National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for denmark estonia european

  1. EWIS European wind integration study (Smart Grid Project) (Denmark...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    search Project Name EWIS European wind integration study Country Denmark Coordinates 56.26392, 9.501785 Loading map... "minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type...

  2. Denmark | National Nuclear Security Administration

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Denmark

  3. Wind Technology, Cost, and Performance Trends in Denmark, Germany, Ireland, Norway, the European Union, and the United States: 2007 - 2012; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hand, Maureen

    2015-06-15

    This presentation provides a summary of IEA Wind Task 26 report on Wind Technology, Cost, and Performance Trends in Denmark, Germany, Ireland, Norway, the European Union, and the United States: 2007-2012

  4. Estonia`s oil shale industry - meeting environmental standards of the future

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tanner, T. [Jaakko Poyry International, Helsinki (Finland); Bird, G.; Wallace, D. [Alberta Research Council, Edmonton (Canada)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    Oil shale is Estonia`s greatest mineral resource. In the 1930s, it was used as a source of gasoline and fuel oil, but now it is mined primarily for thermal generation of electricity. With the loss of its primary market for electricity in the early 1990s and in the absence of another domestic source of fuel Estonia once again is considering the use of a larger proportion of its shale for oil production. However, existing retorting operations in Estonia may not attain western European environmental standards and desired conversion efficiencies. As a reference point, the Estonian authorities have documented existing environmental impacts. It is evaluating technologies to reduce the impacts and is setting a direction for the industry that will serve domestic needs. This paper provides a description of the existing oil shale industry in Estonia and options for the future.

  5. IEA Wind Task 26. Wind Technology, Cost, and Performance Trends in Denmark, Germany, Ireland, Norway, the European Union, and the United States: 2007–2012

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vitina, Aisma; Lüers, Silke; Wallasch, Anna-Kathrin; Berkhout, Volker; Duffy, Aidan; Cleary, Brendan; Husabø, Lief I.; Weir, David E.; Lacal-Arántegui, Roberto; Hand, Maureen; Lantz, Eric; Belyeu, Kathy; Wiser, Ryan H; Bolinger, Mark; Hoen, Ben

    2015-06-01

    The International Energy Agency Implementing Agreement for cooperation in Research, Development, and Deployment of Wind Energy Systems (IEA Wind) Task 26—The Cost of Wind Energy represents an international collaboration dedicated to exploring past, present and future cost of wind energy. This report provides an overview of recent trends in wind plant technology, cost, and performance in those countries that are currently represented by participating organizations in IEA Wind Task 26: Denmark, Germany, Ireland, Norway, and the United States as well as the European Union.

  6. Ecofys-Country Fact Sheets | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Country: Argentina, Australia, Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Brazil, Bulgaria, Canada, China, Colombia, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, European Union,...

  7. Technology experience and economics of oil shale mining in Estonia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fraiman, J.; Kuzmiv, I. [Estonian Oil Shale State Co., Jyhvi (Estonia). Scientific Research Center

    1995-11-01

    The exhaustion of fuel-energy resources became an evident problem of the European continent in the 1960s. Careful utilization of their own reserves of coal, oil, and gas (Germany, France, Spain) and assigned shares of imports of these resources make up the strategy of economic development of the European countries. The expansion of oil shale utilization is the most topical problem. The experience of mining oil shale deposits in Estonia and Russia, in terms of the practice and the economic results, is reviewed in this article. The room-and-pillar method of underground mining and the open-cut technology of clearing the ground ensure the fertility of a soil. The economics of underground and open pit oil shale mines is analyzed in terms of natural, organizational, and technical factors. These analyses are used in the planning and management of oil shale mining enterprises. The perspectives of the oil shale mining industry of Estonia and the economic expediency of multiproduction are examined. Recommendations and guidelines for future industrial utilization of oil shale are given in the summary.

  8. Estonia: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Country Profile Name Estonia Population 1,294,486 GDP 27,410,000,000 Energy Consumption 0.24 Quadrillion Btu 2-letter ISO code EE 3-letter ISO code EST Numeric ISO...

  9. IEA Wind Task 26. Wind Technology, Cost and Performance Trends in Denmark, Germany, Ireland, Norway, the European Union, and the United States. 2007 - 2012

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vitina, Aisma; Luers, Silke; Wallasch, Anna-Kathrin; Berkhout, Volker; Duffy, Aidan; Cleary, Brendan; Husabo, Leif I.; Weir, David E.; Lacal-Arantegui, Roberto; Hand, M. Maureen; Lantz, Eric; Belyeu, Kathy; Wiser, Ryan; Bolinger, Mark; Hoen, Ben

    2015-06-12

    This report builds from a similar previous analysis (Schwabe et al., 2011) exploring the differences in cost of wind energy in 2008 among countries participating in IEA Wind Task 26 at that time. The levelized cost of energy (LCOE) is a widely recognized metric for understanding how technology, capital investment, operations, and financing impact the life-cycle cost of building and operating a wind plant. Schwabe et al. (2011) apply a spreadsheet-based cash flow model developed by the Energy Research Centre of the Netherlands (ECN) to estimate LCOE. This model is a detailed, discounted cash flow model used to represent the various cost structures in each of the participating countries from the perspective of a financial investor in a domestic wind energy project. This model is used for the present analysis as well, and comparisons are made for those countries who contributed to both reports, Denmark, Germany, and the United States.

  10. European Pellet Centre | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Centre Place: Denmark Product: Information provider that targets professional pellet market actors across Europe. References: European Pellet Centre1 This article is a stub....

  11. EERE European Partnerships and Projects | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    European Partnerships and Projects EERE European Partnerships and Projects The Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) engages through regional partnerships, as well as bilaterally with individual countries in the European region. In addition to the regional partnerships described below, EERE Technology Offices engage in bilateral research partnerships with countries in Europe, including Denmark, France, Germany, Iceland, Ireland, the Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, Romania,

  12. Denmark Solar Industry DSI | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Copenhagen, Denmark Zip: DK-1550 Sector: Solar Product: Manufactures and distributes solar panels and systems. Coordinates: 55.67631, 12.569355 Show Map Loading map......

  13. Copenhagen, Denmark: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Core Carbon Group AS CCG Danionics A S Dansk Solar Energy Denmark Solar Industry DSI Lithium Balance Middelgrunden Wind Turbine Cooperative NordEnergie Renewables A S Proark...

  14. Roskilde, Denmark: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Denmark Risoe National Laboratory for Sustainable Energy UNEP Risoe Centre on Energy Environment and Sustainable Development URC References Retrieved from "http:...

  15. Energy use in Denmark: An international perspective

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schipper, L.; Howarth, R.; Andersson, B.; Price, L.

    1992-08-01

    This report analyzes the evolution use in Denmark since the early 1970s in order to shed light on the future path of energy use in Denmark, with particular emphasis on the role of energy efficiency. The authors found that improvements in end-use energy efficiency reduced primary energy requirements in Denmark by 22% between 1972 and 1988. Focusing on developments in six individual sectors of the Danish economy (residential, manufacturing, other industry, service, travel, and freight), they found that the residential, manufacturing, and service sectors have led the improvements in efficiency. Travel showed few significant improvements and the efficiency of freight transportation worsened. The international comparisons showed that the structure of energy use in Denmark is less energy-intensive than that of most high-income OECD countries, with the exception of Japan. Overall, they concluded that most of the energy savings achieved in Denmark were brought about through improvements in technology. They also found that an important stimulus for improved efficiency was higher energy prices, led in no small part by significant taxes imposed on small consumers of heating oil, electricity, and motor fuels. Energy-efficiency programs accelerated energy savings in homes and commercial buildings. The rate of improvement of energy efficiency in Denmark has slowed down significantly since 1984, consistent with trends observed in other major countries. While many of the energy-efficiency goals stated or implied in Denmark`s Energi 2000 are achievable over a very long period, present trends do not point towards achievement of these goals by 2010 or even 2020. Strong measures will have to be developed by both public and private authorities if energy efficiency is to make a key contributions to reducing environmental problems associated with energy use in Denmark.

  16. Effectiveness of Environmental Impact Assessment system in Estonia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heinma, Kaupo; Poder, Tonis

    2010-07-15

    To be effective, an Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) system, first, has to minimize the probability that projects with significant environmental effects are implemented without EIA, and second, minimize the number of EIAs, which do not provide decision makers with essential information, so that the decision is improved as a result of EIA. The objective of this study was to find out how frequently in Estonia the projects implemented without EIA have caused significant environmental effects, and to measure the relative frequency of EIAs that have no influence on decision. An extensive survey with e-mail distributed questionnaires was carried out to reveal information from governmental agencies, local self-governments, and developers. There was no evidence that projects authorized without EIA have had environmental impacts, which could have been mitigated as a result of EIA. In contrast, about half of EIAs did not alter the decision of relevant authorities. This proportion was valid to both mandatory EIAs and those initiated on judgement basis. In our view, the proportion of no-influence EIAs was excessive and indicated the need to reconsider the provisions applying to the projects with a mandatory EIA requirement as well as judgements practice.

  17. Technical University of Denmark | Energy Systems Integration | NREL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Technical University of Denmark NREL is working in partnership with the Technical University of Denmark for the Centre for IT-Intelligent Energy Systems in Cities (CITIES) project. Denmark is targeting an energy system that is 100% renewable by 2050. To reach this ambitious goal, CITIES is bringing together industrial and academic partners to effectively overhaul and integrate Denmark's energy system. NREL will provide technical support for this project, including modeling, simulating, and

  18. Denmark, New York: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    "icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":"" Hide Map Denmark is a town in Lewis County, New York.1 References US Census Bureau Incorporated place and minor...

  19. ARGE DFC - A European approach to MCFC commercialization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kraus, P.; Huppmann, G.; Heiming, A.

    1996-12-31

    The largest European program for the commercialization of the molten carbonate fuel cell technology is carried out by the European Direct Fuel Cell Consortium (ARGE DFC). The consortium consists of the following companies: (1) MTU Friedrichshafen GmbH (Germany), within the DaimlerBenz Group responsible for off-road propulsion and decentralized energy systems. (2) Haldor Topsoe A/S (Denmark), a plant engineering company and specialist for catalytic processes (3) Elkraft A.m.b.A. (Denmark), one of the countries two utility companies (4) Ruhrgas AG (Germany), the largest German gas company (5) RWE AG (Germany), the largest German electrical utility company MTU acts as a consortium leader. The company shares a license and technology exchange agreement with Energy Research Corporation of Danbury, Connecticut.

  20. European Energy A S | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Denmark Sector: Renewable Energy, Solar, Wind energy Product: Denmark-based independent power producer group specializing in renewable energy. The firm's main focus is on the...

  1. Sandia Wind-Turbine Blade Flaw Detection Experiments in Denmark

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Wind-Turbine Blade Flaw Detection Experiments in Denmark - Sandia Energy Energy Search ... Twitter Google + Vimeo GovDelivery SlideShare Sandia Wind-Turbine Blade Flaw Detection ...

  2. 3atab.xlsx

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    ... Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Japan, Luxembourg, Mexico, the Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Poland, ...

  3. European Climate Foundation (ECF) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    European Climate Foundation (ECF) (Redirected from European Climate Foundation) Jump to: navigation, search Logo: European Climate Foundation (ECF) Name: European Climate...

  4. European Commission | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    European Commission Name: European Commission Place: Brussels, Belgium Website: ec.europa.euindexen.htm Coordinates: 50.8503396, 4.3517103 Show Map Loading map......

  5. Decommissioning and Dismantling of Liquid Waste Storage and Liquid Waste Treatment Facility from Paldiski Nuclear Site, Estonia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Varvas, M.; Putnik, H.; Johnsson, B.

    2006-07-01

    The Paldiski Nuclear Facility in Estonia, with two nuclear reactors was owned by the Soviet Navy and was used for training the navy personnel to operate submarine nuclear reactors. After collapse of Soviet Union the Facility was shut down and handed over to the Estonian government in 1995. In co-operation with the Paldiski International Expert Reference Group (PIERG) decommission strategy was worked out and started to implement. Conditioning of solid and liquid operational waste and dismantling of contaminated installations and buildings were among the key issues of the Strategy. Most of the liquid waste volume, remained at the Facility, was processed in the frames of an Estonian-Finnish co-operation project using a mobile wastewater purification unit NURES (IVO International OY) and water was discharged prior to the site take-over. In 1999-2002 ca 120 m{sup 3} of semi-liquid tank sediments (a mixture of ion exchange resins, sand filters, evaporator and flocculation slurry), remained after treatment of liquid waste were solidified in steel containers and stored into interim storage. The project was carried out under the Swedish - Estonian co-operation program on radiation protection and nuclear safety. Contaminated installations in buildings, used for treatment and storage of liquid waste (Liquid Waste Treatment Facility and Liquid Waste Storage) were then dismantled and the buildings demolished in 2001-2004. (authors)

  6. European Climate Foundation (ECF) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    European Climate Foundation (ECF) Jump to: navigation, search Logo: European Climate Foundation (ECF) Name: European Climate Foundation (ECF) Address: Tournooiveld 4 2511 CX Place:...

  7. The European Spallation Source

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peggs, S; Eshraqi, M; Hahn, H; Jansson, A; Lindroos, M; Ponton, A; Rathsman, K; Trahern, G; Bousso, S; Calaga, R; Devanz, G; Duperrier, R D; Eguia, J; Gammino, S; Moller, S P; Oyon, C; Ruber, R.J.M.Y.

    2011-03-01

    The European Spallation Source (ESS) is a 5 MW, 2.5 GeV long pulse proton linac, to be built and commissioned in Lund, Sweden. The Accelerator Design Update (ADU) project phase is under way, to be completed at the end of 2012 by the delivery of a Technical Design Report. Improvements to the 2003 ESS design will be summarised, and the latest design activities will be presented.

  8. Eastern European risk management

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Honey, J.A. )

    1992-01-01

    Here the authors assess Eastern European risk management practices through the evaluation of the nuclear power plants in the region. This evaluation is limited to the Soviet-designed and -built VVER-440 pressurized water reactors (PWRs) that are currently operating in Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Russia, and the Ukraine and until recently operated at Greifswald in the former East Germany. This evaluation is based on the basic design of the plants, a safety evaluation of the Greifswald facility by representatives from the Federal Republic of Germany and personal visits by the author to Greifswald and Loviisa.

  9. European Environment Agency | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    6 1050 Place: Copenhagen, Denmark Phone Number: (+45) 33 36 71 00 Website: www.eea.europa.eu Coordinates: 55.6811436, 12.5866457 Show Map Loading map......

  10. --No Title--

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Cyprus Czech Republic Denmark Djibouti Dominica Dominican Republic Ecuador Egypt El Salvador Equatorial Guinea Eritrea Estonia Ethiopia Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas) Faroe...

  11. Press Pass - Press Releases

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Austria, Belgium, Canada, China, the Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Hungary, Italy, India, Israel, Japan, Republic of Korea, the Netherlands, Norway,...

  12. Press Pass - Press Release - LHC First Beam

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Austria, Belgium, Canada, China, the Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Hungary, Italy, India, Israel, Japan, Republic of Korea, the Netherlands, Norway,...

  13. European Wind Energy Association | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Energy Association Jump to: navigation, search Logo: European Wind Energy Association Name: European Wind Energy Association Address: Rue d'Arlon 80 B-1040 Place: Brussels, Belgium...

  14. European Investment Bank | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Logo: European Investment Bank Name: European Investment Bank Address: 98-100, boulevard Konrad Adenauer L-2950 Place: Luxembourg Product: Microfinance, Loans, Venture Capital...

  15. European Neutron Activation System.

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2013-01-11

    Version 03 EASY-2010 (European Activation System) consists of a wide range of codes, data and documentation all aimed at satisfying the objective of calculating the response of materials irradiated in a neutron flux. The main difference from the previous version is the upper energy limit, which has increased from 20 to 60 MeV. It is designed to investigate both fusion devices and accelerator based materials test facilities that will act as intense sources of high-energymore » neutrons causing significant activation of the surrounding materials. The very general nature of the calculational method and the data libraries means that it is applicable (with some reservations) to all situations (e.g. fission reactors or neutron sources) where materials are exposed to neutrons below 60 MeV. EASY can be divided into two parts: data and code development tools and user tools and data. The former are required to develop the latter, but EASY users only need to be able to use the inventory code FISPACT and be aware of the contents of the EAF library (the data source). The complete EASY package contains the FISPACT-2007 inventory code, the EAF-2003, EAF-2005, EAF-2007 and EAF-2010 libraries, and the EASY User Interface for the Window version. The activation package EASY-2010 is the result of significant development to extend the upper energy range from 20 to 60 MeV so that it is capable of being used for IFMIF calculations. The EAF-2010 library contains 66,256 reactions, almost five times more than in EAF-2003 (12,617). Deuteron-induced and proton-induced cross section libraries are also included, and can be used with EASY to enable calculations of the activation due to deuterons and proton [2].« less

  16. U.S.-European Union Joint Statement

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    JOINT STATEMENT BY PRESIDENT GEORGE W. BUSH, EUROPEAN COUNCIL PRESIDENT KONSTANDINOS SIMITIS, AND EUROPEAN COMMISSION PRESIDENT ROMANO PRODI ON THE HYDROGEN ECONOMY We affirm our commitment, on behalf of the United States and the European Union, to collaborate on accelerating the development of the hydrogen economy as part of our broadening cooperation on energy. We aim to enhance the security of energy supply, increase diversity of energy sources, and improve local and global environmental

  17. European Business School | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Jump to: navigation, search Name: European Business School Place: Oestrich-Winkel, Germany Zip: D-65375 Sector: Efficiency Product: An Germany-based business school focusing on...

  18. European Wave and Tidal Energy Conference

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The European Wave and Tidal Energy Conference (EWTEC) series are international, technical and scientific conferences, focussed on ocean renewable energy and widely respected for their commitment to...

  19. European Space Agency | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Space Agency Jump to: navigation, search Name: European Space Agency Place: Paris, France Zip: 75738 Sector: Services, Solar Product: String representation "ESAs job is ......

  20. European Green Cars Initiative | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Commission Focus Area: Governance - Planning - Decision-Making Structure Topics: Best Practices Website: www.green-cars-initiative.eupublic The European Green Cars...

