includes a chromium dopant and preferably neodymium ions as codopant, and is primarily a gadolinium scandium gallium garnet, or an analog thereof. Divalent cations inhibit spiral morphology as large boules from which the laser medium is derived are grown, and a source of ions convertible between a trivalent state and a tetravalent state at a low ionization energy are in the laser medium to reduce an absorption coefficient at about one micron wavelength otherwise caused by the divalent cations. These divalent cations and convertible ions are dispersed in the laser medium. Preferred convertible ions are provided from titanium or cerium sources.

  14. Synthetic laser medium

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stokowski, Stanley E.

    1989-01-01

    A laser medium is particularly useful in high average power solid state lasers. The laser medium includes a chormium dopant and preferably neodymium ions as codopant, and is primarily a gadolinium scandium gallium garnet, or an analog thereof. Divalent cations inhibit spiral morphology as large boules from which the laser medium is derived are grown, and a source of ions convertible between a trivalent state and a tetravalent state at a low ionization energy are in the laser medium to reduce an absorption coefficient at about one micron wavelength otherwise caused by the divalent cations. These divalent cations and convertible ions are dispersed in the laser medium. Preferred convertible ions are provided from titanium or cerium sources.

  15. Multispectral UV Fluorescence Detection of a Dilute Constituent in an Optically Dense Matrix

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chan, O.H.; Gray, P.C., Wehlburg, C.M.; Rubenstein, R.; Tisone, G.C.; Wagner, J.S.

    1998-10-15

    Multispectral UV fluorescence measurements were made of an optically dense medium (fetal bovine serum, FBS) spiked with sodium salicylate at concentrate ions from 0.2 to 500 pg/ml . Analysis of the spectra show that, depending on experimental conditions, reasonably good estimates of concentration can be obtained across the entire range of concentrate ions. Experimental conditions required for recovering these estimates are demonstrated.

  16. Coalescence preference in densely packed microbubbles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, Yeseul; Lim, Su Jin; Gim, Bopil; Weon, Byung Mook

    2015-01-13

    A bubble merged from two parent bubbles with different size tends to be placed closer to the larger parent. This phenomenon is known as the coalescence preference. Here we demonstrate that the coalescence preference can be blocked inside a densely packed cluster of bubbles. We utilized high-speed high-resolution X-ray microscopy to clearly visualize individual coalescence events inside densely packed microbubbles with a local packing fraction of ~40%. Thus, the surface energy release theory predicts an exponent of 5 in a relation between the relative coalescence position and the parent size ratio, whereas our observation for coalescence in densely packed microbubbles shows a different exponent of 2. We believe that this result would be important to understand the reality of coalescence dynamics in a variety of packing situations of soft matter.

  17. Coalescence preference in densely packed microbubbles

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Kim, Yeseul; Lim, Su Jin; Gim, Bopil; Weon, Byung Mook

    2015-01-13

    A bubble merged from two parent bubbles with different size tends to be placed closer to the larger parent. This phenomenon is known as the coalescence preference. Here we demonstrate that the coalescence preference can be blocked inside a densely packed cluster of bubbles. We utilized high-speed high-resolution X-ray microscopy to clearly visualize individual coalescence events inside densely packed microbubbles with a local packing fraction of ~40%. Thus, the surface energy release theory predicts an exponent of 5 in a relation between the relative coalescence position and the parent size ratio, whereas our observation for coalescence in densely packed microbubblesmore » shows a different exponent of 2. We believe that this result would be important to understand the reality of coalescence dynamics in a variety of packing situations of soft matter.« less

  18. Preparation of a dense, polycrystalline ceramic structure

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cooley, Jason; Chen, Ching-Fong; Alexander, David

    2010-12-07

    Ceramic nanopowder was sealed inside a metal container under a vacuum. The sealed evacuated container was forced through a severe deformation channel at an elevated temperature below the melting point of the ceramic nanopowder. The result was a dense nanocrystalline ceramic structure inside the metal container.

  19. Dense high temperature ceramic oxide superconductors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Landingham, R.L.

    1993-10-12

    Dense superconducting ceramic oxide articles of manufacture and methods for producing these articles are described. Generally these articles are produced by first processing these superconducting oxides by ceramic processing techniques to optimize materials properties, followed by reestablishing the superconducting state in a desired portion of the ceramic oxide composite.

  20. Dense high temperature ceramic oxide superconductors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Landingham, Richard L.

    1993-01-01

    Dense superconducting ceramic oxide articles of manufacture and methods for producing these articles are described. Generally these articles are produced by first processing these superconducting oxides by ceramic processing techniques to optimize materials properties, followed by reestablishing the superconducting state in a desired portion of the ceramic oxide composite.

  1. JC3 Medium Impact Assessment Bulletins | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Medium Impact Assessment Bulletins JC3 Medium

  2. Structures for dense, crack free thin films

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jacobson, Craig P.; Visco, Steven J.; De Jonghe, Lutgard C.

    2011-03-08

    The process described herein provides a simple and cost effective method for making crack free, high density thin ceramic film. The steps involve depositing a layer of a ceramic material on a porous or dense substrate. The deposited layer is compacted and then the resultant laminate is sintered to achieve a higher density than would have been possible without the pre-firing compaction step.

  3. Observations of Plasmons in Warm Dense Matter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Glenzer, S H; Landen, O L; Neumayer, P; Lee, R W; Widmann, K; Pollaine, S W; Wallace, R J; Gregori, G; Holl, A; Bornath, T; Thiele, R; Schwarz, V; Kraeft, W; Redmer, R

    2006-09-05

    We present the first collective x-ray scattering measurements of plasmons in solid-density plasmas. The forward scattering spectra of a laser-produced narrow-band x-ray line from isochorically heated beryllium show that the plasmon frequency is a sensitive measure of the electron density. Dynamic structure calculations that include collisions and detailed balance match the measured plasmon spectrum indicating that this technique will enable new applications to determine the equation of state and compressibility of dense matter.

  4. Oxygen ion-conducting dense ceramic

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Balachandran, Uthamalingam; Kleefisch, Mark S.; Kobylinski, Thaddeus P.; Morissette, Sherry L.; Pei, Shiyou

    1998-01-01

    Preparation, structure, and properties of mixed metal oxide compositions and their uses are described. Mixed metal oxide compositions of the invention have stratified crystalline structure identifiable by means of powder X-ray diffraction patterns. In the form of dense ceramic membranes, the present compositions demonstrate an ability to separate oxygen selectively from a gaseous mixture containing oxygen and one or more other volatile components by means of ionic conductivities.

  5. Shear dispersion in dense granular flows

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Christov, Ivan C.; Stone, Howard A.

    2014-04-18

    We formulate and solve a model problem of dispersion of dense granular materials in rapid shear flow down an incline. The effective dispersivity of the depth-averaged concentration of the dispersing powder is shown to vary as the Péclet number squared, as in classical Taylor–Aris dispersion of molecular solutes. An extension to generic shear profiles is presented, and possible applications to industrial and geological granular flows are noted.

  6. Microsoft Word - DMC-FinalReport.doc

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... data, (ii) a process model for predict-ing the effects of key operating and design ... unbalanced partition data for a bank of industrial dense medium cyclones. 56 3.3.2 DMC ...

  7. Evaluation of a Combined Cyclone and Gas Filtration System for Particulate Removal in the Gasification Process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rizzo, Jeffrey J.

    2010-04-30

    The Wabash gasification facility, owned and operated by sgSolutions LLC, is one of the largest single train solid fuel gasification facilities in the world capable of transforming 2,000 tons per day of petroleum coke or 2,600 tons per day of bituminous coal into synthetic gas for electrical power generation. The Wabash plant utilizes Phillips66 proprietary E-Gas (TM) Gasification Process to convert solid fuels such as petroleum coke or coal into synthetic gas that is fed to a combined cycle combustion turbine power generation facility. During plant startup in 1995, reliability issues were realized in the gas filtration portion of the gasification process. To address these issues, a slipstream test unit was constructed at the Wabash facility to test various filter designs, materials and process conditions for potential reliability improvement. The char filtration slipstream unit provided a way of testing new materials, maintenance procedures, and process changes without the risk of stopping commercial production in the facility. It also greatly reduced maintenance expenditures associated with full scale testing in the commercial plant. This char filtration slipstream unit was installed with assistance from the United States Department of Energy (built under DOE Contract No. DE-FC26-97FT34158) and began initial testing in November of 1997. It has proven to be extremely beneficial in the advancement of the E-Gas (TM) char removal technology by accurately predicting filter behavior and potential failure mechanisms that would occur in the commercial process. After completing four (4) years of testing various filter types and configurations on numerous gasification feed stocks, a decision was made to investigate the economic and reliability effects of using a particulate removal gas cyclone upstream of the current gas filtration unit. A paper study had indicated that there was a real potential to lower both installed capital and operating costs by implementing a char

  8. Electrical and thermal conductivities in dense plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Faussurier, G. Blancard, C.; Combis, P.; Videau, L.

    2014-09-15

    Expressions for the electrical and thermal conductivities in dense plasmas are derived combining the Chester-Thellung-Kubo-Greenwood approach and the Kramers approximation. The infrared divergence is removed assuming a Drude-like behaviour. An analytical expression is obtained for the Lorenz number that interpolates between the cold solid-state and the hot plasma phases. An expression for the electrical resistivity is proposed using the Ziman-Evans formula, from which the thermal conductivity can be deduced using the analytical expression for the Lorenz number. The present method can be used to estimate electrical and thermal conductivities of mixtures. Comparisons with experiment and quantum molecular dynamics simulations are done.

  9. Liquid chromatographic extraction medium

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Horwitz, E.P.; Dietz, M.L.

    1994-09-13

    A method and apparatus are disclosed for extracting strontium and technetium values from biological, industrial and environmental sample solutions using a chromatographic column. An extractant medium for the column is prepared by generating a solution of a diluent containing a Crown ether and dispersing the solution on a resin substrate material. The sample solution is highly acidic and is introduced directed to the chromatographic column and strontium or technetium is eluted using deionized water. 1 fig.

  10. Liquid chromatographic extraction medium

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Horwitz, E. Philip; Dietz, Mark L.

    1994-01-01

    A method and apparatus for extracting strontium and technetium values from biological, industrial and environmental sample solutions using a chromatographic column is described. An extractant medium for the column is prepared by generating a solution of a diluent containing a Crown ether and dispersing the solution on a resin substrate material. The sample solution is highly acidic and is introduced directed to the chromatographic column and strontium or technetium is eluted using deionized water.

  11. Oxygen ion-conducting dense ceramic

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Balachandran, Uthamalingam; Kleefisch, Mark S.; Kobylinski, Thaddeus P.; Morissette, Sherry L.; Pei, Shiyou

    1996-01-01

    Preparation, structure, and properties of mixed metal oxide compositions containing at least strontium, cobalt, iron and oxygen are described. The crystalline mixed metal oxide compositions of this invention have, for example, structure represented by Sr.sub..alpha. (Fe.sub.1-x Co.sub.x).sub..alpha.+.beta. O.sub..delta. where x is a number in a range from 0.01 to about 1, .alpha. is a number in a range from about 1 to about 4, .beta. is a number in a range upward from 0 to about 20, and .delta. is a number which renders the compound charge neutral, and wherein the composition has a non-perovskite structure. Use of the mixed metal oxides in dense ceramic membranes which exhibit oxygen ionic conductivity and selective oxygen separation, are described as well as their use in separation of oxygen from an oxygen-containing gaseous mixture.

  12. Oxygen ion-conducting dense ceramic

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Balachandran, Uthamalingam; Kleefisch, Mark S.; Kobylinski, Thaddeus P.; Morissette, Sherry L.; Pei, Shiyou

    1997-01-01

    Preparation, structure, and properties of mixed metal oxide compositions containing at least strontium, cobalt, iron and oxygen are described. The crystalline mixed metal oxide compositions of this invention have, for example, structure represented by Sr.sub..alpha. (Fe.sub.1-x Co.sub.x).sub..alpha.+.beta. O.sub..delta. where x is a number in a range from 0.01 to about 1, .alpha. is a number in a range from about 1 to about 4, .beta. is a number in a range upward from 0 to about 20, and .delta. is a number which renders the compound charge neutral, and wherein the composition has a non-perovskite structure. Use of the mixed metal oxides in dense ceramic membranes which exhibit oxygen ionic conductivity and selective oxygen separation, are described as well as their use in separation of oxygen from an oxygen-containing gaseous mixture.

  13. UBIQUITOUS ROTATING NETWORK MAGNETIC FIELDS AND EXTREME-ULTRAVIOLET CYCLONES IN THE QUIET SUN

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang Jun; Liu Yang E-mail: yliu@sun.stanford.edu

    2011-11-01

    We present Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) observations of EUV cyclones in the quiet Sun. These cyclones are rooted in the rotating network magnetic fields (RNFs). Such cyclones can last several to more than 10 hr and, at the later phase, they are found to be associated with EUV brightenings (microflares) and even EUV waves. SDO Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI) observations show a ubiquitous presence of RNFs. Using HMI line-of-sight magnetograms on 2010 July 8, we find 388 RNFs in an area of 800 x 980 arcsec{sup 2} near the disk center where no active region is present. The sense of rotation shows a weak hemisphere preference. The unsigned magnetic flux of the RNFs is about 4.0 x 10{sup 21} Mx, or 78% of the total network flux. These observational phenomena at small scale reported in this Letter are consistent with those at large scale in active regions. The ubiquitous RNFs and EUV cyclones over the quiet Sun may suggest an effective way to heat the corona.

  14. Demonstration of coal reburning for cyclone boiler NO{sub x} control. Final project report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-02-01

    As part of the US Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Innovative Clean Coal Technology Program, under Round 2, a project for Full Scale Demonstration of Coal Reburning for Cyclone Boiler Nitrogen Oxide (NO{sub x},) Control was selected. DOE sponsored The Babcock & Wilcox (B&W) Company, with Wisconsin Power & Light (WP&L) as the host utility, to demonstrate coal reburning technology at WP&L`s 110 MW{sub c}, cyclone-fired Unit No.2 at the Nelson Dewey Generating Station in Cassville, Wisconsin. The coal reburning demonstration was justified based on two prior studies. An Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and B&W sponsored engineering feasibility study indicated that the majority of cyclone-equipped boilers could successfully apply reburning technology to reduce NO{sub x}, emissions by 50 to 70%. An EPRI/Gas Research Institute (GRI)/B&W pilot-scale evaluation substantiated this conclusion through pilot-scale testing in B&W`s 6 million Btu/hr Small Boiler Simulator. Three different reburning fuels, natural gas, No. 6 oil, and pulverized coal were tested. This work showed that coal as a reburning fuel performs nearly as well as gas/oil without deleterious effects of combustion efficiency. Coal was selected for a full scale demonstration since it is available to all cyclone units and represents the highest level of technical difficulty-in demonstrating the technology.

  15. Impact of surface coupling grids on tropical cyclone extremes in high-resolution atmospheric simulations

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zarzycki, Colin M.; Reed, Kevin A.; Bacmeister, Julio T.; Craig, Anthony P.; Bates, Susan C.; Rosenbloom, Nan A.

    2016-02-25

    This article discusses the sensitivity of tropical cyclone climatology to surface coupling strategy in high-resolution configurations of the Community Earth System Model. Using two supported model setups, we demonstrate that the choice of grid on which the lowest model level wind stress and surface fluxes are computed may lead to differences in cyclone strength in multi-decadal climate simulations, particularly for the most intense cyclones. Using a deterministic framework, we show that when these surface quantities are calculated on an ocean grid that is coarser than the atmosphere, the computed frictional stress is misaligned with wind vectors in individual atmospheric gridmore » cells. This reduces the effective surface drag, and results in more intense cyclones when compared to a model configuration where the ocean and atmosphere are of equivalent resolution. Our results demonstrate that the choice of computation grid for atmosphere–ocean interactions is non-negligible when considering climate extremes at high horizontal resolution, especially when model components are on highly disparate grids.« less

  16. LPM Interference and Cherenkov-like Gluon Bremsstrahlung in DenseMatter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Majumder, Abhijit; Wang, Xin-Nian

    2005-07-26

    Gluon bremsstrahlung induced by multiple parton scattering in a finite dense medium has a unique angular distribution with respect to the initial parton direction. A dead-cone structure with an opening angle; theta2{sub 0}; approx 2(1-z)/(zLE) for gluons with fractional energy z arises from the Landau-Pomeran chuck-Migdal (LPM) interference. In a medium where the gluon's dielectric constant is; epsilon>1, the LPM interference pattern is shown to become Cherenkov-like with an increased opening angle determined by the dielectric constant$/cos2/theta{sub c}=z+(1-z)//epsilon$. For a large dielectric constant/epsilon; gg 1+2/z2LE, the corresponding total radiative parton energy loss is about twice that from normal gluon bremsstrahlung. Implications of this Cherenkov-like gluon bremsstrahlung to the jet correlation pattern in high-energy heavy-ion collisions is discussed.

  17. Computer Simulations Indicate Calcium Carbonate Has a Dense Liquid Phase

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Computer Simulations Indicate Calcium Carbonate Has a Dense Liquid Phase Computer Simulations Indicate Calcium Carbonate Has a Dense Liquid Phase Berkeley Lab research could help scientists predict how carbon is stored underground August 22, 2013 Dan Krotz 510-486-4019 dakrotz@lbl.gov red2.jpg Artistic rendition of liquid-liquid separation in a supersaturated calcium carbonate solution. New research suggests that a dense liquid phase (shown in red in the background and in full atomistic detail

  18. Nuclear stopping power in warm and hot dense matter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Faussurier, Gerald; Blancard, Christophe; Gauthier, Maxence

    2013-01-15

    We present a method to estimate the nuclear component of the stopping power of ions propagating in dense matter. Three kinds of effective pair potentials are proposed. Results from the warm dense matter regime and the domain of high energy density physics are presented and discussed for proton and helium. The role of ionic temperature is examined. The nuclear stopping power can play a noticeable role in hot dense matter.

  19. Electronic Structure of Warm Dense Matter via Multicenter Green's Function

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Technique | The Ames Laboratory Electronic Structure of Warm Dense Matter via Multicenter Green's Function Technique Research Personnel Publications Modeling The proposed research addresses the Warm Dense Matter area identified in the Report of the ReNeW in HEDLP. The electronic structure, equation of state, radiative, and transport properties of warm electrons in an amorphous or disordered configuration of ions are not well described by either solid state or plasma models. Such warm-dense

  20. NO{sub x} control using natural gas reburn on an industrial cyclone boiler

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Farzan, H.; Maringo, G.J.; Beard, C.T.; Weed, G.E.; Pratapas, J.

    1997-07-01

    Eastman Kodak Company`s cyclone boiler (Unit No. 43), located in Rochester, New York, has been retrofitted with the gas reburn. technology developed by the Babcock & Wilcox (B&W) Company to reduce NO{sub x} emissions in order to comply with the New York State regulations adopted in conformance with the Title I of the Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) of 1990. At the peak load, the ozone nonattainment required NO{sub x} reduction from baseline levels necessary to meet the presumptive limit for cyclone boilers in this regulation is 56%. Eastman Kodak Company and the Gas Research Institute (GRI) are co-sponsoring this project. Chevron has supplied the natural gas. Equipment installation for the gas reburn system was performed in a September 1995 outage. Boiler No. 43`s maximum continuous rating (MCR) is 550,000 pounds per hour of steam flow (or approximately equivalent to 60 MW{sub e}). Because of the compact boiler design, there is insufficient furnace residence time to use coal or oil as the reburn fuel, thus making it a prime candidate for gas reburn. Kodak currently has four cyclone boilers. Contingent upon successful completion of this gas reburn project, modification of Kodak`s other cyclone boilers to include reburn technology will be considered. The paper will describe B&W`s gas reburn data from a cyclone-equipped pilot facility (B&W`s Small Boiler Simulator), gas reburn system design, manufacturing, and installation information specific to Kodak`s Unit No. 43. In addition, the paper will discuss numerical modeling and the full-scale commercial boiler test results.

  1. NO{sub x} control using natural gas reburn on an industrial cyclone boiler

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Farzan, H.; Maringo, G.J.; Beard, C.T.; Weed, G.E.; Pratapas, J.

    1996-12-31

    Eastman Kodak Company`s cyclone boiler (Unit No. 43), located in Rochester, New York, has been retrofitted with the gas reburn technology developed by the Babcock and Wilcox (B and W) Company to reduce NO{sub x} emissions in order to comply with the New York State regulations adopted in conformance with the Title I of the Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) of 1990. At the peak load, the ozone nonattainment required NO{sub x} reduction from baseline levels necessary to meet the presumptive limit for cyclone boilers in this regulation is 56%. Eastman Kodak Company and the Gas Research Institute (GRI) are co-sponsoring this project. Chevron has supplied the natural gas. Equipment installation for the gas reburn system was performed in a September 1995 outage. Boiler No. 43`s maximum continuous rating (MCR) is 550,000 pounds per hour of steam flow (or approximately equivalent to 60 MW{sub e}). Because of the compact boiler design, there is insufficient furnace residence time to use coal or oil as the reburn fuel, thus making it a prime candidate for gas reburn. Kodak currently has four cyclone boilers. Contingent upon successful completion of this gas reburn project, modification of Kodak`s other cyclone boilers to include reburn technology will be consideredd. The paper will describe B and W`s gas reburn data from a cyclone-equipped pilot facility (B and W`s Small Boiler Simulator), gas reburn system design, manufacturing, and installation information specific to Kodak`s Unit No. 43. In addition, the paper will discuss numerical modeling and the full-scale commercial boiler test results.

  2. Femtosecond Population Inversion and Stimulated Emission of Dense...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Femtosecond Population Inversion and Stimulated Emission of Dense Dirac Fermions in Graphene Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Femtosecond Population Inversion and...

