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Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "demand water heaters" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


1

Tankless Demand Water Heaters  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Demand (tankless or instantaneous) water heaters have heating devices that are activated by the flow of water, so they provide hot water only as needed and without the use of a storage tank. They...

2

Tankless Demand Water Heaters | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Demand Water Heaters Tankless Demand Water Heaters August 19, 2013 - 2:57pm Addthis Illustration of an electric demand water heater. At the top of the image, the heating unit is...

3

Energy Basics: Tankless Demand Water Heaters  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

only as needed and without the use of a storage tank. They don't produce the standby energy losses associated with storage water heaters. How Demand Water Heaters Work Demand...

4

Tankless or Demand-Type Water Heaters | Department of Energy  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

or Demand-Type Water Heaters May 2, 2012 - 6:47pm Addthis Diagram of a tankless water heater. Diagram of a tankless water heater. How does it work? Tankless water heaters deliver...

5

Tankless or Demand-Type Water Heaters | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Tankless or Demand-Type Water Heaters Tankless or Demand-Type Water Heaters Tankless or Demand-Type Water Heaters May 2, 2012 - 6:47pm Addthis Diagram of a tankless water heater. Diagram of a tankless water heater. How does it work? Tankless water heaters deliver hot water as it is needed, eliminating the need for storage tanks. Tankless water heaters, also known as demand-type or instantaneous water heaters, provide hot water only as it is needed. They don't produce the standby energy losses associated with storage water heaters, which can save you money. Here you'll find basic information about how they work, whether a tankless water heater might be right for your home, and what criteria to use when selecting the right model. Check out the Energy Saver 101: Water Heating infographic to learn if a tankless water heater is right for you.

6

Tankless Demand Water Heater Basics | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Demand Water Heater Basics Demand Water Heater Basics Tankless Demand Water Heater Basics August 19, 2013 - 2:57pm Addthis Illustration of an electric demand water heater. At the top of the image, the heating unit is shown. Cold water flows in one end of a pipe, flows through and around several curved pipes over the heating elements, and out the other end as hot water. Beneath the heating unit, a typical sink setup is shown. The sink has two pipes coming out the bottom, one for the hot water line and one for the cold water line. Both pipes lead to the heating unit, which is installed in close proximity to the area of hot water use, and is connected to a power source (110 or 220 volts). Demand (tankless or instantaneous) water heaters have heating devices that are activated by the flow of water, so they provide hot water only as

7

Tankless Demand Water Heater Basics | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Tankless Demand Water Heater Basics Tankless Demand Water Heater Basics Tankless Demand Water Heater Basics August 19, 2013 - 2:57pm Addthis Illustration of an electric demand water heater. At the top of the image, the heating unit is shown. Cold water flows in one end of a pipe, flows through and around several curved pipes over the heating elements, and out the other end as hot water. Beneath the heating unit, a typical sink setup is shown. The sink has two pipes coming out the bottom, one for the hot water line and one for the cold water line. Both pipes lead to the heating unit, which is installed in close proximity to the area of hot water use, and is connected to a power source (110 or 220 volts). Demand (tankless or instantaneous) water heaters have heating devices that are activated by the flow of water, so they provide hot water only as

8

Demand Response Performance of GE Hybrid Heat Pump Water Heater  

SciTech Connect

This report describes a project to evaluate and document the DR performance of HPWH as compared to ERWH for two primary types of DR events: peak curtailments and balancing reserves. The experiments were conducted with GE second-generation “Brillion”-enabled GeoSpring hybrid water heaters in the PNNL Lab Homes, with one GE GeoSpring water heater operating in “Standard” electric resistance mode to represent the baseline and one GE GeoSpring water heater operating in “Heat Pump” mode to provide the comparison to heat pump-only demand response. It is expected that “Hybrid” DR performance, which would engage both the heat pump and electric elements, could be interpolated from these two experimental extremes. Signals were sent simultaneously to the two water heaters in the side-by-side PNNL Lab Homes under highly controlled, simulated occupancy conditions. This report presents the results of the evaluation, which documents the demand-response capability of the GE GeoSpring HPWH for peak load reduction and regulation services. The sections describe the experimental protocol and test apparatus used to collect data, present the baselining procedure, discuss the results of the simulated DR events for the HPWH and ERWH, and synthesize key conclusions based on the collected data.

Widder, Sarah H.; Parker, Graham B.; Petersen, Joseph M.; Baechler, Michael C.

