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Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "denatured aliphatic alco" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


1

Conversion of MixAlco Process Sludge to Liquid Transportation Fuels  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of iron instead of cobalt is validated by the fact that the hydrogen production potential of biomass feedstock is low compared to steam reforming of methane which is usually accompanied by the WGS reaction. Since iron catalyst catalyzes the WGS...,33]. The pyrolysis of the MixAlco process sludge and other biomass feedstocks will generate syngas (H2 and CO) together with methane. External modification of the final syngas composition for use in the FTS catalyst may involve the steam reforming of the 3 CH...

Teiseh, Eliasu 1973-

2012-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

2

aliphatic compounds: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

exhibit higher melting temperatures and crystallinity than conventional PET-aliphatic polyester Khan, Saad A. 9 Vapor Phase Adsorption of Homologous Aliphatic Ketones on...

3

Probing the denatured state ensemble with fluorescence  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

around the original tryptophan substitutions in RNase Sa. Regardless of the denaturant, ?max for the proteins and model compounds differed very little, 349.3 ± 1.2 nm. However, significant differences were observed in the fluorescence intensity at ?max...

Alston, Roy Willis

2004-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

4

approach aliphatic monoesters: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

in treating a variety of electrostatic Jayaram, Bhyravabotla 6 Far infrared spectra of solid state aliphatic amino acids in different protonation states Physics Websites Summary:...

5

E-Print Network 3.0 - aliphatic dicarboxylate ligands Sample...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

with increasing n. However, the frequencies of aliphatic dicarboxylate dianions in bulk... . Identification of C3-C10 Aliphatic Dicarboxylic-Acids in Airborne Particulate...

6

E-Print Network 3.0 - aliphatic primary amines Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

results for: aliphatic primary amines Page: << < 1 2 3 4 5 > >> 1 ELSEVIER Marine Chemistry 51 (1995) 45-54 Aliphatic amines in Chesapeake Bay sediments Summary: ELSEVIER...

7

E-Print Network 3.0 - aliphatic dimethylarsinoyl compounds Sample...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Summary: host) and aliphatic compounds (the guest) (two of the aliphatic acids are liquids at room temperature... through self-assembly with a series of commercially available,...

8

E-Print Network 3.0 - aliphatic c-h bond Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

during its thermal evolution Summary: ) aliphatic hydrogen concentration (integrated area in the 3000-2700 cm-1 , aliphatic C---H stretching modes... hydrogen concentration...

9

aliphatic secondary alcohols: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

for conversion of biomass derived feedstocks to fuels and fuel additives. Synthesis of ethanol and higher aliphatic alcohols from syngas (CO + H2... Baksh, Faisal 2010-04-19 3 The...

10

aliphatic copolyester films: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Release: Refer to the SAMPLE INDEX for a list of validated samples. Refer to the DATA 20 Synthesis and Self-Assembly of Amphiphilic Dendrimers Based on Aliphatic Polyether-Type...

11

Process for producing peracids from aliphatic hydroxy carboxylic acids  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process is described for producing peracids from lactic acid-containing solutions derived from biomass processing systems. It consists of adjusting the pH of the solution to about 8 to 9 and removing alkaline residue fractions therefrom to form a solution comprised substantially of lower aliphatic hydroxy acids. The solution is oxidized to produce volatile lower aliphatic aldehydes. The aldehydes are removed as they are generated and converted to peracids.

Chum, H.L.; Palasz, P.D.; Ratcliff, M.A.

1984-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

12

Local and long-range electrostatic interactions in denatured Ribonuclease Sa: comparing the denatured protein with model peptides  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

H dependence of protein stability have highlighted substantial electrostatic structure in the denatured states of many proteins. To increase understanding of such electrostatic structure, unstructured pentapeptides have been used as models of the ionization...

Daily, Michael Douglas

2013-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

13

Denaturing Urea PAGE -Large Gel Preparation of Glass Plates  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

for short glass plate. Wear gloves. 3. Place long glass plate on 2 foam rectangles. Set up spacers and short32 Denaturing Urea PAGE - Large Gel Preparation of Glass Plates 1. Clean glass plates and comb pipette, add 5 drops of dichlorodimethylsilane (Aldrich D6,082-6) to 5 mls of acetone in diposable glass

Aris, John P.

14

Synthesis of Aliphatic-Aromatic Copolyesters by a High Temperature  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

copolymers. The method provides a way of chemically recycling PET into degradable aliphatic 2398. Full Paper: Cyclodi(ethylene succinate) (C2) was reacted with poly(ethylene terephtha- late) (PET) in the molten state, yielding high molar mass random or block PET-co- poly(ethylene succinate

Khan, Saad A.

15

Aerobic microorganism for the degradation of chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbon-degrading microorganism, having American Type Culture Collection accession numbers ATCC 53570 and 53571, in a biologically pure culture aseptically collected from a deep subsurface habitat and enhanced, mineralizes trichloroethylene and tetrachloroethylene to HCl, H.sub.2 O and Co.sub.2 under aerobic conditions stimulated by methane, acetate, methanol, tryptone-yeast extract, propane and propane-methane.

Fliermans, Carl B. (Augusta, GA)

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

16

Process for producing peracids from aliphatic hydroxy carboxylic acids  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This patent describes a wood pulp processing system of the type producing both pulp and a stream of lactic acid-containing black liquor solution, the processor for production of peracid bleaching agents from hydroxy acid contained in the black liquor solution, comprising: adjusting the pH of the black liquor solution to the range of about 8-9 by exposing the solution to CO/sub 2/ carbon dioxide to form an alkaline precipitate; separating solids from the black liquor solution to produce a residual solution containing lower aliphatic hydroxy acids selected from the group consisting of lactic acid, glycolic acid, 2-hydroxybutanoic acid, xyloisosaccharinic acid, and glucoisosaccharinic acid; decarboxylating the lower aliphatic hydroxy acids to corresponding gaseous aliphatic aldehydes by admixing a powdered semiconductor with the residual solution to form a slurry; removing the gaseous aldehydes from the residual solution by sweeping gas flow as soon as they are generated to prevent further oxidation to carboxylic acids; reacting the gaseous aldehydes with oxygen to form corresponding peracids; and applying the peracids as bleaching agents to the pulp produced in the pulp processing system.

Chum, H.L.; Ratcliff, M.A.; Palasz, P.D.

1986-10-14T23:59:59.000Z

17

Strategies for denaturing the weapons-grade plutonium stockpile  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In the next few years, approximately 50 metric tons of weapons-grade plutonium and 150 metric tons of highly-enriched uranium (HEU) may be removed from nuclear weapons in the US and declared excess. These materials represent a significant energy resource that could substantially contribute to our national energy requirements. HEU can be used as fuel in naval reactors, or diluted with depleted uranium for use as fuel in commercial reactors. This paper proposes to use the weapons-grade plutonium as fuel in light water reactors. The first such reactor would demonstrate the dual objectives of producing electrical power and denaturing the plutonium to prevent use in nuclear weapons.

Buckner, M.R.; Parks, P.B.

1992-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

18

E-Print Network 3.0 - aliphatic hydrocarbons formed Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

4.3. Lack of Aliphatic Hydrocarbons... might be interpreted as the results of contamination that introduced ... Source: Brocks, Jochen J. - Research School of Earth Sciences,...

19

E-Print Network 3.0 - aromatic aliphatic copolyester Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

changes... . An investigation of the aromatic and aliphatic structural changes in the coking coals during carbonisation using... of heat treated coal in relation to the...

20

E-Print Network 3.0 - aliphatic alcohols studies Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

alcohols studies Search Powered by Explorit Topic List Advanced Search Sample search results for: aliphatic alcohols studies Page: << < 1 2 3 4 5 > >> 1 Journal of Electron...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "denatured aliphatic alco" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

E-Print Network 3.0 - aliphatic amines extraction Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

; Environmental Sciences and Ecology 37 Exploratory Studies on Fast Pyrolysis Oil Upgrading Summary: using Aliphatic Tertiary Amines... -1 Acetic Acid Recovery from Fast...

22

Kinetics of Loop Formation and Breakage in the Denatured State of Iso-1-cytochrome c  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Kinetics of Loop Formation and Breakage in the Denatured State of Iso-1-cytochrome c Eydiejo to measure the rates of histidine­heme loop formation and breakage in the denatured state of iso-1-cytochrome single surface histidine variants of iso-1-cytochrome c. A scaling factor (the dependence of kf on log

Roder, Heinrich

23

Plectoneme tip bubbles: Coupled denaturation and writhing in supercoiled DNA  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Biological information is not only stored in the digital chemical sequence of double helical DNA, but is also encoded in the mechanical properties of the DNA strands, which can influence biochemical processes involving its readout. For example, loop formation in the Lac operon can regulate the expression of key genes, and DNA supercoiling is closely correlated to rhythmic circardian gene expression in cyanobacteria. Supercoiling is also important for large scale organisation of the genome in both eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells. DNA can respond to torsional stress by writhing to form looped structures called plectonemes, thus transferring energy stored as twist into energy stored in bending. Denaturation bubbles can also relax torsional stress, with the enthalpic cost of breaking bonds being compensated by their ability to absorb undertwist. Here we predict a novel regime where bubbles form at the tips of plectonemes, and study its properties using coarse-grained simulations. These tip bubbles can occur for both positive and negative supercoiling and greatly reduce plectoneme diffusion by a pinning mechanism. They can cause plectonemes to preferentially localise to AT rich regions, because bubbles more easily form there. The tip-bubble regime occurs for supercoiling densities and forces that are typically encountered for DNA in vivo, and may be exploited for biological control of genomic processes.

Christian Matek; Thomas E. Ouldridge; Jonathan P. K. Doye; Ard A. Louis

2014-04-10T23:59:59.000Z

24

Metal Catalyzed Formation of Aliphatic Polycarbonates Involving Oxetanes and Carbon Dioxide as Monomers  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

including phosgene and its derivatives. Therefore, it has been of great interest to investigate greener routes for the production of this important class of polymers. Toward this goal, the synthesis of aliphatic polycarbonates via the metal catalyzed...

Moncada, Adriana I.

2011-08-08T23:59:59.000Z

25

Denaturation and Renaturation of Self-Assembled Yeast Iso-1-cytochrome c on Au  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Denaturation and Renaturation of Self-Assembled Yeast Iso-1-cytochrome c on Au Soonwoo Chah, Challa 06269-4060 We have made surface plasmon resonance (SPR) mea- surements of yeast iso-1-cytochrome c (Cyt

Zare, Richard N.

26

Process for the synthesis of aliphatic alcohol-containing mixtures  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process for the synthesis of mixtures which include saturated aliphatic alcohols is disclosed. In the first step of the process, the first catalyst activation stage, a catalyst, which comprises the oxides of copper, zinc, aluminum, potassium and one or two additional metals selected from the group consisting of chromium, magnesium, cerium, cobalt, thorium and lanthanum, is partially activated. In this step, a reducing gas stream, which includes hydrogen and at least one inert gas, flows past the catalyst at a space velocity of up to 5,000 liters (STP) per hour, per kilogram of catalyst. The partially activated catalyst is then subjected to the second step of the process, second-stage catalyst activation. In this step, the catalyst is contacted by an activation gas stream comprising hydrogen and carbon monoxide present in a volume ratio of 0.5:1 and 4:1, respectively, at a temperature of 200 to 450 C and a pressure of between 35 and 200 atmospheres. The activation gas flows at a space velocity of from 1,000 to 20,000 liters (STP) per hour, per kilogram of catalyst. Second-stage activation continues until the catalyst is contacted with at least 500,000 liters (STP) of activation gas per kilogram of catalyst. The fully activated catalyst, in the third step of the process, contacts a synthesis gas stream comprising hydrogen and carbon monoxide.

Greene, M.I.; Gelbein, A.P.

1984-10-16T23:59:59.000Z

27

Process for the synthesis of aliphatic alcohol-containing mixtures  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process for the synthesis of mixtures which include saturated aliphatic alcohols is disclosed. In the first step of the process, the first catalyst activation stage, a catalyst, which comprises the oxides of copper, zinc, aluminum, potassium and one or two additional metals selected from the group consisting of chromium, magnesium, cerium, cobalt, thorium and lanthanum, is partially activated. In this step, a reducing gas stream, which includes hydrogen and at least one inert gas, flows past the catalyst at a space velocity of up to 5,000 liters (STP) per hour, per kilogram of catalyst. The partially activated catalyst is then subjected to the second step of the process, second-stage catalyst activation. In this step, the catalyst is contacted by an activation gas stream comprising hydrogen and carbon monoxide present in a volume ratio of 0.5:1 and 4:1, respectively, at a temperature of 200.degree. to 450.degree. C. and a pressure of between 35 and 200 atmospheres. The activation gas flows at a space velocity of from 1,000 to 20,000 liters (STP) per hour, per kilogram of catalyst. Second-stage activation continues until the catalyst is contacted with at least 500,000 liters (STP) of activation gas per kilogram of catalyst. The fully activated catalyst, in the third step of the process, contacts a synthesis gas stream comprising hydrogen and carbon monoxide.

Greene, Marvin I. (Oradell, NJ); Gelbein, Abraham P. (Morristown, NJ)

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

28

Shape memory polymers based on uniform aliphatic urethane networks  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Aliphatic urethane polymers have been synthesized and characterized, using monomers with high molecular symmetry, in order to form amorphous networks with very uniform supermolecular structures which can be used as photo-thermally actuable shape memory polymers (SMPs). The monomers used include hexamethylene diisocyanate (HDI), trimethylhexamethylenediamine (TMHDI), N,N,N{prime},N{prime}-tetrakis(hydroxypropyl)ethylenediamine (HPED), triethanolamine (TEA), and 1,3-butanediol (BD). The new polymers were characterized by solvent extraction, NMR, XPS, UV/VIS, DSC, DMTA, and tensile testing. The resulting polymers were found to be single phase amorphous networks with very high gel fraction, excellent optical clarity, and extremely sharp single glass transitions in the range of 34 to 153 C. Thermomechanical testing of these materials confirms their excellent shape memory behavior, high recovery force, and low mechanical hysteresis (especially on multiple cycles), effectively behaving as ideal elastomers above T{sub g}. We believe these materials represent a new and potentially important class of SMPs, and should be especially useful in applications such as biomedical microdevices.

Wilson, T S; Bearinger, J P; Herberg, J L; Marion III, J E; Wright, W J; Evans, C L; Maitland, D J

2007-01-19T23:59:59.000Z

29

Process for removing halogenated aliphatic and aromatic compounds from petroleum products  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process for removing halogenated aliphatic and aromatic compounds, e.g., polychlorinated biphenyls, from petroleum products by solvent extraction. The halogenated aliphatic and aromatic compounds are extracted from a petroleum product into a polar solvent by contacting the petroleum product with the polar solvent. The polar solvent is characterized by a high solubility for the extracted halogenated aliphatic and aromatic compounds, a low solubility for the petroleum product and considerable solvent power for polyhydroxy compound. The preferred polar solvent is dimethylformamide. A miscible compound, such as, water or a polyhydroxy compound, is added to the polar extraction solvent to increase the polarity of the polar extraction solvent. The halogenated aliphatic and aromatic compounds are extracted from the highly-polarized mixture of water or polyhydroxy compound and polar extraction solvent into a low polar or nonpolar solvent by contacting the water or polyhydroxy compound-polar solvent mixture with the low polar or nonpolar solvent. The halogenated aliphatic and aromatic compounds and the low polar or nonpolar solvent are separated by physical means, e.g., vacuum evaporation. The polar and nonpolar solvents are recovered from recycling. The process can easily be designed for continuous operation. Advantages of the process include that the polar solvent and a major portion of the nonpolar solvent can be recycled, the petroleum products are reclaimable and the cost for disposing of waste containing polychlorinated biphenyls is significantly reduced.

Googin, John M. (Oak Ridge, TN); Napier, John M. (Oak Ridge, TN); Travaglini, Michael A. (Oliver Springs, TN)

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

30

Process for removing halogenated aliphatic and aromatic compounds from petroleum products  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process is described for removing halogenated aliphatic and aromatic compounds, e.g., polychlorinated biphenyls, from petroleum products by solvent extraction. The halogenated aliphatic and aromatic compounds are extracted from a petroleum product into a polar solvent by contacting the petroleum product with the polar solvent. The polar solvent is characterized by a high solubility for the extracted halogenated aliphatic and aromatic compounds, a low solubility for the petroleum product and considerable solvent power for polyhydroxy compound. The preferred polar solvent is dimethylformamide. A miscible compound, such as, water or a polyhydroxy compound, is added to the polar extraction solvent to increase the polarity of the polar extraction solvent. The halogenated aliphatic and aromatic compounds are extracted from the highly-polarized mixture of water or polyhydroxy compound and polar extraction solvent into a low polar or nonpolar solvent by contacting the water or polyhydroxy compound-polar solvent mixture with the low polar or nonpolar solvent. The halogenated aliphatic and aromatic compounds and the low polar or nonpolar solvent are separated by physical means, e.g., vacuum evaporation. The polar and nonpolar solvents are recovered from recycling. The process can easily be designed for continuous operation. Advantages of the process include that the polar solvent and a major portion of the nonpolar solvent can be recycled, the petroleum products are reclaimable and the cost for disposing of waste containing polychlorinated biphenyls is significantly reduced. 1 fig.

Googin, J.M.; Napier, J.M.; Travaglini, M.A.

1983-09-20T23:59:59.000Z

31

Aliphatic polyester-grafted starch composites by in situ ring opening polymerization*  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Aliphatic polyester-grafted starch composites by in situ ring opening polymerization* Abstract-Catalyzed Ring-Opening Polymerization (ROP) of lactones, such as c-caprolactone and ii-vnlerolactone. ha\\ been polymerization of ethylene oxide on starch has also been reported [ l 11. Other starch graft copolymers have been

Narayan, Ramani

32

Uranium-plutonium-neptunium fuel cycle to produce isotopically denatured plutonium  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In view of the considerable amount of /sup 237/ Np produced as a by-product in nuclear power reactors, possible utilization of this nuclide in the nuclear fuel cycle has been studied. In particular, the performance of a gas-cooled fast breeder reactor as a neptunium burner was assessed. A strategy was developed and mass flows were computed for a denatured plutonium LWR strategy using uranium, plutonium and neptunium recycling. 10 refs.

Wydler, P.; Heer, W.; Stiller, P.; Wenger, H.U.

1980-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

33

Thermal and mechanical denaturation properties of a DNA model with three sites per nucleotide  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In this paper, we show that the coarse grain model for DNA, which has been proposed recently by Knotts, Rathore, Schwartz and de Pablo (J. Chem. Phys. 126, 084901 (2007)), can be adapted to describe the thermal and mechanical denaturation of long DNA sequences by adjusting slightly the base pairing contribution. The adjusted model leads to (i) critical temperatures for long homogeneous sequences that are in good agreement with both experimental ones and those obtained from statistical models, (ii) a realistic step-like denaturation behaviour for long inhomogeneous sequences, and (iii) critical forces at ambient temperature of the order of 10 pN, close to measured values. The adjusted model furthermore supports the conclusion that the thermal denaturation of long homogeneous sequences corresponds to a first-order phase transition and yields a critical exponent for the critical force equal to sigma=0.70. This model is both geometrically and energetically realistic, in the sense that the helical structure and th...

Florescu, Ana-Maria; 10.1063/1.3626870

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

34

Process for removing halogenated aliphatic and aromatic compounds from petroleum products. [Polychlorinated biphenyls; methylene chloride; perchloroethylene; trichlorofluoroethane; trichloroethylene; chlorobenzene  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process for removing halogenated aliphatic and aromatic compounds, e.g., polychlorinated biphenyls, from petroleum products by solvent extraction. The halogenated aliphatic and aromatic compounds are extracted from a petroleum product into a polar solvent by contracting the petroleum product with the polar solvent. The polar solvent is characterized by a high solubility for the extracted halogenated aliphatic and aromatic compounds, a low solubility for the petroleum product and considerable solvent power for polyhydroxy compound. The preferred polar solvent is dimethylformamide. A miscible polyhydroxy compound, such as, water, is added to the polar extraction solvent to increase the polarity of the polar extraction solvent. The halogenated aliphatic and aromatic compounds are extracted from the highly-polarized mixture of polyhydroxy compound and polar extraction solvent into a low polar or nonpolar solvent by contacting the polyhydroxy compound-polar solvent mixture with the low polar or nonpolar solvent. The halogenated aliphatic and aromatic compounds in the low polar or nonpolar solvent by physical means, e.g., vacuum evaporation. The polar and nonpolar solvents are recovered for recycling. The process can easily be designed for continuous operation. Advantages of the process include that the polar solvent and a major portion of the nonpolar solvent can be recycled, the petroleum products are reclaimable and the cost for disposing of waste containing polychlorinated biphenyls is significantly reduced. 2 tables.

Googin, J.M.; Napier, J.M.; Travaglini, M.A.

1982-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

35

A quantitative study of the effect of structure on the saponification rates of aliphatic esters  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of aliphatic ~sters&" (H? ST 'I'basis& The agricul- tural and Hechanicul dolls~", e of Texas, iugust, 1960) ~ J 6 6 11, '. 9. , t 9 ' ~tt ', 10, 41 (199&). APPENDIX 41 TABLE Ssponificstion of Ethyl Acetate st 35 Ca Run 1 Run 2 Time, Resistance Nin... Bennyl Propiona te 14. 55 5. 477 4+041 Oi9992 )o219 Z ~ 420 0. 4604 Oe04956 9i553 TABLE Seoond Order Rate Constants for n-Butyrates Ester h35 2 ~ 1 -1 li aole sino Nethyl n Sutyrate Ethyl a-Butyrate a Propyl n Sutyrate Isopropyl n...

Gonzalez, Federico P

1961-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

36

Aliphatic hydrocarbons in sediment cores from the southern basin of Lake Michigan  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Aliphatic hydrocarbons in sediments of the southern basin of Lake Michigan have planktonic, terrigenous, and petroleum residue origins. Surficial sediments collected near the eastern shore in 60-80 m of water contained more petroleum residue and planktonic hydrocarbons and exhibited less terrigenous character than sediments collected from the deepest location in the basin. Petroleum residue inputs have increased since 1900 as evidenced by a change in the flux of an unresolved complex mixture (UCM) of hydrocarbons from 6 ng/cm{sup 2}{center_dot}yr to a flux of approximately 100 ng/cm{sup 2}{center_dot}yr in 1980. Sediment profiles of the UCM exhibited subsurface concentration maxima that may be due to reduced inputs of combustion products or feeding by oligochaetes. Profiles of n-C{sub l7} and pristane indicated that planktonic n-alkanes undergo degradation in the aerobic, mixed zone of the sediments.

Doskey, P.V. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Environmental Research Division; Andren, A.W. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States). Water Chemistry Program

1991-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

37

ORGANIC GEOCHEMICAL STUDIES. II. THE DISTRIBUTION OF ALIPHATIC HYDROCARBONS IN ALGAE, BACTERIA, AND IN A RECENT LAKE SEDIMENT: A PRELIMINARY REPORT  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ALIPHATIC HYDROCARBONS IN ALGAE, BACTERIA, AND IN A RECENTH F A PRELIMINARY REPORT IN ALGAE, BACTERIA, AKD IN A RECENTrests on the finding that algae have less cellulose and a

Han, Jerry; McCarthy, E.D.; Van Hoeven Jr., William; Calvin, Melvin; Bradley, W. H.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

38

The unusual hydrocarbon emission from the early carbon star HD 100764: The connection between aromatics and aliphatics  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We have used the Infrared Spectrograph (IRS) on the Spitzer Space Telescope to obtain spectra of HD 100764, an apparently single carbon star with a circumstellar disk. The spectrum shows emission features from polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) that are shifted to longer wavelengths than normally seen, as characteristic of ``class C'' systems in the classification scheme of Peeters et al. All seven of the known class C PAH sources are illuminated by radiation fields that are cooler than those which typically excite PAH emission features. The observed wavelength shifts are consistent with hydrocarbon mixtures containing both aromatic and aliphatic bonds. We propose that the class C PAH spectra are distinctive because the carbonaceous material has not been subjected to a strong ultraviolet radiation field, allowing relatively fragile aliphatic materials to survive.

G. C. Sloan; M. Jura; W. W. Duley; K. E. Kraemer; J. Bernard-Salas; W. J. Forrest; B. Sargent; A. Li; D. J. Barry; C. J. Bohac; D. M. Watson; J. R. Houck

2007-05-07T23:59:59.000Z

39

Plant observation report and evaluation, Pennwalt Corporation, secondary and tertiary aliphatic monoamines  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A site visit was made to the amine manufacturing facility of the Pennwalt Corporation, Wyandotte, Michigan, to evaluate the facility in regard to the Secondary and Tertiary Aliphatic Monoamines Criteria Document. A total of 21 people were directly in contact with the amine production process. Two to four of the maintenance personnel may also come in contact with the process. Maintenance workers ran the risk of exposure not only to primary, secondary and tertiary amine compounds, but also to several other chemicals being used in the process. The processes used to unload raw materials are described, along with reactor operations, decanter and recycling operations, distillation operations, product storage and shipping. Medical monitoring at the facility included chest x-ray, respiratory function tests, sight screening, urinalysis, and back x-rays. Restricted and potentially hazardous area signs were clearly posted. Employees wore hard hats and safety glasses on the job as well as gloves, rubber boots, face shields, goggles, and respirators as necessary. Emergency procedures are described, including fire protection. Sanitation and personal hygiene are discussed, along with monitoring of the workplace conditions.

Not Available

1980-08-27T23:59:59.000Z

40

Interactions of chlorosulfonated polyethylene geomembranes with aliphatic esters: Sorption and diffusion phenomena  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The resistance of chlorosulfonated polyethylene geomembranes to nine aliphatic esters viz., methyl acetate, ethyl acetate, methyl acetoacetate, n-butyl acetate, diethyl oxalate, iso-amyl acetate, diethyl malonate, and diethyl succinate was investigated in the temperature interval 25--60 C by measuring the liquid sorption using a gravimetric method. A Fickian diffusion equation was used to calculate the diffusion coefficients, and these data were dependent on the type of ester molecules and their interactions with the geomembrane in additions to temperature and solvent concentration. The activation energy values for the diffusion process were in the range 18--41 kJ/mole and the heat of sorption varied from 0.61 to 18.50 kJ/mole. the sorption/swelling results were found to follow the first order kinetics. Solvent front velocities were calculated from the sorption data. The statistical error analysis has been presented in order to judge the reliability of the technique used. The experimental data and calculated parameters were used to discuss transport results in terms of membrane-solvent interactions. None of the esters showed any degradative effects on the geomembrane used.

Aminabhavi, T.M.; Munnolli, R.S. [Karnatak Univ. (India). Dept. of Chemistry] [Karnatak Univ. (India). Dept. of Chemistry; Ortego, J.D. [Lamar Univ., Beaumont, TX (United States)] [Lamar Univ., Beaumont, TX (United States)

1995-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "denatured aliphatic alco" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Modification of alkaline pulping to facilitate the isolation of aliphatic acids. Part 1. Sodium hydroxide pretreatment of pine wood  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Pretreating pine chips (Pinus sylvestris) with sodium hydroxide prior to the alkaline delignification kraft, kraft-anthraquinone, and soda-anthraquinone) can facilitate the recovery of the carbohydrate degradation products from alkaline pulping liquors. Under suitable pretreatment conditions large amounts of carbohydrate degradation products (alipahtic acids) were formed relative to lignin. The lignin fraction was composed of comparatively low-molecular-weight fragments. Although the delignification was considerably retarded and the yield (based on wood) was decreased by 1-3%, the properties of the resulting pulp were essentially maintained despite pretreatment. Finally, data are given for the composition of aliphatic acids in liquors resulting from pretreatments.

Alen, R.; Niemelae, K.; Sjoestroem, E.

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

42

Mapping between the order of thermal denaturation and the shape of the critical line of mechanical unzipping in 1-dimensional DNA models  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In this Letter, we investigate the link between thermal denaturation and mechanical unzipping for two models of DNA, namely the Dauxois-Peyrard-Bishop model and a variant thereof we proposed recently. We show that the critical line that separates zipped from unzipped DNA sequences in mechanical unzipping experiments is a power-law in the temperature-force plane. We also prove that for the investigated models the corresponding critical exponent is proportional to the critical exponent alpha, which characterizes the behaviour of the specific heat in the neighbourhood of the critical temperature for thermal denaturation.

Buyukdagli, Sahin; 10.1016/j.cplett.2009.11.061

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

43

Size exclusion chromatography for the unambiguous detection of aliphatics in fractions from petroleum vacuum residues, coal liquids, and standard materials, in the presence of aromatics  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A method has been developed using size exclusion chromatography (SEC) in heptane eluent that can detect aliphatics unambiguously without fractionation to remove aromatics. Spherical molecules such as colloidal silicas elute at the exclusion limit, while alkanes up to C{sub 50} elute through the porosity of the column. Detection of aliphatics was defined by use of an evaporative light scattering (ELS) detector with the simultaneous absence of UV absorbance at 300 nm. Alkanes smaller than C{sub 12} were not detected because the conditions of operation of the ELS caused their evaporation. All aromatics eluted after the permeation limit of about 25 min and were not detected until well after 45 min by their UV absorbance. The SEC method was applied to petroleum vacuum residues and coal liquids, and their fractions were soluble in pentane or heptane. High-temperature (HT) GC-MS confirmed the presence of alkanes in the pentane- and heptane-soluble fractions of petroleum vacuum residues, but did not elute any of the aromatics known to be present from SEC. Alkanes were examined in pentane-soluble fractions of a coal digest and a low-temperature coal tar; alkanes up to C{sub 40} were detected in the low-temperature tar and, although present in the digest, were masked by aromatics. No alkanes were detected by either SEC or HT GC-MS in fractions from a coal tar pitch. Aromatics in coal liquids and one petroleum residue were also examined by SEC using NMP as eluent and by UV fluorescence spectroscopy. The SEC method will find application to pentane- and heptane-soluble fractions of petroleum liquids and coal liquids where the alkanes are concentrated relative to the more abundant aromatics. 43 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs.

Eiman M. Al-Muhareb; Fatma Karaca; Trevor J. Morgan; Alan A. Herod; Ian D. Bull; Rafael Kandiyoti [Imperial College, London (United Kingdom). Department of Chemical Engineering

2006-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

44

Effect of the type of carrier on the properties of cobalt catalysts in the synthesis of aliphatic hydrocarbons from carbon monoxide and hydrogen  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The properties of catalysts used in the synthesis of hydrocarbons from CO and H/sub 2/ are determined to a significant degree by the carriers used in their preparation. This paper deals with a study of the effect of the type of carrier on the properties of cobalt-based catalysts in the synthesis of aliphatic hydrocarbons from CO and H/sub 2/. Co catalysts that are active in the synthesis of hydrocarbons from CO and H/sub 2/ are those on which the adsorption of H/sub 2/ exceeds 3.10/sup -2/ mmole/g Co and the adsorptin of carbon monoxide exceeds 7.10/sup -2/ mmole/g Co. Carbon monoxide and hydrogen are adsorbed on active catalysts in weakly bound forms. A mechanism is proposed for the formatin of an active center and the adsorption of carbon monoxide on Co-catalysts which includes the appearance of a partial positive charge on the cobalt atom.

Lapidus, A.L.; Jem, H.C.; Krylova, A.Y.

1983-04-10T23:59:59.000Z

45

Analysis of low-cost building material for the MixAlco process  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

basis as the papercrete for structural and economic analysis, which provided acceptable results. The results indicate that a papercrete-concrete structure is a viable alternative structurally and economically within a range of sizes for the structure... ...................................................................................... 22 5.5.1 Procedure ...................................................................................... 22 5.5.2 Analysis.......................................................................................... 24 5.6 Flexural Strength...

Titzman, L. Clinton

2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

46

The conversion of corn stover and pig manure to carboxylic acids with the MixAlco process  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of these processes to a feedstock of corn stover and pig manure. During fermentation, corn stover was the energy source (carbohydrates) and pig manure was the nutrient source (vitamins, minerals, and growth factors). A countercurrent fermentation procedure...

Black, Amanda Spring

2013-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

47

Experimental and Modeling Study of the Flammability of Fuel Tank Headspace Vapors from Ethanol/Gasoline Fuels; Phase 3: Effects of Winter Gasoline Volatility and Ethanol Content on Blend Flammability; Flammability Limits of Denatured Ethanol  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This study assessed differences in headspace flammability for summertime gasolines and new high-ethanol content fuel blends. The results apply to vehicle fuel tanks and underground storage tanks. Ambient temperature and fuel formulation effects on headspace vapor flammability of ethanol/gasoline blends were evaluated. Depending on the degree of tank filling, fuel type, and ambient temperature, fuel vapors in a tank can be flammable or non-flammable. Pure gasoline vapors in tanks generally are too rich to be flammable unless ambient temperatures are extremely low. High percentages of ethanol blended with gasoline can be less volatile than pure gasoline and can produce flammable headspace vapors at common ambient temperatures. The study supports refinements of fuel ethanol volatility specifications and shows potential consequences of using noncompliant fuels. E85 is flammable at low temperatures; denatured ethanol is flammable at warmer temperatures. If both are stored at the same location, one or both of the tanks' headspace vapors will be flammable over a wide range of ambient temperatures. This is relevant to allowing consumers to splash -blend ethanol and gasoline at fueling stations. Fuels compliant with ASTM volatility specifications are relatively safe, but the E85 samples tested indicate that some ethanol fuels may produce flammable vapors.

Gardiner, D. P.; Bardon, M. F.; Clark, W.

2011-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

48

Denaturing of Molecules | GE Global Research  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth7-1D: Vegetation Proposed Newcatalyst phasesData Files DataADVANCES IN TIME-RESOLVED MEASUREMENT OF MAGNETICDo

49

Introduction Aliphatic polyesters derived from renewable  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of these polyesters are already commercially produced in bacteria under nutrient-limited conditions; however a mixture of the polymer in methanol (approximately 100 ppm) to which was added 10 % of methanol saturated

50

Available online at www.sciencedirect.com Electrochemical conversion of CO2 to useful chemicals: current  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-propanol, allyl alco- hol, acetaldehyde, propionaldehyde, acetate, methanol, ethylene glycol, glycolaldehyde

Kenis, Paul J. A.

51

Substrate stabilization of lysozyme to thermal and guanidine hydrochloride denaturation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. , and Mayer, R ~ J ~ (1976) Biochemic J. 154, 359-370 Schimke, T T. ('1964) J Biol Chem 239, 3808-3817 Goldberg, A. L. and St. John, A. C. (1976) Annu. Rev. Biochem, 45, 748-803 Dice, J ~ F. , Dehlinger, P ~ J ~, and Schimke, R ~ T. (1973) JB Biol Chem... 248, 4220-4228 Dehlinger, P. J ~ and Schimke, R ~ T ~ (1972) J ~ Biol. Chem 246, 2574-2583 Dice, J F. and Goldberg, A L, (1975) Proc. Natl. Acad Scil U ~ ST A. 72, 3893-3897 Bohley, P ~, Kirschke, H, Langner, J ~, Niederanders, 8 ~, Ansorge...

McGrath, Timothy

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

52

Self-protection analysis of denatured thorium-plutonium fuel  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

With growing demands for commercial nuclear power, there is also a growing need for better energy efficiency from nuclear power reactors. In order to reach a high burnup up to 100 MWd/kg, previous research has examined the ...

Torres, Luis Alberto (Torres Mendoza)

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

53

A microfluidic device for DNA sequencing by denaturation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

stage insert Thermoelectric modules for heating/cooling PEEKThermoelectric (TE) modules are incorporated to provide heating and coolingCooling and heating capabilities are provided by thermoelectric modules,

Walsh, Matthew Thomas

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

54

Substrate denaturation and translocation by a proteolytic machine  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Many AAA+ molecular machines generate power and drive cellular processes by harnessing energy from cycles of ATP hydrolysis. ClpX is a relatively simple AAA+ ATPase that powers regulated protein degradation by binding ...

Kenniston, Jon Anders

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

55

Barnase as a model for the denatured state of proteins  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

procedure for Barnase purification. Without him we would still be stuck with the old method of purification. I need to thank David Schell and Saul Trevino for their support and advise on all practical matters of laboratory work as well the rest... of the Pace/Sholtz lab for their support. TABLE OF CONTENTS Page ABSTRACT . . nl ACKNOWLEDGMENTS. . . TABLE OF CONTENTS. V1 LIST OF FIGURES. . V11 INTRODUCTION. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN. . Expression and Purification Scheme I. Expression and Purification...

Hoffart, Lee Michael

2013-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

56

aliphatic hydrocarbons separacion: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Technologies and Information Sciences Websites Summary: by the Spanish Ministry: TITLE: Gestion de la movilidad basada en la separacion de identificadores. (NAME: Naming:...

57

aliphatic tertiary amines: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

of the system. If so, all close binaries should be members of triple (or higher-order) systems. As a test of this prediction, we present a search for the signature of third...

58

aliphatic ch bonds: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

2015-01-01 39 H-atom high-n Rydberg time-of-flight spectroscopy of CH bond fission in acrolein dissociated at 193 nm Chemistry Websites Summary: H-atom high-n Rydberg...

59

aliphatic carboxylic acids: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

and spot selling price of various carboxylic acids. 1-3 Names used for biomass feedstocks. . 1-4 2-1 Sample processing. Rinsing scheme for precipitated solids. 12 3-1...

60

aliphatic carboxylic acid: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

and spot selling price of various carboxylic acids. 1-3 Names used for biomass feedstocks. . 1-4 2-1 Sample processing. Rinsing scheme for precipitated solids. 12 3-1...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "denatured aliphatic alco" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Quantitative temperature effects on the saponification rates of aliphatic esters  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. Heat of Activation Entro of Activati an Free Ener o t vat on Using Eyring's basic equation40 40. S. Glasstone K. J. Laidler, H. Eyring, "The Theory of, Rate Processes, " NcGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc. , New York, N. Y. , 1941: p. 195. k = K -2 (18...

Schreck, James Otto

1962-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

62

aliphatic saturated primary: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

3.3, 6.2, 7.7, 8.6, and 11.3 micrometer, commonly attributed to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) molecules, have been recently ascribed to coal- or kerogen-like organic...

63

Characterization of a Saturated and Flexible Aliphatic Polyol Anion Receptor  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Nature employs flexible molecules to bind anions in a variety of physiologically important processes whereas supramolecular chemists have been designing rigid substrates that minimize or eliminate intramolecular hydrogen bond interactions to carry out anion recogni-tion. Herein, the association of a flexible polyhydroxy alkane with chloride ion is described and the bound re-ceptor is characterized by infrared and photoelectron spectroscopy in the gas phase, computations, and its bind-ing constant as a function of temperature in acetonitrile.

Shokri, Alireza; Schmidt, Jacob C.; Wang, Xue B.; Kass, Steven R.

2012-10-17T23:59:59.000Z

64

Determination of Absolute Coverages for Small Aliphatic Alcohols on  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth7-1D: Vegetation Proposed Newcatalyst phasesData FilesShape, Density,TiO2(110). | EMSL Absolute Coverages

65

Evidence of Aliphatics in Nascent Soot Particles in Premixed Ethylene  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth7-1D: Vegetation ProposedUsing ZirconiaPolicy and Assistance100 tonusing ARMEvenFlames. | EMSL of

66

Low-Temperature Photoelectron Spectroscopy of Aliphatic Dicarboxylate  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth7-1D: VegetationEquipment Surfaces and InterfacesAdministration - RockyTemperature 65AtomicallyMonoanions,

67

Quantitative relationships between structure and reactivity of aliphatic esters  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

~rity of' cstor and bsso s~lution (100 nl. ), 0. 02/76 ii &ol~rfty of nixture of' base and ester solution, 0. 01186 '! t, R& "inutco Qhm 1176 1/d x 10 (1/R 1/R ) x 10 1/t (1/2 - 1 ~Rt} x 1(P o 0 0, (~90' 7 9, 0 11. 0 1': 6 Q, ypCQ 1 940 Jg.... 210 1. 1$ 0, y~? -l. r4 0, 215 -O. g Wtc on i'. ethyl a b 0 1' 0. 00 -0. 'V -0, 67 1, 06 -0, 70 -1. 24 -1. 74 -2. 46 -0 69 (n-y) loC ~k 1 ~ 2iFgG 1, 169' d. 87l7 &47100 O. -fPjO 0. 1752 -0. 1700 a b a, :al'erenoe 5', roI'orenoo 9...

Yager, Billy Joe

1960-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

68

aliphatic chains affects: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Harvard Medical School, 200 Longwood Avenue, Boston, MA 02115; b Department, maximum entropy reconstruction, non-uniform sampling, reduced-dimensionality, side-chain...

69

aliphatic biodegradable photoluminescent: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

oxide phosphors. Furthermore, strong photoluminescence (PL) in Zn SiO doped with rare earths such as Eu Steckl, Andrew J. 295 Circularly Polarized Photoluminescence as a...

70

DOI: 10.1002/cctc.201200311 Low-Temperature Chemoselective Gold-Surface-Mediated Hydrogenation of  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

.[9] Claus found that, in the production of allyl alco- hol from the hydrogenation of acrolein, gold

Henkelman, Graeme

71

aplikasi panas nuklir: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Claus found that, in the production of allyl alco- hol from the hydrogenation of acrolein, gold. By employing propionaldehyde and acetone as representa- tive probe molecules...

72

Effect of the Protein Denaturants Urea and Guanidinium on Water Structure: A Structural and Thermodynamic Study  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in the hydrogen bond network of water in the first hydration shell of urea and guanidinium were analyzed in terms of the random network model using Monte Carlo simulations. Bulk water consists of two populations of hydrogen and more bent hydrogen bonds. In the first shell of urea, hydrogen bonds between waters solvating the amino

Sharp, Kim

73

J. Mol. Biol. (1995) 252, 672708 Acid and Thermal Denaturation of Barnase  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

.g. on tyrosine and tryptophan sidechains. The hydrogen-bonding propensity of the water molecules tends structural elements, where water molecules compete with the interstrand and intrahelical hydrogen bonds state to a partially unfoldedDepartment of Chemistry conformation has been studied by molecular dynamics

Caflisch, Amedeo

74

E-Print Network 3.0 - affect surfactant denaturation Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Physics, Harvard University Collection: Physics 18 Controlling Nonspecific Protein Adsorption in a Plug-Based Microfluidic System by Controlling Summary: concentrations of...

75

Analysis of Bacterial Communities in Seagrass Bed Sediments by Double-Gradient Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Microbial Ecology Analysis of Bacterial Communities in Seagrass Bed Sediments by Double, including the presence or absence of vegetation, depth into sediment, and season. Double- gradient of these similarity coefficients were used to group banding patterns by depth into sediment, presence or absence

Sherman, Tim

76

Nanotube Confinement Denatures Protein Helices Eric J. Sorin and Vijay S. Pande*,,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

). Simulations were performed on the Folding@Home distributed computing network as described previously11 using

Sorin, Eric J.

77

Probing structural heterogeneities and fluctuations of nucleic acids and denatured proteins  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

polyelec- trolytes and protein folding in particular, standsdynamics ? protein folding ? single-molecule ?uorescencestructure and dynamics. Protein folding is the most spec-

Laurence, T A; Kong, X X; Jager, M; Weiss, S

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

78

E-Print Network 3.0 - automated constant denaturant Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Medicine Page: << < 1 2 3 4 5 > >> Page: << < 1 2 3 4 5 > >> 21 Single-molecule protein folding: Diffusion fluorescence resonance energy transfer studies Summary: are fairly...

79

E-Print Network 3.0 - acid-denatured acbp controlled Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

; Biology and Medicine 5 Rapid mixing methods for exploring the kinetics of protein folding Heinrich Roder,a,b,* Kosuke Maki,a,1 Summary: events, such as cis-trans...

80

Toward a Taxonomy of the Denatured State: Small Angle Scattering Studies of Unfolded Proteins  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Despite the critical role the unfolded state plays in defining protein folding kinetics and thermodynamics (Berg et al., 2002; Dunker, 2002; Shortle, 2002; Wright and Dyson, 2002), our understanding of its detailed structure remains rather rudimentary; the heterogeneity of the unfolded ensemble renders difficult or impossible its study by traditional, atomic-level structural methods. Consequently, recent years have seen a significant expansion of small-angle X-ray and neutron scattering (SAXS and SANS, respectively) techniques that provide direct, albeit rotationally and time-averaged, measures of the geometric properties of the unfolded ensemble. These studies have reached a critical mass, allowing us for the first time to define general observations regarding the nature of the geometry - and possibly the chemistry and physics - of unfolded proteins.

Millett, I.S.; Doniach, S.; Plaxco, K.W. (Stanford); (UCSB)

2005-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "denatured aliphatic alco" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Mechanisms of bioprosthetic heart valve failure: Fatigue causes collagen denaturation and glycosaminoglycan loss  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

caused progressive damage to the molecular structure of type I collagen as assessed by Fourier transform aortic valve cusps were 65.2 ± 8.66 g uronic acid/10 mg of dry weight for control and 7.91 ± 1.1 g uronic acid/10 mg of dry weight for 10­300 million cycled cusps. Together, these molecular changes contribute

Zand, Robert

82

Pretreatment and Fermentation of Sugarcane Trash to Carboxylic Acids  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

resource. The patented MixAlco process is a cost-effective solution, which does not require sterility or the addition of expensive enzymes to convert lignocellulosic biomass to transportation fuels and valuable chemicals. In this study, the MixAlco process...

Nachiappan, Balasubraman

2010-01-14T23:59:59.000Z

83

E-Print Network 3.0 - aliphatic halogenase syrb2 Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Computer Technologies and Information Sciences ; Engineering 63 Unique gas and hydrocarbon adsorption in a highly porous metal-organic framework made of extended...

84

E-Print Network 3.0 - aliphatic primary diamines Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Davis Collection: Biotechnology 56 Production of 11C-Labeled Summary: Carbon Monoxide - For preparation of 11C-labeled primary amides or hydrazides The method is...

85

Calorimetric study of adsorption of aliphatic hydrocarbons on reduced cobalt catalyst  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A study has been made of the heats of adsorption and the adsorption isotherms of saturated and unsaturated hydrocarbons on Co at 298/sup 0/K; the content of organic matter in the catalyst has been determined after use in the Fischer-Tropsch synthesis. It is concluded that the Fischer-Tropsch process includes stages of diffusion of the original reactants and the products through a liquid film of hydrocarbons coating the catalyst; the hydrocarbon molecules are adsorbed on the surface in the ''lying down'' position; the adsorption of paraffins is reversible and is described by the BET theory; olefins form an irreversibly chemisorbed monolayer, above which reversible adsorption takes place; the ease of desorption of the paraffins explains their preferential formation in the Fischer-Tropsch synthesis.

Ostrovskii, V.E.; Medvedkova, E.A.

1986-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

86

Synthesis Gas Conversion to Aliphatic Alcohols: Study of MoS2 catalytic systems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

by sulfidation of ammonium thiomolybate and acetate salts of co-promoters. Several catalyst formulations were prepared by calcination, followed by doping with alkali promoters. Solid state modifications were made in some cases to dilute the active MoS2 material...

Baksh, Faisal

2010-04-19T23:59:59.000Z

87

E-Print Network 3.0 - aliphatic unsaturated unconjugated Sample...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Medicine 82 Kinetics and Mechanism of Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase 1B Inactivation by Acrolein Summary: , -unsaturated aldehyde acrolein from a variety of sources. The reaction of...

88

Binary Phases of Aliphatic N-Oxides and Water: Force Field Development and Molecular Dynamics Simulation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

the reactivity of the swollen cellulose material for further derivatization in pollution-free industrial fiber future parametrization of other species. By construction, the force field is compatible with widely used play an increasingly important role for industrial applications, e.g., for tuning solubility

Berry, R. Stephen

89

E-Print Network 3.0 - aliphatic compounds isolation Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

chemical structure of perhydrous coals; FTIR and Py-GCMS investigation Summary: through flash-pyrolysis. The perhydrous character of the coals is not reflected either in the...

90

E-Print Network 3.0 - aliphatic acyclic diols Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

ligands. The most efficient route is the phosphorylation of chiral diols with a phosphorous triamide.2... step procedure starting with the synthesis of a phosphorochloridite...

91

E-Print Network 3.0 - aliphatic alkyl quaternaries Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

of this alkylation reaction can also be catalyzed by chiral titanate complexes2-4 (e.g., TAD- DOLs2 and chiral... with various substrates. This alkylation approach provides a...

92

aliphatic solvent n-hexane: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

n-hexane crystallized in silicon nanochannels: A combined x-ray diffraction and sorption isotherm study CERN Preprints Summary: We present an x-ray diffraction study on n-hexane...

93

E-Print Network 3.0 - aliphatic carbon-centered radicals Sample...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

preprintsreprints & other Collection: Physics 15 Acetone-Photosensitized Reduction of Carbon Tetrachloride by Summary: ) Ross, A. B.; Neta, P. Rate constants for reactions of...

94

Reductive dechlorination of chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons by Fe(ii) in degradative solidification/stabilization  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

............................................................................................7 2.1 Degradative Solidification/Stabilization...................................................7 2.2 Cement Chemistry.....................................................................................8 2.2.1 Portland Cement... of typical cements . .........................9 Table 2.2 Portland cement compound transformation................................................15 Table 2.3 The oxides, hydroxides, and oxyhydroxides of Fe.....................................16 Table 2...

Jung, Bahng Mi

2007-04-25T23:59:59.000Z

95

A kinetic study of the reactions of diphenyldiazomethane with some aliphatic carboxylic acids  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

(a) C. K. Ingold, J. Chem. Soc., 1032 (1930). (b) S. W. Timm and C. N. Iiinshelwood, J. Chem. Soc., 862 (1933). (c) C. K. Ingold et al., J. Chem. Soc., 3^27?(l 9^3). 13 ?. A. Waters, "Physical Aspects of Organic Chemistry," D. Van Nostrand Co., Inc...., New York, N. Y., 1950# Chapter XI. nil (a) I. Dostrovsky, E. D. Hughes, and K. Ingold, J.Chem. Soc., 173 (19U6). (b) K. A. Cooper, S. D. Hughes, C. K. Ingold, and B. J. Mac Nulty, J. Chem. Soc., 2038 (l 9 l|8). (c) P. M. Dunbar and L. P. Hammett, J...

Hoefelmeyer, Albert Bernard

1954-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

96

E-Print Network 3.0 - aliphatic glucosinolate biosynthesis Sample...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

University of Wyoming Collection: Biology and Medicine 71 ERICKA' and ATHENA' Winter Canola Summary: was not significantly different from the high quality cultivar Cascade. Total...