  1. ENTECH European Nuclear Technologies Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    ENTECH European Nuclear Technologies Ltd Jump to: navigation, search Name: ENTECH (European Nuclear Technologies Ltd.) Place: Bristol, United Kingdom Zip: BS99 7JT Product: Entech...

  2. Advances in Diesel Engine Technologies for European Passenger...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Diesel Engine Technologies for European Passenger Vehicles Advances in Diesel Engine Technologies for European Passenger Vehicles 2002 DEER Conference Presentation: Volkswagen AG ...

  3. Investigation of the Application of the European PMP Method to...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of the Application of the European PMP Method to Clean Heavy Duty Vehicles Investigation of the Application of the European PMP Method to Clean Heavy Duty Vehicles Presentation ...

  4. Evaluation of the European PMP Methodologies Using Chassis Dynamometer...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    the European PMP Methodologies Using Chassis Dynamometer and On-road Testing of Heavy-duty Vehicles Evaluation of the European PMP Methodologies Using Chassis Dynamometer and ...

  5. CEIN European Business and Innovation Center of Navarra | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    CEIN European Business and Innovation Center of Navarra Jump to: navigation, search Name: CEIN European Business and Innovation Center of Navarra Place: Spain Sector: Services...

  6. Environmental assessment of garden waste management in the Municipality of Aarhus, Denmark

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boldrin, Alessio; Andersen, Jacob K.; Christensen, Thomas H.

    2011-07-15

    An environmental assessment of six scenarios for handling of garden waste in the Municipality of Aarhus (Denmark) was performed from a life cycle perspective by means of the LCA-model EASEWASTE. In the first (baseline) scenario, the current garden waste management system based on windrow composting was assessed, while in the other five scenarios alternative solutions including incineration and home composting of fractions of the garden waste were evaluated. The environmental profile (normalised to Person Equivalent, PE) of the current garden waste management in Aarhus is in the order of -6 to 8 mPE Mg{sup -1} ww for the non-toxic categories and up to 100 mPE Mg{sup -1} ww for the toxic categories. The potential impacts on non-toxic categories are much smaller than what is found for other fractions of municipal solid waste. Incineration (up to 35% of the garden waste) and home composting (up to 18% of the garden waste) seem from an environmental point of view suitable for diverting waste away from the composting facility in order to increase its capacity. In particular the incineration of woody parts of the garden waste improved the environmental profile of the garden waste management significantly.

  7. Exposure determinants of cadmium in European mothers and their children

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Berglund, Marika; Larsson, Kristin; Grandér, Margaretha; Casteleyn, Ludwine; Kolossa-Gehring, Marike; Schwedler, Gerda; Castaño, Argelia; Esteban, Marta; Angerer, Jürgen; Koch, Holger M.; Schindler, Birgit K.; Schoeters, Greet; Smolders, Roel; Exley, Karen; Sepai, Ovnair; Blumen, Luies; Horvat, Milena; Knudsen, Lisbeth E.; Mørck, Thit A.; Joas, Anke; and others

    2015-08-15

    The metal cadmium (Cd) is a widespread environmental pollutant with documented adverse effects on the kidneys and bones from long-term environmental exposure, but with insufficiently elucidated public health consequences such as risk of cardiovascular disease, hormone-related cancer in adults and developmental effects in children. This study is the first pan-European human biomonitoring project that succeeded in performing harmonized measurements of Cd in urine in a comparable way in mother–child couples from 16 European countries. The aim of the study was to evaluate the overall Cd exposure and significant determinants of Cd exposure. A study population of 1632 women (24–52 years of age), and 1689 children (5–12 years of age), from 32 rural and urban areas, was examined within a core period of 6 months in 2011–2012. Women were stratified as smokers and non-smokers. As expected, smoking mothers had higher geometric mean (gm) urinary cadmium (UCd; 0.24 µg/g crea; n=360) than non-smoking mothers (gm 0.18 µg/g crea; n=1272; p<0.0001), and children had lower UCd (gm 0.065 µg/g crea; n=1689) than their mothers at the country level. Non-smoking women exposed to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) at home had 14% (95% CI 1–28%) higher UCd than those who were not exposed to ETS at home (p=0.04). No influence of ETS at home or other places on UCd levels was detected in children. Smoking women with primary education as the highest educational level of the household had 48% (95% CI 18–86%) higher UCd than those with tertiary education (p=0.0008). The same observation was seen in non-smoking women and in children; however they were not statistically significant. In children, living in a rural area was associated with 7% (95% CI 1–13%) higher UCd (p=0.03) compared to living in an urban area. Children, 9–12 years had 7% (95% CI 1–13%) higher UCd (p=0.04) than children 5–8 years. About 1% of the mothers, and 0.06% of the children, exceeded the tolerable

  8. Competition and liberalization in European gas markets: Towards a continental European model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stern, J.P.

    1998-06-01

    Many of the long-awaited changes to the European gas market are now imminent. Institutional developments and market forces are combining to produce a transformation. This major study analyzes the developments in a wide range of European countries, including central and eastern Europe. In examining how different institutional traditions and political priorities will affect the gas market, Stern explores the potential for a distinct continental European model of competition and liberalization.

  9. Developments in the European methanol market

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Speed, J.

    1995-12-31

    In the late eighties/early nineties the World Methanol Market was basically divided into three regional markets--America, Asia Pacific and Europe. These markets were interrelated but each had its own specific characteristics and traditional suppliers. Now the situation has changed; in the mid nineties there is a Global Methanol Market with global players and effective global pricing and the European market is governed by events world-wide. Europe is however a specific market with specific characteristics which are different from those of other markets although it is also part of the Global Market. Hence before the author focuses on Europe he looks at the World Market. The paper discusses world methanol production and consumption by region, world methanol consumption by end use, world methanol supply demand balance, the west European market, western European methanol production, methanol imports to W. Europe, the Former Soviet Union supplies, W. European methanol consumption by end use, MTBE in Europe, duties on methanol imports into W. Europe, investment in Europe, the effect of the 1994/95 price spike, and key issues for the future of the industry.

  10. HyLights -- Tools to Prepare the Large-Scale European Demonstration...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    HYLIGHTS - TOOLS TO PREPARE THE LARGE-SCALE EUROPEAN DEMONSTRATION PROJECTS ON HYDROGEN ... Assist the European Commission and European industry to plan the large-scale demonstration ...

  11. 28th Meeting of the European Crystallographic Association

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    8th Meeting of the European Crystallographic Association 28th Meeting of the European Crystallographic Association Print http://ecm28.ecanews.org/ August 25-29, 2013; University of Warwick, UK

  12. EU Pocketbook - European Vehicle Market Statistics | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    - European Vehicle Market Statistics AgencyCompany Organization: International Council on Clean Transportation Website: eupocketbook.theicct.org Transport Toolkit...

  13. U.S.-European Union Joint Statement | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    European Union Joint Statement U.S.-European Union Joint Statement U.S.-European Union Joint Statement prepared as part of the International Partnership for a Hydrogen Economy us_eu_hydrogen_summit_statement.pdf (61.18 KB) More Documents & Publications Microsoft Word - Document1 International Partnerships for the Hydrogen Economy Fact Sheet International Partnerships for the Hydrogen Economy Fact Sheet

  14. Russia, Ukraine and European security. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blank, S.J.

    1993-05-20

    The author examines the problems connected with the presence of nuclear weapons in Ukraine and their impact on Russo-Ukrainian relations and European security. He analyzes the fears of both Russia and Ukraine, vis-a-vis each other, that have led to this situation and suggests ways out of the impasse for both states, and particularly for the United States. He examines how the present situation evolved and recommends a solution that contributes in peaceful fashion to all parties' interests.... Strategic Arms Reduction Talks (START); Soviet Union/ Russian republic; Ukraine; Conventional and strategic deterrence; NATO; North Atlantic Cooperation Council.

  15. NNSA and the European Commission advance global nuclear nonproliferation

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    goals at 6th annual Joint Steering Committee Meeting | National Nuclear Security Administration | (NNSA) and the European Commission advance global nuclear nonproliferation goals at 6th annual Joint Steering Committee Meeting Friday, July 15, 2016 - 11:13am NNSA and the European Commission's Joint Research Centre participants at the 6th Annual Joint Steering Committee meeting. NNSA and the European Commission (E.C.) recently met in Ispra, Italy, to review the status of collaborative efforts

  16. EWIS European wind integration study (Smart Grid Project) (Germany...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Germany) Jump to: navigation, search Project Name EWIS European wind integration study Country Germany Coordinates 51.165691, 10.451526 Loading map... "minzoom":false,"mapping...

  17. Roel Neggers European Centre for Medium-range Weather Forecasts

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    transition from shallow to deep convection using a dual mass flux boundary layer scheme Roel Neggers European Centre for Medium-range Weather Forecasts Introduction " " % % &...

  18. 28th Meeting of the European Crystallographic Association

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    8th Meeting of the European Crystallographic Association http://ecm28.ecanews.org/ August 25-29, 2013; University of Warwick, UK

  19. EWIS European wind integration study (Smart Grid Project) (Spain...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Spain) Jump to: navigation, search Project Name EWIS European wind integration study Country Spain Coordinates 40.522152, -4.163818 Loading map... "minzoom":false,"mappingserv...

  20. EWIS European wind integration study (Smart Grid Project) (United...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    United Kingdom) Jump to: navigation, search Project Name EWIS European wind integration study Country United Kingdom Coordinates 55.378052, -3.435973 Loading map......

  1. European Business Council for Sustainable Energy e5 | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Council for Sustainable Energy e5 Jump to: navigation, search Name: European Business Council for Sustainable Energy (e5) Place: Karben, Germany Product: Germany-based, initiative...

  2. Sandian Presents on PV Failure Analysis at European PV Solar...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Presents on PV Failure Analysis at European PV Solar Energy Conference and Exhibition (EU PVSC) - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator ...

  3. Illustrative Scenarios Tool (European Union) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Illustrative Scenarios Tool (European Union) Focus Area: Propane Topics: Opportunity Assessment & Screening Website: www.eutransportghg2050.eucms...

  4. EWIS European wind integration study (Smart Grid Project) (France...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    France) Jump to: navigation, search Project Name EWIS European wind integration study Country France Coordinates 45.897655, 2.021484 Loading map... "minzoom":false,"mappingser...

  5. Manual of European Environmental Policy | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    and cases from the European Court of Justice. Regular updates as legislation is adopted, plus details and analysis of new and forthcoming policy. Advanced search options so you...

  6. European Academy of Wind Energy | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Academy of Wind Energy Jump to: navigation, search Name: European Academy of Wind Energy Place: Kassel, Germany Sector: Wind energy Product: The EAWE is a cooperative association...

  7. EWIS European wind integration study (Smart Grid Project) (Netherlands...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    of wind generation developers. The study will use results from detailed network and market models of the European transmission system for scenarios representing immediate and...

  8. EWIS European wind integration study (Smart Grid Project) (Greece...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    of wind generation developers. The study will use results from detailed network and market models of the European transmission system for scenarios representing immediate and...

  9. EWIS European wind integration study (Smart Grid Project) (Austria...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    of wind generation developers. The study will use results from detailed network and market models of the European transmission system for scenarios representing immediate and...

  10. EWIS European wind integration study (Smart Grid Project) (Poland...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    of wind generation developers. The study will use results from detailed network and market models of the European transmission system for scenarios representing immediate and...

  11. EWIS European wind integration study (Smart Grid Project) | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    of wind generation developers. The study will use results from detailed network and market models of the European transmission system for scenarios representing immediate and...

  12. EWIS European wind integration study (Smart Grid Project) (Portugal...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    of wind generation developers. The study will use results from detailed network and market models of the European transmission system for scenarios representing immediate and...

  13. EWIS European wind integration study (Smart Grid Project) (Ireland...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    of wind generation developers. The study will use results from detailed network and market models of the European transmission system for scenarios representing immediate and...

  14. European Energy Exchange AG EEX | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Energy Exchange AG EEX Jump to: navigation, search Name: European Energy Exchange AG (EEX) Place: Leipzig, Germany Zip: D-04109 Product: Germany's energy exchange, which aims to...

  15. EWIS European wind integration study (Smart Grid Project) (Czech...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Czech Republic) Jump to: navigation, search Project Name EWIS European wind integration study Country Czech Republic Coordinates 49.817493, 15.472962 Loading map......

  16. The Danish contribution to the European DEMOCOPHES project: A description of cadmium, cotinine and mercury levels in Danish mother-child pairs and the perspectives of supplementary sampling and measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mørck, Thit A.; Nielsen, Flemming; Nielsen, Jeanette K.S.; Jensen, Janne F.; Hansen, Pernille W.; Hansen, Anne K.; Christoffersen, Lea N.; Siersma, Volkert D.; Larsen, Ida H.; Hohlmann, Linette K.; Skaanild, Mette T.; Frederiksen, Hanne; Biot, Pierre; Casteleyn, Ludwine; Kolossa-Gehring, Marike; Schwedler, Gerda; Castaño, Argelia; Angerer, Jürgen; Koch, Holger M.; Esteban, Marta; and others

    2015-08-15

    Human biomonitoring (HBM) is an important tool, increasingly used for measuring true levels of the body burdens of environmental chemicals in the general population. In Europe, a harmonized HBM program was needed to open the possibility to compare levels across borders. To explore the prospect of a harmonized European HBM project, DEMOCOPHES (DEMOnstration of a study to COordinate and Perform Human biomonitoring on a European Scale) was completed in 17 European countries. The basic measurements performed in all implemented countries of DEMOCOPHES included cadmium, cotinine and phthalate metabolites in urine and mercury in hair. In the Danish participants, significant correlations between mothers and children for mercury in hair and cotinine in urine were found. Mercury in hair was further significantly associated with intake of fish and area of residence. Cadmium was positively associated with BMI in mothers and an association between cadmium and cotinine was also found. As expected high cotinine levels were found in smoking mothers. For both mercury and cadmium significantly higher concentrations were found in the mothers compared to their children. In Denmark, the DEMOCOPHES project was co-financed by the Danish ministries of health, environment and food safety. The co-financing ministries agreed to finance a number of supplementary measurements of substances of current toxicological, public and regulatory interest. This also included blood sampling from the participants. The collected urine and blood samples were analyzed for a range of other persistent and non-persistent environmental chemicals as well as two biomarkers of effect. The variety of supplementary measurements gives the researchers further information on the exposure status of the participants and creates a basis for valuable knowledge on the pattern of exposure to various chemicals. - Highlights: • Levels of cadmium, mercury and cotinine in the Danish subpopulation are comparable to levels in the

  17. The European Community and crisis adaptation: The impact of the 1973 oil crisis on European integration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mahurin, R.P.

    1991-01-01

    This study investigates relationships that emerged between European Economic Community and Arab League nations during the period 1970-1978, with special attention to the period immediately following the October 1973 Arab-Israeli war and the Arab oil embargo of 1973-74. The central argument is that European integration can be measured and understood from three different levels of analysis: not only the systems or supranational level (to which neofunctionalists and federalists have largely confined their investigations), but from the nation-state and the subnational levels also. This view is justified in the context of complex interdependencies in the work of Joseph Nye and Robert Keohane. From this perspective, nation-state and subnational-level data take on a new importance. This study collected data on the nature, level, and intensity of contracts between actors within each of these three levels. The study finds at all these levels strong evidence of increased collective and convergent activity which, in the context of complex interdependencies, points to a complex but clearly advancing process of European integration during the period under investigation.

  18. European Lean Gasoline Direct Injection Vehicle Benchmark

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chambon, Paul H; Huff, Shean P; Edwards, Kevin Dean; Norman, Kevin M; Prikhodko, Vitaly Y; Thomas, John F

    2011-01-01

    Lean Gasoline Direct Injection (LGDI) combustion is a promising technical path for achieving significant improvements in fuel efficiency while meeting future emissions requirements. Though Stoichiometric Gasoline Direct Injection (SGDI) technology is commercially available in a few vehicles on the American market, LGDI vehicles are not, but can be found in Europe. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) obtained a European BMW 1-series fitted with a 2.0l LGDI engine. The vehicle was instrumented and commissioned on a chassis dynamometer. The engine and after-treatment performance and emissions were characterized over US drive cycles (Federal Test Procedure (FTP), the Highway Fuel Economy Test (HFET), and US06 Supplemental Federal Test Procedure (US06)) and steady state mappings. The vehicle micro hybrid features (engine stop-start and intelligent alternator) were benchmarked as well during the course of that study. The data was analyzed to quantify the benefits and drawbacks of the lean gasoline direct injection and micro hybrid technologies from a fuel economy and emissions perspectives with respect to the US market. Additionally that data will be formatted to develop, substantiate, and exercise vehicle simulations with conventional and advanced powertrains.

  19. European Marine Energy Centre Ltd EMEC | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Marine Energy Centre Ltd EMEC Jump to: navigation, search Name: European Marine Energy Centre Ltd (EMEC) Place: Stromness, United Kingdom Zip: KW16 3AW Product: EMEC aims to...

  20. European Fuel Cell GmbH EFC | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    GmbH EFC Jump to: navigation, search Name: European Fuel Cell GmbH (EFC) Place: Hamburg, Hamburg, Germany Zip: 20539 Product: EFC is developing a residential fuel cell CHP system...

  1. Advances in Diesel Engine Technologies for European Passenger Vehicles |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Diesel Engine Technologies for European Passenger Vehicles Advances in Diesel Engine Technologies for European Passenger Vehicles 2002 DEER Conference Presentation: Volkswagen AG 2002_deer_schindler.pdf (1.73 MB) More Documents & Publications Accelerating Light-Duty Diesel Sales in the U.S. Market Light-Duty Diesel Market Potential in North America Meeting the CO2 Challenge DEER 2002

  2. Towards a coherent European approach for taxation of combustible waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dubois, Maarten

    2013-08-15

    Highlights: Current European waste taxes do not constitute a level playing field. Integrating waste incineration in EU ETS avoids regional tax competition. A differentiated incineration tax is a second-best instrument for NO{sub x} emissions. A tax on landfilled incineration residues stimulates ash treatment. - Abstract: Although intra-European trade of combustible waste has grown strongly in the last decade, incineration and landfill taxes remain disparate within Europe. The paper proposes a more coherent taxation approach for Europe that is based on the principle of Pigovian taxation, i.e. the internalization of environmental damage costs. The approach aims to create a level playing field between European regions while reinforcing incentives for sustainable management of combustible waste. Three important policy recommendations emerge. First, integrating waste incineration into the European Emissions Trading System for greenhouse gases (EU ETS) reduces the risk of tax competition between regions. Second, because taxation of every single air pollutant from waste incineration is cumbersome, a differentiated waste incineration tax based on NO{sub x} emissions can serve as a second-best instrument. Finally, in order to strengthen incentives for ash treatment, a landfill tax should apply for landfilled incineration residues. An example illustrates the coherence of the policy recommendations for incineration technologies with diverse environmental effects.