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

9

Electric Water Heater Modeling and Control Strategies for Demand Response  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Abstract— Demand response (DR) has a great potential to provide balancing services at normal operating conditions and emergency support when a power system is subject to disturbances. Effective control strategies can significantly relieve the balancing burden of conventional generators and reduce investment on generation and transmission expansion. This paper is aimed at modeling electric water heaters (EWH) in households and tests their response to control strategies to implement DR. The open-loop response of EWH to a centralized signal is studied by adjusting temperature settings to provide regulation services; and two types of decentralized controllers are tested to provide frequency support following generator trips. EWH models are included in a simulation platform in DIgSILENT to perform electromechanical simulation, which contains 147 households in a distribution feeder. Simulation results show the dependence of EWH response on water heater usage . These results provide insight suggestions on the need of control strategies to achieve better performance for demand response implementation. Index Terms— Centralized control, decentralized control, demand response, electrical water heater, smart grid

Diao, Ruisheng; Lu, Shuai; Elizondo, Marcelo A.; Mayhorn, Ebony T.; Zhang, Yu; Samaan, Nader A.

2012-07-22T23:59:59.000Z

10

Selecting a new water heater  

SciTech Connect

This fact sheet describes the types of water heaters available (storage water heaters, demand water heaters, heat pump water heaters, tankless coil and indirect water heaters, and solar water heaters). The criteria for selection are discussed. These are capacity, efficiency rating, and cost. A resource list is provided for further information.

NONE

1995-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

11

Conventional Storage Water Heaters  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Conventional storage water heaters remain the most popular type of water heating system for homes and buildings.

12

Water Heaters | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Heaters Jump to: navigation, search TODO: Add description List of Water Heaters Incentives Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgwindex.php?titleWaterHeaters&oldid267202...

13

Ex Parte Memorandum on Grid-Enabled Water Heaters | Department...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

met with DOE representatives regarding water heater standards and thermal storage and demand response programs. DOE exparte memo100213 Grid-EnabledWaterHeaterAmendment...

14

Water heater heat reclaimer  

SciTech Connect

This invention relates to the conservation of energy in a domestic gas water heater by utilizing the hot exhaust gases in a gas water heater for the preheating of the incoming unheated water into the water heater. The exhaust gases from a domestic gas water heater carry wasted heat and the present invention provides a mean to reclaim part of the wasted heat for the preheating of the incoming unheated water during hot water usage periods. During non hot water usage periods the heat in the exhaust gases is not reclaimed to prevent overheating of the water and also to prevent the formation of water deposit in the preheating assembly or heat reclaimer. During the non hot water usage periods the heat produced in the water heater is normally needed only to maintain the desired water temperature of the stored water in the water tank of the water heater. Due to the rapid heating or recovery rate, the present invention enables the use of a smaller water heater. The use of a smaller water heater reduces the normal heat loss from the stored hot water thereby further reduces energy consumption.

Wie, C.T.

1983-08-09T23:59:59.000Z

15

ELDON water heater  

SciTech Connect

Experience with the installation of an ELDON water heater in the TLC Services, Inc. laundry facility is reported. Piping diagram and pictures are included. (MHR)

Wood, H.E.

1980-07-18T23:59:59.000Z

16

Water Heaters and Hot Water Distribution Systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

gas water heaters; and pressure loss calculations for residentialgas water heaters; and pressure loss calculations for residential

Lutz, Jim

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

17

Water Heater Safety FAQs  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

from 30 gallons to 80 gallons in a variety of fuel sources (gas, electric, liquid propane). We also offer a wide selection of Rheem gas and electric tankless water heaters....

18

Gas Water Heater Energy Losses  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

analyses of storage-type water heaters. 2 TANK modelswater heater as part of the DOE rulemaking analysis. We used the most current version of this model--

Biermayer, Peter

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

19

Sizing a New Water Heater | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Sizing a New Water Heater Sizing a New Water Heater Sizing a New Water Heater May 29, 2012 - 7:16pm Addthis Is your water heater the right size for you house? | Photo credit ENERGY STAR® Is your water heater the right size for you house? | Photo credit ENERGY STAR® A properly sized water heater will meet your household's hot water needs while operating more efficiently. Therefore, before purchasing a water heater, make sure it's the correct size. Here you'll find information about how to size these systems: Tankless or demand-type water heaters Solar water heating system Storage and heat pump (with tank) water heaters. For sizing combination water and space heating systems -- including some heat pump systems, and tankless coil and indirect water heaters -- consult a qualified contractor.