  3. Emission of Visible Light by Hot Dense Metals (Conference) |...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    TRANSPORT THEORY Incandescent emission of light, polarized emission, pyrometry, hot metals, warm dense matter. Word Cloud More Like This Full Text preview image File size N...

  4. First-principles opacity table of warm dense deuterium forinertial...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ...ial-confinement-fusion applications Citation Details In-Document Search Title: First-principles opacity table of warm dense deuterium for inertial-confinement-fusion applications ...

  5. Continuum modeling of diffusion and dispersion in dense granular...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: Continuum modeling of diffusion and dispersion in dense granular flows Authors: Christov, Ivan C 1 ; Stone, Howard A 2 + Show Author Affiliations Los Alamos National ...

  6. Solid State Processing of Fully Dense Anistropic Nanocomposition...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Solid State Processing of Fully Dense Anistropic Nanocomposition Magnets Research Personnel Characterization The project proposes a new solid state processing technology which will...

  7. Dense ceramic membranes for methane conversion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Balachandran, U.; Mieville, R.L.; Ma, B.; Udovich, C.A.

    1996-05-01

    This report focuses on a mechanism for oxygen transport through mixed- oxide conductors as used in dense ceramic membrane reactors for the partial oxidation of methane to syngas (CO and H{sub 2}). The in-situ separation of O{sub 2} from air by the membrane reactor saves the costly cryogenic separation step that is required in conventional syngas production. The mixed oxide of choice is SrCo{sub 0.5}FeO{sub x}, which exhibits high oxygen permeability and has been shown in previous studies to possess high stability in both oxidizing and reducing conditions; in addition, it can be readily formed into reactor configurations such as tubes. An understanding of the electrical properties and the defect dynamics in this material is essential and will help us to find the optimal operating conditions for the conversion reactor. In this paper, we discuss the conductivities of the SrFeCo{sub 0.5}O{sub x} system that are dependent on temperature and partial pressure of oxygen. Based on the experimental results, a defect model is proposed to explain the electrical properties of this system. The oxygen permeability of SrFeCo{sub 0.5}O{sub x} is estimated by using conductivity data and is compared with that obtained from methane conversion reaction.

  8. Interparticle interaction and transport processes in dense semiclassical plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baimbetov, F.B.; Giniyatova, Sh.G.

    2005-04-15

    On the basis of the density response formalism an expression for the pseudopotential of dense semiclassical plasma, which takes account of quantum-mechanical effects, local field corrections, and electronic screening effects is obtained. The static structure factors taking into account both local fields and quantum-mechanical effects are calculated. An electrical conductivity, thermal conductivity, and viscosity of dense semiclassical plasma are studied.

  9. Development of dense-phase pneumatic transport of coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Horisaka, S.; Ikemiya, H.; Kajiwara, T.

    1996-12-31

    Dense phase pneumatic transport system has been developed to reduce entrained particles as is seen in the belt conveyor system. High mass flow rate and dense phase (Loading ratio = 50--100kg-coal/kg-N{sub 2}) transport has been achieved by applying this plug flow system to pneumatic conveying of coal (Average particle diameter = 2.5 mm).

  10. "A New Paradigm for Secondary Eyewall Formation in Tropical Cyclones",

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Chun-Chieh Wu (National Taiwan University) | Princeton Plasma Physics Lab July 27, 2012, 12:00pm to 1:15pm Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory Smagorinsky Seminar Room Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory Princeton University Forrestal Campus 201 Forrestal Road Princeton, NJ 08540-6649 "A New Paradigm for Secondary Eyewall Formation in Tropical Cyclones", Chun-Chieh Wu (National Taiwan University) Contact Information Website: Website

  11. Low NO sub x /SO sub x Burner retrofit for utility cyclone boilers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    Cyclone furnaces operate with high excess air and at high temperature. The heat release during combustion is very high and as a result the boiler volume is much smaller than would be found in a conventional pc-fired system. The Marion Unit 1 boiler, at the level of the cyclone entry, has a small cross-section; about 5-feet in depth and about 20-feet in width. A boiler schematic showing the LNS Burner and relative location of the superheater region and overfire air ports is shown in Figure 1. The LNS Burner's combustion process is fundamentally different from that of the cyclone, and the combustion products are also different. The LNS Burner products enter the boiler as hot, fuel-rich gases. Additional overfire air must be added to complete this combustion step with care taken to avoid the formation of thermal NO{sub x}. If done correctly, S0{sub 2} is controlled and significant NO{sub x} reductions are achieved. Because of the small boiler volume, flow modelling was found to be necessary to insure that adequate mixing of LNS Burner combustion products with air can be accomplished to achieve NO{sub x} emissions goals. Design requirements for the air injection system for the Marion boiler were developed using FLUENT, a commercially available computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code. A series of runs were made to obtain a design for final air injection that met the process design goals as closely as possible.

  12. Advanced In-Furnace NOx Control for Wall and Cyclone-Fired Boilers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hamid Sarv

    2009-02-28

    A NO{sub x} minimization strategy for coal-burning wall-fired and cyclone boilers was developed that included deep air staging, innovative oxygen use, reburning, and advanced combustion control enhancements. Computational fluid dynamics modeling was applied to refine and select the best arrangements. Pilot-scale tests were conducted by firing an eastern high-volatile bituminous Pittsburgh No.8 coal at 5 million Btu/hr in a facility that was set up with two-level overfire air (OFA) ports. In the wall-fired mode, pulverized coal was burned in a geometrically scaled down version of the B and W DRB-4Z{reg_sign} low-NO{sub x} burner. At a fixed overall excess air level of 17%, NO{sub x} emissions with single-level OFA ports were around 0.32 lb/million Btu at 0.80 burner stoichiometry. Two-level OFA operation lowered the NO{sub x} levels to 0.25 lb/million Btu. Oxygen enrichment in the staged burner reduced the NO{sub x} values to 0.21 lb/million Btu. Oxygen enrichment plus reburning and 2-level OFA operation further curbed the NO{sub x} emissions to 0.19 lb/million Btu or by 41% from conventional air-staged operation with single-level OFA ports. In the cyclone firing arrangement, oxygen enrichment of the cyclone combustor enabled high-temperature and deeply staged operation while maintaining good slag tapping. Firing the Pittsburgh No.8 coal in the optimum arrangement generated 112 ppmv NO{sub x} (0.15 lb/million Btu) and 59 ppmv CO. The optimum emissions results represent 88% NO{sub x} reduction from the uncontrolled operation. Levelized costs for additional NO{sub x} removal by various in-furnace control methods in reference wall-fired or cyclone-fired units already equipped with single-level OFA ports were estimated and compared with figures for SCR systems achieving 0.1 lb NO{sub x}/10{sup 6} Btu. Two-level OFA ports could offer the most economical approach for moderate NO{sub x} control, especially for smaller units. O{sub 2} enrichment in combination with 2-level

  13. Resolving Ultrafast Heating of Dense Cryogenic Hydrogen (Journal...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Dense Cryogenic Hydrogen Citation Details In-Document ... 1249390 Report Number(s): SLAC-REPRINT-2016-003 DOE Contract Number: AC02-76SF00515 Resource Type: Journal Article ...

  14. Reply to 'Comment on 'Quantum dense key distribution''

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Degiovanni, I.P.; Berchera, I. Ruo; Castelletto, S.; Rastello, M.L.; Bovino, F.A.; Colla, A.M.; Castagnoli, G.

    2005-01-01

    In this Reply we propose a modified security proof of the quantum dense key distribution protocol, detecting also the eavesdropping attack proposed by Wojcik in his Comment [Wojcik, Phys. Rev. A 71, 016301 (2005)].

  15. Nanoscale selective area growth of thick, dense, uniform, In...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: Nanoscale selective area growth of thick, dense, uniform, In-rich, InGaN nanostructure arrays on GaNsapphire template Authors: Sundaram, S. 1 ; Puybaret, R. 2 ; El ...

  16. Ion-ion dynamic structure factor of warm dense mixtures

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Gill, N. M.; Heinonen, R. A.; Starrett, C. E.; Saumon, D.

    2015-06-25

    In this study, the ion-ion dynamic structure factor of warm dense matter is determined using the recently developed pseudoatom molecular dynamics method [Starrett et al., Phys. Rev. E 91, 013104 (2015)]. The method uses density functional theory to determine ion-ion pair interaction potentials that have no free parameters. These potentials are used in classical molecular dynamics simulations. This constitutes a computationally efficient and realistic model of dense plasmas. Comparison with recently published simulations of the ion-ion dynamic structure factor and sound speed of warm dense aluminum finds good to reasonable agreement. Using this method, we make predictions of the ion-ionmore » dynamical structure factor and sound speed of a warm dense mixture—equimolar carbon-hydrogen. This material is commonly used as an ablator in inertial confinement fusion capsules, and our results are amenable to direct experimental measurement.« less

  17. Ion-ion dynamic structure factor of warm dense mixtures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gill, N. M.; Heinonen, R. A.; Starrett, C. E.; Saumon, D.

    2015-06-25

    In this study, the ion-ion dynamic structure factor of warm dense matter is determined using the recently developed pseudoatom molecular dynamics method [Starrett et al., Phys. Rev. E 91, 013104 (2015)]. The method uses density functional theory to determine ion-ion pair interaction potentials that have no free parameters. These potentials are used in classical molecular dynamics simulations. This constitutes a computationally efficient and realistic model of dense plasmas. Comparison with recently published simulations of the ion-ion dynamic structure factor and sound speed of warm dense aluminum finds good to reasonable agreement. Using this method, we make predictions of the ion-ion dynamical structure factor and sound speed of a warm dense mixture—equimolar carbon-hydrogen. This material is commonly used as an ablator in inertial confinement fusion capsules, and our results are amenable to direct experimental measurement.

  18. SUPPORTED DENSE CERAMIC MEMBRANES FOR OXYGEN SEPARATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Timothy L. Ward

    2002-07-01

    Mixed-conducting ceramics have the ability to conduct oxygen with perfect selectivity at elevated temperatures, making them extremely attractive as membrane materials for oxygen separation and membrane reactor applications. While the conductivity of these materials can be quite high at elevated temperatures (typically 800-1000 C), much higher oxygen fluxes, or, alternatively, equivalent fluxes at lower temperatures, could be provided by supported thin or thick film membrane layers. Based on that motivation, the objective of this project was to explore the use of ultrafine aerosol-derived powder of a mixed-conducting ceramic material for fabrication of supported thick-film dense membranes. The project focused on the mixed-conducting ceramic composition SrCo{sub 0.5}FeO{sub x} (SCFO) because of the desirable permeability and stability of that material, as reported in the literature. Appropriate conditions to produce the submicron SrCo{sub 0.5}FeO{sub x} powder using aerosol pyrolysis were determined. Porous supports of the same composition were produced by partial sintering of a commercially obtained powder that possessed significantly larger particle size than the aerosol-derived powder. The effects of sintering conditions (temperature, atmosphere) on the porosity and microstructure of the porous discs were studied, and a standard support fabrication procedure was adopted. Subsequently, a variety of paste and slurry formulations were explored utilizing the aerosol-derived SCFO powder. These formulations were applied to the porous SCFO support by a doctor blade or spin coating procedure. Sintering of the supported membrane layer was then conducted, and additional layers were deposited and sintered in some cases. The primary characterization methods were X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy, and room-temperature nitrogen permeation was used to assess defect status of the membranes.We found that non-aqueous paste/slurry formulations incorporating

  19. Electron-ion temperature equilibration in warm dense tantalum

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Doppner, T; LePape, S.; Ma, T.; Pak, A.; Hartley, N. J.; Peters, L.; Gregori, G.; Belancourt, P.; Drake, R. P.; Chapman, D. A.; et al

    2014-11-05

    We present measurements of electron-ion temperature equilibration in proton-heated tantalum, under warm dense matter conditions. Our results agree with theoretical predictions for metals calculated using input data from ab initio simulations. Furthermore, the fast relaxation observed in the experiment contrasts with much longer equilibration times found in proton heated carbon, indicating that the energy flow pathways in warm dense matter are far from being fully understood.

  20. Measurement of electron-ion relaxation in warm dense copper

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Cho, B. I.; Ogitsu, T.; Engelhorn, K.; Correa, A. A.; Ping, Y.; Lee, J. W.; Bae, L. J.; Prendergast, D.; Falcone, R. W.; Heimann, P. A.

    2016-01-06

    Experimental investigation of electron-ion coupling and electron heat capacity of copper in warm and dense states are presented. From time-resolved x-ray absorption spectroscopy, the temporal evolution of electron temperature is obtained for non-equilibrium warm dense copper heated by an intense femtosecond laser pulse. Electron heat capacity and electron-ion coupling are inferred from the initial electron temperature and its decrease over 10 ps. As a result, data are compared with various theoretical models.

  1. Cyclone Boiler Field Testing of Advanced Layered NOx Control Technology in Sioux Unit 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marc A. Cremer; Bradley R. Adams

    2006-06-30

    A four week testing program was completed during this project to assess the ability of the combination of deep staging, Rich Reagent Injection (RRI), and Selective Non-Catalytic Reduction (SNCR) to reduce NOx emissions below 0.15 lb/MBtu in a cyclone fired boiler. The host site for the tests was AmerenUE's Sioux Unit 1, a 500 MW cyclone fired boiler located near St. Louis, MO. Reaction Engineering International (REI) led the project team including AmerenUE, FuelTech Inc., and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI). This layered approach to NOx reduction is termed the Advanced Layered Technology Approach (ALTA). Installed RRI and SNCR port locations were guided by computational fluid dynamics (CFD) based modeling conducted by REI. During the parametric testing, NOx emissions of 0.12 lb/MBtu were achieved consistently from overfire air (OFA)-only baseline NOx emissions of 0.25 lb/MBtu or less, when firing the typical 80/20 fuel blend of Powder River Basin (PRB) and Illinois No.6 coals. From OFA-only baseline levels of 0.20 lb/MBtu, NOx emissions of 0.12 lb/MBtu were also achieved, but at significantly reduced urea flow rates. Under the deeply staged conditions that were tested, RRI performance was observed to degrade as higher blends of Illinois No.6 were used. NOx emissions achieved with ALTA while firing a 60/40 blend were approximately 0.15 lb/MBtu. NOx emissions while firing 100% Illinois No.6 were approximately 0.165 lb/MBtu. Based on the performance results of these tests, economics analyses of the application of ALTA to a nominal 500 MW cyclone unit show that the levelized cost to achieve 0.15 lb/MBtu is well below 75% of the cost of a state of the art SCR.

  2. The Role of Moist Processes in the Intrinsic Predictability of Indian Ocean Cyclones

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Taraphdar, Sourav; Mukhopadhyay, P.; Leung, Lai-Yung R.; Zhang, Fuqing; Abhilash, S.; Goswami, B. N.

    2014-07-16

    The role of moist processes and the possibility of error cascade from cloud scale processes affecting the intrinsic predictable time scale of a high resolution convection permitting model within the environment of tropical cyclones (TCs) over the Indian region are investigated. Consistent with past studies of extra-tropical cyclones, it is demonstrated that moist processes play a major role in forecast error growth which may ultimately limit the intrinsic predictability of the TCs. Small errors in the initial conditions may grow rapidly and cascades from smaller scales to the larger scales through strong diabatic heating and nonlinearities associated with moist convection. Results from a suite of twin perturbation experiments for four tropical cyclones suggest that the error growth is significantly higher in cloud permitting simulation at 3.3 km resolutions compared to simulations at 3.3 km and 10 km resolution with parameterized convection. Convective parameterizations with prescribed convective time scales typically longer than the model time step allows the effects of microphysical tendencies to average out so convection responds to a smoother dynamical forcing. Without convective parameterizations, the finer-scale instabilities resolved at 3.3 km resolution and stronger vertical motion that results from the cloud microphysical parameterizations removing super-saturation at each model time step can ultimately feed the error growth in convection permitting simulations. This implies that careful considerations and/or improvements in cloud parameterizations are needed if numerical predictions are to be improved through increased model resolution. Rapid upscale error growth from convective scales may ultimately limit the intrinsic mesoscale predictability of the TCs, which further supports the needs for probabilistic forecasts of these events, even at the mesoscales.

  3. Experimental Studies of the Transport Parameters of Warm Dense Matter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chouffani, Khalid

    2014-12-01

    There is a need to establish fundamental properties of matter and energy under extreme physical conditions. Although high energy density physics (HEDP) research spans a wide range of plasma conditions, there is one unifying regime that is of particular importance and complexity: that of warm dense matter, the transitional state between solid state condensed matter and energetic plasmas. Most laboratory experimental conditions, including inertial confinement implosion, fall into this regime. Because all aspects of laboratory-created high-energy-density plasmas transition through the warm dense matter regime, understanding the fundamental properties to determine how matter and energy interact in this regime is an important aspect of major research efforts in HEDP. Improved understanding of warm dense matter would have significant and wide-ranging impact on HEDP science, from helping to explain wire initiation studies on the Sandia Z machine to increasing the predictive power of inertial confinement fusion modeling. The central goal or objective of our proposed research is to experimentally determine the electrical resistivity, temperature, density, and average ionization state of a variety of materials in the warm dense matter regime, without the use of theoretical calculations. Since the lack of an accurate energy of state (EOS) model is primarily due to the lack of experimental data, we propose an experimental study of the transport coefficients of warm dense matter.

  4. Composition and chemistry of particulates from the Tidd Clean Coal Demonstration Plant pressurized fluidized bed combustor, cyclone, and filter vessel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, D.H.; Grimm, U.; Haddad, G.

    1995-12-31

    In a Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion (PFBC)/cyclone/filter system ground coal and sorbent are injected as pastes into the PFBC bed; the hot gases and entrained fine particles of ash and calcined or reacted sorbent are passed through a cyclone (which removes the larger entrained particles); and the very-fine particles that remain are then filtered out, so that the cleaned hot gas can be sent through a non-ruggedized hot-gas turbine. The 70 MWe Tidd PFBC Demonstration Plant in Brilliant, Ohio was completed in late 1990. The initial design utilized seven strings of primary and secondary cyclones to remove 98% of the particulate matter. However, the Plant also included a pressurized filter vessel, placed between the primary and secondary cyclones of one of the seven strings. Coal and dolomitic limestone (i.e, SO{sub 2} sorbent) of various nominal sizes ranging from 12 to 18 mesh were injected into the combustor operating at about 10 atm pressure and 925{degree}C. The cyclone removed elutriated particles larger than about 0.025 mm, and particles larger than ca. 0.0005 mm were filtered at about 750{degree}C by ceramic candle filters. Thus, the chemical reaction times and temperatures, masses of material, particle-size distributions, and chemical compositions were substantially different for particulates removed from the bed drain, the cyclone drain, and the filter unit. Accordingly, we have measured the particle-size distributions and concentrations of calcium, magnesium, sulfur, silicon, and aluminum for material taken from the three units, and also determined the chemical formulas and predominant crystalline forms of the calcium and magnesium sulfate compounds formed. The latter information is particularly novel for the filter-cake material, from which we isolated the ``new`` compound Mg{sub 2}Ca(SO{sub 4}){sub 3}.

  5. Low No sub x /SO sub x burner retrofit for utility cyclone boilers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moore, K.; Martin, L.; Smith, J.

    1991-05-01

    The Low NO{sub x}/SO{sub x} (LNS) Burner Retrofit for Utility Cyclone Boilers program consists of the retrofit and subsequent demonstration of the technology at Southern Illinois Power Cooperative's (SIPC's) 33-MW unit 1 cyclone boiler located near Marion, Illinois. The LNS Burner employs a simple innovative combustion process burning high-sulfur Illinois coal to provide substantial SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} control within the burner. A complete series of boiler performance and characterization tests, called the baseline tests, was conducted in October 1990 on unit 1 of SIPC's Marion Station. The primary objective of the baseline test was to collect data from the existing plant that could provide a comparison of performance after the LNS Burner retrofit. These data could confirm the LNS Burner's SO{sub x} and NO{sub x} emissions control and any effect on boiler operation. Further, these tests would provide to the project experience with the operating characteristics of the host unit as well as engineering design information to minimize technical uncertainties in the application of the LNS Burner technology.

  6. Modeling High-Impact Weather and Climate: Lessons From a Tropical Cyclone Perspective

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Done, James; Holland, Greg; Bruyere, Cindy; Leung, Lai-Yung R.; Suzuki-Parker, Asuka

    2012-06-01

    Although the societal impact of a weather event increases with the rarity of the event, our current ability to assess extreme events and their impacts is limited by not only rarity but also by current model fidelity and a lack of understanding of the underlying physical processes. This challenge is driving fresh approaches to assess high-impact weather and climate. Recent lessons learned in modeling high-impact weather and climate are presented using the case of tropical cyclones as an illustrative example. Through examples using the Nested Regional Climate Model to dynamically downscale large-scale climate data the need to treat bias in the driving data is illustrated. Domain size, location, and resolution are also shown to be critical and should be guided by the need to: include relevant regional climate physical processes; resolve key impact parameters; and to accurately simulate the response to changes in external forcing. The notion of sufficient model resolution is introduced together with the added value in combining dynamical and statistical assessments to fill out the parent distribution of high-impact parameters. Finally, through the example of a tropical cyclone damage index, direct impact assessments are presented as powerful tools that distill complex datasets into concise statements on likely impact, and as highly effective communication devices. Capsule: "Combining dynamical modeling of high-impact weather using traditional regional climate models with statistical techniques allows for comprehensive sampling of the full distribution, uncertainty estimation, direct assessment of impacts, and increased confidence in future changes."

