National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for demand year-to-year percent

  1. Variable Average Absolute Percent Differences

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Variable Average Absolute Percent Differences Percent of Projections Over- Estimated Gross Domestic Product Real Gross Domestic Product (Average Cumulative Growth)* (Table 2) 0.9 45.8 Petroleum Imported Refiner Acquisition Cost of Crude Oil (Constant $) (Table 3a) 37.7 17.3 Imported Refiner Acquisition Cost of Crude Oil (Nominal $) (Table 3b) 36.6 18.7 Total Petroleum Consumption (Table 4) 7.9 70.7 Crude Oil Production (Table 5) 8.1 51.1 Petroleum Net Imports (Table 6) 24.7 73.8 Natural Gas

  2. Demand Reduction

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Grantees may use funds to coordinate with electricity supply companies and utilities to reduce energy demands on their power systems. These demand reduction programs are usually coordinated through...

  3. Impacts of Temperature Variation on Energy Demand in Buildings (released in AEO2005)

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2005-01-01

    In the residential and commercial sectors, heating and cooling account for more than 40% of end-use energy demand. As a result, energy consumption in those sectors can vary significantly from year to year, depending on yearly average temperatures.

  4. Next Update: December 2011 Net Internal Demand

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Net Internal Demand (MW) Capacity Resources (MW) Capacity Margin (percent) Net Internal Demand (MW) Capacity Resources (MW) Capacity Margin (percent) Net Internal Demand (MW) Capacity Resources (MW) Capacity Margin (percent) Net Internal Demand (MW) Capacity Resources (MW) Capacity Margin (percent) 2005 746,470 882,125 15.4 45,950 50,200 8.5 38,266 46,792 18.2 57,402 72,258 20.6 2006 760,108 906,155 16.1 43,824 53,171 17.6 41,754 49,792 16.1 59,727 70,607 15.4 2007 768,061 946,631 18.9 46,434

  5. Norwich Public Utilities- Zero Percent Financing Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    In partnership with several local banks, Norwich Public Utilities (NPU) is offering a zero percent loan to commercial and industrial customers for eligible energy efficiency improvement projects....

  6. Demand Response

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Demand Response Assessment for Eastern Interconnection Youngsun Baek, Stanton W. Hadley, Rocio Martinez, Gbadebo Oladosu, Alexander M. Smith, Fran Li, Paul Leiby and Russell Lee Prepared for FY12 DOE-CERTS Transmission Reliability R&D Internal Program Review September 20, 2012 2 Managed by UT-Battelle for the U.S. Department of Energy DOE National Laboratory Studies Funded to Support FOA 63 * DOE set aside $20 million from transmission funding for national laboratory studies. * DOE

  7. travel-demand-modeling

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Demand Modeler, Cambridge Systematics, Tallahassee, FL Abstract ... Travel demand ... Ahmed Mohideen Travel Demand Modeler Cambridge Systematics, Tallahassee, FL Transportation ...

  8. Commercial & Industrial Demand Response

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    & Events Skip navigation links Smart Grid Demand Response Agricultural Residential Demand Response Commercial & Industrial Demand Response Cross-sector Demand Response...

  9. Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    8 Minnesota - Natural Gas 2014 Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Million Cu. Feet ... Summary statistics for natural gas - Minnesota, 2010-2014 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 ...

  10. Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2 Alaska - Natural Gas 2014 Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Total Net Movements: - Industrial: Dry Production: Vehicle Fuel: Deliveries to Consumers: Residential: Electric Power: Commercial: Total Delivered: Table S2. Summary statistics for natural gas - Alaska, 2010-2014 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 Number of Producing Gas Wells at End of Year 269 277 185 R 159 170 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells 127,417 112,268

  11. Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    6 District of Columbia - Natural Gas 2014 Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Total Net Movements: - Industrial: Dry Production: Vehicle Fuel: Deliveries to Consumers: Residential: Electric Power: Commercial: Total Delivered: Table S9. Summary statistics for natural gas - District of Columbia, 2010-2014 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 Number of Producing Gas Wells at End of Year 0 0 0 0 0 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells

  12. Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    4 Massachusetts - Natural Gas 2014 Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Total Net Movements: - Industrial: Dry Production: Vehicle Fuel: Deliveries to Consumers: Residential: Electric Power: Commercial: Total Delivered: Table S23. Summary statistics for natural gas - Massachusetts, 2010-2014 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 Number of Producing Gas Wells at End of Year 0 0 0 0 0 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells 0 0 0 0 0

  13. Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    50 North Dakota - Natural Gas 2014 Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Total Net Movements: - Industrial: Dry Production: Vehicle Fuel: Deliveries to Consumers: Residential: Electric Power: Commercial: Total Delivered: Table S36. Summary statistics for natural gas - North Dakota, 2010-2014 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 Number of Producing Gas Wells at End of Year 188 239 211 200 200 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells

  14. Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    6 Washington - Natural Gas 2014 Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Total Net Movements: - Industrial: Dry Production: Vehicle Fuel: Deliveries to Consumers: Residential: Electric Power: Commercial: Total Delivered: Table S49. Summary statistics for natural gas - Washington, 2010-2014 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 Number of Producing Gas Wells at End of Year 0 0 0 0 0 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells 0 0 0 0 0 From Oil

  15. District of Columbia Natural Gas Percent Sold to The Commercial...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    by Local Distribution Companies (Percent) District of Columbia Natural Gas Percent Sold to The Commercial Sectors by Local Distribution Companies (Percent) Decade Year-0 ...

  16. Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    0 Alabama - Natural Gas 2014 Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Total Net Movements: - Industrial: Dry Production: Vehicle Fuel: Deliveries to Consumers: Residential: Electric Power: Commercial: Total Delivered: Table S1. Summary statistics for natural gas - Alabama, 2010-2014 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 Number of Producing Gas Wells at End of Year 7,026 7,063 6,327 R 6,165 6,118 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells

  17. Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    0 Colorado - Natural Gas 2014 Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Total Net Movements: - Industrial: Dry Production: Vehicle Fuel: Deliveries to Consumers: Residential: Electric Power: Commercial: Total Delivered: Table S6. Summary statistics for natural gas - Colorado, 2010-2014 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 Number of Producing Gas Wells at End of Year 28,813 30,101 32,000 R 32,468 38,346 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas

  18. Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    8 Florida - Natural Gas 2014 Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Total Net Movements: - Industrial: Dry Production: Vehicle Fuel: Deliveries to Consumers: Residential: Electric Power: Commercial: Total Delivered: Table S10. Summary statistics for natural gas - Florida, 2010-2014 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 Number of Producing Gas Wells at End of Year 0 0 0 0 0 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells 0 0 17,182 16,459 19,742

  19. Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    4 Hawaii - Natural Gas 2014 Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Total Net Movements: - Industrial: Dry Production: Vehicle Fuel: Deliveries to Consumers: Residential: Electric Power: Commercial: Total Delivered: Table S13. Summary statistics for natural gas - Hawaii, 2010-2014 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 Number of Producing Gas Wells at End of Year 0 0 0 0 0 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells 0 0 0 0 0 From Oil Wells 0

  20. Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    6 Idaho - Natural Gas 2014 Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Total Net Movements: - Industrial: Dry Production: Vehicle Fuel: Deliveries to Consumers: Residential: Electric Power: Commercial: Total Delivered: Table S14. Summary statistics for natural gas - Idaho, 2010-2014 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 Number of Producing Gas Wells at End of Year 0 0 0 0 0 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells 0 0 0 0 0 From Oil Wells 0 0

  1. Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    4 Kansas - Natural Gas 2014 Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Total Net Movements: - Industrial: Dry Production: Vehicle Fuel: Deliveries to Consumers: Residential: Electric Power: Commercial: Total Delivered: Table S18. Summary statistics for natural gas - Kansas, 2010-2014 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 Number of Producing Gas Wells at End of Year 22,145 25,758 24,697 R 23,792 24,354 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells

  2. Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    8 Louisiana - Natural Gas 2014 Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Total Net Movements: - Industrial: Dry Production: Vehicle Fuel: Deliveries to Consumers: Residential: Electric Power: Commercial: Total Delivered: Table S20. Summary statistics for natural gas - Louisiana, 2010-2014 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 Number of Producing Gas Wells at End of Year 19,137 21,235 19,792 R 19,528 19,251 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas

  3. Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    4 New Mexico - Natural Gas 2014 Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Total Net Movements: - Industrial: Dry Production: Vehicle Fuel: Deliveries to Consumers: Residential: Electric Power: Commercial: Total Delivered: Table S33. Summary statistics for natural gas - New Mexico, 2010-2014 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 Number of Producing Gas Wells at End of Year 44,748 32,302 28,206 R 27,073 27,957 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From

  4. Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    6 Oregon - Natural Gas 2014 Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Total Net Movements: - Industrial: Dry Production: Vehicle Fuel: Deliveries to Consumers: Residential: Electric Power: Commercial: Total Delivered: Table S39. Summary statistics for natural gas - Oregon, 2010-2014 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 Number of Producing Gas Wells at End of Year 26 24 27 R 26 28 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells 1,407 1,344 770 770

  5. Coordination of Energy Efficiency and Demand Response

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goldman, Charles; Reid, Michael; Levy, Roger; Silverstein, Alison

    2010-01-29

    This paper reviews the relationship between energy efficiency and demand response and discusses approaches and barriers to coordinating energy efficiency and demand response. The paper is intended to support the 10 implementation goals of the National Action Plan for Energy Efficiency's Vision to achieve all cost-effective energy efficiency by 2025. Improving energy efficiency in our homes, businesses, schools, governments, and industries - which consume more than 70 percent of the nation's natural gas and electricity - is one of the most constructive, cost-effective ways to address the challenges of high energy prices, energy security and independence, air pollution, and global climate change. While energy efficiency is an increasingly prominent component of efforts to supply affordable, reliable, secure, and clean electric power, demand response is becoming a valuable tool in utility and regional resource plans. The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) estimated the contribution from existing U.S. demand response resources at about 41,000 megawatts (MW), about 5.8 percent of 2008 summer peak demand (FERC, 2008). Moreover, FERC recently estimated nationwide achievable demand response potential at 138,000 MW (14 percent of peak demand) by 2019 (FERC, 2009).2 A recent Electric Power Research Institute study estimates that 'the combination of demand response and energy efficiency programs has the potential to reduce non-coincident summer peak demand by 157 GW' by 2030, or 14-20 percent below projected levels (EPRI, 2009a). This paper supports the Action Plan's effort to coordinate energy efficiency and demand response programs to maximize value to customers. For information on the full suite of policy and programmatic options for removing barriers to energy efficiency, see the Vision for 2025 and the various other Action Plan papers and guides available at www.epa.gov/eeactionplan.

  6. Percent of Industrial Natural Gas Deliveries in New Mexico Represented...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Mexico Represented by the Price (Percent) Percent of Industrial Natural Gas Deliveries in New Mexico Represented by the Price (Percent) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct ...

  7. Federal Government Increases Renewable Energy Use Over 1000 Percent...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Government Increases Renewable Energy Use Over 1000 Percent since 1999; Exceeds Goal Federal Government Increases Renewable Energy Use Over 1000 Percent since 1999; Exceeds Goal...

  8. FERC sees huge potential for demand response

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2010-04-15

    The FERC study concludes that U.S. peak demand can be reduced by as much as 188 GW -- roughly 20 percent -- under the most aggressive scenario. More moderate -- and realistic -- scenarios produce smaller but still significant reductions in peak demand. The FERC report is quick to point out that these are estimates of the potential, not projections of what could actually be achieved. The main varieties of demand response programs include interruptible tariffs, direct load control (DLC), and a number of pricing schemes.

  9. Cross-sector Demand Response

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    & Events Skip navigation links Smart Grid Demand Response Agricultural Residential Demand Response Commercial & Industrial Demand Response Cross-sector Demand Response...

  10. Residential Demand Sector Data, Commercial Demand Sector Data, Industrial Demand Sector Data - Annual Energy Outlook 2006

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2009-01-18

    Tables describing consumption and prices by sector and census division for 2006 - includes residential demand, commercial demand, and industrial demand

  11. New Mexico Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent...

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) New Mexico Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8...

  12. Connecticut Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Connecticut Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7...

  13. Maine Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Maine Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8...

  14. Virginia Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Virginia Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8...

  15. Washington Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent...

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Washington Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8...

  16. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Contractor Receives 86 Percent of...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Contractor Receives 86 Percent of Available Fee Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Contractor Receives 86 Percent of Available Fee April 27, 2016 - 12:20pm ...

  17. Kansas Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Kansas Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8...

  18. Arizona Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent...

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Arizona Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8...

  19. DEMAND CONTROLLED VENTILATION AND CLASSROOM VENTILATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fisk, William J.; Mendell, Mark J.; Davies, Molly; Eliseeva, Ekaterina; Faulkner, David; Hong, Tienzen; Sullivan, Douglas P.

    2014-01-06

    This document summarizes a research effort on demand controlled ventilation and classroom ventilation. The research on demand controlled ventilation included field studies and building energy modeling. Major findings included: ? The single-location carbon dioxide sensors widely used for demand controlled ventilation frequently have large errors and will fail to effectively control ventilation rates (VRs).? Multi-location carbon dioxide measurement systems with more expensive sensors connected to multi-location sampling systems may measure carbon dioxide more accurately.? Currently-available optical people counting systems work well much of the time but have large counting errors in some situations. ? In meeting rooms, measurements of carbon dioxide at return-air grilles appear to be a better choice than wall-mounted sensors.? In California, demand controlled ventilation in general office spaces is projected to save significant energy and be cost effective only if typical VRs without demand controlled ventilation are very high relative to VRs in codes. Based on the research, several recommendations were developed for demand controlled ventilation specifications in the California Title 24 Building Energy Efficiency Standards.The research on classroom ventilation collected data over two years on California elementary school classrooms to investigate associations between VRs and student illness absence (IA). Major findings included: ? Median classroom VRs in all studied climate zones were below the California guideline, and 40percent lower in portable than permanent buildings.? Overall, one additional L/s per person of VR was associated with 1.6percent less IA. ? Increasing average VRs in California K-12 classrooms from the current average to the required level is estimated to decrease IA by 3.4percent, increasing State attendance-based funding to school districts by $33M, with $6.2 M in increased energy costs. Further VR increases would provide additional benefits.? Confirming these findings in intervention studies is recommended. ? Energy costs of heating/cooling unoccupied classrooms statewide are modest, but a large portion occurs in relatively few classrooms.

  20. Demand Response Analysis Tool

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2012-03-01

    Demand Response Analysis Tool is a software developed at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. It is initially funded by Southern California Edison. Our goal in developing this tool is to provide an online, useable, with standardized methods, an analysis tool to evaluate demand and demand response performance of commercial and industrial facilities. The tool provides load variability and weather sensitivity analysis capabilities as well as development of various types of baselines. It can be usedmore » by researchers, real estate management firms, utilities, or any individuals who are interested in analyzing their demand and demand response capabilities.« less

  1. Demand Response Analysis Tool

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2012-03-01

    Demand Response Analysis Tool is a software developed at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. It is initially funded by Southern California Edison. Our goal in developing this tool is to provide an online, useable, with standardized methods, an analysis tool to evaluate demand and demand response performance of commercial and industrial facilities. The tool provides load variability and weather sensitivity analysis capabilities as well as development of various types of baselines. It can be used by researchers, real estate management firms, utilities, or any individuals who are interested in analyzing their demand and demand response capabilities.

  2. Residential Demand Response

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    in-home displays with controllable home area network capabilities and thermal storage devices for home heating. Goals and objectives: Reduce the City's NCP demand above...

  3. Managing Increased Charging Demand

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Managing Increased Charging Demand Carrie Giles ICF International, Supporting the Workplace Charging Challenge Workplace Charging Challenge Do you already own an EV? Are you...

  4. Managing Increased Charging Demand

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Managing Increased Charging Demand Carrie Giles ICF International, Supporting the Workplace Charging Challenge Workplace Charging Challenge Do you already own an EV? Are you ...

  5. Federal Government Increases Renewable Energy Use Over 1000 Percent since

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    1999; Exceeds Goal | Department of Energy Government Increases Renewable Energy Use Over 1000 Percent since 1999; Exceeds Goal Federal Government Increases Renewable Energy Use Over 1000 Percent since 1999; Exceeds Goal November 3, 2005 - 12:35pm Addthis WASHINGTON, DC - The Department of Energy (DOE) announced today that the federal government has exceeded its goal of obtaining 2.5 percent of its electricity needs from renewable energy sources by September 30, 2005. The largest energy

  6. Dismantlements of Nuclear Weapons Jump 50 Percent | National...

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Dismantlements of Nuclear Weapons Jump 50 Percent June 07, 2007 WASHINGTON, D.C. -- Meeting President Bush's directive to reduce the country's nuclear arsenal, the Department of ...

  7. Nuclear Weapons Dismantlement Rate Up 146 Percent | National...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Nuclear Weapons Dismantlement Rate Up 146 Percent October 01, 2007 WASHINGTON, D.C. -- The United States significantly increased its rate of dismantled nuclear weapons during ...

  8. Demand Response Dispatch Tool

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2012-08-31

    The Demand Response (DR) Dispatch Tool uses price profiles to dispatch demand response resources and create load modifying profiles. These annual profiles are used as inputs to production cost models and regional planning tools (e.g., PROMOD). The tool has been effectively implemented in transmission planning studies conducted by the Western Electricity Coordinating Council via its Transmission Expansion Planning and Policy Committee. The DR Dispatch Tool can properly model the dispatch of DR resources for both reliability and economic conditions.

  9. Demand Dispatch-Intelligent

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Demand Dispatch-Intelligent Demand for a More Efficient Grid 10 August 2011 DOE/NETL- DE-FE0004001 U.S. Department of Energy Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability Prepared by: National Energy Technology Laboratory Disclaimer This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States Government. Neither the United States Government nor any agency thereof, nor any of their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal

  10. Minnesota Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Minnesota Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 ... Share of Total U.S. Natural Gas Residential Deliveries Minnesota Share of Total U.S. ...

  11. PERCENT FEDERAL LAND FOR OIL/GAS FIELD OUTLINES

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    The VBA code below calculates the area percent of a first polygon layer (e.g. oilgas field outlines) that are within a second polygon layer (e.g. federal land) and writes out the ...

  12. California Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    California Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 ... Share of Total U.S. Natural Gas Residential Deliveries California Share of Total U.S. ...

  13. Table 2. Percent of Households with Vehicles, Selected Survey...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Percent of Households with Vehicles, Selected Survey Years " ,"Survey Years" ,1983,1985,1988,1991,1994,2001 "Total",85.5450237,89.00343643,88.75545852,89.42917548,87.25590956,92.08...

  14. Arizona - Natural Gas 2014 Million Cu. Feet Percent of

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    4 Arizona - Natural Gas 2014 Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Million Cu. Feet Percent of National Total Total Net Movements: - Industrial: Dry Production: Vehicle Fuel: Deliveries to Consumers: Residential: Electric Power: Commercial: Total Delivered: Table S3. Summary statistics for natural gas - Arizona, 2010-2014 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 Number of Producing Gas Wells at End of Year 5 5 5 5 5 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells 183 168 117 72 106 From

  15. Automated Demand Response Opportunities in Wastewater Treatment Facilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thompson, Lisa; Song, Katherine; Lekov, Alex; McKane, Aimee

    2008-11-19

    Wastewater treatment is an energy intensive process which, together with water treatment, comprises about three percent of U.S. annual energy use. Yet, since wastewater treatment facilities are often peripheral to major electricity-using industries, they are frequently an overlooked area for automated demand response opportunities. Demand response is a set of actions taken to reduce electric loads when contingencies, such as emergencies or congestion, occur that threaten supply-demand balance, and/or market conditions occur that raise electric supply costs. Demand response programs are designed to improve the reliability of the electric grid and to lower the use of electricity during peak times to reduce the total system costs. Open automated demand response is a set of continuous, open communication signals and systems provided over the Internet to allow facilities to automate their demand response activities without the need for manual actions. Automated demand response strategies can be implemented as an enhanced use of upgraded equipment and facility control strategies installed as energy efficiency measures. Conversely, installation of controls to support automated demand response may result in improved energy efficiency through real-time access to operational data. This paper argues that the implementation of energy efficiency opportunities in wastewater treatment facilities creates a base for achieving successful demand reductions. This paper characterizes energy use and the state of demand response readiness in wastewater treatment facilities and outlines automated demand response opportunities.

  16. Demand Response Dispatch Tool

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2012-08-31

    The Demand Response (DR) Dispatch Tool uses price profiles to dispatch demand response resources and create load modifying profiles. These annual profiles are used as inputs to production cost models and regional planning tools (e.g., PROMOD). The tool has been effectively implemented in transmission planning studies conducted by the Western Electricity Coordinating Council via its Transmission Expansion Planning and Policy Committee. The DR Dispatch Tool can properly model the dispatch of DR resources for bothmore » reliability and economic conditions.« less

  17. "Variable","Average Absolute Percent Differences","Percent of Projections Over- Estimated"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Annual Energy Outlook Retrospective Review, 2014" "Variable","Average Absolute Percent Differences","Percent of Projections Over- Estimated" "Gross Domestic Product" "Real Gross Domestic Product (Average Cumulative Growth)* (Table 2)",0.9204312786,45.77777778 "Petroleum" "Imported Refiner Acquisition Cost of Crude Oil (Constant $) (Table 3a)",37.71300779,17.33333333 "Imported Refiner Acquisition Cost of Crude Oil

  18. Demand Response | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Demand Response Demand Response Demand Response Demand response provides an opportunity for consumers to play a significant role in the operation of the electric grid by reducing or shifting their electricity usage during peak periods in response to time-based rates or other forms of financial incentives. Demand response programs are being used by electric system planners and operators as resource options for balancing supply and demand. Such programs can lower the cost of electricity in

  19. Demand Charges | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Demand Charges Jump to: navigation, search Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgwindex.php?titleDemandCharges&oldid488967" Feedback Contact needs updating Image needs...

  20. U.S. Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Deliveries (Percent) U.S. Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 2000's 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 2010's 100 100 100 100 100 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 4/29/2016 Next Release Date: 5/31/2016 Referring Pages: Share of Total U.S. Natural Gas

  1. BOSS Measures the Universe to One-Percent Accuracy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    BNL

    BOSS Measures the Universe to One-Percent Accuracy BOSS Measures the Universe to One-Percent Accuracy The Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey makes the most precise calibration yet of the universe's "standard ruler" January 8, 2014 Contact: Paul Preuss, Paul_Preuss@lbl.gov , +1 415-272-3253 BOSS-BAOv1.jpg Baryon acoustic oscillations (gray spheres), which descend from waves of increased density in the very early universe, are where galaxies have a tendency to cluster or

  2. Los Alamos reduces water use by 26 percent in 2014

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Los Alamos reduces water use Los Alamos reduces water use by 26 percent in 2014 The Lab decreased its water usage by 26 percent, with about one-third of the reduction attributable to using reclaimed water to cool a supercomputing center. March 16, 2015 Los Alamos National Laboratory sits on top of a once-remote mesa in northern New Mexico with the Jemez mountains as a backdrop to research and innovation covering multi-disciplines from bioscience, sustainable energy sources, to plasma physics and

  3. Alaska Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Alaska Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 0.28 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.30 0.35 0.37 2000's 0.32 0.35 0.33 0.33 0.37 0.37 0.47 0.42 0.44 0.42 2010's 0.39 0.43 0.52 0.39 0.35 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 4/29/2016 Next Release Date: 5/31/2016

  4. Hawaii Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Foot) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2013 1,056 1,055 1,057 1,043 983 983 983 983 983 983 983 983 2014 947 946 947 947 947 947 951 978 990 968 974 962 2015 968 954 947 959 990 1,005 1,011 965 989 996 996 997 2016 998 1,004

    % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Hawaii Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 2000's 0.01 0.01 0.01

  5. Idaho Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Foot) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2013 1,015 1,015 1,031 1,021 1,010 997 988 994 1,001 1,026 1,034 1,054 2014 1,048 1,036 1,030 1,022 1,006 993 984 996 1,005 1,019 1,046 1,039 2015 1,047 1,037 1,030 1,023 1,000 1,010 1,034 1,028 1,024 1,033 1,035 1,041 2016 1,034 1,038

    % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Idaho Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 0.25

  6. Alabama Natural Gas % of Total Electric Utility Deliveries (Percent)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Electric Utility Deliveries (Percent) Alabama Natural Gas % of Total Electric Utility Deliveries (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 0.17 0.13 0.23 0.23 0.29 0.60 0.53 2000's 0.81 1.29 1.98 1.68 2.14 1.79 2.34 2.57 2.46 3.30 2010's 3.81 4.53 4.40 4.08 4.23 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 4/29/2016 Next Release Date: 5/31/2016

  7. Alabama Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Residential Deliveries (Percent) Alabama Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 1.04 1.03 1.02 1.08 0.97 1.03 0.90 2000's 0.95 1.03 0.95 0.92 0.90 0.87 0.87 0.75 0.77 0.75 2010's 0.88 0.78 0.66 0.72 0.77 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 4/29/2016 Next Release Date: 5/31/2016 Referring Pages:

  8. Alabama Natural Gas % of Total Vehicle Fuel Deliveries (Percent)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Vehicle Fuel Deliveries (Percent) Alabama Natural Gas % of Total Vehicle Fuel Deliveries (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 0.44 0.20 0.15 0.08 0.71 0.57 0.57 2000's 0.57 0.52 0.52 0.52 0.52 0.67 0.47 0.36 0.32 0.29 2010's 0.37 0.64 0.64 0.63 0.63 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 4/29/2016 Next Release Date: 5/31/2016 Referring Pages:

  9. Alabama Natural Gas Percentage Total Commercial Deliveries (Percent)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Commercial Deliveries (Percent) Alabama Natural Gas Percentage Total Commercial Deliveries (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 0.90 0.88 0.87 0.92 1.01 0.86 0.91 2000's 0.80 0.87 0.80 0.80 0.85 0.84 0.86 0.78 0.80 0.78 2010's 0.87 0.80 0.74 0.77 0.79 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 4/29/2016 Next Release Date: 5/31/2016 Referring

  10. Alabama Natural Gas Percentage Total Industrial Deliveries (Percent)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Industrial Deliveries (Percent) Alabama Natural Gas Percentage Total Industrial Deliveries (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 2.28 2.23 2.38 2.27 2.36 2.39 2.53 2000's 2.46 2.11 2.13 2.22 2.25 2.29 2.30 2.26 2.13 2.13 2010's 2.12 2.19 2.38 2.42 2.46 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 4/29/2016 Next Release Date: 5/31/2016 Referring

  11. New NREL Research Facility Slashes Energy Use by 66 Percent

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    NREL Research Facility Slashes Energy Use by 66 Percent For more information contact: Linda Brown, 275-4097 Golden, Colo., October 3, 1996 -- Americans can look forward to lower utility bills and more comfortable buildings thanks to a new research facility dedicated today at the U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory. Christine Ervin, DOE's assistant secretary for renewable energy and energy efficiency, and U.S. Congressman Dan Schaefer (R.-Colo.) helped dedicate the

  12. Demand Response Quick Assessment Tool

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2008-12-01

    DRQAT (Demand Response Quick Assessment Tool) is the tool for assessing demand response saving potentials for large commercial buildings. This tool is based on EnergyPlus simulations of prototypical buildings and HVAC equipment. The opportunities for demand reduction and cost savings with building demand responsive controls vary tremendously with building type and location. The assessment tools will predict the energy and demand savings, the economic savings, and the thermal comfor impact for various demand responsive strategies.more » Users of the tools will be asked to enter the basic building information such as types, square footage, building envelope, orientation, utility schedule, etc. The assessment tools will then use the prototypical simulation models to calculate the energy and demand reduction potential under certain demand responsive strategies, such as precooling, zonal temperature set up, and chilled water loop and air loop set points adjustment.« less

  13. Percent of Commercial Natural Gas Deliveries in California Represented by

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    the Price (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 86.6 77.8 74.5 76.9 48.8 52.1 54.9 50.4 48.7 57.1 2000's 57.1 62.6 68.6 70.3 71.2 68.7 64.7 60.7 56.7 54.9 2010's 54.1 54.3 50.0 49.9 48.4 50.0

  14. Percent of Commercial Natural Gas Deliveries in District of Columbia

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Represented by the Price (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 100.0 97.3 99.0 98.0 90.9 76.8 70.5 54.9 52.3 45.9 2000's 35.6 22.4 23.5 30.5 23.3 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 2010's 100.0 16.9 17.9 19.1 19.9 21.4

  15. Percent of Commercial Natural Gas Deliveries in Louisiana Represented by

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    the Price (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 100.0 99.1 87.5 98.1 97.9 98.1 98.3 95.9 94.6 93.8 2000's 96.3 96.5 99.0 98.8 98.6 98.6 98.4 98.0 98.4 92.0 2010's 85.9 83.6 78.0 77.7 78.9 79.1

  16. Percent of Commercial Natural Gas Deliveries in Massachusetts Represented

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    by the Price (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 99.9 99.8 99.8 97.5 76.2 84.9 74.7 62.6 57.9 59.8 2000's 63.0 62.1 57.4 68.7 71.3 70.5 70.6 65.3 57.9 56.9 2010's 52.1 50.0 48.6 39.4 42.3 NA

  17. Percent of Commercial Natural Gas Deliveries in Mississippi Represented by

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    the Price (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 95.6 95.9 96.4 96.6 96.6 97.0 97.4 94.8 94.8 96.0 2000's 95.6 95.7 96.7 95.9 95.7 95.7 94.9 88.8 90.4 91.0 2010's 90.6 89.8 89.0 89.1 87.5 NA

  18. Percent of Commercial Natural Gas Deliveries in New Hampshire Represented

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    by the Price (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 99.2 96.9 92.4 94.1 93.2 2000's 86.4 86.6 80.6 79.2 74.9 75.7 75.4 71.2 58.9 53.9 2010's 57.3 55.6 51.8 50.2 57.0 58.4

  19. Percent of Commercial Natural Gas Deliveries in North Carolina Represented

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    by the Price (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 94.6 95.0 95.9 98.5 96.6 92.4 96.5 94.4 90.6 93.8 2000's 96.5 94.0 90.8 92.2 89.0 87.6 83.2 83.0 84.5 85.2 2010's 84.8 84.4 83.5 84.5 84.9 NA

  20. Percent of Commercial Natural Gas Deliveries in Pennsylvania Represented by

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    the Price (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 78.4 77.3 75.8 77.4 74.4 68.4 70.4 63.6 56.8 56.9 2000's 60.5 63.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 2010's 100.0 48.5 42.1 40.2 41.4 NA

  1. Percent of Commercial Natural Gas Deliveries in South Carolina Represented

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    by the Price (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 97.8 98.2 98.6 99.2 98.5 96.4 99.0 98.8 97.9 97.1 2000's 98.7 97.5 98.5 96.6 96.4 96.2 95.0 94.9 94.9 93.5 2010's 92.7 91.1 90.6 91.7 92.8 91.3

  2. Percent of Commercial Natural Gas Deliveries in Tennessee Represented by

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    the Price (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 97.5 95.7 96.4 95.8 94.1 93.8 94.3 92.2 87.3 88.8 2000's 92.5 93.6 90.9 90.5 92.2 92.2 92.0 91.9 91.7 90.2 2010's 90.8 89.9 88.8 90.0 90.7 88.6

  3. Percent of Commercial Natural Gas Deliveries in Washington Represented by

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    the Price (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 93.6 92.2 87.3 93.9 95.4 91.8 85.9 84.1 86.8 89.3 2000's 92.7 94.0 89.8 88.0 88.5 88.8 88.9 89.2 89.0 88.7 2010's 87.8 88.4 87.4 86.8 86.0 85.2

  4. Percent of Commercial Natural Gas Deliveries in West Virginia Represented

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    by the Price (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 58.1 54.9 56.9 54.3 55.2 51.6 56.3 54.5 49.5 51.8 2000's 56.6 63.9 57.4 60.2 57.1 58.2 56.0 58.6 53.5 53.6 2010's 51.0 49.2 48.9 52.9 56.7 53.3

  5. Percent of Commercial Natural Gas Deliveries in Wisconsin Represented by

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    the Price (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 90.7 91.0 91.3 94.4 93.5 92.0 91.6 82.1 74.0 79.0 2000's 78.1 77.2 75.9 79.1 79.7 79.0 76.0 75.5 76.8 76.8 2010's 76.2 76.4 74.4 77.7 77.0 NA

  6. Percent of Industrial Natural Gas Deliveries in Louisiana Represented by

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    the Price (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 10.1 9.2 8.5 2000's 10.8 8.3 13.4 13.4 21.6 27.9 28.4 25.9 21.4 18.3 2010's 16.7 13.7 14.7 14.2 11.9

  7. Percent of Industrial Natural Gas Deliveries in Massachusetts Represented

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    by the Price (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 33.8 26.2 36.9 2000's 27.3 26.3 20.0 45.4 38.2 36.5 34.4 29.9 20.6 21.1 2010's 19.4 20.6 17.7 18.3 22.3 26.3

  8. Percent of Industrial Natural Gas Deliveries in Mississippi Represented by

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    the Price (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 39.6 37.6 26.3 2000's 26.9 28.8 25.9 33.7 34.4 25.2 20.0 15.0 12.2 10.1 2010's 9.6 9.7 9.6 10.6 9.9 9.0

  9. Percent of Industrial Natural Gas Deliveries in New Hampshire Represented

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    by the Price (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 48.8 30.7 24.3 2000's 18.1 13.0 12.3 12.0 10.7 10.6 14.6 15.3 17.7 20.6 2010's 12.8 10.7 9.0 7.5 9.2

  10. Percent of Industrial Natural Gas Deliveries in North Carolina Represented

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    by the Price (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 45.5 32.1 47.8 2000's 52.2 30.5 39.2 36.9 29.1 26.4 20.8 21.2 19.1 13.6 2010's 11.6 9.7 8.8 9.2 10.2 10.9