  3. EECH Group AG formerly European Energy Consult Holding P T Technology...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    EECH Group AG formerly European Energy Consult Holding P T Technology AG Jump to: navigation, search Name: EECH Group AG (formerly European Energy Consult Holding, P&T Technology...

  4. The European X-ray Free-Electron Laser: A Progress Report | Stanford...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Friday, December 2, 2011 - 2:00pm SLAC, Redtail Conference Room (901-108) M. Altarelli, European XFEL GmbH, Hamburg, Germany The present status of the construction of the European ...

  5. European Labs | U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC)

    Office of Science (SC) Website

    European Labs Nuclear Physics (NP) NP Home About Research Facilities Science Highlights Benefits of NP Applications of Nuclear Science Small Business Innovation Research / Small Business Technology Transfer Funding Opportunities Nuclear Science Advisory Committee (NSAC) Community Resources Contact Information Nuclear Physics U.S. Department of Energy SC-26/Germantown Building 1000 Independence Ave., SW Washington, DC 20585 P: (301) 903-3613 F: (301) 903-3833 E: Email Us More Information »

  6. European American Solar Deployment Conference (PV Rollout), 2013

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    rd European American Solar Deployment Conference (PV Rollout), 2013 PV Distribution Interconnection Study Analysis Matthew J. Reno, Robert J. Broderick, Jimmy E. Quiroz, Santiago Grijalva 777 Atlantic Dr. NW, Atlanta, GA 30332, USA Phone: 505-620-6560 E-Mail: matthew.reno@gatech.edu Introduction Deployment of distributed PV systems is increasing rapidly. High penetration scenarios, which are becoming increasingly common, have the potential to affect the distribution feeder equipment [1] and the

  7. Energy market of the European union: common or segmented?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nowak, Bartlomiej

    2010-12-15

    The European energy market operates on the premise of open and competitive markets among its 27 member states. But the gas and electricity market dynamics and levels of competitiveness vary enormously across the EU 27. Among the issues are unequal implementation of electricity and gas directives, a lack of independent energy regulators, the absence of proper and full unbundling, and discriminatory third-party access to the infrastructure. (author)

  8. Arco to enter European PGE production with new Rotterdam plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Young, I.

    1993-03-03

    Arco Chemical (Newtown Square, PA) will enter production of propylene glycol ethers (PGEs) in Europe by building a 70,000-m.t./year plant at its Rotterdam site. Arco's board has approved the project, with construction to begin this year and completion expected in mid-1995. This new plant supports the company's long-standing strategy to increase its downstream integration in value-added derivatives of propylene oxide,' says Jack Oppasser, president of Arco Chemical Europe (Maidenhead, U.K.). It allows the company to sustain its strong position in the growing European glycol ether market.' Arco's move represents a challenge to Dow Europe (Horgen, Switzerland), which dominates the European PGE market. Dow is Europe's biggest producer of PGEs, with its Dowanol brands commanding a share greater than 50% of the estimated 90,000-m.t./year methyl-based PGE market. This was recently boosted by completion of the expansion of its plant at Stade, Germany, from 60,000 m.t./year to 110,000 m.t./year. While Arco does not currently make PGEs in Europe, it is the second-largest supplier, with about 15,000 m.t.-20,000 m.t./year, via third-party manufacturing arrangements' with European producers, including BP Chemicals, and imports from its 90-million lbs/year plant at Bayport, TX. However, Arco refuses to comment on this because of antitrust aspects.'

  9. The European Union's emissions trading system in perspective

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    A. Denny Ellerman; Paul L. Joskow

    2008-05-15

    The performance of the European Union's Emissions Trading System (EU ETS) to date cannot be evaluated without recognizing that the first three years from 2005 through 2007 constituted a 'trial' period and understanding what this trial period was supposed to accomplish. Its primary goal was to develop the infrastructure and to provide the experience that would enable the successful use of a cap-and-trade system to limit European GHG emissions during a second trading period, 2008-12, corresponding to the first commitment period of the Kyoto Protocol. The trial period was a rehearsal for the later more serious engagement and it was never intended to achieve significant reductions in CO{sub 2} emissions in only three years. In light of the speed with which the program was developed, the many sovereign countries involved, the need to develop the necessary data, information dissemination, compliance and market institutions, and the lack of extensive experience with emissions trading in Europe, we think that the system has performed surprisingly well. Although there have been plenty of rough edges, a transparent and widely accepted price for tradable CO{sub 2} emission allowances emerged by January 1, 2005, a functioning market for allowances has developed quickly and effortlessly without any prodding by the Commission or member state governments, the cap-and-trade infrastructure of market institutions, registries, monitoring, reporting and verification is in place, and a significant segment of European industry is incorporating the price of CO{sub 2} emissions into their daily production decisions. The development of the EU ETS and the experience with the trial period provides a number of useful lessons for the U.S. and other countries. 27 refs., 7 figs., 5 tabs.

  10. A European Sustainable Tourism Labels proposal using a composite indicator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blancas, Francisco Javier; Lozano-Oyola, Macarena; González, Mercedes

    2015-09-15

    The tourism sector in Europe faces important challenges which it must deal with to promote its future development. In this context, the European Commission considers that two key issues must be addressed. On the one hand, a better base of socio-economic knowledge about tourism and its relationship with the environment is needed, and, on the other hand, it is necessary to improve the image of European areas as quality sustainable tourism destinations. In this paper we present analytical tools that cover these needs. Specifically, we define a system of sustainable tourism indicators and we obtain a composite indicator incorporating weights quantified using a panel of experts. Employing the values of this global indicator as a basis, we define a Sustainable Tourism Country-Brand Ranking which assesses the perception of each country-brand depending on its degree of sustainability, and a system of sustainable tourism labels which reward the management carried out. - Highlights: • We define a system of indicators to improve the knowledge about sustainable tourism. • We obtain composite indicators based on expert knowledge. • The Sustainable Tourism Country-Brand Ranking would improve the image of destinations. • We define a Sustainable Tourism Labels System to assess country-brands. • The conclusions of the empirical analysis can be extrapolated to other tourist areas.

  11. Comparison of filter with Prairie and European Network data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Canavan, G.H.

    1997-10-01

    Earlier notes derived a model for the hydrodynamics, ablation, and radiation of meteor impacts at the level needed to infer meteor parameters from observations and extended it to objects that fragment during entry, using models based on related cometary studies. This note completes the comparison of the resulting filter model to European and Prairie Network (EN and PN) data and models of meteor impact. In cases of mutual applicability, US and European models give broadly consistent results. The quantitative analysis of the EN and PN data is best discussed in conjunction with the Russian program of its analysis, because the Russian program has bypassed the large reported photometrically based masses to derive more plausible estimates of sizes, masses, and radiation efficiencies, which are the primary quantities of concern here. This note completes the discussion of the PN and EN data begun earlier, uses the data to produce filter predictions, and compares it with observations and the predictions of the Russian analytic effort. The overall agreement is useful in that the Russian efforts have employed more complex models that use observational data directly, while the filter model is at a level of simplification much better suited to data inversion.

  12. High Temperature Fuel Cells in the European Union | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Cells in the European Union High Temperature Fuel Cells in the European Union Presentation on High Temperature Fuel Cells in the European Union to the High Temperature Membrane Working Group, May 25, 2004 in Philadelphia, PA. euhvh_philadelphia.pdf (1.38 MB) More Documents & Publications CARISMA: A Networking Project for High Temperature PEMFC MEA Activities in Europe Evaluating Exhaust Emission Performance of Urban Buses Using Transient Heavy-Duty Chassis Dynamometer Membrane Development

  13. Sandia to Discuss Energy-Storage Test Protocols at the European...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Discuss Energy-Storage Test Protocols at the European PV Solar Energy Conference - Sandia ... distributed energy resource (DER) operation and communication within the power system. ...

  14. HyLights -- Tools to Prepare the Large-Scale European Demonstration...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Projects on Hydrogen for Transport HyLights -- Tools to Prepare the Large-Scale European Demonstration Projects on Hydrogen for Transport Presented at Refueling ...

  15. The Activities of the European Consortium on Nuclear Data Development and Analysis for Fusion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fischer, U.; Avrigeanu, M.; Avrigeanu, V.; Cabellos, O.; Kodeli, I.; Koning, A.; Konobeyev, A.Yu.; Leeb, H.; Rochman, D.; Pereslavtsev, P.; Sauvan, P.; Sublet, J.-C.; Dupont, E.; Leichtle, D.; Izquierdo, J.

    2014-06-15

    This paper presents an overview of the activities of the European Consortium on Nuclear Data Development and Analysis for Fusion. The Consortium combines available European expertise to provide services for the generation, maintenance, and validation of nuclear data evaluations and data files relevant for ITER, IFMIF and DEMO, as well as codes and software tools required for related nuclear calculations.

  16. A European perspective on the US nuclear fuel cycle

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wilkinson, W.L.

    1989-01-01

    Many Europeans believe that the main problems which have impeded progress in solving the back end of the nuclear fuel cycle in the United States have been a series of ideological and political hang-ups and these, coupled with excessive bureaucracy, have made logical decision making on the back-end problems impossible. This situation has been caused by a succession of political nondecisions. Public confidence in nuclear generation was thereby undermined and, because of plentiful supplies of other energy sources, there was no urgent need to expand the nuclear program in the United States. Since uranium was cheap and fast reactors not commercially attractive, there was no economic incentive to reprocess fuel from existing reactors in the United States. The problem facing the United States is that of managing the large stocks of spent fuel which have arisen over many years. A logical way forward for the United States would appear to be as follows: build more storage for spent fuel; consider overseas reprocessing to provide plutonium; develop reprocessing technology; and develop direct disposal technology.

  17. Biogas end-use in the European community

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Constant, M.; Naveau, H.; Nyns, E.J. ); Ferrero, G.L.

    1989-01-01

    In Europe over the past few years the generation of biogas for energy and environmental purposes has been gaining in importance. Industrial wastewaters, cattle manure, sewage sludges, urban wastes, crop residues, algae and aquatic biomass are all typical of the materials being utilized. In contrast to the extensive inventory of biomethanation processes which has been carried out within the EEC, until recently a detailed, up-to-date investigation of the end-sues of biogas had not been undertaken. To supply the necessary information, the Commission of the European Communities and the Belgian Science Policy Office jointly entrusted a study to the Unit of Bioengineering at the Catholic University of Louvain, Belgium. This book is record of the study and has the following key features: it gives a broad overview of the ongoing use of biogas in Europe; it summarizes available data on storage, purification and engines using biogas; it draws several conclusions concerning the technical and economic viability of the processes; it discusses the problems of using biogas; and it outlines recommendations and future R and D and demonstration projects in the field.

  18. The European XFEL Free Electron Laser at DESY

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Weise, Hans [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron, Germany

    2009-09-01

    The European X-ray Free-Electron laser Facility (XFEL) is going to be built in an international collaboration at the Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Germany, and the Technical Design Report was published in 2006. The official project is expected for summer 2007. This new facility will offer photon beams at wavelengths as short as 1 angstrom with highest peak brilliance being more than 100 million times higher than present day synchrotron radiation sources. The radiation has a high degree of transverse coherence and the pulse duration is reduced from {approx}100 picoseconds (typ. for SR light sources) down to the {approx}10 femtosecond time domain. The overall layout of the XFEL will be described. This includes the envisaged operation parameters for the linear accelerator using superconducting TESLA technology. The complete design is based on the actually operated FLASH free-electron laser at DESY. Experience with the operation during first long user runs at wavelengths from 30 to 13 nm will be described in detail.

  19. Mesozoic-Cenozoic sequence stratigraphy of European basins

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vail, P.R. ); Jacquin, T. )

    1993-09-01

    The preliminary results of the project, [open quotes]Mesozoic-Cenozoic Sequence Stratigraphy of European Basins[close quotes] (introduced at a seminar in Dijon, France, on May 18-20, 1992), show that the Mesozoic-Cenozoic stratigraphic succession of western Europe can be subdivided into a series of transgressive-regressive facies cycles (second order, 3-50 m.y.) and related to tectonic events by subsidence analysis and regional geology. The distribution of the second-order cycles are shown on a series of transects that extend from the Mediterranean to the North Sea. Where possible, each transgressive-regressive phase has been subdivided into a series of higher frequency sequence cycles (third order, 0.5-3 m.y.). These sequence cycles are identified in regions with good outcrops and biostratigraphic control. The sequence stratigraphy interpretation of these outcrop sections provides documentation for the age and distribution of the second- and third-order stratigraphic cycles of western Europe. Subsurface seismic and well data from the North Sea Basin, Paris basin, and the Mediterranean area are interpreted in terms of sequence stratigraphy and correlated to the outcrop reference sections. Chronobiostratigraphy and numerical ages are based on a series of new charts made especially for this project that show the latest correlation of the biostratigraphic zones for both microfossils and macrofossils across Europe. The charts also include a numerical time scale that reconciles the differences between existing time scales.

  20. The European X-ray Free-Electron Laser: A Progress Report | Stanford

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource The European X-ray Free-Electron Laser: A Progress Report Friday, December 2, 2011 - 2:00pm SLAC, Redtail Conference Room (901-108) M. Altarelli, European XFEL GmbH, Hamburg, Germany The present status of the construction of the European X-ray Free-Electron Laser in Hamburg will be reviewed, and challenges in the development of the instrumentation, in order to exploit the time-structure of the superconducting linear accelerator, will be described. Programs

  1. HyLights -- Tools to Prepare the Large-Scale European Demonstration

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Projects on Hydrogen for Transport | Department of Energy HyLights -- Tools to Prepare the Large-Scale European Demonstration Projects on Hydrogen for Transport HyLights -- Tools to Prepare the Large-Scale European Demonstration Projects on Hydrogen for Transport Presented at Refueling Infrastructure for Alternative Fuel Vehicles: Lessons Learned for Hydrogen Conference, April 2-3, 2008, Sacramento, California buenger.pdf (1.96 MB) More Documents & Publications Santa Clara Valley

  2. Joint statement of the European Commission's Joint Research Centre and the

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    United States Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration regarding the reduction of excess nuclear material | National Nuclear Security Administration | (NNSA) Joint statement of the European Commission's Joint Research Centre and the United States Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration regarding the reduction of excess nuclear material March 24, 2014 Nuclear safety and security are priorities for the European Union and the United States of

  3. A European Perspective of EURO 5/U.S. 07 Heavy-Duty Engine Technologies and

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Their Related Consequences | Department of Energy A European Perspective of EURO 5/U.S. 07 Heavy-Duty Engine Technologies and Their Related Consequences A European Perspective of EURO 5/U.S. 07 Heavy-Duty Engine Technologies and Their Related Consequences 2004 Diesel Engine Emissions Reduction (DEER) Conference Presentation: Volvo Powertrain 2004_deer_fayolle.pdf (350.62 KB) More Documents & Publications SCR Systems for Heavy Duty Trucks: Progress Towards Meeting Euro 4 Emission

  4. Energy conservation and electricity sector liberalization: Case-studies on the development of cogeneration, wind energy and demand-side management in the Netherlands, Denmark, Germany and the United Kingdom

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Slingerland, S.

    1998-07-01

    In this paper, the development of cogeneration, wind energy and demand-side management in the Netherlands, Denmark, Germany and the United Kingdom are compared. It is discussed to what extent these developments are determined by the liberalization process. Three key liberalization variables are identified: unbundling, privatization and introduction of competition. The analysis suggests that unbundling prior to introduction of full competition in generation is particularly successful in stimulating industrial cogeneration; simultaneous introduction of competition and unbundling mainly stimulates non-cogeneration gas-based capacity; and introduction of competition in itself is likely to impede the development of district-heating cogeneration. Furthermore, it is argued that development of wind energy and demand-side management are primarily dependent on the kind of support system set up by policy makers rather than on the liberalization process. Negative impacts of introduction of competition on integrated resource planning and commercial energy services could nevertheless be expected.

  5. European MSc Programs in Nuclear Sciences - To meet the Need of Stakeholders

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Salbu, Brit; Skipperud, Lindis; Priest, Nick; Garelick, Hemda; Tamponnet, Christian; Mitchell, Peter

    2009-08-19

    A stakeholder needs assessment, carried out under the EU-EURAC and EU-ENEN II projects, clearly showed that, at the European level, there are a significant and constant need for post-graduates with skills in radiochemistry, radioecology, radiation dosimetry and environmental modelling and a smaller, but still important, demand for radiobiologists and bio-modellers. Most of these needs are from government organizations. If only the nuclear industry is considered, then the largest demand is for radiochemists and radiation protection dosimetrists. Given this spectrum of need and existing capacity in the areas of radiobiology it was concluded that the needs identified would be most efficiently met by three new degree programs: European MSc Radiation Protection European MSc Analytical Radiochemistry European MSc Radioecology. All three master programs would be developed using the framework provided by the Bologna Convention and the lecturing could be shared among specialist Scientists within a network of collaborating universities. Therefore, educational plans have been developed for the above MSc degrees. These plans envisage each degree comprising three modules that are common to all the degrees (3x10 ECTS credits), three specialist modules (3x10 ECTS credits) and a research project (1x60 ECTS credits). The courses should be aimed, not only to fill the identified European postgraduate education gap in radiological sciences, but also to provide a modular structure that is easily accessed by stakeholders for CPD training. It is anticipated that the European Masters will meet the academic training requirements of qualified 'experts', as defined by the European Commission and the IAEA. At the Norwegian University of Life Sciences (UMB) a pilot MSc in Radioecology has successfully been initiated in collaboration with UK and France.

  6. Development of advanced concepts for DIR-MCFC cogeneration applications in the European Market

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kortbeek, P.J.; Ottervanger, R.G.; Dicks, A.L.