97

E-Print Network 3.0 - aliphatic compounds estudo Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

compounds with two multiple-ringed polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) or naphthenic hydrocarbons Source: Shaw, John - Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering,...

98

Matrixassisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometric analysis of aliphatic biodegradable photoluminescent polymers  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

established that the new ILMs provided good spottospot reproducibility and high ionization efficiency compared/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDIMS). The polymers, formed by a condensation reaction of three components

Yang, Jian

99

Micro-FTIR Study of Soot Chemical Composition &ndash; Evidence of Aliphatic  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth7-1D: VegetationEquipment Surfaces andMapping theEnergyInnovationMichael M. May,

100

Competitive Oxidation and Reduction of Aliphatic Alcohols over (WO3)3  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth7-1D: Vegetation Proposed New SubstationCleanCommunity Involvement andMISR, and4 N ACompetitions: Student

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "denatured aliphatic alco" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Characterization and CPDM modeling of volatile fatty acid fermentation with cotton gin trash and chicken manrure as substrates  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

With literally tons of biomass produced annually, a process that uses this waste as a feedstock would help reduce the problem of disposal. The MixAlco process is one that does just that. It converts biomass through anaerobic fermentation...

Han, Joseph

2013-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

102

Ketone Production from the Thermal Decomposition of Carboxylate Salts  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The MixAlco process uses an anaerobic, mixed-culture fermentation to convert lignocellulosic biomass to carboxylate salts. The fermentation broth must be clarified so that only carboxylate salts, water, and minimal impurities remain. Carboxylate...

Landoll, Michael 1984-

2012-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

103

E-Print Network 3.0 - alcohol metabolizing enzymes Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AlcoHol metAboliSm That Integrates Biotechnology and Human Health Into a Mass... , and exploration. We chose human alcohol metabolism for several reasons: 1) while many col-...

104

Investigations of Biomass Pretreatment and Submerged Fixed-bed Fermentation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

To improve the MixAlco process and biomass pretreatment, five studies were conducted. Three studies related to fermentation, whereas the other two investigated the effectiveness of shock tube pretreatment (STP) coupled with oxidative lime...

Meysing, Daniel

2012-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

105

Effects of physical and chemical pretreatments on the crystallinity of bagasse  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Biomass conversion technologies are receiving increasing attention due to global climate change and most recently plans from the President of the United States to reduce fossil fuel consumption. The MixAlco process converts a variety of feedstocks...

Jones, Maxine Janette

2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

106

Application of organolithium compounds for the preparation of some aliphatic and alicyclic phosphines, phosphine oxides and phosphine sulfides  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

aoo4 ofter ~ oeer ao4iaa ) Iles parehaso4 froa Ce So esfflNlt Coo (tahar o aaalpoe4 roe/oat) y eoatsiao4 tw(t)&4 IOII sa4 free ssl, fsr $ QL 1a all eaporisoats s throoeoeho4 ross4 hottoae4 flash oas aso4i k Class stia'rer, soalo4 froa tho...

Screttas, Constantinos G

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

107

INTRODUCTION Asphalt is a mixture of a wide variety of chemical compounds that include aliphatic hydrocarbons and highly fused  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

hydrocarbons and highly fused aromatic ring systems.They are classified as asphaltenes (medium molecular weight

Harms, Kyle E.

108

THE CHEMISTRY OF COAL MODEL COMPOUNDS -CLEAVAGE OF ALIPHATIC BRIDGES BETWEEN AROMATIC NUCLEI CATALYSED BY LEWIS ACIDS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and at the Nature of Asphaltenes" , Preprints L Div. of Fuelcoal that the formation of asphaltenes might be ascribed to

Taylor, Newell D.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

109

THE CHEMISTRY OF COAL MODEL COMPOUNDS -CLEAVAGE OF ALIPHATIC BRIDGES BETWEEN AROMATIC NUCLEI CATALYSED BY LEWIS ACIDS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and Background I. II. III. IV. II. Coal Liquefaction . •Coal Structure • • . Lewis Acid Catalysts. Scope andOrganic Structure of Bituminous Coal", Proceedings, Stanford

Taylor, Newell D.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

110

Protein folding by distributed computing and the denatured state ensemble Neelan J. Marianayagam, Nicolas L. Fawzi, and Teresa Head-Gordon  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

July 26, 2005) The distributed computing (DC) paradigm in conjunction with the folding@home (FH) client from higher energy subpopulations in the DSE. folding mechanism folding@home two-state kinetics Poisson a particular strength of the distributed computing (DC) approach known as folding@home (FH), which compares

Head-Gordon, Teresa L.

111

NMR Characterization of the Aliphatic / Pairing for Recognition of A,T/T,A Base Pairs in the Minor Groove of DNA  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Laboratories of Chemical Synthesis, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California 91125 Recei been inserted to reset the register. Complexes of three pyrrole-imidazole polyamides of sequence

Mrksich, Milan

112

A novel copper(II)-Schiff base complex containing pyrrole ring: Synthesis, characterization and its modified electrodes applied in oxidation of aliphatic alcohols  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 A novel copper(II)-Schiff base complex containing pyrrole ring: Synthesis, characterization been prepared from 6-[3'-(N-pyrrol)propoxy]-2-hydroxyacetophenone and diaminoethane in the presence containing pyrrol groups has been investigated in DMF and acetonitrile solutions using cyclic voltammetry

Boyer, Edmond

113

Assessing the Potential of Natural Microbial Communities to Improve a Second-Generation Biofuels Platform  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Naturally occurring microbial communities from high-salt and/or high-temperature environments were collected from sites across the United States and Puerto Rico and screened for their efficacy in the MixAlco biofuel production platform. The Mix...

Hammett, Amy Jo Macbey

2012-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

114

The stereochemistry of excited state atom reorganization processes; the di-pi-methane rearrangement  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. The structure of these alco- hols were determined using a combination of nmr spectros- copy and lanthanide shift reagents. The photosensitized irradiation of 72 using benzophenone was found to yield, exclusively, the endo-trans product 81. Mechanisms...-Nultipli city Relationship . . . . 8 Regioselectivity . ~ . . . . . ~ . . . , . . 'f4 Stereochemistry ~ . . . . . ~ ~ . . . . . . 21 DISCUSSION SECTION ~ ~ ~ . . . ~ , , ~ ~ ~ , , ~ 25 Introduction ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ 25 Synthesis of 1, 4-Diene...

Ko, Jan Kwei

1972-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

115

Oligomerization and Catalytic Ketonization in the Mixalco™ Process  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

–3 Depending how many steps are employed, the final product is ketones, alcohols, or hydrocarbons. Potential biomass feedstocks include municipal solid waste, animal manure, and energy crops.4–8 The MixAlco™ process is a version of the carboxylate platform...

Taco Vasquez, Sebastian

2013-10-29T23:59:59.000Z

116

Transformation of Acetone and Isopropanol to Hydrocarbons using HZSM-5 Catalyst  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

for more than 20 years to obtain fuels from biomass. Some biomass feedstocks studied in our group include municipal solid waste, animal manure, and energy crops. The new technology developed by the Holtzapple group is called the MixAlco Process (Figure 1...

Taco Vasquez, Sebastian

2010-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

117

Organoselenium Chemistry. Conversion of Ketones to Enones by Selenoxide Syn Elimination  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

are direct selenenylation of ketone enolates using PhSeBr and the reaction of enol acetates%bdichlorodicyan- oquinone,2c periodic acid,2doxygen in the presence of tran- sition metal catalysts,2eand pyridine N-oxide-acetic eliminations synthetically in the conversion of epoxides to allyl alco- h o l ~ . ~ ~ , ~Several have explored

Reich, Hans J.

118

IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON VEHICULAR TECHNOLOGY, VOL. 50, NO. 1, JANUARY 2001 125 The Application of Neural Networks to Fuel  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of Neural Networks to Fuel Processors for Fuel-Cell Vehicles Laura C. Iwan and Robert F. Stengel, Fellow, IEEE Abstract--Passenger vehicles fueled by hydrocarbons or alco- hols and powered by proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells address world air quality and fuel supply concerns while avoiding hydrogen

Stengel, Robert F.

119

ELSEVIER Surface Science 303 (lYY4) 206-230 ;,,.;_:_.y y .../. .' ..`,. :> .,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

by means of the Fischer- Tropsch technique, and the steam reforming of natural gas to form so-called syngas. Representative examples are the ammonia synthesis via Haber-Bosch, the synthesis of alco- hols and hydrocarbons of products, and (7) diffusion of products from the surface. One typically treats these elementary reactions

Miller, William H.

120

Company City State Contact Info 21st Century Plastics Corporation Potterville MI www.21stcpc.com  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Company City State Contact Info 21st Century Plastics Corporation Potterville MI www.21stcpc.com A. Schulman, Inc. Akron OH www.aschulman.com A.M.A. Plastics Riverside CA www.accordindustries.com Airlite Plastics Co. Omaha NE www.airliteplastics.com Alco Plastics, Inc. Romeo MI www

McGaughey, Alan

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "denatured aliphatic alco" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Aluminum monocarbonyl and aluminum isocarbonyl Steve S. Wesolowski,a)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Aluminum monocarbonyl and aluminum isocarbonyl Steve S. Wesolowski,a) T. Daniel Crawford,b) Justin of the aluminum monocarbonyl species AlCO and AlOC have been performed to predict the geometries, fragmentation, Ogden, and Oswald6 first isolated aluminum dicarbonyls in solid krypton and identified the species

Crawford, T. Daniel

122

Attachment F Marketplace Prohibited Items November 2014  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. · Alcohol (ethyl alcohol [ethanol] & denatured) · Alcoholic Beverages · Artwork (paintings, pictures, office

123

Conversion of sugarcane bagasse to carboxylic acids under thermophilic conditions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

?????????????. 17 1.4 Project description????????????..?... 25 II MATERIALS AND METHODS???????????? 27 2.1 Biomass feedstock??????????????. 27 2.2 Biomass pretreatment????????????? 29 2.3 Fermentation material and methods.... This is followed by introducing promising lignocellulosic biomass feedstocks and challenges in lignocellulosic biomass conversion. Subsequently, it presents the process description and recent advances of the MixAlco process, a novel and promising biomass...

Fu, Zhihong

2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

124

E-Print Network 3.0 - alkylated three-ring pahs Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

rings has advanced significantly. Bacterial isolates, which... N CH3 NO2 NO2 O2N NO2 BTEX PAHs PCBs Chlorinated aliphatics Aliphatic petroleum hydrocarbons... that many classes...

125

Control of the chemical structure of perhydrous coals; FTIR and Py-GC/MS investigation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

through flash-pyrolysis. The perhydrous character of the coals is not reflected either in the aliphatic

Boyer, Edmond

126

Chain Conformation of Poly(dimethyl siloxane) at the Air/Water Interface by Sum Frequency Generation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

those based on aliphatic fluorocarbon moieties. Its glass transition temperature of -123 °C is among

127

Manufacturing improvement and thermal property characterization of the frame structure of an Ultra-high Throughput Mutational Spectrometer  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Constant denaturant capillary electrophoresis (CDCE) is a DNA separation technique that allows the detection of mutants at a fraction of 10Ì???. CDCE uses a region of constant temperature and constant denaturant concentration ...

Lin, Jiengju J. (Jiengju James)

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

128

UHM/HNEI EV test and evaluation program  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The electric vehicle (EV) program of the Hawaii Natural Energy Institute (HNEI) focuses primarily on the field testing of promising EV/traction batteries. The intent is to utilize typical driving cycles to develop information that verifies or refutes what is obtained in the laboratory. Three different types of battery were assigned by the US DOE for testing in this program: Sonnenschein Dryfit 6V-160, Exide GC-5, Trojan T-145. We added the following battery to the test program: ALCO2200. HNEI's existing EVs were utilized as test beds. The following EVs were chosen in our program: Converted Ford Escort station wagon, Converted Ford Escort two-door sedan, Converted Ford Escort two-door sedan, Converted Dodge van (typically daily driving distances, 10--30 miles). Capacity testing is a very effective way of monitoring the status of battery modules. Based on capacity tests, corrective action such as battery replacement, additional charging, adjusting terminal connections, etc., may be taken to maintain good performance. About 15,500 miles and 600 cycles have been accumulated on the Sonnenschein Dryfit 6V-160 battery pack. Five of its 18 modules have been changed. Based on DOE's standard, the battery has reached the end of its useful life. Nevertheless, the battery pack is still operational and its operating range is still greater than 40 miles per charge. It is too early to evaluate the life expectancy of the other three batteries, the Trojan T-145, Exide GC-5, and Alco 2200. No module has been replaced in these three packs. The Trojan T-145 battery is a very promising EV traction battery in terms of quality and reliability versus price. HNEI will keep the Trojan and Exide battery packs in operation. The Alco 2200 batteries will be transferred to another vehicle. The Additional Charging Method seems to be an effective way of restoring weak modules. The Smart Voltmeter'' developed by HNEI is a promising way of monitoring the remaining range for an EV.

Not Available

1992-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

129

E-Print Network 3.0 - alloplastic graft material Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

ovei the level of grafting, ease of control of the final material properties... Aliphatic polyester-grafted starch composites by in situ ring opening polymerization* Abstract......

130

E-Print Network 3.0 - acetic acid cyano- Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

using Aliphatic Tertiary Amines. Summary: CHAPTER 6 Acetic Acid Recovery from Fast Pyrolysis oil. An Exploratory Study on Liquid... of large amounts of organic acids (acetic...

131

E-Print Network 3.0 - alicyclic compounds Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

EAST Summary: . Only a few aliphatic and alicyclic molecules exhibit fluorescence in the UV and visible region. Among... variation of these compounds in samples from different...

132

E-Print Network 3.0 - acid derivatives sorbtsionnye Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Aliphatic Tertiary Amines. Summary: , 6 due to increased demands for derivatives like vinyl acetate monomer (VAM). Currently, acetic acid... CHAPTER 6 Acetic Acid Recovery from...

133

E-Print Network 3.0 - anacardic acid derivatives Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Aliphatic Tertiary Amines. Summary: , 6 due to increased demands for derivatives like vinyl acetate monomer (VAM). Currently, acetic acid... CHAPTER 6 Acetic Acid Recovery from...

134

E-Print Network 3.0 - acid derivative hs-1200-induced Sample...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Aliphatic Tertiary Amines. Summary: , 6 due to increased demands for derivatives like vinyl acetate monomer (VAM). Currently, acetic acid... CHAPTER 6 Acetic Acid Recovery from...

135

E-Print Network 3.0 - aromatic hydrocarbon clusters Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

aliphatic chains as key intermediates for the nucleation Summary: to macromolecular building blocks (nanoparticles) that eventually turn into soot. Polycyclic aromatic...

136

Molybdenum alkylidene complexes : syntheses and applications to olefin metathesis reactions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Chapter 1. Alkylimido Molybdenum Complexes: Synthesis, Characterization and Activity as Chiral Olefin Metathesis Catalysts. Molybdenum olefin metathesis catalysts that contain previously unexplored aliphatic 1- ...

Pilyugina, Tatiana

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

137

Broadband Carbon-13 Correlation Spectra of Microcrystalline Proteins in Very High Magnetic Fields  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

avoiding excessive sample heating. This opens up new possibilities for efficient dipolar recoupling. Both aliphatic nuclei with closely spaced chemical shifts and spectrally remote nuclei give rise

138

Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 1091910932, 2013 www.atmos-chem-phys.net/13/10919/2013/  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

examined in detail. Although a few field stud- ies have suggested that primary particulate organic carbon both black carbon and or- ganic aerosol (OA), particularly in some developing coun- tries where aliphatic bridges or loops. The aromatic bonds are very stable compared to the aliphatic bridges and loops

Meskhidze, Nicholas

139

E-Print Network 3.0 - albumin bsa nanoparticles Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

in the temperature of BSA denatur... albumin and -globulin, starting from their acid-expanded, most hydrated ... Source: Bloomfield, Victor A. - Department of Biochemistry,...

140

E-Print Network 3.0 - accelerated search kinetics Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

dependence of the elongation kinetics. Marked acceleration... to the slowing of protein folding kinetics by other denaturants (28) and the acceleration of folding by TFE (26......

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "denatured aliphatic alco" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

E-Print Network 3.0 - alter rna duplex Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

investigated using thermal denaturation (Tm) studies of a 12 base pair RNA ... Source: Beal, Peter A. - Department of Chemistry, University of Utah Collection: Chemistry 14 David...

142

UHM/HNEI EV test and evaluation program. Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The electric vehicle (EV) program of the Hawaii Natural Energy Institute (HNEI) focuses primarily on the field testing of promising EV/traction batteries. The intent is to utilize typical driving cycles to develop information that verifies or refutes what is obtained in the laboratory. Three different types of battery were assigned by the US DOE for testing in this program: Sonnenschein Dryfit 6V-160, Exide GC-5, Trojan T-145. We added the following battery to the test program: ALCO2200. HNEI`s existing EVs were utilized as test beds. The following EVs were chosen in our program: Converted Ford Escort station wagon, Converted Ford Escort two-door sedan, Converted Ford Escort two-door sedan, Converted Dodge van (typically daily driving distances, 10--30 miles). Capacity testing is a very effective way of monitoring the status of battery modules. Based on capacity tests, corrective action such as battery replacement, additional charging, adjusting terminal connections, etc., may be taken to maintain good performance. About 15,500 miles and 600 cycles have been accumulated on the Sonnenschein Dryfit 6V-160 battery pack. Five of its 18 modules have been changed. Based on DOE`s standard, the battery has reached the end of its useful life. Nevertheless, the battery pack is still operational and its operating range is still greater than 40 miles per charge. It is too early to evaluate the life expectancy of the other three batteries, the Trojan T-145, Exide GC-5, and Alco 2200. No module has been replaced in these three packs. The Trojan T-145 battery is a very promising EV traction battery in terms of quality and reliability versus price. HNEI will keep the Trojan and Exide battery packs in operation. The Alco 2200 batteries will be transferred to another vehicle. The Additional Charging Method seems to be an effective way of restoring weak modules. The ``Smart Voltmeter`` developed by HNEI is a promising way of monitoring the remaining range for an EV.

Not Available

1992-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

143

Journal of Colloid and Interface Science 293 (2006) 6168 www.elsevier.com/locate/jcis  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

14 July 2005 Abstract The interaction between the fluorocarbon surfactant, sodium perfluorooctanoate that the anionic fluorocarbon surfactant, SPFO, was a strong denaturant of BLG. The ability of SPFO to denature BLG between the anionic fluorocarbon surfactant, sodium perfluorooctanoate (SPFO), and protein -lacto

Luhua, Lai

144

UNIDENTIFIED INFRARED EMISSION BANDS: PAHs or MAONs?  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We suggest that the carrier of the unidentified infrared emission (UIE) bands is an amorphous carbonaceous solid with mixed aromatic/aliphatic structures, rather than free-flying polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon molecules. Through spectral fittings of the astronomical spectra of the UIE bands, we show that a significant amount of the energy is emitted by the aliphatic component, implying that aliphatic groups are an essential part of the chemical structure. Arguments in favor of an amorphous, solid-state structure rather than a gas-phase molecule as a carrier of the UIE are also presented.

Sun Kwok; Yong Zhang, E-mail: sunkwok@hku.hk [Department of Physics, University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam Road, Hong Kong (Hong Kong)

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

145

DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402244 Chemocatalytic Upgrading of Tailored Fermentation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

for blending with gasoline,[7­9] production of longer chain alcohols for jet and diesel blendstocks suffers reported a chemical catalysis route to generate aliphatic ketones (C5­C19) that are components of gasoline

Toste, Dean

146

Nickel-catalyzed preparation of acrylamides from alpha olefins and isocyanates ; Synthetic studies toward ripostatin A  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Chapter I. In the presence of the N-heterocyclic carbene ligand IPr, the nickel(0)-catalyzed coupling reaction of a-olefins and branched aliphatic isocyanates provides c,-unsaturated amides arising from preferential C-C ...

Schleicher, Kristin D. (Kristin Diann)

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

147

Metal-sulfur type cell having improved positive electrode  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An novel metal-sulfur type cell operable at a temperature of 200.degree. C. or less with an energy density of 150 Whrs/Kg or better is disclosed characterized by an organo-sulfur cathode formed from an organic-sulfur compound having the general formula, in its charged state, of (R(S).sub.y).sub.n wherein y=1 to 6; n=2 to 20; and R is one or more different aliphatic or aromatic organic moieties having 1 to 20 carbon atoms, which may include one or more oxygen, sulfur, or nitrogen heteroatoms when R comprisises one of more aromatic rings, or one or more oxygen, sulfur, nitrogen, or fluorine atoms associtated with the chain when R comprises an aliphatic chain, wherein the aliphatic group may be linear or branched, saturated or unsaturated, and wherein either the aliphatic chain or the aromatic ring may have substituted groups thereon.

Dejonghe, Lutgard C. (Berkeley, CA); Visco, Steven J. (Berkeley, CA); Mailhe, Catherine C. (Berkeley, CA); Armand, Michel B. (St. Martin D'Uriage, FR)

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

148

Improving fatty acids production by engineering dynamic pathway regulation and metabolic control  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Global energy demand and environmental concerns have stimulated increasing efforts to produce carbon-neutral fuels directly from renewable resources. Microbially derived aliphatic hydrocarbons, the petroleum-replica fuels, ...

Stephanopoulos, Gregory

149

HYDROLOGICAL PROCESSES Hydrol.Process. 15, 2877-2892 (2001)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

soil surface, and it is caused by the leaching of hydrophobic compounds, such as aliphatic hydrocarbons). These compounds can escapeinto the atmosphere, or move into the soil atmosphere and condense *Correspondence to: L). The condensation of these compounds form

MacDonald, Lee

150

Decontamination performance of selected in situ technologies for jet fuel contamination. Master's thesis  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Specific study of jet fuel is warranted because of the quantitive and qualitative component differences between jet fuel and other hydrocarbon fuels. Quantitatively, jet fuel contains a larger aliphatic or saturate fraction and a smaller aromatic fraction than other fuels (i.e. heating oil and diesel oil) in the medium-boiling-point-distillate class of fuels. Since the aliphatic and aromatic fractions of fuel are not equally susceptible to biodegradation, jet fuel decontamination using biodegradation may be different from other fuels.

Chesley, G.D.

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

151

On single-molecule DNA sequencing with atomic force microscopy using functionalized carbon nanotube probes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A novel DNA sequencing method is proposed based on the specific binding nature of nucleotides and measured by an atomic force microscope (AFM). A single molecule of DNA is denatured and immobilized on an atomically fiat ...

Burns, Daniel James

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

152

Bacteria in Ballast Water: The Shipping Industry's Contributions to the Transport and Distribution of Microbial Species in Texas  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, amplified ribosomal rDNA restriction analysis (ARDRA) and phylogenetic analysis. Bacterial communities in Texas ports and bays were also examined using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE), looking at both temporal and spatial variations...

Neyland, Elizabeth B.

2010-10-12T23:59:59.000Z

153

Experimental and Modeling Study of the Flammability of Fuel Tank Headspace Vapors from High Ethanol Content Fuels  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Study determined the flammability of fuel tank headspace vapors as a function of ambient temperature for seven E85 fuel blends, two types of gasoline, and denatured ethanol at a low tank fill level.

Gardiner, D.; Bardon, M.; Pucher, G.

2008-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

154

Functional proteomics in Escherichia coli  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-state of E. coli corresponding to hundreds of unique gene products. The copurification of proteins when fractionated at varying pHs could suggest the components of higher order complexes. This non-denaturing proteomic approach should provide physiological...

Champion, Matthew Maurice

2006-04-12T23:59:59.000Z

155

Dynamics of locking of peptides onto growing amyloid fibrils  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

polymerization mechanism (NPM) have been used to account for amyloid fibril formation (10­12). According to the NPM, fluctuations (induced by denaturation stress, for example) lead to monomer conformations that can

Thirumalai, Devarajan

156

E-Print Network 3.0 - analyzing forced unfolding Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

in solution. In recent years, we have also seen explosive progress in the study of protein folding... the unfolding of proteins after the addition of denaturant since unfolding is...

157

ALS Capabilities Reveal How Like Can Attract Like  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

salt-guanidinium chloride-is widely used by scientists to denature proteins for protein-folding studies. This practice dates back to the late 19th century when the Czech...

158

Role of aggregation conditions and presence of small heat shock proteins on abeta structure, stability and toxicity  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

to the most toxic ?? species change their structure the most rapidly in denaturant, and that in general, increased toxicity correlated with decreased aggregate stability. In AlzheimerÂ?s disease, even delaying A? aggregation onset or slowing its...

Lee, Sung Mun

2006-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

159

The folding kinetics of ribonuclease Sa and a charge-reversal variant  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Coulomb?s Law suggested that favorable electrostatic interactions in the denatured state were the cause for the decreased stability for the charge-reversed variant. Folding and unfolding kinetic studies were designed and conducted to study the iv charge...-reversal mutant, more than in WT*. To our knowledge, this is the first demonstration that a favorable electrostatic interaction in the denatured state ensemble has been shown to influence the unfolding kinetics of a protein. v DEDICATION To my beloved wife, Emily...

Trefethen, Jared M.

2005-02-17T23:59:59.000Z

160

Conversion characteristics of 10 selected oil shales  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The conversion behavior of 10 oil shale from seven foreign and three domestic deposits has been studied by combining solid- and liquid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) measurements with material balance Fischer assay conversion data. The extent of aromatization of aliphatic carbons was determined. Between zero and 42% of the raw shale aliphatic carbon formed aromatic carbon during Fischer assay. For three of the shales, there was more aromatic carbon in the residue after Fisher assay than in the raw shale. Between 10 and 20% of the raw shale aliphatic carbons ended up as aliphatic carbons on the spent shale. Good correlations were found between the raw shale aliphatic carbon and carbon in the oil and between the raw shale aromatic carbon and aromatic carbon on the spent shale. Simulated distillations and molecular weight determinations were performed on the shale oils. Greater than 50% of the oil consisted of the atmospheric and vacuum gas oil boiling fractions. 14 refs., 15 figs., 1 tab.

Miknis, F.P.

1989-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "denatured aliphatic alco" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Synthesis of pore-variable mesoporous CdS and evaluation of its photocatalytic activity in degrading methylene blue  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Self-templated synthesis of tubular CdS. • Cadmium complexes of aliphatic acids sustain the network of mesoporous structures. • Aliphatic acids affect the phase composition and particle size. • Pore size and volume vary with aliphatic acids having different hydrocarbonyl. - Abstract: In this study, mesoporous CdS polycrystallites have been synthesized using aliphatic acids of hexanoic acid, octanoic acid, and oleic acid as coordinating and capping agents, respectively. The fibrous Cd–fatty acid salts act as a template to form the tubular CdS. The organic species are found to be necessary for maintaining the network of mesoporous CdS. The characterization results indicate that the shorter carbon chain length in aliphatic acids favors the wurtzite phase and particle size growth the specific surface area, pore diameter and pore volume show a monotonic raise with increasing carbon chain. The photocatalytic activities of mesoporous CdS tubes exhibit much higher efficiency than those of nanosized CdS powders in decolorizing methylene blue under simulated visible light.

Zhang, Wei-Min, E-mail: chm_zhangwm@ujn.edu.cn [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, University of Jinan (China); Jiang, Yao-Quan [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, University of Jinan (China); Cao, Xiao-Yan [Key Laboratory of Marine Chemistry Theory and Technology, Ocean University of China, Ministry of Education (China); Chen, Meng; Ge, Dong-Lai [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, University of Jinan (China); Sun, Zhong-Xi, E-mail: sunzx@ujn.edu.cn [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, University of Jinan (China)

2013-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

162

Lithium/organosulfur redox cell having protective solid electrolyte barrier formed on anode and method of making same  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A lithium/organosulfur redox cell is disclosed which comprises a solid lium anode, a liquid organosulfur cathode, and a barrier layer formed adjacent a surface of the solid lithium anode facing the liquid organosulfur cathode consisting of a reaction product of the lithium anode with the organosulfur cathode. The organosulfur cathode comprises a material having the formula (R(S).sub.y).sub.N where y=1 to 6, n=2 to 20 and R is one or more different aliphatic or aromatic organic moieties having 1 to 20 carbon atoms, which may include one or more oxygen, sulfur, nitrogen, or fluorine atoms associated with the chain when R comprises an aliphatic chain, wherein the linear chain may be linear or branched, saturated or unsaturated, and wherein either the aliphatic chain or the aromatic ring may have substituted groups thereon.

De Jonghe, Lutgard C. (Berkeley, CA); Visco, Steven J. (Berkeley, CA); Liu, Meilin (Albany, CA); Mailhe, Catherine C. (Vevey, CH)

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

163

Process analysis and optimization of biodiesel production from vegetable oils  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in Table (2.2) (OTM, 1999). Crude oils are composed of 80 to 90% hydrogen saturated aliphatic alkanes (paraffins) and cycloalkanes (naphthenes). Aromatic hydrocarbons and alkenes (olefins) comprise 10- 20% and 1%, respectively, of crude oil composition....2 Hydrocarbon Contents in Crude Oil (ATSDR, 1995; OTM, 1999) HYDROCARBONS GENERAL FORMULA CHAIN TYPE STATE (Room temp) EXAMPLES Paraffins (Aliphatic) CnH2n+2 (n:1 to20) Linear or Branched Gas or Liquid Methane, Propane Hexane Aromatic C6H5-Y...

Myint, Lay L.

2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

164

Composition of the wax fraction of bitumen from methylated brown coals  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Changes in the group and individual compositions of the wax fractions of bitumen in the course of brown coal methylation were studied. With the use of IR and NMR spectroscopy and chromatography-mass spectrometry, it was found that the esters of methylated coal waxes consisted of the native esters of fatty acids and the methyl esters of these acids formed as a result of an alkylation treatment. Esterification and transesterification were predominant among the reactions of aliphatic fraction components. A positive effect of methanol alkylation on an increase in the yield of the aliphatic fractions was found.

S.I. Zherebtsov; A.I. Moiseev [Russian Academy of Sciences, Kemerovo (Russian Federation). Institute of Coal and Coal Chemistry

2009-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

165

Adsorption of carbon monoxide on ZSM-5 zeolites. Infrared spectroscopic study and quantum-chemical calculations  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Low temperature adsorption of CO was studied on H-ZSM-5 zeolites modified by dehydroxylation, ionic exchange with Al/sup 3 +/, and impregnation with Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ and on Na-ZSM-5 and CaH-ZSM-5 zeolites. It was found that interaction of CO with framework OH groups results in the formation of a hydrogen-bonded CO complex whose OH bond frequency is decreased by 310-320 cm/sup -1/ compared with that of free hydroxyls. For the less acidic framework hydroxyls in large cavities of H/sub 70/Na/sub 30/-Y zeolite the observed shift is 275 cm/sup -1/. With ZSM-5 zeolites, at least six types of electron-accepting sites are observed originating from nonframework Al species (band of CO in the interaction complex: 2132, 2222, 2202, 2195, and 2198 cm/sup -1/) and the Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ microcrystalline phase (CO band at 2153 cm/sup -1/). The CO bond orders calculated by the CNDO/2 method for the CO interaction complexes with models of surface sites increase in the following order: > O-CO < > OH-CO approx. ..-->.. Al-CO approx. = Na-CO < alumina-CO approx. = Ca-CO < ..-->.. Si-CO < Al(cationic)-CO. A correlation between the calculated bond orders of CO and the observed vibrational frequencies of CO-forming interaction complexes is drawn.

Kustov, L.M.; Kazansky, V.B.; Beran, S.; Kubelkova, L.; Jiru, P.

1987-09-24T23:59:59.000Z

166

Performance test results for the Eaton dc developmental power train in an electric test bed vehicle  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report presents the results of the tests performed on a direct current (dc) power train in a test bed vehicle developed by the Eaton Corporation for the US Department of Energy (DOE). The tests were performed by EG and G Idaho, Inc. at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The purpose of the INEL testing was to provide test results from which an evaluation of the performance capabilities of the Eaton dc power train could be made and compared with other vehicle propulsion systems. The planned tests were primarily oriented toward road testing, chassis dynamometer testing, and associated dynamometer coastdown tests for road loss determination. Range tests of the Eaton dc test bed vehicle using an ALCO 2200 lead acid battery pack, produced ranges of 97 km at 56 km/h (60 miles at 35 mph), 79 km at 72 km/h (49 miles at 45 mph), and 47 km at 88 km/h (29 miles at 55 mph). The corresponding net dc energy consumptions are 135 Wh/km (217 Wh/mile), 145 Wh/km (233 Wh/mile), and 178 Wh/km (287 Wh/mile). The energy consumption for the D-cycle test was 241 Wh/km (387 Wh/mile). 8 refs., 11 figs., 16 tabs.

Crumley, R.L.; Donaldson, M.R.

1987-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

167

Framework-incorporated Mn and Co analcime zeolites: Synthesis and characterization  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The framework-substituted cobalt and manganese analcime zeolites were synthesized via a direct hydrothermal approach. The obtained samples were characterized by XRD powder, SEM-EDX, nitrogen physical adsorption, Raman microscopy, diffuse reflectance UV-Vis and IR spectroscopy which complementarily demonstrated the incorporation of cobalt and manganese into the zeolites framework. The results showed that substitution of Mn and Co could be placed in two synthesis gels with same compositions containing Al/Mn=5 and Al/Co=4 mol ratios, respectively. In addition, with replacing Al with Mn and synthesis of Mn-modified analcime, zeolite with higher surface area and pore volume could be achieved than the Co modified analcime. - Graphical abstract: The images and adsorption-desorption isotherms of N{sub 2} at 77 K for (a) Co (b) Mn modified analcime. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Synthesis of Co and Mn modified analcime for the first time. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Framework-incorporation of Co and Mn using the same silicate gel composition. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Applying several techniques to provide proofs for the characterization.

Azizi, Seyed Naser, E-mail: azizi@umz.ac.ir [Analytical Division, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Mazandaran, P.O. Box 47416-95447, Babolsar (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ehsani Tilami, Salma [Analytical Division, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Mazandaran, P.O. Box 47416-95447, Babolsar (Iran, Islamic Republic of)] [Analytical Division, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Mazandaran, P.O. Box 47416-95447, Babolsar (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

2013-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

168

Sensitivity analysis and study of the mixing uniformity of a microfluidic mixer  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We consider a microfluidic mixer based on hydrodynamic focusing, which is used to initiate the folding process of individual proteins. The folding process is initiated by quickly diluting a local denaturant concentration, and we define mixing time as the time advecting proteins experience a specified to achieve a local drop in denaturant concentration. In previous work, we presented a minimization of mixing time which considered optimal geometry and flow conditions, and achieved a design with a predicted mixing time of 0.10 $\\mu$s. The aim of the current paper is twofold. First, we explore the sensitivity of mixing time to key geometric and flow parameters. In particular, we study the angle between inlets, the shape of the channel intersections, channel widths, mixer depth, mixer symmetry, inlet velocities, working fluid physical properties, and denaturant concentration thresholds. Second, we analyze the uniformity of mixing times as a function of inlet flow streamlines. We find the shape of the intersection,...

Ivorra, Benjamin; Ramos, Ángel M; Santiago, Juan G

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

169

1D-NMR and 2D-NMR analysis of the thermal degradation products from vitrinites in relation to their  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

to their natural hydrogen enrichment M.J. Iglesiasa , M.J. Cuestab , F. Laggoun-Défargec and I. Suárez of the huminite/vitrinite structure resulting from different processes of natural hydrogen-enrichment. The high hydrogenated nature of their botanical precursors, the incorporation of aliphatic structures via covalent

Boyer, Edmond

170

Revised version Organic Geochemistry 28, 411-415, 1998.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. Abstract A resistant soil organic residue, `humin', has been analysed by solid-state 13 C-NMR and pyrolysis, carbohydrates and phenols. Keywords : 13 C of soil alkanes, NMR, resistant aliphatic biopolymer, pyrolysis biomass decomposition products as well as from root exudates, the new proposed pathway is based upon

171

Organic electroanalysis with chemically modified electrodes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The analytical utility of electrodes modified with functionalized polymer films for the determination of aromatic amines is demonstrated. The analysis is based on the preconcentration of the protonated amines into a functionalized polymer film that contains styrene sulfonate groups. Good sensitivity and high reproducibility were obtained for concentrations down to 10/sup -5/ M. Aliphatic amines do not interfere in the determination.

Guadalupe, A.R.; Abruna, H.D.

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

172

Process for the extraction of strontium from acidic solutions  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The invention is a process for selectively extracting strontium values from aqueous nitric acid waste solutions containing these and other fission product values. The extractant solution is a macrocyclic polyether in an aliphatic hydrocarbon diluent containing a phase modifier. The process will selectively extract strontium values from nitric acid solutions which are up to 6 molar in nitric acid.

Horwitz, E. Philip (Naperville, IL); Dietz, Mark L. (Evanston, IL)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

173

Design and Synthesis of a Photoaromatization-Based Two-Stage Photobase Generator for Pitch Division Lithography  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Design and Synthesis of a Photoaromatization-Based Two-Stage Photobase Generator for Pitch Division. This material was designed for use in resolution- enhanced photolithography. Computer modeling predicts that end, latent PBGs were designed that are oxime esters of aliphatic acids, which undergo Norrish type II

Turro, Nicholas J.

174

1224 Mol. BioSyst., 2011, 7, 12241231 This journal is c The Royal Society of Chemistry 2011 Cite this: Mol. BioSyst., 2011, 7, 12241231  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

vancomycin against MRSA as they carry an extra aliphatic acyl side chain on glucosamine (Glm) at residue 4 (r the drugs of the last resort to treat methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections. Lipoglycopeptides, Tei and A40926 (3, Fig. 1) were reported to be more effective than vancomycin against MRSA

Tsai, Ming-Daw

175

Process for the extraction of strontium from acidic solutions  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The invention is a process for selectively extracting strontium values from aqueous nitric acid waste solutions containing these and other fission product values. The extractant solution is a macrocyclic polyether in an aliphatic hydrocarbon diluent containing a phase modifier. The process will selectively extract strontium values from nitric acid solutions which are up to 6 molar in nitric acid.

Horwitz, E.P.; Dietz, M.L.

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

176

Process for the extraction of strontium from acidic solutions  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The invention is a process for selectively extracting strontium values from aqueous nitric acid waste solutions containing these and other fission product values. The extractant solution is a macrocyclic polyether in an aliphatic hydrocarbon diluent containing a phase modifier. The process will selectively extract strontium values from nitric acid solutions which are up to 6 molar in nitric acid. 4 figs.

Horwitz, E.P.; Dietz, M.L.

1994-09-06T23:59:59.000Z

177

Flexible moldable conductive current-limiting materials  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A current limiting PTC device (10) has two electrodes (14) with a thin film of electric conducting polymer material (20) disposed between the electrodes, the polymer material (20) having superior flexibility and short circuit performance, where the polymer material contains short chain aliphatic diepoxide, conductive filler particles, curing agent, and, preferably, a minor amount of bisphenol A epoxy resin.

Shea, John Joseph (Pittsburgh, PA); Djordjevic, Miomir B. (Milwaukee, WI); Hanna, William Kingston (Pittsburgh, PA)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

178

Surface chemistry control for selective fossil resin flotation  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A froth flotation method is disclosed for separating fine particles of fossil resin by use of frothing reagents which include an aliphatic organic compound having a polar group and containing not more than four carbon atoms. Butanol is an effective frothing reagent in this method. 12 figs.

Miller, J.D.; Yi, Y.; Yu, Q.

1994-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

179

Surface chemistry control for selective fossil resin flotation  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A froth flotation method is disclosed for separating fine particles of fossil resin from by use of frothing reagents which include an aliphatic organic compound having a polar group and containing not more than four carbon atoms. Butanol is an effective frothing reagent in this method.

Miller, Jan D. (1886 Atkin Ave., Salt Lake City, UT 84106); Yi, Ye (2875 E. Wander Way, Salt Lake City, UT 84117); Yu, Qiang (224 University Village, Salt Lake City, UT 84108)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

180

Environ. Sci. Technol. M92, 26,2454-2461 In-Situ Transformation of Carbon Tetrachloride and Other Halogenated  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Environ. Sci. Technol. M92, 26,2454-2461 In-Situ Transformation of Carbon Tetrachloride and Other, California 94305-4020 Enhanced in-situ transformation of carbon tetrachloride (CT) was observed under anoxic Chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons (CAHs)with one or two carbon atoms are widely used as solvents, degreasing

Semprini, Lewis

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "denatured aliphatic alco" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

ELSEVIER Journal of Hazardous Materials 41 (1995)205-216 HIIZIIRDOUS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

dechlorination of carbon tetrachloride with elemental iron Bradley R. Helland, Pedro J.J. Alvarez*, Jerald L-1527, USA Received 3 August 1994;accepted in revised form 15 November 1994 Abstract Carbon tetrachloride (CC aliphatics such as carbon tetrachloride (CC14) are common environ- mental contaminants due

Alvarez, Pedro J.

182

Correlated microanalysis of cometary organic grains returned by Stardust Bradley T. De GREGORIO1,2*  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of this chemical variety may be due to contamination or alteration during particle capture in aerogel. We matter infilling densified silica aerogel. Aliphatic organic matter from Track 16 was also observed not be clearly distinguished from carbonaceous contaminants known to be present in the Stardust aerogel collector

Nittler, Larry R.

183

Microwave-assisted pyrolysis of HDPE using an activated carbon bed  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, with the remainder primarily short-chain aliphatics. This oil was approximately three times lighter than that produced in the absence of catalyst, with a narrower range of molecular masses that matched those of the liquid transport fuels petrol and diesel (C5–C21...

Russell, Alan Donald

2013-04-16T23:59:59.000Z

184

Paint Thinner MATERIAL SAFETY DATA SHEET  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

solvent {Mineral spirits; Aliphatic Petroleum Distillates; White spirits} 8052-41-3 CAS # 95.0 -100 as hazardous under OSHA regulations. OSHA Regulatory Status: Inhalation Acute Exposure Effects: May cause: Reports have associated repeated and prolonged overexposure to solvents with neurological and other

Rollins, Andrew M.

185

Molecular Characterization of Organic Content of Soot along the Centerline of a Coflow Diffusion Flame  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

High-resolution mass spectrometry coupled with nanospray desorption electrospray ionization was used to probe chemical constituents of young soot particles sampled along the centerline of a coflow diffusion flame of a three-component Jet-A1 surrogate. In lower positions where particles are transparent to light extinction (n= 632.8 nm), peri-condensed polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are found to be the major components of the particle material. These particles become enriched with aliphatic components as they grow in mass and size. Before carbonization occurs, the constituent species in young soot particles are aliphatic and aromatic compounds 200-600 amu in mass, some of which are oxygenated. Particles dominated by PAHs or mixtures of PAHs and aliphatics can both exhibit liquid-like appearance observed by electron microscopy and be transparent to visible light. The variations in chemical composition observed here indicate that the molecular processes of soot formation in coflow diffusion flames may be more complex than previously thought. For example, the mass growth and enrichment of aliphatic components in an initially, mostly aromatic structure region of the flame that is absent of H atoms or other free radicals indicates that there must exist at least another mechanism of soot mass growth in addition to the hydrogen-abstraction-carbon addition mechanism currently considered in fundamental models of soot formation.

Cain, Jeremy P.; Laskin, Alexander; Kholghy, Mohammad Reza; Thomson, Murray; Wang, Hai

2014-10-29T23:59:59.000Z

186

Coal liquefaction process using pretreatment with a binary solvent mixture  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An improved process for thermal solvent refining or hydroliquefaction of non-anthracitic coal at elevated temperatures under hydrogen pressure in a hydrogen donor solvent comprises pretreating the coal with a binary mixture of an aromatic hydrocarbon and an aliphatic alcohol at a temperature below 300.degree. C. before the hydroliquefaction step. This treatment generally increases both conversion of coal and yields of oil.

Miller, Robert N. (Allentown, PA)

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

187

Synthetic aircraft turbine oil  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Synthetic lubricating oil composition having improved oxidation stability comprising a major portion of an aliphatic ester base oil having lubricating properties, formed by the reaction of pentaerythritol and an organic monocarboxylic acid and containing a phenylnaphthylamine, a dialkyldiphenylamine, a polyhydroxy anthraquinone, a hydrocarbyl phosphate ester and a dialkyldisulfide.

Yaffe, R.

1982-03-16T23:59:59.000Z

188

New insights into the chemical composition of chitinozoans Jrmy Jacob1,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 New insights into the chemical composition of chitinozoans Jérémy Jacob1, , Florentin Paris2 dominated by aromatic groups with a low contribution of aliphatics and oxygen- or nitrogen-bearing compounds-GC/MS, chitin, Lower Palaeozoic Corresponding author: jeremy.jacob@univ-orleans.fr #12;2 1. Introduction

Boyer, Edmond

189

X-ray photoelectron emission spectromicroscopic analysis of arborescent lycopsid cell wall composition and Carboniferous coal ball preservation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

composition and Carboniferous coal ball preservation C. Kevin Boyce a, , Mike Abrecht b , Dong Zhou b , P that were canopy dominants of many Pennsylvanian coal swamp forests. Its periderm or bark--the single greatest biomass contributor to many Late Paleozoic coals--is found to have a greater aliphatic content

Boyce, C. Kevin

190

Comparative studies of diverged members of the phosphotriesterase family  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

then placed in a thermal cycler for an initial 5 minute 95'C denaturation followed by 40-cycles of a I minute 95'C denaturation, I minute at 55'C, and a 2 minute 72'C elongation step. Each reaction was run on an agarose gel using electrophoresis. Pool ?2... had a band 1 kB in length, the size predicted for ponL CLONING AND SEQUENCING PON I To generate the PCR fragment for cloning, PCR was repeated with Pool ?2 and a small portion was run on a gel to verify the presence of the I kb band. The remaining...

Arriens, Cristina Gale

2013-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

191

The conformational stability and spectral properties of RNASE T1, and mutants: ASP49-> ALA, TYR, and TRP  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

obtained by monitoring the fluorescence emission at 320 nm after excitation at 278 nm for D49A, D49Y and D49W, respectively. The urea denaturation curves for wild type RNase Tl (K25 and Q25) has been previously reported (Shirley et al. , 1989 and Thomson... on the surface of folded RNase Tl. The conformational stability of these proteins was determined by analyzing data from urea denaturation curves. Substituting nonpolar residues for Asp49 in RNase Tl increased the stability by 0. 2 to 0. 6 kcal/mole due...

Lin, Li Yu

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

192

Incidence and specificity of antibodies to types I, II, III, IV, and V collagen in rheumatoid arthritis and other rheumatic diseases as measured by 125I-radioimmunoassay  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Antibodies to human native and denatured types I, II, III, IV, and V collagens were measured using 125I-radioimmunoassay. Mean levels of binding by sera from 30 rheumatoid arthritis patients were significantly higher than those from 20 normal subjects against all of the collagens tested. The relative antibody concentration was higher in synovial fluid than in simultaneously obtained serum. Many patients with gout or various other rheumatic diseases also had detectable anticollagen antibodies. With a few notable exceptions, the majority of the reactivity detected in all patient groups was directed against covalent structural determinants present on all of the denatured collagens, suggesting a secondary reaction to tissue injury.

Stuart, J.M.; Huffstutter, E.H.; Townes, A.S.; Kang, A.H.

1983-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

193

Effects of Strenuous Exercise on Stallion Sperm Quality  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

account for approximately 20% of the observed variation in fertility rate (Jasko et al., 1992). Love and Kenney (1998) determined the relationship between fertility and susceptibility of sperm DNA to denaturation in 84 actively breeding, clinically...………………………………………………………………. 46 APPENDIX A………………………………………………………………………... 51 APPENDIX B………………………………………………………………………... 52 APPENDIX C………………………………………………………………………… 53 APPENDIX D………………………………………………………………………... 54 APPENDIX E………………………………………………………………………… 57 APPENDIX F...

Rosenberg, Jennifer L.

2012-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

194

ORIGINAL ARTICLE The structure of the bacterial and archaeal community in a  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ORIGINAL ARTICLE The structure of the bacterial and archaeal community in a biogas digester biogas digesters at different scales and for different applications for treating rural wastes is well 16S rDNA, anaerobic digestion, biogas digester, denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE

Lovley, Derek

195

http://biotech.nature.com SEPTEMBER 2001 VOLUME 19 nature biotechnology Interpreting function in terms of specific  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

surfaced over the years--proteins for which lack of three-dimensional structure is required for function Interpreting function in terms of specific three-dimensional structure has dominat- ed thinking about proteins- guage: unfolded protein and denatured protein are used interchangeably. Furthermore, the avalanche

Obradovic, Zoran

196

Water-Soluble Poly(Lserine)s with Elongated and Charged Side-Chains: Synthesis, Conformations, and Cell-Penetrating Properties  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The secondary structures of proteins facilitate the folding of proteins into unique three-dimensional structures and regulate their biological activities.1 To better understand protein folding/unfolding and eventually mimic -helical or -sheet conformations against various denaturing conditions. However, these polypeptides lack

Cheng, Jianjun

197

Molecular Dynamics Simulation of the SH3 Domain Aggregation Suggests a Generic  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

the elongation of amyloid fibrils.12 ­ 15 However, the domain swapping hypothesis is based on the aggregation and the open aggregation state. The closed dimer is formed by "domain swapping"-- the two proteins exchange human disease were found to be able to form amyloid fibril struc- tures in vitro under denaturing

Stanley, H. Eugene

198

How Hydrogen Bond Redundancy Affects Protein Flexibility  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Modeling a Protein as a BodyBarHinge and Associated Graph Main Question: Stability in proteins is the resistance to denaturation, or unfolding. A protein that is highly stable has a high tolerance to bonds breaking before unfolding; an unstable protein has less tolerance. In this study, we focus on the question, how many hydrogen bonds

Naomi Fox; Filip Jagodzinski; Jeanne Hardy; Ileana Streinu

199

Supplemental Data Directed Evolution of ATP Binding Proteins  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Supplemental Data Directed Evolution of ATP Binding Proteins from a Zinc Finger Domain Using m TG 3'). Denaturing Ni-NTA was performed on the ATP-column elution for round 2, and then FLAG with the resin, but instead passed directly over the immobilized ATP. The selection was performed at room

Heller, Eric

200

A Comparison of the Benthic Bacterial Communities Within and Surrounding Dreissena Clusters in Lakes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

) Lake Erie Center, The University of Toledo, Oregon, OH 43618, USA (2) Department of Environmental- lected from locations in Lake Erie, Lake Ontario, and several inland lakes. Denaturing gradient gel from the two Lake Erie sites. Therefore, Dreissena appears to affect both structure and metabolic

Sigler, Von

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "denatured aliphatic alco" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Enzymatic Digestion in Aqueous-Organic Solvents: A Mass Spectrometry-Based Approach in Monitoring Protein Conformation Changes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

has a lesser impact compared to methanol and ethanol. This may explain why relative to ethanol and methanol, there are fewer digest fragment ions. On the other hand, it is a denaturant thus promoting more digest fragment ions relative to water... of Proteins???????????????????? 9 Cytochrome C???????????????????. 9 Green Fluorescent Protein??????????????.. 11 2. MATERIALS AND METHODS????????????????. 16 Materials...