20

Pre-heater for water heater  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes an apparatus for pre-heating water prior to the water entering a conventional water heater comprising: heat exchanger means located inside the attic of a residential dwelling for effecting a heat exchange between hot air; vent pipe means connected to the continuous pipe; drain pipe means connected to the continuous pipe; fourth pipe means connected to the drain pipe means; fifth pipe means connected to the junction of the fourth pipe means; and the water heater means connected to the outlet of the heat exchanger means.

Blount, E.R.

1987-06-09T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "demand water heaters" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Absorption Heat Pump Water Heater  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Absorption Heat Pump Water Heater Absorption Heat Pump Water Heater Kyle Gluesenkamp Building Equipment Group, ETSD gluesenkampk@ornl.gov 865-241-2952 April 3, 2013 CRADA - GE Development of High Performance Residential Gas Water Heater Image courtesy John Wilkes 2 | Building Technologies Office eere.energy.gov Purpose & Objectives Problem Statement: Absorption technology could greatly boost water heater efficiency, but faces barriers of high first cost and working fluid challenges. Impact of Project: Energy factor of gas storage water

22

Absorption Heat Pump Water Heater  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Absorption Heat Pump Water Heater Absorption Heat Pump Water Heater Kyle Gluesenkamp Building Equipment Group, ETSD gluesenkampk@ornl.gov 865-241-2952 April 3, 2013 CRADA - GE Development of High Performance Residential Gas Water Heater Image courtesy John Wilkes 2 | Building Technologies Office eere.energy.gov Purpose & Objectives Problem Statement: Absorption technology could greatly boost water heater efficiency, but faces barriers of high first cost and working fluid challenges. Impact of Project: Energy factor of gas storage water

23

Tankless Coil and Indirect Water Heaters | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Tankless Coil and Indirect Water Heaters Tankless Coil and Indirect Water Heaters Tankless Coil and Indirect Water Heaters May 16, 2013 - 7:21pm Addthis An indirect water heater. An indirect water heater. How does it work? Tankless coil and indirect water heaters use your home's heating system to heat water. Tankless coil and indirect water heaters use a home's space heating system to heat water. They're part of what's called integrated or combination water and space heating systems. How They Work A tankless coil water heater provides hot water on demand without a tank. When a hot water faucet is turned on, water is heated as it flows through a heating coil or heat exchanger installed in a main furnace or boiler. Tankless coil water heaters are most efficient during cold months when the heating system is used regularly but can be an inefficient choice for many

24

Instantaneous gas water heater  

SciTech Connect

Hot water supply temperature is set by a temperature setting device in response to an instantaneous flow rate signal from a water flow rate sensor arranged in a water supply pipe and a feeding water temperature signal from a feeding water temperature sensor which are compared with a predetermined hot water supply temperature and calculated in a control unit. A proportional valve and other devices in a gas supply pipe are controlled in response to the result of the comparison and calculation to define a required volume of gas for ignition and heating. At the same time, a fan damper is controlled by a damper control device so as to adjust the volume of combustion air. A signal representing discharging hot water temperature from a discharging hot water temperature sensor arranged in a hot water feeding pipe is fed back to the control unit and calculated therein, and a valve in the hot water supply pipe is adjusted in response to the result of calculation to attain the desired hot water supply temperature. In order to prevent freezing in the system in winter season, a signal from a thermostat in the water feeding pipe is transmitted to a heater arranged in an air supply chamber so as to heat a heat exchanger pipe and, at the same time, heaters arranged in the water feeding pipe and the hot water supply pipe are also controlled to prevent freezing.

Tsutsui, O.; Kuwahara, H.; Murakami, Sh.; Yasunaga, Sh.

1985-02-26T23:59:59.000Z

25

$69 solar water heater  

SciTech Connect

The construction of a batch or breadbox solar water heater is described in which it is assumed that an old refrigerator and used galvanized air compressor tank are available (at no charge). Additional materials required (plumbing, hardware, lumber, and miscellaneous) cost approximately $69. The refrigerator serves as an insulated box as well as a built-in hinged adjustable reflector (the door). The door also provides tight-fitting nighttime insulation. Detailed directions are provided for the construction of the solar water heater; the principal operations involve modification of the refrigerator, plumbing the tank, constructing the glazing section, and tilting the collector properly. Ample illustrations are provided and a complete list of materials needed is included. The project can be completed in one day. (MJJ)

Morris, E.