  11. Percent of Industrial Natural Gas Deliveries in Pennsylvania Represented by

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    the Price (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 14.3 13.1 11.8 2000's 11.8 9.9 7.3 6.6 6.4 7.0 5.5 5.4 5.7 4.5 2010's 3.8 2.0 1.3 1.3 1.2 1.0

  12. Percent of Industrial Natural Gas Deliveries in South Carolina Represented

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    by the Price (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 86.9 86.7 86.1 2000's 86.5 82.1 87.7 78.5 77.8 77.4 71.4 47.3 47.3 47.6 2010's 46.3 45.4 45.1 45.6 43.6 42.1

  13. Percent of Industrial Natural Gas Deliveries in Tennessee Represented by

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    the Price (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 38.3 33.1 34.7 2000's 38.5 36.2 36.0 39.9 40.5 42.4 38.9 38.2 39.9 38.2 2010's 35.7 29.7 29.4 29.7 30.0 29.6

  14. Percent of Industrial Natural Gas Deliveries in Washington Represented by

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    the Price (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 23.5 20.1 24.0 2000's 34.5 38.2 27.4 20.1 17.3 15.8 20.2 17.4 12.9 8.7 2010's 8.3 7.5 7.3 6.7 6.5 NA

  15. Percent of Industrial Natural Gas Deliveries in West Virginia Represented

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    by the Price (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 12.2 6.3 10.8 2000's 13.8 16.6 12.7 14.0 13.4 17.0 17.0 16.2 19.0 17.4 2010's 14.7 15.6 16.3 18.0 15.6 NA

  16. Percent of Industrial Natural Gas Deliveries in Wisconsin Represented by

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    the Price (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 27.1 22.0 20.2 2000's 22.1 19.5 21.4 20.2 18.8 18.1 18.3 18.5 18.3 18.1 2010's 17.4 17.8 17.6 18.8 19.6 NA

  17. Arkansas Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Foot) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2013 1,015 1,016 1,016 1,016 1,017 1,018 1,016 1,016 1,014 1,012 1,012 1,015 2014 1,017 1,015 1,015 1,018 1,017 1,019 1,021 1,021 1,019 1,018 1,011 1,017 2015 1,021 1,023 1,023 1,025 1,022 1,020 1,023 1,022 1,019 1,029 1,014 1,015 2016 1,019 1,015

    % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Arkansas Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9

  18. Colorado Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Foot) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2013 1,023 1,032 1,030 1,033 1,040 1,051 1,056 1,057 1,058 1,037 1,032 1,033 2014 1,030 1,036 1,038 1,041 1,051 1,050 1,048 1,048 1,050 1,055 1,042 1,051 2015 1,046 1,044 1,051 1,059 1,059 1,070 1,073 1,069 1,076 1,069 1,060 1,051 2016 1,050 1,052

    % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Colorado Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9

  19. Delaware Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Foot) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2013 1,050 1,049 1,046 1,048 1,041 1,049 1,058 1,054 1,065 1,064 1,067 1,057 2014 1,052 1,048 1,048 1,051 1,045 1,049 1,063 1,065 1,062 1,063 1,063 1,064 2015 1,061 1,061 1,062 1,051 1,055 1,055 1,044 1,044 1,043 1,051 1,051 1,049 2016 1,055

    % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Delaware Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's

  20. Florida Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Foot) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2013 1,016 1,015 1,016 1,015 1,016 1,015 1,016 1,016 1,017 1,017 1,018 1,018 2014 1,018 1,018 1,018 1,019 1,019 1,019 1,022 1,023 1,024 1,023 1,024 1,025 2015 1,024 1,025 1,024 1,024 1,026 1,026 1,026 1,024 1,024 1,023 1,023 1,023 2016 1,015 1,025

    % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Florida Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9

  1. Georgia Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Foot) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2013 1,014 1,015 1,016 1,015 1,014 1,015 1,016 1,019 1,017 1,016 1,017 1,017 2014 1,018 1,018 1,018 1,018 1,021 1,022 1,023 1,023 1,027 1,026 1,026 1,025 2015 1,025 1,026 1,025 1,026 1,028 1,031 1,030 1,028 1,029 1,028 1,026 1,027 2016 1,029 1,030

    % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Georgia Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9

  2. Illinois Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Foot) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2013 1,013 1,013 1,014 1,015 1,015 1,014 1,015 1,015 1,016 1,017 1,019 1,018 2014 1,020 1,020 1,020 1,020 1,020 1,020 1,022 1,020 1,021 1,021 1,023 1,024 2015 1,027 1,030 1,029 1,028 1,029 1,027 1,027 1,027 1,028 1,028 1,030 1,030 2016 1,031 1,031

    % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Illinois Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9

  3. Indiana Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Foot) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2013 1,011 1,012 1,013 1,015 1,019 1,020 1,019 1,021 1,020 1,018 1,015 1,014 2014 1,016 1,017 1,019 1,019 1,023 1,023 1,025 1,030 1,028 1,027 1,025 1,029 2015 1,028 1,029 1,031 1,039 1,037 1,043 1,043 1,044 1,041 1,039 1,034 1,033 2016 1,030 1,033

    % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Indiana Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9

  4. Iowa Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Foot) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2013 1,025 1,029 1,029 1,030 1,031 1,030 1,030 1,027 1,028 1,032 1,033 1,032 2014 1,034 1,033 1,034 1,036 1,040 1,039 1,043 1,047 1,044 1,046 1,044 1,045 2015 1,045 1,047 1,047 1,051 1,054 1,060 1,059 1,059 1,058 1,058 1,057 1,056 2016 1,053

    % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Iowa Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's

  5. Kentucky Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Foot) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2013 1,023 1,022 1,023 1,025 1,026 1,027 1,028 1,030 1,031 1,028 1,028 1,033 2014 1,029 1,024 1,026 1,028 1,031 1,037 1,034 1,036 1,038 1,022 1,017 1,019 2015 1,023 1,018 1,015 1,016 1,023 1,021 1,024 1,015 1,020 1,024 1,021 1,024 2016 1,027

    % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Kentucky Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's

  6. Louisiana Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Cubic Foot) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2013 1,015 1,013 1,015 1,015 1,015 1,016 1,016 1,017 1,017 1,016 1,018 1,019 2014 1,017 1,016 1,018 1,021 1,028 1,025 1,029 1,029 1,031 1,034 1,037 1,038 2015 1,030 1,031 1,029 1,029 1,028 1,027 1,028 1,024 1,023 1,023 1,022 1,023 2016 1,024 1,025

    % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Louisiana Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8

  7. Maryland Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Foot) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2013 1,041 1,037 1,032 1,027 1,037 1,042 1,060 1,056 1,062 1,059 1,061 1,059 2014 1,053 1,048 1,045 1,049 1,047 1,052 1,051 1,051 1,049 1,052 1,057 1,057 2015 1,059 1,061 1,058 1,051 1,058 1,057 1,055 1,049 1,050 1,053 1,049 1,050 2016 1,061

    % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Maryland Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's

  8. Massachusetts Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Cubic Foot) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2013 1,037 1,033 1,032 1,033 1,035 1,032 1,033 1,034 1,036 1,038 1,033 1,030 2014 1,035 1,032 1,031 1,030 1,030 1,031 1,030 1,029 1,029 1,028 1,029 1,028 2015 1,035 1,035 1,030 1,029 1,027 1,027 1,029 1,028 1,027 1,028 1,029 1,030 2016 1,031 1,032

    % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Massachusetts Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7

  9. Michigan Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Foot) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2013 1,021 1,021 1,022 1,026 1,020 1,022 1,024 1,021 1,019 1,019 1,017 1,019 2014 1,019 1,021 1,021 1,017 1,020 1,019 1,015 1,028 1,022 1,023 1,026 1,029 2015 1,027 1,026 1,030 1,035 1,028 1,033 1,034 1,035 1,036 1,034 1,041 1,040 2016 1,040 1,038

    % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Michigan Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9

  10. Mississippi Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Cubic Foot) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2013 1,013 1,013 1,014 1,014 1,015 1,018 1,018 1,021 1,022 1,025 1,020 1,020 2014 1,019 1,014 1,019 1,026 1,030 1,034 1,035 1,036 1,035 1,033 1,035 1,034 2015 1,036 1,033 1,031 1,037 1,032 1,030 1,030 1,029 1,031 1,028 1,029 1,030 2016 1,031 1,032

    % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Mississippi Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7

  11. Missouri Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Foot) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2013 1,015 1,014 1,014 1,013 1,014 1,013 1,017 1,015 1,016 1,019 1,013 1,014 2014 1,013 1,013 1,014 1,014 1,011 1,016 1,016 1,018 1,017 1,018 1,017 1,017 2015 1,017 1,020 1,025 1,026 1,024 1,026 1,026 1,026 1,026 1,025 1,024 1,023 2016 1,024

    % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Missouri Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's

  12. Montana Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Foot) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2013 1,044 1,040 1,032 1,034 1,034 1,044 1,048 1,043 1,047 1,041 1,032 1,031 2014 1,034 1,030 1,030 1,027 1,032 1,030 1,038 1,036 1,040 1,031 1,026 1,030 2015 1,028 1,029 1,028 1,021 1,019 1,030 1,031 1,033 1,032 1,032 1,034 1,034 2016 1,033 1,030

    % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Montana Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9

  13. Nebraska Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Foot) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2013 1,030 1,031 1,032 1,033 1,036 1,035 1,029 1,032 1,038 1,040 1,041 1,036 2014 1,034 1,034 1,037 1,043 1,043 1,047 1,051 1,052 1,050 1,053 1,049 1,052 2015 1,052 1,054 1,053 1,057 1,061 1,063 1,068 1,071 1,068 1,060 1,055 1,053 2016 1,054 1,054

    % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Nebraska Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9

  14. Nevada Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Foot) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2013 1,037 1,039 1,037 1,034 1,031 1,032 1,031 1,033 1,039 1,032 1,029 1,034 2014 1,033 1,033 1,032 1,034 1,032 1,033 1,033 1,035 1,033 1,036 1,036 1,037 2015 1,040 1,040 1,041 1,043 1,043 1,045 1,044 1,043 1,044 1,043 1,043 1,042 2016 1,043 1,042

    % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Nevada Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9

  15. New Hampshire Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Cubic Foot) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2013 1,033 1,029 1,028 1,029 1,030 1,030 1,027 1,028 1,031 1,033 1,030 1,030 2014 1,037 1,033 1,031 1,031 1,032 1,038 1,033 1,030 1,027 1,028 1,028 1,030 2015 1,037 1,041 1,033 1,029 1,028 1,028 1,027 1,028 1,028 1,029 1,029 1,030 2016 1,035 1,039

    % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) New Hampshire Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7

  16. New Jersey Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Cubic Foot) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2013 1,043 1,043 1,043 1,042 1,043 1,046 1,044 1,042 1,045 1,047 1,048 1,050 2014 1,050 1,047 1,045 1,040 1,035 1,037 1,040 1,038 1,039 1,039 1,044 1,045 2015 1,050 1,050 1,050 1,043 1,043 1,043 1,043 1,042 1,041 1,041 1,044 1,044 2016 1,044 1,043

    % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) New Jersey Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8

  17. New York Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Foot) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2013 1,032 1,031 1,031 1,031 1,034 1,035 1,034 1,033 1,034 1,034 1,033 1,032 2014 1,032 1,031 1,032 1,031 1,031 1,031 1,031 1,031 1,031 1,032 1,032 1,033 2015 1,034 1,035 1,034 1,034 1,032 1,032 1,031 1,031 1,032 1,032 1,032 1,033 2016 1,033 1,034

    % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) New York Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9

  18. North Carolina Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Cubic Foot) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2013 1,013 1,014 1,014 1,012 1,010 1,010 1,010 1,011 1,012 1,012 1,015 1,014 2014 1,016 1,018 1,017 1,015 1,016 1,014 1,017 1,024 1,022 1,025 1,028 1,029 2015 1,030 1,028 1,030 1,035 1,035 1,033 1,038 1,037 1,038 1,040 1,033 1,034 2016 1,034

    % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) North Carolina Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8

  19. North Dakota Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Cubic Foot) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2013 1,082 1,093 1,096 1,091 1,068 1,131 1,140 1,077 1,013 1,099 1,112 1,089 2014 1,087 1,084 1,074 1,077 1,083 1,079 1,078 1,106 1,123 1,100 1,105 1,096 2015 1,036 1,078 1,072 1,084 1,084 1,089 1,117 1,095 1,078 1,093 1,097 1,112 2016 1,095 1,095

    % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) North Dakota Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7

  20. Ohio Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Foot) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2013 1,034 1,033 1,033 1,035 1,035 1,038 1,037 1,044 1,045 1,044 1,043 1,044 2014 1,044 1,042 1,041 1,050 1,047 1,048 1,053 1,052 1,052 1,054 1,057 1,060 2015 1,065 1,062 1,062 1,073 1,072 1,068 1,069 1,068 1,071 1,071 1,077 1,077 2016 1,073 1,072

    % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Ohio Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9

  1. Oklahoma Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Foot) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2013 1,040 1,037 1,038 1,039 1,041 1,043 1,044 1,042 1,042 1,044 1,043 1,042 2014 1,036 1,036 1,039 1,037 1,040 1,043 1,042 1,042 1,044 1,043 1,041 1,041 2015 1,042 1,043 1,044 1,045 1,048 1,049 1,050 1,047 1,049 1,049 1,047 1,050 2016 1,049

    % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Oklahoma Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's

  2. Oregon Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Foot) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2013 1,011 1,010 1,012 1,011 1,017 1,020 1,020 1,023 1,021 1,014 1,013 1,013 2014 1,013 1,012 1,010 1,034 1,041 1,044 1,029 1,035 1,033 1,029 1,028 1,028 2015 1,031 1,031 1,032 1,035 1,039 1,042 1,039 1,039 1,038 1,036 1,035 1,036 2016 1,033 1,034

    % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Oregon Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9

  3. Pennsylvania Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Cubic Foot) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2013 1,047 1,046 1,047 1,047 1,047 1,048 1,051 1,048 1,049 1,049 1,054 1,053 2014 1,052 1,050 1,048 1,046 1,044 1,044 1,046 1,046 1,045 1,044 1,049 1,052 2015 1,053 1,054 1,049 1,049 1,050 1,046 1,044 1,044 1,044 1,045 1,046 1,046 2016 1,048 1,045

    % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Pennsylvania Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7

  4. Rhode Island Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Cubic Foot) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2013 1,030 1,030 1,030 1,032 1,034 1,031 1,032 1,032 1,033 1,034 1,031 1,031 2014 1,031 1,032 1,031 1,030 1,028 1,023 1,029 1,029 1,027 1,030 1,029 1,029 2015 1,029 1,029 1,029 1,029 1,028 1,028 1,028 1,028 1,028 1,028 1,028 1,028 2016 1,032 1,027

    % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Rhode Island Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7

  5. South Carolina Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Cubic Foot) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2013 1,021 1,020 1,021 1,019 1,019 1,017 1,019 1,020 1,020 1,020 1,020 1,020 2014 1,022 1,021 1,022 1,022 1,022 1,023 1,022 1,024 1,028 1,027 1,028 1,029 2015 1,030 1,028 1,028 1,029 1,030 1,030 1,031 1,029 1,031 1,031 1,030 1,030 2016 1,031 1,031

    % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) South Carolina Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7

  6. South Dakota Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Cubic Foot) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2013 1,028 1,030 1,029 1,028 1,028 1,029 1,031 1,030 1,029 1,031 1,030 1,034 2014 1,034 1,034 1,035 1,036 1,039 1,041 1,039 1,045 1,045 1,049 1,048 1,048 2015 1,048 1,048 1,047 1,051 1,054 1,059 1,062 1,060 1,056 1,053 1,053 1,058 2016 1,060 1,058

    % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) South Dakota Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7

  7. Tennessee Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Cubic Foot) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2013 1,013 1,012 1,016 1,019 1,018 1,021 1,023 1,028 1,028 1,025 1,024 1,022 2014 1,020 1,020 1,021 1,027 1,032 1,031 1,032 1,020 1,024 1,027 1,029 1,028 2015 1,028 1,029 1,029 1,027 1,025 1,025 1,027 1,023 1,025 1,032 1,031 1,034 2016 1,035 1,035

    % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Tennessee Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8

  8. Texas Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Foot) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2013 1,023 1,024 1,024 1,025 1,027 1,026 1,024 1,025 1,024 1,025 1,024 1,025 2014 1,027 1,022 1,028 1,026 1,029 1,032 1,033 1,036 1,033 1,033 1,031 1,030 2015 1,026 1,028 1,029 1,034 1,036 1,036 1,036 1,035 1,036 1,036 1,033 1,030 2016 1,029 1,028

    % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Texas Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9

  9. Utah Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Foot) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2013 1,050 1,050 1,049 1,047 1,048 1,048 1,046 1,041 1,044 1,043 1,045 1,044 2014 1,044 1,044 1,045 1,044 1,038 1,036 1,038 1,040 1,040 1,041 1,038 1,037 2015 1,039 1,046 1,047 1,049 1,043 1,043 1,043 1,043 1,042 1,044 1,044 1,046 2016 1,046 1,043

    % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Utah Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9

  10. Vermont Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Foot) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2013 1,013 1,014 1,016 1,016 1,021 1,016 1,015 1,011 1,012 1,014 1,015 1,014 2014 1,013 1,009 1,015 1,014 1,026 1,031 1,011 1,018 1,015 1,015 1,019 1,021 2015 1,026 1,035 1,027 1,024 1,021 1,021 1,022 1,019 1,020 1,030 1,027 1,027 2016 1,029 1,032

    % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Vermont Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9

  11. West Virginia Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Cubic Foot) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2013 1,071 1,071 1,070 1,083 1,088 1,099 1,099 1,119 1,082 1,097 1,086 1,079 2014 1,073 1,073 1,065 1,111 1,094 1,095 1,099 1,106 1,119 1,082 1,077 1,094 2015 1,097 1,084 1,069 1,103 1,107 1,096 1,099 1,099 1,102 1,090 1,114 1,090 2016 1,092 1,09

    % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) West Virginia Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7

  12. Wisconsin Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Cubic Foot) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2013 1,028 1,026 1,025 1,030 1,027 1,026 1,026 1,023 1,026 1,027 1,027 1,027 2014 1,031 1,033 1,035 1,032 1,033 1,032 1,029 1,034 1,034 1,034 1,035 1,038 2015 1,042 1,044 1,040 1,039 1,038 1,040 1,036 1,040 1,034 1,045 1,043 1,044 2016 1,045 1,046

    % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Wisconsin Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8

  13. Wyoming Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Foot) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2013 1,043 1,040 1,041 1,042 1,043 1,045 1,040 1,040 1,041 1,038 1,035 1,030 2014 1,034 1,032 1,030 1,031 1,029 1,026 1,025 1,031 1,031 1,030 1,033 1,036 2015 1,043 1,041 1,042 1,043 1,045 1,045 1,042 1,044 1,041 1,040 1,046 1,054 2016 1,056 1,052

    % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Wyoming Natural Gas % of Total Residential Deliveries (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9

  14. Demand Response Programs, 6. edition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2007-10-15

    The report provides a look at the past, present, and future state of the market for demand/load response based upon market price signals. It is intended to provide significant value to individuals and companies who are considering participating in demand response programs, energy providers and ISOs interested in offering demand response programs, and consultants and analysts looking for detailed information on demand response technology, applications, and participants. The report offers a look at the current Demand Response environment in the energy industry by: defining what demand response programs are; detailing the evolution of program types over the last 30 years; discussing the key drivers of current initiatives; identifying barriers and keys to success for the programs; discussing the argument against subsidization of demand response; describing the different types of programs that exist including:direct load control, interruptible load, curtailable load, time-of-use, real time pricing, and demand bidding/buyback; providing examples of the different types of programs; examining the enablers of demand response programs; and, providing a look at major demand response programs.

  15. Impacts of Demand-Side Resources on Electric Transmission Planning

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hadley, Stanton W.; Sanstad, Alan H.

    2015-01-01

    Will demand resources such as energy efficiency (EE), demand response (DR), and distributed generation (DG) have an impact on electricity transmission requirements? Five drivers for transmission expansion are discussed: interconnection, reliability, economics, replacement, and policy. With that background, we review the results of a set of transmission studies that were conducted between 2010 and 2013 by electricity regulators, industry representatives, and other stakeholders in the three physical interconnections within the United States. These broad-based studies were funded by the US Department of Energy and included scenarios of reduced load growth due to EE, DR, and DG. While the studies were independent and used different modeling tools and interconnect-specific assumptions, all provided valuable results and insights. However, some caveats exist. Demand resources were evaluated in conjunction with other factors, and limitations on transmission additions between scenarios made understanding the role of demand resources difficult. One study, the western study, included analyses over both 10- and 20-year planning horizons; the 10-year analysis did not show near-term reductions in transmission, but the 20-year indicated fewer transmission additions, yielding a 36percent capital cost reduction. In the eastern study the reductions in demand largely led to reductions in local generation capacity and an increased opportunity for low-cost and renewable generation to export to other regions. The Texas study evaluated generation changes due to demand, and is in the process of examining demand resource impacts on transmission.

  16. Demand Response Technology Roadmap A

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    meetings and workshops convened to develop content for the Demand Response Technology Roadmap. The project team has developed this companion document in the interest of providing...

  17. DemandDirect | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    DemandDirect Place: Woodbury, Connecticut Zip: 6798 Sector: Efficiency, Renewable Energy, Services Product: DemandDirect provides demand response, energy efficiency, load...

  18. China, India demand cushions prices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boyle, M.

    2006-11-15

    Despite the hopes of coal consumers, coal prices did not plummet in 2006 as demand stayed firm. China and India's growing economies, coupled with solid supply-demand fundamentals in North America and Europe, and highly volatile prices for alternatives are likely to keep physical coal prices from wide swings in the coming year.

  19. Table B28. Percent of Floorspace Heated, Number of Buildings and Floorspace, 199

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    8. Percent of Floorspace Heated, Number of Buildings and Floorspace, 1999" ,"Number of Buildings (thousand)",,,,,"Total Floorspace (million square feet)" ,"All Buildings","Not Heated","1 to 50 Percent Heated","51 to 99 Percent Heated","100 Percent Heated","All Buildings","Not Heated","1 to 50 Percent Heated","51 to 99 Percent Heated","100 Percent Heated" "All

  20. Table B29. Percent of Floorspace Cooled, Number of Buildings and Floorspace, 199

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    9. Percent of Floorspace Cooled, Number of Buildings and Floorspace, 1999" ,"Number of Buildings (thousand)",,,,,"Total Floorspace (million square feet)" ,"All Buildings","Not Cooled","1 to 50 Percent Cooled","51 to 99 Percent Cooled","100 Percent Cooled","All Buildings","Not Cooled","1 to 50 Percent Cooled","51 to 99 Percent Cooled","100 Percent Cooled" "All

  1. Table B30. Percent of Floorspace Lit When Open, Number of Buildings and Floorspa

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    0. Percent of Floorspace Lit When Open, Number of Buildings and Floorspace, 1999" ,"Number of Buildings (thousand)",,,,,"Total Floorspace (million square feet)" ,"All Buildings","Not Lita","1 to 50 Percent Lit","51 to 99 Percent Lit","100 Percent Lit","All Buildings","Not Lita","1 to 50 Percent Lit","51 to 99 Percent Lit","100 Percent Lit" "All Buildings

  2. Demand Response for Ancillary Services

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alkadi, Nasr E; Starke, Michael R

    2013-01-01

    Many demand response resources are technically capable of providing ancillary services. In some cases, they can provide superior response to generators, as the curtailment of load is typically much faster than ramping thermal and hydropower plants. Analysis and quantification of demand response resources providing ancillary services is necessary to understand the resources economic value and impact on the power system. Methodologies used to study grid integration of variable generation can be adapted to the study of demand response. In the present work, we describe and illustrate a methodology to construct detailed temporal and spatial representations of the demand response resource and to examine how to incorporate those resources into power system models. In addition, the paper outlines ways to evaluate barriers to implementation. We demonstrate how the combination of these three analyses can be used to translate the technical potential for demand response providing ancillary services into a realizable potential.

  3. Automated Demand Response and Commissioning

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Piette, Mary Ann; Watson, David S.; Motegi, Naoya; Bourassa, Norman

    2005-04-01

    This paper describes the results from the second season of research to develop and evaluate the performance of new Automated Demand Response (Auto-DR) hardware and software technology in large facilities. Demand Response (DR) is a set of activities to reduce or shift electricity use to improve the electric grid reliability and manage electricity costs. Fully-Automated Demand Response does not involve human intervention, but is initiated at a home, building, or facility through receipt of an external communications signal. We refer to this as Auto-DR. The evaluation of the control and communications must be properly configured and pass through a set of test stages: Readiness, Approval, Price Client/Price Server Communication, Internet Gateway/Internet Relay Communication, Control of Equipment, and DR Shed Effectiveness. New commissioning tests are needed for such systems to improve connecting demand responsive building systems to the electric grid demand response systems.

  4. Percent of Commercial Natural Gas Deliveries in California Represented by

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    the Price (Percent) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1989 94.6 95.1 93.0 88.3 94.8 92.8 89.4 87.8 91.0 88.5 90.1 92.2 1990 95.8 81.1 94.4 90.4 90.2 85.6 78.0 82.6 79.1 82.3 85.6 88.3 1991 90.5 88.4 90.2 71.0 82.2 71.0 68.0 85.8 68.0 64.7 69.8 80.3 1992 86.6 65.6 75.7 79.0 63.5 74.5 60.9 64.6 79.7 79.0 76.7 81.4 1993 79.9 82.3 77.6 80.7 76.8 71.4 76.4 70.3 70.6 73.8 75.7 78.8 1994 51.3 47.2 50.6 40.5 47.4 32.2 36.4 46.5 46.0 52.2 57.8 68.2 1995 61.3 58.6 64.7 56.8 50.3

  5. Percent of Commercial Natural Gas Deliveries in Connecticut Represented by

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    the Price (Percent) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1989 100.0 100.0 98.4 90.0 81.6 76.5 74.5 80.4 74.8 85.5 90.8 99.5 1990 100.0 100.0 98.7 95.9 92.3 89.9 87.5 86.9 87.2 91.3 98.3 99.1 1991 99.4 99.4 97.5 92.5 85.9 79.2 76.2 77.1 77.9 85.9 93.0 96.6 1992 97.7 97.2 95.6 94.4 93.6 87.2 95.8 98.8 98.7 97.8 98.2 98.4 1993 97.2 97.7 97.2 98.1 99.4 99.3 88.3 98.4 99.6 100.0 100.0 100.0 1994 89.2 90.7 88.4 88.8 74.2 67.8 62.4 61.1 57.4 68.8 77.9 83.4 1995 86.7 88.1 85.7 81.6

  6. Percent of Commercial Natural Gas Deliveries in District of Columbia

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Represented by the Price (Percent) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1989 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 1990 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 1991 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 92.4 86.7 89.4 90.6 91.1 95.7 99.5 1992 99.6 100.0 100.0 97.4 97.6 100.0 91.4 99.5 99.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 1993 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 99.8 96.8 88.4 90.1 92.6 95.9 97.1 1994 99.8 99.8 100.0 98.8 95.7 94.4 76.6

  7. Percent of Commercial Natural Gas Deliveries in Louisiana Represented by

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    the Price (Percent) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1989 99.9 99.9 99.9 99.9 99.9 99.9 99.9 99.9 99.9 99.9 99.9 99.9 1990 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 1991 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 98.5 98.6 98.4 98.5 98.4 97.4 97.6 1992 82.3 87.7 88.7 90.6 90.5 90.1 90.6 90.2 91.1 90.6 81.4 86.4 1993 97.4 97.9 98.1 98.6 98.9 98.9 98.8 98.8 98.8 98.2 97.1 97.5 1994 97.7 98.1 98.1 98.0 98.0 97.9 98.4 97.6 98.1 97.9 97.9 97.5 1995 97.8 98.2

  8. Percent of Commercial Natural Gas Deliveries in Massachusetts Represented

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    by the Price (Percent) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1989 99.9 99.9 99.9 99.9 99.9 99.9 99.9 99.9 99.9 99.9 99.9 99.9 1990 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 99.8 99.8 99.8 99.7 99.7 1991 99.8 99.8 99.9 99.9 99.9 99.8 99.7 99.6 99.6 99.8 99.9 99.9 1992 99.9 99.9 99.8 99.8 99.7 99.8 99.7 99.6 99.6 99.6 99.7 99.8 1993 98.9 98.7 98.5 97.7 96.5 97.7 96.8 89.2 97.5 96.7 96.9 97.8 1994 75.2 78.4 72.5 69.8 69.8 61.2 67.0 86.0 79.7 90.6 81.2 87.1 1995 87.9 89.4 92.0

  9. Percent of Commercial Natural Gas Deliveries in Mississippi Represented by

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    the Price (Percent) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1989 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 1990 97.6 96.0 95.7 95.6 94.5 94.3 93.7 93.5 93.9 94.4 95.2 95.8 1991 96.6 97.0 96.3 95.9 94.5 94.9 94.3 94.6 95.1 94.9 95.5 96.4 1992 96.9 97.3 96.4 96.6 95.2 95.4 95.5 94.8 95.6 95.6 95.9 97.4 1993 97.3 97.3 97.2 97.1 96.1 96.0 96.0 95.7 95.5 95.4 96.1 96.5 1994 97.2 97.6 97.1 96.9 96.1 96.9 97.1 95.1 94.9 94.3 96.2 96.6 1995 96.4 97.4 98.2

  10. Percent of Commercial Natural Gas Deliveries in New Hampshire Represented

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    by the Price (Percent) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1989 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 1990 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 1991 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 1992 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 1993 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 1994 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0

  11. Percent of Commercial Natural Gas Deliveries in North Carolina Represented

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    by the Price (Percent) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1989 98.7 98.9 94.9 92.4 89.6 87.7 80.1 84.2 84.4 86.3 97.1 98.1 1990 98.6 98.3 98.0 97.0 89.1 86.3 85.3 85.0 84.7 84.0 98.7 99.1 1991 99.3 99.3 99.0 89.0 87.3 86.1 84.4 86.3 85.0 98.0 99.0 99.3 1992 99.3 99.2 99.2 93.1 88.3 85.8 84.3 86.2 89.2 99.9 100.0 100.0 1993 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 95.4 95.4 95.2 99.7 89.7 96.1 100.0 1994 100.0 100.0 100.0 95.3 94.0 92.1 91.8 90.4 88.3 88.0 94.1 99.4 1995 95.7 96.0 94.5

  12. Percent of Commercial Natural Gas Deliveries in Pennsylvania Represented by

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    the Price (Percent) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1989 89.4 88.9 88.7 87.4 81.7 76.8 79.6 77.2 76.4 80.3 82.9 85.3 1990 85.9 83.6 80.9 80.0 74.0 70.2 68.5 68.3 67.2 69.6 74.9 79.2 1991 82.2 79.4 78.8 77.7 72.1 72.9 70.6 71.6 72.2 72.9 76.4 76.7 1992 77.1 79.6 76.6 75.1 71.8 73.1 68.1 67.2 69.4 74.0 74.1 79.4 1993 80.5 79.7 79.5 78.2 72.1 72.9 72.9 69.7 70.3 76.5 75.9 77.0 1994 79.0 80.2 77.5 73.9 71.6 70.8 67.1 71.4 67.9 62.7 68.7 72.1 1995 75.1 74.4 74.9 71.4 68.7

  13. Percent of Commercial Natural Gas Deliveries in South Carolina Represented

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    by the Price (Percent) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1989 98.5 98.5 98.6 98.3 98.1 98.2 98.1 97.7 97.7 97.8 98.0 97.3 1990 98.6 98.4 98.3 98.1 92.2 97.6 97.6 97.5 97.9 97.3 98.0 98.6 1991 98.7 98.9 98.7 96.9 97.4 97.5 97.3 97.7 97.7 97.4 98.9 98.9 1992 99.1 99.1 98.9 98.6 98.5 95.8 95.5 95.8 97.0 99.7 100.0 100.0 1993 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 95.1 94.6 100.0 95.3 100.0 100.0 1994 100.0 100.0 100.0 99.7 97.8 98.3 97.0 95.7 95.2 95.6 96.2 99.9 1995 97.8 97.5

  14. Percent of Commercial Natural Gas Deliveries in Tennessee Represented by

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    the Price (Percent) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1989 99.1 98.9 98.9 97.5 96.8 95.9 96.7 95.8 96.9 97.1 97.4 99.1 1990 98.9 98.5 98.7 97.9 95.4 95.4 95.1 95.9 95.1 95.5 96.5 97.5 1991 97.9 94.6 93.6 96.0 94.8 94.3 93.8 93.8 94.0 95.3 97.1 97.8 1992 96.6 97.1 96.8 97.2 93.7 95.8 97.3 90.4 91.6 97.3 97.5 97.4 1993 96.6 96.9 96.6 96.5 97.7 91.3 91.6 91.1 91.4 92.3 94.7 98.9 1994 96.7 98.5 97.9 93.0 90.0 89.4 87.2 87.1 89.3 88.4 91.7 94.4 1995 95.5 95.8 93.4 90.8 89.6

  15. Percent of Commercial Natural Gas Deliveries in Washington Represented by

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    the Price (Percent) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1989 95.5 94.8 96.9 93.2 93.0 89.7 87.0 92.6 87.3 93.0 93.6 96.5 1990 96.2 95.9 93.2 92.1 90.9 88.9 88.3 88.4 90.1 91.7 95.7 96.5 1991 97.8 94.9 94.3 93.2 91.2 90.5 88.3 87.2 85.6 85.2 88.7 92.1 1992 92.1 89.0 88.7 85.5 83.5 80.7 78.5 80.3 81.6 83.4 86.8 92.3 1993 93.8 93.2 93.9 93.6 90.8 89.8 90.5 90.4 90.6 94.8 97.4 98.0 1994 97.6 97.6 97.6 97.4 92.1 92.1 92.4 91.7 94.4 93.8 94.1 94.7 1995 94.3 94.0 94.2 92.6 91.8