Tuvilla, Mavreen Rose

2013-05-08T23:59:59.000Z

202

VOLUME 84, NUMBER 4 P H Y S I C A L R E V I E W L E T T E R S 24 JANUARY 2000 Discrete Breathers in Nonlinear Lattices: Experimental Detection in a Josephson Array  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of discrete breathers in an underdamped Josephson-junction array. Breathers exist under a range of dc current denaturation [6], and the dynamics of Josephson-junction networks [7­9]. Also, they have been shown the experimental detection of discrete breathers in an underdamped Josephson-junction array. Anisotropic Josephson-junction

Orlando, Terry P.

203

Polymerization and Structure of Nucleotide-free Actin Filaments  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Polymerization and Structure of Nucleotide-free Actin Filaments Enrique M. De La Cruz1,2 , Anna of nucleotide-free actin (NFA). First, actin lacking bound nucleotide denatures rapidly without stabilizing of the bound nucleotide. We used apyrase, EDTA and Dowex-1 to prepare actin that is stable in sucrose and $99

204

Supplemental Information Supplementary methods  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

defined medium ("Sato's medium"; Bottenstein and Sato., 1979) in each well of poly-D-lysine coated 24-well was added. All reaction mixtures were run simultaneously on a 6% (w/v) polyacrylamide non- denaturing Tris-borate EDTA Novex minigel (Invitrogen) until the dye had migrated off the end of the gel. The gel was dried

Richardson, William D.

205

Protein folding by zipping and assembly S. Banu Ozkan*  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Protein folding by zipping and assembly S. Banu Ozkan* , G. Albert Wu* , John D. Chodera, CA, May 2, 2007 (received for review April 13, 2006) How do proteins fold so quickly? Some denatured proteins fold to their native structures in only microseconds, on average, implying that there is a folding

Southern California, University of

206

From: Methods in Molecular Biology, vol. 350: Protein Folding Protocols Edited by: Y. Bai and R. Nussinov Humana Press Inc., Totowa, NJ  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

225 From: Methods in Molecular Biology, vol. 350: Protein Folding Protocols Edited by: Y. Bai and R in the transition state. Key Words: Protein folding; energy landscape; transition state ensemble; denatured state- sively applied to the analysis of protein folding (1­5). Although proteins are essential macromolecules

Caflisch, Amedeo

207

To link to this article: DOI:10.1109/TPS.2012.2190303 URL : http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TPS.2012.2190303  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

observed toward high-temperature range of the collagen denaturation and 2) the stiffening of the chainsTo link to this article: DOI:10.1109/TPS.2012.2190303 URL : http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TPS.2012, Florian and Dandurand, Jany and Lacabanne, Colette Effect of Low-Temperature Plasma Jet on Thermal

Mailhes, Corinne

208

From Cot Curves to Genomics. How Gene Cloning Established New Concepts in Plant Biology  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

was in an inflationary spiral due to the emergence of the oil cartel that sent the prices of gasoline skyrocketing in the 1960s when the principles of DNA denaturation and renaturation were pioneered at the Carnegie in the mid-1960s and were, therefore, considered to be "eukaryotic- like" and similar to animal genomes

Goldberg, Robert B.

209

J. Mol. Riol. (1991) 222, 1085-1108 Complementary Recognition in Condensed DNA: Accelerated  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

J. Mol. Riol. (1991) 222, 1085-1108 Complementary Recognition in Condensed DNA: Accelerated DNA) Condensation of denatured DNA greatly accelerates the kinetics of DNA renaturation. We propose a unifying explanation for the effects of several accelerating solvents studied here including polymers, di

Church, George M.

210

Functional Characterization of Rhodopsin Monomers and Dimers in Detergents*S  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

International Institute of Molecular and Cell Biology, Warsaw PL-02109, Poland Rhodopsin (Rho) is a G protein-coupled from atomic force microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and chemical cross-linking experiments resistant to heat denaturation. Both Rho* mono- mers and dimers are capable of activating Gt, and both

Palczewski, Krzysztof

211

Temperature modeling in a total knee joint replacement using patient-specific kinematics  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. For the standard condition, which assumes an ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) tibial component coefficient was explored. The model is extremely sensitive to the thermal properties of the femoral component in diluted bovine serum, which acts as a lubricant and mimics joint synovial fluid. Denaturing of proteins

Sawyer, Wallace

212

High-resolution frequency-domain second-harmonic optical coherence tomography  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, the experimental studies have found that the SH responded to the structural modifications of col- lagen, such as thermal denaturation, nonenzymatic glycation, and partial enzymatic cleavage.8 These modifications injury, diabetes, aging, abnormal wound healing, and malignant transformation of dys- plastic nevi. SHG

Chen, Zhongping

213

Proc. Nati. Acad. Sci. USA Vol. 87, pp. 6388-6392, August 1990  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

/conformational entropy) HUE SUN CHAN AND KEN A. DILL Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, University of California, the stabilities (observed in the distribution; see below) decrease with length (18-20). (ii) The most stable residues (18-20), and these are 100% helical up to nearly the denaturation temperature of the protein. (iii

Chan, Hue Sun

214

In vitro protein refolding by chromatographic procedures Zhi-Guo Su,a  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in small-scale refolding studies because of its simplicity. However, the protein concentration has and initial purification one does not have to take the risk of denaturation of the target proteins, thus, not optimal for large-scale production as ex- tensive concentration is required after

Lebendiker, Mario

215

Biology Lab 3: Small Scale Plasmid DNA Purification (Minipreps) Plasmids are small, circular pieces of DNA (about 3-5 kilobases in length on average) that  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Biology Lab 3: Small Scale Plasmid DNA Purification (Minipreps) Plasmids are small, circular pieces. Plasmid purification procedures selectively enrich plasmid DNA over genomic DNA, which is present the small plasmids remain intact. Thus, when denatured, the plasmids remain linked to their complementary

216

TroubleshootingGuide A. Protein Expression  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

binding b) Dilute an aliquot of lysate (1:10), or sonicate, and check binding on a small scale. c) Try. Apparent low · Insoluble Use denaturing extraction expression over-expressed and purification conditions sample for purification after proper buffering B. Loading/Washing Problem Possible Cause Solution 1

Lebendiker, Mario

217

For polyhistidine-tagged protein purification BD Biosciences Clontech www.clontech.com 800-662-2566  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

levels, or trial-level purification protocols. For small-scale single-use applications such as verifying-662-2566 TALONTM Products TALONTM Metal Affinity Resin Resin ready for loading in columns for small or medium-scale His- tagged proteins by small-scale or batch/gravity flow, under native or denaturing conditions

Lebendiker, Mario

218

Mini review Practical considerations in refolding proteins from inclusion bodies  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, removal of the denaturant, and assistance of refolding by small molecule additives. We will review key concentration, and (3) the effect of small molecule additives on refolding and aggregation of the proteins. Ã?- nomic sequence database, on a rapid, large-scale pro- duction of recombinant proteins. The proteins thus

Lebendiker, Mario

219

Prospects & Overviews Chaperone discovery  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

assist de novo protein folding and facilitate the refolding of stress-denatured proteins. The molecular in understanding how these factors support protein folding. Here, we focus on how various chaper- one proteins were first identified to play roles in protein folding. Examples are used to illustrate traditional routes

Bardwell, James

220

Comparison of organic combustion products in fly ash collected by a venturi wet scrubber and an electrostatic precipitator at a coal-fired power station  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Organic compounds recovered from fly ash collected by an electrostatic precipitator (ESP) and a venturi wet scrubber (WS) at a coal-fired power station were analysed. Organic constituents in extracts of solid waste included large numbers of aliphatic and aromatic compounds. A series of normal C/sub 15/-C/sub 30/ paraffins was found in the aliphatic fractions. The aromatic compounds were of 1,2,3 and 4 rings. Polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons containing more than 4 rings were shown to be poorly recovered. Comparison of organic constituents in extracts of fly ash from the WS and the ESP showed that ESP extracts contained more compounds in greater quantities. The types and quantities of organic compounds recovered are not expected to present any environmental hazard.

Harrison, F.L.

1985-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "denatured aliphatic alco" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

Chemical differences are observed in children's versus adults' laten fingerprints as a function of time  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The identification of aged latent fingerprints is often difficult, especially for those of children. To understand this phenomenon, the chemical composition of children's versus adults latent fingerprints was examined over time using Fourier transform infrared microscopy. Hierarchical cluster analysis revealed that children's and adults prints were distinguishable for up to 4 weeks after deposition, based on differences in sebum composition. Specifically, adults had a higher lipid content than children, but both decreased over time, attributable to the volatility of free fatty acids. The aliphatic CH{sub 3}, aliphatic CH{sub 2}, and carbonyl ester compositions changed differently in adults versus children over time, consistent with higher cholesterol and cholesteryl esters in children's prints and wax esters and glycerides in adults prints. Thus, fingerprint composition changes with time differently in children versus adults, making it a sensitive metric to estimate the age of an individual, especially when the age of the print is known.

Antoine, K.M.; Miller, L.; Mortazavi, S.; Miller, A.D.

2010-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

222

Copolymers useful as additives for lowering the cloud point of middle hydrocarbon distillates, and compositions of middle hydrocarbon distillates comprising them  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Products useful as additives for lowering the cloud point of middle distillates have a molecular weight from 1,000 to 50,000, and are obtained by reacting a compound of the formula R-Z((CH/sub 2/) /SUB n/ NH) /SUB m/ H or HO-CH/sub 2/-R'-NH/sub 2/ where R is a monovalent saturated aliphatic radical of 1-30 carbon atoms, Z is -NH- or oxygen, n is 2 to 4, m is zero or 1 to 4 and R' is a saturated divalent aliphatic radical of 1-18 carbon atoms, with a copolymer comprising recurrent units (A) from an alkyl ester of an unsaturated monocarboxylic acid and/or a vinyl ester of a saturated monocarboxylic acid, recurrent units (B) from diisobutylene and recurrent units (C) from an unsaturated a,b-dicarboxylic compound.

Durand, J. P.; Damin, B.; Dawans, F.; Leger, R.

1985-03-05T23:59:59.000Z

223

Polyestercarbonates which exhibit improved processibility  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The invention relates to a polyestercarbonate polymer which comprises repeating units of a mono-unsaturated aliphatic dicarboxylic acid having about 12 to about 20 carbon atoms. Preferred dicarboxylic acids for incorporation into the polymer are cis-octadec-9-enedioic acid or trans-octadec-9-enedioic acid. The use of these mono-unsaturated acids results in polymers with lower glass transition temperatures, and enhances processibility.

Krabbenhoft, Herman Otto (Scotia, NY)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

224

A study of the reaction between lead (II) iodide and organic amine hydriodides  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

for the degree of NASTER OF SCIENCE AUGUST 1962 Major Sub)cot& CHENISTRY A STUDY OF THE REACTION BETWEEN LEAD(II) IODIDE AND ORGANIC AMINE HYDRIODIDES A Thesis By FRANK MARTIN SIMPSON Approved as to style and content by: Chai of Committee Head... compounds have been prepared by the reaction of lead(II) iodide with various primary, secondary, and tertiary aliphatic and substituted aromati. c amines The melting points, chemical compositions, densities, quali- tative solubilities, and absorption...

Simpson, Frank Martin

1962-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

225

Effects of shipment on diffusive dosimetry recovery efficiency for pentane, hexane and heptane  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Sciences College of Pharmacy Chairman of' Advisory Committee: Mr. Charles L. Gilmore The effects of' shipment on recovery was investigated for three aliphatic hydrocarbons adsorbed on the 3M Company's $3500 Organic Vapor Monitor and the Scientific Kit... Combination Vs. Contaminant INTRODUCTION The Occupational Safety and Health Adminsitration (OSHA) has promulgated standards including permissible exposure limits (PEL) for humans based on eight hour time-weighted average (TWA) exposures for approximately...

Read, Ronald Bruce

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

226

Coal liquefaction process using pretreatment with a binary solvent mixture  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An improved process for thermal solvent refining or hydroliquefaction of non-anthracitic coal at elevated temperatures under hydrogen pressure in a hydrogen donor solvent comprises pretreating the coal with a binary mixture of an aromatic hydrocarbon and an aliphatic alcohol at a temperature below 300 C before the hydroliquefaction step. This treatment generally increases both conversion of coal and yields of oil. 1 fig.

Miller, R.N.

1986-10-14T23:59:59.000Z

227

A study of the structure of the hydrocarbons of primary hard-coal tar  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The hydrocarbons isolated from primary hard-coal (G/sub 6/ gas coal) tar have been investigated by a combination of physicochemical and chemical methods. It has been established that the hydrocarbons boiling up to 573 K are mainly aliphatic, hydroaromatic, and naphthenic and are aromatic only to a smaller degree. Molecular and presumable structural formulas of the oxygen compounds isolated from the 473-573 K hydrocarbon fraction have been derived.

Platonov, V.V.; Gerasimova, N.I.; Ivleva, L.N.; Klyavina, O.A.; Vishnyakov, S.N.

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

228

Structural features of Athabasca bitumen related to upgrading performance  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Structural studies on asphaltenes and heavy ends have, until recently, only yielded information on some of the gross compositional features of these materials. Spectroscopic methods, for sample, are limited in the sense that even if several functional groups (e.g., aromatic or aliphatic carbon, carbonyl groups, etc.) can be identified, no information on the molecular environment can be deduced. Selective chemical degradative methods, on the other hand, offer more potential and this paper describes some of their recent results on the chemical degradation of asphaltene and heavy ends. Quantitative recoveries of alkyl side chains and bridging units attached to aromatic rings have been achieved, and some insights into the aliphatic framework have been gained. The results could be particularly helpful with regard to monitoring the dealkylation processes during thermal treatment of bitumens. The aliphatic framework of the asphaltene contains units of five- and six-membered ring sulfides and thermal breakdown of these units also contributes to depolymerization and the production of alkanes. Some of the heteroatom-containing classes of compounds identified in the asphaltene and resin fractions of Athabasca bitumen will be briefly discussed.

Strausz, O.P. (Univ. of Alberta, Edmonton (Canada))

1989-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

229

Correlated Microanalysis of Cometary Organic Grains Returned by Stardust  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Carbonaceous matter in Stardust samples returned from comet 81P/Wild 2 is observed to contain a wide variety of organic functional chemistry. However, some of this chemical variety may be due to contamination or alteration during particle capture in aerogel. We investigated six carbonaceous Stardust samples that had been previously analyzed and six new samples from Stardust Track 80 using correlated transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray absorption near-edge structure spectroscopy (XANES), and secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS). TEM revealed that samples from Track 35 containing abundant aliphatic XANES signatures were predominantly composed of cometary organic matter infilling densified silica aerogel. Aliphatic organic matter from Track 16 was also observed to be soluble in the epoxy embedding medium. The nitrogen-rich samples in this study (from Track 22 and Track 80) both contained metal oxide nanoparticles, and are likely contaminants. Only two types of cometary organic matter appear to be relatively unaltered during particle capture. These are (1) polyaromatic carbonyl-containing organic matter, similar to that observed in insoluble organic matter (IOM) from primitive meteorites, interplanetary dust particles (IDPs), and in other carbonaceous Stardust samples, and (2) highly aromatic refractory organic matter, which primarily constitutes nanoglobule-like features. Anomalous isotopic compositions in some of these samples also confirm their cometary heritage. There also appears to be a significant labile aliphatic component of Wild 2 organic matter, but this material could not be clearly distinguished from carbonaceous contaminants known to be present in the Stardust aerogel collector.

B De Gregorio; R Stroud; G Cody; L Nittler; A Kilcoyne; S Wirick

2011-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

230

Proliferation resistant fuel for pebble bed modular reactors  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We show that it is possible to denature the Plutonium produced in Pebble Bed Modular Reactors (PBMR) by doping the nuclear fuel with either 3050 ppm of {sup 237}Np or 2100 ppm of Am vector. A correct choice of these isotopes concentration yields denatured Plutonium with isotopic ratio {sup 238}Pu/Pu {>=} 6%, for the entire fuel burnup cycle. The penalty for introducing these isotopes into the nuclear fuel is a subsequent shortening of the fuel burnup cycle, with respect to a non-doped reference fuel, by 41.2 Full Power Days (FPDs) and 19.9 FPDs, respectively, which correspond to 4070 MWd/ton and 1965 MWd/ton reduction in fuel discharge burnup. (authors)

Ronen, Y.; Aboudy, M.; Regev, D.; Gilad, E. [Dept. of Nuclear Engineering, Ben-Gurion Univ. of the Negev, Beer-Sheva 84105 (Israel)

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

231

Efficacy of amodiaquine, sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine and their combination for the treatment of uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria in children in Cameroon at the time of policy change to artemisinin-based combination therapy  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

mutations of pfcrt, pfmdr-1, dhfr and dhps genes as previously described by Pearce et al [16]. Heat denatured (95°C for 2 minutes), nested PCR products encompassing polymorphisms were spotted onto nylon membranes alongside other PCR products of known... , Chinwengozi M, Chendjou P: Efficacité et tolérance de la combinaison artesunate + amodiaquine pour le traitement du paludisme simple dans le District de Sante de NDOP, Province du Nord- Ouest, Cameroun, 2007. Report to Ministry of Health . 27. Mbacham W...

Mbacham, Wilfred F; Evehe, Marie-Solange B; Netongo, Palmer M; Ateh, Isabel A; Mimche, Patrice N; Ajua, Anthony; Nji, Akindeh M; Echouffo-Tcheugui, Justin B; Tawe, Bantar; Hallett, Rachel; Roper, Cally; Targett, Geoffrey; Greenwood, Brian

2010-01-27T23:59:59.000Z

232

There are two ways of fixing parasites for IF or FISH. Either the cells are settled onto non-silanized coverslips (Fisher 12mm, #15) and then fixed (faster but harsher), or the  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. Washings (24-well plate) 1. Defrost PBG and store it on ice. Pre-heat formamide / 2xSSC to 37°C (formamide. Rinse briefly in pre-heated 2x SSC (50°C) 9. The probe/hyb mix should be denatured by now. Spot (50 µ as for hybridization) 4. Repeat wash, using vacuum pump to aspirate washing solution 5. Wash at RT as follows: 6. 2 x 5

Cross, George

233

Flow of pH-responsive microcapsules in porous media  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. There are numerous examples in the pharmaceutical industry where encapsulation would be beneficial. For example, if biological materials such as enzymes, which are susceptible to denaturation, are encapsulated their biological activity can be retained (Keen et al... display industry, for example by increasing the lifetime of organic light-emitting diodes, by preventing moisture and oxygen diffusion into the display area (Chwang et al., 2003; Seo et al., 2013). Within the oil industry, no journal articles...

Gun, Wei Jin; Routh, Alexander F.

2014-11-20T23:59:59.000Z

234

The Care and Cleaning of Furniture and Furnishings.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. SILVER Plated or Sterling Commercially-prepared polishes in liquid, powder or paste form are readily available. Through recent research, a tarnish preventative silver polish has been developed. Many silversmith companies recommend and some produce... removes tarnish, it also kills the depth of pattern and luster of silver. The method is omitted from this booklet. Cleaner for Sterling or Plated Silver How to make: 3 parts fine whiting 1 part either household ammonia (clear) or denatured alcohol...

O'Donnell, Dorothy C.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

235

Study of polymer molecules and conformations with a nanopore  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The invention features methods for evaluating the conformation of a polymer, for example, for determining the conformational distribution of a plurality of polymers and to detect binding or denaturation events. The methods employ a nanopore which the polymer, e.g., a nucleic acid, traverses. As the polymer traverses the nanopore, measurements of transport properties of the nanopore yield data on the conformation of the polymer.

Golovchenko, Jene A. (Lexington, MA); Li, Jiali (Fayetteville, AR); Stein, Derek (Delft, NL); Gershow, Marc H. (Cambridge, MA)

2010-12-07T23:59:59.000Z

236

Study of polymer molecules and conformations with a nanopore  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The invention features methods for evaluating the conformation of a polymer, for example, for determining the conformational distribution of a plurality of polymers and to detect binding or denaturation events. The methods employ a nanopore which the polymer, e.g., a nucleic acid, traverses. As the polymer traverses the nanopore, measurements of transport properties of the nanopore yield data on the conformation of the polymer.

Golovchenko, Jene A.; Li, Jiali; Stein, Derek; Gershow, Marc H.

2013-03-12T23:59:59.000Z

237

A Quasi-continuous Interpolation Scheme for Pathways between Distant Configurations  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, where the chain-crossing is avoided. Nevertheless, they can lie below stationary points of the potential energy surface associated with the higher energy denatured or liquid-like phase of a finite system. This energy overlap makes the unphysical paths... procedure. The local maxima were then converged tightly to tran- sition states using hybrid eigenvector-following,20, 76, 77 and the connectivity verified by calculating approximate steepest-descent paths using energy minimisation following small...

Carr, Joanne M; Wales, David J

2012-08-28T23:59:59.000Z

238

Effects of heat on the rheological and stability properties of cultured buttermilk  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. Nutritive significance of the browning reac- tion Rheology of Milk and Dairy Products Rheology of Milk Rheology of Milk Gels. Electron Microscopy of Milk and Dairy Products. Microstructure of Milk Microstructure of Milk Gels. Microstructure.... Testing of Gel Strength Data Analysis Relative Viscosity. Stability Serum Protein Denaturation. Electron Microscopy Fixation 16 16 17 17 22 22 22 22 23 TABLE OF CONTENTS (Cont. ) Page Dehydration and Embedding Sectioning and Viewing...

Pan, Shelley Hsi-Ling

1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

239

Effect of the Maillard reaction on the stability and chemical properties of globular proteins  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of the blood proteins to gel upon heating. This suggests an important approach for min- imizing the effect of heat denaturation on the functional properties of food proteins. The purpose of this review is to summarize the current knowledge of the effects..., 000 by light scattering. Isoelectric oint. The isoelectric point is of special significance in protein chemistry, since the properties of the proteins undergo unique changes at this point. The sol- ubility of proteins and other physical properties...

Morales, Margioly de Leon de

1975-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

240

MICROFLUIDIC MIXERS FOR THE INVESTIGATION OF PROTEIN FOLDING USING SYNCHROTRON RADIATION CIRCULAR DICHROISM SPECTROSCOPY  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The purpose of this study is to design, fabricate and optimize microfluidic mixers to investigate the kinetics of protein secondary structure formation with Synchrotron Radiation Circular Dichroism (SRCD) spectroscopy. The mixers are designed to rapidly initiate protein folding reaction through the dilution of denaturant. The devices are fabricated out of fused silica, so that they are transparent in the UV. We present characterization of mixing in the fabricated devices, as well as the initial SRCD data on proteins inside the mixers.

Kane, A; Hertzog, D; Baumgartel, P; Lengefeld, J; Horsley, D; Schuler, B; Bakajin, O

2006-03-20T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "denatured aliphatic alco" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Heavy metal ions are potent inhibitors of protein folding  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Environmental and occupational exposure to heavy metals such as cadmium, mercury and lead results in severe health hazards including prenatal and developmental defects. The deleterious effects of heavy metal ions have hitherto been attributed to their interactions with specific, particularly susceptible native proteins. Here, we report an as yet undescribed mode of heavy metal toxicity. Cd{sup 2+}, Hg{sup 2+} and Pb{sup 2+} proved to inhibit very efficiently the spontaneous refolding of chemically denatured proteins by forming high-affinity multidentate complexes with thiol and other functional groups (IC{sub 50} in the nanomolar range). With similar efficacy, the heavy metal ions inhibited the chaperone-assisted refolding of chemically denatured and heat-denatured proteins. Thus, the toxic effects of heavy metal ions may result as well from their interaction with the more readily accessible functional groups of proteins in nascent and other non-native form. The toxic scope of heavy metals seems to be substantially larger than assumed so far.

Sharma, Sandeep K. [Biochemisches Institut, Universitaet Zuerich, CH-8057 Zuerich (Switzerland); Departement de Biologie Moleculaire Vegetale, Universite de Lausanne, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Goloubinoff, Pierre [Departement de Biologie Moleculaire Vegetale, Universite de Lausanne, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Christen, Philipp [Biochemisches Institut, Universitaet Zuerich, CH-8057 Zuerich (Switzerland)], E-mail: christen@bioc.uzh.ch

2008-07-25T23:59:59.000Z

242

Development of an integrated, in-situ remediation technology. Draft topical report for task No. 9. Part II. Entitled: TCE degradation using non-biological methods, September 26, 1994--May 25, 1996  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Contamination in low permeability soils poses a significant technical challenge to in-situ remediation efforts. Poor accessibility to the contaminants and difficulty in delivery of treatment reagents have rendered existing in-situ treatments such as bioremediation, vapor extraction, pump and treat rather ineffective when applied to low permeability soils present at many contaminated sites. The technology is an integrated in-situ treatment in which established geotechnical methods are used to install degradation zones directly in the contaminated soil and electro-osmosis is utilized to move the contaminants back and forth through those zones until the treatment is completed. The use of zero valence iron for reductive dechlorination of aliphatic chlorinated hydrocarbons is currently under investigation by a number of research groups as a potential method of in-situ treatment of contaminated ground water. The reaction appears to involve the transfer of electrons to chloro-aliphatic compounds by the oxidation of zero valence iron to ferrous iron (Fe{sup +2}). Our studies have indicated that this reaction is consistent with those of corrosion, and as such, can be influenced or increased by the presence of small amounts of metals (5% by weight) such as copper, tin, silver, gold and palladium coated on the iron surface. Incomplete coverage of the iron surface with a more electropositive metal results in an open galvanic cell, which increases the oxidation of iron and facilitates and increases the concurrent reduction of trichloroethylene and other chlorinated aliphatic compounds to the corresponding alkenes and alkanes. Our results show that plating more electropositive metals onto certain iron surfaces results in approximately a factor of ten increase in the dechlorination rate of small organochlorine compounds such as TCE.

Orth, R.G.; McKenzie, D.E.

1997-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

243

Kinetic data base for combustion modeling  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The aim of this work is to develop a set of evaluated rate constants for use in the simulation of hydrocarbon combustion. The approach has been to begin with the small molecules and then introduce larger species with the various structural elements that can be found in all hydrocarbon fuels and decomposition products. Currently, the data base contains most of the species present in combustion systems with up to four carbon atoms. Thus, practically all the structural grouping found in aliphatic compounds have now been captured. The direction of future work is the addition of aromatic compounds to the data base.

Tsang, W.; Herron, J.T. [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD (United States)

1993-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

244

Selective Sorbents For Purification Of Hydrocarbons  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method for removing thiophene and thiophene compounds from liquid fuel includes contacting the liquid fuel with an adsorbent which preferentially adsorbs the thiophene and thiophene compounds. The adsorption takes place at a selected temperature and pressure, thereby producing a non-adsorbed component and a thiophene/thiophene compound-rich adsorbed component. The adsorbent includes either a metal or a metal ion that is adapted to form p-complexation bonds with the thiophene and/or thiophene compounds, and the preferential adsorption occurs by p-complexation. A further method includes selective removal of aromatic compounds from a mixture of aromatic and aliphatic compounds.

Yang, Ralph T. (Ann Arbor, MI); Yang, Frances H. (Ann Arbor, MI); Takahashi, Akira (Yoko-Machi, JP); Hernandez-Maldonado, Arturo J. (Ann Arbor, MI)

2006-04-18T23:59:59.000Z

245

Selective sorbents for purification of hydrocarbons  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method for removing thiophene and thiophene compounds from liquid fuel includes contacting the liquid fuel with an adsorbent which preferentially adsorbs the thiophene and thiophene compounds. The adsorption takes place at a selected temperature and pressure, thereby producing a non-adsorbed component and a thiophene/thiophene compound-rich adsorbed component. The adsorbent includes either a metal or a metal cation that is adapted to form .pi.-complexation bonds with the thiophene and/or thiophene compounds, and the preferential adsorption occurs by .pi.-complexation. A further method includes selective removal of aromatic compounds from a mixture of aromatic and aliphatic compounds.

Yang, Ralph T.; Yang, Frances H.; Takahashi, Akira; Hernandez-Maldonado, Arturo J.

2006-05-30T23:59:59.000Z

246

Selective sorbents for purification of hydrocarbons  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method for removing thiophene and thiophene compounds from liquid fuel includes contacting the liquid fuel with an adsorbent which preferentially adsorbs the thiophene and thiophene compounds. The adsorption takes place at a selected temperature and pressure, thereby producing a non-adsorbed component and a thiophene/thiophene compound-rich adsorbed component. The adsorbent includes either a metal or a metal cation that is adapted to form .pi.-complexation bonds with the thiophene and/or thiophene compounds, and the preferential adsorption occurs by .pi.-complexation. A further method includes selective removal of aromatic compounds from a mixture of aromatic and aliphatic compounds.

Yang, Ralph T.; Hernandez-Maldonado, Arturo J.; Yang, Frances H.; Takahashi, Akira

2006-08-22T23:59:59.000Z

247

Selective sorbents for purification of hydrocartons  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method for removing thiophene and thiophene compounds from liquid fuel includes contacting the liquid fuel with an adsorbent which preferentially adsorbs the thiophene and thiophene compounds. The adsorption takes place at a selected temperature and pressure, thereby producing a non-adsorbed component and a thiophene/thiophene compound-rich adsorbed component. The adsorbent includes either a metal or a metal ion that is adapted to form .pi.-complexation bonds with the thiophene and/or thiophene compounds, and the preferential adsorption occurs by .pi.-complexation. A further method includes selective removal of aromatic compounds from a mixture of aromatic and aliphatic compounds.

Yang, Ralph T.; Yang, Frances H.; Takahashi, Akira; Hermandez-Maldonado, Arturo J.

2006-12-12T23:59:59.000Z

248

Hydrocarbon composition of crude oils near the Caspian depression  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The structural-group composition of hydrocarbons of Mesozoic crude oils near the Caspian depression was investigated by mass-spectrometry, followed by the analysis of the mass-spectra using a computer. The distribution of naphthenic hydrocarbons, according to the number of rings and of aromatic hydrocarbons, according to the degree of hydrogen unsaturation is similar for all the crude oils examined. The hydrocarbon composition of Mesozoic crude oils is characterized by a reduction in the content of aliphatic hydrocarbons and alkyl benzenes.

Botneva, T.A.; Khramova, E.V.; Nekhamkina, L.G.; Polyakova, A.A.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

249

Liquid fuels production from biomass. Final report, for period ending June 30, 1980  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The current program to convert biomass into liquid hydrocarbon fuels is an extension of a previous program to ferment marine algae to acetic acid. In that study it was found that marine algae could be converted to higher aliphatic organic acids and that these acids could be readily removed from the fermentation broth by membrane or liquid-liquid extraction. It was then proposed to convert these higher organic acids via Kolbe electrolysis to aliphatic hydrocarbons, which may be used as a diesel fuel. The specific goals for the current program are: (1) establish conditions under which substrates other than marine algae may be converted in good yield to organic acids, here the primary task is methane suppression; (2) modify the current 300-liter fixed packed bed batch fermenter to operate in a continuous mode; (3) change from membrane extraction of organic acids to liquid-liquid extraction; (4) optimize the energy balance of the electrolytic oxidation process, the primary task is to reduce the working potential required for the electrolysis while maintaining an adequate current density; (5) scale the entire process up to match the output of the 300 liter fermenter; and (6) design pilot plant and commercial size plant (1000 tons/day) processes for converting biomass to liquid hydrocarbon fuels and perform an economic analysis for the 1000 ton/day design.

Levy, P. F.; Sanderson, J. E.; Ashare, E.; Wise, D. L.; Molyneaux, M. S.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

250

Liquid fuels production from biomass. Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The current program to convert biomass into liquid hydrocarbon fuels is an extension of a previous program to ferment marine algae to acetic acid. In that study it was found that marine algae could be converted to higher aliphatic organic acids and that these acids could be readily removed from the fermentation broth by membrane or liquid-liquid extraction. It was then proposed to convert these higher organic acids via Kolbe electrolysis to aliphatic hydrocarbons, which may be used as a diesel fuel. The specific goals for the current porgram are: (1) establish conditions under which substrates other than marine algae may be converted in good yield to organic acids, here the primary task is methane suppression; (2) modify the current 300-liter fixed packed bed batch fermenter to operate in a continuous mode; (3) change from membrane extraction of organic acids to liquid-liquid extraction; (4) optimize the energy balance of the electrolytic oxidation process, the primary task is to reduce the working potential required for the electrolysis while maintaining an adequate current density; (5) scale the entire process up to match the output of the 300 liter fermenter; and (6) design pilot plant and commercial size plant (1000 tons/day) processes for converting biomass to liquid hydrocarbon fuels and perform an economic analysis for the 1000 ton/day design.

Levy, P. F.; Sanderson, J. E.; Ashare, E.; Wise, D. L.; Molyneaux, M. S.

1980-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

251

Synthesis of nickel–zinc ferrite magnetic nanoparticle and dye degradation using photocatalytic ozonation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Highlights: ? Nickel–zinc ferrite magnetic nanoparticle (NZFMN) was synthesized and characterized. ? Dye degradation by photocatalytic ozonation using NZFMN was studied. ? Formate, acetate and oxalate were detected as dominant dye degradation aliphatic intermediates. ? Nitrate, sulfate and chloride ions were detected as mineralization products of dyes. ? NZFMN was an effective magnetic nanocatalyst to degrade dyes. -- Abstract: In this paper, nickel–zinc ferrite magnetic nanoparticle (NZFMN) was synthesized and its dye degradation ability using photocatalytic ozonation was investigated. The NZFMN was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopic (SEM), Fourier transforms infrared (FTIR) and alternative gradient force magnetometer (AGFM). Reactive Red 198 (RR198) and Direct Green 6 (DG6) were used as dye models. UV–vis and ion chromatography (IC) analyses were employed to study dye degradation. The effects of operational parameters on decolorization such as NZFMN dosage, dye concentration, salt and pH were studied. RR198 and DG6 were completely decolorized (100%) by photocatalytic ozonation using NZFMN. Formate, acetate and oxalate anions were detected as dominant aliphatic intermediates. Nitrate, sulfate and chloride ions were detected as mineralization products of dyes. Results showed that the photocatalytic ozonation using NZFMN was a very effective method for dye degradation.

Mahmoodi, Niyaz Mohammad, E-mail: mahmoodi@icrc.ac.ir [Department of Environmental Research, Institute for Color Science and Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Bashiri, Marziyeh; Moeen, Shirin Jebeli [Department of Environmental Research, Institute for Color Science and Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)] [Department of Environmental Research, Institute for Color Science and Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

2012-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

252

Zinc ferrite nanoparticle as a magnetic catalyst: Synthesis and dye degradation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Graphical abstract: Photocatalytic degradation of Reactive Red 198 and Reactive Red 120 by the synthesized zinc ferrite nanoparticle. - Highlights: • Magnetic zinc ferrite nanoparticle was synthesized and characterized. • Photocatalytic dye degradation by magnetic nanoparticle was studied. • Formate, acetate and oxalate were detected as dominant dye degradation aliphatic intermediates. • Nitrate and sulfate ions were detected as mineralization products of dyes. • Zinc ferrite nanoparticle was an effective magnetic photocatalyst to degrade dyes. - Abstract: In this paper, magnetic zinc ferrite (ZnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}) nanoparticle was synthesized and its photocatalytic dye degradation ability from colored wastewater was studied. Reactive Red 198 (RR198) and Reactive Red 120 (RR120) were used as model dyes. The characteristics of ZnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} were investigated using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). Photocatalytic dye degradation by ZnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} was studied by UV–vis spectrophotometer and ion chromatography (IC). The effects of ZnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} dosage, initial dye concentration and salt on dye degradation were evaluated. Formate, acetate and oxalate anions were detected as dominant aliphatic intermediate. Inorganic anions (nitrate and sulfate anions) were detected as dye mineralization products. The results indicated that ZnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} could be used as a magnetic photocatalyst to degrade dyes from colored wastewater.

Mahmoodi, Niyaz Mohammad, E-mail: mahmoodi@icrc.ac.ir

2013-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

253

Soil organic matter factions of no-tilled and tilled soils and their reactivity with herbicides  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Properties of soil humic fractions were determined on surface and 7.5-15.0 cm soil samples of continuously (7-year) no-tilled and tilled cotton, corn, and soybean plots in West Tennessee. Soil humic and fulvic acid were extracted by standard methods and the humic acid was characterized by /sup 13/C-NMR spectroscopy, titration of total acidity and carboxyl groups, and infrared and elemental analysis. Humic acid composition differed by depth and crop. Small differences were observed between tillage systems. Humic acid aliphatic and aromatic carbons ranged from 48 to 65% and 25 to 40% of total peak area, respectively. The humic acids extracted from soils with larger amounts of carbon had larger aliphatic to aromatic ratios, indicating less decomposed organic matter. Carboxyl groups of the humic acids ranged from 9 to 13% and samples from tilled soil had slightly greater amounts of carboxyl and aromatic groups. Carboxyl group determinations by /sup 13/C-NMR, compared more closely with total acidity determinations by titration than with carboxyl determinations by titration. All infrared spectra were similar. Elemental composition of humic acid averaged C, 52.7%, 5.6%; N, 4.8%, and 36.9%.

Stearman, G.K.

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

254

Liquid-liquid equilibria for mixtures of an alkane + an aromatic hydrocarbon + 1,4-dicyanobutane at 298.15 K  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The separation of pure aromatic and aliphatic compounds from their mixtures is an important goal in chemical operations (e.g., Fischer-Tropsch synthesis) that produce both types of compounds. In this work the authors have used 1,4-dicyanobutane (DCB) as a potential solvent for this separation. Liquid-liquid equilibrium results for mixtures of an alkane + an aromatic hydrocarbon + 1,4-dicyanobutane at 298.15 K are reported, where the alkane is hexane or nonane or dodecane or hexadecane and the aromatic hydrocarbon is benzene or methylbenzene or 1,2-dimethylbenzene, or 1,3-dimethylbenzene, or 1,4-dimethylbenzene or 1,3,5-trimethylbenzene or ethylbenzene. The results show that there is a small increase in the two-phase region as the chain length of the alkane is increased. The type of aromatic hydrocarbon present in the mixture has a noticeable effect on the slopes of the tie lines. There is also an increase in the area of the two phase-region with increasing substitution of methyl groups on the benzene ring. NRTL and UNIQUAC models were correlated to the data. The results show that 1,4-dicyanobutane may be used as a solvent for the separation of aromatic and aliphatic hydrocarbons.

Letcher, T.M.; Naicker, P.K.

2000-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

255

Liquid fuels production from biomass. Progress report No. 10, October 1-December 31, 1979  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

It was found that marine algae could be converted to higher aliphatic organic acids and that these acids could be readily removed from the fermentation broth by membrane or liquid-liquid extraction. It was then proposed to convert these higher organic acids via Kolbe Electrolysis to aliphatic hydrocarbons, which may be used as a diesel fuel. A coenzyme M analogue, 2-bromoethanesulfonic acid has been shown to be an effective suppressor of methane in nonsterile anaerobic fermentation of cellulosic substrates. Preliminary experiments have also been completed utilizing corn meal in which 2-bromoethanesulfonic acid and carbon monoxide were both found to be effective methane suppressors. An analysis of the energy outputs and requirements for the production of liquid hydrocarbon fuel from corn has been performed. As a means of expanding the number of potential substrates, pretreatment schemes are being investigated. A tapered auger device has been designed and built which has been demonstrated on the bench to be effective for adding substrate and removing residue in a continuous manner from a fixed packed bed fermenter. A solvent extractor system using kerosene as the nonaqueous phase has been constructed and is currently in operation in series with the 300 liter fixed packed bed fermenter. Although additional work is required to optimize the electrolysis process, the electrolytic oxidation of organic acids produced in the 300 liter fixed packed bed fermenter is operating with a favorable energy balance of 6/1 based on the applied potential.

Sanderson, J.E.; Levy, P.F.; Wise, D.L.; Nabor, M.R.; Molyneaux, M.S.; Hughes, C.A.

1980-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

256

The Influence of Different Processing Additives on Biodegradation of Poly(E-caprolactone)*  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The influence of different processing additives on the biodegradation of poly(e-caprolactone) film in the compost with plant treatment active sludge is described in this paper. Poly(c-caprolactone) was incubated for several weeks in compost in natural and laboratory conditions. The characteristic parameters of plant treatment active sludge such as: temperature, pH, moisture content and activity of dehydrogenases and their influence on degradation of poly(c-caprolactane) are presented and discussed. The loss of weight, intrinsic viscosity, tensile strength and morphological changes were tested during the period of degradation. Results of measurement indicate that the biodegradation of poly(c-caprotactone) without additives was very fast in compost with plant treatment active sludge and after six weeks the polymer film was completely assimilated. The introducing of processing additives gives better tensile strength of the materials and less vulnerable to microorganisms attack. Key Words: biodegradation; enzymatic attack; composting; active sludge, polycaprolactone be degraded in contact with living organisms. According to the literature, degradation of aliphatic polyesters in living environments can result from enzymatic attack or from simple hydrolysis of ester bonds or both (Scheme I) [l-4]. Poly(e-caprolactone) is an important member of the aliphatic polyester family known as susceptible material to biological degradation, which has been

Maria Rutkowskal; Katarzyna Krasowska T; Ra Heimowska L

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

257

THE CENTRAL REGION OF THE BARRED SPIRAL GALAXY NGC 1097 PROBED BY AKARI NEAR-INFRARED SPECTROSCOPY  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

With the Infrared Camera on board AKARI, we carried out near-infrared (2.5-5.0 {mu}m) spectroscopy of the central kiloparsec region of the barred spiral galaxy, NGC 1097, categorized as Seyfert 1 with a circumnuclear starburst ring. Our observations mapped the area of {approx}50'' Multiplication-Sign 10'' with the resolution of {approx}5'', covering about a half of the ring and the galactic center. As a result, we spatially resolve the starburst ring in the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon 3.3 {mu}m, the aliphatic hydrocarbon 3.4-3.6 {mu}m features, and the hydrogen Br{alpha} 4.05 {mu}m emission. They exhibit spatial distributions significantly different from each other, indicating that the environments vary considerably around the ring. In particular, the aliphatic features are enhanced near the bar connecting the ring with the nucleus, where the structure of hydrocarbon grains seems to be relatively disordered. Near the center, the continuum emission and the CO/SiO absorption features are strong, which indicates that the environments inside the ring are dominated by old stellar populations. The near-infrared spectra do not show any evidence for the presence of nuclear activity.

Kondo, Toru; Kaneda, Hidehiro; Oyabu, Shinki; Ishihara, Daisuke; Mori, Tatsuya; Yamagishi, Mitsuyoshi [Graduate School of Science, Nagoya University, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan); Onaka, Takashi; Sakon, Itsuki [Graduate School of Science, The University of Tokyo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Suzuki, Toyoaki, E-mail: kondo@u.phys.nagoya-u.ac.jp [Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 252-5210 (Japan)

2012-05-20T23:59:59.000Z

258

Crosslinked Polyamide  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A crosslinked polyamide material and a process for preparing the crosslinked polyamide material are disclosed. The crosslinked polyamide material comprises a crosslinked chemical combination of (1) a polyamide of the formula: ##STR1## wherein n is between about 50 and 10,000, wherein each R is between 1 and 50 carbon atoms alone and is optionally substituted with heteroatoms, oxygen, nitrogen, sulfur, or phosphorus and combinations thereof, wherein multiple of the R are in vertically aligned spaced relationship along a backbone forming the polyamide, and wherein two or more of the R contain an amino group; and (2) a crosslinking agent containing at least two functional groups capable of reacting with the amino groups of the polyamide. In one embodiment of the invention, the crosslinking agent is an aliphatic or aromatic isocyanate compound having 2 or more --N.dbd.C.dbd.O groups. In another embodiment of the invention, the crosslinking agent is an aliphatic aldehyde or aromatic aldehyde compound having 2 or more --CHO groups. In still another embodiment of the invention, the crosslinking agent is selected from a phosphine having the general formula (A).sub.2 P(B) and mixtures thereof, wherein A is hydroxyalkyl, and B is hydroxyalkyl, alkyl, or aryl. In yet another embodiment of the invention, the crosslinking agent is selected from the group consisting of epoxy resins having more than one epoxide group per molecule.

Huang, Zhi H. (East Lansing, MI); McDonald, William F. (Utica, OH); Wright, Stacy C. (Lansing, MI); Taylor, Andrew C. (Ann Arbor, MI)

2002-06-04T23:59:59.000Z

259

Computational Study of Bond Dissociation Enthalpies for Substituted $\\beta$-O-4 Lignin Model Compounds  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The biopolymer lignin is a potential source of valuable chemicals. Phenethyl phenyl ether (PPE) is representative of the dominant $\\beta$-O-4 ether linkage. Density functional theory (DFT) is used to calculate the Boltzmann-weighted carbon-oxygen and carbon-carbon bond dissociation enthalpies (BDEs) of substituted PPE. These values are important in order to understand lignin decomposition. Exclusion of all conformers that have distributions of less than 5\\% at 298 K impacts the BDE by less than 1 kcal mol$^{-1}$. We find that aliphatic hydroxyl/methylhydroxyl substituents introduce only small changes to the BDEs (0-3 kcal mol$^{-1}$). Substitution on the phenyl ring at the $ortho$ position substantially lowers the C-O BDE, except in combination with the hydroxyl/methylhydroxyl substituents, where the effect of methoxy substitution is reduced by hydrogen bonding. Hydrogen bonding between the aliphatic substituents and the ether oxygen in the PPE derivatives has a significant influence on the BDE. CCSD(T)-calculated BDEs and hydrogen bond strengths of $ortho$-substituted anisoles when compared with M06-2X values confirm that the latter method is sufficient to describe the molecules studied and provide an important benchmark for lignin model compounds.

Younker, Jarod M [ORNL; Beste, Ariana [ORNL; Buchanan III, A C [ORNL

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

260

Study of thermal conversion of naphthenic oils on the basis of analysis of their middle fractions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The composition of the middle fractions of the thermal decomposition products of naphthenic oils obtained at 300, 350, and 400{degrees}C was studied. It was shown that the character of conversions of petroleum hydrocarbons is governed by the intensity of thermal treatment and by the chemical nature of the starting oil. The removal of aliphatic chains from high-boiling components of the petroleum at a temperature below 350{degrees}C results in the new formation of linear and isoprene alkanes in their middle fractions similarly to the catagenic transformations of oils in deposits. The rise in temperature up to 400{degrees}C enhances the destruction processes related to extension of the reactions of the homolytic cleavage of C-C bonds in aliphatic chains. This results in practically complete destruction of isoprene alkanes and in predominance of low-molecular homologs among the linear alkanes. On the basis of the results obtained it can be supposed that the thermal treatment is an important factor in the conversion of naphthenic oils into paraffin oils. 10 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

Kayukova, G.P.; Kurbskii, G.P.; Mutalapova, R.I. [A.E. Arbuzov Inst. of Organic and Physical Chemistry, Kazan (Russian Federation)] [and others

1994-05-10T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "denatured aliphatic alco" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

The application of soft X-ray microscopy to the in-situ analysis of sporopollenin/sporinite in a rank variable suite of organic rich sediments  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Soft X-ray imaging and carbon near edge absorption fine structure spectroscopy (C-NEXAFS) has been used for the in-situ analysis of sporinite in a rank variable suite of organic rich sediments extending from recent up to high volatile A bituminous coal. The acquisition of chemically based images (contrast based on the 1s - 1{pi}* transition of unsaturated carbon), revealed a homogeneous chemical structure in the spore exine. C-NEXAFS microanalysis indicates chemical structural evolution in sporopollenin/sporinite with increases in maturation. The most significant change in the C-NEXAFS spectrum is an increase in unsaturated carbon, presumably aromatic, with rank. The rate of aromatization in sporinite exceeds that of the surrounding vitrinite. Increases in the concentration of unsaturated carbon are compensated by losses of aliphatic and hydroxylated aliphatic carbon components. Carboxyl groups are present in low and variable concentrations. Absorption due to carboxyl persists in the most mature specimen in this series, a high volatile A rank coal. The reactions which drive sporopollenin chemical structural evolution during diagenesis presumably involve dehydration, Diels-Alder cyclo-addition, and dehydrogenation reactions which ultimately lead to a progressively aromatized bio/geopolymer.

Cody, G.D.; Botto, R.E. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Chemistry Div.; Ade, H. [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States). Dept. of Physics; Wirick, S. [State Univ. of New York, Stony Brook, NY (United States). Dept. of Physics

1997-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

262

Safe epoxy encapsulant for high voltage magnetics  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper describes the use of Formula 456, an aliphatic amine cured epoxy for impregnating coils and high voltage transformers. Sandia has evaluated a number of MDA-free epoxy encapsulants which relied on either anhydride or other aromatic amine curing agents. The use of aliphatic amine curing agents was more recently evaluated and has resulted in the definition of Formula 456 resin. Methylene dianiline (MDA) has been used for more than 20 years as the curing agent for various epoxy formulations throughout the Department of Energy and much of industry. Sandia National Laboratories began the process of replacing MDA with other formulations because of regulations imposed by OSHA on the use of MDA. OSHA has regulated MDA because it is a suspect carcinogen. Typically the elimination of OSHA-regulated materials provides a rare opportunity to qualify new formulations in a range of demanding applications. It was important to take full advantage of that opportunity, although the associated materials qualification effort was costly. Small high voltage transformers are one of those demanding applications. The successful implementation of the new formulation for high reliability transformers will be described. The test results that demonstrate the parts are qualified for use in DOE weapon systems will be presented.

Sanchez, R.O.; Archer, W.E.