    1996-12-31

    Early 1996 a three year (1996 - 1998) joint European project was launched under the name {open_quote}Advanced DIR-MCFC Development{close_quote}, aiming at the development of Direct Internal Reforming (DIR) Molten Carbonate Fuel Cell (MCFC) systems for cogeneration applications for the European market. In this project participate: Brandstofcel Nederland BV (BCN), British Gas pic (BG), Gaz de France (GDF), Netherlands Energy Research foundation (ECN), Stork, Royal Schelde and Sydkraft AB. The European Fuel Cell User Group (EFCUG) supports the project as an advisory board. Whereas the US and Japanese programmes are aimed at large-scale demonstrations of the MCFC technology, this project focusses on the development of concepts and technology, required for MCFC systems that will be competative on the cogeneration market. The project partners provide the essential expertise: from end-user, system engineering, stack development up to fundamental material research.

  7. European Fuel Cells R&D Review. Final report, Purchase Order No. 062014

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michael, P.D.; Maguire, J.

    1994-09-01

    Aim of the Review is to present a statement on the status of fuel cell development in Europe, addressing the research, development and demonstration (RD&D) and commercialization activities being undertaken, identifying key European organizations active in development and commercialization of fuel cells and detailing their future plans. This document describes the RD&D activities in Europe on alkaline, phosphoric acid, polymer electrolyte, direct methanol, solid oxide, and molten carbonate fuel cell types. It describes the European Commission`s activities, its role in the European development of fuel cells, and its interaction with the national programs. It then presents a country-by-country breakdown. For each country, an overview is given, presented by fuel cell type. Scandinavian countries are covered in less detail. American organizations active in Europe, either in supplying fuel cell components, or in collaboration, are identified. Applications include transportation and cogeneration.

  8. European refiners must seek creative processes to justify heavy-ends projects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hunt, P.

    1996-12-09

    There are strong reasons for wanting to upgrade the bottom of the crude oil barrel. But European refiners will not find it easy to get approval and funding for major capital investment projects. In most cases, investment justification will have to be creative and may need to rely on factors traditionally considered to be outside the conventional refinery fence. Examples of such creative upgrading schemes are those employed in four gasification projects planned for refineries in Italy. It is clear that the major obstacles to heavy residue processing are not technical, but economic. A review of these obstacles will set the stage for European investment in bottom-of-the-barrel processing.

  9. COLLOQUIUM: Dr. Romanelli "The European Roadmap for MFE" | Princeton Plasma

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Physics Lab June 12, 2013, 4:15pm to 5:30pm Colloquia MBG Auditorium COLLOQUIUM: Dr. Romanelli "The European Roadmap for MFE" Dr. Francesco Romanelli JET and EFDA Presentation: PDF icon WC12JUN2013_FRomanelli.pdf The European Roadmap for MFE Colloquium Committee: The Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory 2016-2017 Colloquium Committee is comprised of the following people. Please feel free to contact them by e-mail regarding any possible speakers or topics for future colloquia. Carol

  10. Investigation of the Application of the European PMP Method to Clean Heavy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Duty Vehicles | Department of Energy of the Application of the European PMP Method to Clean Heavy Duty Vehicles Investigation of the Application of the European PMP Method to Clean Heavy Duty Vehicles Presentation given at the 2007 Diesel Engine-Efficiency & Emissions Research Conference (DEER 2007). 13-16 August, 2007, Detroit, Michigan. Sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies (OFCVT). deer07_robertson.pdf (318.74 KB) More

  11. UPDATED ADVISORY: Clean Energy Ministerial Photo Now at 11:15...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    invited from Australia, Belgium, Brazil, Canada, Denmark, the European Commission, Finland, France, Germany, India, Italy, Japan, Mexico, Norway, China, the Republic of Korea,...

  12. Agrowind | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Skjern, Denmark Zip: 6900 Sector: Wind energy Product: Agrowind is developing wind turbine projects through out the European continent. At the moment our project development is...

  13. Secretary Chu Hosts First-Ever Clean Energy Ministerial | Department...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Ministers and delegations invited from Australia, Belgium, Brazil, Canada, Denmark, the European Commission, Finland, France, Germany, India, Italy, Japan, Mexico, Norway, China, ...

  14. Energy Supplier Obligations and White Certificate Schemes: Comparative...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    ways different European Union (EU) member states, including the United Kingdom, Italy, France, Denmark and Belgium, have implemented energy supplier obligations and white...

  15. Safety of nuclear power reactors in the former Eastern European Countries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chakraborty, S.

    1995-10-01

    This article discusses the safety of nuclear power plants in the former Eastern European countries (including the former Soviet Union). The current international design, fabrication, construction, operation, safety, regulatory standards and practices, and ways to resolve plant problems are addressed in light of experience with the Western nuclear power development programs.

  16. Summary of TFTR (Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor) diagnostics, including JET (Joint European Torus) and JT-60

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hill, K.W.; Young, K.M.; Johnson, L.C.

    1990-05-01

    The diagnostic instrumentation on TFTR (Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor) and the specific properties of each diagnostic, i.e., number of channels, time resolution, wavelength range, etc., are summarized in tables, grouped according to the plasma parameter measured. For comparison, the equivalent diagnostic capabilities of JET (Joint European Torus) and the Japanese large tokamak, JT-60, as of late 1987 are also listed in the tables. Extensive references are given to publications on each instrument.

  17. Sandia to Discuss Energy-Storage Test Protocols at the European PV Solar

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Energy Conference Discuss Energy-Storage Test Protocols at the European PV Solar Energy Conference - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization

  18. The European

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... with the light fields behaving as phantom and quintessence fields in the quintom model. ... path integral 4 % hv, x J Dgve-5E. This Euclidean analytic continuation is ...

  19. Assessment of external costs for transport project evaluation: Guidelines in some European countries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Petruccelli, Umberto

    2015-09-15

    Many studies about the external costs generated by the transport system have been developed in the last twenty years. To standardize methodologies and assessment procedures to be used in the evaluation of the projects, some European countries recently have adopted specific guidelines that differ from each other in some aspects even sensibly. This paper presents a critical analysis of the British, Italian and German guidelines and is aimed at cataloguing the external cost types regarded and the assessment methods indicated as well as to highlight the differences of the results, in terms of applicability and reliability. The goal is to contribute to a European standardization process that would lead to the drafting of guidelines suited for all EU countries. - Highlights: • The analyzed guidelines agree on the methods to evaluate costs from air pollution, greenhouse gases and accidents. • They recommend respectively: dose-resp. approach; costs to reduce/permit emissions; whole direct, indirect and social costs. • For noise, DE guide indicates defensive expenditure or SP methods; IT guide, SP method; UK guide, the hedonic prices one. • For on territory impact, DE guide regards only the barrier effect; the IT one, also the soil consumption and system effects. • British guide proposes a qualitative methodology to estimate the impact on various landscapes and environments.

  20. Advanced reprocessing developments in Europe contribution of European projects ACSEPT and ACTINET-I3

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bourg, S.; Poinssot, C.; Geist, A.; Cassayre, L.; Rhodes, C.; Ekberg, C.

    2012-07-01

    Nuclear energy has more than ever to demonstrate that it can contribute safely and on a sustainable way to answer the international increase in energy needs. Actually, in addition to an increased safety of the reactors themselves, its acceptance is still closely associated to our capability to reduce the lifetime of the nuclear waste, to manage them safely and to propose options for a better use of the natural resources. Spent fuel reprocessing can help to reach these objectives. But this cannot be achieved only by optimizing industrial processes through engineering studies. It is of a primary importance to increase our fundamental knowledge in actinide sciences in order to build the future of nuclear energy on reliable and scientifically-founded results, and therefore meet the needs of the future fuel cycles in terms of fabrication and performance of fuels, reprocessing and waste management. At the European level, both the collaborative project ACSEPT and the Integrated Infrastructure Initiative ACTINET-I3 work together to improve our knowledge in actinides chemistry and therefore develop advanced separation processes. These tools are complementary and work in close connection on some specific issues such as the understanding of the selectivity of extracting organic ligands. By offering trans-national access to the main nuclear research facility in Europe, ACTINET-I3 aims at increasing the knowledge in actinide sciences by gathering all the expertise available in European nuclear research institutes or university and giving them the opportunity to come and work in hot-labs (ITU, Atalante...) or beamlines (ESFR, ANKA, PSI) ACSEPT is focused on the development of advanced separation processes, both aqueous and pyrochemical. Head-end steps, fuel re-fabrication, solvent treatment, waste management are also taken into account. In aqueous process development, the SANEX and innovative SANEX flowsheets demonstration were successfully achieved. Chemical systems were

  1. Stirling Denmark Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    biomass-fueled Stirling engines for power generation with zero CO2 impact. Coordinates: 56.866669, 8.31667 Show Map Loading map... "minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemap...

  2. Randers, Denmark: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Jump to: navigation, search Equivalent URI DBpedia GeoNames ID 2615006 Coordinates 56.46667, 10.05 Show Map Loading map... "minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3"...

  3. Denmark: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    MWhyear 143 2008 NREL Coal Reserves Unavailable Million Short Tons NA 2008 EIA Natural Gas Reserves 61,300,000,000 Cubic Meters (cu m) 62 2010 CIA World Factbook Oil Reserves...

  4. Spectral network based on component cells under the SOPHIA European project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Núñez, Rubén Antón, Ignacio; Askins, Steve; Sala, Gabriel; Domínguez, César; Voarino, Philippe; Steiner, Marc; Siefer, Gerald; Fucci, Rafaelle; Roca, Franco; Minuto, Alessandro; Morabito, Paolo

    2015-09-28

    In the frame of the European project SOPHIA, a spectral network based on component (also called isotypes) cells has been created. Among the members of this project, several spectral sensors based on component cells and collimating tubes, so-called spectroheliometers, were installed in the last years, allowing the collection of minute-resolution spectral data useful for CPV systems characterization across Europe. The use of spectroheliometers has been proved useful to establish the necessary spectral conditions to perform power rating of CPV modules and systems. If enough data in a given period of time is collected, ideally a year, it is possible to characterize spectrally the place where measurements are taken, in the same way that hours of annual irradiation can be estimated using a pyrheliometer.

  5. The European Safeguards Research and Development Association Addresses Safeguards and Nonproliferation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Janssens-Maenhout, Greet; Kusumi, R.; Daures, Pascal A.; Janssens, Willem; Dickman, Deborah A.

    2010-06-16

    The renaissance of efforts to expand the use of nuclear energy requires the parallel development of a renewed and more sophisticated work force. Growth in the nuclear sector with high standard of safety, safeguards and security requires skilled staff for design, operations, inspections etc. High-quality nuclear technology educational programs are diminished from past years, and the ability of universities to attract students and to meet future staffing requirements of the nuclear industry is becoming seriously compromised. Thus, education and training in nuclear engineering and sciences is one of the cornerstones for the nuclear sector. Teaching in the nuclear field still seems strongly influenced by national history but it is time to strengthen resources and collaborate. Moreover with the current nuclear security threats it becomes critical that nuclear technology experts master the basic principles not only of safety, but also of nuclear safeguards, nonproliferation and nuclear security. In Europe the European Nuclear Education Network (ENEN) Association has established the certificate 'European Master of Science in Nuclear Engineering (EMSNE)' as the classic nuclear engineering program covering reactor operation and nuclear safety. However, it does not include courses on nonproliferation, safeguards, or dual-use technologies. The lack of education in nuclear safeguards was tackled by the European Safeguards Research and Development Association (ESARDA), through development and implementation of safeguards course modules. Since 2005 the ESARDA Working Group, called the Training and Knowledge Management Working Group, (TKMWG) has worked with the Joint Research Centre (JRC) in Ispra, Italy to organize a Nuclear Safeguards and Nonproliferation course. This five-day course is held each spring at the JRC, and continues to show increasing interest as evidenced by the positive responses of international lecturers and students. The standard set of lectures covers a broad

  6. Tritium processing for the European test blanket systems: current status of the design and development strategy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ricapito, I.; Calderoni, P.; Poitevin, Y.; Aiello, A.; Utili, M.; Demange, D.

    2015-03-15

    Tritium processing technologies of the two European Test Blanket Systems (TBS), HCLL (Helium Cooled Lithium Lead) and HCPB (Helium Cooled Pebble Bed), play an essential role in meeting the main objectives of the TBS experimental campaign in ITER. The compliancy with the ITER interface requirements, in terms of space availability, service fluids, limits on tritium release, constraints on maintenance, is driving the design of the TBS tritium processing systems. Other requirements come from the characteristics of the relevant test blanket module and the scientific programme that has to be developed and implemented. This paper identifies the main requirements for the design of the TBS tritium systems and equipment and, at the same time, provides an updated overview on the current design status, mainly focusing onto the tritium extractor from Pb-16Li and TBS tritium accountancy. Considerations are also given on the possible extrapolation to DEMO breeding blanket. (authors)

  7. Experimental neutronics tests for a neutron activation system for the European ITER TBM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klix, A.; Fischer, U.; Gehre, D.; Kleizer, G.; Raj, P.; Rovni, I.; Ruecker, Tom

    2014-08-21

    We are investigating methods for neutron flux measurement in the ITER TBM. In particular we have tested sets of activation materials leading to induced gamma activities with short half-lives of the order of tens of seconds up to minutes and standard activation materials. Packages of activation foils have been irradiated with the intense neutron generator of Technical University of Dresden in a pure DT neutron field as well as in a neutronics mock-up of the European ITER HCLL TBM. An important aim was to check whether the gamma activity induced in the activation foils in these packages could be measured simultaneously. It was indeed possible to identify gamma lines of interest in gamma-ray measurements immediately after extraction from the irradiation.

  8. Challenges and design solutions of the liquid hydrogen circuit at the European Spallation Source

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gallimore, S.; Nilsson, P.; Sabbagh, P.; Takibayev, A.; Weisend II, J. G.; Beler, Y.; Klaus, M.

    2014-01-29

    The European Spallation Source (ESS), Lund, Sweden will be a 5MW long-pulse neutron spallation research facility and will enable new opportunities for researchers in the fields of life sciences, energy, environmental technology, cultural heritage and fundamental physics. Neutrons are produced by accelerating a high-energy proton beam into a rotating helium-cooled tungsten target. These neutrons pass through moderators to reduce their energy to an appropriate range (< 5 meV for cold neutrons); two of which will use liquid hydrogen at 17 K as the moderating and cooling medium. There are several technical challenges to overcome in the design of a robust system that will operate under such conditions, not least the 20 kW of deposited heat. These challenges and the associated design solutions will be detailed in this paper.

  9. Proliferation and nonproliferation in Ukraine: Implications for European and US security. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blank, S.J.

    1994-07-01

    The author explores the background, terms, and aftermath of the January 1994 tripartite agreement among Russia, Ukraine, and the United States concerning the removal of nuclear missiles located in Ukraine after the fall of the Soviet Union. Inasmuch as Ukraine is the true Russian window on Europe and the key determinant of whether a post-Soviet empire or unitary state can be recreated, the security dilemmas it faces are significant not only to Russia and Ukraine's European neighbors, but also to the United States. The author also examines the nature of Russia's threat to Ukraine and the implications of the new agreement for U.S. policy vis-a-vis Ukraine and Russia.

  10. Performances of the TXRF Beamline for Trace Element Mapping at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Comin, F.; Barrett, R.

    2003-08-26

    The pursuit of smaller and smaller circuitry in device manufacturing imposes tight limits on the surface contamination of the wafers. TXRF, Total Reflection X-ray Fluorescence, is the leading technique in device industry for detecting surface impurities. However, laboratory equipments have reached their limit, and the common practice then for reaching the desired sensitivities of {approx}109 atoms per cm square, equivalent to 10-6 monolayers, is then to proceed to pre-concentration of the impurities. This operation erases any information on the localisation of the impurities, making much more difficult the identification of their origin. Centralised facilities based on Synchrotron Radiation extend the reach of classical TXRF machines offering new opportunities both in terms of ultimate sensitivity, lateral resolution and detectable range of elements. In this contribution we will describe a dedicated TXRF instrument operational at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility in Grenoble along with its performances, limitations and future developments.

  11. Analysis of advanced european nuclear fuel cycle scenarios including transmutation and economical estimates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Merino Rodriguez, I.; Alvarez-Velarde, F.; Martin-Fuertes, F.

    2013-07-01

    In this work the transition from the existing Light Water Reactors (LWR) to the advanced reactors is analyzed, including Generation III+ reactors in a European framework. Four European fuel cycle scenarios involving transmutation options have been addressed. The first scenario (i.e., reference) is the current fleet using LWR technology and open fuel cycle. The second scenario assumes a full replacement of the initial fleet with Fast Reactors (FR) burning U-Pu MOX fuel. The third scenario is a modification of the second one introducing Minor Actinide (MA) transmutation in a fraction of the FR fleet. Finally, in the fourth scenario, the LWR fleet is replaced using FR with MOX fuel as well as Accelerator Driven Systems (ADS) for MA transmutation. All scenarios consider an intermediate period of GEN-III+ LWR deployment and they extend for a period of 200 years looking for equilibrium mass flows. The simulations were made using the TR-EVOL code, a tool for fuel cycle studies developed by CIEMAT. The results reveal that all scenarios are feasible according to nuclear resources demand (U and Pu). Concerning to no transmutation cases, the second scenario reduces considerably the Pu inventory in repositories compared to the reference scenario, although the MA inventory increases. The transmutation scenarios show that elimination of the LWR MA legacy requires on one hand a maximum of 33% fraction (i.e., a peak value of 26 FR units) of the FR fleet dedicated to transmutation (MA in MOX fuel, homogeneous transmutation). On the other hand a maximum number of ADS plants accounting for 5% of electricity generation are predicted in the fourth scenario (i.e., 35 ADS units). Regarding the economic analysis, the estimations show an increase of LCOE (Levelized cost of electricity) - averaged over the whole period - with respect to the reference scenario of 21% and 29% for FR and FR with transmutation scenarios respectively, and 34% for the fourth scenario. (authors)

  12. Evaluation of European empirical methods for subsidence in US coal fields

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Munson, D.E.; Eichfeld, W.F.