  16. Percent of Commercial Natural Gas Deliveries in Wisconsin Represented by

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    the Price (Percent) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1989 94.1 94.2 94.5 94.0 92.6 87.7 86.1 84.2 84.2 84.3 91.1 95.0 1990 91.6 91.5 91.9 91.9 90.3 86.5 83.1 82.4 82.6 87.5 90.1 93.3 1991 93.8 92.3 92.9 91.2 88.8 83.8 80.7 84.7 83.6 86.7 91.5 92.1 1992 92.7 92.1 91.6 90.0 85.8 82.3 83.3 84.1 85.2 90.7 93.4 95.1 1993 95.2 96.0 95.3 93.5 92.1 90.8 89.2 88.5 90.0 92.6 95.2 96.0 1994 97.1 97.6 97.4 96.6 91.8 89.9 83.5 87.1 87.8 90.8 94.4 84.4 1995 93.5 94.0 93.2 92.4 90.0

  17. Percent of Industrial Natural Gas Deliveries in Connecticut Represented by

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    the Price (Percent) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2001 66.1 48.5 50.9 50.2 58.7 44.3 34.1 58.5 55.7 73.8 58.9 51.8 2002 45.0 47.4 53.0 41.3 52.5 50.1 38.1 49.3 53.9 52.2 49.1 54.2 2003 45.5 42.0 48.4 45.5 43.4 42.2 40.0 38.9 41.2 44.0 55.4 54.2 2004 41.0 40.9 39.5 45.6 43.7 45.0 47.5 44.3 43.7 47.4 46.5 46.2 2005 51.3 45.1 46.1 48.5 45.8 42.9 43.2 42.6 48.1 48.4 49.1 44.9 2006 49.2 48.5 45.1 47.1 50.0 49.0 51.8 49.9 50.5 52.2 42.5 47.8 2007 50.6 50.0 47.4 49.5 51.1

  18. Percent of Industrial Natural Gas Deliveries in Mississippi Represented by

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    the Price (Percent) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2001 28.2 32.5 24.3 32.8 25.6 33.3 27.5 30.2 28.5 21.2 31.3 31.1 2002 27.5 29.8 27.4 27.0 23.9 26.2 24.1 25.8 24.2 23.9 26.3 25.2 2003 32.3 39.3 37.3 34.5 31.8 37.2 34.6 32.3 32.7 28.6 27.0 35.7 2004 39.9 36.9 33.0 32.8 29.8 33.8 32.8 33.7 36.7 31.0 33.7 38.8 2005 26.7 24.2 23.6 24.4 23.7 22.1 23.2 22.8 42.3 24.8 28.8 23.7 2006 24.7 28.1 24.8 23.5 19.5 19.2 18.1 17.2 16.6 17.5 15.6 18.0 2007 18.4 19.6 17.4 15.6 13.4

  19. Percent of Industrial Natural Gas Deliveries in Tennessee Represented by

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    the Price (Percent) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2001 48.0 40.7 40.0 33.7 32.1 29.6 33.1 33.6 35.5 29.3 37.7 38.4 2002 36.3 39.0 44.3 34.8 36.6 33.0 32.5 31.8 33.8 35.5 33.9 38.2 2003 36.7 41.2 40.2 37.2 35.5 33.9 38.7 40.5 42.6 44.0 42.1 46.8 2004 44.2 43.4 42.1 40.5 41.0 36.5 36.4 34.6 37.0 38.3 41.5 47.1 2005 39.9 40.5 44.7 47.3 42.5 39.5 39.5 43.3 42.8 41.5 39.7 46.7 2006 40.9 44.6 40.1 37.3 37.4 39.1 35.5 35.5 34.9 38.2 41.6 39.2 2007 38.8 44.2 40.4 35.4 37.8

  20. Percent of Industrial Natural Gas Deliveries in Washington Represented by

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    the Price (Percent) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2001 40.1 37.3 39.3 33.9 31.2 31.0 27.1 35.1 34.9 46.1 46.5 46.1 2002 25.9 28.6 29.4 32.8 30.0 24.4 27.5 20.7 24.7 25.4 31.6 26.9 2003 26.3 26.9 25.5 19.5 18.5 15.1 13.6 15.3 17.5 18.9 18.7 22.2 2004 20.9 21.0 21.4 19.1 15.8 16.0 13.2 17.1 15.0 16.2 14.5 15.6 2005 15.1 14.4 15.2 12.9 11.7 11.7 11.0 15.0 15.5 18.8 20.6 25.3 2006 22.9 22.8 22.6 19.7 19.5 17.8 17.2 16.8 17.1 19.2 21.8 22.3 2007 23.5 22.4 23.2 18.7 16.9

  1. Percent of Industrial Natural Gas Deliveries in Wisconsin Represented by

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    the Price (Percent) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2001 25.3 26.6 26.1 18.3 12.5 11.2 12.3 12.4 10.9 15.9 19.9 23.0 2002 25.3 23.6 25.8 21.2 18.5 14.3 11.1 13.3 14.7 20.9 24.7 28.9 2003 27.0 27.3 25.9 18.8 15.3 11.7 10.7 11.7 12.2 17.7 21.3 26.2 2004 26.4 24.1 23.9 19.3 13.5 14.1 12.9 10.4 12.4 17.6 19.6 18.6 2005 21.7 20.9 20.8 15.9 13.4 11.2 12.3 13.2 13.9 16.4 21.9 25.1 2006 21.6 21.7 23.0 13.3 14.1 13.5 11.1 12.3 13.3 18.2 22.8 24.2 2007 22.3 23.7 24.1 17.8 13.6

  2. Honeywell Demonstrates Automated Demand Response Benefits for...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Honeywell Demonstrates Automated Demand Response Benefits for Utility, Commercial, and Industrial Customers Honeywell Demonstrates Automated Demand Response Benefits for Utility, ...

  3. Percent of Commercial Natural Gas Deliveries in West Virginia Represented

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    by the Price (Percent) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1989 68.6 69.0 65.3 63.9 55.0 45.3 39.8 39.5 40.5 49.5 58.6 71.5 1990 72.4 67.8 64.6 60.4 53.8 41.6 34.0 37.7 34.7 38.3 56.1 61.2 1991 64.6 65.8 65.4 54.5 42.1 34.1 31.0 33.9 36.5 45.2 55.6 58.0 1992 65.0 65.9 59.9 63.0 54.5 39.3 35.8 33.6 33.4 48.1 56.8 58.9 1993 60.7 61.3 61.7 60.2 47.5 33.6 30.3 30.6 33.0 46.8 54.9 60.1 1994 67.4 65.2 61.9 58.3 47.8 39.6 29.5 34.3 34.2 41.3 47.5 55.7 1995 55.5 59.5 56.1 50.6 42.2

  4. Percent of Industrial Natural Gas Deliveries in Louisiana Represented by

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    the Price (Percent) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2001 8.2 7.6 6.3 8.0 7.2 5.9 9.1 9.6 9.0 8.6 10.0 9.1 2002 13.4 13.3 13.0 13.6 14.3 13.5 12.2 13.1 12.9 12.7 13.4 14.8 2003 12.0 13.2 12.0 13.5 13.7 13.7 11.8 12.8 13.4 14.1 16.3 14.3 2004 14.5 15.7 16.4 22.9 22.7 23.7 23.3 22.9 22.8 23.3 25.2 26.0 2005 26.3 25.9 27.3 27.8 28.6 28.2 27.2 28.9 29.0 28.8 28.8 29.0 2006 29.4 28.6 29.2 26.8 28.8 28.3 28.0 29.5 26.3 25.7 28.6 31.5 2007 29.7 31.7 27.3 28.8 29.9 33.6 23.9 23.8

  5. Percent of Industrial Natural Gas Deliveries in Massachusetts Represented

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    by the Price (Percent) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2001 36.9 37.4 48.4 27.7 23.2 18.9 14.1 10.3 18.5 18.6 29.5 21.8 2002 27.5 26.6 23.0 21.7 16.9 14.0 16.5 11.1 9.4 14.8 21.7 28.6 2003 40.7 44.0 44.6 41.6 37.9 36.3 38.9 42.3 35.8 78.7 23.9 36.9 2004 47.9 47.2 45.8 39.9 36.5 34.4 31.3 27.0 23.1 29.2 23.2 40.5 2005 40.9 43.4 42.6 37.2 32.0 29.0 26.8 22.1 22.3 26.9 33.6 40.9 2006 42.4 41.0 40.2 36.9 31.5 28.6 25.2 26.5 26.5 23.7 32.2 31.2 2007 34.8 36.0 37.0 30.2 29.7

  6. Percent of Industrial Natural Gas Deliveries in North Carolina Represented

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    by the Price (Percent) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2001 43.8 39.0 34.6 41.8 30.0 28.6 27.2 30.1 21.4 17.7 27.3 30.7 2002 31.5 26.5 28.6 41.0 46.4 45.1 46.2 38.8 46.3 45.1 40.1 38.9 2003 43.9 46.9 48.3 29.8 35.3 34.9 37.5 37.1 35.9 35.9 25.0 28.2 2004 39.9 33.5 26.0 26.6 24.1 36.5 32.4 18.7 25.1 22.5 34.8 27.0 2005 20.8 31.7 23.3 19.2 22.7 20.3 20.8 16.6 38.0 49.2 24.8 30.5 2006 29.4 24.1 25.2 20.4 18.6 17.2 17.3 18.1 16.4 16.9 22.0 22.6 2007 22.2 23.1 25.1 24.0 24.1

  7. Percent of Industrial Natural Gas Deliveries in Pennsylvania Represented by

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    the Price (Percent) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2001 17.0 16.4 11.3 10.2 7.7 5.1 7.3 7.5 8.2 8.8 7.3 8.4 2002 8.8 8.3 7.0 5.9 5.7 5.5 4.8 5.0 7.2 7.5 8.1 11.4 2003 8.5 8.5 8.8 7.3 5.7 5.4 5.2 5.0 5.2 5.5 5.9 6.5 2004 7.7 8.1 7.3 6.8 5.3 4.8 4.8 5.1 5.2 4.7 6.5 8.3 2005 8.8 8.4 8.2 7.0 6.1 5.5 5.9 7.1 5.2 5.2 6.7 8.2 2006 8.2 7.3 7.1 5.3 4.8 4.2 4.1 4.1 6.2 4.2 4.6 5.4 2007 6.7 8.5 8.3 5.9 5.6 3.7 3.3 3.2 4.1 3.1 4.5 6.6 2008 7.7 7.3 7.3 6.9 5.7 4.8 4.4 4.3 3.8 3.9

  8. Percent of Industrial Natural Gas Deliveries in South Carolina Represented

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    by the Price (Percent) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2001 91.8 86.4 82.7 82.0 77.6 80.8 80.2 80.2 80.3 79.8 82.4 84.4 2002 89.9 87.6 85.4 88.3 90.4 87.4 90.5 84.4 90.3 90.3 84.3 82.9 2003 79.4 79.6 75.8 79.3 81.8 81.7 78.9 77.3 78.4 77.0 76.5 75.9 2004 76.9 75.6 77.0 79.2 79.0 78.2 78.5 79.0 78.6 78.3 77.2 76.4 2005 78.2 78.8 78.0 77.4 78.1 78.2 78.8 78.7 73.2 76.4 67.9 81.3 2006 80.1 78.6 74.0 80.2 71.2 75.3 75.9 77.2 70.6 74.8 48.6 44.6 2007 48.9 48.4 47.5 46.1 47.5

  9. Percent of Industrial Natural Gas Deliveries in West Virginia Represented

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    by the Price (Percent) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2001 11.2 6.1 6.1 8.6 8.2 7.3 7.7 8.9 5.9 60.8 7.0 62.1 2002 12.1 12.6 11.7 15.0 12.6 12.1 14.7 13.0 16.1 10.7 13.1 10.4 2003 14.3 12.6 20.3 13.9 14.0 14.7 13.6 13.5 14.6 12.9 14.1 10.9 2004 10.7 10.5 11.4 11.5 19.8 15.0 15.7 15.3 14.3 14.8 14.7 12.8 2005 11.4 12.8 12.5 13.7 17.4 21.1 23.5 20.4 22.1 23.0 20.7 18.5 2006 16.3 14.8 17.3 18.6 16.9 20.3 15.7 16.4 19.0 16.7 16.4 16.7 2007 15.2 13.4 15.9 16.3 17.8 18.5 18.5

  10. Demand Response for Ancillary Services

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Methodologies used to study grid integration of variable generation can be adapted to the study of demand response. In the present work, we describe and implement a methodology to construct detailed temporal and spatial representations of demand response resources and to incorporate those resources into power system models. In addition, the paper outlines ways to evaluate barriers to implementation. We demonstrate how the combination of these three analyses can be used to assess economic value of the realizable potential of demand response for ancillary services.

  11. Industrial Demand Module - NEMS Documentation

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2014-01-01

    Documents the objectives, analytical approach, and development of the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) Industrial Demand Module. The report catalogues and describes model assumptions, computational methodology, parameter estimation techniques, and model source code.

  12. Residential Demand Module - NEMS Documentation

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2014-01-01

    Model Documentation - Documents the objectives, analytical approach, and development of the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) Residential Sector Demand Module. The report catalogues and describes the model assumptions, computational methodology, parameter estimation techniques, and FORTRAN source code.

  13. Drivers of Future Energy Demand

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Drivers of Future Energy Demand in China Asian Energy Demand Outlook 2014 EIA Energy Conference July 14, 2014 Valerie J. Karplus MIT Sloan School of Management 2 www.china.org.cn www.flickr.com www.wikimedia.org globalchange.mit.edu Global Climate Change Human Development Local Pollution Industrial Development & Resource Needs How to balance? 0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 3500 4000 1981 1991 2001 2011 Non-material Sectors/Other Construction Commercial consumption Residential consumption

  14. Fact #720: March 26, 2012 Eleven Percent of New Light Trucks...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    0: March 26, 2012 Eleven Percent of New Light Trucks Sold have Gasoline Direct Injection Fact 720: March 26, 2012 Eleven Percent of New Light Trucks Sold have Gasoline Direct Injection ...

  15. Climate, extreme heat, and electricity demand in California

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, N.L.; Hayhoe, K.; Jin, J.; Auffhammer, M.

    2008-04-01

    Climate projections from three atmosphere-ocean climate models with a range of low to mid-high temperature sensitivity forced by the Intergovernmental Panel for Climate Change SRES higher, middle, and lower emission scenarios indicate that, over the 21st century, extreme heat events for major cities in heavily air-conditioned California will increase rapidly. These increases in temperature extremes are projected to exceed the rate of increase in mean temperature, along with increased variance. Extreme heat is defined here as the 90 percent exceedance probability (T90) of the local warmest summer days under the current climate. The number of extreme heat days in Los Angeles, where T90 is currently 95 F (32 C), may increase from 12 days to as many as 96 days per year by 2100, implying current-day heat wave conditions may last for the entire summer, with earlier onset. Overall, projected increases in extreme heat under the higher A1fi emission scenario by 2070-2099 tend to be 20-30 percent higher than those projected under the lower B1 emission scenario, ranging from approximately double the historical number of days for inland California cities (e.g. Sacramento and Fresno), up to four times for previously temperate coastal cities (e.g. Los Angeles, San Diego). These findings, combined with observed relationships between high temperature and electricity demand for air-conditioned regions, suggest potential shortfalls in transmission and supply during T90 peak electricity demand periods. When the projected extreme heat and peak demand for electricity are mapped onto current availability, maintaining technology and population constant only for demand side calculations, we find the potential for electricity deficits as high as 17 percent. Similar increases in extreme heat days are suggested for other locations across the U.S. southwest, as well as for developing nations with rapidly increasing electricity demands. Electricity response to recent extreme heat events, such as the July 2006 heat wave in California, suggests that peak electricity demand will challenge current supply, as well as future planned supply capacities when population and income growth are taken into account.

  16. Near Zero Emissions at 50 Percent Thermal Efficiency

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2012-12-31

    Detroit Diesel Corporation (DDC) has successfully completed a 10 year DOE sponsored heavy-duty truck engine program, hereafter referred to as the NZ-50 program. This program was split into two major phases. The first phase was called “Near-Zero Emission at 50 Percent Thermal Efficiency,” and was completed in 2007. The second phase was initiated in 2006, and this phase was named “Advancements in Engine Combustion Systems to Enable High-Efficiency Clean Combustion for Heavy-Duty Engines.” This phase was completed in September, 2010. The key objectives of the NZ-50 program for this first phase were to: • Quantify thermal efficiency degradation associated with reduction of engine-out NOx emissions to the 2007 regulated level of ~1.1 g/hp-hr. • Implement an integrated analytical/experimental development plan for improving subsystem and component capabilities in support of emerging engine technologies for emissions and thermal efficiency goals of the program. • Test prototype subsystem hardware featuring technology enhancements and demonstrate effective application on a multi-cylinder, production feasible heavy-duty engine test-bed. • Optimize subsystem components and engine controls (calibration) to demonstrate thermal efficiency that is in compliance with the DOE 2005 Joule milestone, meaning greater than 45% thermal efficiency at 2007 emission levels. • Develop technology roadmap for meeting emission regulations of 2010 and beyond while mitigating the associated degradation in engine fuel consumption. Ultimately, develop technical prime-path for meeting the overall goal of the NZ-50 program, i.e., 50% thermal efficiency at 2010 regulated emissions. These objectives were successfully met during the course of the NZ-50 program. The most noteworthy achievements in this program are summarized as follows: • Demonstrated technologies through advanced integrated experiments and analysis to achieve the technical objectives of the NZ-50 program with 50.2% equivalent thermal efficiency under EPA 2010 emissions regulations. • Experimentally demonstrate brake efficiency of 48.5% at EPA 2010 emission level at single steady-state point. • Analytically demonstrated additional brake efficiency benefits using advanced aftertreatment configuration concept and air system enhancement including, but not limited to, turbo-compound, variable valve actuator system, and new cylinder head redesign, thus helping to achieve the final program goals. • Experimentally demonstrated EPA 2010 emissions over FTP cycles using advanced integrated engine and aftertreatment system. These aggressive thermal efficiency and emissions results were achieved by applying a robust systems technology development methodology. It used integrated analytical and experimental tools for subsystem component optimization encompassing advanced fuel injection system, increased EGR cooling capacity, combustion process optimization, and advanced aftertreatment technologies. Model based controls employing multiple input and output techniques enabled efficient integration of the various subsystems and ensured optimal performance of each system within the total engine package. . The key objective of the NZ-50 program for the second phase was to explore advancements in engine combustion systems using high-efficiency clean combustion (HECC) techniques to minimize cylinder-out emissions, targeting a 10% efficiency improvement. The most noteworthy achievements in this phase of the program are summarized as follows: • Experimentally and analytically evaluated numerous air system improvements related to the turbocharger and variable valve actuation. Some of the items tested proved to be very successful and modifications to the turbine discovered in this program have since been incorporated into production hardware. • The combustion system development continued with evaluation of various designs of the 2-step piston bowl. Significant improvements in engine emissions have been obtained, but fuel economy improvements have been tougher to realize. • Development of a neural network control system progressed to the point that the system was fully functional and showing significant fuel economy gains in transient engine testing. • Development of the QuantLogic injector with the capability of both a hollow cone spray during early injection and conventional diesel injection at later injection timings was undertaken and proved to be problematic. This injector was designed to be a key component in a PCCI combustion system, but this innovative fuel injector required significantly more development effort than this program’s resources or timing would allow.

  17. International Oil Supplies and Demands

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-04-01

    The eleventh Energy Modeling Forum (EMF) working group met four times over the 1989--1990 period to compare alternative perspectives on international oil supplies and demands through 2010 and to discuss how alternative supply and demand trends influence the world's dependence upon Middle Eastern oil. Proprietors of eleven economic models of the world oil market used their respective models to simulate a dozen scenarios using standardized assumptions. From its inception, the study was not designed to focus on the short-run impacts of disruptions on oil markets. Nor did the working group attempt to provide a forecast or just a single view of the likely future path for oil prices. The model results guided the group's thinking about many important longer-run market relationships and helped to identify differences of opinion about future oil supplies, demands, and dependence.

  18. International Oil Supplies and Demands

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-09-01

    The eleventh Energy Modeling Forum (EMF) working group met four times over the 1989--90 period to compare alternative perspectives on international oil supplies and demands through 2010 and to discuss how alternative supply and demand trends influence the world's dependence upon Middle Eastern oil. Proprietors of eleven economic models of the world oil market used their respective models to simulate a dozen scenarios using standardized assumptions. From its inception, the study was not designed to focus on the short-run impacts of disruptions on oil markets. Nor did the working group attempt to provide a forecast or just a single view of the likely future path for oil prices. The model results guided the group's thinking about many important longer-run market relationships and helped to identify differences of opinion about future oil supplies, demands, and dependence.

  19. U.S. Coal Supply and Demand

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Coal > U.S. Coal Supply and Demand > U.S. Coal Supply and Demand U.S. Coal Supply and Demand 2010 Review (entire report also available in printer-friendly format ) Previous ...

  20. EIA projections of coal supply and demand

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klein, D.E.

    1989-10-23

    Contents of this report include: EIA projections of coal supply and demand which covers forecasted coal supply and transportation, forecasted coal demand by consuming sector, and forecasted coal demand by the electric utility sector; and policy discussion.

  1. Promising Technology: Demand Control Ventilation

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Demand control ventilation (DCV) measures carbon dioxide concentrations in return air or other strategies to measure occupancy, and accurately matches the ventilation requirement. This system reduces ventilation when spaces are vacant or at lower than peak occupancy. When ventilation is reduced, energy savings are accrued because it is not necessary to heat, cool, or dehumidify as much outside air.

  2. Commercial Demand Module - NEMS Documentation

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2014-01-01

    Documents the objectives, analytical approach and development of the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) Commercial Sector Demand Module. The report catalogues and describes the model assumptions, computational methodology, parameter estimation techniques, model source code, and forecast results generated through the synthesis and scenario development based on these components.

  3. Projecting Electricity Demand in 2050

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hostick, Donna J.; Belzer, David B.; Hadley, Stanton W.; Markel, Tony; Marnay, Chris; Kintner-Meyer, Michael CW

    2014-07-01

    This paper describes the development of end-use electricity projections and load curves that were developed for the Renewable Electricity (RE) Futures Study (hereafter RE Futures), which explored the prospect of higher percentages (30% − 90%) of total electricity generation that could be supplied by renewable sources in the United States. As input to RE Futures, two projections of electricity demand were produced representing reasonable upper and lower bounds of electricity demand out to 2050. The electric sector models used in RE Futures required underlying load profiles, so RE Futures also produced load profile data in two formats: 8760 hourly data for the year 2050 for the GridView model, and in 2-year increments for 17 time slices as input to the Regional Energy Deployment System (ReEDS) model. The process for developing demand projections and load profiles involved three steps: discussion regarding the scenario approach and general assumptions, literature reviews to determine readily available data, and development of the demand curves and load profiles.

  4. Demand Management Institute (DMI) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Demand Management Institute (DMI) Jump to: navigation, search Name: Demand Management Institute (DMI) Address: 35 Walnut Street Place: Wellesley, Massachusetts Zip: 02481 Region:...

  5. Generating Demand for Multifamily Building Upgrades | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Generating Demand for Multifamily Building Upgrades Generating Demand for Multifamily Building Upgrades Better Buildings Residential Network Peer Exchange Call Series: Generating...

  6. Marketing & Driving Demand: Social Media Tools & Strategies ...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Marketing & Driving Demand: Social Media Tools & Strategies - January 16, 2011 (Text Version) Marketing & Driving Demand: Social Media Tools & Strategies - January 16, 2011 (Text...

  7. Demand Response - Policy | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Demand Response - Policy Demand Response - Policy Since its inception, the Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability (OE) has been committed to modernizing the nation's ...

  8. The alchemy of demand response: turning demand into supply

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rochlin, Cliff

    2009-11-15

    Paying customers to refrain from purchasing products they want seems to run counter to the normal operation of markets. Demand response should be interpreted not as a supply-side resource but as a secondary market that attempts to correct the misallocation of electricity among electric users caused by regulated average rate tariffs. In a world with costless metering, the DR solution results in inefficiency as measured by deadweight losses. (author)

  9. Addressing Energy Demand through Demand Response. International Experiences and Practices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shen, Bo; Ghatikar, Girish; Ni, Chun Chun; Dudley, Junqiao; Martin, Phil; Wikler, Greg

    2012-06-01

    Demand response (DR) is a load management tool which provides a cost-effective alternative to traditional supply-side solutions to address the growing demand during times of peak electrical load. According to the US Department of Energy (DOE), demand response reflects “changes in electric usage by end-use customers from their normal consumption patterns in response to changes in the price of electricity over time, or to incentive payments designed to induce lower electricity use at times of high wholesale market prices or when system reliability is jeopardized.” 1 The California Energy Commission (CEC) defines DR as “a reduction in customers’ electricity consumption over a given time interval relative to what would otherwise occur in response to a price signal, other financial incentives, or a reliability signal.” 2 This latter definition is perhaps most reflective of how DR is understood and implemented today in countries such as the US, Canada, and Australia where DR is primarily a dispatchable resource responding to signals from utilities, grid operators, and/or load aggregators (or DR providers).

  10. EECBG 11-002 Clarification of Ten Percent Limitation on Use of...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Efficiency and Conservation Block Grant Program (EECBG), ten percent ... Guidance For Energy Efficiency And Conservation Block Grant Grantees On Financing Programs ...

  11. Demand Response - Policy | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Demand Response - Policy Demand Response - Policy Since its inception, the Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability (OE) has been committed to modernizing the nation's electricity delivery infrastructure to assure consumers a robust, reliable electric power system that meets their increasing demand for energy. OE's mission includes assisting states and regions in developing policies that decrease demand on existing energy infrastructure. Appropriate cost-effective demand response

  12. Scenario Analysis of Peak Demand Savings for Commercial Buildings with Thermal Mass in California

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yin, Rongxin; Kiliccote, Sila; Piette, Mary Ann; Parrish, Kristen

    2010-05-14

    This paper reports on the potential impact of demand response (DR) strategies in commercial buildings in California based on the Demand Response Quick Assessment Tool (DRQAT), which uses EnergyPlus simulation prototypes for office and retail buildings. The study describes the potential impact of building size, thermal mass, climate, and DR strategies on demand savings in commercial buildings. Sensitivity analyses are performed to evaluate how these factors influence the demand shift and shed during the peak period. The whole-building peak demand of a commercial building with high thermal mass in a hot climate zone can be reduced by 30percent using an optimized demand response strategy. Results are summarized for various simulation scenarios designed to help owners and managers understand the potential savings for demand response deployment. Simulated demand savings under various scenarios were compared to field-measured data in numerous climate zones, allowing calibration of the prototype models. The simulation results are compared to the peak demand data from the Commercial End-Use Survey for commercial buildings in California. On the economic side, a set of electricity rates are used to evaluate the impact of the DR strategies on economic savings for different thermal mass and climate conditions. Our comparison of recent simulation to field test results provides an understanding of the DR potential in commercial buildings.

  13. Providing Reliability Services through Demand Response: A Prelimnary Evaluation of the Demand Response Capabilities of Alcoa Inc.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Starke, Michael R; Kirby, Brendan J; Kueck, John D; Todd, Duane; Caulfield, Michael; Helms, Brian

    2009-02-01

    Demand response is the largest underutilized reliability resource in North America. Historic demand response programs have focused on reducing overall electricity consumption (increasing efficiency) and shaving peaks but have not typically been used for immediate reliability response. Many of these programs have been successful but demand response remains a limited resource. The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) report, 'Assessment of Demand Response and Advanced Metering' (FERC 2006) found that only five percent of customers are on some form of demand response program. Collectively they represent an estimated 37,000 MW of response potential. These programs reduce overall energy consumption, lower green house gas emissions by allowing fossil fuel generators to operate at increased efficiency and reduce stress on the power system during periods of peak loading. As the country continues to restructure energy markets with sophisticated marginal cost models that attempt to minimize total energy costs, the ability of demand response to create meaningful shifts in the supply and demand equations is critical to creating a sustainable and balanced economic response to energy issues. Restructured energy market prices are set by the cost of the next incremental unit of energy, so that as additional generation is brought into the market, the cost for the entire market increases. The benefit of demand response is that it reduces overall demand and shifts the entire market to a lower pricing level. This can be very effective in mitigating price volatility or scarcity pricing as the power system responds to changing demand schedules, loss of large generators, or loss of transmission. As a global producer of alumina, primary aluminum, and fabricated aluminum products, Alcoa Inc., has the capability to provide demand response services through its manufacturing facilities and uniquely through its aluminum smelting facilities. For a typical aluminum smelter, electric power accounts for 30% to 40% of the factory cost of producing primary aluminum. In the continental United States, Alcoa Inc. currently owns and/or operates ten aluminum smelters and many associated fabricating facilities with a combined average load of over 2,600 MW. This presents Alcoa Inc. with a significant opportunity to respond in areas where economic opportunities exist to help mitigate rising energy costs by supplying demand response services into the energy system. This report is organized into seven chapters. The first chapter is the introduction and discusses the intention of this report. The second chapter contains the background. In this chapter, topics include: the motivation for Alcoa to provide demand response; ancillary service definitions; the basics behind aluminum smelting; and a discussion of suggested ancillary services that would be particularly useful for Alcoa to supply. Chapter 3 is concerned with the independent system operator, the Midwest ISO. Here the discussion examines the evolving Midwest ISO market structure including specific definitions, requirements, and necessary components to provide ancillary services. This section is followed by information concerning the Midwest ISO's classifications of demand response parties. Chapter 4 investigates the available opportunities at Alcoa's Warrick facility. Chapter 5 involves an in-depth discussion of the regulation service that Alcoa's Warrick facility can provide and the current interactions with Midwest ISO. Chapter 6 reviews future plans and expectations for Alcoa providing ancillary services into the market. Last, chapter 7, details the conclusion and recommendations of this paper.

  14. Demand Response Valuation Frameworks Paper

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heffner, Grayson

    2009-02-01

    While there is general agreement that demand response (DR) is a valued component in a utility resource plan, there is a lack of consensus regarding how to value DR. Establishing the value of DR is a prerequisite to determining how much and what types of DR should be implemented, to which customers DR should be targeted, and a key determinant that drives the development of economically viable DR consumer technology. Most approaches for quantifying the value of DR focus on changes in utility system revenue requirements based on resource plans with and without DR. This ''utility centric'' approach does not assign any value to DR impacts that lower energy and capacity prices, improve reliability, lower system and network operating costs, produce better air quality, and provide improved customer choice and control. Proper valuation of these benefits requires a different basis for monetization. The review concludes that no single methodology today adequately captures the wide range of benefits and value potentially attributed to DR. To provide a more comprehensive valuation approach, current methods such as the Standard Practice Method (SPM) will most likely have to be supplemented with one or more alternative benefit-valuation approaches. This report provides an updated perspective on the DR valuation framework. It includes an introduction and four chapters that address the key elements of demand response valuation, a comprehensive literature review, and specific research recommendations.

  15. ,"Table 4.B Winter Net Internal Demand, Capacity Resources, and Capacity Margins by North American Electric Reliability Corporation Region,"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    B Winter Net Internal Demand, Capacity Resources, and Capacity Margins by North American Electric Reliability Corporation Region," ,"2001-2010 Actual, 2011-2015 Projected" ,"(Megawatts and Percent)" ,"Interconnection","NERC Regional Assesment Area","Net Internal Demand[1] -- Winter" ,,,"Actual",,,,,,,,,,"Projected"

  16. Residential Electricity Demand in China -- Can Efficiency Reverse the Growth?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Letschert, Virginie; McNeil, Michael A.; Zhou, Nan

    2009-05-18

    The time when energy-related carbon emissions come overwhelmingly from developed countries is coming to a close. China has already overtaken the United States as the world's leading emitter of greenhouse gas emissions. The economic growth that China has experienced is not expected to slow down significantly in the long term, which implies continued massive growth in energy demand. This paper draws on the extensive expertise from the China Energy Group at LBNL on forecasting energy consumption in China, but adds to it by exploring the dynamics of demand growth for electricity in the residential sector -- and the realistic potential for coping with it through efficiency. This paper forecasts ownership growth of each product using econometric modeling, in combination with historical trends in China. The products considered (refrigerators, air conditioners, fans, washing machines, lighting, standby power, space heaters, and water heating) account for 90percent of household electricity consumption in China. Using this method, we determine the trend and dynamics of demandgrowth and its dependence on macroeconomic drivers at a level of detail not accessible by models of a more aggregate nature. In addition, we present scenarios for reducing residential consumption through efficiency measures defined at the product level. The research takes advantage of an analytical framework developed by LBNL (BUENAS) which integrates end use technology parameters into demand forecasting and stock accounting to produce detailed efficiency scenarios, thus allowing for a technologically realistic assessment of efficiency opportunities specifically in the Chinese context.

  17. Energy demand and population changes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Allen, E.L.; Edmonds, J.A.

    1980-12-01

    Since World War II, US energy demand has grown more rapidly than population, so that per capita consumption of energy was about 60% higher in 1978 than in 1947. Population growth and the expansion of per capita real incomes have led to a greater use of energy. The aging of the US population is expected to increase per capita energy consumption, despite the increase in the proportion of persons over 65, who consume less energy than employed persons. The sharp decline in the population under 18 has led to an expansion in the relative proportion of population in the prime-labor-force age groups. Employed persons are heavy users of energy. The growth of the work force and GNP is largely attributable to the growing participation of females. Another important consequence of female employment is the growth in ownership of personal automobiles. A third factor pushing up labor-force growth is the steady influx of illegal aliens.

