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1

Conversion of MixAlco Process Sludge to Liquid Transportation Fuels  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

About 8 tons of dry undigested solid waste is generated by the MixAlco process for every 40 tons of food residue waste fed into the process. This MixAlco process produces liquid fuels and the sludge generated can be further converted into synthesis gas using the process of pyrolysis. The hydrogen component of the product synthesis gas may be separated by pressure swing adsorption and used in the hydrogenation of ketones into fuels and chemicals. The synthesis gas may also be catalytically converted into liquid fuels via the Fischer-Tropsch synthesis process. The auger-type pyrolyzer was operated at a temperature between 630-770 degrees C and at feed rates in the range of 280-374 g/minute. The response surface statistical method was used to obtain the highest syngas composition of 43.9 +/- 3.36 v % H2/33.3 +/- 3.29 v % CO at 740 degrees C. The CH4 concentration was 20.3 +/- 2.99 v %. For every ton of sludge pyrolyzed, 5,990 g H2 (719.3 MJ), 65,000 g CO (660 MJ) and 21,170 g CH4 (1055.4 MJ) were projected to be produced at optimum condition. At all temperatures, the sum of the energies of the products was greater than the electrical energy needed to sustain the process, making it energy neutral. To generate internal H2 for the MixAlco process, a method was developed to efficiently separate H2 using pressure swing adsorption (PSA) from the synthesis gas, with activated carbon and molecular sieve 5A as adsorbents. The H2 can be used to hydrogenate ketones generated from the MixAlco process to more liquid fuels. Breakthrough curves, cycle mass balances and cycle bed productivities (CBP) were used to determine the maximum hydrogen CBP using different adsorbent amounts at a synthesis gas feed rate of 10 standard lpm and pressure of 118 atm. A 99.9 % H2 purity was obtained. After a maximum CBP of 66 % was obtained further increases in % recovery led to a decrease in CBP. The synthesis gas can also be catalytically converted into liquid fuels by the Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (FTS) process. A Co-SiO2/Mo-Pd-Pt-ZSM-5 catalyst with a metal-metal-acid functionality was synthesized with the aim of increasing the selectivity of JP-8 (C10-C17) fuel range. The specific surface areas of the two catalysts were characterized using the BET technique. The electron probe microanalyzer (with WDS and EDS capabilities) was then used to confirm the presence of the applied metals Co, Mo, Pd and Pt on the respective supports. In addition to the gasoline (C4-C12) also produced, the synthesis gas H2:CO ratio was also adjusted to 1.90 for optimum cobalt performance in an enhanced FTS process. At 10 atm (150 psig) and 250 degrees C, the conventional FTS catalyst Co-SiO2 produced fuels rich in hydrocarbons within the gasoline carbon number range. At the same conditions the Co-SiO2-Mo-Pd-Pt/HZSM-5 catalyst increased the selectivity of JP-8. When Co-SiO2/Mo-Pd-Pt-HZSM-5 was used at 13.6 atm (200 psig) and 250 degrees C, a further increase in the selectivity of JP-8 and to some extent diesel was observed. The relative amounts of olefins and n-paraffins decreased with the products distribution shifting more towards the production of isomers.

Teiseh, Eliasu 1973-

2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

2

Analysis of low-cost building material for the MixAlco process  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The development of biofuels as an alternative fuel source highlights the MixAlco process as one method to convert organic waste into alcohol fuels. The pretreatment and fermentation of waste is integral to the process and represents a principal cost consideration due to the large structure needed to encapsulate the fermenting materials. This research developed papercrete as a potential construction material to reduce the cost of a structure. Papercrete is a mixture of paper, cement, and sand. The strengths, thermal conductivity, and other physical properties were compared with those of conventional building materials. This research identified acceptable property ranges necessary for using a structural papercrete facility and recorded compressive and tensile strengths that were too weak to build an economical structure. The identification of a hybrid papercrete-concrete structure produced results and economics within acceptable ranges. The papercrete-concrete alternative was tested on the same basis as the papercrete for structural and economic analysis, which provided acceptable results. The results indicate that a papercrete-concrete structure is a viable alternative structurally and economically within a range of sizes for the structure.

Titzman, L. Clinton

2006-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

3

Heat capacity and compactness of denatured proteins  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

One of the striking results of protein thermodynamics is that the heat capacity change upon denaturation is large and positive. This change is generally ascribed to the exposure of non-polar groups to water on denaturation, in analogy to the large heat capacity change for the transfer of small non-polar molecules from hydrocarbons to water. Calculations of the heat capacity based on the exposed surface area of the completely unfolded denatured state give good agreement with experimental data. This result is difficult to reconcile with evidence that the heat denatured state in the absence of denaturants is reasonably compact. In this work, sample conformations for the denatured state of truncated CI2 are obtained by use of an effective energy function for proteins in solution. The energy function gives denatured conformations that are compact with radii of gyration that are slightly larger than that of the native state. The model is used to estimate the heat capacity, as well as that of the native state, at 300 and 350 K via finite enthalpy differences. The calculations show that the heat capacity of denaturation can have large positive contributions from non-covalent intraprotein interactions because these interactions change more with temperature in non-native conformations than in the native state. Including this contribution, which has been neglected in empirical surface area models, leads to heat capacities of unfolding for compact denatured states that are consistent with the experimental heat capacity data. Estimates of the stability curve of CI2 made with the effective energy function support the present model. # 1999 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

Themis Lazaridis; Martin Karplus

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

4

Stable isotope investigations of chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Stable isotope ratio measurements for carbon (C) and chlorine (Cl) can be used to elucidate the processes affecting transformation and transportation of chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons (CAHs) in the environment. Methods recently developed in our laboratory for isotopic analysis of CAHs have been applied to laboratory measurements of the kinetic isotope effects associated with aerobic degradation of dichloromethane (DCM) and with both anaerobic and aerobic cometabolic degradation of trichlomethene (TCE) in batch and column microbial cultures. These experimental determinations of fractionation factors are crucial for understanding the behavior of CAHs in complex natural systems, where the extent of biotransformation can be masked by dispersion and volatilization. We have also performed laboratory investigations of kinetic isotope effects accompanying evaporation of CAHs, as well as field investigations of natural attenuation and in situ remediation of CAHs in a number of contaminated shallow aquifers at sites operated by the federal government and the private sector.

Abrajano, T.; Heraty, L. J.; Holt, B. D.; Huang, L.; Sturchio, N. C.

1999-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

5

Process for producing peracids from aliphatic hydroxy carboxylic acids  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process for producing peracids from lactic acid-containing solutions derived from biomass processing systems comprising: adjusting the pH of the solution to about 8-9 and removing alkaline residue fractions therefrom to form a solution comprised substantially of lower aliphatic hydroxy acids; oxidizing the solution to produce volatile lower aliphatic aldehydes; removing said aldehydes as they are generated; and converting said aldehydes to peracids.

Chum, Helena L. (Arvada, CO); Ratcliff, Matthew A. (Lakewood, CO); Palasz, Peter D. (Lakewood, CO)

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

6

Process for producing peracids from aliphatic hydroxy carboxylic acids  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process is described for producing peracids from lactic acid-containing solutions derived from biomass processing systems. It consists of adjusting the pH of the solution to about 8 to 9 and removing alkaline residue fractions therefrom to form a solution comprised substantially of lower aliphatic hydroxy acids. The solution is oxidized to produce volatile lower aliphatic aldehydes. The aldehydes are removed as they are generated and converted to peracids.

Chum, H.L.; Palasz, P.D.; Ratcliff, M.A.

1984-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

7

Process for producing peracids from aliphatic hydroxy carboxylic acids  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process is disclosed for producing peracids from lactic acid-containing mixtures derived from biomass processing systems. The process includes adjusting the pH of the mixture to about 8 to 9 to form an alkaline precipitate. The alkaline precipitate is then removed therefrom to produce a residual solution containing lower aliphatic hydroxy acids. The residual solution is then oxidized continuously to produce gaseous lower aliphatic aldehydes. The gaseous aldehydes are removed immediately as they are generated to prevent further oxidation to carboxylic acids and are then converted to peracids.

Chum, H.L.; Palasz, P.D.; Ratcliff, M.

1986-05-16T23:59:59.000Z

8

Aerobic microorganism for the degradation of chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbon-degrading microorganism, having American Type Culture Collection accession numbers ATCC 53570 and 53571, in a biologically pure culture aseptically collected from a deep subsurface habitat and enhanced, mineralizes trichloroethylene and tetrachloroethylene to HCl, H.sub.2 O and Co.sub.2 under aerobic conditions stimulated by methane, acetate, methanol, tryptone-yeast extract, propane and propane-methane.

Fliermans, Carl B. (Augusta, GA)

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

9

Aerobic microorganism for the degradation of chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This invention pertains to a chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbon-degrading microorganism, having American Type Culture Collection accession numbers ATCC 53570 and 53571, in a biologically pure culture aseptically collected from a deep subsurface habitat and enhanced, mineralizes trichloroethylene and tetrachloroethylene to HCl, H{sub 2}O and CO{sub 2} under aerobic conditions stimulated by methane, acetate, methanol, tryptone-yeast extract, propane and propane-methane.

Fliermans, C.B.

1988-10-12T23:59:59.000Z

10

Strategies for denaturing the weapons-grade plutonium stockpile  

SciTech Connect

In the next few years, approximately 50 metric tons of weapons-grade plutonium and 150 metric tons of highly-enriched uranium (HEU) may be removed from nuclear weapons in the US and declared excess. These materials represent a significant energy resource that could substantially contribute to our national energy requirements. HEU can be used as fuel in naval reactors, or diluted with depleted uranium for use as fuel in commercial reactors. This paper proposes to use the weapons-grade plutonium as fuel in light water reactors. The first such reactor would demonstrate the dual objectives of producing electrical power and denaturing the plutonium to prevent use in nuclear weapons.

Buckner, M.R.; Parks, P.B.

1992-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

11

Process for the synthesis of aliphatic alcohol-containing mixtures  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process for the synthesis of mixtures which include saturated aliphatic alcohols is disclosed. In the first step of the process, the first catalyst activation stage, a catalyst, which comprises the oxides of copper, zinc, aluminum, potassium and one or two additional metals selected from the group consisting of chromium, magnesium, cerium, cobalt, thorium and lanthanum, is partially activated. In this step, a reducing gas stream, which includes hydrogen and at least one inert gas, flows past the catalyst at a space velocity of up to 5,000 liters (STP) per hour, per kilogram of catalyst. The partially activated catalyst is then subjected to the second step of the process, second-stage catalyst activation. In this step, the catalyst is contacted by an activation gas stream comprising hydrogen and carbon monoxide present in a volume ratio of 0.5:1 and 4:1, respectively, at a temperature of 200.degree. to 450.degree. C. and a pressure of between 35 and 200 atmospheres. The activation gas flows at a space velocity of from 1,000 to 20,000 liters (STP) per hour, per kilogram of catalyst. Second-stage activation continues until the catalyst is contacted with at least 500,000 liters (STP) of activation gas per kilogram of catalyst. The fully activated catalyst, in the third step of the process, contacts a synthesis gas stream comprising hydrogen and carbon monoxide.

Greene, Marvin I. (Oradell, NJ); Gelbein, Abraham P. (Morristown, NJ)

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

12

Interim assessment of the denatured /sup 233/U fuel cycle: feasibility and nonproliferation characteristics  

SciTech Connect

A fuel cycle that employs /sup 233/U denatured with /sup 238/U and mixed with thorium fertile material is examined with respect to its proliferation-resistance characteristics and its technical and economic feasibility. The rationale for considering the denatured /sup 233/U fuel cycle is presented, and the impact of the denatured fuel on the performance of Light-Water Reactors, Spectral-Shift-Controlled Reactors, Gas-Cooled Reactors, Heavy-Water Reactors, and Fast Breeder Reactors is discussed. The scope of the R, D and D programs to commercialize these reactors and their associated fuel cycles is also summarized and the resource requirements and economics of denatured /sup 233/U cycles are compared to those of the conventional Pu/U cycle. In addition, several nuclear power systems that employ denatured /sup 233/U fuel and are based on the energy center concept are evaluated.

Abbott, L.S.; Bartine, D.E.; Burns, T.J. (eds.)

1979-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

13

Process for removing halogenated aliphatic and aromatic compounds from petroleum products  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process for removing halogenated aliphatic and aromatic compounds, e.g., polychlorinated biphenyls, from petroleum products by solvent extraction. The halogenated aliphatic and aromatic compounds are extracted from a petroleum product into a polar solvent by contacting the petroleum product with the polar solvent. The polar solvent is characterized by a high solubility for the extracted halogenated aliphatic and aromatic compounds, a low solubility for the petroleum product and considerable solvent power for polyhydroxy compound. The preferred polar solvent is dimethylformamide. A miscible compound, such as, water or a polyhydroxy compound, is added to the polar extraction solvent to increase the polarity of the polar extraction solvent. The halogenated aliphatic and aromatic compounds are extracted from the highly-polarized mixture of water or polyhydroxy compound and polar extraction solvent into a low polar or nonpolar solvent by contacting the water or polyhydroxy compound-polar solvent mixture with the low polar or nonpolar solvent. The halogenated aliphatic and aromatic compounds and the low polar or nonpolar solvent are separated by physical means, e.g., vacuum evaporation. The polar and nonpolar solvents are recovered from recycling. The process can easily be designed for continuous operation. Advantages of the process include that the polar solvent and a major portion of the nonpolar solvent can be recycled, the petroleum products are reclaimable and the cost for disposing of waste containing polychlorinated biphenyls is significantly reduced.

Googin, John M. (Oak Ridge, TN); Napier, John M. (Oak Ridge, TN); Travaglini, Michael A. (Oliver Springs, TN)

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

14

Process for removing halogenated aliphatic and aromatic compounds from petroleum products  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process is described for removing halogenated aliphatic and aromatic compounds, e.g., polychlorinated biphenyls, from petroleum products by solvent extraction. The halogenated aliphatic and aromatic compounds are extracted from a petroleum product into a polar solvent by contacting the petroleum product with the polar solvent. The polar solvent is characterized by a high solubility for the extracted halogenated aliphatic and aromatic compounds, a low solubility for the petroleum product and considerable solvent power for polyhydroxy compound. The preferred polar solvent is dimethylformamide. A miscible compound, such as, water or a polyhydroxy compound, is added to the polar extraction solvent to increase the polarity of the polar extraction solvent. The halogenated aliphatic and aromatic compounds are extracted from the highly-polarized mixture of water or polyhydroxy compound and polar extraction solvent into a low polar or nonpolar solvent by contacting the water or polyhydroxy compound-polar solvent mixture with the low polar or nonpolar solvent. The halogenated aliphatic and aromatic compounds and the low polar or nonpolar solvent are separated by physical means, e.g., vacuum evaporation. The polar and nonpolar solvents are recovered from recycling. The process can easily be designed for continuous operation. Advantages of the process include that the polar solvent and a major portion of the nonpolar solvent can be recycled, the petroleum products are reclaimable and the cost for disposing of waste containing polychlorinated biphenyls is significantly reduced. 1 fig.

Googin, J.M.; Napier, J.M.; Travaglini, M.A.

1983-09-20T23:59:59.000Z

15

Slow closure of denaturation bubbles in DNA: twist matters  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The closure of long equilibrated denaturation bubbles in DNA is studied using Brownian dynamics simulations. A minimal mesoscopic model is used where the double-helix is made of two interacting bead-spring freely rotating strands, with a non-zero torsional modulus in the duplex state, $\\kappa_\\phi=$200 to 300 kT. For DNAs of lengths N=40 to 100 base-pairs (bps) with a large initial bubble in their middle, long closure times of 0.1 to 100 microseconds are found. The bubble starts winding from both ends until it reaches a 10 bp metastable state. The final closure is limited by three competing mechanisms depending on $\\kappa_\\phi$ and N: arms diffusion until their alignment, bubble diffusion along the DNA until one end is reached, or local Kramers process (crossing over a torsional energy barrier). For clamped ends or long DNAs, the closure occurs via this latter temperature activated mechanism, yielding for the first time a good quantitative agreement with experiments.

Anil Kumar Dasanna; Nicolas Destainville; John Palmeri; Manoel Manghi

2013-02-07T23:59:59.000Z

16

Effect of ethanol denaturant on gasoline RVP (revised). Topical report, June 21, 1993--December 31, 1993  

SciTech Connect

The Clean Air Act (CAA) Amendments of 1990 require further reduction in gasoline Reid vapor pressure (RVP) to reduce pollution. This research focused on characterizing the effect of ethanol denaturant and water on the RVP of the final ethanol-blended fuel. Anectdotal stories tell of up to a 0.5-psi effect of ethanol denaturant on the RVP of the finished ethanol-blended gasoline. Additionally, earlier Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) data indicated water could have a significant effect on the RVP. It was necessary to scientifically verify these effects using acceptable laboratory protocols.

Wu, L.; Timpe, R.C.

1993-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

17

Process for removing halogenated aliphatic and aromatic compounds from petroleum products. [Polychlorinated biphenyls; methylene chloride; perchloroethylene; trichlorofluoroethane; trichloroethylene; chlorobenzene  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process for removing halogenated aliphatic and aromatic compounds, e.g., polychlorinated biphenyls, from petroleum products by solvent extraction. The halogenated aliphatic and aromatic compounds are extracted from a petroleum product into a polar solvent by contracting the petroleum product with the polar solvent. The polar solvent is characterized by a high solubility for the extracted halogenated aliphatic and aromatic compounds, a low solubility for the petroleum product and considerable solvent power for polyhydroxy compound. The preferred polar solvent is dimethylformamide. A miscible polyhydroxy compound, such as, water, is added to the polar extraction solvent to increase the polarity of the polar extraction solvent. The halogenated aliphatic and aromatic compounds are extracted from the highly-polarized mixture of polyhydroxy compound and polar extraction solvent into a low polar or nonpolar solvent by contacting the polyhydroxy compound-polar solvent mixture with the low polar or nonpolar solvent. The halogenated aliphatic and aromatic compounds in the low polar or nonpolar solvent by physical means, e.g., vacuum evaporation. The polar and nonpolar solvents are recovered for recycling. The process can easily be designed for continuous operation. Advantages of the process include that the polar solvent and a major portion of the nonpolar solvent can be recycled, the petroleum products are reclaimable and the cost for disposing of waste containing polychlorinated biphenyls is significantly reduced. 2 tables.

Googin, J.M.; Napier, J.M.; Travaglini, M.A.

1982-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

18

Metal Catalyzed Formation of Aliphatic Polycarbonates Involving Oxetanes and Carbon Dioxide as Monomers  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Biodegradable aliphatic polycarbonates are important components of non-toxic thermoplastic elastomers, which have a variety of medical applications. Industrially, aliphatic polycarbonates derived from six-membered cyclic carbonates such as trimethylene carbonate (TMC or 1,3-dioxan-2-one) are produced via ring-opening polymerization (ROP) processes in the presence of a tin catalyst. It is worth mentioning that TMC is readily obtained by transesterification of 1,3-propanediol with various reagents including phosgene and its derivatives. Therefore, it has been of great interest to investigate greener routes for the production of this important class of polymers. Toward this goal, the synthesis of aliphatic polycarbonates via the metal catalyzed alternative coupling of oxetanes and carbon dioxide represents an attractive alternative. The use of an abundant, inexpensive, non-toxic, and biorenewable resource, carbon dioxide, makes this method very valuable. Furthermore, in this reaction, the sixmembered cyclic carbonate byproduct, TMC, can also be ring-opened and transformed into the same polycarbonate. For over a decade, the Darensbourg research group has successfully utilized metal salen complexes as catalysts for the epoxide/CO2 copolymerization process. Hence, this dissertation focuses on the examination of these complexes as catalysts for the oxetane/CO2 copolymerization reaction and the further elucidation of its mechanism. Chromium(III) salen derivatives in the presence of an azide ion initiator were determined to be very effective catalysts for the coupling of oxetanes and carbon dioxide providing polycarbonates with minimal amounts of ether linkages. Kinetic and mechanistic investigations performed on this process suggested that copolymer formation proceeded by two routes. These are the direct enchainment of oxetane and CO2, and the intermediacy of trimethylene carbonate, which was observed as a minor product of the coupling reaction. Anion initiators which are good leaving groups, e.g. bromide and iodide, are effective at affording TMC, and hence, more polycarbonate can be formed by the ROP of preformed trimethylene carbonate. Research efforts at tuning the selectivity of the oxetane/CO2 coupling process for TMC and/or polycarbonate produced from the homopolymerization of preformed TMC have been performed using cobalt(II) salen derivatives along with anion initiators. Lastly, investigations of this process involving 3-methoxy-methyl-3-methyloxetane will be presented.

Moncada, Adriana I.

2010-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

19

ORGANIC GEOCHEMICAL STUDIES. II. THE DISTRIBUTION OF ALIPHATIC HYDROCARBONS IN ALGAE, BACTERIA, AND IN A RECENT LAKE SEDIMENT: A PRELIMINARY REPORT  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

ALIPHATIC HYDROCARBONS IN ALGAE, BACTERIA, AND IN A RECENTH F A PRELIMINARY REPORT IN ALGAE, BACTERIA, AKD IN A RECENTrests on the finding that algae have less cellulose and a

Han, Jerry; McCarthy, E.D.; Van Hoeven Jr., William; Calvin, Melvin; Bradley, W. H.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

20

Numerical study of the disordered Poland-Scheraga model of DNA denaturation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We numerically study the binary disordered Poland-Scheraga model of DNA denaturation, in the regime where the pure model displays a first order transition (loop exponent $c=2.15>2$). We use a Fixman-Freire scheme for the entropy of loops and consider chain length up to $N=4 \\cdot 10^5$, with averages over $10^4$ samples. We present in parallel the results of various observables for two boundary conditions, namely bound-bound (bb) and bound-unbound (bu), because they present very different finite-size behaviors, both in the pure case and in the disordered case. Our main conclusion is that the transition remains first order in the disordered case: in the (bu) case, the disorder averaged energy and contact densities present crossings for different values of $N$ without rescaling. In addition, we obtain that these disorder averaged observables do not satisfy finite size scaling, as a consequence of strong sample to sample fluctuations of the pseudo-critical temperature. For a given sample, we propose a procedure to identify its pseudo-critical temperature, and show that this sample then obeys first order transition finite size scaling behavior. Finally, we obtain that the disorder averaged critical loop distribution is still governed by $P(l) \\sim 1/l^c$ in the regime $l \\ll N$, as in the pure case.

Thomas Garel; Cecile Monthus

2005-04-05T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "denatured aliphatic alco" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Reductive dechlorination of chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons by Fe(ii) in degradative solidification/stabilization  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This dissertation examines the applicability of the iron-based degradative solidification/stabilization (DS/S-Fe(II)) to various chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons (CAHs) that are common chemicals of concern at contaminated sites. The research focuses on the transformation of 1,1,1-trichloroethane (1,1,1-TCA), 1,1,2,2-tetrachloro-ethane (1,1,2,2-TetCA) and 1,2-dichloroehtane (1,2-DCA) by Fe(II) in cement slurries. It also investigates the degradation of 1,1,1-TCA by a mixture of Fe(II), cement and three iron-bearing phyllosilicates. Transformation of 1,1,1-TCA and 1,1,2,2-TetCA by Fe(II) in 10% cement slurries was characterized using batch reactors. Dechlorination kinetics of 1,1,1-TCA and TCE* (TCE that was produced by transformation of 1,1,2,2-TetCA) was strongly dependent on Fe(II) dose, pH and initial target organic concentration. Degradation of target organics in DS/S-Fe(II) process was generally described by a pseudo-first-order rate law. However, saturation relationships between the rate constants and Fe(II) dose or between the initial degradation rates and target organic concentration were observed. These behaviors were properly described by a modified Langmuir-Hinshelwood kinetic model. This supports the working hypothesis of this research that reductive dechlorination of chlorinated ethanes occurs on the surface of active solids formed in mixtures of Fe(II) and cement. Transformation products for 1,1,1-TCA and 1,1,2,2-TetCA in mixtures of Fe(II) and cement were identified. The major product of the degradation of 1,1,1-TCA was 1,1-DCA, which indicates that the reaction followed a hydrogenolysis pathway. However, a small amount of ethane was also observed. TCE* was rapidly produced by degradation of 1,1,2,2-TetCA and is expected to undergo �²-elimination to produce acetylene. Dechlorination of 1,1,1-TCA in suspension of Fe(II), cement and three soil minerals (biotite, vermiculite, montmorillonite) was characterized using batch reactors. A first-order rate model was generally used to describe the dechlorination kinetics of 1,1,1-TCA in this heterogeneous system. The rate constants for 1,1,1-TCA in mixtures of Fe(II), cement and soil minerals were influenced by soil mineral types, Fe(II) dose and the mass ratio of cement to soil mineral. It was demonstrated that structural Fe(II) and surface-bound Fe(II) in the soil minerals affect dechlorination kinetics and the effects vary with mineral types. Furthermore, it suggests that the reductant formed from Fe(II) and cement hydration components is also effective in systems that include soil minerals.

Jung, Bahng Mi

2005-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

22

Critical study on the development and design of an automated multicapillary electrophoresis instrument with collection of mutant DNA fractions using Constant Denaturant Capillary Electrophoresis (CDCE)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Constant Denaturant Capillary Electrophoresis (CDCE) is a separation tool based on the cooperative melting equilibrium principle that is used to detect mutations as low as of 106. This technique has already demonstrated ...

Kao, Leslie E

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

23

Can Finite Size Effects in the Poland-Scheraga Model Explain Simulations of a Simple Model for DNA Denaturation ?  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We compare results of previous simulations of a simple model of DNA denaturation to the predictions of the Poland-Scheraga model. Concentrating on the critical region of the latter model we calculate both thermodynamic quantities and the distribution functions measured in the simulations. We find that the Poland-Scheraga model yields an excellent fit to the data, provided (i) we include a (singular) factor weighting the open ends of the doubly stranded chain, and (ii) we keep the leading corrections to the finite size scaling limit. The exponent c_1, which governs the end-weighting factor, is fairly well determined: 0.1 <~ c_1 <~ 0.15. The exponent c, which governs the length distribution of large loops, is determined only poorly. The data are compatible with values of c in at least the range 1.9 <~ c <~ 2.2. From the data it therefore cannot be decided whether the denaturation transition asymptotically is of first or of second order. We suggest that simulations of doubly stranded chains closed at both ends might allow for a more precise determination of c.

Lothar Schäfer

2005-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

24

DNA sequencing by denaturation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

S. Linnarsson, Rapid genome sequencing with short universalAccurate whole human genome sequencing using reversibleL.A. Bemben, et al. , Genome sequencing in microfabricated

Chen, Ying-Ja

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

25

The Economics of Ethanol from Sweet Sorghum Using the MixAlco Process  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

source Pump Drain pipe Liner Cover Biomass Gravel Sugar JuiceGrain LeavesBagasse Fermentation Fermentation Co-generation Other uses DDGS Ethanol Ethanol Electricity Heat Sweet Sorghum Pretreatment fermentation Dewater Acid springing Hydrogenation Lime kiln Biomass Lime Calcium carbonate Carboxylate salts

26

Table Definitions, Sources, and Explanatory Notes  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

An anhydrous denatured aliphatic alcohol intended for gasoline blending as described in ... and EIA, Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate ...

27

Complete detoxification of short chain chlorinated aliphatic compounds: Isolation of halorespiring organisms and biochemical studies of the dehalogenating enzyme systems. 1998 annual progress report  

SciTech Connect

'Widespread use and careless handling, storage and disposal practices, have lead to the dissemination of chlorinated short chain aliphatics into groundwater systems. These compounds are toxic and the presence of chlorinated ethenes and chlorinated propanes in the environment is of public concern. Halorespiration is a newly recognized anaerobic process by which certain bacteria use chlorinated compounds as terminal electron acceptors in their energy metabolism. In contrast to co-metabolic dechlorination, which is fortuitous, slow, and without benefit to the organisms, halorespiration, characterized by high dechlorination rates, is a specific metabolic process beneficial to the organism. The goals are to isolate and characterize organisms which use chlorinated ethenes (including tetrachloroethene [PCE], trichloroethene [TCE], cis-dichloroethene [cis-DCE], and vinyl chloride [VC], or 1,2-dichloropropane [1,2-D]) as electron acceptors in their energy metabolism. Better understanding of the physiology and phylogeny of the halorespiring organisms as well as the biochemistry of the dehalogenating enzyme systems, will greatly enhance the authors knowledge of how these organisms can successfully be employed in the bioremediation of contaminated sites. This report summarizes the results of 1.5 years of a 2-year project. Anaerobic microcosms were established using a variety of geographically distinct sediments. In several microcosms complete dechlorination of PCE to ethene (ETH), and 1,2-D to propene was observed. Upon subsequent transfers to anaerobic medium, four sediment-free, methanogenic enrichment cultures were obtained that dechlorinated PCE to ETH, and two cultures that dechlorinated 1,2-D to propene. 2-Bromoethanesulfonate (BES), a well known inhibitor of methanogens, did not inhibit the dechlorination of 1,2-D to propene or the dechlorination of PCE to cis-DCE. However, the complete dechlorination of PCE to VC and ETH was severely inhibited. They could also show that BES inhibited the dechlorination of chloroethenes in cultures without methanogens. Therefore, BES should not be used to attribute dechlorination activities to methanogens.'

Tiedje, J.M.

1998-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

28

Numerical evidence for relevance of disorder in a Poland-Scheraga DNA denaturation model with self-avoidance: Scaling behavior of average quantities  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We study numerically the effect of sequence heterogeneity on the thermodynamic properties of a Poland-Scheraga model for DNA denaturation taking into account self-avoidance, i.e. with exponent c_p=2.15 for the loop length probability distribution. In complement to previous on-lattice Monte Carlo like studies, we consider here off-lattice numerical calculations for large sequence lengths, relying on efficient algorithmic methods. We investigate finite size effects with the definition of an appropriate intrinsic length scale x, depending on the parameters of the model. Based on the occurrence of large enough rare regions, for a given sequence length N, this study provides a qualitative picture for the finite size behavior, suggesting that the effect of disorder could be sensed only with sequence lengths diverging exponentially with x. We further look in detail at average quantities for the particular case x=1.3, ensuring through this parameter choice the correspondence between the off-lattice and the on-lattice studies. Taken together, the various results can be cast in a coherent picture with a crossover between a nearly pure system like behavior for small sizes N = 2/d (=2).

Barbara Coluzzi; Edouard Yeramian

2006-11-28T23:59:59.000Z

29

Experimental and Modeling Study of the Flammability of Fuel Tank Headspace Vapors from Ethanol/Gasoline Fuels; Phase 3: Effects of Winter Gasoline Volatility and Ethanol Content on Blend Flammability; Flammability Limits of Denatured Ethanol  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This study assessed differences in headspace flammability for summertime gasolines and new high-ethanol content fuel blends. The results apply to vehicle fuel tanks and underground storage tanks. Ambient temperature and fuel formulation effects on headspace vapor flammability of ethanol/gasoline blends were evaluated. Depending on the degree of tank filling, fuel type, and ambient temperature, fuel vapors in a tank can be flammable or non-flammable. Pure gasoline vapors in tanks generally are too rich to be flammable unless ambient temperatures are extremely low. High percentages of ethanol blended with gasoline can be less volatile than pure gasoline and can produce flammable headspace vapors at common ambient temperatures. The study supports refinements of fuel ethanol volatility specifications and shows potential consequences of using noncompliant fuels. E85 is flammable at low temperatures; denatured ethanol is flammable at warmer temperatures. If both are stored at the same location, one or both of the tanks' headspace vapors will be flammable over a wide range of ambient temperatures. This is relevant to allowing consumers to splash -blend ethanol and gasoline at fueling stations. Fuels compliant with ASTM volatility specifications are relatively safe, but the E85 samples tested indicate that some ethanol fuels may produce flammable vapors.

Gardiner, D. P.; Bardon, M. F.; Clark, W.

2011-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

30

Mechanisms of amphipathic helical peptide denaturation by ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Aug 10, 2010 ... Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. 123. J Comput Aided Mol Des (2010) 24:829–841. DOI 10.1007/s10822-010-9377-x ...

31

Word Pro - Untitled1  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

chemical compounds composed of chemical compounds composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen. The series of molecules vary in chain length and are composed of a hydrocarbon plus a hydroxyl group: CH 3 -(CH 2 )n-OH (e.g., metha- nol, ethanol, and tertiary butyl alcohol). See Fuel Ethanol. Alternative Fuel: Alternative fuels, for transportation applications, include the following: methanol; denatured ethanol, and other alcohols; fuel mixtures contain- ing 85 percent or more by volume of methanol, denatured ethanol, and other alco- hols with motor gasoline or other fuels; natural gas; liquefied petroleum gas (propane); hydrogen; coal-derived liquid fuels; fuels (other than alcohol) derived from biological materials (biofuels such as soy diesel fuel); electricity (including electricity from solar energy); and "... any other fuel the Secretary determines, by

32

Substrate denaturation and translocation by a proteolytic machine  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Many AAA+ molecular machines generate power and drive cellular processes by harnessing energy from cycles of ATP hydrolysis. ClpX is a relatively simple AAA+ ATPase that powers regulated protein degradation by binding ...

Kenniston, Jon Anders

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

33

A microfluidic device for DNA sequencing by denaturation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

et al. (2009) Human genome sequencing using unchained baseL.A. , et al. (2005) Genome sequencing in microfabricatedAccurate whole human genome sequencing using reversible

Walsh, Matthew Thomas

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

34

Self-protection analysis of denatured thorium-plutonium fuel  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

With growing demands for commercial nuclear power, there is also a growing need for better energy efficiency from nuclear power reactors. In order to reach a high burnup up to 100 MWd/kg, previous research has examined the ...

Torres, Luis Alberto (Torres Mendoza)

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

35

Inventory of Nonutility Electric Power Plants in the United States ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

6 Includes agricultural byproducts, fish oil, liquid acetonitrile waste, landfill gas, municipal solid waste, solid waste, sludge waste, straw, tires, waste alco-

36

This article appeared in a journal published by Elsevier. The ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... These short alco- hols are of the same size as the sugars ... The identification of commercial products does not imply endorsement by the National ...

2011-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

37

Synthesis of D-Glucose-1-C14 and D-Mannose-1-C14  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... The product weighed 470 mg, rep- resenting a ... ing formation of esters, condensation products, and the ... The alco- holic liquors were neutralized with ...

2006-03-29T23:59:59.000Z

38

Global Equivalence Ratio Concept and the Formation ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... levels roughly comparable to the alco- hols and ... strated that changes in the final product distribu ... calculations were those for which products of incom ...

1996-08-14T23:59:59.000Z

39

COMMUNICATIONS  

provide chiral reduction products with the most important ... diastereomeric mixture of predominantly endochiral alco-hols. As shown in Table2, ...

40

Reactions of Polyfluorobenzenes With Nucleophilic Reagents  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... The alco- holic filtrates were poured onto 100 ... amount of a crystalline product, not readily ... anionic polymerization of the olefinic products occurs quite ...

2006-03-21T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "denatured aliphatic alco" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Surfactants & detergents publications - Springer  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Jan 29, 1987 ... personal care products such as hair shampoos and ... products on the environment is presented. ... narrow-range ethoxylated alco- hols.

42

On-Demand Generation of a Formaldehyde-in-Air Standard  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... Previous work suggested that formaldehyde product is less ... 5. Appendix A. Measurement of Additional Products ... of Synthesis Gas and Alco- hols to ...

1997-11-17T23:59:59.000Z

43

Solvation characteristics of a model water-soluble polymer  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... in mixtures of d-water (deuterated water) and d-alco- hols (deuterated ... The identification of any commercial product or trade name does not imply ...

2011-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

44

Secondary Organic Aerosol Formation from Primary Aliphatic Amines with Nitrate Radical  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

back- ground atmospheric aerosol in the UK determined inof secondary organic aerosols, Atmos. Environ. , 31, 3921–et al. : Secondary organic aerosol formation from amines

Malloy, Q G J; Qi, L; Warren, B; Cocker III, D R; Erupe, M E; Silva, P J

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

45

Variation of equivalence ratio and element ratios in low-pressure premixed flames of aliphatic fuels  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

In previously published work it was found that the element ratios (such as C/O, H/O, H/C) and the equivalence ratio all varied in the flame zone of a low-pressure premixed fuel-rich benzene/oxygen/argon laminar flat flame. These variations were seen from analyses of both the data and detailed kinetic modeling. In the present work, seven additional flames were analyzed in the same manner, including five flames with a single hydrocarbon fuel (methane, acetylene, ethylene, allene, and propene) and two flames with a mixture of fuels (acetylene/allene, hydrogen/allene). All the flames had argon as the diluent, with pressures between 20 and 37.5 Torr, equivalence ratios between 1.6 and 2.5, cold gas velocities between 42 and 126 cm/sec. All of these flames showed variations in the element ratios and equivalence ratios. Furthermore, these variations changed in a consistent pattern with respect to the molecular weight of the fuel. In the flame zone, the percent change in the H/O, C/O and equivalence ratios increased with increasing molecular weight of the fuel, except for the hydrogen/allene flame in which the C/O ratio first increases, then decreases in the flame zone. Also, unlike all the other hydrocarbon flames, the C/O ratio decreases below its inlet value for the methane flame. The H/O and equivalence ratios decrease below their inlet values for the hydrogen/allene flame. These results are explained in terms of differential diffusion effects between the products and the reactants, which increase as the fuel becomes increasingly heavier than the major carbon- and hydrogen-containing products.

C. J. Pope; J. A. Miller

2000-03-14T23:59:59.000Z

46

Mathematical Modeling and Simulation of Denaturation Temperature Gradient Polymerase Chain Reaction  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Ji Youn Lee, Hee-Woong Lim , Suk-In Yoo , Byoung-Tak Zhang and Tai Hyun Park School of Chemical amplification of nucleic acids, which is applicable to versatile biochemical applications. PCR plays is formulated with kinetic constants of hybridization reactions while the extension step is formulated

Yoo, SukIn

47

THE CHEMISTRY OF COAL MODEL COMPOUNDS -CLEAVAGE OF ALIPHATIC BRIDGES BETWEEN AROMATIC NUCLEI CATALYSED BY LEWIS ACIDS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and Background I. II. III. IV. II. Coal Liquefaction . •Coal Structure • • . Lewis Acid Catalysts. Scope andOrganic Structure of Bituminous Coal", Proceedings, Stanford

Taylor, Newell D.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

48

Microbial dynamics during intrinsic remediation of oil contaminated coastal wetland sediments (a microcosm study)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Arabian medium crude oil was applied to historically exposed estuarine sediments contained in a controlled laboratory environment and intrinsically remediated for 56 days. In situ microbial and petroleum dynamics were monitored via Most Probable Number (MPN) statistical analysis, Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectroscopy (GC-MS) and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis of polymerase chain reaction-amplified 16S rRNA gene fragments (PCR-DGGE). The microbial community was monitored to determine (i) the extent of intrinsic remediation and (ii) if hydrocarbon contamination caused structural changes to chronically exposed microbial communities. MPN statistical analysis revealed that the addition of oil caused 3-fold increases in both aliphatic and aromatic-degrading bacteria. Petroleum chemistry demonstrated a concomitant decrease of aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbon fractions. Therefore, an inverse relationship between hydrocarbon-degrading bacterial populations and hydrocarbon concentrations was observed throughout the experiment, illustrating that oil was being intrinsically remediated. Kinetic analysis showed that the aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons had a half-life of 18 and 56 days, respectively. While MPN and GC-MS analysis showed that microbial populations were increasing and hydrocarbon concentrations were decreasing, PCR-DGGE analysis revealed that the addition of oil to a complex microbial community had no detectable effect upon the microbial structure. Community changes that occurred in sediments with oil were consistent with those observed in unoiled sediments. Band pattern analysis revealed that microbial community dynamics were independent of oil contamination. Therefore, when historically contaminated sediments are re-exposed to hydrocarbon pollution, the overall structure of the microbial community as detected by PCR-DGGE is negligibly affected, however dominance of specific subpopulations (i.e. aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbon-degraders) can change significantly.

Thornburg, Nathaniel David

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

49

Table Definitions, Sources, and Explanatory Notes  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Oxygenate Production Oxygenate Production Definitions Key Terms Definition Barrel A unit of volume equal to 42 U.S. gallons. Captive Refinery Oxygenate Plants Oxygenate production facilities located within or adjacent to a refinery complex. Fuel Ethanol An anhydrous denatured aliphatic alcohol intended for gasoline blending as described in Oxygenates definition. Gasohol A blend of finished motor gasoline containing alcohol (generally ethanol but sometimes methanol) at a concentration of 10 percent or less by volume. Data on gasohol that has at least 2.7 percent oxygen, by weight, and is intended for sale inside carbon monoxide nonattainment areas are included in data on oxygenated gasoline. Merchant Oxygenate Plants Oxygenate production facilities that are not associated with a petroleum refinery. Production from these facilities is sold under contract or on the spot market to refiners or other gasoline blenders.

50

Complete Detoxification of Short Chain Chlorinated Aliphatic Compounds: Isolation of Halorespiring Organisms and Biochemical Studies of the Dehalogenating Enzyme Systems - Final Report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Work focused on the isolation and characterization of halorespiring populations, and the initial investigation of the dechlorinating enzyme systems. In addition, tools to evaluate the presence/activity to halorespiring populations in the environment were developed. The tools developed in this work (measurements of hydrogen consumption thresholds, molecular probes) are relevant for regulatory agencies in order to facilitate decisions on which bioremediation technology (biostimulation or bioaugmentation) is most promising at a particular site. In addition, a better understanding of the physiology of the halorespiring organisms as well as the biochemistry of the dehalogenating enzyme systems enhances our knowledge of how these organisms can successfully be employed in the bioremediation of contaminated sites.

Tiedje, J.M.

1999-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

51

A Kinetic Modeling study on the Oxidation of Primary Reference Fuel?Toluene Mixtures Including Cross Reactions between Aromatics and Aliphatics  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A detailed chemical kinetic model for the mixtures of Primary Reference Fuel (PRF: n-heptane and iso-octane) and toluene has been proposed. This model is divided into three parts; a PRF mechanism [T. Ogura et al., Energy & Fuels 21 (2007) 3233-3239], toluene sub-mechanism and cross reactions between PRF and toluene. Toluene sub-mechanism includes the low temperature kinetics relevant to engine conditions. A chemical kinetic mechanism proposed by Pitz et al. [Proc. the 2nd Joint Meeting of the U.S. Combust. Institute (2001)] was used as a starting model and modified by updating rate coefficients. Theoretical estimations of rate coefficients were performed for toluene and benzyl radical reactions important at low temperatures. Cross-reactions between alkane, alkene, and aromatics were also included in order to account for the acceleration by the addition of toluene into iso-octane recently found in the shock tube study of the ignition delay [Y. Sakai et al, SAE 2007-01-4014 (2007)]. Validations of the model were performed with existing shock tube and flow tube data. The model well predicts the ignition characteristics of toluene and PRF/Toluene mixtures under the wide range of temperatures (500-1700 K) and pressures (2-50 atm). It is found that reactions of benzyl radical with oxygen molecule determine the reactivity of toluene at low temperature. Although the effect of toluene addition to iso-octane is not fully resolved, the reactions of alkene with benzyl radical have the possibility to account for the kinetic interactions between PRF and toluene.

Sakai, Y; Miyoshi, A; Koshi, M; Pitz, W J

2008-01-09T23:59:59.000Z

52

www.ext.vt.edu Produced by Communications and Marketing, College of Agriculture and Life Sciences,  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

never develop cancer despite years of exposure to tobacco, poor diet, alco- hol, sunlight, etc., while as carcinogens. For unlucky others, a combination of modi- fied genes and a suitable internal environment results, excessive ultraviolet light and radiation provides a strong defense against many common cancers. Food

Liskiewicz, Maciej

53

Liquid chromatographic analysis of coal surface properties. Quarterly progress report, July--September 1992  

SciTech Connect

Experiments on equilibrium adsorption of various alcohols on 60--200 mesh Illinois No. 6 coal (DECS-2; Randolph county) were performed during the July--September period. The alcohols include ethanol, methanol, isobutanol, t-butanol, 1-heptanol, 1-octanol, 1-hexadecanol, 4-methyl-2-pentanol, and 2-methyl-l-pentanol. Amounts of equilibrium adsorption of alcohols (ALCO) on 60--200 mesh Illinois No. 6 coal are 1 - 230 {times} 10{sup {minus}6} mg-ALCO/g-coal, whereas equilibrium concentrations of alcohols are 3--40 ppM. Relations between equilibrium loadings of alcohols on the coal and equilibrium concentrations of alcohols in aqueous solutions are shown to be linear.

Kwon, K.C.

1992-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

54

Fundamentals of  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... work fine and reduce costs – No heat denaturation/snap ... denaturation of standard due to excessive salt in sample ... Vial caps will transfer low levels ...

2009-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

55

Table Definitions, Sources, and Explanatory Notes  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Input Input Definitions Key Terms Definition Barrel A unit of volume equal to 42 U.S. gallons. Blending Plant A facility which has no refining capability but is either capable of producing finished motor gasoline through mechanical blending or blends oxygenates with motor gasoline. Conventional Blendstock for Oxygenate Blending (CBOB) Motor gasoline blending components intended for blending with oxygenates to produce finished conventional motor gasoline. Fuel Ethanol An anhydrous denatured aliphatic alcohol intended for gasoline blending as described in Oxygenates definition. Gasoline Treated as Blendstock (GTAB) Non-certified Foreign Refinery gasoline classified by an importer as blendstock to be either blended or reclassified with respect to reformulated or conventional gasoline. GTAB was classified on EIA surveys as either reformulated or conventional based on emissions performance and the intended end use in data through the end of December 2009. Designation of GTAB as reformulated or conventional was discontinued beginning with data for January 2010. GTAB was reported as a single product beginning with data for January 2010. GTAB data for January 2010 and later months is presented as conventional motor gasoline blending components whenreported as a subset of motor gasoline blending components.

56

Index to Volume 31 (2001) - Springer  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Electrocatalytic oxidation of aliphatic alcohols: Application to the direct alcohol fuel cell (DAFC) 799. Composite electrocatalysts for anodic methanol and ...

57

Effects of physical and chemical pretreatments on the crystallinity of bagasse  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Biomass conversion technologies are receiving increasing attention due to global climate change and most recently plans from the President of the United States to reduce fossil fuel consumption. The MixAlco process converts a variety of feedstocks, such as agricultural residues, municipal solid waste, and sewage sludge, into mixed alcohols via microbial fermentation, which can then be used as fuel additives or independently as an alternative fuel. Optimizing the pretreatment step of this process is critical to improving product yields. The process uses lime pretreatment, which can be enhanced using new decrystallization pretreatment methods, namely hydrodynamic cavitation and shock tube pretreatment.Previous studies on biomass decrystallization showed an increase in biomass digestibility when hydrodynamic cavitation was utilized as a pretreatment step. This previous work was expanded by studying both acoustic and hydrodynamic cavitation. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) was used to model the cavitator to improve its efficiency. The crystallinity before and after pretreatment was analyzed. A new laboratory-scale MixAlco lime-pretreatment system was developed to produce greater quantities of lime-pretreated biomass that could be subjected to decrystallization experiments. The length of pretreatment, water loading, and bagasse loadings were varied for the shock tube experiments. After each pretreatment, enzymatic hydrolysis was performed, and the equivalent glucose yield was measured by the DNS (dinitrosalicylic acid) assay. Additionally, mixed-acid fermentation was performed to show the benefits of reduced crystallinity on the MixAlco fermentation. The acoustic and hydrodynamic cavitation pretreatments had a modest effect on crystallinity. In contrast, the shock tube pretreatment shows greater promise as an effective decrystallization pretreatment, even for lime-treated bagasse. Repeated shocks had little effect on digestibility and the crystallinity; however, the water temperature used in shock tube pretreatment played an important role in bagasse digestibility and crystallinity.

Jones, Maxine Janette

2007-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

58

Effects of Feedstocks and Inoculum Sources on Mixed-Acid and Hydrogen Fermentations  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

With increasing energy demand, decreasing oil supply, and continuously accumulating waste in landfills, the interest in converting lignocellulosic biomass to liquid fuels has grown. The MixAlco™ process requires no exogenous enzymes, no sterility, can be adapted to any biodegradable feedstock, and converts lignocellulosic biomass into valuable chemicals and transportation fuels. This work focuses on the effects different feedstocks and inocula have on mixed-acid/hydrogen fermentations. When volatile solids (VS) are digested, mixed-acid fermentations produce hydrogen gas as a secondary byproduct. Hydrogen is only produced when there is an excess of NADH within the cell and when the energy selectivity (gamma) of the system has not been met. Continuous fermentations of paper produced 16.7 g carboxylic acid/L and 15.7 mL H2/g VS digested. Continuous fermentations of pretreated bagasse produced 17.1 g carboxylic acid/L and 41.1 mL H2/g VS digested. Both fermentations produced a fraction of the theoretical amount of hydrogen. The paper fermentation had a hydrogen percent yield of 6.9 percent, whereas the bagasse fermentation had a hydrogen percent yield of 22.6 percent. Hydrogen production was capped at this level because gamma had been met for these systems. The Bioscreening Project, a joint project between three departments, sought to improve the MixAlco™ process by finding natural cultures containing high biomass converters and high acid producers. A total of 505 inoculum samples were collected from 19 sites and screened using paper and yeast extract fermentations. The best converters were analyzed with Continuum Particle Distribution Modeling (CPDM). Nine inocula were run in paper and yeast extract countercurrent fermentations in which the overall performance varied less than 13 percent. Comparisons between six countercurrent train cultures showed an average culture similarity of 0.40 (Yue-Clayton similarity). With the dissimilar microbial cultures and the very similar fermentation performance, the performance of the MixAlco™ process depends on fermentation conditions, not on the microorganisms. Batch fermentations of office paper wastes, pineapple residue, Aloe vera rinds, wood molasses, sugar molasses, extracted algae, non-extracted algae, crude glycerol, obtained from the biodiesel process, and pretreated water hyacinths produced sufficient carboxylic acids and had sufficiently high conversions to be viable substrates for the MixAlco™ process.

Forrest, Andrea Kelly

2010-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

59

Manufacturing improvement and thermal property characterization of the frame structure of an Ultra-high Throughput Mutational Spectrometer  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Constant denaturant capillary electrophoresis (CDCE) is a DNA separation technique that allows the detection of mutants at a fraction of 10Ě???. CDCE uses a region of constant temperature and constant denaturant concentration ...