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

263

Far- and mid-infrared spectroscopy of complex organic matter of astrochemical interest: coal, heavy petroleum fractions, and asphaltenes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The coexistence of a large variety of molecular species (i.e., aromatic, cycloaliphatic and aliphatic) in several astrophysical environments suggests that unidentified IR emission (UIE) occurs from small solid particles containing a mix of aromatic and aliphatic structures (e.g., coal, petroleum, etc.), renewing the astronomical interest on this type of materials. A series of heavy petroleum fractions namely DAE, RAE, BQ-1, and asphaltenes derived from BQ-1 were used together with anthracite coal and bitumen as model compounds in matching the band pattern of the emission features of proto-planetary nebulae (PPNe). All the model materials were examined in the mid-infrared (2.5-16.7 um) and for the first time in the far-infrared (16.7-200 um), and the IR bands were compared with the UIE from PPNe. The best match of the PPNe band pattern is offered by the BQ-1 heavy aromatic oil fraction and by its asphaltenes fraction. Particularly interesting is the ability of BQ-1 to match the band pattern of the aromatic-ali...

Cataldo, F; Manchado, A

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

264

Kinetics of an Inverse Temperature Transition Process and Its Application on Supported Lipid Bilayer  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

/Objective The dynamics of the protein folding from a denatured random coil state to a native globule state in which it possess activity1 is not well understood.2-3 Studying the pathway and the mechanism of the protein folding may provide more information to know... and it is hard to study in aqueous solution.5 The study of the homopolymer chains collapse from extended random coils to compact globule states (coil-to-globule transition) may provide more understanding of initial stage of protein folding.1,6 Though the coil...

Chang, Chin-Yuan

2011-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

265

Methods and kits for nucleic acid analysis using fluorescence resonance energy transfer  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method for detecting the presence of a target nucleotide or sequence of nucleotides in a nucleic acid is disclosed. The method is comprised of forming an oligonucleotide labeled with two fluorophores on the nucleic acid target site. The doubly labeled oligonucleotide is formed by addition of a singly labeled dideoxynucleoside triphosphate to a singly labeled polynucleotide or by ligation of two singly labeled polynucleotides. Detection of fluorescence resonance energy transfer upon denaturation indicates the presence of the target. Kits are also provided. The method is particularly applicable to genotyping.

Kwok, Pui-Yan (Clayton, MO); Chen, Xiangning (St. Louis, MO)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

266

Purification and characterization of an adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate phosphodiesterase from human lung  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. Texas ABM University Chairman of Advisory Committee: Dr. J. B. Moore, 0 r. A cyclic AMP-speci fi c phosphodiesterase was purified from human lung tissue. Ion-exchange chromatography, hydroxylapatite chroma- tography, gel-exclusion chromatography..., and preparative isoelectric focusing yielded a 300 fold purification. The enzyme was homoge- neous, as judged by non-denaturing gels. The purified phosphodiesterase had a molecular ~eight of 60, 000, a sedimentation coefficient of 3. 2-3. 45, and a pI of 4. 6...

Schroedter, Dwight Edward

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

267

Nanoscale topographical replication of graphene architecture by artificial DNA nanostructures  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Despite many studies on how geometry can be used to control the electronic properties of graphene, certain limitations to fabrication of designed graphene nanostructures exist. Here, we demonstrate controlled topographical replication of graphene by artificial deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) nanostructures. Owing to the high degree of geometrical freedom of DNA nanostructures, we controlled the nanoscale topography of graphene. The topography of graphene replicated from DNA nanostructures showed enhanced thermal stability and revealed an interesting negative temperature coefficient of sheet resistivity when underlying DNA nanostructures were denatured at high temperatures.

Moon, Y.; Seo, S.; Park, J.; Park, T.; Ahn, J. R., E-mail: jrahn@skku.edu [Department of Physics, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Shin, J.; Dugasani, S. R. [Sungkyunkwan Advanced Institute of Nanotechnology (SAINT), Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Woo, S. H. [College of Pharmacy, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of); Park, S. H., E-mail: sunghapark@skku.edu [Department of Physics, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Sungkyunkwan Advanced Institute of Nanotechnology (SAINT), Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of)

2014-06-09T23:59:59.000Z

268

Characterization of four single-site tryptophan variants of r  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

exposed. For the denatured state (10 M urea), the A. ?, ?values are (nm): 343 (Y52W), 342 (Y55W), 339 (T76W), 341 (Y81W); and the fluorescence intensities at A. , ?are: 23100 (Y52W), 26300 (Y55W), 25800 (T76W), 21500 (Y81W). N.... The change in conformational stability for each protein is (keel mol '): -2. 90 (Y52W), -2. 21 (Y55W), +0. 71 (T76W), -0. 40 (Y81W). T76W shows an increase in stability, indicating that the Trp can form a hydrogen bond and/or bury some hydrophobic surface...

Alston, Roy Willis

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

269

Pathogen Detection Lab-On-A-Chip (PADLOC) System for Plant Pathogen Diagnosis  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

approximately 95°C.4 Afterwards, the sample is cooled down to 48-74°C to let the primers in the sample to anneal to denatured DNAs. This temperature range is referred to as annealing temperature and it is directly related to the melting temperature... devices and circular traversing devices. The first serpentine rectangular channel device came out in1998 by Kopp et al.14 The channel length was 2.2 m long and the sample went through three temperature zones of 95, 60 and 77°C for 20 times. The flow...

Cifci, Osman

2012-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

270

Functional Stability of a Mixed Microbial Consortium Producing PHA From Waste Carbon Sources  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) represent an environmentally-effective alternative to synthetic thermoplastics; however, current production practices are not sustainable. In this study, PHA production was accomplished in sequencing batch bioreactors utilizing real wastewaters and mixed microbial consortia from municipal activated sludge as inoculum. Polymer production reached 85%, 53%, and 10% of the cell dry weight from methanol-enriched pulp-and-paper mill foul condensate, fermented municipal primary solids, and biodiesel wastewater, respectively. Employing denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis of 16S-rDNA from PCR-amplified DNA extracts, distinctly different communities were observed between and within wastewaters following enrichment. Most importantly, functional stability was maintained despite differing and contrasting microbial populations.

David N. Thompson; Erik R. Coats; William A. Smith; Frank J. Loge; Michael P. Wolcott

2006-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

271

Studies on an extracellular proteolytic enzyme from Bacillus licheniformis  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-bound and that the size o= che protein-pigment complex decreased in che presence. a! 2 tn 5 molar concentrations of urea. The enzyme readily cleaved urea-denatured hemoglobin substrate and N-benzoyl-D L-alanine ethyl ester(BAlaEE)but did oot cleave H...-acetyl-L-tyrosine ethyl ester (ATEE), a substrate wfzich was hydrnlyzed by other proteolytic enzyr. es produced in the same enzyz"e system. Tne proteinase was anionic at pH values of 6. 2 anci shovels Optizcal hydrnzysis of hemnclobin substrate occured near pH 7. 5...

Dunklin, Bivin Hugh

1969-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

272

Determining orientation and direction of DNA sequences  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Determining orientation and direction of DNA sequences. A method by which fluorescence in situ hybridization can be made strand specific is described. Cell cultures are grown in a medium containing a halogenated nucleotide. The analog is partially incorporated in one DNA strand of each chromatid. This substitution takes place in opposite strands of the two sister chromatids. After staining with the fluorescent DNA-binding dye Hoechst 33258, cells are exposed to long-wavelength ultraviolet light which results in numerous strand nicks. These nicks enable the substituted strand to be denatured and solubilized by heat, treatment with high or low pH aqueous solutions, or by immersing the strands in 2.times.SSC (0.3M NaCl+0.03M sodium citrate), to name three procedures. It is unnecessary to enzymatically digest the strands using Exo III or another exonuclease in order to excise and solubilize nucleotides starting at the sites of the nicks. The denaturing/solubilizing process removes most of the substituted strand while leaving the prereplication strand largely intact. Hybridization of a single-stranded probe of a tandem repeat arranged in a head-to-tail orientation will result in hybridization only to the chromatid with the complementary strand present.

Goodwin, Edwin H. (Los Alamos, NM); Meyne, Julianne (Los Alamos, NM)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

273

Theoretical Perspectives on Protein Folding  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Understanding how monomeric proteins fold under in vitro conditions is crucial to describing their functions in the cellular context. Significant advances both in theory and experiments have resulted in a conceptual framework for describing the folding mechanisms of globular proteins. The experimental data and theoretical methods have revealed the multifaceted character of proteins. Proteins exhibit universal features that can be determined using only the number of amino acid residues (N) and polymer concepts. The sizes of proteins in the denatured and folded states, cooperativity of the folding transition, dispersions in the melting temperatures at the residue level, and time scales of folding are to a large extent determined by N. The consequences of finite N especially on how individual residues order upon folding depends on the topology of the folded states. Such intricate details can be predicted using the Molecular Transfer Model that combines simulations with measured transfer free energies of protein building blocks from water to the desired concentration of the denaturant. By watching one molecule fold at a time, using single molecule methods, the validity of the theoretically anticipated heterogeneity in the folding routes, and the N-dependent time scales for the three stages in the approach to the native state have been established. Despite the successes of theory, of which only a few examples are documented here, we conclude that much remains to be done to solve the "protein folding problem" in the broadest sense.

D. Thirumalai; Edward P. O'Brien; Greg Morrison; Changbong Hyeon

2010-07-18T23:59:59.000Z

274

Effect of temperature on the extraction of nitric acid and plutonium(IV) nitrate with 30 vol% tributyl phosphate (TBP)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The author's own and published data were evaluated for characterizing the effect of temperature on the distribution of nitric acid and plutonium(IV). The solutes were distributed between 30 vol% TBP in an aliphatic diluent and aqueous solutions containing nitric acid and zero to macro amounts of plutonium(IV) and uranyl nitrates. The temperature dependence of the distribution ratios is described with empirical model equations and examples of the dependence in the absence and presence of uranium(VI) are given. Taking infinite dilution of all solutes of the system as a standard state, the enthalpy change of the extraction reaction could be estimated as -17 kJ/mol for nitric acid, but no numerical estimate was possible for plutonium(IV).

Kolarik, Z.

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

275

Demonstration of a TODGA/TBP process for recovery of trivalent actinides and lanthanides from a PUREX raffinate  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The efficiency of the partitioning of trivalent actinides from a PUREX raffinate has been demonstrated with a TODGA + TBP extractant mixture dissolved in an industrial aliphatic solvent TPH. Based on the results coming from cold and hot batch extraction studies and with the aid of computer code calculations a continuous counter current process have been developed and two flowsheets were tested using miniature centrifugal contactors. The feed solutions was a synthetic PUREX raffinate, spiked with {sup 241}Am, {sup 244}Cm, {sup 252}Cf, {sup 152}Eu and {sup 134}Cs. More than 99.9 % of the trivalent actinides and lanthanides were extracted and back-extracted and very high decontamination factors to most fission products were obtained. Co-extraction of zirconium, molybdenum and palladium was prevented using oxalic acid and HEDTA. However 10% of ruthenium was extracted and only 3 % could be back extracted using diluted nitric acid. (authors)

Modolo, G.; Asp, H.; Vijgen, H. [Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH, Institut fuer Energieforschung, 52425 Juelich (Germany); Malmbeck, R.; Magnusson, D. [European Commission, JRC, Institute for Transuranium Elements - ITU, 76125 Karlsruhe (Germany); Sorel, C. [Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique Valrho - CEA, DRCP/SCPS, BP17171, 30207 Bagnols-sur-Ceze (France)

2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

276

Solute retention in column liquid chromatography. X. Determination of solute infinite-dilution activity coefficients in methanol, water, and their mixtures, by combined gas-liquid and liquid-liquid chromatography  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Raoult's-law activity coefficients of 3- to 7-carbon aliphatic aldehyde, ketone, ester, and alcohol solutes at infinite dilution in methanol, water, and mixtures of the two and in polydimethysiloxane, all at 293-308 K, have been determined for the first time by appropriate combination of GLC and LLC retention data. The latter data are reported in terms of mole factions, while the former are given in concentration units of molality. However, interpretation of the data is difficult because of the multiplicity of the retention mechanisms. Nevertheless, the combined GLC/LLC technique, which had been applied previously only to pure solvents, is said to offer a number of advantages over static techniques for the determination of solute infinite-dilution activity coefficients with volatile solvents, especially with mixtures of solvents.

Djerki, R.A.; Laub, R.J.

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

277

Nonhazardous solvent composition and method for cleaning metal surfaces  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A solvent composition for displacing greasy and oily contaminants as well as water and/or aqueous residue from metallic surfaces, especially surfaces of radioactive materials so that such surfaces can be wiped clean of the displaced contaminants, water and/or aqueous residue. The solvent composition consists essentially of a blend of nonpolar aliphatic hydrocarbon solvent having a minimum flash point of about 140.degree. F. and 2 to 25 volume percent of a polar solvent having a flash point sufficiently high so as to provide the solvent composition with a minimum flash point of at least 140.degree. F. The solvent composition is nonhazardous so that when it is used to clean the surfaces of radioactive materials the waste in the form of paper or cloth wipes, lab coats and the like used in the cleaning operation is not considered to be mixed waste composed of a hazardous solvent and a radioactive material.

Googin, John M. (Oak Ridge, TN); Simandl, Ronald F. (Farragut, TN); Thompson, Lisa M. (Knoxville, TN)

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

278

{gamma} Irradiation-induced degradation of organochlorinated pollutants in fatty esters and in Cod  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The {gamma} irradiation-induced degradation of 2,2-bis(4-chlorophenyl)-1,1,1-trichloroethane (DDT), 2,2-bis(4-chlorophenyl)-1,1-dichloroethane (DDD), and 2,2-bis(4-chlorophenyl)-1,1-dichloroethylene (DDE) dissolved in methyl myristate and methyl oleate was studied. DDT and DDE produced DDD and 2,2-bis(4-chlorophenyl)chloroethylene (DDMU) respectively, in agreement with a previous study performed with aliphatic solvents. The degradation of these two former compounds was larger in methyl myristate than in methyl oleate and addition products between methyl myristate and the organochlorines were found. While DDD, DDE, and many PCB congeners in a cod sample were not measurably degraded at 15 KGy, DDT underwent 30% degradation. 9 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

Lepine, F.L.; Brochu, F.; Milot, S. [Institut Armand-Frappier, Quebec (Canada)] [and others

1995-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

279

THE POTENTIAL OF RECLAIMED LANDS TO SEQUESTER CARBON AND MITIGATE THE GREENHOUSE EFFECT  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Reclaimed mine lands have the potential to sequester carbon. The use of amendments to increase fertility and overall soil quality is encouraging. Waste amendments such as sewage sludge and clarifier sludge, as well as commercial compost were tested to determine their effects on carbon sequestration and humic acid formation in reclaimed mine lands. Sewage sludge and clarifier sludge have the potential to work as reclaimed mine lands amendments. C:N ratios need to be understood to determine probability of nutrient leaching and water contamination. Microbial activity on the humic acid fraction of sludge is directed toward the readily degradable constituents containing single chain functional groups. This finding indicate that amendments with lower molecular constituents such as aliphatic compounds are more amenable to microbial degradation, therefore serves as better nutrient sources to enhance the formation of vegetation in mine lands and leads to more efficient carbon sequestration.

Terry Brown; Song Jin

2006-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

280

Water soluble laser dyes  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Novel water soluble dyes of the formula I are provided ##STR1## wherein R.sup.1 and R.sup.4 are alkyl of 1 to 4 carbon atoms or hydrogen; or R.sup.1 -R.sup.2 or R.sup.2 -R.sup.4 form part of aliphatic heterocyclic rings; R.sup.2 is hydrogen or joined with R.sup.1 or R.sup.4 as described above; R.sup.3 is --(CH.sub.2).sub.m --SO.sub.3.sup.-, where m is 1 to 6; X is N, CH or ##STR2## where Y is 2 --SO.sub.3.sup.- ; Z is 3, 4, 5 or 6 --SO.sub.3.sup.-. The novel dyes are particularly useful as the active media in water solution dye lasers.

Hammond, Peter R. (Livermore, CA); Feeman, James F. (Wyomissing, PA); Field, George F. (Santa Ana, CA)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "denatured aliphatic alco" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

Water soluble laser dyes  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Novel water soluble dyes of the formula 1 are provided by the formula described in the paper wherein R{sup 1} and R{sup 4} are alkyl of 1 to 4 carbon atoms or hydrogen; or R{sup 1}--R{sup 2} or R{sup 2}--R{sup 4} form part of aliphatic heterocyclic rings; R{sup 2} is hydrogen or joined with R{sup 1} or R{sup 4} as described above; R{sup 3} is --(CH{sub 2}){sub m}--SO{sub 3}{sup {minus}}, where m is 1 to 6; X is N, CH or formula 2 given in paper where Y is 2 --SO{sub 3}{sup {minus}} ; Z is 3, 4, 5 or 6 --SO{sub 3}{sup {minus}}. The novel dyes are particularly useful as the active media in water solution dye lasers.

Hammond, P.R.; Feeman, J.F.; Field, G.F.

1998-08-11T23:59:59.000Z

282

Biotreatment techniques get chemical help  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Biological treatment methods for contaminated soils and groundwater, including landfarming, pump-and-treat bioreactors and in situ bioremediation, are using hydrogen peroxide (H[sub 2]O[sub 2]) as an oxidant to reduce cleanup time and save money. Some examples of how the chemical is being used include the following: recent studies indicate peroxygen compounds, such as calcium peroxide, can be used to chemically aerate soils in landfarming applications. Pump-and-treat bioreactor systems for treating halogenated aliphatics can use an H[sub 2]O[sub 2] solution to deliver oxygen to oxygen-deficient systems. The solution has proven effective for improving bioreactor efficiency during limited oxygen solubility; in situ peroxidation can be used to partially oxidize soil contaminants to reduce their toxicity and enhance their biodegradability in the unsaturated zone prior to in situ bioremediation.

Elizardo, K. (Solvay Interox, Houston, TX (United States))

1993-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

283

An Assessment of the Stability and the Potential for In-Situ Synthesis of Regulated Organic Compounds in High Level Radioactive Waste Stored at Hanford, Richland, Washington  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The stability assessment examined 269 non-detected regulated compounds, first seeking literature references of the stability of the compounds, then evaluating each compound based upon the presence of functional groups using professional judgment. Compounds that could potentially survive for significant periods in the tanks (>1 year) were designated as stable. Most of the functional groups associated with the regulated organic compounds were considered unstable under tank waste conditions. The general exceptions with respect to functional group stability are some simple substituted aromatic and polycyclic aromatic compounds that resist oxidation and the multiple substituted aliphatic and aromatic halides that hydrolyze or dehydrohalogenate slowly under tank waste conditions. One-hundred and eighty-one (181) regulated, organic compounds were determined as likely unstable in the tank waste environment.

Wiemers, K.D.; Babad, H.; Hallen, R.T.; Jackson, L.P.; Lerchen, M.E.

1999-01-04T23:59:59.000Z

284

Photochemical oxidation of coals and some selected model compounds by using copper(II) chloride  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The H-donor ability of different rank coals was examined by using a copper(II)chloride-acetonitrile system as the dehydrogenator. A bituminous coal and two lignites were irradiated in the UV in the presence of copper(II)chloride in acetonitrile. The coal was dehydrogenated while the Cu(II) was reduced to CU(I). Considerable amounts of aliphatic or alicyclic hydrogen were removed from the coals. In the process, while the oxygen contents of coals do not increase, more condensed aromatic products occur. It was concluded that lignites are better reducing agents than bituminous coals. A photooxidation mechanism is proposed on the basis of the model compound reaction. Photooxidation of alcohols (ethanol, 2-propanol, benzyl alcohol, 4-hydroxybenzyl alcohol, and diphenyl carbinol), a hydroaromatic compound (tetrahydronaphthalene), and an aromatic ether (dibenzyl ether) was performed under similar reaction conditions.

Yilmaz, M.

1999-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

285

Structural features of Athabasca bitumen related to upgrading performance  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Using a combination of instrumental and chemical methods, many new classes of compounds appearing as homologous series have been detected in Athabasca oil sand bitumen and in the chemical and thermal degradative products of asphaltene and the heavy ends of maltene. In general, the volatile portion of the maltene is rich in cyclic terpenoid structures and devoid in aliphatic compounds or normal alkane-derived cyclic molecules while the asphaltene fraction and heavy ends of maltene are abundant in normal alkyl-substituted aromatics, thianes, thiolanes, thiophenes, benzo- and dibenzothiophenes. This paper reports that Ru(VIII)-catalyzed oxidation permitted the quantitative estimation of the n-alkyl groups attached to aromatic carbons and of n-alkyl bridges between two aromatic units and their concentration distribution according to chain length. It also showed the presence of a large naphthenic core containing cyclic sulfides, which, during oxidation, were converted to their sulfones.

Strausz, O.P.; Lown, E.M. (Dept. of Chemistry, Univ. of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2G2 (CA))

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

286

Identification of organic compounds contained in the bitumen of Chattanooga oil shale  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The bitumen of Chattanooga Oil Shale has been extracted with benzene. The benzene-soluble material was separated into acid base and neutral fractions with ion exchange chromatography. This separation scheme has been used extensively to separate the organic material in Green River Oil Shale. The acid fraction was esterified with BF/sub 3//MeOH. A large portion of the acid fraction was not esterified and this material was considered to be phenolic. The bases were separated into two fractions using alumina. The esters, the two base fractions and the total neutral fraction were analyzed using gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. Two series constituting the methyl esters of normal and isoprenoid acids were identified. Several homologous series were indicated in the base fraction. The major components in the neutral fractions were two series constituting normal and isoprenoid alkanes. The analysis scheme apparently does a good job of separating and identifying aliphatic materials.

Mc Gowan, C.W.; Greenwell, B.E.; Markuszewski, R.; Richard, J.J.; Sepaniak, M.J.

1986-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

287

Method and apparatus for synthesizing hydrocarbons  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method and apparatus for synthesizing a mixture of aliphatic alcohols having five carbons or less is disclosed. An equal molar ratio of CO and H/sub 2/ gases is caused to pass through a ThO/sub 2/ catalyst having a surface area of about 80 to 125 m/sup 2//g. The catalyst further optionally includes Na ions present as substitutional cations in an amount of about 5 to 10 atom %. At a temperature of about 570 to 630/sup 0/K, and at pressures of about 20 to 50 atm, methanol and isobutanol are the predominant products and are produced in amounts of about 90 wt % of the total hydrocarbon mixture. 6 figs.

Colmenares, C.A.; Somorjai, G.A.; Maj, J.J.

1985-04-16T23:59:59.000Z

288

Nonhazardous solvent composition and method for cleaning metal surfaces  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A solvent composition for displacing greasy and oily contaminants as well as water and/or aqueous residue from metallic surfaces, especially surfaces of radioactive materials so that such surfaces can be wiped clean of the displaced contaminants, water and/or aqueous residue. The solvent composition consists essentially of a blend of nonpolar aliphatic hydrocarbon solvent having a minimum flash point of about 140 F and 2 to 25 volume percent of a polar solvent having a flash point sufficiently high so as to provide the solvent composition with a minimum flash point of at least 140 F. The solvent composition is nonhazardous so that when it is used to clean the surfaces of radioactive materials the waste in the form of paper or cloth wipes, lab coats and the like used in the cleaning operation is not considered to be mixed waste composed of a hazardous solvent and a radioactive material.

Googin, J.M.; Simandl, R.F.; Thompson, L.M.

1993-05-04T23:59:59.000Z

289

Bending elasticity of a curved amphiphilic film decorated anchored copolymers: a small angle neutron scattering study  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Microemulsion droplets (oil in water stabilized by a surfactant film) are progressively decorated with increasing amounts of poly ethylene- oxide (PEO) chains anchored in the film by the short aliphatic chain grafted at one end of the PEO chain . The evolution of the bending elasticity of the surfactant film with increasing decoration is deduced from the evolution in size and polydispersity of the droplets as reflected by small angle neutron scattering. The optimum curvature radius decreases while the bending rigidity modulus remains practically constant. The experimental results compare well with the predictions of a model developed for the bending properties of a curved film decorated by non-adsorbing polymer chains, which takes into account, the finite curvature of the film and the free diffusion of the chains on the film.

Jacqueline Appell; Christian Ligoure; Gregoire Porte

2004-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

290

Exploring the Genome and Proteome of Desulfitobacterium hafniense DCB2 for its Protein Complexes Involved in Metal Reduction and Dechlorination  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Desulfitobacteria are of interest to DOE mission because of their ability to reduce many electron acceptors including Fe(III), U(VI), Cr(VI), As(V), Mn(IV), Se(VI), NO3- and well as CO2, sulfite, fumarate and humates, their ability to colonize more stressful environments because they form spores, fix nitrogen and they have the more protective Gram positive cell walls. Furthermore at least some of them reductively dechlorinate aromatic and aliphatic pollutants. Importantly, most of the metals and the organochlorine reductions are coupled to ATP production and support growth providing for the organism's natural selection at DOE's contaminant sites. This work was undertaken to gain insight into the genetic and metabolic pathways involved in dissimilatory metal reduction and reductive dechlorination, (ii) to discern the commonalities among these electron-accepting processes, (iii) to identify multi-protein complexes catalyzing these functions and (iv) to elucidate the coordination in expression of these pathways and processes.

Kim, Sang-Hoon, Christina Harzman, John K. Davis, Rachel Hutcheson, Joan B. Broderick, Terence L. Marsh, James M. Tiedje.

2012-09-27T23:59:59.000Z

291

Protein Vivisection Reveals Elusive Intermediates in Folding  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Although most folding intermediates escape detection, their characterization is crucial to the elucidation of folding mechanisms. Here, we outline a powerful strategy to populate partially unfolded intermediates: A buried aliphatic residue is substituted with a charged residue (e.g., Leu {yields} Glu{sup -}) to destabilize and unfold a specific region of the protein. We applied this strategy to ubiquitin, reversibly trapping a folding intermediate in which the {beta}5-strand is unfolded. The intermediate refolds to a native-like structure upon charge neutralization under mildly acidic conditions. Characterization of the trapped intermediate using NMR and hydrogen exchange methods identifies a second folding intermediate and reveals the order and free energies of the two major folding events on the native side of the rate-limiting step. This general strategy may be combined with other methods and have broad applications in the study of protein folding and other reactions that require trapping of high-energy states.

Zheng, Zhongzhou; Sosnick, Tobin R. (UC)

2010-05-25T23:59:59.000Z

292

Effect of modifying host oil on coprocessing  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Petroleum is rich in aliphatic and naphthenic compounds, but usually contains relatively few aromatic or hydroaromatic compounds. This paper will explore ways in which petroleum resids (1000{degrees}F+) can be modified to improve them as coprocessing media with coal. Modifications of the resid include (1) hydrogenation with iron and molybdenum-based catalysts, (2) mild hydrogenation with dicobalt octacarbonyl (CO{sub 2}(CO){sub 8}) to convert any aromatics in the resid to hydroaromatics, (3) addition of certain polynuclear aromatic compounds that are excellent hydrogen shuttlers, and (4) catalytic hydrocracking of the resid. The untreated resid and modified oils were evaluated in thermal and catalytic coprocessing experiments. Measures for evaluating coprocessing performance include the fraction of coal converted to M soluble products and the yield of distillable oil, as measured using simulated distillation.

Hajdu, P.E.; Tierney, J.W.; Wender, I. [Univ. of Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

293

Clean, premium-quality chars: Demineralized and carbon enriched. [Quarterly] technical report, March 1, 1993--May 31, 1993  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The overall objective of this two-year project is to evaluate methods of preparing demineralized and carbon enriched chars from Illinois Basin coals. There are two processing steps: physical cleaning of the coal and devolatilization under different environments to form chars. Two differents techniques were used, in-situ Diffuse Reflectance FTIR measurements and BTU measurements. Experiments were performed with coals IBC-101, 102, and 104 as received and after cleaning. DR-FTIR spectrums helped to explain the possible existing chemical bonds in the coal structure as well as their changes during drying and mild pyrolysis. Drying coal causes hydrogen bonds between water and coal to be broken. Liquids produced above 500{degrees}C are much higher in aromatic content, thus, effectively reducing the concentration of aliphatic groups in the overall liquid yield. BTU values of coals after methane treatment are higher than after helium treatment.

Smith, G.V.; Malhotra, V.M.; Wiltowski, T.; Myszka, E. [Southern Illinois Univ., Carbondale, IL (United States)

1993-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

294

N,N'-DICYCLOHEXYL-N"-ISOTRIDECYLGUANIDINE AS SUPPRESSOR FOR THE NEXT GENERATION CAUSTIC SIDE SOLVENT EXTRACTION (NG-CSSX) PROCESS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

ABSTRACT The purity, concentration, and source of the N,N'-dicyclohexyl-N"-isotridecylguanidine (DCiTG) suppressor (guanidine) used in the NG-CSSX process were found to influence solvent performance. As the starting isotridecanol used in the preparation of DCiTG is comprised of a mixture of branched-chain aliphatic alcohols, varying in composition with manufacturer, the resulting DCiTG itself is a mixture. Thus, it is necessary to address how the solvent performance will be affected by the different preparations of the DCiTG solvent component. In this study, four preparations of DCiTG from three sources were analyzed and evaluated for purity and performance, both in the absence and presence of an anionic surfactant impurity.

Duncan, Nathan C [ORNL; Roach, Benjamin D [ORNL; Williams, Neil J [ORNL; Bonnesen, Peter V [ORNL; Rajbanshi, Arbin [ORNL; Moyer, Bruce A [ORNL

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

295

Systematic modulation and enhancement of CO{sub 2} : N{sub 2} selectivity and water stability in an isoreticular series of bio-MOF-11 analogues  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An isoreticular series of cobalt-adeninate bio-MOFs (bio-MOFs 11-14) is reported. The pores of bio-MOFs 11-14 are decorated with acetate, propionate, butyrate, and valerate, respectively. The nitrogen (N{sub 2}) and carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) adsorption properties of these materials are studied and compared. The isosteric heats of adsorption for CO{sub 2} are calculated, and the CO{sub 2}:N{sub 2} selectivities for each material are 10 determined. As the lengths of the aliphatic chains decorating the pores in bio-MOFs 11-14 increase, the BET surface areas decrease from 1148 m{sup 2}/g to 17 m{sup 2}/g while the CO{sub 2}:N{sub 2} selectivities predicted from ideal adsorbed solution theory at 1 bar and 273 K for a 10:90 CO{sub 2}:N{sub 2} mixture range from 73:1 for bio-MOF-11 to 123:1 for bio-MOF-12 and finally to 107:1 for bio-MOF-13. At 298 K, the selectivities are 43:1 for bio-MOF-11, 52:1 for bio-MOF-12, and 40:1 for bio-MOF-13. Additionally, it is shown that 15 bio-MOF-14 exhibits a unique molecular sieving property that allows it to adsorb CO{sub 2} but not N{sub 2} at 273 and 298 K. Finally, the water stability of bio-MOFs 11-14 increases with increasing aliphatic chain length. Bio-MOF-14 exhibits no loss of crystallinity or porosity after soaking in water for one month.

Li, Tao; Chen, De-Li; Sullivan, Jeanne E.; Kozlowski, Mark T.; Johnson, J. Karl; Rosi, Nathaniel L.

2013-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

296

Alkaline-Side Extraction of Cesium from Savannah River Tank Waste Using a Calixarene-Crown Ether Extractant  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Results are presented supporting the viability of the alkaline-side CSEX process as a potential replacement for the In-Tank Precipitation process for removal of cesium from aqueous high-level waste (HLW) at the Savannah River Site (SRS). Under funding from the USDOE Efficient Separations and Crosscutting program, a flowsheet was suggested in early June of 1998, and in the following four months, this flowsheet underwent extensive testing, both in batch tests at ORNL and ANL and in two centrifugal-contactor tests at ANL. To carry out these tests, the initial ESP funding was augmented by direct funds from Westinghouse Savannah River Corporation. The flowsheet employed a solvent containing a calixarene-crown hybrid compound called BoBCalixC6 that was invented at ORNL and can now be obtained commercially for government use from IBC Advanced Technologies. This special extractant is so powerful and selective that it can be used at only 0.01 M, compensating for its expense, but a modifier is required for use in an aliphatic diluent, primarily to increase the cesium distribution ratio D{sub Cs} in extraction. The modifier selected is a relatively economical fluorinated alcohol called Cs3, invented at ORNL and so far available. only from ORNL. For the flowsheet, the modifier is used at 0.2 M in the branched aliphatic kerosene Isopar{reg_sign} L. Testing at ORNL and ANL involved simulants of the SRS HLW. After extraction of the Cs from the waste simulant, the solvent is scrubbed with 0.05 M HNO{sub 3} and stripped with a solution comprised of 0.0005 M HNO{sub 3} and 0.0001 M CsNO{sub 3}. The selection of these conditions is justified in this report, both on the basis of experimental data and underlying theory.

Bonnesen, P.V.; Delmau, L.H.; Haverlock, T.J.; Moyer, B.A.

1998-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

297

Isothermal decomposition of New Albany shale from Kentucky  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The isothermal decomposition of a New Albany oil shale has been studied in the temperature range of 375/sup 0/C to 425/sup 0/C. The amount of conversion of kerogen to bitumen, oil, gas and residue products was obtained for different reaction times in this temperature range. Elemental analyses were obtained on the bitumen, oil, and solid reaction products. Molecular weights and /sup 13/C NMR measurements of the aliphatic and aromatic carbon fractions in the solid products were made to complete the analyses. The results show that the thermal decomposition of the New Albany oil shale exhibits complex behavior. None of the data fit a simple first-order kinetic expression with respect to kerogen concentration for all temperatures, indicating that multiple parallel reactions occur during the decomposition. However, by fitting the initial slopes of the oil conversion data, it was possible to obtain the weighted average rate constants at each temperature. These data gave a good fit to the Arrhenius equation with the frequency factor equal to 6.38 x 10/sup 15/ min/sup -1/, and the activation energy equal to 207.5 k.j mol/sup -1/ for the kerogen decomposition. The maximum bitumen concentration was 10% or less of the original kerogen at any temperature, indicating that direct conversion of kerogen to oil, gas and residue occurs during heating. Since the highly aliphatic Green River oil shale forms large amounts of bitumen whereas the more aromatic New Albany shale forms only small amounts, the formation of bitumen may be related to the aromatic nature of the kerogen. In general, the chemical properties of the oil were fairly constant at all reaction times and temperatures studied. Hydrogen sulfide was the dominant species in the gas phase. The solid and liquid nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) data show that the net increase of total aromatic carbon in the products was about 30% of the raw shale value. 37 refs., 14 figs., 4 tabs.

Miknis, F.P.; Conn, P.J.; Turner, T.F.; Berdan, G.L.

1985-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

298

Potential of producing various hydrocarbons from canola oil by catalytic treatment over Pt-ZSM-5  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Canola oil conversion was studied at atmospheric pressure over Pt-ZSM-5 catalyst (0.5 wt% Pt) in a fixed bed micro-reactor. The operating conditions were: temperature range of 400--500 C, weight hourly space velocity (WHSV) of 1.8 and 3.6 h{sup {minus}1} and steam/oil ratio of 4:1. The products were coke, gas, an organic liquid product (OLP) and residue. The gas and OLP consisted mainly of hydrocarbons. The objective of this study was to maximize the amount of gasoline range hydrocarbons in the OLP and the selectivity to isohydrocarbons in the gas. The gas yields varied between 22--65 wt% and were higher in the presence of steam compared to the operation without steam. Also, the gas fraction decreased with increase in space velocity. The olefin/paraffin ratio of C{sub 2}-C{sub 4} hydrocarbon gases varied between 0.31--0.79. The amount of isohydrocarbons relative to n-hydrocarbons were higher with Pt-ZSM-5 (1.6--4.8) compared to pure HZSM-5 catalyst (0.2--0.3). The OLP yields with Pt-ZSM-5 (20--55wt% of canola oil) were slightly lower compared to HZSM-5 (40--63wt% of canola oil) under similar conditions. The major components of OLP were aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons. The main aromatic hydrocarbons were benzene, toluene, xylenes and trimethylbenzenes. Alkylated pentane and hexane were the main aliphatic hydrocarbons. In the presence of steam, Pt-ZSM-5 gave higher yields of liquid hydrocarbons within the gasoline boiling range than HZSM-5.

Katikaneni, S.P.R.; Adjaye, J.D.; Bakhshi, N.N. [Univ. of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon (Canada)

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

299

Metagenomics, metatranscriptomics and single cell genomics reveal functional response of active Oceanospirillales to Gulf oil spill  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Deepwater Horizon oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico resulted in a deep-sea hydrocarbon plume that caused a shift in the indigenous microbial community composition with unknown ecological consequences. Early in the spill history, a bloom of uncultured, thus uncharacterized, members of the Oceanospirillales was previously detected, but their role in oil disposition was unknown. Here our aim was to determine the functional role of the Oceanospirillales and other active members of the indigenous microbial community using deep sequencing of community DNA and RNA, as well as single-cell genomics. Shotgun metagenomic and metatranscriptomic sequencing revealed that genes for motility, chemotaxis and aliphatic hydrocarbon degradation were significantly enriched and expressed in the hydrocarbon plume samples compared with uncontaminated seawater collected from plume depth. In contrast, although genes coding for degradation of more recalcitrant compounds, such as benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, total xylenes and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, were identified in the metagenomes, they were expressed at low levels, or not at all based on analysis of the metatranscriptomes. Isolation and sequencing of two Oceanospirillales single cells revealed that both cells possessed genes coding for n-alkane and cycloalkane degradation. Specifically, the near-complete pathway for cyclohexane oxidation in the Oceanospirillales single cells was elucidated and supported by both metagenome and metatranscriptome data. The draft genome also included genes for chemotaxis, motility and nutrient acquisition strategies that were also identified in the metagenomes and metatranscriptomes. These data point towards a rapid response of members of the Oceanospirillales to aliphatic hydrocarbons in the deep sea.

Mason, Olivia U.; Hazen, Terry C.; Borglin, Sharon; Chain, Patrick S. G.; Dubinsky, Eric A.; Fortney, Julian L.; Han, James; Holman, Hoi-Ying N.; Hultman, Jenni; Lamendella, Regina; Mackelprang, Rachel; Malfatti, Stephanie; Tom, Lauren M.; Tringe, Susannah G.; Woyke, Tanja; Zhou, Jizhong; Rubin, Edward M.; Jansson, Janet K.

2012-06-12T23:59:59.000Z

300

Genetic studies for aquaculture and stock-enhancement of red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

............................................... 23 3 Mean (standard deviation) and range of weight and length of 124-125 larvae from each of 13 spawns sampled in 2002.................... 25 4 Results of analysis of variance for early larval growth (weight) .......... 26 5 Mean (standard...× reaction buffer [500 mM KCl, 200 mM Tris-HCl (pH 8.4)], 1.5 mM MgCl2, 2.5 mM of each DNTP, 5 pM of each primer, 0.5 units of Taq DNA polymerase (Gibco BRL). Thermal cycling was carried out as follows: initial denaturation at 95oC for 5 min, followed...

Ma, Liang

2007-09-17T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "denatured aliphatic alco" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Characterization of the microdialysis junction interface for capillary electrophoresis/microelectrospray ionization mass spectrometry  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A capillary electrophoresis/electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (CE/ESI-MS) interface, based on an electric circuit across a microdialysis membrane surrounding a short capillary segment closely connected to the separation capillary terminus, is demonstrated to be sensitive, efficient, and rugged. A microspray type ionization emitter produces a stable electrospray at the low flow rates provided by CE and thus avoids both the need for a makeup liquid flow provided by liquid junction or sheath flow interfaces and the subsequent dilution and reduction in sensitivity. Reproducibility studies and comparisons with CE/UV and the CE/sheath flow interface with ESI-MS are presented. Additionally, postrun acidification via the microdialysis junction interface is demonstrated and shown to be capable of denaturing the holomyoglobin protein noncovalent complex while maintaining separation efficiency. 21 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

Severs, J.C.; Smith, R.D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States)] [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

1997-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

302

Unwinding relaxation dynamics of polymers  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The relaxation dynamics of a polymer wound around a fixed obstacle constitutes a fundamental instance of polymer with twist and torque and it is of relevance also for DNA denaturation dynamics. We investigate it by simulations and Langevin equation analysis. The latter predicts a relaxation time scaling as a power of the polymer length times a logarithmic correction related to the equilibrium fluctuations of the winding angle. The numerical data support this result and show that at short times the winding angle decreases as a power-law. This is also in agreement with the Langevin equation provided a winding-dependent friction is used, suggesting that such reduced description of the system captures the basic features of the problem.

Jean-Charles Walter; Marco Baiesi; Gerard Barkema; Enrico Carlon

2013-01-13T23:59:59.000Z

303

Exploring the conformational energy landscape of proteins  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Proteins possess a complex energy landscape with a large number of local minima called conformational substates that are arranged in a hierarchical fashion. Here we discuss experiments aimed at the elucidation of the energy landscape in carbonmonoxy myoglobin (MbCO). In the highest tier of the hierarchy, a few taxonomic substates exist. Because of their small number, these substates are accessible to detailed structural investigations. Spectroscopic experiments are discussed that elucidate the role of protonations of amino acid side chains in creating the substates. The lower tiers of the hierarchy contain a large number of statistical substates. Substate interconversions are observed in the entire temperature range from below 1 K up to the denaturation temperature, indicating a wide spectrum of energy barriers that separate the substates.

Nienhaus, G.U. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States); [Universitaet Ulm (Germany); Mueller, J.D.; McMahon, B.H. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States)] [and others

1997-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

304

Protein folding and cosmology  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Protein denaturing induced by supercooling is interpreted as a process where some or all internal symmetries of the native protein are spontaneously broken. Hence, the free-energy potential corresponding to a folding-funnel landscape becomes temperature-dependent and describes a phase transition. The idea that deformed vortices could be produced in the transition induced by temperature quenching, from native proteins to unfolded conformations is discussed in terms of the Zurek mechanism that implements the analogy between vortices, created in the laboratory at low energy, and the cosmic strings which are thought to have been left after symmetry breaking phase transitions in the early universe. An experiment is proposed to test the above idea which generalizes the cosmological analogy to also encompass biological systems and push a step ahead the view that protein folding is a biological equivalent of the big bang.

González-Diáz, P F

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

305

Atmospheric cloud water contains a diverse bacterial community  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Atmospheric cloud water contains an active microbial community which can impact climate, human health and ecosystem processes in terrestrial and aquatic systems. Most studies on the composition of microbial communities in clouds have been performed with orographic clouds that are typically in direct contact with the ground. We collected water samples from cumulus clouds above the upper U.S. Midwest. The cloud water was analyzed for the diversity of bacterial phylotypes by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and sequencing of 16S rRNA gene amplicons. DGGE analyses of bacterial communities detected 17e21 bands per sample. Sequencing confirmed the presence of a diverse bacterial community; sequences from seven bacterial phyla were retrieved. Cloud water bacterial communities appeared to be dominated by members of the cyanobacteria, proteobacteria, actinobacteria and firmicutes.

Kourtev, P. S.; Hill, Kimberly A.; Shepson, Paul B.; Konopka, Allan

2011-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

306

The Role of Structure in the Protein Dynamical Transition  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The protein dynamical transition is investigated as a function of protein structure using terahertz time domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS). Measurements performed for native state and denatured hen egg white lysozyme (HEWL) show that protein structure is not necessary for the dynamical transition. We find the temperature dependence follows activated behavior and there is no evidence of a fragile to strong transition. Measurements of short chain poly alanine show a dynamical transition down to penta-alanine, however no transition is observed for di-alanine or tri-alanine. These measurements demonstrate that the temperature dependence arises strictly from the interaction of the side chains with the solvent. The lack of a transition for shorter chain polypeptides may indicate the temperature dependence arises from a net ordering of the adjacent water which scales with the length of the polypeptide chain.

He, Yunfen

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

307

Tower reactors for bioconversion of lignocellulosic material  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An apparatus for enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation of pretreated lignocellulosic material, in the form of a tower bioreactor, having mixers to achieve intermittent mixing of the material. Precise mixing of the material is important for effective heat and mass transfer requirements without damaging or denaturing the enzymes or fermenting microorganisms. The pretreated material, generally in the form of a slurry, is pumped through the bioreactor, either upwards of downwards, and is mixed periodically as it passes through the mixing zones where the mixers are located. For a thin slurry, alternate mixing can be achieved by a pumping loop which also serves as a heat transfer device. Additional heat transfer takes place through the reactor heat transfer jackets.

Nguyen, Quang A. (16458 W. 1st Ave., Golden, CO 80401)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

308

Tower reactors for bioconversion of lignocellulosic material  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An apparatus for enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation of pretreated lignocellulosic material, in the form of a tower bioreactor, having mixers to achieve intermittent mixing of the material. Precise mixing of the material is important for effective heat and mass transfer requirements without damaging or denaturing the enzymes or fermenting microorganisms. The pretreated material, generally in the form of a slurry, is pumped through the bioreactor, either upwards or downwards, and is mixed periodically as it passes through the mixing zones where the mixers are located. For a thin slurry, alternate mixing can be achieved by a pumping loop which also serves as a heat transfer device. Additional heat transfer takes place through the reactor heat transfer jackets.

Nguyen, Quang A. (16458 W. 1st Ave., Golden, CO 80401)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

309

Molecular characterization of vanadyl and nickel non-porphyrin compounds in heavy crude petroleums and residua  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The molecular characterization of vanadium and nickel compounds in heavy crude petroleums has been the subject of current research. Arabian Heavy, Maya, Boscan, Cerro Negro, Prudhoe Bay, Wilmington Beta, Kern River, and Morichal crude petroleums have been examined. Fractions from D 2007 separations, porphyrin extractions, and solvent selective extraction with reversed phase column separations of these petroleums have been studied thoroughly by EPR. Important structural aspects are emerging from the presented data: (1) There are non-porphyrin metal complexes in the crude petroleums. (2) They appear to be smaller molecules with MW < 400 which are liberated when the tertiary structure of the large asphaltics is denatured. (3) The first coordination spheres of this class of compounds are possibly 4N, N O 2S, and 4S. 10 references, 3 figures, 1 table.

Reynolds, J.G.; Biggs, W.R.; Fetzer, J.C.; Gallegos, E.J.; Fish, R.H.; Komlenic, J.J.; Wines, B.K.

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

310

Flow cytometric measurement of total DNA and incorporated halodeoxyuridine  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method for the simultaneous flow cylometric measurement of total cellular DNA content and of the uptake of DNA precursors as a measure of DNA synthesis during various phases of the cell cycle in normal and malignant cells in vitro and in vivo is described. The method comprises reacting cells with labelled halodeoxyuridine (HdU), partially denaturing cellular DNA, adding to the reaction medium monoclonal antibodies (mabs) reactive with HdU, reacting the bound mabs with a second labelled antibody, incubating the mixture with a DNA stain, and measuring simultaneously the intensity of the DNA stain as a measure of the total cellular DNA and the HdU incorporated as a measure of DNA synthesis. (ACR)

Dolbeare, F.A.; Gray, J.W.

1983-10-18T23:59:59.000Z

311

Tower reactors for bioconversion of lignocellulosic material  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An apparatus is described for enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation of pretreated lignocellulosic material, in the form of a tower bioreactor, having mixers to achieve intermittent mixing of the material. Precise mixing of the material is important for effective heat and mass transfer requirements without damaging or denaturing the enzymes or fermenting microorganisms. The pretreated material, generally in the form of a slurry, is pumped through the bioreactor, either upwards or downwards, and is mixed periodically as it passes through the mixing zones where the mixers are located. For a thin slurry, alternate mixing can be achieved by a pumping loop which also serves as a heat transfer device. Additional heat transfer takes place through the reactor heat transfer jackets. 5 figs.

Nguyen, Q.A.

1999-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

312

Tower reactors for bioconversion of lignocellulosic material  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An apparatus is disclosed for enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation of pretreated lignocellulosic material. The apparatus consists of a tower bioreactor which has mixers to achieve intermittent mixing of the material. Precise mixing of the material is important for effective heat and mass transfer requirements without damaging or denaturing the enzymes or fermenting microorganisms. The pretreated material, generally in the form of a slurry, is pumped through the bioreactor, either upwards or downwards, and is mixed periodically as it passes through the mixing zones where the mixers are located. For a thin slurry, alternate mixing can be achieved by a pumping loop which also serves as a heat transfer device. Additional heat transfer takes place through the reactor heat transfer jackets. 5 figs.

Nguyen, Q.A.

1998-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

313

Protein folding and cosmology  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Protein denaturing induced by supercooling is interpreted as a process where some or all internal symmetries of the native protein are spontaneously broken. Hence, the free-energy potential corresponding to a folding-funnel landscape becomes temperature-dependent and describes a phase transition. The idea that deformed vortices could be produced in the transition induced by temperature quenching, from native proteins to unfolded conformations is discussed in terms of the Zurek mechanism that implements the analogy between vortices, created in the laboratory at low energy, and the cosmic strings which are thought to have been left after symmetry breaking phase transitions in the early universe. An experiment is proposed to test the above idea which generalizes the cosmological analogy to also encompass biological systems and push a step ahead the view that protein folding is a biological equivalent of the big bang.

P. F. Gonzalez-Diaz; C. L. Siguenza

1997-06-04T23:59:59.000Z

314

Putting the Squeeze on Biology: Biomolecules Under Pressure  

ScienceCinema (OSTI)

Modest pressures encountered in the biosphere (i.e., below a few kbar) have extraordinary effects on biomembranes and proteins. These include pressure denaturation of proteins, dramatic changes in protein-protein association, substrate binding, membrane ion transport, DNA transcription, virus infectivity, and enzyme kinetics. Yet all of the biomaterials involved are highly incompressible. The challenge to the physicist is to understand the structural coupling between these effects and pressure to elucidate the relevant mechanisms. X-ray diffraction studies of membranes and proteins under pressure will be described. It is seen that it is not so much the magnitude of the changes, but rather the differential compressibilities of different parts of the structure that are responsible for effects.