  18. Coordination of Energy Efficiency and Demand Response

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    2010-01-01

    Summarizes existing research and discusses current practices, opportunities, and barriers to coordinating energy efficiency and demand response programs.

  19. U.S. Utility-Scale Solar 60 Percent Towards Cost-Competition Goal |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Utility-Scale Solar 60 Percent Towards Cost-Competition Goal U.S. Utility-Scale Solar 60 Percent Towards Cost-Competition Goal February 12, 2014 - 11:05am Addthis News Media Contact (202) 586-4940 WASHINGTON - The Energy Department announced today that the U.S. solar industry is more than 60 percent of the way to achieving cost-competitive utility-scale solar photovoltaic (PV) electricity - only three years into the Department's decade-long SunShot Initiative. To help

  20. EECBG 11-002 Clarification of Ten Percent Limitation on Use of...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    EECBG PROGRAM NOTICE 11-002 EFFECTIVE DATE: July 28, 2011 SUBJECT: CLARIFICATION OF TEN PERCENT LIMATION ON USE OF FUNDS FOR ADMINISTRATIVE EXPENSES PURPOSE To provide guidance to...

  1. EECBG 11-002 Clarification of Ten Percent Limitation on Use of Funds for Administrative Expenses

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Energy Efficiency and Conservation Block Grant Program (EECBG), ten percent limitation, administrative expenses, the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007.

  2. Impacts of Increasing Natural Gas Fueled CHP from 20 to 35 Percent...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Impacts of Increasing Natural Gas Fueled CHP from 20 to 35 Percent of Total Electricity Production in Texas, April 2011 Impacts of Increasing Natural Gas Fueled CHP from 20 to 35 ...

  3. Fact #727: May 14, 2012 Nearly Twenty Percent of Households Own Three or More Vehicles

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Household vehicle ownership has changed over the last six decades. In 1960, over twenty percent of households did not own a vehicle, but by 2010, that number fell to less than 10%. The number of...

  4. Fact #924: May 9, 1916 Twenty Percent of New Cars in 2015 Had...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Twenty Percent of New Cars in 2015 Had Turbochargers File fotw924web.xlsx More Documents & Publications Fact 923: May 2, 2016 Cylinder Deactivation was Used in More than a ...

  5. If I generate 20 percent of my national electricity from wind...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    If I generate 20 percent of my national electricity from wind and solar - what does it do to my GDP and Trade Balance ? Home I think that the economics of fossil fuesl are well...

  6. Impacts of Increasing Natural Gas Fueled CHP from 20 to 35 Percent of Total

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Electricity Production in Texas, April 2011 | Department of Energy Impacts of Increasing Natural Gas Fueled CHP from 20 to 35 Percent of Total Electricity Production in Texas, April 2011 Impacts of Increasing Natural Gas Fueled CHP from 20 to 35 Percent of Total Electricity Production in Texas, April 2011 This report is an examination of the possible impacts, implications, and practicality of increasing the amount of electrical energy produced from combined heat and power (CHP) facilities

  7. New Water Booster Pump System Reduces Energy Consumption by 80 Percent and

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Increases Reliability | Department of Energy Water Booster Pump System Reduces Energy Consumption by 80 Percent and Increases Reliability New Water Booster Pump System Reduces Energy Consumption by 80 Percent and Increases Reliability This case study outlines how General Motors (GM) developed a highly efficient pumping system for their Pontiac Operations Complex in Pontiac, Michigan. In short, GM was able to replace five original 60- to 100-hp pumps with three 15-hp pumps whose speed could

  8. NREL Study Shows 20 Percent Wind is Possible by 2024 - News Releases | NREL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    NREL Study Shows 20 Percent Wind is Possible by 2024 Analysis Shows Transmission Upgrades, Offshore Wind, and Operational Changes Needed to Incorporate 20 to 30 Percent Wind January 20, 2010 Today, the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) released the Eastern Wind Integration and Transmission Study (EWITS). This unprecedented two-and-a-half year technical study of future high-penetration wind scenarios was designed to analyze the economic, operational,

  9. NREL Study: Hybrid Delivery Vans Show Nearly 20 Percent Higher Fuel Economy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    - News Releases | NREL Study: Hybrid Delivery Vans Show Nearly 20 Percent Higher Fuel Economy September 28, 2012 The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE)'s National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) recently completed a performance evaluation report that showed significant fuel economy benefits of hybrid electric delivery vans compared to similar conventional vans. "During the on-road portion of our study, the hybrid vans demonstrated a 13 to 20 percent higher fuel economy than the

  10. Better Buildings Challenge Partners Pledge 20 Percent Energy Drop By 2020 |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Challenge Partners Pledge 20 Percent Energy Drop By 2020 Better Buildings Challenge Partners Pledge 20 Percent Energy Drop By 2020 November 9, 2011 - 10:00am Addthis This is the Atlanta Better Buildings Challenge Breakout Session Panel with representatives from the City of Atlanta Office of Sustainability, Southface, the U.S. General Services Administration, and two Atlanta BBC partner organizations. | Photo courtesy of Fred Perry Photography This is the Atlanta Better

  11. NCEP_Demand_Response_Draft_111208.indd

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    National Council on Electricity Policy: Electric Transmission Series for State Offi cials Demand Response and Smart Metering Policy Actions Since the Energy Policy Act of 2005: A Summary for State Offi cials Demand Response and Smart Metering Policy Actions Since the Energy Policy Act of 2005: A Summary for State Offi cials Prepared by the U.S. Demand Response Coordinating Committee for The National Council on Electricity Policy Fall 2008 i National Council on Electricity Policy: Electric

  12. Demand Response in the ERCOT Markets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Patterson, Mark

    2011-10-25

    ERCOT grid serves 85% of Texas load over 40K+ miles transmission line. Demand response: voluntary load response, load resources, controllable load resources, and emergency interruptible load service.

  13. Reducing Logistics Footprints and Replenishment Demands: Nano...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Water Treatment Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Reducing Logistics Footprints and Replenishment Demands: Nano-engineered Silica Aerogels a Proven Method for Water ...

  14. Geographically Based Hydrogen Demand and Infrastructure Rollout...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Rollout Scenario Analysis Geographically Based Hydrogen Demand and Infrastructure Rollout Scenario Analysis Presentation by Margo Melendez at the 2010-2025 Scenario Analysis for ...

  15. Marketing & Driving Demand Collaborative - Social Media Tools...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Marketing & Driving Demand Collaborative - Social Media Tools & Strategies Presentation slides from the Better Buildings webinar on January 6, 2011. PDF icon Marketing & Driving ...

  16. Fabricate-on-Demand Vacuum Insulating Glazings

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    PPG is working to design a fabricate-on-demand process to overcome the cost and supply chain issues preventing widespread adoption of vacuum insulating glazings (VIGs).

  17. BPA, Energy Northwest launch demand response pilot

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    BPA-Energy-Northwest-launch-demand-response-pilot Sign In About | Careers | Contact | Investors | bpa.gov Search News & Us Expand News & Us Projects & Initiatives Expand...

  18. Integration of Demand Side Management, Distributed Generation...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    various aspects of demand response, distributed generation, smart grid and energy storage. Annex 9 is a list of pilot programs and case studies, with links to those...

  19. Demand Response and Energy Storage Integration Study

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Demand response and energy storage resources present potentially important sources of bulk power system services that can aid in integrating variable renewable generation. While renewable...

  20. Demand Response (transactional control) - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Energy Analysis Energy Analysis Electricity Transmission Electricity Transmission Find More Like This Return to Search Demand Response (transactional control) Pacific Northwest ...

  1. Distributed Automated Demand Response - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Energy Analysis Energy Analysis Electricity Transmission Electricity Transmission Find More Like This Return to Search Distributed Automated Demand Response Lawrence Livermore ...

  2. Energy Efficiency, Demand Response, and Volttron

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ENERGY EFFICIENCY, DEMAND RESPONSE, AND VOLTTRON Presented by Justin Sipe SEEMINGLY SIMPLE STATEMENTS Utilities need more capacity to handle growth on the grid ...

  3. Geographically Based Hydrogen Consumer Demand and Infrastructure...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Geographically Based Hydrogen Consumer Demand and Infrastructure Analysis Final Report M. Melendez and A. Milbrandt Technical Report NRELTP-540-40373 October 2006 NREL is operated...

  4. MFT homogeneity study at TNX: Final report on the low weight percent solids concentration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jenkins, W.J.

    1993-09-21

    A statistical design and analysis of both elemental analyses and weight percent solids analyses data was utilized to evaluate the MFT homogeneity at low heel levels and low agitator speed at both high and low solids feed concentrations. The homogeneity was also evaluated at both low and high agitator speed at the 6000+ gallons static level. The dynamic level portion of the test simulated feeding the Melter from the MFT to evaluate the uniformity of the solids slurry composition (Frit-PHA-Sludge) entering the melter from the MFT. This final report provides the results and conclusions from the second half of the study, the low weight percent solids concentration portion, as well as a comparison with the results from the first half of the study, the high weight percent solids portion.

  5. Wind Energy Could Produce 20 Percent of U.S. Electricity By 2030 |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Energy Could Produce 20 Percent of U.S. Electricity By 2030 Wind Energy Could Produce 20 Percent of U.S. Electricity By 2030 May 12, 2008 - 11:30am Addthis DOE Report Analyzes U.S. Wind Resources, Technology Requirements, and Manufacturing, Siting and Transmission Hurdles to Increasing the Use of Clean and Sustainable Wind Power WASHINGTON, DC - The U.S Department of Energy (DOE) today released a first-of-its kind report that examines the technical feasibility of

  6. NREL Solar Cell Sets World Efficiency Record at 40.8 Percent - News

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Releases | NREL NREL Solar Cell Sets World Efficiency Record at 40.8 Percent August 13, 2008 Scientists at the U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) have set a world record in solar cell efficiency with a photovoltaic device that converts 40.8 percent of the light that hits it into electricity. This is the highest confirmed efficiency of any photovoltaic device to date. The inverted metamorphic triple-junction solar cell was designed, fabricated and

  7. Heat wave contributes to higher summer electricity demand in...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    drop 1.1 percent this year and then fall almost one-half percent in 2015. Compact fluorescent and LED lighting use about 75 percent less energy than traditional incandescent bulbs. ...

  8. Strategies for Demand Response in Commercial Buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Watson, David S.; Kiliccote, Sila; Motegi, Naoya; Piette, Mary Ann

    2006-06-20

    This paper describes strategies that can be used in commercial buildings to temporarily reduce electric load in response to electric grid emergencies in which supplies are limited or in response to high prices that would be incurred if these strategies were not employed. The demand response strategies discussed herein are based on the results of three years of automated demand response field tests in which 28 commercial facilities with an occupied area totaling over 11 million ft{sup 2} were tested. Although the demand response events in the field tests were initiated remotely and performed automatically, the strategies used could also be initiated by on-site building operators and performed manually, if desired. While energy efficiency measures can be used during normal building operations, demand response measures are transient; they are employed to produce a temporary reduction in demand. Demand response strategies achieve reductions in electric demand by temporarily reducing the level of service in facilities. Heating ventilating and air conditioning (HVAC) and lighting are the systems most commonly adjusted for demand response in commercial buildings. The goal of demand response strategies is to meet the electric shed savings targets while minimizing any negative impacts on the occupants of the buildings or the processes that they perform. Occupant complaints were minimal in the field tests. In some cases, ''reductions'' in service level actually improved occupant comfort or productivity. In other cases, permanent improvements in efficiency were discovered through the planning and implementation of ''temporary'' demand response strategies. The DR strategies that are available to a given facility are based on factors such as the type of HVAC, lighting and energy management and control systems (EMCS) installed at the site.

  9. WPN 94-8: 40 Percent Waiver Provisions for Mobile Home Units

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This program notice provides clarifying guidance previously issued under Weatherization Program Notice 93-14 on mobile home units weatherized by states which adopt the approved 4.0 version of NEAT or other similar approved energy audits and receive a waiver of the 40 percent requirement from DOE.

  10. WPN 93-14: 40 Percent Waiver Provisions for Multifamily and Mobile Home Units

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This program notice provides guidance on multifamily and mobile home units weatherized by states, which adopt the approved 4.0 version of NEAT or other similar approved energy audits and receive a waiver of the 40 percent requirement from DOE.

  11. Figure 5. Production Schedules at Two Development Rates for the 5 Percent

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Probability of Recovering 16.0 Billion Barrels 5. Production Schedules at Two Development Rates for the 5 Percent Probability of Recovering 16.0 Billion Barrels of Technically Recoverable Oil from the ANWR Coastal Plain of Alaska fig5.jpg (3770

  12. Percent of Commercial Natural Gas Deliveries in Hawaii Represented by the

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Price (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 2000's 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 2010's 100 100 100 100

  13. Percent of Commercial Natural Gas Deliveries in Vermont Represented by the

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Price (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 2000's 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 2010's 100 100 100 100 100 NA

  14. Percent of Industrial Natural Gas Deliveries in Hawaii Represented by the

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Price (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 100 100 100 2000's 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 2010's 100 100 100 100

  15. Electricity demand in a developing country. [Paraguay

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Westley, G.D.

    1984-08-01

    This study analyzes the residential and commercial demand for electricity in ten regions in Paraguay for 1970-1977. Models that are both linear and nonlinear in the parameters are estimated. The nonlinear model takes advantage of prior information on the nature of the appliances being utilized and simultaneously deals with the demand discontinuities caused by appliance indivisibility. Three dynamic equations, including a novel cumulative adjustment model, all indicate rapid adjustment to desired appliance stock levels. Finally, the multiproduct surplus loss obtained from an estimated demand equation is used to measure the welfare cost of power outages. 15 references.

  16. Autonomous Demand Response for Primary Frequency Regulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Donnelly, Matt; Trudnowski, Daniel J.; Mattix, S.; Dagle, Jeffery E.

    2012-02-28

    The research documented within this report examines the use of autonomous demand response to provide primary frequency response in an interconnected power grid. The work builds on previous studies in several key areas: it uses a large realistic model (i.e., the interconnection of the western United States and Canada); it establishes a set of metrics that can be used to assess the effectiveness of autonomous demand response; and it independently adjusts various parameters associated with using autonomous demand response to assess effectiveness and to examine possible threats or vulnerabilities associated with the technology.

  17. SAN ANTONIO SPURS DEMAND FOR ENERGY EFFICIENCY

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    As a city that experiences seasonal spikes in energy demand and accompanying energy bills, San Antonio, Texas, wanted to help homeowners and businesses reduce their energy use and save on energy...

  18. Solar in Demand | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    In case you missed it... This week, the Wall Street Journal published an article, "U.S. Solar-Panel Demand Expected to Double," highlighting the successes of the U.S. solar ...

  19. Demand Response and Energy Storage Integration Study

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This study is a multi-national laboratory effort to assess the potential value of demand response and energy storage to electricity systems with different penetration levels of variable renewable...

  20. Global Energy: Supply, Demand, Consequences, Opportunities

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Majumdar, Arun

    2010-01-08

    July 29, 2008 Berkeley Lab lecture: Arun Majumdar, Director of the Environmental Energy Technologies Division, discusses current and future projections of economic growth, population, and global energy demand and supply, and explores the implications of these trends for the environment.

  1. Climate policy implications for agricultural water demand

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chaturvedi, Vaibhav; Hejazi, Mohamad I.; Edmonds, James A.; Clarke, Leon E.; Kyle, G. Page; Davies, Evan; Wise, Marshall A.; Calvin, Katherine V.

    2013-03-28

    Energy, water and land are scarce resources, critical to humans. Developments in each affect the availability and cost of the others, and consequently human prosperity. Measures to limit greenhouse gas concentrations will inevitably exact dramatic changes on energy and land systems and in turn alter the character, magnitude and geographic distribution of human claims on water resources. We employ the Global Change Assessment Model (GCAM), an integrated assessment model to explore the interactions of energy, land and water systems in the context of alternative policies to limit climate change to three alternative levels: 2.5 Wm-2 (445 ppm CO2-e), 3.5 Wm-2 (535 ppm CO2-e) and 4.5 Wm-2 (645 ppm CO2-e). We explore the effects of two alternative land-use emissions mitigation policy options—one which taxes terrestrial carbon emissions equally with fossil fuel and industrial emissions, and an alternative which only taxes fossil fuel and industrial emissions but places no penalty on land-use change emissions. We find that increasing populations and economic growth could be anticipated to almost triple demand for water for agricultural systems across the century even in the absence of climate policy. In general policies to mitigate climate change increase agricultural demands for water still further, though the largest changes occur in the second half of the century, under both policy regimes. The two policies examined profoundly affected both the sources and magnitudes of the increase in irrigation water demands. The largest increases in agricultural irrigation water demand occurred in scenarios where only fossil fuel emissions were priced (but not land-use change emission) and were primarily driven by rapid expansion in bioenergy production. In these scenarios water demands were large relative to present-day total available water, calling into question whether it would be physically possible to produce the associated biomass energy. We explored the potential of improved water delivery and irrigation system efficiencies. These could potentially reduce demands substantially. However, overall demands remained high under our fossil-fuel-only tax policy. In contrast, when all carbon was priced, increases in agricultural water demands were smaller than under the fossil-fuel-only policy and were driven primarily by increased demands for water by non-biomass crops such as rice. Finally we estimate the geospatial pattern of water demands and find that regions such as China, India and other countries in south and east Asia might be expected to experience greatest increases in water demands. 

  2. Measuring the capacity impacts of demand response

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Earle, Robert; Kahn, Edward P.; Macan, Edo

    2009-07-15

    Critical peak pricing and peak time rebate programs offer benefits by increasing system reliability, and therefore, reducing capacity needs of the electric power system. These benefits, however, decrease substantially as the size of the programs grows relative to the system size. More flexible schemes for deployment of demand response can help address the decreasing returns to scale in capacity value, but more flexible demand response has decreasing returns to scale as well. (author)

  3. Ethanol Demand in United States Gasoline Production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hadder, G.R.

    1998-11-24

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (OWL) Refinery Yield Model (RYM) has been used to estimate the demand for ethanol in U.S. gasoline production in year 2010. Study cases examine ethanol demand with variations in world oil price, cost of competing oxygenate, ethanol value, and gasoline specifications. For combined-regions outside California summer ethanol demand is dominated by conventional gasoline (CG) because the premised share of reformulated gasoline (RFG) production is relatively low and because CG offers greater flexibility for blending high vapor pressure components like ethanol. Vapor pressure advantages disappear for winter CG, but total ethanol used in winter RFG remains low because of the low RFG production share. In California, relatively less ethanol is used in CG because the RFG production share is very high. During the winter in California, there is a significant increase in use of ethanol in RFG, as ethanol displaces lower-vapor-pressure ethers. Estimated U.S. ethanol demand is a function of the refiner value of ethanol. For example, ethanol demand for reference conditions in year 2010 is 2 billion gallons per year (BGY) at a refiner value of $1.00 per gallon (1996 dollars), and 9 BGY at a refiner value of $0.60 per gallon. Ethanol demand could be increased with higher oil prices, or by changes in gasoline specifications for oxygen content, sulfur content, emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCS), and octane numbers.

  4. Percent of Industrial Natural Gas Deliveries in Iowa Represented by the

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Price (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 8.7 6.8 7.4 2000's 7.0 7.5 7.6 7.9 8.4 9.8 8.5 6.5 6.6 6.4 2010's 5.8 5.5 5.2 5.

  5. Percent of Industrial Natural Gas Deliveries in Vermont Represented by the

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Price (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 100.0 100.0 76.6 2000's 83.8 75.4 74.7 78.8 78.3 81.7 78.4 78.0 79.6 77.9 2010's 77.1 80.9 100.0 100.0

  6. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Contractor Receives 86 Percent of Available Fee

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    CARLSBAD, N.M. – EM’s Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO) recently issued the fiscal year 2015 fee award determination for Nuclear Waste Partnership (NWP), and it shows the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) management and operations contractor earned almost 86 percent — or about $11.7 million of more than $13.6 million — of the fee available for the performance period.

  7. Refrigerated Warehouse Demand Response Strategy Guide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scott, Doug; Castillo, Rafael; Larson, Kyle; Dobbs, Brian; Olsen, Daniel

    2015-11-01

    This guide summarizes demand response measures that can be implemented in refrigerated warehouses. In an appendix, it also addresses related energy efficiency opportunities. Reducing overall grid demand during peak periods and energy consumption has benefits for facility operators, grid operators, utility companies, and society. State wide demand response potential for the refrigerated warehouse sector in California is estimated to be over 22.1 Megawatts. Two categories of demand response strategies are described in this guide: load shifting and load shedding. Load shifting can be accomplished via pre-cooling, capacity limiting, and battery charger load management. Load shedding can be achieved by lighting reduction, demand defrost and defrost termination, infiltration reduction, and shutting down miscellaneous equipment. Estimation of the costs and benefits of demand response participation yields simple payback periods of 2-4 years. To improve demand response performance, it’s suggested to install air curtains and another form of infiltration barrier, such as a rollup door, for the passageways. Further modifications to increase efficiency of the refrigeration unit are also analyzed. A larger condenser can maintain the minimum saturated condensing temperature (SCT) for more hours of the day. Lowering the SCT reduces the compressor lift, which results in an overall increase in refrigeration system capacity and energy efficiency. Another way of saving energy in refrigerated warehouses is eliminating the use of under-floor resistance heaters. A more energy efficient alternative to resistance heaters is to utilize the heat that is being rejected from the condenser through a heat exchanger. These energy efficiency measures improve efficiency either by reducing the required electric energy input for the refrigeration system, by helping to curtail the refrigeration load on the system, or by reducing both the load and required energy input.

  8. Wireless Demand Response Controls for HVAC Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Federspiel, Clifford

    2009-06-30

    The objectives of this scoping study were to develop and test control software and wireless hardware that could enable closed-loop, zone-temperature-based demand response in buildings that have either pneumatic controls or legacy digital controls that cannot be used as part of a demand response automation system. We designed a SOAP client that is compatible with the Demand Response Automation Server (DRAS) being used by the IOUs in California for their CPP program, design the DR control software, investigated the use of cellular routers for connecting to the DRAS, and tested the wireless DR system with an emulator running a calibrated model of a working building. The results show that the wireless DR system can shed approximately 1.5 Watts per design CFM on the design day in a hot, inland climate in California while keeping temperatures within the limits of ASHRAE Standard 55: Thermal Environmental Conditions for Human Occupancy.

  9. International Oil Supplies and Demands. Volume 2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-04-01

    The eleventh Energy Modeling Forum (EMF) working group met four times over the 1989--1990 period to compare alternative perspectives on international oil supplies and demands through 2010 and to discuss how alternative supply and demand trends influence the world`s dependence upon Middle Eastern oil. Proprietors of eleven economic models of the world oil market used their respective models to simulate a dozen scenarios using standardized assumptions. From its inception, the study was not designed to focus on the short-run impacts of disruptions on oil markets. Nor did the working group attempt to provide a forecast or just a single view of the likely future path for oil prices. The model results guided the group`s thinking about many important longer-run market relationships and helped to identify differences of opinion about future oil supplies, demands, and dependence.

  10. International Oil Supplies and Demands. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-09-01

    The eleventh Energy Modeling Forum (EMF) working group met four times over the 1989--90 period to compare alternative perspectives on international oil supplies and demands through 2010 and to discuss how alternative supply and demand trends influence the world`s dependence upon Middle Eastern oil. Proprietors of eleven economic models of the world oil market used their respective models to simulate a dozen scenarios using standardized assumptions. From its inception, the study was not designed to focus on the short-run impacts of disruptions on oil markets. Nor did the working group attempt to provide a forecast or just a single view of the likely future path for oil prices. The model results guided the group`s thinking about many important longer-run market relationships and helped to identify differences of opinion about future oil supplies, demands, and dependence.

  11. Centralized and Decentralized Control for Demand Response

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lu, Shuai; Samaan, Nader A.; Diao, Ruisheng; Elizondo, Marcelo A.; Jin, Chunlian; Mayhorn, Ebony T.; Zhang, Yu; Kirkham, Harold

    2011-04-29

    Demand response has been recognized as an essential element of the smart grid. Frequency response, regulation and contingency reserve functions performed traditionally by generation resources are now starting to involve demand side resources. Additional benefits from demand response include peak reduction and load shifting, which will defer new infrastructure investment and improve generator operation efficiency. Technical approaches designed to realize these functionalities can be categorized into centralized control and decentralized control, depending on where the response decision is made. This paper discusses these two control philosophies and compares their relative advantages and disadvantages in terms of delay time, predictability, complexity, and reliability. A distribution system model with detailed household loads and controls is built to demonstrate the characteristics of the two approaches. The conclusion is that the promptness and reliability of decentralized control should be combined with the predictability and simplicity of centralized control to achieve the best performance of the smart grid.

  12. Utility Sector Impacts of Reduced Electricity Demand

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Coughlin, Katie

    2014-12-01

    This report presents a new approach to estimating the marginal utility sector impacts associated with electricity demand reductions. The method uses publicly available data and provides results in the form of time series of impact factors. The input data are taken from the Energy Information Agency's Annual Energy Outlook (AEO) projections of how the electric system might evolve in the reference case, and in a number of side cases that incorporate different effciency and other policy assumptions. The data published with the AEO are used to define quantitative relationships between demand-side electricity reductions by end use and supply-side changes to capacity by plant type, generation by fuel type and emissions of CO2, Hg, NOx and SO2. The impact factors define the change in each of these quantities per unit reduction in site electricity demand. We find that the relative variation in these impacts by end use is small, but the time variation can be significant.

  13. China's Coal: Demand, Constraints, and Externalities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aden, Nathaniel; Fridley, David; Zheng, Nina

    2009-07-01

    This study analyzes China's coal industry by focusing on four related areas. First, data are reviewed to identify the major drivers of historical and future coal demand. Second, resource constraints and transport bottlenecks are analyzed to evaluate demand and growth scenarios. The third area assesses the physical requirements of substituting coal demand growth with other primary energy forms. Finally, the study examines the carbon- and environmental implications of China's past and future coal consumption. There are three sections that address these areas by identifying particular characteristics of China's coal industry, quantifying factors driving demand, and analyzing supply scenarios: (1) reviews the range of Chinese and international estimates of remaining coal reserves and resources as well as key characteristics of China's coal industry including historical production, resource requirements, and prices; (2) quantifies the largest drivers of coal usage to produce a bottom-up reference projection of 2025 coal demand; and (3) analyzes coal supply constraints, substitution options, and environmental externalities. Finally, the last section presents conclusions on the role of coal in China's ongoing energy and economic development. China has been, is, and will continue to be a coal-powered economy. In 2007 Chinese coal production contained more energy than total Middle Eastern oil production. The rapid growth of coal demand after 2001 created supply strains and bottlenecks that raise questions about sustainability. Urbanization, heavy industrial growth, and increasing per-capita income are the primary interrelated drivers of rising coal usage. In 2007, the power sector, iron and steel, and cement production accounted for 66% of coal consumption. Power generation is becoming more efficient, but even extensive roll-out of the highest efficiency units would save only 14% of projected 2025 coal demand for the power sector. A new wedge of future coal consumption is likely to come from the burgeoning coal-liquefaction and chemicals industries. If coal to chemicals capacity reaches 70 million tonnes and coal-to-liquids capacity reaches 60 million tonnes, coal feedstock requirements would add an additional 450 million tonnes by 2025. Even with more efficient growth among these drivers, China's annual coal demand is expected to reach 3.9 to 4.3 billion tonnes by 2025. Central government support for nuclear and renewable energy has not reversed China's growing dependence on coal for primary energy. Substitution is a matter of scale: offsetting one year of recent coal demand growth of 200 million tonnes would require 107 billion cubic meters of natural gas (compared to 2007 growth of 13 BCM), 48 GW of nuclear (compared to 2007 growth of 2 GW), or 86 GW of hydropower capacity (compared to 2007 growth of 16 GW). Ongoing dependence on coal reduces China's ability to mitigate carbon dioxide emissions growth. If coal demand remains on a high growth path, carbon dioxide emissions from coal combustion alone would exceed total US energy-related carbon emissions by 2010. Within China's coal-dominated energy system, domestic transportation has emerged as the largest bottleneck for coal industry growth and is likely to remain a constraint to further expansion. China has a low proportion of high-quality reserves, but is producing its best coal first. Declining quality will further strain production and transport capacity. Furthermore, transporting coal to users has overloaded the train system and dramatically increased truck use, raising transportation oil demand. Growing international imports have helped to offset domestic transport bottlenecks. In the long term, import demand is likely to exceed 200 million tonnes by 2025, significantly impacting regional markets.

  14. Percent of Commercial Natural Gas Deliveries in Alabama Represented by the

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Price (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 79.6 82.7 80.7 80.8 80.3 80.1 81.1 64.7 80.5 70.5 2000's 81.4 82.5 80.5 81.8 82.1 80.5 80.2 79.8 80.2 78.8 2010's 79.3 78.9 76.2 76.6 78.4 77.6

  15. Percent of Commercial Natural Gas Deliveries in Alaska Represented by the

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Price (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 79.9 63.4 54.5 49.6 55.4 2000's 59.3 60.5 60.0 59.1 55.5 51.2 56.3 76.0 74.9 85.3 2010's 87.7 88.6 94.9 94.5 94.5 98.2

  16. Percent of Commercial Natural Gas Deliveries in Arkansas Represented by the

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Price (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 92.3 91.5 90.7 91.8 95.1 96.0 95.0 94.2 90.8 89.3 2000's 89.9 87.0 80.8 81.9 80.3 74.1 71.7 70.4 64.5 59.4 2010's 55.6 51.5 40.2 43.7 45.5 42.5

  17. Percent of Commercial Natural Gas Deliveries in Colorado Represented by the

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Price (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 97.3 96.0 95.5 95.5 94.8 94.2 93.2 92.8 94.3 97.5 2000's 97.4 95.6 95.3 95.3 94.7 95.2 95.4 95.7 95.2 94.8 2010's 94.6 93.8 92.2 94.7 94.5 NA

  18. Percent of Commercial Natural Gas Deliveries in Delaware Represented by the

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Price (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 98.8 2000's 98.0 98.3 82.8 82.8 81.6 83.3 77.5 74.8 70.6 53.5 2010's 49.8 53.4 43.7 45.0 46.2 45.7

  19. Percent of Commercial Natural Gas Deliveries in Florida Represented by the

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Price (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 97.6 97.4 97.7 97.8 97.9 97.6 97.1 97.5 96.6 94.5 2000's 67.4 56.6 42.3 42.3 41.2 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 2010's 100.0 38.5 37.0 33.3 32.3 NA

  20. Percent of Commercial Natural Gas Deliveries in Georgia Represented by the

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Price (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 88.4 87.5 88.1 90.5 92.0 93.5 94.1 89.1 83.6 61.0 2000's 17.1 20.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 2010's 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0

  1. Percent of Commercial Natural Gas Deliveries in Idaho Represented by the

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Price (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 87.9 87.6 85.7 86.8 85.9 86.0 86.6 86.1 86.4 85.9 2000's 86.3 86.3 85.9 85.2 85.7 85.6 85.8 84.8 86.0 83.7 2010's 82.0 80.8 77.0 77.4 76.6 74.6

  2. Percent of Commercial Natural Gas Deliveries in Illinois Represented by the

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Price (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 57.6 59.0 57.7 55.3 52.8 50.4 53.9 54.3 47.4 42.8 2000's 41.9 41.1 40.9 43.1 41.2 41.5 39.7 42.2 43.3 41.3 2010's 42.3 38.1 36.8 38.4 38.5 NA

  3. Percent of Commercial Natural Gas Deliveries in Indiana Represented by the

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Price (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 95.7 94.2 96.8 95.2 92.3 87.8 96.3 89.9 79.2 78.3 2000's 78.0 77.1 78.4 79.8 78.2 82.1 79.4 78.1 77.9 73.9 2010's 72.5 70.2 67.4 68.2 67.6 67.0

  4. Percent of Commercial Natural Gas Deliveries in Iowa Represented by the

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Price (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 97.6 97.7 95.7 94.7 90.4 89.3 87.7 88.2 85.8 83.4 2000's 81.1 82.0 81.4 78.0 78.3 78.3 77.3 77.7 75.8 72.5 2010's 72.0 72.1 72.2 72.5 74.4 NA

  5. Percent of Commercial Natural Gas Deliveries in Kansas Represented by the

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Price (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 91.6 89.2 84.4 82.6 78.4 73.6 71.7 70.3 69.5 66.7 2000's 57.3 63.1 58.9 59.1 57.3 68.5 65.4 64.8 64.9 65.7 2010's 66.0 62.6 59.8 61.4 59.3 NA

  6. Percent of Commercial Natural Gas Deliveries in Kentucky Represented by the

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Price (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 95.0 94.0 93.1 92.6 91.4 89.2 90.8 90.0 87.4 87.9 2000's 85.6 81.8 78.9 79.2 78.7 79.7 81.3 81.7 82.0 80.1 2010's 80.5 79.2 77.4 78.8 80.5 79.2

  7. Percent of Commercial Natural Gas Deliveries in Maryland Represented by the

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Price (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 95.6 96.6 96.0 96.6 97.1 96.9 91.9 67.1 36.6 33.4 2000's 39.1 32.6 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 2010's 100.0 27.3 24.7 26.2 27.3 27.4

  8. Percent of Commercial Natural Gas Deliveries in Michigan Represented by the

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Price (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 69.9 68.3 68.8 68.6 65.7 66.4 66.9 63.7 59.7 56.6 2000's 58.8 63.5 62.9 64.2 65.6 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 2010's 100.0 54.1 51.0 53.2 55.2 55