Lin, Jiengju J. (Jiengju James)

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

60

Indoor Air Quality in 24 California Residences Designed as High Performance Green Homes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

resin wood products, smoking, electric heating, air exchangeand wood burning fireplaces, and denatured alcohol heaters. All natural gas primary heating

Less, Brennan

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "denatured aliphatic alco" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

CGS-IAH Conf. Niagara Falls 2002 (to be published -confidential) LABORATORY MEASUREMENTS AND PREDICTIVE EQUATIONS FOR  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

in a biogas digester as revealed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and 16S rDNA sequencing analysis

Aubertin, Michel

62

Continuous fermentation of food scraps with constant pH control to produce carboxylic acids  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Global energy demands combined with environmental restrictions are fueling a move to alternative energy sources. Biofuels are formed from biomass; the MixAlco process is one such method. In this work, food scraps are explored as a potential feedstock to the MixAlco process. Batch fermentation with various temperatures, buffers, and pH control methods elucidated the behavior of food scraps during fermentation. The pH and reactor configuration were limiting factors when maximizing production. A fermentor was developed and tested with constant pH control. This resulted in elevated concentration (100 g/L) and selectivity (82%) of desired products. The fermentation resulted in elevated concentrations, but low conversion of solids. The undigested material may serve as a nutrient source for fermenting lignocellulosic feedstocks. Combining various nutrient sources with lignocellulose, such as bagasse, resulted in additional production and further conversion. Multiple nutrient sources were tested resulting in total acid concentration ranging from 20.2 to 34.5 g/L.

Coleman Jr., Stanley Albert

2007-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

63

Conversion of sugarcane bagasse to carboxylic acids under thermophilic conditions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

With the inevitable depletion of the petroleum supply and increasing energy demands in the world, interest has been growing in bioconversion of lignocellulosic biomass (e.g., sugarcane bagasse). Lignocellulosic biomass is an abundant, inexpensive, and renewable resource. Most of current conversion technologies require expensive enzymes and sterility. In contrast, the patented MixAlco process requires no enzymes or sterility, making it attractive to convert lignocellulosic biomass to transportation fuels and valuable chemicals. This study focuses on pretreatment and thermophilic fermentation in the MixAlco process. Ammonium bicarbonate (NH4HCO3) was discovered to be a better pH buffer than previously widely used calcium carbonate (CaCO3) in anaerobic fermentations under thermophilic conditions (55°C). The desired pH should be controlled within 6.5 to 7.5. Over 85% acetate content in the product was found in paper fermentations and bagasse fermentations. Hot-lime-water-treated bagasse countercurrent fermentations buffered by ammonium bicarbonate achieved 50–60% higher total product concentrations than those using calcium carbonate. It was nearly double in paper batch fermentations if the pH was controlled around 7.0. Ammonium bicarbonate is a “weak” methane inhibitor, so a strong methane inhibitor (e.g., iodoform) is still required in ammonium bicarbonate buffered fermentations. Residual calcium salts did not show significant effects on ammonium bicarbonate buffered fermentations. Lake inocula from the Great Salt Lake, Utah, proved to be feasible in ammonium bicarbonate buffered fermentations. Under mesophilic conditions (40°C), the inoculum from the Great Salt Lake increased the total product concentration about 30%, compared to the marine inoculum. No significant fermentation performance difference, however, was found under thermophilic conditions. The Continuum Particle Distribution Model (CPDM) is a powerful tool to predict product concentrations and conversions for long-term countercurrent fermentations, based on batch fermentation data. The experimental acid concentrations and conversions agree well with the CPDM predictions (average absolute error < 15%). Aqueous ammonia treatment proved feasible for bagasse. Air-lime-treated bagasse had the highest acid concentration among the three treated bagasse. Air-lime treatment coupled with ammonium bicarbonate buffered fermentations is preferred for a “crop-tofuel” process. Aqueous ammonia treatment combined with ammonium bicarbonate buffered fermentations is a viable modification of the MixAlco process, if “ammonia recycle” is deployed.

Fu, Zhihong

2007-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

64

UHM/HNEI EV test and evaluation program  

SciTech Connect

The electric vehicle (EV) program of the Hawaii Natural Energy Institute (HNEI) focuses primarily on the field testing of promising EV/traction batteries. The intent is to utilize typical driving cycles to develop information that verifies or refutes what is obtained in the laboratory. Three different types of battery were assigned by the US DOE for testing in this program: Sonnenschein Dryfit 6V-160, Exide GC-5, Trojan T-145. We added the following battery to the test program: ALCO2200. HNEI's existing EVs were utilized as test beds. The following EVs were chosen in our program: Converted Ford Escort station wagon, Converted Ford Escort two-door sedan, Converted Ford Escort two-door sedan, Converted Dodge van (typically daily driving distances, 10--30 miles). Capacity testing is a very effective way of monitoring the status of battery modules. Based on capacity tests, corrective action such as battery replacement, additional charging, adjusting terminal connections, etc., may be taken to maintain good performance. About 15,500 miles and 600 cycles have been accumulated on the Sonnenschein Dryfit 6V-160 battery pack. Five of its 18 modules have been changed. Based on DOE's standard, the battery has reached the end of its useful life. Nevertheless, the battery pack is still operational and its operating range is still greater than 40 miles per charge. It is too early to evaluate the life expectancy of the other three batteries, the Trojan T-145, Exide GC-5, and Alco 2200. No module has been replaced in these three packs. The Trojan T-145 battery is a very promising EV traction battery in terms of quality and reliability versus price. HNEI will keep the Trojan and Exide battery packs in operation. The Alco 2200 batteries will be transferred to another vehicle. The Additional Charging Method seems to be an effective way of restoring weak modules. The Smart Voltmeter'' developed by HNEI is a promising way of monitoring the remaining range for an EV.

1992-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

65

UHM/HNEI EV test and evaluation program. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The electric vehicle (EV) program of the Hawaii Natural Energy Institute (HNEI) focuses primarily on the field testing of promising EV/traction batteries. The intent is to utilize typical driving cycles to develop information that verifies or refutes what is obtained in the laboratory. Three different types of battery were assigned by the US DOE for testing in this program: Sonnenschein Dryfit 6V-160, Exide GC-5, Trojan T-145. We added the following battery to the test program: ALCO2200. HNEI`s existing EVs were utilized as test beds. The following EVs were chosen in our program: Converted Ford Escort station wagon, Converted Ford Escort two-door sedan, Converted Ford Escort two-door sedan, Converted Dodge van (typically daily driving distances, 10--30 miles). Capacity testing is a very effective way of monitoring the status of battery modules. Based on capacity tests, corrective action such as battery replacement, additional charging, adjusting terminal connections, etc., may be taken to maintain good performance. About 15,500 miles and 600 cycles have been accumulated on the Sonnenschein Dryfit 6V-160 battery pack. Five of its 18 modules have been changed. Based on DOE`s standard, the battery has reached the end of its useful life. Nevertheless, the battery pack is still operational and its operating range is still greater than 40 miles per charge. It is too early to evaluate the life expectancy of the other three batteries, the Trojan T-145, Exide GC-5, and Alco 2200. No module has been replaced in these three packs. The Trojan T-145 battery is a very promising EV traction battery in terms of quality and reliability versus price. HNEI will keep the Trojan and Exide battery packs in operation. The Alco 2200 batteries will be transferred to another vehicle. The Additional Charging Method seems to be an effective way of restoring weak modules. The ``Smart Voltmeter`` developed by HNEI is a promising way of monitoring the remaining range for an EV.

1992-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

66

ENVIRONME NTA L R EV  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

ENVIRONME ENVIRONME NTA L R EV IEW for CATEGO RI CAL EXCLUS ION DETE RM INATION Rocky Mountain Region, Western Area Power Ad ministration Alco\'3-Caspc r North I IS-kV Transm ission Line Pole Replace ments Na t ro na Co un ty, Wyo mi ng A. Brief Desc ription of Proposal: Western Area Po\.\cr Administration's (Western) Casper Field Office proposes to replace deteriorating poles on 18 wood II-frame structures along its Alcova-Casper North 115-kV transmission line. The project structures are located on the transmission line bct\.ycen Township 33 North. Range 80 West. Section 12 and Township 30 North, Range 82 West. Section 18, 6 th Principle Meridian ncar Casper. Wyoming. in Natrona County. The land ownership is primarily private with two structures located on Bureau of Land Management administered lands. Western will accomplish

67

acronyms.PDF  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

HEALTH AND SAFETY ACRONYMS HEALTH AND SAFETY ACRONYMS AFRD Accelerator and Fusion Research Division ACFD Alameda County Fire Department AHD Activity Hazard Documentation ALARA as low as reasonably achievable ALCO Alameda County (Fire Department) ALS Advanced Light Sources ASD Administrative Services Department ASPCP Accidental Spill Prevention and Containment Plan AST Above ground storage tank BAAQMD Bay Area Air Quality Management District Basin Plan Water Quality Control Plan BBAP Behavior-Based Accident Prevention (peer-based safety observation program to identify and communicate at-risk work behaviors - see WOW) Berkeley Lab Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory BSO Berkeley Site Office (DOE) Bq becquerel BTEX benzene, toluene, ethyl benzene, and xylene CAA Clean Air Act CARB California Air Resources Board

68

Transformation of Acetone and Isopropanol to Hydrocarbons using HZSM-5 Catalyst  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This research describes the production of hydrocarbons from acetone and isopropanol produced by the MixAlco process. The MixAlco process has two types of products: acetone and isopropanol. The effect of the temperature, weight hourly space velocity (WHSV), type of catalyst, feed composition, and pressure are studied. For the isopropanol reaction, the following conditions were used: HZSM-5 (280), 1 atm, 300–410°C, and 0.5–11.5 h–1, respectively. The temperature and WHSV affect the average carbon number of the reaction products. A product similar to commercial gasoline was obtained at T = 320 °C and WHSV= 1.3 to 2.7 h–1. Also, at these conditions, the amount of light hydrocarbons (C1–C4) is low. For the acetone reaction, the following conditions were used: HZSM-5 with silica alumina ratio (Si/Al) 80 and 280 mol silica/mol alumina, 1–7.8 atm, 305–415°C, 1.3–11.8 h–1, and hydrogen acetone ratio 0–1 mol H2 /mol acetone. The conversion on HZSM-5 (80) was higher than HZSM-5 (280); however, for HZM–5 (80) the production of light hydrocarbons (C1–C4) was more abundant than (280), and it formed less coke. For acetone, the effect of high pressure (P = 7.8 atm) was evaluated. At high pressure, the conversion was lower than at atmospheric pressure. HZSM-5 (280) rapidly deactivated, and the amount of light hydrocarbons (C1–C4) increased. For acetone, co-feeding hydrogen inhibited coke formation and decreased the amount of light hydrocarbons (C1–C4).

Taco Vasquez, Sebastian

2009-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

69

Troubleshooting Common Laboratory Problems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... higher RFU values due to salt reduction with ... fine and reduce costs – No heat denaturation/snap ... not be relevant – casual contact/transfer • If victim ...

2008-10-27T23:59:59.000Z

70

Troubleshooting  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... Incomplete denaturation of standard due to excessive salt in sample or ... the samples better due to its heat plate and ... Vial caps will transfer low levels ...

2011-09-14T23:59:59.000Z

71

Table 11.2d Carbon Dioxide Emissions From Energy Consumption ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

1 Metric tons of carbon dioxide can be converted to metric tons of carbon equivalent by multiplying by 12/44. 8 Fuel ethanol minus denaturant. 2 Carbo ...

72

Table PT1. Energy Production Estimates in Physical Units, United ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

a Beginning in 2001, includes refuse recovery. d Includes denaturant. Estimated using production b Marketed production. ... Coal a Natural Gas b Crude Oil c Fuel ...

73

Table 10.3 Fuel Ethanol Overview, 1981-2011  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

6 A negative value indicates a decrease in stocks and a positive value indicates an increase. 7 Consumption of fuel ethanol minus denaturant.

74

Supporting Information: A Synthetic DNA Walker for Molecular Transport  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

species. Non-denaturing PAGE Analysis. Fuel-mediated association of the walker and track was analyzed at 37 C. The whole reaction sample was loaded in a 6.7% non-denaturing gel. Gel electrophoresis (Felix32 software, PTI Co.) to monitor fluorescence intensi- ties at four excitation/emission wavelengths

Pierce, Niles A.

75

Nickel-catalyzed preparation of acrylamides from alpha olefins and isocyanates ; Synthetic studies toward ripostatin A  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Chapter I. In the presence of the N-heterocyclic carbene ligand IPr, the nickel(0)-catalyzed coupling reaction of a-olefins and branched aliphatic isocyanates provides c,-unsaturated amides arising from preferential C-C ...

Schleicher, Kristin D. (Kristin Diann)

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

76

REFINING FLUORINATED COMPOUNDS  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This invention relates to the method of refining a liquid perfluorinated hydrocarbon oil containing fluorocarbons from 12 to 28 carbon atoms per molecule by distilling between 150 deg C and 300 deg C at 10 mm Hg absolute pressure. The perfluorinated oil is washed with a chlorinated lower aliphatic hydrocarbon, which mairtains a separate liquid phase when mixed with the oil. Impurities detrimental to the stability of the oil are extracted by the chlorinated lower aliphatic hydrocarbon. (AEC)

Linch, A.L.

1963-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

77

Process for reducing organic compounds with calcium, amine, and alcohol  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Olefins are produced by contacting an organic compound having at least one benzene ring with calcium metal, ethylenediamine, a low molecular weight aliphatic alcohol, and optionally a low molecular weight aliphatic primary amine, and/or an inert, abrasive particulate substance. The reduction is conducted at temperatures ranging from about -10.degree. C. to about 30.degree. C. or somewhat higher. Substantially all of the organic compounds are converted to corresponding cyclic olefins, primarily diolefins.

Benkeser, Robert A. (West Lafayette, IN); Laugal, James A. (Lostant, IL); Rappa, Angela (Baltimore, MD)

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

78

Process for reducing organic compounds with calcium, amine, and alcohol  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Olefins are produced by contacting an organic compound having at least one benzene ring with calcium metal, ethylenediamine, a low molecular weight aliphatic alcohol, and optionally a low molecular weight aliphatic primary amine, and/or an inert, abrasive particulate substance. The reduction is conducted at temperatures ranging from about [minus]10 C to about 30 C or somewhat higher. Substantially all of the organic compounds are converted to corresponding cyclic olefins, primarily diolefins.

Benkeser, R.A.; Laugal, J.A.; Rappa, A.

1985-08-06T23:59:59.000Z

79

Assessing the Potential of Natural Microbial Communities to Improve a Second-Generation Biofuels Platform  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Naturally occurring microbial communities from high-salt and/or high-temperature environments were collected from sites across the United States and Puerto Rico and screened for their efficacy in the MixAlco biofuel production platform. The MixAlco process, based on the carboxylate platform, is a sustainable and economically viable platform for converting lignocellulosic biomass to biofuels. Using a mixed culture of anaerobic organisms, lignocellulosic biomass is fermented into carboxylic acids, which are neutralized to their corresponding carboxylate salts. These salts can then be converted into a wide variety of chemical products and fuels (alcohols, gasoline, diesel, jet fuel). The central hypothesis is that microbial communities from relatively extreme environments, having evolved to withstand selection pressures similar to the conditions in the carboxylate platform, will exhibit high rates of biomass conversion. A total of 559 soil communities was screened as inocula in established laboratory-scale fermentations. We used pyrotag sequencing of 16S rRNA genes to characterize the bacterial components of the best-performing microbial communities. The best performing communities converted up to 3 times more biomass to acids than a standard marine community inoculum. The community analyses have allowed us to determine the extent to which the same functional types are favored during fermentation, at both laboratory and demonstration plant scales. In all cases, we observed a shift from the more diverse sediment community to post-fermentation communities with relatively low diversity dominated by organisms in the phylum Firmicutes, specifically Bacilli and Clostridia classes. Despite the fact that the inoculum sources were both geographically and ecologically diverse, all of the post-fermentation communities were more similar to each other in community structure than to the corresponding original inoculum community. In addition, studies of the sediments used as inocula revealed that environmental parameters, such as pH and water content, were significantly correlated with bacterial community composition. The wealth of data provided by current sequencing technologies allowed us to question whether communities with high process performances tend to achieve that performance with similar community structures.

Hammett, Amy Jo Macbey

2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

80

Pretreatment and Fermentation of Sugarcane Trash to Carboxylic Acids  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The rising price of oil is hurting consumers all over the world. There is growing interest in producing biofuels from non-food crops, such as sugarcane trash. Lignocellulosic biomass (e.g., sugarcane trash) is an abundant, inexpensive, and renewable resource. The patented MixAlco process is a cost-effective solution, which does not require sterility or the addition of expensive enzymes to convert lignocellulosic biomass to transportation fuels and valuable chemicals. In this study, the MixAlco process was used to convert sugarcane trash to carboxylic acids under thermophilic conditions. Lime-treated sugarcane trash (80%) and chicken manure (20%) was used as the feedstock in rotary 1-L fermentors. Ammonium bicarbonate buffer was used to mitigate the effects of product (carboxylic acid) inhibition. Marine inoculum was used because of the high adaptability of the mixed culture of microorganisms present. Iodoform solution was added to inhibit methanogenesis. Preliminary batch studies over a 20-day period produced 19.7 g/L of carboxylic acids. Sugarcane trash had the highest average yield (0.31 g total acid/g VS fed) and highest average conversion (0.70 g VS digested/g VS fed) among the three substrates compared. Countercurrent fermentations were performed at various volatile solid loading rates (VSLR) and liquid residence times (LRT). The highest acid productivity of 1.40 g/(L?d) was at a total acid concentration of 29.9 g/L. The highest conversion and yield were 0.64 g VS digested/g VS fed and 0.36 g total acid/g VS fed, respectively. The continuum particle distribution model (CPDM) was used to predict acid concentration at various VSLR and LRT. The average error in between the predicted and experimental acid concentration and conversion were 4.62% and 1.42%, respectively. The effectiveness of several pretreatment methods was evaluated using the CPDM method. The best-performing method was short-term, no-wash, oxidative lime pretreatment with ball milling. At an industrial-scale solids loading of 300 g VS/L liquid, the CPDM ?map? predicts a total acid concentration of 64.0 g/L at LRT of 30 days, VSLR of 7 g/(L?d), and conversion of 57%. Also high conversion of 76% and high acid concentration of 52 g/L are achieved at a VSLR of 4 g/(L?d) and LRT of 30 days.

Nachiappan, Balasubraman

2008-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "denatured aliphatic alco" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

On single-molecule DNA sequencing with atomic force microscopy using functionalized carbon nanotube probes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A novel DNA sequencing method is proposed based on the specific binding nature of nucleotides and measured by an atomic force microscope (AFM). A single molecule of DNA is denatured and immobilized on an atomically fiat ...

Burns, Daniel James

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

82

A CD19/Fc fusion protein for detection of anti-CD19 chimeric antigen receptors  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Oliveira et al. : A CD19/Fc fusion protein for detection ofof the CD19-IgG 1 Fc fusion was performed under denatur- ingOpen Access A CD19/Fc fusion protein for detection of anti-

De Oliveira, Satiro N; Wang, Jiexin; Ryan, Christine; Morrison, Sherie L; Kohn, Donald B; Hollis, Roger P

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

83

Experimental and Modeling Study of the Flammability of Fuel Tank Headspace Vapors from High Ethanol Content Fuels  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Study determined the flammability of fuel tank headspace vapors as a function of ambient temperature for seven E85 fuel blends, two types of gasoline, and denatured ethanol at a low tank fill level.

Gardiner, D.; Bardon, M.; Pucher, G.

2008-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

84

Magnetotransport Properties of High Quality Co:ZnO and Mn:ZnO Single Crystal Pulsed Laser Deposition films: Pitfalls Associated with Magnetotransport on High Resistivity Materials  

SciTech Connect

The electrical resistivity values for a series of pure and doped (Co, Mn, Al) ZnO epitaxial films grown by pulsed laser deposition were measured with equipment designed for determining the DC resistivity of high resistance samples. Room-temperature resistances ranging from 7x10^1 ohms/square to 4x10^8 ohms/square were measured on vacuum-reduced cobalt-doped ZnO, (Al,Co) co-doped ZnO, pure cobalt-doped ZnO, Mn-doped ZnO, and undoped ZnO. Using a four-point collinear geometry with gold spring-pin contacts, resistivities were measured from 295 to 5 K for resistances of < ~10^12 ohms/square. In addition, magnetoresistance (MR) and Hall effect were measured as a function of temperature for select samples. Throughout the investigation, samples were also measured on commercially available instrumentation with good agreement. The challenges of transport measurements on high resistivity samples are discussed, along with some offered solutions to those challenges.

McCloy, John S.; Ryan, Joseph V.; Droubay, Timothy; Kaspar, Tiffany C.; Chambers, Scott A.; Look, David

2010-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

85

Comparison of simulation and test for electric vehicles of recent design  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Comparisons have been made between data obtained from dynamometer tests of various electric vehicles and computer simulations of the same vehicle-battery combinations for several driving cycles. The vehicles included in the study were the ETV-1, Bedford Van, Unique Mobility, ETX-1 and DSEP(TB-1). The batteries studied were the ALCO 2200, Gel/cel 3, EV5T, ETX-100(CHL12), and the NIF-170. The comparisons indicated that the energy consumption values obtained using ELVEC agree within 10% with test data for both constant speed and variable power driving schedules. The range comparisons were less consistent, but the predictions agreed with the data to within 10% if the vehicle battery was in good condition and the controller did not limit battery power at low states-of-charge. Second-by-second comparisons of measured and calculated values of battery power and current during transient vehicle operation showed the agreement worse than would have been expected based on the good agreement found for cycle energy consumption. Further development of ELVEC is needed to complete its validation as an electric vehicle simulation code. 12 refs., 6 figs., 9 tabs.

Burke, A.F.

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

86

An Environmental and Policy Evaluation of Cellulosic Ethanol  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

As the global demand for energy rises, there are significant efforts to find alternative energy sources. In the United States (US), these efforts are primarily motivated by a desire to increase energy security and reduce the potential impacts on climate change caused by carbon dioxide emissions from the burning of fossil fuels. Biofuels are considered a potential partial solution, which are being encouraged through public policy. Cellulosic ethanol is a biofuel that is required in increasing amounts over time as part of the Renewable Fuel Standards. Thus, researchers are exploring the environmental impacts of using this biofuel on a large scale. This dissertation research performed an environmental evaluation using the Life Cycle Assessment technique on Bioenergy Sorghum, a crop which was specifically produced as an energy crop, used in a conversion process (MixAlco version 1) that can produce cellulosic ethanol. Results indicate that the conversion process is highly optimized with minimal environmental concerns. Analysis of the crop production, however, demonstrate that further investigation is warranted regarding the depletion of natural resources and emissions from the fertilizers and pesticides/herbicides, due to large scale production of energy crops. A new policy is proposed to support the sustainable, environmentally responsible development of cellulosic ethanol in the US.

Hurtado, Lisa Diane

2011-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

87

PRODUCTION OF FLUOROCARBONS  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This patent pertains to a process for recovering fluorocarbons from a liquid mixture of hydrocarbons with partially and completely fluorinated products thereof. It consists of contacting the mxture in the cold with a liquid which is a solvent for the hydrocarbons and which is a nonsolvent for the fluorocarbons, extracting the hydrocarbons, separating the fluorocarbon-containing layer from the solvent-containing layer, and submitting the fluorocarbon layer to fractlonal distillation, to isolate the desired fluorocarbon fraction. Suitable solvents wnich may be used in the process include the lower aliphatic alcohols, and the lower aliphatic ketones.

Sarsfield, N.F.

1949-06-21T23:59:59.000Z

88

Process and catalyst for carbonylating olefins  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Disclosed is an improved catalyst system and process for preparing aliphatic carbonyl compounds such as aliphatic carboxylic acids, alkyl esters of aliphatic carboxylic acids and anhydrides of aliphatic carboxylic acids by carbonylating olefins in the presence of a catalyst system comprising (1) a first component selected from at least one Group 6 metal, i.e., chromium, molybdenum, and/or tungsten and (2) a second component selected from at least one of certain halides and tertiary and quaternary compounds of a Group 15 element, i.e., nitrogen, phosphorus and/or arsenic, and (3) as a third component, a polar, aprotic solvent. The process employing the improved catalyst system is carried out under carbonylating conditions of pressure and temperature discussed herein. The process constitutes and improvement over known processes since it can be carried out at moderate carbonylation conditions without the necessity of using an expensive noble metal catalyst, volatile, toxic materials such as nickel tetracarbonyl, formic acid or a formate ester. Further, the addition of a polar, aprotic solvent to the catalyst system significantly increases, or accelerates, the rate at which the carbonylation takes place.

Zoeller, Joseph Robert (Kingsport, TN)

1998-06-02T23:59:59.000Z

89

Surface chemistry control for selective fossil resin flotation  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A froth flotation method is disclosed for separating fine particles of fossil resin from by use of frothing reagents which include an aliphatic organic compound having a polar group and containing not more than four carbon atoms. Butanol is an effective frothing reagent in this method.

Miller, Jan D. (1886 Atkin Ave., Salt Lake City, UT 84106); Yi, Ye (2875 E. Wander Way, Salt Lake City, UT 84117); Yu, Qiang (224 University Village, Salt Lake City, UT 84108)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

90

Surface chemistry control for selective fossil resin flotation  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A froth flotation method is disclosed for separating fine particles of fossil resin by use of frothing reagents which include an aliphatic organic compound having a polar group and containing not more than four carbon atoms. Butanol is an effective frothing reagent in this method. 12 figs.

Miller, J.D.; Yi, Y.; Yu, Q.

1994-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

91

Process for the extraction of strontium from acidic solutions  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The invention is a process for selectively extracting strontium values from aqueous nitric acid waste solutions containing these and other fission product values. The extractant solution is a macrocyclic polyether in an aliphatic hydrocarbon diluent containing a phase modifier. The process will selectively extract strontium values from nitric acid solutions which are up to 6 molar in nitric acid.

Horwitz, E.P.; Dietz, M.L.

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

92

X-ray photoelectron emission spectromicroscopic analysis of arborescent lycopsid cell wall composition and Carboniferous coal ball preservation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

composition and Carboniferous coal ball preservation C. Kevin Boyce a, , Mike Abrecht b , Dong Zhou b , P that were canopy dominants of many Pennsylvanian coal swamp forests. Its periderm or bark--the single greatest biomass contributor to many Late Paleozoic coals--is found to have a greater aliphatic content

Boyce, C. Kevin

93

Coal liquefaction process using pretreatment with a binary solvent mixture  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An improved process for thermal solvent refining or hydroliquefaction of non-anthracitic coal at elevated temperatures under hydrogen pressure in a hydrogen donor solvent comprises pretreating the coal with a binary mixture of an aromatic hydrocarbon and an aliphatic alcohol at a temperature below 300.degree. C. before the hydroliquefaction step. This treatment generally increases both conversion of coal and yields of oil.

Miller, Robert N. (Allentown, PA)

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

94

High resolution mass spectrometry for the characterization of complex, fossil organic mixtures  

SciTech Connect

High resolution chemical ionization mass spectrometry data support the notion that the size of the stable aromatic clusters is not large in coals except the very high rank coals and inertinite macerals. The desorption chemical ionization spectra appear representative of the sample with little discrimination for molecular types such as aliphatics.

Winans, R.E.; Haas, G.W.; Kim, Yeonhee L.; Hunt, J.E.

1995-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

95

Microwave-assisted pyrolysis of HDPE using an activated carbon bed  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

.5–45.3% aromatics, with the remainder primarily short-chain aliphatics. This oil was approximately three times lighter than that produced in the absence of catalyst, with a narrower range of molecular masses that matched those of the liquid transport fuels petrol...

Russell, Alan Donald

2013-04-16T23:59:59.000Z

96

A new antifouling hybrid CDP formulation with ethyl heptanoate: evaluation of AF performance at Ayajin harbor, east coast of Korea  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Antifouling (AF) efficiency of a nontoxic aliphatic ester, ethyl heptanoate was evaluated against spores of a fouling alga Ulva pertusa and a ship fouling diatom Amphora coffeaeformis. Based on the nontoxic AF activity exhibited in the laboratory bioassays, ... Keywords: antifouling, ethyl heptanoate, fouling resistance, hybrid controlled depletion paint (CDP), zinc pyrithione

M. Sidharthan; Sang Mok Jung; Haridatta Bhatta Rai; Ji Hyun Lee; Chi Young Lim; Young-Kyu Kang; N. S. Park; H. W. Shin

2006-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

97

Process for the extraction of strontium from acidic solutions  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The invention is a process for selectively extracting strontium values from aqueous nitric acid waste solutions containing these and other fission product values. The extractant solution is a macrocyclic polyether in an aliphatic hydrocarbon diluent containing a phase modifier. The process will selectively extract strontium values from nitric acid solutions which are up to 6 molar in nitric acid. 4 figs.

Horwitz, E.P.; Dietz, M.L.

1994-09-06T23:59:59.000Z

98

Materials science aspects of coal  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Natural organic materials are arrangements of linear aliphatic units and ring-like aromatic units arranged in a polymeric pattern. We show that fossilized organic materials such as coals and oil shale retain this polymeric character. We also show the polymeric nature of jet and amber

Charles Wert; Manfred Weller

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

99

A study of hydrocarbons associated with brines from DOE geopressured wells  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Accomplishments are summarized on the following tasks: distribution coefficients and solubilities, DOE design well sampling, analysis of well samples, review of theoretical models of geopressured reservoir hydrocarbons, monitor for aliphatic hydrocarbons, development of a ph meter probe, DOE design well scrubber analysis, removal and disposition of gas scrubber equipment at Pleasant Bayou Well, and disposition of archived brines.

Keeley, D.F.

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

100

A study of hydrocarbons associated with brines from DOE geopressured wells. Final report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Accomplishments are summarized on the following tasks: distribution coefficients and solubilities, DOE design well sampling, analysis of well samples, review of theoretical models of geopressured reservoir hydrocarbons, monitor for aliphatic hydrocarbons, development of a ph meter probe, DOE design well scrubber analysis, removal and disposition of gas scrubber equipment at Pleasant Bayou Well, and disposition of archived brines.

Keeley, D.F.

1993-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "denatured aliphatic alco" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Helsinki University of Technology Department of Mechanical Engineering Energy Engineering and Environmental Protection Publications  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

that halogen containing flame retardants are also effective in the condensed phase. [1] #12;10 Figure 1 BFR commercially, shows no perceptible flame-retardant action on its own. Together with bromine-aliphatic. There are over 40 different BFR types in commercial use but basically only a handful of those are used on a large

Zevenhoven, Ron

102

934 / JOURNAL OF ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING / OCTOBER 2000 CHLORINATED SOLVENT COMETABOLISM BY BUTANE-GROWN  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

BY BUTANE-GROWN MIXED CULTURE By Young Kim,1 Daniel J. Arp,2 and Lewis Semprini3 ABSTRACT: A survey of aerobic cometabolism of chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons by a butane-grown mixed culture was performed and was inhibited by butane and inactivated by acetylene, indicating that a monooxygenase enzyme was likely involved

Semprini, Lewis

103

Facile and Fast Pinacol Rearrangement by AlCl3 in the Solid State  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Abstract: A facile and efficient synthetic procedure for effecting the pinacol rearrangement catalyzed by AlCl3 in the absence of solvent is developed. The rearrangement product is obtained at room temperature in a few minutes and in almost quantitative yield. Benzylic pinacols rearrange under these conditions, while aliphatic pinacols do not react.

Parviz Rashidi-ranjbar; Ebrahim Kianmehr

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

104

Formation mechanism for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in methane flames  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

exhausts,7­17 coal-fired, electricity generating power plants,18,19 tobacco smoke,20 residential wood applications including heating systems and gas turbines for electric power generation.62­64 The combustion propane,57,58 butane,59 ethane,31,53,60 and other aliphatic61 flames. Methane is used as fuel in many

Sattler, Klaus

105

Performance of Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cell Based on New Polymeric Ionomers  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this paper, novel polymer electrolyte membranes (PEMs) based on new sulfonated polyimides have been prepared. These polymers have structure of rigid aromatic polymer backbone and flexible aliphatic side chain terminated with sulfonic acid group. Membrane ... Keywords: PEM fuel cell, polymer electrolyte membrane, proton conductivity, fuel cell performance

Yan Yin; Qing Du; Kenichi Okamoto

2010-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

106

Plastic Mounts  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Table 3   Typical properties of plastics suitable for metallographic mounts...metals is in the range 1â??3 Ă? 10 -5 mm/mm/°C. (c) Wood-filled grade, preferably with low filler content. (d) A liquid epoxy resin with an aliphatic amine hardener. (e) Depends on the curing schedule;

107

Table Definitions, Sources, and Explanatory Notes  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Production Production Definitions Key Terms Definition Barrel A unit of volume equal to 42 U.S. gallons. Blending Plant A facility which has no refining capability but is either capable of producing finished motor gasoline through mechanical blending or blends oxygenates with motor gasoline. Conventional Gasoline Finished motor gasoline not included in the oxygenated or reformulated gasoline categories. Excludes reformulated gasoline blendstock for oxygenate blending (RBOB) as well as other blendstock. Conventional Gasoline, Ed 55 and Lower Finished conventional motor gasoline blended with a maximum of 55 volume percent denatured fuel ethanol. Conventional Gasoline, Greater than Ed 55 Finished conventional motor gasoline blended with denatured fuel ethanol where the volume percent of denatured fuel ethanol exceeds 55%.

108

Table Definitions, Sources, and Explanatory Notes  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Blender Net Production Blender Net Production Definitions Key Terms Definition Barrel A unit of volume equal to 42 U.S. gallons. Blending Plant A facility which has no refining capability but is either capable of producing finished motor gasoline through mechanical blending or blends oxygenates with motor gasoline. Conventional Gasoline Finished motor gasoline not included in the oxygenated or reformulated gasoline categories. Excludes reformulated gasoline blendstock for oxygenate blending (RBOB) as well as other blendstock. Conventional Gasoline, Ed55 and Lower Finished conventional motor gasoline blended with a maximum of 55 volume percent denatured fuel ethanol. Conventional Gasoline, Greater than Ed55 Finished conventional motor gasoline blended with denatured fuel ethanol where the volume percent of denatured fuel ethanol exceeds 55%.

109

STARTUP AND INITIAL TESTING OF SM-1 CORE II WITH SPECIAL COMPONENTS  

SciTech Connect

The loading operation for SM-1 Core II is described. Results of startup physics measurements (Test A-300 (Series) and fission product iodine monitoring in the primary coolant are given. The SM-1 Core II initial loading progressed satisfactorily, fulfilling the predictions of the zero power experiment performed at the Alco Criticality Facility. The initial cold clean five rod bank position was 6.53 in.; the initial hot, no xenon, five rod bank position was 9.62 in.; the initial hot, equilibrium xenon, five rod bank position was 11.41 in.; and the initial hot, peak xenon, five rod bank position was 12.14 in. Rods A and B were 19.00 in. in all four measurements. Stuck rod measurements indicated that an adequate shutdown margin was available with 20% of the rods fully withdrawn. All rod calibrations indicated a distinct shift and broadening of the peaks when compared with similar Core I calibrations. The temperature coefficient for Core II was 3.5 cents/ deg F at 440 deg F. Equilibrium xenon was worth approximately - 00 while peak xenon was worth - 43, both relative to the hot, no xenon core condition. During the period June 2, 1961 through September 30, 1961, the reactor operated at a total of 935.68 deg Fdays which is equivalent to 1.34 MWYR of energy release and represents an average load factor of 44% typical of training periods. The estimated reactivity in the core at startup is .00. A core life of 12.2 MWYR is predicted for the original configuration of Core II. The results of gross fission product iodine monitoring showed that those levels were about one-third to one-half of those found at the end of Core I Operation. (auth)

Moote, F.G.; Schrader, E.W.

1962-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

110

Effect of Structural Modification on Second Harmonic Generation in Collagen  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The effects of structural perturbation on second harmonic generation in collagen were investigated. Type I collagen fascicles obtained from rat tails were structurally modified by increasing nonenzymatic cross-linking, by thermal denaturation, by collagenase digestion, or by dehydration. Changes in polarization dependence were observed in the dehydrated samples. Surprisingly, no changes in polarization dependence were observed in highly crosslinked samples, despite significant alterations in packing structure. Complete thermal denaturation and collagenase digestion produced samples with no detectable second harmonic signal. Prior to loss of signal, no change in polarization dependence was observed in partially heated or digested collagen.

Stoller, P C; Reiser, K M; Celliers, P M; Rubenchik, A M

2003-04-04T23:59:59.000Z

111

Frequency and diversity of small cryptic plasmids in the genus Rahnella  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, the membrane was pre-hybridised with Church buffer [58] containing 100 ?g/ml freshly denaturated herring sperm DNA. The probe was prepared by PCR: a 50 ?l reaction contained 1 U GoTaq (Promega, Madison, WI), 10 ?l 5× buffer containing Mg2+, 1 ng pHW4594...

Rozhon, Wilfried; Petutschnig, Elena; Khan, Mamoona; Summers, David K; Poppenberger, Brigitte

2010-02-19T23:59:59.000Z

112

Hydrogen-bond breaking by O/sub 2/ and N/sub 2/. II. Melting curves of DNA  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Evidence for hydrogen bond breaking (HBB) by O/sub 2/ and N/sub 2/ in the denaturation or melting of DNA is presented. It was found that air and oxygen significantly reduce the temperature of the DNA melting process. The possible relationship of this HBB ability of oxygen and nitrogen to phenomena observed in vivo are discussed. (ACR)

Mathers, T.L.; Schoeffler, G.; McGlynn, S.P.

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

113

Supporting Information DNA-Templated Functional Group Transformations Enable Sequence-  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Eye II densitometer (Stratagene). Denaturing PAGE analysis was performed using 15 % polyacrylamide gel Biospectrometry Workstation and processed with Voyager Data Explorer software. A mixture of nine parts was performed at 25 °C for 1 h. The reaction mixture was directly loaded onto a NAP-5 size exclusion column

Liu, David R.

114

Supplemental Materials Conservation of an RNA Regulatory Map between Drosophila and  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

with recombinant PS at room temperature for 20-30 minutes and the mixture was loaded onto 5% non-denaturing gel electrophoresis. The gel was dried and analyzed by phosphorimager and Optiquant software (Perkin Elmer, CABASE analysis details Following are descriptions of how JuncBASE analyzes alternative splicing events. All

Brenner, Steven E.

115

BioMed Central Page 1 of 11  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

actively driving the evolution of arboviruses, vector-driven selection may play an impor- tant role at -80°C before processing. Samples were thawed on ice and homoge- nized in a mixer mill (Qiagen of Taq polymerase activation at 95°C, fol- lowed by 40 cycles of PCR with 30 sec of denaturation at 95°C

116

Structure and Functionality of a Designed p53 Dimer Timothy S. Davison1  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

tumor suppressor protein involved in transcrip- tional control of genes that regulate cell proliferation, both solubility and the resistance to thermal denaturation are substantially reduced relative-tetramer''. Analysis of the in vivo activities of full-length p53 oligomeric mutants reveals that while cell

Simons, Jack

117

Thermal insulation as a source of air pollution  

SciTech Connect

Complaints about odors in buildings may be caused by penetration of moisture into mineral wool used as thermal insulation in the cavity wall or under the roof. The complaints may occur particularly during hot weather. In laboratory experiments, moist mineral wool produced the same unpleasant odor at 50{degree}C. In air samples over the moist wool, higher aliphatic aldehydes, ketones and aromatic aldehydes were detected. In air samples collected in rooms of buildings where complaints about odor had been made, higher aliphatic aldehydes (n-hexanal-n-decanal) were detected with concentrations between 1 and 50 {mu}g{center dot}m{sup {minus}3} for each of these aldehydes. Thus, the penetration of moisture into mineral wool used for thermal insulation should be avoided.

van der Wal, J.F.; Moons, A.M.M.; Steenlage, R. (TNO Division of Technology for Society, Delft (Netherlands))

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

118

Refining of fossil resin flotation concentrates from Western coal. Final fifth quarterly report, January 1, 1994--March 31, 1994  

SciTech Connect

Fossil resins occurring in the Wasatch Plateau coal field are composed mainly of aliphatic components, partially aromatized multi-cyclic terpenoids and a few oxygen functional groups (such as {minus}OH and {minus}COOH). The solvent extracted resins show the presence of a relatively large number of methyl groups when compared to the methylene groups, and this indicates the presence of extensive tertiary carbon and/or highly branching chains. In contrast coal consists primarily of aromatic ring structures, various oxygen functional groups ({minus}OH, >C=O, {minus}C{minus}O) and few aliphatic chains. The color difference observed among the four resin types is explained by the presence of chromophores (aromatized polyterpenoid) and also by the presence of finely dispersed coal particle inclusions in the resin matrix. The hexane soluble resin fraction has few aromatic compounds when compared to the hexane insoluble but toluene soluble resin fraction.

Jensen, G.F.; Miller, J.D.

1994-05-07T23:59:59.000Z

119

Thermal transformations of nitrogen and sulfur forms in peat related to coalification  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The chemical pathways for nitrogen and sulfur transformations during coalification are elucidated by comparing the chemical forms of unaltered peats, lignites, and coals and pyrolyzed peats using a combination of spectroscopic techniques in unaltered peats, the NMR and XPS spectra are consistent with the presence of amide nitrogen. The spectra indicate that a thermal transformation of amide nitrogen into pyrrolic and pyridinic forms occurs after thermal stress that is roughly equivalent to lignitification. High total nitrogen levels are found in pyrolyzed peats relative to lignites and higher-rank coals, suggesting that some amides initially found in peat are lost via nonthermal pathways during coalification. Lignites contain the highest levels of quaternary nitrogen, and they are associated with protonated pyridinic structures. Most quaternary nitrogen is formed during lignitification as a result of the creation and interaction of basic nitrogen species with acidic functionalities and is lost completely during bitumenization. Sulfur X-ray absorption near-edge structure spectroscopy (S-XANES) of unaltered peats detect the presence of disulfide, mercapto, aliphatic sulfide, and aromatic forms of organically bound sulfur. XPS and S-XANES results show that the relative level of aromatic sulfur increases as the severity of peat pyrolysis increases. The relative level of aromatic sulfur increases through the selective loss of disulfide, aliphatic sulfide, and SO{sub 3} groups and through the transformation of aliphatic sulfur forms. Aliphatic sulfur is present mostly as mercapto and disulfide species in peats and in lignites but not in higher-rank coals. These results indicate that mercapto and disulfide species are lost after lignitification. Organic sulfur in peats exist mainly as aromatic forms, consistent with the level of aromatic sulfur increasing with the increasing degree of coalification. 91 refs., 22 figs., 6 tabs.

S.R. Kelemen; M. Afeworki; M.L. Gorbaty; P.J. Kwiatek; M. Sansone; C.C. Walters; A.D. Cohen [ExxonMobil Research and Engineering Co., Annandale, NJ (United States)

2006-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

120

Scanning transmission x-ray microscopy: A new ``looking glass`` into coal chemical structure  

SciTech Connect

This paper reports the use of scanning transmission x-ray microscopy to spatially map the chemistry of aromatic and aliphatic carbon functionalities in coal to a resolution of less than 0.1 {mu}m. Localized x-ray absorption spectroscopy recorded at the carbon K absorption edge was also used to facilitate analysis of variations in fundamental chemistry at maceral interfaces and within maceral boundaries.

Botto, R.E.; Cody, G.D.

1994-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "denatured aliphatic alco" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Composition of the ozonolytic degradation products of the organic matter of Barzasskii sapromyxite coal  

SciTech Connect

The ozonization of Barzasskii sapromyxite coal in chloroform and the composition of ozonolytic degradation products were studied. Water-insoluble high-molecular-weight products were predominant among the ozonization products. A half of water-soluble substances consisted of aliphatic C{sub 5}-C{sub 12} dicarboxylic acids and benzenedicarboxylic acid derivatives. Sapromyxite has been suggested as a substitute for crude petroleum in the manufacture of motor fuels.

S.A. Semenova; Y.F.Patrakov [Russian Academy of Sciences, Kemerovo (Russian Federation). Institute of Coal and Coal Chemistry

2009-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

122

SEPARATION OF PLUTONIUM FROM ELEMENTS HAVING AN ATOMIC NUMBER NOT LESS THAN 92  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

other elements having atomic numbers nnt less than 92, It has been proposed in the past to so separate plutonium by solvent extraction iato an organic solvent using triglycoldichlcride as the organic solvent. The improvement lies in the discovery that triglycoldichloride performs far more efflciently as an extractant, wher certain second organie compounds are added to it. Mentioned as satisfactory additive compounds are benzaldehyde, saturated aliphatic aldehydes containtng at least twc carbon atoms, and certain polyhydric phenols.

Fitch, F.T.; Russell, D.S.

1958-09-16T23:59:59.000Z

123

Kinetic and inhibition studies for the aerobic cometabolism of 1,1,1-trichloroethane, 1,1-dichloroethylene, and 1,1-dichloroethane by a butane-grown mixed culture  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

,1-dichloroethylene, and 1,1-dichloroethane by a butane-grown mixed culture Kim Y, Arp DJ, Semprini L BIOTECHNOLOGY,1- dichloroethane (1,1-DCA) by a butane-grown mixed culture. These chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons (CAHs for butane (2.6 mumol/mg TSS/ h) followed by 1,1-DCE (1.3 mumol/mg TSS/h), 1,1-DCA (0.49 mumol/mg TSS

Semprini, Lewis

124

Kinetic and Inhibition Studies for the Aerobic Cometabolism of  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

,1-Dichloroethylene, and 1,1-Dichloroethane by a Butane-Grown Mixed Culture Young Kim,1 Daniel J. Arp,2 Lewis Semprini), and 1,1-dichloroethane (1,1-DCA) by a butane- grown mixed culture. These chlorinated aliphatic hydro. The highest kmax was obtained for butane (2.6 µmol/mg TSS/ h) followed by 1,1-DCE (1.3 µmol/mg TSS/h), 1,1-DCA

Semprini, Lewis

125

Impregnating magnetic components with MDA free epoxy  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper describes the use of {open_quotes}Formula 456{close_quotes} an aliphatic amine cured epoxy for impregnating coils. Methylene dianiline (MDA) has been used for more than 20 years as the curing agent for various epoxy formulations throughout the Department of Energy. Sandia National Laboratories began the process of replacing MDA with other formulations because of regulations imposed by OSHA on the use of MDA.

Sanchez, R.O. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Domeier, L. [Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States); Gunewardena, S. [Mil-Spec Magnetics, Inc., Walnut, CA (United States)

1995-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

126

Coal liquefaction process using pretreatment with a binary solvent mixture  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An improved process for thermal solvent refining or hydroliquefaction of non-anthracitic coal at elevated temperatures under hydrogen pressure in a hydrogen donor solvent comprises pretreating the coal with a binary mixture of an aromatic hydrocarbon and an aliphatic alcohol at a temperature below 300 C before the hydroliquefaction step. This treatment generally increases both conversion of coal and yields of oil. 1 fig.

Miller, R.N.

1986-10-14T23:59:59.000Z

127

Identification and characterization of conservative organic tracers for use as hydrologic tracers for the Yucca Mountain Site characterization study; Progress report, April 1, 1993--June 30, 1993  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report is in two parts one for the fluorinated benzoic acids and one for the fluorinated aliphatic acids. The assumptions made in the report regarding the amount of tracer that will be used, dilution of the tracer during the test and the length of exposure (if any) to individuals drinking the water were made by the authors. These assumptions must really come from the USGS hydrologists in charge of the c-well tracer testing program. Accurate estimates of dilution of the tracer during the test are also important because of solubility limitations of some of the tracers. Three of the difluorobenzoic acids have relatively low solubilities and may not be usable if the dilution estimates are large. The toxicologist that reviewed the document agreed with our conclusion that the fluorinated benzoic and toluic acids do not represent a health hazard if used under the conditions as outlined in the report. We are currently testing 15 of these compounds, and if even if three difluorobenzoic acids cannot be used because of solubility limitations we will still have 12 tracers. The toxicologist felt that the aliphatic fluorinated acids potentially present more of a health risk than the aromatic. This assessment was based on the fact of a known allergic response to halothane anesthetic. This risk, although minimal, is known and he felt that was enough reason to recommend against their use. The authors feel that the toxicologists interpretation of this risk was overly conservative, however, we will not go against his recommendation at this time for the following reasons. First, without the aliphatic compounds we still have 12 to 15 fluorinated aromatic acids which, should be enough for the c-well tests. Second, to get a permit to use aliphatic compounds would undoubtedly require a hearing which could be quite lengthy.

Dombrowski, T.; Stetzenbach, K.

1993-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

128

Ketone Production from the Thermal Decomposition of Carboxylate Salts  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The MixAlco process uses an anaerobic, mixed-culture fermentation to convert lignocellulosic biomass to carboxylate salts. The fermentation broth must be clarified so that only carboxylate salts, water, and minimal impurities remain. Carboxylate salts are concentrated by evaporation and thermally decomposed into ketones. The ketones can then be chemically converted to a wide variety of chemicals and fuels. The presence of excess lime in the thermal decomposition step reduced product yield. Mixtures of calcium carboxylate salts were thermally decomposed at 450 degrees C. Low lime-to-salt ratios (g Ca(OH)2/g salt) of 0.00134 and less had a negligible effect on ketone yield. In contrast, salts with higher lime-to-salt ratios of 0.00461, 0.0190, and 0.272 showed 3.5, 4.6, and 9.4% loss in ketone yield, respectively. These losses were caused primarily by increases in tars and heavy oils; however, a three-fold increase in hydrocarbon production occurred as well. To predict ketone product distribution, a random-pairing and a Gibbs free energy minimization model were applied to thermal decompositions of mixed calcium and sodium carboxylate salts. Random pairing appears to better predict ketone product composition. For sodium and calcium acetate, two types of mixed sodium carboxylate salts, and two types of mixed calcium carboxylate salts, activation energy (EA) was determined using three isoconversional methods. For each salt type, EA varied significantly with conversion. The average EA for sodium and calcium acetate was 226.65 and 556.75 kJ/mol, respectively. The average EA for the two mixed sodium carboxylate salts were 195.61, and 218.18 kJ/mol. The average EA for the two mixed calcium carboxylate salts were 232.78, and 176.55 kJ/mol. In addition, three functions of conversion were employed to see which one best modeled the experimental data. The Sestak-Berggren model was the best overall. Possible reactor designs and configurations that address the challenges associated with the continuous thermal decomposition of carboxylate salts are also presented and discussed. Methods of fermentation broth clarification were tested. Flocculation showed little improvement in broth purity. Coagulation yielded broth of 93.23% purity. Filtration using pore sizes from 1 micrometer to 240 Daltons increased broth purity (90.79 to 98.33%) with decreasing pore size.