Sol Gruner

2010-01-08T23:59:59.000Z

315

Alternatives to traditional transportation fuels 1994. Volume 1  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this report, alternative and replacement fuels are defined in accordance with the EPACT. Section 301 of the EPACT defines alternative fuels as: methanol, denatured ethanol, and other alcohols; mixtures containing 85% or more (or such other percentage, but not less than 70%, as determined by the Secretary of Energy, by rule, to provide for requirements relating to cold start, safety, or vehicle functions) by volume of methanol, denatured ethanol, and other alcohols with gasoline or other fuels; natural gas; liquefied petroleum gas; hydrogen; coal-derived liquid fuels; fuels (other than alcohol) derived from biological materials; electricity (including electricity from solar energy); and any other fuel the Secretary determines, by rule, is substantially not petroleum and would yield substantial energy security benefits and substantial environmental benefits. The EPACT defines replacement fuels as the portion of any motor fuel that is methanol, ethanol, or other alcohols, natural gas, liquefied petroleum gas, hydrogen, coal-derived liquid fuels, fuels (other than alcohol) derived from biological materials, electricity (including electricity from solar energy), ethers, or any other fuel the Secretary of Energy determines, by rule, is substantially not petroleum and would yield substantial energy security benefits and substantial environmental benefits. This report covers only those alternative and replacement fuels cited in the EPACT that are currently commercially available or produced in significant quantities for vehicle demonstration purposes. Information about other fuels, such as hydrogen and biodiesel, will be included in later reports as those fuels become more widely used. Annual data are presented for 1992 to 1996. Data for 1996 are based on plans or projections for 1996.

NONE

1996-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

316

CHARACTERIZATION AND EVALUATION OF CAUSTIC WASH TANK AND SOLVENT HOLD TANK SAMPLES FROM MCU FROM AUGUST TO SEPTEMBER 2011  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

During processing of Salt Batches 3 and 4 in the Modular Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU), the decontamination efficiency for cesium declined from historical values and from expectations based on laboratory testing. This report documents efforts to analyze samples of solvent and process solutions from MCU in an attempt to understand the cause of the reduced performance and to recommend mitigations. CWT Solutions from MCU from the time period of variable decontamination factor (DF) performance which covers from April 2011 to September 2011 (during processing of Salt Batch 4) were examined for impurities using chromatography and spectroscopy. The results indicate that impurities were found to be of two types: aromatic containing impurities most likely from Modifier degradation and aliphatic type impurities most likely from Isopar{reg_sign} L and tri-n-octylamine (TOA) degradation. Caustic washing the Solvent Hold Tank (SHT) solution with 1M NaOH improved its extraction ability as determined from {sup 22}Na uptake tests. Evidence from this work showed that pH variance in the aqueous solutions within the range of 1M nitric acid to 1.91M NaOH that contacted the solvent samples does not influence the analytical determination of the TOA concentration by GC-MS.

Fondeur, F.; Fink, S.

2012-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

317

Liquid Microjunction Surface Sampling Coupled with High-Pressure Liquid Chromatography-Electrospray Ionization-Mass Spectrometry for Analysis of Drugs and Metabolites in Whole-Body Thin Tissue Sections  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this work, a commercially available autosampler was adapted to perform direct liquid microjunction (LMJ) surface sampling followed by a high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) separation of the extract components and detection with electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS). To illustrate the utility of coupling a separation with this direct liquid extraction based surface sampling approach, four different organs (brain, lung, kidney, and liver) from whole-body thin tissue sections of propranolol dosed and control mice were examined. The parent drug was observed in the chromatograms of the surface sampling extracts from all the organs of the dosed mouse examined. In addition, two isomeric phase II metabolites of propranolol (an aliphatic and an aromatic hydroxypropranolol glucuronide) were observed in the chromatograms of the extracts from lung, kidney, and liver. Confirming the presence of one or the other or both of these glucuronides in the extract from the various organs was not possible without the separation. These drug and metabolite data obtained using the LMJ surface sampling/HPLC-MS method and the results achieved by analyzing similar samples by conventional extraction of the tissues and subsequent HPLC-MS analysis were consistent.

Kertesz, Vilmos [ORNL; Van Berkel, Gary J [ORNL

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

318

Oxidative derivatization and solubilization of coal. Final report. Period: October 1, 1986 - April 30, 1988  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We investigated the solubilization of coal by oxidative means to produce motor fuels. Nitric acid was used in the first of two approaches taken to cleave aliphatic linkages in coal and reduce the size of its macrostructure. Mild conditions, with temperatures up to a maximum of 75 C, and nitric acid concentrations below 20% by weight, characterize this process. The solid product, obtained in high yields, is soluble in polar organic solvents. Lower alcohols, methanol in particular, are of interest as carrier solvents in diesel fuel applications. Coals investigated were New York State peat, Wyodak subbituminous coal, North Dakota lignite, and Illinois No. 6 bituminous coal. The lower tank coals were easily converted and appear well suited to the process, while the bituminous Illinois No. 6 and Pitt Seam coals were unreactive. We concentrated our efforts on Wyodak coal and North Dakota lignite. Reaction conditions with regards to temperature, acid concentration, and time were optimized to obtain high product selectivity at maximum conversion. A continuous process scheme was developed for single pass coal conversions of about 50% to methanol-soluble product.

Schulz, J.G.; Porowski, E.N.; Straub, A.M.

1988-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

319

Low-temperature pyrolysis of coal to produce diesel-fuel blends  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Low-temperature (623 to 773/sup 0/K) coal pyrolysis was investigated in a bench-scale retort. Factorially designed experiments were conducted to determine the effects of temperature, coal-particle size, and nitrogen flow rate on the yield of liquid products. Yield of condensable organic products relative to the proximate coal volatile matter increased by 3.1 and 6.4 wt % after increasing nitrogen purge flow rate from 0.465 to 1.68 L/min and retort temperature from 623 to 723/sup 0/K, respectively. The liquid product may be suitable for blending with diesel fuel. The viscosity and density of coal liquids produced at 723/sup 0/K were compared with those of diesel fuel. The coal liquids had a higher carbon-to-hydrogen ratio and a lower aliphatic-to-aromatic ratio than premium quality No. 2 diesel fuel. It was recommended that liquids from coal pyrolysis be blended with diesel fuel to determine stability of the mixture and performance of the blend in internal combustion engines.

Shafer, T.B.; Jett, O.J.; Wu, J.S.

1982-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

320

Experimental and modeling investigation of aromatic and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon formation in a premixed ethylene flame  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Experimental and detailed chemical kinetic modeling has been performed to investigate aromatic and polyaromatic hydrocarbon formation pathways in a rich, sooting, ethylene-oxygen-argon premixed flame. An atmospheric pressure, laminar flat flame operated at an equivalence ratio of 2.5 was used to acquire experimental data for model validation. Gas composition analysis was conducted by an on-line gas chromatograph/mass spectrometer (GC/MS) technique. Measurements were made in the flame and post-flame zone for a number of low molecular weight species, aliphatics, aromatics and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) ranging from two to five-aromatic fused rings. The modeling results show the key reaction sequences leading to aromatic and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon growth involve the combination of resonantly stabilized radicals. In particular, propargyl and 1-methylallenyl combination reactions lead to benzene and methyl substituted benzene formation, while polycyclic aromatics are formed from cyclopentadienyl radicals and fused rings that have a shared C{sub 5} side structure. Naphthalene production through the reaction step of cyclopentadienyl self-combination and phenanthrene formation from indenyl and cyclopentadienyl combination were shown to be important in the flame modeling study. The removal of phenyl by O{sub 2} leading to cyclopentadienyl formation is expected to play a pivotal role in the PAH or soot precursor growth process under fuel-rich oxidation conditions.

Castaldi, M.J.; Marinov, N.M.; Melius, C.F. [and others

1996-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "denatured aliphatic alco" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

A replacement solvent cleaner/degreaser study at Duffy Electric and Machine Company  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Duffy Electric & Machine Company repairs and rebuilds electric motors. The company overhauls large electric motors (AC and DC with greater than 15 hp output). The company also overhauls small electric motors. The process involves gross cleaning of electromechanical devices to achieve a level of cleanliness that facilitates inspection, repair, and testing. The cleaner used in this study, Petroferm BIOACT{trademark} 285, was selected because it is representative of its class of material. BIOACT{trademark} is a mixture of high molecular-weight aliphatic esters and can be categorized as a semi-aqueous fluid. The cleaner is meant to be used without dilution and must be rinsed with alcohol, such as IPA, rather than with water. The alcohol is a technical grade that is at least 98% IPA, with the remainder being water. The IPA rinse is completely miscible with the ester solvent. The IPA evaporates rapidly due to its high vapor pressure (3 mm Hg @ 68{degrees}F).This report describes the performance of the ester and alcohol cleansers with regard to pollution abatement and health hazards as well as cleaning performance.

Springer, J. Jr. [Risk Reduction Engineering Lab., Cincinnati, OH (United States); Sass, B. [Battelle, Columbus, OH (United States)

1995-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

322

Role of minerals in the thermal alteration of organic matter. IV. Generation of n-alkanes, acyclic isoprenoids, and alkenes in laboratory experiments  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A series of pyrolysis experiments, utilizing two different immature oil-prone kerogens mixed with common sedimentary minerals (calcite, illite, or Na-montmorillonite), was conducted to study the effects of minerals on the generation of n-alkanes, acyclic isoprenoids, and alkenes during laboratory-simulated catagenesis of kerogen. The influence of clay minerals on the aliphatic hydrocarbons is critically dependent on the water concentration during laboratory thermal maturation. Under extremely low contents of water, C/sub 12+/-range n-alkanes and acyclic isoprenoids are mostly destroyed by montmorillonite but undergo only a minor alteration with illite. Both clay minerals significantly reduce alkene formation during dry pyrolysis. Under hydrous conditions (mineral/water = 2:1), the effects of the clay minerals are substantially reduced. In addition, the dry-pyrolysis experiments show that illite and montmorillonite preferentially retain large amounts of the polar constituents of bitumen, but not n-alkanes of acyclic isoprenoids. Therefore, bitumen fractionation according to polarity differences occurs in the presence of these clay minerals. By this process, n-alkanes, and acyclic isoprenoids are concentrated in the bitumen fraction that is not strongly adsorbed on the clay matrices. In contrast, calcite has no significant influence on the thermal evolution of the hydrocarbons. In addition, calcite is incapable of retaining bitumen. Therefore, the fractionation of n-alkanes or acyclic isoprenoids relative to the polar constituents of bitumen is insignificant in the presence of calcite.

Huizinga, B.J.; Tannenbaum, E.; Kaplan, I.R.

1987-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

323

Development of a Novel Solvent for the Simultaneous Separation of Strontium and Cesium from Acidic Solutions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A synergistic extraction solvent for the simultaneous removal of cesium and strontium from acidic solutions has been investigated. The extraction solvent consists of, 4,4',(5')-di-(t-butyldicyclo-hexano)-18-crown-6 (DtBuCH18C6), calix[4]arene-bis-(tert-octylbenzo-crown-6) (BOBCalixC6), and 1-(2,2,3,3-tetrafluoropropoxy)-3-(4-sec-butylphenoxy)-2-propanol (Cs-7SB modifier) in a branched aliphatic kerosene (Isopar® L). Extraction synergy for strontium was observed when DtBuCH18C6 was combined with the BOBCalixC6 cesium extractant solvent and Cs-7SB modifier or if the Cs-7SB modifier was substituted into the SREX (Strontium Extraction) solvent in place of TBP. The novel process extracted both cesium and strontium simultaneously from 1 M nitric acid solutions with distribution ratios of 8.8 and 7.7 for strontium and cesium, respectively, at ambient temperature. Distribution coefficients for cesium and strontium as a function of nitric acid concentration and temperature were also obtained with 0.5 M<[HNO3]<2.5 M giving favorable distribution ratios. This new process utilizing the combined solvent has been named the Fission Product Extraction Process (FPEX).

Catherine L. Riddle; John D. Baker; Jack D. Law; Christopher A. McGrath; David H. Meikrantz; Bruce J. Mincher; Dean R. Peterman; Terry A. Todd

2005-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

324

Monsoon-driven vertical fluxes of organic pollutants in the western Arabian Sea  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A time series of sinking particles from the western Arabian Sea was analyzed for aliphatic and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyls, 4,4{prime}-DDT and 4,4{prime}-DDE, to assess the role of monsoons on their vertical flux in the Indian Ocean. Concurrently, molecular markers such as sterols and linear and branched alkanes were analyzed enabling the characterization of the biogenic sources and biogeochemical processes occurring during the sampling period. Hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) of the data set of concentrations and fluxes of these compounds confirmed a seasonal variability driven by the SW and NE monsoons. Moreover, the influence of different air masses is evidenced by the occurrence of higher concentrations of DDT, PCBs, and pyrolytic PAHs during the NE monsoon and of fossil hydrocarbons during the SW monsoon. Total annual fluxes to the deep Arabian Sea represent an important removal contribution of persistent organic pollutants, thus not being available for the global distillation process (volatilization and atmospheric transport from low or mid latitudes to cold areas). Therefore, monsoons may play a significant role on the global cycle of organic pollutants.

Dachs, J.; Bayona, J.M.; Ittekkot, V.; Albaiges, J.

1999-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

325

Manmade organic compounds in the surface waters of the United States: A review of current understanding  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

On the basis of their aqueous solubilities, nonionic organic compounds partition themselves between water, dissolved organic matter, particulate organic matter, and the lipid reservoirs of aquatic organisms. Ionized organic compounds can be adsorbed to sediments, thereby reducing their aqueous concentrations. Transformation processes of photolysis, hydrolysis, biodegradation, and volatilization can attenuate organic compounds, and attenuation rates commonly follow a first-order kinetic process. Eight groups of manmade organic compounds are discussed: (1) polychlorinated biphenyls and organochlorine insecticides; (2) carbamate and organophosphorus; (3) herbicides; (4) phenols; (5) halogenated aliphatic and monocyclic aromatic hydrocarbons; (6) phthalate esters; (7) polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, and (8) polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. For each compound group, data pertaining to use, production, and properties are presented and discussed. Process that influence the environmental fate of each group, as determined primarily through laboratory studies, are reviewed, and important fate process are identified. Environmental concentrations of compounds from each group in water, biota, and sediment are given to demonstrate representative values for comparison to concentrations determined during ongoing research. Finally, where sufficient data exist, regional and temporal contamination trends in the US are discussed. 699 refs., 26 figs., 47 tabs.

Smith, J.A.; Witkowski, P.J.; Fusillo, T.V.

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

326

Improved resolution of hydrocarbon structures and constitutional isomers in complex mixtures using Gas Chromatography-Vacuum Ultraviolet-Mass Spectrometry (GC-VUV-MS)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Understanding the composition of complex hydrocarbon mixtures is important for environmental studies in a variety of fields, but many prevalent compounds cannot be confidently identified using traditional gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) techniques. This work uses vacuum-ultraviolet (VUV) ionization to elucidate the structures of a traditionally"unresolved complex mixture" by separating components by GC retention time, tR, and mass-to-charge ratio, m/Q, which are used to determine carbon number, NC, and the number of rings and double bonds, NDBE. Constitutional isomers are resolved based on tR, enabling the most complete quantitative analysis to date of structural isomers in an environmentally-relevant hydrocarbon mixture. Unknown compounds are classified in this work by carbon number, degree of saturation, presence of rings, and degree of branching, providing structural constraints. The capabilities of this analysis are explored using diesel fuel, in which constitutional isomer distribution patterns are shown to be reproducible between carbon numbers and follow predictable rules. Nearly half of the aliphatic hydrocarbon mass is shown to be branched, suggesting branching is more important in diesel fuel than previously shown. The classification of unknown hydrocarbons and the resolution of constitutional isomers significantly improves resolution capabilities for any complex hydrocarbon mixture.

Aerosol Dynamics Inc; Aerodyne Research, Inc.,; Tofwerk AG, Thun; Isaacman, Gabriel; Wilson, Kevin R.; Chan, Arthur W. H.; Worton, David R.; Kimmel, Joel R.; Nah, Theodora; Hohaus, Thorsten; Gonin, Marc; Kroll, Jesse H.; Worsnop, Doug R.; Goldstein, Allen H.

2011-09-13T23:59:59.000Z

327

Interfacial activity of phosphonated-polyethylene glycol functionalized cerium oxide nanoparticles  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In a recent publication, we have highlighted the potential of phosphonic acid terminated PEG oligomers to functionalize strong UV absorption cerium oxide nanoparticles[1], which yield suspensions that are stable in aqueous or organic solvents and are redispersible in different solvent after freeze-drying. In the present work, we highlight the interfacial activity of the functional ceria nanoparticles and their potential to modify hydrophobic surfaces. We first investigated Phosphonated-PEG amphiphilic oligomers behavior as strong surface active species forming irreversibly adsorbed layers. We then show that the oligomers interfacial properties translate to the functional nanoparticles. In particular, the addition of a small fraction of phosphonated-PEG oligomers with an extra C16 aliphatic chain (stickers) into the formulation enabled the tuning of i) the nanoparticles adsorption at the air/water, polystyrene/water, oil/water interfaces and ii) the particle/particle interaction in aqueous solutions. We also found that dense and closely packed two dimensional monolayers of nanoceria can be formed by spontaneous adsorption or surface compression using a Langmuir trough. A hexagonal organization controlled by reversible and repulsive repulsion has been characterized by GISAXS. Mono- or multilayers can also be stably formed or transferred on solid surfaces. Our results are key features in the field of polymer surface modification, solid stabilized emulsions (Pickering) or supracolloidal assemblies.

L. Qi; J. Fresnais; P. Muller; O. Theodoly; J. -F. Berret; J. -P. Chapel

2013-05-04T23:59:59.000Z

328

Mechanisms, Chemistry, and Kinetics of Anaerobic Biodegradation of cis-Dichloroethene and Vinyl Chloride  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Anaerobic biological processes can result in PCE and TCE destruction through conversion to cis-dichloroethene (cDCE) then to vinyl chloride (VC), and finally to ethene. Here, the chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons (CAHs) serve as electron acceptors in energy metabolism, requiring electron donors such as hydrogen from an external source. The purpose of this study was to learn more about the biochemistry of cDCE and VC conversion to ethene, to better understand the requirements for electron donors, and to determine factors affecting the rates of CAH degradation and organism growth. The biochemistry of reductive dehalogenation of VC was studied with an anaerobic mixed culture enriched on VC. In other studies on electron donor needs for dehalogenation of cDCE and VC, competition for hydrogen was found to occur between the dehalogenators and other microorganisms such as methanogens and homoacetogens in a benzoate-acclimated dehalogenating methanogenic mixed culture. Factors affecting the relative rates of destruction of the solvents and their intermediate products were evaluated. Studies using a mixed PCE-dehalogenating culture as well as the VC enrichment for biochemical studies suggested that the same species was involved in both cDCE and VC dechlorination, and that cDCE and VC competitively inhibited each other's dechlorination rate.

McCarty, P.L.; Spormann, A.M.

2000-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

329

The influence of a presence of a heavy atom on the spin-spin coupling constants between two light nuclei in organometallic compounds and halogen derivatives  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The {sup 1}J{sub CC} and {sup 1}J{sub CH} spin-spin coupling constants have been calculated by means of density functional theory (DFT) for a set of derivatives of aliphatic hydrocarbons substituted with I, At, Cd, and Hg in order to evaluate the substituent and relativistic effects for these properties. The main goal was to estimate HALA (heavy-atom-on-light-atom) effects on spin-spin coupling constants and to explore the factors which may influence the HALA effect on these properties, including the nature of the heavy atom substituent and carbon hybridization. The methods applied range, in order of reduced complexity, from Dirac-Kohn-Sham method (density functional theory with four-component Dirac-Coulomb Hamiltonian), through DFT with two- and one-component Zeroth Order Regular Approximation (ZORA) Hamiltonians, to scalar non-relativistic effective core potentials with the non-relativistic Hamiltonian. Thus, we are able to compare the performance of ZORA-DFT and Dirac-Kohn-Sham methods for modelling of the HALA effects on the spin-spin coupling constants.

Wody?ski, Artur; Pecul, Magdalena, E-mail: mpecul@chem.uw.edu.pl [Faculty of Chemistry, University of Warsaw, Pasteura 1, 02-093 Warszawa (Poland)] [Faculty of Chemistry, University of Warsaw, Pasteura 1, 02-093 Warszawa (Poland)

2014-01-14T23:59:59.000Z

330

Humic substances and nitrogen-containing compounds from low rank brown coals  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Coal is one of the sources of nitrogen-containing compounds (NCCs). Recovery of NCCs from brown coals in high yield was carried out from tars of stepwise semicoking of brown coals. Humic acids have been shown to contain many types of nitrogen compounds. Humic acids are thought to be complex aromatic macromolecules with amino acids, amino sugars, peptides, and aliphatic compounds that are involved in the linkages between the aromatic groups. Humic acids extracted from peats, brown coals, and lignites, are characterized using different techniques. Humic substances (HSs) have several known benefits to agriculture. The properties of humic substances vary from source to source, because they are heterogeneous mixtures of biochemical degradation products from plant and animal residues, and synthesis activities of microorganisms. HSs have been considered to be a significant floculant in surface water filtration plants for the production of drinking water as well as the processing of water. HSs are produced from chemical and biological degradation of plant and animal residues and from synthetic activities of microorganisms.

Demirbas, A.; Kar, Y.; Deveci, H. [Selcuk University, Konya (Turkey). Department of Chemical Engineering

2006-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

331

Investigation of test methods, material properties, and processes for solar cell encapsulants. Annual report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The goal of this program is to identify, evaluate, and recommend encapsulant materials and processes for the production of cost-effective, long-life solar cell modules. Technical activities during the past year have covered a number of topics and have emphasized the development of solar module encapsulation technology that employs ethylene/vinyl acetate, copolymer (EVA) as the pottant. These activities have included: (1) continued production of encapsulation grade EVA in sheet form to meet the needs of the photovoltaic industry; (2) investigations of three non-blocking techniques for EVA sheet; (3) performed an economic analysis of the high volume production of each pottant in order to estimate the large volume selling price (EVA, EPDM, aliphatic urethane, PVC plastisol, and butyl acrylate); (4) initiated an experimental corrosion protection program to determine if metal components could be successfully protected by encapsulation; (5) began an investigation to determine the maximum temperature which can be tolerated by the candidate pottant material in the event of hot spot heating or other temperature override; (6) continuation of surveys of potentially useful outer cover materials; and (7) continued with the accelerated artificial weathering of candidate encapsulation materials. Study results are presented. (WHK)

Willis, P. B.; Baum, B.; Schnitzer, H. S.

1980-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

332

Identification and origin of Delta sup 8(14) 5. alpha. - and. Delta. sup 14 5. alpha. -sterenes and related hydrocarbons in an immature bitumen from the Monterey Formation, California  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The aliphatic hydrocarbon fraction of an immature Monterey bitumen contains a high relative abundance of C{sub 27}-C{sub 29} {Delta}{sup 4}, {Delta}{sup 5}, {Delta}{sup 8(14)} 5{alpha}- and {Delta}{sup 14} 5{alpha}-sterenes, each having a very similar carbon number distribution. This is the first report of abundant {Delta}{sup 8(14)} 5{alpha}- and {Delta}{sup 14} 5{alpha}-sterenes in an immature sediment. The {Delta}{sup 4} and {Delta}{sup 5} sterenes appear to originate directly from {Delta}{sup 5} sterols. For the Delta{sup 8(14)} 5{alpha}-sterenes the authors propose an origin from {Delta}{sup 7} 5{alpha}-sterols which may be derived from a microbial transformation of {Delta}{sup 5} sterols. The presence of 5{alpha}- and 5{beta}-steranes in an unusual ratio of ca. 55:45 suggests the formation of a high abundance of 5{beta}-stanols via the known microbial reduction pathway of {Delta}{sup 5} sterols.

Peakman, T.M. (Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH (Germany)); Leeuw, J.W. de; Rijpstra, W.I.C. (Delft Univ. of Technology (Netherlands))

1992-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

333

Regioselective thermolysis of 1,4-diphenylbutane enhanced by restricted radical mobility  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Thermal decomposition of coal has been postulated to involve the formation of free radicals by processes such as the homolysis of aliphatic or ether-containing bridges which connect polycyclic aromatic units into a macromolecular structure. Understanding the thermal reactivity of coal is important in the study of pyrolysis, liquefaction, and coking. Mechanistic insights into the chemical reactivity of coal at the molecular level can be gained from the study of model compounds which represent structural features in coal. However, radicals generated in a cross-linked macromolecular material such as coal may experience restricted mobility when the radical center remains bound to the residual molecular structure. To model the effects of restricted radical mobility on thermally induced decomposition reactions, thermolyses of model compounds covalently attached to an inert support have been studied. Thermolysis of surface-immobilized 1,2-diphenylethane showed a substantially altered free radical reaction pathway compared with the corresponding liquid phase behavior, while thermolysis of surface-immobilized 1,3-diphenylpropane ({approximately}DPP) showed unexpected regioselectivity resulting from conformational restrictions on hydrogen transfer reactions as the surface coverage of {approximately}DPP decreased. In order to further explore the regionselectivity of hydrogen transfer induced by restricted diffusion, the thermolysis of surface-immobilized 1,4-diphenylbutane ({approximately}DPB) is being examined.

Britt, P.F.; Buchanan, A.C. III; Biggs, C.A. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA))

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

334

Thermolysis of surface-attached 1,3-diphenylpropane: impact of surface immobilization on thermal reaction mechanisms  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Attempts to understand the thermal chemistry of coal at the molecular level are severely complicated by its inherent properties: a diverse array of structural units (e.g., aromatic, hydroaromatic, and heterocyclic aromatic clusters connected by short aliphatic and ether links) and functional groups (e.g., phenolic hydroxyls, carboxyls, and basic nitrogens) in a cross-linked macromolecular framework with no repeating units. One simplifying experimental approach has been the study of individual model compounds that highlight structural features in coal. We are studying the thermolysis of model compounds that are immobilized by covalent attachment to an inert surface. Previous studies of surface-immobilized bibenzyl (1,2-diphenylethane) showed that immobilization can profoundly alter free-radical reaction pathways compared with the corresponding fluid phase behavior. In particular, free-radical chain pathways became dominant decay routes leading to rearrangement, cyclization, and hydrogenolysis of the bibenzyl groups. In this paper we describe preliminary results on the effects of surface immobilization on the thermolysis of 1,3-diphenylpropane, whose fluid phase behavior has been extensively investigated.

Buchanan, A.C. III; Biggs, C.A.

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

335

Role of solid-state interactions in the acid-catalyzed thermolysis of surface-attached diphenylalkanes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The cross-linked, network structure of coal may impose constraints on conventional reaction mechanisms as a consequence of restricted mass transport. We have examined this phenomenon for thermal reactions through the study of model compounds that are covalently anchored to an inert silica surface (1). We have now initiated studies that employ these immobilized model compounds as solid-state probes in modeling fundamental aspects of catalyzed, heterogeneous reactions of coal. There have been numerous recent reports on the development of unsupported, highly dispersed catalysts for improving the conversion and product selectivity in coal liquefaction (2,3) and hydropyrolysis (4). A potential advantage of such dispersed catalysts is the improved contact between the coal, solvent vehicle if present, hydrogen gas, and the catalyst surface, particularly when catalysts with very small particle sizes can be generated. In this paper, we report initial results from a model system that begins to address the mechanistic question of if, in the early stages of coal dissolution, significant activation of solid coal particles by solid catalyst can occur. For this study, surface-immobilized 1,3-diphenylpropane ({approx}DPP) has been employed as a model for related trimethylene (and longer) aliphatic linking groups between aromatic clusters in coal, and its reactivity in the presence of a dispersed aluminosilicate at 310--375{degree}C has been investigated. 8 refs., 2 figs.

Buchanan, A.C. III; Britt, P.F.; Biggs, C.A.

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

336

Thermolysis of surface-attached 1,3-diphenylpropane: Impact of surface immobilization on thermal reaction mechanisms  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Attempts to understand the thermal chemistry of coal at the molecular level are severely complicated by its inherent properties: a diverse array of structural units (e.g., aromatic, hydroaromatic, and heterocyclic aromatic clusters connected by short aliphatic and ether links) and functional groups (e.g., phenolic hydroxyls, carboxyls, and basic nitrogens) in a cross-linked macromolecular framework with no repeating units. One simplifying experimental approach has been the study of individual model compounds that highlight structural features in coal. A complicating feature in the interpretive extrapolation of model compound behavior to coal is the possible modifications in free-radical reactivity patterns resulting from restricted translational mobility in the coal where breaking one bond in the macromolecular structure will result in radical centers that are still attached to the residual framework. We are modeling this phenomenon by studying the thermolysis of model compounds that are immobilized by covalent attachment to an inert surface. Previous studies of surface-immobilized bibenzyl (1,2-diphenylethane) showed that immobilization can profoundly alter free-radical reaction pathways compared with the corresponding fluid phase behavior. In particular, free-radical chain pathways became dominant decay routes leading to rearrangement, cyclization, and hydrogenolysis of the bibenzyl groups. In this paper we describe preliminary results on the effects of surface immobilization on the thermolysis of 1,3-diphenylpropane, whose fluid phase behavior has been extensively investigated. 9 refs., 1 fig.

Buchanan, A.C. III; Biggs, C.A.

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

337

Inhalation developmental toxicology studies: Teratology study of acetone in mice and rats: Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Acetone, an aliphatic ketone, is a ubiquitous industrial solvent and chemical intermediate; consequently, the opportunity for human exposure is high. The potential for acetone to cause developmental toxicity was assessed in Sprague-Dawley rats exposed to 0, 440, 2200, or 11000 ppm, and in Swiss (CD-1) mice exposed to 0, 440, 2200, and 6600 ppm acetone vapors, 6 h/day, 7 days/week. Each of the four treatment groups consisted of 10 virgin females (for comparison), and approx.32 positively mated rats or mice. Positively mated mice were exposed on days 6-17 of gestation (dg), and rats on 6-19 dg. The day of plug or sperm detection was designated as 0 dg. Body weights were obtained throughout the study period, and uterine and fetal body weights were obtained at sacrifice (rats, 20 dg; mice, 18 dg). Implants were enumerated and their status recorded. Live fetuses were sexed and examined for gross, visceral, skeletal, and soft-tissue craniofacial defects. 46 refs., 6 figs., 27 tabs.

Mast, T.J.; Evanoff, J.J.; Rommereim, R.L.; Stoney, K.H.; Weigel, R.J.; Westerberg, R.B.

1988-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

338

Commercial-scale demonstration of the Liquid Phase Methanol (LPMEOH{trademark}) Process. Peroxide formation of dimethyl ether in methanol mixtures  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Organic peroxides could form when dimethyl ether in methanol is stored for three to six months at a time. The objective of this work was to determine the level of peroxide formation from dimethyl ether in reagent grade methanol and raw methanol at room temperature under 3 atmospheres (45 psig) of air. Raw methanol is methanol made from syngas by the LPMEOH Process without distillation. Aliphatic ethers tend to react slowly with oxygen from the air to form unstable peroxides. However, there are no reports on peroxide formation from dimethyl ether. After 172 days of testing, dimethyl ether in either reagent methanol or raw methanol at room temperature and under 60--70 psig pressure of air does not form detectable peroxides. Lack of detectable peroxides suggests that dimethyl ether or dimethyl ether and methanol may be stored at ambient conditions. Since the compositions of {approximately} 1.3 mol% or {approximately} 4.5 mol% dimethyl ether in methanol do not form peroxides, these compositions can be considered for diesel fuel or an atmospheric turbine fuel, respectively.

Waller, F.J.

1997-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

339

Yellow phosphorus process to convert toxic chemicals to non-toxic products  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention relates to a process for generating reactive species for destroying toxic chemicals. This process first contacts air or oxygen with aqueous emulsions of molten yellow phosphorus. This contact results in rapid production of abundant reactive species such as O, O[sub 3], PO, PO[sub 2], etc. A gaseous or liquid aqueous solution organic or inorganic chemicals is next contacted by these reactive species to reduce the concentration of toxic chemical and result in a non-toxic product. The final oxidation product of yellow phosphorus is phosphoric acid of a quality which can be recovered for commercial use. A process is developed such that the byproduct, phosphoric acid, is obtained without contamination of toxic species in liquids treated. A gas stream containing ozone without contamination of phosphorus containing species is also obtained in a simple and cost-effective manner. This process is demonstrated to be effective for destroying many types of toxic organic, or inorganic, compounds, including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB), aromatic chlorides, amines, alcohols, acids, nitro aromatics, aliphatic chlorides, polynuclear aromatic compounds (PAH), dyes, pesticides, sulfides, hydroxyamines, ureas, dithionates and the like. 20 figs.

Chang, S.G.

1994-07-26T23:59:59.000Z

340

Complexation of N4-Tetradentate Ligands with Nd(III) and Am(III)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

To improve understanding of aza-complexants in trivalent actinide–lanthanide separations, a series of tetradentate N-donor ligands have been synthesized and their complexation of americium(III) and neodymium(III) investigated by UV–visible spectrophotometry in methanolic solutions. The six pyridine/alkyl amine/imine ligands are N,N0-bis(2-methylpyridyl)-1,2-diaminoethane, N,N0-bis(2-methylpyridyl)-1,3-diaminopropane, trans-N,N-bis(2-pyridylmethyl)-1,2-diaminocyclohexane (BPMDAC), N,N’-bis(2-pyridylmethyl)piperazine, N,N’-bis-[pyridin-2-ylmethylene]ethane-1,2-diamine, and trans-N,Nbis-([pyridin-2-ylmethylene]-cyclohexane-1,2-diamine. Each ligand has two pyridine groups and two aliphatic amine/imine N-donor atoms arranged with different degrees of preorganization and structural backbone rigidity. Conditional stability constants for the complexes of Am(III) and Nd(III) by these ligands establish the selectivity patterns. The overall selectivity of Am(III) over Nd(III) is similar to that reported for the terdentate bis(dialkyltriazinyl)pyridine molecules. The cyclohexane amine derivative (BPMDAC) is the strongest complexant and shows the highest selectivity for Am(III) over Nd(III) while the imines appear to prefer a bridging arrangement between two cations. These results suggest that this series of ligands could be employed to develop an enhanced actinide(III)– lanthanide(III) separation system.

Ogden, Mark D.; Sinkov, Sergey I.; Meier, G. Patrick; Lumetta, Gregg J.; Nash, Kenneth L.

2012-12-06T23:59:59.000Z

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341

Microwave pyrolysis of distillers dried grain with solubles (DDGS) for biofuel production  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Microwave pyrolysis of distillers dried grain with solubles (DDGS) was investigated to determine the effects of pyrolytic conditions on the yields of bio-oil, syngas, and biochar. Pyrolysis process variables included reaction temperature, time, and power input. Microwave pyrolysis of DDGS was analyzed using response surface methodology to ?nd out the effect of process variables on the biofuel (bio-oil and syn- gas) conversion yield and establish prediction models. Bio-oil recovery was in the range of 26.5–50.3 wt.% of the biomass. Biochar yields were 23.5–62.2% depending on the pyrolysis conditions. The energy con- tent of DDGS bio-oils was 28 MJ/kg obtained at the 650 oC and 8 min, which was about 66.7% of the heat- ing value of gasoline. GC/MS analysis indicated that the biooil contained a series of important and useful chemical compounds: aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons. At least 13% of DDGS bio-oil was the same hydrocarbon compounds found in regular unleaded gasoline.

Lei, Hanwu; Ren, Shoujie; Wang, Lu; Bu, Quan; Julson, James; Holladay, Johnathan E.; Ruan, Roger

2011-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

342

Molecular Characterization of Organosulfates in Organic Aerosols from Shanghai and Los Angeles Urban Areas by Nanospray-Desorption Electrospray Ionization High-Resolution Mass Spectrometry  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Aerosol samples collected in the urban areas of Shanghai and Los Angeles were analyzed by nanospray-desorption electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (nano-DESI MS) with high mass resolution (m/?m=100,000). Solvent mixtures of acetonitrile/water and acetonitrile/toluene were used to extract and ionize polar and non-polar compounds, respectively. A diverse mixture of oxygenated hydrocarbons, organosulfates, organonitrates, and organics with reduced nitrogen were detected in the Los Angeles sample. Majority of the organics in the Shanghai sample were detected as organosulfates. The dominant organosulfates in the two samples have distinctly different molecular characteristics. Specifically, organosulfates in the Los Angeles sample were dominated by isoprene- or monoterpene-derived products, while organosulfates of yet unknown origin in the Shanghai sample had distinctive characteristics of long aliphatic carbon chains and low degree of oxidation and unsaturation. The use of acetonitrile/toluene solvent facilitated identification of this type of organosulfates, suggesting they could be missed in previous studies relying on sample extraction using common polar solvents. The high molecular weight and low degree of unsaturation and oxidization of the organosulfates detected in the Shanghai sample suggest that they may act as surfactants, and plausibly affect the surface tension and hygroscopicity of the atmospheric particulate matter. We propose that direct esterification of carbonyl or hydroxyl compounds by sulfates or sulfuric acid in liquid phase could be the formation pathway of these special organosulfates. Long-chain alkanes from vehicle emissions might be their precursors.

Tao, Shikang; Lu, Xiaohui; Levac, Nicole A.; Bateman, Adam P.; Nguyen, Tran B.; Bones, David L.; Nizkorodov, Sergey; Laskin, Julia; Laskin, Alexander; Yang, Xin

2014-08-21T23:59:59.000Z

343

Electron localization in liquid acetonitrile.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Time-resolved one- and two-pulse laser dc photoconductivity has been used to observe two kinds of reducing species, anion-1 and anion-2, in liquid acetonitrile. At 25 C, the standard enthalpy of conversion from anion-1 to anion-2 is -44.3 {+-} 3.6 kJ/mol and the conversion time is 3 ns. The high-temperature form, anion-1, absorbs in the IR and migrates >3.3 times faster than any other ion in acetonitrile. This rapid migration has a low activation energy of 3.2 kJ/mol (vs 7.6 kJ/mol for other ions). Anion-1 rapidly transfers the electron to acceptors with high electron affinity, with rate constant up to 10{sup 11} M{sup -1} s{sup -1}. The low-temperature form, anion-2, absorbs in the visible and exhibits normal mobility and electron-transfer rates, ca. 1.5 x 10{sup 10} M{sup -1} s{sup -1}. It reacts, by proton transfer, with two hydrogen-bonded molecules of water and/or aliphatic alcohols. Laser photoexcitation of these two solvent anions in their respective absorption bands leads to the formation of CH{sub 3} and CN{sup -}. We present arguments indicating that anion-2 is a dimer radical anion of acetonitrile, whereas anion-1 is a multimer radical anion that may be regarded as a 'solvated electron'.

Shkrob, I. A.; Sauer, M. C.; Chemistry

2002-10-03T23:59:59.000Z

344

Effect of Ligands on Characteristics of (CdSe)13 Quantum Dot  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The widespread applications of quantum dots (QDs) have spurred an increasing interest in the study of their coating ligands, which can not only protect the electronic structures of the central QDs, but also control their permeability through biological membranes with both size and shape. In this work, we have used density functional theory (DFT) to investigate the electronic structures of (CdSe)13 passivated by OPMe2(CH2)nMe ligands with different lengths and various numbers of branches (Me=methyl group, n = 0, 1-3). Our results show that the absorption peak in the ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) spectra displays a clear blue-shift, on the scale of ~100 nm, upon the binding of ligands. Once the total number of ligands bound with (CdSe)13 reached a saturated number (9 or 10), no more blue-shift occurred in the absorption peak in the UV-vis spectra. On the other hand, the aliphatic chain length of ligands has a negligible effect on the optical properties of the QD core. Analyses of the bonding characteristics confirm that optical transitions are dominantly governed by the central QD core rather than the organic passivation. Interestingly, the density of states (DOS) share similar characteristics as vibrational spectra, even though there is no coordination vibration mode between the ligands and the central QD. These findings might provide insights on the material design for the passivation of quantum dots for biomedical applications.

Gao, Yang; Zhou, Bo; Kang, Seung-gu; Xin, Minsi; Yang, Ping; Dai, Xing; Wang, Zhigang; Zhou, Ruhong

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

345

Predictors of plasticity in bituminous coals. Technical progress report No. 6  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We have completed the pyrolysis/gas chromatographic analysis of all 40 coals in the present study, at two temperatures, 450/sup 0/ and 650/sup 0/C. We have also completed triplicate quantitative extraction analyses of all 40 coals, using tetrahydrofuran as the extractant solvent, and have completed a parallel set of extractions using N,N-dimethylformamide as the extractant solvent. In addition, we have completed analysis of over 100 additional isothermal Gieseler plastometer runs, and have made the first series of quantitative estimates of H(aromatic)/H(aliphatic) ratios from Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy data. Exploratory work has begun on the petrographic characterization of the semi-coke residues from Gieseler plastometer runs, and also in characterizing THF extracts by thin layer chromatography and by column chromatography (quantitative group separations). Proximate, ultimate and petrographic characterization of the 40 coals has been completed previously. We are now prepared to start a study, using freshly re-sampled coals, of the effects of varying pressure upon the several parameters of fluidity.

Lloyd, W.G.; Reasoner, J.W.; Hower, J.C.; Yates, L.P.; Bowling, C.C.; Davis, E.; Fitzpatrick, A.; Whitt, J.M.

1983-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

346

The Molecular Structure of a Phosphatidylserine Bilayer Determined by Scattering and Molecular Dynamics Simulations  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Phosphatidylserine (PS) lipids play essential roles in biological processes, including enzyme activation and apoptosis. We report on the molecular structure and atomic scale interactions of a fluid bilayer composed of 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphatidylserine (POPS). A scattering density profile model, aided by molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, was developed to jointly refine different contrast small-angle neutron and X-ray scattering data, which yielded a lipid area of 62.7 A2 at 25 C. MD simulations with POPS lipid area constrained at different values were also performed using all-atom and aliphatic united-atom models. The optimal simulated bilayer was obtained using a model-free comparison approach. Examination of the simulated bilayer, which agrees best with the experimental scattering data, reveals a preferential interaction between Na+ ions and the terminal serine and phosphate moieties. Long-range inter-lipid interactions were identified, primarily between the positively charged ammonium, and the negatively charged carboxylic and phosphate oxygens. The area compressibility modulus KA of the POPS bilayer was derived by quantifying lipid area as a function of surface tension from area-constrained MD simulations. It was found that POPS bilayers possess a much larger KA than that of neutral phosphatidylcholine lipid bilayers. We propose that the unique molecular features of POPS bilayers may play an important role in certain physiological functions.

Pan, Jianjun [University of South Florida, Tampa (USF)] [University of South Florida, Tampa (USF); Cheng, Xiaolin [ORNL] [ORNL; Monticelli, Luca [Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale (INSERM) and INTS, France] [Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale (INSERM) and INTS, France; Heberle, Frederick A [ORNL] [ORNL; Kucerka, Norbert [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL), Canadian Neutron Beam Centre (CNBC) and Comenius University,] [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL), Canadian Neutron Beam Centre (CNBC) and Comenius University,; Tieleman, D. Peter [University of Calgary, ALberta, Canada] [University of Calgary, ALberta, Canada; Katsaras, John [ORNL] [ORNL

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

347

Yellow phosphorus process to convert toxic chemicals to non-toxic products  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention relates to a process for generating reactive species for destroying toxic chemicals. This process first contacts air or oxygen with aqueous emulsions of molten yellow phosphorus. This contact results in rapid production of abundant reactive species such as O, O.sub.3, PO, PO.sub.2, etc. A gaseous or liquid aqueous solution organic or inorganic chemicals is next contacted by these reactive species to reduce the concentration of toxic chemical and result in a non-toxic product. The final oxidation product of yellow phosphorus is phosphoric acid of a quality which can be recovered for commercial use. A process is developed such that the byproduct, phosphoric acid, is obtained without contamination of toxic species in liquids treated. A gas stream containing ozone without contamination of phosphorus containing species is also obtained in a simple and cost-effective manner. This process is demonstrated to be effective for destroying many types of toxic organic, or inorganic, compounds, including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB), aromatic chlorides, amines, alcohols, acids, nitro aromatics, aliphatic chlorides, polynuclear aromatic compounds (PAH), dyes, pesticides, sulfides, hydroxyamines, ureas, dithionates and the like.

Chang, Shih-Ger (El Cerrito, CA)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

348

ON THE EXCITATION AND FORMATION OF CIRCUMSTELLAR FULLERENES  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We compare and analyze the Spitzer mid-infrared spectrum of three fullerene-rich planetary nebulae in the Milky Way and the Magellanic Clouds: Tc1, SMP SMC 16, and SMP LMC 56. The three planetary nebulae share many spectroscopic similarities. The strongest circumstellar emission bands correspond to the infrared active vibrational modes of the fullerene species C{sub 60} and little or no emission is present from polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. The strengths of the fullerene bands in the three planetary nebulae are very similar, while the ratios of the [Ne III]15.5 {mu}m/[Ne II]12.8 {mu}m fine structure lines, an indicator of the strength of the radiation field, are markedly different. This raises questions about their excitation mechanism and we compare the fullerene emission to fluorescent and thermal models. In addition, the spectra show other interesting and common features, most notably in the 6-9 {mu}m region, where a broad plateau with substructure dominates the emission. These features have previously been associated with mixtures of aromatic/aliphatic hydrocarbon solids. We hypothesize on the origin of this band, which is likely related to the fullerene formation mechanism, and compare it with modeled hydrogenated amorphous carbon that present emission in this region.

Bernard-Salas, J.; Jones, A. P. [Institut d'Astrophysique Spatiale, CNRS/Universite Paris-Sud 11, F-91405 Orsay (France); Cami, J.; Peeters, E.; Micelotta, E. R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, The University of Western Ontario, London, ON N6A 3K7 (Canada); Groenewegen, M. A. T., E-mail: jbernard@ias.u-psud.fr [Royal Observatory of Belgium, Ringlaan 3, B-1180 Brussels (Belgium)

2012-09-20T23:59:59.000Z

349

Yellow perch embryo-larval survival and growth in surface waters associated with oil-sands mining  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

As part of their land reclamation strategy, Syncrude Canada Ltd. is currently developing environmentally acceptable tailings disposal methods. Fine tailings, a suspension of clay and residual bitumen, is the waste product from oil sands extraction. Fine-tailings contain naphthenic acids, a group of saturated aliphatic and alicyclic carboxylic acids, which occur naturally in petroleum and are partly responsible for the toxicity of process water. The wet landscape method involves covering fine tails with a layer of water such that a self-sustaining ecosystem can be established. A 5 ha demonstration pond with a bottom of fine-tailings was constructed and stocked with yellow perch for experimental purposes. Two other reclaimed ponds formed with oil-sands overburden material were also stocked with perch. Adult perch sampled in the fall of 1995 from the experimental and reclaimed ponds exhibited a 2-fold induction of MFO activity compared to the source lake; indicating organic compound exposure. Perch from one of the reclaimed ponds showed significantly reduced circulating reproductive hormone levels, gonad size and smaller ovarian follicles. Reproductive parameters were not different between the source lake and the remaining ponds. Paired lab and field experiments were conducted to determine if contaminants present would be detrimental to egg viability and development of larvae either through direct exposure of spawned eggs or indirectly by effecting oogenesis. An early life stage toxicity test was also performed using commercially available naphthenic acid standard. Endpoints measured were percent fertilization, percent hatch, mortality, deformities, timing of developmental periods and larval growth.

Peters, L.E.; Heuvel, M.R. van den; Dixon, D.G. [Univ. of Waterloo, Ontario (Canada); Power, M. [Univ. of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba (Canada); Boerger, H.; MacKinnon, M.D.; Meer, T. Van [Syncrude Canada, Fort McMurray, Alberta (Canada)

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

350

Clean, premium-quality chars: Demineralized and carbon enriched. Final technical report, 1 September, 1992--31 August, 1993  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The overall objective of this two-year project was to evaluate methods of preparing demineralized and carbon enriched chars from Illinois Basin coals. The two processing steps, physical cleaning and devolatilization under different environments, led to the following results. Cleaning coal incompletely removes mineral matter which decreases catalytic activity and increases micropore structure. Water forms hydrogen bonds to oxygen functional groups in coal, and during drying, coals undergo structural changes which affect mild gasification. When methane reacts wit coal, devolatilization and carbon deposition occur, the rates of which depend on temperature and amount of ash. Thermal decomposition of IBC-101 coal starts at 300 C, which is much lower than previously believed, but maximum yields of liquids occur at 500 C for IBC-101 coal and at 550 C for IBC-102 coal. Aliphatic-to-aromatic ratios increase with increasing pyrolysis temperatures to 300 C and then decrease; therefore, liquids formed during gasification of 550 C or higher contain mainly aromatic compounds. Btu values of chars are higher after methane treatment than after helium treatment.

Smith, G.V.; Malhotra, V.M.; Wiltowski, T. [Southern Illinois Univ., Carbondale, IL (United States)

1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

351

BIOTIGER, A NATURAL MICROBIAL PRODUCT FOR ENHANCED HYDROCARBON RECOVERY FROM OIL SANDS.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

BioTiger{trademark} is a unique microbial consortia that resulted from over 8 years of extensive microbiology screening and characterization of samples collected from a century-old Polish waste lagoon. BioTiger{trademark} shows rapid and complete degradation of aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons, produces novel surfactants, is tolerant of both chemical and metal toxicity and shows good activity at temperature and pH extremes. Although originally developed and used by the U.S. Department of Energy for bioremediation of oil-contaminated soils, recent efforts have proven that BioTiger{trademark} can also be used to increase hydrocarbon recovery from oil sands. This enhanced ex situ oil recovery process utilizes BioTiger{trademark} to optimize bitumen separation. A floatation test protocol with oil sands from Ft. McMurray, Canada was used for the BioTiger{trademark} evaluation. A comparison of hot water extraction/floatation test of the oil sands performed with BioTiger{trademark} demonstrated a 50% improvement in separation as measured by gravimetric analysis in 4 h and a five-fold increase at 25 hr. Since BioTiger{trademark} performs well at high temperatures and process engineering can enhance and sustain metabolic activity, it can be applied to enhance recovery of hydrocarbons from oil sands or other complex recalcitrant matrices.

Brigmon, R; Topher Berry, T; Whitney Jones, W; Charles Milliken, C

2008-05-27T23:59:59.000Z

352

Influence of Carbon Sources and Electron Shuttles on Ferric Iron Reduction by Cellulomonas sp. Strain ES6  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Microbially reduced iron minerals can reductively transform a variety of contaminants including heavy metals, radionuclides, chlorinated aliphatics, and nitroaromatics. A number of Cellulomonas spp. strains, including strain ES6, isolated from aquifer samples obtained at the U.S. Department of Energy's Hanford site in Washington, have been shown to be capable of reducing Cr(VI), TNT, natural organic matter, and soluble ferric iron [Fe(III)]. This research investigated the ability of Cellulomonas sp. strain ES6 to reduce solid phase and dissolved Fe(III) utilizing different carbon sources and various electron shuttling compounds. Results suggest that Fe(III) reduction by and growth of strain ES6 was dependent upon the type of electron donor, the form of iron present, and the presence of synthetic or natural organic matter, such as anthraquinone-2,6-disulfonate (AQDS) or humic substances. This research suggests that Cellulomonas sp. strain ES6 could play a significant role in metal reduction in the Hanford subsurface and that the choice of carbon source and organic matter addition can allow for independent control of growth and iron reduction activity.