  9. Percent of Commercial Natural Gas Deliveries in Missouri Represented by the

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Price (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 86.0 85.9 85.5 84.6 83.3 83.3 82.2 79.9 78.3 78.6 2000's 80.0 80.8 80.0 80.5 77.4 77.1 76.4 76.9 77.5 76.7 2010's 76.5 73.1 69.2 72.3 70.5 71.1

  10. Percent of Commercial Natural Gas Deliveries in Montana Represented by the

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Price (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 97.9 97.5 95.4 93.2 91.8 91.6 91.5 91.5 77.2 79.8 2000's 73.5 76.1 75.1 68.8 76.0 77.4 76.9 78.5 79.6 49.2 2010's 54.6 53.3 52.8 53.3 53.5 NA

  11. Percent of Commercial Natural Gas Deliveries in Nebraska Represented by the

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Price (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 93.9 91.8 88.2 91.0 80.2 77.1 70.0 74.2 72.5 66.6 2000's 61.1 63.7 63.7 65.4 63.5 64.5 65.1 63.9 57.5 61.3 2010's 60.6 60.6 55.8 57.3 56.4 56.1

  12. Percent of Commercial Natural Gas Deliveries in Nevada Represented by the

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Price (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 97.7 90.8 88.3 92.7 82.5 76.5 74.2 71.3 70.2 60.9 2000's 54.6 73.9 78.5 67.2 67.9 68.1 68.2 67.0 67.0 65.1 2010's 65.4 64.3 61.4 60.1 58.4 57.9

  13. Percent of Commercial Natural Gas Deliveries in New Jersey Represented by

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    the Price (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 94.8 93.9 92.4 91.6 91.6 86.3 73.3 56.2 60.5 56.0 2000's 56.9 57.5 49.1 50.7 48.1 51.6 46.9 44.2 42.1 38.3 2010's 36.1 32.6 30.8 35.2 32.0 NA

  14. Percent of Commercial Natural Gas Deliveries in New Mexico Represented by

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    the Price (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 83.1 77.7 70.0 62.5 62.4 60.3 64.7 71.0 67.0 63.0 2000's 62.2 67.3 72.5 70.3 69.0 69.0 65.0 64.2 62.6 58.2 2010's 60.7 59.8 57.0 57.0 54.4 NA

  15. Percent of Commercial Natural Gas Deliveries in New York Represented by the

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Price (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 83.6 80.7 77.7 77.2 79.6 76.2 77.0 64.7 53.1 57.2 2000's 40.1 45.7 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 2010's 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0

  16. Percent of Commercial Natural Gas Deliveries in North Dakota Represented by

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    the Price (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 74.8 70.0 68.9 72.7 79.6 80.9 88.0 88.9 83.8 88.2 2000's 89.5 90.1 91.6 94.4 92.6 92.9 93.0 93.3 93.4 92.9 2010's 92.6 92.8 91.9 92.6 93.1 NA

  17. Percent of Commercial Natural Gas Deliveries in Ohio Represented by the

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Price (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 87.3 86.7 85.6 84.6 81.5 76.3 71.8 65.5 55.0 46.4 2000's 45.2 41.8 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 2010's 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0

  18. Percent of Commercial Natural Gas Deliveries in Oklahoma Represented by the

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Price (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 92.1 91.3 88.5 90.0 88.5 85.2 84.5 81.8 73.2 71.6 2000's 72.4 74.0 71.0 71.3 61.6 53.1 49.9 48.1 51.3 46.4 2010's 47.5 46.3 41.1 44.6 45.3 43.7

  19. Percent of Commercial Natural Gas Deliveries in Oregon Represented by the

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Price (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 97.7 97.9 97.8 97.9 98.1 98.1 98.3 98.5 99.0 98.8 2000's 98.8 99.3 98.7 98.4 98.6 98.6 98.5 98.5 98.5 98.4 2010's 97.4 97.4 96.9 96.6 96.0 NA

  20. Percent of Commercial Natural Gas Deliveries in Rhode Island Represented by

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    the Price (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 95.9 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 91.8 80.5 59.2 53.2 2000's 53.2 58.0 65.9 72.1 73.3 74.3 73.1 66.5 66.2 68.0 2010's 61.2 56.9 55.4 54.5 52.2 53.9

  1. Percent of Commercial Natural Gas Deliveries in South Dakota Represented by

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    the Price (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 86.4 81.8 82.4 83.9 89.1 86.9 82.7 83.3 84.2 81.2 2000's 83.1 84.2 83.1 82.3 82.3 83.5 82.1 81.2 83.0 82.2 2010's 80.9 81.7 81.6 81.6 81.6 81.0

  2. Percent of Commercial Natural Gas Deliveries in Texas Represented by the

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Price (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 89.8 89.3 79.7 83.8 82.4 68.6 83.5 61.4 81.0 77.3 2000's 79.0 88.4 71.8 73.7 74.6 79.5 82.0 81.9 82.5 78.3 2010's 76.4 73.4 72.4 72.8 72.6 NA

  3. Percent of Commercial Natural Gas Deliveries in Utah Represented by the

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Price (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 83.3 81.8 81.9 83.2 82.5 82.9 2000's 83.9 84.4 83.7 84.4 84.4 86.8 86.8 86.9 86.4 85.6 2010's 86.2 86.7 83.9 81.8 78.3 77.0

  4. Percent of Commercial Natural Gas Deliveries in Virginia Represented by the

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Price (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 93.2 93.6 90.7 88.8 86.7 84.1 85.3 77.9 72.1 67.4 2000's 66.4 65.8 61.4 65.7 63.6 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 2010's 100.0 54.1 52.1 54.6 55.8 54.2

  5. Percent of Commercial Natural Gas Deliveries in Wyoming Represented by the

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Price (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 99.8 99.0 98.0 98.0 96.1 93.6 85.9 84.1 90.5 89.1 2000's 90.0 86.5 48.7 51.7 51.4 49.3 47.8 49.3 65.6 65.5 2010's 65.3 64.0 62.6 62.9 60.8 NA

  6. Percent of Industrial Natural Gas Deliveries in Delaware Represented by the

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Price (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 31.0 22.4 16.6 2000's 10.6 16.1 13.4 15.6 11.7 12.2 9.0 9.8 5.8 2.1 2010's 5.3 1.6 0.3 0.3 0.3 NA

  7. Percent of Industrial Natural Gas Deliveries in Florida Represented by the

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Price (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 10.5 7.3 5.0 2000's 5.2 3.8 3.8 3.9 3.7 3.4 3.1 3.1 3.0 3.2 2010's 3.0 3.0 2.7 3.2 3.5 NA

  8. Percent of Industrial Natural Gas Deliveries in Georgia Represented by the

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Price (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 26.7 25.3 23.9 2000's 20.2 19.9 19.2 15.9 16.4 17.1 17.0 17.2 16.1 17.6 2010's 18.2 18.2 20.0 18.9 20.0 NA

  9. Percent of Industrial Natural Gas Deliveries in Idaho Represented by the

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Price (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 2.0 2.5 2.7 2000's 2.7 2.2 2.0 2.1 2.4 2.3 2.1 2.0 1.9 1.7 2010's 1.8 2.0 1.9 2.5 2.8 2.4

  10. Percent of Industrial Natural Gas Deliveries in Illinois Represented by the

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Price (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 11.5 9.3 9.1 2000's 9.0 9.9 9.3 9.9 9.0 9.5 8.7 9.5 9.4 7.7 2010's 7.4 6.3 6.0 6.8 6.4 5.7

  11. Percent of Industrial Natural Gas Deliveries in Indiana Represented by the

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Price (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 16.0 9.3 5.8 2000's 10.3 7.7 8.6 9.0 8.3 7.9 7.2 7.4 6.7 7.0 2010's 5.6 3.5 1.9 2.0 2.1 1.9

  12. Percent of Industrial Natural Gas Deliveries in Kansas Represented by the

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Price (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 9.2 9.9 10.1 2000's 10.4 9.3 10.8 7.9 6.9 6.3 7.3 5.9 7.8 6.7 2010's 7.0 9.5 9.7 9.3 8.3 NA

  13. Percent of Industrial Natural Gas Deliveries in Kentucky Represented by the

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Price (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 19.2 17.8 17.5 2000's 19.0 18.7 17.7 18.8 16.9 16.9 15.8 16.6 17.5 18.1 2010's 17.9 17.6 17.8 18.3 17.2 16.0

  14. Percent of Industrial Natural Gas Deliveries in Maryland Represented by the

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Price (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 7.4 7.0 6.5 2000's 6.1 8.5 8.0 10.0 8.2 8.2 6.7 7.8 6.3 5.3 2010's 5.3 5.5 5.1 6.8 7.3 NA

  15. Percent of Industrial Natural Gas Deliveries in Michigan Represented by the

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Price (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 12.5 10.8 11.1 2000's 10.2 11.3 10.2 10.9 10.7 10.1 10.2 12.6 12.5 11.8 2010's 8.8 9.3 7.4 7.4 7.6 NA

  16. Percent of Industrial Natural Gas Deliveries in Missouri Represented by the

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Price (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 21.5 18.2 18.5 2000's 16.8 16.5 16.0 14.8 13.8 14.2 13.2 12.8 13.9 13.2 2010's 13.1 13.4 12.5 13.9 14.0 12.3

  17. Percent of Industrial Natural Gas Deliveries in Montana Represented by the

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Price (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 3.1 1.5 1.7 2000's 1.9 2.2 2.1 1.8 1.6 1.8 0.7 0.8 1.0 1.1 2010's 1.5 1.3 1.0 1.2 1.4 NA

  18. Percent of Industrial Natural Gas Deliveries in Nebraska Represented by the

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Price (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 27.0 12.7 14.2 2000's 15.4 18.0 15.7 16.5 16.5 16.3 11.6 9.7 10.2 8.9 2010's 8.2 7.6 6.8 7.8 7.4 7.1

  19. Percent of Industrial Natural Gas Deliveries in Nevada Represented by the

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Price (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 6.3 15.5 22.5 2000's 18.1 33.3 34.3 19.1 16.5 17.2 16.8 17.1 17.8 17.3 2010's 18.4 17.8 15.5 15.7 15.5 NA

  20. Percent of Industrial Natural Gas Deliveries in New Jersey Represented by

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    the Price (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 49.3 49.5 47.9 2000's 23.5 21.6 20.8 19.5 16.4 19.9 19.5 20.6 11.0 9.0 2010's 8.4 8.2 6.5 6.1 6.6 NA

  1. Percent of Industrial Natural Gas Deliveries in New Mexico Represented by

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    the Price (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 9.5 9.8 16.4 2000's 16.5 10.1 15.6 12.3 11.2 8.4 11.6 10.6 10.0 11.9 2010's 12.4 10.2 7.9 8.0 7.5 6.4

  2. Percent of Industrial Natural Gas Deliveries in New York Represented by the

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Price (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 12.7 8.3 14.3 2000's 11.3 10.8 11.0 10.6 10.7 14.7 11.7 12.3 11.4 11.7 2010's 10.6 7.9 6.8 6.3 6.1 NA

  3. Percent of Industrial Natural Gas Deliveries in North Dakota Represented by

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    the Price (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 18.5 14.6 14.9 2000's 13.9 9.8 9.2 45.9 51.1 27.5 42.3 48.1 46.2 34.8 2010's 29.7 37.4 34.7 37.9 34.7 39.6

  4. Percent of Industrial Natural Gas Deliveries in Ohio Represented by the

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Price (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 5.7 4.3 4.1 2000's 5.3 6.5 4.0 3.9 3.5 3.6 3.0 2.7 2.7 2.8 2010's 2.1 2.0 1.6 2.2 2.0 NA

  5. Percent of Industrial Natural Gas Deliveries in Oklahoma Represented by the

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Price (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 4.7 3.6 3.9 2000's 4.2 4.2 3.3 2.4 1.6 1.6 1.1 0.9 0.6 0.5 2010's 0.5 0.6 0.5 0.7 0.8

  6. Percent of Industrial Natural Gas Deliveries in Oregon Represented by the

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Price (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 16.3 14.3 13.6 2000's 17.7 21.5 14.4 17.5 24.9 33.2 26.6 21.8 20.1 18.9 2010's 17.1 17.1 16.7 16.9 17.2 16.6

  7. Percent of Industrial Natural Gas Deliveries in Rhode Island Represented by

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    the Price (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 17.4 7.4 6.5 2000's 34.0 27.3 27.3 18.9 15.7 15.3 13.6 11.6 11.7 9.2 2010's 6.5 6.0 6.3 9.0 8.1 5.3

  8. Percent of Industrial Natural Gas Deliveries in South Dakota Represented by

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    the Price (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 24.1 35.6 37.0 2000's 41.9 42.1 19.4 25.5 28.2 30.2 33.6 17.8 16.9 14.4 2010's 10.4 4.7 4.3 5.2 4.6 4.1

  9. Percent of Industrial Natural Gas Deliveries in Texas Represented by the

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Price (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 17.2 14.1 23.7 2000's 29.6 35.0 43.0 43.9 48.8 54.6 55.4 54.7 50.4 47.2 2010's 48.6 39.0 39.4 41.7 40.3 40

  10. Percent of Industrial Natural Gas Deliveries in Utah Represented by the

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Price (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 8.9 8.6 9.5 2000's 10.0 10.4 13.6 13.6 19.8 19.5 20.1 14.1 12.7 12.2 2010's 12.1 12.7 11.0 11.1 10.5 8.6

  11. Percent of Industrial Natural Gas Deliveries in Virginia Represented by the

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Price (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 13.0 12.8 12.1 2000's 17.6 17.3 15.3 17.3 16.0 17.1 13.9 14.1 17.3 15.8 2010's 15.3 13.6 10.9 10.3 11.1 NA

  12. Percent of Industrial Natural Gas Deliveries in Wyoming Represented by the

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Price (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 2.5 2.0 2.9 2000's 2.6 2.5 2.9 1.8 2.1 3.7 3.5 3.0 3.2 3.1 2010's 1.1 1.0 0.9 1.2 1.3 NA

  13. Method to produce alumina aerogels having porosities greater than 80 percent

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Poco, John F.; Hrubesh, Lawrence W.

    2003-09-16

    A two-step method for producing monolithic alumina aerogels having porosities of greater than 80 percent. Very strong, very low density alumina aerogel monoliths are prepared using the two-step sol-gel process. The method of preparing pure alumina aerogel modifies the prior known sol method by combining the use of substoichiometric water for hydrolysis, the use of acetic acid to control hydrolysis/condensation, and high temperature supercritical drying, all of which contribute to the formation of a polycrystalline aerogel microstructure. This structure provides exceptional mechanical properties of the alumina aerogel, as well as enhanced thermal resistance and high temperature stability.

  14. "Interconnection","NERC Regional Assesment Area","Net Internal Demand[1] -- Winter"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    B Winter net internal demand, capacity resources, and capacity margins by North American Electric Reliability Corporation" "Region, 2001-2011 actual, 2012-2016 projected" "megawatts and percent" "Interconnection","NERC Regional Assesment Area","Net Internal Demand[1] -- Winter" ,,"Actual",,,,,,,,,,,"Projected" ,,"2001/ 2002","2002/ 2003","2003/ 2004","2004/ 2005","2005/

  15. Power System Modeling of 20percent Wind-Generated Electricity by 2030

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bolinger, Mark A; Hand, Maureen; Blair, Nate; Bolinger, Mark; Wiser, Ryan; Hern, Tracy; Miller, Bart; O'Connell, R.

    2008-06-09

    The Wind Energy Deployment System model was used to estimate the costs and benefits associated with producing 20% of the nation's electricity from wind technology by 2030. This generation capacity expansion model selects from electricity generation technologies that include pulverized coal plants, combined cycle natural gas plants, combustion turbine natural gas plants, nuclear plants, and wind technology to meet projected demand in future years. Technology cost and performance projections, as well as transmission operation and expansion costs, are assumed. This study demonstrates that producing 20% of the nation's projected electricity demand in 2030 from wind technology is technically feasible, not cost-prohibitive, and provides benefits in the forms of carbon emission reductions, natural gas price reductions, and water savings.

  16. Demand Responsive Lighting: A Scoping Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rubinstein, Francis; Kiliccote, Sila

    2007-01-03

    The objective of this scoping study is: (1) to identify current market drivers and technology trends that can improve the demand responsiveness of commercial building lighting systems and (2) to quantify the energy, demand and environmental benefits of implementing lighting demand response and energy-saving controls strategies Statewide. Lighting systems in California commercial buildings consume 30 GWh. Lighting systems in commercial buildings often waste energy and unnecessarily stress the electrical grid because lighting controls, especially dimming, are not widely used. But dimmable lighting equipment, especially the dimming ballast, costs more than non-dimming lighting and is expensive to retrofit into existing buildings because of the cost of adding control wiring. Advances in lighting industry capabilities coupled with the pervasiveness of the Internet and wireless technologies have led to new opportunities to realize significant energy saving and reliable demand reduction using intelligent lighting controls. Manufacturers are starting to produce electronic equipment--lighting-application specific controllers (LAS controllers)--that are wirelessly accessible and can control dimmable or multilevel lighting systems obeying different industry-accepted protocols. Some companies make controllers that are inexpensive to install in existing buildings and allow the power consumed by bi-level lighting circuits to be selectively reduced during demand response curtailments. By intelligently limiting the demand from bi-level lighting in California commercial buildings, the utilities would now have an enormous 1 GW demand shed capability at hand. By adding occupancy and light sensors to the remotely controllable lighting circuits, automatic controls could harvest an additional 1 BkWh/yr savings above and beyond the savings that have already been achieved. The lighting industry's adoption of DALI as the principal wired digital control protocol for dimming ballasts and increased awareness of the need to standardize on emerging wireless technologies are evidence of this transformation. In addition to increased standardization of digital control protocols controller capabilities, the lighting industry has improved the performance of dimming lighting systems over the last two years. The system efficacy of today's current dimming ballasts is approaching that of non-dimming program start ballasts. The study finds that the benefits of applying digital controls technologies to California's unique commercial buildings market are enormous. If California were to embark on an concerted 20 year program to improve the demand responsiveness and energy efficiency of commercial building lighting systems, the State could avoid adding generation capacity, improve the elasticity of the grid, save Californians billion of dollars in avoided energy charges and significantly reduce greenhouse gas emissions.

  17. Chinese Oil Demand: Steep Incline Ahead

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Chinese Oil Demand: Steep Incline Ahead Malcolm Shealy Alacritas, Inc. April 7, 2008 Oil Demand: China, India, Japan, South Korea 0 2 4 6 8 1995 2000 2005 2010 Million Barrels/Day China South Korea Japan India IEA China Oil Forecast 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 2000 2005 2010 2015 2020 2025 2030 Million Barrels/Day WEO 2007 16.3 mbd 12.7 mbd IEA China Oil Forecasts 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 2000 2005 2010 2015 2020 2025 2030 Million Barrels/Day WEO 2007 WEO 2006 WEO 2004 WEO 2002 Vehicle Sales in

  18. Ethanol Demand in United States Production of Oxygenate-limited Gasoline

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hadder, G.R.

    2000-08-16

    Ethanol competes with methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) to satisfy oxygen, octane, and volume requirements of certain gasolines. However, MTBE has water quality problems that may create significant market opportunities for ethanol. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has used its Refinery Yield Model to estimate ethanol demand in gasolines with restricted use of MTBE. Reduction of the use of MTBE would increase the costs of gasoline production and possibly reduce the gasoline output of U.S. refineries. The potential gasoline supply problems of an MTBE ban could be mitigated by allowing a modest 3 vol percent MTBE in all gasoline. In the U.S. East and Gulf Coast gasoline producing regions, the 3 vol percent MTBE option results in costs that are 40 percent less than an MTBE ban. In the U.S. Midwest gasoline producing region, with already high use of ethanol, an MTBE ban has minimal effect on ethanol demand unless gasoline producers in other regions bid away the local supply of ethanol. The ethanol/MTBE issue gained momentum in March 2000 when the Clinton Administration announced that it would ask Congress to amend the Clean Air Act to provide the authority to significantly reduce or eliminate the use of MTBE; to ensure that air quality gains are not diminished as MTBE use is reduced; and to replace the existing oxygenate requirement in the Clean Air Act with a renewable fuel standard for all gasoline. Premises for the ORNL study are consistent with the Administration announcement, and the ethanol demand curve estimates of this study can be used to evaluate the impact of the Administration principles and related policy initiatives.

  19. Tankless Demand Water Heater Basics | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Water Heating Tankless Demand Water Heater Basics Tankless Demand Water Heater Basics August 19, 2013 - 2:57pm Addthis Illustration of an electric demand water heater. At the ...

  20. Washington: Sustainability Training for Realtors in High Demand...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Sustainability Training for Realtors in High Demand Washington: Sustainability Training for Realtors in High Demand March 6, 2014 - 5:50pm Addthis Demand has been high for a free ...

  1. Energy technologies and their impact on demand

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Drucker, H.

    1995-06-01

    Despite the uncertainties, energy demand forecasts must be made to guide government policies and public and private-sector capital investment programs. Three principles can be identified in considering long-term energy prospects. First energy demand will continue to grow, driven by population growth, economic development, and the current low per capita energy consumption in developing countries. Second, energy technology advancements alone will not solve the problem. Energy-efficient technologies, renewable resource technologies, and advanced electric power technologies will all play a major role but will not be able to keep up with the growth in world energy demand. Third, environmental concerns will limit the energy technology choices. Increasing concern for environmental protection around the world will restrict primarily large, centralized energy supply facilities. The conclusion is that energy system diversity is the only solution. The energy system must be planned with consideration of both supply and demand technologies, must not rely on a single source of energy, must take advantage of all available technologies that are specially suited to unique local conditions, must be built with long-term perspectives, and must be able to adapt to change.

  2. Indianapolis Offers a Lesson on Driving Demand

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Successful program managers know that understanding the factors that drive homeowners to make upgrades is critical to the widespread adoption of energy efficiency. What better place to learn about driving demand for upgrades than in Indianapolis, America's most famous driving city?

  3. Energy Demand (released in AEO2010)

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2010-01-01

    Growth in U.S. energy use is linked to population growth through increases in demand for housing, commercial floorspace, transportation, manufacturing, and services. This affects not only the level of energy use, but also the mix of fuels and consumption by sector.

  4. Structuring Rebate and Incentive Programs for Sustainable Demand...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Structuring Rebate and Incentive Programs for Sustainable Demand Structuring Rebate and ... Loan Rates and Demand Peer Exchange Call on Financing and Revenue: Bond Funding Marketing ...

  5. Structuring Rebate and Incentive Programs for Sustainable Demand...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Structuring Rebate and Incentive Programs for Sustainable Demand Structuring Rebate and Incentive Programs for Sustainable Demand Better Buildings Neighborhood Program Peer...

  6. Using Mobile Applications to Generate Customer Demand | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Using Mobile Applications to Generate Customer Demand Using Mobile Applications to Generate Customer Demand Better Buildings Residential Network Peer Exchange Call Series: Using...

  7. Strategies for Marketing and Driving Demand for Commercial Financing...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Marketing and Driving Demand for Commercial Financing Products Strategies for Marketing and Driving Demand for Commercial Financing Products Better Buildings Neighborhood Program ...

  8. Demand Response and Energy Storage Integration Study - Past Workshops...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Demand Response and Energy Storage Integration Study - Past Workshops Demand Response and Energy Storage Integration Study - Past Workshops The project was initiated and informed...

  9. Draft Chapter 3: Demand-Side Resources | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Demand-Side Resources Draft Chapter 3: Demand-Side Resources Utilities in many states have been implementing energy efficiency and load management programs (collectively called ...

  10. Agreement Template for Energy Conservation and Demand Side Management...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Agreement Template for Energy Conservation and Demand Side Management Services Agreement Template for Energy Conservation and Demand Side Management Services Template agreement ...

  11. Estimating Costs and Efficiency of Storage, Demand, and Heat...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Costs and Efficiency of Storage, Demand, and Heat Pump Water Heaters Estimating Costs and Efficiency of Storage, Demand, and Heat Pump Water Heaters A water heater's energy ...

  12. Estimating Costs and Efficiency of Storage, Demand, and Heat...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Estimating Costs and Efficiency of Storage, Demand, and Heat Pump Water Heaters Estimating Costs and Efficiency of Storage, Demand, and Heat Pump Water Heaters A water heater's ...

  13. Tool Improves Electricity Demand Predictions to Make More Room...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Tool Improves Electricity Demand Predictions to Make More Room for Renewables Tool Improves Electricity Demand Predictions to Make More Room for Renewables October 3, 2011 - ...

  14. Reducing Energy Demand in Buildings Through State Energy Codes...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Reducing Energy Demand in Buildings Through State Energy Codes Reducing Energy Demand in ... More Documents & Publications Technology Performance Exchange - 2013 BTO Peer Review ...

  15. Estimating Costs and Efficiency of Storage, Demand, and Heat...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Estimating Costs and Efficiency of Storage, Demand, and Heat Pump Water Heaters Estimating Costs and Efficiency of Storage, Demand, and Heat Pump Water Heaters A water heater's...

  16. Can Automotive Battery Recycling Help Meet Lithium Demand? |...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Can Automotive Battery Recycling Help Meet Lithium Demand? Title Can Automotive Battery Recycling Help Meet Lithium Demand? Publication Type Presentation Year of Publication 2013...

  17. SGDP Report Now Available: Interoperability of Demand Response...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    SGDP Report Now Available: Interoperability of Demand Response Resources Demonstration in NY (February 2015) SGDP Report Now Available: Interoperability of Demand Response ...

  18. SGDP Report: Interoperability of Demand Response Resources Demonstrati...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    SGDP Report: Interoperability of Demand Response Resources Demonstration in NY (February 2015) SGDP Report: Interoperability of Demand Response Resources Demonstration in NY ...

  19. FERC Presendation: Demand Response as Power System Resources...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    FERC Presendation: Demand Response as Power System Resources, October 29, 2010 FERC Presendation: Demand Response as Power System Resources, October 29, 2010 Federal Energy ...

  20. Implementation Proposal for the National Action Plan on Demand...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Implementation Proposal for the National Action Plan on DemandResponse - July 2011 Implementation Proposal for the National Action Plan on Demand Response - July 2011 Report to ...

  1. Sustainable Energy Resources for Consumers (SERC) - On-Demand...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    On-Demand Tankless Water Heaters Sustainable Energy Resources for Consumers (SERC) - On-Demand Tankless Water Heaters This presentation, aimed at Sustainable Energy Resources for ...

  2. High-Performance with Solar Electric Reduced Peak Demand: Premier...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    with Solar Electric Reduced Peak Demand: Premier Homes Rancho Cordoba, CA - Building America Top Innovation High-Performance with Solar Electric Reduced Peak Demand: Premier Homes ...

  3. Percent of Commercial Natural Gas Deliveries in Hawaii Represented by the

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Price (Percent) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1989 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 1990 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 1991 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 1992 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 1993 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 1994 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 1995 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 1996 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100

  4. Percent of Commercial Natural Gas Deliveries in Vermont Represented by the

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Price (Percent) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1989 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 1990 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 1991 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 1992 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 1993 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 1994 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 1995 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 1996 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100

  5. Percent of Industrial Natural Gas Deliveries in Hawaii Represented by the

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Price (Percent) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2001 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 2002 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 2003 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 2004 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 2005 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 2006 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 2007 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 2008 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100

  6. Percent of Commercial Natural Gas Deliveries in U.S. Total Represented by

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    the Price (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 93.1 90.8 89.1 1990's 86.6 85.1 83.2 83.9 79.3 76.7 77.6 70.8 67.0 66.1 2000's 63.9 66.0 77.4 78.2 78.0 82.1 80.8 80.4 79.7 77.8 2010's 77.5 67.3 65.2 65.8 65.8 65.9

  7. Demand for superpremium needle cokes on upswing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Acciarri, J.A.; Stockman, G.H. )

    1989-12-01

    The authors discuss how recent supply shortages of super-premium quality needle cokes, plus the expectation of increased shortfalls in the future, indicate that refiners should consider upgrading their operations to fill these demands. Calcined, super-premium needle cokes are currently selling for as much as $550/metric ton, fob producer, and increasing demand will continue the upward push of the past year. Needle coke, in its calcined form, is the major raw material in the manufacture of graphite electrodes. Used in steelmaking, graphite electrodes are the electrical conductors that supply the heat source, through arcing electrode column tips, to electric arc steel furnaces. Needle coke is commercially available in three grades - super premium, premium, and intermediate. Super premium is used to produce electrodes for the most severe electric arc furnace steelmaking applications, premium for electrodes destined to less severe operations, and intermediate for even less critical needs.

  8. Home Network Technologies and Automating Demand Response

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McParland, Charles

    2009-12-01

    Over the past several years, interest in large-scale control of peak energy demand and total consumption has increased. While motivated by a number of factors, this interest has primarily been spurred on the demand side by the increasing cost of energy and, on the supply side by the limited ability of utilities to build sufficient electricity generation capacity to meet unrestrained future demand. To address peak electricity use Demand Response (DR) systems are being proposed to motivate reductions in electricity use through the use of price incentives. DR systems are also be design to shift or curtail energy demand at critical times when the generation, transmission, and distribution systems (i.e. the 'grid') are threatened with instabilities. To be effectively deployed on a large-scale, these proposed DR systems need to be automated. Automation will require robust and efficient data communications infrastructures across geographically dispersed markets. The present availability of widespread Internet connectivity and inexpensive, reliable computing hardware combined with the growing confidence in the capabilities of distributed, application-level communications protocols suggests that now is the time for designing and deploying practical systems. Centralized computer systems that are capable of providing continuous signals to automate customers reduction of power demand, are known as Demand Response Automation Servers (DRAS). The deployment of prototype DRAS systems has already begun - with most initial deployments targeting large commercial and industrial (C & I) customers. An examination of the current overall energy consumption by economic sector shows that the C & I market is responsible for roughly half of all energy consumption in the US. On a per customer basis, large C & I customers clearly have the most to offer - and to gain - by participating in DR programs to reduce peak demand. And, by concentrating on a small number of relatively sophisticated energy consumers, it has been possible to improve the DR 'state of the art' with a manageable commitment of technical resources on both the utility and consumer side. Although numerous C & I DR applications of a DRAS infrastructure are still in either prototype or early production phases, these early attempts at automating DR have been notably successful for both utilities and C & I customers. Several factors have strongly contributed to this success and will be discussed below. These successes have motivated utilities and regulators to look closely at how DR programs can be expanded to encompass the remaining (roughly) half of the state's energy load - the light commercial and, in numerical terms, the more important residential customer market. This survey examines technical issues facing the implementation of automated DR in the residential environment. In particular, we will look at the potential role of home automation networks in implementing wide-scale DR systems that communicate directly to individual residences.

  9. What is a High Electric Demand Day?

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This presentation by T. McNevin of the New Jersey Bureau of Air Quality Planning was part of the July 2008 Webcast sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Weatherization and Intergovernmental Program Clean Energy and Air Quality Integration Initiative that was titled Role of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy in Improving Air Quality and Addressing Greenhouse Gas Reduction Goals on High Electric Demand Days.

  10. Retail Demand Response in Southwest Power Pool

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    LBNL-1470E Retail Demand Response in Southwest Power Pool Ranjit Bharvirkar, Grayson Heffner and Charles Goldman Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Environmental Energy Technologies Division January 2009 The work described in this report was funded by the Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability, Permitting, Siting and Analysis of the U.S. Department of Energy under Contract No. DE-AC02-05CH11231. ERNEST ORLANDO LAWRENCE BERKELEY NATIONAL LABORATORY Disclaimer This document was

  11. Price-responsive demand management for a smart grid world

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chao, Hung-po

    2010-01-15

    Price-responsive demand is essential for the success of a smart grid. However, existing demand-response programs run the risk of causing inefficient price formation. This problem can be solved if each retail customer could establish a contract-based baseline through demand subscription before joining a demand-response program. (author)

  12. A hybrid inventory management system respondingto regular demand and surge demand

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mohammad S. Roni; Mingzhou Jin; Sandra D. Eksioglu

    2014-06-01

    This paper proposes a hybrid policy for a stochastic inventory system facing regular demand and surge demand. The combination of two different demand patterns can be observed in many areas, such as healthcare inventory and humanitarian supply chain management. The surge demand has a lower arrival rate but higher demand volume per arrival. The solution approach proposed in this paper incorporates the level crossing method and mixed integer programming technique to optimize the hybrid inventory policy with both regular orders and emergency orders. The level crossing method is applied to obtain the equilibrium distributions of inventory levels under a given policy. The model is further transformed into a mixed integer program to identify an optimal hybrid policy. A sensitivity analysis is conducted to investigate the impact of parameters on the optimal inventory policy and minimum cost. Numerical results clearly show the benefit of using the proposed hybrid inventory model. The model and solution approach could help healthcare providers or humanitarian logistics providers in managing their emergency supplies in responding to surge demands.