    1980-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the applicability of European subsidence methods for the emerging US longwall practice. Subsidence prediction in Europe has typically used either graphical methods (United Kingdom) or mathematical methods. The mathematical methods utilize either profile or influence functions. The graphical methods were developed in the United Kingdom (UK) by the National Coal Board (NCB) from subsidence data obtained from numerous mines. Although a large data base in the United States (US) is not available, the methods can be tested against some recent measurements of subsidence of an essentially flat deposit mined at a depth of 189 m in the Illinois Coal Basin. While the total predicted subsidence by the NCB method is approximately correct, the profile shapes are not well matched. On the other hand, the profile functions, which are fundamentally independent of orientation with respect to mining, give quite accurate representation of the measured profiles. Of the antisymmetric forms tried, a trigonometric form was slightly preferably because it predicted strains that were conservative, i.e., always somewhat greater than the measured values. These results suggest that much of the European subsidence experience is applicable to US practice. Consistent values of the parameters were found for profiles with similar initial conditions or similar orientations for two longwall panel results. It should be noted that the actual profiles were always somewhat more complex than the profile functions could adequately handle and that the development curves showed time-dependent effects as well. The magnitude of these time-dependent effects, while possibly small compared to the time-independent or instantaneous subsidence, are of importance and must eventually be incorporated into a proper analysis.

  13. The role of SEA in integrating and balancing high policy objectives in European cohesion funding programmes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jiricka, Alexandra Proebstl, Ulrike

    2013-01-15

    Funding programmes for European cohesion policy are a crucial tool to support the sustainability goals of the European Union and national policies of its member states. All these funding programmes require a Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) to enhance sustainable development. This article compares five first SEA applications at cohesion policy level to discuss challenges, limitations and benefits of this instrument. In order to support the SEA-process a 'Handbook on SEA for Cohesion Policy 2007-13' (GRDP 2006) was developed. The paper examines the special requirements and challenges at the programme level given the special conditions for stakeholder involvement, integration of SEA in the programme development process and strategies to cope with uncertainties to ensure real compatibility with policy goals. Using action research and in-depth interviews with SEA planners and programme managers enabled us to analyse the suitability of the methodology proposed by the handbook. The results show that some recommendations of the handbook should be changed in order to increase the transparency and to enhance the standard and comparability of the SEA-documents. Overall the SEA proved to be a rather successful tool for the integration of sustainability goals at the EU and national policy levels. Its particular strengths emerged as the process makes uncertainties visible and leads to possible redefinitions while maintaining actual policy goals. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Comparing five case studies of first applications of SEA at cohesion policy level. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Overall the SEA proved to be a rather successful tool for the integration of sustainability goals. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The study makes uncertainties visible and shows how SEA could lead to possible redefinitions.

  14. Informed Consent for Interventional Radiology Procedures: A Survey Detailing Current European Practice

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    O'Dwyer, H.M.; Lyon, S.M.; Fotheringham, T.; Lee, M.J.

    2003-09-15

    Purpose: Official recommendations for obtaining informed consent for interventional radiology procedures are that the patient gives their consent to the operator more than 24 hr prior to the procedure. This has significant implications for interventional radiology practice. The purpose of this study was to identify the proportion of European interventional radiologists who conform to these guidelines. Methods: A questionnaire was designed consisting of 12 questions on current working practice and opinions regarding informed consent. These questions related to where, when and by whom consent was obtained from the patient. Questions also related to the use of formal consent forms and written patient information leaflets. Respondents were asked whether they felt patients received adequate explanation regarding indications for intervention,the procedure, alternative treatment options and complications. The questionnaire was distributed to 786 European interventional radiologists who were members of interventional societies. The anonymous replies were then entered into a database and analyzed. Results: Two hundred and fifty-four (32.3%) questionnaires were returned. Institutions were classified as academic (56.7%),non-academic (40.5%) or private (2.8%). Depending on the procedure,in a significant proportion of patients consent was obtained in the outpatient department (22%), on the ward (65%) and in the radiology day case ward (25%), but in over half (56%) of patients consent or re-consent was obtained in the interventional suite. Fifty percent of respondents indicated that they obtain consent more than 24 hr before some procedures, in 42.9% consent is obtained on the morning of the procedure and 48.8% indicated that in some patients consent is obtained immediately before the procedure. We found that junior medical staff obtained consent in 58% of cases. Eighty-two percent of respondents do not use specific consent forms and 61% have patient information leaflets. The

  15. Improved design of proton source and low energy beam transport line for European Spallation Source

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Neri, L. Celona, L.; Gammino, S.; Mascali, D.; Castro, G.; Ciavola, G.; Torrisi, G.; Dipartimento di Ingegneria dellInformazione, delle Infrastrutture e dellEnergia Sostenibile, Universit Mediterranea di Reggio Calabria, Via Graziella, 89122 Reggio Calabria ; Cheymol, B.; Ponton, A.; Galat, A.; Patti, G.; Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Viale dell'universit 2, 35020 Legnaro ; Gozzo, A.; Lega, L.; Dipartimento di Ingegneria Informatica e delle Telecomunicazioni, Universit degli Studi di Catania, Viale Andrea Doria 6, 95123 Catania

    2014-02-15

    The design update of the European Spallation Source (ESS) accelerator is almost complete and the construction of the prototype of the microwave discharge ion source able to provide a proton beam current larger than 70 mA to the 3.6 MeV Radio Frequency Quadrupole (RFQ) started. The source named PS-ESS (Proton Source for ESS) was designed with a flexible magnetic system and an extraction system able to merge conservative solutions with significant advances. The ESS injector has taken advantage of recent theoretical updates and new plasma diagnostics tools developed at INFN-LNS (Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare). The design strategy considers the PS-ESS and the low energy beam transport line as a whole, where the proton beam behaves like an almost neutralized non-thermalized plasma. Innovative solutions have been used as hereinafter described. Thermo-mechanical optimization has been performed to withstand the chopped beam and the misaligned focused beam over the RFQ input collimator; the results are reported here.

  16. Resonant-like behaviour during edge-localised mode cycles in the Joint European Torus

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Webster, A. J.; Morris, J.; Todd, T. N.; Coad, P.; Brezinsek, S.; Likonen, J.; Rubel, M.; Collaboration: JET-EFDA Contributors

    2015-08-15

    A unique sequence of 120 almost identical plasmas in the Joint European Torus (JET) recently provided two orders of magnitude more statistically equivalent data than ever previously available. The purpose was to study movement of eroded plasma-facing material from JET's new Beryllium wall, but it has allowed the statistical detection of otherwise unobservable phenomenon. This includes a sequence of resonant-like waiting times between edge-localised plasma instabilities (ELMs), instabilities that must be mitigated or avoided in large magnetically confined plasmas such as those planned for ITER. Here, we investigate the cause of this phenomenon, using the unprecedented quantity of data to produce a detailed picture of the plasma's behaviour. After combining the data, oscillations are clearly observable in the plasma's vertical position, in edge losses of ions, and in Beryllium II (527 nm) light emissions. The oscillations are unexpected, are not obvious in data from a single pulse alone, and are all clearly correlated with each other. They are likely to be caused by a small vertical oscillation that the plasma control system is not reacting to prevent, but a more complex explanation is possible. The clearly observable but unexpected link between small changes in the plasma's position and changes to edge-plasma transport and stability suggest that these characteristics cannot always be studied in isolation. It also suggests new opportunities for ELM mitigation and control that may exist.

  17. Waste heat recovery from the European Spallation Source cryogenic helium plants - implications for system design

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jurns, John M.; Bäck, Harald; Gierow, Martin

    2014-01-29

    The European Spallation Source (ESS) neutron spallation project currently being designed will be built outside of Lund, Sweden. The ESS design includes three helium cryoplants, providing cryogenic cooling for the proton accelerator superconducting cavities, the target neutron source, and for the ESS instrument suite. In total, the cryoplants consume approximately 7 MW of electrical power, and will produce approximately 36 kW of refrigeration at temperatures ranging from 2-16 K. Most of the power consumed by the cryoplants ends up as waste heat, which must be rejected. One hallmark of the ESS design is the goal to recycle waste heat from ESS to the city of Lund district heating system. The design of the cooling system must optimize the delivery of waste heat from ESS to the district heating system and also assure the efficient operation of ESS systems. This report outlines the cooling scheme for the ESS cryoplants, and examines the effect of the cooling system design on cryoplant design, availability and operation.

  18. Reversing the brain drain from Eastern European countries: the push' and pull' factors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vizi, E.S. Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Budapest Yeshiva Univ., New York, NY )

    1993-01-01

    A mass departure of intellectuals is going on in countries such as Poland, Russia, the Ukraine, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Bulgaria, and Romania. There is growing concern about the increasing number of intellectuals who have left, or are going to leave, these countries. The main problem is not that scientists and intellectuals are leaving to go abroad to work under better conditions - that is certainly beneficial for science as a whole. Rather, the problem occurs when they do not return. The migration of professionals, even if it is only temporary, only reflects the operation of an international market for specialized human capital. However, a minimum level of human capital is indispensable to a country's economic development. A loss of skilled human resources will ultimately have a grave impact on the economy and jeopardize development programs. There are several reasons for this migration. Top-level scientists have always been drawn to countries that offer greater attractions - facilities, salaries, career prospects, satisfaction, prestige. Drastic changes are needed in the official policy toward R D in Eastern European Countries. The atmosphere must be changed to make it more favorable for intellectual work. In addition, international agencies and governments of developed countries should help these poorer countries to reverse the brain drain. A program of Science and Technology for stability should be created in order to provide direct assistance to basic and applied scientific and technical research in these countries. 16 refs., 3 tabs.

  19. Biological and Environmental Research: Climate and Environmental Sciences Division: U.S./European Workshop on Climate Change Challenges and Observations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mather, James; McCord, Raymond; Sisterson, Doug; Voyles, Jimmy

    2012-11-08

    The workshop aimed to identify outstanding climate change science questions and the observational strategies for addressing them. The scientific focus was clouds, aerosols, and precipitation, and the required ground- and aerial-based observations. The workshop findings will be useful input for setting priorities within the Department of Energy (DOE) and the participating European centers. This joint workshop was envisioned as the first step in enhancing the collaboration among these climate research activities needed to better serve the science community.

  20. Performance testing of HEPA filters: Progress towards a European standard procedure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dyment, J.

    1997-08-01

    Proposals for a future European testing procedure for {open_quotes}High Efficiency Particulate Air Filters (HEPA and ULPA){close_quotes} are being developed by CEN (Comite Europeen de Normalisation). The new standard will be given the status of national standard in participating countries, conflicting national standards being withdrawn. The standard will comprise 5 parts covering the grouping and classification of HEPA and ULPA filters according to their efficiency, fundamental principles of testing, marking etc (in part 1). Part 2 will cover aerosol production, measurement principles, counting equipment and statistics. Parts 3-5 will cover testing flat sheet media, leak testing of filter elements and the efficiency testing of filter elements respectively. The efficiency test methods allow the use of either homogeneous monodisperse or polydisperse aerosols for the determination of particulate filtration efficiencies as a function of particle size. The particle size at which maximum penetration occurs is first determined in flat sheet media tests; tests on filter elements (constructed using the same filter medium) may be carried out using either a homogeneous monodisperse aerosol of the size at which maximum penetration occurs (MPPS) or a polydisperse aerosol whose median size is close to the MPPS. Tests with monodisperse aerosols may be conducted using condensation nucleus counting equipment; tests using polydisperse test aerosols require the use of optical sizing particle counters. When determining the efficiency of filter elements the downstream aerosol concentrations may be determined from air samples obtained using either an overall method (single point sampling after mixing) or a scan method. The scan method also allows {open_quotes}local{close_quotes} efficiency values to be determined. 1 ref., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  1. Accuracy of the European solar water heater test procedure. Part 1: Measurement errors and parameter estimates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rabl, A.; Leide, B. ); Carvalho, M.J.; Collares-Pereira, M. ); Bourges, B.

    1991-01-01

    The Collector and System Testing Group (CSTG) of the European Community has developed a procedure for testing the performance of solar water heaters. This procedure treats a solar water heater as a black box with input-output parameters that are determined by all-day tests. In the present study the authors carry out a systematic analysis of the accuracy of this procedure, in order to answer the question: what tolerances should one impose for the measurements and how many days of testing should one demand under what meteorological conditions, in order to be able to quarantee a specified maximum error for the long term performance The methodology is applicable to other test procedures as well. The present paper (Part 1) examines the measurement tolerances of the current version of the procedure and derives a priori estimates of the errors of the parameters; these errors are then compared with the regression results of the Round Robin test series. The companion paper (Part 2) evaluates the consequences for the accuracy of the long term performance prediction. The authors conclude that the CSTG test procedure makes it possible to predict the long term performance with standard errors around 5% for sunny climates (10% for cloudy climates). The apparent precision of individual test sequences is deceptive because of large systematic discrepancies between different sequences. Better results could be obtained by imposing tighter control on the constancy of the cold water supply temperature and on the environment of the test, the latter by enforcing the recommendation for the ventilation of the collector.

  2. The use of negotiated agreements to improve efficiency of end-use appliances: First results from the European experience

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bertoldi, P.; Bowie, R.; Hagen, L.

    1998-07-01

    The European Union is pursuing measures to improve end-use equipment efficiency through a variety of policy instruments, in particular for domestic appliances. One of the most effective methods to achieve market transformation is through minimum efficiency performance standards (MEPS). However, after the difficulties and controversy following the adoption of legislation for MEPS for domestic refrigerators/freezers, a new policy instrument, i.e. negotiated agreements by manufacturers, has been investigated and tested for two type of appliances: domestic washing machines and TVs and VCRs. Based on the positive experience of the above two agreements, other products (e.g. dryers, dishwasher, electric water heaters, etc.) will be the subject of future negotiated agreements. Based on the results of the two negotiated agreements, this paper describes the energy efficiency potential, the procedures, and the advantages and disadvantages of negotiated agreements compared to legislated mandatory for MEPS, as developed in the European context. The paper concludes that negotiated agreements are a viable policy option, which allow flexibility in the implementation of the efficiency targets and therefore the adoption of cost-effective solutions for manufacturers. In addition, negotiated agreements can be implemented more quickly compared to mandatory MEPS and they allow a closer monitoring of the results. The main question asked in the paper is whether the negotiated agreements can deliver the results in the long term compared to what could be achieved through legislation. The European experience indicates that this instrument can deliver the results and that it offer a number of advantages compared to MEPS.

  3. The European land and inland water CO2, CO, CH4 and N2O balance between 2001 and 2005

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Luyassaert, S; Abril, G; Andres, Robert Joseph; Bastviken, D; Bellassen, V; Bergamaschi, P; Bousquet, P; Chevallier, F; Ciais, P.; Dechow, R; Erb, K-H; Etiope, G; Fortems-Cheiney, A; Grassi, G; Hartmann, J; Jung, M.; Lathiere, J; Lohila, A; Mayorga, E; Moosdorf, N; Njakou, D; Otto, J; Papale, D.; Peters, W; Peylin, P; Raymond, Peter A; Rodenbeck, C; Saarnio, S; Schulze, E.-D.; Szopa, S; Thompson, R; Verkerk, P; Vuichard, N; Wang, R; Wattenbach, M; Zaehle, S

    2012-01-01

    Globally, terrestrial ecosystems have absorbed about 30% of anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions over the period 2000-2007 and inter-hemispheric gradients indicate that a significant fraction of terrestrial carbon sequestration must be north of the Equator. We present a compilation of the CO{sub 2}, CO, CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O balances of Europe following a dual constraint approach in which (1) a land-based balance derived mainly from ecosystem carbon inventories and (2) a land-based balance derived from flux measurements are compared to (3) the atmospheric data-based balance derived from inversions constrained by measurements of atmospheric GHG (greenhouse gas) concentrations. Good agreement between the GHG balances based on fluxes (1294 {+-} 545 Tg C in CO{sub 2}-eq yr{sup -1}), inventories (1299 {+-} 200 Tg C in CO{sub 2}-eq yr{sup -1}) and inversions (1210 {+-} 405 Tg C in CO{sub 2}-eq yr{sup -1}) increases our confidence that the processes underlying the European GHG budget are well understood and reasonably sampled. However, the uncertainty remains large and largely lacks formal estimates. Given that European net land to atmosphere exchanges are determined by a few dominant fluxes, the uncertainty of these key components needs to be formally estimated before efforts could be made to reduce the overall uncertainty. The net land-to-atmosphere flux is a net source for CO{sub 2}, CO, CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O, because the anthropogenic emissions by far exceed the biogenic sink strength. The dual-constraint approach confirmed that the European biogenic sink removes as much as 205 {+-} 72 Tg C yr{sup -1} from fossil fuel burning from the atmosphere. However, This C is being sequestered in both terrestrial and inland aquatic ecosystems. If the C-cost for ecosystem management is taken into account, the net uptake of ecosystems is estimated to decrease by 45% but still indicates substantial C-sequestration. However, when the balance is extended from CO{sub 2} towards

  4. Artium mater in relativistic astrophysics : New perspectives for a European-Latin American PhD program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chardonnet, Pascal

    2015-12-17

    Following the successful scientific space missions by the European Space Agency (ESA) and the European Southern Observatory (ESO) in Chile, as well as the high-energy particle activities at CERN in Genve, we have created a Ph.D. program dedicated to the formation of scientists in the field of relativistic astrophysics. The students of such a program will lead the theoretical developments of one of the most active fields of research, based on the above observational and experimental facilities. This program needs expertise in the most advanced topics of mathematical and theoretical physics, and in relativistic field theories. It requires the ability to model the observational data received from the above facilities, as well as all the basic knowledge in astronomy, astrophysics and cosmology. This activity is necessarily international, no single university can cover the broad expertises. From this, the proposed program of the IRAP Ph.D., in one of the youngest and most dynamical French universities, pole of research and teaching in the Euro-Mediterranean region (PRES): the University of Nice. It benefits from the presence of the astrophysics research institute of Observatoire de la Cte d’Azur involved in relativistic and non-photonic astrophysics. The participation of the Freie Universitaet Berlin, Oldenburg and Bremen Universities and of the Einstein Institute in Potsdam offers the possibility of teaching in relativistic field theories at the highest level. The University of Savoy offers the link to the particle physics at CERN. The activities at the University of Rome, at Stockholm University and at ICRANet offer teaching programs in all the fields of relativistic astrophysics, including cosmology, the physics of gravitational collapse, gamma-ray bursts, and black hole physics. Finally, the University of Ferrara will be present with lectures and researches in the topics they have pioneered such as x-ray astrophysics and observational cosmology. Through ICRANet

  5. Correlation testing of the European EMA (Engine Manufacturers Association) round-robin engine (Daimler-Benz OM 366a). Heavy-duty engine testing report. Technical report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baines, T.M.