  7. Modeling High-Impact Weather and Climate: Lessons From a Tropical Cyclone Perspective

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Done, James; Holland, Greg; Bruyere, Cindy; Leung, Lai-Yung R.; Suzuki-Parker, Asuka

    2013-10-19

    Although the societal impact of a weather event increases with the rarity of the event, our current ability to assess extreme events and their impacts is limited by not only rarity but also by current model fidelity and a lack of understanding of the underlying physical processes. This challenge is driving fresh approaches to assess high-impact weather and climate. Recent lessons learned in modeling high-impact weather and climate are presented using the case of tropical cyclones as an illustrative example. Through examples using the Nested Regional Climate Model to dynamically downscale large-scale climate data the need to treat bias in the driving data is illustrated. Domain size, location, and resolution are also shown to be critical and should be guided by the need to: include relevant regional climate physical processes; resolve key impact parameters; and to accurately simulate the response to changes in external forcing. The notion of sufficient model resolution is introduced together with the added value in combining dynamical and statistical assessments to fill out the parent distribution of high-impact parameters. Finally, through the example of a tropical cyclone damage index, direct impact assessments are resented as powerful tools that distill complex datasets into concise statements on likely impact, and as highly effective communication devices.

  8. Weatherization Installer/Technician Fundamentals 2.0 - Dense Pack Sidewall

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Insulation | Department of Energy Dense Pack Sidewall Insulation Weatherization Installer/Technician Fundamentals 2.0 - Dense Pack Sidewall Insulation Dense Pack Sidewall Insulation - Complete (10.56 MB) Lesson Plan: Dense Pack Sidewall Insulation (126.47 KB) PowerPoint: Dense Pack Sidewall Insulation (10.92 MB) More Documents & Publications Energy Auditor - Single Family 2.0: Building Shell Retrofit Strategies Weatherization Installer/Technician Fundamentals 2.0 - Identifying and Air

  9. Quasimolecules and spectral line broadening in dense plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arranz, J. P.; Butaux, J.; Nguyen, H.; Reggadi, A.

    1997-01-05

    The energy levels and transition probabilities for transient diatomic molecules have been obtained by means of a self-consistent field method and used to compute the static and dynamical NeX Lyman {alpha} and Lyman {beta} line profiles emitted from dense plasmas. The typical excitation of molecular satellite lines is pointed out.

  10. Evaluation of static pressure drops and PM10 and TSP emissions for modified 1D-3D cyclones

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holt, G.A.; Baker, R.V.; Hughs, S.E.

    1999-12-01

    Five modifications of a standard 1D3D cyclone were tested and compared against the standard 1D3D design in the areas of particulate emissions and static pressure drop across the cyclone. The modifications to the 1D3D design included a 2D2D inlet, a 2D2D air outlet, a D/3 trash exit, an expansion chamber with a D/3 trash exit, and a tapered air outlet duct. The 1D3D modifications that exhibited a significant improvement in reducing both PM10 and total suspended particulate (TSP) emissions were the designs with the 2D2D inlet and air exhaust combined with either the conical D/3 tail cone or the expansion chamber. In reference to the standard 1D3D cyclone, the average reduction in PM10 emissions was 24 to 29% with a 29 to 35% reduction observed in TSP emissions. The modifications with the tapered air outlets did not show any significant improvements in controlling PM10 emissions. However, the modification with the tapered air outlet/expansion chamber combination exhibited statistical significance in reducing TSP emissions by 18% compared to the 1D3D cyclone. All modifications tested exhibited lower static pressure drops than the standard 1D3D.

  11. Low NO{sub x}/SO{sub x} Burner retrofit for utility cyclone boilers. Quarterly technical progress report, June--September 1990

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-12-31

    The objective of this project is to demonstrate the LNS Burner as retrofitted to the host cyclone boiler for effective low-cost control of NO{sub x} and SO{sub x} emissions while firing a bituminous coal. The LNS Burner employs a simple, innovative combustion process to burn pulverized coal at high temperatures and provides effective, low-cost control of sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) and nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) emissions. The coal ash contains sulfur and is removed in the form of molten slag and flyash. Cyclone-fired boiler units are typically older units firing high-sulfur bituminous coals at very high temperatures which results in very high NO{sub x} and SO{sub x} emissions. The addition of conventional emission control equipment, such as wet scrubbers, to these older cyclone units in order to meet current and future environmental regulations is generally not economic. Further, the units are generally not compatible with low sulfur coal switching for S0{sub 2} control or selective catalytic reduction technologies for NO{sub x} control. Because the LNS Burner operates at the same very high temperatures as a typical cyclone boiler and produces a similar slag product, it may offer a viable retrofit option for cyclone boiler emission control. This was confirmed by the Cyclone Boiler Retrofit Feasibility Study carried out by TransAlta and an Operating Committee formed of cyclone boiler owners in 1989. An existing utility cyclone boiler, was then selected for the evaluation of the cost and performance study. It was concluded that the LNS Burner retrofit would be a cost-effective option for control of cyclone boiler emissions. A full-scale demonstration of the LNS Burner retrofit was selected in October 1988 as part of the DOE`s Clean Coal Technology Program Round II.

  12. High-Resolution Modeling to Assess Tropical Cyclone Activity in Future Climate Regimes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lackmann, Gary

    2013-06-10

    Applied research is proposed with the following objectives: (i) to determine the most likely level of tropical cyclone intensity and frequency in future climate regimes, (ii) to provide a quantitative measure of uncertainty in these predictions, and (iii) to improve understanding of the linkage between tropical cyclones and the planetary-scale circulation. Current mesoscale weather forecasting models, such as the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model, are capable of simulating the full intensity of tropical cyclones (TC) with realistic structures. However, in order to accurately represent both the primary and secondary circulations in these systems, model simulations must be configured with sufficient resolution to explicitly represent convection (omitting the convective parameterization scheme). Most previous numerical studies of TC activity at seasonal and longer time scales have not utilized such explicit convection (EC) model runs. Here, we propose to employ the moving nest capability of WRF to optimally represent TC activity on a seasonal scale using a downscaling approach. The statistical results of a suite of these high-resolution TC simulations will yield a realistic representation of TC intensity on a seasonal basis, while at the same time allowing analysis of the feedback that TCs exert on the larger-scale climate system. Experiments will be driven with analyzed lateral boundary conditions for several recent Atlantic seasons, spanning a range of activity levels and TC track patterns. Results of the ensemble of WRF simulations will then be compared to analyzed TC data in order to determine the extent to which this modeling setup can reproduce recent levels of TC activity. Next, the boundary conditions (sea-surface temperature, tropopause height, and thermal/moisture profiles) from the recent seasons will be altered in a manner consistent with various future GCM/RCM scenarios, but that preserves the large-scale shear and incipient disturbance

  13. Linkages of Remote Sea Surface Temperatures and Atlantic Tropical Cyclone Activity Mediated by the African Monsoon

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Taraphdar, Sourav; Leung, Lai-Yung R.; Hagos, Samson M.

    2015-01-28

    Warm sea surface temperatures (SSTs) in North Atlantic and Mediterranean (NAMED) can influence tropical cyclone (TC) activity in the tropical East Atlantic by modulating summer convection over western Africa. Analysis of 30 years of observations show that the NAMED SST is linked to a strengthening of the Saharan heat low and enhancement of moisture and moist static energy in the lower atmosphere over West Africa, which favors a northward displacement of the monsoonal front. These processes also lead to a northward shift of the African easterly jet that introduces an anomalous positive vorticity from western Africa to the main development region (50W20E; 10N20N) of Atlantic TC. By modulating multiple processes associated with the African monsoon, this study demonstrates that warm NAMED SST explains 8% of interannual variability of Atlantic TC frequency. Thus NAME SST may provide useful predictability for Atlantic TC activity on seasonal-to-interannual time scale.

  14. Characteristics of tropical cyclones in high-resolution models in the present climate

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Shaevitz, Daniel A.; Camargo, Suzana J.; Sobel, Adam H.; Jonas, Jeffrey A.; Kim, Daehyun; Kumar, Arun; LaRow, Timothy E.; Lim, Young -Kwon; Murakami, Hiroyuki; Reed, Kevin A.; et al

    2014-12-05

    The global characteristics of tropical cyclones (TCs) simulated by several climate models are analyzed and compared with observations. The global climate models were forced by the same sea surface temperature (SST) fields in two types of experiments, using climatological SST and interannually varying SST. TC tracks and intensities are derived from each model's output fields by the group who ran that model, using their own preferred tracking scheme; the study considers the combination of model and tracking scheme as a single modeling system, and compares the properties derived from the different systems. Overall, the observed geographic distribution of global TCmore » frequency was reasonably well reproduced. As expected, with the exception of one model, intensities of the simulated TC were lower than in observations, to a degree that varies considerably across models.« less

  15. Characteristics of tropical cyclones in high-resolution models in the present climate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shaevitz, Daniel A.; Camargo, Suzana J.; Sobel, Adam H.; Jonas, Jeffrey A.; Kim, Daehyun; Kumar, Arun; Lim, Young -Kwon; Reed, Kevin A.; Roberts, Malcolm J.; Scoccimarro, Enrico; Vidale, Pier Luigi; Wang, Hui; Zhao, Ming; Henderson, Naomi

    2014-12-05

    The global characteristics of tropical cyclones (TCs) simulated by several climate models are analyzed and compared with observations. The global climate models were forced by the same sea surface temperature (SST) fields in two types of experiments, using climatological SST and interannually varying SST. TC tracks and intensities are derived from each model's output fields by the group who ran that model, using their own preferred tracking scheme; the study considers the combination of model and tracking scheme as a single modeling system, and compares the properties derived from the different systems. Overall, the observed geographic distribution of global TC frequency was reasonably well reproduced. As expected, with the exception of one model, intensities of the simulated TC were lower than in observations, to a degree that varies considerably across models.

  16. Ultra-Efficient and Power-Dense Electric Motors

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Ultra-Efficient and Power-Dense Electric Motors Advanced Electric Motors Offer Large Energy Savings in Industrial Applications Pumps, fans, and compressors use more than 60% of industrial electric motor energy in the United States. The most widely used motors in these applications are constant-speed motors that are started and run across the line. In some applications, variable- speed motors, powered from an open-loop variable-speed drive, are utilized without any rotor position feedback device

  17. Method for making dense crack free thin films

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jacobson, Craig P.; Visco, Steven J.; De Jonghe, Lutgard C.

    2007-01-16

    The process described herein provides a simple and cost effective method for making crack free, high density thin ceramic film. The steps involve depositing a layer of a ceramic material on a porous or dense substrate. The deposited layer is compacted and then the resultant laminate is sintered to achieve a higher density than would have been possible without the pre-firing compaction step.

  18. Compacting Plastic-Bonded Explosive Molding Powders to Dense Solids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    B. Olinger

    2005-04-15

    Dense solid high explosives are made by compacting plastic-bonded explosive molding powders with high pressures and temperatures for extended periods of time. The density is influenced by manufacturing processes of the powders, compaction temperature, the magnitude of compaction pressure, pressure duration, and number of repeated applications of pressure. The internal density variation of compacted explosives depends on method of compaction and the material being compacted.

  19. Topical Collaboration "Neutrinos and Nucleosynthesis in Hot and Dense Matter"

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Allahverdi, Rouzbeh

    2015-09-18

    This is the final technical report describing contributions from the University of New Mexico to Topical Collaboration on "Neutrinos and Nucleosynthesis in Hot and Dense Matter" in the period June 2010 through May 2015. During the funding period, the University of New Mexico successfully hired Huaiyu Duan as a new faculty member with the support from DOE, who has contributed to the Topical Collaboration through his research and collaborations.

  20. PROTON-CONDUCTING DENSE CERAMIC MEMBRANES FOR HYDROGEN SEPARATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jerry Y. S. Lin; Scott Cheng; Vineet Gupta

    2003-12-01

    Dense perovskite-type structured ceramic membranes, SrCe{sub 0.95}Tm{sub 0.05}O{sub 3} (SCTm), of different thickness, were prepared by the dry-press method. Membrane thickness was varied from 3 mm to 150 {micro}m. The hydrogen permeation flux was found to be inversely proportional to the thickness of the dense films, indicating that the bulk diffusion rather than the surface reaction played a dominant role in the H{sub 2} transport through these dense membranes within the studied thickness range. Hydrogen permeation flux increases with increasing upstream hydrogen partial pressure and decreasing downstream hydrogen partial pressure. The activation energy for hydrogen permeation through the SCTm membrane is about 116 kJ/mol in 600-700 C and 16 kJ/mol in 750-950 C. This indicates a change in the electrical and protonic conduction mechanism at around 700 C. Pd-Cu thin films were synthesized with elemental palladium and copper targets by the sequential R.F. sputter deposition on porous substrates. Pd-Cu alloy films could be formed after proper annealing. The deposited Pd-Cu films were gas-tight. This result demonstrated the feasibility of obtaining an ultrathin SCTm film by the sequential sputter deposition of Sr, Ce and Tm metals followed by proper annealing and oxidation. Such ultrathin SCTm membranes will offer sufficiently high hydrogen permeance for practical applications.

  1. Applying Nonlinear Signal Analysis Technologies to Flame Scanner Signals to Improve Staging of Cyclone Boilers for NOx control

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Flynn, T. J.; Bailey, R. T.; Fuller, T. A.; FINNEY, Charles E A; Daw, C Stuart; Stallings, J.; Himes, R.; Bermke, R.

    2006-08-01

    Cyclone{trademark} boiler owners continue to drive down NO{sub x} emissions by increasingly sophisticated staging and air distribution schemes. For example, Alliant Energy has employed RMT's SmartBurn{reg_sign} technology, and Ameren UE has pioneered neural nets to reduce emissions. Over the last 11 years under sponsorship of EPRI, the team of ORNL and B&W has developed pulverized coal burner diagnostic technology by applying nonlinear signal analysis techniques to flame scanner signals. The team has extended the technology to cyclones to facilitate deeper staging of the cyclones to reduce NO{sub x} emissions. Development projects were conducted at the Alliant Energy Edgewater Units 3 and 4, and Ameren UE Sioux Unit 1. Nonlinear analysis statistics were correlated to upsets in cyclone operation resulting from poor air distribution in the burner and barrel. The team demonstrated that the lighter and main flame scanners can be used to independently guide adjustments to the burner and barrel.

  2. PROTON-CONDUCTING DENSE CERAMIC MEMBRANES FOR HYDROGEN SEPARATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jerry Y.S. Lin; Vineet Gupta; Scott Cheng

    2004-11-01

    Dense thin films of SrCe{sub 0.95}Tm{sub 0.05}O{sub 3-{delta}} (SCTm) with perovskite structure were prepared on porous alumina or SCTm substrates by the methods of (1) polymeric-gel casting and (2) dry-pressing. The polymeric-gel casting method includes preparation of mixed metal oxide gel and coating of the gel on a macroporous alumina support. Micrometer thick SCTm films of the perovskite structure can be obtained by the polymeric-gel casting method. However, the deposited films are not hermetic and it may require about 50 coatings in order to obtain gas-tight SCTm films by this method. Pd-Cu thin films were synthesized with elemental palladium and copper targets by the sequential R.F. sputter deposition on porous substrates. Pd-Cu alloy films could be formed after proper annealing. The deposited Pd-Cu films were gas-tight. This result demonstrated the feasibility of obtaining an ultrathin SCTm film by the sequential sputter deposition of Sr, Ce and Tm metals followed by proper annealing and oxidation. Such ultrathin SCTm membranes will offer sufficiently high hydrogen permeance for practical applications. Thin gas-tight SCTm membranes were synthesized on porous SCTm supports by the dry-pressing method. In this method, the green powder of SCTm was prepared by wet chemical method using metal nitrates as the precursors. Particle size of the powder was revealed to be a vital factor in determining the porosity and shrinkage of the sintered disks. Small particle size formed the dense film while large particle size produced porous substrates. The SCTm film thickness was varied from 1 mm to 0.15 mm by varying the amount of the target powder. A close match between the shrinkage of the substrate and the dense film led to the defect free-thin films. The selectivity of H{sub 2} over He with these films was infinite. The chemical environment on each side of the membrane influenced the H{sub 2} permeation flux as it had concurrent effects on the driving force and electronic

  3. Predictions of x-ray scattering spectra in warm dense matter...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Technical Report: Predictions of x-ray scattering spectra in warm dense matter Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Predictions of x-ray scattering spectra in warm dense ...

  4. Fully Kinetic Simulations of MegaJoule-Scale Dense Plasma Focus...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Journal Article: Fully Kinetic Simulations of MegaJoule-Scale Dense Plasma Focus Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Fully Kinetic Simulations of MegaJoule-Scale Dense ...

  5. Gravitational lensing in plasmic medium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bisnovatyi-Kogan, G. S. Tsupko, O. Yu.

    2015-07-15

    The influence of plasma on different effects of gravitational lensing is reviewed. Using the Hamiltonian approach for geometrical optics in a medium in the presence of gravity, an exact formula for the photon deflection angle by a black hole (or another body with a Schwarzschild metric) embedded in plasma with a spherically symmetric density distribution is derived. The deflection angle in this case is determined by the mutual combination of different factors: gravity, dispersion, and refraction. While the effects of deflection by the gravity in vacuum and the refractive deflection in a nonhomogeneous medium are well known, the new effect is that, in the case of a homogeneous plasma, in the absence of refractive deflection, the gravitational deflection differs from the vacuum deflection and depends on the photon frequency. In the presence of a plasma nonhomogeneity, the chromatic refractive deflection also occurs, so the presence of plasma always makes gravitational lensing chromatic. In particular, the presence of plasma leads to different angular positions of the same image if it is observed at different wavelengths. It is discussed in detail how to apply the presented formulas for the calculation of the deflection angle in different situations. Gravitational lensing in plasma beyond the weak deflection approximation is also considered.

  6. 1991 US-Japan workshop on Nuclear Fusion in Dense Plasmas. Proceedings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ichimaru, S.; Tajima, T.

    1991-10-01

    The scientific areas covered at the Workshop may be classified into the following subfields: (1) basic theory of dense plasma physics and its interface with atomic physics and nuclear physics; (2) physics of dense z-pinches, ICF plasmas etc; (3) stellar interior plasmas; (4) cold fusion; and (5) other dense plasmas.

  7. Sintered composite medium and filter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bergman, Werner

    1987-01-01

    A particulate filter medium is formed of a sintered composite of 0.5 micron diameter quartz fibers and 2 micron diameter stainless steel fibers. A preferred composition is about 40 vol. % quartz and about 60 vol. % stainless steel fibers. The media is sintered at about 1100.degree. C. to bond the stainless steel fibers into a cage network which holds the quartz fibers. High filter efficiency and low flow resistance are provided by the smaller quartz fibers. High strength is provided by the stainless steel fibers. The resulting media has a high efficiency and low pressure drop similar to the standard HEPA media, with tensile strength at least four times greater, and a maximum operating temperature of about 550.degree. C. The invention also includes methods to form the composite media and a HEPA filter utilizing the composite media. The filter media can be used to filter particles in both liquids and gases.

  8. Fine coal cleaning via the micro-mag process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Klima, Mark S.; Maronde, Carl P.; Killmeyer, Richard P.

    1991-01-01

    A method of cleaning particulate coal which is fed with a dense medium slurry as an inlet feed to a cyclone separator. The coal particle size distribution is in the range of from about 37 microns to about 600 microns. The dense medium comprises water and ferromagnetic particles that have a relative density in the range of from about 4.0 to about 7.0. The ferromagnetic particles of the dense medium have particle sizes of less than about 15 microns and at least a majority of the particle sizes are less than about 5 microns. In the cyclone, the particulate coal and dense-medium slurry is separated into a low gravity product stream and a high gravity produce stream wherein the differential in relative density between the two streams is not greater than about 0.2. The low gravity and high gravity streams are treated to recover the ferromagnetic particles therefrom.

  9. Parallel Access of Out-Of-Core Dense Extendible Arrays

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Otoo, Ekow J; Rotem, Doron

    2007-07-26

    Datasets used in scientific and engineering applications are often modeled as dense multi-dimensional arrays. For very large datasets, the corresponding array models are typically stored out-of-core as array files. The array elements are mapped onto linear consecutive locations that correspond to the linear ordering of the multi-dimensional indices. Two conventional mappings used are the row-major order and the column-major order of multi-dimensional arrays. Such conventional mappings of dense array files highly limit the performance of applications and the extendibility of the dataset. Firstly, an array file that is organized in say row-major order causes applications that subsequently access the data in column-major order, to have abysmal performance. Secondly, any subsequent expansion of the array file is limited to only one dimension. Expansions of such out-of-core conventional arrays along arbitrary dimensions, require storage reorganization that can be very expensive. Wepresent a solution for storing out-of-core dense extendible arrays that resolve the two limitations. The method uses a mapping function F*(), together with information maintained in axial vectors, to compute the linear address of an extendible array element when passed its k-dimensional index. We also give the inverse function, F-1*() for deriving the k-dimensional index when given the linear address. We show how the mapping function, in combination with MPI-IO and a parallel file system, allows for the growth of the extendible array without reorganization and no significant performance degradation of applications accessing elements in any desired order. We give methods for reading and writing sub-arrays into and out of parallel applications that run on a cluster of workstations. The axial-vectors are replicated and maintained in each node that accesses sub-array elements.

  10. Interaction of fast magnetoacoustic solitons in dense plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jahangir, R.; Saleem, Khalid; Masood, W.; Siddiq, M.; Batool, Nazia

    2015-09-15

    One dimensional propagation of fast magnetoacoustic solitary waves in dense plasmas with degenerate electrons is investigated in this paper in the small amplitude limit. In this regard, Korteweg deVries equation is derived and discussed using the plasma parameters that are typically found in white dwarf stars. The interaction of fast magnetoacoustic solitons is explored by using the Hirota bilinear formalism, which admits multi soliton solutions. It is observed that the values of the propagation vectors determine the interaction of solitary waves. It is further noted that the amplitude of the respective solitary waves remain unchanged after the interaction; however, they do experience a phase shift.