  13. Dramatic Demand Reduction In The Desert Southwest

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boehm, Robert; Hsieh, Sean; Lee, Joon; Baghzouz, Yahia; Cross, Andrew; Chatterjee, Sarah

    2015-07-06

    This report summarizes a project that was funded to the University of Nevada Las Vegas (UNLV), with subcontractors Pulte Homes and NV Energy. The project was motivated by the fact that locations in the Desert Southwest portion of the US demonstrate very high peak electrical demands, typically in the late afternoons in the summer. These high demands often require high priced power to supply the needs, and the large loads can cause grid supply problems. An approach was proposed through this contact that would reduce the peak electrical demands to an anticipated 65% of what code-built houses of the similar size would have. It was proposed to achieve energy reduction through four approaches applied to a development of 185 homes in northwest part of Las Vegas named Villa Trieste. First, the homes would all be highly energy efficient. Secondly, each house would have a PV array installed on it. Third, an advanced demand response technique would be developed to allow the resident to have some control over the energy used. Finally, some type of battery storage would be used in the project. Pulte Homes designed the houses. The company considered initial cost vs. long-term savings and chose options that had relatively short paybacks. HERS (Home Energy Rating Service) ratings for the homes are approximately 43 on this scale. On this scale, code-built homes rate at 100, zero energy homes rate a 0, and Energy Star homes are 85. In addition a 1.764 Wp (peak Watt) rated PV array was used on each house. This was made up of solar shakes that were in visual harmony with the roofing material used. A demand response tool was developed to control the amount of electricity used during times of peak demand. While demand response techniques have been used in the utility industry for some time, this particular approach is designed to allow the customer to decide the degree of participation in the response activity. The temperature change in the residence can be decided by the residents by adjusting settings. In a sense the customer can choose between greater comfort and greater money savings during demand response circumstances. Finally a battery application was to be considered. Initially it was thought that a large battery (probably a sodium-sulfur type) would be installed. However, after the contract was awarded, it was determined that a single, centrally-located battery system would not be appropriate for many reasons, including that with the build out plan there would not be any location to put it. The price had risen substantially since the budget for the project was put together. Also, that type of battery has to be kept hot all the time, but its use was only sought for summer operation. Hence, individual house batteries would be used, and these are discussed at the end of this report. Many aspects of the energy use for climate control in selected houses were monitored before residents moved in. This was done both to understand the magnitude of the energy flows but also to have data that could be compared to the computer simulations. The latter would be used to evaluate various aspects of our plan. It was found that good agreement existed between actual energy use and computed energy use. Hence, various studies were performed via simulations. Performance simulations showed the impact on peak energy usage between a code built house of same size and shape compared to the Villa Trieste homes with and without the PV arrays on the latter. Computations were also used to understand the effect of varying orientations of the houses in this typical housing development, including the effect of PV electrical generation. Energy conservation features of the Villa Trieste homes decreased the energy use during peak times (as well as all others), but the resulting decreased peak occurred at about the same time as the code-built houses. Consideration of the PV generation decreases the grid energy use further during daylight hours, but did not extend long enough many days to decrease the peak. Hence, a demand response approach, as planned, was needed. With participation of the residents in the demand response program developed does enable the houses to reduce the peak demand between 66% and 72%, depending on the built years. This was addressed fully in the latter part the study and is described in the latter part of this report.

  14. Optimal Control of Distributed Energy Resources and Demand Response under Uncertainty

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Siddiqui, Afzal; Stadler, Michael; Marnay, Chris; Lai, Judy

    2010-06-01

    We take the perspective of a microgrid that has installed distribution energy resources (DER) in the form of distributed generation with combined heat and power applications. Given uncertain electricity and fuel prices, the microgrid minimizes its expected annual energy bill for various capacity sizes. In almost all cases, there is an economic and environmental advantage to using DER in conjunction with demand response (DR): the expected annualized energy bill is reduced by 9percent while CO2 emissions decline by 25percent. Furthermore, the microgrid's risk is diminished as DER may be deployed depending on prevailing market conditions and local demand. In order to test a policy measure that would place a weight on CO2 emissions, we use a multi-criteria objective function that minimizes a weighted average of expected costs and emissions. We find that greater emphasis on CO2 emissions has a beneficial environmental impact only if DR is available and enough reserve generation capacity exists. Finally, greater uncertainty results in higher expected costs and risk exposure, the effects of which may be mitigated by selecting a larger capacity.

  15. Demand Response - Policy: More Information | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Demand Response - Policy: More Information Demand Response - Policy: More Information OE's commitment to ensuring non-wires options to modernize the nation's electricity delivery system includes ongoing support of a number of national and regional activities in support of demand response. The New England Demand Response Initiative (NEDRI), OE's initial endeavor to assist states with non-wire solutions, was created to develop a comprehensive, coordinated set of demand response programs for the

  16. Possibility of using cylindrical ionization chambers for percent depth-dose measurements in clinical electron beams

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ono, Takeshi; Araki, Fujio; Yoshiyama, Fumiaki

    2011-08-15

    Purpose: This study investigated the possibility of using cylindrical ionization chambers for percent depth-dose (PDD) measurements in high-energy clinical electron beams. Methods: The cavity correction factor, P{sub cav}, for cylindrical chambers with various diameters was calculated as a function of depth from the surface to R{sub 50}, in the energy range of 6-18 MeV electrons with the EGSnrc C ++ -based user-code CAVITY. The results were compared with those for IBA NACP-02 and PTW Roos parallel-plate ionization chambers. The effective point of measurement (EPOM) for the cylindrical chamber and the parallel-plate chamber was positioned according to the IAEA TRS-398 code of practice. The overall correction factor, P{sub Q}, and the percent depth-ionization (PDI) curve for a PTW30013 Farmer-type chamber were also compared with those of NACP-02 and Roos chambers. Results: The P{sub cav} values at depths between the surface and R{sub 50} for cylindrical chambers were all lower than those with parallel-plate chambers. However, the variation in depth for cylindrical chambers equal to or less than 4 mm in diameter was equivalent to or smaller than that for parallel-plate chambers. The P{sub Q} values for the PTW30013 chamber mainly depended on P{sub cav}, and for parallel-plate chambers depended on the wall correction factor, P{sub wall}, rather than P{sub cav}. P{sub Q} at depths from the surface to R{sub 50} for the PTW30013 chamber was consequently a lower value than that with parallel-plate chambers. However, the variation in depth was equivalent to that of parallel-plate chambers at electron energies equal to or greater than 9 MeV. The shift to match calculated PDI curves for the PTW30013 chamber and water (perturbation free) varied from 0.65 to 0 mm between 6 and 18 MeV beams. Similarly, the shifts for NACP-02 and Roos chambers were 0.5-0.6 mm and 0.2-0.3 mm, respectively, and were nearly independent of electron energy. Conclusions: Calculated PDI curves for PTW30013, NACP-02, and Roos chambers agreed well with that of water by using the optimal EPOM. Therefore, the possibility of using cylindrical ionization chambers can be expected for PDD measurements in clinical electron beams.

  17. Percent of Commercial Natural Gas Deliveries in Alaska Represented by the

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Price (Percent) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1989 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 1990 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 1991 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 1992 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 1993 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 1994 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0

  18. Percent of Commercial Natural Gas Deliveries in Delaware Represented by the

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Price (Percent) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1989 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 1990 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 1991 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 1992 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 1993 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 1994 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0

  19. Percent of Commercial Natural Gas Deliveries in Florida Represented by the

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Price (Percent) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1989 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 1990 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 96.2 96.1 96.3 96.1 96.4 96.0 96.7 94.9 1991 96.5 97.0 97.5 98.1 97.8 97.8 97.9 97.8 98.2 97.8 96.8 96.8 1992 96.8 97.2 97.4 98.2 98.3 98.2 98.1 98.1 98.3 98.2 97.4 97.0 1993 97.2 97.2 97.2 98.3 98.4 98.4 98.3 98.3 98.3 98.2 97.3 97.0 1994 97.3 97.6 97.8 98.3 97.6 98.3 98.2 98.4 98.5 97.9 97.8 97.0 1995 96.7 97.3 97.5

  20. Percent of Commercial Natural Gas Deliveries in Maine Represented by the

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Price (Percent) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1989 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 1990 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 1991 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 1992 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 1993 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 1994 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0

  1. Percent of Commercial Natural Gas Deliveries in New Jersey Represented by

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    the Price (Percent) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1989 99.0 98.9 98.7 98.3 96.2 94.7 94.2 93.4 93.5 94.7 99.0 99.7 1990 99.6 99.3 96.6 94.4 94.3 93.2 89.3 86.4 87.1 86.2 91.7 96.5 1991 98.1 96.5 95.8 91.8 92.3 89.1 89.5 80.6 89.2 90.0 93.2 97.0 1992 96.9 95.7 92.1 87.7 94.1 91.3 88.6 80.7 80.7 86.4 94.8 96.9 1993 93.6 94.0 93.7 91.2 88.5 86.4 87.1 79.8 84.6 90.0 92.4 93.8 1994 94.9 96.2 96.3 89.8 87.4 85.1 81.4 82.2 83.6 88.0 89.6 92.1 1995 93.7 92.4 91.3 87.4 84.5

  2. Percent of Commercial Natural Gas Deliveries in North Dakota Represented by

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    the Price (Percent) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1989 81.7 84.8 84.0 83.9 80.6 74.8 69.2 64.9 71.4 70.9 74.8 81.6 1990 83.9 82.5 78.4 76.0 75.4 69.7 54.3 53.3 57.4 58.4 69.8 75.8 1991 79.4 79.9 74.9 71.7 70.6 59.0 49.6 47.6 49.6 48.7 67.6 70.1 1992 71.7 73.7 72.0 71.6 73.6 63.8 61.6 58.8 57.2 56.8 67.3 68.9 1993 77.1 73.8 77.4 76.8 73.3 62.6 58.1 54.0 53.5 56.0 74.2 78.9 1994 82.6 86.8 83.1 82.1 78.4 69.7 66.2 63.2 61.8 64.0 82.2 76.9 1995 84.3 85.9 84.3 83.2 80.0

  3. Percent of Commercial Natural Gas Deliveries in Rhode Island Represented by

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    the Price (Percent) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1989 100.0 100.0 100.0 87.1 83.9 47.7 48.9 40.4 44.6 82.7 100.0 100.0 1990 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 75.5 80.2 97.3 91.1 1991 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 1992 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 1993 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 1994 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0

  4. Percent of Commercial Natural Gas Deliveries in South Dakota Represented by

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    the Price (Percent) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1989 92.8 93.1 92.8 92.1 92.5 91.6 90.2 89.4 90.0 89.6 91.1 92.0 1990 90.7 90.1 90.2 88.0 78.4 83.0 81.9 82.4 82.0 77.7 82.0 86.3 1991 84.8 83.0 80.5 83.4 79.5 74.9 74.3 74.3 74.5 76.7 83.4 85.2 1992 87.0 83.3 85.6 83.1 80.7 73.5 72.3 74.6 78.0 76.5 81.8 84.7 1993 86.5 83.9 84.4 81.2 76.4 73.3 74.9 72.9 75.8 78.7 90.0 91.2 1994 92.9 92.3 92.6 88.4 84.7 74.7 72.7 82.0 79.0 83.4 88.4 92.1 1995 92.1 90.8 89.7 87.2 82.8

  5. Percent of Commercial Natural Gas Deliveries in Utah Represented by the

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Price (Percent) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1989 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 1990 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 1991 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 1992 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 1993 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 1994 83.8 85.2 82.9 82.4 77.7 77.9 76.4

  6. Percent of Commercial Natural Gas Deliveries in Wyoming Represented by the

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Price (Percent) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1989 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 99.8 99.6 99.7 99.7 1990 99.7 99.7 99.7 99.8 99.7 99.7 99.6 99.6 99.5 99.5 99.7 99.7 1991 99.9 99.9 99.4 98.9 99.0 98.2 97.4 98.3 97.2 98.4 98.6 98.5 1992 98.6 98.1 97.8 98.4 97.9 97.2 96.5 97.1 97.4 97.2 98.2 98.3 1993 98.8 98.2 98.4 98.1 98.2 96.9 97.1 96.5 95.0 97.1 97.2 99.0 1994 98.1 96.0 96.9 97.3 95.2 91.7 93.4 92.1 93.5 95.6 96.1 96.8 1995 88.4 98.2 93.6 92.4 89.2

  7. Percent of Industrial Natural Gas Deliveries in New Jersey Represented by

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    the Price (Percent) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2001 29.3 31.1 27.6 21.9 21.2 19.6 18.6 15.6 18.5 16.8 15.6 21.1 2002 23.5 22.2 23.5 21.5 18.7 18.3 17.4 16.9 18.0 18.5 22.1 26.0 2003 21.1 23.1 26.0 26.8 23.9 18.0 15.3 17.3 13.3 14.9 13.0 18.4 2004 19.5 22.5 18.1 16.6 15.0 13.7 11.6 15.1 13.6 13.6 15.4 18.5 2005 22.4 22.7 21.9 17.6 15.7 15.4 17.7 20.4 16.9 19.4 20.1 25.4 2006 23.6 22.4 21.6 19.0 17.0 16.3 18.5 19.1 15.6 16.6 19.9 21.8 2007 21.5 23.6 20.8 23.0 17.1

  8. Percent of Industrial Natural Gas Deliveries in U.S. Total Represented by

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    the Price (Percent) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2001 23.5 23.2 22.0 21.0 19.5 19.2 20.2 19.6 19.8 20.3 20.2 20.7 2002 20.3 20.5 20.2 26.3 23.9 25.5 24.0 22.5 22.5 21.7 21.8 23.1 2003 21.4 22.1 21.3 20.9 20.3 19.1 24.7 22.9 22.9 23.3 22.7 23.5 2004 23.1 23.6 22.8 23.3 23.4 25.0 24.9 24.0 22.8 22.6 23.5 24.5 2005 24.8 24.3 24.6 23.9 24.2 23.7 24.5 24.6 23.2 23.2 23.4 23.7 2006 23.7 23.7 23.8 23.5 23.8 23.3 23.6 23.7 22.0 22.9 23.0 23.4 2007 22.7 23.0 22.4 22.3 23.2

  9. LNG demand, shipping will expand through 2010

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    True, W.R.

    1998-02-09

    The 1990s, especially the middle years, have witnessed a dramatic turnaround in the growth of liquefied-natural-gas demand which has tracked equally strong natural-gas demand growth. This trend was underscored late last year by several annual studies of world LNG demand and shipping. As 1998 began, however, economic turmoil in Asian financial markets has clouded near-term prospects for LNG in particular and all energy in general. But the extent of damage to energy markets is so far unclear. A study by US-based Institute of Gas Technology, Des Plaines, IL, reveals that LNG imports worldwide have climbed nearly 8%/year since 1980 and account for 25% of all natural gas traded internationally. In the mid-1970s, the share was only 5%. In 1996, the most recent year for which complete data are available, world LNG trade rose 7.7% to a record 92 billion cu m, outpacing the overall consumption for natural gas which increased 4.7% in 1996. By 2015, says the IGT study, natural-gas use would surpass coal as the world`s second most widely used fuel, after petroleum. Much of this growth will occur in the developing countries of Asia where gas use, before the current economic crisis began, was projected to grow 8%/year through 2015. Similar trends are reflected in another study of LNG trade released at year end 1997, this from Ocean Shipping Consultants Ltd., Surrey, U.K. The study was done too early, however, to consider the effects of the financial problems roiling Asia.

  10. Taxonomy for Modeling Demand Response Resources

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Olsen, Daniel; Kiliccote, Sila; Sohn, Michael; Dunn, Laura; Piette, Mary, A

    2014-08-01

    Demand response resources are an important component of modern grid management strategies. Accurate characterizations of DR resources are needed to develop systems of optimally managed grid operations and to plan future investments in generation, transmission, and distribution. The DOE Demand Response and Energy Storage Integration Study (DRESIS) project researched the degree to which demand response (DR) and energy storage can provide grid flexibility and stability in the Western Interconnection. In this work, DR resources were integrated with traditional generators in grid forecasting tools, specifically a production cost model of the Western Interconnection. As part of this study, LBNL developed a modeling framework for characterizing resource availability and response attributes of DR resources consistent with the governing architecture of the simulation modeling platform. In this report, we identify and describe the following response attributes required to accurately characterize DR resources: allowable response frequency, maximum response duration, minimum time needed to achieve load changes, necessary pre- or re-charging of integrated energy storage, costs of enablement, magnitude of controlled resources, and alignment of availability. We describe a framework for modeling these response attributes, and apply this framework to characterize 13 DR resources including residential, commercial, and industrial end-uses. We group these end-uses into three broad categories based on their response capabilities, and define a taxonomy for classifying DR resources within these categories. The three categories of resources exhibit different capabilities and differ in value to the grid. Results from the production cost model of the Western Interconnection illustrate that minor differences in resource attributes can have significant impact on grid utilization of DR resources. The implications of these findings will be explored in future DR valuation studies.

  11. Demand-Side Response from Industrial Loads

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Starke, Michael R; Alkadi, Nasr E; Letto, Daryl; Johnson, Brandon; Dowling, Kevin; George, Raoule; Khan, Saqib

    2013-01-01

    Through a research study funded by the Department of Energy, Smart Grid solutions company ENBALA Power Networks along with the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) have geospatially quantified the potential flexibility within industrial loads to leverage their inherent process storage to help support the management of the electricity grid. The study found that there is an excess of 12 GW of demand-side load flexibility available in a select list of top industrial facilities in the United States. Future studies will expand on this quantity of flexibility as more in-depth analysis of different industries is conducted and demonstrations are completed.

  12. Economic Rebalancing and Electricity Demand in China

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    He, Gang; Lin, Jiang; Yuan, Alexandria

    2015-11-01

    Understanding the relationship between economic growth and electricity use is essential for power systems planning. This need is particularly acute now in China, as the Chinese economy is going through a transition to a more consumption and service oriented economy. This study uses 20 years of provincial data on gross domestic product (GDP) and electricity consumption to examine the relationship between these two factors. We observe a plateauing effect of electricity consumption in the richest provinces, as the electricity demand saturates and the economy develops and moves to a more service-based economy. There is a wide range of forecasts for electricity use in 2030, ranging from 5,308 to 8,292 kWh per capita, using different estimating functions, as well as in existing studies. It is therefore critical to examine more carefully the relationship between electricity use and economic development, as China transitions to a new growth phase that is likely to be less energy and resource intensive. The results of this study suggest that policymakers and power system planners in China should seriously re-evaluate power demand projections and the need for new generation capacity to avoid over-investment that could lead to stranded generation assets.

  13. Percent of Commercial Natural Gas Deliveries in Alabama Represented by the

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Price (Percent) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1989 84.0 82.5 89.4 90.6 83.8 86.2 55.5 83.6 78.9 84.4 78.4 85.7 1990 86.9 82.1 80.0 76.8 74.9 79.8 76.8 73.3 76.5 78.0 69.7 81.4 1991 82.2 87.0 87.9 83.2 84.0 85.4 85.7 81.3 75.8 74.4 75.5 81.7 1992 83.7 86.8 84.0 83.2 79.0 77.6 75.3 74.7 74.4 73.2 74.2 80.6 1993 84.1 85.3 85.8 84.0 79.8 76.8 75.9 74.0 74.4 71.3 74.7 79.3 1994 86.1 87.7 84.1 83.1 78.0 76.5 74.8 71.8 64.7 70.0 73.6 76.7 1995 82.5 85.7 85.8 81.4 77.5 75.7

  14. Percent of Commercial Natural Gas Deliveries in Arkansas Represented by the

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Price (Percent) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1989 95.3 95.6 95.9 94.3 91.3 91.5 87.2 86.2 88.2 87.5 90.7 93.4 1990 95.8 94.8 93.7 93.2 90.7 88.8 88.4 86.9 87.4 86.8 90.6 91.5 1991 93.8 94.7 96.1 91.0 87.7 85.1 84.8 85.5 85.9 86.5 90.5 92.3 1992 93.0 94.7 91.3 92.7 88.4 87.0 85.9 85.4 86.4 87.6 88.7 90.8 1993 92.5 93.0 92.8 91.8 87.6 84.2 85.9 84.7 85.7 87.8 92.7 98.7 1994 93.9 95.9 95.4 94.8 91.2 91.7 94.2 94.3 96.6 95.3 96.4 97.4 1995 97.2 98.0 96.3 95.1 93.3 93.1

  15. Percent of Commercial Natural Gas Deliveries in Colorado Represented by the

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Price (Percent) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1989 98.0 98.1 98.3 97.8 97.3 97.3 95.0 91.8 95.8 95.6 96.9 97.2 1990 98.1 98.0 97.9 97.6 97.3 97.4 94.7 94.5 95.5 94.6 97.0 97.0 1991 96.8 97.1 96.1 96.2 96.9 97.2 93.7 93.9 93.6 92.3 94.7 96.3 1992 96.7 96.7 95.9 95.7 95.1 96.0 94.2 93.3 93.6 91.2 93.7 96.2 1993 96.6 96.4 96.5 95.8 95.2 95.5 93.0 93.1 95.2 90.6 94.1 95.9 1994 95.9 96.1 95.7 94.9 95.3 94.3 91.2 91.7 93.1 91.5 93.2 95.5 1995 95.9 96.0 95.1 94.3 95.1 95.5

  16. Percent of Commercial Natural Gas Deliveries in Georgia Represented by the

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Price (Percent) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1989 96.6 93.6 89.7 88.2 85.3 81.7 80.7 80.2 83.0 86.4 89.4 96.8 1990 96.5 90.3 88.7 86.9 82.0 80.9 80.1 82.5 78.9 84.3 87.9 94.1 1991 92.1 90.7 88.8 84.7 81.6 79.7 79.6 80.3 78.8 82.8 90.7 92.5 1992 90.8 90.6 89.3 88.2 85.0 82.7 79.7 83.3 83.4 84.6 87.9 92.9 1993 91.5 92.9 94.6 90.9 86.5 83.0 85.4 84.9 85.6 86.0 91.2 93.0 1994 97.0 94.9 92.4 90.3 89.3 86.8 87.9 89.0 86.1 88.6 91.6 92.6 1995 96.1 97.1 93.3 90.7 89.7 88.4

  17. Percent of Commercial Natural Gas Deliveries in Idaho Represented by the

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Price (Percent) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1989 88.9 90.2 90.6 89.0 82.8 85.9 86.8 83.0 84.1 79.3 84.6 87.4 1990 91.5 90.4 89.7 87.7 85.8 88.1 86.1 85.2 85.0 79.3 86.3 86.4 1991 91.0 91.7 88.5 87.4 87.4 86.8 84.7 84.0 82.9 73.6 85.1 87.5 1992 89.4 89.0 87.1 85.2 83.1 80.2 81.0 82.4 80.2 77.9 82.2 88.3 1993 89.4 89.9 91.0 87.9 87.4 82.3 82.8 81.3 79.2 77.7 81.5 87.8 1994 87.8 88.6 88.1 85.9 83.2 82.7 84.2 80.1 80.6 79.4 84.1 87.6 1995 89.7 89.1 86.5 85.5 86.0 85.3

  18. Percent of Commercial Natural Gas Deliveries in Illinois Represented by the

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Price (Percent) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1989 71.8 73.5 69.8 69.6 67.5 59.7 50.2 47.4 62.4 64.5 68.9 74.5 1990 65.6 65.7 60.2 55.3 52.9 40.6 40.7 41.8 44.5 54.6 52.2 63.6 1991 66.1 62.7 61.0 56.7 49.1 45.4 39.4 43.5 55.0 54.8 60.4 60.3 1992 63.0 58.2 59.5 57.5 53.0 43.4 44.4 49.2 47.0 55.5 60.5 59.9 1993 61.0 58.4 58.3 56.3 51.5 43.4 42.9 38.3 50.0 50.2 53.7 56.0 1994 59.1 59.9 58.0 49.9 46.5 37.8 36.1 36.3 39.7 47.5 49.9 52.0 1995 54.8 53.2 52.9 49.3 40.2 42.9

  19. Percent of Commercial Natural Gas Deliveries in Indiana Represented by the

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Price (Percent) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1989 94.1 93.9 94.3 92.6 92.6 97.2 96.7 96.8 89.1 91.9 97.7 98.9 1990 99.2 98.5 93.4 90.1 92.1 90.6 92.2 89.7 88.4 91.8 98.4 98.6 1991 94.2 93.3 93.2 93.2 92.6 89.2 89.9 89.6 92.6 98.5 97.9 95.4 1992 93.6 92.4 98.6 99.1 99.7 99.9 92.8 99.6 91.9 99.8 99.9 98.0 1993 94.5 94.1 99.6 99.5 100.0 91.9 90.4 91.1 92.9 90.7 92.2 96.1 1994 94.1 97.5 93.7 91.5 88.4 85.6 84.6 85.9 84.3 86.7 91.3 91.4 1995 89.7 89.9 89.5 87.0 83.4 76.1

  20. Percent of Commercial Natural Gas Deliveries in Iowa Represented by the

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Price (Percent) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1989 98.4 98.4 98.5 98.0 97.0 96.3 95.4 95.0 95.2 96.6 97.6 98.3 1990 98.5 98.2 98.1 97.8 97.3 96.3 95.3 95.6 92.3 95.5 97.5 97.7 1991 98.4 98.4 98.2 97.3 96.7 95.7 94.9 91.5 96.0 96.3 98.5 98.0 1992 97.6 97.4 96.5 96.2 94.3 93.2 91.3 90.6 88.7 91.0 96.1 96.7 1993 96.6 96.6 95.8 96.4 92.9 90.8 90.2 88.3 88.9 92.8 95.2 93.2 1994 92.9 94.3 91.2 90.5 87.9 84.1 81.3 80.0 80.5 86.0 90.4 91.0 1995 91.7 92.0 91.1 88.8 86.1 81.9

  1. Percent of Commercial Natural Gas Deliveries in Kansas Represented by the

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Price (Percent) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1989 94.8 94.4 94.1 94.6 92.9 89.2 93.7 94.7 91.8 88.9 88.2 92.9 1990 92.7 90.8 90.6 92.6 91.6 93.1 94.3 94.0 93.3 87.0 88.0 89.4 1991 92.5 91.6 87.9 91.2 88.5 87.1 91.3 89.7 86.9 82.0 87.7 85.3 1992 82.9 83.8 83.9 86.8 88.8 86.8 88.4 88.9 86.9 81.1 78.0 82.7 1993 84.3 83.1 86.1 84.4 85.3 83.0 84.4 86.3 81.3 72.2 75.5 79.9 1994 82.2 85.6 82.3 75.3 69.9 70.4 70.9 71.5 71.9 77.1 83.9 79.5 1995 87.8 73.6 83.2 69.5 62.9 64.8

  2. Percent of Commercial Natural Gas Deliveries in Kentucky Represented by the

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Price (Percent) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1989 97.1 96.6 96.4 94.9 91.0 89.2 89.5 88.2 89.8 90.7 94.4 97.0 1990 97.2 96.9 96.3 94.8 91.6 91.6 89.5 89.5 89.1 93.3 95.0 96.2 1991 97.1 95.7 94.7 89.8 86.4 85.5 87.5 88.0 91.1 91.5 95.7 95.5 1992 95.4 94.2 93.6 91.9 87.9 86.9 86.7 87.4 87.9 93.0 94.6 94.9 1993 91.6 91.6 95.3 93.5 92.4 93.5 89.9 81.6 88.1 88.5 94.5 95.4 1994 93.6 95.9 94.6 92.1 88.2 85.4 83.0 83.5 83.4 87.6 87.9 89.9 1995 90.8 91.2 89.9 86.3 87.4 80.6

  3. Percent of Commercial Natural Gas Deliveries in Maryland Represented by the

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Price (Percent) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1989 97.1 96.6 97.1 96.7 95.9 95.1 94.3 94.7 94.1 94.2 94.6 96.8 1990 97.6 97.1 96.0 95.7 94.3 94.5 93.6 93.1 92.6 93.3 94.7 95.6 1991 97.3 97.5 97.1 96.6 95.9 94.8 94.5 94.7 94.1 95.8 96.5 97.4 1992 97.2 97.2 96.3 95.6 94.1 92.8 93.1 92.7 94.1 95.0 97.0 97.4 1993 97.3 97.4 96.5 96.3 94.6 96.2 95.0 93.4 93.4 95.4 97.1 98.1 1994 98.1 98.3 98.2 95.8 95.8 95.4 95.2 94.1 95.2 96.2 96.5 97.8 1995 97.9 98.5 97.8 96.7 95.9 96.2

  4. Percent of Commercial Natural Gas Deliveries in Michigan Represented by the

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Price (Percent) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1989 75.8 74.5 76.0 71.7 64.9 47.6 51.7 50.8 57.5 64.4 69.5 73.5 1990 73.1 74.0 74.5 72.3 67.4 58.1 49.6 51.5 52.2 62.1 70.1 74.6 1991 73.0 72.2 72.4 67.3 62.1 51.2 44.3 41.2 47.5 60.1 87.2 70.0 1992 73.7 74.5 71.4 70.5 66.6 55.5 48.5 51.6 49.9 61.1 68.6 73.1 1993 74.5 72.3 72.6 68.0 63.7 51.6 50.5 54.4 50.9 63.1 68.1 73.1 1994 73.7 71.6 70.8 66.3 60.1 45.7 41.7 42.3 45.4 55.4 63.4 69.8 1995 72.5 72.2 71.2 68.0 61.5 45.8

  5. Percent of Commercial Natural Gas Deliveries in Missouri Represented by the

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Price (Percent) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1989 94.4 93.9 94.4 93.2 90.7 85.8 86.1 90.5 86.9 88.8 90.3 92.3 1990 93.7 90.7 89.2 88.2 82.5 77.4 70.9 70.8 72.6 74.8 83.8 85.9 1991 90.8 91.1 89.1 82.1 79.0 75.4 71.1 72.2 75.1 75.6 85.9 88.5 1992 89.7 90.1 89.1 88.1 82.7 80.6 71.9 75.8 74.5 76.1 81.0 87.2 1993 87.5 89.2 89.8 88.1 78.0 74.7 72.2 69.2 74.3 73.4 82.3 85.9 1994 88.8 87.2 87.6 85.1 79.0 75.0 70.2 70.0 68.2 70.2 77.0 82.0 1995 87.0 88.9 87.2 83.3 80.9 75.0

  6. Percent of Commercial Natural Gas Deliveries in Montana Represented by the

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Price (Percent) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1989 98.3 98.9 98.8 98.6 97.4 96.8 96.4 96.3 96.3 97.5 97.9 98.1 1990 97.9 97.8 97.6 98.6 96.9 98.4 96.3 95.8 93.3 96.9 97.6 99.6 1991 98.5 98.1 98.0 97.7 97.8 96.9 95.8 95.8 95.8 96.3 96.5 97.2 1992 97.1 98.0 96.7 96.5 96.6 94.9 95.4 96.8 90.6 92.0 92.8 94.6 1993 95.4 94.0 94.9 93.9 94.9 91.1 91.2 91.2 87.5 88.8 91.5 93.5 1994 92.7 93.0 92.7 91.8 91.9 89.6 88.7 87.8 87.5 89.0 91.2 93.1 1995 93.0 92.5 92.5 91.9 92.0 90.1

  7. Percent of Commercial Natural Gas Deliveries in Nebraska Represented by the

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Price (Percent) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1989 96.8 96.5 97.1 99.8 99.7 99.8 99.9 99.9 99.7 98.8 98.1 98.5 1990 95.6 95.3 94.1 93.2 92.3 89.6 96.9 94.2 93.0 90.2 89.9 93.5 1991 93.6 93.3 91.8 87.9 85.4 88.2 96.4 95.2 85.8 86.1 90.5 91.4 1992 91.7 91.6 89.9 90.9 88.7 81.7 85.6 83.6 80.5 84.5 87.1 90.9 1993 94.1 94.7 94.5 93.4 89.5 88.4 88.1 87.8 82.9 85.2 84.8 92.0 1994 88.2 88.9 85.8 82.3 79.2 72.9 75.9 77.8 65.1 62.2 73.5 80.7 1995 81.4 80.6 79.2 79.8 76.0 71.8

  8. Percent of Commercial Natural Gas Deliveries in Nevada Represented by the

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Price (Percent) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1989 98.0 98.1 96.9 95.0 94.2 94.3 92.7 91.7 91.2 96.2 97.2 98.8 1990 99.1 99.4 97.7 97.0 96.4 96.7 95.7 95.0 95.1 96.8 98.4 99.1 1991 99.4 99.4 94.3 92.2 90.6 87.2 84.0 85.2 79.5 84.3 82.2 89.0 1992 90.6 89.5 88.3 87.2 83.7 84.0 84.8 81.4 82.7 88.9 88.5 95.4 1993 97.0 96.0 94.3 91.0 92.5 90.6 89.7 86.7 89.6 89.7 90.9 93.5 1994 93.8 89.3 86.1 81.3 80.1 79.6 76.4 74.5 76.4 73.9 76.7 81.4 1995 81.5 83.2 77.4 78.9 77.1 76.5

  9. Percent of Commercial Natural Gas Deliveries in New York Represented by the

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Price (Percent) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1989 90.4 90.1 89.3 85.0 85.4 81.3 78.6 78.2 73.6 74.8 82.4 89.7 1990 90.5 92.3 85.6 85.3 78.9 77.8 80.2 80.1 76.5 75.8 80.7 81.5 1991 86.2 85.4 84.4 81.0 75.8 72.8 76.8 75.1 73.1 75.0 79.5 81.1 1992 81.0 78.9 79.5 77.3 72.4 70.9 72.9 69.3 69.3 76.0 82.6 81.5 1993 81.4 81.5 82.3 77.8 71.3 66.2 69.1 72.1 72.8 74.1 77.9 77.2 1994 83.7 83.4 83.3 77.7 73.4 73.2 74.7 73.4 75.1 76.4 78.0 81.9 1995 80.8 82.8 79.3 76.3 71.7 66.5

  10. Percent of Commercial Natural Gas Deliveries in Ohio Represented by the

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Price (Percent) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1989 87.4 88.1 87.1 86.0 81.2 74.4 75.5 75.0 78.9 85.1 87.8 90.3 1990 89.9 89.2 89.9 86.4 82.4 78.5 77.0 75.6 77.7 83.0 87.9 91.4 1991 91.6 90.0 87.2 83.6 78.6 74.7 75.5 73.7 75.6 82.6 87.8 89.8 1992 89.1 88.0 88.4 85.7 78.9 73.9 72.0 73.5 73.1 84.2 85.7 88.5 1993 89.4 87.0 86.9 83.8 76.1 73.9 74.6 69.4 72.6 82.8 84.5 86.3 1994 87.4 86.5 84.9 78.4 75.9 70.5 66.7 67.5 66.5 75.1 78.7 81.5 1995 81.0 80.0 78.6 76.8 67.8 61.4