Landoll, Michael 1984-

2012-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

129

Pilot-Scale Fermentation and Laboratory Nutrient Studies on Mixed-Acid Fermentation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Via mixed-culture fermentation, the MixAlcoTM produces carboxylic acids, which are chemically converted into industrial chemicals and hydrocarbon fuels. Using pilot fermentation data, The Continuum Particle Distribution Model (CPDM) overestimated acid concentration (30–90% error) but more closely estimated conversion (50%. To analyze fermentation data with semi-continuous streams, the Slope method calculates the average flowrate of material from the slope of the moving cumulative sum with respect to time. Although the Slope method does not significantly improve accuracy, it dramatically reduces error compared to traditional techniques (>40% vs. <2%). Nutrients are essential for microbial growth and metabolism. For a four-bottle fermentation train, five nutrient contacting patterns (single-point nutrient addition to Fermentors F1, F2, F3, F4, and multi-point parallel addition) were investigated. Compared to the traditional nutrient contacting method (all nutrients fed to F1), the near-optimal feeding strategies improved exit yield, culture yield, process yield, exit acetate-equivalent yield, conversion, and total acid productivity by approximately 31%, 39%, 46%, 31%, 100%, and 19%, respectively. To estimate nitrogen concentration profiles, a segregated-nitrogen model uses separate mass balances for solid- and liquid-phase nitrogen; the nitrogen reaction flux between phases is assumed to be zero. Using five fermentation trains, each with a different nutrient contacting pattern, the model predictions capture basic behavior; therefore, it is a reasonable tool for estimating and controlling nitrogen profiles. To determine the optimal scenario for mixed-acid fermentations, an array of batch fermentations was performed that independently varied the C/N ratio and the blend of carbohydrate (office paper) and nutrient (wet chicken manure (CM)). Reactant was defined as non-acid volatile solids (NAVS). C/N ratios were based on non-acid carbon (CNA). A blend of 93% paper and 7% wet CM (dry basis) with a C/N ratio of 37 g CNA/g N had the highest culture yield (0.21 g acidproduced/g NAVSinitial), total acid productivity (0.84 g acidproduced/(Lliq·d)), and conversion (0.43 g NAVSconsumed/g NAVSinitial).

Smith, Aaron Douglas

2011-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

130

Sugarcane juice extraction and preservation, and long-term lime pretreatment of bagasse  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

New technologies, such as an efficient vapor-compression evaporator, a stationary lime kiln (SLK), and the MixAlco process, compelled us to re-evaluate methods for producing sugar from cane. These technologies allow more water and lime to be used, and they add more value to bagasse. Extracting and preserving the sugars, and lime pretreating the bagasse to enhance biodigestibility, all at the same time in a pile, was demonstrated to be unfeasible; therefore, sugar extraction must occur before lime treating the bagasse. Sugar extraction should occur countercurrently by lixiviation, where liquid moves in stages opposite to the soaked bagasse (megasse), which is conveyed by screw-press conveyors that gently squeeze the fiber in each stage, improving extraction. The performance of a pilot-scale screw-press conveyor was tested for dewatering capabilities and power consumption. The unoptimized equipment decreased megasse moisture from 96 to 89%. Simulation of the process suggested that eight stages are necessary to achieve 98% recovery from typical sugarcane. The cumulative power for the screw-press conveyor system was 17.0±2.1 hp?h/ton dry fiber. Thin raw juice preserved with lime for several months showed no sucrose degradation and no quality deterioration, except for reducing sugar destruction. The lime loading needed for 1-year preservation is 0.20 g Ca(OH)2/g sucrose. Shorter times require less lime. After preservation, the juice was carbonated and filtered, and the resulting sludge pelletized. Due to their high organic content, the pellets were too weak for calcination temperatures used in the SLK. The organics must be decreased prior to pelletization and sodium must be supplemented as a binding agent. Long-term lime pretreatment of bagasse showed two delignification phases: bulk (rapid) and residual (slow). These were modeled by two simultaneous first-order reactions. Treatments with air purging and higher temperatures (50 ? 57oC) delignified more effectively, especially during the residual phase, thus yielding higher cellulase-enzyme digestibilities after 2 ? 8 weeks of treatment. At temperatures > 60oC, pure oxygen purging is preferred. Fresh bagasse was of better quality than old bagasse. Treatment with NaOH yielded a larger bulk delignification phase than Ca(OH)2. Long-term lime pulping of bagasse was unsuitable for copy-quality paper, but it was appropriate for strawboard and other filler applications.

Granda Cotlear, Cesar Benigno

2004-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

131

Investigations of Biomass Pretreatment and Submerged Fixed-bed Fermentation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

To improve the MixAlco process and biomass pretreatment, five studies were conducted. Three studies related to fermentation, whereas the other two investigated the effectiveness of shock tube pretreatment (STP) coupled with oxidative lime pretreatment (OLP). In the first study, the constant-selectivity assumption used in the continuum particle distribution model (CPDM) was determined to be invalid. During a 32-day batch fermentation, selectivity increased from 0.10 to 0.40 g acid/g non-acid volatile solid (NAVS) digested. Future revisions to CPDM should incorporate a non-constant selectivity term. In the second study, a revised procedure was developed to provide a more accurate determination of moisture content. Conventional drying at 105 degrees C allowed product acids to vaporize with water, which introduced errors. Using the revised procedure, calcium hydroxide or sodium hydroxide was added to samples at a concentration of 0.01 g base/g sample, which retained acids in the sample. The mass of additional retained material closely matched that of the additional retained acid. Three related studies involving biomass pretreatment were performed. In the first, recommended parameters for pretreating sugarcane bagasse with OLP and STP were determined. Recommended OLP parameters were 130 degrees C, 6.9-bar O2, and 2-h duration. The effects of solids concentration, liquid fill volume, particle size, type of shotgun shell, number of shocks, and pretreatment order were investigated. Liquid fill volume, particle size, type of shotgun shell, and pretreatment order were significant variables, whereas solids concentration and number of shocks were not. Recommended OLP parameters were used as a basis for an additional experiment. To simulate industrial-scale pile fermentation, fixed-bed batch fermentation of OLP + STP sugarcane bagasse was performed in 1-L PVC fermentors. Rubber mulch was used as a structural support material to prevent filter plugging, which had been reported in previous work. After 42 d, acid concentration reached 8 g/L with yield approximately 0.1 g acid/g NAVS fed. Poor fermentation performance was caused by short solid-liquid contact time and poor pH control. A third biomass pretreatment experiment investigated the potential of pretreated corn stover as a potential ruminant feed. Five samples (raw, OLP, STP, OLP + STP, and STP + OLP) were analyzed for composition and in vitro digestibility. STP followed by OLP increased neutral detergent fiber (NDF) digestibility from 49.3 to 79.0 g NDF digested/100 g NDF fed. On an organic matter basis, STP + OLP corn stover plus water-soluble extractives had a total digestible nutrients (TDN) of 74.9, nearly reaching corn grain at 88.1.

Meysing, Daniel

2011-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

132

Role for thorium in the nuclear world  

SciTech Connect

A high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) fuel cycle which uses thorium as the fertile material has been developed for a variety of uranium-feed enrichments. Considerable flexibility for meeting economic and political situations is possible with the use of medium-enriched uranium/thorium as the basic fresh fuel in the HTGR. The fuel options include once-through, without recycle; recycle U-233, which is either denatured or highly enriched; recycle U-233 and unburned U-235, which are denatured or highly enriched; and the long-term storage of plutonium, which is generated in the medium-enriched uranium cycle, for later use in a fast breeder or thermal reactor. The advantages of the uranium/thorium fuel cycle are good fuel-resource utilization and economic potential. Reprocessing, recycle, and shipping techniques have also been developed.

Turner, R.F.

1979-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

133

Word Pro - Untitled1  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

chemical chemical compounds composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen. The series of molecules vary in chain length and are composed of a hydrocarbon plus a hydroxyl group; CH(3)-(CH(2)) n -OH (e.g., methanol, ethanol, and tertiary butyl alcohol). See Fuel Ethanol. Alternative Fuel: Alternative fuels, for transportation applications, include the following: methanol; denatured ethanol, and other alcohols; fuel mixtures containing 85 percent or more by volume of methanol, denatured ethanol, and other alcohols with motor gasoline or other fuels; natural gas; liquefied petroleum gas (propane); hydro- gen; coal-derived liquid fuels; fuels (other than alcohol) derived from biological materials (biofuels such as soy diesel fuel); electricity (including electricity from solar

134

ENERGY POLICY ACT OF 1992.PDF  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

POLICY ACT OF 1992 POLICY ACT OF 1992 SEC. 301. DEFINITIONS. Source (http://energy.nfesc.navy.mil/law_us/92epact/hr776toc.htm) For purposes of this title, title IV, and title V (unless otherwise specified)- (1) the term "Administrator" means the Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency; (2) the term "alternative fuel" means methanol, denatured ethanol, and other alcohols; mixtures containing 5 percent or more (or such other percentage, but not less than 70 percent, as determined by the Secretary, by rule, to provide for requirements relating to cold start, safety, or vehicle functions) by volume of ethanol, denatured ethanol, and other alcohols with gasoline or other fuels; natural gas; liquefied petroleum gas; hydrogen; coal-derived liquid fuels; fuels (other than alcohol) derived from biological materials;

135

Proliferation resistant fuel for pebble bed modular reactors  

SciTech Connect

We show that it is possible to denature the Plutonium produced in Pebble Bed Modular Reactors (PBMR) by doping the nuclear fuel with either 3050 ppm of {sup 237}Np or 2100 ppm of Am vector. A correct choice of these isotopes concentration yields denatured Plutonium with isotopic ratio {sup 238}Pu/Pu {>=} 6%, for the entire fuel burnup cycle. The penalty for introducing these isotopes into the nuclear fuel is a subsequent shortening of the fuel burnup cycle, with respect to a non-doped reference fuel, by 41.2 Full Power Days (FPDs) and 19.9 FPDs, respectively, which correspond to 4070 MWd/ton and 1965 MWd/ton reduction in fuel discharge burnup. (authors)

Ronen, Y.; Aboudy, M.; Regev, D.; Gilad, E. [Dept. of Nuclear Engineering, Ben-Gurion Univ. of the Negev, Beer-Sheva 84105 (Israel)

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

136

Thorium assessment study quarterly progress report, third quarter fiscal 1977  

SciTech Connect

The objective of the program described is to contribute to the ongoing assessment of the potential role of thorium fuel cycles for alleviating safeguards concerns. Scenarios include (1) no fuel recycle permitted, (2) fuel recycle permitted only in secure regions (''energy parks'') with denatured (chemically non-separable) fuels only outside these regions, and (3) no limits on fuel recycle. A further objective is to provide nuclear mass balance data on HTGRs required by ERDA contractors for comparative cost-benefit studies.

Spiewak, I.; Bartine, D. E.; Burns, T. J.; Cleveland, J. C.; Thomas, W. E.; White, J. R.

1977-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

137

Table Definitions, Sources, and Explanatory Notes  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Net Production Net Production Definitions Key Terms Definition Barrel A unit of volume equal to 42 U.S. gallons. Conventional Gasoline Finished motor gasoline not included in the oxygenated or reformulated gasoline categories. Excludes reformulated gasoline blendstock for oxygenate blending (RBOB) as well as other blendstock. Conventional Gasoline, Ed55 and Lower Finished conventional motor gasoline blended with a maximum of 55 volume percent denatured fuel ethanol. Conventional Gasoline, Greater than Ed55 Finished conventional motor gasoline blended with denatured fuel ethanol where the volume percent of denatured fuel ethanol exceeds 55%. Distillate Fuel Oil A general classification for one of the petroleum fractions produced in conventional distillation operations. It includes diesel fuels and fuel oils. Products known as No. 1, No. 2, and No. 4 diesel fuel are used in on-highway diesel engines, such as those in trucks and automobiles, as well as off-highway engines, such as those in railroad locomotives and agricultural machinery. Products known as No. 1, No. 2, and No. 4 fuel oils are used primarily for space heating and electric power generation.

138

Incorporation of excess weapons material into the IFR fuel cycle  

SciTech Connect

The Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) provides both a diversion resistant closed fuel cycle for commercial power generation and a means of addressing safeguards concerns related to excess nuclear weapons material. Little head-end processing and handling of dismantled warhead materials is required to convert excess weapons plutonium (Pu) to IFR fuel and a modest degree of proliferation protection is available immediately by alloying weapons Pu to an IFR fuel composition. Denaturing similar to that of spent fuel is obtained by short cycle (e.g. 45 day) use in an IFR reactor, by mixing which IFR recycle fuel, or by alloying with other spent fuel constituents. Any of these permanent denaturings could be implemented as soon as an operating IFR and/or an IFR recycle capability of reasonable scale is available. The initial Pu charge generated from weapons excess Pu can then be used as a permanent denatured catalyst, enabling the IFR to efficiently and economically generate power with only a natural or depleted uranium feed. The Pu is thereafter permanently safeguarded until consumed, with essentially none going to a waste repository.

Hannum, W.H.; Wade, D.C.

1993-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

139

The folding kinetics of ribonuclease Sa and a charge-reversal variant  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The primary objective was to study the kinetics of folding of RNase Sa. Wild-type RNase Sa does not contain tryptophan. A tryptophan was substituted at residue 81 (WT*) to allow fluorescence spectroscopy to be used to monitor folding. This tryptophan mutation did not change the stability. An analysis of the folding kinetics of RNase Sa showed two folding phases, indicating the presence of an intermediate and consistent with the following mechanism: D ? I ? N. Both refolding limbs of the chevron plot (abcissa = final conc. of denaturant and ordinate = kinetic rate) had non-zero slopes suggesting that proline isomerization was not rate-limiting. The conformational stability of a charge-reversed variant, WT*(D17R), of a surface exposed residue on RNase Sa has been studied by equilibrium techniques. This mutant with a single amino acid charge reversal of a surface exposed residue resulted in decreased stability. Calculations using Coulomb?s Law suggested that favorable electrostatic interactions in the denatured state were the cause for the decreased stability for the charge-reversed variant. Folding and unfolding kinetic studies were designed and conducted to study the charge-reversal effect. Unfolding kinetics showed a 10-fold increase in the unfolding rate constant for WT*(D17R) over WT* and no difference in the rate of refolding. Kinetics experiments were also conducted at pH 3 where protonation of Asp17 (charge reversal site) would be expected to negate the observed kinetic effect. At pH 3 the kinetics of unfolding of WT* RNase Sa and the WT*(D17R) mutant were more similar. These kinetic results indicate that a single-site charge reversal lowered the free energy of the denatured state as suspected. Additionally, the results showed that the transition state was stabilized as well. These results show that a specific Coulombic interaction lowered the free energy in the denatured and transition state of the charge-reversal mutant, more than in WT*. To our knowledge, this is the first demonstration that a favorable electrostatic interaction in the denatured state ensemble has been shown to influence the unfolding kinetics of a protein.

Trefethen, Jared M.

2004-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

140

Analytical and spectroscopic characterization of humic acids extracted from sewage sludge, manure, and worm compost  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Humic acids extracted from sewage sludges, manure, and worm compost have been characterized by chemical and spectroscopic methods. Meaningful differences in the composition were revealed by FTIR, {sup 1}H, {sup 13}C NMR, and visible spectroscopies. These differences allow a differentiation among the products depending on the source from which they were obtained. Humic acid extracted from sewage sludges contains the highest percentage of aliphatic carbon, associated with polysaccharides and proteinaceous structures, and has characteristics close to those of aquatic humic acids. On the other hand, humic acids from manure and worm compost are similar to the humic acids originating from soil.

Deiana, S.; Gessa, C.; Manunza, B.; Seeber, R. (Universita di Sassari (Italy)); Rausa, R. (Eniricerche S.p.A., Milanese (Italy))

1990-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "denatured aliphatic alco" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Selective Sorbents For Purification Of Hydrocarbons  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for removing thiophene and thiophene compounds from liquid fuel includes contacting the liquid fuel with an adsorbent which preferentially adsorbs the thiophene and thiophene compounds. The adsorption takes place at a selected temperature and pressure, thereby producing a non-adsorbed component and a thiophene/thiophene compound-rich adsorbed component. The adsorbent includes either a metal or a metal ion that is adapted to form p-complexation bonds with the thiophene and/or thiophene compounds, and the preferential adsorption occurs by p-complexation. A further method includes selective removal of aromatic compounds from a mixture of aromatic and aliphatic compounds.

Yang, Ralph T. (Ann Arbor, MI); Yang, Frances H. (Ann Arbor, MI); Takahashi, Akira (Yoko-Machi, JP); Hernandez-Maldonado, Arturo J. (Ann Arbor, MI)

2006-04-18T23:59:59.000Z

142

Degradation problems with the solvent extraction organic at Roessing uranium  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Roessing Uranium Ltd recovers uranium from a low-grade ore in Namibia. Uranium is recovered and purified from an ion-exchange eluate in a solvent-extraction plant. The solvent-extraction plant uses Alamine 336 as the extractant for uranium, with isodecanol used as a phase modifier in Sasol SSX 210, an aliphatic hydrocarbon diluent. Since the plant started in the mid 1970's, there have been a few episodes where the tertiary amine has been quickly and severely degraded when the plant was operated outside certain operating parameters. The Rossing experience is discussed in more detail in this paper. (authors)

Munyungano, Brodrick [Roessing Uranium Ltd, Private Bag 5005, Swakopmund (Namibia); Feather, Angus [Cognis, P. O. Box 361, Honeydew, 2040 (South Africa); Virnig, Michael [Cognis Corporation, 2430 N. Huachuca Dr, Tucson, Az (United States)

2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

143

Anodic polymerization of vinyl ethylene carbonate in Li-Ion battery electrolyte  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A study of the anodic oxidation of vinyl ethylene carbonate (VEC) was conducted with post-mortem analysis of reaction products by ATR-FTIR and gel permeation chromatography (GPC). The half-wave potential (E1/2) for oxidation of VEC is ca. 3.6 V producing a resistive film on the electrode surface. GPC analysis of the film on a gold electrode produced by anodization of a commercial Li-ion battery electrolyte containing 2 percent VEC at 4.1 V showed the presence of a high molecular weight polymer. IR analysis indicated polycarbonate with alkyl carbonate rings linked by aliphatic methylene and methyl branches.

Chen, Guoying; Zhuang, Guorong V.; Richardson, Thomas J.; Gao, Liu; Ross Jr., Philip N.

2005-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

144

URANIUM SEPARATION PROCESS  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The separation of uranium from a mixture of uranium and thorium by organic solvent extraction from an aqueous solution is described. The uranium is separrted from an aqueous mixture of uranium and thorium nitrates 3 N in nitric acid and containing salting out agents such as ammonium nitrate, so as to bring ihe total nitrate ion concentration to a maximum of about 8 N by contacting the mixture with an immiscible aliphatic oxygen containing organic solvent such as diethyl carbinol, hexone, n-amyl acetate and the like. The uranium values may be recovered from the organic phase by back extraction with water.

Hyde, E.K.; Katzin, L.I.; Wolf, M.J.

1959-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

145

Reaction products of aquatic humic substances with chlorine. Environ. Health Perspect. 46  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A major concern of the chlorination of aquatic humic materials is the ubiquitous production of trihalomethanes. A large number of other chlorinated organic compounds, however, have been shown to be formed by chlorine's reaction with humic substances. In this study, humic material was concentrated from a coastal North Carolina lake and chlorinated at a chlorine to carbon mole ratio of 1.5 at pH 12. A high pH was necessary for complete dissolution of the humic material and for production of adequate quantities of oxidation and chlorination products for extraction, separation and mass spectrometric identification. After concentration in ether, samples were methylated, separated with a 50-m OV-17 glass capillary column or a 25 m SP-2100 fused-silica column and identified. A Hewlett-Packard 5710A gas chromatograph interfaced to a VG Micromass 7070F double-focusing mass spectrometer was used. Low resolution, accurate mass measurements were made with a combined EI-CI source. The ability to do low resolution, accurate mass measurements made possible a rapid scan function necessary for capillary column gas chromatography. Accurate mass measurements allowed increased confidence in the identification of compounds, most of which are not available as standards. The products identified in these studies were chlorinated aliphatic straight-chain acids dominated by di- and trichloroacetic acid and the chlorinated dicarboxylic acids: succinic, fumaric and maleic acids. Chlorinated and unchlorinated aliphatic mono- and dicarboxylic acids and unchlorinated polycarboxylic aromatic acids comprise the remaining bulk of the compounds identified.

J. D. Johnson; R. F. Christman; D. L. Norwood; D. S. Millington

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

146

Crosslinked Polyamide  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A crosslinked polyamide material and a process for preparing the crosslinked polyamide material are disclosed. The crosslinked polyamide material comprises a crosslinked chemical combination of (1) a polyamide of the formula: ##STR1## wherein n is between about 50 and 10,000, wherein each R is between 1 and 50 carbon atoms alone and is optionally substituted with heteroatoms, oxygen, nitrogen, sulfur, or phosphorus and combinations thereof, wherein multiple of the R are in vertically aligned spaced relationship along a backbone forming the polyamide, and wherein two or more of the R contain an amino group; and (2) a crosslinking agent containing at least two functional groups capable of reacting with the amino groups of the polyamide. In one embodiment of the invention, the crosslinking agent is an aliphatic or aromatic isocyanate compound having 2 or more --N.dbd.C.dbd.O groups. In another embodiment of the invention, the crosslinking agent is an aliphatic aldehyde or aromatic aldehyde compound having 2 or more --CHO groups. In still another embodiment of the invention, the crosslinking agent is selected from a phosphine having the general formula (A).sub.2 P(B) and mixtures thereof, wherein A is hydroxyalkyl, and B is hydroxyalkyl, alkyl, or aryl. In yet another embodiment of the invention, the crosslinking agent is selected from the group consisting of epoxy resins having more than one epoxide group per molecule.

Huang, Zhi H. (East Lansing, MI); McDonald, William F. (Utica, OH); Wright, Stacy C. (Lansing, MI); Taylor, Andrew C. (Ann Arbor, MI)

2002-06-04T23:59:59.000Z

147

Far- and mid-infrared spectroscopy of complex organic matter of astrochemical interest: coal, heavy petroleum fractions, and asphaltenes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The coexistence of a large variety of molecular species (i.e., aromatic, cycloaliphatic and aliphatic) in several astrophysical environments suggests that unidentified IR emission (UIE) occurs from small solid particles containing a mix of aromatic and aliphatic structures (e.g., coal, petroleum, etc.), renewing the astronomical interest on this type of materials. A series of heavy petroleum fractions namely DAE, RAE, BQ-1, and asphaltenes derived from BQ-1 were used together with anthracite coal and bitumen as model compounds in matching the band pattern of the emission features of proto-planetary nebulae (PPNe). All the model materials were examined in the mid-infrared (2.5-16.7 um) and for the first time in the far-infrared (16.7-200 um), and the IR bands were compared with the UIE from PPNe. The best match of the PPNe band pattern is offered by the BQ-1 heavy aromatic oil fraction and by its asphaltenes fraction. Particularly interesting is the ability of BQ-1 to match the band pattern of the aromatic-ali...

Cataldo, F; Manchado, A

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

148

Liquid fuels production from biomass. Progress report No. 6, 1 October-31 December 1978  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The current program to convert biomass into liquid hydrocarbon fuels is an extension of the previous program to ferment marine algae to acetic acid. In that study, it was found that marine algae could be converted to higher aliphatic organic acids and that these acids could be readily removed from the fermentation both by membrane or liquid-liquid extraction. It was then proposed to convert these higher organic acids to aliphatic hydrocarbons via Kolbe Electrolysis, which may be used as a diesel fuel. The specific goals for the current program are: (1) establish conditions under which substrates other than marine algae may be converted in good yield to organic acids. The primary task in this regard is methane suppression; (2) modify the current 300 liter fixed packed bed batch fermenter to operate in a continuous mode; (3) change from membrane extraction of organic acids to liquid-liquid extraction; (4) optimize the energy balance of the electrolytic oxidation process. The primary task in this regard is to reduce the working potential required for the electrolysis while maintaining an adequate current density; and (5) scale the entire process up to match the output of the 300 liter fermenter. The accomplishments in this program are on schedule. Experimental results show that the electrolysis of organic acids produced by fermentation to liquid hydrocarbon fuels already have a favorable energy balance of 6/1 based on the applied potential and over 10/1 based on the working potential.

Sanderson, J.E.; Wise, D.L.

1978-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

149

Evaluation of DD and DT fusion fuel cycles for different fusion-fission energy systems  

SciTech Connect

A study has been carried out in order to investigate the characteristics of an energy system to produce a new source of fissile fuel for existing fission reactors. The denatured fuel cycles were used because it gives additional proliferation resistance compared to other fuel cycles. DT and DD fusion drivers were examined in this study with a thorium or uranium blanket for each fusion driver. Various fuel cycles were studied for light-water and heavy-water reactors. The cost of electricity for each energy system was calculated.

Gohar, Y.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

150

UNDERSTANDING FORCES THAT CONTRIBUTE TO PROTEIN STABILITY: APPLICATION FOR INCREASING PROTEIN STABILITY  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The aim of this study is to further our understanding of the forces that contribute to protein stability and to investigate how site-directed mutagenesis might be used for increasing protein stability. Eleven proteins ranging from 36 to 370 residues have been studied here. A 36-residue VHP and a 337-residue VlsE were used as model systems for studying the contribution of the hydrophobic effect on protein stability. Mutations were made in both proteins which replaced bulky hydrophobic side chains with smaller ones. All variants were less stable than their wild-type proteins. For VHP, the destabilizing effects of mutations were smaller when compared with similar mutations reported in the literature. For VlsE, a similarity was observed. This different behavior was investigated and reconciled by the difference in hydrophobicity and cavity modeling for both proteins. Therefore, the stabilizing mechanism of the hydrophobic effect appears to be similar for both proteins. Eight proteins were used as model systems for studying the effects of mutating non-proline and non-glycine residues to statistically favored proline and glycine residues in ?-turns. The results suggest that proline mutations generally increase protein stability, provided that the replaced residues are solvent exposed. The glycine mutations, however, only have a stabilizing effect when the wild-type residues have ?, ? angles in the L? region of Ramachandran plot. Nevertheless, this strategy still proves to be a simple and efficient way for increasing protein stability. Finally, using a combination of eight previously identified stabilizing mutations; we successfully designed two RNase Sa variants (7S, 8S) that have both much higher Tms and conformational stabilities than wild-type protein over the entire pH range studied. Further studies of the heat capacity change upon unfolding (?Cps) for both proteins and their variants suggest that residual structure may exist in the denatured state of the 8S variant. An analysis of stability curves for both variants suggests that they achieve their stabilization through different mechanisms, partly attributed to the different role of their denatured states. The 7S variants may have a more rigid denatured state and the 8S variant may have a compact denatured state in comparison with that of wild-type RNase Sa.

Fu, Hailong

2009-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

151

Published: June 17, 2011 r 2011 American Chemical Society 9040 dx.doi.org/10.1021/jp201402h |J. Phys. Chem. B 2011, 115, 90409049  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. 2004, 2006). Buffers SDS-buffer: 5 % (w/v) SDS, 0.025 % (w/v) NaN3, 50 mM sodium phosphate, pH 7.0 SDS1 by incubating PM (1 g L-1 ) in SDS1-buffer for 2 h at room temperature in the dark. A solution of A8(a.u.)absorbance(a.u.) a b Fig. 3 Renaturation by dialysis. PM was denatured in 2.5 % SDS (SDS1/buffer). BO/SDS samples (1 g

Biswas, Ranjit

152

Neutronics and safety characteristics of a 100% MOX fueled PWR using weapons grade plutonium  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Preliminary neutronics and safety studies, pertaining to the feasibility of using 100% weapons grade mixed-oxide (MOX) fuel in an advanced PWR Westinghouse design are presented in this paper. The preliminary results include information on boron concentration, power distribution, reactivity coefficients and xenon and control rode worth for the initial and the equilibrium cycle. Important safety issues related to rod ejection and steam line break accidents and shutdown margin requirements are also discussed. No significant change from the commercial design is needed to denature weapons-grade plutonium under the current safety and licensing criteria.

Biswas, D.; Rathbun, R.; Lee, Si Young [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States); Rosenthal, P. [Westinghouse Electric Corp., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

153

Highly thermostable fluorescent proteins  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Thermostable fluorescent proteins (TSFPs), methods for generating these and other stability-enhanced proteins, polynucleotides encoding such proteins, and assays and method for using the TSFPs and TSFP-encoding nucleic acid molecules are provided. The TSFPs of the invention show extremely enhanced levels of stability and thermotolerance. In one case, for example, a TSFP of the invention is so stable it can be heated to 99.degree. C. for short periods of time without denaturing, and retains 85% of its fluorescence when heated to 80.degree. C. for several minutes. The invention also provides a method for generating stability-enhanced variants of a protein, including but not limited to fluorescent proteins.

Bradbury, Andrew M. (Santa Fe, NM); Waldo, Geoffrey S. (Santa Fe, NM); Kiss, Csaba (Los Alamos, NM)

2011-03-22T23:59:59.000Z

154

Expression microarray reproducibility is improved by optimising purification steps in RNA amplification and labelling  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of deionised formamide, and 1 µl of Poly-dA (10 µg/µl, Amersham Biosciences) were added. After mixing, the samples were denatured at 92°C for 2 min and centrifuged at 12,000 g for 5 min. Slides were placed in Glass Array Hybridisation Cassettes (Ambion... genomics. Nucleic Acids Res 2003, 31:38-42. 16. Stajich JE, Block D, Boulez K, Brenner SE, Chervitz SA, Dagdigian C, Fuellen G, Gilbert JGR, Kork I, Lapp H et al.: The Bioperl Toolkit: Perl modules for the life sciences. Genome Res 2002, 12:1161-8. 17...

Naderi, Ali; Ahmed, Ahmed A; Barosa-Morais, Nuno L; Aparicio, Samuel; Brenton, James D; Caldas, Carlos

2004-01-30T23:59:59.000Z

155

The effect of bioremediation on microbial populations in an oil-contaminated coastal wetland  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A series of controlled, crude oil applications was carried out in a Texas coastal wetland near the Houston Ship Channel to determine the effectiveness of bioremediation in these sensitive areas. The first application, conducted in 1996, was performed to assess the use of diammonium phosphate and diammonium phosphate plus nitrate (potential electron acceptor) as treatments to stimulate microbial growth and hydrocarbon degradation. The second application, conducted in 1997, was performed to determine the potential of two commercial bioaugmentation products to supplement native microbial populations and enhance hydrocarbon biodegradation. Diammonium phosphate was also re-evaluated during this phase as a biostimulation treatment. For each application, 2 1 test plots were used and data from bioremediation treatment plots were compared to oiled control plots to assess treatment differences. Sediment samples from each phase of research (each application) were analyzed for petroleum hydrocarbon concentrations, microbial numbers, nutrient levels, and acute toxicity. Only data from the microbial enumerations are presented here. For both applications, sediment samples from all oiled test plots showed exponential increases in the numbers of aliphatic hydrocarbon and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-degrading microorganisms. These increases were observed at 0-5 cm and 5- 10 cm depths. For the first application, the average numbers of aliphatic-degrading and PAH-degrading microorganisms on nutrient amended plots were slightly higher, though not significantly higher, than populations on oiled control plots on most sample days. Total heterotroph numbers increased slightly following the oil application and were slightly higher on nutrient-amended plots. The numbers of hydrocarbon degraders and total heterotrophs returned to near pre-application levels by the end of the monitoring period. The bin/augmentation products examined during the second application did not significantly increase the numbers of hydrocarbon-degrading microorganisms (aliphatic-degrading or PAH- degrading) on any sample day. The microbial dynamics from both phases of research illustrated a well-documented response to a petroleum hydrocarbon input. Overall, the bioremediation treatments examined in both phases of research did not appear to have a significant impact on the numbers of hydrocarbon degraders or total heterotrophs.

Townsend, Richard Todd

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

156

Hard boiling eggs  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Hard boiling eggs Hard boiling eggs Name: Sandburg J High Age: N/A Location: N/A Country: N/A Date: N/A Question: We have been studying chemical and physical changes in 6th grade science class and we were wondering whether hard boiling an egg would be a chemical or a physical change? Thanks for a reply! Replies: You decide. Here's what's going on: the proteins in the fresh egg are in the shape of tight little balls. When you boil the egg, these proteins unravel ("denature"), like balls of yarn unraveling into loose skeins. The strands of protein then get all tangled up with one another, so much so that they are locked in place and can no longer move. They also lock into place the other liquid components of the egg, forming all together what's called a "gel" instead of the liquid you started off with. The gel acts like a soft, rubbery solid because of the network of protein strands holding it all together. It's certainly true that when the protein denatures some chemical bonds are broken, but the most important effect is the tangling up process.

157

Railroad accident report: Head-on collision between Iowa Interstate Railroad Extra 470 West and Extra 406 East with release of hazardous materials near Altoona, Iowa, on July 30, 1988. Irregular report  

SciTech Connect

About 11:40 a.m. central daylight saving time on July 30, 1988, Iowa Interstate Railroad Ltd. (IAIS) freight trains Extra 470 West and Extra 406 East collided head on within the yard limits of Altoona, Iowa, about 10 miles east of Des Moines, Iowa. All 5 locomotive units from both trains; 11 cars of Extra 406 East; and 3 cars, including two tank cars containing denatured alcohol, of Extra 470 West derailed. The denatured alcohol, which was released through the pressure relief valves and the manway domes of the two derailed tank cars, was ignited by the fire resulting from the collision of the locomotives. Both crew members of Extra 470 West were fatally injured; the two crew members of Extra 406 East were only slightly injured. The estimated damage (including lading) as a result of this accident exceeded $1 million. The major safety issues in the accident include operational methods employed by the IAIS, training and selection of train and engine personnel, supervisory oversight by the IAIS, design of closure fittings on hazardous materials rail tanks, and oversight of regional railroads by the Federal Railroad Administration.

Not Available

1989-07-06T23:59:59.000Z

158

Ethanol fuel modification for highway vehicle use. Final report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A number of problems that might occur if ethanol were used as a blending stock or replacement for gasoline in present cars are identified and characterized as to the probability of occurrence. The severity of their consequences is contrasted to those found with methanol in a previous contract study. Possibilities for correcting several problems are reported. Some problems are responsive to fuel modifications but others require or are better dealt with by modification of vehicles and the bulk fuel distribution system. In general, problems with ethanol in blends with gasoline were found to be less severe than those with methanol. Phase separation on exposure to water appears to be the major problem with ethanol/gasoline blends. Another potentially serious problem with blends is the illict recovery of ethanol for beverage usage, or bootlegging, which might be discouraged by the use of select denaturants. Ethanol blends have somewhat greater tendency to vapor lock than base gasoline but less than methanol blends. Gasoline engines would require modification to operate on fuels consisting mostly of ethanol. If such modifications were made, cold starting would still be a major problem, more difficult with ethanol than methanol. Startability can be provided by adding gasoline or light hydrocarbons. Addition of gasoline also reduces the explosibility of ethanol vapor and furthermore acts as denaturant.

Not Available

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

159

17048 Biochemistry 1998, 37, 17048-17053 Sugar-Induced Molten-Globule Model †  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

ABSTRACT: Proteins denature at low pH because of intramolecular electrostatic repulsions. The addition of salt partially overcomes this repulsion for some proteins, yielding a collapsed conformation called the A-state. A-states have characteristics expected for the molten globule, a notional kinetic protein folding intermediate. Here we show that the addition of neutral sugars to solutions of acid-denatured equine ferricytochrome c induces formation of the A-state in the absence of added salt. We characterized the structure and stability of the sugar-induced A-state with circular dichroism spectropolarimetry (CD) and NMR-monitored hydrogen-deuterium exchange experiments. We also examined the stability of the sugarinduced A-state as a function of sugar size and concentration. The results are interpreted using several models and we conclude that the stabilizing effect is consistent with increased steric repulsion between the protein and the sugar solutions. Structural and stability studies of molten globule-like states have been instrumental in expanding our knowledge of protein folding. Molten globules, notional kinetic folding intermediates, are compact and possess nativelike secondary structure and some native tertiary contacts (1-3). An

Paula R. Davis-searles; Artemiza S. Morar; Aleister J. Saunders; Dorothy A. Erie; Gary J. Pielak

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

160

STATEMENT OF CONSIDERATIONS REQUEST BY GENERAL ELECTRIC COMPANY FOR AN ADVANCE WAIVER  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

U.S. AND FOREIGN RIGHTS UNDER CONTRACT NO. DE-FC36-95GO10099 U.S. AND FOREIGN RIGHTS UNDER CONTRACT NO. DE-FC36-95GO10099 WAIVER NO. W(A)-96-015, CH0907. The attached petition by General Electric Corporation (hereafter GE) is for an advance waiver of patent rights under Contract No. DE-FC36-95GO10099. GE requests that the Department of Energy grant an advance waiver for the domestic and foreign rights to inventions made in the performance of work under the above identified contract and in particular, for materials and processes for the production of long-chain aliphatic dicarboxylic acids (diacids) and in applications of diacids in polymeric materials. Further, that these rights vest in GE subject to the standard Advance Waiver Patent Rights Clause with the enclosed U.S. Competitiveness paragraph as previously agreed to. Additionally, GE has accepted the standard

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "denatured aliphatic alco" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

(Enhydm Lutris) Collected Following the Exron Vuldez Oil Spill Marine Mammal Study 6-16 Final Report  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

part of the Natural Resource Damaxe Assessment (NRDA). The study had a broad scope, involving more than 20 scientists over a three year period. Final results are presented in a series of 19 reports that address the various project components. Abstract: Ten moderately to heavily oiled sea otters were collected in Prince William Sound early during the Enon Valdez oil spill and up to seven tissues from each were analyzed for hydrocarbons. All of the animals had gross pathological lesions consistent with exposure to crude oil as an ultimate cause of death. Aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons were detected in all tissues. The alkane series C20 through C30 frequently was observed at relatively high concentrations in all tissue types, as were the aromatic compounds naphthalene, its alkylated

Brenda E. Ballachey; U. S. Fish; Wildlife Service; Kimberly A. Kloecker; Brenda E. Ballachey; U. S. Fish; Wildlife Service; Kimberly A. Kloecker

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

162

The Risk Assessment Information System  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Condensed Toxicity Summary for TETRACHLOROETHYLENE Condensed Toxicity Summary for TETRACHLOROETHYLENE NOTE: Although the toxicity values presented in these toxicity profiles were correct at the time they were produced, these values are subject to change. Users should always refer to the Toxicity Value Database for the current toxicity values. MARCH 1993 Prepared by: Mary Lou Daugherty, M.S., Chemical Hazard Evaluation Group, Biomedical Environmental Information Analysis Section, Health and Safety Research Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory*, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Prepared for: Oak Ridge Reservation Environmental Restoration Program. *Managed by Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., for the U.S. Department of Energy under Contract No. DE-AC05-84OR21400. Tetrachloroethylene (CAS No. 127-18-4) is a halogenated aliphatic

163

Tracking the Origins of Fossil Fuels | Advanced Photon Source  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Tailoring the Properties of Magnetic Nanostructures Tailoring the Properties of Magnetic Nanostructures X-ray Holograms Expose Secret Magnetism How Dissolved Metal Ions Interact in Solution One Giant Leap for Radiation Biology? What's in the Cage Matters in Iron Antimonide Thermoelectric Materials Science Highlights Archives: 2013 | 2012 | 2011 | 2010 2009 | 2008 | 2007 | 2006 2005 | 2004 | 2003 | 2002 2001 | 2000 | 1998 | Subscribe to APS Science Highlights rss feed Tracking the Origins of Fossil Fuels MAY 29, 2007 Bookmark and Share S-XANES absorbance and third derivative absorbance edge spectra of Duvernay (A) Type II kerogen and the results of curve fits using spectra from model compounds. Notice that sharp features appear in the thrid derivative spectrum that are easily associated with FeS2, aliphatic sulfur and

164

THE POTENTIAL OF RECLAIMED LANDS TO SEQUESTER CARBON AND MITIGATE THE GREENHOUSE EFFECT  

SciTech Connect

Reclaimed mine lands have the potential to sequester carbon. The use of amendments to increase fertility and overall soil quality is encouraging. Waste amendments such as sewage sludge and clarifier sludge, as well as commercial compost were tested to determine their effects on carbon sequestration and humic acid formation in reclaimed mine lands. Sewage sludge and clarifier sludge have the potential to work as reclaimed mine lands amendments. C:N ratios need to be understood to determine probability of nutrient leaching and water contamination. Microbial activity on the humic acid fraction of sludge is directed toward the readily degradable constituents containing single chain functional groups. This finding indicate that amendments with lower molecular constituents such as aliphatic compounds are more amenable to microbial degradation, therefore serves as better nutrient sources to enhance the formation of vegetation in mine lands and leads to more efficient carbon sequestration.

Terry Brown; Song Jin

2006-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

165

Spin-mapping of coal structures with ESE and ENDOR. First quarterly report  

SciTech Connect

Nondestructive chemical and physical characterization of whole Illinois coal and separated macerals, both before and after treatment by various desulfurization techniques is being performed using new electron magnetic resonance methods. The chemical structures of sulfur and non-sulfur containing organic species are being measured by the technique of HYPERFINE FINGERPRINT SPECTROSCOPY. Data on hyperfine couplings in a separated vitrinite maceral suggest the presence of small, condensed ring aromatic species, which may be linked by aliphatic bridging groups. Results from multi-frequency EPR experiments performed at X-, Q- and W-bands show slightly anisotropic spectra which have been analyzed by theoretical techniques developed in this laboratory. Analysis of the spectra reveals a nearly axial g-matrix, which agrees well with a model of planar conjugated aromatic species. The W-band data represents the first such experiments performed on coal and separated macerals.

Belford, R.L.; Clarkson, R.B.

1988-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

166

Hydrocarbons associated with brines from geopressured wells  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The purpose of this research is to determine the concentration of the cryocondensates in fluids of the various USDOE Geopressured wells as a function of production volume, to correlate the production of these compounds with reservoir and well production characteristics, to precisely measure solubilities of cryocondensates components in water and sodium chloride solutions (brines) as a function of ionic strength and temperature and the component's distribution coefficients between these solutions and oil, to develop models of the reservoir which are consistent with the data obtained, to monitor the wells for the production of aliphatic oils and relate any such production with the data obtained, and to develop a harsh environment pH probe for use in well brines. Results are summarized.

Not Available

1991-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

167

Hydrocarbons associated with brines from geopressured wells. Fourth quarterly technical progress report, 1 October 1990--30 December 1990  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The purpose of this research is to determine the concentration of the cryocondensates in fluids of the various USDOE Geopressured wells as a function of production volume, to correlate the production of these compounds with reservoir and well production characteristics, to precisely measure solubilities of cryocondensates components in water and sodium chloride solutions (brines) as a function of ionic strength and temperature and the component`s distribution coefficients between these solutions and oil, to develop models of the reservoir which are consistent with the data obtained, to monitor the wells for the production of aliphatic oils and relate any such production with the data obtained, and to develop a harsh environment pH probe for use in well brines. Results are summarized.

Not Available

1991-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

168

Demonstration of a TODGA/TBP process for recovery of trivalent actinides and lanthanides from a PUREX raffinate  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The efficiency of the partitioning of trivalent actinides from a PUREX raffinate has been demonstrated with a TODGA + TBP extractant mixture dissolved in an industrial aliphatic solvent TPH. Based on the results coming from cold and hot batch extraction studies and with the aid of computer code calculations a continuous counter current process have been developed and two flowsheets were tested using miniature centrifugal contactors. The feed solutions was a synthetic PUREX raffinate, spiked with {sup 241}Am, {sup 244}Cm, {sup 252}Cf, {sup 152}Eu and {sup 134}Cs. More than 99.9 % of the trivalent actinides and lanthanides were extracted and back-extracted and very high decontamination factors to most fission products were obtained. Co-extraction of zirconium, molybdenum and palladium was prevented using oxalic acid and HEDTA. However 10% of ruthenium was extracted and only 3 % could be back extracted using diluted nitric acid. (authors)

Modolo, G.; Asp, H.; Vijgen, H. [Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH, Institut fuer Energieforschung, 52425 Juelich (Germany); Malmbeck, R.; Magnusson, D. [European Commission, JRC, Institute for Transuranium Elements - ITU, 76125 Karlsruhe (Germany); Sorel, C. [Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique Valrho - CEA, DRCP/SCPS, BP17171, 30207 Bagnols-sur-Ceze (France)

2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

169

Nonhazardous solvent composition and method for cleaning metal surfaces  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A solvent composition for displacing greasy and oily contaminants as well as water and/or aqueous residue from metallic surfaces, especially surfaces of radioactive materials so that such surfaces can be wiped clean of the displaced contaminants, water and/or aqueous residue. The solvent composition consists essentially of a blend of nonpolar aliphatic hydrocarbon solvent having a minimum flash point of about 140 F and 2 to 25 volume percent of a polar solvent having a flash point sufficiently high so as to provide the solvent composition with a minimum flash point of at least 140 F. The solvent composition is nonhazardous so that when it is used to clean the surfaces of radioactive materials the waste in the form of paper or cloth wipes, lab coats and the like used in the cleaning operation is not considered to be mixed waste composed of a hazardous solvent and a radioactive material.

Googin, J.M.; Simandl, R.F.; Thompson, L.M.

1993-05-04T23:59:59.000Z

170

Characteristics of pyrobitumen and oil obtained from the pyrolysis of Tipton member Green River oil shale  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The pyrobitumens and oils produced from the Green River oil shale at 375, 400 and 425{degree}C for various reaction times were characterized to obtain information for kerogen decomposition models. The atomic H/C ratio of pyrobitumen decreased with increasing reaction temperature and time. The average molecular weight of pyrobitumen increased with reaction temperature and time, reached a maximum at each temperature, and then decreased. The pyrobitumens contained an extremely high amount of polar materials; the variations of polar materials, nitrogen contents of pyrobitumen, and pyrobitumen amounts followed the same pattern, suggesting that the nitrogen functional groups play an important role during kerogen decomposition. In contrast, the oils contained much lower amounts of polars and had a constant atomic H/C ratio of 1.70 and an average molecular weight of about 270. Most of the aliphatic hydrocarbons occurred in the oil rather than pyrobitumen after the oil shale pyrolysis.

Chong, S.L.; Miknis, F.P. (Western Research Institute, Laramie, WY (USA)); Zhao, X. (Daqing Petroleum Institute, Heilongjiang (China)); Holmes, S. (Shell Development Co., Houston, TX (USA))

1989-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

171

Substantially isotactic, linear, alternating copolymers of carbon monoxide and an olefin  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The compound, [Pd(Me-DUPHOS)(MeCN){sub 2}](BF{sub 4}){sub 2}, [Me-DUPHOS: 1,2-bis(2,5-dimethylphospholano)benzene] is an effective catalyst for the highly enantioselective, alternating copolymerization of olefins, such as aliphatic {alpha}-olefins, with carbon monoxide to form optically active, isotactic polymers which can serve as excellent starting materials for the synthesis of other classes of chiral polymers. For example, the complete reduction of a propylene-carbon monoxide copolymer resulted in the formation of a novel, optically active poly(1,4-alcohol). Also, the previously described catalyst is a catalyst for the novel alternating isomerization cooligomerization of 2-butene with carbon monoxide to form optically active, isotactic poly(1,5-ketone).

Sen, A.; Jiang, Z.

1996-05-28T23:59:59.000Z

172

Substantially isotactic, linear, alternating copolymers of carbon monoxide and an olefin  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The compound, [Pd(Me-DUPHOS)(MeCN).sub.2 ](BF.sub.4).sub.2, [Me-DUPHOS: 1,2-bis(2,5-dimethylphospholano)benzene] is an effective catalyst for the highly enantioselective, alternating copolymerization of olefins, such as aliphatic .alpha.-olefins, with carbon monoxide to form optically active, isotactic polymers which can serve as excellent starting materials for the synthesis of other classes of chiral polymers. For example, the complete reduction of a propylene-carbon monoxide copolymer resulted in the formation of a novel, optically active poly(1,4-alcohol). Also, the previously described catalyst is a catalyst for the novel alternating isomerization cooligomerization of 2-butene with carbon monoxide to form optically active, isotactic poly(1,5-ketone)

Sen, Ayusman (State College, PA); Jiang, Zhaozhong (State College, PA)

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

173

Complete genome sequence of Dehalogenimonas lykanthroporepellens type strain (BL-DC-9T) and comparison to Dehalococcoides strains  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Dehalogenimonas lykanthroporepellens is the type species of the genus Dehalogenimonas, which belongs to a deeply branching lineage within the phylum Chloroflexi. This strictly anaerobic, mesophilic, non spore forming, Gram negative staining bacterium was first isolated from chlorinated solvent contaminated groundwater at a Superfund site located near Baton Rouge, Louisiana, USA. D. lykanthroporepellens was of interest for genome sequencing for two reasons: (a) its unusual ability to couple growth with reductive dechlorination of environmentally important polychlorinated aliphatic alkanes and (b) its phylogenetic position distant from previously sequenced bacteria. The 1,686,510 bp circular chromosome of strain BL-DC-9{sup T} contains 1,720 predicted protein coding genes, 47 tRNA genes, a single large subunit rRNA (23S-5S) locus, and a single, orphan, small unit rRNA (16S) locus.

Siddaramappa, Shivakumara [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Delano, Susana [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Green, Lance D. [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Daligault, Hajnalka E. [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Bruce, David [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Detter, J. Chris [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Tapia, Roxanne [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Han, Cliff [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Goodwin, Lynne A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Han, James [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Woyke, Tanja [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Pitluck, Sam [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Pennacchio, Len [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Nolan, Matt [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Land, Miriam L [ORNL; Chang, Yun-Juan [ORNL; Kyrpides, Nikos C [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Ovchinnikova, Galina [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Hauser, Loren John [ORNL; Lapidus, Alla L. [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Yan, Jun [Louisiana State University; Bowman, Kimberly [Louisiana State University; Da Costa, Milton S, [University of Coimbra, Coimbra Portugal; Rainey, Fred A. [University of Alaska; Moe, William M. [Louisiana State University

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

174

Reactor and method for hydrocracking carbonaceous material  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Solid, carbonaceous material is cracked in the presence of hydrogen or other reducing gas to provide aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons of lower molecular weight for gaseous and liquid fuels. The carbonaceous material, such as coal, is entrained as finely divided particles in a flow of reducing gas and preheated to near the decomposition temperature of the high molecular weight polymers. Within the reactor, small quantities of oxygen containing gas are injected at a plurality of discrete points to burn corresponding amounts of the hydrogen or other fuel and elevate the mixture to high temperatures sufficient to decompose the high molecular weight, carbonaceous solids. Turbulent mixing at each injection point rapidly quenches the material to a more moderate bulk temperature. Additional quenching after the final injection point can be performed by direct contact with quench gas or oil. The reactions are carried out in the presence of a hydrogen-containing reducing gas at moderate to high pressure which stabilizes the products.

Duncan, Dennis A. (Downers Grove, IL); Beeson, Justin L. (Clarendon Hills, IL); Oberle, R. Donald (Hammond, IN); Dirksen, Henry A. (Harvey, IL)

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

175

Azacoumarin dye lasers  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A dye laser comprising a laser dye solution of a compound having the general structure: ##STR1## wherein at least one of the 5, 6 and 8 ring positions is occupied by a nitrogen atom in lieu of the corresponding CR group and X is OH, alkoxy, or amino including amino substituted by at least one of the following: alkyl, aryl, acyl, aracyl, a group which taken together with the nitrogen atom of the amino group forms a heterocyclic ring, or part of one or two 5 or 6 membered aliphatic heterocyclic rings attached to ring A at positions 6 or 8 or both depending on where the N in ring A is located. R.sub.3, R.sub.4, R.sub.5, R.sub.6 and R.sub.8 are hydrogen or other groups as defined below. The compounds lase in the blue-green to near ultraviolet region.