1980-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

26

Water heater control module  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An advanced electric water heater control system that interfaces with a high temperature cut-off thermostat and an upper regulating thermostat. The system includes a control module that is electrically connected to the high-temperature cut-off thermostat and the upper regulating thermostat. The control module includes a switch to open or close the high-temperature cut-off thermostat and the upper regulating thermostat. The control module further includes circuitry configured to control said switch in response to a signal selected from the group of an autonomous signal, a communicated signal, and combinations thereof.

Hammerstrom, Donald J

2013-11-26T23:59:59.000Z

27

Solar hot water heater  

SciTech Connect

A solar hot water heater includes an insulated box having one or more hot water storage tanks contained inside and further having a lid which may be opened to permit solar radiation to heat a supply of water contained within the one or more hot water storage tanks. A heat-actuated control unit is mounted on an external portion of the box, such control unit having a single pole double throw thermostat which selectively activates an electric winch gear motor to either open or close the box lid. The control unit operates to open the lid to a predetermined position when exposed to the sun's rays, and further operates to immediately close the lid in response to any sudden drop in temperature, such as might occur during a rainstorm, clouds moving in front of the sun, or the like.

Melvin, H.A.

1982-12-28T23:59:59.000Z

28

Water Heating Basics | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Heaters Solar Water Heaters Tankless Coil and Indirect Water Heaters Addthis Related Articles Tankless Demand Water Heater Basics Solar Water Heater Basics Heat Pump Water Heater...

29

THERMOSIPHON WATER HEATERS WITH HEAT EXCHANGERS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The Performance of Solar Water Heater With Natural Ci rculperformance of solar thermos i phon water heaters with heatSolar Jubilee, Phoenix, AZ, June 2-6, 1980 THERMOSIPHON WATER HEATERS

Mertol, Atila

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

30

Solar Water Heater Basics | Department of Energy  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Solar Water Heater Basics Solar Water Heater Basics August 19, 2013 - 3:01pm Addthis Illustration of an active, closed loop solar water heater. A large, flat panel called a flat...

31

Do You Have a Solar Water Heater?  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Earlier this week, Ernie wrote about the economics of getting a solar water heater. As Ernie explained, a solar water heater is more expensive than a normal water heater, but depending on your area...

32

Conventional Storage Water Heaters | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Conventional Storage Water Heaters Conventional Storage Water Heaters July 30, 2013 - 3:39pm Addthis Illustration showing the components of a storage water heater. On top of the...

33

Heat Pump Water Heaters | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Water Heaters Heat Pump Water Heaters August 19, 2013 - 2:59pm Addthis Illustration of a heat pump water heater, which looks like a tall cylinder with a small chamber on top and a...

34

Solar Water Heaters | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Solar Water Heaters Solar Water Heaters August 19, 2013 - 3:01pm Addthis Illustration of an active, closed loop solar water heater. A large, flat panel called a flat plate...

35

National solar water heater workshop  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The National Solar Water Heater Workshop (NSWHW) program directly resolves the major problem inhibiting the widespread application of solar energy for domestic water heating - that of bridging the gap, by an educational program, between well-known solar technology and the application of that technology. This is accomplished by workshop sponsors throughout the nation, conducting workshops to educate homeowners on solar principles, and installation, operation, and maintenance of their solar system. During a workshop, students personally fabricate two or more collectors and complete a plumbing subsystem, all of which have been developed and specified by Arizona State University (ASU). The program appeals to do-it-yourselfers and handyman type persons who by their example become strong solar advocates to their neighbors and acquaintances. A market for the commercial solar industry is thus also generated as other homeowners acquire installed systems from the local solar industry. A central thrust of this program is the establishment of local solar hardware suppliers who can supply the demand of the students for solar hardware kits. This is a DOE program approved for 2 years and is funded at $600,000 for the first year with $400,000 to be funded for the second year. At the end of 2 years, it is envisioned that 50,000 domestic solar water heaters will have been installed throughout the nation and trust territories which will result in savings in the order of 131 million kWh, 447 billion Btu and 8 million dollars.

Mumma, S.A.; Ashland, M.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

36

Grid Friendly™ Water Heater Controller - Available ...  

Summary. The Grid Friendly™ Water Heater Controller is a device that provides smart grid services from existing, installed electric water heaters.

37

Electric Tankless Water Heater (TWH) Performance Evaluation and System Compatibility Report  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Instantaneous Water Heater or Tankless Water Heater (TWH) or Demand Water Heater is designed to provide hot water on demand without a storage tank. Tank water heaters require energy to maintain the water temperature in the tank when not in demand. In tank water heaters, due to the specific heat of the water, the thermal time constant of the water heater will not allow it to supply hot water at the same rate as it is used, hence the use of the tank, storing hot water for instant availability. In the e...