Dr Robin Gerlach; Erin K. Field; Sridhar Viamajala; Brent M. Peyton; William A. Apel; Al B. Cunningham

2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

353

Separation and structure elucidation of coal molecule fragments. Final report, February 1, 1976-August 31, 1979  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Separation and identification of the polynuclear aromatic and aliphatic fractions of solvent-refined coal and its recycle oil were performed using a combination of solvent partition and chromatographic fractionation procedures with glass-capillary gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Chromatographic profiles were generated for each fraction and some semiquantitative data were also obtained. In total, 146 polynuclear aromatic components of SRC were tentatively identified by their molecular weights, as indicated by the mass spectra of the gas chromatography peaks. In addition, wherever possible, specific isomers have been indicated, based on comparison of spectral characteristics and retention data. Separation and identification of nitrogen-containing aromatics of the recycle oil of SRC was accomplished with a combination solvent partition and capillary gas chromatography with deactivated glass columns. High-precision retention measurements of known pyridine and quinoline derivatives are reported, utilizing parent aza-arenes as retention standards. Both precisely measured retention data and mass spectral information combined lead to positive identification of some compounds in SRC samples. A total of 48 two-membered or three-membered aza-arenes have been tentatively identified in the recycle oil.

Schultz, R V; Jorgenson, J W; Maskarinec, M P; Kump, R L; Marli, F; Novotny, M; Todd, L J

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

354

Process for hydrocracking carbonaceous material in liquid carrier  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Solid carbonaceous material is hydrocracked to provide aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons for use as gaseous and liquid fuels or chemical feed stock. Particulate carbonaceous material such as coal in slurry with recycled product oil is preheated in liquid state to a temperature of 600.degree.-1200.degree. F. in the presence of hydrogen gas. The product oil acts as a sorbing agent for the agglomerating bitumins to minimize caking within the process. In the hydrocracking reactor, the slurry of oil and carbonaceous particles is heated within a tubular passageway to vaporize the oil and form a gas-solid mixture which is further heated to a hydropyrolysis temperature in excess of 1200.degree. F. The gas-solid mixture is quenched by contact with additional oil to condense normally liquid hydrocarbons for separation from the gases. A fraction of the hydrocarbon liquid product is recycled for quenching and slurrying with the carbonaceous feed. Hydrogen is recovered from the gas for recycle and additional hydrogen is produced by gasification of residual char.

Duncan, Dennis A. (Downers Grove, IL)

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

355

A Synthetic Resilin Is Largely Unstructured  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Proresilin is the precursor protein for resilin, an extremely elastic, hydrated, cross-linked insoluble protein found in insects. We investigated the secondary-structure distribution in solution of a synthetic proresilin (AN16), based on 16 units of the consensus proresilin repeat from Anopheles gambiae. Raman spectroscopy was used to verify that the secondary-structure distributions in cross-linked AN16 resilin and in AN16 proresilin are similar, and hence that solution techniques (such as NMR and circular dichroism) may be used to gain information about the structure of the cross-linked solid. The synthetic proresilin AN16 is an intrinsically unstructured protein, displaying under native conditions many of the characteristics normally observed in denatured proteins. There are no apparent {alpha}-helical or {beta}-sheet features in the NMR spectra, and the majority of backbone protons and carbons exhibit chemical shifts characteristic of random-coil configurations. Relatively few peaks are observed in the nuclear Overhauser effect spectra, indicating that overall the protein is dynamic and unstructured. The radius of gyration of AN16 corresponds to the value expected for a denatured protein of similar chain length. This high degree of disorder is also consistent with observed circular dichroism and Raman spectra. The temperature dependences of the NH proton chemical shifts were also measured. Most values were indicative of protons exposed to water, although smaller dependences were observed for glycine and alanine within the Tyr-Gly-Ala-Pro sequence conserved in all resilins found to date, which is the site of dityrosine cross-link formation. This result implies that these residues are involved in hydrogen bonds, possibly to enable efficient self-association and subsequent cross-linking. The {beta}-spiral model for elastic proteins, where the protein is itself shaped like a spring, is not supported by the results for AN16. Both the random-network elastomer model and the sliding {beta}-turn model are consistent with the data. The results indicate a flat energy landscape for AN16, with very little energy required to switch between conformations. This ease of switching is likely to lead to the extremely low energy loss on deformation of resilin.

Nairn, Kate M.; Lyons, Russell E.; Mulder, Roger J.; Mudie, Stephen T.; Cookson, David J.; Lesieur, Emmanuelle; Kim, Misook; Lau, Deborah; Scholes, Fiona H.; Elvin, Christopher M. (CSIRO/MSE); (CSIRO/MHT); (CSIRO/LI); (Aust. Synch.)

2008-11-03T23:59:59.000Z

356

Passivation of fluorinated activated charcoal  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Molten Salt Reactor Experiment (MSRE), at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory has been shut down since 1969 when the fuel salt was drained from the core into two Hastelloy N tanks at the reactor site. In 1995, a multiyear project was launched to remediate the potentially hazardous conditions generated by the movement of fissile material and reactive gases from the storage tanks into the piping system and an auxiliary charcoal bed (ACB). The top 12 in. of the ACB is known by gamma scan and thermal analysis to contain about 2.6 kg U-233. According to the laboratory tests, a few feet of fluorinated charcoal are believed to extend beyond the uranium front. The remainder of the ACB should consist of unreacted charcoal. Fluorinated charcoal, when subjected to rapid heating, can decompose generating gaseous products. Under confined conditions, the sudden exothermic decomposition can produce high temperatures and pressures of near-explosive characteristics. Since it will be necessary to drill and tap the ACB to allow installation of piping and instrumentation for remediation and recovery activities, it is necessary to chemically convert the reactive fluorinated charcoal into a more stable material. Ammonia can be administered to the ACB as a volatile denaturing agent that results in the conversion of the C{sub x}F to carbon and ammonium fluoride, NH{sub 4}F. The charcoal laden with NH{sub 4}F can then be heated without risking any sudden decomposition. The only consequence of heating the treated material will be the volatilization of NH{sub 4}F as a mixture of NH{sub 3} and HF, which would primarily recombine as NH{sub 4}F on surfaces below 200 C. The planned scheme for the ACB denaturing is to flow diluted ammonia gas in steps of increasing NH{sub 3} concentration, 2% to 50%, followed by the injection of pure ammonia. This report summarizes the planned passivation treatment scheme to stabilize the ACB and remove the potential hazards. It also includes basic information, results of laboratory tests, thermodynamic calculations, process description, and operational parameters, and addresses safety concerns.

Del Cul, G.D.; Trowbridge, L.D.; Simmons, D.W.; Williams, D.F.; Toth, L.M.

1997-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

357

Magnetic nanoparticles for applications in oscillating magnetic field  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Enzymatic and thermochemical catalysis are both important industrial processes. However, the thermal requirements for each process often render them mutually exclusive: thermochemical catalysis requires high temperature that denatures enzymes. One of the long-term goals of this project is to design a thermocatalytic system that could be used with enzymatic systems in situ to catalyze reaction sequences in one pot; this system would be useful for numerous applications e.g. conversion of biomass to biofuel and other commodity products. The desired thermocatalytic system would need to supply enough thermal energy to catalyze thermochemical reactions, while keeping the enzymes from high temperature denaturation. Magnetic nanoparticles are known to generate heat in an oscillating magnetic field through mechanisms including hysteresis and relaxational losses. We envisioned using these magnetic nanoparticles as the local heat source embedded in sub-micron size mesoporous support to spatially separate the particles from the enzymes. In this study, we set out to find the magnetic materials and instrumental conditions that are sufficient for this purpose. Magnetite was chosen as the first model magnetic material in this study because of its high magnetization values, synthetic control over particle size, shape, functionalization and proven biocompatibility. Our experimental designs were guided by a series of theoretical calculations, which provided clues to the effects of particle size, size distribution, magnetic field, frequency and reaction medium. Materials of theoretically optimal size were synthesized, functionalized, and their effects in the oscillating magnetic field were subsequently investigated. Under our conditions, the materials that clustered e.g. silica-coated and PNIPAM-coated iron oxides exhibited the highest heat generation, while iron oxides embedded in MSNs and mesoporous iron oxides exhibited the least bulk heating. It is worth noting that the specific loss power of PNIPAM-coated Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} was peculiarly high, and the heat loss mechanism of this material remains to be elucidated. Since thermocatalysis is a long-term goal of this project, we also investigated the effects of the oscillating magnetic field system for the synthesis of 7-hydroxycoumarin-3-carboxylic acid. Application of an oscillating magnetic field in the presence of magnetic particles with high thermal response was found to effectively increase the reaction rate of the uncatalyzed synthesis of the coumarin derivative compared to the room temperature control.

Peeraphatdit, Chorthip

2010-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

358

Stabilisation of Na,K-ATPase structure by the cardiotonic steroid ouabain  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Highlights: •Ouabain binding to pig and shark Na,K-ATPase enhances thermal stability. •Ouabain stabilises both membrane-bound and solubilised Na,K-ATPase. •Synchrotron radiation circular dichroism is used for structure determination. •Secondary structure in general is not affected by ouabain binding. •Stabilisation is due to re-arrangement of tertiary structure. -- Abstract: Cardiotonic steroids such as ouabain bind with high affinity to the membrane-bound cation-transporting P-type Na,K-ATPase, leading to complete inhibition of the enzyme. Using synchrotron radiation circular dichroism spectroscopy we show that the enzyme-ouabain complex is less susceptible to thermal denaturation (unfolding) than the ouabain-free enzyme, and this protection is observed with Na,K-ATPase purified from pig kidney as well as from shark rectal glands. It is also shown that detergent-solubilised preparations of Na,K-ATPase are stabilised by ouabain, which could account for the successful crystallisation of Na,K-ATPase in the ouabain-bound form. The secondary structure is not significantly affected by the binding of ouabain. Ouabain appears however, to induce a reorganization of the tertiary structure towards a more compact protein structure which is less prone to unfolding; recent crystal structures of the two enzymes are consistent with this interpretation. These circular dichroism spectroscopic studies in solution therefore provide complementary information to that provided by crystallography.

Miles, Andrew J. [Institute of Structural and Molecular Biology, Birkbeck College, University of London, London WC1E 7HX (United Kingdom)] [Institute of Structural and Molecular Biology, Birkbeck College, University of London, London WC1E 7HX (United Kingdom); Fedosova, Natalya U. [Department of Biomedicine, Aarhus University, DK-8000 Aarhus (Denmark)] [Department of Biomedicine, Aarhus University, DK-8000 Aarhus (Denmark); Hoffmann, Søren V. [ISA, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Aarhus University, DK-8000 Aarhus (Denmark)] [ISA, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Aarhus University, DK-8000 Aarhus (Denmark); Wallace, B.A. [Institute of Structural and Molecular Biology, Birkbeck College, University of London, London WC1E 7HX (United Kingdom)] [Institute of Structural and Molecular Biology, Birkbeck College, University of London, London WC1E 7HX (United Kingdom); Esmann, Mikael, E-mail: me@biophys.au.dk [Department of Biomedicine, Aarhus University, DK-8000 Aarhus (Denmark)] [Department of Biomedicine, Aarhus University, DK-8000 Aarhus (Denmark)

2013-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

359

Renewal sequences, disordered potentials, and pinning phenomena  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We give an overview of the state of the art of the analysis of disordered models of pinning on a defect line. This class of models includes a number of well known and much studied systems (like polymer pinning on a defect line, wetting of interfaces on a disordered substrate and the Poland-Scheraga model of DNA denaturation). A remarkable aspect is that, in absence of disorder, all the models in this class are exactly solvable and they display a localization-delocalization transition that one understands in full detail. Moreover the behavior of such systems near criticality is controlled by a parameter and one observes, by tuning the parameter, the full spectrum of critical behaviors, ranging from first order to infinite order transitions. This is therefore an ideal set-up in which to address the question of the effect of disorder on the phase transition,notably on critical properties. We will review recent results that show that the physical prediction that goes under the name of Harris criterion is indeed fully correct for pinning models. Beyond summarizing the results, we will sketch most of the arguments of proof.

Giambattista Giacomin

2008-07-27T23:59:59.000Z

360

Relationship between rubisco sulfhydryl content and relative sensitivity of potato cultivars to ozone  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Ozone (O{sub 3}) induced a reduction in quantity of rubisco in potato foliage. In vitro, O{sub 3} predisposed purified rubisco to elevated proteolysis; reagents which protected sulfhydryl (SH) groups suppressed this effect. We hypothesized that rubisco SH content correlated directly with foliar O{sub 3} sensitivity. Rubisco was purified from Solanum tuberosum L. O{sub 3}-tolerant cv. Superior (SP) and Norgold Russet (NR), and O{sub 3}-susceptible cv. Norland (NL) and Cherokee (CK). When native rubisco was titrated with DTNB, protein of NL contained 1.33 and 1.26 times more SH groups than SP and NR, respectively. Rubisco from CK also contained more SH groups than SP and NR, but the difference was not significant. Rubisco of SP, NR and CK denatured by SDS exhibited identical number of SH groups, however, NL exhibited 1.15 times more SH groups. The greater number of SH groups in rubisco from NL versus SP and NR may explain its relative sensitivity to ozone. The role of SH groups in ozone-sensitivity of CK will require further study.

Enyedi, A.J.; Pell, E.J. (Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park (USA))

1989-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "denatured aliphatic alco" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

Santa Clara County Planar Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Demonstration Project  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Santa Clara County Planar Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (PSOFC) project demonstrated the technical viability of pre-commercial PSOFC technology at the County 911 Communications headquarters, as well as the input fuel flexibility of the PSOFC. PSOFC operation was demonstrated on natural gas and denatured ethanol. The Santa Clara County Planar Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (PSOFC) project goals were to acquire, site, and demonstrate the technical viability of a pre-commercial PSOFC technology at the County 911 Communications headquarters. Additional goals included educating local permit approval authorities, and other governmental entities about PSOFC technology, existing fuel cell standards and specific code requirements. The project demonstrated the Bloom Energy (BE) PSOFC technology in grid parallel mode, delivering a minimum 15 kW over 8760 operational hours. The PSOFC system demonstrated greater than 81% electricity availability and 41% electrical efficiency (LHV net AC), providing reliable, stable power to a critical, sensitive 911 communications system that serves geographical boundaries of the entire Santa Clara County. The project also demonstrated input fuel flexibility. BE developed and demonstrated the capability to run its prototype PSOFC system on ethanol. BE designed the hardware necessary to deliver ethanol into its existing PSOFC system. Operational parameters were determined for running the system on ethanol, natural gas (NG), and a combination of both. Required modeling was performed to determine viable operational regimes and regimes where coking could occur.

Fred Mitlitsky; Sara Mulhauser; David Chien; Deepak Shukla; David Weingaertner

2009-11-14T23:59:59.000Z

362

Changes in Rhodospirillum rubrum cytochrome c/sub 2/ and subsequent renaturation: An /sup 15/N NMR study  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The /sup 15/N-enriched ferrocytochrome c/sub 2/from Rhodospirillum rubrum was studied by /sup 15/N NMR at different solvent pH values. The mobility and chemical shift to the N-terminal glutamic acid (335.4 ppm at pH 5.1) were found to depend on pH. It was least mobile between pH 8 and 9.0, which is explained in terms of pH-dependent conformational changes and formation of salt linkages and/or hydrogen bonds. The resonances of the lysine side chains are centered around 341.7 ppm at low pH and move upfield with pH by about 8.4 ppm with pH/sub a/ values of 10.8. The exchange rates of the epsilonNH protons are lowest near the pK/sub a/ values. The protein is very stable in the pH range between 4.9 and 10.0 but unfolds abruptly at pH 10.5-11. Denaturation was verified by the measurement of several parameters by NMR. The renaturation of the protein demonstrates that the folding begins with reformation of home coordination and establishment of a hydrophobic core, followed by positioning of side chains and peptide backbones linking the nucleation centers. The repositioning processes had time scales of minutes to hours in contrast to the reported values of seconds in some studies.

Yu, L.P.; Smith, G.M.

1988-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

363

Cloning, sequence determination, and expression of the genes encoding the subunits of the nickel-containing 8-hydroxy-5-deazaflavin reducing hydrogenase from Methanobacterium thermoautotrophicum. Delta. H  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The genes frhA (1,217 bp), frhB (845 bp), and frhG (710 bp) encoding the three known subunits, {alpha}, {beta}, and {gamma}, of the 8-hydroxy-5-deazaflavin (F{sub 420}) reducing hydrogenase (FRH) from the thermophilic methanogen Methanobacterium thermoautotrophicum {Delta}H have been cloned, sequenced, and shown to be tightly linked, indicative of a single transcriptional unit. The DNA sequence contains a fourth open reading frame, designated frhD (476 bp), encoding a polypeptide ({delta}) that does not copurify with the active enzyme. Expression of the frh gene cluster in Escherichia coli shows that four polypeptides are synthesized. When analyzed by SDS-PAGE, the proteins migrate with mobilities consistent with their calculated molecular weights. In order to understand the mechanism of H{sub 2} oxidation by this enzyme, localization of redox cofactors (Ni, Fe/S, FAD) to specific subunits and information on their structure is needed. This has been hindered due to the refractory nature of the enzyme to denaturation methods needed in order to obtain individual subunits with cofactors intact. In this paper they discuss the possible localization of the redox cofactors as implicated from the DNA-derived protein sequences of the subunits. The amino acid sequences of the subunits of the FRH are compared with those of other Ni-containing hydrogenases, including the methyl viologen reducing hydrogenase (MVH) of M. thermoautotrophicum {Delta}H.

Alex, L.A. (Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (USA) Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge (USA)); Reeve, J.N. (Ohio State Univ., Columbus (USA)); Orme-Johnson, W.H. (Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge (USA)); Walsh, C.T. (Harvard Medical School, Cambridge, MA (USA))

1990-08-07T23:59:59.000Z

364

Method for producing labeled single-stranded nucleic acid probes  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Disclosed is a method for the introduction of unidirectional deletions in a cloned DNA segment. More specifically, the method comprises providing a recombinant DNA construct comprising a DNA segment of interest inserted in a cloning vector, the cloning vector having an f1 endonuclease recognition sequence adjacent to the insertion site of the DNA segment of interest. The recombinant DNA construct is then contacted with the protein pII encoded by gene II of phage f1 thereby generating a single-stranded nick. The nicked DNA is then contacted with E. coli Exonuclease III thereby expanding the single-stranded nick into a single-stranded gap. The single-stranded gapped DNA is then contacted with a single-strand-specific endonuclease thereby producing a linearized DNA molecule containing a double-stranded deletion corresponding in size to the single-stranded gap. The DNA treated in this manner is then incubated with DNA ligase under conditions appropriate for ligation. Also disclosed is a method for producing single-stranded DNA probes. In this embodiment, single-stranded gapped DNA, produced as described above, is contacted with a DNA polymerase in the presence of labeled nucleotides to fill in the gap. This DNA is then linearized by digestion with a restriction enzyme which cuts outside the DNA segment of interest. The product of this digestion is then denatured to produce a labeled single-stranded nucleic acid probe.

Dunn, John J. (Bellport, NY); Quesada, Mark A. (Middle Island, NY); Randesi, Matthew (Upton, NY)

1999-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

365

Method for introducing unidirectional nested deletions  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Disclosed is a method for the introduction of unidirectional deletions in a cloned DNA segment. More specifically, the method comprises providing a recombinant DNA construct comprising a DNA segment of interest inserted in a cloning vector, the cloning vector having an f1 endonuclease recognition sequence adjacent to the insertion site of the DNA segment of interest. The recombinant DNA construct is then contacted with the protein pII encoded by gene II of phage f1 thereby generating a single-stranded nick. The nicked DNA is then contacted with E. coli Exonuclease III thereby expanding the single-stranded nick into a single-stranded gap. The single-stranded gapped DNA is then contacted with a single-strand-specific endonuclease thereby producing a linearized DNA molecule containing a double-stranded deletion corresponding in size to the single-stranded gap. The DNA treated in this manner is then incubated with DNA ligase under conditions appropriate for ligation. Also disclosed is a method for producing single-stranded DNA probes. In this embodiment, single-stranded gapped DNA, produced as described above, is contacted with a DNA polymerase in the presence of labeled nucleotides to fill in the gap. This DNA is then linearized by digestion with a restriction enzyme which cuts outside the DNA segment of interest. The product of this digestion is then denatured to produce a labeled single-stranded nucleic acid probe.

Dunn, John J. (Bellport, NY); Quesada, Mark A. (Middle Island, NY); Randesi, Matthew (Upton, NY)

1999-07-27T23:59:59.000Z

366

Method for introducing unidirectional nested deletions  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Disclosed is a method for the introduction of unidirectional deletions in a cloned DNA segment. More specifically, the method comprises providing a recombinant DNA construct comprising a DNA segment of interest inserted in a cloning vector. The cloning vector has an f1 endonuclease recognition sequence adjacent to the insertion site of the DNA segment of interest. The recombinant DNA construct is then contacted with the protein pII encoded by gene II of phage f1 thereby generating a single-stranded nick. The nicked DNA is then contacted with E. coli Exonuclease III thereby expanding the single-stranded nick into a single-stranded gap. The single-stranded gapped DNA is then contacted with a single-strand-specific endonuclease thereby producing a linearized DNA molecule containing a double-stranded deletion corresponding in size to the single-stranded gap. The DNA treated in this manner is then incubated with DNA ligase under conditions appropriate for ligation. Also disclosed is a method for producing single-stranded DNA probes. In this embodiment, single-stranded gapped DNA, produced as described above, is contacted with a DNA polymerase in the presence of labeled nucleotides to fill in the gap. This DNA is then linearized by digestion with a restriction enzyme which cuts outside the DNA segment of interest. The product of this digestion is then denatured to produce a labeled single-stranded nucleic acid probe. 1 fig.

Dunn, J.J.; Quesada, M.A.; Randesi, M.

1999-07-27T23:59:59.000Z

367

The effect of magnesium ions on dielectric relaxation in semidilute DNA aqueous solutions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The effect of magnesium ion Mg2+ on the dielectric relaxation of semidilute DNA aqueous solutions has been studied by means of dielectric spectroscopy. Two dielectric relaxations in the 100 Hz - 100 MHz frequency range, originating in the motion of DNA counterions, were probed as a function of DNA and Mg2+ ion concentration in added MgCl2 salt. The high-frequency mode in the MHz range, stemming from the structural organization of the DNA network, reveals de Gennes-Pfeuty-Dobrynin correlation length as the pertinent fundamental length scale for sufficiently low concentration of added salt. No relaxation fingerprint of DNA denaturation bubbles, leading to exposed hydrophobic core scaling, was detected at low DNA concentrations, thus indicating an increased stability of the double-stranded conformation as compared to the case of DNA solutions with univalent counterions. The presence of Mg2+ does not change qualitatively the low frequency mode in the kHz range correlated with single DNA conformational properties....

Grgi?in, Danijel; Ivek, Tomislav; Tomi?, Silvia; Podgornik, Rudi

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

368

Solvent Sensitivity of Protein Unfolding: Study of Chicken Villin Headpiece Subdomain in Water-Ethanol and Water-DMSO Mixtures  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In the present work we study and compare unfolding of a small protein, chicken villin headpiece (HP-36) in two different aqueous binary mixtures, namely water-ethanol (EtOH) and water-dimethyl sulphoxide (DMSO). In both the binary mixtures, HP-36 is found to unfold (fully or partially, depending on the mixture) under ambient conditions, that otherwise requires temperature as high as ~600 K to denature in pure aqueous solvent. In all the cases, first step of unfolding is found to be similar, i.e. separation of the cluster formed by three hydrophobic (phenylalanine) residues, namely Phe-7, Phe-11 and Phe-18, which constitute the hydrophobic core, thereby initiating melting of helix-2 of the protein. Subsequent unfolding steps follow different paths in different chemical environments. As both water-DMSO and water-ethanol show composition dependent anomalies, so do the details of unfolding dynamics. With an increase of co-solvent concentration different partially unfolded intermediates are found to be formed in b...

Ghosh, Rikhia; Bagchi, Biman

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

369

The cost of ethanol production from lignocellulosic biomass -- A comparison of selected alternative processes. Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The purpose of this report is to compare the cost of selected alternative processes for the conversion of lignocellulosic biomass to ethanol. In turn, this information will be used by the ARS/USDA to guide the management of research and development programs in biomass conversion. The report will identify where the cost leverages are for the selected alternatives and what performance parameters need to be achieved to improve the economics. The process alternatives considered here are not exhaustive, but are selected on the basis of having a reasonable potential in improving the economics of producing ethanol from biomass. When other alternatives come under consideration, they should be evaluated by the same methodology used in this report to give fair comparisons of opportunities. A generic plant design is developed for an annual production of 25 million gallons of anhydrous ethanol using corn stover as the model substrate at $30/dry ton. Standard chemical engineering techniques are used to give first order estimates of the capital and operating costs. Following the format of the corn to ethanol plant, there are nine sections to the plant; feed preparation, pretreatment, hydrolysis, fermentation, distillation and dehydration, stillage evaporation, storage and denaturation, utilities, and enzyme production. There are three pretreatment alternatives considered: the AFEX process, the modified AFEX process (which is abbreviated as MAFEX), and the STAKETECH process. These all use enzymatic hydrolysis and so an enzyme production section is included in the plant. The STAKETECH is the only commercially available process among the alternative processes.

Grethlein, H.E.; Dill, T.

1993-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

370

Mechanism and kinetics of peptide partitioning into membranes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Partitioning properties of transmembrane (TM) polypeptide segments directly determine membrane protein folding, stability, and function, and their understanding is vital for rational design of membrane active peptides. However, direct determination of water-to-bilayer transfer of TM peptides has proved difficult. Experimentally, sufficiently hydrophobic peptides tend to aggregate, while atomistic computer simulations at physiological temperatures cannot yet reach the long time scales required to capture partitioning. Elevating temperatures to accelerate the dynamics has been avoided, as this was thought to lead to rapid denaturing. However, we show here that model TM peptides (WALP) are exceptionally thermostable. Circular dichroism experiments reveal that the peptides remain inserted into the lipid bilayer and are fully helical, even at 90 C. At these temperatures, sampling is 50 500 times faster, sufficient to directly simulate spontaneous partitioning at atomic resolution. A folded insertion pathway is observed, consistent with three-stage partitioning theory. Elevated temperature simulation ensembles further allow the direct calculation of the insertion kinetics, which is found to be first-order for all systems. Insertion barriers are Hin = 15 kcal/mol for a general hydrophobic peptide and 23 kcal/mol for the tryptophan-flanked WALP peptides. The corresponding insertion times at room temperature range from 8.5 s to 163 ms. High-temperature simulations of experimentally validated thermostable systems suggest a new avenue for systematic exploration of peptide partitioning properties.

Ulmschneider, Martin [University of Oxford; Killian, J Antoinette [University of Utrecht; Doux, Jacques P. F. [University of Utrecht; Smith, Jeremy C [ORNL; Ulmschneider, Jakob [University of Heidelberg

2010-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

371

A zinc complex of heparan sulfate destabilises lysozyme and alters its conformation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Zinc-heparan sulfate complex destabilises lysozyme, a model amyloid protein. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Addition of zinc, without heparan sulfate, stabilises lysozyme. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Heparan sulfate cation complexes provide alternative protein folding routes. -- Abstract: The naturally occurring anionic cell surface polysaccharide heparan sulfate is involved in key biological activities and is implicated in amyloid formation. Following addition of Zn-heparan sulfate, hen lysozyme, a model amyloid forming protein, resembled {beta}-rich amyloid by far UV circular dichroism (increased {beta}-sheet: +25%), with a significantly reduced melting temperature (from 68 to 58 Degree-Sign C) by fluorescence shift assay. Secondary structure stability of the Zn-heparan sulfate complex with lysozyme was also distinct from that with heparan sulfate, under stronger denaturation conditions using synchrotron radiation circular dichroism. Changing the cation associated with heparan sulfate is sufficient to alter the conformation and stability of complexes formed between heparan sulfate and lysozyme, substantially reducing the stability of the protein. Complexes of heparan sulfate and cations, such as Zn, which are abundant in the brain, may provide alternative folding routes for proteins.

Hughes, Ashley J. [Institute of Integrative Biology, University of Liverpool, Liverpool L69 7ZB (United Kingdom) [Institute of Integrative Biology, University of Liverpool, Liverpool L69 7ZB (United Kingdom); Diamond Light Source Ltd., Diamond House, Didcot, Oxfordshire OX11 0DE (United Kingdom); Hussain, Rohanah [Diamond Light Source Ltd., Diamond House, Didcot, Oxfordshire OX11 0DE (United Kingdom)] [Diamond Light Source Ltd., Diamond House, Didcot, Oxfordshire OX11 0DE (United Kingdom); Cosentino, Cesare; Guerrini, Marco [Istituto di Chimica e Biochimica 'G. Ronzoni', Via G. Colombo 81, Milano 20133 (Italy)] [Istituto di Chimica e Biochimica 'G. Ronzoni', Via G. Colombo 81, Milano 20133 (Italy); Siligardi, Giuliano [Diamond Light Source Ltd., Diamond House, Didcot, Oxfordshire OX11 0DE (United Kingdom)] [Diamond Light Source Ltd., Diamond House, Didcot, Oxfordshire OX11 0DE (United Kingdom); Yates, Edwin A., E-mail: eayates@liv.ac.uk [Institute of Integrative Biology, University of Liverpool, Liverpool L69 7ZB (United Kingdom); Rudd, Timothy R., E-mail: trudd@liv.ac.uk [Institute of Integrative Biology, University of Liverpool, Liverpool L69 7ZB (United Kingdom); Istituto di Chimica e Biochimica 'G. Ronzoni', Via G. Colombo 81, Milano 20133 (Italy)

2012-09-07T23:59:59.000Z

372

The HPr Proteins from the Thermophile Bacillus stearothermophilus Can Form Domain-swapped Dimers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The study of proteins from extremophilic organisms continues to generate interest in the field of protein folding because paradigms explaining the enhanced stability of these proteins still elude us and such studies have the potential to further our knowledge of the forces stabilizing proteins. We have undertaken such a study with our model protein HPr from a mesophile, Bacillus subtilis, and a thermophile, Bacillus stearothermophilus. We report here the high-resolution structures of the wild-type HPr protein from the thermophile and a variant, F29W. The variant proved to crystallize in two forms: a monomeric form with a structure very similar to the wild-type protein as well as a domain-swapped dimer. Interestingly, the structure of the domain-swapped dimer for HPr is very different from that observed for a homologous protein, Crh, from B. subtilis. The existence of a domain-swapped dimer has implications for amyloid formation and is consistent with recent results showing that the HPr proteins can form amyloid fibrils. We also characterized the conformational stability of the thermophilic HPr proteins using thermal and solvent denaturation methods and have used the high-resolution structures in an attempt to explain the differences in stability between the different HPr proteins. Finally, we present a detailed analysis of the solution properties of the HPr proteins using a variety of biochemical and biophysical methods.

Sridharan, Sudharsan; Razvi, Abbas; Scholtz, J. Martin; Sacchettini, James C. (TAM)

2010-07-20T23:59:59.000Z

373

Probing the mechanism of rubredoxin thermal unfolding in the absence of salt bridges by temperature jump experiments  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Rubredoxins are the simplest type of iron-sulphur proteins and in recent years they have been used as model systems in protein folding and stability studies, especially the proteins from thermophilic sources. Here, we report our studies on the rubredoxin from the hyperthermophile Methanococcus jannaschii (T {sub opt} = 85 deg C), which was investigated in respect to its thermal unfolding kinetics by temperature jump experiments. Different spectroscopic probes were used to monitor distinct structural protein features during the thermal transition: the integrity of the iron-sulphur centre was monitored by visible absorption spectroscopy, whereas tertiary structure was followed by intrinsic tryptophan fluorescence and exposure of protein hydrophobic patches was sensed by 1-anilinonaphthalene-8-sulphonate fluorescence. The studies were performed at acidic pH conditions in which any stabilising contributions from salt bridges are annulled due to protonation of protein side chain groups. In these conditions, M. jannaschii rubredoxin assumes a native-like, albeit more flexible and open conformation, as indicated by a red shift in the tryptophan emission maximum and 1-anilinonaphthalene-8-sulphonate binding. Temperature jumps were monitored by the three distinct techniques and showed that the protein undergoes thermal denaturation via a simple two step mechanism, as loss of tertiary structure, hydrophobic collapse, and disintegration of the iron-sulphur centre are concomitant processes. The proposed mechanism is framed with the multiphasic one proposed for Pyrococcus furiosus rubredoxin, showing that a common thermal unfolding mechanism is not observed between these two closely related thermophilic rubredoxins.

Henriques, Barbara J. [Instituto Tecnologia Quimica e Biologica, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Oeiras (Portugal); Saraiva, Ligia M. [Instituto Tecnologia Quimica e Biologica, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Oeiras (Portugal); Gomes, Claudio M. [Instituto Tecnologia Quimica e Biologica, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Oeiras (Portugal)]. E-mail: gomes@itqb.unl.pt

2005-08-05T23:59:59.000Z

374

Characterization of the BVEST waste tanks located at ORNL  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

During the fall of 1996 there was a major effort to sample and analyze the Active Liquid Low-Level Waste (LLLW) tanks at ORNL which include the Melton Valley Storage Tanks (MVST) and the Bethel Valley Evaporator Service Tanks (BVEST). The characterization data summarized in this report was needed to address waste processing options, address concerns dealing with the performance assessment (PA) data for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), evaluate the waste characteristics with respect to the waste acceptance criteria (WAC) for WIPP and Nevada Test Site (NTS), address criticality concerns, and meet DOT requirements for transporting the waste. This report discusses the analytical characterization data for the supernatant and sludge in the BVEST waste tanks W-21, W-22, and W-23. The isotopic data presented in this report supports the position that fissile isotopes of uranium and plutonium were denatured as required by the administrative controls stated in the ORNL LLLW waste acceptance criteria (WAC). In general, the BVEST sludge was found to be hazardous based on RCRA characteristics and the transuranic alpha activity was well above the 100 nCi/g limit for TRU waste. The characteristics of the BVEST sludge relative to the WIPP WAC limits for fissile gram equivalent, plutonium equivalent activity, and thermal power from decay heat were estimated from the data in this report and found to be far below the upper boundary for any of the remote-handled transuranic waste (RH-TRU) requirements for disposal of the waste in WIPP.

Keller, J.M.; Giaquinto, J.M.; Meeks, A.M.

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

375

Characterization of the MVST waste tanks located at ORNL  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

During the fall of 1996 there was a major effort to sample and analyze the Active Liquid Low-Level Waste (LLLW) tanks at ORNL which include the Melton Valley Storage Tanks (MVST) and the Bethel Valley Evaporator Service Tanks (BVEST). The characterization data summarized in this report was needed to address waste processing options, address concerns of the performance assessment (PA) data for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), evaluate the characteristics with respect to the waste acceptance criteria (WAC) for WIPP and Nevada Test Site (NTS), address criticality concerns, and meet DOT requirements for transporting the waste. This report only discusses the analytical characterization data for the MVST waste tanks. The isotopic data presented in this report support the position that fissile isotopes of uranium and plutonium were ``denatured`` as required by administrative controls. In general, MVST sludge was found to be both hazardous by RCRA characteristics and the transuranic alpha activity was well about the limit for TRU waste. The characteristics of the MVST sludge relative to the WIPP WAC limits for fissile gram equivalent, plutonium equivalent activity, and thermal power from decay heat, were estimated from the data in this report and found to be far below the upper boundary for any of the remote-handled transuranic waste requirements for disposal of the waste in WIPP.

Keller, J.M.; Giaquinto, J.M.; Meeks, A.M.

1996-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

376

Membrane associated phospholipase C from bovine brain  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Cytosolic fractions of bovine brain contain 2 immunologically distinct phosphoinositide-specific phospholipase (PLC), PLC-I and PLC-II, whose MW are 150,000 and 145,000 respectively, under a denaturing condition. Monoclonal antibodies were derived against each form and specific radioimmunoassays were developed. Distribution of PLC-I and PLC-II in cytosolic and particulate fractions was measured using the radioimmunoassay. More than 90% of PLC-II was found in the cytosolic fraction, while the anti-PLC-I antibody cross-reacting protein was distributed nearly equally between the soluble fraction and the 2 M KCl extract of particulate fraction. The PLC enzyme in the particulate fraction was purified to homogeneity, yielding 2 proteins of 140 KDa and 150 KDa when analyzed on SDS-PAGE. Neither of the 2 enzymes cross-reacted with anti-PLC-II antibodies, but both could be immunoblotted by all 4 different anti-PLC-I antibodies. This suggests that the 140 KDa PLC was derived from the 150 KDa form. The 150 Kda form from particulate fraction was indistinguishable from the cytosolic PLC-I when their mixture was analyzed on SDS-PAGE. In addition, the elution profile of tryptic peptides derived from the 150 KDa particulate form was identical to that of cytosolic PLC-I. This result indicates that PLC-I is reversibly associated to membranes.

Lee, K.; Ryu, S.H.; Suh, P.; Choi, W.C.; Rhee, S.G.

1987-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

377

Functional Stability Of A Mixed Microbial Consortia Producing PHA From Waste Carbon Sources  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs), naturally-occurring biological polyesters that are microbially synthesized from a myriad of carbon sources, can be utilized as biodegradable substitutes for petroleum-derived thermoplastics. However, current PHA commercialization schemes are limited by high feedstock costs, the requirement for aseptic reactors, and high separation and purification costs. Bacteria indigenous to municipal waste streams can accumulate large quantities of PHA under environmentally controlled conditions; hence, a potentially more environmentally-effective method of production would utilize these consortia to produce PHAs from inexpensive waste carbon sources. In this study, PHA production was accomplished in sequencing batch bioreactors utilizing mixed microbial consortia from municipal activated sludge as inoculum, in cultures grown on real wastewaters. PHA production averaged 85%, 53%, and 10% of the cell dry weight from methanol-enriched pulp-and-paper mill foul condensate, fermented municipal primary solids, and biodiesel wastewater, respectively. The PHA-producing microbial consortia were examined to explore the microbial community changes that occurred during reactor operations, employing denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) of 16S-rDNA from PCR-amplified DNA extracts. Distinctly different communities were observed both between and within wastewaters following enrichment. More importantly, stable functions were maintained despite the differing and contrasting microbial populations.

David N. Thompson; Erik R. Coats; William A. Smith; Frank J. Loge; Michael P. Wolcott

2006-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

378

Actinide Lanthanide Separation Process – ALSEP  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Separation of the minor actinides (Am, Cm) from the lanthanides at an industrial scale remains a significant technical challenge for closing the nuclear fuel cycle. To increase the safety of used nuclear fuel (UNF) reprocessing, as well as reduce associated costs, a novel solvent extraction process has been developed. The process allows for partitioning minor actinides, lanthanides and fission products following uranium/plutonium/neptunium removal; minimizing the number of separation steps, flowsheets, chemical consumption, and waste. This new process, Actinide Lanthanide SEParation (ALSEP), uses an organic solvent consisting of a neutral diglycolamide extractant, either N,N,N',N'-tetra(2 ethylhexyl)diglycolamide (T2EHDGA) or N,N,N',N'-tetraoctyldiglycolamide (TODGA), and an acidic extractant 2-ethylhexylphosphonic acid mono-2-ethylhexyl ester (HEH[EHP]), dissolved in an aliphatic diluent (e.g. n-dodecane). The An/Ln co-extraction is conducted from moderate-to-strong nitric acid, while the selective stripping of the minor actinides from the lanthanides is carried out using a polyaminocarboxylic acid/citrate buffered solution at pH anywhere between 3 and 4.5. The extraction and separation of the actinides from the fission products is very effective in a wide range of HNO3 concentrations and the minimum separation factors for lanthanide/Am exceed 30 for Nd/Am, reaching > 60 for Eu/Am under some conditions. The experimental results presented here demonstrate the great potential for a combined system, consisting of a neutral extractant such as T2EHDGA or TODGA, and an acidic extractant such as HEH[EHP], for separating the minor actinides from the lanthanides.

Gelis, Artem V.; Lumetta, Gregg J.

2014-01-29T23:59:59.000Z

379

SEPARATION OF FISCHER-TROPSCH WAX PRODUCTS FROM ULTRAFINE IRON CATALYST PARTICLES  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this reporting period, a fundamental filtration study was continued to investigate the separation of Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis (FTS) liquids from iron-based catalyst particles. The overall focus of the program is with slurry-phase FTS in slurry bubble column reactor systems. Hydrocarbon products must be separated from catalyst particles before being removed from the reactor system. An efficient wax product/catalyst separation system is a key factor for optimizing operating costs for iron-based slurry-phase FTS. Previous work has focused on catalyst particle attrition and the formation of ultra-fine iron carbide and/or carbon particles. With the current study, we are investigating how the filtration properties are affected by these chemical and physical changes of the catalyst slurry during activation/synthesis. In this reporting period, a series of crossflow filtration experiments were initiated to study the effect of olefins and oxygenates on the filtration flux and membrane performance. Iron-based FTS reactor waxes contain a significant amount of oxygenates, depending on the catalyst formulation and operating conditions. Mono-olefins and aliphatic alcohols were doped into an activated iron catalyst slurry (with Polywax) to test their influence on filtration properties. The olefins were varied from 5 to 25 wt% and oxygenates from 6 to 17 wt% to simulate a range of reactor slurries reported in the literature. The addition of an alcohol (1-dodecanol) was found to decrease the permeation rate while the olefin added (1-hexadecene) had no effect on the permeation rate. A passive flux maintenance technique was tested that can temporarily increase the permeate rate for 24 hours.

James K. Neathery; Gary Jacobs; Burtron H. Davis

2005-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

380

Assessment of subsurface VOCs using a chemical microsensor array. Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report describes the results of laboratory investigations of several performance parameters relevant to surface-acoustic-wave (SAW) chemical sensor arrays for the measurement of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in contaminated soil and groundwater. The small size, low cost, sensitivity and selectivity of such instruments promise improvements in the quality and quantity of data used to guide site assessment and restoration efforts. In this investigation, calibrations were performed for 15 different coated SAW sensors. Each sensor was exposed to six VOCs selected to represent three chemical classes of contaminants that are commonly found at waste sites (i.e., aliphatic, aromatic and chlorinated hydrocarbons). A new pattern recognition method was developed for determining which coated sensors would maximize the selectivity and accuracy of quantitation for a given set of vapor contaminants. Using this method, an optimal subwet of four coated sensors was selected for testing in a prototype microsensor instrument. Additional laboratory experiments were performed with this optimized array to assess the limits of detection and linear response ranges for the representative vapors, as well as the additivity of responses to vapors in binary mixtures, temperature and humidity effects, aging effects, and other performance parameters related to the application of this technology to soil and groundwater VOC monitoring. Results demonstrate that SAW microsensor arrays can identify and quantify specific VOCs at concentrations in the {mu}g/L to mg/L range when present alone or in simple (e.g., binary) mixtures. SAW sensor technology offers a potentially effective alternative to existing field instrumentation for headspace analysis, soil vapor monitoring, and vacuum extraction process monitoring of VOCs in subsurface media.

Batterman, S.A.; Zellers, E.T. [Michigan Univ., Ann Arbor, MI (United States). School of Public Health

1993-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "denatured aliphatic alco" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Carbon-Type Analysis and Comparison of Original and Reblended FACE Diesel Fuels (FACE 2, FACE 4, and FACE 7)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report summarizes the carbon-type analysis from 1H and 13C{1H} nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) of Fuels for Advanced Combustion Engines (FACE) diesel blends, FD-2B, FD 4B, and FD-7B, and makes comparison of the new blends with the original FACE diesel blends, FD 2A, FD 4A, and FD-7A, respectively. Generally, FD-2A and FD-2B are more similar than the A and B blends of FD-4 and FD-7. The aromatic carbon content is roughly equivalent, although the new FACE blends have decreased monoaromatic content and increased di- and tri-cycloaromatic content, as well as a higher overall aromatic content, than the original FACE blends. The aromatic components of the new FACE blends generally have a higher alkyl substitution with longer alkyl substituents. The naphthenic and paraffinic contents remained relatively consistent. Based on aliphatic methyl and methylene carbon ratios, cetane numbers for FD-2A and -2B, and FD-7A and -7B are predicted to be consistent, while the cetane number for FD-4B is predicted to be higher than FD-4A. Overall, the new FACE fuel blends are fairly consistent with the original FACE fuel blends, but there are observable differences. In addition to providing important comparative compositional information on reformulated FACE diesel blends, this report also provides important information about the capabilities of the team at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory in the use of NMR spectroscopy for the detailed characterization and comparison of fuels and fuel blends.

Bays, J. Timothy; King, David L.; O'Hagan, Molly J.

2012-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

382

Remediation of contaminated soils and sediments using Daramend bioremediation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Soils and sediments containing polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), petroleum hydrocarbons, heavy oils, chlorinated phenols, pesticides, herbicides and phthalates, either individually or in combination, have been difficult to remediate in the past. Not only the species of contaminant, but contaminant concentrations were roadblocks to successful use of bioremediation. Daramend{sup Tm} remediation has removed many of these obstacles through extensive research. Bench-scale, pilot-scale and full-scale demonstrations have been conducted at a variety of industrial sites. At a manufactured gas site, 295 days of Daramend remediation reduced concentrations of chrysene and fluoranthene from 38.9 mg/kg to 5.9 mg/kg and 84.6 mg/kg to 7.8 mg/kg respectively. Elsewhere, the total PAH concentration in a silty soil was reduced from 1,442 mg/kg to 36 mg/kg. Concentrations of even the most refractory PAHs (e.g. pyrene, benzo(a)pyrene) were reduced to below the established clean-up guidelines. Total petroleum hydrocarbons (diesel fuel) have also been reduced from 8,700 mg/kg to 34 mg/kg after 182 days of treatment. Similarly, in a clay soil contaminated by crude oil processing, the concentrations of high molecular weight aliphatic hydrocarbons were rapidly reduced (138 days) to below the remediation criteria. Demonstrations with wood treatment site soils have proven Daramend remediation effective in enhancing the target compound degradation rates. Soils containing 2170 mg PCP/kg were shown to contain only 11 mg PCP/kg after 280 days of Darmend remediation. The issue of toxicity of soil containing increased amounts of pentachlorophenols was solved. Performance data collected during these projects indicate that Daramend remediation provides a cost effective method for clean-up of soils and sediments containing a variety of organic compounds.

Burwell, S.W.; Bucens, P.G.; Seech, A.G.

1996-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

383

Fission product solvent extraction  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Two main objectives concerning removal of fission products from high-level tank wastes will be accomplished in this project. The first objective entails the development of an acid-side Cs solvent-extraction (SX) process applicable to remediation of the sodium-bearing waste (SBW) and dissolved calcine waste (DCW) at INEEL. The second objective is to develop alkaline-side SX processes for the combined removal of Tc, Cs, and possibly Sr and for individual separation of Tc (alone or together with Sr) and Cs. These alkaline-side processes apply to tank wastes stored at Hanford, Savannah River, and Oak Ridge. This work exploits the useful properties of crown ethers and calixarenes and has shown that such compounds may be economically adapted to practical processing conditions. Potential benefits for both acid- and alkaline-side processing include order-of-magnitude concentration factors, high rejection of bulk sodium and potassium salts, and stripping with dilute (typically 10 mM) nitric acid. These benefits minimize the subsequent burden on the very expensive vitrification and storage of the high-activity waste. In the case of the SRTALK process for Tc extraction as pertechnetate anion from alkaline waste, such benefits have now been proven at the scale of a 12-stage flowsheet tested in 2-cm centrifugal contactors with a Hanford supernatant waste simulant. SRTALK employs a crown ether in a TBP-modified aliphatic kerosene diluent, is economically competitive with other applicable separation processes being considered, and has been successfully tested in batch extraction of actual Hanford double-shell slurry feed (DSSF).

Moyer, B.A.; Bonnesen, P.V.; Sachleben, R.A. [and others

1998-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

384

Pyrolysis of waste tyres: A review  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Pyrolysis of waste tyres produces oil, gas and char, and recovered steel. • Batch, screw kiln, rotary kiln, vacuum and fluidised-bed are main reactor types. • Product yields are influenced by reactor type, temperature and heating rate. • Pyrolysis oils are complex and can be used as chemical feedstock or fuel. • Research into higher value products from the tyre pyrolysis process is reviewed. - Abstract: Approximately 1.5 billion tyres are produced each year which will eventually enter the waste stream representing a major potential waste and environmental problem. However, there is growing interest in pyrolysis as a technology to treat tyres to produce valuable oil, char and gas products. The most common reactors used are fixed-bed (batch), screw kiln, rotary kiln, vacuum and fluidised-bed. The key influence on the product yield, and gas and oil composition, is the type of reactor used which in turn determines the temperature and heating rate. Tyre pyrolysis oil is chemically very complex containing aliphatic, aromatic, hetero-atom and polar fractions. The fuel characteristics of the tyre oil shows that it is similar to a gas oil or light fuel oil and has been successfully combusted in test furnaces and engines. The main gases produced from the pyrolysis of waste tyres are H{sub 2}, C{sub 1}–C{sub 4} hydrocarbons, CO{sub 2}, CO and H{sub 2}S. Upgrading tyre pyrolysis products to high value products has concentrated on char upgrading to higher quality carbon black and to activated carbon. The use of catalysts to upgrade the oil to a aromatic-rich chemical feedstock or the production of hydrogen from waste tyres has also been reported. Examples of commercial and semi-commercial scale tyre pyrolysis systems show that small scale batch reactors and continuous rotary kiln reactors have been developed to commercial scale.