Hammond, Peter R. (Livermore, CA); Atkins, Ronald L. (Ridgecrest, CA); Henry, Ronald A. (China Lake, CA); Fletcher, Aaron N. (Ridgecrest, CA)

1978-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

176

Azaquinolone dye lasers  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A dye laser comprising a laser dye solution of a compound having the general structure: ##STR1## wherein at least one of the 5, 6 and 8 ring positions is occupied by a nitrogen atom in lieu of the corresponding CR group and X is OH, alkoxy, or amino including amino substituted by at least one of the following: alkyl, aryl, acyl, aracyl, a group which taken together with the nitrogen atom of the amino group forms a heterocyclic ring, or part of one or two 5 or 6 membered aliphatic heterocyclic rings attached to ring A at positions 6 or 8 or both depending on where the N in ring A is located. R.sub.1, R.sub.3, R.sub.4, R.sub.5, R.sub.6 and R.sub.8 are hydrogen or other groups as defined below. The compounds lase in the blue to near ultraviolet region.

Hammond, Peter R. (Livermore, CA); Atkins, Ronald L. (Ridgecrest, CA); Henry, Ronald A. (China Lake, CA); Fletcher, Aaron N. (Ridgecrest, CA)

1978-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

177

Method and apparatus for synthesizing hydrocarbons  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method and apparatus for synthesizing a mixture of aliphatic alcohols having five carbons or less is disclosed. An equal molar ratio of CO and H/sub 2/ gases is caused to pass through a ThO/sub 2/ catalyst having a surface area of about 80 to 125 m/sup 2//g. The catalyst further optionally includes Na ions present as substitutional cations in an amount of about 5 to 10 atom %. At a temperature of about 570 to 630/sup 0/K, and at pressures of about 20 to 50 atm, methanol and isobutanol are the predominant products and are produced in amounts of about 90 wt % of the total hydrocarbon mixture. 6 figs.

Colmenares, C.A.; Somorjai, G.A.; Maj, J.J.

1985-04-16T23:59:59.000Z

178

FERRATES: SYNTHESIS, PROPERTIES AND APPLICATIONS IN WATER AND WASTEWATER TREATMENT.  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The higher oxidation states of iron (Fe(VI) and Fe(V) in particular) have been shown to be strongly oxidizing in enzymatic systems, where they can carry out aliphatic hydrogen abstraction. In addition, they have been postulated as intermediates in Fenton-type systems. Fe(VI) itself is relatively stable and has been shown to have potential as an oxidant in the so-called ''green'' treatment of polluted waters. By contrast, Fe(V) is a relatively short-lived transient when produced in aqueous solution in the absence of strongly bonding ligands other than hydroxide, a feature that has limited studies of its reactivity. Fe(VI) has been proposed to be useful in battery design and a very interesting study suggested that ferrate may be able to oxidize insoluble chromium to chromate and thus serve to remove chromium contamination in the Hanford radioactive waste tanks.

CABELLI, D.E.; SHARMA, V.K.

2006-05-19T23:59:59.000Z

179

Theory and modeling in combustion chemistry  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This paper discusses four important problems in combustion chemistry. In each case, resolution of the problem focuses on a single elementary reaction. Theoretical analysis of this reaction is discussed in some depth, with emphasis on its unusual features. The four combustion problems and their elementary reactions are: (1) Burning velocities, extinction limits, and flammability limits: H+O{sub 2}{leftrightarrow}OH+O, (2) Prompt NO: CH+N{sub 2}{leftrightarrow}HCN+N, (3) the Thermal De-NO{sub x} Process: NH{sub 2}+NO{leftrightarrow}products, and (4) ``Ring`` formation in flames of aliphatic fuels and the importance of resonantly stabilized free radicals: C{sub 3}H{sub 3}{leftrightarrow}products.

Miller, J.A.

1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

180

Novel sulfonate containing ET based synmetals.  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Electrocrystallization of ET in the presence of aromatic and aliphatic sulfonate anions has led to many new ET salts. These new ET based sulfonate complexes are characterized with use of x-ray diffraction, four-probe conductivity measurements, ESR and Raman spectroscopes. A new {kappa}(4x4) donor packing motif was observed in (ET){sub 2}(C{sub 6}H{sub 5}CH{sub 2}SO{sub 3})H{sub 2}O. Strong hydrogen bonding between the sulfonate anion S-O and the donor ethylene C-H provides the driving force for the ET salt formation. Many of these new sulfonate salts are highly conductive with some remaining metallic to {approximately}4 K.

Wang, H. H.

1998-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "denatured aliphatic alco" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

N,N'-DICYCLOHEXYL-N"-ISOTRIDECYLGUANIDINE AS SUPPRESSOR FOR THE NEXT GENERATION CAUSTIC SIDE SOLVENT EXTRACTION (NG-CSSX) PROCESS  

SciTech Connect

ABSTRACT The purity, concentration, and source of the N,N'-dicyclohexyl-N"-isotridecylguanidine (DCiTG) suppressor (guanidine) used in the NG-CSSX process were found to influence solvent performance. As the starting isotridecanol used in the preparation of DCiTG is comprised of a mixture of branched-chain aliphatic alcohols, varying in composition with manufacturer, the resulting DCiTG itself is a mixture. Thus, it is necessary to address how the solvent performance will be affected by the different preparations of the DCiTG solvent component. In this study, four preparations of DCiTG from three sources were analyzed and evaluated for purity and performance, both in the absence and presence of an anionic surfactant impurity.

Duncan, Nathan C [ORNL; Roach, Benjamin D [ORNL; Williams, Neil J [ORNL; Bonnesen, Peter V [ORNL; Rajbanshi, Arbin [ORNL; Moyer, Bruce A [ORNL

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

182

Alkaline-Side Extraction of Cesium from Savannah River Tank Waste Using a Calixarene-Crown Ether Extractant  

SciTech Connect

Results are presented supporting the viability of the alkaline-side CSEX process as a potential replacement for the In-Tank Precipitation process for removal of cesium from aqueous high-level waste (HLW) at the Savannah River Site (SRS). Under funding from the USDOE Efficient Separations and Crosscutting program, a flowsheet was suggested in early June of 1998, and in the following four months, this flowsheet underwent extensive testing, both in batch tests at ORNL and ANL and in two centrifugal-contactor tests at ANL. To carry out these tests, the initial ESP funding was augmented by direct funds from Westinghouse Savannah River Corporation. The flowsheet employed a solvent containing a calixarene-crown hybrid compound called BoBCalixC6 that was invented at ORNL and can now be obtained commercially for government use from IBC Advanced Technologies. This special extractant is so powerful and selective that it can be used at only 0.01 M, compensating for its expense, but a modifier is required for use in an aliphatic diluent, primarily to increase the cesium distribution ratio D{sub Cs} in extraction. The modifier selected is a relatively economical fluorinated alcohol called Cs3, invented at ORNL and so far available. only from ORNL. For the flowsheet, the modifier is used at 0.2 M in the branched aliphatic kerosene Isopar{reg_sign} L. Testing at ORNL and ANL involved simulants of the SRS HLW. After extraction of the Cs from the waste simulant, the solvent is scrubbed with 0.05 M HNO{sub 3} and stripped with a solution comprised of 0.0005 M HNO{sub 3} and 0.0001 M CsNO{sub 3}. The selection of these conditions is justified in this report, both on the basis of experimental data and underlying theory.

Bonnesen, P.V.; Delmau, L.H.; Haverlock, T.J.; Moyer, B.A.

1998-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

183

Liquid fuels production from biomass. Progress report No. 8, July 1-September 30, 1979  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

It was found that marine algae could be converted to higher aliphatic organic acids and that these acids could be readily removed from the fermentation broth by membrane or liquid-liquid extraction. It was then proposed to convert these higher organic acids to aliphatic hydrocarbons via Kolbe electrolysis, which may be used as a diesel fuel. A coenzyme M analogue, 2-bromoethanesulfonic acid has been shown to be an effective suppressor of methane in nonsterile anaerobic fermentation of cellulosic substrates. A tapered auger device has been designed and built which has been demonstrated on the bench to be effective for adding substrate and removing residue in a continuous manner from a fixed packed bed fermenter. A solvent extracter system using kerosene as the nonaqueous phase has been constructed and is currently in operation in series with the 300 liter fixed packed bed fermenter. The electrolytic oxidation of organic acids produced in the 300 liter fixed packed bed fermenter is operating with a favorable energy balance of 6/1 based on the applied potential. As stated earlier the liquid-liquid extractor system is operating in line with the 300 liter fixed packed bed fermentor. The other components of an integrated continuous system, the continuous feed device and the Kolbe electrolysis cell are operating satisfactorily out of line on a scale compatible with the 300 liter fixed packed bed fermentor. An economic analysis for a 1000 ton per day plant has been performed and has been improved and updated based on additional experimental results. Currently a cost based on utility financing including a reasonable return on investment of $5.48/million Btu is estimated, making the process fully competitive with the most favorable estimates from other processes for producing liquid fuels from renewable resources.

Sanderson, J.E.; Wise, D.L.; Levy, P.F.; Molyneaux, M.S.

1979-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

184

Investigation of test methods, material properties, and processes for solar cell encapsulants. Eighteenth quarterly progress report, August 12-November 12, 1980  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The goal of this program is to identify, evaluate, and recommend encapsulant materials and processes for the production of cost-effective, long-life solar cell modules. A survey was made of elastomers for use as gaskets for the photovoltaic module. Of the wide variety of materials examined EPDM offered the optimum combination of low compression set and low cost. The preference for EPDM is borne out by its long history of use as an automobile gasket. The commercial availability of materials that would be useful for sealants between the edge of the module and the gasket was investigated. Butyl sealants have the best combination of physical properties, low cost and a well-documented history of performance. A preferred composition has not yet been identified. One laminating type pottant ethylene/methyl acrylate copolymer (EMA), and two casting polymers, polybutyl acrylate and polyurethane, have been under investigation this past quarter. An EMA formulation has been developed which is easily extrudable and cures to a high gel content. So far only one commercial US source (Quinn) of aliphatic polyurethane has been located. Work is continuing to improve reaction rate as well as to eliminate source(s) of bubble formation during module fabrication. Considerable effort was spent in developing an improved polybutyl acrylate casting formulation providing high gel. Many viable curing systems are now available: however, the best formulation considering physical properties, freedom from bubbles as well as cure time utilizes Lupersol II (aliphatic peroxide) initiator. This initiator gives the desired gel after 20 minute cure at 45/sup 0/C or 12 minute cure at 55/sup 0/C.

Not Available

1980-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

185

Liquid fuels production from biomass. Progress report No. 8, April 1-June 30, 1979  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The current program to convert biomass into liquid hydrocarbon fuels is an extension of the previous program to ferment marine algae to acetic acid. In that study, it was found that marine algae could be converted to higher aliphatic organic acids and that these acids could be readily removed from the fermentation both by membrane or liquid-liquid extraction. It was then proposed to convert these higher organic acids to aliphatic hydrocarbons via Kolbe Electrolysis, which may be used as a diesel fuel. The accompishments in this program for the first year of work are as follows: a coenzyme M anologue, 2-bromoethanesulfonic acid has been shown to be an effective suppressor of methane in nonsterile anaerobic fermentation of cellulosic substrates; a tapered auger device has been designed and built which has been demonstrated on the bench to be effective for adding substrate and removing residue in a continuous manner from a fixed packed bed fermenter; a solvent extracter system using kerosene as the nonaqueous phase has been constructed and is currently in operation in series with the 300 liter fixed packed bed fermenter; although additional work is required to optimize the electrolysis process the electrolytic oxidation of organic acids produced in the 300 liter fixed packed bed fermenter is operating with a favorable energy balance of 6/1 based on the applied potential; the liquid-liquid extractor system is operating in line with 300 liter fixed packed bed fermentor; the other components of an integrated continuous system, the continuous feed device and the Kolbe electrolysis cell are operating satisfactorily out of line on a scale compatible with the 300 liter fixed packed bed fermentor; and an economic analysis for a 1000 ton per day plant has been performed and has been improved and updated based on additional experimental results.

Sanderson, J.E.; Garcia-Martinez, D.V.; George, G.S.; Dillon, J.J.; Molyneaux, M.S.; Barnard, G.W.; Wise, D.L.

1979-07-23T23:59:59.000Z

186

Extraction of Am(III) from nitric acid by octyl(phenyl)-N,N-diisobutylcarbamoylmethylphosphine oxide-tri-n-butyl phosphate mixtures  

SciTech Connect

The extraction behavior of Am(III) from nitric acid by octyl(phenyl)-N,N-diisobutylcarbamoylmethyphosphine oxides, O0D(IB)CMPO, in the presence of tributylphosphate, TBP, has been studied using diethylbenzene, decalin, and normal aliphatic hydrocarbon diluents. Relative to O0D(IB)CMPO alone, mixtures of TBP and O0D(IB)CMPO show a slight enhancement in the extraction of Am(III) from nitric acid solution above 2 M and a moderate decrease in extraction for lower acid concentrations. The net effect of TBP addition to O0D(IB)CMPO (as well as other selected carbamoylmethylphosphoryl extractants) is a relative insensitivity of the distribution ratio of Am(III) to HNO/sub 3/ concentration in the range of 0.5 M to 6 M and facilitated stripping of Am(III) with dilute acid. Since a continuous variation study of Am(III) extraction using mixtures of O0D(IB)CMPO and TBP at a fixed total concentration revealed no evidence of a mixed complex, the TBP appears to be behaving primarily as a phase modifier. The most significant benefit gained from addition of TBP to O0D(IB)CMPO is the increased metal ion loading capacity and extractant compatibility with alicyclic and aliphatic diluents. The use of TBP to overcome phase compatibility with other bifunctional extractants of the carbamoylmethylphosphoryl type and the use of other phase modifiers with O0D(IB)CMPO have also been investigated. 15 references, 7 figures, 2 tables.

Horwitz, E.P.; Kalina, D.G.

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

187

Liquid fuels production from biomass. Progress report No. 7, January 1-March 31, 1979  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The current program to convert biomass into liquid hydrocarbon fuels is an extension of the previous program to ferment marine algae to acetic acid. In that study, it was found that marine algae could be converted to higher aliphatic organic acids and that these acids could be readily removed from the fermentation broth by membrane or liquid-liquid extraction. It was then proposed to convert these higher organic acids to aliphatic hydrocarbons via Kolbe Electrolysis, which may be used as a diesel fuel. The specific goals for the current program are: (1) establish conditions under which substrates other than marine algae may be converted in good yield to organic acids. The primary task in this regard is methane suppression; (2) modify the current 300 liter fixed packed bed batch fermenter to operate in a continuous mode; (3) change from membrane extraction of organic acids to liquid-liquid extraction; (4) optimize the energy balance of the electrolytic oxidation process. The primary task in this regard is to reduce the working potential required for the electrolysis while maintaining an adequate current density; (5) scale the entire process up to match the ouput of the 300 liter fermenter. The accomplishments in this program are on schedule. Experimental results have shown that the electrolysis of organic acids produced by fermentation to liquid hydrocarbon fuels is already operating with a favorable energy balance of 6/1 based on the applied potential and over 10/1 based on the working potential. 2-Bromoethanesulfonic acid, a coenzyme M analogue, has been shown to be an effective methane suppressor, and the program is being rapidly expanded to include biomass substrates other than marine algae. In addition, considerable effort has been directed toward refining the process design and economic analysis presented previously.

Sanderson, J.E.; Garcia-Martinez, D.V.; George, G.S.; Dillon, J.J.; Wise, D.L.

1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

188

Immobilization of radioactive and hazardous wastes in a developed sulfur polymer cement (SPC) matrix  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Available in abstract form only. Full text of publication follows: A process has been developed for the immobilization Cs, Sr, Ce, Pb, and Cr in forms that is non-dispersible and could be safely immobilized. The simulated radioactive wastes of Cs, Sr, and Ce, and the hazardous wastes of Cr, and Pb were immobilized in the stable form of sulfur polymer cement (SPC). In this process, the contaminants (in a single form) were added to the sulfur mixture of sulfur and aromatic /or aliphatic hydrocarbons that used as polymerizing agents for sulfur (95% S, and 5% organic polymer by weight). Durability of the fabricated SPC matrices was assessed in terms of their water of immersion, porosity, and compressive strength. The water immersion, and open porosity were found to be less than 2.5% for all the prepared matrices, whereas the compressive strength was in the range between 62.4 and 142.3 Kg.cm{sup -2}, depending on the composition of the prepared matrix. The prepared SPC matrices that characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) showed that the different added contaminants were stabilized during the solidification process during their reaction with sulfur and the organic polymer to form the corresponding metal sulfides. Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP), and the IAEA standard method have assessed the leachability of the prepared waste matrices. The TCLP results showed that most the concentration of the contaminants released were under their detection limit. The leach index for the investigated metals from the prepared SPC matrices was in the range of 9-11. The order of release of the investigated metals was Sr>Cs>Pb>Cr>Ce for the aliphatic polymer, and Sr>Cr>Pb>Cs>Ce for the aromatic one. The results obtained revealed a high performance for the prepared SPC matrices, as they are of low cost effect, highly available materials, and possessed good mechanical and leaching properties. Key Words: SPC/ Matrices/ Immobilization/ Wastes/ Leachability. (authors)

Wagdy, M.; Azim, Abdel; El-Gammal, Belal [Atomic Energy Authority, Nasr City, P.O. Box 7551, Cairo (Egypt); Husain, Ahmed [National Research Center, Cairo (Egypt)

2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

189

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Production Tax Credit  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Production Tax Production Tax Credit to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Production Tax Credit on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Production Tax Credit on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Production Tax Credit on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Production Tax Credit on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Production Tax Credit on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Production Tax Credit on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Ethanol Production Tax Credit An ethanol facility is eligible for a credit of $0.075 per gallon of ethanol, before denaturing, for new production for up to 36 consecutive

190

Kinder Morgan Central Florida Pipeline Ethanol Project  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

KINDER MORGAN CENTRAL FLORIDA PIPELINE ETHANOL PROJECT ď‚· In December 2008, Kinder Morgan began transporting commercial batches of denatured ethanol along with gasoline shipments in its 16-inch Central Florida Pipeline (CFPL) from Tampa to Orlando, making CFPL the first transmarket gasoline pipeline in the United States to do so. The 16-inch pipeline previously only transported regular and premium gasoline. ď‚· Kinder Morgan invested approximately $10 million to modify the line for ethanol shipments which involved chemically cleaning the pipeline, replacing pipeline equipment that was incompatible with ethanol and expanding storage capacity at its Orlando terminal to handle ethanol shipments. ď‚· Kinder Morgan is responding to customer interest in ethanol blending. Our Florida

191

Alternative Fuels Data Center: E85 Definition  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

E85 Definition to E85 Definition to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: E85 Definition on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: E85 Definition on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: E85 Definition on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: E85 Definition on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: E85 Definition on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: E85 Definition on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type E85 Definition E85 motor fuel is defined as an alternative fuel that is a blend of ethanol and hydrocarbon, of which the ethanol portion is 75-85% denatured fuel ethanol by volume and complies with the most current ASTM specification

192

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Renewable Fuel Standard  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Renewable Fuel Renewable Fuel Standard to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Renewable Fuel Standard on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Renewable Fuel Standard on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Renewable Fuel Standard on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Renewable Fuel Standard on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Renewable Fuel Standard on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Renewable Fuel Standard on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Renewable Fuel Standard Within six months following the point at which monthly production of denatured ethanol produced in Louisiana equals or exceeds a minimum annualized production volume of 50 million gallons, at least 2% of the

193

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blend Mandate  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Blend Mandate Blend Mandate to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blend Mandate on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blend Mandate on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blend Mandate on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blend Mandate on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blend Mandate on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Blend Mandate on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Ethanol Blend Mandate Within one year after the Montana Department of Transportation has certified that ethanol producers in the state have produced a total of 40 million gallons of denatured ethanol and have maintained that level of

194

ConsumTechNotes2012.vp  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

oxygenate. oxygenate. A small amount of fuel ethanol is used as an alternative fuel, such as E85. It is typ- ically produced chemically from ethylene, or biologically from fermenta- tion of various sugars from carbohydrates found in agricultural crops and cellulosic residues from crops or wood. For 1981 forward, fuel ethanol es- timates are maintained separately from motor gasoline in SEDS and shown in the state energy consumption data tables to illustrate renewable energy use. The U.S. total fuel ethanol consumption in SEDS is a series developed by the U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) from annual reports of field production of oxygenated gasoline (prior to 2005), finished motor gasoline and motor gasoline blending components adjustments (2005 for- ward), and refinery and blender net inputs of fuel ethanol (all years). The fuel ethanol series used in SEDS is denatured fuel ethanol,

195

The Entire Molecular Biology Archive  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Molecular Biology Archives Molecular Biology Archives Molecular Biology, Since May 2000 Table of Contents: Blood pH and Oxygen DNA Extraction Flesh Eating Bacteria Amino Acid Differences Lyme Disease Effects Vinegar and Alcohol Mosquito and Blood Caffeine and Smoking Bread Mold and pH Hemocyanin and Hemerythrin Hodospin Man-made Bacteria Pregnancy Tips mRNA Killing Bacteria Gram Stain Milk Bacteria Denatured Protein Pseudmands Bacteria Nucleotide Order Bacteria Resistance Albinism Genes DNA Healing Re-constitution of Proteins H. pylori and Multiple sclerosis Smallest Organism Sugars and Fats Bacteria Systematics Slow Regeneration Media Cultures Butter and Bacteria AIDS and Survival in Air Cell Intelligence Giardia gingivalis Meat Bacteria Pus and Immune Cells Chalones Culture of T. ferrooxisans Amphibian E. coli

196

Definition: Ethanol | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Ethanol Ethanol A colorless, flammable liquid produced by fermentation of sugars. While it is also the alcohol found in alcoholic beverages, it can be denatured for fuel use. Fuel ethanol is used principally for blending in low concentrations with motor gasoline as an oxygenate or octane enhancer. In high concentrations, it is used to fuel alternative-fuel vehicles specially designed for its use.[1][2][3] View on Wikipedia Wikipedia Definition Ethanol fuel is ethanol (ethyl alcohol), the same type of alcohol found in alcoholic beverages. It is most often used as a motor fuel, mainly as a biofuel additive for gasoline. World ethanol production for transport fuel tripled between 2000 and 2007 from 17 billion to more than 52 billion liters. From 2007 to 2008, the share of ethanol in global gasoline type

197

Table Definitions, Sources, and Explanatory Notes  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

& Blender Net Production & Blender Net Production Definitions Key Terms Definition Blending Plant A facility which has no refining capability but is either capable of producing finished motor gasoline through mechanical blending or blends oxygenates with motor gasoline. Barrel A unit of volume equal to 42 U.S. gallons. Conventional Blendstock for Oxygenate Blending (CBOB) Motor gasoline blending components intended for blending with oxygenates to produce finished conventional motor gasoline. Conventional Gasoline Finished motor gasoline not included in the oxygenated or reformulated gasoline categories. Excludes reformulated gasoline blendstock for oxygenate blending (RBOB) as well as other blendstock. Conventional Gasoline, Ed55 and Lower Finished conventional motor gasoline blended with a maximum of 55 volume percent denatured fuel ethanol.

198

Determination of thymine glycol residues in irradiated or oxidized DNA by formation of methylglyceric acid  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Treatment of DNA solutions with X-irradiation various oxidants including hydrogen peroxide plus ferrous ion, hydrogen peroxide plus copper ion and ascorbate, permanganate, or sonication in the presence of dissolved oxygen all produced varying amounts of thymine glycol residues. After denaturing the DNA with heat, the glycol residues were reduced and labeled at the 6 position with tritium- labeled sodium borohydride. Subsequent reaction with anhydrous methanolic HCl gave a quantitative yield of the methyl ester of methylglyceric acid, which was determined by thin layer chromatography. The method, developed using thymidine as a model, was used to ascertain the requirements for glycol formation in DNA. It was shown that hydroxyl radical generating systems, permanganate, X-irradiation, or sonication in presence of oxygen were required, but hydrogen peroxide in the absence of iron or copper and ascorbate was inactive. Application to determination of DNA damage in vivo is being explored.

Schellenberg, K.A.; Shaeffer, J.

1986-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

199

Reliable Protein Folding on Complex Energy Landscapes: The Free Energy Reaction Path  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

ABSTRACT A theoretical framework is developed to study the dynamics of protein folding. The key insight is that the search for the native protein conformation is influenced by the rate r at which external parameters, such as temperature, chemical denaturant, or pH, are adjusted to induce folding. A theory based on this insight predicts that 1), proteins with complex energy landscapes can fold reliably to their native state; 2), reliable folding can occur as an equilibrium or out-of-equilibrium process; and 3), reliable folding only occurs when the rate r is below a limiting value, which can be calculated from measurements of the free energy. We test these predictions against numerical simulations of model proteins with a single energy scale.

Gregg Lois; Jerzy Blawzdziewicz; Corey S. O’hern

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

200

Generalized Poland-Scheraga model for supercoiled DNA  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The Poland-Scheraga (PS) model for the helix-coil transition of DNA considers the statistical mechanics of the thermally induced binding of two complementary strands of DNA. In this paper, we show how to modify the PS model when a torque is applied to the extremities of DNA: We propose a simple model for the energy of twisted DNA and compute the entropy of a loop, subject to angular constraints (supercoiling). The denaturation curves are shifted towards lower or higher temperatures depending on the sign of the torque, and the UV absorption peaks are softened. The properties of supercoiled DNA can be deduced through the use of a numerical Legendre transform. In the homogeneous case, we find that for weak supercoiling, the phenomenological quadratic law relating the torsional energy to the number of unpaired bases is recovered.

Thomas Garel; Henri Orland; Edouard Yeramian

2004-07-28T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "denatured aliphatic alco" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Tower reactors for bioconversion of lignocellulosic material  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An apparatus is described for enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation of pretreated lignocellulosic material, in the form of a tower bioreactor, having mixers to achieve intermittent mixing of the material. Precise mixing of the material is important for effective heat and mass transfer requirements without damaging or denaturing the enzymes or fermenting microorganisms. The pretreated material, generally in the form of a slurry, is pumped through the bioreactor, either upwards or downwards, and is mixed periodically as it passes through the mixing zones where the mixers are located. For a thin slurry, alternate mixing can be achieved by a pumping loop which also serves as a heat transfer device. Additional heat transfer takes place through the reactor heat transfer jackets. 5 figs.

Nguyen, Q.A.

1999-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

202

Tower reactors for bioconversion of lignocellulosic material  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An apparatus is disclosed for enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation of pretreated lignocellulosic material. The apparatus consists of a tower bioreactor which has mixers to achieve intermittent mixing of the material. Precise mixing of the material is important for effective heat and mass transfer requirements without damaging or denaturing the enzymes or fermenting microorganisms. The pretreated material, generally in the form of a slurry, is pumped through the bioreactor, either upwards or downwards, and is mixed periodically as it passes through the mixing zones where the mixers are located. For a thin slurry, alternate mixing can be achieved by a pumping loop which also serves as a heat transfer device. Additional heat transfer takes place through the reactor heat transfer jackets. 5 figs.

Nguyen, Q.A.

1998-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

203

Tower reactors for bioconversion of lignocellulosic material  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An apparatus for enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation of pretreated lignocellulosic material, in the form of a tower bioreactor, having mixers to achieve intermittent mixing of the material. Precise mixing of the material is important for effective heat and mass transfer requirements without damaging or denaturing the enzymes or fermenting microorganisms. The pretreated material, generally in the form of a slurry, is pumped through the bioreactor, either upwards of downwards, and is mixed periodically as it passes through the mixing zones where the mixers are located. For a thin slurry, alternate mixing can be achieved by a pumping loop which also serves as a heat transfer device. Additional heat transfer takes place through the reactor heat transfer jackets.

Nguyen, Quang A. (16458 W. 1st Ave., Golden, CO 80401)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

204

Tower reactors for bioconversion of lignocellulosic material  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An apparatus for enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation of pretreated lignocellulosic material, in the form of a tower bioreactor, having mixers to achieve intermittent mixing of the material. Precise mixing of the material is important for effective heat and mass transfer requirements without damaging or denaturing the enzymes or fermenting microorganisms. The pretreated material, generally in the form of a slurry, is pumped through the bioreactor, either upwards or downwards, and is mixed periodically as it passes through the mixing zones where the mixers are located. For a thin slurry, alternate mixing can be achieved by a pumping loop which also serves as a heat transfer device. Additional heat transfer takes place through the reactor heat transfer jackets.

Nguyen, Quang A. (16458 W. 1st Ave., Golden, CO 80401)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

205

Unwinding relaxation dynamics of polymers  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The relaxation dynamics of a polymer wound around a fixed obstacle constitutes a fundamental instance of polymer with twist and torque and it is of relevance also for DNA denaturation dynamics. We investigate it by simulations and Langevin equation analysis. The latter predicts a relaxation time scaling as a power of the polymer length times a logarithmic correction related to the equilibrium fluctuations of the winding angle. The numerical data support this result and show that at short times the winding angle decreases as a power-law. This is also in agreement with the Langevin equation provided a winding-dependent friction is used, suggesting that such reduced description of the system captures the basic features of the problem.

Jean-Charles Walter; Marco Baiesi; Gerard Barkema; Enrico Carlon

2013-01-13T23:59:59.000Z

206

Monitoring Biological Activity at Geothermal Power Plants  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The economic impact of microbial growth in geothermal power plants has been estimated to be as high as $500,000 annually for a 100 MWe plant. Many methods are available to monitor biological activity at these facilities; however, very few plants have any on-line monitoring program in place. Metal coupon, selective culturing (MPN), total organic carbon (TOC), adenosine triphosphate (ATP), respirometry, phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA), and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) characterizations have been conducted using water samples collected from geothermal plants located in California and Utah. In addition, the on-line performance of a commercial electrochemical monitor, the BIoGEORGE?, has been evaluated during extended deployments at geothermal facilities. This report provides a review of these techniques, presents data on their application from laboratory and field studies, and discusses their value in characterizing and monitoring biological activities at geothermal power plants.

Peter Pryfogle

2005-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

207

Comparison of soy protein concentrates produced by membrane filtration and acid precipitation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The recovery of proteins using ultrafiltration (UF) process is an attractive alternative compared to conventional acid precipitation method. The mild processing condition, which leads to less protein denaturation, may be one of major virtues of this method. This research was directed to identify such assumptions of the products. Three soy protein concentrates were obtained in this study. Full-fat soybean flour and hexane-defatted soybean flour were dispersed into distilled water (1:8) at 60?C, respectively. A series of operations including pH adjustment (8.0), agitation (250 rpm, 30 min), sonication (40 dB, 20 min), homogenization (3 min), and centrifugation (3,000 x g, 15 min) were followed. For the membrane processing, the ultrafiltration cartridge used molecular weight cut-off 100,000 daltons. Acid-precipitated protein (at pH 4.5) was produced from hexane-defatted soybean flour following the identical procedures as above. Protein content of the membrane-processed product from full-fat soybean flour was 63.5% and that of the acid precipitated product was 71.9%. All samples were comparable in their functional properties. Nitrogen solubility at pH 7.0 was exhibited better in the protein produced by membrane filtration than the protein produced by acid precipitation due to protein denaturation. Also the membrane-processed soy protein showed good heat coagulation, emulsifying stability, and foaming stability. Amino acid patterns were similar to the typical one of soy proteins. However, relatively low lysine, threonine and valine contents in the acid-precipitated protein were noteworthy. The sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) patterns were almost comparable among samples. In appearance, the acid-precipitated protein was light and slightly greenish tint.

Kim, Hyun Jung

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

208

Alternatives to traditional transportation fuels 1994. Volume 1  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

In this report, alternative and replacement fuels are defined in accordance with the EPACT. Section 301 of the EPACT defines alternative fuels as: methanol, denatured ethanol, and other alcohols; mixtures containing 85% or more (or such other percentage, but not less than 70%, as determined by the Secretary of Energy, by rule, to provide for requirements relating to cold start, safety, or vehicle functions) by volume of methanol, denatured ethanol, and other alcohols with gasoline or other fuels; natural gas; liquefied petroleum gas; hydrogen; coal-derived liquid fuels; fuels (other than alcohol) derived from biological materials; electricity (including electricity from solar energy); and any other fuel the Secretary determines, by rule, is substantially not petroleum and would yield substantial energy security benefits and substantial environmental benefits. The EPACT defines replacement fuels as the portion of any motor fuel that is methanol, ethanol, or other alcohols, natural gas, liquefied petroleum gas, hydrogen, coal-derived liquid fuels, fuels (other than alcohol) derived from biological materials, electricity (including electricity from solar energy), ethers, or any other fuel the Secretary of Energy determines, by rule, is substantially not petroleum and would yield substantial energy security benefits and substantial environmental benefits. This report covers only those alternative and replacement fuels cited in the EPACT that are currently commercially available or produced in significant quantities for vehicle demonstration purposes. Information about other fuels, such as hydrogen and biodiesel, will be included in later reports as those fuels become more widely used. Annual data are presented for 1992 to 1996. Data for 1996 are based on plans or projections for 1996.

NONE

1996-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

209

Evaluation of functionality for whey protein concentrate with different ultrafiltration treatments  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Production of whey protein concentrates has increased significantly in the United States in recent years. This may be attributed mainly to greater effort on the part of whey producers to abide by pollution regulations and to availability of improved the ultrafiltration separation and its product WPC functionality. The objective of this research is to evaluate the WPC functionality with two treatment during separation. The whey powder was dissolved into the distilled water and tested for two treatment using ultrafiltration separation process. The temperature which was room temperature, 35 and 50 'C and pH which was 1.5, 4, 6 were selected for the two treatment. Three repetitions were completed for each treatment. The WPCs exhibited comparable composition and functionality. The composition which were included protein denaturation, fat, ash, protein content indicated different variations for the two treatment. The influence of temperature treatment was primarily dependent on the first three contents, but the effect of pH treatment was limited to the first two factors, protein denaturation and fat contents. The functionality of foaming ability, emulsion ability, gel strength and viscosity were investigated in this test. The increase functionality was achieved for the pH treatment while the reduced properties occurred for the temperature treatment. The viscosity indicated profoundly increase in the pH treatment when compared the almost constant trend in the temperature treatment. The major difference were contributed to the operation processing particularly composition changes during the two treatment. The GLM could be only fitted for the gel strength and viscosity. The AVONA results revealed that the function variables were affected by the two treatment. The data from this test showed gel strength and viscosity properties of WPCs as a function of pH and temperature were significantly difference. The difference properties observed in this research demonstrated that the temperature and pH effects on the WPCs functionality were widely contrasting.

Wu, Ying

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

210

Molecular Level Characterization and Mobility of Radionuclide-Carrying Natural Organic Matter in Aquatic Environments  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Radionuclides, 129I and 239,240Pu, are major products or by-products of nuclear fission and among the top risk drivers for waste disposal at the Savannah River Sites (SRS) and Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Sites (RFETS), respectively, due to their perceived mobility in the environment, excessive inventory, toxicity, and long half-life. The objective of this study is to investigate the role of natural organic matter in retarding or facilitating the migration of 129I and 239,240Pu in the Department of Energy (DOE) sites. Measurements of 127I and 129I in humic acids (HAs) and fulvic acids (FAs) obtained by five successive alkaline, two glycerol and one citric acid-alkaline extractions, demonstrated that these extractable humic substances (HS) together account for 54-56 percent and 46 percent of the total 127I and 129I in the soil, respectively. The variations among 127I and 129I concentrations, isotopic ratios (129I/127I), chemical properties of all these humic substances indicated iodine was bound to a small-size aromatic subunit (~10 kDa), while the large-size subunit (~90 kDa), which likely linked the small-size unit through some weak chemical forces, determined the relative mobility of iodine bound to organic matter. Soil resuspension experiments simulating surface runoff or stormflow and erosion events were conducted with soils collected from SRS. Results showed that 72-77 percent of the newly-introduced I- or IO3- were irreversibly sequestered into the organic-rich soil, while the rest was transformed into colloidal and dissolved organo-iodine by the soil. The resulting iodine remobilization contradicts the conventional view that considers only I- or IO3- as the mobile forms. Quantitative structure analysis by 13C DPMAS NMR and solution state 1H NMR on these humic substances indicate that iodine is closely related to the aromatic regions containing esterified products of phenolic and fomic acid or other aliphatic carboxylic acids, amide functionalities, quinone-like structure activated by electron-donating groups (e.g., NH2) or hemicelluloses-lignin-like complex with phenyl-glycosidic linkage. The micro-molecular environment, such as the hydrophobic aliphatic periphery hindering the active aromatic cores and the hydrophilic polysaccharides favoring its accessibility towards hydrophilic iodine species, play another key role in the interactions between iodine and SOM. NMR spectra of the colloidal organic Pu carrier which can potentially be released from the soil during the surface runoff or stormflow showed Pu was transported, at sub-pM concentrations, by a cutin-derived soil degradation products containing siderophore-like moieties and virtually all mobile Pu.

Xu, Chen

2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

211

Fluoroalkyl and Alkyl Chains Have Similar Hydrophobicities in Binding to the “Hydrophobic Wall” of Carbonic Anhydrase  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The hydrophobic effect, the free-energetically favorable association of nonpolar solutes in water, makes a dominant contribution to binding of many systems of ligands and proteins. The objective of this study was to examine the hydrophobic effect in biomolecular recognition using two chemically different but structurally similar hydrophobic groups, aliphatic hydrocarbons and aliphatic fluorocarbons, and to determine whether the hydrophobicity of the two groups could be distinguished by thermodynamic and biostructural analysis. This paper uses isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) to examine the thermodynamics of binding of benzenesulfonamides substituted in the para position with alkyl and fluoroalkyl chains (H{sub 2}NSO{sub 2}C{sub 6}H{sub 4}-CONHCH{sub 2}(CX{sub 2}){sub n}CX{sub 3}, n = 0-4, X = H, F) to human carbonic anhydrase II (HCA II). Both alkyl and fluoroalkyl substituents contribute favorably to the enthalpy and the entropy of binding; these contributions increase as the length of chain of the hydrophobic substituent increases. Crystallography of the protein-ligand complexes indicates that the benzenesulfonamide groups of all ligands examined bind with similar geometry, that the tail groups associate with the hydrophobic wall of HCA II (which is made up of the side chains of residues Phe131, Val135, Pro202, and Leu204), and that the structure of the protein is indistinguishable for all but one of the complexes (the longest member of the fluoroalkyl series). Analysis of the thermodynamics of binding as a function of structure is compatible with the hypothesis that hydrophobic binding of both alkyl and fluoroalkyl chains to hydrophobic surface of carbonic anhydrase is due primarily to the release of nonoptimally hydrogen-bonded water molecules that hydrate the binding cavity (including the hydrophobic wall) of HCA II and to the release of water molecules that surround the hydrophobic chain of the ligands. This study defines the balance of enthalpic and entropic contributions to the hydrophobic effect in this representative system of protein and ligand: hydrophobic interactions, here, seem to comprise approximately equal contributions from enthalpy (plausibly from strengthening networks of hydrogen bonds among molecules of water) and entropy (from release of water from configurationally restricted positions).

J Mecinovic; P Snyder; K Mirica; S Bai; E Mack; R Kwant; D Moustakas; A Heroux; G Whitesides

2011-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

212

FUEL PROCESSING FOR FUEL CELLS: EFFECTS ON CATALYST DURABILITY AND CARBON FORMATION  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

On-board production of hydrogen for fuel cells for automotive applications is a challenging developmental task. The fuel processor must show long term durability and under challenging conditions. Fuel processor catalysts in automotive fuel processors will be exposed to large thermal variations, vibrations, exposure to uncontrolled ambient conditions, and various impurities from ambient air and from fuel. For the commercialization of fuel processors, the delineation of effects on catalyst activity and durability are required. We are studying fuels and fuel constituent effects on the fuel processor system as part of the DOE Fuel Cells for Transportation program. Pure fuel components are tested to delineate the fuel component effect on the fuel processor and fuel processor catalysts. Component blends are used to simulate ''real fuels'', with various fuel mixtures being examined such as reformulated gasoline and naptha. The aliphatic, napthenic, olefin and aromatic content are simulated to represent the chemical kinetics of possible detrimental reactions, such as carbon formation, during fuel testing. Testing has examined the fuel processing performance of different fuel components to help elucidate the fuel constituent effects on fuel processing performance and upon catalyst durability. Testing has been conducted with vapor fuels, including natural gas and pure methane. The testing of pure methane and comparable testing with natural gas (97% methane) have shown some measurable differences in performance in the fuel processor. Major gasoline fuel constituents, such as aliphatic compounds, napthanes, and aromatics have been compared for their effect on the fuel processing performance. Experiments have been conducted using high-purity compounds to observe the fuel processing properties of the individual components and to document individual fuel component performance. The relative carbon formation of different fuel constituents have been measured by monitoring carbon via in situ laser optics, and by monitoring carbon buildup on the catalyst surface. The fuel processing performance of the individual components is compared with the fuel processing performance of blended fuel components and the reformulated gasoline to examine synergistic or detrimental effects the fuel components have in a real fuel blend.

R. BORUP; M. INBODY; B. MORTON; L. BROWN

2001-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

213

Metal catalyzed synthesis of hyperbranched ethylene and/or .alpha.-olefin polymers  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Oily hyperbranched polymers derived from ethylene, propylene, butene and/or a C.sub.5 -C.sub.24 .alpha.-olefin, and a method for their synthesis, are disclosed. The polymers have non-regular microstructures and are characterized by a ratio ({character pullout})of methyl hydrogens centered around 0.85 ppm on the 1H-NMR spectra of the polymers relative to total aliphatic hydrogens of from about 0.40 to about 0.65 for polymers derived from ethylene or butene, and a ratio ({character pullout})of from greater than 0.50 to about 0.65 for polymers derived from propylene. A method for grafting hyperbranched polymers derived from ethylene, propylene, butene and/or a C.sub.5 -C.sub.24 .alpha.-olefin onto aromatic rings in organic molecules and polymers, and the resulting grafted materials, are also disclosed. The hyperbranched polymers and grafted materials are useful, for example, as lubricants and lubricant additives.

Sen, Ayusman (State College, PA); Kim, Jang Sub (State College, PA); Pawlow, James H. (Gainesville, FL); Murtuza, Shahid (State College, PA); Kacker, Smita (Annandale, NJ); Wojcinski, III, Louis M. (State College, PA)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

214

XAS Catches the Chemical Form of Mercury in Fish  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

view large image view large image contact info Friday, 29 August 2003 X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy Catches the Chemical Form of Mercury in Fish - SSRL Scientists Reveal New Findings in Science Article The presence of "methyl mercury" in fish is well-known, but until now the detailed chemical identity of the mercury has remained a mystery. In an x-ray absorption spectroscopy study published in the August 29 issue of Science (Science 301, 2003: 1203; Science now: Murky Picture on Fish Mercury), SSRL scientists report that the chemical form of mercury involves a sulfur atom (most likely in a so-called aliphatic form). The study presents significant new knowledge - because the toxic properties of mercury (or any element) are critically dependent upon its chemical form - and represents an important milestone in developing an understanding of how harmful mercury in fish might actually be. The study was carried out by SSRL staff scientists Ingrid Pickering and Graham George and postdoctoral fellow Hugh Harris using SSRL's structural molecular biology beam line 9-3. The very high flux, excellent beam stability and state-of-the-art detector technology allowed the team to measure samples of fish containing micromolar levels of mercury, much lower than had previously been possible.

215

Additive effect of waste tire on the hydrogenolysis reaction of coal liquefaction residue  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A numerous amount of waste tire is landfilled or dumped all over the world, which causes environmental problems, such as destruction of natural places and the risk of fires. On the other hand, the coal liquefaction residue (CLR) is produced in 30% yield through the process supporting unit (PSU) of the NEDOL coal liquefaction process. Therefore, the investigation on an effective method for utilization of waste tire and CLR is required. In this study, the simultaneous hydrogenolysis of CLR and pulverized waste tire was carried out by using tetralin. The yields in the simultaneous hydrogenolysis were compared with algebraic sum of the yields of the individual hydrogenolyses of waste tire alone and coal alone. In the simultaneous hydrogenolysis, the synergistic effects to upgrading, such as an increase in the yield of the oil constituent and a decrease in the yield of the asphaltene constituent, occurred because of the stabilization of asphaltenic radicals from CLR with aliphatic radicals from tire. The decrease in asphaltene yield in the simultaneous hydrogenolysis was pronounced with the increase in the tire:CLR ratio because the solvent effects of liquefied tire, such as stabilization of radicals, hydrogen shuttling, and heat transfer, were enhanced. Accordingly, it is estimated that the simultaneous hydrogenolysis of CLR and waste tire is an effective method for processing both materials. 15 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

Motoyuki Sugano; Daigorou Onda; Kiyoshi Mashimo [Nihon University, Tokyo (Japan). Department of Materials and Applied Chemistry, College of Science and Technology

2006-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

216

Evaluation of the In Situ Aerobic Cometabolism of Chlorinated Ethenes by Toluene-Utilizing Microorganisms Using Push-Pull Tests  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Single-well-push-pull tests were used in a contaminated aquifer to evaluate the ability of toluene-oxidizing microorganisms to aerobically cometabolize chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons (CAHs) such as trichloroethene (TCE). Groundwater containing dissolved toluene was injected into the saturated zone in biostimulate indigenous toluene-utilizers. The test solution was injected into the aquifer using a standard monitoring well and then was transported under natural-gradient conditions. Transport tests demonstrated similar transport characteristics of the conservative tracer and the reactive solutes. Biostimulation tests were then performed by injecting a test solution containing dissolved toluene substrate, hydrogen peroxide, bromide and nitrate in order to increase the biomass of toluene-utilizing microorganisms. During the biostimulation tests, decreases in toluene concentration and the production of o-cresol as an intermediate oxidation product, indicated the simulation of toluene-utilizing microorganisms containing an ortho-monooxygenase enzyme. Transformation tests conducted after biostimulation demonstrated that indigenous microorganisms have the capability to transform the surrogate compounds (e.g. isobutene). Isobutene was transformed to isobutene oxide, indicating transformation by a toluene ortho-monooxygenase.

Azizian, Mohammad F.; Istok, Jonathan; Semprini, Lewis

2004-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

217

Monsoon-driven vertical fluxes of organic pollutants in the western Arabian Sea  

SciTech Connect

A time series of sinking particles from the western Arabian Sea was analyzed for aliphatic and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyls, 4,4{prime}-DDT and 4,4{prime}-DDE, to assess the role of monsoons on their vertical flux in the Indian Ocean. Concurrently, molecular markers such as sterols and linear and branched alkanes were analyzed enabling the characterization of the biogenic sources and biogeochemical processes occurring during the sampling period. Hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) of the data set of concentrations and fluxes of these compounds confirmed a seasonal variability driven by the SW and NE monsoons. Moreover, the influence of different air masses is evidenced by the occurrence of higher concentrations of DDT, PCBs, and pyrolytic PAHs during the NE monsoon and of fossil hydrocarbons during the SW monsoon. Total annual fluxes to the deep Arabian Sea represent an important removal contribution of persistent organic pollutants, thus not being available for the global distillation process (volatilization and atmospheric transport from low or mid latitudes to cold areas). Therefore, monsoons may play a significant role on the global cycle of organic pollutants.

Dachs, J.; Bayona, J.M.; Ittekkot, V.; Albaiges, J.

1999-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

218

Characteristics of carbonized sludge for co-combustion in pulverized coal power plants  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Co-combustion of sewage sludge can destabilize its combustion profile due to high volatility, which results in unstable flame. We carried out fuel reforming for sewage sludge by way of carbonization at pyrolysis temperature of 300-500 deg. C. Fuel characteristics of carbonized sludge at each temperature were analyzed. As carbonization temperature increased, fuel ratio increased, volatile content reduced, and atomic ratio relation of H/C and O/C was similar to that of lignite. The analysis result of FT-IR showed the decrease of aliphatic C-H bond and O-C bond in carbonization. In the analysis result of TG-DTG, the thermogravimetry reduction temperature of carbonized sludge (CS400) was proven to be higher than that of dried sludge, but lower than that of sub-bituminous coal. Hardgrove grindability index increased in proportion to fuel ratio increase, where the carbonized sludge value of 43-110 was similar or higher than the coal value of 49-63. As for ash deposits, slagging and fouling index were higher than that of coal. When carbonized sludge (CS400) and coal were co-combusted in 1-10% according to calorific value, slagging tendency was low in all conditions, and fouling tendency was medium or high according to the compositions of coal.

Park, Sang-Woo [Department of Environmental Engineering, Hanbat National University, Daejeon 305-719 (Korea, Republic of); Jang, Cheol-Hyeon, E-mail: jangch@hanbat.ac.kr [Department of Environmental Engineering, Hanbat National University, Daejeon 305-719 (Korea, Republic of)

2011-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

219

Prediction of thermodynamic properties of coal derivatives. Final technical report, March 1, 1991--February 28, 1994  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We have developed new equations of state for pure-component chain molecules. The excellent performance of complicated theories, such as the Generalized Flory Dimer (GFD) theory can be mimicked by simpler equations, if assumptions for the shape parameters are made. We developed engineering correlations based on GFD theory, using local composition theory to take into account attractive forces. During this period, we compared methods for calculating repulsive and attractive contributions to equation of state against computer simulation data for hard and square-well chains, and against experimental data from the literature. We also have studied microstructure and local order in fluids that contain asymmetric molecules. We developed a thermodynamic model for polar compounds based on a site-site interaction approach. We have shown the equivalence of various classes of theories for hydrogen bonding, and used this equivalence to derive a multiple site model for water. In addition, simple cubic equations of state have been applied to calculate physical and chemical-reaction equilibria in nonideal systems. We measured infinite dilution activity coefficients using HPLC. We also measured high pressure vapor liquid equilibria of ternary and quaternary systems containing supercritical solvents. We used FT-IR spectroscopy to examine self-association of aliphatic alcohols due to hydrogen bonding, and to investigate the hydrogen bonding in polymer-solvent mixtures.

Donohue, M.D.

1993-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

220

Theoretical Study of the Thermal Decomposition of Carboxylic Acids at Pyrolysis Temperature  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Carboxylic acids are important in the processing of biomass into renewable fuels and chemicals. They are formed from the pretreatment and pyrolysis of hemicellulose biopolymers and are released from the decomposition of sugars. They result from the deconstruction of polyhydroxyalkanoates (bacterial carbon storage polymers) from fatty acids derived from algae, bacteria, and oil crops. The thermal deoxygenation of carboxylic acids is an important step in the conversion of biomass into aliphatic hydrocarbons suitable for use in renewable biofuels and as petrochemical replacements. Decarboxylation, a primary decomposition pathway under pyrolysis conditions, represents an ideal conversion process, because it eliminates two atoms of oxygen for every carbon atom removed. Problematically, additional deoxygenation processes exist (e.g. dehydration) that are in direct competition with decarboxylation and result in the formation of reactive and more fragmented end products. To better understand the competition between decarboxylation and other deoxygenation processes and to gain insight into possible catalysts that would favor decarboxylation, we have investigated the mechanisms and thermochemistry of the various unimolecular and bimolecular deoxygenation pathways for a family of C1-C4 organic acids using electronic structure calculations at the M06-2X/6-311++G(2df,p) level of theory.