  11. X-ray Thomson Scattering from Dense Plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Glenzer, S

    2007-05-14

    Advances in the development of laser-produced x-ray sources have enabled a new class of high-energy density physics experiments. Powerful narrow-bandwidth x rays penetrate through short-lived hot dense states of matter and probe the physical properties with spectrally resolved x-ray scattering. Experiments from isochorically-heated plasmas with electron densities in the range of solid density and above have been demonstrated allowing for the first time exploration of the microscopic properties of dense matter regime close to strongly-coupled and Fermi degenerate conditions. Backscatter measurements have accessed the non-collective Compton scattering regime, which provides accurate diagnostic information on the temperature, density and ionization states. The forward scattering spectrum has been shown to measure the collective plasmon oscillations. Besides extracting the standard plasma parameters, density and temperature, forward scattering yields new observables such as a direct measure of collisions, quantum effects and detailed balance. In this talk, we will discuss new results important for applications of this technique for novel experiments in a wide range of research areas such as inertial confinement fusion, radiation-hydrodynamics, material science, and laboratory astrophysics.

  12. Thermophysical properties of multi-shock compressed dense argon

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Q. F. Zheng, J.; Gu, Y. J.; Chen, Y. L.; Cai, L. C.; Shen, Z. J.

    2014-02-21

    In contrast to the single shock compression state that can be obtained directly via experimental measurements, the multi-shock compression states, however, have to be calculated with the aid of theoretical models. In order to determine experimentally the multiple shock states, a diagnostic approach with the Doppler pins system (DPS) and the pyrometer was used to probe multiple shocks in dense argon plasmas. Plasma was generated by a shock reverberation technique. The shock was produced using the flyer plate impact accelerated up to ∼6.1 km/s by a two-stage light gas gun and introduced into the plenum argon gas sample, which was pre-compressed from the environmental pressure to about 20 MPa. The time-resolved optical radiation histories were determined using a multi-wavelength channel optical transience radiance pyrometer. Simultaneously, the particle velocity profiles of the LiF window was measured with multi-DPS. The states of multi-shock compression argon plasma were determined from the measured shock velocities combining the particle velocity profiles. We performed the experiments on dense argon plasmas to determine the principal Hugonoit up to 21 GPa, the re-shock pressure up to 73 GPa, and the maximum measure pressure of the fourth shock up to 158 GPa. The results are used to validate the existing self-consistent variational theory model in the partial ionization region and create new theoretical models.

  13. Lattice cluster theory for dense, thin polymer films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Freed, Karl F.

    2015-04-07

    While the application of the lattice cluster theory (LCT) to study the miscibility of polymer blends has greatly expanded our understanding of the monomer scale molecular details influencing miscibility, the corresponding theory for inhomogeneous systems has not yet emerged because of considerable technical difficulties and much greater complexity. Here, we present a general formulation enabling the extension of the LCT to describe the thermodynamic properties of dense, thin polymer films using a high dimension, high temperature expansion. Whereas the leading order of the LCT for bulk polymer systems is essentially simple Flory-Huggins theory, the highly non-trivial leading order inhomogeneous LCT (ILCT) for a film with L layers already involves the numerical solution of 3(L − 1) coupled, highly nonlinear equations for the various density profiles in the film. The new theory incorporates the essential “transport” constraints of Helfand and focuses on the strict imposition of excluded volume constraints, appropriate to dense polymer systems, rather than the maintenance of chain connectivity as appropriate for lower densities and as implemented in self-consistent theories of polymer adsorption at interfaces. The ILCT is illustrated by presenting examples of the computed profiles of the density, the parallel and perpendicular bonds, and the chain ends for free standing and supported films as a function of average film density, chain length, temperature, interaction with support, and chain stiffness. The results generally agree with expected general trends.

  14. Understanding neutron production in the deuterium dense plasma focus

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Appelbe, Brian E-mail: j.chittenden@imperial.ac.uk; Chittenden, Jeremy E-mail: j.chittenden@imperial.ac.uk

    2014-12-15

    The deuterium Dense Plasma Focus (DPF) can produce copious amounts of MeV neutrons and can be used as an efficient neutron source. However, the mechanism by which neutrons are produced within the DPF is poorly understood and this limits our ability to optimize the device. In this paper we present results from a computational study aimed at understanding how neutron production occurs in DPFs with a current between 70 kA and 500 kA and which parameters can affect it. A combination of MHD and kinetic tools are used to model the different stages of the DPF implosion. It is shown that the anode shape can significantly affect the structure of the imploding plasma and that instabilities in the implosion lead to the generation of large electric fields at stagnation. These electric fields can accelerate deuterium ions within the stagnating plasma to large (>100 keV) energies leading to reactions with ions in the cold dense plasma. It is shown that the electromagnetic fields present can significantly affect the trajectories of the accelerated ions and the resulting neutron production.

  15. Dense Metal Plasma in a Solenoid for Ion Beam Neutralization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anders, Andre; Kauffeldt, Marina; Oks, Efim M.; Roy, Prabir K.

    2010-10-30

    Space-charge neutralization is required to compress and focus a pulsed, high-current ion beam on a target for warm dense matter physics or heavy ion fusion experiments. We described approaches to produce dense plasma in and near the final focusing solenoid through which the ion beam travels, thereby providing an opportunity for the beam to acquire the necessary space-charge compensating electrons. Among the options are plasma injection from pulsed vacuum arc sources located outside the solenoid, and using a high current (> 4 kA) pulsed vacuum arc plasma from a ring cathode near the edge of the solenoid. The plasma distribution is characterized by photographic means, by an array of movable Langmuir probes, by a small single probe, and by evaluating Stark broadening of the Balmer H beta spectral line. In the main approach described here, the plasma is produced at several cathode spots distributed azimuthally on the ring cathode. It is shown that the plasma is essentially hollow, as determined by the structure of the magnetic field, though the plasma density exceeds 1014 cm-3 in practically all zones of the solenoid volume if the ring electrode is placed a few centimeters off the center of the solenoid. The plasma is non-uniform and fluctuating, however, since its density exceeds the ion beam density it is believed that this approach could provide a practical solution to the space charge neutralization challenge.

  16. Hadrons in the Nuclear Medium (Conference) | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Hadrons in the Nuclear Medium Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Hadrons in the Nuclear Medium Nucleon properties are modified in the nuclear medium. To understand these ...

  17. Dense and Sparse Matrix Operations on the Cell Processor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Williams, Samuel W.; Shalf, John; Oliker, Leonid; Husbands,Parry; Yelick, Katherine

    2005-05-01

    The slowing pace of commodity microprocessor performance improvements combined with ever-increasing chip power demands has become of utmost concern to computational scientists. Therefore, the high performance computing community is examining alternative architectures that address the limitations of modern superscalar designs. In this work, we examine STI's forthcoming Cell processor: a novel, low-power architecture that combines a PowerPC core with eight independent SIMD processing units coupled with a software-controlled memory to offer high FLOP/s/Watt. Since neither Cell hardware nor cycle-accurate simulators are currently publicly available, we develop an analytic framework to predict Cell performance on dense and sparse matrix operations, using a variety of algorithmic approaches. Results demonstrate Cell's potential to deliver more than an order of magnitude better GFLOP/s per watt performance, when compared with the Intel Itanium2 and Cray X1 processors.

  18. Beam-driven acceleration in ultra-dense plasma media

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Shin, Young-Min

    2014-09-15

    Accelerating parameters of beam-driven wakefield acceleration in an extremely dense plasma column has been analyzed with the dynamic framed particle-in-cell plasma simulator, and compared with analytic calculations. In the model, a witness beam undergoes a TeV/m scale alternating potential gradient excited by a micro-bunched drive beam in a 1025 m-3 and 1.6 x 1028 m-3 plasma column. The acceleration gradient, energy gain, and transformer ratio have been extensively studied in quasi-linear, linear-, and blowout-regimes. The simulation analysis indicated that in the beam-driven acceleration system a hollow plasma channel offers 20 % higher acceleration gradient by enlarging the channel radius (r)morefrom 0.2 ?p to 0.6 ?p in a blowout regime. This paper suggests a feasibility of TeV/m scale acceleration with a hollow crystalline structure (e.g. nanotubes) of high electron plasma density.less

  19. Fully kinetic simulations of megajoule-scale dense plasma focus

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schmidt, A.; Link, A.; Tang, V.; Halvorson, C.; May, M.; Welch, D.; Meehan, B. T.; Hagen, E. C.

    2014-10-15

    Dense plasma focus (DPF) Z-pinch devices are sources of copious high energy electrons and ions, x-rays, and neutrons. Megajoule-scale DPFs can generate 10{sup 12} neutrons per pulse in deuterium gas through a combination of thermonuclear and beam-target fusion. However, the details of the neutron production are not fully understood and past optimization efforts of these devices have been largely empirical. Previously, we reported on the first fully kinetic simulations of a kilojoule-scale DPF and demonstrated that both kinetic ions and kinetic electrons are needed to reproduce experimentally observed features, such as charged-particle beam formation and anomalous resistivity. Here, we present the first fully kinetic simulation of a MegaJoule DPF, with predicted ion and neutron spectra, neutron anisotropy, neutron spot size, and time history of neutron production. The total yield predicted by the simulation is in agreement with measured values, validating the kinetic model in a second energy regime.

  20. Dissociation and dissociative phase transition in dense hydrogen

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Khomkin, A. L. Shumikhin, A. S.

    2012-01-15

    A simple physical model is proposed for dissociating dense fluid hydrogen. We propose that free dissociated atoms interact via quantum electron-electron exchange analogously to the interaction in the liquid-metal phase of alkali metals. The density dependence of a hydrogen atom's binding energy in such a quasi-liquid is calculated. It is shown that the transition from the molecular fluid to liquid hydrogen is a first-order phase transition. The critical parameters of the transition are determined: P{sub c} = 72 GPa, T{sub c} = 10500 K, and {rho}{sub c} = 0.5 g/cm{sup 3}. The possibility of the metastable existence of atomic liquid hydrogen in a dissociated molecular fluid under decreased pressure is established.

  1. Microchannel cross load array with dense parallel input

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Swierkowski, Stefan P.

    2004-04-06

    An architecture or layout for microchannel arrays using T or Cross (+) loading for electrophoresis or other injection and separation chemistry that are performed in microfluidic configurations. This architecture enables a very dense layout of arrays of functionally identical shaped channels and it also solves the problem of simultaneously enabling efficient parallel shapes and biasing of the input wells, waste wells, and bias wells at the input end of the separation columns. One T load architecture uses circular holes with common rows, but not columns, which allows the flow paths for each channel to be identical in shape, using multiple mirror image pieces. Another T load architecture enables the access hole array to be formed on a biaxial, collinear grid suitable for EDM micromachining (square holes), with common rows and columns.

  2. Method for forming a uniformly dense polymer foam body

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Whinnery, Jr., Leroy

    2002-01-01

    A method for providing a uniformly dense polymer foam body having a density between about 0.013 .sup.g /.sub.cm.sup..sub.3 to about 0.5 .sup.g /.sub.cm.sup..sub.3 is disclosed. The method utilizes a thermally expandable polymer microballoon material wherein some of the microballoons are unexpanded and some are only partially expanded. It is shown that by mixing the two types of materials in appropriate ratios to achieve the desired bulk final density, filling a mold with this mixture so as to displace all or essentially all of the internal volume of the mold, heating the mold for a predetermined interval at a temperature above about 130.degree. C., and then cooling the mold to a temperature below 80.degree. C. the molded part achieves a bulk density which varies by less then about .+-.6% everywhere throughout the part volume.

  3. The physics of hot and dense quark-gluon matter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kharzeev, Dmitri E

    2012-05-10

    This technical report describes the work done under the DOE grant DE-FG-88ER41723 (final award number DE-SC0005645), "The physics of hot and dense quark-gluon matter", during the year of 12/01/2010 through 11/30/2011. As planned in the proposal, the performed research focused along two main thrusts: 1) topological effects in hot quark-gluon matter and 2) phenomenology of relativistic heavy ion collisions. The results of research are presented in 12 papers published in reputable refereed journals (Physical Review Letters, Physical Review, Physics Letters and Nuclear Physics). All of the performed research is directly related to the experimental programs of DOE, especially at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider. Much of it also has broader interdisciplinary implications - for example, the work on the non-dissipative chiral magnetic current is directly relevant for quantum computing. The attached report describes the performed work in detail.

  4. Mechanical characterization of densely welded Apache Leap tuff

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fuenkajorn, K.; Daemen, J.J.K.

    1991-06-01

    An empirical criterion is formulated to describe the compressive strength of the densely welded Apache Leap tuff. The criterion incorporates the effects of size, L/D ratio, loading rate and density variations. The criterion improves the correlation between the test results and the failure envelope. Uniaxial and triaxial compressive strengths, Brazilian tensile strength and elastic properties of the densely welded brown unit of the Apache Leap tuff have been determined using the ASTM standard test methods. All tuff samples are tested dry at room temperature (22 {plus_minus} 2{degrees}C), and have the core axis normal to the flow layers. The uniaxial compressive strength is 73.2 {plus_minus} 16.5 MPa. The Brazilian tensile strength is 5.12 {plus_minus} 1.2 MPa. The Young`s modulus and Poisson`s ratio are 22.6 {plus_minus} 5.7 GPa and 0.20 {plus_minus} 0.03. Smoothness and perpendicularity do not fully meet the ASTM requirements for all samples, due to the presence of voids and inclusions on the sample surfaces and the sample preparation methods. The investigations of loading rate, L/D radio and cyclic loading effects on the compressive strength and of the size effect on the tensile strength are not conclusive. The Coulomb strength criterion adequately represents the failure envelope of the tuff under confining pressures from 0 to 62 MPa. Cohesion and internal friction angle are 16 MPa and 43 degrees. The brown unit of the Apache Leap tuff is highly heterogeneous as suggested by large variations of the test results. The high intrinsic variability of the tuff is probably caused by the presence of flow layers and by nonuniform distributions of inclusions, voids and degree of welding. Similar variability of the properties has been found in publications on the Topopah Spring tuff at Yucca Mountain. 57 refs., 32 figs., 29 tabs.

  5. Characterization of the proton beam from an IBA Cyclone 18/9 with radiochromic film EBT2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sansaloni, F.; Lagares, J. I.; Arce, P.; Llop, J.; Perez, J. M.

    2012-12-19

    The use of radiochromic films is widespread in different areas of medical physics like radiotherapy and hadrontherapy; however, radiochromic films have been scarcely used in the characterization of proton or deuteron beams generated in biomedical cyclotrons. In this paper the radiochromic film EBT2 was used to study the beam size and the proton beam energy of an IBA Cyclone 18/9 cyclotron. The results indicate that the beam size can be easily measured at a very low expense; however, an accurate determination of the beam energy might require the implementation of certain experimental improvements.

  6. AROUND THE RING WE GO: THE COLD, DENSE RING OF MOLECULAR GAS IN NGC 1614

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sliwa, Kazimierz; Wilson, Christine D.; Iono, Daisuke; Peck, Alison; Matsushita, Satoki E-mail: wilson@physics.mcmaster.ca E-mail: apeck@alma.cl

    2014-11-20

    We present high-resolution archival Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) {sup 12}CO J = 3-2 and J = 6-5 and HCO{sup +} J = 4-3 observations and new CARMA {sup 12}CO and {sup 13}CO J = 1-0 observations of the luminous infrared galaxy NGC 1614. The high-resolution maps show the previously identified ring-like structure while the {sup 12}CO J = 3-2 map shows extended emission that traces the extended dusty features. We combined these new observations with previously published Submillimeter Array {sup 12}CO and {sup 13}CO J = 2-1 observations to constrain the physical conditions of the molecular gas at a resolution of 230 pc using a radiative transfer code and a Bayesian likelihood analysis. At several positions around the central ring-like structure, the molecular gas is cold (20-40 K) and dense (>10{sup 3.0} cm{sup –3}). The only region that shows evidence of a second molecular gas component is the ''hole'' in the ring. The {sup 12}CO-to-{sup 13}CO abundance ratio is found to be greater than 130, more than twice the local interstellar medium value. We also measure the CO-to-H{sub 2} conversion factor, α{sub CO}, to range from 0.9 to 1.5 M {sub ☉} (K km s{sup –1} pc{sup 2}){sup –1}.

  7. Method to prepare nanoparticles on porous mediums

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vieth, Gabriel M [Knoxville, TN; Dudney, Nancy J [Oak Ridge, TN; Dai, Sheng [Knoxville, TN

    2010-08-10

    A method to prepare porous medium decorated with nanoparticles involves contacting a suspension of nanoparticles in an ionic liquid with a porous medium such that the particles diffuse into the pores of the medium followed by heating the resulting composition to a temperature equal to or greater than the thermal decomposition temperature of the ionic liquid resulting in the removal of the liquid portion of the suspension. The nanoparticles can be a metal, an alloy, or a metal compound. The resulting compositions can be used as catalysts, sensors, or separators.

  8. Beam-driven acceleration in ultra-dense plasma media

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Shin, Young-Min

    2014-09-15

    Accelerating parameters of beam-driven wakefield acceleration in an extremely dense plasma column has been analyzed with the dynamic framed particle-in-cell plasma simulator, and compared with analytic calculations. In the model, a witness beam undergoes a TeV/m scale alternating potential gradient excited by a micro-bunched drive beam in a 1025 m-3 and 1.6 x 1028 m-3 plasma column. The acceleration gradient, energy gain, and transformer ratio have been extensively studied in quasi-linear, linear-, and blowout-regimes. The simulation analysis indicated that in the beam-driven acceleration system a hollow plasma channel offers 20 % higher acceleration gradient by enlarging the channel radius (r)more » from 0.2 Ap to 0.6 .Ap in a blowout regime. This paper suggests a feasibility of TeV/m scale acceleration with a hollow crystalline structure (e.g. nanotubes) of high electron plasma density.« less

  9. Bonding and structure in dense multi-component molecular mixtures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meyer, Edmund R.; Ticknor, Christopher; Bethkenhagen, Mandy; Hamel, Sebastien; Redmer, Ronald; Kress, Joel D.; Collins, Lee A.

    2015-10-30

    We have performed finite-temperature density functional theory molecular dynamics simulations on dense methane, ammonia, and water mixtures (CH4:NH3:H2O) for various compositions and temperatures (2000 K ≤ T ≤ 10000 K) that span a set of possible conditions in the interiors of ice-giant exoplanets. The equation-of-state, pair distribution functions, and bond autocorrelation functions (BACF) were used to probe the structure and dynamics of these complex fluids. In particular, an improvement to the choice of the cutoff in the BACF was developed that allowed analysis refinements for density and temperature effects. We note the relative changes in the nature of these systems engendered by variations in the concentration ratios. As a result, a basic tenet emerges from all these comparisons that varying the relative amounts of the three heavy components (C,N,O) can effect considerable changes in the nature of the fluid and may in turn have ramifications for the structure and composition of various planetary layers.

  10. Laser induced focusing for over-dense plasma beams

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schmidt, Peter; Boine-Frankenheim, Oliver; Mulser, Peter

    2015-09-15

    The capability of ion acceleration with high power, pulsed lasers has become an active field of research in the past years. In this context, the radiation pressure acceleration (RPA) mechanism has been the topic of numerous theoretical and experimental publications. Within that mechanism, a high power, pulsed laser beam hits a thin film target. In contrast to the target normal sheath acceleration, the entire film target is accelerated as a bulk by the radiation pressure of the laser. Simulations predict heavy ion beams with kinetic energy up to GeV, as well as solid body densities. However, there are several effects which limit the efficiency of the RPA: On the one hand, the Rayleigh-Taylor-instability limits the predicted density. On the other hand, conventional accelerator elements, such as magnetic focusing devices are too bulky to be installed right after the target. Therefore, we present a new beam transport method, suitable for RPA-like/over-dense plasma beams: laser induced focusing.

  11. Dense plasma focus powered by flux compression generators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fowler, C.M.; Freeman, B.L.; Caird, R.S.; Erickson, D.J.; Garn, W.B.

    1992-12-01

    A short summary is given of earlier Los Alamos work in which a Dense Plasma Focus was powered by Flux Compression Generators. Neutron yields obtained in the shot series scaled well with the fifth power of the current. The shot parameters were modeled surprisingly well through the plasma rundown phase by a simple snowplow model. It is shown, with the use of this model, that DPF currents in excess of 10 MA should be obtained with existing generators and initial energy sources. One new element is needed -- a high energy opening switch such as a fuse. Much more is known about fuse operation since the Los Alamos program was stopped, so development of this component should be relatively straightforward. If the yield-current scaling relation holds to this current level, then D-T neutron yields in excess of 10{sup 16} per burst would result, sufficient for some interesting pulsed radiography applications that involve rapidly moving components. Finally, in a sheer flight of fancy, it is shown that D-T yields approaching 10{sup 20} could be obtained, using FCGs not too much beyond the state of the art, provided the simple modeling and neutron-current scaling relations continue to hold, a rather unlikely supposition.

  12. Dense plasma focus powered by flux compression generators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fowler, C.M.; Freeman, B.L.; Caird, R.S.; Erickson, D.J.; Garn, W.B.

    1992-01-01

    A short summary is given of earlier Los Alamos work in which a Dense Plasma Focus was powered by Flux Compression Generators. Neutron yields obtained in the shot series scaled well with the fifth power of the current. The shot parameters were modeled surprisingly well through the plasma rundown phase by a simple snowplow model. It is shown, with the use of this model, that DPF currents in excess of 10 MA should be obtained with existing generators and initial energy sources. One new element is needed -- a high energy opening switch such as a fuse. Much more is known about fuse operation since the Los Alamos program was stopped, so development of this component should be relatively straightforward. If the yield-current scaling relation holds to this current level, then D-T neutron yields in excess of 10[sup 16] per burst would result, sufficient for some interesting pulsed radiography applications that involve rapidly moving components. Finally, in a sheer flight of fancy, it is shown that D-T yields approaching 10[sup 20] could be obtained, using FCGs not too much beyond the state of the art, provided the simple modeling and neutron-current scaling relations continue to hold, a rather unlikely supposition.