    1987-12-01

    This report examines the results of testing the Daimler-Benz OM 366 A heavy-duty engine at the Environmental Protection Agency Motor Vehicle Emission Laboratory. This heavy-duty engine was tested for the purpose of providing correlation data for the comparison with similar data developed by European Engine Manufacturers (EMA). The European EMA members organized a round robin testing program and decided to test a Daimler-Benz OM 366A engine, and to focus the program on gathering simple cold start/hot start Federal Test Procedure data. The report includes the results of the tests, including engine description, fuels, test procedures and test plans.

  6. Accuracy of the European solar water heater test procedure. Part 2: Prediction of long-term performance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rabl, A. ); Carvalho, M.J.; Collares-Pereira, M. ); Bourges, B.

    1991-01-01

    This paper continues the evaluation of the European test procedure for solar water heaters, by considering what consequences the errors of the parameters (derived in Part 1, the companion paper) will have for the prediction of the long-term performance. A simple criterion is derived for the required length of the test period, as a function of climatic variables and desired accuracy of the long-term performance prediction. Typically a duration of 10 to 50 days will suffice. Since the actual conditions during a test cannot be foreseen, it will be more efficient to calculate the error of the long-term performance prediction on line at the end of each test day and terminate the series whenever acceptable accuracy is reached.

  7. Trip report: European Communities 1989 International Conference on Decommissioning of Nuclear Installations, Brussels, Belgium, October 24-27, 1989

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rankin, W.N.

    1989-01-01

    The European community is conducting research on the decommissioning of nuclear installations. The prime objective is to develop effective techniques to ensure the protection of man and his environment against the potential hazards of nuclear installations that have been shut down. The results of the 1979--1983 research program were presented in a conference held in Luxembourg. This program was primarily concerned with decommissioning nuclear power plants. The 1984--1988 program was extended to all types of nuclear installations. Fuel fabrication, enrichment and reprocessing plants, and research and development facilities having fulfilled their useful purposes are also awaiting decommissioning. This Program has produced numerous scientific and technical achievements. Great progress has in particular been achieved in the reduction of metal waste arising from decommissioning, due to advances in areas such as the development of aggressive decontamination procedures and of techniques for melting and recycling low-level radioactive waste metal.

  8. Processes and properties of edge-localised instabilities in 2T 2MA plasmas in the Joint European Torus

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Webster, A. J. Webster, S. J.

    2014-11-15

    During July 2012, 150 almost identical H-mode plasmas were consecutively created in the Joint European Torus, providing a combined total of approximately 8 minutes of steady-state plasma with 15?000 Edge Localised Modes (ELMs). In principle, each of those 15?000 ELMs are statistically equivalent. Here, the changes in edge density and plasma energy associated with those ELMs are explored, using the spikes in Beryllium II (527?nm) radiation as an indicator for the onset of an ELM. Clearly different timescales are observed during the ELM process. Edge temperature falls over a 2?ms timescale, edge density and pressure fall over a 5?ms timescale, and there is an additional 10?ms timescale that is consistent with a resistive relaxation of the plasma's edge. The statistical properties of the energy and density losses due to the ELMs are explored. For these plasmas the ELM energy (?E) is found to be approximately independent of the time between ELMs, despite the average ELM energy (??E?) and average ELM frequency (f) being consistent with the scaling of ??E??1/f. Instead, beyond the first 0.02 s of waiting time between ELMs, the energy losses due to individual ELMs are found to be statistically the same. Surprisingly no correlation is found between the energies of consecutive ELMs either. A weak link is found between the density drop and the ELM waiting time. Consequences of these results for ELM control and modelling are discussed.

  9. Bayesian Inference for Time Trends in Parameter Values: Case Study for the Ageing PSA Network of the European Commission

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dana L. Kelly; Albert Malkhasyan

    2010-06-01

    There is a nearly ubiquitous assumption in PSA that parameter values are at least piecewise-constant in time. As a result, Bayesian inference tends to incorporate many years of plant operation, over which there have been significant changes in plant operational and maintenance practices, plant management, etc. These changes can cause significant changes in parameter values over time; however, failure to perform Bayesian inference in the proper time-dependent framework can mask these changes. Failure to question the assumption of constant parameter values, and failure to perform Bayesian inference in the proper time-dependent framework were noted as important issues in NUREG/CR-6813, performed for the U. S. Nuclear Regulatory Commissions Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards in 2003. That report noted that industry lacks tools to perform time-trend analysis with Bayesian updating. This paper describes an application of time-dependent Bayesian inference methods developed for the European Commission Ageing PSA Network. These methods utilize open-source software, implementing Markov chain Monte Carlo sampling. The paper also illustrates the development of a generic prior distribution, which incorporates multiple sources of generic data via weighting factors that address differences in key influences, such as vendor, component boundaries, conditions of the operating environment, etc.

  10. A comprehensive simulation framework for imaging single particles and biomolecules at the European X-ray Free-Electron Laser

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Yoon, Chun Hong; Yurkov, Mikhail V.; Schneidmiller, Evgeny A.; Samoylova, Liubov; Buzmakov, Alexey; Jurek, Zoltan; Ziaja, Beata; Santra, Robin; Loh, N. Duane; Tschentscher, Thomas; et al

    2016-04-25

    The advent of newer, brighter, and more coherent X-ray sources, such as X-ray Free-Electron Lasers (XFELs), represents a tremendous growth in the potential to apply coherent X-rays to determine the structure of materials from the micron-scale down to the Angstrom-scale. There is a significant need for a multi-physics simulation framework to perform source-to-detector simulations for a single particle imaging experiment, including (i) the multidimensional simulation of the X-ray source; (ii) simulation of the wave-optics propagation of the coherent XFEL beams; (iii) atomistic modelling of photon-material interactions; (iv) simulation of the time-dependent diffraction process, including incoherent scattering; (v) assembling noisy andmore » incomplete diffraction intensities into a three-dimensional data set using the Expansion-Maximisation-Compression (EMC) algorithm and (vi) phase retrieval to obtain structural information. Furthermore, we demonstrate the framework by simulating a single-particle experiment for a nitrogenase iron protein using parameters of the SPB/SFX instrument of the European XFEL. This exercise demonstrably yields interpretable consequences for structure determination that are crucial yet currently unavailable for experiment design.« less

  11. Phillips-Tikhonov regularization with a priori information for neutron emission tomographic reconstruction on Joint European Torus

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bielecki, J.; Scholz, M.; Drozdowicz, K.; Giacomelli, L.; Kiptily, V.; Kempenaars, M.; Conroy, S.; Craciunescu, T.; Collaboration: EUROfusion Consortium, JET, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon OX14 3DB

    2015-09-15

    A method of tomographic reconstruction of the neutron emissivity in the poloidal cross section of the Joint European Torus (JET, Culham, UK) tokamak was developed. Due to very limited data set (two projection angles, 19 lines of sight only) provided by the neutron emission profile monitor (KN3 neutron camera), the reconstruction is an ill-posed inverse problem. The aim of this work consists in making a contribution to the development of reliable plasma tomography reconstruction methods that could be routinely used at JET tokamak. The proposed method is based on Phillips-Tikhonov regularization and incorporates a priori knowledge of the shape of normalized neutron emissivity profile. For the purpose of the optimal selection of the regularization parameters, the shape of normalized neutron emissivity profile is approximated by the shape of normalized electron density profile measured by LIDAR or high resolution Thomson scattering JET diagnostics. In contrast with some previously developed methods of ill-posed plasma tomography reconstruction problem, the developed algorithms do not include any post-processing of the obtained solution and the physical constrains on the solution are imposed during the regularization process. The accuracy of the method is at first evaluated by several tests with synthetic data based on various plasma neutron emissivity models (phantoms). Then, the method is applied to the neutron emissivity reconstruction for JET D plasma discharge #85100. It is demonstrated that this method shows good performance and reliability and it can be routinely used for plasma neutron emissivity reconstruction on JET.

  12. Tomographic analysis of neutron and gamma pulse shape distributions from liquid scintillation detectors at Joint European Torus

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Giacomelli, L.; Department of Physics, Universit degli Studi di Milano-Bicocca, Milano ; Conroy, S.; Department of Physics and Astronomy, Uppsala University, Uppsala ; Gorini, G.; Horton, L.; Murari, A.; Popovichev, S.; Syme, D. B.

    2014-02-15

    The Joint European Torus (JET, Culham, UK) is the largest tokamak in the world devoted to nuclear fusion experiments of magnetic confined Deuterium (D)/Deuterium-Tritium (DT) plasmas. Neutrons produced in these plasmas are measured using various types of neutron detectors and spectrometers. Two of these instruments on JET make use of organic liquid scintillator detectors. The neutron emission profile monitor implements 19 liquid scintillation counters to detect the 2.45 MeV neutron emission from D plasmas. A new compact neutron spectrometer is operational at JET since 2010 to measure the neutron energy spectra from both D and DT plasmas. Liquid scintillation detectors are sensitive to both neutron and gamma radiation but give light responses of different decay time such that pulse shape discrimination techniques can be applied to identify the neutron contribution of interest from the data. The most common technique consists of integrating the radiation pulse shapes within different ranges of their rising and/or trailing edges. In this article, a step forward in this type of analysis is presented. The method applies a tomographic analysis of the 3-dimensional neutron and gamma pulse shape and pulse height distribution data obtained from liquid scintillation detectors such that n/? discrimination can be improved to lower energies and additional information can be gained on neutron contributions to the gamma events and vice versa.

  13. How to mitigate impacts of wind farms on bats? A review of potential conservation measures in the European context

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peste, Filipa; Paula, Anabela; Silva, Luís P. da; Bernardino, Joana; Pereira, Pedro; Mascarenhas, Miguel; Costa, Hugo; Vieira, José; Bastos, Carlos; Pereira, Maria João Ramos

    2015-02-15

    Wind energy is growing worldwide as a source of power generation. Bat assemblages may be negatively affected by wind farms due to the fatality of a significant number of individuals after colliding with the moving turbines or experiencing barotrauma. The implementation of wind farms should follow standard procedures to prevent such negative impacts: avoid, reduce and offset, in what is known as the mitigation hierarchy. According to this approach avoiding impacts is the priority, followed by the minimisation of the identified impacts, and finally, when residual negative impacts still remain, those must be offset or at least compensated. This paper presents a review on conservation measures for bats and presents some guidelines within the compensation scenario, focusing on negative impacts that remain after avoidance and minimisation measures. The conservation strategies presented aim at the improvement of the ecological conditions for the bat assemblage as a whole. While developed under the European context, the proposed measures are potentially applicable elsewhere, taking into consideration the specificity of each region in terms of bat assemblages present, landscape features and policy context regarding nature and biodiversity conservation and management. An analysis of potential opportunities and constraints arising from the implementation of offset/compensation programmes and gaps in the current knowledge is also considered. - Highlights: • Wind energy impacts bat populations in ways not yet fully understood. • As the use of windfarms is growing worldwide greater impacts on bat populations are also expected. • Mitigation hierarchy provides a way to reduce impacts from new wind farm facilities. • Compensation measures may be used to reduce the residual effects on bat populations. • Identify bats ecological needs and compensate according to the existing surroundings.

  14. European Cosmic Ray Symposium

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2011-04-25

    13me Symposium qui se déroule du 27 au 31 juillet pour la première fois au Cern. Brian Pattison ouvre la cérémonie et donne la parole à Dr.Ugland (qui représente le DG C.Rubbia excusé) et d'autres intervenants

  15. Suzlon Energy Wind A S Denmark | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Danish subsidiary is also the head quarters for international operations. Coordinates: 56.153005, 10.204525 Show Map Loading map... "minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlem...

  16. Integrated simulations of saturated neoclassical tearing modes in DIII-D, Joint European Torus, and ITER plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Halpern, Federico D.; Bateman, Glenn; Kritz, Arnold H.

    2006-06-15

    A revised version of the ISLAND module [C. N. Nguyen et al., Phys. Plasmas 11, 3604 (2004)] is used in the BALDUR code [C. E. Singer et al., Comput. Phys. Commun. 49, 275 (1988)] to carry out integrated modeling simulations of DIII-D [J. Luxon, Nucl. Fusion 42, 614 (2002)], Joint European Torus (JET) [P. H. Rebut et al., Nucl. Fusion 25, 1011 (1985)], and ITER [R. Aymar et al., Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion 44, 519 (2002)] tokamak discharges in order to investigate the adverse effects of multiple saturated magnetic islands driven by neoclassical tearing modes (NTMs). Simulations are carried out with a predictive model for the temperature and density pedestal at the edge of the high confinement mode (H-mode) plasma and with core transport described using the Multi-Mode model. The ISLAND module, which is used to compute magnetic island widths, includes the effects of an arbitrary aspect ratio and plasma cross sectional shape, the effect of the neoclassical bootstrap current, and the effect of the distortion in the shape of each magnetic island caused by the radial variation of the perturbed magnetic field. Radial transport is enhanced across the width of each magnetic island within the BALDUR integrated modeling simulations in order to produce a self-consistent local flattening of the plasma profiles. It is found that the main consequence of the NTM magnetic islands is a decrease in the central plasma temperature and total energy. For the DIII-D and JET discharges, it is found that inclusion of the NTMs typically results in a decrease in total energy of the order of 15%. In simulations of ITER, it is found that the saturated magnetic island widths normalized by the plasma minor radius, for the lowest order individual tearing modes, are approximately 24% for the 2/1 mode and 12% for the 3/2 mode. As a result, the ratio of ITER fusion power to heating power (fusion Q) is reduced from Q=10.6 in simulations with no NTM islands to Q=2.6 in simulations with fully saturated

  17. DIY2 () | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... Republic ESA East Timor Ecuador Egypt El Salvador Equatorial Guinea Eritrea Estonia ... Republic ESA East Timor Ecuador Egypt El Salvador Equatorial Guinea Eritrea Estonia ...

  18. A Request for Planning Funds for a Research and Study Abroad Facility in Geneva, Switzerland in Affiliation with the European Laboratory for Particle Physics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    campbell, myron

    2013-03-31

    To create a research and study abroad program that would allow U.S. undergraduate students access to the world-leading research facilities at the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), the World Health Organization, various operations of the United Nations and other international organizations based in Geneva.The proposal is based on the unique opportunities currently existing in Geneva. The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is now operational at CERN, data are being collected, and research results are already beginning to emerge. At the same time, a related reduction of activity at U.S. facilities devoted to particle physics is expected. In addition, the U.S. higher-education community has an ever-increasing focus on international organizations dealing with world health pandemics, arms control and human rights, a nexus also centered in Geneva.

  19. NESC VII European project: demonstration of warm pre-stressing effect in biaxial loading conditions - Bending tests on 18MND5 cruciform specimens and their interpretation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jacquemoud, C.; Yuritzinn, T.; Marie, S.

    2012-07-01

    In the framework of the NESC VII European project, a large experimental program has been dedicated to characterize the Warm Pre-Stressing (WPS) effect in different testing configurations. One of the CEA (France) contributions to this project is the realization of five point bending tests on large cruciform specimens considering different WPS loading cycles. The five cruciform specimens, sponsored by EDF (France) and IRSN (France), are made of 18MND5 steel. Two of them have been tested on a same LCF (Load-Cool-Fracture) loading cycle and two others on the same LCTF (Load-Cool-Transient-Fracture) loading cycle. The experimental results presented in this paper give a successful demonstration of the WPS effect in biaxial loading conditions either on a LCF or on a LCTF cycle. During the test interpretations, different models have then been tested and compared in order to evaluate their ability to predict the cleavage fracture in the case of different WPS loading cycles. They all provide very conservative predictions whatever loading cycle is concerned. (authors)

  20. (Tenth symposium on microdosimetry, Rome, Italy; Department of Energy/Commission of European Communities workshop, Rome, Italy; and visit to Neuherberg, W. Germany, May 21--June 3, 1989): Foreign trip report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wright, H.A.

    1989-06-15

    Report of Harvel A. Wright, to participate in the Tenth Symposium on Microdosimetry in Rome, Italy, May 21-26, 1989; to participate in a Department of Energy/Commission of European Communities (DOE/CEC) Workshop on Long-Term Research Needs and Priorities in Microdosimetry, held in Rome following the microdosimetry symposium; and to visit the Gesellschaft fur Strahlen- and Umweltforschung (GSF) in Neuherberg, FRG, to carry out collaborative research with Dr. H.G. Paretzke.

  1. Minerals yearbook: Mineral industries of Europe and central Eurasia. Volume 3. 1992 international review

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    Volume III, Minerals Yearbook -- International Review contains the latest available mineral data on more than 175 foreign countries and discusses the importance of minerals to the economies of these nations. Since the 1989 International Review, the volume has been presented as six reports. The report presents the Mineral Industries of Europe and Central Eurasia. The report incorporates location maps, industry structure tables, and an outlook section previously incorporated in the authors' Minerals Perspectives Series quinquennial regional books, which are being discontinued. This section of the Minerals Yearbook reviews the minerals industries of 45 countries: the 12 nations of the European Community (EC); 6 of the 7 nations of the European Free Trade Association (EFTA); Malta; the 11 Eastern European economies in transition (Albania, Bosnia and Hercegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Macedonia, Poland, Romania, Serbia and Montenegro, and Slovenia); and the countries of Central Eurasia (Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Estonia, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgystan, Latvia, Lithuania, Moldova, Russia, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Ukraine, and Uzbekistan).