Clark, J. M.; Robichaud, D. J.; Nimlos, M. R.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "denatured aliphatic alco" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
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221

Yellow phosphorus process to convert toxic chemicals to non-toxic products  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention relates to a process for generating reactive species for destroying toxic chemicals. This process first contacts air or oxygen with aqueous emulsions of molten yellow phosphorus. This contact results in rapid production of abundant reactive species such as O, O[sub 3], PO, PO[sub 2], etc. A gaseous or liquid aqueous solution organic or inorganic chemicals is next contacted by these reactive species to reduce the concentration of toxic chemical and result in a non-toxic product. The final oxidation product of yellow phosphorus is phosphoric acid of a quality which can be recovered for commercial use. A process is developed such that the byproduct, phosphoric acid, is obtained without contamination of toxic species in liquids treated. A gas stream containing ozone without contamination of phosphorus containing species is also obtained in a simple and cost-effective manner. This process is demonstrated to be effective for destroying many types of toxic organic, or inorganic, compounds, including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB), aromatic chlorides, amines, alcohols, acids, nitro aromatics, aliphatic chlorides, polynuclear aromatic compounds (PAH), dyes, pesticides, sulfides, hydroxyamines, ureas, dithionates and the like. 20 figs.

Chang, S.G.

1994-07-26T23:59:59.000Z

222

Non-Ideal Behavior in Solvent Extraction  

SciTech Connect

This report presents a summary of the work performed to meet FCR&D level 3 milestone M31SW050801, 'Complete the year-end report summarizing FY11 experimental and modeling activities.' This work was carried out under the auspices of the Non-Ideality in Solvent Extraction Systems FCR&D work package. The report summarizes our initial considerations of potential influences that non-ideal chemistry may impose on computational prediction of outcomes in solvent extraction systems. The report is packaged into three separate test cases where a robustness of the prediction by SXFIT program is under scrutiny. The computational exercises presented here emphasize the importance of accurate representation of both an aqueous and organic mixtures when modeling liquid-liquid distribution systems. Case No.1 demonstrates that non-ideal behavior of HDEHP in aliphatic diluents, such as n-dodecane, interferes with the computation. Cases No.2 and No.3 focus on the chemical complexity of aqueous electrolyte mixtures. Both exercises stress the need for an improved thermodynamic model of an aqueous environment present in the europium distribution experiments. Our efforts for year 2 of this project will focus on the improvements of aqueous and non-aqueous solution models using fundamental physical properties of mixtures acquired experimentally in our laboratories.

Peter Zalupski

2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

223

Chemical evidence of kerogen formation in source rocks and oil shales via selective preservation of thin resistant outer walls of microalgae: Origin of ultralaminae  

SciTech Connect

New structures, termed ultralaminae, were recently observed by Transmission Electron Microscopy, usually in high amounts, in a number of kerogens from oil shales and source rocks. Morphological similarities were noted between ultralaminae and the thin (ca. 15 nm) resistant outer walls, composed of non-hydrolyzable macromolecules (algaenans), commonly occurring in extant Chlorophyceae, especially in the cosmopolitan genus Scenedesmus. Identification of the pyrolysis products of S. quadricauda algaenan showed (i) a highly aliphatic structure based on a macromolecular network of long (up to C{sub 32}) polymethylenic chains probably cross-linked by ether bridges, and (ii) a close correlation based on the formation of n-alkylnitriles, between this algaenan and two ultralaminar kerogens, the Rundle Oil Shale and the Green River Shale. These fossil ultralaminae, therefore, likely originated from the selective preservation of the thin, algaenan-containing, outer walls of Scenedesmus and/or of other Chlorophyceae containing outer walls of a similar morphology and composition. Previous evidence of kerogen formation via selective preservation of algaenans was restricted to rather uncommon kerogens; the present results, added to ultralamina common occurrence and abundance, point to a wide involvement and to a large contribution of the selective preservation of algaenan-containing thin outer walls of Chlorophyceae in the formation of kerogens in a number of lacustrine source rocks and oil shales.

Derenne, S.; Largeau, C.; Casadevall, E.; Berkaloff, C.; Rousseau, B. (Ecole Normale Superieure, Cedex (France))

1991-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

224

Methods for collection and analysis of geopressured geothermal and oil field waters  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Present methods are described for the collection, preservation, and chemical analysis of waters produced from geopressured geothermal and petroleum wells. Detailed procedures for collection include precautions and equipment necessary to ensure that the sample is representative of the water produced. Procedures for sample preservation include filtration, acidification, dilution for silica, methyl isobutyl ketone (MIBK) extraction of aluminum, addition of potassium permanganate to preserve mercury, and precipitation of carbonate species as strontium carbonate for stable carbon isotopes and total dissolved carbonate analysis. Characteristics determined at the well site are sulfide, pH, ammonia, and conductivity. Laboratory procedures are given for the analysis of lithium, sodium, potassium, rubidium, cesium, magnesium, calcium, strontium, barium, iron, manganese, zinc, lead, aluminum, and mercury by atomic absorption and flame emission spectroscopy. Chloride is determined by silver nitrate titration and fluoride by ion-specific electrode. Bromide and iodide concentrations are determined by the hypochlorite oxidation method. Sulfate is analyzed by titration using barium chloride with thorin indicator after pretreatment with alumina. Boron and silica are determined colorimetrically by the carmine and molybdate-blue methods, respectively. Aliphatic acid anions (C/sub 2/ through C/sub 5/) are determined by gas chromatography after separation and concentration in a chloroform-butanol mixture.

Lico, M.S.; Kharaka, Y.K.; Carothers, W.W.; Wright, V.A.

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

225

Humic substances and nitrogen-containing compounds from low rank brown coals  

SciTech Connect

Coal is one of the sources of nitrogen-containing compounds (NCCs). Recovery of NCCs from brown coals in high yield was carried out from tars of stepwise semicoking of brown coals. Humic acids have been shown to contain many types of nitrogen compounds. Humic acids are thought to be complex aromatic macromolecules with amino acids, amino sugars, peptides, and aliphatic compounds that are involved in the linkages between the aromatic groups. Humic acids extracted from peats, brown coals, and lignites, are characterized using different techniques. Humic substances (HSs) have several known benefits to agriculture. The properties of humic substances vary from source to source, because they are heterogeneous mixtures of biochemical degradation products from plant and animal residues, and synthesis activities of microorganisms. HSs have been considered to be a significant floculant in surface water filtration plants for the production of drinking water as well as the processing of water. HSs are produced from chemical and biological degradation of plant and animal residues and from synthetic activities of microorganisms.

Demirbas, A.; Kar, Y.; Deveci, H. [Selcuk University, Konya (Turkey). Department of Chemical Engineering

2006-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

226

Oxidative derivatization and solubilization of coal. Final report. Period: October 1, 1986 - April 30, 1988  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

We investigated the solubilization of coal by oxidative means to produce motor fuels. Nitric acid was used in the first of two approaches taken to cleave aliphatic linkages in coal and reduce the size of its macrostructure. Mild conditions, with temperatures up to a maximum of 75 C, and nitric acid concentrations below 20% by weight, characterize this process. The solid product, obtained in high yields, is soluble in polar organic solvents. Lower alcohols, methanol in particular, are of interest as carrier solvents in diesel fuel applications. Coals investigated were New York State peat, Wyodak subbituminous coal, North Dakota lignite, and Illinois No. 6 bituminous coal. The lower tank coals were easily converted and appear well suited to the process, while the bituminous Illinois No. 6 and Pitt Seam coals were unreactive. We concentrated our efforts on Wyodak coal and North Dakota lignite. Reaction conditions with regards to temperature, acid concentration, and time were optimized to obtain high product selectivity at maximum conversion. A continuous process scheme was developed for single pass coal conversions of about 50% to methanol-soluble product.

Schulz, J.G.; Porowski, E.N.; Straub, A.M.

1988-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

227

Retention indices, relative response factors, and mass spectra of trifluoroethyl and heptafluorobutyl esters of carboxylic acids determined by capillary GC/MS  

SciTech Connect

The GC/MS characteristics of carboxylic acid esters prepared from fluorine-containing alcohols were compared to those of methyl esters. The GC retention of 2,2,2-trifluoroethyl (TFE) esters was less than, and 2,2,3,3,4,4,4-heptafluoro-1-butyl (HFB) esters approximately equivalent to that of methyl esters. The peak shape of both TFE and HFB esters was slightly superior to that of methyl esters. Mass spectra of TFE and HFB aliphatic esters show significantly more intense molecular and key fragment ions than those of methyl esters. Also, owing to their significantly higher molecular weights, TFE or HFB ester molecular ions and most fragment ions of interest occur at significantly higher m/z values than most potential interfering ions. The GC retention indices, relative GC/MS total ion current response factors, and 70 eV electron impact mass spectra of about 70 TFE and 70 HFB carboxylic acid esters are reported. Results from analysis of a TFE/HFB esterified petroleum carboxylic acid concentrate are discussed in detail. 26 refs., 17 figs., 3 tabs.

Yu, S.K.-T.; Vrana, R.P.; Green, J.B.

1990-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

228

Microwave pyrolysis of distillers dried grain with solubles (DDGS) for biofuel production  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Microwave pyrolysis of distillers dried grain with solubles (DDGS) was investigated to determine the effects of pyrolytic conditions on the yields of bio-oil, syngas, and biochar. Pyrolysis process variables included reaction temperature, time, and power input. Microwave pyrolysis of DDGS was analyzed using response surface methodology to ?nd out the effect of process variables on the biofuel (bio-oil and syn- gas) conversion yield and establish prediction models. Bio-oil recovery was in the range of 26.5–50.3 wt.% of the biomass. Biochar yields were 23.5–62.2% depending on the pyrolysis conditions. The energy con- tent of DDGS bio-oils was 28 MJ/kg obtained at the 650 oC and 8 min, which was about 66.7% of the heat- ing value of gasoline. GC/MS analysis indicated that the biooil contained a series of important and useful chemical compounds: aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons. At least 13% of DDGS bio-oil was the same hydrocarbon compounds found in regular unleaded gasoline.

Lei, Hanwu; Ren, Shoujie; Wang, Lu; Bu, Quan; Julson, James; Holladay, Johnathan E.; Ruan, Roger

2011-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

229

Effect of sewage sludge or compost on the sorption and distribution of copper and cadmium in soil  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The application of biosolids such as sewage sludge is a concern, because of the potential release of toxic metals after decomposition of the organic matter. The effect of application of sewage sludge (Sw) and compost (C) to the soil (S) on the Cu and Cd sorption, distribution and the quality of the dissolved organic matter (DOM) in the soil, was investigated under controlled conditions. Visible spectrophotometry, infrared spectroscopy, sorption isotherms (simple and competitive sorption systems), and sequential extraction methods were used. The E {sub 4}/E {sub 6} ({lambda} at 465 and 665 nm) ratio and the infrared spectra (IR) of DOM showed an aromatic behaviour in compost-soil (C-S); in contrast sewage sludge-soil (Sw-S) showed an aliphatic behaviour. Application of either Sw or C increased the Cu sorption capacity of soil. The Cd sorption decreased only in soil with a competitive metal system. The availability of Cu was low due to its occurrence in the acid soluble fraction (F3). The Cu concentration varied in accordance with the amounts of Cu added. The highest Cd concentration was found in the exchangeable fraction (F2). The Sw and C applications did not increase the Cd availability in the soil.

Vaca-Paulin, R. [Laboratorio de Edafologia y Ambiente, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Mexico, Instituto Literario No. 100, Toluca 50000 (Mexico)]. E-mail: rvp@uaemex.mx; Esteller-Alberich, M.V. [Centro Interamericano de Recursos del Agua, Facultad de Ingenieria, Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Mexico, Toluca 50000 (Mexico); Lugo-de la Fuente, J. [Laboratorio de Edafologia y Ambiente, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Mexico, Instituto Literario No. 100, Toluca 50000 (Mexico); Zavaleta-Mancera, H.A. [Colegio de Postgraduados, Instituto de Recursos Naturales. km 36.5 Carr, Mexico-Texcoco, Montecillo 56230 (Mexico)

2006-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

230

Complexation of N4-Tetradentate Ligands with Nd(III) and Am(III)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

To improve understanding of aza-complexants in trivalent actinide–lanthanide separations, a series of tetradentate N-donor ligands have been synthesized and their complexation of americium(III) and neodymium(III) investigated by UV–visible spectrophotometry in methanolic solutions. The six pyridine/alkyl amine/imine ligands are N,N0-bis(2-methylpyridyl)-1,2-diaminoethane, N,N0-bis(2-methylpyridyl)-1,3-diaminopropane, trans-N,N-bis(2-pyridylmethyl)-1,2-diaminocyclohexane (BPMDAC), N,N’-bis(2-pyridylmethyl)piperazine, N,N’-bis-[pyridin-2-ylmethylene]ethane-1,2-diamine, and trans-N,Nbis-([pyridin-2-ylmethylene]-cyclohexane-1,2-diamine. Each ligand has two pyridine groups and two aliphatic amine/imine N-donor atoms arranged with different degrees of preorganization and structural backbone rigidity. Conditional stability constants for the complexes of Am(III) and Nd(III) by these ligands establish the selectivity patterns. The overall selectivity of Am(III) over Nd(III) is similar to that reported for the terdentate bis(dialkyltriazinyl)pyridine molecules. The cyclohexane amine derivative (BPMDAC) is the strongest complexant and shows the highest selectivity for Am(III) over Nd(III) while the imines appear to prefer a bridging arrangement between two cations. These results suggest that this series of ligands could be employed to develop an enhanced actinide(III)– lanthanide(III) separation system.

Ogden, Mark D.; Sinkov, Sergey I.; Meier, G. Patrick; Lumetta, Gregg J.; Nash, Kenneth L.

2012-12-06T23:59:59.000Z

231

Heber Geothermal Demonstration Power Plant. Interim report No. 1, August 1977--January 1978  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The work performed from August 1977 through January 1978 pertinent to the design of the Heber Geothermal Demonstration Power Plant is summarized. The report discusses review of earlier baseline geothermal studies performed by Holt/Procon and the design optimization performed by Fluor Engineers and Constructors, Inc., and The Ben Holt Company. The Heber project objective is to design, construct and operate a power plant to produce a net power output of 45 MW/sub e/, deriving energy from a low-salinity, moderate temperature (360/sup 0/F, 182/sup 0/C) brine heat source available from the Heber geothermal reservoir. A binary cycle conversion system employs a light aliphatic hydrocarbon mixture to derive heat from the brine supply, throuh heat exchangers, and drive the turbine-generator to produce power. Chevron Resources Company develops the geothermal resource for sale to San Diego Gas and Electric Company. Power output will be distributed to California's Imperial Valley by the Imperial Valley Irrigation District.

Unitt, S.G.

1978-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

232

BEDT-TFF salts with fluorinated sulfonate anions.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A number of layered conducting BEDT-TTF, bis(ethylenedithio)tetrathiafulvalene, salts with heavily fluorinated organosulfonate anions have been prepared and characterized. Of particular interest are the salts containing SF{sub 5}RSO{sub 3}{sup -} anions, where R is a partially fluorinated aliphatic backbone. While structurally similar --the {beta}' packing type predominates--the ground state of these salts varies from superconducting in the case of {beta}'-(BEDT-TTF){sub 2}SF{sub 5}CH{sub 2}CF{sub 2}SO{sub 3} [1] to insulating. Many of the salts with insulating ground states are metallic at room temperature, but charge localization and disproportionation over crystallographically non-equivalent sites occurs at low temperature. The organosulfonate group exhibits a propensity to bind to lithium ions, thus ternary salts incorporating Li+ into the complex anion layer are often found. The fluorophilic effect in organofluorine compounds may be exploited to form salts where the conducting BEDT-TTF layers are separated by extremely bulky anion bilayers. The crystal structure of one such system, (BEDT-TTF){sub 3}[(CF{sub 3}){sub 2}CFC{sub 2}H{sub 4}SO{sub 3}]{sub 4}(H{sub 5}O{sub 2}){sub 2}, is described here.

Geiser, U.; Schlueter, J. A.; Kini, A. M.; Wang, H. H.; Ward, B. H.; Mohtasham, J.; Gard, G. L.; Portland State Univ.

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

233

Design, construction, operation, and evaluation of solar systems for industrial process-heat applications in the intermediate-temperature range (212/sup 0/F to 550/sup 0/F). Environmental assessment  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The environmental impacts are assessed for a proposed 50,000 square foot field of single axis tracking, concentrating solar collectors along the Ohio River in southern Ohio. The facility is planned to produce process steam for use in the production of polystyrene. Absorbed solar energy would heat an aliphatic hydrocarbon synthetic heat transfer fluid to a maximum temperature of 500/sup 0/F. The existing environment is briefly described, particularly regarding air quality. The potential environmental impacts of the solar process heat system on the air, water, soil, endangered species and archaeological and historical resources are examined, including risks due to flood and glare and a comparison of alternatives. Also included are a Consent Judgment relating to two coal-fired boilers in violation of EPA regulations, property data of Gulf Synfluid 4CS (a candidate heat transfer fluid), piping and instrumentation diagrams and schematics, site grade and drainage plan, geological survey map, subsurface soil investigation, Ohio endangered species list, Ohio Archaeological Counsel certification list, and a study of heat transfer fluids and their properties. (LEW)

Not Available

234

Process for hydrocracking carbonaceous material in liquid carrier  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Solid carbonaceous material is hydrocracked to provide aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons for use as gaseous and liquid fuels or chemical feed stock. Particulate carbonaceous material such as coal in slurry with recycled product oil is preheated in liquid state to a temperature of 600.degree.-1200.degree. F. in the presence of hydrogen gas. The product oil acts as a sorbing agent for the agglomerating bitumins to minimize caking within the process. In the hydrocracking reactor, the slurry of oil and carbonaceous particles is heated within a tubular passageway to vaporize the oil and form a gas-solid mixture which is further heated to a hydropyrolysis temperature in excess of 1200.degree. F. The gas-solid mixture is quenched by contact with additional oil to condense normally liquid hydrocarbons for separation from the gases. A fraction of the hydrocarbon liquid product is recycled for quenching and slurrying with the carbonaceous feed. Hydrogen is recovered from the gas for recycle and additional hydrogen is produced by gasification of residual char.

Duncan, Dennis A. (Downers Grove, IL)

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

235

Compositional Analysis of Water-Soluble Materials in Corn Stover  

SciTech Connect

Corn stover is one of the leading feedstock candidates for commodity-scale biomass-to-ethanol processing. The composition of water-soluble materials in corn stover has been determined with greater than 90% mass closure in four of five representative samples. The mass percentage of water-soluble materials in tested stover samples varied from 14 to 27% on a dry weight basis. Over 30 previously unknown constituents of aqueous extracts were identified and quantified using a variety of chromatographic techniques. Monomeric sugars (primarily glucose and fructose) were found to be the predominant water-soluble components of corn stover, accounting for 30-46% of the dry weight of extractives (4-12% of the dry weight of feedstocks). Additional constituents contributing to the mass balance for extractives included various alditols (3-7%), aliphatic acids (7-21%), inorganic ions (10-18%), oligomeric sugars (4-12%), and a distribution of oligomers tentatively identified as being derived from phenolic glycosides (10-18%).

Chen, S. F.; Mowery, R. A.; Scarlata, C. J.; Chambliss, C. K.

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

236

CHARACTERIZATION AND EVALUATION OF CAUSTIC WASH TANK AND SOLVENT HOLD TANK SAMPLES FROM MCU FROM AUGUST TO SEPTEMBER 2011  

SciTech Connect

During processing of Salt Batches 3 and 4 in the Modular Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU), the decontamination efficiency for cesium declined from historical values and from expectations based on laboratory testing. This report documents efforts to analyze samples of solvent and process solutions from MCU in an attempt to understand the cause of the reduced performance and to recommend mitigations. CWT Solutions from MCU from the time period of variable decontamination factor (DF) performance which covers from April 2011 to September 2011 (during processing of Salt Batch 4) were examined for impurities using chromatography and spectroscopy. The results indicate that impurities were found to be of two types: aromatic containing impurities most likely from Modifier degradation and aliphatic type impurities most likely from Isopar{reg_sign} L and tri-n-octylamine (TOA) degradation. Caustic washing the Solvent Hold Tank (SHT) solution with 1M NaOH improved its extraction ability as determined from {sup 22}Na uptake tests. Evidence from this work showed that pH variance in the aqueous solutions within the range of 1M nitric acid to 1.91M NaOH that contacted the solvent samples does not influence the analytical determination of the TOA concentration by GC-MS.

Fondeur, F.; Fink, S.

2012-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

237

Chemical Characterization and Water Content Determination of Bio-Oils Obtained from Various Biomass Species using 31P NMR Spectroscopy  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Pyrolysis is a promising approach to utilize biomass for biofuels. One of the key challenges for this conversion is how to analyze complicated components in the pyrolysis oils. Water contents of pyrolysis oils are normally analyzed by Karl Fischer titration. The use of 2-chloro-4,4,5,5,-tetramethyl-1,3,2-dioxaphospholane followed by {sup 31}P NMR analysis has been used to quantitatively analyze the structure of hydroxyl groups in lignin and whole biomass. Results: {sup 31}P NMR analysis of pyrolysis oils is a novel technique to simultaneously characterize components and analyze water contents in pyrolysis oils produced from various biomasses. The water contents of various pyrolysis oils range from 16 to 40 wt%. The pyrolysis oils obtained from Loblolly pine had higher guaiacyl content, while that from oak had a higher syringyl content. Conclusion: The comparison with Karl Fischer titration shows that {sup 31}P NMR could also reliably be used to measure the water content of pyrolysis oils. Simultaneously with analysis of water content, quantitative characterization of hydroxyl groups, including aliphatic, C-5 substituted/syringyl, guaiacyl, p-hydroxyl phenyl and carboxylic hydroxyl groups, could also be provided by {sup 31}P NMR analysis.

David, K.; Ben, H.; Muzzy, J.; Feik, C.; Iisa, K.; Ragauskas, A.

2012-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

238

Clean, premium-quality chars: Demineralized and carbon enriched. Final technical report, 1 September, 1992--31 August, 1993  

SciTech Connect

The overall objective of this two-year project was to evaluate methods of preparing demineralized and carbon enriched chars from Illinois Basin coals. The two processing steps, physical cleaning and devolatilization under different environments, led to the following results. Cleaning coal incompletely removes mineral matter which decreases catalytic activity and increases micropore structure. Water forms hydrogen bonds to oxygen functional groups in coal, and during drying, coals undergo structural changes which affect mild gasification. When methane reacts wit coal, devolatilization and carbon deposition occur, the rates of which depend on temperature and amount of ash. Thermal decomposition of IBC-101 coal starts at 300 C, which is much lower than previously believed, but maximum yields of liquids occur at 500 C for IBC-101 coal and at 550 C for IBC-102 coal. Aliphatic-to-aromatic ratios increase with increasing pyrolysis temperatures to 300 C and then decrease; therefore, liquids formed during gasification of 550 C or higher contain mainly aromatic compounds. Btu values of chars are higher after methane treatment than after helium treatment.

Smith, G.V.; Malhotra, V.M.; Wiltowski, T. [Southern Illinois Univ., Carbondale, IL (United States)

1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

239

Nitrous oxide production from radiolysis of simulted high-level nuclear waste solutions  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Nitrous oxide gas (N{sub 2}O) is produced by the radiolysis of aqueous nitrate or nitrite solutions in the presence of organic compounds. When ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) or N- (2-hydroxyethyl)-ethylenediaminetriacetic acid (HEDTA) is present, the G-value for hydrogen increases and N{sub 2}O become the major gaseous product (G=0.54). A survey of organic compounds indicates the amount of N{sub 2}O formed depends on the structure of the organic. With highly oxidized organics (carbonate, formate, acetate and oxalate), little or no N{sub 2}O is formed. Aromatic and aliphatic organics (sodium tetraphenylborate, benzene, phenol, n-paraffin, and tributylphosphate) produce small amounts of N{sub 2}O. Water soluble, easily oxidized organics (methanol, ethanol, isopropanol, n-butanol, acetone, and ethylene glycol) produce large amounts of N{sub 2}O relative to the previous two categories. Nitrous oxide production is not greatly affected by pH between neutral and pH=13, but increases significantly in acid solution. The G-value for N{sub 2}O production in 10 wt% potassium tetraphenylborate slurries has been measured under process conditions important at the Savannah River Site.

Walker, D.D.; Hobbs, D.T.; Tiffany, J.B.; Bibler, N.E. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States); Meisel, D. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

1992-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

240

Nitrous oxide production from radiolysis of simulted high-level nuclear waste solutions  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Nitrous oxide gas (N{sub 2}O) is produced by the radiolysis of aqueous nitrate or nitrite solutions in the presence of organic compounds. When ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) or N- (2-hydroxyethyl)-ethylenediaminetriacetic acid (HEDTA) is present, the G-value for hydrogen increases and N{sub 2}O become the major gaseous product (G=0.54). A survey of organic compounds indicates the amount of N{sub 2}O formed depends on the structure of the organic. With highly oxidized organics (carbonate, formate, acetate and oxalate), little or no N{sub 2}O is formed. Aromatic and aliphatic organics (sodium tetraphenylborate, benzene, phenol, n-paraffin, and tributylphosphate) produce small amounts of N{sub 2}O. Water soluble, easily oxidized organics (methanol, ethanol, isopropanol, n-butanol, acetone, and ethylene glycol) produce large amounts of N{sub 2}O relative to the previous two categories. Nitrous oxide production is not greatly affected by pH between neutral and pH=13, but increases significantly in acid solution. The G-value for N{sub 2}O production in 10 wt% potassium tetraphenylborate slurries has been measured under process conditions important at the Savannah River Site.

Walker, D.D.; Hobbs, D.T.; Tiffany, J.B.; Bibler, N.E. (Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States)); Meisel, D. (Argonne National Lab., IL (United States))

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "denatured aliphatic alco" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Rapid radiosynthesis of [11C] and [14C]azelaic, suberic, and sebacic acids for in vivo mechanistic studies of systemic acquired resistance in plants  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A recent report that the aliphatic dicarboxylic acid, azelaic acid (1,9-nonanedioic acid) but not related acids, suberic acid (1,8-octanedioic acid) or sebacic (1,10-decanedioic acid) acid induces systemic acquired resistance to invading pathogens in plants stimulated the development of a rapid method for labeling these dicarboxylic acids with {sup 11}C and {sup 14}C for in vivo mechanistic studies in whole plants. {sup 11}C-labeling was performed by reaction of ammonium [{sup 11}C]cyanide with the corresponding bromonitrile precursor followed by hydrolysis with aqueous sodium hydroxide solution. Total synthesis time was 60 min. Median decay-corrected radiochemical yield for [{sup 11}C]azelaic acid was 40% relative to trapped [{sup 11}C]cyanide, and specific activity was 15 GBq/{micro}mol. Yields for [{sup 11}C]suberic and sebacic acids were similar. The {sup 14}C-labeled version of azelaic acid was prepared from potassium [{sup 14}C]cyanide in 45% overall radiochemical yield. Radiolabeling procedures were verified using {sup 13}C-labeling coupled with {sup 13}C-NMR and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis. The {sup 11}C and {sup 14}C-labeled azelaic acid and related dicarboxylic acids are expected to be of value in understanding the mode-of-action, transport, and fate of this putative signaling molecule in plants.

Best M.; Fowler J.; Best, M.; Gifford, A.N.; Kim, S.W.; Babst, B.; Piel, M.; Roesch, F.; Fowler, J.S.

2011-11-25T23:59:59.000Z

242

Organochlorine Turnover in Forest Ecosystems: The Missing Link in the Terrestrial Chlorine Cycle  

SciTech Connect

Research in the last 20 years has shown that chlorine undergoes transformations between inorganic and organic forms as part of a complex biogeochemical cycle in terrestrial systems. Natural organochlorine production appears to be associated with the decomposition of plant material on the soil surface, though the chlorine cycle budget implies that a proportion of natural organochlorine enters soil through plant litter and atmospheric deposition as well. Organochlorine compounds may form through biotic and abiotic pathways, but the rates and magnitude of production in the field remain undefined. We have performed a time-dependent trace of chlorine concentration through forest ecosystems, revealing distinct fractions of naturally produced organochlorine in plant biomass. Aliphatic organochlorine constitutes an intrinsic component of healthy leaves that persists through senescence and humification of the plant material, making a substantial contribution to the pool of soil organochlorine. Plant leaves also contain soluble aromatic organochlorine compounds that leach from leaf litter during early decay stages. As decay progresses, high concentrations of insoluble aromatic organochlorine accrue in the humus, through de novo production as well as adsorption. The rates of aromatic organochlorine production and degradation vary seasonally and conversely. This study presents the first unambiguous evidence that there exist multiple pools of chlorinated organic matter in the soil environment and that leaf litter deposition makes a significant and refractory contribution to the soil organochlorine pool, providing key insights into the biogeochemical chlorine cycle.

A Leri; S Myneni

2011-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

243

Characterization of a Middle Distillate Oil from a Coal hydroliquefaction Plant  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this article, a middle distillate oil obtained from a coal hydroliquefaction pilot plant was characterized by modern analytical instruments. First, using {sup 1}H and {sup 13}C nuclear magnetic resonance, the distribution of hydrogen and carbon atoms were obtained, and the presence of configurations such as long aliphatic carbon chains, alkyl-substituted aromatic ring, and partially hydrogenated aromatics in the middle distillate oil was found. Then the oil was separated into three fractions: saturates, aromatics, and polars by neutral silica gel liquid chromatography, and the detailed compositions of saturates and aromatics were respectively analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The results show that the aromatics fraction is the most abundant one in this oil, but they are not normal aromatics and mainly consist of dicyclic-, tricyclic-, and tetracyclic-partially hydrogenated aromatics with carbon atom numbers from C10-C21, such as tetralin, alkyl-substituted tetralin, hydrophenanthrene, hydroanthracene, hydropyrene, and so on. Saturates mainly comprise n-C12-C27 alkanes. These results are of significance for the further processing and marketing of this oil.

Lin, H.; Zhang, D.; Yang, L.; Pan, T.; Gao, J. [East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai (China)

2009-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

244

Natural organic compounds as tracers for biomass combustion in aerosols  

SciTech Connect

Biomass combustion is an important primary source of carbonaceous particles in the global atmosphere. Although various molecular markers have already been proposed for this process, additional specific organic tracers need to be characterized. The injection of natural product organic tracers to smoke occurs primarily by direct volatilization/steam stripping and by thermal alteration based on combustion temperature. The degree of alteration increases as the burn temperature rises and the moisture content of the fuel decreases. Although the molecular composition of organic matter in smoke particles is highly variable, the molecular structures of the tracers are generally source specific. The homologous compound series and biomarkers present in smoke particles are derived directly from plant wax, gum and resin by volatilization and secondarily from pyrolysis of biopolymers, wax, gum and resin. The complexity of the organic components of smoke aerosol is illustrated with examples from controlled burns of temperate and tropical biomass fuels. Burning of biomass from temperate regions (i.e., conifers) yields characteristic tracers from diterpenoids as well as phenolics and other oxygenated species, which are recognizable in urban airsheds. The major organic components of smoke particles from tropical biomass are straight-chain, aliphatic and oxygenated compounds and triterpenoids. The precursor-to-product approach of organic geochemistry can be applied successfully to provide tracers for studying smoke plume chemistry and dispersion.

Simoneit, B.R.T. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)]|[Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR (United States). Coll. of Oceanic and Atmospheric Sciences; Abas, M.R. bin [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)]|[Univ. of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Cass, G.R. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)]|[California Inst. of Tech., Pasadena, CA (United States). Environmental Engineering Science Dept.; Rogge, W.F. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)]|[Florida International Univ., University Park, FL (United States). Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering; Mazurek, M.A. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Standley, L.J. [Academy of Natural Sciences, Avondale, PA (United States). Stroud Water Research Center; Hildemann, L.M. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States). Dept. of Civil Engineering

1995-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

245

Genotoxicity of complex mixtures: CHO cell mutagenicity assay  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) mammalian cell assay was used to evaluate the genotoxicity of complex mixtures (synthetic fuels). The genotoxicity (mutagenic potency) of the mixtures increased as the temperature of their boiling range increased. Most of the genotoxicity in the 750/sup 0/F+ boiling-range materials was associated with the neutral polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) fractions. Chemical analysis data indicate that the PAH fractions of high-boiling coal liquids contain a number of known chemical carcinogens, including five- and six-ring polyaromatics (e.g., benzo(a)pyrene) as well as four- and five-ring alkyl-substituted PAH (e.g., methylchrysene and dimethylbenzanthracenes); concentrations are a function of boiling point (bp). In vitro genotoxicity was also detected in fractions of nitrogen-containing polyaromatic compounds, as well as in those with aliphatics of hydroxy-containing PAH. Mutagenic activity of some fractions was detectable in the CHO assay in the absence of an exogenous metabolic activation system; in some instances, addition of exogenous enzymes and cofactors inhibited expression of the direct-acting mutagenic potential of the fraction. These data indicate that the organic matrix of the chemical fraction determines whether, and to what degree, various mutagens are expressed in the CHO assay. Therefore, the results of biological assays of these mixtures must be correlated with chemical analyses for proper interpretation of these data. 29 references, 16 figures, 4 tables.

Frazier, M.E.; Samuel, J.E.

1985-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

246

503 CARCINOGENIC ACTION OF MOTOR ENGINE OIL ADDITIVES  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

PREVIOUSLY it was reported that a proprietary engine oil additive was carcinogenic following repeated skin painting in mice (Baldwin, Cunningham and Pratt, 1961). This additive, which is utilized as a high pressure, high temperature lubricant, contains a formulation consisting mainly of lead naphthenate together with small amounts of chlorinated hydrocarbons such as carbon tetrachloride or 1: 1: 1-trichlorethane dispersed in a mineral oil base. The various components are themselves highly heterogeneous mixtures without any well defined characteristics. Thus the lead naphthenate fraction is a subsidiary oil product obtained during the manufacture of hydrocarbon distillates. This fraction, which is of varying composition depending upon the source of crude oil, contains lead salts of a complex mixture of aromatic and aliphatic carboxylic acids (Knotnerus, 1957). Clearly therefore isolation and chemical characterization of the carcinogenic component(s) in the proprietary oil additives, although desirable, is not practical at this time. However it was considered essential to ascertain whether the carcinogenic activity was associated with any one of the crude products,

R. W. Baldwin; G. J. Cunningham; D. Pratt

1964-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

247

BIOTIGER, A NATURAL MICROBIAL PRODUCT FOR ENHANCED HYDROCARBON RECOVERY FROM OIL SANDS.  

SciTech Connect

BioTiger{trademark} is a unique microbial consortia that resulted from over 8 years of extensive microbiology screening and characterization of samples collected from a century-old Polish waste lagoon. BioTiger{trademark} shows rapid and complete degradation of aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons, produces novel surfactants, is tolerant of both chemical and metal toxicity and shows good activity at temperature and pH extremes. Although originally developed and used by the U.S. Department of Energy for bioremediation of oil-contaminated soils, recent efforts have proven that BioTiger{trademark} can also be used to increase hydrocarbon recovery from oil sands. This enhanced ex situ oil recovery process utilizes BioTiger{trademark} to optimize bitumen separation. A floatation test protocol with oil sands from Ft. McMurray, Canada was used for the BioTiger{trademark} evaluation. A comparison of hot water extraction/floatation test of the oil sands performed with BioTiger{trademark} demonstrated a 50% improvement in separation as measured by gravimetric analysis in 4 h and a five-fold increase at 25 hr. Since BioTiger{trademark} performs well at high temperatures and process engineering can enhance and sustain metabolic activity, it can be applied to enhance recovery of hydrocarbons from oil sands or other complex recalcitrant matrices.

Brigmon, R; Topher Berry, T; Whitney Jones, W; Charles Milliken, C

2008-05-27T23:59:59.000Z

248

Conversion of Biomass-Derived Furans into Hydrocarbon Fuels  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

One of the most studied chemical transformations of carbohydrates is their thermocatalytic dehydration to form furans. Cellulose-derived glucose is thereby converted into 5-hydroxymethylfurfuraldehyde (5-HMF), while the hemicellulose-derived pentoses (e.g., xylose, arabinose) form furfuraldehyde. Our objective is to identify new pathways to convert furfuryl alcohol into a mixture of aliphatic hydrocarbons that can be used as drop-in fuels for diesel (C10-20) and jet fuel (C9-16) blends. Furfuryl alcohol is produced commercially through hydrogenation of furfuraldehyde that is derived from hemicellulose-derived pentoses via acid-catalyzed dehydration. The steps that we are currently pursuing to convert furfuryl alcohol into hydrocarbons are 1) oligomerization of furfuryl alcohol to form dimers (C10) and trimers (C15), and 2) hydrotreatment of the dimers and trimers to produce a mixture of linear hydrocarbons with carbon chain lengths in the range of diesel and jet fuels. This presentation will discuss our progress in the development of this pathway.

Moens, L.; Johnson, D. K.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

249

Inhalation developmental toxicology studies: Teratology study of acetone in mice and rats: Final report  

SciTech Connect

Acetone, an aliphatic ketone, is a ubiquitous industrial solvent and chemical intermediate; consequently, the opportunity for human exposure is high. The potential for acetone to cause developmental toxicity was assessed in Sprague-Dawley rats exposed to 0, 440, 2200, or 11000 ppm, and in Swiss (CD-1) mice exposed to 0, 440, 2200, and 6600 ppm acetone vapors, 6 h/day, 7 days/week. Each of the four treatment groups consisted of 10 virgin females (for comparison), and approx.32 positively mated rats or mice. Positively mated mice were exposed on days 6-17 of gestation (dg), and rats on 6-19 dg. The day of plug or sperm detection was designated as 0 dg. Body weights were obtained throughout the study period, and uterine and fetal body weights were obtained at sacrifice (rats, 20 dg; mice, 18 dg). Implants were enumerated and their status recorded. Live fetuses were sexed and examined for gross, visceral, skeletal, and soft-tissue craniofacial defects. 46 refs., 6 figs., 27 tabs.

Mast, T.J.; Evanoff, J.J.; Rommereim, R.L.; Stoney, K.H.; Weigel, R.J.; Westerberg, R.B.

1988-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

250

Role of solid-state interactions in the acid-catalyzed thermolysis of surface-attached diphenylalkanes  

SciTech Connect

The cross-linked, network structure of coal may impose constraints on conventional reaction mechanisms as a consequence of restricted mass transport. We have examined this phenomenon for thermal reactions through the study of model compounds that are covalently anchored to an inert silica surface (1). We have now initiated studies that employ these immobilized model compounds as solid-state probes in modeling fundamental aspects of catalyzed, heterogeneous reactions of coal. There have been numerous recent reports on the development of unsupported, highly dispersed catalysts for improving the conversion and product selectivity in coal liquefaction (2,3) and hydropyrolysis (4). A potential advantage of such dispersed catalysts is the improved contact between the coal, solvent vehicle if present, hydrogen gas, and the catalyst surface, particularly when catalysts with very small particle sizes can be generated. In this paper, we report initial results from a model system that begins to address the mechanistic question of if, in the early stages of coal dissolution, significant activation of solid coal particles by solid catalyst can occur. For this study, surface-immobilized 1,3-diphenylpropane ({approx}DPP) has been employed as a model for related trimethylene (and longer) aliphatic linking groups between aromatic clusters in coal, and its reactivity in the presence of a dispersed aluminosilicate at 310--375{degree}C has been investigated. 8 refs., 2 figs.

Buchanan, A.C. III; Britt, P.F.; Biggs, C.A.

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

251

Regioselective thermolysis of 1,4-diphenylbutane enhanced by restricted radical mobility  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Thermal decomposition of coal has been postulated to involve the formation of free radicals by processes such as the homolysis of aliphatic or ether-containing bridges which connect polycyclic aromatic units into a macromolecular structure. Understanding the thermal reactivity of coal is important in the study of pyrolysis, liquefaction, and coking. Mechanistic insights into the chemical reactivity of coal at the molecular level can be gained from the study of model compounds which represent structural features in coal. However, radicals generated in a cross-linked macromolecular material such as coal may experience restricted mobility when the radical center remains bound to the residual molecular structure. To model the effects of restricted radical mobility on thermally induced decomposition reactions, thermolyses of model compounds covalently attached to an inert support have been studied. Thermolysis of surface-immobilized 1,2-diphenylethane showed a substantially altered free radical reaction pathway compared with the corresponding liquid phase behavior, while thermolysis of surface-immobilized 1,3-diphenylpropane ({approximately}DPP) showed unexpected regioselectivity resulting from conformational restrictions on hydrogen transfer reactions as the surface coverage of {approximately}DPP decreased. In order to further explore the regionselectivity of hydrogen transfer induced by restricted diffusion, the thermolysis of surface-immobilized 1,4-diphenylbutane ({approximately}DPB) is being examined.

Britt, P.F.; Buchanan, A.C. III; Biggs, C.A. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA))

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

252

Commercial-scale demonstration of the Liquid Phase Methanol (LPMEOH{trademark}) Process. Peroxide formation of dimethyl ether in methanol mixtures  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Organic peroxides could form when dimethyl ether in methanol is stored for three to six months at a time. The objective of this work was to determine the level of peroxide formation from dimethyl ether in reagent grade methanol and raw methanol at room temperature under 3 atmospheres (45 psig) of air. Raw methanol is methanol made from syngas by the LPMEOH Process without distillation. Aliphatic ethers tend to react slowly with oxygen from the air to form unstable peroxides. However, there are no reports on peroxide formation from dimethyl ether. After 172 days of testing, dimethyl ether in either reagent methanol or raw methanol at room temperature and under 60--70 psig pressure of air does not form detectable peroxides. Lack of detectable peroxides suggests that dimethyl ether or dimethyl ether and methanol may be stored at ambient conditions. Since the compositions of {approximately} 1.3 mol% or {approximately} 4.5 mol% dimethyl ether in methanol do not form peroxides, these compositions can be considered for diesel fuel or an atmospheric turbine fuel, respectively.

Waller, F.J.

1997-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

253

Reactivity of coals under coprocessing conditions  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

In the recent years greater interest has developed for processes involving coal and petroleum fractions to produce distillate fuels. Coprocessing is especially attractive as a direct liquefaction process because it involves the use of heavy petroleum fractions, so both coal and heavy petroleum resids are upgraded simultaneously. The main distinction of coprocessing from other direct liquefaction processes is that coprocessing is more complex from a chemical standpoint than direct liquefaction processes which use traditional solvents, due to the greater variety of hydrocarbons (aromatic from the coal and aliphatics from the petroleum) present in the system. Therefore, need arises for better understanding of the chemical and physical interactions during coprocessing. The aim of the present study is to examine the influence of reaction conditions, coal and petroleum resid properties as well as the compatibility of the coal/petroleum resid pairs in terms of structural components on total coal conversion. Special focus will be given to the reactivity of coals and interaction of the coal and resid which lead to anisotropic coke.

Tomic, J.; Schobert, H.H.

1992-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

254

Reactivity of coals under coprocessing conditions  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

In the recent years greater interest has developed for processes involving coal and petroleum fractions to produce distillate fuels. Coprocessing is especially attractive as a direct liquefaction process because it involves the use of heavy petroleum fractions, so both coal and heavy petroleum resids are upgraded simultaneously. The main distinction of coprocessing from other direct liquefaction processes is that coprocessing is more complex from a chemical standpoint than direct liquefaction processes which use traditional solvents, due to the greater variety of hydrocarbons (aromatic from the coal and aliphatics from the petroleum) present in the system. Therefore, need arises for better understanding of the chemical and physical interactions during coprocessing. The aim of the present study is to examine the influence of reaction conditions, coal and petroleum resid properties as well as the compatibility of the coal/petroleum resid pairs in terms of structural components on total coal conversion. Special focus will be given to the reactivity of coals and interaction of the coal and resid which lead to anisotropic coke.

Tomic, J.; Schobert, H.H.

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

255

The utilization of the microflora indigenous to and present in oil-bearing formations to selectively plug the more porous zones thereby increasing oil recovery during waterflooding. Sixteenth quarterly progress report, October 1--December 31, 1997  

SciTech Connect

There are ten injection wells receiving nutrients and twenty producing wells in test patterns are being monitoring for responses. Petrophysical studies of recovered core sample from the 3 newly drilled wells are still in progress. Monthly collection of produced fluids from the test and control wells in all patterns continued with the following tasks being performed: aliphatic profile (gas chromatographic analysis); API gravity and absolute viscosity under reservoir temperature; pH of produced water; surface tension (ST) of produced water (water-air); interfacial tension (IFT) for produced oil-water system; microbiological population; and inorganic analyses (nitrate, phosphate, sulfate, sulfide, chloride, potassium, and hardness). Production data on all wells in all patterns continues to be evaluated. Increased gas production that has been noted in some wells could be the result of microbial activity or from previous unswept areas of the reservoir. Samples of gas were collected from selected production wells and analyzed by gas chromatography using a Fisher Model No. 12 Gas Partitioner. The results of analyses from four sets of samples are given.

Brown, L.R.; Vadie, A.A. [Mississippi State Univ., MS (United States)

1998-01-20T23:59:59.000Z

256

Magnetic nanoparticles for applications in oscillating magnetic field  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Enzymatic and thermochemical catalysis are both important industrial processes. However, the thermal requirements for each process often render them mutually exclusive: thermochemical catalysis requires high temperature that denatures enzymes. One of the long-term goals of this project is to design a thermocatalytic system that could be used with enzymatic systems in situ to catalyze reaction sequences in one pot; this system would be useful for numerous applications e.g. conversion of biomass to biofuel and other commodity products. The desired thermocatalytic system would need to supply enough thermal energy to catalyze thermochemical reactions, while keeping the enzymes from high temperature denaturation. Magnetic nanoparticles are known to generate heat in an oscillating magnetic field through mechanisms including hysteresis and relaxational losses. We envisioned using these magnetic nanoparticles as the local heat source embedded in sub-micron size mesoporous support to spatially separate the particles from the enzymes. In this study, we set out to find the magnetic materials and instrumental conditions that are sufficient for this purpose. Magnetite was chosen as the first model magnetic material in this study because of its high magnetization values, synthetic control over particle size, shape, functionalization and proven biocompatibility. Our experimental designs were guided by a series of theoretical calculations, which provided clues to the effects of particle size, size distribution, magnetic field, frequency and reaction medium. Materials of theoretically optimal size were synthesized, functionalized, and their effects in the oscillating magnetic field were subsequently investigated. Under our conditions, the materials that clustered e.g. silica-coated and PNIPAM-coated iron oxides exhibited the highest heat generation, while iron oxides embedded in MSNs and mesoporous iron oxides exhibited the least bulk heating. It is worth noting that the specific loss power of PNIPAM-coated Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} was peculiarly high, and the heat loss mechanism of this material remains to be elucidated. Since thermocatalysis is a long-term goal of this project, we also investigated the effects of the oscillating magnetic field system for the synthesis of 7-hydroxycoumarin-3-carboxylic acid. Application of an oscillating magnetic field in the presence of magnetic particles with high thermal response was found to effectively increase the reaction rate of the uncatalyzed synthesis of the coumarin derivative compared to the room temperature control.

Peeraphatdit, Chorthip

2010-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

257

Passivation of fluorinated activated charcoal  

SciTech Connect

The Molten Salt Reactor Experiment (MSRE), at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory has been shut down since 1969 when the fuel salt was drained from the core into two Hastelloy N tanks at the reactor site. In 1995, a multiyear project was launched to remediate the potentially hazardous conditions generated by the movement of fissile material and reactive gases from the storage tanks into the piping system and an auxiliary charcoal bed (ACB). The top 12 in. of the ACB is known by gamma scan and thermal analysis to contain about 2.6 kg U-233. According to the laboratory tests, a few feet of fluorinated charcoal are believed to extend beyond the uranium front. The remainder of the ACB should consist of unreacted charcoal. Fluorinated charcoal, when subjected to rapid heating, can decompose generating gaseous products. Under confined conditions, the sudden exothermic decomposition can produce high temperatures and pressures of near-explosive characteristics. Since it will be necessary to drill and tap the ACB to allow installation of piping and instrumentation for remediation and recovery activities, it is necessary to chemically convert the reactive fluorinated charcoal into a more stable material. Ammonia can be administered to the ACB as a volatile denaturing agent that results in the conversion of the C{sub x}F to carbon and ammonium fluoride, NH{sub 4}F. The charcoal laden with NH{sub 4}F can then be heated without risking any sudden decomposition. The only consequence of heating the treated material will be the volatilization of NH{sub 4}F as a mixture of NH{sub 3} and HF, which would primarily recombine as NH{sub 4}F on surfaces below 200 C. The planned scheme for the ACB denaturing is to flow diluted ammonia gas in steps of increasing NH{sub 3} concentration, 2% to 50%, followed by the injection of pure ammonia. This report summarizes the planned passivation treatment scheme to stabilize the ACB and remove the potential hazards. It also includes basic information, results of laboratory tests, thermodynamic calculations, process description, and operational parameters, and addresses safety concerns.

Del Cul, G.D.; Trowbridge, L.D.; Simmons, D.W.; Williams, D.F.; Toth, L.M.

1997-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

258

Engineering an ultra-stable affinity reagent based on Top7  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

ABSTRACT Antibodies are widely used for diagnostic and therapeutic applications because of their sensitive and specific recognition of a wide range of targets; however, their application is limited by their structural complexity. More demanding applications require greater stability than can be achieved by immunoglobulin-based reagents. Highly-stable, proteinbased affinity reagents are being investigated for this role with the goal of identifying a suitable scaffold that can attain specificity and sensitivity similar to that of antibodies while performing under conditions where antibodies fail. We have engineered Top7 a highly stable, computationally-designed protein to specifically bind human CD4 by inserting a peptide sequence derived from a CD4-specific antibody. Molecular dynamics simulations were used to evaluate the structural effect of the peptide insertion at a specific site within Top7 and suggest that this Top7 variant retains conformational stability over 100 °C. This engineered protein specifically binds CD4 and, consistent with simulations, is extremely resistant to thermal and chemical denaturation retaining its secondary structure up to at least 95°C and requiring 6 M guanidine to completely unfold. This CD4-specific protein demonstrates the functionality of Top7 as a viable scaffold for use as a general affinity reagent which could serve as a robust and inexpensive alternative to antibodies.

Boschek, Curt B.; Apiyo, David O.; Soares, Thereza A.; Engelmann, Heather E.; Pefaur, Noah; Straatsma, TP; Baird, Cheryl L.

2009-03-25T23:59:59.000Z

259

Description of alternative steady-state fuel cycles  

SciTech Connect

This study provides a first cut analysis for the FRAD program of a range of reference, steady-state, fresh and spent fuel compositions for the development of alternative fuels refabrication technology. Included are the resource requirements and separative work requirements and the material flows for each fuel cycle evaluated. However, since steady-state represents only a portion of the complete fuel cycle, a more in depth evaluation of each alternative fuel cycle will follow this analysis. Each of the fuel types investigated is composed of either plutonium-uranium (Pu-U), denatured uranium-thorium (DU-Th), plutonium-thorium (Pu-Th), highly enriched uranium-thorium (HEU-Th) or low enriched uranium (LEU). Seven ''closed cycles'' were formed by coupling two or more of the above fuel types. The closed cycle concept assumes that all fissile material recovered from spent fuel is either recycled into fresh fuel, or retired to waste when its net reactivity worth is equal to or less than tails equivalence. Additional fissile material required as makeup is introduced to the system from the enrichment cascade only. Each closed system presented in this study simulates the production of 1000 MWe in steady-state operation. The findings of this preliminary study indicated that, at equilibrium, those closed cycles which employ DU-Th or HEU-Th as the primary fuel are more efficient with respect to resource consumption than those cycles where LEU is used as the primary fuel.