  13. Bonding and structure in dense multi-component molecular mixtures

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Meyer, Edmund R.; Ticknor, Christopher; Bethkenhagen, Mandy; Hamel, Sebastien; Redmer, Ronald; Kress, Joel D.; Collins, Lee A.

    2015-10-30

    We have performed finite-temperature density functional theory molecular dynamics simulations on dense methane, ammonia, and water mixtures (CH4:NH3:H2O) for various compositions and temperatures (2000 K ≤ T ≤ 10000 K) that span a set of possible conditions in the interiors of ice-giant exoplanets. The equation-of-state, pair distribution functions, and bond autocorrelation functions (BACF) were used to probe the structure and dynamics of these complex fluids. In particular, an improvement to the choice of the cutoff in the BACF was developed that allowed analysis refinements for density and temperature effects. We note the relative changes in the nature of these systemsmore » engendered by variations in the concentration ratios. As a result, a basic tenet emerges from all these comparisons that varying the relative amounts of the three heavy components (C,N,O) can effect considerable changes in the nature of the fluid and may in turn have ramifications for the structure and composition of various planetary layers.« less

  14. ALEGRA-HEDP simulations of the dense plasma focus.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Flicker, Dawn G.; Kueny, Christopher S.; Rose, David V.

    2009-09-01

    We have carried out 2D simulations of three dense plasma focus (DPF) devices using the ALEGRA-HEDP code and validated the results against experiments. The three devices included two Mather-type machines described by Bernard et. al. and the Tallboy device currently in operation at NSTec in North Las Vegas. We present simulation results and compare to detailed plasma measurements for one Bernard device and to current and neutron yields for all three. We also describe a new ALEGRA capability to import data from particle-in-cell calculations of initial gas breakdown, which will allow the first ever simulations of DPF operation from the beginning of the voltage discharge to the pinch phase for arbitrary operating conditions and without assumptions about the early sheath structure. The next step in understanding DPF pinch physics must be three-dimensional modeling of conditions going into the pinch, and we have just launched our first 3D simulation of the best-diagnosed Bernard device.

  15. ORIGIN OF THE DENSE CORE MASS FUNCTION IN CONTRACTING FILAMENTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Myers, Philip C.

    2013-02-20

    Mass functions of starless dense cores (CMFs) may arise from contraction and dispersal of core-forming filaments. In an illustrative model, a filament contracts radially by self-gravity, increasing the mass of its cores. During this contraction, FUV photoevaporation and ablation by shocks and winds disperse filament gas and limit core growth. The stopping times of core growth are described by a waiting-time distribution. The initial filament column density profile and the resulting CMF each match recent Herschel observations in detail. Then low-mass cores have short growth ages and arise from the innermost filament gas, while massive cores have long growth ages and draw from more extended filament gas. The model fits the initial density profile and CMF best for mean core density 2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 4} cm{sup -3} and filament dispersal timescale 0.5 Myr. Then the typical core mass, radius, mean column density, and contraction speed are respectively 0.8 solar masses, 0.06 pc, 6 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 21} cm{sup -2}, and 0.07 km s{sup -1}, also in accord with observed values.

  16. Low No{sub x}/SO{sub x} burner retrofit for utility cyclone boilers. Baseline test report: Issue A

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moore, K.; Martin, L.; Smith, J.

    1991-05-01

    The Low NO{sub x}/SO{sub x} (LNS) Burner Retrofit for Utility Cyclone Boilers program consists of the retrofit and subsequent demonstration of the technology at Southern Illinois Power Cooperative`s (SIPC`s) 33-MW unit 1 cyclone boiler located near Marion, Illinois. The LNS Burner employs a simple innovative combustion process burning high-sulfur Illinois coal to provide substantial SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} control within the burner. A complete series of boiler performance and characterization tests, called the baseline tests, was conducted in October 1990 on unit 1 of SIPC`s Marion Station. The primary objective of the baseline test was to collect data from the existing plant that could provide a comparison of performance after the LNS Burner retrofit. These data could confirm the LNS Burner`s SO{sub x} and NO{sub x} emissions control and any effect on boiler operation. Further, these tests would provide to the project experience with the operating characteristics of the host unit as well as engineering design information to minimize technical uncertainties in the application of the LNS Burner technology.

  17. Incompatibility of Contrast Medium and Trisodium Citrate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Delcour, Christian Bruninx, Guy

    2013-02-15

    To test the compatibility of trisodium citrate, a catheter lock solution, with iodinated contrast medium. Iohexol, iobitridol, iodixanol, ioxaglate, ioxithalamate, iomeprol, and iopromide were tested. In all tests, 2 ml of contrast medium were mixed with 2 ml of trisodium citrate solution. Iodixanol and ioxaglate provoked a highly viscous gluelike precipitation when mixed with trisodium citrate. A brief transient precipitate was observed with iohexol, iomeprol, and ioxithalamate. Permanent precipitation occurred with iobitridol and iopromide. One must be aware of the potential for precipitation when contrast medium is mixed with trisodium citrate solution. Before trisodium citrate solution is injected, the catheter should be thoroughly flushed with saline if a contrast medium has previously been injected through it.

  18. Small cell foams containing a modified dense star polymer or dendrimer as a nucleating agent

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hedstrand, D.M.; Tomalia, D.A.

    1995-02-28

    A small cell foam having a modified dense star polymer or dendrimer is described. This modified dense star polymer or dendrimer has a highly branched interior of one monomeric composition and an exterior structure of a different monomeric composition capable of providing a hydrophobic outer shell and a particle diameter of from about 5 to about 1,000 nm with a matrix polymer.

  19. Small cell foams containing a modified dense star polymer or dendrimer as a nucleating agent

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hedstrand, David M.; Tomalia, Donald A.

    1995-01-01

    A small cell foam having a modified dense star polymer or dendrimer is described. This modified dense star polymer or dendrimer has a highly branched interior of one monomeric composition and an exterior structure of a different monomeric composition capable of providing a hydrophobic outer shell and a particle diameter of from about 5 to about 1,000 nm with a matrix polymer.

  20. Ultra-Efficient and Power-Dense Electric Motors | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Ultra-Efficient and Power-Dense Electric Motors Ultra-Efficient and Power-Dense Electric Motors electric_motors.pdf (524.04 KB) More Documents & Publications Advance Patent Waiver W(A)2009-030 Improving Motor and Drive System Performance - A Sourcebook for Industry Energy-Intensive Processes Portfolio: Addressing Key Energy Challenges Across U.S. Industry

  1. MEDIUM VOLTAGE INTEGRATED DRIVE AND MOTOR

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Calnetix Technologies – Cerritos, CA This project will focus on integrating a high voltage SiC device with advanced high-speed machine technology, medium voltage stators, high efficiency magnetic bearings and sensor high frequency drive technology that can work directly with high voltages, switch at high frequencies for low machine losses, and do so very efficiently. The new medium voltage motors are expected to achieve up to eight times the power density of similar traditional systems. Fact sheet coming soon.

  2. Processes for making dense, spherical active materials for lithium-ion cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kang, Sun-Ho; Amine, Khalil

    2011-11-22

    Processes are provided for making dense, spherical mixed-metal carbonate or phosphate precursors that are particularly well suited for the production of active materials for electrochemical devices such as lithium ion secondary batteries. Exemplified methods include precipitating dense, spherical particles of metal carbonates or metal phosphates from a combined aqueous solution using a precipitating agent such as ammonium hydrogen carbonate, sodium hydrogen carbonate, or a mixture that includes sodium hydrogen carbonate. Other exemplified methods include precipitating dense, spherical particles of metal phosphates using a precipitating agent such as ammonium hydrogen phosphate, ammonium dihydrogen phosphate, sodium phosphate, sodium hydrogen phosphate, sodium dihydrogen phosphate, or a mixture of any two or more thereof. Further provided are compositions of and methods of making dense, spherical metal oxides and metal phosphates using the dense, spherical metal precursors. Still further provided are electrodes and batteries using the same.

  3. Probing properties of hot and dense QCD matter with heavy flavor in the PHENIX experiment at RHIC

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Nouicer, Rachid

    2015-05-29

    Hadrons carrying heavy quarks, i.e. charm or bottom, are important probes of the hot and dense medium created in relativistic heavy ion collisions. Heavy quark-antiquark pairs are mainly produced in initial hard scattering processes of partons. While some of the produced pairs form bound quarkonia, the vast majority hadronize into particles carrying open heavy flavor. Heavy quark production has been studied by the PHENIX experiment at RHIC via measurements of single leptons from semi-leptonic decays in both the electron channel at mid-rapidity and in the muon channel at forward rapidity. A large suppression and azimuthal anisotropy of single electrons havemore » been observed in Au + Au collisions at 200 GeV. These results suggest a large energy loss and flow of heavy quarks in the hot, dense matter. The PHENIX experiment has also measured J/ψ production at 200 GeV in p + p, d + Au, Cu + Cu and Au + Au collisions, both at mid- and forward-rapidities, and additionally Cu + Au and U + U at forward-rapidities. In the most energetic collisions, more suppression is observed at forward rapidity than at central rapidity. This can be interpreted either as a sign of quark recombination, or as a hint of additional cold nuclear matter effects. The centrality dependence of nuclear modification factor, RAA(pT), for J/ψ in U + U collisions at √sNN = 193 GeV shows a similar trend to the lighter systems, Au + Au and Cu + Cu, at similar energy 200 GeV.« less

  4. Probing properties of hot and dense QCD matter with heavy flavor in the PHENIX experiment at RHIC

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nouicer, Rachid

    2015-05-29

    Hadrons carrying heavy quarks, i.e. charm or bottom, are important probes of the hot and dense medium created in relativistic heavy ion collisions. Heavy quark-antiquark pairs are mainly produced in initial hard scattering processes of partons. While some of the produced pairs form bound quarkonia, the vast majority hadronize into particles carrying open heavy flavor. Heavy quark production has been studied by the PHENIX experiment at RHIC via measurements of single leptons from semi-leptonic decays in both the electron channel at mid-rapidity and in the muon channel at forward rapidity. A large suppression and azimuthal anisotropy of single electrons have been observed in Au + Au collisions at 200 GeV. These results suggest a large energy loss and flow of heavy quarks in the hot, dense matter. The PHENIX experiment has also measured J/ψ production at 200 GeV in p + p, d + Au, Cu + Cu and Au + Au collisions, both at mid- and forward-rapidities, and additionally Cu + Au and U + U at forward-rapidities. In the most energetic collisions, more suppression is observed at forward rapidity than at central rapidity. This can be interpreted either as a sign of quark recombination, or as a hint of additional cold nuclear matter effects. The centrality dependence of nuclear modification factor, RAA(pT), for J/ψ in U + U collisions at √sNN = 193 GeV shows a similar trend to the lighter systems, Au + Au and Cu + Cu, at similar energy 200 GeV.

  5. Ethanol production using a soy hydrolysate-based medium or a yeast autolysate-based medium

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ingram, Lonnie O.

    2000-01-01

    This invention presents a method for the production of ethanol that utilizes a soy hydrolysate-based nutrient medium or a yeast autolysate-based medium nutrient medium in conjunction with ethanologenic bacteria and a fermentable sugar for the cost-effective production of ethanol from lignocellulosic biomass. The invention offers several advantages over presently available media for use in ethanol production, including consistent quality, lack of toxins and wide availability.

  6. The northern wintertime divergence extrema at 200 hPa and surface cyclones as simulated in the AMIP integration of the ECMWF general circulation model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boyle, J.S.

    1994-11-01

    Divergence and convergence centers at 200 hPa and mean sea level pressure (MSLP) cyclones were located every 6 hr for a 10-yr general circulation model (GCM) simulation with the ECMWF (Cycle 36) for the boreal winters from 1980 to 1988. The simulation used the observed monthly mean sea surface temperature (SST) for the decade. Analysis of the frequency, location, and strength of these centers and cyclones gives insight into the dynamical response of the model to the varying SST. The results indicate that (1) the model produces reasonable climatologies of upper-level divergence and MSLP cyclones; (2) the model distribution of anomalies of divergence and convergence centers and MSLP cyclones is consistent with observations for the 1982-83 and 1986-87 El Nifio events; (3) the tropical Indian Ocean is the region of greatest divergence activity and interannual variability in the model; (4) the variability of the divergence centers is greater than that of the convergence centers; (5) strong divergence centers occur chiefly over the ocean in the midlatitudes but are more land-based in the tropics, except in the Indian Ocean; and (6) locations of divergence and convergence centers can be a useful tool for the intercomparison of global atmospheric simulations.

  7. Formation of different isotopomers of chloronium in the interstellar medium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Majumdar, Liton; Das, Ankan; Chakrabarti, Sandip K.

    2014-02-20

    The main focus of this paper is to explore the possibility of finding two deuterated isotopomers of H{sub 2}Cl{sup +} (chloronium) in and around the interstellar medium. The presence of a chloronium ion has recently been confirmed by the Herschel Space Observatory's Heterodyne Instrument for the far-infrared. It observed para-chloronium toward six sources in the Galaxy. To date the existence of its deuterated isotopomers (HDCl{sup +} and D{sub 2}Cl{sup +}) have not been discussed in the literature. We find that these deuterated gas phase ions could be destroyed by various ion-molecular reactions, dissociative recombination (DR), and cosmic rays (CRs). We compute all of the ion-molecular (polar) reaction rates by using the parameterized trajectory theory and the ion-molecular (non-polar) reaction rates by using the Langevin theory. For DR- and CR-induced reactions, we adopt two well-behaved rate formulas. We also include these rate coefficients in our large gas-grain chemical network to study the chemical evolution of these species around the outer edge of the cold, dense cloud. In order to study spectral properties of the chloronium ion and its two deuterated isotopomers, we have carried out quantum chemical simulations. We calculated ground-state properties of these species by employing second-order Moller-Plesset perturbation theory (MP2) along with quadruple-zeta correlation consistent (aug-cc-pVQZ) basis set. Infrared and electronic absorption spectra of these species are calculated by using the same level of theory. The MP2/aug-cc-pVQZ level of theory is used to report the different spectroscopic constants of these gas phase species. These spectroscopic constants are essential to predict the rotational transitions of these species. Our predicted column densities of D{sub 2}Cl{sup +}, HDCl{sup +}, along with spectral information may enable their future identification around outer edges of cold, dark clouds.

  8. Mixed-conducting dense ceramics for gas separation applications.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Balachandran, U.; Dorris, S. E.; Dusek, J. T.; Guan, J.; Liu, M.; Ma, B.; Maiya, P. S.; Picciolo, J. J.

    1999-06-22

    Mixed-conducting (electronic and ionic conducting) dense ceramics are used in many applications, including fuel cells, gas separation membranes, batteries, sensors, and electrocatalysis. This paper describes mixed-conducting ceramic membranes that are being developed to selectively remove oxygen and hydrogen from gas streams in a nongalvanic mode of operation (i.e., with no electrodes or external power supply). Ceramic membranes made of Sr-Fe-Co oxide (SFC), which exhibits high combined electronic and oxygen ionic conductivities, can be used for high-purity oxygen separation and/or partial oxidation of methane to synthesis gas (syngas, a mixture of CO and H{sub 2}). The electronic and ionic conductivities of SFC were found to be comparable in magnitude. Steady-state oxygen permeability of SFC has been measured as a function of oxygen-partial-pressure gradient and temperature. For an {approx}3-mm-thick membrane, the oxygen permeability was {approx}2.5 scc{center_dot}cm{sup {minus}2}{center_dot}min{sup {minus}1} at 900 C. Oxygen permeation increases as membrane thickness decreases. Tubular SFC membranes have been fabricated and operated at 900 C for {approx}1000 h in converting methane into syngas. The oxygen permeated through the membrane reacted with methane in the presence of a catalyst and produced syngas. We also studied the transport properties of yttria-doped BaCeO{sub 3{minus}{delta}} (BCY) by impedance spectroscopy and open-cell voltage (OCV) measurement. Total conductivity of the BCY sample increased from {approx}5 x 10{sup {minus}3} {Omega}{sup {minus}1}{center_dot}cm{sup {minus}1} to {approx}2 x 10{sup {minus}2} {Omega}{sup {minus}1}{center_dot}cm{sup {minus}1}, whereas the protonic transference number decreased from 0.87 to 0.63 and the oxygen transference number increased from 0.03 to 0.15 as temperature increased from 600 to 800 C. Unlike SFC, in which the ionic and electronic conductivities are nearly equivalent BCY exhibits protonic conductivity that

  9. Intense Ion Beam for Warm Dense Matter Physics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Coleman, Joshua Eugene

    2008-05-23

    The Neutralized Drift Compression Experiment (NDCX) at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory is exploring the physical limits of compression and focusing of ion beams for heating material to warm dense matter (WDM) and fusion ignition conditions. The NDCX is a beam transport experiment with several components at a scale comparable to an inertial fusion energy driver. The NDCX is an accelerator which consists of a low-emittance ion source, high-current injector, solenoid matching section, induction bunching module, beam neutralization section, and final focusing system. The principal objectives of the experiment are to control the beam envelope, demonstrate effective neutralization of the beam space-charge, control the velocity tilt on the beam, and understand defocusing effects, field imperfections, and limitations on peak intensity such as emittance and aberrations. Target heating experiments with space-charge dominated ion beams require simultaneous longitudinal bunching and transverse focusing. A four-solenoid lattice is used to tune the beam envelope to the necessary focusing conditions before entering the induction bunching module. The induction bunching module provides a head-to-tail velocity ramp necessary to achieve peak axial compression at the desired focal plane. Downstream of the induction gap a plasma column neutralizes the beam space charge so only emittance limits the focused beam intensity. We present results of beam transport through a solenoid matching section and simultaneous focusing of a singly charged K{sup +} ion bunch at an ion energy of 0.3 MeV. The results include a qualitative comparison of experimental and calculated results after the solenoid matching section, which include time resolved current density, transverse distributions, and phase-space of the beam at different diagnostic planes. Electron cloud and gas measurements in the solenoid lattice and in the vicinity of intercepting diagnostics are also presented. Finally, comparisons

  10. Plug-In Hybrid Electric Medium Duty Commercial Fleet Demonstration...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Plug-In Hybrid Electric Medium Duty Commercial Fleet Demonstration and Evaluation Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: Medium and Heavy-Duty Vehicle Field Evaluations ...

  11. CBEI: Coordinating RTUs in Small and Medium Sized Commercial...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Coordinating RTUs in Small and Medium Sized Commercial Buildings - 2015 Peer Review CBEI: Coordinating RTUs in Small and Medium Sized Commercial Buildings - 2015 Peer Review ...

  12. Energy Assessments: What are the Benefits to Small and Medium...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    November 6, 2008 Energy Assessments: What are the Benefits to Small and Medium Facilities? 2 Energy Assessments: What are the Benefits to Small and Medium Facilities? Webcast ...

  13. Plug-In Hybrid Electric Medium Duty Commercial Fleet Demonstration...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Plug-In Hybrid Electric Medium Duty Commercial Fleet Demonstration and Evaluation SCAQMD:Plug-In Hybrid Electric Medium-Duty Commercial Fleet Demonstration and Evaluation Vehicle ...

  14. Solar collector having a solid transmission medium

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schertz, William W.; Zwerdling, Solomon

    1977-06-14

    There is provided a radiant energy transmission device capable of operation in a concentrative mode in which energy incident on an entrance area is directed toward and concentrated on an exit area of smaller area than the entrance area. The device includes a solid radiant energy transmission medium having surfaces coincident with the entrance and exit areas and particularly contoured reflective side walls. The surface coinciding with the entrance area is coupled to a cover plate formed of a radiant energy transmissive material. An energy transducer is coupled to the surface of the medium coinciding with the exit area.

  15. Polymer blend containing a modified dense star polymer or dendrimer and a matrix polymer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hedstrand, D.M.; Tomalia, D.A.

    1995-02-28

    Dense star polymers or dendrimers, modified by capping with a hydrophobic group capable of providing a hydrophobic outer shell, act as molecular nucleating agents in forming a polymer blend.

  16. Polymer blend containing a modified dense star polymer or dendrimer and a matrix polymer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hedstrand, David M.; Tomalia, Donald A.

    1995-01-01

    Dense star polymers or dendrimers, modified by capping with a hydrophobic group capable of providing a hydrophobic outer shell, act as molecular nucleating agents in forming a polymer blend.

  17. Medium energy heavy ion operations at RHIC

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Drees, K.A.; Ahrens, L.; Bai, M.; Beebe-Wang, J.; Blackler, I.M.C.; Blaskiewicz, M.; Brown, K.A.; Brennan, M.; Bruno, D.; Butler, J.; Carlson, C.; Connolly, R.; D'Ottavio, T.; Fischer, W.; Fu, W.; Gassner, D.; Harvey, M.; Hayes, T.; Huang, H.; Hulsart, R.; Ingrassia, P.; Kling, N.; Lafky, M.; Laster, J.; Lee, R.C.; Litvinenko, V.; Luo, Y.; MacKay, W.W.; Marr, G.; Mapes. M.; Marusic, A.; Mernick, K.; Michnoff, R.; Minty, M.; Montag, C.; Morris, J.; Naylor, C.; Nemesure, S.; Pilat, F.; Ptitsyn, V.; Robert-Demolaize, G.; Roser, T.; Sampson, P.; Satogata, T.; Schoefer, V.; Schultheiss, C.; Severino, F.; Shrey, T.; Smith, K.S.; Tepikian, S.; Thieberger, P.; Trbojevic, D.; Tsoupas, N.; Tuozzolo, J.; van Kuik, B.; Wilinski, M.; Zaltsman, A.; Zeno, K.; Zhang, S.Y.