  11. Percent of Commercial Natural Gas Deliveries in Oklahoma Represented by the

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Price (Percent) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1989 89.7 90.2 91.7 87.9 89.1 86.6 86.7 85.0 86.8 86.5 89.1 91.2 1990 94.8 93.2 92.0 93.2 92.6 90.6 89.1 89.5 88.5 87.8 89.9 90.6 1991 94.6 95.1 92.9 91.4 90.3 88.7 87.1 85.6 86.8 81.2 87.6 90.6 1992 91.6 92.3 87.7 90.9 85.4 84.1 80.2 85.7 84.3 85.3 86.9 88.1 1993 91.8 92.0 91.7 90.9 89.1 83.1 80.5 82.2 83.4 83.1 91.5 91.9 1994 90.7 93.8 93.1 89.6 88.0 81.3 74.6 73.8 76.1 78.1 85.0 91.2 1995 90.7 89.8 89.7 85.3 84.9 79.3

  12. Percent of Commercial Natural Gas Deliveries in Oregon Represented by the

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Price (Percent) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1989 99.1 99.2 98.7 98.3 97.6 97.6 97.0 97.2 97.4 96.7 97.3 98.0 1990 98.2 98.6 98.4 97.4 97.4 97.5 96.6 96.6 96.9 95.6 96.5 98.1 1991 98.7 98.3 97.8 97.7 97.5 98.0 97.3 97.2 97.2 95.9 97.6 98.0 1992 98.6 98.4 97.4 97.7 97.7 97.8 97.9 96.7 97.8 94.6 97.4 98.4 1993 98.6 99.0 98.5 98.0 97.6 97.8 97.6 97.5 97.3 93.6 96.5 98.2 1994 98.5 98.6 98.3 97.4 97.6 97.7 98.1 97.7 97.9 97.0 97.8 98.6 1995 98.5 98.5 98.2 98.2 97.9 97.8

  13. Percent of Commercial Natural Gas Deliveries in Texas Represented by the

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Price (Percent) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1989 87.2 92.4 93.7 92.5 90.6 89.6 93.3 91.2 83.1 87.3 87.9 93.2 1990 91.1 90.1 83.9 90.5 90.3 92.3 90.3 90.7 89.1 87.4 88.0 91.5 1991 92.1 91.3 91.8 92.1 87.7 91.4 91.1 90.4 87.3 80.7 84.8 87.6 1992 86.9 85.6 83.4 83.6 79.5 77.8 77.0 75.9 71.9 72.4 75.3 78.6 1993 85.5 86.7 85.6 85.2 80.1 81.0 82.7 85.1 80.7 81.1 84.2 84.0 1994 82.1 81.6 84.0 83.6 73.8 81.6 88.8 82.6 83.3 75.1 78.9 89.0 1995 72.8 71.3 73.6 70.2 55.0 72.7

  14. Percent of Commercial Natural Gas Deliveries in Virginia Represented by the

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Price (Percent) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1989 98.3 98.4 98.1 97.1 96.4 96.4 93.9 94.1 95.4 93.3 96.4 97.9 1990 97.2 95.9 90.6 86.6 94.2 93.9 94.1 91.9 92.0 92.9 92.5 93.7 1991 95.9 96.9 95.2 93.6 91.8 90.8 91.3 89.5 90.2 92.6 90.9 93.5 1992 94.6 93.3 93.7 91.7 88.9 88.4 86.9 85.9 83.8 89.9 86.6 90.3 1993 90.2 91.8 89.8 87.6 90.1 87.6 85.4 77.2 85.9 79.8 88.8 93.2 1994 95.2 97.2 92.5 82.7 85.1 76.7 82.4 72.9 72.9 76.1 79.4 86.1 1995 90.8 90.0 88.7 77.6 76.2 74.7

  15. Percent of Industrial Natural Gas Deliveries in Alabama Represented by the

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Price (Percent) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2001 26.4 25.4 21.7 22.1 19.5 21.1 21.0 21.8 21.4 20.8 22.1 21.9 2002 24.1 22.3 22.5 20.1 18.3 19.6 20.7 21.4 20.0 21.4 24.2 23.5 2003 22.3 22.2 23.9 21.3 20.5 20.8 21.8 18.1 19.7 19.6 21.6 22.3 2004 22.6 23.2 21.9 19.9 20.2 20.8 19.1 19.9 19.1 19.7 20.2 21.8 2005 22.9 23.8 21.3 23.1 23.1 22.6 24.8 22.8 26.3 23.5 23.2 26.2 2006 22.8 23.1 22.4 24.1 23.9 22.2 22.5 23.0 23.4 24.5 24.6 25.6 2007 24.1 24.8 24.4 23.9 24.8 23.9

  16. Percent of Industrial Natural Gas Deliveries in Delaware Represented by the

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Price (Percent) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2001 10.8 29.0 19.8 13.0 14.8 20.4 15.1 11.6 14.2 11.7 14.9 16.3 2002 18.4 19.6 20.4 17.5 21.7 15.6 11.9 9.9 8.0 8.6 10.6 10.3 2003 11.8 16.2 16.3 23.7 21.2 13.2 16.1 11.2 12.5 21.3 14.0 15.5 2004 10.7 11.4 12.2 12.8 9.4 14.4 11.1 12.1 11.5 12.2 10.9 12.8 2005 9.4 13.1 14.7 14.0 10.2 13.3 12.8 10.9 13.5 11.5 12.4 12.5 2006 10.7 9.8 9.6 11.0 8.9 6.2 7.6 7.5 8.5 9.3 8.3 10.7 2007 9.7 14.7 14.4 12.2 8.5 9.2 8.1 8.2 9.2 7.1 8.8

  17. Percent of Industrial Natural Gas Deliveries in Florida Represented by the

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Price (Percent) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2001 6.1 4.5 3.5 4.7 5.9 3.6 1.9 2.9 2.5 2.5 3.3 4.0 2002 4.1 4.5 4.1 3.6 3.5 4.2 3.2 3.5 3.9 3.4 3.8 4.4 2003 4.2 5.9 4.4 3.9 3.5 3.7 3.3 2.6 3.7 3.2 4.4 3.3 2004 4.6 3.8 4.2 3.3 3.3 3.7 2.9 3.2 4.4 3.3 4.1 3.6 2005 2.7 4.1 3.8 3.4 3.1 3.2 3.4 3.5 3.4 3.7 3.5 3.6 2006 3.0 2.8 3.0 2.8 2.3 2.4 5.3 2.9 3.0 2.4 4.2 3.1 2007 2.6 3.1 3.5 2.3 2.9 4.0 2.8 2.6 3.6 2.5 3.7 3.6 2008 2.9 3.3 3.4 2.5 2.9 2.4 2.8 2.5 3.2 3.0 3.3 3.3

  18. Percent of Industrial Natural Gas Deliveries in Georgia Represented by the

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Price (Percent) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2001 28.1 24.7 21.2 18.5 19.8 19.2 17.1 18.0 16.4 17.5 19.5 19.7 2002 20.2 20.6 21.4 19.5 18.0 19.2 17.7 17.9 18.5 18.2 19.4 19.5 2003 16.7 19.1 17.2 16.0 16.8 14.4 12.6 13.4 14.2 15.3 16.5 18.0 2004 18.2 17.2 17.4 15.5 14.9 15.8 15.9 15.1 15.6 13.9 14.0 22.4 2005 19.9 18.4 15.9 17.9 13.7 14.6 12.9 15.6 19.7 18.7 19.4 18.3 2006 18.3 25.0 17.2 12.5 12.7 16.7 15.2 16.2 15.7 18.0 17.8 17.0 2007 17.2 19.3 17.9 18.7 16.7 16.6

  19. Percent of Industrial Natural Gas Deliveries in Idaho Represented by the

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Price (Percent) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2001 3.3 3.2 2.5 2.2 1.9 1.6 1.5 1.8 1.6 1.5 1.8 2.3 2002 2.7 2.9 2.7 2.5 0.9 1.9 1.8 2.0 1.4 1.6 1.3 2.3 2003 2.2 2.5 2.1 1.8 1.7 1.6 2.0 2.2 1.8 2.0 2.4 3.1 2004 3.2 2.9 2.8 2.0 2.1 2.0 1.9 1.9 1.6 1.5 2.5 3.2 2005 3.0 2.7 2.7 2.4 1.8 1.7 1.6 1.6 2.0 1.7 2.4 3.0 2006 2.5 2.6 2.3 2.0 1.8 1.5 1.6 1.6 1.5 2.0 2.3 2.6 2007 2.3 2.1 1.7 1.8 1.7 1.9 1.7 1.5 1.7 2.0 2.2 2.4 2008 2.2 2.3 2.4 1.8 1.4 1.7 1.6 1.9 1.4 1.8 2.3 2.1

  20. Percent of Industrial Natural Gas Deliveries in Illinois Represented by the

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Price (Percent) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2001 14.3 14.6 11.7 8.9 7.1 6.7 5.8 6.1 7.5 8.7 10.3 12.1 2002 11.2 11.2 11.1 10.3 7.6 7.2 3.9 5.4 6.6 9.4 10.7 12.6 2003 13.4 13.4 12.9 9.2 7.9 6.9 5.7 7.6 5.3 9.1 10.5 10.6 2004 13.5 12.0 9.7 8.1 5.8 6.1 6.4 5.7 5.0 8.3 10.4 11.5 2005 12.9 11.8 10.7 8.2 6.0 4.7 6.3 6.0 6.8 10.6 11.6 12.5 2006 12.3 11.9 11.1 8.8 7.4 4.9 5.3 6.4 6.6 8.5 7.7 9.6 2007 11.5 12.7 12.8 10.6 10.3 7.8 6.0 5.4 6.4 7.5 7.7 10.4 2008 11.7 12.9 12.9

  1. Percent of Industrial Natural Gas Deliveries in Indiana Represented by the

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Price (Percent) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2001 15.1 14.0 7.1 7.1 4.2 3.7 5.2 1.0 5.5 8.3 6.6 10.2 2002 8.4 8.1 10.1 6.4 5.3 6.2 5.3 5.9 6.6 12.5 12.6 12.4 2003 14.2 12.9 8.9 7.2 7.0 5.9 6.2 5.7 9.3 6.2 11.3 9.3 2004 9.2 8.9 8.9 6.9 6.4 6.2 6.9 6.5 7.3 7.9 10.4 11.6 2005 9.8 7.7 9.6 5.8 6.3 5.5 5.5 6.7 8.2 8.2 10.6 8.9 2006 8.2 9.3 7.4 4.3 7.0 5.0 6.4 5.9 6.3 8.2 8.3 8.4 2007 9.3 9.4 5.8 7.6 6.1 5.5 6.0 5.0 6.9 6.8 9.5 9.1 2008 8.4 7.5 7.0 6.7 5.5 4.5 4.7 4.7 5.3

  2. Percent of Industrial Natural Gas Deliveries in Kansas Represented by the

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Price (Percent) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2001 3.0 2.9 3.2 2.9 7.8 9.4 18.1 21.2 16.4 7.7 7.9 4.4 2002 5.0 5.1 6.6 13.0 12.4 16.1 22.4 18.5 11.6 5.7 4.3 4.3 2003 2.4 3.4 3.2 8.2 11.0 6.9 14.8 21.1 9.1 5.3 5.0 3.1 2004 2.7 2.8 4.6 10.3 9.4 14.0 13.4 11.0 9.2 2.6 2.4 2.3 2005 1.7 1.4 1.4 3.2 6.6 8.2 16.3 19.2 9.0 3.8 2.5 1.7 2006 1.7 2.0 3.2 5.7 9.4 12.9 16.2 16.9 9.4 3.6 2.1 2.1 2007 1.3 1.5 1.5 1.4 4.9 9.8 16.2 17.3 9.6 4.0 2.8 1.7 2008 1.6 1.5 2.7 7.5 10.4 13.4

  3. Percent of Industrial Natural Gas Deliveries in Kentucky Represented by the

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Price (Percent) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2001 27.3 21.8 18.9 13.8 17.8 15.8 17.4 17.4 17.3 19.6 16.5 16.9 2002 16.8 18.2 18.9 17.2 15.5 16.5 18.0 19.1 16.3 18.0 18.8 18.4 2003 20.6 20.1 18.7 19.5 19.2 20.3 16.6 16.0 18.1 18.2 18.1 18.4 2004 18.8 18.3 16.3 16.0 14.6 16.6 16.2 15.2 15.5 15.6 17.5 20.3 2005 16.5 17.5 17.3 16.0 15.8 15.2 16.1 14.9 17.4 17.9 17.2 19.7 2006 15.6 16.9 17.6 14.8 14.9 14.2 16.0 15.7 14.6 15.7 15.5 17.6 2007 16.6 18.1 17.0 17.7 16.1 17.5

  4. Percent of Industrial Natural Gas Deliveries in Maryland Represented by the

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Price (Percent) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2001 15.4 11.4 9.7 7.2 6.7 4.5 9.7 6.3 6.3 7.0 6.6 10.3 2002 10.3 11.3 13.0 5.3 5.8 6.0 4.5 5.8 4.3 6.9 7.1 11.9 2003 10.5 13.2 11.4 9.1 7.8 6.6 6.3 6.2 7.1 12.1 11.9 12.9 2004 11.2 10.7 8.8 9.1 6.4 4.7 5.0 5.6 7.2 7.2 9.4 10.9 2005 11.3 11.5 11.3 9.8 5.5 5.1 4.9 5.3 5.2 6.2 9.4 10.7 2006 8.7 10.4 8.9 6.1 4.5 4.4 3.7 3.9 6.5 5.8 7.7 9.2 2007 13.1 13.7 11.0 9.9 6.1 3.7 4.5 3.8 6.9 3.5 8.4 10.4 2008 9.5 10.4 7.5 6.6 4.7 3.1

  5. Percent of Industrial Natural Gas Deliveries in Michigan Represented by the

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Price (Percent) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2001 18.6 17.2 15.3 13.3 9.0 5.7 5.4 5.8 6.0 7.3 9.9 12.0 2002 14.4 13.3 14.0 11.4 8.1 5.7 4.3 5.2 3.9 6.5 10.9 17.6 2003 15.4 14.6 15.1 11.9 8.7 5.9 6.1 3.8 6.7 6.9 9.6 14.4 2004 14.6 15.9 18.0 11.4 7.4 5.7 5.0 4.9 5.0 6.1 9.2 13.3 2005 14.3 17.0 15.8 10.7 8.1 5.3 4.0 3.8 4.6 7.2 9.8 13.8 2006 15.4 16.4 13.5 10.8 7.3 5.1 3.8 4.5 5.2 7.0 10.6 13.6 2007 14.8 17.3 16.9 13.5 11.5 8.4 6.3 6.0 6.2 7.4 11.4 16.6 2008 16.4 17.4

  6. Percent of Industrial Natural Gas Deliveries in Missouri Represented by the

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Price (Percent) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2001 25.6 17.3 19.1 14.4 11.1 10.2 9.5 8.1 9.5 10.2 12.4 32.9 2002 21.7 26.8 26.8 15.8 10.2 9.8 9.3 9.8 10.9 9.0 14.0 18.7 2003 18.8 21.0 19.0 13.6 12.1 12.4 12.5 8.8 10.3 11.1 13.1 16.8 2004 17.4 20.0 16.1 14.7 11.4 10.1 9.6 9.7 10.5 11.0 12.6 15.4 2005 20.1 18.4 16.4 13.9 11.9 9.6 10.1 9.4 10.5 11.2 13.0 17.9 2006 17.2 17.0 14.8 13.7 10.5 10.2 9.9 9.6 10.2 10.8 13.2 16.7 2007 15.4 18.5 16.7 12.3 10.6 10.1 9.7 8.4 8.7 10.3

  7. Percent of Industrial Natural Gas Deliveries in Montana Represented by the

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Price (Percent) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2001 3.0 3.1 2.8 2.6 2.3 1.9 0.9 0.8 1.0 1.2 1.9 3.0 2002 3.0 2.9 3.6 2.3 2.0 1.2 0.9 0.7 0.8 1.1 2.1 3.4 2003 2.9 2.8 3.3 2.1 1.8 1.0 1.0 0.8 0.8 0.6 1.2 1.6 2004 1.8 2.4 1.9 1.0 1.5 1.4 1.1 0.7 0.8 1.1 1.8 2.4 2005 3.1 2.9 2.2 2.3 1.8 1.4 0.9 0.6 0.7 1.0 1.3 2.3 2006 1.3 1.0 1.1 0.9 0.6 0.4 0.2 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.6 1.0 2007 1.0 1.2 0.9 0.9 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.7 1.0 2008 1.3 1.4 1.8 1.1 0.9 0.5 0.6 0.5 0.5 0.4 0.8 0.9

  8. Percent of Industrial Natural Gas Deliveries in Nebraska Represented by the

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Price (Percent) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2001 25.7 29.6 30.3 21.0 19.7 16.7 8.3 12.9 13.3 18.6 12.0 18.7 2002 22.6 19.5 29.3 17.6 15.0 24.0 7.4 8.4 8.8 16.4 18.9 19.6 2003 20.3 22.7 24.9 19.3 17.1 24.1 8.7 9.7 10.9 15.7 17.7 19.4 2004 19.7 21.4 24.7 19.0 18.3 14.2 9.2 10.6 16.5 18.8 16.0 16.6 2005 24.4 20.0 24.6 18.5 19.0 18.2 10.0 8.6 12.9 15.1 14.2 18.3 2006 13.8 15.1 17.1 13.3 13.0 9.8 8.3 7.7 10.5 11.5 10.2 12.4 2007 12.1 13.0 14.5 11.6 9.7 8.9 7.1 6.4 6.9 9.8

  9. Percent of Industrial Natural Gas Deliveries in Nevada Represented by the

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Price (Percent) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2001 32.2 25.0 16.8 19.7 13.2 12.9 38.9 31.5 31.7 41.7 48.4 68.2 2002 58.3 44.3 59.1 37.8 44.2 40.0 17.5 18.2 19.5 21.2 23.0 28.8 2003 25.6 28.9 20.3 22.8 14.8 13.2 13.6 11.9 12.5 15.8 23.9 21.7 2004 21.4 23.6 14.9 15.1 12.4 11.3 10.7 11.5 13.4 15.9 20.9 22.6 2005 24.3 25.3 17.8 18.4 14.8 14.1 9.6 12.3 13.6 15.9 18.3 19.5 2006 20.9 21.8 22.3 14.7 14.8 11.9 11.7 10.6 11.5 16.9 16.6 23.7 2007 22.1 26.8 17.9 16.6 14.8 11.6

  10. Percent of Industrial Natural Gas Deliveries in New York Represented by the

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Price (Percent) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2001 13.3 14.8 13.4 11.3 10.4 10.0 9.2 10.2 4.2 4.8 15.5 9.7 2002 12.2 12.1 11.1 11.1 11.9 10.9 9.4 10.4 13.5 7.7 9.4 11.2 2003 11.5 11.6 12.1 10.9 10.9 12.3 10.5 12.0 8.0 5.8 10.5 10.1 2004 12.4 13.5 11.5 13.0 11.1 11.5 9.3 8.7 8.0 7.6 8.7 9.8 2005 17.0 16.9 17.4 14.3 10.2 11.1 15.9 16.5 14.3 11.9 12.4 14.8 2006 14.8 14.0 11.5 9.6 7.6 11.4 11.0 9.9 9.6 10.8 13.6 13.7 2007 13.5 18.5 12.7 13.3 10.1 7.8 10.2 9.0 11.0 9.7 11.2

  11. Percent of Industrial Natural Gas Deliveries in North Dakota Represented by

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    the Price (Percent) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2001 15.2 13.8 16.8 8.2 5.8 5.5 1.1 4.7 8.0 12.1 13.4 17.9 2002 9.8 10.6 12.6 10.1 7.4 4.8 5.1 5.2 6.7 11.6 14.4 13.2 2003 35.1 44.0 60.0 30.9 17.9 17.7 25.0 32.3 22.3 25.2 44.1 87.2 2004 54.7 46.4 57.3 56.1 36.3 16.0 13.5 58.7 63.2 58.6 55.3 53.4 2005 25.1 17.0 17.7 14.7 9.6 4.4 10.3 15.1 51.6 58.4 45.9 23.2 2006 26.1 18.4 28.8 53.1 58.6 61.2 13.1 13.9 43.4 56.3 52.6 19.1 2007 26.6 28.8 24.7 58.5 61.4 46.9 11.0 38.6

  12. Percent of Industrial Natural Gas Deliveries in Ohio Represented by the

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Price (Percent) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2001 13.1 9.8 10.4 6.2 3.9 3.4 1.5 4.8 1.2 2.9 5.6 6.4 2002 5.4 6.2 5.4 4.8 1.9 1.7 1.6 2.1 2.5 2.3 4.9 6.7 2003 6.3 7.0 5.4 4.0 1.8 2.4 2.0 1.7 1.7 2.4 3.3 4.6 2004 5.1 5.7 4.0 3.8 2.1 2.3 1.7 2.3 2.2 2.7 3.4 4.5 2005 5.7 6.6 4.5 2.6 2.0 1.6 2.1 2.0 1.9 2.6 3.3 4.8 2006 4.6 4.7 4.0 2.7 2.1 2.2 2.2 2.1 2.2 2.2 3.0 3.5 2007 3.9 4.8 3.5 2.6 1.8 1.8 1.9 1.4 1.5 1.2 2.2 3.7 2008 3.9 4.2 3.5 2.5 1.1 1.7 1.9 1.4 1.4 1.6 2.7 4.1

  13. Percent of Industrial Natural Gas Deliveries in Oklahoma Represented by the

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Price (Percent) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2001 9.5 7.8 6.3 4.6 2.7 3.0 2.6 2.5 2.3 2.0 3.3 3.3 2002 5.2 6.1 5.0 3.4 2.4 2.0 1.5 2.7 2.7 1.4 2.9 3.8 2003 3.2 4.0 5.9 2.4 1.4 2.8 2.3 1.3 0.4 1.3 1.4 2.3 2004 2.5 3.0 2.6 1.1 1.1 0.7 1.4 1.3 1.2 1.0 1.1 2.2 2005 2.6 2.4 1.8 5.3 0.8 0.5 0.7 0.3 0.5 0.6 1.1 2.0 2006 2.0 1.4 1.1 1.0 0.7 0.8 0.4 0.8 0.9 1.3 1.3 1.2 2007 1.7 1.9 1.1 0.5 0.8 0.7 0.5 0.5 0.6 1.0 0.8 1.1 2008 1.0 1.5 1.0 0.5 0.6 0.5 0.3 0.2 0.2 0.1 0.3 0.8

  14. Percent of Industrial Natural Gas Deliveries in Oregon Represented by the

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Price (Percent) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2001 27.2 17.0 18.7 20.3 20.5 20.7 23.5 26.8 24.2 21.1 20.6 21.4 2002 18.9 20.8 20.3 19.3 12.6 11.1 10.1 8.9 10.8 11.5 12.6 12.8 2003 13.8 14.3 13.8 12.7 16.1 16.2 15.5 15.6 19.2 21.1 24.5 25.4 2004 25.1 24.3 24.2 23.3 21.8 22.9 22.6 22.1 23.8 23.5 31.1 33.4 2005 34.3 34.3 32.7 31.0 30.2 30.1 31.4 32.1 33.6 35.0 34.8 38.2 2006 36.0 36.3 35.1 26.5 25.4 24.3 23.2 21.2 21.6 20.5 21.5 24.0 2007 23.6 24.3 22.9 21.8 20.8 21.8

  15. Percent of Industrial Natural Gas Deliveries in Rhode Island Represented by

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    the Price (Percent) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2001 41.4 29.5 26.1 37.6 29.0 29.3 26.0 26.2 22.4 26.8 29.3 13.6 2002 27.3 27.3 27.3 27.3 27.3 27.3 27.3 27.3 27.3 27.3 27.3 27.3 2003 15.7 18.9 21.5 19.6 26.7 11.7 16.8 18.8 18.6 22.1 18.5 22.3 2004 13.9 16.7 14.5 16.8 21.1 11.7 16.7 15.3 16.0 19.4 10.5 23.0 2005 17.8 14.7 15.9 11.0 16.3 16.5 12.9 13.8 16.3 13.2 16.5 19.7 2006 18.6 18.7 16.4 15.0 12.5 13.3 8.8 10.5 11.4 12.8 10.5 15.7 2007 13.0 19.0 15.1 12.7 10.1 14.3

  16. Percent of Industrial Natural Gas Deliveries in South Dakota Represented by

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    the Price (Percent) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2001 51.1 54.8 52.4 50.8 35.1 32.7 28.6 26.5 24.1 33.3 45.5 44.5 2002 16.4 18.6 13.2 18.4 14.1 10.7 9.5 9.0 19.5 27.6 30.6 34.9 2003 26.3 24.4 27.3 26.0 23.9 22.4 24.7 23.3 25.3 24.8 26.8 29.1 2004 29.0 28.5 30.0 24.4 26.1 28.2 22.6 27.6 24.8 27.2 33.3 31.0 2005 28.5 28.0 33.6 26.7 31.6 26.1 28.9 31.7 27.8 30.4 33.3 35.8 2006 38.6 36.4 37.5 31.3 39.2 30.3 27.6 30.1 27.8 31.5 33.7 35.4 2007 33.8 31.8 31.3 15.2 16.2 12.1

  17. Percent of Industrial Natural Gas Deliveries in Texas Represented by the

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Price (Percent) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2001 35.8 35.7 33.7 34.2 32.9 34.2 36.5 34.8 37.5 36.0 35.1 34.5 2002 30.8 32.1 30.6 50.7 45.4 50.5 49.5 46.5 46.3 43.4 43.8 44.8 2003 40.1 39.5 39.1 39.5 39.8 36.1 50.7 46.2 49.0 47.8 47.2 48.2 2004 48.4 49.3 46.7 49.4 49.0 51.9 51.3 49.9 47.4 46.0 46.6 48.9 2005 58.7 57.0 56.9 55.8 55.8 54.9 56.8 55.0 52.5 49.7 51.1 49.5 2006 52.1 52.1 54.8 55.6 55.3 54.7 58.1 57.4 54.1 57.9 56.5 55.6 2007 52.7 51.6 52.4 53.0 54.2 56.0

  18. Percent of Industrial Natural Gas Deliveries in Utah Represented by the

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Price (Percent) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2001 11.9 9.2 10.7 10.1 9.5 9.5 10.1 11.5 9.4 9.2 11.0 13.8 2002 14.0 13.8 12.6 15.8 13.0 13.4 12.1 13.6 13.5 12.8 15.0 13.7 2003 14.5 14.6 13.1 14.9 14.1 13.2 11.8 12.7 13.8 13.9 13.2 13.1 2004 13.8 15.2 13.3 14.6 12.7 12.7 18.4 46.5 26.9 24.3 23.4 23.8 2005 18.4 18.6 18.4 17.7 18.6 21.3 20.0 21.2 21.3 21.5 18.3 19.9 2006 22.3 23.2 22.5 24.0 24.0 24.7 24.2 13.9 13.4 15.3 15.8 16.0 2007 14.4 13.6 14.4 14.6 13.3 12.7 14.5

  19. Percent of Industrial Natural Gas Deliveries in Vermont Represented by the

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Price (Percent) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2001 95.2 80.1 79.2 79.2 69.2 67.8 65.6 67.7 70.7 73.3 76.0 79.0 2002 77.7 78.3 78.6 78.2 72.6 66.8 66.7 65.1 66.8 72.6 76.2 85.5 2003 87.3 100.0 100.0 75.7 74.2 72.4 75.0 67.7 70.4 73.2 77.4 80.1 2004 79.9 84.7 80.7 82.2 78.6 73.8 70.0 68.3 69.2 76.4 82.1 83.7 2005 83.6 86.4 82.6 78.0 74.4 71.5 72.1 83.9 94.3 82.4 75.7 96.4 2006 93.0 87.6 82.4 77.2 73.3 72.9 71.7 69.7 71.5 76.3 75.1 79.5 2007 83.0 84.1 81.8 76.2 72.2 71.7

  20. Percent of Industrial Natural Gas Deliveries in Virginia Represented by the

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Price (Percent) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2001 27.4 24.1 20.8 18.6 13.3 23.5 10.9 12.9 15.0 24.1 11.2 15.4 2002 16.8 19.7 18.3 14.0 14.1 10.8 10.7 11.0 13.2 16.0 19.3 22.9 2003 25.6 22.5 16.5 23.9 12.9 9.1 13.4 19.6 12.6 17.7 17.9 17.0 2004 21.5 18.8 18.7 16.8 14.9 11.2 15.6 14.5 8.9 15.1 16.1 21.1 2005 18.3 21.6 18.1 19.3 15.7 16.6 9.5 11.6 16.0 18.7 21.5 20.0 2006 21.6 17.0 16.0 13.2 13.8 10.4 9.5 8.0 12.7 14.5 16.0 15.7 2007 17.0 20.0 17.1 17.2 15.4 9.5 10.3

  1. Percent of Industrial Natural Gas Deliveries in Wyoming Represented by the

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Price (Percent) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2001 3.6 3.9 3.7 2.8 1.9 2.1 1.8 2.0 2.0 2.3 2.2 1.8 2002 3.3 3.6 3.6 3.0 3.6 2.4 2.6 2.8 2.8 3.2 2.1 2.5 2003 2.4 2.4 2.1 1.8 1.4 1.4 1.4 1.3 1.4 1.4 2.2 2.0 2004 2.0 1.9 2.2 1.9 1.9 1.9 2.7 1.7 2.3 2.0 2.3 2.4 2005 2.8 5.0 5.8 4.5 4.1 3.5 2.8 2.5 2.5 2.8 4.2 4.4 2006 4.4 4.5 4.2 3.9 3.3 2.7 2.2 2.3 2.8 3.3 3.8 3.7 2007 4.3 4.1 3.4 3.7 2.8 2.0 1.5 1.7 1.9 2.9 3.3 3.3 2008 3.8 3.7 3.9 3.9 2.9 2.1 2.0 1.7 2.5 3.0 3.6 3.9

  2. East Coast blizzard cuts into gasoline demand, but home electricity demand rises

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    East Coast blizzard cuts into gasoline demand, but home electricity demand rises U.S. monthly gasoline consumption declined in January, as the big winter storm that shut down many East Coast cities kept people in their homes and off the road. In its new monthly forecast, the U.S. Energy Information Administration said monthly gasoline consumption dropped 230,000 barrels per day in January compared to year-ago levels and that marked the first year-over-year decline in monthly gasoline use since

  3. California: Geothermal Plant to Help Meet High Lithium Demand...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Geothermal Plant to Help Meet High Lithium Demand California: Geothermal Plant to Help Meet High Lithium Demand May 21, 2013 - 5:54pm Addthis Through funding provided by the...

  4. Tankless or Demand-Type Water Heaters | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    or Demand-Type Water Heaters Tankless or Demand-Type Water Heaters Diagram of a tankless water heater. Diagram of a tankless water heater. Tankless water heaters, also known as ...

  5. Demand Response: Lessons Learned with an Eye to the Future |...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Demand Response: Lessons Learned with an Eye to the Future Demand Response: Lessons Learned with an Eye to the Future July 11, 2013 - 11:56am Addthis Patricia A. Hoffman Patricia...

  6. A National Forum on Demand Response: Results on What Remains...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Part of the July 2011 Implementation Proposal called for a "National Forum" on demand response to be conducted by DOE and FERC. Given the rapid development of the demand response ...

  7. California Geothermal Power Plant to Help Meet High Lithium Demand...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    California Geothermal Power Plant to Help Meet High Lithium Demand California Geothermal Power Plant to Help Meet High Lithium Demand September 20, 2012 - 1:15pm Addthis Ever ...

  8. Tankless or Demand-Type Water Heaters | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Tankless or Demand-Type Water Heaters Tankless or Demand-Type Water Heaters Diagram of a tankless water heater. Diagram of a tankless water heater. Tankless water heaters, also...

  9. A Hierarchical Framework for Demand-Side Frequency Control (Conference...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    A Hierarchical Framework for Demand-Side Frequency Control Citation Details In-Document Search Title: A Hierarchical Framework for Demand-Side Frequency Control With large-scale ...

  10. Industrial demand side management: A status report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hopkins, M.F.; Conger, R.L.; Foley, T.J.

    1995-05-01

    This report provides an overview of and rationale for industrial demand side management (DSM) programs. Benefits and barriers are described, and data from the Manufacturing Energy Consumption Survey are used to estimate potential energy savings in kilowatt hours. The report presents types and examples of programs and explores elements of successful programs. Two in-depth case studies (from Boise Cascade and Eli Lilly and Company) illustrate two types of effective DSM programs. Interviews with staff from state public utility commissions indicate the current thinking about the status and future of industrial DSM programs. A comprehensive bibliography is included, technical assistance programs are listed and described, and a methodology for evaluating potential or actual savings from projects is delineated.

  11. Sensor-based demand controlled ventilation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    De Almeida, A.T.; Fisk, W.J.

    1997-07-01

    In most buildings, occupancy and indoor pollutant emission rates vary with time. With sensor-based demand-controlled ventilation (SBDCV), the rate of ventilation (i.e., rate of outside air supply) also varies with time to compensate for the changes in pollutant generation. In other words, SBDCV involves the application of sensing, feedback and control to modulate ventilation. Compared to ventilation without feedback, SBDCV offers two potential advantages: (1) better control of indoor pollutant concentrations; and (2) lower energy use and peak energy demand. SBDCV has the potential to improve indoor air quality by increasing the rate of ventilation when indoor pollutant generation rates are high and occupants are present. SBDCV can also save energy by decreasing the rate of ventilation when indoor pollutant generation rates are low or occupants are absent. After providing background information on indoor air quality and ventilation, this report provides a relatively comprehensive discussion of SBDCV. Topics covered in the report include basic principles of SBDCV, sensor technologies, technologies for controlling air flow rates, case studies of SBDCV, application of SBDCV to laboratory buildings, and research needs. SBDCV appears to be an increasingly attractive technology option. Based on the review of literature and theoretical considerations, the application of SBDCV has the potential to be cost-effective in applications with the following characteristics: (a) a single or small number of dominant pollutants, so that ventilation sufficient to control the concentration of the dominant pollutants provides effective control of all other pollutants; (b) large buildings or rooms with unpredictable temporally variable occupancy or pollutant emission; and (c) climates with high heating or cooling loads or locations with expensive energy.