Boegel, A.J.; Merrill, E.T.; Newman, D.F.; Nolan, A.M.

1978-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

260

Two Pinning Models with Markov disorder  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Disordered pinning models deal with the (de)localization tran- sition of a polymer in interaction with a heterogeneous interface. In this paper, we focus on two models where the inhomogeneities at the interface are not independent but given by an irreducible Markov chain on a finite state space. In the first model, using Markov renewal tools, we give an expression for the annealed critical curve in terms of a Perron-Frobenius eigenvalue, and provide examples where exact computations are possible. In the second model, the transition matrix vary with the size of the system so that, roughly speaking, disorder is more and more correlated. In this case we are able to give the limit of the averaged quenched free energy, therefore providing the full phase diagram picture, and the number of critical points is related to the number of states of the Markov chain. We also mention that the question of pinning in correlated disorder appears in the context of DNA denaturation.

Poisat, Julien

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "denatured aliphatic alco" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Word Pro - S10  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

41 41 Table 10.3 Fuel Ethanol Overview Feed- stock a Losses and Co- products b Dena- turant c Production d Trade d Stocks d,f Stock Change d,g Consumption d Consump- tion Minus Denaturant h Net Imports e TBtu TBtu Mbbl Mbbl MMgal TBtu Mbbl Mbbl Mbbl Mbbl MMgal TBtu TBtu 1981 Total .................. 13 6 40 1,978 83 7 NA NA NA 1,978 83 7 7 1985 Total .................. 93 42 294 14,693 617 52 NA NA NA 14,693 617 52 51 1990 Total .................. 111 49 356 17,802 748 63 NA NA NA 17,802 748 63 62 1995 Total .................. 198 86 647 32,325 1,358 115 387 2,186 -207 32,919 1,383 117 114 2000 Total .................. 233 99 773 38,627 1,622 138 116 3,400 -624 39,367 1,653 140 137 2001 Total .................. 253 108 841 42,028 1,765 150 315 4,298 898 41,445 1,741 148 144 2002 Total .................. 307 130 1,019 50,956 2,140 182 306 6,200

262

New Crystal Structures Lift Fog around Protein Folding  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

New Crystal Structures Lift Fog around Protein Folding Print New Crystal Structures Lift Fog around Protein Folding Print Nature's proteins set a high bar for nanotechnology. Macromolecules forged from peptide chains of amino acids, these biomolecular nanomachines must first be folded into a dazzling variety of shapes and forms before they can perform the multitude of functions fundamental to life. However, the mechanisms behind the protein-folding process have remained a foggy mystery. Now the fog is lifting: a team of researchers from Berkeley Lab, Stanford University, and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology has deciphered the crystal structure of a critical control element within chaperonin, the protein complex responsible for the correct folding of other proteins. Chaperonins promote the proper folding of newly translated proteins and proteins that have been stress-denatured-meaning they've lost their structure-by encapsulating them inside a protective chamber formed from two rings of molecular complexes stacked back-to-back. There are two classes of chaperonins, group I found in prokaryotes and group II found in eukaryotes and archaea (organisms with no cell membrane or internal membrane-bound organelles). Much of the basic architecture has been evolutionarily preserved (conserved) across these two classes but they do differ in how the protective chamber is opened to accept proteins and closed to fold them. Whereas group I chaperonins require a detachable ring-shaped molecular lid to open and close the chamber, group II chaperonins have a built-in lid.

263

Strategy for the practical utilization of thorium fuel cycles  

SciTech Connect

There has been increasing interest in the utilization of thorium fuel cycles in nuclear power reactors for the past few years. This is due to a number of factors, the chief being the recent emphasis given to increasing the proliferation resistance of reactor fuel cycles and the thorium cycle characteristic that bred /sup 233/U can be denatured with /sup 238/U (further, a high radioactivity is associated with recycle /sup 233/U, which increases fuel diversion resistance). Another important factor influencing interest in thorium fuel cycles is the increasing cost of U/sub 3/O/sub 8/ ores leading to more emphasis being placed on obtaining higher fuel conversion ratios in thermal reactor systems, and the fact that thorium fuel cycles have higher fuel conversion ratios in thermal reactors than do uranium fuel cycles. Finally, there is increasing information which indicates that fast breeder reactors have significantly higher capital costs than do thermal reactors, such that there is an economic advantage in the long term to have combinations of fast breeder reactors and high-conversion thermal reactors operating together. Overall, it appears that the practical, early utilization of thorium fuel cycles in power reactors requires commercialization of HTGRs operating first on stowaway fuel cycles, followed by thorium fuel recycle. In the longer term, thorium utilization involves use of thorium blankets in fast breeder reactors, in combination with recycling the bred /sup 233/U to HTGRs (preferably), or to other thermal reactors.

Kasten, P.R.

1978-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

264

Closed DTU fuel cycle with Np recycle and waste transmutation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A nuclear energy scenario for the 21st century that included a denatured thorium-uranium-oxide (DTU) fuel cycle and new light water reactors (LWRs) supported by accelerator-driven transmutation of waste (ATW) systems was previously described. This coupled system with the closed DTU fuel cycle provides several improvements beyond conventional LWR (CLWR) (once-through, UO{sub 2} fuel) nuclear technology: increased proliferation resistance, reduced waste, and efficient use of natural resources. However, like CLWR fuel cycles, the spent fuel in the first one-third core discharged after startup contains higher-quality Pu than the equilibrium fuel cycle. To eliminate this high-grade Pu, Np is separated and recycled with Th and U--rather than with higher actinides [(HA) including Pu]. The presence of Np in the LWR feed greatly increases the production of {sup 238}Pu so that a few kilograms of Pu generated enough alpha-decay heat that the separated Pu is highly resistant to proliferation. This alternate process also simplifies the pyrochemical separation of fuel elements (Th and U) from HAs. To examine the advantages of this concept, the authors modeled a US deployment scenario for nuclear energy that includes DTU-LWRs plus ATW`s to burn the actinides produced by these LWRs and to close the back-end of the DTU fuel cycle.

Beller, D.E.; Sailor, W.C.; Venneri, F. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Herring, J.S. [Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Lab., ID (United States)

1999-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

265

Structure of gas-liquid interface and hydrophobic interface for urea aqueous solution: a computer simulation study  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Urea aqueous solution is ubiquitously used to denature protein. Regardless of its extensive use, the mechanism is still unclear and remains an active field of study. There have been two proposed mechanisms, the direct and indirect. The indirect mechanism, which attributes the ability of urea of changing water structure, is susceptible since many research works show that there is little effect of urea on water structure. The current study provided evidence for the indirect mechanism by demonstrating that the introduction of urea slightly changes the water structure in the hydrophobic interfacial areas. In the current study, the urea aqueous solution systems with either gas-liquid or hydrophobic interface are studied by MD simulations, and the structures of water near the interfacial areas are analyzed in terms of density, orientation and number of hydrogen bonds. For each kind of interface, systems with four different urea concentrations are included, ranging from 0M to 8M. The results show slight change of water structure by the urea solute on the hydrophobic interface in terms of the orientation and number of hydrogen bonds per water molecule.

Yu, Meng

2008-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

266

DNAter dot RNA helicase activity of RAD3 protein of Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The RAD3 gene of Saccharomyces cerevisiae is required for excision repair of UV-damaged DNA and is essential for cell viability. The RAD3 protein exhibits a remarkable degree of sequence homology to the human excision repair protein ERCC2. The RAD3 protein is a single-stranded DNA-dependent ATPase and a DNA helicase capable of denaturing long regions of duplex DNA. Here, the authors demonstrate that RAD3 also possesses a potent DNA{center dot}RNA helicase activity similar in efficiency to its DNA helicase activity. The rad3 Arg-48 mutant protein, which binds but does not hydrolyze ATP, lacks the DNA{center dot}RNA unwinding activity, indicating a dependence on ATP hydrolysis. RAD3 does not show any RNA-dependent NTPase activity and, as expected, does not unwind duplex RNA. This observation suggest that RAD3 translocates on DNA in unwinding DNA{center dot}RNA duplexes. That the rad3 Arg-48 mutation inactivates the DNA and DNA{center dot}RNA helicase activities and confers a substantial reduction in the incision of UV-damaged DNA suggests a role for these activities in incision. The authors discuss how RAD3 helicase activities could function in tracking of DNA in search of damage sites and effect enhanced excision repair of actively transcribed genes.

Bailly, V.; Sung, P.; Prakash, L.; Prakash, S. (Univ. of Rochester, NY (United States))

1991-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

267

Preface : the 2000 ethanol vehicle challenge.  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The technical papers presented in this special publication represent the efforts of students from 16 colleges and universities across North America. Over 600 students have participated in the Ethanol Vehicle Challenge since its inception in 1998. The 2000 Ethanol Vehicle Challenge was the final year of this successful 3-year advanced vehicle competition series. The papers presented are enhanced and expanded versions of those prepared in advance of the competition by the participating student engineers. They describe the design elements, construction details, and performance of the dedicated ethanol vehicles brought to the Challenge by the participating universities. The goal of this competition was to demonstrate the potential of E85 (85% denatured ethanol and 15% hydrocarbon primer) to significantly lower emissions and improve the performance, fuel efficiency and cold starting of vehicles fueled by ethanol. The competition series began with a Request for Proposals in January 1997. A letter announcing and soliciting interest in the competition (Notice of Interest) was sent to all accredited engineering programs and two-year technical schools in the US and Canada. The Notice described the competition and the requirements for the conversion of a 1997 Chevrolet Malibu to dedicated E85 operation. On the basis of the submitted proposals, 14 schools were selected to participate in the first competition in 1998. Those schools were invited to participate again in 1999. Two additional schools collaborated with the existing teams for the 2000 competition; these two teams participated in the competition, but they were not eligible for the competition awards.

LeBlanc, N. M.; Larsen, R. P.

2000-12-11T23:59:59.000Z

268

How trehalose protects DNA in the dry state: a molecular dynamics simulation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Molecular dynamics simulations were conducted on a system consisting of a decamer DNA solvated by trehalose and water (molecular ratio= 1:2), to mimic a relatively dry state for the DNA molecule. Simulations were performed at two different temperatures, 300 K and 450 K. The B-form DNA structure was shown to be stable at both temperatures. The analysis of hydrogen bonds between trehalose/water and DNA revealed that trehalose and backbone DNA formed the largest number of hydrogen bonds and thus constituted the major effect of structural protection for DNA. The number of hydrogen bonds formed by each OH group of trehalose with the backbone DNA was compared. Different types of trehalose-DNA interactions were analyzed, with no prevalent pattern recognized. Diffusion constants for trehalose and water were also calculated, suggesting a glassy/viscose state of the simulation system. It is believed that trehalose protects DNA in the dry state through the network of hydrogen bonds built by the sugars, which reduces the structural fluctuations of DNA and prevents its denaturation.

Fu, Xuebing

2008-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

269

Annual progress report, December 1, 1979-November 30, 1980  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Structure and function in photosynthetic membranes and their components continue to be studied, principally with Rhodopseudomonas sphaeroides. We have discovered how to remove bacteriochlorophyll (bchl) from a specific binding site in the antenna pigment-protein complex B850, and to replace the bchl without denaturing the complex. This has never before been achieved for any photosynthetic chlorophyllprotein complex. It opens a substantial vista of experiments designed to elucidate the nature of the binding site. Our analyses of the B850 and B875 complexes cast doubt on the accepted ratios of bchl components, carotenoids and protein and hence on models based on these ratios. We have shown that Rp. sphaeroides contains a specific second quinone (Q/sub b/) in contact with the primary photochemical electron acceptor (Q/sub a/) and distinct from the molecules of a larger pool of quinone. We have resolved conflicting reports about the polypeptide composition of reaction centers from Rhodopseudomonas viridis. We have new data on the orientation, relative to the photosynthetic membrane, of cytochrome 552 in Rp. viridis and of the shifting component of carotenoid in Rp. sphaeroides. We have constructed and are using a new circular dichroism spectrometer.

Clayton, R.K.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

270

Santa Clara County Planar Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Demonstration Project  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The Santa Clara County Planar Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (PSOFC) project demonstrated the technical viability of pre-commercial PSOFC technology at the County 911 Communications headquarters, as well as the input fuel flexibility of the PSOFC. PSOFC operation was demonstrated on natural gas and denatured ethanol. The Santa Clara County Planar Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (PSOFC) project goals were to acquire, site, and demonstrate the technical viability of a pre-commercial PSOFC technology at the County 911 Communications headquarters. Additional goals included educating local permit approval authorities, and other governmental entities about PSOFC technology, existing fuel cell standards and specific code requirements. The project demonstrated the Bloom Energy (BE) PSOFC technology in grid parallel mode, delivering a minimum 15 kW over 8760 operational hours. The PSOFC system demonstrated greater than 81% electricity availability and 41% electrical efficiency (LHV net AC), providing reliable, stable power to a critical, sensitive 911 communications system that serves geographical boundaries of the entire Santa Clara County. The project also demonstrated input fuel flexibility. BE developed and demonstrated the capability to run its prototype PSOFC system on ethanol. BE designed the hardware necessary to deliver ethanol into its existing PSOFC system. Operational parameters were determined for running the system on ethanol, natural gas (NG), and a combination of both. Required modeling was performed to determine viable operational regimes and regimes where coking could occur.

Fred Mitlitsky; Sara Mulhauser; David Chien; Deepak Shukla; David Weingaertner

2009-11-14T23:59:59.000Z

271

Nonlinear Lattice Dynamics of Bose-Einstein Condensates  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The Fermi-Pasta-Ulam (FPU) model, which was proposed 50 years ago to examine thermalization in non-metallic solids and develop ``experimental'' techniques for studying nonlinear problems, continues to yield a wealth of results in the theory and applications of nonlinear Hamiltonian systems with many degrees of freedom. Inspired by the studies of this seminal model, solitary-wave dynamics in lattice dynamical systems have proven vitally important in a diverse range of physical problems--including energy relaxation in solids, denaturation of the DNA double strand, self-trapping of light in arrays of optical waveguides, and Bose-Einstein condensates (BECs) in optical lattices. BECS, in particular, due to their widely ranging and easily manipulated dynamical apparatuses--with one to three spatial dimensions, positive-to-negative tuning of the nonlinearity, one to multiple components, and numerous experimentally accessible external trapping potentials--provide one of the most fertile grounds for the analysis of solitary waves and their interactions. In this paper, we review recent research on BECs in the presence of deep periodic potentials, which can be reduced to nonlinear chains in appropriate circumstances. These reductions, in turn, exhibit many of the remarkable nonlinear structures (including solitons, intrinsic localized modes, and vortices) that lie at the heart of the nonlinear science research seeded by the FPU paradigm.

Mason A. Porter; R. Carretero-González; P. G. Kevrekidis; Boris A. Malomed

2004-09-13T23:59:59.000Z

272

Microbiology and physiology of anaerobic fermentation of cellulose. Progress report (4/30/91--4/30/92) and outline of work for the period 9/1/92--9/1/93  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The authors are continuing their efforts to partly dissociate the cellulolytic enzyme complex of C. thermocellum. This complex named cellulosome (also existing as polycellulosome) consists of perhaps as many as 26 different subunits. It is extremely resistant to dissociation and denaturation. Treatments with urea and SDS have little effect unless the latter treatment is at high temperature. Significantly, some of the subunits after SDS dissociation have CMCase (endoglucanase) activity but no activity toward crystalline cellulose. The only reported success of hydrolysis of crystalline cellulose by cellulosomal subunits is by Wu et al. who isolated two protein fractions labeled SL and SS which when combined exhibit a low (about 1% of the original cellulosome) activity toward crystalline cellulose. The long standing goal is still to determine the activities of the individual subunits, to characterize them, to find out how they are associated in the cellulosome, and to establish the minimum number of subunits needed for efficient hydrolysis of crystalline cellulose. This report also presents the results of experiments on cellulose hydrolysis in aerobic fungi, as well as other anaerobic bacteria.

Ljungdahl, L.G.

1992-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

273

Structure and function of Frankia vesicles in dinitrogen fixation by actinorhizal plants. Final report, April 1, 1982-March 31, 1984  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Frankia, a filamentous bacterium which induces N/sub 2/-fixing root nodules on the roots of a wide range of woody dicotyledonous plants, is the first known actinomycete which fixes dinitrogen when growing in free-living culture. The nitrogenase enzyme is induced in many strains of this organism by withholding fixed nitrogen compounds from its nutrient medium. Terminal swellings of the bacterial filaments develop rapidly and acetylene reduction activity (= nitrogenase) increases in proportion to the number of terminal vesicles formed. The induction of vesicles and establishment of acetylene reduction occurs under aerobic conditions, and the evidence is accumulating which demonstrates the existence of a multilaminate vesicle envelope which serves as a physical barrier protecting the oxygen-labile nitrogenase from denaturation. Our studies are concerned with the physiology, biochemistry and structural development of the N/sub 2/-fixing apparatus in Frankia grown in vitro and in root nodules of host plants. Diverse strains of Frankia are under study isolated and cultured from different host plants. Two strains have been studied, especially HFPArI3, an isolate from nodules of the red alder Alnus rubra, and HFPCcI3, isolated from root nodules of the tropical tree Casuarina cunninghamiana. The goal is to understand the structure and function which leads to optimum effectiveness for dinitrogen fixation. 9 refs.

Torrey, J.G.

1985-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

274

The cost of ethanol production from lignocellulosic biomass -- A comparison of selected alternative processes. Final report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The purpose of this report is to compare the cost of selected alternative processes for the conversion of lignocellulosic biomass to ethanol. In turn, this information will be used by the ARS/USDA to guide the management of research and development programs in biomass conversion. The report will identify where the cost leverages are for the selected alternatives and what performance parameters need to be achieved to improve the economics. The process alternatives considered here are not exhaustive, but are selected on the basis of having a reasonable potential in improving the economics of producing ethanol from biomass. When other alternatives come under consideration, they should be evaluated by the same methodology used in this report to give fair comparisons of opportunities. A generic plant design is developed for an annual production of 25 million gallons of anhydrous ethanol using corn stover as the model substrate at $30/dry ton. Standard chemical engineering techniques are used to give first order estimates of the capital and operating costs. Following the format of the corn to ethanol plant, there are nine sections to the plant; feed preparation, pretreatment, hydrolysis, fermentation, distillation and dehydration, stillage evaporation, storage and denaturation, utilities, and enzyme production. There are three pretreatment alternatives considered: the AFEX process, the modified AFEX process (which is abbreviated as MAFEX), and the STAKETECH process. These all use enzymatic hydrolysis and so an enzyme production section is included in the plant. The STAKETECH is the only commercially available process among the alternative processes.

Grethlein, H.E.; Dill, T.

1993-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

275

In vitro effects of Nd:YAG laser radiation on blood: a quantitative and morphologic analysis  

SciTech Connect

Use of the Neodymium: yttrium -aluminum -garnet (Nd:YAG) laser to recanalize stenosed arteries may require delivery of the beam through blood. To assess the degree of hemolysis and debris formation, 54 samples of citrated whole blood were exposed to Nd:YAG laser radiation of varying powers (10, 20 and 30 watts) and duration (1, 2.5 and 5 seconds). Compared to control samples which were not subjected to laser light, there was no significant decrease in hematocrit (41 to 40.5 +/- 5%), hemoglobin concentration (13.8 to 13.8 +/- .06 g/1OO ml), or increase in free hemoglobin concentration. Debris weight (from .45 +/- .002 to .45 +/- .002 mg), as well as the white blood cell count, was also not significantly changed (from 5,400 to 5,200 +/- 240 WBC/cm). Light microscopy examination of debris from samples of whole blood, washed erythrocytes, and platelet-rich plasma subjected to the laser at 30 watts for five seconds failed to demonstrate the presence of membrane denaturation of blood elements, as compared with the morphologic changes observed in whole blood samples exposed to a hot tip rather than Nd:YAG laser radiation. Nd:YAG laser can be used intravascularly without fear of hemolysis or debris micro-embolization up to a power of 30 watts for five seconds.

Borrero, E.; Rosenthal, D.; Otis, J.B.

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

276

Perchlorate and Nitrate Remediation Efficiency and Microbial Diversity in a Containerized Wetland Bioreactor  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

We have developed a method to remove perchlorate (14 to 27 {micro}g/L) and nitrate (48 mg/L) from contaminated groundwater using a wetland bioreactor. The bioreactor has operated continuously in a remote field location for more than two years with a stable ecosystem of indigenous organisms. This study assesses the bioreactor for long-term perchlorate and nitrate remediation by evaluating influent and effluent groundwater for reduction-oxidation conditions and nitrate and perchlorate concentrations. Total community DNA was extracted and purified from 10-g sediment samples retrieved from vertical coring of the bioreactor during winter. Analysis by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis of short, 16S rDNA, polymerase-chain-reaction products was used to identify dominant microorganisms. Bacteria genera identified were closely affiliated with bacteria widely distributed in soils, mud layers, and fresh water. Of the 17 dominant bands sequenced, most were gram negative and capable of aerobic or anaerobic respiration with nitrate as the terminal electron acceptor (Pseudomonas, Acinetobacter, Halomonas, and Nitrospira). Several identified genera (Rhizobium, Acinetobactor, and Xanthomonas) are capable of fixing atmospheric nitrogen into a combined form (ammonia) usable by host plants. Isolates were identified from the Proteobacteria class, known for the ability to reduce perchlorate. Initial bacterial assessments of sediments confirm the prevalence of facultative anaerobic bacteria capable of reducing perchlorate and nitrate in situ.

Jr., B D; Dibley, V; Pinkart, H; Legler, T

2004-06-09T23:59:59.000Z

277

Sources of Technical Variability in Quantitative LC-MS Proteomics: Human Brain Tissue Sample Analysis.  

SciTech Connect

To design a robust quantitative proteomics study, an understanding of both the inherent heterogeneity of the biological samples being studied as well as the technical variability of the proteomics methods and platform is needed. Additionally, accurately identifying the technical steps associated with the largest variability would provide valuable information for the improvement and design of future processing pipelines. We present an experimental strategy that allows for a detailed examination of the variability of the quantitative LC-MS proteomics measurements. By replicating analyses at different stages of processing, various technical components can be estimated and their individual contribution to technical variability can be dissected. This design can be easily adapted to other quantitative proteomics pipelines. Herein, we applied this methodology to our label-free workflow for the processing of human brain tissue. For this application, the pipeline was divided into four critical components: Tissue dissection and homogenization (extraction), protein denaturation followed by trypsin digestion and SPE clean-up (digestion), short-term run-to-run instrumental response fluctuation (instrumental variance), and long-term drift of the quantitative response of the LC-MS/MS platform over the 2 week period of continuous analysis (instrumental stability). From this analysis, we found the following contributions to variability: extraction (72%) >> instrumental variance (16%) > instrumental stability (8.4%) > digestion (3.1%). Furthermore, the stability of the platform and its’ suitability for discovery proteomics studies is demonstrated.

Piehowski, Paul D.; Petyuk, Vladislav A.; Orton, Daniel J.; Xie, Fang; Moore, Ronald J.; Ramirez Restrepo, Manuel; Engel, Anzhelika; Lieberman, Andrew P.; Albin, Roger L.; Camp, David G.; Smith, Richard D.; Myers, Amanda J.

2013-05-03T23:59:59.000Z

278

Model of leaf photosynthesis and the effects of simple gaseous sulfur compounds (H/sub 2/S and SO/sub 2/)  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A theoretical development is presented of a leaf model and the effects of simple sulfur compounds (H{sub 2}S and SO{sub 2}) on photosynthesis based upon biochemical mechanisms. The model is developed to interpret short-term fumigation experiments and to use with season-long fumigation experiments to assess the effects of these compounds on growth. The model is designed as a submodel in a growth-and-allocation model of the plant. Included in this development are an analysis of the diffusion of CO{sub 2} and sulfur compound into the leaf, enzymatic interactions of sulfur in dark and light reactions of photosynthesis, temperature dependence of the kinetics and denaturization of enzymes, metabolism of sulfur compounds, and a hypothesis for the long-term effects of sulfur compounds. Enhanced photosynthesis at low H{sub 2}S levels, depression of photosynthesis at high H/sub 2/S levels, threshold to effects of sulfur pollutants, and the nature of the temperature dependence of photosynthesis are explained. Parameters in the model for sugar beets from data in the literature and from experiments funded through LLL were used. The properties of the model were analyzed. Data and experiments still required, sensitivities of the model to parameters and variables, implications to assessments, and the setting of standards for gaseous pollutants, are discussed.

Kercher, J.R.

1978-08-10T23:59:59.000Z

279

New developments for the site-specific attachment of protein to surfaces  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Protein immobilization on surfaces is of great importance in numerous applications in biology and biophysics. The key for the success of all these applications relies on the immobilization technique employed to attach the protein to the corresponding surface. Protein immobilization can be based on covalent or noncovalent interaction of the molecule with the surface. Noncovalent interactions include hydrophobic interactions, hydrogen bonding, van der Waals forces, electrostatic forces, or physical adsorption. However, since these interactions are weak, the molecules can get denatured or dislodged, thus causing loss of signal. They also result in random attachment of the protein to the surface. Site-specific covalent attachment of proteins onto surfaces, on the other hand, leads to molecules being arranged in a definite, orderly fashion and uses spacers and linkers to help minimize steric hindrances between the protein surface. This work reviews in detail some of the methods most commonly used as well as the latest developments for the site-specific covalent attachment of protein to solid surfaces.

Camarero, J A

2005-05-12T23:59:59.000Z

280

Solvent Sensitivity of Protein Unfolding: Study of Chicken Villin Headpiece Subdomain in Water-Ethanol and Water-DMSO Mixtures  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In the present work we study and compare unfolding of a small protein, chicken villin headpiece (HP-36) in two different aqueous binary mixtures, namely water-ethanol (EtOH) and water-dimethyl sulphoxide (DMSO). In both the binary mixtures, HP-36 is found to unfold (fully or partially, depending on the mixture) under ambient conditions, that otherwise requires temperature as high as ~600 K to denature in pure aqueous solvent. In all the cases, first step of unfolding is found to be similar, i.e. separation of the cluster formed by three hydrophobic (phenylalanine) residues, namely Phe-7, Phe-11 and Phe-18, which constitute the hydrophobic core, thereby initiating melting of helix-2 of the protein. Subsequent unfolding steps follow different paths in different chemical environments. As both water-DMSO and water-ethanol show composition dependent anomalies, so do the details of unfolding dynamics. With an increase of co-solvent concentration different partially unfolded intermediates are found to be formed in b...

Ghosh, Rikhia; Bagchi, Biman

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "denatured aliphatic alco" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

A Novel Low Temperature PCR Assured High-Fidelity DNA Amplification  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Abstract: As previously reported, a novel low temperature (LoTemp) polymerase chain reaction (PCR) catalyzed by a moderately heat-resistant (MHR) DNA polymerase with a chemical-assisted denaturation temperature set at 85 °C instead of the conventional 94–96 °C can achieve high-fidelity DNA amplification of a target DNA, even after up to 120 PCR thermal cycles. Furthermore, such accurate amplification is not achievable with conventional PCR. Now, using a well-recognized L1 gene segment of the human papillomavirus (HPV) type 52 (HPV-52) as the template for experiments, we demonstrate that the LoTemp high-fidelity DNA amplification is attributed to an unusually high processivity and stability of the MHR DNA polymerase whose high fidelity in template-directed DNA synthesis is independent of non-existent 3'–5 ' exonuclease activity. Further studies and understanding of the characteristics of the LoTemp PCR technology may facilitate implementation of DNA sequencing-based diagnostics at the point of care in community hospital laboratories.

Guofan Hong; Sin Hang Lee; Shichao Ge; Shaoxia Zhou

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

282

Renewal sequences, disordered potentials, and pinning phenomena  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We give an overview of the state of the art of the analysis of disordered models of pinning on a defect line. This class of models includes a number of well known and much studied systems (like polymer pinning on a defect line, wetting of interfaces on a disordered substrate and the Poland-Scheraga model of DNA denaturation). A remarkable aspect is that, in absence of disorder, all the models in this class are exactly solvable and they display a localization-delocalization transition that one understands in full detail. Moreover the behavior of such systems near criticality is controlled by a parameter and one observes, by tuning the parameter, the full spectrum of critical behaviors, ranging from first order to infinite order transitions. This is therefore an ideal set-up in which to address the question of the effect of disorder on the phase transition,notably on critical properties. We will review recent results that show that the physical prediction that goes under the name of Harris criterion is indeed fully correct for pinning models. Beyond summarizing the results, we will sketch most of the arguments of proof.

Giambattista Giacomin

2008-07-27T23:59:59.000Z

283

Federal Alternative Fuel Program Light Duty Vehicle Operations. Second annual report to Congress for fiscal year 1992  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This annual report to Congress details the second year of the Federal light duty vehicle operations as required by Section 400AA(b)(1)(B) of the Energy Policy and Conservation Act as amended by the Alternative Motor Fuels Act of 1988, Public Law 100-494. In 1992, the Federal alternative fuel vehicle fleet expanded significantly, from the 65 M85 (85 percent methanol and 15 percent unleaded gasoline) vehicles acquired in 1991 to an anticipated total of 3,267 light duty vehicles. Operating data are being collected from slightly over 20 percent, or 666, of these vehicles. The 601 additional vehicles that were added to the data collection program in 1992 include 75 compressed natural gas Dodge full-size (8-passenger) vans, 25 E85 (85 percent denatured ethanol and 15 percent unleaded gasoline) Chevrolet Lumina sedans, 250 M85 Dodge Spirit sedans (planned to begin operation in fiscal year 1993), and 251 compressed natural gas Chevrolet C-20 pickup trucks. Figure ES-1 illustrates the locations where the Federal light duty alternative fuel vehicles that are participating in the data collection program are operating. The primary criteria for placement of vehicles will continue to include air quality attainment status and the availability of an alternative fuel infrastructure to support the vehicles. This report details the second year of the Federal light duty vehicle operations, from October 1991 through September 1992.

Not Available

1993-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

284

US-DOE Fusion-Breeder Program: blanket design and system performance  

SciTech Connect

Conceptual design studies are being used to assess the technical and economic feasibility of fusion's potential to produce fissile fuel. A reference design of a fission-suppressed blanket using conventional materials is under development. Theoretically, a fusion breeder that incorporates this fusion-suppressed blanket surrounding a 3000-MW tandem mirror fusion core produces its own tritium plus 5600 kg of /sup 233/U per year. The /sup 233/U could then provide fissile makeup for 21 GWe of light-water reactor (LWR) power using a denatured thorium fuel cycle with full recycle. This is 16 times the net electric power produced by the fusion breeder (1.3 GWe). The cost of electricity from this fusion-fission system is estimated to be only 23% higher than the cost from LWRs that have makeup from U/sub 3/O/sub 8/ at present costs (55 $/kg). Nuclear performance, magnetohydrodynamics (MHD), radiation effects, and other issues concerning the fission-suppressed blanket are summarized, as are some of the present and future objectives of the fusion breeder program.

Lee, J.D.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

285

State of California BOARD OF EQUALIZATION USE FUEL TAX REGULATIONS Regulation 1301.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Fuel includes any combustible gas or liquid, by whatever name the gas or liquid may be known or sold, of a kind used in an internal combustion engine for the generation of power to propel a motor vehicle on the highways, except fuel that is subject to the tax imposed by the Motor Vehicle Fuel License Tax Law and the Diesel Fuel Tax Law. For example, fuel includes, but is not limited to, liquefied petroleum gases, kerosene, distillate, stove oil, natural gas in liquid or gaseous form, and alcohol fuels. “Alcohol fuel ” includes: ethanol (ethyl alcohol), methanol, (methyl alcohol), or blends of gasoline and alcohol (including any denaturant) containing 15 percent, or less, gasoline by volume measured at 60 degrees Fahrenheit. “Natural gas ” means naturally occurring mixtures of hydrocarbon gases and vapors consisting principally of methane whether in gaseous or liquid form. The taxable unit for compressed natural gas (gaseous form) is 100 cubic feet of gas measured at 14.73 pounds of pressure per square inch at 60 degrees Fahrenheit. The taxable unit for liquid natural gas and other liquid fuels is the United States gallon, which is 231 cubic inches. To convert liters to gallons, the quantity of liters shall be multiplied by.26417 to determine the equivalent quantity in gallons. The resulting figure should be rounded to the nearest tenth of a gallon.

unknown authors

1949-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

286

The effects of chronic nitrogen fertilization on alpine tundra soil microbial communities: implications for carbon and nitrogen cycling  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Many studies have shown that changes in nitrogen (N) availability affect primary productivity in a variety of terrestrial systems, but less is known about the effects of the changing N cycle on soil organic matter (SOM) decomposition. We used a variety of techniques to examine the effects of chronic N amendments on SOM chemistry and microbial community structure and function in an alpine tundra soil. We collected surface soil (0-5 cm) samples from five control and five long-term N-amended plots established and maintained at the Niwot Ridge Long-term Ecological Research (LTER) site. Samples were bulked by treatment and all analyses were conducted on composite samples. The fungal community shifted in response to N amendments, with a decrease in the relative abundance of basidiomycetes. Bacterial community composition also shifted in the fertilized soil, with increases in the relative abundance of sequences related to the Bacteroidetes and Gemmatimonadetes, and decreases in the relative abundance of the Verrucomicrobia. We did not uncover any bacterial sequences that were closely related to known nitrifiers in either soil, but sequences related to archaeal nitrifiers were found in control soils. The ratio of fungi to bacteria did not change in the N-amended soils, but the ratio of archaea to bacteria dropped from 20% to less than 1% in the N-amended plots. Comparisons of aliphatic and aromatic carbon compounds, two broad categories of soil carbon compounds, revealed no between treatment differences. However, G-lignins were found in higher relative abundance in the fertilized soils, while proteins were detected in lower relative abundance. Finally, the activities of two soil enzymes involved in N cycling changed in response to chronic N amendments. These results suggest that chronic N fertilization induces significant shifts in soil carbon dynamics that correspond to shifts in microbial community structure and function.

Nemergut, Diana R [Institute of Arctic and Alpine Research; Townsend, Alan R [Institute of Arctic and Alpine Research; Taylor, John [University of California, Berkeley; Sattin, Sarah R [Institute of Arctic and Alpine Research; Freeman, Kristen R [University of Colorado, Boulder; Fierer, Noah [Institute of Arctic and Alpine Research; Neff, Jason [University of Colorado, Boulder; Bowman, William D [University of Colorado, Boulder; Schadt, Christopher Warren [ORNL; Weintraub, Michael N [University of Toledo, Toledo, OH; Schmidt, Steven K. [University of Colorado

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

287

Carbon K-shell excitation of gaseous and condensed cyclic hydrocarbons: C/sub 3/H/sub 6/, C/sub 4/H/sub 8/, C/sub 5/H/sub 8/, C/sub 5/H/sub 10/, C/sub 6/H/sub 10/, C/sub 6/H/sub 12/, and C/sub 8/H/sub 8/  

SciTech Connect

The carbon K-shell excitation spectra of gaseous cyclic hydrocarbons, both saturated (cyclopropane, cyclobutane, cyclopentane, cyclohexane) and unsaturated (cyclopentene, cyclohexene, and cyclooctatetraene), have been recorded by electron energy loss spectroscopy under dipole-dominated conditions. These are compared to the NEXAFS spectra of multilayers and monolayers of C/sub 4/H/sub 8/, C/sub 5/H/sub 8/, C/sub 6/H/sub 12/, and C/sub 8/H/sub 8/ on Pt(111). Multiple scattering X..cap alpha.. calculations of the spectra of cyclopropane, cyclobutane, and cyclohexane are also reported. In most cases the gas and solid spectra are essentially the same indicating that intramolecular transitions dominate in the condensed phase. The NEXAFS polarization dependence of the condensed phases has assisted spectral assignments and the determination of the molecular orientation in the monolayer phase. In the saturated species a sharp feature about 3 eV below the carbon 1s ionization threshold is identified as a transition to a state of mixed Rydberg/valence character with the ..pi..*(CH/sub 2/) valence component dominating. Except for cyclopropane the positions of the main sigma * resonances correlate with the C-C bond lengths in a manner similar to that reported previously for noncyclic aliphatic molecules. In the spectra of monolayer C/sub 6/H/sub 12/, C/sub 5/H/sub 8/, and C/sub 8/H/sub 8/ spectral broadening and weak additional features are observed which are attributed to molecule-surface interactions.

Hitchcock, A.P.; Newbury, D.C.; Ishii, I.; Stoehr, J.; Horsley, J.A.; Redwing, R.D.; Johnson, A.L.; Sette, F.

1986-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

288

Assessment of subsurface VOCs using a chemical microsensor array. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the results of laboratory investigations of several performance parameters relevant to surface-acoustic-wave (SAW) chemical sensor arrays for the measurement of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in contaminated soil and groundwater. The small size, low cost, sensitivity and selectivity of such instruments promise improvements in the quality and quantity of data used to guide site assessment and restoration efforts. In this investigation, calibrations were performed for 15 different coated SAW sensors. Each sensor was exposed to six VOCs selected to represent three chemical classes of contaminants that are commonly found at waste sites (i.e., aliphatic, aromatic and chlorinated hydrocarbons). A new pattern recognition method was developed for determining which coated sensors would maximize the selectivity and accuracy of quantitation for a given set of vapor contaminants. Using this method, an optimal subwet of four coated sensors was selected for testing in a prototype microsensor instrument. Additional laboratory experiments were performed with this optimized array to assess the limits of detection and linear response ranges for the representative vapors, as well as the additivity of responses to vapors in binary mixtures, temperature and humidity effects, aging effects, and other performance parameters related to the application of this technology to soil and groundwater VOC monitoring. Results demonstrate that SAW microsensor arrays can identify and quantify specific VOCs at concentrations in the {mu}g/L to mg/L range when present alone or in simple (e.g., binary) mixtures. SAW sensor technology offers a potentially effective alternative to existing field instrumentation for headspace analysis, soil vapor monitoring, and vacuum extraction process monitoring of VOCs in subsurface media.

Batterman, S.A.; Zellers, E.T. [Michigan Univ., Ann Arbor, MI (United States). School of Public Health

1993-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

289

Adsorption of organic molecules at the mercury-solution interface: effect of anion specific adsorption on double layer properties. [Benzyl alcohol  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Adsorption of iso-pentanol, pentanoic acid, and benzyl alcohol at the mercury-solution interface was studied in HC1O/sub 4/, H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/, NaNO/sub 3/, and NaF electrolytes. The Frumkin isotherm equation Ba = (theta/(1-theta))exp(2..cap alpha..theta) together with the implied charge vs. surface excess relation: q = (1-theta)q/sub w/ + thetaQ were used to analyze the experimental data. Linear charge vs surface excess plots were obtained for the aliphatic compounds over the entire potential region studied; for benzyl alcohol, plots were linear only at anodic potentials. The slopes of these lines agreed with those predicted by the above equation, with Q = C/sub org/(V-V/sub n/), for cathodic potentials. At potentials anodic to the electrocapillary maximum, deviations between experimental and theoretical slopes appeared. In the model proposed, the double layer consists of two parts. The layer closest to the surface is restricted to water molecules and specifically adsorbed ions. The second layer contains organic molecules exclusively; any charge necessary to balance the surface charge is considered to be in a monolayer adjacent to the organic layer. From the slope of the charge vs surface excess plots, it is possible to calculate the charge on the covered portion of the surface and then calculate the amount of specific adsorption. The relative amounts of specific adsorption are in agreement with known strengths of adsorption of the anions of the electrolyte. Capacity curves were also calculated and were in good agreement with experimental curves.

Buckfelder, J.J. III

1980-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

290

The Electrode as Organolithium Reagent: Catalyst-Free Covalent Attachment of Electrochemically Active Species to an Azide-Terminated Glassy Carbon Electrode Surface  

SciTech Connect

Glassy carbon electrodes have been activated for modification with azide groups and subsequent coupling with ferrocenyl reagents by a catalyst-free route using lithium acetylide-ethylenediamine complex, and also by the more common Cu(I)-catalyzed alkyne-azide coupling (CuAAC) route, both affording high surface coverages. Electrodes were preconditioned at ambient temperature under nitrogen, and ferrocenyl surface coverages obtained by CuAAC were comparable to those reported with preconditioning at 1000 °C under hydrogen/nitrogen. The reaction of lithium acetylide-ethylenediamine with the azide-terminated electrode affords a 1,2,3-triazolyllithium-terminated surface that is active toward covalent C-C coupling reactions including displacement at an aliphatic halide and nucleophilic addition at an aldehyde. For example, surface ferrocenyl groups were introduced by reaction with (6-iodohexyl)ferrocene; the voltammetry shows narrow, symmetric peaks indicating uniform attachment. Coverages are competitive with those obtained by the CuAAC route. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic data, presented for each synthetic step, are consistent with the proposed reactions. This research was supported as part of the Center for Molecular Electrocatalysis, an Energy Frontier Research Center funded by the US Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is operated by Battelle for the US Department of Energy. A portion of the research was performed using EMSL, a national scientific user facility sponsored by the Department of Energy's Office of Biological and Environmental Research and located at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory.

Das, Atanu K.; Engelhard, Mark H.; Liu, Fei; Bullock, R. Morris; Roberts, John A.

2013-12-02T23:59:59.000Z

291

Prediction of thermodynamic properties of coal derivatives. Annual technical report, March 1, 1992--February 28, 1993  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The purpose of this research program is to understand and model the effect of the different intermolecular forces on the thermodynamic properties of systems containing pure compounds and mixtures. The compounds under consideration vary considerably in size, shape and energy. Therefore in order to develop a theory capable of describing accurately the thermodynamic properties and phase behavior of such systems over a wide range of temperature and pressure, one has to take into account explicitly the differences in shape and size among the various compounds as well as the different type of intermolecular interactions. We have developed equations of state for pure-component chain molecules. We have shown that the excellent performance of complicated theories such as the Generalized Flory Dimer (GFD) theory can be mimicked by simpler equations, if certain assumptions for the shape parameters are made. We developed engineering correlations based on the GFD theory, using local composition theory to take into account the attractive contribution. We compared various methods for the calculation of the repulsive and attractive contributions against computer simulation data for hard and square-well chains, and experimental data from the literature. We also have studied microstructure and local order in fluids that contain asymmetric molecules. In addition, simple cubic equations of state have been applied to calculate physical and chemical-reaction equilibria in non-ideal systems. In order to obtain a better understanding of the intermolecular forces and to test some of our recent models, we have performed considerable experimental work. We used FT-IR to examine the self-association of aliphatic alcohols due to hydrogen bonding. In addition, FT-IR spectroscopy was used to investigate Lewis acid-base interactions between probe and entrainer-cosolvent molecules.

Donohue, M.D.

1992-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

292

Prediction of thermodynamic properties of coal derivatives  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The purpose of this research program is to understand and model the effect of the different intermolecular forces on the thermodynamic properties of systems containing pure compounds and mixtures. The compounds under consideration vary considerably in size, shape and energy. Therefore in order to develop a theory capable of describing accurately the thermodynamic properties and phase behavior of such systems over a wide range of temperature and pressure, one has to take into account explicitly the differences in shape and size among the various compounds as well as the different type of intermolecular interactions. We have developed equations of state for pure-component chain molecules. We have shown that the excellent performance of complicated theories such as the Generalized Flory Dimer (GFD) theory can be mimicked by simpler equations, if certain assumptions for the shape parameters are made. We developed engineering correlations based on the GFD theory, using local composition theory to take into account the attractive contribution. We compared various methods for the calculation of the repulsive and attractive contributions against computer simulation data for hard and square-well chains, and experimental data from the literature. We also have studied microstructure and local order in fluids that contain asymmetric molecules. In addition, simple cubic equations of state have been applied to calculate physical and chemical-reaction equilibria in non-ideal systems. In order to obtain a better understanding of the intermolecular forces and to test some of our recent models, we have performed considerable experimental work. We used FT-IR to examine the self-association of aliphatic alcohols due to hydrogen bonding. In addition, FT-IR spectroscopy was used to investigate Lewis acid-base interactions between probe and entrainer-cosolvent molecules.

Donohue, M.D.

1992-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

293

Structure, Function, and Evolution of Biogenic Amine-binding Proteins in Soft Ticks  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Two highly abundant lipocalins, monomine and monotonin, have been isolated from the salivary gland of the soft tick Argas monolakensis and shown to bind histamine and 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT), respectively. The crystal structures of monomine and a paralog of monotonin were determined in the presence of ligands to compare the determinants of ligand binding. Both the structures and binding measurements indicate that the proteins have a single binding site rather than the two sites previously described for the female-specific histamine-binding protein (FS-HBP), the histamine-binding lipocalin of the tick Rhipicephalus appendiculatus. The binding sites of monomine and monotonin are similar to the lower, low affinity site of FS-HBP. The interaction of the protein with the aliphatic amine group of the ligand is very similar for the all of the proteins, whereas specificity is determined by interactions with the aromatic portion of the ligand. Interestingly, protein interaction with the imidazole ring of histamine differs significantly between the low affinity binding site of FS-HBP and monomine, suggesting that histamine binding has evolved independently in the two lineages. From the conserved features of these proteins, a tick lipocalin biogenic amine-binding motif could be derived that was used to predict biogenic amine-binding function in other tick lipocalins. Heterologous expression of genes from salivary gland libraries led to the discovery of biogenic amine-binding proteins in soft (Ornithodoros) and hard (Ixodes) tick genera. The data generated were used to reconstruct the most probable evolutionary pathway for the evolution of biogenic amine-binding in tick lipocalins.

Mans, Ben J.; Ribeiro, Jose M.C.; Andersen, John F. (NIH)

2008-08-19T23:59:59.000Z

294

Coal liquefaction process streams characterization and evaluation: FT-IR methods for characterization of coal liquefaction products  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This study was designed to demonstrate the use of two FTIR techniques for the analysis of direct coal liquefaction process-derived materials. The two methods were quantitative FTIR analysis and themogravimetric (TG) analysis with FTIR analysis of evolved products (TG-FTIR). The quantitative FTIR analyses of both whole resids and THF-soluble resids provided quantitation of total hydrogen, aliphatic and aromatic hydrogen, total carbon, total oxygen, hydroxyl and etheric oxygen, and ash contents. The FTIR results were usually in agreement with values derived by other, more conventional methods. However, the accuracies of specific measurements, in comparisons with results from conventional methods, ranged from good to poor. The TG-FTIR method provided approximate analyses of coals and resids. The data provided included the time dependent evolution profiles of the volatile species and the elemental composition of the char. Reproducible data of gaseous species and pyrolysis tar yields for whole resid samples larger than 10 mg were obtainable. The yields and evolution profiles of certain volatiles (tar, CO, and methane) provided structural information on the samples. There were some experimental and interpretational difficulties associated with both techniques. Optimization of the curve-resolving routine for coal-liquefaction samples would improve the quantitative FTIR accuracy. Aerosol formation limited the full application of the TG-FTIR technique with the THF-soluble resid samples. At this time, further development of these analytical methods as process development tools will be required before their use for that purpose can be recommended. The use of FTIR as an on-line analytical technique for coal liquefaction process streams requires demonstration before it can be recommended; however, such a demonstration may be warranted.

Serio, M.A.; Teng, H.; Bassilakis, R.; Solomon, P.R. [Advanced Fuel Research, Inc., East Hartford, CT (United States)

1992-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

295

Fission product solvent extraction  

SciTech Connect

Two main objectives concerning removal of fission products from high-level tank wastes will be accomplished in this project. The first objective entails the development of an acid-side Cs solvent-extraction (SX) process applicable to remediation of the sodium-bearing waste (SBW) and dissolved calcine waste (DCW) at INEEL. The second objective is to develop alkaline-side SX processes for the combined removal of Tc, Cs, and possibly Sr and for individual separation of Tc (alone or together with Sr) and Cs. These alkaline-side processes apply to tank wastes stored at Hanford, Savannah River, and Oak Ridge. This work exploits the useful properties of crown ethers and calixarenes and has shown that such compounds may be economically adapted to practical processing conditions. Potential benefits for both acid- and alkaline-side processing include order-of-magnitude concentration factors, high rejection of bulk sodium and potassium salts, and stripping with dilute (typically 10 mM) nitric acid. These benefits minimize the subsequent burden on the very expensive vitrification and storage of the high-activity waste. In the case of the SRTALK process for Tc extraction as pertechnetate anion from alkaline waste, such benefits have now been proven at the scale of a 12-stage flowsheet tested in 2-cm centrifugal contactors with a Hanford supernatant waste simulant. SRTALK employs a crown ether in a TBP-modified aliphatic kerosene diluent, is economically competitive with other applicable separation processes being considered, and has been successfully tested in batch extraction of actual Hanford double-shell slurry feed (DSSF).

Moyer, B.A.; Bonnesen, P.V.; Sachleben, R.A. [and others

1998-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

296

Preignition oxidation characteristics of hydrocarbon fuels  

SciTech Connect

Experimental results obtained from a static reactor are presented for the oxidation of a variety of fuels. Pressure and temperature histories of the reacting fuel/oxidizer mixtures were obtained. Measurements of the stable reaction intermediate and product species were made using gas chromatographic analysis. One aspect of this work involved detailed studies of the oxidation chemistry of relatively low molecular weight aliphatic hydrocarbons: propane, propene, and n-butane. The oxidation chemistry of these fuels was examined at temperatures in the range 550-750 K, equivalence ratios ranging from 0.8 to 4.0 and at subatmospheric pressures. The main characteristics and features of the oxidation mechanisms were determined for each fuel in each temperature regime. The experimental results from propene and propane were used to develop a low and intermediate temperature kinetic mechanism for these fuels based on a low temperature acetaldehyde mechanism of Kaiser et al. and a high temperature propene/propane mechanism of Westbrook and Pitz. General preignition characteristics of higher molecular weight hydrocarbons and binary mixtures of these fuels were also studied. The low temperature/cool flame ignition characteristics of dodecane were investigated at temperatures in the range 523-623 K, equivalence s ranging from 0.8 to 1.0 and at subatmospheric pressures. The preignition characteristics of binary mixtures of dodecane and the aromatic component tetralin were examined. The addition of the tetralin had the overall effect of decreasing the ignition tendency of the mixture, although this effect was nonlinear with respect to the amount of tetralin added.

Wilk, R.D.