    2011-03-28

    As part of the search for a phase transition or critical point on the QCD phase diagram, an energy scan including 5 different energy settings was performed during the 2010 RHIC heavy ion run. While the top beam energy for heavy ions is at 100 GeV/n and the lowest achieved energy setpoint was significantly below RHICs injection energy of approximately 10 GeV/n, we also provided beams for data taking in a medium energy range above injection energy and below top beam energy. This paper reviews RHIC experience and challenges for RHIC medium energy operations that produced full experimental data sets at beam energies of 31.2 GeV/n and 19.5 GeV/n. The medium energy AuAu run covered two beam energies, both above the RHIC injection energy of 9.8 GeV but well below the standard store energy of 100 GeV (see table 1). The low energy and full energy runs with heavy ions in FY10 are summarized in [1] and [2]. Stochastic Cooling ([3]) was only used for 100 GeV beams and not used in the medium energy run. The efficiency of the transition from 100 GeV operation to 31.2 GeV and then to 19.5 GeV was remarkable. Setup took 32 h and 19 h respectively for the two energy settings. The time in store, defined to be the percentage of time RHIC provides beams in physics conditions versus calendar time, was approximately 52% for the entire FY10 heavy ion run. In both medium energy runs it was well above this average, 68% for 31.5 GeV and 82% for 19.5 GeV. For both energies RHIC was filled with 111 bunches with 1.2 10{sup 9} and 1.3 10{sup 9} ions per bunch respectively.

  18. Nonlinear electrostatic excitations in magnetized dense plasmas with nonrelativistic and ultra-relativistic degenerate electrons

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mahmood, S.; Sadiq, Safeer; Haque, Q.

    2013-12-15

    Linear and nonlinear electrostatic waves in magnetized dense electron-ion plasmas are studied with nonrelativistic and ultra-relativistic degenerate and singly, doubly charged helium (He{sup +}, He{sup ++}) and hydrogen (H{sup +}) ions, respectively. The dispersion relation of electrostatic waves in magnetized dense plasmas is obtained under both the energy limits of degenerate electrons. Using reductive perturbation method, the Zakharov-Kuznetsov equation for nonlinear propagation of electrostatic solitons in magnetized dense plasmas is derived for both nonrelativistic and ultra-relativistic degenerate electrons. It is found that variations in plasma density, magnetic field intensity, different mass, and charge number of ions play significant role in the formation of electrostatic solitons in magnetized dense plasmas. The numerical plots are also presented for illustration using the parameters of dense astrophysical plasma situations such as white dwarfs and neutron stars exist in the literature. The present investigation is important for understanding the electrostatic waves propagation in the outer periphery of compact stars which mostly consists of hydrogen and helium ions with degenerate electrons in dense magnetized plasmas.

  19. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Medium-Duty Vehicle Idle Reduction

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Strategies Medium-Duty Vehicle Idle Reduction Strategies to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Medium-Duty Vehicle Idle Reduction Strategies on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Medium-Duty Vehicle Idle Reduction Strategies on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Medium-Duty Vehicle Idle Reduction Strategies on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Medium-Duty Vehicle Idle Reduction Strategies on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data

  20. NOVEL DENSE MEMBRANE FOR HYDROGEN SEPARATION FOR ENERGY APPLICATIONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bandopadhyay, Sukumar; Balachandran, Uthamalingam; Nag, Nagendra

    2013-10-24

    The main objectives of this project are: (1) Characterization of the thermo mechanical properties of the novel dense HTM bulk sample; (2) Development of a correlation among the intrinsic factors (such as grain size and phase distribution), and the extrinsic factors (such as temperature and atmosphere) and the thermo-mechanical properties (such as strengths and stress) to predict the performance of a HTM system (HTM membrane and porous substrate) ; and (3) Evaluation of the stability of the novel HTM membrane and its property correlations after thermal cycling. Based on all results and analysis of the thermo mechanical properties for the HTM cermet bulk samples, several important conclusions were made. The mean ?fs at room temperature is approximately 356 MPa for the HTM cermet. The mean ?fs value decreases to 284 MPa as the temperature increases to 850?C. The Difference difference in atmosphere, such as air or N2, had an insignificant effect on the flexural strength values at 850?C for the HTM cermet. The HTM cermet samples at room temperature and at 500?C fractured without any significant plastic deformation. Whereas, at 850?C, the HTM cermet samples fractured, preceded by an extensive plastic deformation. It seems that the HTM cermet behaves more like an elastic material such as a nonmetal ceramic at the room temperature, and more like a ductile material at increased temperature (850?C). The exothermic peak during the TG/DTA tests centered at 600?C is most likely associated with both the enthalpy change of transformation from the amorphous phase into crystalline zirconia and the oxidation of Pd phase in HTM cermet in air. The endothermic peak centered at 800?C is associated with the dissociation of PdO to Pd for the HTM cermet sample in both inert N2 environment and air. There is a corresponding weight gain as oxidation occurs for palladium (Pd) phase to form palladium oxide (PdO) and there is a weight loss as the unstable PdO is dissociated back to Pd and oxygen

  1. Low NO{sub x}/SO{sub x} Burner retrofit for utility cyclone boilers. Quarterly technical progress report, October--December 1990

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-12-31

    Cyclone furnaces operate with high excess air and at high temperature. The heat release during combustion is very high and as a result the boiler volume is much smaller than would be found in a conventional pc-fired system. The Marion Unit 1 boiler, at the level of the cyclone entry, has a small cross-section; about 5-feet in depth and about 20-feet in width. A boiler schematic showing the LNS Burner and relative location of the superheater region and overfire air ports is shown in Figure 1. The LNS Burner`s combustion process is fundamentally different from that of the cyclone, and the combustion products are also different. The LNS Burner products enter the boiler as hot, fuel-rich gases. Additional overfire air must be added to complete this combustion step with care taken to avoid the formation of thermal NO{sub x}. If done correctly, S0{sub 2} is controlled and significant NO{sub x} reductions are achieved. Because of the small boiler volume, flow modelling was found to be necessary to insure that adequate mixing of LNS Burner combustion products with air can be accomplished to achieve NO{sub x} emissions goals. Design requirements for the air injection system for the Marion boiler were developed using FLUENT, a commercially available computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code. A series of runs were made to obtain a design for final air injection that met the process design goals as closely as possible.

  2. Towards Direct Simulation of Future Tropical Cyclone Statistics in a High-Resolution Global Atmospheric Model

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Wehner, Michael F.; Bala, G.; Duffy, Phillip; Mirin, Arthur A.; Romano, Raquel

    2010-01-01

    We present a set of high-resolution global atmospheric general circulation model (AGCM) simulations focusing on the model's ability to represent tropical storms and their statistics. We find that the model produces storms of hurricane strength with realistic dynamical features. We also find that tropical storm statistics are reasonable, both globally and in the north Atlantic, when compared to recent observations. The sensitivity of simulated tropical storm statistics to increases in sea surface temperature (SST) is also investigated, revealing that a credible late 21st century SST increase produced increases in simulated tropical storm numbers and intensities in all ocean basins. Whilemore » this paper supports previous high-resolution model and theoretical findings that the frequency of very intense storms will increase in a warmer climate, it differs notably from previous medium and high-resolution model studies that show a global reduction in total tropical storm frequency. However, we are quick to point out that this particular model finding remains speculative due to a lack of radiative forcing changes in our time-slice experiments as well as a focus on the Northern hemisphere tropical storm seasons.« less

  3. Kubo–Greenwood approach to conductivity in dense plasmas with average atom models

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Starrett, C. E.

    2016-06-01

    In this study, a new formulation of the Kubo–Greenwood conductivity for average atom models is given. The new formulation improves upon previous treatments by explicitly including the ionic-structure factor. Calculations based on this new expression lead to much improved agreement with ab initio results for DC conductivity of warm dense hydrogen and beryllium, and for thermal conductivity of hydrogen. We also give and test a slightly modified Ziman–Evans formula for the resistivity that includes a non-free electron density of states, thus removing an ambiguity in the original Ziman–Evans formula. Again, results based on this expression are in good agreement withmore » ab initio simulations for warm dense beryllium and hydrogen. However, for both these expressions, calculations of the electrical conductivity of warm dense aluminum lead to poor agreement at low temperatures compared to ab initio simulations.« less

  4. Renormalization plasma shielding effects on scattering entanglement fidelity in dense plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, Gyeong Won; Shim, Jaewon; Jung, Young-Dae

    2014-10-15

    The influence of renormalization plasma screening on the entanglement fidelity for the elastic electron-atom scattering is investigated in partially ionized dense hydrogen plasmas. The partial wave analysis and effective interaction potential are employed to obtain the scattering entanglement fidelity in dense hydrogen plasmas as functions of the collision energy, the Debye length, and the renormalization parameter. It is found that the renormalization plasma shielding enhances the scattering entanglement fidelity. Hence, we show that the transmission of the quantum information can be increased about 10% due to the renormalization shielding effect in dense hydrogen plasmas. It is also found that the renormalization shielding effect on the entanglement fidelity for the electron-atom collision increases with an increase of the collision energy. In addition, the renormalization shielding function increases with increasing collision energy and saturates to the unity with an increase of the Debye length.

  5. Chiral Restoration in the Nuclear Medium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Djalali, C; Nasseripour, R; Weygand, D P; Wood, M H

    2007-10-01

    The photoproduction of vector mesons on various nuclei has been studied using the CLAS detector at Jefferson Laboratory. The vector mesons, rho, omega, and [cursive phi], are observed via their decay to e+e-, in order to reduce the effects of final state interactions in the nucleus. Of particular interest are possible in-medium effects on the properties of the rho meson. The rho mass spectrum is extracted from the data on various nuclei, D2, C, Fe, and Ti. We observe no significant mass shift and some broadening consistent with expected collisional broadening for the rho meson.

  6. Chiral Restoration in the Nuclear Medium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Djalali, C.; Nasseripour, R.; Weygand, D. P.; Wood, M. H.

    2007-10-26

    The photoproduction of vector mesons on various nuclei has been studied using the CLAS detector at Jefferson Laboratory. The vector mesons, {rho}, {omega}, and {phi}, are observed via their decay to e{sup +}e{sup -}, in order to reduce the effects of final state interactions in the nucleus. Of particular interest are possible in-medium effects on the properties of the {rho} meson. The {rho} mass spectrum is extracted from the data on various nuclei, D{sub 2}, C, Fe, and Ti. We observe no significant mass shift and some broadening consistent with expected collisional broadening for the {rho} meson.

  7. The dense gas mass fraction of molecular clouds in the Milky Way

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Battisti, Andrew J.; Heyer, Mark H. E-mail: heyer@astro.umass.edu

    2014-01-10

    The mass fraction of dense gas within giant molecular clouds (GMCs) of the Milky Way is investigated using {sup 13}CO data from the Five College Radio Astronomy Observatory Galactic Plane Surveys and the Bolocam Galactic Plane Survey (BGPS) of 1.1 mm dust continuum emission. A sample of 860 compact dust sources are selected from the BGPS catalog and kinematically linked to 344 clouds of extended (>3') {sup 13}CO J = 1-0 emission. Gas masses are tabulated for the full dust source and subregions within the dust sources with mass surface densities greater than 200 M {sub ☉} pc{sup –2}, which are assumed to be regions of enhanced volume density. Masses of the parent GMCs are calculated assuming optically thin {sup 13}CO J = 1-0 emission and local thermodynamic equilibrium conditions. The mean fractional mass of dust sources to host GMC mass is 0.11{sub −0.06}{sup +0.12}. The high column density subregions comprise 0.07{sub −0.05}{sup +0.13} of the mass of the cloud. Owing to our assumptions, these values are upper limits to the true mass fractions. The fractional mass of dense gas is independent of GMC mass and gas surface density. The low dense gas mass fraction suggests that the formation of dense structures within GMCs is the primary bottleneck for star formation. The distribution of velocity differences between the dense gas and the low density material along the line of sight is also examined. We find a strong, centrally peaked distribution centered on zero velocity displacement. This distribution of velocity differences is modeled with radially converging flows toward the dense gas position that are randomly oriented with respect to the observed line of sight. These models constrain the infall velocities to be 2-4 km s{sup –1} for various flow configurations.

  8. Early results of microwave transmission experiments through an overly dense rectangular plasma sheet with microparticle injection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gillman, Eric D.; Amatucci, W. E.

    2014-06-15

    These experiments utilize a linear hollow cathode to create a dense, rectangular plasma sheet to simulate the plasma layer surrounding vehicles traveling at hypersonic velocities within the Earth's atmosphere. Injection of fine dielectric microparticles significantly reduces the electron density and therefore lowers the electron plasma frequency by binding a significant portion of the bulk free electrons to the relatively massive microparticles. Measurements show that microwave transmission through this previously overly dense, impenetrable plasma layer increases with the injection of alumina microparticles approximately 60 ?m in diameter. This method of electron depletion is a potential means of mitigating the radio communications blackout experienced by hypersonic vehicles.

  9. Hyperon-Nucleon Interactions and the Composition of Dense Matter from Quantum Chromodynamics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Konstantinos Orginos, Silas Beane, Emmanuel Chang, Saul Cohen, Huey-Wen Lin, Tom Luu, Assumpta Parreno, Martin Savage, Andre Walker-Loud, William Detmold

    2012-10-01

    The low-energy n{Sigma}{sup -} interactions determine, in part, the role of the strange quark in dense matter, such as that found in astrophysical environments. The scattering phase-shifts for this system are determined from a numerical evaluation of the QCD path integral using the technique of Lattice QCD. Our results, performed at a pion mass of m{sub {pi}} ~ 389 MeV in two large lattice volumes, and at one lattice spacing, are extrapolated to the physical pion mass using effective field theory. The calculated interactions indicate that the strange quark plays an important role in dense matter.

  10. METHOD OF REMOVING IODINE FROM GASES AND FILTER MEDIUM THEREFOR

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Silverman, L.

    1961-08-01

    A method for the removal of iodine from large gas volumes is described. The gaseous medium is heated to a temperature not exceeding 400 deg C. Water vapor is then added to the medium in approximate amounts of 1 lb/cu ft of the medium. The medium is then passed through a porous copper fibrous pad having deposited thereon a coating of silver, the silver coating being treated with hydrogen sulfide forming a layer of silver sulfide. (AEC)

  11. Vehicle Technologies Office: AVTA - Medium and Heavy Duty Vehicle Data

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    and Results | Department of Energy Medium and Heavy Duty Vehicle Data and Results Vehicle Technologies Office: AVTA - Medium and Heavy Duty Vehicle Data and Results The Vehicle Technologies Office supports work to collect extensive data on light-duty, medium-duty and heavy-duty vehicles through the Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity (AVTA). Idaho National Laboratory and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) test and evaluate medium and heavy-duty fleet vehicles that use hybrid

  12. Visualization of expanding warm dense gold and diamond heated rapidly by laser-generated ion beams

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bang, W.; Albright, B. J.; Bradley, P. A.; Gautier, D. C.; Palaniyappan, S.; Vold, E. L.; Cordoba, M. A. Santiago; Hamilton, C. E.; Fernández, J. C.

    2015-09-22

    With the development of several novel heating sources, scientists can now heat a small sample isochorically above 10,000 K. Although matter at such an extreme state, known as warm dense matter, is commonly found in astrophysics (e.g., in planetary cores) as well as in high energy density physics experiments, its properties are not well understood and are difficult to predict theoretically. This is because the approximations made to describe condensed matter or high-temperature plasmas are invalid in this intermediate regime. A sufficiently large warm dense matter sample that is uniformly heated would be ideal for these studies, but has been unavailable to date. We have used a beam of quasi-monoenergetic aluminum ions to heat gold and diamond foils uniformly and isochorically. For the first time, we visualized directly the expanding warm dense gold and diamond with an optical streak camera. Furthermore, we present a new technique to determine the initial temperature of these heated samples from the measured expansion speeds of gold and diamond into vacuum. We anticipate the uniformly heated solid density target will allow for direct quantitative measurements of equation-of-state, conductivity, opacity, and stopping power of warm dense matter, benefiting plasma physics, astrophysics, and nuclear physics.

  13. Visualization of expanding warm dense gold and diamond heated rapidly by laser-generated ion beams

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Bang, W.; Albright, B. J.; Bradley, P. A.; Gautier, D. C.; Palaniyappan, S.; Vold, E. L.; Cordoba, M. A. Santiago; Hamilton, C. E.; Fernández, J. C.

    2015-09-22

    With the development of several novel heating sources, scientists can now heat a small sample isochorically above 10,000 K. Although matter at such an extreme state, known as warm dense matter, is commonly found in astrophysics (e.g., in planetary cores) as well as in high energy density physics experiments, its properties are not well understood and are difficult to predict theoretically. This is because the approximations made to describe condensed matter or high-temperature plasmas are invalid in this intermediate regime. A sufficiently large warm dense matter sample that is uniformly heated would be ideal for these studies, but has beenmore » unavailable to date. We have used a beam of quasi-monoenergetic aluminum ions to heat gold and diamond foils uniformly and isochorically. For the first time, we visualized directly the expanding warm dense gold and diamond with an optical streak camera. Furthermore, we present a new technique to determine the initial temperature of these heated samples from the measured expansion speeds of gold and diamond into vacuum. We anticipate the uniformly heated solid density target will allow for direct quantitative measurements of equation-of-state, conductivity, opacity, and stopping power of warm dense matter, benefiting plasma physics, astrophysics, and nuclear physics.« less

  14. Asymptotic regimes for the electrical and thermal conductivities in dense plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Faussurier, G. Blancard, C.

    2015-04-15

    We study the asymptotic regimes for the electrical and thermal conductivities in dense plasmas obtained by combining the Chester–Thellung–Kubo–Greenwood approach and the Kramers approximation [Faussurier et al., Phys. Plasmas 21, 092706 (2014)]. Non-degenerate and degenerate situations are considered. The Wiedemann–Franz law is obtained in the degenerate case.

  15. A nonlinear model for magnetoacoustic waves in dense dissipative plasmas with degenerate electrons

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Masood, W.; Jahangir, R.; Siddiq, M.; Eliasson, B.

    2014-10-15

    The properties of nonlinear fast magnetoacoustic waves in dense dissipative plasmas with degenerate electrons are studied theoretically in the framework of the Zabolotskaya-Khokhlov (ZK) equation for small but finite amplitude excitations. Shock-like solutions of the ZK equation are obtained and are applied to parameters relevant to white dwarf stars.

  16. One step process for producing dense aluminum nitride and composites thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Holt, J. Birch; Kingman, Donald D.; Bianchini, Gregory M.

    1989-01-01

    A one step combustion process for the synthesis of dense aluminum nitride compositions is disclosed. The process comprises igniting pure aluminum powder in a nitrogen atmosphere at a pressure of about 1000 atmospheres or higher. The process enables the production of aluminum nitride bodies to be formed directly in a mold of any desired shape.

  17. One step process for producing dense aluminum nitride and composites thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Holt, J.B.; Kingman, D.D.; Bianchini, G.M.

    1989-10-31

    A one step combustion process for the synthesis of dense aluminum nitride compositions is disclosed. The process comprises igniting pure aluminum powder in a nitrogen atmosphere at a pressure of about 1,000 atmospheres or higher. The process enables the production of aluminum nitride bodies to be formed directly in a mold of any desired shape.

  18. On the Virial Theorem for Interstellar Medium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ryutov, D

    2007-09-24

    An attempt has been made to derive a version of the virial integral that would describe average properties of the interstellar medium (ISM). It is suggested to eliminate the (large) contribution of stellar matter by introducing 'exclusion zones' surrounding stars. Such an approach leads to the appearance of several types of additional surface integrals in the general expression. Their contribution depends on the rate of energy and matter exchange between the stars and ISM. If this exchange is weak, one can obtain a desired virial integral for ISM. However, the presence of intermittent large-scale energetic events significantly constrains the applicability of the virial theorem. If valid, the derived virial integral is dominated by cold molecular/atomic clouds, with only minor contribution of the global magnetic field and low-density warm part.

  19. Medium Duty Electric Vehicle Demonstration Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mackie, Robin J. D.

    2015-05-31

    The Smith Electric Vehicle Demonstration Project (SDP) was integral to the Smith business plan to establish a manufacturing base in the United States (US) and produce a portfolio of All Electric Vehicles (AEV’s) for the medium duty commercial truck market. Smith focused on the commercial depot based logistics market, as it represented the market that was most ready for the early adoption of AEV technology. The SDP enabled Smith to accelerate its introduction of vehicles and increase the size of its US supply chain to support early market adoption of AEV’s that were cost competitive, fully met the needs of a diverse set of end users and were compliant with Federal safety and emissions requirements. The SDP accelerated the development and production of various electric drive vehicle systems to substantially reduce petroleum consumption, reduce vehicular emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG), and increase US jobs.

  20. Combustion of dense streams of coal particles. Final report, August 29, 1990--February 28, 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Annamalai, K.; Gopalakrishnan, C.; Du, X.

    1994-05-01

    The USA consumes almost 94 quads of energy (1 quad = 10{sup 15} BTU or 1.05 {times} 10{sup 15} KJ). The utilities account for about 30 quads of fossil energy where coal is predominantly used as energy source. The coal is ground to finer size and fired into the boiler as dense suspension. Under dense conditions, the particles burn at slower rate due to deficient oxygen within the interparticle spacing. Thus interactions exist amongst the particles for dense clouds. While the earlier literature dealt with combustion processes of isolated particles, the recent research focusses upon the interactive combustion. The interactive combustion studies include arrays consisting of a finite number of particles, and streams and clouds of a large number of particles. Particularly stream combustion models assume cylindrical geometry and predict the ignition and combustion characteristics. The models show that the ignition starts homogeneously for dense streams of coal particles and the ignition time show a minimum as the stream denseness is increased, and during combustion, there appears to be an inner flame within the stream and an outer flame outside the stream for a short period of time. The present experimental investigation is an attempt to verify the model predictions. The set-up consists of a flat flame burner for producing hot vitiated gases, a locally fluidizing feeder system for feeding coal particles, a particle collection probe for collecting particles and an image processing system for analyzing the flame structure. The particles are introduced as a stream into the hot gases and subsequently they ignite and burn. The ash % of fired and collected particles are determined and used to estimate the gasification efficiency or burnt fraction. The parametric studies include gas temperature, oxygen % in gases, residence time, and A:F ratio of the stream.