Williams, Paul T., E-mail: p.t.williams@leeds.ac.uk

2013-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

385

Hydrocarbon-bearing fluid inclusions in fluorite associated with the Windy Knoll bitumen deposit, UK  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Hydrocarbon-bearing fluid inclusions in fluorite, associated with an outcropping bitumen deposit at Windy Knoll, Derbyshire, have been analyzed in situ using a combination of microthermometry, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) microspectrometry, and ultraviolet (UV) microscopy. The inclusions in these samples can be considered as a series with two end members: aqueous inclusions containing a low-density vapor phase and inclusions containing liquid oil' with no detectable aqueous phase. The majority of the inclusions are mixed types containing both aqueous and liquid hydrocarbon phases. Although microthermometry distinguishes at least two different aqueous fluids with varying homogenization temperatures and salinities, the oil fraction is cogenetic and trapped together with just one fluid, a low-salinity, low-calcium brine with an average homogenization temperature of 134C. The majority of the liquid hydrocarbon-bearing inclusions fluoresce bright blue under UV illumination with peaks around 475 nm, characteristic of paraffinic oils. The FTIR spectra of these inclusions are dominated by peaks assigned to aliphatic C-H bonding. However, inclusions have also been found which display a fluorescence typical of the red-shift associated with less mature oils. The FTIR spectra display peaks assigned to C{double bond}O, C-O, and O-CH{sub 2} bonding. This study presents new data on the in-situ analysis of hydrocarbon-bearing fluid inclusion from this important area of natural petroleum seepage and ore mineralization. The results suggest a direct link between the fluid inclusion populations, the outcropping bitumens, and fluorite deposition.

Moser, M.R. (Imperial College, London (United Kingdom) University College, London (United Kingdom)); Rankin, A.H. (Imperial College, London (United Kingdom)); Milledge, H.J. (University College, London (United Kingdom))

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

386

The Role of a Dipeptide Outer-Coordination Sphere on H2 -Production Catalysts: Influence on Catalytic Rates and Electron Transfer  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The outer-coordination sphere of enzymes acts to fine-tune the active site reactivity and control catalytic rates, suggesting that incorporation of analogous structural elements into molecular catalysts may be necessary to achieve rates comparable to those observed in enzyme systems at low overpotentials. In this work, we evaluate the effect of an amino acid and dipeptide outer-coordination sphere on [Ni(PPh2NPh-R2)2]2+ hydrogen production catalysts. A series of 12 new complexes containing non-natural amino acids or dipeptides were prepared to test the effects of positioning, size, polarity and aromaticity on catalytic activity. The non-natural amino acid was either 3-(meta- or para-aminophenyl)propionic acid terminated as an acid, an ester or an amide. Dipeptides consisted of one of the non-natural amino acids coupled to one of four amino acid esters: alanine, serine, phenylalanine or tyrosine. All of the catalysts are active for hydrogen production, with rates averaging ~1000 s-1, 40% faster than the unmodified catalyst. Structure and polarity of the aliphatic or aromatic side chains of the C-terminal peptide do not strongly influence rates. However, the presence of an amide bond increases rates, suggesting a role for the amide in assisting catalysis. Overpotentials were lower with substituents at the N-phenyl meta position. This is consistent with slower electron transfer in the less compact, para-substituted complexes, as shown in digital simulations of catalyst cyclic voltammograms and computational modeling of the complexes. Combining the current results with insights from previous results, we propose a mechanism for the role of the amino acid and dipeptide based outer-coordination sphere in molecular hydrogen production catalysts.

Reback, Matthew L.; Ginovska-Pangovska, Bojana; Ho, Ming-Hsun; Jain, Avijita; Squier, Thomas C.; Raugei, Simone; Roberts, John A.; Shaw, Wendy J.

2013-02-04T23:59:59.000Z

387

PCB extraction from ORNL tank WC-14 using a unique solvent  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report summarizes the development work of the Engineering Development Section of the Chemical Technology Division at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) for an organic extraction method for removing polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) from tank WC-14. Tank WC-14 is part of the ORNL liquid low-level radioactive tank waste system and does not meet new secondary containment and leak detection regulations. These regulations require the tank to be taken out of service, and remediated before tank removal. To remediate the tank, the PCBs must be removed; the tank contents can then be transferred to the Melton Valley Storage Tanks before final disposal. The solvent being used for the PCB extraction experiments is triethylamine, an aliphatic amine that is soluble in water below 60{degrees}F but insoluble in water above 90{degrees}F. This property will allow the extraction to be carried out under fully miscible conditions within the tank; then, after tank conditions have been changed, the solvent will not be miscible with water and phase separation will occur. Phase separation between sludge, water, and solvent will allow solvent (loaded with PCBs) to be removed from the tank for disposal. After removing the PCBs from the sludge and removing the sludge from the tank, administrative control of the tank can be transferred to ORNL`s Environmental Restoration Program, where priorities will be set for tank removal. Experiments with WC-14 sludge show that greater than 90% extraction efficiencies can be achieved with one extraction stage and that PCB concentration in the sludge can be reduced to below 2 ppm in three extractions. It is anticipated that three extractions will be necessary to reduce the PCB concentration to below 2 ppm during field applications. The experiments conducted with tank WC-14 sludge transferred less than 0.03% of the original alpha contamination and less than 0.002% of the original beta contamination.

Bloom, G.A.; Lucero, A.J.; Koran, L.J.; Turner, E.N.

1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

388

Thermodynamic properties of hydrocarbon liquids at high pressures and temperatures  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Understanding the organic/inorganic interface in the Earth's crust requires values of the thermodynamic properties of hydrocarbon species in crude oil, coal, and natural gas at elevated temperatures and pressures. Values of the apparent standard partial molal Gibbs free energies and enthalpies of formation and the standard partial molal entropies and heat capacities of these organic species can be computed as a function of temperature at 1 bar using the equations of state adopted by Helgeson et al (1991). The pressure dependence of the thermodynamic properties can be calculated from a modified version of the Parameters From Group Contributions (PFGC) equation of state. To improve the accuracy of these predictions, critical evaluation of high-pressure density experiments reported in the literature was used in the present study to characterize b[sub j] as a function of pressure and temperature. The revised PFGC equation of state permits accurate calculation of the standard partial molal volumes of the major hydrocarbon species in the aliphatic, aromatic, and naphthenic fractions of crude oil, as well as fatty acids, phenols, and naphthenic acids at temperatures and pressures to 500 C and 5 kbar. Combining the revised PFGC equation of state and parameters with the standard partial molal properties of these species at one bar and those of aqueous species and minerals permits calculation of the apparent standard partial molal Gibbs Free energies of reaction, and thus equilibrium constants for a wide variety of chemical equilibria among organic liquids, solids, and gases, aqueous species, and minerals at temperatures and pressures characteristic of both diagenetic and low-grade metamorphic processes in the Earth's crust.

Aagaard, P. (Univ. of Oslo (Norway). Dept. of Geology); Oelkers, E.H. (Univ. Paul Sabatier, Toulouse (France). Lab. de Geochimie); Helgeson, H.C. (Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Geology and Geophysics)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

389

Multisolvent successive extractive refining of coal  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A selected group of commercial solvents, namely, anthracene oil (AO), ethylenediamine (EDA), and liquid paraffin (LP), were used for successive extraction of Assam coal. Hot AO provided a wide range of mixed solvents that dissociate chemically and interact favorably with dissociated and undissociated coal macromolecules (like dissolves like). This resulted in the enhancement of the EDA extractability of the AO-pretreated residual coal. EDA is a good swelling solvent and results in physical dissociation of coal molecules. The residual coal obtained after EDA extraction was subjected to extraction with LP, an H-donor, high-boiling (330--360 C) solvent. LP thermally dissociates coal macromolecules and interacts with the coal at its plastic stage at the free radical pockets. The mechanism and molecular dynamics of the multisolvent successive extraction of Assam coal using AO-EDA-LP solvents are discussed. In early attempts, successive extractions did not modify the extraction yield in the single solvent showing the maximum extraction. However, the AO-EDA-LP extraction resulted in the extraction of 70% coal, more than for any of the individual solvents used. Therefore, AO-EDA-LP extraction of coal affords a process yielding a superclean, high-heating value fuel from coal under milder conditions. Several uses of superclean coal have been recommended. Present studies have revealed a new concept concerning the structure of coal having 30% polyaromatic condensed entangled rings and 70% triaromatic-heterocyclic-naphthenic-aliphatic structure. The insolubility of coal is due to the polyfunctional-heterocyclic-condensed structure having a polyaromatic core with intermacromolecular entanglements.

Sharma, D.K.; Singh, S.K. [Indian Inst. of Tech., New Delhi (India)

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

390

New organically templated photoluminescence iodocuprates(I)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Two types of organic cyclic aliphatic diamine molecules piperazine (pip) and 1,3-bis(4-piperidyl)propane (bpp) were used, respectively, to react with an inorganic mixture of CuI and KI in the acidic CH{sub 3}OH solutions under the solvothermal conditions, generating finally three new organically templated iodocuprates as 2-D layered [(Hpip)Cu{sub 3}I{sub 4}] 1, 1-D chained [tmpip][Cu{sub 2}I{sub 4}] 2 (tmpip=N,N,N',N'-tetramethylpiperazinium) and dinuclear [H{sub 2}bpp]{sub 2}[Cu{sub 2}I{sub 5}] I.2H{sub 2}O 3. Note that the templating agent tmpip{sup 2+} in compound 2 originated from the in situ N-alkylation reaction between the pip molecule and the methanol solvent. The photoluminescence analysis indicates that the title compounds emit the different lights: yellow for 1, blue for 2 and yellow-green for 3, respectively. - Graphical abstract: The solvothermal self-assemblies of CuI, KI and pip/bpp in acidic CH{sub 3}OH solutions created three iodocuprates 2-D layered [(Hpip)Cu{sub 3}I{sub 4}] 1, 1-D chained [tmpip][Cu{sub 2}I{sub 4}] 2 and dinuclear [H{sub 2}bpp]{sub 2}[Cu{sub 2}I{sub 5}] I.2H{sub 2}O 3. Highlights: > A new layered iodocuprate(I) with 20-membered rings was hydrothermally prepared. > A simple approach to prepare the new organic templating agent was reported. > Photoluminescence analysis indicates the emission for iodocuprate(I) is associated with the Cu...Cu interactions.

Hou Qin [College of Chemistry and Material Science, Shandong Agricultural University, Taian, Shandong 271018 (China); Zhao Jinjing [College of Chemistry, Jilin University, Changchun 130023 (China); State Key Laboratory of Inorganic Synthesis and Preparative Chemistry, Jilin University, Changchun 130023 (China); Zhao Tianqi [College of Chemistry, Jilin University, Changchun 130023 (China); Jin Juan [College of Chemistry, Jilin University, Changchun 130023 (China); State Key Laboratory of Inorganic Synthesis and Preparative Chemistry, Jilin University, Changchun 130023 (China); Yu Jiehui, E-mail: jiehuiyu@yahoo.com.cn [College of Chemistry, Jilin University, Changchun 130023 (China); State Key Laboratory of Inorganic Synthesis and Preparative Chemistry, Jilin University, Changchun 130023 (China); Xu Jiqing, E-mail: xjq@mail.jlu.edu.cn [College of Chemistry, Jilin University, Changchun 130023 (China); State Key Laboratory of Inorganic Synthesis and Preparative Chemistry, Jilin University, Changchun 130023 (China)

2011-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

391

Characterization of the C1 and C2 waste tanks located in the BVEST system at ORNL  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

There was a major effort to sample and analyze the Active Liquid Low-Level Waste (LLLW) tanks at ORNL which include the Melton Valley Storage Tanks (MVST) and the Bethel Valley Evaporator Service Tanks (BVEST). The characterization data summarized in this report was needed to address waste processing options, address concerns dealing with the performance assessment (PA) data for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), evaluate the waste characteristics with respect to the waste acceptance criteria (WAC) for WIPP and Nevada Test Site (NTS), address criticality concerns, and meet DOT requirements for transporting the waste. This report discusses the analytical characterization data for the supernatant and sludge in the BVEST waste tanks C-1 and C-2. The isotopic data presented in this report supports the position that fissile isotopes of uranium ({sup 233}U and {sup 235}U) and plutonium ({sup 239}Pu and {sup 241}Pu) were denatured as required by the administrative controls stated in the ORNL LLLW waste acceptance criteria (WAC). In general, the sludge in tanks C1 and C2 was found to be hazardous based on RCRA characteristics and the transuranic alpha activity was well above the 100 nCi/g limit for TRU waste. Additional characteristics of the C1 and C2 sludge inventory relative to the WIPP WAC limits for fissile gram equivalent, plutonium equivalent activity, and thermal power from decay heat were estimated from the data in this report and found to be far below the upper boundary for any of the remote-handled transuranic waste (RH-TRU) requirements for disposal of the waste in WIPP.

Keller, J.M.; Giaquinto, J.M.

1998-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

392

Evaluation of a Subunit Vaccine to Infectious Hematopoietic Necrosis Virus, July 31, 1989 to September 30, 1990, Annual Report.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The IHNV glycoprotein has been identified as the virion protein which elicits neutralizing antibody in rabbits and induces protective immunity in fish to homologous and heterologous strains of IHNV (Engelking and Leong, 1989). These findings suggested that genetic engineering might be used to develop an economically feasible IHNV vaccine for fish. Thus, a clone of the IHNV glycoprotein gene was made and expression of a portion of this gene in bacteria resulted in a prototype IHNV subunit vaccine. Only 350 bases of IHNV sequence was expressed in this initial vaccine construction because there were 16 cysteine residues in the glycoprotein gene. Previous work with the rabies glycoprotein had shown that when the entire gene was expressed in bacteria, a denatured protein was produced, presumably because appropriate folding mechanisms for disulfide bond formation in protein were absent in E. coli. The IHNV vaccine clone contained a region of the gene which encoded only one cysteine residue. Despite the efficacy of the vaccine in laboratory trials, it seemed useful to determine whether other regions of the IHNV glycoprotein gene would be expressed in an antigenically recognizable form in bacteria and thereby, provide increased protection in fish. The recombinant plasmids pXL2, pXL3, and pXL7 were constructed so that all regions of the glycoprotein gene were expressed in bacteria as trpE-G fusion proteins. All of these recombinant plasmids produced fusion proteins that were also analyzed in Western immunoblots with anti-IHNV sera and specific monoclonal antibodies. These results were compared with the proteins produced by p52G and p618G, the plasmids identified in the original vaccine construction. The results of this comparison are shown.

Leong, JoAnn Ching

1990-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

393

Deletion of exon 3 of the insulin receptor gene in a kindred with a familial form of insulin resistance  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Molecular scanning techniques, such as denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE), greatly facilitate screening candidate genes for mutations. The authors have used DGGE to screen for mutations in the insulin receptor gene in a family in which four of five daughters were affected by type A insulin resistance in association with acanthosis nigricans and hyperandrogenism. DGGE did not detect mutations in any of the 22 exons of the insulin receptor gene. Nevertheless, Southern blot analysis suggested that there was a deletion of exon 3 in the other paternal allele of the insulin receptor gene. Analysis of the father`s cDNA confirmed that exon 3 was deleted from mRNA molecules derived from one of his two alleles of the insulin receptor gene. Furthermore, the father was found to be hemizygous for a polymorphic sequence (GAC{sup Asp} at codon 234) in exon 3 that was not inherited by any of the five daughters. Instead, all five daughters inherited the paternal allele with the deletion mutation. They did not detect mutations in the mother`s insulin receptor gene. Furthermore, the clinical syndrome did not segregate with either of the mother`s two alleles of the insulin receptor gene. Although the youngest daughter inherited the mutant allele from her father, she was not clinically affected. The explanation for the incomplete penetrance is not known. These results emphasize the importance of specifically searching for deletion mutations when screening candidate genes for mutations. Furthermore, the existence of apparently asymptomatic carriers of mutations in the insulin receptor gene, such as the father in the present study, suggests that the prevalence of mutations in the insulin receptor gene may be higher than would be predicted on the basis of the observed prevalence of patients with extreme insulin resistance. 34 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

Wertheimer, E.; Barbetti, F.; Accili, D.; Taylor, S.I. [National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD (United States)] [National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD (United States); Litvin, Y.; Ebstein, R.P.; Bennet, E.R.

1994-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

394

Prospects for Simulating Macromolecular Surfactant Chemistry at the Ocean-Atmosphere Boundary  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Biogenic lipids and polymers are surveyed for their ability to adsorb at the water-air interfaces associated with bubbles, marine microlayers and particles in the overlying boundary layer. Representative ocean biogeochemical regimes are defined in order to estimate local concentrations for the major macromolecular classes. Surfactant equilibria and maximum excess are then derived based on a network of model compounds. Relative local coverage and upward mass transport follow directly, and specific chemical structures can be placed into regional rank order. Lipids and denatured protein-like polymers dominate at the selected locations. The assigned monolayer phase states are variable, whether assessed along bubbles or at the atmospheric spray droplet perimeter. Since oceanic film compositions prove to be irregular, effects on gas and organic transfer are expected to exhibit geographic dependence as well. Moreover, the core arguments extend across the sea-air interface into aerosol-cloud systems. Fundamental nascent chemical properties including mass to carbon ratio and density depend strongly on the geochemical state of source waters. High surface pressures may suppress the Kelvin effect, and marine organic hygroscopicities are almost entirely unconstrained. While bubble adsorption provides a well-known means for transporting lipidic or proteinaceous material into sea spray, the same cannot be said of polysaccharides. Carbohydrates tend to be strongly hydrophilic so that their excess carbon mass is low despite stacked polymeric geometries. Since sugars are abundant in the marine aerosol, gel-based mechanisms may be required to achieve uplift. Uncertainties in the surfactant logic distill to a global scale dearth of information regarding two dimensional kinetics and equilibria. Nonetheless simulations are recommended, to initiate the process of systems level quantification.

Elliott, S.; Burrows, Susannah M.; Deal, C.; Liu, Xiaohong; Long, M.; Ogunro, O.; Russell, Lynn M.; Wingenter, O.

2014-06-09T23:59:59.000Z

395

Characterization of chemically modified enzymes for bioremediation-reactions. 1997 annual progress report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

'Many, if not most, biological transformation reactions of interest to US Department of Energy (DOE) site remediation involve substrates that are only sparingly soluble in aqueous environments. Hence, destruction of these recalcitrant and toxic materials would benefit tremendously if their degradation could be performed in nonaqueous environments. Organic biocatalysis may be motivated by the nature of the substrate itself, augmented mass transport, ease of product recovery, or novel reaction pathways afforded by the organic solvent. For instance, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are sparingly soluble in water, but may be more effectively processed when solubilized by organic liquids. However, naturally-occurring enzymes are not soluble in organic solvents. Indeed, most spontaneously denature and, depending on the solvent used, typically form inactive and insoluble precipitates. The objective of the current work is to gain a fundamental understanding of the molecular and catalytic properties of enzymes that have been chemically-modified so that they are catalytically-active and chemically-thermally-stable in organic solvents. The premise for this study is that highly stable enzymes which are catalytically active in both water and in a range of organic solvents are optimally suited for bioremediation where substrates of interest are more soluble and may be processed with greater specificity in nonaqueous solvents. The proposed research program will enable the development of nonaqueous bioremediation technologies for the treatment of DOE sites contaminated with aqueous-insoluble organic compounds. Such compounds may include dense nonaqueous phase liquids, trichloroethylene (TCE), trichloroacetic acid, trans-dichloroethylene, diesel fuel, and PCBs. These compounds have been identified as targets for technology development in the ``EM Technology Needs Database,'''' and are contaminants at the following DOE sites: K-25 Site plumes; ORNL WAGS 1, 4, and 5; Paducah plumes; Portsmouth plumes; the X-701B Holding Pond; and the Y-12 Poplar Creek and Bear Creek Watersheds.'

Kaufman, E.N. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (US); Adams, M.W.W. [Univ. of Georgia, Athens, GA (US)

1997-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

396

Effect of cosolvent on protein stability: A theoretical investigation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We developed a statistical thermodynamic algorithm for analyzing solvent-induced folding/unfolding transitions of proteins. The energetics of protein transitions is governed by the interplay between the cavity formation contribution and the term reflecting direct solute-cosolvent interactions. The latter is viewed as an exchange reaction in which the binding of a cosolvent to a solute is accompanied by release of waters of hydration to the bulk. Our model clearly differentiates between the stoichiometric and non-stoichiometric interactions of solvent or co-solvent molecules with a solute. We analyzed the urea- and glycine betaine (GB)-induced conformational transitions of model proteins of varying size which are geometrically approximated by a sphere in their native state and a spherocylinder in their unfolded state. The free energy of cavity formation and its changes accompanying protein transitions were computed based on the concepts of scaled particle theory. The free energy of direct solute-cosolvent interactions were analyzed using empirical parameters previously determined for urea and GB interactions with low molecular weight model compounds. Our computations correctly capture the mode of action of urea and GB and yield realistic numbers for (??G°/?a{sub 3}){sub T,P} which are related to the m-values of protein denaturation. Urea is characterized by negative values of (??G°/?a{sub 3}){sub T,P} within the entire range of urea concentrations analyzed. At concentrations below ?1 M, GB exhibits positive values of (??G°/?a{sub 3}){sub T,P} which turn positive at higher GB concentrations. The balance between the thermodynamic contributions of cavity formation and direct solute-cosolvent interactions that, ultimately, defines the mode of cosolvent action is extremely subtle. A 20% increase or decrease in the equilibrium constant for solute-cosolvent binding may change the sign of (??G°/?a{sub 3}){sub T,P} thereby altering the mode of cosolvent action (stabilizing to destabilizing or vice versa)

Chalikian, Tigran V., E-mail: chalikan@phm.utoronto.ca [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Leslie Dan Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Toronto, 144 College Street, Toronto, Ontario M5S 3M2 (Canada)

2014-12-14T23:59:59.000Z

397

Chapter 11. Community analysis-based methods  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Microbial communities are each a composite of populations whose presence and relative abundance in water or other environmental samples are a direct manifestation of environmental conditions, including the introduction of microbe-rich fecal material and factors promoting persistence of the microbes therein. As shown by culture-independent methods, different animal-host fecal microbial communities appear distinctive, suggesting that their community profiles can be used to differentiate fecal samples and to potentially reveal the presence of host fecal material in environmental waters. Cross-comparisons of microbial communities from different hosts also reveal relative abundances of genetic groups that can be used to distinguish sources. In increasing order of their information richness, several community analysis methods hold promise for MST applications: phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) analysis, denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE), terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (TRFLP), cloning/sequencing, and PhyloChip. Specific case studies involving TRFLP and PhyloChip approaches demonstrate the ability of community-based analyses of contaminated waters to confirm a diagnosis of water quality based on host-specific marker(s). The success of community-based MST for comprehensively confirming fecal sources relies extensively upon using appropriate multivariate statistical approaches. While community-based MST is still under evaluation and development as a primary diagnostic tool, results presented herein demonstrate its promise. Coupled with its inherently comprehensive ability to capture an unprecedented amount of microbiological data that is relevant to water quality, the tools for microbial community analysis are increasingly accessible, and community-based approaches have unparalleled potential for translation into rapid, perhaps real-time, monitoring platforms.

Cao, Y.; Wu, C.H.; Andersen, G.L.; Holden, P.A.

2010-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

398

Solvent Sensitivity of Protein Unfolding: Study of Chicken Villin Headpiece Subdomain in Water-Ethanol and Water-DMSO Mixtures  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In the present work we study and compare unfolding of a small protein, chicken villin headpiece (HP-36) in two different aqueous binary mixtures, namely water-ethanol (EtOH) and water-dimethyl sulphoxide (DMSO). In both the binary mixtures, HP-36 is found to unfold (fully or partially, depending on the mixture) under ambient conditions, that otherwise requires temperature as high as ~600 K to denature in pure aqueous solvent. In all the cases, first step of unfolding is found to be similar, i.e. separation of the cluster formed by three hydrophobic (phenylalanine) residues, namely Phe-7, Phe-11 and Phe-18, which constitute the hydrophobic core, thereby initiating melting of helix-2 of the protein. Subsequent unfolding steps follow different paths in different chemical environments. As both water-DMSO and water-ethanol show composition dependent anomalies, so do the details of unfolding dynamics. With an increase of co-solvent concentration different partially unfolded intermediates are found to be formed in both the cases. This is reflected in a remarkable non-monotonic composition dependence of several order parameters, including fraction of native contacts and protein-solvent interaction energy. The emergence of such partially unfolded states is particularly attributed to the preferential solvation of the hydrophobic residues by the ethyl groups of ethanol and methyl groups of DMSO. While in DMSO the protein gradually attains a completely unfolded state at xDMSO=0.30, unfolding in water-ethanol appears to be more complex and sensitive to solvent composition.

Rikhia Ghosh; Susmita Roy; Biman Bagchi

2013-07-10T23:59:59.000Z

399

Defect induced ferromagnetism in undoped ZnO nanoparticles  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Undoped ZnO nanoparticles (NPs) with size ?12?nm were produced using forced hydrolysis methods using diethylene glycol (DEG) [called ZnO-I] or denatured ethanol [called ZnO-II] as the reaction solvent; both using Zn acetate dehydrate as precursor. Both samples showed weak ferromagnetic behavior at 300?K with saturation magnetization M{sub s}?=?0.077 ± 0.002 memu/g and 0.088 ± 0.013 memu/g for ZnO-I and ZnO-II samples, respectively. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra showed that ZnO-I nanocrystals had DEG fragments linked to their surface. Photoluminescence (PL) data showed a broad emission near 500?nm for ZnO-II which is absent in the ZnO-I samples, presumably due to the blocking of surface traps by the capping molecules. Intentional oxygen vacancies created in the ZnO-I NPs by annealing at 450?°C in flowing Ar gas gradually increased M{sub s} up to 90?min and x-ray photoelectron spectra (XPS) suggested that oxygen vacancies may have a key role in the observed changes in M{sub s}. Finally, PL spectra of ZnO showed the appearance of a blue/violet emission, attributed to Zn interstitials, whose intensity changes with annealing time, similar to the trend seen for M{sub s}. The observed variation in the magnetization of ZnO NP with increasing Ar annealing time seems to depend on the changes in the number of Zn interstitials and oxygen vacancies.

Rainey, K.; Chess, J.; Eixenberger, J.; Tenne, D. A.; Hanna, C. B.; Punnoose, A., E-mail: apunnoos@boisestate.edu [Department of Physics, Boise State University, Boise, Idaho 83725 (United States)

2014-05-07T23:59:59.000Z

400

More is different: 50 years of nuclear BCS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Many of the concepts which are at the basis of the development associated with a quantitative treatment of the variety of phenomena associated with the spontaneous breaking of gauge symmetry in nuclei have been instrumental in connection with novel studies of soft matter, namely of protein evolution and protein folding. Although the route to these subjects and associated development does not necessarily imply the nuclear physics connection, such a connection has proven qualitatively and quantitatively inspiring. In particular to model protein evolution in terms of the alignment of quasispins displaying twenty different projections, one for each of the twenty amino acids occurring in nature, and the associated symmetry breaking in information (sequence) space. Emergent properties of the corresponding phase transition are domain walls which stabilize local elementary structures (LES), few groups of 10-20 aminoacids which become structured already in the denatured state provide the molecular recognition directing protein folding. In fact, their docking is closely related to the transition state of the process. While the two-step, yes or no, folding process, does not provide direct information concerning LES, one can force LES from virtual to become real, observable final state entities. Getting again inspiration from the nuclear case (virtual processes contributing to pair correlations can be forced to become real with the help of a probe which itself changes particle number by two), one would expect that to make real virtual LES, that is segments of the protein which already at an early stage of the folding process flicker in and out of their native conformation, one needs a probe which itself displays a similar behaviour. Peptides displaying a sequence identical to LES are such probes.

R. A. Broglia

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "denatured aliphatic alco" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

High Throughput Sample Preparation and Analysis for DNA Sequencing, PCR and Combinatorial Screening of Catalysis Based on Capillary Array Technique  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Sample preparation has been one of the major bottlenecks for many high throughput analyses. The purpose of this research was to develop new sample preparation and integration approach for DNA sequencing, PCR based DNA analysis and combinatorial screening of homogeneous catalysis based on multiplexed capillary electrophoresis with laser induced fluorescence or imaging UV absorption detection. The author first introduced a method to integrate the front-end tasks to DNA capillary-array sequencers. protocols for directly sequencing the plasmids from a single bacterial colony in fused-silica capillaries were developed. After the colony was picked, lysis was accomplished in situ in the plastic sample tube using either a thermocycler or heating block. Upon heating, the plasmids were released while chromsomal DNA and membrane proteins were denatured and precipitated to the bottom of the tube. After adding enzyme and Sanger reagents, the resulting solution was aspirated into the reaction capillaries by a syringe pump, and cycle sequencing was initiated. No deleterious effect upon the reaction efficiency, the on-line purification system, or the capillary electrophoresis separation was observed, even though the crude lysate was used as the template. Multiplexed on-line DNA sequencing data from 8 parallel channels allowed base calling up to 620 bp with an accuracy of 98%. The entire system can be automatically regenerated for repeated operation. For PCR based DNA analysis, they demonstrated that capillary electrophoresis with UV detection can be used for DNA analysis starting from clinical sample without purification. After PCR reaction using cheek cell, blood or HIV-1 gag DNA, the reaction mixtures was injected into the capillary either on-line or off-line by base stacking. The protocol was also applied to capillary array electrophoresis. The use of cheaper detection, and the elimination of purification of DNA sample before or after PCR reaction, will make this approach an attractive alternative to current methods for genetic analysis and disease diagnosis.

Yonghua Zhang

2002-05-27T23:59:59.000Z

402

Characterization of the Old Hydrofracture Facility (OHF) waste tanks located at ORNL  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Old Hydrofracture Facility (OHF) is located in Melton Valley within Waste Area Grouping (WAG) 5 and includes five underground storage tanks (T1, T2, T3, T4, and T9) ranging from 13,000 to 25,000 gal. capacity. During the period of 1996--97 there was a major effort to re-sample and characterize the contents of these inactive waste tanks. The characterization data summarized in this report was needed to address waste processing options, examine concerns dealing with the performance assessment (PA) data for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), evaluate the waste characteristics with respect to the waste acceptance criteria (WAC) for WIPP and Nevada Test Site (NTS), address criticality concerns, and to provide the data needed to meet DOT requirements for transporting the waste. This report discusses the analytical characterization data collected on both the supernatant and sludge samples taken from three different locations in each of the OHF tanks. The isotopic data presented in this report supports the position that fissile isotopes of uranium ({sup 233}U and {sup 235}U) do not satisfy the denature ratios required by the administrative controls stated in the ORNL LLLW waste acceptance criteria (WAC). The fissile isotope of plutonium ({sup 239}Pu and {sup 241}Pu) are diluted with thorium far above the WAC requirements. In general, the OHF sludge was found to be hazardous (RCRA) based on total metal content and the transuranic alpha activity was well above the 100 nCi/g limit for TRU waste. The characteristics of the OHF sludge relative to the WIPP WAC limits for fissile gram equivalent, plutonium equivalent activity, and thermal power from decay heat were estimated from the data in this report and found to be far below the upper boundary for any of the remote-handled transuranic waste (RH-TRU) requirements for disposal of the waste in WIPP.

Keller, J.M.; Giaquinto, J.M.; Meeks, A.M.

1997-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

403

Selective Photothermolysis to target Sebaceous Glands: Theoretical Estimation of Parameters and Preliminary Results Using a Free Electron Laser  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The success of permanent laser hair removal suggests that selective photothermolysis (SP) of sebaceous glands, another part of hair follicles, may also have merit. About 30% of sebum consists of fats with copious CH2 bond content. SP was studied in vitro, using free electron laser (FEL) pulses at an infrared CH2 vibrational absorption wavelength band. Absorption spectra of natural and artificially prepared sebum were measured from 200 nm to 3000 nm, to determine wavelengths potentially able to target sebaceous glands. The Jefferson National Accelerator superconducting FEL was used to measure photothermal excitation of aqueous gels, artificial sebum, pig skin, human scalp and forehead skin (sebaceous sites). In vitro skin samples were exposed to FEL pulses from 1620 to 1720 nm, spot diameter 7-9.5 mm with exposure through a cold 4C sapphire window in contact with the skin. Exposed and control tissue samples were stained using H and E, and nitroblue tetrazolium chloride staining (NBTC) was used to detect thermal denaturation. Natural and artificial sebum both had absorption peaks near 1210, 1728, 1760, 2306 and 2346 nm. Laser-induced heating of artificial sebum was approximately twice that of water at 1710 and 1720 nm, and about 1.5x higher in human sebaceous glands than in water. Thermal camera imaging showed transient focal heating near sebaceous hair follicles. Histologically, skin samples exposed to {approx}1700 nm, {approx}100-125 ms pulses showed evidence of selective thermal damage to sebaceous glands. Sebaceous glands were positive for NBTC staining, without evidence of selective loss in samples exposed to the laser. Epidermis was undamaged in all samples. Conclusions: SP of sebaceous glands appears to be feasible. Potentially, optical pulses at {approx}1720 nm or {approx}1210 nm delivered with large beam diameter and appropriate skin cooling in approximately 0.1 s may provide an alternative treatment for acne.

Fernanda Sakamoto, Apostolos Doukas, William Farinelli, Zeina Tannous, Michelle D. Shinn, Stephen Benson, Gwyn P. Williams, H. Dylla, Richard Anderson

2011-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

404

FY-2011 Status Report for Thermodynamics and Kinetics of Advanced Separations Systems  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report presents a summary of the work performed in the area of thermodynamics and kinetics of advanced separations systems under the Fuel Cycle Research and Development (FCR&D) program during FY 2011 at the INL. On the thermodynamic front, investigations of liquid-liquid distribution of lanthanides at TALSPEAK-related conditions continued in FY11. It has been determined that a classical ion-exchanging phase transfer mechanism, where three HDEHP dimers solvate the metal ion in the organic phase, dominates metal extraction for systems that contain up to 0.1 M free lactate in solution. The correct graphical interpretation of the observed data in those regions relied on incorporating corrections for non-ideal behavior of HDEHP dimer in aliphatic diluents as well as sodium extraction equilibria. When aqueous conditions enter the complex regions of high lactate concentrations, slope analysis is no longer possible. When normalized metal distribution ratios were studied along the increasing concentration of free lactate, a slope of -1 was apparent. Such dependency either indicates aqueous complexing competition from lactate, or, a more likely scenario, a participation of lactate in the extracted metal complex. This finding agrees with our initial assessment of postulated changes in the extraction mechanism as a source of the lactate-mediated loss of extraction efficiency. The observed shape in the lanthanide distribution curve in our studies of TALSPEAK systems was the same for solutions containing no lactate or 2.3 M lactate. As such we may conclude that the mechanism of phase transfer is not altered dramatically and remains similarly sensitive to effective charge density of the metal ion. In addition to these thermodynamics studies, this report also summarizes the first calorimetric determination of heat of extraction of 248Cm in a bi-phasic system. The heat of extraction measured by isothermal titration calorimetry is compared to that determined using van't Hoff calculations. Further investigations on the kinetics of extraction in TALSPEAK with macro quantities of lanthanides present in the initial aqueous phase composition have been performed. These results have been summarized and compared to previous work performed for FCR&D. In addition, the effects of HDEHP concentration in the organic phase on europium extraction have been studied.

Leigh R. Martin; Peter R. Zalupski; Travis S. Grimes

2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

405

Source Signatures of Fine Particulate Matter from Petroleum Refining and Fuel Use  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Combustion experiments were carried out on four different residual fuel oils in a 732 kW boiler. Particulate matter (PM) emission samples were separated aerodynamically by a cyclone into fractions that were nominally less than and greater than 2.5 microns in diameter. However, examination of several of the samples by computer-controlled scanning electron microscopy (CCSEM) revealed that part of the <2.5 micron fraction (PM{sub 2.5}) in fact consists of carbonaceous cenospheres and vesicular particles that range up to 10 microns in diameter. X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) spectroscopy data were obtained at the S, V, Ni, Fe, Cu, Zn, and As Kedges, and at the Pb L-edge. Deconvolution of the x-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) region of the S spectra established that the dominant molecular forms of S present were sulfate (26-84% of total S) and thiophene (13-39% of total S). Sulfate was greater in the PM{sub 2.5} samples than in the >2.5 micron samples (PM{sub 2.5+}). Inorganic sulfides and elemental sulfur were present in lower percentages. The Ni XANES spectra from all of the samples agree fairly well with that of NiSO4, while most of the V spectra closely resemble that of vanadyl sulfate (VO{center_dot}SO{sub 4}{center_dot}xH{sub 2}O). The other metals investigated (Fe, Cu, Zn, and Pb) were also present predominantly as sulfates. Arsenic is present as an arsenate (As{sup +5}). X-ray diffraction patterns of the PM{sub 2.5} fraction exhibit sharp lines due to sulfate compounds (Zn, V, Ni, Ca, etc.) superimposed on broad peaks due to amorphous carbons. All of the samples contain a significant organic component, with the LOI ranging from 64 to 87 % for the PM{sub 2.5} fraction and from 88 to 97% for the PM{sub 2.5+} fraction. {sup 13}C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analysis indicates that the carbon is predominantly condensed in graphitic structures. Aliphatic structure was detected in only one of seven samples examined.

Gerald P. Huffman; Frank E. Huggins; Naresh Shah; Robert Huggins

1999-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

406

Distribution Behavior of U(VI), Pu(IV), Am(III), and Zr(IV) with N,N-Dihexyl Octanamide Under Uranium-Loading Conditions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

While the tri-n-butyl phosphate (TBP)-based PUREX process has been the workhorse of the nuclear fuel reprocessing industry for the last four and a half decades, a few drawbacks associated with the use of TBP have caused concern to the separation scientists and technologists. These shortcomings may pose a serious challenge particularly during the reprocessing of (a) short cooled thermal reactor fuels, (b) fast reactor fuels with the larger Pu content and significantly higher burn up, and (c) while treating various waste streams for their disposal to the environment. The N,N-dialkyl aliphatic amides have received particular attention as alternate potential extractants for the reprocessing of spent nuclear fuels in view of (a) the innocuous nature of their degradation products, namely, carboxylic acids/amines and (b) the possibility to incinerate the used solvent leading to reduced volume of secondary waste. The physical and chemical properties of these amides are influenced strongly by the nature of alkyl groups. The extractant N,N-dihexyl octanamide (DHOA) was found to be a promising candidate among a large number of extractants studied. Laboratory batch studies as well as mixer settler studies were performed under process conditions with DHOA and compared with those of TBP. DHOA was found to extract Pu(IV) more efficiently than TBP, both at trace-level concentration as well as under uranium loading conditions. In addition, the extraction behavior of Am(III) and Zr(IV) was studied at varying nitric acid concentrations (1 to 6 M). Extraction behavior of uranium at macroconcentrations (9.9 to 157.7 g/l) was carried out at different temperatures, and it was observed that D{sub U} decreased with the increase in U loading as well as with the increase of temperature (in the range 25 to 45 deg. C) and that the two-phase reaction was exothermic in nature. Mixer settler studies on U(VI) revealed that DHOA is similar to TBP during the extraction cycle but better than TBP during the stripping cycle.

Manchanda, V.K.; Ruikar, P.B.; Sriram, S.; Nagar, M.S.; Pathak, P.N.; Gupta, K.K.; Singh, R.K.; Chitnis, R.R.; Dhami, P.S.; Ramanujam, A. [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (India)

2001-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

407

Development of a novel solvent for the simultaneous separation of strontium and cesium from dissolved Spent Nuclear Fuel solutions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The recovery of Cs and Sr from acidic solutions by solvent extraction has been investigated. The goal of this project was to develop an extraction process to remove Cs and Sr from high-level waste in an effort to reduce the heat loading in storage. Solvents for the extraction of Cs and Sr separately have been used on both caustic and acidic spent nuclear fuel waste in the past. The objective of this research was to find a suitable solvent for the extraction of both Cs and Sr simultaneously from acidic nitrate media. The solvents selected for this research possess good stability and extraction behavior when mixed together. The extraction experiments were performed with 4 ,4,(5 )-Di-(tbutyldicyclohexano)- 18-crown-6 {DtBuCH18C6}, Calix[4]arene-bis-(tert-octylbenzocrown-6) {BOBCalixC6} and 1-(2,2,3,3-tetrafluoropropoxy)-3-(4-sec-butylphenoxy)-2-propanol {Cs-7SB modifier} in a branched aliphatic kerosene {Isopar® L}. The BOBCalixC6 and Cs-7SB modifier were developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) by Bonnesen et al. [1]. The values obtained from the SREX solvent for DSr in 1 M nitric acid ranged from 0.7 to 2.2 at 25oC and 10oC respectively. The values for DCs in 1 M nitric acid with the CSSX solvent ranged from 8.0 to 46.0 at 25oC and 10oC respectively. A new mixed solvent, developed at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) by Riddle et al. [2], showed distributions for Sr ranging from 8.8 to 17.4 in 1 M nitric acid at 25oC and 10oC respectively. The DCs for the mixed solvent ranged from 7.7 to 20.2 in 1 M nitric acid at 25oC to 10oC respectively. The unexpectedly high distributions for Sr at both 25oC and 10oC show a synergy in the mixed solvent. The DCs, although lower than with CSSX solvent, still showed good extraction behavior.

Catherine L. Riddle; John D. Baker; Jack D. Law; Christopher A. McGrath; David H. Meikrantz; Bruce J. Mincher; Dean R. Peterman; Terry A. Todd

2004-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

408

Use of thermal analysis techniques (TG-DSC) for the characterization of diverse organic municipal waste streams to predict biological stability prior to land application  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Thermal analysis was used to assess stability and composition of organic matter in three diverse municipal waste streams. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Results were compared with C mineralization during 90-day incubation, FTIR and {sup 13}C NMR. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Thermal analysis reflected the differences between the organic wastes before and after the incubation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The calculated energy density showed a strong correlation with cumulative respiration. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Conventional and thermal methods provide complimentary means of characterizing organic wastes. - Abstract: The use of organic municipal wastes as soil amendments is an increasing practice that can divert significant amounts of waste from landfill, and provides a potential source of nutrients and organic matter to ameliorate degraded soils. Due to the high heterogeneity of organic municipal waste streams, it is difficult to rapidly and cost-effectively establish their suitability as soil amendments using a single method. Thermal analysis has been proposed as an evolving technique to assess the stability and composition of the organic matter present in these wastes. In this study, three different organic municipal waste streams (i.e., a municipal waste compost (MC), a composted sewage sludge (CS) and a thermally dried sewage sludge (TS)) were characterized using conventional and thermal methods. The conventional methods used to test organic matter stability included laboratory incubation with measurement of respired C, and spectroscopic methods to characterize chemical composition. Carbon mineralization was measured during a 90-day incubation, and samples before and after incubation were analyzed by chemical (elemental analysis) and spectroscopic (infrared and nuclear magnetic resonance) methods. Results were compared with those obtained by thermogravimetry (TG) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) techniques. Total amounts of CO{sub 2} respired indicated that the organic matter in the TS was the least stable, while that in the CS was the most stable. This was confirmed by changes detected with the spectroscopic methods in the composition of the organic wastes due to C mineralization. Differences were especially pronounced for TS, which showed a remarkable loss of aliphatic and proteinaceous compounds during the incubation process. TG, and especially DSC analysis, clearly reflected these differences between the three organic wastes before and after the incubation. Furthermore, the calculated energy density, which represents the energy available per unit of organic matter, showed a strong correlation with cumulative respiration. Results obtained support the hypothesis of a potential link between the thermal and biological stability of the studied organic materials, and consequently the ability of thermal analysis to characterize the maturity of municipal organic wastes and composts.

Fernandez, Jose M., E-mail: joseman@sas.upenn.edu [Department of Earth and Environmental Science, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104-6316 (United States); Plaza, Cesar; Polo, Alfredo [Instituto de Ciencias Agrarias, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, Serrano 115 dpdo., 28006 Madrid (Spain); Plante, Alain F. [Department of Earth and Environmental Science, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104-6316 (United States)

2012-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

409

Mechanistic, Mutational, and Structural Evaluation of a Taxus Phenylalanine Aminomutase  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The structure of a phenylalanine aminomutase (TcPAM) from Taxus canadensis has been determined at 2.4 {angstrom} resolution. The active site of the TcPAM contains the signature 4-methylidene-1H-imidazol-5(4H)-one prosthesis, observed in all catalysts of the class I lyase-like family. This catalyst isomerizes (S)-{alpha}-phenylalanine to the (R)-{beta}-isomer by exchange of the NH{sub 2}/H pair. The stereochemistry of the TcPAM reaction product is opposite of the (S)-{beta}-tyrosine made by the mechanistically related tyrosine aminomutase (SgTAM) from Streptomyces globisporus. Since TcPAM and SgTAM share similar tertiary- and quaternary-structures and have several highly conserved aliphatic residues positioned analogously in their active sites for substrate recognition, the divergent product stereochemistries of these catalysts likely cannot be explained by differences in active site architecture. The active site of the TcPAM structure also is in complex with (E)-cinnamate; the latter functions as both a substrate and an intermediate. To account for the distinct (3R)-{beta}-amino acid stereochemistry catalyzed by TcPAM, the cinnamate skeleton must rotate the C{sub 1}-C{sub {alpha}} and C{sub ipso}-C{sub {beta}} bonds 180{sup o} in the active site prior to exchange and rebinding of the NH{sub 2}/H pair to the cinnamate, an event that is not required for the corresponding acrylate intermediate in the SgTAM reaction. Moreover, the aromatic ring of the intermediate makes only one direct hydrophobic interaction with Leu-104. A L104A mutant of TcPAM demonstrated an 1.5-fold increase in k{sub cat} and a decrease in K{sub M} values for sterically demanding 3'-methyl-{alpha}-phenylalanine and styryl-{alpha}-alanine substrates, compared to the kinetic parameters for TcPAM. These parameters did not change significantly for the mutant with 4'-methyl-{alpha}-phenylalanine compared to those for TcPAM.

Feng, Lei; Wanninayake, Udayanga; Strom, Susan; Geiger, James; Walker, Kevin D. (MSU)

2014-10-02T23:59:59.000Z

410

Structural Origins of Nitroxide Side Chain Dynamics on Membrane Protein [alpha]-Helical Sites  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Understanding the structure and dynamics of membrane proteins in their native, hydrophobic environment is important to understanding how these proteins function. EPR spectroscopy in combination with site-directed spin labeling (SDSL) can measure dynamics and structure of membrane proteins in their native lipid environment; however, until now the dynamics measured have been qualitative due to limited knowledge of the nitroxide spin label's intramolecular motion in the hydrophobic environment. Although several studies have elucidated the structural origins of EPR line shapes of water-soluble proteins, EPR spectra of nitroxide spin-labeled proteins in detergents or lipids have characteristic differences from their water-soluble counterparts, suggesting significant differences in the underlying molecular motion of the spin label between the two environments. To elucidate these differences, membrane-exposed {alpha}-helical sites of the leucine transporter, LeuT, from Aquifex aeolicus, were investigated using X-ray crystallography, mutational analysis, nitroxide side chain derivatives, and spectral simulations in order to obtain a motional model of the nitroxide. For each crystal structure, the nitroxide ring of a disulfide-linked spin label side chain (R1) is resolved and makes contacts with hydrophobic residues on the protein surface. The spin label at site I204 on LeuT makes a nontraditional hydrogen bond with the ortho-hydrogen on its nearest neighbor F208, whereas the spin label at site F177 makes multiple van der Waals contacts with a hydrophobic pocket formed with an adjacent helix. These results coupled with the spectral effect of mutating the i {+-} 3, 4 residues suggest that the spin label has a greater affinity for its local protein environment in the low dielectric than on a water-soluble protein surface. The simulations of the EPR spectra presented here suggest the spin label oscillates about the terminal bond nearest the ring while maintaining weak contact with the protein surface. Combined, the results provide a starting point for determining a motional model for R1 on membrane proteins, allowing quantification of nitroxide dynamics in the aliphatic environment of detergent and lipids. In addition, initial contributions to a rotamer library of R1 on membrane proteins are provided, which will assist in reliably modeling the R1 conformational space for pulsed dipolar EPR and NMR paramagnetic relaxation enhancement distance determination.

Kroncke, Brett M.; Horanyi, Peter S.; Columbus, Linda (UV)

2010-12-07T23:59:59.000Z

411

Radiation induced redox reactions and fragmentation of constituent ions in ionic liquids II. Imidazolium cations.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In part 1 of this study, radiolytic degradation of constituent anions in ionic liquids (ILs) was examined. The present study continues the themes addressed in part 1 and examines the radiation chemistry of 1,3-dialkyl substituted imidazolium cations, which currently comprise the most practically important and versatile class of ionic liquid cations. For comparison, we also examined 1,3-dimethoxy- and 2-methyl-substituted imidazolium and 1-butyl-4-methylpyridinium cations. In addition to identification of radicals using electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy (EPR) and selective deuterium substitution, we analyzed stable radiolytic products using {sup 1}H and {sup 13}C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and tandem electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESMS). Our EPR studies reveal rich chemistry initiated through 'ionization of the ions': oxidation and the formation of radical dications in the aliphatic arms of the parent cations (leading to deprotonation and the formation of alkyl radicals in these arms) and reduction of the parent cation, yielding 2-imidazolyl radicals. The subsequent reactions of these radicals depend on the nature of the IL. If the cation is 2-substituted, the resulting 2-imidazolyl radical is relatively stable. If there is no substitution at C(2), the radical then either is protonated or reacts with the parent cation forming a C(2)-C(2) {sigma}{sigma}*-bound dimer radical cation. In addition to these reactions, when methoxy or C{sub {alpha}}-substituted alkyl groups occupy the N(1,3) positions, their elimination is observed. The elimination of methyl groups from N(1,3) was not observed. Product analyses of imidazolium liquids irradiated in the very-high-dose regime (6.7 MGy) reveal several detrimental processes, including volatilization, acidification, and oligomerization. The latter yields a polymer with m/z of 650 {+-} 300 whose radiolytic yield increases with dose (0.23 monomer units per 100 eV for 1-methyl-3-butylimidazolium trifluorosulfonate). Gradual generation of this polymer accounts for the steady increase in the viscosity of the ILs upon irradiation. Previous studies at lower dose have missed this species due to its wide mass distribution (stretching out to m/z 1600) and broad NMR lines, which make it harder to detect at lower concentrations. Among other observed changes is the formation of water immiscible fractions in hydrophilic ILs and water miscible fractions in hydrophobic ILs. The latter is due to anion fragmentation. The import of these observations for use of ILs as extraction solvents in nuclear cycle separations is discussed.