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

297

Concentrating aqueous volatile fatty acid salt solutions using a tertiary amine mixture  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Lee (1993) has shown that tertiary amines are able to hics. extract water from low-concentration calcium acetate and sodium acetate solutions. This thesis extends the previous work to include calcium propionate and butyrate. Amine extraction may be used to selectively remove water from a fermentation broth thus concentrating calcium acetate, propionate, and butyrate. Compared to competing technologies that extract undissociated acids from a volatile fatty acid fermentation broth, extracting water with tertiary amines allows for higher pH levels in the broth resulting in greater productivity. Specifically, triethylamine and N,N-diethyl-methylamine in a 1:2 volumetric mixture are superior to any other examined mixture or single amine for extracting water at 40[]C, the proposed fermentation temperature (Lee, 1993; Davison et al., 1966, 1967). Once the acid salts have been concentrated, a variety of techniques are available to convert the concentrated salts into other products such as ketones, alcohols, and acids. At low temperatures, the low-molecular-weight amine mixture has a high affinity for water. By raising the temperature 20 to 25[]C, the water separates from the amine allowing for convenient solvent regeneration of the amine. The distribution coefficients, [] , measure the selectivity of concentrating calcium salts in the aqueous phase. The distribution coefficients generally vary as follows: [] thus, there is less selectivity as the aliphatic group increases in size. The amine mixture was used to extract water from actual fermentation broth to determine whether possible surfactants in the broth interfere with the extraction. Prior to extraction, the fermentation broth was adjusted to pH 11.5 by adding a small amount of lime. The high pH precipitate protein which can be recycled to the fermentor or collected for animal feed. Through 15 extraction runs, no degradation of the amine was observed.

Gaskin, David J

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

298

Accurate and Reliable Quantification of Total Microalgal Fuel Potential as Fatty Acid Methyl Esters by in situ Transesterfication  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

In the context of algal biofuels, lipids, or better aliphatic chains of the fatty acids, are perhaps the most important constituents of algal biomass. Accurate quantification of lipids and their respective fuel yield is crucial for comparison of algal strains and growth conditions and for process monitoring. As an alternative to traditional solvent-based lipid extraction procedures, we have developed a robust whole-biomass in situ transesterification procedure for quantification of algal lipids (as fatty acid methyl esters, FAMEs) that (a) can be carried out on a small scale (using 4-7 mg of biomass), (b) is applicable to a range of different species, (c) consists of a single-step reaction, (d) is robust over a range of different temperature and time combinations, and (e) tolerant to at least 50% water in the biomass. Unlike gravimetric lipid quantification, which can over- or underestimate the lipid content, whole biomass transesterification reflects the true potential fuel yield of algal biomass. We report here on the comparison of the yield of FAMEs by using different catalysts and catalyst combinations, with the acid catalyst HCl providing a consistently high level of conversion of fatty acids with a precision of 1.9% relative standard deviation. We investigate the influence of reaction time, temperature, and biomass water content on the measured FAME content and profile for 4 different samples of algae (replete and deplete Chlorella vulgaris, replete Phaeodactylum tricornutum, and replete Nannochloropsis sp.). We conclude by demonstrating a full mass balance closure of all fatty acids around a traditional lipid extraction process.

Laurens, L. M. L.; Quinn, M.; Van Wychen, S.; Templeton, D. W.; Wolfrum, E. J.

2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

299

Removal of technetium from alkaline nuclear-waste media by a solvent-extraction process using crown ethers  

SciTech Connect

Crown ethers dissolved in suitably modified aliphatic kerosene diluents can be employed to extract technetium as pertechnetate anion (TcO{sub 4}{sup {minus}}) with good extraction ratios from realistic simulants of radioactive alkaline nitrate waste. The modifiers utilized are non-halogenated and non-volatile, and the technetium can be removed from the solvent by stripping using water. The crown ethers bis-4,4{prime}(5{prime})[(tert-butyl)cyclohexano]-18-crown-6 (di-t-BuCH18C6) and dicyclohexano-18-crown-6 (DCH18C6) provide stronger TcO{sub 4}{sup {minus}} extraction than dicyclohexano-21-crown-7 and 4-tert-butylcyclohexano 15-crown-5. Whereas DCH18C6 provides somewhat higher TcO{sub 4}{sup {minus}} extraction ratios than the more lipophilic di-t-BuCH18C6 derivative, the latter was selected for further study owing to its lower distribution to the aqueous phase. Particularly good extraction and stripping results were obtained with di-t-BuCH 18C6 at 0.02 M in a 2:1 vol/vol blend of tributyl phosphate and Isopar{reg_sign} M. Using this solvent, 98.9% of the technetium contained (at 6 {times} 10{sup {minus}5} M) in a Double-Shell Slurry Feed (DSSF) Hanford tank waste simulant was removed following two cross-current extraction contacts. Two cross-current stripping contacts with deionized water afforded removal of 99.1% of the technetium from the organic solvent.

Bonnesen, P.V.; Presley, D.J.; Haverlock, T.J.; Moyer, B.A. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Chemical and Analytical Sciences Div.

1995-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

300

Acid-base properties, deactivation, and in situ regeneration of condensation catalysts for synthesis of methyl methacrylate  

SciTech Connect

Condensation reaction of a propionate with formaldehyde is a novel route for synthesis of methyl methacrylate (MMA). The reaction mechanism involves a proton abstraction from the propionate on the basic sites and activation of the aliphatic aldehyde on the acidic sites of the catalyst. The acid-base properties of ternary V-Si-P oxide catalysts and their relation to the NWA yield in the vapor phase condensation of formaldehyde with propionic anhydride has been studied for the first time. Five different V-Si-P catalysts with different atomic ratios of vanadium, silicon, and phosphorous were synthesized, characterized, and tested in a fixed-bed microreactor system. A V-Si-P 1:10:2.8 catalyst gave the maximum condensation yield of 56% based on HCHO fed at 300{degrees}C and 2 atm and at a space velocity of 290 cc/g cat{center_dot}h. A parameter called the ``q-ratio`` has been defined to correlate the condensation yields to the acid-base properties. The correlation of q-ratio with the condensation yield shows that higher q-ratios are more desirable. The long-term deactivation studies on the V-Si-P 1: 10:2.8 catalyst at 300{degrees}C and 2 atm and at a space velocity of 290 cc/g cat{center_dot}h show that the catalyst activity drops by a factor of nearly 20 over a 180 h period. The activity can be restored to about 78% of the initial activity by a mild oxidative regeneration at 300{degrees}C and 2 atm. The performance of V-Si-P catalyst has been compared to a Ta/SiO{sub 2} catalyst. The Ta- catalyst is more stable and has a higher on-stream catalyst life.

Gogate, M.R.; Spivey, J.J. [Reseach Triangle Institute, Research Triangle Institute, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Zoeller, J.R. [Eastman Chemical Co., Kingsport, TN (United States)

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "denatured aliphatic alco" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
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301

New organically templated photoluminescence iodocuprates(I)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Two types of organic cyclic aliphatic diamine molecules piperazine (pip) and 1,3-bis(4-piperidyl)propane (bpp) were used, respectively, to react with an inorganic mixture of CuI and KI in the acidic CH{sub 3}OH solutions under the solvothermal conditions, generating finally three new organically templated iodocuprates as 2-D layered [(Hpip)Cu{sub 3}I{sub 4}] 1, 1-D chained [tmpip][Cu{sub 2}I{sub 4}] 2 (tmpip=N,N,N',N'-tetramethylpiperazinium) and dinuclear [H{sub 2}bpp]{sub 2}[Cu{sub 2}I{sub 5}] I.2H{sub 2}O 3. Note that the templating agent tmpip{sup 2+} in compound 2 originated from the in situ N-alkylation reaction between the pip molecule and the methanol solvent. The photoluminescence analysis indicates that the title compounds emit the different lights: yellow for 1, blue for 2 and yellow-green for 3, respectively. - Graphical abstract: The solvothermal self-assemblies of CuI, KI and pip/bpp in acidic CH{sub 3}OH solutions created three iodocuprates 2-D layered [(Hpip)Cu{sub 3}I{sub 4}] 1, 1-D chained [tmpip][Cu{sub 2}I{sub 4}] 2 and dinuclear [H{sub 2}bpp]{sub 2}[Cu{sub 2}I{sub 5}] I.2H{sub 2}O 3. Highlights: > A new layered iodocuprate(I) with 20-membered rings was hydrothermally prepared. > A simple approach to prepare the new organic templating agent was reported. > Photoluminescence analysis indicates the emission for iodocuprate(I) is associated with the Cu...Cu interactions.

Hou Qin [College of Chemistry and Material Science, Shandong Agricultural University, Taian, Shandong 271018 (China); Zhao Jinjing [College of Chemistry, Jilin University, Changchun 130023 (China); State Key Laboratory of Inorganic Synthesis and Preparative Chemistry, Jilin University, Changchun 130023 (China); Zhao Tianqi [College of Chemistry, Jilin University, Changchun 130023 (China); Jin Juan [College of Chemistry, Jilin University, Changchun 130023 (China); State Key Laboratory of Inorganic Synthesis and Preparative Chemistry, Jilin University, Changchun 130023 (China); Yu Jiehui, E-mail: jiehuiyu@yahoo.com.cn [College of Chemistry, Jilin University, Changchun 130023 (China); State Key Laboratory of Inorganic Synthesis and Preparative Chemistry, Jilin University, Changchun 130023 (China); Xu Jiqing, E-mail: xjq@mail.jlu.edu.cn [College of Chemistry, Jilin University, Changchun 130023 (China); State Key Laboratory of Inorganic Synthesis and Preparative Chemistry, Jilin University, Changchun 130023 (China)

2011-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

302

Identification and characterization of conservative organic tracers for use as hydrologic tracers for the Yucca Mountain site characterization study. Final report  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Extensive tracer testing is expected to take place at the C-well complex in the Nevada Test Site as part of the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project. The C-well complex consists of one pumping well, C3, and two injection wells, C1 and C2 into which tracer will be introduced. The goal of this research was to provide USGS with numerous tracers to completed these tests. Several classes of fluorinated organic acids have been evaluated. These include numerous isomers of fluorinated benzoic acids, cinnamic acids, and salicylic acids. Also several derivatives of 2-hydroxy nicotinic acid (pyridone) have been tested. The stability of these compounds was determined using batch and column tests. Ames testing (mutagenicity/carcinogenicity) was conducted on the fluorinated benzoic acids and a literature review of toxicity of the fluorobenzoates and three perfluoro aliphatic acids was prepared. Solubilities were measured and method development work was performed to optimize the detection of these compounds. A Quality Assurance (QA) Program was developed under existing DOE and USGS guidelines. The program includes QA procedures and technical standard operating procedures. A tracer test, using sodium iodide, was performed at the C-well complex. HRC chemists performed analyses on site, to provide real time data for the USGS hydrologists and in the laboratories at UNLV. Over 2,500 analyses were performed. This report provides the results of the laboratory experiments and literature reviews used to evaluate the potential tracers and reports on the results of the iodide C-well tracer test.

Stetzenbach, K.; Farnham, I.

1996-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

303

Evaluation of a Subunit Vaccine to Infectious Hematopoietic Necrosis Virus, July 31, 1989 to September 30, 1990, Annual Report.  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The IHNV glycoprotein has been identified as the virion protein which elicits neutralizing antibody in rabbits and induces protective immunity in fish to homologous and heterologous strains of IHNV (Engelking and Leong, 1989). These findings suggested that genetic engineering might be used to develop an economically feasible IHNV vaccine for fish. Thus, a clone of the IHNV glycoprotein gene was made and expression of a portion of this gene in bacteria resulted in a prototype IHNV subunit vaccine. Only 350 bases of IHNV sequence was expressed in this initial vaccine construction because there were 16 cysteine residues in the glycoprotein gene. Previous work with the rabies glycoprotein had shown that when the entire gene was expressed in bacteria, a denatured protein was produced, presumably because appropriate folding mechanisms for disulfide bond formation in protein were absent in E. coli. The IHNV vaccine clone contained a region of the gene which encoded only one cysteine residue. Despite the efficacy of the vaccine in laboratory trials, it seemed useful to determine whether other regions of the IHNV glycoprotein gene would be expressed in an antigenically recognizable form in bacteria and thereby, provide increased protection in fish. The recombinant plasmids pXL2, pXL3, and pXL7 were constructed so that all regions of the glycoprotein gene were expressed in bacteria as trpE-G fusion proteins. All of these recombinant plasmids produced fusion proteins that were also analyzed in Western immunoblots with anti-IHNV sera and specific monoclonal antibodies. These results were compared with the proteins produced by p52G and p618G, the plasmids identified in the original vaccine construction. The results of this comparison are shown.

Leong, JoAnn Ching

1990-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

304

BCL2 major breakpoint region (mbr) may specify an origin of replication  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We have described a minisatellite consensus signal, GC[A/T]GG[A/T]GG, which resembles the prokaryotic activator of recombination, {chi}. The consensus appears frequently at the breakpoints of oncogene translocations, especially those in which the V(D)J recombinase has been implicated. We have investigated this relationship by examining the breakpoint positions and DNA sequence of many mbr translations from human follicular lymphomas. Breakpoints occur in three, evenly-spaced clusters 14-18 bp wide and 50 bp apart; the first cluster begins at the first base 3{prime} to the {chi} signal. At the end of cluster 3, translocations abruptly decline in frequency. We now report that this region is characterized by multiple binding sites for both single- and double-strand DNA binding proteins. Furthermore, the binding sites immediately flank clusters 1 and 3, thus defining the region at risk for translocation. The two single-strand binding proteins, one each for the sense and anti-sense strand of BCL2, bind the {chi} signal that marks the onset of translocation. The second binding site, which begins at the 3{prime} flank of cluster 3, extends a further 80 bp downstream and is absolutely required for the interaction of the mbr with factor(s) which can denature the target DNA in a cell-specific fashion. This process requires energy, as complex formation is inhibited by ATP{gamma}S. One of the two ssDNA binding proteins and, possibly, the helicase activity are expressed in a cell-cycle-dependent fashion. Finally, helical stability studies of the helicase binding region yield a profile comparable to those previously defined for several viral, yeast, and bacterial origins of replication. These studies indicate that BCL2 translocation may reflect (1) a requirement for removing a replication origin from the gene to promote lymphomagenesis and/or (2) the recombinogenic nature of such structures.

DiCroce, P.A.; Bailey, S.; Hagins, W.C. [Tufts-New England Medical Center, Boston, MA (United States)] [and others

1994-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

305

The Effects of Surface Chemistry on the Properties of Proteins Confined in Nano-porous Materials  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The entrapment of proteins using the sol-gel route provides a means to retain its native properties and artificially reproduce the molecular crowding and confinement experienced by proteins in the cell allowing investigation of the physico-chemical and structural properties of biomolecules at the biotic/abiotic interface. The biomolecules are spatially separated and 'caged' in the gel structure but solutes can freely permeate the matrix. Thus, properties such as the folding of ensembles of individual molecules can be examined in the absence of aggregation effects that can occur in solution studies. Green fluorescent protein from Aequorea coerulescens was used as a model protein to examine the unfolding/re-folding properties of protein in silica gels. The recombinant protein was isolated and purified from Escherichia coli extracts by cell lysis, three-phase partitioning, dialysis, and anion exchange chromatography. The purity of the protein was greater than 90% as judged by SDS PAGE gel analysis. Sol-gels were synthesized using tetramethylorthosilicate (TMOS) in combination with, methyltrimethoxyorthosilane (MTMOS), ethyltrimethoxyorthosilane (ETMOS), 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES), and 3-glycidoxypropyltrimethoxysilane (GPTMS). The acid induced denaturation and renaturation of GFP was analyzed by UV-visible, fluorescence, and circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopies. No renaturation was observed in gels that were made with TMOS only, and in the presence of APTES, MTMOS, and ETMOS. However, in gels that were made with GPTMS, the CD and UV-visible spectra indicated that the protein had refolded. The fluorescence emission spectrum indicated that approximately 20% of fluorescence had returned. This study highlights the importance of the surface chemistry of the silica gels for the refolding properties of the entrapped GFP. Future studies will investigate the effect of surface chemistry on the thermal and solvent stability of the entrapped protein.

Garrett, Latasha M [ORNL; O'Neill, Hugh Michael [ORNL

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

306

Culture-independent analysis of bacterial fuel contamination provides insight into the level of concordance with the standard industry practice of aerobis cultivation.  

SciTech Connect

Bacterial diversity in contaminated fuels has not been systematically investigated using cultivation-independent methods. The fuel industry relies on phenotypic cultivation-based contaminant identification, which may lack accuracy and neglect difficult-to-culture taxa. By the use of industry practice aerobic cultivation, 16S rRNA gene sequencing, and strain genotyping, a collection of 152 unique contaminant isolates from 54 fuel samples was assembled, and a dominance of Pseudomonas (21%), Burkholderia (7%), and Bacillus (7%) was demonstrated. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) of 15 samples revealed Proteobacteria and Firmicutes to be the most abundant phyla. When 16S rRNA V6 gene pyrosequencing of four selected fuel samples (indicated by 'JW') was performed, Betaproteobacteria (42.8%) and Gammaproteobacteria (30.6%) formed the largest proportion of reads; the most abundant genera were Marinobacter (15.4%; JW57), Achromobacter (41.6%; JW63), Burkholderia (80.7%; JW76), and Halomonas (66.2%; JW78), all of which were also observed by DGGE. However, the Clostridia (38.5%) and Deltaproteobacteria (11.1%) identified by pyrosequencing in sample JW57 were not observed by DGGE or aerobic culture. Genotyping revealed three instances where identical strains were found: (i) a Pseudomonas sp. strain recovered from 2 different diesel fuel tanks at a single industrial site; (ii) a Mangroveibacter sp. strain isolated from 3 biodiesel tanks at a single refinery site; and (iii) a Burkholderia vietnamiensis strain present in two unrelated automotive diesel samples. Overall, aerobic cultivation of fuel contaminants recovered isolates broadly representative of the phyla and classes present but lacked accuracy by overrepresenting members of certain groups such as Pseudomonas.

White, J.; Gilbert, J. A.; Hill, G.; Hill, E.; Huse, S. M.; Weightman, A. J.; Mahenthiralingam, E. (CLS-CI); (Organisms and Environment Division, Cardiff School of Biosciences, Cardiff University); (ECHA Microbiology Ltd.); (Josephine Bay Paul Centre for Comparative Molecular Biology and Evolution)

2011-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

307

Chapter 11. Community analysis-based methods  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Microbial communities are each a composite of populations whose presence and relative abundance in water or other environmental samples are a direct manifestation of environmental conditions, including the introduction of microbe-rich fecal material and factors promoting persistence of the microbes therein. As shown by culture-independent methods, different animal-host fecal microbial communities appear distinctive, suggesting that their community profiles can be used to differentiate fecal samples and to potentially reveal the presence of host fecal material in environmental waters. Cross-comparisons of microbial communities from different hosts also reveal relative abundances of genetic groups that can be used to distinguish sources. In increasing order of their information richness, several community analysis methods hold promise for MST applications: phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) analysis, denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE), terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (TRFLP), cloning/sequencing, and PhyloChip. Specific case studies involving TRFLP and PhyloChip approaches demonstrate the ability of community-based analyses of contaminated waters to confirm a diagnosis of water quality based on host-specific marker(s). The success of community-based MST for comprehensively confirming fecal sources relies extensively upon using appropriate multivariate statistical approaches. While community-based MST is still under evaluation and development as a primary diagnostic tool, results presented herein demonstrate its promise. Coupled with its inherently comprehensive ability to capture an unprecedented amount of microbiological data that is relevant to water quality, the tools for microbial community analysis are increasingly accessible, and community-based approaches have unparalleled potential for translation into rapid, perhaps real-time, monitoring platforms.

Cao, Y.; Wu, C.H.; Andersen, G.L.; Holden, P.A.

2010-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

308

Analyzing the Limits and Extent of Alpha-Amylase Catalyzed Removal of Starch-Based Filter Cake  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The ability of starch to impart functions including fluid-loss control, cuttings transport, and rheological characteristics to water-based drilling fluids has led to its widespread use in the oil industry. The filter cake deposited by these drilling fluids often employs sized solid particles and starch to inhibit fluid loss into the formation. This inherently causes damage to the formation by impairing the permeability and must be removed before production. An alpha-amylase enzyme treatment was found to provide an effective approach to degrading starch in filter cake. In this work, an alpha-amylase enzyme treatment was analyzed by determining the extent of degradation of starch in filter cake using the iodine test, identifying degradants using high performance liquid chromatography, spectrophotometrically monitoring the concentration of enzyme, and measuring the cleanup efficiency of the enzyme treatment using a static filter press apparatus. The alpha-amylase enzyme used in this study was found to have a molecular weight under 30,000. The activity of the alpha-amylase enzyme was found to be sensitive to pH and temperature. The alpha-amylase enzyme was found to denature at temperatures above 165 degrees F and reversibly deactivate at pH below 4. Optimal conditions for alpha-amylase activity were found to be 150 degrees F and pH 6.5. The enzyme treatment works by hydrolyzing the interior glycosidic bonds of amylose and amylopectin residues of starch, creating soluble poly- and oligosaccharides and glucose. The enzyme treatment did not dissolve the calcium carbonate sized solids and a 5 wt. % hydrochloric acid postflush was necessary. The cleanup efficiency of the enzyme at pH 6.5 and room temperature treatment in conjunction with the postflush in a static test was 73% at 10% v/v concentration. Degradants resulting from alpha-amylase were identified chromatographically. Enzyme concentration remained steady prior to and after treatment.

Dharwadkar, Pavan S.

2011-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

309

Back-end costs of alternative nuclear fuel cycles  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

As part of its charter, the Alternate Fuel Cycle Evaluation Program (AFCEP) was directed to evaluate the back-end of the nuclear fuel cycle in support of the Nonproliferation Alternative Systems Assessment Program (NASAP). The principal conclusion from this study is that the costs for recycling a broad range of reactor fuels will not have a large impact on total fuel cycle costs. For the once-through fuel cycle, the costs of fresh fuel fabrication, irradiated fuel storage, and associated transportation is about 1.2 to 1.3 mills/kWh. For the recycle of uranium and plutonium into thermal reactors, the back-cycle costs (i.e., the costs of irradiated fuel storage, transportation, reprocessing, refabrication, and waste disposal) will be from 3 to 3.5 mills/kWh. The costs for the recycle of uranium and plutonium into fast breeder reactors will be from 4.5 to 5 mills/kWh. Using a radioactive spikant or a denatured /sup 233/U-Th cycle will increase power costs for both recycle cases by about 1 mill/kWh. None of these costs substantially influence the total cost of nuclear power, which is in the range of 4 cents/kWh. The fuel cycle costs used in this study do not include costs incurred prior to fuel fabrication; that is, the cost of the uranium or thorium, the costs for enrichment, or credit for fissile materials in the discharged fuel, which is not recycled with the system.

Rainey, R.H.; Burch, W.D.; Haire, M.J.; Unger, W.E.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

310

Single sample extraction and HPLC processing for quantification of NAD and NADH levels in Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

SciTech Connect

A robust redox extraction protocol for quantitative and reproducible metabolite isolation and recovery has been developed for simultaneous measurement of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) and its reduced form, NADH, from Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Following culture in liquid media, approximately 10{sup 8} yeast cells were harvested by centrifugation and then lysed under non-oxidizing conditions by bead blasting in ice-cold, nitrogen-saturated 50-mM ammonium acetate. To enable protein denaturation, ice cold nitrogen-saturated CH{sub 3}CN + 50-mM ammonium acetate (3:1; v:v) was added to the cell lysates. After sample centrifugation to pellet precipitated proteins, organic solvent removal was performed on supernatants by chloroform extraction. The remaining aqueous phase was dried and resuspended in 50-mM ammonium acetate. NAD and NADH were separated by HPLC and quantified using UV-VIS absorbance detection. Applicability of this procedure for quantifying NAD and NADH levels was evaluated by culturing yeast under normal (2% glucose) and calorie restricted (0.5% glucose) conditions. NAD and NADH contents are similar to previously reported levels in yeast obtained using enzymatic assays performed separately on acid (for NAD) and alkali (for NADH) extracts. Results demonstrate that it is possible to perform a single preparation to reliably and robustly quantitate both NAD and NADH contents in the same sample. Robustness of the protocol suggests it will be (1) applicable to quantification of these metabolites in mammalian and bacterial cell cultures; and (2) amenable to isotope labeling strategies to determine the relative contribution of specific metabolic pathways to total NAD and NADH levels in cell cultures.

Sporty, J; Kabir, M M; Turteltaub, K; Ognibene, T; Lin, S; Bench, G

2008-01-10T23:59:59.000Z

311

Characterization of the Old Hydrofracture Facility (OHF) waste tanks located at ORNL  

SciTech Connect

The Old Hydrofracture Facility (OHF) is located in Melton Valley within Waste Area Grouping (WAG) 5 and includes five underground storage tanks (T1, T2, T3, T4, and T9) ranging from 13,000 to 25,000 gal. capacity. During the period of 1996--97 there was a major effort to re-sample and characterize the contents of these inactive waste tanks. The characterization data summarized in this report was needed to address waste processing options, examine concerns dealing with the performance assessment (PA) data for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), evaluate the waste characteristics with respect to the waste acceptance criteria (WAC) for WIPP and Nevada Test Site (NTS), address criticality concerns, and to provide the data needed to meet DOT requirements for transporting the waste. This report discusses the analytical characterization data collected on both the supernatant and sludge samples taken from three different locations in each of the OHF tanks. The isotopic data presented in this report supports the position that fissile isotopes of uranium ({sup 233}U and {sup 235}U) do not satisfy the denature ratios required by the administrative controls stated in the ORNL LLLW waste acceptance criteria (WAC). The fissile isotope of plutonium ({sup 239}Pu and {sup 241}Pu) are diluted with thorium far above the WAC requirements. In general, the OHF sludge was found to be hazardous (RCRA) based on total metal content and the transuranic alpha activity was well above the 100 nCi/g limit for TRU waste. The characteristics of the OHF sludge relative to the WIPP WAC limits for fissile gram equivalent, plutonium equivalent activity, and thermal power from decay heat were estimated from the data in this report and found to be far below the upper boundary for any of the remote-handled transuranic waste (RH-TRU) requirements for disposal of the waste in WIPP.

Keller, J.M.; Giaquinto, J.M.; Meeks, A.M.

1997-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

312

Characterization of the C1 and C2 waste tanks located in the BVEST system at ORNL  

SciTech Connect

There was a major effort to sample and analyze the Active Liquid Low-Level Waste (LLLW) tanks at ORNL which include the Melton Valley Storage Tanks (MVST) and the Bethel Valley Evaporator Service Tanks (BVEST). The characterization data summarized in this report was needed to address waste processing options, address concerns dealing with the performance assessment (PA) data for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), evaluate the waste characteristics with respect to the waste acceptance criteria (WAC) for WIPP and Nevada Test Site (NTS), address criticality concerns, and meet DOT requirements for transporting the waste. This report discusses the analytical characterization data for the supernatant and sludge in the BVEST waste tanks C-1 and C-2. The isotopic data presented in this report supports the position that fissile isotopes of uranium ({sup 233}U and {sup 235}U) and plutonium ({sup 239}Pu and {sup 241}Pu) were denatured as required by the administrative controls stated in the ORNL LLLW waste acceptance criteria (WAC). In general, the sludge in tanks C1 and C2 was found to be hazardous based on RCRA characteristics and the transuranic alpha activity was well above the 100 nCi/g limit for TRU waste. Additional characteristics of the C1 and C2 sludge inventory relative to the WIPP WAC limits for fissile gram equivalent, plutonium equivalent activity, and thermal power from decay heat were estimated from the data in this report and found to be far below the upper boundary for any of the remote-handled transuranic waste (RH-TRU) requirements for disposal of the waste in WIPP.

Keller, J.M.; Giaquinto, J.M.

1998-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

313

Effects of zinc on Salmonella in the layer house environments and laying hens, and the ability of zinc to induce molt in laying hens  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

There is increasing interest in developing methods to detect and identify Salmonella, to eliminate or reduce the risk of contamination of shell eggs, and to retain the economic advantages of induced molting without increasing the risk of Salmonella enteritidis infection. S. enteritidis and S. typhimurium are the most common serotypes among 2449 known serotypes of the Salmonella, and are the causes of most egg- related foodborne salmonellosis in humans in the U. S. These two species are also responsible for environmental contamination and the incidence of infections. Therefore, this study was conducted in three phases consisting of ten in vivo and in vitro experiments. This study investigated the effects of zinc on Salmonella growth and survivability in poultry environments, and its ability to induce a molt in single comb white leghorn hens. In part, the antibacterial properties of zinc may reduce environmental contamination in a poultry house by interrupting airborne routes. The first phase involved detecting airborne bacteria by aerosol sampling methods, and then screening any Salmonella mutant (s) that survived desiccation by transposon footprinting. The second phase examined, in vitro, the addition of zinc on the growth kinetics of Salmonella under aerobic or anaerobic conditions, the effects of combinating zinc and acidic conditions on the growth kinetics of Salmonella in vitro under aerobic or anaerobic conditions, and the effects of zinc amended feed on the survival of a dry inoculum of Salmonella. The third phase investigated the ability of zinc propionate, as an alternative salt form of zinc, to induce molt in laying hens, the influence of zinc acetate and zinc propionate on gastrointestinal tract fermentation, and susceptibility of laying hens to S. enteritidis during an induced molt, and the comparison of digestive microbial crop and cecal communities among molted hens fed by either zinc acetate or zinc propionate amended molting diets with hens undergoing feed withdrawal or full fed nonmolted hens using molecular-based denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis.

Park, Shinyoung

2003-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

314

Solvent Sensitivity of Protein Unfolding: Study of Chicken Villin Headpiece Subdomain in Water-Ethanol and Water-DMSO Mixtures  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In the present work we study and compare unfolding of a small protein, chicken villin headpiece (HP-36) in two different aqueous binary mixtures, namely water-ethanol (EtOH) and water-dimethyl sulphoxide (DMSO). In both the binary mixtures, HP-36 is found to unfold (fully or partially, depending on the mixture) under ambient conditions, that otherwise requires temperature as high as ~600 K to denature in pure aqueous solvent. In all the cases, first step of unfolding is found to be similar, i.e. separation of the cluster formed by three hydrophobic (phenylalanine) residues, namely Phe-7, Phe-11 and Phe-18, which constitute the hydrophobic core, thereby initiating melting of helix-2 of the protein. Subsequent unfolding steps follow different paths in different chemical environments. As both water-DMSO and water-ethanol show composition dependent anomalies, so do the details of unfolding dynamics. With an increase of co-solvent concentration different partially unfolded intermediates are found to be formed in both the cases. This is reflected in a remarkable non-monotonic composition dependence of several order parameters, including fraction of native contacts and protein-solvent interaction energy. The emergence of such partially unfolded states is particularly attributed to the preferential solvation of the hydrophobic residues by the ethyl groups of ethanol and methyl groups of DMSO. While in DMSO the protein gradually attains a completely unfolded state at xDMSO=0.30, unfolding in water-ethanol appears to be more complex and sensitive to solvent composition.

Rikhia Ghosh; Susmita Roy; Biman Bagchi

2013-07-10T23:59:59.000Z

315

Enzymatic Digestion in Aqueous-Organic Solvents: A Mass Spectrometry-Based Approach in Monitoring Protein Conformation Changes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The three dimensional structure of a protein is important for its function. When misfolded, a protein may be rendered inactive or adapt a conformation that could be toxic. Studying protein folding requires an understanding of protein conformation. Traditionally, protein conformation has been studied using x-ray crystallography and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). X-ray crystallography is limited in the analysis of crystallized proteins and is computationally intensive. NMR deals with proteins in solution but reports only an average of conformation and the technique severely suffers from spectral overlapping due to the thousands of resonances of the protein. More recently, mass spectrometry has been employed not only to elucidate primary structures but also gather information on the three-dimensional conformation of proteins. In this study, a mass spectrometric-based approach is used to study the changes in conformation of cytochrome c and the green fluorescent protein when subjected to aqueous-organic solvent systems. The technique involved trypsin digestion and generation of peptide mass maps. For cytochrome c, the experiments were done with ethanol, methanol and acetonitrile to gain insights on naturation and denaturation. An apparent solvent effect to the rate of digestion and propensity for missed cleavages attributed to weakening of hydrophobic interactions and strengthening of intramolecular hydrogen bonding was observed. For the green fluorescent protein, sulfolane, a known supercharging agent, was used to gain insights on the effect of supercharging to protein conformation. Addition of 2.0% sulfolane shifted the charge state envelope of the protein towards lower m/z while adding lower amounts of sulfolane enhanced lower charge states while broadening the charge state envelope. The time course study showed different patterns of digestion dependent on solvent conditions implying changes in conformation. Furthermore, absorbance and fluorescence measurements suggested that addition of sulfolane protects the fluorophore from quenching. The activity of trypsin is not affected by addition of low amounts of sulfolane.

Tuvilla, Mavreen Rose

2013-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

316

Direct Characterization of Kerogen by X-ray and Solid-State [superscript 13]C Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Methods  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A combination of solid-state {sup 13}C NMR, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and sulfur X-ray absorption near edge structure (S-XANES) techniques are used to characterize organic oxygen, nitrogen, and sulfur species and carbon chemical/structural features in kerogens. The kerogens studied represent a wide range of organic matter types and maturities. A van Krevelen plot based on elemental H/C data and XPS derived O/C data shows the well established pattern for type I, type II, and type III kerogens. The anticipated relationship between the Rock-Eval hydrogen index and H/C is independent of organic matter type. Carbon structural and lattice parameters are derived from solid-state {sup 13}C NMR analysis. As expected, the amount of aromatic carbon, measured by both {sup 13}C NMR and XPS, increases with decreasing H/C. The correlation between aromatic carbon and Rock-Eval T{sub max}, an indicator of maturity, is linear for types II and IIIC kerogens, but each organic matter type follows a different relationship. The average aliphatic carbon chain length (Cn) decreases with an increasing amount of aromatic carbon in a similar manner across all organic matter types. The fraction of aromatic carbons with attachments (FAA) decreases, while the average number of aromatic carbons per cluster (C) increases with an increasing amount of aromatic carbon. FAA values range from 0.2 to 0.4, and C values range from 12 to 20 indicating that kerogens possess on average 2- to 5-ring aromatic carbon units that are highly substituted. There is basic agreement between XPS and {sup 13}C NMR results for the amount and speciation of organic oxygen. XPS results show that the amount of carbon oxygen single bonded species increases and carbonyl-carboxyl species decrease with an increasing amount of aromatic carbon. Patterns for the relative abundances of nitrogen and sulfur species exist regardless of the large differences in the total amount of organic nitrogen and sulfur seen in the kerogens. XPS and S-XANES results indicate that the relative level of aromatic sulfur increases with an increasing amount of aromatic carbon for all kerogens. XPS show that the majority of nitrogen exists as pyrrolic forms in comparable relative abundances in all kerogens studied. The direct characterization results using X-ray and NMR methods for nitrogen, sulfur, oxygen, and carbon chemical structures provide a basis for developing both specific and general average chemical structural models for different organic matter type kerogens.

Kelemen, S. R.; Afeworki, M.; Gorbaty, M.L.; Sansone, M.; Kwiatek, P.J.; Walters, C.C.; Freund, H.; Siskin, M.; Bence, A.E.; Curry, D.J.; Solum, M.; Pugmire, R.J.; Vandenbroucke, M.; Leblond, M.; Behar, F. (ExxonMobil); (ExxonMobil); (IFP); (Utah)

2008-06-12T23:59:59.000Z

317

Evaluation of biological treatment for the degradation of petroleum hydrocarbons in a wastewater treatment plant  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbon can be an effective treatment method applied to control oil pollution in both fresh water and marine environments. Hydrocarbon degraders, both indigenous and exogenous, are responsible for utilizing petroleum hydrocarbon as their substrate for growth and energy, thereby degrading them. Biodegradation of hydrocarbons is often enhanced by bioaugmentation and biostimulation depending on the contaminated environment and the competence of the hydrocarbon degraders present. An evaluation of the performance of the biological treatment of petroleum hydrocarbon by the hydrocarbon degrading microbes at the Brayton Fire School??s 4 million gallon per day (MGD) wastewater treatment plant was the main research objective. Samples were taken for two seasons, winter (Nov 03 ?? Jan 03) and summer (Jun 04 ?? Aug 04), from each of the four treatment units: the inlet tank, equalization tank, aeration tank and the outfall tank. The population of aliphatic hydrocarbon degraders were enumerated and nutrient availability in the system were used to evaluate the effectiveness of on-going bioaugmentation and biostimulation. Monitoring of general effluent parameters was conducted to evaluate the treatment plant??s removal efficiency and to determine if effluent discharge was in compliance with the TCEQ permit. The aeration tank is an activated sludge system with no recycling. Hydrocarbon degraders are supplied at a constant rate with additional nutrient supplement. There was a significant decrease in the population of microbes that was originally fed to the system and the quantity resident in the aeration tank. Nutrient levels in the aeration tank were insufficient for the concentration of hydrocarbon degraders, even after the application of dog food as a biostimulant. The use of dog food is not recommended as a nutrient supplement. Adding dog food increases the nitrogen and phosphorus concentration in the aeration tank but the amount of carbon being added with the dog food increases the total chemical oxygen demand (COD) and biochemical oxygen demand (BOD). An increase in the concentration of total COD and BOD further increases the nitrogen and phosphorus requirement in the system. The main objective of supplying adequate nutrients to the hydrocarbon degraders would never be achieved as there would be an additional demand of nutrients to degrade the added carbon source. This research study was conducted to identify the drawbacks in the treatment plant which needs further investigation to improve efficiency.

Basu, Pradipta Ranjan

2006-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

318

Biofuels from Corn Stover: Pyrolytic Production and Catalytic Upgrading Studies  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Due to security issues in energy supply and environmental concerns, renewable energy production from biomass becomes an increasingly important area of study. Thus, thermal conversion of biomass via pyrolysis and subsequent upgrading procedures were explored, in an attempt to convert an abundant agricultural residue, corn stover, into potential bio-fuels. Pyrolysis of corn stover was carried out at 400, 500 and 600oC and at moderate pressure. Maximum bio-char yield of 37.3 wt.% and liquid product yield of 31.4 wt.% were obtained at 400oC while the gas yield was maximum at 600oC (21.2 wt.%). Bio-char characteristics (energy content, proximate and ultimate analyses) indicated its potential as alternative solid fuel. The bio-oil mainly consisted of phenolic compounds, with significant proportions of aromatic and aliphatic compounds. The gas product has energy content ranging from 10.1 to 21.7 MJ m-3, attributed to significant quantities of methane, hydrogen and carbon dioxide. Mass and energy conversion efficiencies indicated that majority of the mass and energy contained in the feedstock was transferred to the bio-char. Fractional distillation of the bio-oil at atmospheric and reduced pressure yielded approximately 40-45 wt.% heavy distillate (180-250oC) with significantly reduced moisture and total acid number (TAN) and greater energy content. Aromatic compounds and oxygenated compounds were distributed in the light and middle fractions while phenolic compounds were concentrated in the heavy fraction. Finally, hydrotreatment of the bio-oil and the heavy distillate using noble metal catalysts such as ruthenium and palladium on carbon support at 100 bar pressure, 4 hours reaction time and 200o or 300oC showed that ruthenium performed better at the higher temperature (300oC) and was more effective than palladium, giving about 25-26% deoxygenation. The hydrotreated product from the heavy distillate with ruthenium as catalyst at 300oC had the lowest oxygen content and exhibited better product properties (lower moisture, TAN, and highest heating value), and can be a potential feedstock for co-processing with crude oils in existing refineries. Major reactions involved were conversion of phenolics to aromatics and hydrogenation of ketones to alcohols. Results showed that pyrolysis of corn stover and product upgrading produced potentially valuable sources of fuel and chemical feedstock.

Capunitan, Jewel Alviar

2013-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

319

Hydrotreating Pyrolytic Lignin to Produce a Refinery Feedstock (Poster)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Fast pyrolysis of biomass followed by water separation to produce pyrolytic lignin and hydrotreating of the lignin could be used to produce a stable volatile low-oxygen intermediate liquid. Such a liquid could be converted into a finished motor-fuel in a refinery, taking advantage of the existing infrastructure and economies of scale of refineries. Hydrotreating just the lignin would consume less hydrogen while preserving about half of the energy of the original oil. The aqueous by-products could be reformed to produce the needed hydrogen and would contain much of the unwanted acids and unstable oxygenates. To assess such intermediate liquids, several pyrolytic lignins were prepared by mixing pyrolysis oil with water at 1:1 and 3:1 ratios. The carboxylic acidity in the pyrolytic lignin was reduced to 24 and 10 mg-KOH/g-lignin compared to 81 in the whole oil. These lignins were hydrotreated using Ni-Mo(S)/alumina, Pt/char, or Pd/C(activated) in a semi-batch 1 L stirred autoclave. The oil was stabilized under hydrogen at 150-280 degrees C, then water and light organics were removed by partial depressurization. Hydrodeoxygenation was then performed at 340-400 degrees C. Total pressure was controlled at 70 or 170 bar with hydrogen gas. Organic liquid yields of 39-56% were obtained. For many experiments the organic oxygen content was oil, the volatility was greater than or equal to 94% and, on a carbon basis, the total yield of organic products miscible in hydrocarbons at a 1:10 ratio was over 50%. These properties are probably acceptable to a refinery.The residual liquids left in the reactor at the end of the experiment comprised 60-85% of the organic-phase product while the rest was condensate. 13C-NMR of the residual liquids showed that they were 50-80% aliphatic. 13C-NMR coupled with GC-MS identified phenolic compounds as the main oxygenates in most residual liquids.

French, R. J.

2013-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

320

Preparation and discharge characteristics of solid redox polymerization electrodes employing disulfide polymers and copolymers  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Recent work in our laboratory on polymeric organodisulfides has shown these materials to perform well as positive electrodes in solid-state batteries. The polymeric materials have been named solid redox polymerization electrodes (SRPE's) due to the reversible polymerization/depolymerization reaction that occurs on charge/discharge of the electrode. The cell radiation for SRPE-based cells can be described for a simple case as, 2n M + (SRS){sub n} = n M{sub 2}SRS, where M is an alkali metal (Li, Na, K) and R is an organic group. In the broader sense SRPE's can have more than two S groups per monomer R unit, and are reversible to other monovalent and divalent metals. In the fully charged state SRPE's consist of polydisulfide polymers and are depolymerized on discharge by scission of sulfur-sulfur bonds, leading to the formation of dithiolate salts in the fully discharged cell. SRPE's are easy to synthesize, are air stable, and should be very inexpensive in bulk quantities. Depending on the redox potential of the polydisulfide and reaction condition, many disulfides can be copolymerized by oxidizing a mixture of dithiols, x HSRSH + y HSR'SH + (x+y)l{sub 2} = (SRS){sub x}(Sr'S){sub y} + 2(x+y) Hl, allowing modification of the physical and/or redox properties of the SRPE's. A series of simple aliphatic dithiols including (HSCH{sub 2}CH{sub 2}SH), (HSCH{sub 2}CH{sub 2}OCH{sub 2}CH{sub 2}SH), and (HSCH{sub 2}CH{sub 2}SCH{sub 2}CH{sub 2}SH) have been oxidized to polydisulfides and mixtures of the dithiols have been copolymerized. All of the resulting polymers and copolymers were evaluated in solid-state lithium cells, with some of the new materials demonstrating high levels of performance. The utilization of available capacity in the positive electrode was observed to be independent of electrode thickness for a number of SRPE's of loading levels up to 45% by weight. 8 refs., 5 figs. 2 tabs.

Lerner, M.M. (Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR (United States). Dept. of Chemistry); Visco, S.J.; Doeff, M.M.; Dejonghe, L.C. (Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)); Ue, M. (Mitsubishi Petrochemical Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan))

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

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321

Use of thermal analysis techniques (TG-DSC) for the characterization of diverse organic municipal waste streams to predict biological stability prior to land application  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Thermal analysis was used to assess stability and composition of organic matter in three diverse municipal waste streams. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Results were compared with C mineralization during 90-day incubation, FTIR and {sup 13}C NMR. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Thermal analysis reflected the differences between the organic wastes before and after the incubation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The calculated energy density showed a strong correlation with cumulative respiration. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Conventional and thermal methods provide complimentary means of characterizing organic wastes. - Abstract: The use of organic municipal wastes as soil amendments is an increasing practice that can divert significant amounts of waste from landfill, and provides a potential source of nutrients and organic matter to ameliorate degraded soils. Due to the high heterogeneity of organic municipal waste streams, it is difficult to rapidly and cost-effectively establish their suitability as soil amendments using a single method. Thermal analysis has been proposed as an evolving technique to assess the stability and composition of the organic matter present in these wastes. In this study, three different organic municipal waste streams (i.e., a municipal waste compost (MC), a composted sewage sludge (CS) and a thermally dried sewage sludge (TS)) were characterized using conventional and thermal methods. The conventional methods used to test organic matter stability included laboratory incubation with measurement of respired C, and spectroscopic methods to characterize chemical composition. Carbon mineralization was measured during a 90-day incubation, and samples before and after incubation were analyzed by chemical (elemental analysis) and spectroscopic (infrared and nuclear magnetic resonance) methods. Results were compared with those obtained by thermogravimetry (TG) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) techniques. Total amounts of CO{sub 2} respired indicated that the organic matter in the TS was the least stable, while that in the CS was the most stable. This was confirmed by changes detected with the spectroscopic methods in the composition of the organic wastes due to C mineralization. Differences were especially pronounced for TS, which showed a remarkable loss of aliphatic and proteinaceous compounds during the incubation process. TG, and especially DSC analysis, clearly reflected these differences between the three organic wastes before and after the incubation. Furthermore, the calculated energy density, which represents the energy available per unit of organic matter, showed a strong correlation with cumulative respiration. Results obtained support the hypothesis of a potential link between the thermal and biological stability of the studied organic materials, and consequently the ability of thermal analysis to characterize the maturity of municipal organic wastes and composts.

Fernandez, Jose M., E-mail: joseman@sas.upenn.edu [Department of Earth and Environmental Science, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104-6316 (United States); Plaza, Cesar; Polo, Alfredo [Instituto de Ciencias Agrarias, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, Serrano 115 dpdo., 28006 Madrid (Spain); Plante, Alain F. [Department of Earth and Environmental Science, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104-6316 (United States)

2012-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

322

Hydrotreating Pyrolytic Lignin to Produce a Refinery Feedstock (Poster)  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Fast pyrolysis of biomass followed by water separation to produce pyrolytic lignin and hydrotreating of the lignin could be used to produce a stable volatile low-oxygen intermediate liquid. Such a liquid could be converted into a finished motor-fuel in a refinery, taking advantage of the existing infrastructure and economies of scale of refineries. Hydrotreating just the lignin would consume less hydrogen while preserving about half of the energy of the original oil. The aqueous by-products could be reformed to produce the needed hydrogen and would contain much of the unwanted acids and unstable oxygenates. To assess such intermediate liquids, several pyrolytic lignins were prepared by mixing pyrolysis oil with water at 1:1 and 3:1 ratios. The carboxylic acidity in the pyrolytic lignin was reduced to 24 and 10 mg-KOH/g-lignin compared to 81 in the whole oil. These lignins were hydrotreated using Ni-Mo(S)/alumina, Pt/char, or Pd/C(activated) in a semi-batch 1 L stirred autoclave. The oil was stabilized under hydrogen at 150-280 degrees C, then water and light organics were removed by partial depressurization. Hydrodeoxygenation was then performed at 340-400 degrees C. Total pressure was controlled at 70 or 170 bar with hydrogen gas. Organic liquid yields of 39-56% were obtained. For many experiments the organic oxygen content was <7%, acidity was < 7 mg-KOH/g-oil, the volatility was greater than or equal to 94% and, on a carbon basis, the total yield of organic products miscible in hydrocarbons at a 1:10 ratio was over 50%. These properties are probably acceptable to a refinery.The residual liquids left in the reactor at the end of the experiment comprised 60-85% of the organic-phase product while the rest was condensate. 13C-NMR of the residual liquids showed that they were 50-80% aliphatic. 13C-NMR coupled with GC-MS identified phenolic compounds as the main oxygenates in most residual liquids.

French, R. J.

2013-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

323

FY-2011 Status Report for Thermodynamics and Kinetics of Advanced Separations Systems  

SciTech Connect

This report presents a summary of the work performed in the area of thermodynamics and kinetics of advanced separations systems under the Fuel Cycle Research and Development (FCR&D) program during FY 2011 at the INL. On the thermodynamic front, investigations of liquid-liquid distribution of lanthanides at TALSPEAK-related conditions continued in FY11. It has been determined that a classical ion-exchanging phase transfer mechanism, where three HDEHP dimers solvate the metal ion in the organic phase, dominates metal extraction for systems that contain up to 0.1 M free lactate in solution. The correct graphical interpretation of the observed data in those regions relied on incorporating corrections for non-ideal behavior of HDEHP dimer in aliphatic diluents as well as sodium extraction equilibria. When aqueous conditions enter the complex regions of high lactate concentrations, slope analysis is no longer possible. When normalized metal distribution ratios were studied along the increasing concentration of free lactate, a slope of -1 was apparent. Such dependency either indicates aqueous complexing competition from lactate, or, a more likely scenario, a participation of lactate in the extracted metal complex. This finding agrees with our initial assessment of postulated changes in the extraction mechanism as a source of the lactate-mediated loss of extraction efficiency. The observed shape in the lanthanide distribution curve in our studies of TALSPEAK systems was the same for solutions containing no lactate or 2.3 M lactate. As such we may conclude that the mechanism of phase transfer is not altered dramatically and remains similarly sensitive to effective charge density of the metal ion. In addition to these thermodynamics studies, this report also summarizes the first calorimetric determination of heat of extraction of 248Cm in a bi-phasic system. The heat of extraction measured by isothermal titration calorimetry is compared to that determined using van't Hoff calculations. Further investigations on the kinetics of extraction in TALSPEAK with macro quantities of lanthanides present in the initial aqueous phase composition have been performed. These results have been summarized and compared to previous work performed for FCR&D. In addition, the effects of HDEHP concentration in the organic phase on europium extraction have been studied.

Leigh R. Martin; Peter R. Zalupski; Travis S. Grimes

2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

324

Synthesis, reactivity, and coordination chemistry relevant to the copolymerization of CO2 and epoxides by first row transition metal schiff base complexes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Excepting agricultural based products, which themselves require a great deal of energy to produce, our supply of natural resources such as minerals, metal ore, fresh water, coal, oil and natural gas are all limited in supply. The depletion of these substances is imminent and this knowledge weighs heavily on humankind. The utilization of CO2 for the production of polycarbonates is one attempt at exploiting a profoundly abundant and renewable resource. The importance of research in this and similar fields justifies the detailed study of the chemicals and procedures involved with this chemistry. This current work concentrates on the fundamental study of transition metal Schiff base complexes that have shown a great deal of promise in their ability to catalyze the copolymerization of CO2 and epoxide to form aliphatic polycarbonates. A new chromium(III) Schiff base complex has been synthesized and evaluated for its ability to catalyze the formation of polymer. The ligand employed bears an N2O2 coordination sphere identical to the widely utilized chromium(III) and cobalt(III) salen catalysts. This complex was shown to be active towards the copolymerization of CO2 and cyclohexene oxide. Although the activity was less than that seen with chromium(III) salen complex, the study demonstrates that new ligand systems are available beyond salen and deserve further attention. A class of manganese(III) Schiff base complexes was also synthesized and evaluated as catalysts. Although crystallographic data has shown that these complexes are structural analogs to chromium(III) salens, the difference in metal center leads to a nearly complete elimination of catalytic activity. Such a marked difference has been taken advantage of by using this very low activity to study the ring-opening of epoxide in the initial step of the copolymerization both mechanistically and kinetically. It has also been utilized in an evaluation of the coordination chemistry of the polymerization process. This has led to some valuable conclusions about the nature and role of the metal center that previously have not been studied. Manganese(III) salen complexes were also synthesized and evaluated in an effort to compare these important ligands to other Schiff bases and confirm the findings mentioned above.