  1. Implementation and Re nement of a Comprehensive Model for Dense Granular Flows

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sundaresan, Sankaran

    2015-09-30

    Dense granular ows are ubiquitous in both natural and industrial processes. They manifest three di erent ow regimes, each exhibiting its own dependence on solids volume fraction, shear rate, and particle-level properties. This research project sought to develop continuum rheological models for dense granular ows that bridges multiple regimes of ow, implement them in open-source platforms for gas-particle ows and perform test simulations. The rst phase of the research covered in this project involved implementation of a steady- shear rheological model that bridges quasi-static, intermediate and inertial regimes of ow into MFIX (Multiphase Flow with Interphase eXchanges - a general purpose computer code developed at the National Energy Technology Laboratory). MFIX simulations of dense granular ows in hourglass-shaped hopper were then performed as test examples. The second phase focused on formulation of a modi ed kinetic theory for frictional particles that can be used over a wider range of particle volume fractions and also apply for dynamic, multi- dimensional ow conditions. To guide this work, simulations of simple shear ows of identical mono-disperse spheres were also performed using the discrete element method. The third phase of this project sought to develop and implement a more rigorous treatment of boundary e ects. Towards this end, simulations of simple shear ows of identical mono-disperse spheres con ned between parallel plates were performed and analyzed to formulate compact wall boundary conditions that can be used for dense frictional ows at at frictional boundaries. The fourth phase explored the role of modest levels of cohesive interactions between particles on the dense phase rheology. The nal phase of this project focused on implementation and testing of the modi ed kinetic theory in MFIX and running bin-discharge simulations as test examples.

  2. The infrared medium-deep survey. II. How to trigger radio AGNs? Hints from their environments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Karouzos, Marios; Im, Myungshin; Kim, Jae-Woo; Lee, Seong-Kook; Jeon, Yiseul; Choi, Changsu; Hong, Jueun; Hyun, Minhee; Jun, Hyunsung David; Kim, Dohyeong; Kim, Yongjung; Kim, Ji Hoon; Kim, Duho; Park, Won-Kee; Taak, Yoon Chan; Yoon, Yongmin; Chapman, Scott; Pak, Soojong; Edge, Alastair

    2014-12-10

    Activity at the centers of galaxies, during which the central supermassive black hole is accreting material, is nowadays accepted to be rather ubiquitous and most probably a phase of every galaxy's evolution. It has been suggested that galactic mergers and interactions may be the culprits behind the triggering of nuclear activity. We use near-infrared data from the new Infrared Medium-Deep Survey and the Deep eXtragalactic Survey of the VIMOS-SA22 field and radio data at 1.4 GHz from the FIRST survey and a deep Very Large Array survey to study the environments of radio active galactic nuclei (AGNs) over an area of ?25 deg{sup 2} and down to a radio flux limit of 0.1 mJy and a J-band magnitude of 23 mag AB. Radio AGNs are predominantly found in environments similar to those of control galaxies at similar redshift, J-band magnitude, and (M{sub u} M{sub r} ) rest-frame color. However, a subpopulation of radio AGNs is found in environments up to 100 times denser than their control sources. We thus preclude merging as the dominant triggering mechanism of radio AGNs. By fitting the broadband spectral energy distribution of radio AGNs in the least and most dense environments, we find that those in the least dense environments show higher radio-loudness, higher star formation efficiencies, and higher accretion rates, typical of the so-called high-excitation radio AGNs. These differences tend to disappear at z > 1. We interpret our results in terms of a different triggering mechanism for these sources that is driven by mass loss through winds of young stars created during the observed ongoing star formation.

  3. From medium-sized to megawatt turbines...

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dongen, W. van

    1996-12-31

    One of the world`s first 500 kW turbines was installed in 1989 in the Netherlands. This forerunner of the current NedWind 500 kW range also represents the earliest predesign of the NedWind megawatt turbine. After the first 500 kW turbines with steel rotor blades and rotor diameter of 34 m, several design modifications followed, e.g. the rotor diameter was increased to 35 m and a tip brake was added. Later polyester blades were introduced and the rotor diameter was increased with 5 in. The drive train was also redesigned. Improvements on the 500 kW turbine concept has resulted in decreased cost, whereas annual energy output has increased to approx. 1.3 million kWh. Wind energy can substantially contribute to electricity supply. Maximum output in kiloWatthours is the target. Further improvement of the existing technology and implementation of flexible components may well prove to be a way to increase energy output, not only in medium or large sized wind turbines. 7 figs.

  4. Cast-to-shape electrokinetic trapping medium

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shepodd, Timothy J.; Franklin, Elizabeth; Prickett, Zane T.; Artau, Alexander

    2004-08-03

    A three-dimensional microporous polymer network material, or monolith, cast-to-shape in a microchannel. The polymer monolith, produced by a phase separation process, is capable of trapping and retaining charged protein species from a mixture of charged and uncharged species under the influence of an applied electric field. The retained charged protein species are released from the porous polymer monolith by a pressure driven flow in the substantial absence of the electric field. The pressure driven flow is independent of direction and thus neither means to reverse fluid flow nor a multi-directional flow field is required, a single flow through the porous polymer monolith can be employed, in contrast to prior art systems. The monolithic polymer material produced by the invention can function as a chromatographic medium. Moreover, by virtue of its ability to retain charged protein species and quantitatively release the retained species the porous polymer monolith can serve as a means for concentrating charged protein species from, for example, a dilute solution.

  5. Cast-to-shape electrokinetic trapping medium

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shepodd, Timothy J.; Franklin, Elizabeth; Prickett, Zane T.; Artau, Alexander

    2006-05-30

    A three-dimensional microporous polymer network material, or monolith, cast-to-shape in a microchannel. The polymer monolith, produced by a phase separation process, is capable of trapping and retaining charged protein species from a mixture of charged and uncharged species under the influence of an applied electric field. The retained charged protein species are released from the porous polymer monolith by a pressure driven flow in the substantial absence of the electric field. The pressure driven flow is independent of direction and thus neither means to reverse fluid flow nor a multi-directional flow field is required, a single flow through the porous polymer monolith can be employed, in contrast to prior art systems. The monolithic polymer material produced by the invention can function as a chromatographic medium. Moreover, by virtue of its ability to retain charged protein species and quantitatively release the retained species the porous polymer monolith can serve as a means for concentrating charged protein species from, for example, a dilute solution.

  6. Characterization of Residual Medium Peptides from Yersinia pestis Cultures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clowers, Brian H.; Wunschel, David S.; Kreuzer, Helen W.; Engelmann, Heather E.; Valentine, Nancy B.; Wahl, Karen L.

    2013-04-03

    Using a range of common microbial medium formulations (TSB, BHI, LB, and G-media), two attenuated strains of Y. pestis (KIM D27 (pgm-) and KIMD1 lcr-) were cultivated in triplicate. These cellular suspensions were used to develop a method of extracting residual medium peptides from the final microbial preparation to assess their relative abundance and identity. Across the conditions examined, which included additional cellular washing and different forms of microbial inactivation, residual medium peptides were detected. Despite the range of growth medium sources used and the associated manufacturing processes used in their production, a high degree of peptide similarity was observed for a given medium recipe. These results demonstrate that residual medium peptides are retained using traditional microbial cultivation techniques and may be used to inform forensic investigations with respect to production deduction.

  7. CBEI: Coordinating RTUs in Small and Medium Sized Commercial Buildings -

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    2015 Peer Review | Department of Energy Coordinating RTUs in Small and Medium Sized Commercial Buildings - 2015 Peer Review CBEI: Coordinating RTUs in Small and Medium Sized Commercial Buildings - 2015 Peer Review Presenter: James Braun, Purdue University View the Presentation CBEI: Coordinating RTUs in Small and Medium Sized Commercial Buildings - 2015 Peer Review (1.8 MB) More Documents & Publications Control and Diagnostics for Rooftop Units - 2014 BTO Peer Review CBEI: Lessons

  8. Funding Opportunity: Small-Medium Commercial Buildings | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Opportunity: Small-Medium Commercial Buildings Funding Opportunity: Small-Medium Commercial Buildings October 30, 2015 - 10:29am Addthis Funding Opportunity: Small-Medium Commercial Buildings Funding Opportunity Announcement (FOA) Number: DE-FOA-0001385 The Building Technologies Office (BTO) Commercial Buildings Integration Program has announced the availability of up to $9.5 million for Funding Opportunity Announcement (FOA) DE-FOA-0001385, "Solutions to Improve the Energy

  9. Measurement of charged-particle stopping in warm-dense plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zylstra, A.  B.; Frenje, J.  A.; Grabowski, P. E.; Li, C.  K.; Collins, G.  W.; Fitzsimmons, P.; Glenzer, S.; Graziani, F.; Hansen, S.  B.; Hu, S. X.; Johnson, M. Gatu; Keiter, P.; Reynolds, H.; Rygg, J.  R.; Séguin, F. H.; Petrasso, R. D.

    2015-05-27

    We measured the stopping of energetic protons in an isochorically-heated solid-density Be plasma with an electron temperature of ~32 eV, corresponding to moderately-coupled [(e²/a/(kBTe + EF ) ~ 0.3] and moderately-degenerate [kBTe/EF ~2] 'warm dense matter' (WDM) conditions. We present the first high-accuracy measurements of charged-particle energy loss through dense plasma, which shows an increased loss relative to cold matter, consistent with a reduced mean ionization potential. The data agree with stopping models based on an ad-hoc treatment of free and bound electrons, as well as the average-atom local-density approximation; this work is the first test of these theories in WDM plasma.

  10. Unified concept of effective one component plasma for hot dense plasmas

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Clerouin, Jean; Arnault, Philippe; Ticknor, Christopher; Kress, Joel D.; Collins, Lee A.

    2016-03-17

    Orbital-free molecular dynamics simulations are used to benchmark two popular models for hot dense plasmas: the one component plasma (OCP) and the Yukawa model. A unified concept emerges where an effective OCP (EOCP) is constructed from the short-range structure of the plasma. An unambiguous ionization and the screening length can be defined and used for a Yukawa system, which reproduces the long-range structure with finite compressibility. Similarly, the dispersion relation of longitudinal waves is consistent with the screened model at vanishing wave number but merges with the OCP at high wave number. Additionally, the EOCP reproduces the overall relaxation timemore » scales of the correlation functions associated with ionic motion. Lastly, in the hot dense regime, this unified concept of EOCP can be fruitfully applied to deduce properties such as the equation of state, ionic transport coefficients, and the ion feature in x-ray Thomson scattering experiments.« less

  11. Measurement of charged-particle stopping in warm-dense plasma

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zylstra, A.  B.; Frenje, J.  A.; Grabowski, P. E.; Li, C.  K.; Collins, G.  W.; Fitzsimmons, P.; Glenzer, S.; Graziani, F.; Hansen, S.  B.; Hu, S. X.; et al

    2015-05-27

    We measured the stopping of energetic protons in an isochorically-heated solid-density Be plasma with an electron temperature of ~32 eV, corresponding to moderately-coupled [(e²/a/(kBTe + EF ) ~ 0.3] and moderately-degenerate [kBTe/EF ~2] 'warm dense matter' (WDM) conditions. We present the first high-accuracy measurements of charged-particle energy loss through dense plasma, which shows an increased loss relative to cold matter, consistent with a reduced mean ionization potential. The data agree with stopping models based on an ad-hoc treatment of free and bound electrons, as well as the average-atom local-density approximation; this work is the first test of these theories inmore » WDM plasma.« less

  12. Ion acoustic solitons in dense magnetized plasmas with nonrelativistic and ultrarelativistic degenerate electrons and positrons

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sadiq, Safeer; Mahmood, S.; Haque, Q.; Ali, Munazza Zulfiqar

    2014-09-20

    The propagation of electrostatic waves in a dense magnetized electron-positron-ion (EPI) plasma with nonrelativistic and ultrarelativistic degenerate electrons and positrons is investigated. The linear dispersion relation is obtained for slow and fast electrostatic waves in the EPI plasma. The limiting cases for ion acoustic wave (slow) and ion cyclotron wave (fast) are also discussed. Using the reductive perturbation method, two-dimensional propagation of ion acoustic solitons is found for both the nonrelativistic and ultrarelativistic degenerate electrons and positrons. The effects of positron concentration, magnetic field, and mass of ions on ion acoustic solitons are shown in numerical plots. The proper form of Fermi temperature for nonrelativistic and ultrarelativistic degenerate electrons and positrons is employed, which has not been used in earlier published work. The present investigation is useful for the understanding of linear and nonlinear electrostatic wave propagation in the dense magnetized EPI plasma of compact stars. For illustration purposes, we have applied our results to a pulsar magnetosphere.

  13. A Seemingly Simple Task: Filling a Solenoid Volume in Vacuum with Dense Plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anders, Andre; Kauffeldt, Marina; Roy, Prabir; Oks, Efim

    2010-06-24

    Space-charge neutralization of a pulsed, high-current ion beam is required to compress and focus the beam on a target for warm dense matter physics or heavy ion fusion experiments. We described attempts to produce dense plasma in and near the final focusing solenoid through which the ion beam travels, thereby providing an opportunity for the beam to acquire the necessary charge-compensating electrons. Among the options are plasma injection from four pulsed vacuum arc sources located outside the solenoid, and using a high current (> 4 kA) pulsed vacuum arc plasma from a ring cathode near the edge of the solenoid. The plasma distribution is characterized by photographic means and by an array of movable Langmuir probes. The plasma is produced at several cathode spots distributed azimuthally on the ring cathode. Beam neutralization and compression are accomplished, though issues of density, uniformity, and pulse-to-pulse reproducibly remain to be solved.

  14. Pressure-induced amorphization of a dense coordination polymer and its impact on proton conductivity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Umeyama, Daiki; Hagi, Keisuke; Ogiwara, Naoki; Horike, Satoshi E-mail: kitagawa@icems.kyoto-u.ac.jp; Tassel, Cedric; Kageyama, Hiroshi; Higo, Yuji; Kitagawa, Susumu E-mail: kitagawa@icems.kyoto-u.ac.jp

    2014-12-01

    The proton conductivity of a dense coordination polymer (CP) was investigated under high-pressure conditions. Impedance measurements under high pressures revealed that the proton conductivity of the CP decreased more than 1000-fold at pressures of 37 GPa and that the activation energy for proton conduction almost doubled compared with that at ambient pressure. A synchrotron X-ray study under high pressure identified the amorphization process of the CP during compression, which rationally explains the decrease in conductivity and increase in activation energy. This phenomenon is categorized as reversible pressure-induced amorphization of a dense CP and is regarded as a demonstration of the coupling of the mechanical and electrical properties of a CP.

  15. Laboratory measurements of resistivity in warm dense plasmas relevant to the microphysics of brown dwarfs

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Booth, N.; Robinson, A. P. L.; Hakel, P.; Clarke, R. J.; Dance, R. J.; Doria, D.; Gizzi, L. A.; Gregori, G.; Koester, P.; Labate, L.; et al

    2015-11-06

    Since the observation of the first brown dwarf in 1995, numerous studies have led to a better understanding of the structures of these objects. Here we present a method for studying material resistivity in warm dense plasmas in the laboratory, which we relate to the microphysics of brown dwarfs through viscosity and electron collisions. Here we use X-ray polarimetry to determine the resistivity of a sulphur-doped plastic target heated to Brown Dwarf conditions by an ultra-intense laser. The resistivity is determined by matching the plasma physics model to the atomic physics calculations of the measured large, positive, polarization. Furthermore, themore » inferred resistivity is larger than predicted using standard resistivity models, suggesting that these commonly used models will not adequately describe the resistivity of warm dense plasma related to the viscosity of brown dwarfs.« less

  16. Laboratory measurements of resistivity in warm dense plasmas relevant to the microphysics of brown dwarfs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Booth, N.; Robinson, A. P. L.; Hakel, P.; Clarke, R. J.; Dance, R. J.; Doria, D.; Gizzi, L. A.; Gregori, G.; Koester, P.; Labate, L.; Levato, T.; Li, B.; Makita, M.; Mancini, R. C.; Pasley, J.; Rajeev, P. P.; Riley, D.; Wagenaars, E.; Waugh, J. N.; Woolsey, N. C.

    2015-11-06

    Since the observation of the first brown dwarf in 1995, numerous studies have led to a better understanding of the structures of these objects. Here we present a method for studying material resistivity in warm dense plasmas in the laboratory, which we relate to the microphysics of brown dwarfs through viscosity and electron collisions. Here we use X-ray polarimetry to determine the resistivity of a sulphur-doped plastic target heated to Brown Dwarf conditions by an ultra-intense laser. The resistivity is determined by matching the plasma physics model to the atomic physics calculations of the measured large, positive, polarization. Furthermore, the inferred resistivity is larger than predicted using standard resistivity models, suggesting that these commonly used models will not adequately describe the resistivity of warm dense plasma related to the viscosity of brown dwarfs.

  17. Hyperon-Nucleon Interactions and the Composition of Dense Nuclear Matter from Quantum Chromodynamics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beane, S R; Cohen, S D; Detmold, W; Lin, H -W; Luu, T C; Orginos, K; Parreno, A; Savage, M J

    2012-10-01

    The low-energy neutron-{Sigma}{sup -} interactions determine, in part, the role of the strange quark in dense matter, such as that found in astrophysical environments. The scattering phase shifts for this system are obtained from a numerical evaluation of the QCD path integral using the technique of Lattice QCD. Our calculations, performed at a pion mass of m{sub pi} ~ 389 MeV in two large lattice volumes, and at one lattice spacing, are extrapolated to the physical pion mass using effective field theory. The interactions determined from QCD are consistent with those extracted from hyperon-nucleon experimental data within uncertainties, and strengthen theoretical arguments that the strange quark is a crucial component of dense nuclear matter.

  18. Ab initio multireference in-medium similarity renormalization...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    group calculations of even calcium and nickel isotopes Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Ab initio multireference in-medium similarity renormalization group ...

  19. Roel Neggers European Centre for Medium-range Weather Forecasts

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    transition from shallow to deep convection using a dual mass flux boundary layer scheme Roel Neggers European Centre for Medium-range Weather Forecasts Introduction " " % % &...

  20. Membrane Development for Medium and High Temperature PEMFC in...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    in Europe (Presentation) Membrane Development for Medium and High Temperature PEMFC in Europe (Presentation) Presented at the High Temperature Membrane Working Group Meeting ...

  1. LNT + SCR Aftertreatment for Medium-Heavy Duty Applications:...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    LNT + SCR Aftertreatment for Medium-Heavy Duty Applications: A Systems Approach Poster presentation at the 2007 Diesel Engine-Efficiency & Emissions Research Conference (DEER ...

  2. CBEI: HVAC Packages for Small and Medium Sized Commercial Buildings...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    CBEI: HVAC Packages for Small and Medium Sized Commercial Buildings - 2015 Peer Review Presenter: Russell Taylor, United Technologies Research Center View the Presentation CBEI: ...

  3. CBEI: Packaged Masonry Wall Retrofit Solution for Small and Medium...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    CBEI: Packaged Masonry Wall Retrofit Solution for Small and Medium Sized Commercial Buildings - 2015 Peer Review Presenter: Mugdha Mokashi, Bayer Materials View the Presentation ...

  4. Medium- and Heavy-Duty Electric Drive Vehicle Simulation and...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    More Documents & Publications Medium- and Heavy-Duty Electric Drive Vehicle Simulation and Analysis Battery Pack Requirements and Targets Validation FY 2009 DOE Vehicle ...

  5. Medium- and Heavy-Duty Electric Drive Vehicle Simulation and...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Medium- and Heavy-Duty Electric Drive Vehicle Simulation and Analysis 2011 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program, and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer ...

  6. Vehicle Technologies Office Issues Notice of Intent for Medium...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    and Heavy-Duty Vehicle Demonstration Funding Opportunity Vehicle Technologies Office Issues Notice of Intent for Medium and Heavy-Duty Vehicle Demonstration Funding Opportunity ...

  7. A Unified Equation for the Reaction Rate in Dense Matter Stars

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gasques, L. R.; Wiescher, M.; Yakovlev, D. G.

    2007-10-26

    We analyze thermonuclear and pycnonuclear reaction rates in multi-component dense stellar plasma. First we describe calculations of the astrophysical S-factor at low energies using the Sao Paulo potential on the basis of the barrier penetration model. Then we present a simple phenomenological expression for a reaction rate. The expression contains several fit parameters which we adjust to reproduce the best microscopic calculations available in the literature.

  8. Using Nuclear Fusion Reactions to Peer Inside the Core of a Dense Hot

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Plasma | U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC) Using Nuclear Fusion Reactions to Peer Inside the Core of a Dense Hot Plasma Fusion Energy Sciences (FES) FES Home About Research Facilities Science Highlights Benefits of FES Funding Opportunities Fusion Energy Sciences Advisory Committee (FESAC) Community Resources Contact Information Fusion Energy Sciences U.S. Department of Energy SC-24/Germantown Building 1000 Independence Ave., SW Washington, DC 20585 P: (301) 903-4941 F: (301) 903-8584 E: Email

  9. Method of Preparing Super-Concentrated Jets From Dense Aerosol Suspensions

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ----- Inventor(s): Michael J. Hay, Ernest J. Valeo, and Nathaniel J. Fisch | Princeton Plasma Physics Lab Method of Preparing Super-Concentrated Jets From Dense Aerosol Suspensions ----- Inventor(s): Michael J. Hay, Ernest J. Valeo, and Nathaniel J. Fisch This is improvement in aerodynamic focusing of dilute aerosol suspensions. All previous work on this subject has ignored the effect of the particle inertia in the design of the focusing nozzle. This Invention describes a nozzle design that

  10. Structure of the ground state of a nonsuperfluid dense quark-gluon plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Khodel, V. A. Zverev, M. V. Pankratov, S. S.; Clark, J. W.