Shkrob, I. A.; Marin, T. W.; Chemerisov, S. D.; Hatcher, J.; Wishart, J. (Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division); (BNL)

2011-04-14T23:59:59.000Z

412

Electron localization in solid acetonitrile.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Electron localization in the bulk condensed phases of acetonitrile differs drastically from the corresponding processes that take place in water and aliphatic alcohols. In particular, electron capture following the ionization of liquid and solid acetonitrile yields well-defined radical anions in place of the largely structureless solvated and trapped electrons characteristic of irradiated solutions and rigid glasses. This is remarkable given the many similarities that exist not only between the intrinsic properties of these individual solvent molecules, such as polarity, but also in their cooperative capacity to function as solvents. Here, with the aid of detailed experimental and computational studies, we examine on a fundamental level what gives rise to such a sharp contrast in the behavior of these alkyl cyanides as compared to water and alcohols. EPR and optical spectra, and ab initio calculations on the radical anions are used together with diffraction data for the crystal structures to demonstrate that electron attachment to nitrile molecules in the crystalline state results in a significant bending of the linear CCN moiety. Moreover, in the formation of the dimer anions, which only takes place in certain crystalline phases, it is determined that the intermolecular bonding occurs between the cyanide carbons in an antiparallel arrangement. A staggered structure for the dimer anion in {alpha}-acetonitrile is then suggested, in which there is a nearly coplanar arrangement with the two bent CCN fragments. The resulting structure accounts for the observed EPR parameters, the position of the UV-vis absorption band, and the trends observed in the vibronic progressions for the four H/D isotopomers. The dimer radical anion in a-acetonitrile retains the same orientation and symmetry as that of the preexisting neutral {l_brace}CH{sub 3}CN{r_brace}{sub 2} pairs in this crystal despite the resulting changes in molecular geometry and in the translational coordinates for the cyanide carbons as the two acetonitrile molecules come together. We suggest that dimer anions of nitriles can form only in the phases where such 'antiparallel' pairs occur, including liquid systems; otherwise, the electron remains attached to a single molecule, as in {beta}-acetonitrile. Because electron capture by water or alcohol molecules in the condensed phase appears to require larger molecular clusters, the contrast between the behavior of these solvents and acetonitrile is attributable to the relative ease with which acetonitrile molecules in the crystal or solvent can undergo valence-electron attachment via their accessible low-lying {pi}* orbitals.

Shkrob, I. A.; Takeda, K.; Williams, F.; Chemistry; Univ. of Tennessee

2002-10-03T23:59:59.000Z

413

Hydrotreating Pyrolytic Lignin to Produce a Refinery Feedstock (Poster)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Fast pyrolysis of biomass followed by water separation to produce pyrolytic lignin and hydrotreating of the lignin could be used to produce a stable volatile low-oxygen intermediate liquid. Such a liquid could be converted into a finished motor-fuel in a refinery, taking advantage of the existing infrastructure and economies of scale of refineries. Hydrotreating just the lignin would consume less hydrogen while preserving about half of the energy of the original oil. The aqueous by-products could be reformed to produce the needed hydrogen and would contain much of the unwanted acids and unstable oxygenates. To assess such intermediate liquids, several pyrolytic lignins were prepared by mixing pyrolysis oil with water at 1:1 and 3:1 ratios. The carboxylic acidity in the pyrolytic lignin was reduced to 24 and 10 mg-KOH/g-lignin compared to 81 in the whole oil. These lignins were hydrotreated using Ni-Mo(S)/alumina, Pt/char, or Pd/C(activated) in a semi-batch 1 L stirred autoclave. The oil was stabilized under hydrogen at 150-280 degrees C, then water and light organics were removed by partial depressurization. Hydrodeoxygenation was then performed at 340-400 degrees C. Total pressure was controlled at 70 or 170 bar with hydrogen gas. Organic liquid yields of 39-56% were obtained. For many experiments the organic oxygen content was <7%, acidity was < 7 mg-KOH/g-oil, the volatility was greater than or equal to 94% and, on a carbon basis, the total yield of organic products miscible in hydrocarbons at a 1:10 ratio was over 50%. These properties are probably acceptable to a refinery.The residual liquids left in the reactor at the end of the experiment comprised 60-85% of the organic-phase product while the rest was condensate. 13C-NMR of the residual liquids showed that they were 50-80% aliphatic. 13C-NMR coupled with GC-MS identified phenolic compounds as the main oxygenates in most residual liquids.

French, R. J.

2013-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

414

SUBTASK 3.11 – PRODUCTION OF CBTL-BASED JET FUELS FROM BIOMASS-BASED FEEDSTOCKS AND MONTANA COAL  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC), in partnership with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and Accelergy Corporation, an advanced fuels developer with technologies exclusively licensed from Exxon Mobil, undertook Subtask 3.11 to use a recently installed bench-scale direct coal liquefaction (DCL) system capable of converting 45 pounds/hour of pulverized, dried coal to a liquid suitable for upgrading to fuels and/or chemicals. The process involves liquefaction of Rosebud mine coal (Montana coal) coupled with an upgrading scheme to produce a naphthenic fuel. The upgrading comprises catalytic hydrotreating and saturation to produce naphthenic fuel. A synthetic jet fuel was prepared by blending equal volumes of naphthenic fuel with similar aliphatic fuel derived from biomass and 11 volume % of aromatic hydrocarbons. The synthetic fuel was tested using standard ASTM International techniques to determine compliance with JP-8 fuel. The composite fuel thus produced not only meets but exceeds the military aviation fuel-screening criteria. A 500-milliliter synthetic jet fuel sample which met internal screening criteria was submitted to the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) at Wright–Patterson Air Force Base, Dayton, Ohio, for evaluation. The sample was confirmed by AFRL to be in compliance with U.S. Air Force-prescribed alternative aviation fuel initial screening criteria. The results show that this fuel meets or exceeds the key specification parameters for JP-8, a petroleum-based jet fuel widely used by the U.S. military. JP-8 specifications include parameters such as freeze point, density, flash point, and others; all of which were met by the EERC fuel sample. The fuel also exceeds the thermal stability specification of JP-8 fuel as determined by the quartz crystalline microbalance (QCM) test also performed at an independent laboratory as well as AFRL. This means that the EERC fuel looks and acts identically to petroleum-derived jet fuel and can be used interchangeably without any special requirements and thus provides a pathway to energy security to the U.S. military and the entire nation. This subtask was funded through the EERC–DOE Joint Program on Research and Development for Fossil Energy-Related Resources Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC26- 08NT43291. Nonfederal funding was provided by Accelergy Corporation.

Sharma, Ramesh

2014-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

415

MA Doping Analysis on Breeding Capability and Protected Plutonium Production of Large FBR  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Spent fuel from LWR can be seen as long-live waste if it is not recycled or as a 'new fuel' resource if it is recycled into the reactors. Uranium and plutonium have been used for 'new fuel' resources from LWR spent fuel as MOX fuel type which is loaded into thermal reactor or fast reactor types. Other actinides from the spent fuel such as neptunium, americium and curium as minor actinide (MA) are considered to be loaded into the reactors for specific purposes, recently. Those purposes such as for increasing protected plutonium production and breeding capability for protected plutonium as well as in the same time those amount of MA can be reduced to a small quantity as a burner or transmutation purpose. Some investigations and scientific approaches are performed in order to increase a material ''barrier'' in plutonium isotope composition by increasing the even mass number of plutonium isotope such as Pu-238, Pu-240 and Pu-242 as plutonium protected composition. Higher material barrier which related to intrinsic properties of plutonium isotopes with even mass number (Pu-238, Pu-240 and Pu-242), are recognized because of their intense decay heat (DH) and high spontaneous fission neutron (SFN) rates. Those even number mass of plutonium isotope contribute to some criteria of plutonium characterization which will be adopted for present study such as IAEA, Pellaud and Kessler criteria (IAEA, 1972; Pellaud, 2002; and Kessler, 2007). The present paper intends to evaluate the breeding capability as a fuel sustainability index of the reactors and to analyze the composition of protected plutonium production of large power reactor based on the FaCT FBR as reference (Ohki, et al., 2008). Three dimensional FBR core configuration has been adopted which is based on the core optimization calculation of SRAC-CITATION code as reactor core analysis and JENDL-3.3 is adopted for nuclear data library. Some MA doping materials are loaded into the blanket regions which can be considered as breeding region for protected plutonium production. Breeding capability of the reactor can be increased effectively by increasing MA doping rate while criticality condition of the reactor is reduced by doping MA. Adopting MA cycle is also effective to increase the isotopic Pu-238 production in plutonium vector composition for denaturing purpose of plutonium.

Permana, Sidik; Suzuki, Mitsutoshi; Kuno, Yusuke [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Nuclear Non-proliferation Science and Technology Center, 2-4 Shirane Shirakata, Tokai-mura, Ibaraki, 319-1195 (Japan)

2010-06-22T23:59:59.000Z

416

A Single-Domain Llama Antibody Potently Inhibits the Enzymatic Activity of Botulinum Neurotoxin by Binding to the Non-Catalytic [alpha]-Exosite Binding Region  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Ingestion or inhalation of botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) results in botulism, a severe and frequently fatal disease. Current treatments rely on antitoxins, which, while effective, cannot reverse symptoms once BoNT has entered the neuron. For treatments that can reverse intoxication, interest has focused on developing inhibitors of the enzymatic BoNT light chain (BoNT Lc). Such inhibitors typically mimic substrate and bind in or around the substrate cleavage pocket. To explore the full range of binding sites for serotype A light chain (BoNT/A Lc) inhibitors, we created a library of non-immune llama single-domain VHH (camelid heavy-chain variable region derived from heavy-chain-only antibody) antibodies displayed on the surface of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Library selection on BoNT/A Lc yielded 15 yeast-displayed VHH with equilibrium dissociation constants (K{sub d}) from 230 to 0.03 nM measured by flow cytometry. Eight of 15 VHH inhibited the cleavage of substrate SNAP25 (synaptosome-associated protein of 25,000 Da) by BoNT/A Lc. The most potent VHH (Aa1) had a solution K{sub d} for BoNT/A Lc of 1.47 x 10{sup -10} M and an IC{sub 50} (50% inhibitory concentration) of 4.7 x 10{sup -10} M and was resistant to heat denaturation and reducing conditions. To understand the mechanism by which Aa1 inhibited catalysis, we solved the X-ray crystal structure of the BoNT/A Lc-Aa1 VHH complex at 2.6 {angstrom} resolution. The structure reveals that the Aa1 VHH binds in the {alpha}-exosite of the BoNT/A Lc, far from the active site for catalysis. The study validates the utility of non-immune llama VHH libraries as a source of enzyme inhibitors and identifies the BoNT/A Lc {alpha}-exosite as a target for inhibitor development.

Dong, Jianbo; Thompson, Aaron A.; Fan, Yongfeng; Lou, Jianlong; Conrad, Fraser; Ho, Mengfei; Pires-Alves, Melissa; Wilson, Brenda A.; Stevens, Raymond C.; Marks, James D. (UIUC); (Scripps); (UCSF)

2010-08-13T23:59:59.000Z

417

Key residues for the oligomerization of A{beta}42 protein in Alzheimer's disease  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A{beta} oligomers are neurotoxins and likely the causing agents for Alzheimer's disease. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A{beta}42 fusion protein form globular oligomers. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A{beta}42 fusion protein oligomers contain SDS-resistant tetramers and hexamers. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cysteine substitutions at residues 31, 32, 34, 39-41 disrupt A{beta}42 oligomerization. -- Abstract: Deposition of amyloid fibrils consisting of amyloid {beta} (A{beta}) protein as senile plaques in the brain is a pathological hallmark of Alzheimer's disease. However, a growing body of evidence shows that soluble A{beta} oligomers correlate better with dementia than fibrils, suggesting that A{beta} oligomers may be the primary toxic species. The structure and oligomerization mechanism of these A{beta} oligomers are crucial for developing effective therapeutics. Here we investigated the oligomerization of A{beta}42 in the context of a fusion protein containing GroES and ubiquitin fused to the N-terminus of A{beta} sequence. The presence of fusion protein partners, in combination with a denaturing buffer containing 8 M urea at pH 10, is unfavorable for A{beta}42 aggregation, thus allowing only the most stable structures to be observed. Transmission electron microscopy showed that A{beta}42 fusion protein formed globular oligomers, which bound weakly to thioflavin T and Congo red. SDS-PAGE shows that A{beta}42 fusion protein formed SDS-resistant hexamers and tetramers. In contrast, A{beta}40 fusion protein remained as monomers on SDS gel, suggesting that the oligomerization of A{beta}42 fusion protein is not due to the fusion protein partners. Cysteine scanning mutagenesis at 22 residue positions further revealed that single cysteine substitutions of the C-terminal hydrophobic residues (I31, I32, L34, V39, V40, and I41) led to disruption of hexamer and tetramer formation, suggesting that hydrophobic interactions between these residues are most critical for A{beta}42 oligomerization.

Ngo, Sam [Department of Neurology, Brain Research Institute, Molecular Biology Institute, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States)] [Department of Neurology, Brain Research Institute, Molecular Biology Institute, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Guo, Zhefeng, E-mail: zhefeng@ucla.edu [Department of Neurology, Brain Research Institute, Molecular Biology Institute, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States)] [Department of Neurology, Brain Research Institute, Molecular Biology Institute, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States)

2011-10-28T23:59:59.000Z

418

Performance of Thorium-Based Mixed Oxide Fuels for the Consumption of Plutonium and Minor Actinides in Current and Advanced Reactors  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A renewed interest in thorium-based fuels has arisen lately based on the need for proliferation resistance, longer fuel cycles, higher burnup and improved wasteform characteristics. Recent studies have been directed toward homogeneously mixed, heterogeneously mixed, and seed-and-blanket thorium-uranium fuel cycles that rely on "in situ" use of the bred-in U-233. However, due to the higher initial enrichment required to achieve acceptable burnups, these fuels are encountering economic constraints. Thorium can nevertheless play a large role in the nuclear fuel cycle; particularly in the reduction of plutonium. While uranium-based mixedoxide (MOX) fuel will decrease the amount of plutonium, the reduction is limited due to the breeding of more plutonium (and higher actinides) from the U-238. Here we present calculational results and a comparison of the potential burnup of a thorium-based and uranium-based mixed oxide fuel in a light water reactor (LWR). Although the uranium-based fuels outperformed the thorium-based fuels in achievable burnup, a depletion comparison of the initially charged plutonium (both reactor and weapons grade) showed that the thorium-based fuels outperformed the uranium-based fuels by more that a factor of 2; where more than 70% of the total plutonium in the thorium-based fuel is consumed during the cycle. This is significant considering that the achievable burnup of the thorium-based fuels were 1.4 to 4.6 times less than the uranium-based fuels. Furthermore, use of a thorium-based fuel could also be used as a strategy for reducing the amount of long-lived nuclides (including the minor actinides), and thus the radiotoxicity in spent nuclear fuel. Although the breeding of U-233 is a concern, the presence of U-232 and its daughter products can aid in making this fuel self-protecting, and/or enough U-238 can be added to denature the fissile uranium. From these calculations, it appears that thorium-based fuel for plutonium incineration is superior as compared to uranium-based fuel, and should be considered as an alternative to traditional MOX in both current and future reactor designs.

Weaver, Kevan Dean; Herring, James Stephen

2002-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

419

Final Report: Structural studies of archatelthermophilic adenylate kinase, September 15, 1996 - September 14, 1998  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Through this DOE sponsored program Konisky has studied the evolution and molecular biology of microbes that live in extreme environments. The emphasis of this work has been the determination of the structural features of thermophilic enzymes that allow them to function optimally at near 100%. The laboratory has focused on a comparative study of adenylate kinase (ADK), an enzyme that functions to interconvert adenine nucleotides. Because of the close phylogenetic relatedness of members of the methanococci, differences in the structure of their ADKs will be dominated by structural features that reflect contributions to their optimal temperature for activity, rather than differences due to phylogenetic divergence. The authors have cloned, sequenced and modeled the secondary structure for several methanococcal ADKs. using molecular modeling threading approaches that are based on the solved structure for the porcine ADK, they have also proposed a general low resolution three dimensional structure for each of the methanococcal enzymes. These analyzes have allowed them to propose structural features that confer hyperthermoactivity to those enzymes functioning in the hyperthermophilic members of the Methanococci. Using protein engineering methodologies, they have tested their hypotheses by examining the effects of selective structural changes on thermoactivity. Despite possessing between 68--83% sequence identity, the methanococcal AKs had significantly different stability against thermal denaturation, with melting points ranging from 69--103 C. The construction of several chimerical AKs by linking regions of the MVO and MJA AKs demonstrated the importance of cooperative interactions between amino- and carboxyl-terminal regions in influencing thermostability. Addition of MJA terminal fragments to the MVO AK increased thermal stability approximately 20 C while maintaining 88% of the mesophilic sequence. Further analysis using structural models suggested that hydrophobic interactions are largely responsible for determining the thermostability of the methanococcal AKs. Construction of chimerical enzyme also demonstrated a distinct separation between thermostability and enzymatic temperature optima, suggesting that overall protein flexibility and stability are not dependently linked. Sequence comparisons and model buildings of highly related archaeal adenylate kinases has allowed the prediction of interactions responsible for the large temperature variation in temperatures for of optimal catalytic activity and temperature stability. The tertiary structure for these ADK have been predicted by using homology modeling to further investigate the potential of specific interactions on thermal stability and activity.

Konisky, Jordan

1998-09-14T23:59:59.000Z

420

Comparative Analysis of the 15.5kD Box C/D snoRNP Core Protein in the Primitive Eukaryote Giardia lamblia Reveals Unique Structural and Functional Features  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Box C/D ribonucleoproteins (RNP) guide the 2'-O-methylation of targeted nucleotides in archaeal and eukaryotic rRNAs. The archaeal L7Ae and eukaryotic 15.5kD box C/D RNP core protein homologues initiate RNP assembly by recognizing kink-turn (K-turn) motifs. The crystal structure of the 15.5kD core protein from the primitive eukaryote Giardia lamblia is described here to a resolution of 1.8 {angstrom}. The Giardia 15.5kD protein exhibits the typical {alpha}-{beta}-{alpha} sandwich fold exhibited by both archaeal L7Ae and eukaryotic 15.5kD proteins. Characteristic of eukaryotic homologues, the Giardia 15.5kD protein binds the K-turn motif but not the variant K-loop motif. The highly conserved residues of loop 9, critical for RNA binding, also exhibit conformations similar to those of the human 15.5kD protein when bound to the K-turn motif. However, comparative sequence analysis indicated a distinct evolutionary position between Archaea and Eukarya. Indeed, assessment of the Giardia 15.5kD protein in denaturing experiments demonstrated an intermediate stability in protein structure when compared with that of the eukaryotic mouse 15.5kD and archaeal Methanocaldococcus jannaschii L7Ae proteins. Most notable was the ability of the Giardia 15.5kD protein to assemble in vitro a catalytically active chimeric box C/D RNP utilizing the archaeal M. jannaschii Nop56/58 and fibrillarin core proteins. In contrast, a catalytically competent chimeric RNP could not be assembled using the mouse 15.5kD protein. Collectively, these analyses suggest that the G. lamblia 15.5kD protein occupies a unique position in the evolution of this box C/D RNP core protein retaining structural and functional features characteristic of both archaeal L7Ae and higher eukaryotic 15.5kD homologues.

Biswas, Shyamasri; Buhrman, Greg; Gagnon, Keith; Mattos, Carla; Brown, II, Bernard A.; Maxwell, E. Stuart (NCSU); (UTSMC)

2012-07-11T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "denatured aliphatic alco" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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421

In contrast to conventional inactivated influenza vaccines, 4xM2e.HSP70c fusion protein fully protected mice against lethal dose of H1, H3 and H9 influenza A isolates circulating in Iran  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Ideal vaccines against influenza viruses should elicit not only a humoral response, but also a cellular response. Mycobacterium tuberculosis HSP70 (mHSP70) have been found to promote immunogenic APCs function, elicit a strong cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) response, and prevent the induction of tolerance. Moreover, it showed linkage of antigens to the C-terminus of mHSP70 (mHSP70c) can represent them as vaccines resulted in more potent, protective antigen specific responses in the absence of adjuvants or complex formulations. Hence, recombinant fusion protein comprising C-terminus of mHSP70 genetically fused to four tandem repeats of the ectodomain of the conserved influenza matrix protein M2 (M2e) was expressed in Escherichia coli, purified under denaturing condition, refolding, and then confirmed by SDS-PAGE, respectively. The recombinant fusion protein, 4xM2e.HSP70c, retained its immunogenicity and displayed the protective epitope of M2e by ELISA and FITC assays. A prime-boost administration of 4xM2e.HSP70c formulated in F105 buffer by intramuscular route in mice (Balb/C) provided full protection against lethal dose of mouse-adapted H1N1, H3N2, or H9N2 influenza A isolates from Iran compared to 0-33.34% survival rate of challenged unimmunized and immunized mice with the currently in use conventional vaccines designated as control groups. However, protection induced by immunization with 4xM2e.HSP70c failed to prevent weight loss in challenged mice; they experienced significantly lower weight loss, clinical symptoms and higher lung viral clearance in comparison with protective effects of conventional influenza vaccines in challenged mice. These data demonstrate that C-terminal domain of mHSP70 can be a superior candidate to deliver the adjuvant function in M2e-based influenza A vaccine in order to provide significant protection against multiple influenza A virus strains.

Ebrahimi, Seyyed Mahmoud, E-mail: smebrahimi@shirazu.ac.ir [Applied Biotechnology Research Center, Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences, P.O. Box 14155-3651,Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Research Center of Virus and Vaccine, Baqiyatallah University of Medical Science, P.O.Box 14155-3651, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Dabaghian, Mehran [Department of Pathobiology, University of Tehran, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, P.O. Box 14155-6453, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)] [Department of Pathobiology, University of Tehran, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, P.O. Box 14155-6453, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Tebianian, Majid [Department of Biotechnology, Razi Vaccine and Serum Research Institute (RVSRI), P.O. Box 31975/148, Karaj, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)] [Department of Biotechnology, Razi Vaccine and Serum Research Institute (RVSRI), P.O. Box 31975/148, Karaj, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Zabeh Jazi, Mohammad Hossein [Department of Pathobiology, University of Tehran, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, P.O. Box 14155-6453, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)] [Department of Pathobiology, University of Tehran, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, P.O. Box 14155-6453, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

2012-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

422

Group 4 Metalloporphyrin diolato Complexes and Catalytic Application of Metalloporphyrins and Related Transition Metal Complexes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this work, the first examples of group 4 metalloporphyrin 1,2-diolato complexes were synthesized through a number of strategies. In general, treatment of imido metalloporphyrin complexes, (TTP)M=NR, (M = Ti, Zr, Hf), with vicinal diols led to the formation of a series of diolato complexes. Alternatively, the chelating pinacolate complexes could be prepared by metathesis of (TTP)MCl{sub 2} (M = Ti, Hf) with disodium pinacolate. These complexes were found to undergo C-C cleavage reactions to produce organic carbonyl compounds. For titanium porphyrins, treatment of a titanium(II) alkyne adduct, (TTP)Ti({eta}{sup 2}-PhC{triple_bond}CPh), with aromatic aldehydes or aryl ketones resulted in reductive coupling of the carbonyl groups to produce the corresponding diolato complexes. Aliphatic aldehydes or ketones were not reactive towards (TTP)Ti({eta}{sup 2}-PhC{triple_bond}CPh). However, these carbonyl compounds could be incorporated into a diolato complex on reaction with a reactive precursor, (TTP)Ti[O(Ph){sub 2}C(Ph){sub 2}O] to provide unsymmetrical diolato complexes via cross coupling reactions. In addition, an enediolato complex (TTP)Ti(OCPhCPhO) was obtained from the reaction of (TTP)Ti({eta}{sup 2}-PhC{triple_bond}CPh) with benzoin. Titanium porphyrin diolato complexes were found to be intermediates in the (TTP)Ti=O-catalyzed cleavage reactions of vicinal diols, in which atmospheric oxygen was the oxidant. Furthermore, (TTP)Ti=O was capable of catalyzing the oxidation of benzyl alcohol and {alpha}-hydroxy ketones to benzaldehyde and {alpha}-diketones, respectively. Other high valent metalloporphyrin complexes also can catalyze the oxidative diol cleavage and the benzyl alcohol oxidation reactions with dioxygen. A comparison of Ti(IV) and Sn(IV) porphyrin chemistry was undertaken. While chelated diolato complexes were invariably obtained for titanium porphyrins on treatment with 1,2-diols, the reaction of vicinal diols with tin porphyrins gave a number of products, including mono-, bis-alkoxo, and chelating diolato complexes, depending on the identity of diols and the stoichiometry employed. It was also found that tin porphyrin complexes promoted the oxidative cleavage of vicinal diols and the oxidation of {alpha}-ketols to {alpha}-diketones with dioxygen. In extending the chemistry of metalloporphyrins and analogous complexes, a series of chiral tetraaza macrocyclic ligands and metal complexes were designed and synthesized. Examination of iron(II) complexes showed that they were efficient catalysts for the cyclopropanation of styrene by diazo reagents. Good yields and high diastereoselectivity were obtained with modest enantioselectivity. A rationalization of the stereoselectivity was presented on the basis of structural factors in a carbene intermediate.

Guodong Du

2004-12-19T23:59:59.000Z

423

Stable isotopic investigations of in-situ bioremediation of chlorinated organic solvents. 1998 annual progress report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

'Contamination of soils and groundwaters with chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons (CAHs) is one of the most serious environmental problems in the DOE system and in the nation at large. These compounds are designated as priority pollutants by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and are known or suspected to be carcinogenic or mutagenic in humans. These compounds are readily transported by groundwater and are not reduced to acceptable concentrations for human consumption by most municipal water supply treatments; thus the compounds represent a significant hazard to a large portion of the human population. In situ bioremediation is an emerging technology that shows great promise for mitigation of CAH contamination at many sites. One of the most severe limitations of in-situ bioremediation is the difficulty of proving when it is working at a given site. The concentrations of CAHs and their degradation products in plumes may be difficult to relate to the efficiency of the remediation process because of dilution effects, but this problem is mitigated to a large extent by measuring isotope ratios. If there is a significant isotopic fractionation between CAHs and derivative chlorine-bearing products, then the fraction of CAH that is dechlorinated can be inferred from the {sup 37}Cl/{sup 35}Cl and {sup 13}C/{sup 12}C isotope ratios of the residual CAH. It is important to point out that there is currently no published information available on the magnitude of chlorine and carbon isotopic fractionation associated with biological degradation of CAHs. The authors plan to help eliminate this important gap in the knowledge with the work being performed here. This work is relevant to EMSP goals because it will provide a new and cost-effective means of evaluating and monitoring the effectiveness of in-situ bioremediation. It will employ newly developed techniques to characterize isotopic fractionation (of chlorine and carbon) associated with biotic and abiotic degradation of CAHs in laboratory microcosms. These techniques and the data acquired by using them in laboratory studies will form the fundamental basis for quantitative assessment of the mechanisms, rates, and efficiencies of various in-situ bioremediation schemes for CAHs. This report summarizes work as of 21 months into a 36-month project. First, the author has developed methods for precise measurement of stable carbon and chlorine isotope ratios of micromolar amounts of CAHs. He has also developed methods for quantitative extraction of CAHs from water and air. He has applied these methods in laboratory experiments, to investigate isotopic fractionation caused by microbial degradation and by abiotic processes such as evaporation and chemical reduction. He has also applied these methods to field investigations of contaminated groundwater aquifers at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant, Kentucky and at several manufacturing plants in the Chicago and Kansas City metropolitan areas. Results of much of this work have already been incorporated into four manuscripts that have been published, accepted for publication, or are in review.'

Sturchio, N.C.

1998-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

424

Selective Extraction of Uranium from Liquid or Supercritical Carbon Dioxide  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Current liquid-liquid extraction processes used in recycling irradiated nuclear fuel rely on (1) strong nitric acid to dissolve uranium oxide fuel, and (2) the use of aliphatic hydrocarbons as a diluent in formulating the solvent used to extract uranium. The nitric acid dissolution process is not selective. It dissolves virtually the entire fuel meat which complicates the uranium extraction process. In addition, a solvent washing process is used to remove TBP degradation products, which adds complexity to the recycling plant and increases the overall plant footprint and cost. A liquid or supercritical carbon dioxide (l/sc -CO2) system was designed to mitigate these problems. Indeed, TBP nitric acid complexes are highly soluble in l/sc -CO2 and are capable of extracting uranium directly from UO2, UO3 and U3O8 powders. This eliminates the need for total acid dissolution of the irradiated fuel. Furthermore, since CO2 is easily recycled by evaporation at room temperature and pressure, it eliminates the complex solvent washing process. In this report, we demonstrate: (1) A reprocessing scheme starting with the selective extraction of uranium from solid uranium oxides into a TBP-HNO3 loaded Sc-CO2 phase, (2) Back extraction of uranium into an aqueous phase, and (3) Conversion of recovered purified uranium into uranium oxide. The purified uranium product from step 3 can be disposed of as low level waste, or mixed with enriched uranium for use in a reactor for another fuel cycle. After an introduction on the concept and properties of supercritical fluids, we first report the characterization of the different oxides used for this project. Our extraction system and our online monitoring capability using UV-Vis absorbance spectroscopy directly in sc-CO2 is then presented. Next, the uranium extraction efficiencies and kinetics is demonstrated for different oxides and under different physical and chemical conditions: l/sc -CO2 pressure and temperature, TBP/HNO3 complex used, reductant or complexant used for selectivity, and ionic liquids used as supportive media. To complete the extraction and recovery cycle, we then demonstrate uranium back extraction from the TBP loaded sc-CO2 phase into an aqueous phase and the characterization of the uranium complex formed at the end of this process. Another aspect of this project was to limit proliferation risks by either co-extracting uranium and plutonium, or by leaving plutonium behind by selectively extracting uranium. We report that the former is easily achieved, since plutonium is in the tetravalent or hexavalent oxidation state in the oxidizing environment created by the TBP-nitric acid complex, and is therefore co-extracted. The latter is more challenging, as a reductant or complexant to plutonium has to be used to selectively extract uranium. After undertaking experiments on different reducing or complexing systems (e.g., AcetoHydroxamic Acid (AHA), Fe(II), ascorbic acid), oxalic acid was chosen as it can complex tetravalent actinides (Pu, Np, Th) in the aqueous phase while allowing the extraction of hexavalent uranium in the sc-CO2 phase. Finally, we show results using an alternative media to commonly used aqueous phases: ionic liquids. We show the dissolution of uranium in ionic liquids and its extraction using sc-CO2 with and without the presence of AHA. The possible separation of trivalent actinides from uranium is also demonstrated in ionic liquids using neodymium as a surrogate and diglycolamides as the extractant.

Farawila, Anne F.; O'Hara, Matthew J.; Wai, Chien M.; Taylor, Harry Z.; Liao, Yu-Jung

2012-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

425

Mill Designed Bio bleaching Technologies  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A key finding of this research program was that Laccase Mediator Systems (LMS) treatments on high-kappa kraft could be successfully accomplished providing substantial delignification (i.e., > 50%) without detrimental impact on viscosity and significantly improved yield properties. The efficiency of the LMS was evident since most of the lignin from the pulp was removed in less than one hour at 45 degrees C. Of the mediators investigated, violuric acid was the most effective vis-a-vis delignification. A comparative study between oxygen delignification and violuric acid revealed that under relatively mild conditions, a single or a double LMS{sub VA} treatment is comparable to a single or a double O stage. Of great notability was the retention of end viscosity of LMS{sub VA} treated pulps with respect to the end viscosity of oxygen treated pulps. These pulps could then be bleached to full brightness values employing conventional ECF bleaching technologies and the final pulp physical properties were equal and/or better than those bleached in a conventional ECF manner employing an aggressively O or OO stage initially. Spectral analyses of residual lignins isolated after LMS treated high-kappa kraft pulps revealed that similar to HBT, VA and NHA preferentially attack phenolic lignin moieties. In addition, a substantial decrease in aliphatic hydroxyl groups was also noted, suggesting side chain oxidation. In all cases, an increase in carboxylic acid was observed. Of notable importance was the different selectivity of NHA, VA and HBT towards lignin functional groups, despite the common N-OH moiety. C-5 condensed phenolic lignin groups were overall resistant to an LMS{sub NHA, HBT} treatments but to a lesser extent to an LMS{sub VA}. The inactiveness of these condensed lignin moieties was not observed when low-kappa kraft pulps were biobleached, suggesting that the LMS chemistry is influenced by the extent of delignification. We have also demonstrated that the current generation of laccase has a broad spectrum of operating parameters. Nonetheless, the development of future genetically engineered laccases with enhanced temperature, pH and redox potentials will dramatically improve the overall process. A second challenge for LMS bleaching technologies is the need to develop effective, catalytic mediators. From the literature we already know this is feasible since ABTS and some inorganic mediators are catalytic. Unfortunately, the mediators that exhibit catalytic properties do not exhibit significant delignification properties and this is a challenge for future research studies. Potential short-term mill application of laccase has been recently reported by Felby132 and Chandra133 as they have demonstrated that the physical properties of linerboard can be improved when exposed to laccase without a chemical mediator. In addition, xxx has shown that the addition of laccase to the whitewater of the paper machine has several benefits for the removal of colloidal materials. Finally, this research program has presented important features on the delignification chemistry of LMS{sub NHA} and LMS{sub VA} that, in the opinion of the author, are momentous contributions to the overall LMS chemistry/biochemistry knowledge base which will continue to have future benefits.

Institute of Paper Science Technology

2004-01-30T23:59:59.000Z

426

Structural and Functional Proteomic Analysis of a Developing Energy Transducing Membrane  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

While much is known about the light reactions of photosynthesis in purple bacteria, comparatively little information is available on how the requisite integral membrane proteins are assembled, their patterns of cellular localization are established or their apoproteins cooperate with numerous assembly factors in their insertion into the growing intracytoplasmic membrane (ICM). This problem was approached through a detailed structural and functional proteomic analysis of ICM assembly process in the well-characterized purple bacterium Rhodobacter sphaeroides. Proteomic approaches have focused upon identification of membrane proteins temporally expressed during ICM development and spatially localized in both membrane growth initiation sites and in mature ICM vesicles. Protocols were established for ICM induction under reduced aeration and ICM remodeling in cells adapting to low intensity illumination, which permitted isolation, in sucrose density gradients, of ICM growth initiation sites as an upper pigmented band (UPB) and mature ICM vesicles as the main (chromatophore) band. Non-denaturing clear native gel electrophoresis (CNE) of these isolated membrane fractions gave rise to pigmented bands containing the peripheral light-harvesting 2 (LH2) antenna and the reaction center-light-harvesting 1 (RC-LH1) core complex, together with a full array of other ICM proteins, which were subjected to proteomic analysis. Proteomic analysis of the gel bands from chromatophores revealed developmental changes including increasing levels of the LH2 complex as ICM development proceeded, as well as a large array of other associated proteins including high spectral counts for the F1FO� ATP synthase subunits, given the inability to detect this coupling factor, as well as the more abundant cytochrome bc1 complex by atomic force microscopy (AFM). Significant levels of general membrane assembly factors were encountered, as well as high counts for RSP6124, a protein of unknown function, correlated with increasing LH2 levels. RC-LH1-containing CNE gel bands from the UPB were enriched in cytoplasmic membrane (CM) markers, including electron transfer and transport proteins, as well as general membrane assembly factors relative to chromatophore bands. This confirms the origin of the UPB from both peripheral respiratory membrane and sites of CM invagination. Significant levels of preprotein translocases YidC, YajC and SecY, bacterial type 1 signal peptidase and twin arg translocation subunit TatA were found. Such general membrane assembly factors were significantly enriched in the UPB RC-LH1 gel bands, confirming the active role of membrane invagination sites in pigment-protein complex assembly. Functional correlates of proteomics approaches were provided by near-IR fluorescence induction/relaxation transients arising from LH-BChl components. A linear relation was found between increasing functional absorption cross-section and slowing of RC electron transfer turnover rate, thought to arise from the imposition of constraints upon free UQ diffusion between the RC and cytochrome bc1 complex as the membrane became saturated with new LH2 rings. In cells undergoing ICM induction in which generation of the electrochemical proton gradient was uncoupled with CCCP, blockage in membrane insertion of the LH and RC polypetides was demonstrated. This was reflected in a diminution of quantum yield of the primary charge separation, a cessation in expansion of functional absorption cross-section and a >4-fold slowing in RC electron transfer turnover. The ICM insertion of ATP synthase and transhydrogenase was also significantly diminished. Importantly, for the UPB fraction, CCCP treatment resulted in accumulation of ~2-fold greater levels of the preprotein translocase SecY, the SecA translocation ATPase, Sec D and SecF insertion components, and chaperonins DnaJ and DnaK, suggesting that these general membrane assembly factors had accumulated in association with nascent LH and RC assembly intermediates. In addition to spectrally homogeneous bands c

Niederman, Robert A

2012-06-04T23:59:59.000Z

427

Subunits of highly Fluorescent Protein R-Phycoerythrin as Probes for Cell Imaging and Single-Molecule Detection  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The purposes of our research were: (1) To characterize subunits of highly fluorescent protein R-Phycoerythrin (R-PE) and check their suitability for single-molecule detection (SMD) and cell imaging, (2) To extend the use of R-PE subunits through design of similar proteins that will be used as probes for microscopy and spectral imaging in a single cell, and (3) To demonstrate a high-throughput spectral imaging method that will rival spectral flow cytometry in the analysis of individual cells. We first demonstrated that R-PE subunits have spectroscopic and structural characteristics that make them suitable for SMD. Subunits were isolated from R-PE by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and detected as single molecules by total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy (TIRFM). In addition, R-PE subunits and their enzymatic digests were characterized by several separation and detection methods including HPLC, capillary electrophoresis, sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrilamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and HPLC-electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS). Favorable absorption and fluorescence of the R-PE subunits and digest peptides originate from phycoerythrobilin (PEB) and phycourobilin (PUB) chromophores that are covalently attached to cysteine residues. High absorption coefficients and strong fluorescence (even under denaturing conditions), broad excitation and emission fluorescence spectra in the visible region of electromagnetic spectrum, and relatively low molecular weights make these molecules suitable for use as fluorescence labels of biomolecules and cells. We further designed fluorescent proteins both in vitro and in vivo (in Escherichia coli) based on the highly specific attachment of PEB chromophore to genetically expressed apo-subunits of R-PE. In one example, apo-alpha and apo-beta R-PE subunits were cloned from red algae Polisiphonia boldii (P. boldii), and expressed in E. coli. Although expressed apo-subunits formed inclusion bodies, fluorescent holo-subunits were formed after incubation of E. coli cells with PEB. Spectroscopic characterization of holo-subunits confirmed that the attachment of PEB chromophore to apo-subunits yielded holo-subunits containing both PEB and urobilin (UB). Fluorescence and differential interference contrast (DIC) microscopy showed polar location of holo-subunit inclusion bodies in E. coli cells. In another example, R-PE apo-subunits were genetically fused to cytoplasmic and periplasmic versions of E. coli maltose binding protein (MBP). Fluorescent proteins formed after attachment of PEB to MBP-subunit fusions in vitro and in vivo contained PEB as the sole chromophore, were soluble, and displayed high orange fluorescence. Fluorescence microscopy showed that fusions are located either throughout cells or at cell poles. In addition, cells containing fluorescent holo-subunits or MBP-subunit fusions were up to ten times brighter than control cells as measured by flow cytometry. Results show that the fluorescent proteins formed after non-enzymatic attachment of PEB to R-PE subunit fusions could be used as reporters of gene expression and protein localization in cells as well as fluorescence labels in flow cytometry. Finally, we demonstrated a high-throughput method able to record emission fluorescence spectra of individual cells containing fluorescent proteins. Upon excitation with a 488 mn argon-ion laser many bacterial cells were imaged by a 20X microscope objective while they moved through a capillary tube. Fluorescence was dispersed by a transmission diffraction grating, and an intensified charge-coupled device (ICCD) camera simultaneously recorded the zero and the first orders of the fluorescence from each cell. Single-cell fluorescence spectra were reconstructed from the distance between zero-order and first-order maxima as well as the length and the pixel intensity distribution of the first-order images. By using this approach, the emission spectrum of E. coli cells expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP) was reconstructed. Also, fluorescence spectra of E

Dragan Isailovic

2005-12-17T23:59:59.000Z

428

YEAR 2 BIOMASS UTILIZATION  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) Year 2 Biomass Utilization Final Technical Report summarizes multiple projects in biopower or bioenergy, transportation biofuels, and bioproducts. A prototype of a novel advanced power system, termed the high-temperature air furnace (HITAF), was tested for performance while converting biomass and coal blends to energy. Three biomass fuels--wood residue or hog fuel, corn stover, and switchgrass--and Wyoming subbituminous coal were acquired for combustion tests in the 3-million-Btu/hr system. Blend levels were 20% biomass--80% coal on a heat basis. Hog fuel was prepared for the upcoming combustion test by air-drying and processing through a hammer mill and screen. A K-Tron biomass feeder capable of operating in both gravimetric and volumetric modes was selected as the HITAF feed system. Two oxide dispersion-strengthened (ODS) alloys that would be used in the HITAF high-temperature heat exchanger were tested for slag corrosion rates. An alumina layer formed on one particular alloy, which was more corrosion-resistant than a chromia layer that formed on the other alloy. Research activities were completed in the development of an atmospheric pressure, fluidized-bed pyrolysis-type system called the controlled spontaneous reactor (CSR), which is used to process and condition biomass. Tree trimmings were physically and chemically altered by the CSR process, resulting in a fuel that was very suitable for feeding into a coal combustion or gasification system with little or no feed system modifications required. Experimental procedures were successful for producing hydrogen from biomass using the bacteria Thermotoga, a deep-ocean thermal vent organism. Analytical procedures for hydrogen were evaluated, a gas chromatography (GC) method was derived for measuring hydrogen yields, and adaptation culturing and protocols for mutagenesis were initiated to better develop strains that can use biomass cellulose. Fly ash derived from cofiring coal with waste paper, sunflower hulls, and wood waste showed a broad spectrum of chemical and physical characteristics, according to American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) C618 procedures. Higher-than-normal levels of magnesium, sodium, and potassium oxide were observed for the biomass-coal fly ash, which may impact utilization in cement replacement in concrete under ASTM requirements. Other niche markets for biomass-derived fly ash were explored. Research was conducted to develop/optimize a catalytic partial oxidation-based concept for a simple, low-cost fuel processor (reformer). Work progressed to evaluate the effects of temperature and denaturant on ethanol catalytic partial oxidation. A catalyst was isolated that had a yield of 24 mole percent, with catalyst coking limited to less than 15% over a period of 2 hours. In biodiesel research, conversion of vegetable oils to biodiesel using an alternative alkaline catalyst was demonstrated without the need for subsequent water washing. In work related to biorefinery technologies, a continuous-flow reactor was used to react ethanol with lactic acid prepared from an ammonium lactate concentrate produced in fermentations conducted at the EERC. Good yields of ester were obtained even though the concentration of lactic acid in the feed was low with respect to the amount of water present. Esterification gave lower yields of ester, owing to the lowered lactic acid content of the feed. All lactic acid fermentation from amylose hydrolysate test trials was completed. Management activities included a decision to extend several projects to December 31, 2003, because of delays in receiving biomass feedstocks for testing and acquisition of commercial matching funds. In strategic studies, methods for producing acetate esters for high-value fibers, fuel additives, solvents, and chemical intermediates were discussed with several commercial entities. Commercial industries have an interest in efficient biomass gasification designs but are waiting for economic incentives. Utility, biorefinery, pulp and paper, or o

Christopher J. Zygarlicke

2004-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

429

Bulk gold catalyzed oxidation reactions of amines and isocyanides and iron porphyrin catalyzed N-H and O-H bond insertion/cyclization reactions of diamines and aminoalcohols  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This work involves two projects. The first project entails the study of bulk gold as a catalyst in oxidation reactions of isocyanides and amines. The main goal of this project was to study the activation and reactions of molecules at metal surfaces in order to assess how organometallic principles for homogeneous processes apply to heterogeneous catalysis. Since previous work had used oxygen as an oxidant in bulk gold catalyzed reactions, the generality of gold catalysis with other oxidants was examined. Amine N-oxides were chosen for study, due to their properties and use in the oxidation of carbonyl ligands in organometallic complexes. When amine N-oxides were used as an oxidant in the reaction of isocyanides with amines, the system was able to produce ureas from a variety of isocyanides, amines, and amine N-oxides. In addition, the rate was found to generally increase as the amine N-oxide concentration increased, and decrease with increased concentrations of the amine. Mechanistic studies revealed that the reaction likely involves transfer of an oxygen atom from the amine N-oxide to the adsorbed isocyanide to generate an isocyanate intermediate. Subsequent nucleophilic attack by the amine yields the urea. This is in contrast to the bulk gold-catalyzed reaction mechanism of isocyanides with amines and oxygen. Formation of urea in this case was proposed to proceed through a diaminocarbene intermediate. Moreover, formation of the proposed isocyanate intermediate is consistent with the reactions of metal carbonyl ligands, which are isoelectronic to isocyanides. Nucleophilic attack at coordinated CO by amine N-oxides produces CO{sub 2} and is analogous to the production of an isocyanate in this gold system. When the bulk gold-catalyzed oxidative dehydrogenation of amines was examined with amine N-oxides, the same products were afforded as when O{sub 2} was used as the oxidant. When the two types of oxidants were directly compared using the same reaction system and conditions, it was found that the oxidative dehydrogenation of dibenzylamine to Nbenzylidenebenzylamine, with N-methylmorpholine N-oxide (NMMO), was nearly quantitative (96%) within 24 h. However, the reaction with oxygen was much slower, with only a 52% yield of imine product over the same time period. Moreover, the rate of reaction was found to be influenced by the nature of the amine N-oxide. For example, the use of the weakly basic pyridine N-oxide (PyNO) led to an imine yield of only 6% after 24 h. A comparison of amine N-oxide and O2 was also examined in the oxidation of PhCH{sub 2}OH to PhCHO catalyzed by bulk gold. In this reaction, a 52% yield of the aldehyde was achieved when NMMO was used, while only a 7% product yield was afforded when O{sub 2} was the oxidant after 48 h. The bulk gold-catalyzed oxidative dehydrogenation of cyclic amines generates amidines, which upon treatment with Aerosil and water were found to undergo hydrolysis to produce lactams. Moreover, 5-, 6-, and 7-membered lactams could be prepared through a one-pot reaction of cyclic amines by treatment with oxygen, water, bulk gold, and Aerosil. This method is much more atom economical than industrial processes, does not require corrosive acids, and does not generate undesired byproducts. Additionally, the gold and Aerosil catalysts can be readily separated from the reaction mixture. The second project involved studying iron(III) tetraphenylporphyrin chloride, Fe(TPP)Cl, as a homogeneous catalyst for the generation of carbenes from diazo reagents and their reaction with heteroatom compounds. Fe(TPP)Cl, efficiently catalyzed the insertion of carbenes derived from methyl 2-phenyldiazoacetates into O-H bonds of aliphatic and aromatic alcohols. Fe(TPP)Cl was also found to be an effective catalyst for tandem N-H and O-H insertion/cyclization reactions when 1,2-diamines and 1,2-alcoholamines were treated with diazo reagents. This approach provides a one-pot process for synthesizing piperazinones and morpholinones and related analogues such as quinoxalinones and benzoxazin-2-ones.

Klobukowski, Erik

2011-12-29T23:59:59.000Z

430

E85 Optimized Engine through Boosting, Spray-Optimized DIG, VCR and Variable Valvetrain  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The use of biofuels for internal combustion engines has several well published advantages. The biofuels, made from biological sources such as corn or sugar cane, are renewable resources that reduce the dependence on fossil fuels. Fuels from agricultural sources can therefore reduce a countries energy dependency on other nations. Biofuels also have been shown to reduce CO2 emissions into the atmosphere compared to traditional fossil based fuels. Because of these benefits several countries have set targets for the use of biofuels, especially ethanol, in their transportation fuels. Small percentages of ethanol are common place in gasoline but are typically limited to 5 to 8% by volume. Greater benefits are possible from higher concentrations and some countries such as the US and Sweden have encouraged the production of vehicles capable of operating on E85 (85% denatured ethanol and 15% gasoline). E85 capable vehicles are normally equipped to run the higher levels of ethanol by employing modified fuel delivery systems that can withstand the highly corrosive nature of the alcohol. These vehicles are not however equipped to take full advantage of ethanol's properties during the combustion process. Ethanol has a much higher blend research octane number than gasoline. This allows the use of higher engine compression ratios and spark advance which result in more efficient engine operation. Ethanol's latent heat of vaporization is also much higher that gasoline. This higher heat of vaporization cools the engine intake charge which also allows the engine compression ratio to be increased even further. An engine that is optimized for operation on high concentrations of ethanol therefore will have compression ratios that are too high to avoid spark knock (pre-ignition) if run on gasoline or a gasoline/ethanol blend that has a low percentage alcohol. An engine was developed during this project to leverage the improved evaporative cooling and high octane of E85 to improve fuel economy and offset E85's lower energy content. A 2.0 L production Direct Injection gasoline, (DIg) engine employing Dual Independent Cam Phasing, (DICP) and turbo charging was used as the base engine. Modified pistons were used to increase the geometric compression ratio from 9.2:1 to 11.85:1 by modifying the pistons and adding advanced valvetrain to proved control of displacement and effective compression ratio through valve timing control. The advanced valvetrain utilized Delphi's two step valvetrain hardware and intake cam phaser with increased phasing authority of 80 crank angle degrees. Using this hardware the engine was capable of operating knock free on all fuels tested from E0-E85 by controlling effective compression ratio using a Late Intake Valve Closing, (LIVC) strategy. The LIVC strategy results in changes in the trapped displacement such that knock limited torque for gasoline is significantly lower than E85. The use of spark retard to control knock enables higher peak torque for knock limited fuels, however a loss in efficiency results. For gasoline and E10 fuels, full effective displacement could not be reached before spark retard produced a net loss in torque. The use of an Early Intake Valve Closing, (EIVC) strategy resulted in an improvement of engine efficiency at low to mid loads for all fuels tested from E0- E85. Further the use of valve deactivation, to a single intake valve, improved combustion stability and enabled throttle-less operation down to less than 2 bar BMEP. Slight throttling to trap internal residual provided additional reductions in fuel consumption. To fully leverage the benefits of E85, or ethanol blends above E10, would require a vehicle level approach that would take advantage of the improved low end torque that is possible with E85. Operating the engine at reduced speeds and using advanced transmissions (6 speeds or higher) would provide a responsive efficient driving experience to the customer. The vehicle shift and torque converter lockup points for high ethanol blends could take advantage of the significant efficiency ad

Keith Confer; Harry Husted

2011-05-31T23:59:59.000Z