  2. Adaptation of methodology to select structural alternatives of one-way slab in residential building to the guidelines of the European Committee for Standardization (CEN/TC 350)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fraile-Garcia, Esteban; Ferreiro-Cabello, Javier; Martinez-Camara, Eduardo; Jimenez-Macias, Emilio

    2015-11-15

    The European Committee for Standardization (CEN) through its Technical Committee CEN/TC-350 is developing a series of standards for assessing the building sustainability, at both product and building levels. The practical application of the selection (decision making) of structural alternatives made by one-way slabs leads to an intermediate level between the product and the building. Thus the present study addresses this problem of decision making, following the CEN guidelines and incorporating relevant aspects of architectural design into residential construction. A life cycle assessment (LCA) is developed in order to obtain valid information for the decision making process (the LCA was developed applying CML methodology although Ecoindicator99 was used in order to facilitate the comparison of the values); this information (the carbon footprint values) is contrasted with other databases and with the information from the Environmental Product Declaration (EPD) of one of the lightening materials (expanded polystyrene), in order to validate the results. Solutions of different column disposition and geometries are evaluated in the three pillars of sustainable construction on residential construction: social, economic and environmental. The quantitative analysis of the variables used in this study enables and facilitates an objective comparison in the design stage by a responsible technician; the application of the proposed methodology reduces the possible solutions to be evaluated by the expert to 12.22% of the options in the case of low values of the column index and to 26.67% for the highest values. - Highlights: • Methodology for selection of structural alternatives in buildings with one-way slabs • Adapted to CEN guidelines (CEN/TC-350) for assessing the building sustainability • LCA is developed in order to obtain valid information for the decision making process. • Results validated comparing carbon footprint, databases and Env. Product Declarations

  3. VPP EXPANDING THROUGHOUT EUROPEAN UNION

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    WASHINGTON – Recently, the Acting Assistant Secretary of Labor for the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) made an important announcement regarding OSHA's Voluntary Protection Program (VPP). He announced that General Electric's (GE) Infrastructure-Security facility in Dublin, Ireland, was the first site accepted into Ireland's VPP Program.

  4. European Wind Energy Conference Exhibition

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... Van Dam et. al. 5-7, have investigated, both computationally with CFD investigations and ... Figure 2. Microtab concept based on Kutta Condition (van Dam 18) The specific microtab ...

  5. The best news for LPG in Denmark is diesel conversion breakthrough

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-12-01

    Throughout Scandanavia, taxes seem to drive the marketplace. Governments do not want to encourage consumption of alcoholic beverages, so they tax them heavily, thereby actually discouraging their use. Using the same means, they dictate the fate of the various fuels. Taxes have depressed propane's use to a large extent; today it is priced at three times natural gas, with the result that it accounts for only 0.5%-0.7% of total energy consumption. But, this paper reports on a potential new star that has appeared on the horizon, as participants in the People-to-People sojourn to Scandanavia last August learned. It's a program of converting diesel buses to propane, and officials of the company that is marketing it, Skibby Motor A/S, are so confident of its success that they have already begun a campaign of introducing it to the U.S.

  6. EcoGrid Denmark, ForskEL (Smart Grid Project) | Open Energy Informatio...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    term technologies and market solutions for power systems with increased share of distributed generation and renewable energy sources while maintaining the reliability of...

  7. UNEP-Risoe-Economics of GHG Limitations: Country Study Series...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Gas Limitations1 Country study series: Argentina, Ecuador, Estonia, Hungary, Indonesia, Mauritius, Senegal, Vietnam Parallel country studies: Botswana, Tanzania, Zambia...

  8. USAID Europe and Eurasia Climate Program | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Country Armenia, Republic of Macedonia, Russia, Ukraine, Poland, Kazakhstan, Hungary, Turkey, Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, Lithuania, Estonia, Latvia, Azerbaijan, Tajikistan Western...

  9. European Green Vehicles Initiative | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    infrastructure needed to achieve breakthroughs in the use of renewable and non-polluting energy sources, safety, and traffic fluidity. LEDSGP green logo.png This tool is included...

  10. European Strategy for Future Neutrino Physics

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2011-10-06

    A workshop to discuss the possibilities for future neutrino investigations in Europe and the links to CERN.

  11. European Wind Atlas: Offshore | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    URI: cleanenergysolutions.orgcontenteuropean-wind-atlas-offshore,http:c Language: English Policies: Deployment Programs DeploymentPrograms: Technical Assistance This...

  12. European Wind Atlas: Onshore | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    URI: cleanenergysolutions.orgcontenteuropean-wind-atlas-onshore,http:cl Language: English Policies: Deployment Programs DeploymentPrograms: Technical Assistance This...

  13. European Wind Atlas: France | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    URI: cleanenergysolutions.orgcontenteuropean-wind-atlas-france,http:cle Language: English Policies: Deployment Programs DeploymentPrograms: Technical Assistance This...

  14. Thermoelectric Activities of European Community within Framework...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Bulk Materials and Device Development Overview of Fraunhofer IPM Activities in High Temperature Bulk Materials and Device Development Automotive Thermoelectric Generators and HVAC

  15. The European scene regarding spallation neutron sources

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bauer, G.S.

    1996-06-01

    In Europe, a short pulse spallation neutron source, ISIS, has been operating for over 10 years, working its way up to a beam power level of 200 kW. A continuous source, SINQ, designed for a beam power of up to 1 MW, is scheduled to start operating at the end of 1996, and a detailed feasibility study has been completed for a 410 kW short pulse source, AUSTRON. Each of these sources seems to have settled for a target concept which is at or near the limits of its feasibility: The ISIS depleted uranium plate targets, heavy water cooled and Zircaloy clad, have so far not shown satisfactory service time and operation is likely to continue with a Ta-plate target, which, in the past has been used successfully for the equivalent of one full-beam-year before it was taken out of service due to degrading thermal properties. SINQ will initially use a rod target, made of Zircaloy only, but plans exist to move on to clad lead rods as quickly as possible. Apart from the not yet explored effect of hydrogen and helium production, there are also concerns about the generation of 7-Be in the cooling water from the spallation of oxygen, which might result in undesirably high radioactivity in the cooling plant room. A Liquid metal target, also under investigation for SINQ, would not only reduce this problem to a level of about 10 %, but would also minimize the risk of radiolytic corrosion in the beam interaction zone. Base on similar arguments, AUSTRON has been designed for edge cooled targets, but thermal and stress analyses show, that this concept is not feasible at higher power levels.

  16. Fuel Efficiency of New European HD Vehicles

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given at the 2007 Diesel Engine-Efficiency & Emissions Research Conference (DEER 2007). 13-16 August, 2007, Detroit, Michigan. Sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies (OFCVT).

  17. European Energy Institute | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    from the community to the national level.1 The EEI is the place for peer-reviewed journals related to the technical, economic, and legal issues of liberalized energy markets in...

  18. Southeast European Regional Electricity Market Analysis | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    National Laboratory Partner United States Agency for International Development, Montgomery Watson Harza Sector Energy Topics Market analysis, Background analysis Website...

  19. 4Energia | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Energia Jump to: navigation, search Name: 4Energia Place: Estonia Sector: Renewable Energy Product: 4 Energia is a developer of renewable energy projects in the Baltic region....

  20. Word Pro - S11

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    ... U.S. Territories; for 1984 forward, Mexico; and, for 2000 forward, Chile, Estonia, and Israel. d The Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) consists of "OECD ...

  1. Agenda CBS Public Meeting-Atlanta

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    dispute system and process design consultations and training for resolving environmental and land disputes in Estonia, IsraelWest Bank, Nicaragua, Kazakhstan, Russia, and Germany. ...

  2. Wind and Water Materials and Structures Database Download

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & ... Eritrea Estonia Ethiopia Fiji Finland France French Polynesia Gabon Gambia Georgia ...

  3. Crystalsol OU | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Crystalsol OU Jump to: navigation, search Name: Crystalsol OU Place: Tallinn, Estonia Zip: 10135 Product: Austria-Estonian flexible 'monograin' thin-film PV technology developer....

  4. UNEP-Risoe-Economics of GHG Limitations: Country Study Series...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Econo References Economics of Greenhouse Gas Limitations1 Country study series: Argentina, Ecuador, Estonia, Hungary, Indonesia, Mauritius, Senegal, Vietnam Parallel country...

  5. European Geothermal Drilling Experience-Problem Areas and Case...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Drilling Experience-Problem Areas and Case Studies Baron, G.; Ungemach, P. 15 GEOTHERMAL ENERGY; BOREHOLES; DRILLING; EVALUATION; EXPLORATION; GEOTHERMAL RESOURCES; ITALY;...

  6. European Wind Farms A S | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Sector: Wind energy Product: Focused on wind farm development in Europe. Coordinates: 56.866669, 8.31667 Show Map Loading map... "minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemap...

  7. EUROPEAN GEOTHERMAL DRILLING EXPERIENCE- PROBLEM AREAS AND CASE...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... D e n s i t y was always kept a t 1.05, w i t h a t o t a l mud volume o f 200 m3 and a ... They r e s u l t i n a d d i t i o n a l c o s t s estimated a t 100,000 US S.. o f ...

  8. European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD) | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Development Address: EBRD One Exchange Square Place: London, United Kingdom Year Founded: 1991 Phone Number: 44 20 7338 6000 Website: www.ebrd.com Coordinates: 51.5760683,...

  9. European Association for Renewable Energy EUROSOLAR | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    was founded in 1988 as a nonprofit organization that promotes the replacement of nuclear and fossil energies with Renewable Energy sources. Coordinates: 50.7323, 7.101695...

  10. NNSA and the European Commission advance global nuclear nonproliferati...

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    located in four countries: EURATOM Safeguards in Luxembourg, JRC Headquarters in Belgium, and the JRC institutes in Karlsruhe, Germany; Ispra, Italy; and Geel, Belgium. ...

  11. Data Products from ECMWF (European Centre for Medium Range Weather...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Subject: 54 Environmental Sciences ECMWF, MAGIC, AMF2, advective tendency, atmospheric moisture, atmospheric temperature, atmospheric pressure, cloud fraction, horizontal wind, ice ...

  12. EUROPEAN GEOTHERMAL DRILLING EXPERIENCE- PROBLEM AREAS AND CASE...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... e l e a s e o f t h e assembly i s attempted by sending a 0 1" 112 s c a l l o p gun down t h e s t r i n g t o p e r f o r a t e and r e e s t a b l i s h c i r c u l a t i o n . ...

  13. European Smart Power Market Project Report Website | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    URI: cleanenergysolutions.orgcontenteuropean-smart-power-market-project-r Language: English Policies: "Deployment Programs,Regulations" is not in the list of possible...

  14. European Experience and Case study of SCR Passenger Car Integration...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Presentation given at DEER 2006, August 20-24, 2006, Detroit, Michigan. Sponsored by the U.S. DOE's EERE FreedomCar and Fuel Partnership and 21st Century Truck Programs. ...

  15. European Atlas of Soil Biodiversity | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Resource assessment Resource Type: Publications, Guidemanual Website: eusoils.jrc.ec.europa.eulibrarymapsbiodiversityatlasDocumentsBio UN Region: "Western & Eastern Europe"...

  16. European Commission Joint Research Centre | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Centre Address: 1049 Brussels Place: Brussels, Belgium Year Founded: 1957 Website: ec.europa.eudgsjrcindex.cfm Coordinates: 50.8509279, 4.3601162 Show Map Loading map......

  17. Green Paper: A European Strategy for Sustainable, Competitive...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    and Secure Energy Focus Area: Crosscutting Topics: Socio-Economic Website: eur-lex.europa.eusmartapicgisgadoc?smartapicelexplusprodDocNumb Equivalent URI:...

  18. European Commission Impact Assessment Tools | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Publications, Softwaremodeling tools User Interface: Other Website: iatools.jrc.ec.europa.eubinviewIQToolWebHome.html IPTS-IA Tools Screenshot References: IPTS-IA Tools1...

  19. The European Physical Journal C CrossMark

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil W. Carvalho, J. Chinellato6, A. Custodio, E. M. Da Costa, D. De Jesus Damiao, C. De Oliveira Martins, S. Fonseca De Souza, H. Malbouisson, D....

  20. Developments in European Thermal Energy Systems | GE Global Research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Possibly the most important question is, will natural gas fracking be allowed in Germany? ... when it comes to energy with major investments in coal-fired power plants of 24 ...

  1. Cycling on the Rise: Public Bicycles and other European Experiences...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    and the building of local partnerships, might increase the modal share of cycling. We had big expectations at the beginning of the project regarding cycling planning, but could not...

  2. European Experience and Case study of SCR Passenger Car Integration

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given at DEER 2006, August 20-24, 2006, Detroit, Michigan. Sponsored by the U.S. DOE's EERE FreedomCar and Fuel Partnership and 21st Century Truck Programs.

  3. European Diesel Engine Technology: An Overview | Department of...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Solution for Euro VI Emissions Heavy Duty Vehicle In-Use Emission Performance Evaluating Exhaust Emission Performance of Urban Buses Using Transient Heavy-Duty Chassis Dynamometer

  4. Paper preparation to the 7th European Wave and

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    4 th International Conference on Ocean Energy, 17 October, Dublin 1 US Department of Energy National Lab Activities in Marine Hydrokinetics: Machine Performance Testing V.S. Neary 1, 2 , L.P. Chamorro 2 , C. Hill 2 , B. Gunawan 1 , F. Sotiropoulos 2 1 Oak Ridge National Laboratory, 1 Bethel Valley Road, P.O. Box 2008, MS 6036, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, 37831, U.S.A. E-mail: nearyvs@ornl.gov 2 St. Anthony Falls Laboratory, University of Minnesota, 2 Third Avenue S.E., Minneapolis, Minnesota, 55414,

  5. European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD) | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    and international institutions, and are managed by the EBRD. We also manage six nuclear safety and decommissioning funds. The biggest of these is for the transformation...

  6. Africa-European Union Energy Partnership | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Programme (RECP) that will open new linkages in the energy-economic sector for industrial trade and business cooperation between Africa and Europe reaffirm the commitment to...

  7. MHK Technologies/European Pico Pilot Plant | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    2008 Brest, France , Jah, Alok, "Tidal Turbine begins Feeding Power to the Grid", The Guardian (newspaper), London, July 18, 2008 Date Submitted 9282010 << Return to the MHK...

  8. Thermoelectric Activities of European Community within Framework Programme

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Energy Discusses engine technology enablers that help achieve overall system integration effectively deer12_suresh.pdf (986.08 KB) More Documents & Publications Cummins Next Generation Tier 2, Bin 2 Light Truck Diesel engine Cummins/DOE Light Truck Diesel Engine Progress Report Cummins' Next Generation Tier 2, Bin 2 Light Truck Diesel Engine 7 and additional activities in Germany | Department of Energy

    Provides survey of basic and applied thermoelectric activities in Germany

  9. A European Supergrid for Renewable Energy: Local Impacts and...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Focus Area: Renewable Energy Topics: Market Analysis Website: www.sciencedirect.comsciencearticlepiiS0959652611002447 Equivalent URI: cleanenergysolutions.orgcontent...

  10. Emissions from the European Light Duty Diesel Vehicle During...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of diesel solid nanoparticle emissions using a catalytic stripper for comparison with Europe's PMP protocol Emission Performance of Modern Diesel Engines Fueled with Biodiesel

  11. Wave Dragon ApS | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Denmark Country: Denmark Zip: DK-2200 Sector: Marine and Hydrokinetic Product: Wave energy converter development company. Has patented the Wave Dragon, an offshore floating...

  12. Baltic Energy Group | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Baltic Energy Group Jump to: navigation, search Name: Baltic Energy Group Place: Jyllinge, Denmark Zip: DK 4040 Sector: Renewable Energy, Wind energy Product: Denmark-based...

  13. Activation of 200 MW refusegenerated CHP upward regulation effect...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    regulation effect Country Denmark Headquarters Location Thisted, Denmark Coordinates 56.959167, 8.703492 Loading map... "minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","typ...

  14. The microscopic structure of charge density waves in underdoped...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    of Liverpool, Liverpool (United Kingdom) Univ. of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC (Canada) Technical Univ. of Denmark, Lyngby (Denmark) Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), ...

  15. Sandia Energy Infrastructure Assurance

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Wind-Turbine Blade Flaw Detection Experiments in Denmark http:energy.sandia.govsandia-wind-turbine-blade-flaw-detection-experiments-in-denmark http:energy.sandia.gov...

  16. Norden | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    headquartered in Copenhagen, Denmark, is a formal cooperation between Nordic amongst Nordic countries, which includes Denmark, Sweden, Finland, Iceland, Norway, and the...

  17. Merchant Green | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Green Jump to: navigation, search Name: Merchant Green Place: Holstebro, Denmark Zip: DK7500 Sector: Renewable Energy, Wind energy Product: Denmark-based market intelligence firm...

  18. HOMEe | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    navigation, search Name: HOMEe Place: Denmark Product: Denmark-based maker of home automation products, including devices to manage lighting and climate. References: HOMEe1...

  19. Floating Power Plant A S FPP | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Power Plant A S FPP Jump to: navigation, search Name: Floating Power Plant AS (FPP) Address: Stenholtsvej 27 Place: Fredensborg, Denmark Zip: DK-3480 Region: Denmark Sector: Wind...

  20. Fritz Schur Energy | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Denmark Zip: 2860 Sector: Wind energy Product: Denmark-based supplier of complete hydraulic control solutions to the energy industry, specifically wind energy. Coordinates:...

  1. CT Offshore | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Jump to: navigation, search Name: CT Offshore Place: Otterup, Denmark Zip: 5450 Sector: Wind energy Product: Denmark-based consultancy which provides assistance for project...

  2. Danionics A S | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Copenhagen, Denmark Zip: DK-1471 Product: An international manufacturer of advanced lithium-ion polymer batteries with activities in Denmark (R&D and sales), China...

  3. EcoGrid EU (Smart Grid Project) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    EU (Smart Grid Project) Jump to: navigation, search Project Name EcoGrid EU Country Denmark Headquarters Location Bornholm, Denmark Coordinates 55.160427, 14.866884 Loading...

  4. Wave Star Energy | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Star Energy Jump to: navigation, search Name: Wave Star Energy Place: Denmark Zip: DK-2920 Product: Denmark-based private wave device developer. References: Wave Star Energy1...

  5. RAcell Solar AS | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AS Place: Copenhagen, Denmark Zip: 1820 Sector: Solar Product: Denmark based producer of solar cells and modules; also provides turnkey system installation for PV and BIPV....

  6. User:GregZiebold/Developing Country Programs Map | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    of Congo 12 Djibouti 3 Dominica 9 Dominican Republic 12 Ecuador 7 Egypt 14 El Salvador 8 Equatorial Guinea 4 Eritrea 3 Estonia 2 Ethiopia 21 Fiji 1 Gabon 10 ... further...