    2009-08-15

    The single-particle spectrum and momentum distribution of quasiparticles in a cold dense quark-gluon plasma are calculated within the Fermi liquid approach. It is shown that this system does not behave as a standard Fermi liquid: at zero temperature, the single-particle spectrum has a plateau at the Fermi surface, while the Fermi surface itself has a nonzero volume in momentum space.

  11. Dense molecular clumps associated with the Large Magellanic Cloud supergiant shells LMC 4 and LMC 5

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fujii, Kosuke; Mizuno, Norikazu [Department of Astronomy, School of Science, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 133-0033 (Japan); Minamidani, Tetsuhiro [Nobeyama Radio Observatory, 462-2 Nobeyama Minamimaki-mura, Minamisaku-gun, Nagano 384-1305 (Japan); Onishi, Toshikazu; Muraoka, Kazuyuki [Department of Physical Science, Osaka Prefecture University, Gakuen 1-1, Sakai, Osaka 599-8531 (Japan); Kawamura, Akiko; Muller, Erik; Tatematsu, Ken'ichi; Hasegawa, Tetsuo; Miura, Rie E.; Ezawa, Hajime [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Dawson, Joanne [Australia Telescope National Facility, CSIRO Astronomy and Space Science, P.O. Box 76, Epping, NSW 1710 (Australia); Tosaki, Tomoka [Joetsu University of Education, Yamayashiki-machi, Joetsu, Niigata 943-8512 (Japan); Sakai, Takeshi [Graduate School of Informatics and Engineering, The University of Electro-Communications, Chofu, Tokyo 182-8585 (Japan); Tsukagoshi, Takashi [College of Science, Ibaraki University, Bunkyo 2-1-1, Mito 310-8512 (Japan); Tanaka, Kunihiko [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science and Technology, Keio University, 3-14-1 Hiyoshi, Yokohama, Kanagawa 223-8522 (Japan); Fukui, Yasuo, E-mail: kosuke.fujii@nao.ac.jp [Department of Astrophysics, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan)

    2014-12-01

    We investigate the effects of supergiant shells (SGSs) and their interaction on dense molecular clumps by observing the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) star-forming regions N48 and N49, which are located between two SGSs, LMC 4 and LMC 5. {sup 12}CO (J = 3-2, 1-0) and {sup 13}CO(J = 1-0) observations with the ASTE and Mopra telescopes have been carried out toward these regions. A clumpy distribution of dense molecular clumps is revealed with 7 pc spatial resolution. Large velocity gradient analysis shows that the molecular hydrogen densities (n(H{sub 2})) of the clumps are distributed from low to high density (10{sup 3}-10{sup 5} cm{sup 3}) and their kinetic temperatures (T {sub kin}) are typically high (greater than 50 K). These clumps seem to be in the early stages of star formation, as also indicated from the distribution of H?, young stellar object candidates, and IR emission. We found that the N48 region is located in the high column density H I envelope at the interface of the two SGSs and the star formation is relatively evolved, whereas the N49 region is associated with LMC 5 alone and the star formation is quiet. The clumps in the N48 region typically show high n(H{sub 2}) and T {sub kin}, which are as dense and warm as the clumps in LMC massive cluster-forming areas (30 Dor, N159). These results suggest that the large-scale structure of the SGSs, especially the interaction of two SGSs, works efficiently on the formation of dense molecular clumps and stars.

  12. Linear dependence of surface expansion speed on initial plasma temperature in warm dense matter

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Bang, Woosuk; Albright, Brian James; Bradley, Paul Andrew; Vold, Erik Lehman; Boettger, Jonathan Carl; Fernández, Juan Carlos

    2016-07-12

    Recent progress in laser-driven quasi-monoenergetic ion beams enabled the production of uniformly heated warm dense matter. Matter heated rapidly with this technique is under extreme temperatures and pressures, and promptly expands outward. While the expansion speed of an ideal plasma is known to have a square-root dependence on temperature, computer simulations presented here show a linear dependence of expansion speed on initial plasma temperature in the warm dense matter regime. The expansion of uniformly heated 1–100 eV solid density gold foils was modeled with the RAGE radiation-hydrodynamics code, and the average surface expansion speed was found to increase linearly withmore » temperature. The origin of this linear dependence is explained by comparing predictions from the SESAME equation-of-state tables with those from the ideal gas equation-of-state. In conclusion, these simulations offer useful insight into the expansion of warm dense matter and motivate the application of optical shadowgraphy for temperature measurement.« less

  13. Nonlinear magnetosonic waves in dense plasmas with non-relativistic and ultra-relativistic degenerate electrons

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hussain, S.; Mahmood, S.; Rehman, Aman-ur-

    2014-11-15

    Linear and nonlinear propagation of magnetosonic waves in the perpendicular direction to the ambient magnetic field is studied in dense plasmas for non-relativistic and ultra-relativistic degenerate electrons pressure. The sources of nonlinearities are the divergence of the ions and electrons fluxes, Lorentz forces on ions and electrons fluids and the plasma current density in the system. The Korteweg-de Vries equation for magnetosonic waves propagating in the perpendicular direction of the magnetic field is derived by employing reductive perturbation method for non-relativistic as well as ultra-relativistic degenerate electrons pressure cases in dense plasmas. The plots of the magnetosonic wave solitons are also shown using numerical values of the plasma parameters such a plasma density and magnetic field intensity of the white dwarfs from literature. The dependence of plasma density and magnetic field intensity on the magnetosonic wave propagation is also pointed out in dense plasmas for both non-relativistic and ultra-relativistic degenerate electrons pressure cases.

  14. Ultrabright x-ray laser scattering for dynamic warm dense matter physics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fletcher, L. B.; Lee, H. J.; Doppner, T.; Galtier, E.; Nagler, B.; Heimann, P.; Fortmann, C.; Mao, T.; Millot, M.; Pak, A.; Turnbull, D.; Chapman, D. A.; Gericke, D. O.; Vorberger, J.; White, T.; Gregori, G.; Wei, M.; Barbrel, B.; Falcone, R. W.; Kao, C. -C.; Nuhn, H.; Welch, J.; Zastrau, U.; Neumayer, P.; Hastings, J. B.; Glenzer, S. H.

    2015-03-23

    In megabar shock waves, materials compress and undergo a phase transition to a dense charged-particle system that is dominated by strong correlations and quantum effects. This complex state, known as warm dense matter, exists in planetary interiors and many laboratory experiments (for example, during high-power laser interactions with solids or the compression phase of inertial confinement fusion implosions). Here, we apply record peak brightness X-rays at the Linac Coherent Light Source to resolve ionic interactions at atomic (ångström) scale lengths and to determine their physical properties. Our in situ measurements characterize the compressed lattice and resolve the transition to warm dense matter, demonstrating that short-range repulsion between ions must be accounted for to obtain accurate structure factor and equation of state data. Additionally, the unique properties of the X-ray laser provide plasmon spectra that yield the temperature and density with unprecedented precision at micrometre-scale resolution in dynamic compression experiments.

  15. Models of the elastic x-ray scattering feature for warm dense aluminum

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Starrett, Charles Edward; Saumon, Didier

    2015-09-03

    The elastic feature of x-ray scattering from warm dense aluminum has recently been measured by Fletcher et al. [Nature Photonics 9, 274 (2015)] with much higher accuracy than had hitherto been possible. This measurement is a direct test of the ionic structure predicted by models of warm dense matter. We use the method of pseudoatom molecular dynamics to predict this elastic feature for warm dense aluminum with temperatures of 1–100 eV and densities of 2.7–8.1g/cm3. We compare these predictions to experiments, finding good agreement with Fletcher et al. and corroborating the discrepancy found in analyses of an earlier experiment ofmore » Ma et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 065001 (2013)]. Lastly, we also evaluate the validity of the Thomas-Fermi model of the electrons and of the hypernetted chain approximation in computing the elastic feature and find them both wanting in the regime currently probed by experiments.« less

  16. Models of the elastic x-ray scattering feature for warm dense aluminum

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Starrett, Charles Edward; Saumon, Didier

    2015-09-03

    The elastic feature of x-ray scattering from warm dense aluminum has recently been measured by Fletcher et al. [Nature Photonics 9, 274 (2015)] with much higher accuracy than had hitherto been possible. This measurement is a direct test of the ionic structure predicted by models of warm dense matter. We use the method of pseudoatom molecular dynamics to predict this elastic feature for warm dense aluminum with temperatures of 1–100 eV and densities of 2.7–8.1g/cm3. We compare these predictions to experiments, finding good agreement with Fletcher et al. and corroborating the discrepancy found in analyses of an earlier experiment of Ma et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 065001 (2013)]. Lastly, we also evaluate the validity of the Thomas-Fermi model of the electrons and of the hypernetted chain approximation in computing the elastic feature and find them both wanting in the regime currently probed by experiments.

  17. Processing of YSZ Thin Films on Dense and Porous Substrates (Prop.2002-065)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pan, Ye; Zhu, Jiahong; Hu, Michael Z.; Payzant, E Andrew

    2005-01-01

    Yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) thin films with a Zr/Y molar ratio of 0.84:0.16 were synthesized on both dense Si substrates and porous Ni-YSZ anodes using the spin coating technique. Two polymeric precursors were used to process the YSZ films on the Si substrates. The first one utilized a commercial precursor, with butanol added as the diluting solvent. By controlling the content of butanol in the solution, dense and crack-free YSZ films with thickness of 500 nm were obtained after 8 coating runs with a final anneal of 700 C for 4 h. X-ray diffraction was used to monitor the crystallization process in the films during annealing, which indicated that the YSZ films started to crystallize at 300--400 C and became fully crystalline with a cubic structure at temperature {>=} 600 C. In the second case, a new YSZ polymeric precursor was prepared and used for coating. It was found that the viscosity of the precursor solution is critical in controlling the film quality. Relatively thick, dense YSZ films were also synthesized on porous Ni-YSZ anode substrates using a combined colloidal-polymer method.

  18. Demonstration of natural gas reburn for NO{sub x} emissions reduction at Ohio Edison Company`s cyclone-fired Niles Plant Unit Number 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Borio, R.W.; Lewis, R.D.; Koucky, R.W.; Lookman, A.A.; Manos, M.G.; Corfman, D.W.; Waddingham, A.L.; Johnson, S.A.

    1996-04-01

    Electric utility power plants account for about one-third of the NO{sub x} and two-thirds of the SO{sub 2} emissions in the US cyclone-fired boilers, while representing about 9% of the US coal-fired generating capacity, emit about 14% of the NO{sub x} produced by coal-fired utility boilers. Given this background, the Environmental Protection Agency, the Gas Research Institute, the Electric Power Research Institute, the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center, and the Ohio Coal Development Office sponsored a program led by ABB Combustion Engineering, Inc. (ABB-CE) to demonstrate reburning on a cyclone-fired boiler. Ohio Edison provided Unit No. 1 at their Niles Station for the reburn demonstration along with financial assistance. The Niles Unit No. 1 reburn system was started up in September 1990. This reburn program was the first full-scale reburn system demonstration in the US. This report describes work performed during the program. The work included a review of reburn technology, aerodynamic flow model testing of reburn system design concepts, design and construction of the reburn system, parametric performance testing, long-term load dispatch testing, and boiler tube wall thickness monitoring. The report also contains a description of the Niles No. 1 host unit, a discussion of conclusions and recommendations derived from the program, tabulation of data from parametric and long-term tests, and appendices which contain additional tabulated test results.

  19. Model-Based Analysis of Electric Drive Options for Medium-Duty Parcel Delivery Vehicles: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barnitt, R. A.; Brooker, A. D.; Ramroth, L.

    2010-12-01

    Medium-duty vehicles are used in a broad array of fleet applications, including parcel delivery. These vehicles are excellent candidates for electric drive applications due to their transient-intensive duty cycles, operation in densely populated areas, and relatively high fuel consumption and emissions. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) conducted a robust assessment of parcel delivery routes and completed a model-based techno-economic analysis of hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) and plug-in hybrid electric vehicle configurations. First, NREL characterized parcel delivery vehicle usage patterns, most notably daily distance driven and drive cycle intensity. Second, drive-cycle analysis results framed the selection of drive cycles used to test a parcel delivery HEV on a chassis dynamometer. Next, measured fuel consumption results were used to validate simulated fuel consumption values derived from a dynamic model of the parcel delivery vehicle. Finally, NREL swept a matrix of 120 component size, usage, and cost combinations to assess impacts on fuel consumption and vehicle cost. The results illustrated the dependency of component sizing on drive-cycle intensity and daily distance driven and may allow parcel delivery fleets to match the most appropriate electric drive vehicle to their fleet usage profile.

  20. LIQUID CYCLONE CONTACTOR

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Whatley, M.E.; Woods, W.M.

    1962-09-01

    This invention relates to liquid-liquid extraction systems. The invention, an improved hydroclone system, comprises a series of serially connected, axially aligned hydroclones, each of which is provided with an axially aligned overflow chamber. The chambers are so arranged that rotational motion of a fluid being passed through the system is not lost in passing from chamber to chamber; consequently, this system is highly efficient in contacting and separating two immiscible liquids. (AEC)

  1. Pyrolysis with cyclone burner

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Green, Norman W.; Duraiswamy, Kandaswamy; Lumpkin, Robert E.

    1978-07-25

    In a continuous process for recovery of values contained in a solid carbonaceous material, the carbonaceous material is comminuted and then subjected to flash pyrolysis in the presence of a particulate heat source over an overflow weir to form a pyrolysis product stream containing a carbon containing solid residue and volatilized hydrocarbons. After the carbon containing solid residue is separated from the pyrolysis product stream, values are obtained by condensing volatilized hydrocarbons. The particulate source of heat is formed by oxidizing carbon in the solid residue and separating out the fines.

  2. Computerized detection of breast cancer on automated breast ultrasound imaging of women with dense breasts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Drukker, Karen Sennett, Charlene A.; Giger, Maryellen L.

    2014-01-15

    Purpose: Develop a computer-aided detection method and investigate its feasibility for detection of breast cancer in automated 3D ultrasound images of women with dense breasts. Methods: The HIPAA compliant study involved a dataset of volumetric ultrasound image data, views, acquired with an automated U-Systems SomoV{sup } ABUS system for 185 asymptomatic women with dense breasts (BI-RADS Composition/Density 3 or 4). For each patient, three whole-breast views (3D image volumes) per breast were acquired. A total of 52 patients had breast cancer (61 cancers), diagnosed through any follow-up at most 365 days after the original screening mammogram. Thirty-one of these patients (32 cancers) had a screening-mammogram with a clinically assigned BI-RADS Assessment Category 1 or 2, i.e., were mammographically negative. All software used for analysis was developed in-house and involved 3 steps: (1) detection of initial tumor candidates, (2) characterization of candidates, and (3) elimination of false-positive candidates. Performance was assessed by calculating the cancer detection sensitivity as a function of the number of marks (detections) per view. Results: At a single mark per view, i.e., six marks per patient, the median detection sensitivity by cancer was 50.0% (16/32) 6% for patients with a screening mammogram-assigned BI-RADS category 1 or 2similar to radiologists performance sensitivity (49.9%) for this dataset from a prior reader studyand 45.9% (28/61) 4% for all patients. Conclusions: Promising detection sensitivity was obtained for the computer on a 3D ultrasound dataset of women with dense breasts at a rate of false-positive detections that may be acceptable for clinical implementation.

  3. Computerized detection of breast cancer on automated breast ultrasound imaging of women with dense breasts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Drukker, Karen Sennett, Charlene A.; Giger, Maryellen L.

    2014-01-15

    Purpose: Develop a computer-aided detection method and investigate its feasibility for detection of breast cancer in automated 3D ultrasound images of women with dense breasts. Methods: The HIPAA compliant study involved a dataset of volumetric ultrasound image data, “views,” acquired with an automated U-Systems Somo•V{sup ®} ABUS system for 185 asymptomatic women with dense breasts (BI-RADS Composition/Density 3 or 4). For each patient, three whole-breast views (3D image volumes) per breast were acquired. A total of 52 patients had breast cancer (61 cancers), diagnosed through any follow-up at most 365 days after the original screening mammogram. Thirty-one of these patients (32 cancers) had a screening-mammogram with a clinically assigned BI-RADS Assessment Category 1 or 2, i.e., were mammographically negative. All software used for analysis was developed in-house and involved 3 steps: (1) detection of initial tumor candidates, (2) characterization of candidates, and (3) elimination of false-positive candidates. Performance was assessed by calculating the cancer detection sensitivity as a function of the number of “marks” (detections) per view. Results: At a single mark per view, i.e., six marks per patient, the median detection sensitivity by cancer was 50.0% (16/32) ± 6% for patients with a screening mammogram-assigned BI-RADS category 1 or 2—similar to radiologists’ performance sensitivity (49.9%) for this dataset from a prior reader study—and 45.9% (28/61) ± 4% for all patients. Conclusions: Promising detection sensitivity was obtained for the computer on a 3D ultrasound dataset of women with dense breasts at a rate of false-positive detections that may be acceptable for clinical implementation.

  4. Comparison of electron transport calculations in warm dense matter using the Ziman formula

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Burrill, D. J.; Feinblum, D. V.; Charest, M. R. J.; Starrett, C. E.

    2016-02-10

    The Ziman formulation of electrical conductivity is tested in warm and hot dense matter using the pseudo-atom molecular dynamics method. Several implementation options that have been widely used in the literature are systematically tested through a comparison to the accurate, but expensive Kohn–Sham density functional theory molecular dynamics (KS-DFT-MD) calculations. As a result, the comparison is made for several elements and mixtures and for a wide range of temperatures and densities, and reveals a preferred method that generally gives very good agreement with the KS-DFT-MD results, but at a fraction of the computational cost.

  5. Real-time study of fast-electron transport inside dense hot plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sandhu, A.S.; Kumar, G. Ravindra; Sengupta, S.; Das, A.; Kaw, P.K.

    2006-03-15

    We offer a method to study transport of fast electrons in dense hot media. The technique relies on temporal profiling of the laser induced magnetic fields and offers a unique capability to map the hot electron currents and their neutralization (or lack of it) by the return currents in the plasma. We report direct quantitative measurements of strong electric inhibition in insulators and turbulence induced anomalous stopping of hot electrons in conductors. The present technique can prove extremely important from the point of view of fast ignition scheme, which relies on the penetration of fast electrons into the fusion core.

  6. Visualizing expanding warm dense matter heated by laser-generated ion beams

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bang, Woosuk

    2015-08-24

    This PowerPoint presentation concluded with the following. We calculated the expected heating per atom and temperatures of various target materials using a Monte Carlo simulation code and SESAME EOS tables. We used aluminum ion beams to heat gold and diamond uniformly and isochorically. A streak camera imaged the expansion of warm dense gold (5.5 eV) and diamond (1.7 eV). GXI-X recorded all 16 x-ray images of the unheated gold bar targets proving that it could image the motion of the gold/diamond interface of the proposed target.

  7. Modeling nuclear fusion in dense plasmas using a cryogenic non-neutral plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dubin, Daniel H. E.

    2008-05-15

    An analogy between the nuclear reaction rate in a dense neutral plasma and the energy equipartition rate in a strongly magnetized non-neutral plasma is discussed. This analogy allows the first detailed measurements of plasma screening enhancements in the strong screening and pycnonuclear regimes. In strong magnetic fields and at low temperatures, cyclotron energy, like nuclear energy, is released only through rare close collisions between charges. The probability of such collisions is enhanced by plasma screening, just as for nuclear reactions. Rate enhancements of up to 10{sup 10} are measured in simulations of equipartition, and are compared to theories of screened nuclear reactions.

  8. Method of forming a dense, high temperature electronically conductive composite layer on a porous ceramic substrate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Isenberg, Arnold O.

    1992-01-01

    An electrochemical device, containing a solid oxide electrolyte material and an electrically conductive composite layer, has the composite layer attached by: (A) applying a layer of LaCrO.sub.3, YCrO.sub.3 or LaMnO.sub.3 particles (32), on a portion of a porous ceramic substrate (30), (B) heating to sinter bond the particles to the substrate, (C) depositing a dense filler structure (34) between the doped particles (32), (D) shaving off the top of the particles, and (E) applying an electronically conductive layer over the particles (32) as a contact.

  9. Quantum key distribution for 10 Gb/s dense wavelength division multiplexing networks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Patel, K. A.; Dynes, J. F.; Lucamarini, M.; Choi, I.; Sharpe, A. W.; Yuan, Z. L. Shields, A. J.; Penty, R. V.

    2014-02-03

    We demonstrate quantum key distribution (QKD) with bidirectional 10 Gb/s classical data channels in a single fiber using dense wavelength division multiplexing. Record secure key rates of 2.38 Mbps and fiber distances up to 70?km are achieved. Data channels are simultaneously monitored for error-free operation. The robustness of QKD is further demonstrated with a secure key rate of 445 kbps over 25?km, obtained in the presence of data lasers launching conventional 0 dBm power. We discuss the fundamental limit for the QKD performance in the multiplexing environment.

  10. Crystallographic Characteristics of Grain Boundaries in Dense Yttria-Stabilized Zirconia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lam Helmick; Shen J. Dillon; Kirk Gerdes; Randall Gemmen; Gregory S. Rohrer; Sridhar Seetharaman; Paul A. Salvador

    2010-04-01

    Grain-boundary plane, misorientation angle, grain size, and grain-boundary energy distributions were quantified using electron backscatter diffraction data for dense polycrystalline yttria-stabilized zirconia, to understand interfacial crystallography in solid oxide fuel cells. Tape-cast samples were sintered at 14501C for 4 h and annealed for at least 100 h between 8001C and 16501C. Distributions obtained from both three-dimensional (3D) reconstructions and stereological analyses of 2D sections demonstrated that the (100) boundary planes {(111)} have relative areas larger {smaller} than expected in a random distribution, and that the boundary plane distribution is inversely correlated to the boundary energy distribution.