  12. Marketing & Driving Demand Collaborative - Social Media Tools & Strategies

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    | Department of Energy & Driving Demand Collaborative - Social Media Tools & Strategies Marketing & Driving Demand Collaborative - Social Media Tools & Strategies Presentation slides from the Better Buildings webinar on January 6, 2011. PDF icon Marketing & Driving Demand Collaborative More Documents & Publications Using Social Media for Long-Term Branding Marketing & Driving Demand: Social Media Tools & Strategies - January 16, 2011 (Text Version) Generating

  13. Using Partnerships to Drive Demand and Provide Services in Communities |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Partnerships to Drive Demand and Provide Services in Communities Using Partnerships to Drive Demand and Provide Services in Communities Better Buildings Neighborhood Program Multifamily and Low-Income Peer Exchange Call: Using Partnerships to Drive Demand and Provide Services in Communities, February 2, 2012. PDF icon Call Slides and Discussion Summary More Documents & Publications Strategies for Marketing and Driving Demand for Commercial Financing Products

  14. 2010 Assessment of Demand Response and Advanced Metering - Staff Report |

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Department of Energy Assessment of Demand Response and Advanced Metering - Staff Report 2010 Assessment of Demand Response and Advanced Metering - Staff Report 2010 Assessment of Demand Response and Advanced Metering - Staff Report. The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission's 2010 Demand Response and Advanced Metering Survey (2010 FERC Survey, covering calendar year 2009) indicates that advanced metering penetration (i.e., the fraction of all installed meters that are advanced meters) reached

  15. International Transportation Energy Demand Determinants (ITEDD): Prototype Results for China

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Jim Turnure, Director Office of Energy Consumption & Efficiency Analysis, EIA EIA Conference: Asian Energy Demand July 14, 2014 | Washington, DC International Transportation Energy Demand Determinants (ITEDD): Prototype Results for China Dawn of new global oil market paradigm? 2 Jim Turnure, EIA Conference July 14, 2014 * Conventional wisdom has centered around $100-120/barrel oil and 110-115 million b/d global liquid fuel demand in the long term (2030-2040) * Demand in non-OECD may push

  16. FERC Presendation: Demand Response as Power System Resources, October 29,

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    2010 | Department of Energy FERC Presendation: Demand Response as Power System Resources, October 29, 2010 FERC Presendation: Demand Response as Power System Resources, October 29, 2010 Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) presentation on demand response as power system resources before the Electicity Advisory Committee, October 29, 2010 PDF icon Demand Response as Power System Resources More Documents & Publications Ancillary Service Revenue Potential for Geothermal Generators in

  17. Measurement and evaluation techniques for automated demand response demonstration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Motegi, Naoya; Piette, Mary Ann; Watson, David S.; Sezgen, Osman; ten Hope, Laurie

    2004-08-01

    The recent electricity crisis in California and elsewhere has prompted new research to evaluate demand response strategies in large facilities. This paper describes an evaluation of fully automated demand response technologies (Auto-DR) in five large facilities. Auto-DR does not involve human intervention, but is initiated at a facility through receipt of an external communications signal. This paper summarizes the measurement and evaluation of the performance of demand response technologies and strategies in five large facilities. All the sites have data trending systems such as energy management and control systems (EMCS) and/or energy information systems (EIS). Additional sub-metering was applied where necessary to evaluate the facility's demand response performance. This paper reviews the control responses during the test period, and analyzes demand savings achieved at each site. Occupant comfort issues are investigated where data are available. This paper discusses methods to estimate demand savings and results from demand response strategies at five large facilities.

  18. Incentives for demand-side management

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reid, M.W.; Brown, J.B.

    1992-01-01

    This report is the first product of an ongoing project to monitor the efforts of states to remove regulatory barriers to, and provide financial incentives for, utility investment in demand-side management (DSM) resources. The project was commissioned by the National Association of Regulatory Utility Commissioners (NARUC) in response to growing interest among regulators for a comprehensive survey of developments in this area. Each state report beings with an overview of the state`s progress toward removing regulatory barriers and providing incentives for DSM. Information is organized under five headings: status; IRP regulations and practice; current treatment of DSM, directions and trends; commission contact person. Where applicable, each overview is followed by one or more sections that report on specific incentive proposals or mechanisms within the state. Information on each proposal or mechanism is organized under eight headings. A notation on each page identifies the utility or other group associated with the proposal or mechanism. The eight headings are as follows: status; background; treatment of cost recovery; treatment of lost revenues/decoupling; treatment of profitability; other features; issues, and additional observations.

  19. Incentives for demand-side management

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reid, M.W.; Brown, J.B. )

    1992-01-01

    This report is the first product of an ongoing project to monitor the efforts of states to remove regulatory barriers to, and provide financial incentives for, utility investment in demand-side management (DSM) resources. The project was commissioned by the National Association of Regulatory Utility Commissioners (NARUC) in response to growing interest among regulators for a comprehensive survey of developments in this area. Each state report beings with an overview of the state's progress toward removing regulatory barriers and providing incentives for DSM. Information is organized under five headings: status; IRP regulations and practice; current treatment of DSM, directions and trends; commission contact person. Where applicable, each overview is followed by one or more sections that report on specific incentive proposals or mechanisms within the state. Information on each proposal or mechanism is organized under eight headings. A notation on each page identifies the utility or other group associated with the proposal or mechanism. The eight headings are as follows: status; background; treatment of cost recovery; treatment of lost revenues/decoupling; treatment of profitability; other features; issues, and additional observations.

  20. Investigation of structural changes in residential electricity demand

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chern, W.S.; Bouis, H.E.

    1982-09-23

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the stability of aggregate national residential electricity demand coefficients over time. The hypothesis is maintained that the aggregate residential demand is the sum of various end-use demand components. Since the end-use composition changes over time, the demand relationship may change as well. Since the end-use composition differs among regions, the results obtained from this study can be used for making inferences about regional differences in electricity demand relationships. There are two additional sources for a possible structural change. One is that consumers may react differently to declining and rising prices, secondly, the impact of the 1973 oil embargo may have shifted demand preferences. The electricity demand model used for this study is presented. A moving regression method was employed to investigate changes in residential electricity demand over time. The statistical results show a strikingly consistent pattern of change for most of the structural variables. The most important finding of this study is that the estimated structure of residential electricity demand changes systematically over time as a result of changes in the characteristics (both durability and saturation level) of the stock of appliances. Furthermore, there is not strong evidence that the structural changes in demand occurred due to either the reversal of the declining trend of electricity prices or the impact of the 1973 oil embarge. (LCL)

  1. Opportunities for Automated Demand Response in California Agricultural Irrigation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Olsen, Daniel; Aghajanzadeh, Arian; McKane, Aimee

    2015-08-01

    Pumping water for agricultural irrigation represents a significant share of California’s annual electricity use and peak demand. It also represents a large source of potential flexibility, as farms possess a form of storage in their wetted soil. By carefully modifying their irrigation schedules, growers can participate in demand response without adverse effects on their crops. This report describes the potential for participation in demand response and automated demand response by agricultural irrigators in California, as well as barriers to widespread participation. The report first describes the magnitude, timing, location, purpose, and manner of energy use in California. Typical on-­farm controls are discussed, as well as common impediments to participation in demand response and automated demand response programs. Case studies of demand response programs in California and across the country are reviewed, and their results along with overall California demand estimates are used to estimate statewide demand response potential. Finally, recommendations are made for future research that can enhance the understanding of demand response potential in this industry.

  2. Using Mobile Applications to Generate Customer Demand | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Mobile Applications to Generate Customer Demand Using Mobile Applications to Generate Customer Demand Better Buildings Residential Network Peer Exchange Call Series: Using Mobile Applications to Generate Customer Demand, Call Slides and Discussion Summary, March 12, 2015. PDF icon Call Slides and Discussion Summary More Documents & Publications Better Buildings Network View | October 2014 Incorporating Behavior Change Efforts Into Energy Efficiency Programs Outreach to Multifamily

  3. Executive Order 13693 Training Now Available On Demand | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Executive Order 13693 Training Now Available On Demand Executive Order 13693 Training Now Available On Demand January 4, 2016 - 8:00am Addthis Executive Order (E.O.) 13693: Recent Developments, Implementation Updates, and Opportunities Training is now available on-demand. The seminar covers the major goals of E. O. 13693 and offers examples of technologies and concepts the U.S. Department of Energy and other federal agencies are using to meet these goals. Addthis Related Articles

  4. Monitoring SERC Technologies: On-Demand Tankless Water Heaters | Department

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of Energy Weatherization Assistance Program » Pilot Projects » Monitoring SERC Technologies: On-Demand Tankless Water Heaters Monitoring SERC Technologies: On-Demand Tankless Water Heaters On Oct. 4, 2011, Ethan MacCormick, VP for Services to Energy Businesses at Performance Systems Development, presented a Webinar about On-Demand Tankless Water Heaters and how to properly monitor their installation. View the webinar presentation. More Information Some resources and tools mentioned in the

  5. Sustainable Energy Resources for Consumers (SERC) - On-Demand Tankless

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Water Heaters | Department of Energy On-Demand Tankless Water Heaters Sustainable Energy Resources for Consumers (SERC) - On-Demand Tankless Water Heaters This presentation, aimed at Sustainable Energy Resources for Consumers (SERC) grantees, provides information on Monitoring Checklists for the installation of On-Demand Tankless Water Heaters. PDF icon serc_webinar_presentation_20111004.pdf More Documents & Publications Sustainable Energy Resources for Consumers (SERC) - Solar Hot

  6. Report: Natural Gas Infrastructure Implications of Increased Demand from

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    the Electric Power Sector | Department of Energy Natural Gas Infrastructure Implications of Increased Demand from the Electric Power Sector Report: Natural Gas Infrastructure Implications of Increased Demand from the Electric Power Sector This report examines the potential infrastructure needs of the U.S. interstate natural gas pipeline transmission system across a range of future natural gas demand scenarios that drive increased electric power sector natural gas use. To perform this

  7. Retail Demand Response in Southwest Power Pool | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Retail Demand Response in Southwest Power Pool Retail Demand Response in Southwest Power Pool In 2007, the Southwest Power Pool (SPP) formed the Customer Response Task Force (CRTF) to identify barriers to deploying demand response (DR) resources in wholesale markets and develop policies to overcome these barriers. One of the initiatives of this Task Force was to develop more detailed information on existing retail DR programs and dynamic pricing tariffs, program rules, and utility operating

  8. SGDP Report Now Available: Interoperability of Demand Response Resources

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Demonstration in NY (February 2015) | Department of Energy SGDP Report Now Available: Interoperability of Demand Response Resources Demonstration in NY (February 2015) SGDP Report Now Available: Interoperability of Demand Response Resources Demonstration in NY (February 2015) March 20, 2015 - 4:42pm Addthis The Interoperability of Demand Response Resources Demonstration in NY was awarded to Con Edison in 2009 as part of DOE's Smart Grid Demonstration Project (SGDP) grants funded by the

  9. SGDP Report: Interoperability of Demand Response Resources Demonstration in

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    NY (February 2015) | Department of Energy SGDP Report: Interoperability of Demand Response Resources Demonstration in NY (February 2015) SGDP Report: Interoperability of Demand Response Resources Demonstration in NY (February 2015) The Interoperability of Demand Response Resources Demonstration in NY was awarded to Con Edison in 2009 as part of DOE's Smart Grid Demonstration Project (SGDP) grants funded by the Recovery Act. The objective of the project was to develop and demonstrate

  10. Generating Demand for Multifamily Building Upgrades | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Demand for Multifamily Building Upgrades Generating Demand for Multifamily Building Upgrades Better Buildings Residential Network Peer Exchange Call Series: Generating Demand for Multifamily Building Upgrades, call slides and discussion summary, May 14, 2015. PDF icon Call Slides and Discussion Summary More Documents & Publications Strategies to Address Split Incentives in Multifamily Buildings Outreach to Multifamily Landlords and Tenants Trends in Multifamily Programs: What's Working and

  11. Honeywell Demonstrates Automated Demand Response Benefits for Utility,

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Commercial, and Industrial Customers | Department of Energy Honeywell Demonstrates Automated Demand Response Benefits for Utility, Commercial, and Industrial Customers Honeywell Demonstrates Automated Demand Response Benefits for Utility, Commercial, and Industrial Customers September 22, 2014 - 5:59pm Addthis Honeywell's Smart Grid Investment Grant (SGIG) project demonstrates utility-scale performance of a hardware/software platform for automated demand response (ADR). This project stands

  12. Regulation Services with Demand Response - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Regulation Services with Demand Response Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Contact PNNL About This Technology Using grid frequency information, researchers have created algorithms that intelligently control power demand while meeting consumer objectives (i.e. target pricing). Using grid frequency information, researchers have created algorithms that intelligently control power demand while meeting consumer objectives (i.e. target pricing). Technology Marketing Summary Grid Friendly(tm)

  13. Demand Response National Trends: Implications for the West? | Department of

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Energy National Trends: Implications for the West? Demand Response National Trends: Implications for the West? Committee on Regional Electric Power Cooperation. San Francisco, CA. March 25, 2004 PDF icon Demand Response National Trends: Implications for the West? More Documents & Publications Demand Response in U.S. Electricity Markets: Empirical Evidence Technical Assistance to ISO's and Grid Operators For Loads Providing Ancillary Services To Enhance Grid Reliability Transmission

  14. Demand and Price Outlook for Phase 2 Reformulated Gasoline, 2000

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Demand and Price Outlook for Phase 2 Reformulated Gasoline, 2000 Tancred Lidderdale and Aileen Bohn (1) Contents * Summary * Introduction * Reformulated Gasoline Demand * Oxygenate Demand * Logistics o Interstate Movements and Storage o Local Distribution o Phase 2 RFG Logistics o Possible Opt-Ins to the RFG Program o State Low Sulfur, Low RVP Gasoline Initiatives o NAAQS o Tier 2 Gasoline * RFG Production Options o Toxic Air Pollutants (TAP) Reduction o Nitrogen Oxides (NOx) Reduction o

  15. Agreement Template for Energy Conservation and Demand Side Management

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Services | Department of Energy Agreement Template for Energy Conservation and Demand Side Management Services Agreement Template for Energy Conservation and Demand Side Management Services Template agreement between a federal agency and a utility company for the implementation of energy conservation measures and demand side management services. A detailed description of the template is also available below. PDF icon Download the template agreement. PDF icon Download the model agreement

  16. Hydrogen Demand and Resource Analysis (HyDRA) Model

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    users to view, download, and analyze hydrogen demand, resource, and infrastructure ... HyDRA contains more than 100 datasets, including resource cost and availability, hydrogen ...

  17. Oil, gas tanker industry responding to demand, contract changes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    True, W.R.

    1998-03-02

    Steady if slower growth in demand for crude oil and natural gas, low levels of scrapping, and a moderate newbuilding pace bode well for the world`s petroleum and natural-gas shipping industries. At year-end 1997, several studies of worldwide demand patterns and shipping fleets expressed short and medium-term optimism for seaborne oil and gas trade and fleet growth. The paper discusses steady demand and shifting patterns, the aging fleet, the slowing products traffic, the world`s fleet, gas carriers, LPG demand, and LPG vessels.

  18. Strategies for Aligning Program Demand with Contractor's Seasonal...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Strategies for Aligning Program Demand with Contractor's Seasonal Fluctuations Better Buildings Neighborhood Program Workforce Peer Exchange Call: Strategies for Aligning Program ...

  19. Strategies for Marketing and Driving Demand for Commercial Financing Products

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Better Buildings Neighborhood Program Financing and Commercial Peer Exchange Call: Strategies for Marketing and Driving Demand for Commercial Financing Products, Call Slides and Discussion Summary, February 2, 2012.

  20. Assessment of Energy Savings Potential from the Use of Demand...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Energy Savings Potential from the Use of Demand Controlled Ventilation in General Office Spaces in California Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Assessment of Energy ...

  1. Calculating impacts of energy standards on energy demand in U...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Calculating impacts of energy standards on energy demand in U.S. buildings with uncertainty in an integrated assessment model Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Calculating ...

  2. Table A19. Components of Total Electricity Demand by Census...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Components of Total Electricity Demand by Census Region and" " Economic Characteristics of ...ansfers","Onsite","Transfers"," ","Row" "Economic Characteristics(a)","Purchases","In(b)",...

  3. Strategies for Aligning Program Demand with Contractor's Seasonal Fluctuations

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Better Buildings Neighborhood Program Workforce Peer Exchange Call: Strategies for Aligning Program Demand with Contractor’s Seasonal Fluctuations, Call Slides and Discussion Summary, June 7, 2012.

  4. Using Partnerships to Drive Demand and Provide Services in Communities...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Using Partnerships to Drive Demand and Provide Services in Communities Better Buildings Neighborhood Program Multifamily and Low-Income Peer Exchange Call: Using Partnerships to ...

  5. Optical People Counting for Demand Controlled Ventilation: A...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    of Counter Performance Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Optical People Counting for Demand Controlled Ventilation: A Pilot Study of Counter Performance This pilot ...

  6. Optical People Counting for Demand Controlled Ventilation: A...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    of Counter Performance Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Optical People Counting for Demand Controlled Ventilation: A Pilot Study of Counter Performance You are ...

  7. Global GPS Phones Market Size, Segmentation, Demand Forecast...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    we deeply analyzed the world's main region market conditions that including the product price, profit, capacity, production, capacity utilization, supply, demand and industry...

  8. China-Transportation Demand Management in Beijing: Mitigation...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    demand management (TDM) in Beijing in order to manage the steadily increasing traffic density. The project provides capacity building for decision-makers and transport planners in...

  9. South Korea-ANL Distributed Energy Resources and Demand Side...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    is part of a team that assists the Korean government in analyzing the economic and environmental benefits of distributed resources and demand side management (DSM). DSM has...

  10. Amplified Demand for Solar Trackers to Boost Market Growth in...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Amplified Demand for Solar Trackers to Boost Market Growth in Middle East and Africa Home > Groups > Solar Permitting Roadmap Development Wayne31jan's picture Submitted by...

  11. Network-Driven Demand Side Management Website | Open Energy Informatio...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    URI: cleanenergysolutions.orgcontentnetwork-driven-demand-side-management Language: English Policies: "Deployment Programs,Regulations" is not in the list of possible...

  12. Estimating Demand Response Market Potential | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    URI: cleanenergysolutions.orgcontentestimating-demand-response-market-pot Language: English Policies: "Deployment Programs,Regulations" is not in the list of possible...

  13. Demand Response Energy Consulting LLC | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Response Energy Consulting LLC Jump to: navigation, search Name: Demand Response & Energy Consulting LLC Place: Delanson, New York Zip: NY 12053 Sector: Efficiency Product:...

  14. Coordination of Energy Efficiency and Demand Response: A Resource...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Coordination of Energy Efficiency and Demand Response: A Resource of the National Action Plan for Energy Efficiency Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name:...

  15. Benefits of Demand Response in Electricity Markets and Recommendations...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Demand Response in Electricity Markets and Recommendations for Achieving Them. A report to the United States Congress Pursuant to Section 1252 of the Energy Policy Act of 2005 ...

  16. Chapter 3 Demand-Side Resources | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Typically, these resources result from one of two methods of reducing load: energy efficiency or demand response load management. The energy efficiency method designs and deploys ...

  17. Reducing Peak Demand to Defer Power Plant Construction in Oklahoma

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    To better control costs and manage electric reliability under these conditions, OG&E is pursuing demand response strategies made possible by implementation of smart grid ...

  18. Heat wave contributes to higher summer electricity demand in...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Heat wave contributes to higher summer electricity demand in the Northeast In its new energy forecast, the U.S. Energy Information Administration expects summer retail electricity ...

  19. Electricity demand as frequency controlled reserves, ForskEL...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    ForskEL (Smart Grid Project) Jump to: navigation, search Project Name Electricity demand as frequency controlled reserves, ForskEL Country Denmark Coordinates 56.26392,...

  20. Electricity demand as frequency controlled reserves, ENS (Smart...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    ENS (Smart Grid Project) Jump to: navigation, search Project Name Electricity demand as frequency controlled reserves, ENS Country Denmark Coordinates 56.26392, 9.501785...

  1. U.S. Electric Utility Demand-Side Management

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2002-01-01

    Final issue of this report. - Presents comprehensive information on electric power industry demand side management (DSM) activities in the United States at the national, regional, and utility levels.

  2. Opportunities for Mass Market Demand Response to Provide Ancillary Services

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pratt, Rob; Najewicz, Dave

    2011-10-01

    Discusses what is meant by mass market demand response to provide ancillary services and outlines opportunities for adoption, and barriers to adoption.

  3. Structuring Rebate and Incentive Programs for Sustainable Demand

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Better Buildings Neighborhood Program Peer Exchange Call: Structuring Rebate and Incentive Programs for Sustainable Demand, call slides and discussion summary, August 18, 2011.

  4. Hydrogen Demand and Resource Assessment Tool | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Resource Assessment Tool Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Hydrogen Demand and Resource Assessment Tool AgencyCompany Organization: National Renewable...

  5. EnergySolve Demand Response | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Demand Response Place: Somerset, New Jersey Product: Somerset-based utility bill outsourcing company that provides electronic utility bill auditing, tariff analysis, late fee...

  6. Table 11.2 Electricity: Components of Net Demand, 2010;

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Electricity: Components of Net Demand, 2010; Level: National and Regional Data; Row: Values of Shipments and Employment Sizes; Column: Electricity Components; Unit: Million ...

  7. Assumption to the Annual Energy Outlook 2014 - Commercial Demand...

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    chosen to meet the projected service demands for the seven major end uses. Once technologies are chosen, the energy consumed by the equipment stock (both existing and purchased...

  8. Grid Integration of Aggregated Demand Response, Part 2: Modeling Demand Response in a Production Cost Model

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Renewable integration studies have evaluated many challenges associated with deploying large amounts of variable wind and solar generation technologies. These studies can evaluate operational impacts associated with variable generation, benefits of improved wind and solar resource forecasting, and trade-offs between institutional changes, including increasing balancing area cooperation and technical changes such as installing new flexible generation. Demand response (DR) resources present a potentially important source of grid flexibility and can aid in integrating variable generation; however, integration analyses have not yet incorporated these resources explicitly into grid simulation models as part of a standard toolkit for resource planners.

  9. Comments on the Glen Canyon Dam EIS treatment of demand-side management

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cavallo, J.D.

    1992-10-08

    The Glen Canyon Dam EIS has developed a substantial body of research on the economic consequences of altering the dam and plant operation. The following comments deals only with the electric power planning aspects of the study in general and the demand-side management estimates in particular. Most of the material in the report Power System Impacts of Potential Changes in Glen Canyon Power Plant Operations'' is outside the area of DSM/C RE, but appears reasonable. In particular, the input assumptions relating to the potential costs of power plants for capacity expansion planning are not unlike the costs Argonne is using in its studies and those which are used by others when comparison are made to DSM program choices. Statement of Major Concerns. The central concerns of the DSM/C RE results shown in the Glen Canyon study are as follows: (1) The assumption that DSM will penetrate the systems of Western's customers to a level which would reduce peak demand by 10 percent in the baseline alternative is overly optimistic given (a) the current reductions from the C RE programs, (b) the economic incentives faced by Western's customers, and (c) the current manner in which Western's power is used by its customers. (2) The result that DSM will reduce load by the same amount in each alternative is suspicious and unlikely.

  10. Comments on the Glen Canyon Dam EIS treatment of demand-side management

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cavallo, J.D.

    1992-10-08

    The Glen Canyon Dam EIS has developed a substantial body of research on the economic consequences of altering the dam and plant operation. The following comments deals only with the electric power planning aspects of the study in general and the demand-side management estimates in particular. Most of the material in the report ``Power System Impacts of Potential Changes in Glen Canyon Power Plant Operations`` is outside the area of DSM/C&RE, but appears reasonable. In particular, the input assumptions relating to the potential costs of power plants for capacity expansion planning are not unlike the costs Argonne is using in its studies and those which are used by others when comparison are made to DSM program choices. Statement of Major Concerns. The central concerns of the DSM/C&RE results shown in the Glen Canyon study are as follows: (1) The assumption that DSM will penetrate the systems of Western`s customers to a level which would reduce peak demand by 10 percent in the baseline alternative is overly optimistic given (a) the current reductions from the C&RE programs, (b) the economic incentives faced by Western`s customers, and (c) the current manner in which Western`s power is used by its customers. (2) The result that DSM will reduce load by the same amount in each alternative is suspicious and unlikely.

  11. Opportunities for Automated Demand Response in California Wastewater Treatment Facilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aghajanzadeh, Arian; Wray, Craig; McKane, Aimee

    2015-08-30

    Previous research over a period of six years has identified wastewater treatment facilities as good candidates for demand response (DR), automated demand response (Auto-­DR), and Energy Efficiency (EE) measures. This report summarizes that work, including the characteristics of wastewater treatment facilities, the nature of the wastewater stream, energy used and demand, as well as details of the wastewater treatment process. It also discusses control systems and automated demand response opportunities. Furthermore, this report summarizes the DR potential of three wastewater treatment facilities. In particular, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) has collected data at these facilities from control systems, submetered process equipment, utility electricity demand records, and governmental weather stations. The collected data were then used to generate a summary of wastewater power demand, factors affecting that demand, and demand response capabilities. These case studies show that facilities that have implemented energy efficiency measures and that have centralized control systems are well suited to shed or shift electrical loads in response to financial incentives, utility bill savings, and/or opportunities to enhance reliability of service. In summary, municipal wastewater treatment energy demand in California is large, and energy-­intensive equipment offers significant potential for automated demand response. In particular, large load reductions were achieved by targeting effluent pumps and centrifuges. One of the limiting factors to implementing demand response is the reaction of effluent turbidity to reduced aeration at an earlier stage of the process. Another limiting factor is that cogeneration capabilities of municipal facilities, including existing power purchase agreements and utility receptiveness to purchasing electricity from cogeneration facilities, limit a facility’s potential to participate in other DR activities.

  12. Role of Storage and Demand Response, Greening the Grid

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Author: Denholm, Paul

    2015-09-01

    Greening the Grid provides technical assistance to energy system planners, regulators, and grid operators to overcome challenges associated with integrating variable renewable energy into the grid. This document, part of a Greening the Grid toolkit, examines storage and demand response as means to match renewable energy supply with demand.

  13. Open Automated Demand Response for Small Commerical Buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dudley, June Han; Piette, Mary Ann; Koch, Ed; Hennage, Dan

    2009-05-01

    This report characterizes small commercial buildings by market segments, systems and end-uses; develops a framework for identifying demand response (DR) enabling technologies and communication means; and reports on the design and development of a low-cost OpenADR enabling technology that delivers demand reductions as a percentage of the total predicted building peak electric demand. The results show that small offices, restaurants and retail buildings are the major contributors making up over one third of the small commercial peak demand. The majority of the small commercial buildings in California are located in southern inland areas and the central valley. Single-zone packaged units with manual and programmable thermostat controls make up the majority of heating ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) systems for small commercial buildings with less than 200 kW peak electric demand. Fluorescent tubes with magnetic ballast and manual controls dominate this customer group's lighting systems. There are various ways, each with its pros and cons for a particular application, to communicate with these systems and three methods to enable automated DR in small commercial buildings using the Open Automated Demand Response (or OpenADR) communications infrastructure. Development of DR strategies must consider building characteristics, such as weather sensitivity and load variability, as well as system design (i.e. under-sizing, under-lighting, over-sizing, etc). Finally, field tests show that requesting demand reductions as a percentage of the total building predicted peak electric demand is feasible using the OpenADR infrastructure.

  14. Progress toward Producing Demand-Response-Ready Appliances

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hammerstrom, Donald J.; Sastry, Chellury

    2009-12-01

    This report summarizes several historical and ongoing efforts to make small electrical demand-side devices like home appliances more responsive to the dynamic needs of electric power grids. Whereas the utility community often reserves the word demand response for infrequent 2 to 6 hour curtailments that reduce total electrical system peak load, other beneficial responses and ancillary services that may be provided by responsive electrical demand are of interest. Historically, demand responses from the demand side have been obtained by applying external, retrofitted, controlled switches to existing electrical demand. This report is directed instead toward those manufactured products, including appliances, that are able to provide demand responses as soon as they are purchased and that require few, or no, after-market modifications to make them responsive to needs of power grids. Efforts to be summarized include Open Automated Demand Response, the Association of Home Appliance Manufacturer standard CHA 1, a simple interface being developed by the U-SNAP Alliance, various emerging autonomous responses, and the recent PinBus interface that was developed at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory.

  15. Reducing Energy Demand in Buildings Through State Energy Codes | Department

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of Energy Reducing Energy Demand in Buildings Through State Energy Codes Reducing Energy Demand in Buildings Through State Energy Codes Building Codes Project for the 2013 Building Technologies Office's Program Peer Review PDF icon bldgcodes03_guttman_040213.pdf More Documents & Publications Technology Performance Exchange - 2013 BTO Peer Review Atmospheric Pressure Deposition for Electrochromic Windows Building America System Research

  16. Interoperability of Demand Response Resources Demonstration in NY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wellington, Andre

    2014-03-31

    The Interoperability of Demand Response Resources Demonstration in NY (Interoperability Project) was awarded to Con Edison in 2009. The objective of the project was to develop and demonstrate methodologies to enhance the ability of customer sited Demand Response resources to integrate more effectively with electric delivery companies and regional transmission organizations.

  17. Demand for oil and energy in developing countries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wolf, C. Jr.; Relles, D.A.; Navarro, J.

    1980-05-01

    How much of the world's oil and energy supply will the non-OPEC less-developed countries (NOLDCs) demand in the next decade. Will their requirements be small and thus fairly insignificant compared with world demand, or large and relatively important. How will world demand be affected by the economic growth of the NOLDCs. In this report, we try to develop some reasonable forecasts of NOLDC energy demands in the next 10 years. Our focus is mainly on the demand for oil, but we also give some attention to the total commercial energy requirements of these countries. We have tried to be explicit about the uncertainties associated with our forecasts, and with the income and price elasticities on which they are based. Finally, we consider the forecasts in terms of their implications for US policies concerning the NOLDCs and suggest areas of future research on NOLDC energy issues.

  18. Analysis of Residential Demand Response and Double-Auction Markets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fuller, Jason C.; Schneider, Kevin P.; Chassin, David P.

    2011-10-10

    Demand response and dynamic pricing programs are expected to play increasing roles in the modern Smart Grid environment. While direct load control of end-use loads has existed for decades, price driven response programs are only beginning to be explored at the distribution level. These programs utilize a price signal as a means to control demand. Active markets allow customers to respond to fluctuations in wholesale electrical costs, but may not allow the utility to control demand. Transactive markets, utilizing distributed controllers and a centralized auction can be used to create an interactive system which can limit demand at key times on a distribution system, decreasing congestion. With the current proliferation of computing and communication resources, the ability now exists to create transactive demand response programs at the residential level. With the combination of automated bidding and response strategies coupled with education programs and customer response, emerging demand response programs have the ability to reduce utility demand and congestion in a more controlled manner. This paper will explore the effects of a residential double-auction market, utilizing transactive controllers, on the operation of an electric power distribution system.

  19. Open Automated Demand Response Communications Specification (Version 1.0)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Piette, Mary Ann; Ghatikar, Girish; Kiliccote, Sila; Koch, Ed; Hennage, Dan; Palensky, Peter; McParland, Charles

    2009-02-28

    The development of the Open Automated Demand Response Communications Specification, also known as OpenADR or Open Auto-DR, began in 2002 following the California electricity crisis. The work has been carried out by the Demand Response Research Center (DRRC), which is managed by Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. This specification describes an open standards-based communications data model designed to facilitate sending and receiving demand response price and reliability signals from a utility or Independent System Operator to electric customers. OpenADR is one element of the Smart Grid information and communications technologies that are being developed to improve optimization between electric supply and demand. The intention of the open automated demand response communications data model is to provide interoperable signals to building and industrial control systems that are preprogrammed to take action based on a demand response signal, enabling a demand response event to be fully automated, with no manual intervention. The OpenADR specification is a flexible infrastructure to facilitate common information exchange between the utility or Independent System Operator and end-use participants. The concept of an open specification is intended to allow anyone to implement the signaling systems, the automation server or the automation clients.

  20. Assessment of Industrial Load for Demand Response across Western Interconnect

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alkadi, Nasr E; Starke, Michael R; Ma, Ookie

    2013-11-01

    Demand response (DR) has the ability to both increase power grid reliability and potentially reduce operating system costs. Understanding the role of demand response in grid modeling has been difficult due to complex nature of the load characteristics compared to the modeled generation and the variation in load types. This is particularly true of industrial loads, where hundreds of different industries exist with varying availability for demand response. We present a framework considering industrial loads for the development of availability profiles that can provide more regional understanding and can be inserted into analysis software for further study. The developed framework utilizes a number of different informational resources, algorithms, and real-world measurements to perform a bottom-up approach in the development of a new database with representation of the potential demand response resource in the industrial sector across the U.S. This tool houses statistical values of energy and demand response (DR) potential by industrial plant and geospatially locates the information for aggregation for different territories without proprietary information. This report will discuss this framework and the analyzed quantities of demand response for Western Interconnect (WI) in support of evaluation of the cost production modeling with power grid modeling efforts of demand response.