  7. WPD Danmark A S i G | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Danmark A S i G Jump to: navigation, search Name: WPD Danmark AS (i.G.) Place: Rdekro, Denmark Zip: 6230 Sector: Wind energy Product: Denmark-based, subsidiary of WDP AG...

  8. 2016 Bioenergizeme Infographic Challenge: History in the Making

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This infographic was created by students from Denmark-Olar High in Denmark , SC, as part of the U.S. Department of Energy-BioenergizeME Infographic Challenge. The BioenergizeME Infographic...

  9. 2016 Bioenergizeme Infographic Challenge: Roads to Success

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This infographic was created by students from Denmark-Olar High in Denmark , SC, as part of the U.S. Department of Energy-BioenergizeME Infographic Challenge. The BioenergizeME Infographic...

  10. 2016 Bioenergizeme Infographic Challenge: Transportation Sustainability

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This infographic was created by students from Denmark-Olar High School in Denmark, SC, as part of the U.S. Department of Energy-BioenergizeME Infographic Challenge. The BioenergizeME Infographic...

  11. xMDFF: molecular dynamics flexible fitting of low-resolution...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... Country of Publication: Denmark Language: English Subject: 75 CONDENSED MATTER PHYSICS, SUPERCONDUCTIVITY AND SUPERFLUIDITY; ATOMS; CRYSTAL STRUCTURE; CRYSTALLOGRAPHY; CRYSTALS; ...

  12. A Study of Emissions from a Light Duty Diesel Engine with the European Particulate Measurement Programme

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A comparison of regulated emissions measured by the California Air Resources Board (CARB) and particle number emissions with the Joint Research Committee participating international laboratories was a success, and the CARB measurements and standard deviations compared well with the other laboratories

  13. European empirical methods applied to subsidence in U. S. coal fields

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Munson, D.E.; Eichfeld, W.F.

    1980-10-01

    The empirical methods commonly used in Europe to describe the shape of subsidence troughs are tested against the field data of the York Canyon Mine in Northern New Mexico. This mine is in a flat lying seam under rugged terrain. The subsidence data consists of time-correlated measurements of surface displacements above two longwall panels. While the profile fits from the graphical methods (United Kingdom) do not agree with the measured profiles, the profile functions of the error integral type used in Continental Europe fit the data well. The profile function analysis of the development curves also suggests a time-dependent response of the overburden. These results, except for the specific profile function used, are similar to those found previously for longwall subsidence at the Old Ben No. 24 Mine. Parameter values of the fit, i.e., the effective half range of the function and inflection point offset, were determined for all profiles. These parameters for the development curves and traveling profiles, which fundamentally result from the same raw data, exhibit markedly different apparent ''scatter.'' The rather narrow range of values for the development curves suggest that individual points subside in a well-behaved manner; and hence, the large variation in parameter values for the traveling profiles reflects an inadequacy in the analysis in correlation between points. Consequently, the use of influence functions appears to be a possible method for improving the empirical analysis of longwall subsidence.

  14. Technical Exchange and Cooperation Arrangement Between the Department of Energy and the European Atomic Energy Community

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Teach and Learn Teach and Learn WELCOME! Whether you're a K-12 teacher, a university administrator, or a student interested in starting your path toward a clean energy career, we’ve got you covered. On this page, you'll find links to student competitions, internships, training and degree programs, career planning tools, and professional development opportunities. You can also explore videos, data tools, lessons, activities, and other online resources for educators at all levels. | Photo

  15. Use of North American and European air quality networks to evaluate...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Authors: Schnell, J. L. ; Prather, M. J. ; Josse, B. ; Naik, V. ; Horowitz, L. W. ; Cameron-Smith, P. Search SciTech Connect for author "Cameron-Smith, P." Search SciTech Connect ...

  16. Use of North American and European air quality networks to evaluate...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Authors: Schnell, J. L. ; Prather, M. J. ; Josse, B. ; Naik, V. ; Horowitz, L. W. ; Cameron-Smith, P. Search DOE PAGES for author "Cameron-Smith, P." Search DOE PAGES for ORCID ...

  17. A European Perspective of EURO 5/U.S. 07 Heavy-Duty Engine Technologie...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Towards Meeting Euro 4 Emission Standards in 2005 State-of-the-Art and Emergin Truck Engine Technologies SCR Potential and Issues for Heavy-Duty Applications in the United States

  18. Integrity of the reactor coolant boundary of the European pressurized water reactor (EPR)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goetsch, D.; Bieniussa, K.; Schulz, H.; Jalouneix, J.

    1997-04-01

    This paper is an abstract of the work performed in the frame of the development of the IPSN/GRS approach in view of the EPR conceptual safety features. EPR is a pressurized water reactor which will be based on the experience gained by utilities and designers in France and in Germany. The reactor coolant boundary of a PWR includes the reactor pressure vessel (RPV), those parts of the steam generators (SGs) which contain primary coolant, the pressurizer (PSR), the reactor coolant pumps (RCPs), the main coolant lines (MCLs) with their branches as well as the other connecting pipes and all branching pipes including the second isolation valves. The present work covering the integrity of the reactor coolant boundary is mainly restricted to the integrity of the main coolant lines (MCLs) and reflects the design requirements for the main components of the reactor coolant boundary. In the following the conceptual aspects, i.e. design, manufacture, construction and operation, will be assessed. A main aspect is the definition of break postulates regarding overall safety implications.

  19. The design of experiments in the rubber industry: A European viewpoint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hill, A.

    1991-04-01

    This article discusses the evolution of experiment design in Europe and Japan beginning about 1947. The topics include the use of statistics, optimization, relevant publications, experiment design in rubber manufacturing, product development, use of computers in compound development, and data analysis by computer. The review covers manufacturing from rubber to pharmaceuticals to automobiles.

  20. Emissions from the European Light Duty Diesel Vehicle During DPF Regeneration Events

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Repeated partial regenerations may cause changes in the mechanical and chemical properties of the PM in the DPF.

  1. Global Genomic Epidemiology of Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium DT104

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Leekitcharoenphon, Pimlapas; Hendriksen, Rene S.; Le Hello, Simon; Weill, François-Xavier; Baggesen, Dorte Lau; Jun, Se-Ran; Ussery, David W.; Lund, Ole; Crook, Derrick W.; Wilson, Daniel J.; et al

    2016-03-04

    It has been 30 years since the initial emergence and subsequent rapid global spread of multidrug-resistant Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium DT104 (MDR DT104). Nonetheless, its origin and transmission route have never been revealed. In this paper, we used whole-genome sequencing (WGS) and temporally structured sequence analysis within a Bayesian framework to reconstruct temporal and spatial phylogenetic trees and estimate the rates of mutation and divergence times of 315 S. Typhimurium DT104 isolates sampled from 1969 to 2012 from 21 countries on six continents. DT104 was estimated to have emerged initially as antimicrobial susceptible in ~1948 (95% credible interval [CI], 1934more » to 1962) and later became MDR DT104 in ~1972 (95% CI, 1972 to 1988) through horizontal transfer of the 13-kb Salmonella genomic island 1 (SGI1) MDR region into susceptible strains already containing SGI1. This was followed by multiple transmission events, initially from central Europe and later between several European countries. An independent transmission to the United States and another to Japan occurred, and from there MDR DT104 was probably transmitted to Taiwan and Canada. An independent acquisition of resistance genes took place in Thailand in ~1975 (95% CI, 1975 to 1990). In Denmark, WGS analysis provided evidence for transmission of the organism between herds of animals. Interestingly, the demographic history of Danish MDR DT104 provided evidence for the success of the program to eradicate Salmonella from pig herds in Denmark from 1996 to 2000. Finally, the results from this study refute several hypotheses on the evolution of DT104 and suggest that WGS may be useful in monitoring emerging clones and devising strategies for prevention of Salmonella infections.« less

  2. Genomic variation Salmonella enterica core genes for epidemiological typing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leekitcharoenphon, Pimlapas; Hendriksen, Rene S; Le Hello, Simon; Weill, Fancois-Xavier; Baggesen, Dorte Lau; Jun, Se Ran; Ussery, David W; Lund, Ole; Crook, Derrick W; Wilson, Daniel J; Aarestrup, Frank M

    2012-01-01

    It has been 30 years since the initial emergence and subsequent rapid global spread of multidrug-resistant S. Typhimurium DT104. Nonetheless, its origin and transmission route have never been revealed. We used whole genome sequence (WGS) and temporally structured sequence analysis within a Bayesian framework to reconstruct temporal and spatial phylogenetic trees and estimate the rate of mutation and divergence time of 315 S. Typhimurium DT104 isolates sampled from 1969 to 2012 from 21 countries on six continents. DT104 was estimated to have emerged initially as antimicrobial-susceptible strains in ~1946 (95% credible interval 1931 - 1959) and later became multidrug-resistant (MDR) DT104 in ~1974 (95% CI 1966 1981) through horizontal transfer of the 13-kb SGI1 MDR region into already SGI1-containing susceptible strains. This was followed by multiple transmission events initially from Central Europe and later between European countries. An independent transmission occurred to the United States and another to Japan and from here to Taiwan and Canada. An independent acquisition of resistance genes took place in Thailand in ~1986 (95% CI 1975 1990). Locally in Denmark, WGS was capable of confirming local epidemiology for transmission between animal herds. Interestingly, the demographic history of Danish MDR DT104 provided evidence for the accomplishment of an eradication program across pig herds in Denmark from 1996 to 2000. The results from this study refuse several hypotheses on the evolution of DT104 and would suggest WGS may be useful in monitoring emerging clones and making strategies for prevention

  3. Genomic variation Salmonella enterica core genes for epidemiological typing

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Leekitcharoenphon, Pimlapas; Hendriksen, Rene S; Le Hello, Simon; Weill, Fancois-Xavier; Baggesen, Dorte Lau; Jun, Se Ran; Ussery, David W; Lund, Ole; Crook, Derrick W; Wilson, Daniel J; et al

    2012-01-01

    It has been 30 years since the initial emergence and subsequent rapid global spread of multidrug-resistant S. Typhimurium DT104. Nonetheless, its origin and transmission route have never been revealed. We used whole genome sequence (WGS) and temporally structured sequence analysis within a Bayesian framework to reconstruct temporal and spatial phylogenetic trees and estimate the rate of mutation and divergence time of 315 S. Typhimurium DT104 isolates sampled from 1969 to 2012 from 21 countries on six continents. DT104 was estimated to have emerged initially as antimicrobial-susceptible strains in ~1946 (95% credible interval 1931 - 1959) and later became multidrug-resistant (MDR)more » DT104 in ~1974 (95% CI 1966 1981) through horizontal transfer of the 13-kb SGI1 MDR region into already SGI1-containing susceptible strains. This was followed by multiple transmission events initially from Central Europe and later between European countries. An independent transmission occurred to the United States and another to Japan and from here to Taiwan and Canada. An independent acquisition of resistance genes took place in Thailand in ~1986 (95% CI 1975 1990). Locally in Denmark, WGS was capable of confirming local epidemiology for transmission between animal herds. Interestingly, the demographic history of Danish MDR DT104 provided evidence for the accomplishment of an eradication program across pig herds in Denmark from 1996 to 2000. The results from this study refuse several hypotheses on the evolution of DT104 and would suggest WGS may be useful in monitoring emerging clones and making strategies for prevention« less

  4. Analysis of international efforts in energy research and development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rezaiyan, A.J.; Gill, R.T.

    1995-09-01

    Research and experimental development comprise innovative and creative work undertaken systematically to increase the stock of knowledge of science, engineering, and society. This knowledge reserve is used to improve living conditions and standards, including economic growth. Research and development (R&D) expenditures are useful measures of the scale and direction of technological innovation within a country, industry, or scientific field. Administrators concerned with economic growth and performance rely on R&D statistics as one possible type of indicator of technological change. R&D statistics are an essential tool in many government programs and evaluations (OECD 1993). The objective of the analysis was to identify and evaluate R&D funding sources, levels, and trends in the energy sectors of selected industrialized countries (Australia, Belgium, Canada, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, Netherlands, Norway, Sweden, Switzerland, United Kingdom, United States) and the European Union (EU). Fossil fuel technologies, particularly fuel cells and advanced gas turbines, were the focus of the analysis, whose results are presented in this report.

  5. Outlook for renewable energy technologies: Assessment of international programs and policies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Branstetter, L.J.; Vidal, R.C.; Bruch, V.L.; Zurn, R.

    1995-02-01

    The report presents an evaluation of worldwide research efforts in three specific renewable energy technologies, with a view towards future United States (US) energy security, environmental factors, and industrial competitiveness. The overall energy technology priorities of foreign governments and industry leaders, as well as the motivating factors for these priorities, are identified and evaluated from both technological and policy perspectives. The specific technologies of interest are wind, solar thermal, and solar photovoltaics (PV). These program areas, as well as the overall energy policies of Denmark, France, Germany, Italy, the United Kingdom (UK), Japan, Russia, and the European Community as a whole are described. The present and likely future picture for worldwide technological leadership in these technologies-is portrayed. The report is meant to help in forecasting challenges to US preeminence in the various technology areas, particularly over the next ten years, and to help guide US policy-makers as they try to identify specific actions which would help to retain and/or expand the US leadership position.

  6. Tracing the HIV-1 subtype B mobility in Europe: a phylogeographic approach

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leitner, Thomas; Paraskevis, D; Pybus, O; Magiorkinis, G; Hatzakis, A

    2008-01-01

    The prevalence and the origin of HIV-1 subtype B, the most prevalent circulating clade among the long-term residents in Europe, have been studied extensively. However the spatial diffusion of the epidemic from the perspective of the virus has not previously been traced. In the current study we inferred the migration history of HIV-1 subtype B by way of a phylogeography of viral sequences sampled from 16 European countries and Israel. Migration events were inferred from viral phylogenies by character reconstruction using parsimony. With regard to the spatial dispersal of the HIV subtype B sequences across viral phylogenies, in most of the countries in Europe the epidemic was introduced by multiple sources and subsequently spread within local networks. Poland provides an exception where most of the infections were the result of a single point introduction. According to the significant migratory pathways, we show that there are considerable differences across Europe. Specifically, Greece, Portugal, Serbia and Spain, provide sources shedding HIV-1; Austria, Belgium and Luxembourg, on the other hand, are migratory targets, while for Denmark, Germany, Italy, Israel, Norway, the Netherlands, Sweden, Switzerland and the UK we inferred significant bidirectional migration. For Poland no significant migratory pathways were inferred. Subtype B phylogeographies provide a new insight about the geographical distribution of viral lineages, as well as the significant pathways of virus dispersal across Europe, suggesting that intervention strategies should also address tourists, travellers and migrants.

  7. Expected international demand for woody and herbaceous feedstock

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lamers, Patrick; Jacobson, Jacob; Mohammad, Roni; Wright, Christopher

    2015-03-01

    The development of a U.S. bioenergy market and ultimately ‘bioeconomy’ has primarily been investigated with a national focus. Limited attention has been given to the potential impacts of international market developments. The goal of this project is to advance the current State of Technology of a single biorefinery to the global level providing quantitative estimates on how international markets may influence the domestic feedstock supply costs. The scope of the project is limited to feedstock that is currently available and new crops being developed to be used in a future U.S. bioeconomy including herbaceous residues (e.g., corn stover), woody biomass (e.g., pulpwood), and energy crops (e.g., switchgrass). The timeframe is set to the periods of 2022, 2030, and 2040 to align with current policy targets (e.g., the RFS2) and future updates of the Billion Ton data. This particular milestone delivers demand volumes for generic woody and herbaceous feedstocks for the main (net) importing regions along the above timeframes. The regional focus of the study is the European Union (EU), currently the largest demand region for U.S. pellets made from pulpwood and forest residues. The pellets are predominantly used in large-scale power plants (>5MWel) in the United Kingdom (UK), the Netherlands (NL), Belgium (BE), and Denmark (DK).

  8. The EURATOM Supply Agency

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lightner, J.

    1989-11-01

    With the coming liberalization of trade and industry within the European Community (EC) and a more centrally-coordinated EC external trade policy, it is timely to ask if in the 1990s there will be any significant changes in the commercial relations between the EC and non-EC companies trading in nuclear fuel. The key vehicle for implementing any change of policy would probably be the European Atomic Energy Community (EURATOM) Supply Agency in Brussels, which is charged under the EURATOM Treaty with overseeing the equitable supply of nuclear fuel to and among EC companies. The EURATOM Supply Agency (the Agency) is a signatory to almost all EC-company contracts for transactions that occur on the territory of the Community, which includes Belgium, Denmark, France, the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG), Great Britain, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Portugal, and Spain. During the 1980s, the Supply Agency has rarely tried to influence the commercial decisions of EC member companies. The nuclear fuel industry has largely perceived the Agency as an administrative office that registers contracts and maintains relations with some outside governments, particularly Australia, Canada, and the USA. However, in 1988 the Agency began to have a more direct commercial impact when it reviewed the practice-previously conducted routinely by the EURATOM Safeguards Directorate in Luxembourg at the request of EC-member companies-of swapping safeguards obligations on equivalent quantities of uranium at different locations (flag swapping). The Agency`s actions inhibiting flag swaps, as well as a related de facto policy restricting material swaps of Southern African uranium, caused it to be viewed as obstructive by some EC companies. During 1989 the discussion about flag swaps and swaps involving South African and Namibian uranium has subsided, and a far-reaching discussion has arisen about EC trade policy in general.

  9. Data Products from ECMWF (European Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasts) Covering the MAGIC AMF2 Deployment

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Ahlgrimm, Maike

    2015-04-02

    ECMWF derived diagnostic variables over MAGIC's ship path from Los Angeles, CA and Honolulu, HI. Two dimensional (time and height) slices were extracted once the ship's exact positions were known.

  10. Mass chain evaluations for the evaluated nuclear structure data file (ENSDF) - an urgent appeal for European participation.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kondev, F. G.; Nichols, A. L.; Tuli, J. K.; Nuclear Engineering Division; International Atomic Energy Agency; BNL

    2007-01-01

    Reliable nuclear structure and decay data represent the fundamental building blocks of nuclear physics and astrophysics research, and are also of vital importance in a significant number of applied nuclear fields such as power generation and associated fuel cycle operations (e.g., fuel manufacture, transport, reprocessing, and waste management), materials analysis, medical diagnosis, and radiotherapy. There is a continuous demand for good quality data formulated and recommended through the speedy assessment and incorporation of new and improved measurements.