Frantz, Eric Benjamin

2008-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

325

Identification of active agents for tetrachloroethylene degradation in Portland cement slurry containing ferrous iron  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Fe(II)-based degradative solidification/stabilization (Fe(II)-DS/S) technology is the modification of conventional solidification/stabilization (S/S). Inorganic pollutants are immobilized by Fe(II)-DS/S while organic pollutants are destroyed. Experimental studies were conducted to identify the active agents for Tetrachloroethylene (PCE) degradation as well as the conditions that enhance the formation of the active agents in the Fe(II)-DS/S system. PCE was chosen as a model chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbon in this study. First, the conditions that lead to maximizing production of the active agents were identified by measuring the ability of various chemical mixtures to degrade PCE. Results showed that Fe(II), Fe(III), Ca, and Cl were the the important elements that affect degradation activity. Elemental compositions of the mixtures and the conditions affecting solid formation might be the important factors in determining how active solids are formed. Second, instrumental analyses (XRD, SEM, SEM-EDS) were used to identify minerals in chemical mixtures that have high activities. Results indicate that active agents for PCE degradation in Portland cement slurries and in cement extracts might be one of several AFm phases. However, systems without cement did not form the same solids as those with cement or cement extract. Ferrous hydroxide was identified as a major solid phase formed in systems without cement. Finally, the effect of using different types of ordinary Portland cement (OPC) on PCE degradation rate during Fe(II)-DS/S was examined and the solids were examined by instrumental analyses (XRD, SEM, SEM-EDS). Four different OPC (Txi, Lehigh, Quikrete, and Capitol) showed different PCE degradation behaviors. Pseudo first-order kinetics was observed for Capitol and Txi OPC and second-order kinetics was observed for Quikrete. In the case of Lehigh cement, pseudo first-order kinetics was observed in cement slurry and second-order kinetics in cement extract. Calcium aluminum hydroxide hydrates dominated solids made with Txi, Quikrete, and Lehigh cements and FriedelÂ?s salt was the major phase found in solids made with Capitol cements. Fe tended to be associated with hexagonal thin plate particles, which were supposed to be a LDH.

Ko, Sae Bom

2003-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

326

Direct Characterization of Kerogen By X-Ray And Solid-State **13C Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Methods  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A combination of solid-state {sup 13}C NMR, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and sulfur X-ray absorption near edge structure (S-XANES) techniques are used to characterize organic oxygen, nitrogen, and sulfur species and carbon chemical/structural features in kerogens. The kerogens studied represent a wide range of organic matter types and maturities. A van Krevelen plot based on elemental H/C data and XPS derived O/C data shows the well established pattern for type I, type II, and type III kerogens. The anticipated relationship between the Rock-Eval hydrogen index and H/C is independent of organic matter type. Carbon structural and lattice parameters are derived from solid-state 13C NMR analysis. As expected, the amount of aromatic carbon, measured by both {sup 13}C NMR and XPS, increases with decreasing H/C. The correlation between aromatic carbon and Rock-Eval Tmax, an indicator of maturity, is linear for types II and IIIC kerogens, but each organic matter type follows a different relationship. The average aliphatic carbon chain length (Cn') decreases with an increasing amount of aromatic carbon in a similar manner across all organic matter types. The fraction of aromatic carbons with attachments (FAA) decreases, while the average number of aromatic carbons per cluster (C) increases with an increasing amount of aromatic carbon. FAA values range from 0.2 to 0.4, and C values range from 12 to 20 indicating that kerogens possess on average 2- to 5-ring aromatic carbon units that are highly substituted. There is basic agreement between XPS and 13C NMR results for the amount and speciation of organic oxygen. XPS results show that the amount of carbon oxygen single bonded species increases and carbonyl-carboxyl species decrease with an increasing amount of aromatic carbon. Patterns for the relative abundances of nitrogen and sulfur species exist regardless of the large differences in the total amount of organic nitrogen and sulfur seen in the kerogens. XPS and S-XANES results indicate that the relative level of aromatic sulfur increases with an increasing amount of aromatic carbon for all kerogens. XPS show that the majority of nitrogen exists as pyrrolic forms in comparable relative abundances in all kerogens studied. The direct characterization results using X-ray and NMR methods for nitrogen, sulfur, oxygen, and carbon chemical structures provide a basis for developing both specific and general average chemical structural models for different organic matter type kerogens.

Keleman, S.R.; Afeworki, M.; Gorbaty, M.L.; Sansone, M.; Kwiatek, P.J.; Walters, C.C.; Freund, H.; Siskin, M.; Bence, A.E.; Curry, D.J.; Solum, M.; Pugmire, R.J.; Vandenbroucke, M.; Leblond, M.; Behar, F.

2007-07-09T23:59:59.000Z

327

Effects of prebiotics on growth performance, nutrient utilization and the gastrointestinal tract microbial community of hybrid striped bass (Morone chrysops x M. saxatilis) and red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A series of experiments examined the effects of four potential prebiotics-- GroBiotic®-A (a mixture of partially autolyzed brewers yeast, dairy components and dried fermentation products), mannanoligosaccharide (MOS), galactooligosaccharide (GOS), and inulin/ fructooligosaccharide (FOS)--on the gastrointestinal (GI) tract’s microbial community in hybrid striped bass and red drum. The first in vitro experiment applied denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) to examine responses of red drum GI tract microbiota to anaerobic incubation with brewers yeast, FOS, and GroBiotic®-A. Brewers yeast and GroBiotic®-A produced unique microbial communities compared to that associated with the basal diet. Volatile fatty acid (VFA) profiles did not differ among treatments, with acetate being the major fermentation product. A second in vitro experiment examined effects of GroBiotic®-A, MOS, GOS, and FOS on the GI tract microbiota of hybrid striped bass. None of the prebiotics altered the culturable microbial community, but all tended to lower acetate production and increase butyrate production. A third experiment examined the effects of the four prebiotics fed to juvenile hybrid striped bass for 8 weeks. Growth, feed efficiency ratio (FER) and protein efficiency ratio (PER) were not affected by the different prebiotics, but the GI tract’s microbial community was altered from that associated with the basal diet. The fourth experiment consisted of an 8-week feeding trial and one 6-week feeding trial in which the effects of GroBiotic®-A and FOS on growth performance and microbial community composition were compared for red drum living in independent tanks versus tanks with a shared water system. Neither the intestinal microbial community nor growth performance were significantly altered by the prebiotics in these trials; fish in independent and shared water tanks produced similar results. The final experiment examined the effects of GroBiotic®-A, FOS, MOS and GOS on nutrient and energy digestibility of sub-adult red drum fed diets containing fish meal and soybean meal. The prebiotics generally increased protein, organic matter, and energy digestibility, with the exception of FOS/inulin. Lipid digestibility was decreased by GOS, MOS and FOS. These studies are the first to establish that prebiotics can alter the GI tract microbial community of these fish and influence nutrient digestibility.

Burr, Gary Stephen

2007-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

328

Molecular Typing and Antimicrobial Resistance of Campylobacter Isolated During Commercial Broiler Production  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Campylobacter jejuni is a commensal microorganism of the poultry gastrointestinal tract. Broilers, layers, ducks, turkeys, and quails can be colonized by Campylobacter without illness occurring. The vast majority of human Campylobacter infections are recognized as being foodborne. For 2008, preliminary FoodNet data showed that the Campylobacter incidence of infection, 12.68 per 100,000 of the U.S. population, is the second highest, only behind Salmonella at 16.20 per 100,000. To further understand Campylobacter’s role as a foodborne pathogen, analysis at the molecular level is needed. Microbial molecular typing allows for identification and differentiation of bacterial strains beneath the species level. In this study, the “gold standard” method for molecular subtyping, Pulsed Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE), along with Diversilab® repetitive element Polymerase Chain Reaction (rep-PCR) and 16S-23S Internal Spacer Region Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (ISR DGGE) were used for the molecular typing of Campylobacter jejuni isolates obtained during different stages of commercial broiler production and processing. In addition, the C. jejuni isolates were tested for resistance to antimicrobials commonly used in both veterinary and human medicine. Antimicrobial resistance testing was carried out using a broth dilution system. The majority of recovered isolates came from post-harvest carcass rinsates. Carcass rinses were obtained at post-evisceration, post-chill stages. All isolates (n = 46) were identified by the Polymerase Chain Reaction as Campylobacter jejuni. Three genotypes (n = 44, n = 1, n = 1) were identified by PFGE. The 46 rep-PCR products grouped into seven clusters and two outliers. Clustering of rep-PCR products by sample source was not observed. No relatedness trends were observed for isolates recovered from the same source. The combination of PFGE and Diversilab rep-PCR methods provides highly discriminatory molecular typing results. These results provide practical epidemiological information that shows postevisceration and post-chill stages are still important targets for intervention studies. The very high occurrence of C. jejuni isolates exhibiting genotype A suggests it may differentially express certain gene(s) that enable this strain to more favorably survive under the different harsh environmental conditions encountered during production and processing. In addition, phenotypic testing revealed all of the isolates were not resistant to the antimicrobials azithromycin, ciprofloxacin, erythromycin, gentamycin, tetracycline, florfenicol, nalidixic acid, telithromycin, and clindamycin at any of the concentrations tested. All the C. jejuni isolates exhibited an indistinguishable two-band 16S-23S ISR DGGE profile. Overall, these C. jejuni commercial broiler pre- and post-harvest isolates exhibited an extremely low degree of molecular and phenotypic variability.

Hernandez, Charles Andrew

2010-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

329

MA Doping Analysis on Breeding Capability and Protected Plutonium Production of Large FBR  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Spent fuel from LWR can be seen as long-live waste if it is not recycled or as a 'new fuel' resource if it is recycled into the reactors. Uranium and plutonium have been used for 'new fuel' resources from LWR spent fuel as MOX fuel type which is loaded into thermal reactor or fast reactor types. Other actinides from the spent fuel such as neptunium, americium and curium as minor actinide (MA) are considered to be loaded into the reactors for specific purposes, recently. Those purposes such as for increasing protected plutonium production and breeding capability for protected plutonium as well as in the same time those amount of MA can be reduced to a small quantity as a burner or transmutation purpose. Some investigations and scientific approaches are performed in order to increase a material ''barrier'' in plutonium isotope composition by increasing the even mass number of plutonium isotope such as Pu-238, Pu-240 and Pu-242 as plutonium protected composition. Higher material barrier which related to intrinsic properties of plutonium isotopes with even mass number (Pu-238, Pu-240 and Pu-242), are recognized because of their intense decay heat (DH) and high spontaneous fission neutron (SFN) rates. Those even number mass of plutonium isotope contribute to some criteria of plutonium characterization which will be adopted for present study such as IAEA, Pellaud and Kessler criteria (IAEA, 1972; Pellaud, 2002; and Kessler, 2007). The present paper intends to evaluate the breeding capability as a fuel sustainability index of the reactors and to analyze the composition of protected plutonium production of large power reactor based on the FaCT FBR as reference (Ohki, et al., 2008). Three dimensional FBR core configuration has been adopted which is based on the core optimization calculation of SRAC-CITATION code as reactor core analysis and JENDL-3.3 is adopted for nuclear data library. Some MA doping materials are loaded into the blanket regions which can be considered as breeding region for protected plutonium production. Breeding capability of the reactor can be increased effectively by increasing MA doping rate while criticality condition of the reactor is reduced by doping MA. Adopting MA cycle is also effective to increase the isotopic Pu-238 production in plutonium vector composition for denaturing purpose of plutonium.

Permana, Sidik; Suzuki, Mitsutoshi; Kuno, Yusuke [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Nuclear Non-proliferation Science and Technology Center, 2-4 Shirane Shirakata, Tokai-mura, Ibaraki, 319-1195 (Japan)

2010-06-22T23:59:59.000Z

330

Development of a Vaccine for Bacterial Kidney Disease in Salmon, 1984 Annual Report.  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The data presented here demonstrate that there is some variability to the antigenic structure of KDB. Although gel filtration of all antigenic preparations revealed a wide range of sizes for antigens, resolution on a denaturing gel revealed relatively few protein bands and immunological assays revealed the same (3) low number of antigens. It is of particular interest that there seems to be a protein of 60 kd in all preparations, but that there are not larger individual molecular species. This, in turn indicates that the larger molecular weight species detected in gel filtration are most likely aggregates or membrane fragments composed of a lower molecular weight subunit. Use of ultrafiltration of KDM-2 medium appears to be successful in eliminating contamination of high molecular weight material found in KDM-2. There appears to be no alteration in the number of soluble antigens produced by growth in either medium, nor in the number of proteins, as detected by SDS-PAGE. However, soluble antigens isolated from UF-KDM-2 does appear to have greater heterogeneity in their isoelectric focusing (IEF) patterns than those from UF-KDM-2. Also, although there does appear to be an extended lag period in KDB growth on UF-KDM-2, there is no alteration in final O.D. or wet weight of cells. Thus, it appears that UF-KDM-2 may be an alternate medium for those wishing to isolate purified bacterial proteins or antigens. ELISA assays have been developed for the detection of soluble KDB antigens. This system is currently being developed as a sensitive measure of the presence of soluble antigen in serum and tissues of fish. Such a sensitive assay may also allow for the detection of KD+ spawners by the testing of ovarian fluid or serum. ELISA assays have also been developed to detect antibodies to soluble and cellular antigens of KDB. These systems have been proven successful in the detection of rabbit and murine monoclonal antibodies against KDB antigens. Future work will develop the use of anti-fish immunoglobulin (Ig) reagents to detect the presence of fish antibodies to KDB. This would be an extremely useful tool to be used in monitoring the immune response of salmon to the various test vaccines. The various antigens characterized in this study, along with whole KDB cells are currently being conjugated to various immunopotentiating agents. Testing of these prototype vaccines is currently under study.

Kaattari, Stephen L.

1985-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

331

Performance of Thorium-Based Mixed Oxide Fuels for the Consumption of Plutonium and Minor Actinides in Current and Advanced Reactors  

SciTech Connect

A renewed interest in thorium-based fuels has arisen lately based on the need for proliferation resistance, longer fuel cycles, higher burnup and improved wasteform characteristics. Recent studies have been directed toward homogeneously mixed, heterogeneously mixed, and seed-and-blanket thorium-uranium fuel cycles that rely on "in situ" use of the bred-in U-233. However, due to the higher initial enrichment required to achieve acceptable burnups, these fuels are encountering economic constraints. Thorium can nevertheless play a large role in the nuclear fuel cycle; particularly in the reduction of plutonium. While uranium-based mixedoxide (MOX) fuel will decrease the amount of plutonium, the reduction is limited due to the breeding of more plutonium (and higher actinides) from the U-238. Here we present calculational results and a comparison of the potential burnup of a thorium-based and uranium-based mixed oxide fuel in a light water reactor (LWR). Although the uranium-based fuels outperformed the thorium-based fuels in achievable burnup, a depletion comparison of the initially charged plutonium (both reactor and weapons grade) showed that the thorium-based fuels outperformed the uranium-based fuels by more that a factor of 2; where more than 70% of the total plutonium in the thorium-based fuel is consumed during the cycle. This is significant considering that the achievable burnup of the thorium-based fuels were 1.4 to 4.6 times less than the uranium-based fuels. Furthermore, use of a thorium-based fuel could also be used as a strategy for reducing the amount of long-lived nuclides (including the minor actinides), and thus the radiotoxicity in spent nuclear fuel. Although the breeding of U-233 is a concern, the presence of U-232 and its daughter products can aid in making this fuel self-protecting, and/or enough U-238 can be added to denature the fissile uranium. From these calculations, it appears that thorium-based fuel for plutonium incineration is superior as compared to uranium-based fuel, and should be considered as an alternative to traditional MOX in both current and future reactor designs.

Weaver, Kevan Dean; Herring, James Stephen

2002-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

332

WHERE MULTIFUNCTIONAL DNA REPAIR PROTEINS MEET: MAPPING THE INTERACTION DOMAINS BETWEEN XPG AND WRN  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The rapid recognition and repair of DNA damage is essential for the maintenance of genomic integrity and cellular survival. Multiple complex and interconnected DNA damage responses exist within cells to preserve the human genome, and these repair pathways are carried out by a specifi c interplay of protein-protein interactions. Thus a failure in the coordination of these processes, perhaps brought about by a breakdown in any one multifunctional repair protein, can lead to genomic instability, developmental and immunological abnormalities, cancer and premature aging. This study demonstrates a novel interaction between two such repair proteins, Xeroderma pigmentosum group G protein (XPG) and Werner syndrome helicase (WRN), that are both highly pleiotropic and associated with inherited genetic disorders when mutated. XPG is a structure-specifi c endonuclease required for the repair of UV-damaged DNA by nucleotide excision repair (NER), and mutations in XPG result in the diseases Xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) and Cockayne syndrome (CS). A loss of XPG incision activity results in XP, whereas a loss of non-enzymatic function(s) of XPG causes CS. WRN is a multifunctional protein involved in double-strand break repair (DSBR), and consists of 3’–5’ DNA-dependent helicase, 3’–5’ exonuclease, and single-strand DNA annealing activities. Nonfunctional WRN protein leads to Werner syndrome, a premature aging disorder with increased cancer incidence. Far Western analysis was used to map the interacting domains between XPG and WRN by denaturing gel electrophoresis, which separated purifi ed full length and recombinant XPG and WRN deletion constructs, based primarily upon the length of each polypeptide. Specifi c interacting domains were visualized when probed with the secondary protein of interest which was then detected by traditional Western analysis using the antibody of the secondary protein. The interaction between XPG and WRN was mapped to the C-terminal region of XPG as well as the C-terminal region of WRN. The physical interaction between XPG and WRN links NER, (made evident by the disease XP) with DSBR, which imparts additional knowledge of the overlapping nature of these two proteins and the previously distinct DNA repair pathways they are associated with. Since genomic integrity is constantly threatened by both endogenous and exogenous (internal and external) damage, understanding the roles of these proteins in coordinating DNA repair processes with replication will signifi cantly further understanding how defects instigate physiological consequences in response to various DNA damaging sources. This ultimately contributes to our understanding of cancer and premature aging.

Rangaraj, K.; Cooper, P.K.; Trego, K.S.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

333

In contrast to conventional inactivated influenza vaccines, 4xM2e.HSP70c fusion protein fully protected mice against lethal dose of H1, H3 and H9 influenza A isolates circulating in Iran  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Ideal vaccines against influenza viruses should elicit not only a humoral response, but also a cellular response. Mycobacterium tuberculosis HSP70 (mHSP70) have been found to promote immunogenic APCs function, elicit a strong cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) response, and prevent the induction of tolerance. Moreover, it showed linkage of antigens to the C-terminus of mHSP70 (mHSP70c) can represent them as vaccines resulted in more potent, protective antigen specific responses in the absence of adjuvants or complex formulations. Hence, recombinant fusion protein comprising C-terminus of mHSP70 genetically fused to four tandem repeats of the ectodomain of the conserved influenza matrix protein M2 (M2e) was expressed in Escherichia coli, purified under denaturing condition, refolding, and then confirmed by SDS-PAGE, respectively. The recombinant fusion protein, 4xM2e.HSP70c, retained its immunogenicity and displayed the protective epitope of M2e by ELISA and FITC assays. A prime-boost administration of 4xM2e.HSP70c formulated in F105 buffer by intramuscular route in mice (Balb/C) provided full protection against lethal dose of mouse-adapted H1N1, H3N2, or H9N2 influenza A isolates from Iran compared to 0-33.34% survival rate of challenged unimmunized and immunized mice with the currently in use conventional vaccines designated as control groups. However, protection induced by immunization with 4xM2e.HSP70c failed to prevent weight loss in challenged mice; they experienced significantly lower weight loss, clinical symptoms and higher lung viral clearance in comparison with protective effects of conventional influenza vaccines in challenged mice. These data demonstrate that C-terminal domain of mHSP70 can be a superior candidate to deliver the adjuvant function in M2e-based influenza A vaccine in order to provide significant protection against multiple influenza A virus strains.

Ebrahimi, Seyyed Mahmoud, E-mail: smebrahimi@shirazu.ac.ir [Applied Biotechnology Research Center, Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences, P.O. Box 14155-3651,Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Research Center of Virus and Vaccine, Baqiyatallah University of Medical Science, P.O.Box 14155-3651, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Dabaghian, Mehran [Department of Pathobiology, University of Tehran, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, P.O. Box 14155-6453, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)] [Department of Pathobiology, University of Tehran, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, P.O. Box 14155-6453, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Tebianian, Majid [Department of Biotechnology, Razi Vaccine and Serum Research Institute (RVSRI), P.O. Box 31975/148, Karaj, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)] [Department of Biotechnology, Razi Vaccine and Serum Research Institute (RVSRI), P.O. Box 31975/148, Karaj, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Zabeh Jazi, Mohammad Hossein [Department of Pathobiology, University of Tehran, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, P.O. Box 14155-6453, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)] [Department of Pathobiology, University of Tehran, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, P.O. Box 14155-6453, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

2012-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

334

Evaluation of the Gastrointestinal Microbiota in Response to Dietary and Therapeutic Factors in Cats and Dogs Using Molecular Methods  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The gastrointestinal (GI) tract of cats and dogs is inhabited by many different types of microorganisms, known as the GI microbiota. Mounting evidence suggests that the administration of certain dietary and/or therapeutic agents can alter the composition and activity of the GI microbiota, thus influencing gastrointestinal health and disease. The aim of this study was to evaluate the gastrointestinal microbiota in response to dietary and therapeutic interventions in cats and dogs. A multi-species synbiotic formulation, containing a total of 5x109 colony forming units of a mixture of seven probiotic bacterial strains and a blend of prebiotics, was administered daily for 21 days to healthy cats and dogs. Fecal samples were collected before, during, and up to three weeks after discontinuation of the administration of the synbiotic. The fecal microbiota was analyzed using 454-pyrosequencing, denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis, quantitative real-time PCR, and 16S rRNA gene clone libraries. The results showed that the synbiotic led to increased concentrations of probiotic bacteria in the feces but did not alter the predominant bacterial phyla. Additionally, we investigated the effect of age, body weight, and baseline abundance of probiotic related bacterial genera, as potential predictors of intestinal colonization by the ingested microorganisms. The results suggested that cats having a low abundance of fecal probiotic genera before consuming probiotics may have a higher concentration of the probiotic groups in feces during consumption of the symbiotic formulation. Also, a proton-pump inhibitor, aimed at suppressing the secretion of gastric acid, was administered daily for 15 days to healthy dogs. Changes in the GI microbiota were analyzed using 454-pyrosequencing, fluorescent in situ hybridization, and quantitative real-time PCR. The results suggested that inhibition of gastric acid secretion can alter the abundance of several gastric, duodenal, and fecal bacterial groups. However, these changes were not associated with major qualitative modifications of the overall composition of the GI microbiota. These studies showed that dietary and therapeutic agents can alter the composition of the GI microbiota and suggest that these changes could be associated with particular characteristics of the host. The clinical significance of these results needs further investigation.

Garcia-Mazcorro, Jose

2011-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

335

Assessment of the canine intestinal microflora using molecular methods and serum markers  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Previous studies examining the canine intestinal microflora have focused on cultivation of bacteria from intestinal content. Recently, it has been recognized that the majority of bacteria cannot be identified using standard culture techniques. The aim of this study was to describe the composition and dynamics of the canine intestinal microflora using molecular methods based on identification of the 16S ribosomal DNA (16S rDNA) and to evaluate the clinical use of a 13C-glycocholic acid blood test (13CGCBT) as a serum marker for small intestinal bacterial biomass. Intestinal content was obtained from healthy dogs and the microflora was characterized in different compartments of each dog by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and comparative 16S rDNA analysis. A 13C-glycocholic acid blood test (13C-GCBT) was developed as a marker for small intestinal bacterial biomass and the influence of tylosin administration on the 13C-GCBT, serum concentrations of cobalamin, folate, and unconjugated cholic acid (SUCA) was evaluated. There was marked variation in DGGE profiles between individual dogs and also between different intestinal compartments within dogs. DGGE profiles from duodenal juice samples collected endoscopically at different time-points varied within individuals, possibly due to variations over time or a slight variation in sampling location. Direct sequencing revealed 106 individual 16S rDNA sequences. Forty-two sequences showed less than 98% similarity to described sequences in public databases and may constitute previously uncharacterized bacterial species. Serum folate concentrations, SUCA, and the cumulative percent dose/min of 13C administered as 13C-glycocholic acid (CUMPCD) increased significantly following tylosin administration (p<0.01). The results indicate that dogs have a complex intestinal microflora with marked differences between individual dogs. Different intestinal compartments appear to host a unique microflora and the assessment of a fecal sample does not yield accurate information about the composition of the microflora in proximal compartments of the gut. The intestine harbors many previously uncharacterized bacterial species. The clinical significance of these uncharacterized intestinal bacterial species needs to be further investigated in dogs with gastrointestinal disease. Increased serum folate, SUCA, and CUMPCD in the 13C-GCBT suggest that, in the dogs described here, tylosin administration increased the biomass of organisms carrying out these metabolic functions.

Suchodolski, Jan S.

2005-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

336

OPTIMIZATION OF HETEROGENEOUS UTILIZATION OF THORIUM IN PWRS TO ENHANCE PROLIFERATION RESISTANCE AND REDUCE WASTE.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Issues affecting the implementation, public perception and acceptance of nuclear power include: proliferation, radioactive waste, safety, and economics. The thorium cycle directly addresses the proliferation and waste issues, but optimization studies of core design and fuel management are needed to ensure that it fits within acceptable safety and economic margins. Typical pressurized water reactors, although loaded with uranium fuel, produce 225 to 275 kg of plutonium per gigawatt-year of operation. Although the spent fuel is highly radioactive, it nevertheless offers a potential proliferation pathway because the plutonium is relatively easy to separate, amounts to many critical masses, and does not present any significant intrinsic barrier to weapon assembly. Uranium 233, on the other hand, produced by the irradiation of thorium, although it too can be used in weapons, may be ''denatured'' by the addition of natural, depleted or low enriched uranium. Furthermore, it appears that the chemical behavior of thoria or thoria-urania fuel makes it a more stable medium for the geological disposal of the spent fuel. It is therefore particularly well suited for a once-through fuel cycle. The use of thorium as a fertile material in nuclear fuel has been of interest since the dawn of nuclear power technology due to its abundance and to potential neutronic advantages. Early projects include homogeneous mixtures of thorium and uranium oxides in the BORAX-IV, Indian Point I, and Elk River reactors, as well as heterogeneous mixtures in the Shippingport seed-blanket reactor. However these projects were developed under considerably different circumstances than those which prevail at present. The earlier applications preceded the current proscription, for non-proliferation purposes, of the use of uranium enriched to more than 20 w/o in {sup 235}U, and has in practice generally prohibited the use of uranium highly enriched in {sup 235}U. They were designed when the expected burnup of light water fuel was on the order of 25 MWD/kgU--about half the present day value--and when it was expected that the spent fuel would be recycled to recover its fissile content.

TODOSOW,M.; KAZIMI,M.

2004-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

337

Rational design of organophosphorus hydrolase for the degradation and detection of neurotoxic pesticides and chemical warfare agents  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

It is critical to consider the balance between the catalytic capabilities of an enzyme and the inherent structural stability of the protein when developing enzymes for specific applications. Rational site directed mutagenesis has been used to explore the role of residues 254 and 257 in the global stability and catalytic specificities of organophosphorus hydrolase (OPH, EC 3.1.8.1). Substitution of residues H254 and H257, which are located near the active site, had a marked effect on both the global stability and substrate specificity of the enzyme. For example, the for the double mutation CoTG��2+ H254R H257L (RL) enzyme variant was 19.6 kcal/mol, 5.7 kcal/mol less than that of the wild type enzyme. At the same time, the altered enzyme was catalytically more effective against VX and VR (Russian VX), as compared to the wild type enzyme. Limited proteolysis verified the importance of residues 254 and 257 for functional stability, evidenced by enhanced resistance to irreversible unfolding associated with thermal denaturation. It has been possible to construct third generation OPH variants, which are more stable than the wild type enzyme, with a 10 �°C increase in the apparent melting temperature (TM app), yet retained desirable catalytic properties. It appeared that aromatic stacking and cation-Ï� interactions involving near active site residues not only affected activity but significantly contributed to the chemical and thermal stability of OPH. Rational design was used to develop an enzyme with an optimized orientation on a catalytically active biosensor surface. In these studies, lysine side chains located on the surface of OPH were used to create attachment sites to a surface plasmon resonance sensor resulting in an ensemble of enzyme orientations. Some of these orientations could be functionally restrictive if the active site is oriented toward the sensor surface. Substitution of a lysine near the active site resulted in 20% more activity with 53% less enzyme immobilized, thus increasing the specific activity of the decorated surface 2.5 fold.

Reeves, Tony Elvern

2003-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

338

The use of PCR-based methodologies to characterize salmonella serotypes of poultry origin  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Three studies were conducted to investigate the use of molecular techniques to identify Salmonella serotypes in poultry. In the first experiment, two polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based techniques: denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) were used to analyze Salmonella serotype isolates from two turkey processing plants (A and B). Genotypic patterns of each isolate were compared with those of known serotypes identified by traditional antibody precipitation methods. In Plant A, four different Salmonella serotypes were identified: Derby, Hadar, Montevideo, and Senftenberg. In plant B, ten serotypes were identified: Agona, Anatum, Brandenburg, Derby, Hadar, Meleagridis, Montevideo, Reading, Senftenberg, and Typhimurium. S. Derby was predominant in Plant A (83%) while S. Typhimurium was the most common serotype recovered in Plant B (39%). Overall, DGGE was more sensitive than PAGE. Isolates of the same serotypes were all grouped together by DGGE, while PAGE failed to group all like serotypes. Next, DGGE and REP-PCR were used as genotyping tools for identifying Salmonella. Fifty-four Salmonella isolates from two turkey processing plants (A and B) were evaluated. The isolates were comprised of the following serotypes: Brandenburg, Derby, Hadar, and Typhimurium (n = 6, 21, 12, and 15, respectively). Both methods were very sensitive and detected diverse fingerprint profiles among the isolates. The data suggested that REP-PCR and DGGE are useful tools for identifying Salmonella serotypes in research trials of this type. The final trial was carried out to track Salmonella serotypes throughout an integrated poultry operation using DGGE. Four flocks were sampled from grow-out through processing. The data showed that there was correlation between Salmonella serotypes found on processed carcasses and during grow-out. In addition, the isolates were compared against 15 known serotypes in our data base and only S. Hadar from the data base matched the unknown Salmonella isolates. Overall, these studies demonstrate that PCR-based methods could be considered as an alternative to conventional methods of antibody-based serotyping. Molecular methods were found to be reliable, sensitive, inexpensive, reproducible, and less labor intensive than conventional methods.

Anderson, Phelue Nigel

2008-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

339

Selective Extraction of Uranium from Liquid or Supercritical Carbon Dioxide  

SciTech Connect

Current liquid-liquid extraction processes used in recycling irradiated nuclear fuel rely on (1) strong nitric acid to dissolve uranium oxide fuel, and (2) the use of aliphatic hydrocarbons as a diluent in formulating the solvent used to extract uranium. The nitric acid dissolution process is not selective. It dissolves virtually the entire fuel meat which complicates the uranium extraction process. In addition, a solvent washing process is used to remove TBP degradation products, which adds complexity to the recycling plant and increases the overall plant footprint and cost. A liquid or supercritical carbon dioxide (l/sc -CO2) system was designed to mitigate these problems. Indeed, TBP nitric acid complexes are highly soluble in l/sc -CO2 and are capable of extracting uranium directly from UO2, UO3 and U3O8 powders. This eliminates the need for total acid dissolution of the irradiated fuel. Furthermore, since CO2 is easily recycled by evaporation at room temperature and pressure, it eliminates the complex solvent washing process. In this report, we demonstrate: (1) A reprocessing scheme starting with the selective extraction of uranium from solid uranium oxides into a TBP-HNO3 loaded Sc-CO2 phase, (2) Back extraction of uranium into an aqueous phase, and (3) Conversion of recovered purified uranium into uranium oxide. The purified uranium product from step 3 can be disposed of as low level waste, or mixed with enriched uranium for use in a reactor for another fuel cycle. After an introduction on the concept and properties of supercritical fluids, we first report the characterization of the different oxides used for this project. Our extraction system and our online monitoring capability using UV-Vis absorbance spectroscopy directly in sc-CO2 is then presented. Next, the uranium extraction efficiencies and kinetics is demonstrated for different oxides and under different physical and chemical conditions: l/sc -CO2 pressure and temperature, TBP/HNO3 complex used, reductant or complexant used for selectivity, and ionic liquids used as supportive media. To complete the extraction and recovery cycle, we then demonstrate uranium back extraction from the TBP loaded sc-CO2 phase into an aqueous phase and the characterization of the uranium complex formed at the end of this process. Another aspect of this project was to limit proliferation risks by either co-extracting uranium and plutonium, or by leaving plutonium behind by selectively extracting uranium. We report that the former is easily achieved, since plutonium is in the tetravalent or hexavalent oxidation state in the oxidizing environment created by the TBP-nitric acid complex, and is therefore co-extracted. The latter is more challenging, as a reductant or complexant to plutonium has to be used to selectively extract uranium. After undertaking experiments on different reducing or complexing systems (e.g., AcetoHydroxamic Acid (AHA), Fe(II), ascorbic acid), oxalic acid was chosen as it can complex tetravalent actinides (Pu, Np, Th) in the aqueous phase while allowing the extraction of hexavalent uranium in the sc-CO2 phase. Finally, we show results using an alternative media to commonly used aqueous phases: ionic liquids. We show the dissolution of uranium in ionic liquids and its extraction using sc-CO2 with and without the presence of AHA. The possible separation of trivalent actinides from uranium is also demonstrated in ionic liquids using neodymium as a surrogate and diglycolamides as the extractant.

Farawila, Anne F.; O'Hara, Matthew J.; Wai, Chien M.; Taylor, Harry Z.; Liao, Yu-Jung

2012-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

340

Mill Designed Bio bleaching Technologies  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A key finding of this research program was that Laccase Mediator Systems (LMS) treatments on high-kappa kraft could be successfully accomplished providing substantial delignification (i.e., > 50%) without detrimental impact on viscosity and significantly improved yield properties. The efficiency of the LMS was evident since most of the lignin from the pulp was removed in less than one hour at 45 degrees C. Of the mediators investigated, violuric acid was the most effective vis-a-vis delignification. A comparative study between oxygen delignification and violuric acid revealed that under relatively mild conditions, a single or a double LMS{sub VA} treatment is comparable to a single or a double O stage. Of great notability was the retention of end viscosity of LMS{sub VA} treated pulps with respect to the end viscosity of oxygen treated pulps. These pulps could then be bleached to full brightness values employing conventional ECF bleaching technologies and the final pulp physical properties were equal and/or better than those bleached in a conventional ECF manner employing an aggressively O or OO stage initially. Spectral analyses of residual lignins isolated after LMS treated high-kappa kraft pulps revealed that similar to HBT, VA and NHA preferentially attack phenolic lignin moieties. In addition, a substantial decrease in aliphatic hydroxyl groups was also noted, suggesting side chain oxidation. In all cases, an increase in carboxylic acid was observed. Of notable importance was the different selectivity of NHA, VA and HBT towards lignin functional groups, despite the common N-OH moiety. C-5 condensed phenolic lignin groups were overall resistant to an LMS{sub NHA, HBT} treatments but to a lesser extent to an LMS{sub VA}. The inactiveness of these condensed lignin moieties was not observed when low-kappa kraft pulps were biobleached, suggesting that the LMS chemistry is influenced by the extent of delignification. We have also demonstrated that the current generation of laccase has a broad spectrum of operating parameters. Nonetheless, the development of future genetically engineered laccases with enhanced temperature, pH and redox potentials will dramatically improve the overall process. A second challenge for LMS bleaching technologies is the need to develop effective, catalytic mediators. From the literature we already know this is feasible since ABTS and some inorganic mediators are catalytic. Unfortunately, the mediators that exhibit catalytic properties do not exhibit significant delignification properties and this is a challenge for future research studies. Potential short-term mill application of laccase has been recently reported by Felby132 and Chandra133 as they have demonstrated that the physical properties of linerboard can be improved when exposed to laccase without a chemical mediator. In addition, xxx has shown that the addition of laccase to the whitewater of the paper machine has several benefits for the removal of colloidal materials. Finally, this research program has presented important features on the delignification chemistry of LMS{sub NHA} and LMS{sub VA} that, in the opinion of the author, are momentous contributions to the overall LMS chemistry/biochemistry knowledge base which will continue to have future benefits.

Institute of Paper Science Technology

2004-01-30T23:59:59.000Z

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341

YEAR 2 BIOMASS UTILIZATION  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) Year 2 Biomass Utilization Final Technical Report summarizes multiple projects in biopower or bioenergy, transportation biofuels, and bioproducts. A prototype of a novel advanced power system, termed the high-temperature air furnace (HITAF), was tested for performance while converting biomass and coal blends to energy. Three biomass fuels--wood residue or hog fuel, corn stover, and switchgrass--and Wyoming subbituminous coal were acquired for combustion tests in the 3-million-Btu/hr system. Blend levels were 20% biomass--80% coal on a heat basis. Hog fuel was prepared for the upcoming combustion test by air-drying and processing through a hammer mill and screen. A K-Tron biomass feeder capable of operating in both gravimetric and volumetric modes was selected as the HITAF feed system. Two oxide dispersion-strengthened (ODS) alloys that would be used in the HITAF high-temperature heat exchanger were tested for slag corrosion rates. An alumina layer formed on one particular alloy, which was more corrosion-resistant than a chromia layer that formed on the other alloy. Research activities were completed in the development of an atmospheric pressure, fluidized-bed pyrolysis-type system called the controlled spontaneous reactor (CSR), which is used to process and condition biomass. Tree trimmings were physically and chemically altered by the CSR process, resulting in a fuel that was very suitable for feeding into a coal combustion or gasification system with little or no feed system modifications required. Experimental procedures were successful for producing hydrogen from biomass using the bacteria Thermotoga, a deep-ocean thermal vent organism. Analytical procedures for hydrogen were evaluated, a gas chromatography (GC) method was derived for measuring hydrogen yields, and adaptation culturing and protocols for mutagenesis were initiated to better develop strains that can use biomass cellulose. Fly ash derived from cofiring coal with waste paper, sunflower hulls, and wood waste showed a broad spectrum of chemical and physical characteristics, according to American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) C618 procedures. Higher-than-normal levels of magnesium, sodium, and potassium oxide were observed for the biomass-coal fly ash, which may impact utilization in cement replacement in concrete under ASTM requirements. Other niche markets for biomass-derived fly ash were explored. Research was conducted to develop/optimize a catalytic partial oxidation-based concept for a simple, low-cost fuel processor (reformer). Work progressed to evaluate the effects of temperature and denaturant on ethanol catalytic partial oxidation. A catalyst was isolated that had a yield of 24 mole percent, with catalyst coking limited to less than 15% over a period of 2 hours. In biodiesel research, conversion of vegetable oils to biodiesel using an alternative alkaline catalyst was demonstrated without the need for subsequent water washing. In work related to biorefinery technologies, a continuous-flow reactor was used to react ethanol with lactic acid prepared from an ammonium lactate concentrate produced in fermentations conducted at the EERC. Good yields of ester were obtained even though the concentration of lactic acid in the feed was low with respect to the amount of water present. Esterification gave lower yields of ester, owing to the lowered lactic acid content of the feed. All lactic acid fermentation from amylose hydrolysate test trials was completed. Management activities included a decision to extend several projects to December 31, 2003, because of delays in receiving biomass feedstocks for testing and acquisition of commercial matching funds. In strategic studies, methods for producing acetate esters for high-value fibers, fuel additives, solvents, and chemical intermediates were discussed with several commercial entities. Commercial industries have an interest in efficient biomass gasification designs but are waiting for economic incentives. Utility, biorefinery, pulp and paper, or o

Christopher J. Zygarlicke

2004-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

342

Subunits of highly Fluorescent Protein R-Phycoerythrin as Probes for Cell Imaging and Single-Molecule Detection  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The purposes of our research were: (1) To characterize subunits of highly fluorescent protein R-Phycoerythrin (R-PE) and check their suitability for single-molecule detection (SMD) and cell imaging, (2) To extend the use of R-PE subunits through design of similar proteins that will be used as probes for microscopy and spectral imaging in a single cell, and (3) To demonstrate a high-throughput spectral imaging method that will rival spectral flow cytometry in the analysis of individual cells. We first demonstrated that R-PE subunits have spectroscopic and structural characteristics that make them suitable for SMD. Subunits were isolated from R-PE by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and detected as single molecules by total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy (TIRFM). In addition, R-PE subunits and their enzymatic digests were characterized by several separation and detection methods including HPLC, capillary electrophoresis, sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrilamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and HPLC-electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS). Favorable absorption and fluorescence of the R-PE subunits and digest peptides originate from phycoerythrobilin (PEB) and phycourobilin (PUB) chromophores that are covalently attached to cysteine residues. High absorption coefficients and strong fluorescence (even under denaturing conditions), broad excitation and emission fluorescence spectra in the visible region of electromagnetic spectrum, and relatively low molecular weights make these molecules suitable for use as fluorescence labels of biomolecules and cells. We further designed fluorescent proteins both in vitro and in vivo (in Escherichia coli) based on the highly specific attachment of PEB chromophore to genetically expressed apo-subunits of R-PE. In one example, apo-alpha and apo-beta R-PE subunits were cloned from red algae Polisiphonia boldii (P. boldii), and expressed in E. coli. Although expressed apo-subunits formed inclusion bodies, fluorescent holo-subunits were formed after incubation of E. coli cells with PEB. Spectroscopic characterization of holo-subunits confirmed that the attachment of PEB chromophore to apo-subunits yielded holo-subunits containing both PEB and urobilin (UB). Fluorescence and differential interference contrast (DIC) microscopy showed polar location of holo-subunit inclusion bodies in E. coli cells. In another example, R-PE apo-subunits were genetically fused to cytoplasmic and periplasmic versions of E. coli maltose binding protein (MBP). Fluorescent proteins formed after attachment of PEB to MBP-subunit fusions in vitro and in vivo contained PEB as the sole chromophore, were soluble, and displayed high orange fluorescence. Fluorescence microscopy showed that fusions are located either throughout cells or at cell poles. In addition, cells containing fluorescent holo-subunits or MBP-subunit fusions were up to ten times brighter than control cells as measured by flow cytometry. Results show that the fluorescent proteins formed after non-enzymatic attachment of PEB to R-PE subunit fusions could be used as reporters of gene expression and protein localization in cells as well as fluorescence labels in flow cytometry. Finally, we demonstrated a high-throughput method able to record emission fluorescence spectra of individual cells containing fluorescent proteins. Upon excitation with a 488 mn argon-ion laser many bacterial cells were imaged by a 20X microscope objective while they moved through a capillary tube. Fluorescence was dispersed by a transmission diffraction grating, and an intensified charge-coupled device (ICCD) camera simultaneously recorded the zero and the first orders of the fluorescence from each cell. Single-cell fluorescence spectra were reconstructed from the distance between zero-order and first-order maxima as well as the length and the pixel intensity distribution of the first-order images. By using this approach, the emission spectrum of E. coli cells expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP) was reconstructed. Also, fluorescence spectra of E

Dragan Isailovic

2005-12-17T23:59:59.000Z

343

Bulk gold catalyzed oxidation reactions of amines and isocyanides and iron porphyrin catalyzed N-H and O-H bond insertion/cyclization reactions of diamines and aminoalcohols  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This work involves two projects. The first project entails the study of bulk gold as a catalyst in oxidation reactions of isocyanides and amines. The main goal of this project was to study the activation and reactions of molecules at metal surfaces in order to assess how organometallic principles for homogeneous processes apply to heterogeneous catalysis. Since previous work had used oxygen as an oxidant in bulk gold catalyzed reactions, the generality of gold catalysis with other oxidants was examined. Amine N-oxides were chosen for study, due to their properties and use in the oxidation of carbonyl ligands in organometallic complexes. When amine N-oxides were used as an oxidant in the reaction of isocyanides with amines, the system was able to produce ureas from a variety of isocyanides, amines, and amine N-oxides. In addition, the rate was found to generally increase as the amine N-oxide concentration increased, and decrease with increased concentrations of the amine. Mechanistic studies revealed that the reaction likely involves transfer of an oxygen atom from the amine N-oxide to the adsorbed isocyanide to generate an isocyanate intermediate. Subsequent nucleophilic attack by the amine yields the urea. This is in contrast to the bulk gold-catalyzed reaction mechanism of isocyanides with amines and oxygen. Formation of urea in this case was proposed to proceed through a diaminocarbene intermediate. Moreover, formation of the proposed isocyanate intermediate is consistent with the reactions of metal carbonyl ligands, which are isoelectronic to isocyanides. Nucleophilic attack at coordinated CO by amine N-oxides produces CO{sub 2} and is analogous to the production of an isocyanate in this gold system. When the bulk gold-catalyzed oxidative dehydrogenation of amines was examined with amine N-oxides, the same products were afforded as when O{sub 2} was used as the oxidant. When the two types of oxidants were directly compared using the same reaction system and conditions, it was found that the oxidative dehydrogenation of dibenzylamine to Nbenzylidenebenzylamine, with N-methylmorpholine N-oxide (NMMO), was nearly quantitative (96%) within 24 h. However, the reaction with oxygen was much slower, with only a 52% yield of imine product over the same time period. Moreover, the rate of reaction was found to be influenced by the nature of the amine N-oxide. For example, the use of the weakly basic pyridine N-oxide (PyNO) led to an imine yield of only 6% after 24 h. A comparison of amine N-oxide and O2 was also examined in the oxidation of PhCH{sub 2}OH to PhCHO catalyzed by bulk gold. In this reaction, a 52% yield of the aldehyde was achieved when NMMO was used, while only a 7% product yield was afforded when O{sub 2} was the oxidant after 48 h. The bulk gold-catalyzed oxidative dehydrogenation of cyclic amines generates amidines, which upon treatment with Aerosil and water were found to undergo hydrolysis to produce lactams. Moreover, 5-, 6-, and 7-membered lactams could be prepared through a one-pot reaction of cyclic amines by treatment with oxygen, water, bulk gold, and Aerosil. This method is much more atom economical than industrial processes, does not require corrosive acids, and does not generate undesired byproducts. Additionally, the gold and Aerosil catalysts can be readily separated from the reaction mixture. The second project involved studying iron(III) tetraphenylporphyrin chloride, Fe(TPP)Cl, as a homogeneous catalyst for the generation of carbenes from diazo reagents and their reaction with heteroatom compounds. Fe(TPP)Cl, efficiently catalyzed the insertion of carbenes derived from methyl 2-phenyldiazoacetates into O-H bonds of aliphatic and aromatic alcohols. Fe(TPP)Cl was also found to be an effective catalyst for tandem N-H and O-H insertion/cyclization reactions when 1,2-diamines and 1,2-alcoholamines were treated with diazo reagents. This approach provides a one-pot process for synthesizing piperazinones and morpholinones and related analogues such as quinoxalinones and benzoxazin-2-ones.

Klobukowski, Erik

2011-12-29T23:59:59.000Z

344

E85 Optimized Engine through Boosting, Spray-Optimized DIG, VCR and Variable Valvetrain  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The use of biofuels for internal combustion engines has several well published advantages. The biofuels, made from biological sources such as corn or sugar cane, are renewable resources that reduce the dependence on fossil fuels. Fuels from agricultural sources can therefore reduce a countries energy dependency on other nations. Biofuels also have been shown to reduce CO2 emissions into the atmosphere compared to traditional fossil based fuels. Because of these benefits several countries have set targets for the use of biofuels, especially ethanol, in their transportation fuels. Small percentages of ethanol are common place in gasoline but are typically limited to 5 to 8% by volume. Greater benefits are possible from higher concentrations and some countries such as the US and Sweden have encouraged the production of vehicles capable of operating on E85 (85% denatured ethanol and 15% gasoline). E85 capable vehicles are normally equipped to run the higher levels of ethanol by employing modified fuel delivery systems that can withstand the highly corrosive nature of the alcohol. These vehicles are not however equipped to take full advantage of ethanol's properties during the combustion process. Ethanol has a much higher blend research octane number than gasoline. This allows the use of higher engine compression ratios and spark advance which result in more efficient engine operation. Ethanol's latent heat of vaporization is also much higher that gasoline. This higher heat of vaporization cools the engine intake charge which also allows the engine compression ratio to be increased even further. An engine that is optimized for operation on high concentrations of ethanol therefore will have compression ratios that are too high to avoid spark knock (pre-ignition) if run on gasoline or a gasoline/ethanol blend that has a low percentage alcohol. An engine was developed during this project to leverage the improved evaporative cooling and high octane of E85 to improve fuel economy and offset E85's lower energy content. A 2.0 L production Direct Injection gasoline, (DIg) engine employing Dual Independent Cam Phasing, (DICP) and turbo charging was used as the base engine. Modified pistons were used to increase the geometric compression ratio from 9.2:1 to 11.85:1 by modifying the pistons and adding advanced valvetrain to proved control of displacement and effective compression ratio through valve timing control. The advanced valvetrain utilized Delphi's two step valvetrain hardware and intake cam phaser with increased phasing authority of 80 crank angle degrees. Using this hardware the engine was capable of operating knock free on all fuels tested from E0-E85 by controlling effective compression ratio using a Late Intake Valve Closing, (LIVC) strategy. The LIVC strategy results in changes in the trapped displacement such that knock limited torque for gasoline is significantly lower than E85. The use of spark retard to control knock enables higher peak torque for knock limited fuels, however a loss in efficiency results. For gasoline and E10 fuels, full effective displacement could not be reached before spark retard produced a net loss in torque. The use of an Early Intake Valve Closing, (EIVC) strategy resulted in an improvement of engine efficiency at low to mid loads for all fuels tested from E0- E85. Further the use of valve deactivation, to a single intake valve, improved combustion stability and enabled throttle-less operation down to less than 2 bar BMEP. Slight throttling to trap internal residual provided additional reductions in fuel consumption. To fully leverage the benefits of E85, or ethanol blends above E10, would require a vehicle level approach that would take advantage of the improved low end torque that is possible with E85. Operating the engine at reduced speeds and using advanced transmissions (6 speeds or higher) would provide a responsive efficient driving experience to the customer. The vehicle shift and torque converter lockup points for high ethanol blends could take advantage of the significant efficiency ad

Keith Confer; Harry Husted

2011-05-31T23:59:59.000Z