2005-12-22T23:59:59.000Z

38

Energy Basics: Water Heating  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Storage Water Heaters Tankless Demand Water Heaters Heat Pump Water Heaters Solar Water Heaters Tankless Coil & Indirect Water Heaters Water Heating A variety of...

39

Water heater secondary control device  

SciTech Connect

A secondary control device for gas water heaters is described having a tank, cold water inlet, hot water outlet and a heater thermostat, the control device comprising: valve means for controlling the flow of gas from a source thereof to the heater thermostat, the valve means connected between the gas source and the heater thermostat; means attached to the outside of the cold water inlet for sensing the temperature of water in the cold water inlet and providing an electrical signal representative thereof, the signal generated by the temperature sensing means being connected to the valve means; means for opening the valve means for transmitting the gas to the heater thermostat when the signal is representative of the temperature of the cold water being less than a predetermined temperature; and means for closing the valve means for preventing transmission of the energy to the heater thermostat when the signal is representative of the temperature of the cold water being equal to or greater than the predetermined temperature.

Subherwal, B.R.

1987-08-18T23:59:59.000Z

40

Energy Basics: Conventional Storage Water Heaters  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

heater can range from 20 to hundreds of gallons. Conventional storage water heater fuel sources include natural gas, propane, fuel oil, and electricity. Natural gas and...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "demand water heaters" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Energy Basics: Water Heating  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

about: Conventional Storage Water Heaters Demand (Tankless or Instantaneous) Water Heaters Heat Pump Water Heaters Solar Water Heaters Tankless Coil and Indirect Water Heaters...

42

Heat Pump Water Heaters | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Water Heaters Water Heaters Heat Pump Water Heaters May 4, 2012 - 5:21pm Addthis A diagram of a heat pump water heater. A diagram of a heat pump water heater. What does this mean for me? Heat pump water heaters can be two to three times more energy efficient than conventional electric storage water heaters. Heat pump water heaters work in locations that remain in the 40º-90ºF range year-round. Most homeowners who have heat pumps use them to heat and cool their homes. But a heat pump also can be used to heat water -- either as stand-alone water heating system, or as combination water heating and space conditioning system. How They Work Heat pump water heaters use electricity to move heat from one place to another instead of generating heat directly. Therefore, they can be two to

43

Our Environment in Hot Water: Comparing Water Heaters, A Life Cycle Approach Comparing Tank and Tankless Water Heaters in California  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

heater storage tank wastes energy to continuous heating.fired water heater Total Energy Total Waste Emissions (Air)fired water heater Total Energy Total Waste Emissions (Air)

Lu, Alison

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

44

Conventional Storage Water Heater Basics | Department of Energy  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Conventional Storage Water Heater Basics Conventional Storage Water Heater Basics July 30, 2013 - 3:39pm Addthis Illustration showing the components of a storage water heater. On...

45

Heat Pump Water Heaters and American Homes: A Good Fit?  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

2001. Residential Heat Pump Water Heater (HPWH) DevelopmentKelso, J. 2003. Incorporating Water Heater Replacement into2005. Residential Heat Pump Water Heaters: Energy Efficiency

Franco, Victor

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

46

Economics of residential gas furnaces and water heaters in US new construction market  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

market research on solar water heaters. National Renew- ablecom- bined space/water heaters, solar water heaters,combined solar space/water heater, electric water heaters

Lekov, Alex B.; Franco, Victor H.; Wong-Parodi, Gabrielle; McMahon, James E.; Chan, Peter

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

47

Storage Water Heaters | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Storage Water Heaters Storage Water Heaters Storage Water Heaters June 15, 2012 - 6:00pm Addthis Consider energy efficiency when selecting a conventional storage water heater to avoid paying more over its lifetime. | Photo courtesy of ©iStockphoto/JulNichols. Consider energy efficiency when selecting a conventional storage water heater to avoid paying more over its lifetime. | Photo courtesy of ©iStockphoto/JulNichols. Conventional storage water heaters remain the most popular type of water heating system for the home. Here you'll find basic information about how storage water heaters work; what criteria to use when selecting the right model; and some installation, maintenance, and safety tips. How They Work A single-family storage water heater offers a ready reservoir -- from 20 to

48

Solar-hot-water-heater lease program  

SciTech Connect

Ten domestic hot-water solar systems were installed, leased to homeowners, and monitored for two years. All of the systems were installed as back-ups to electric water heaters. The systems consist of two to four collectors, a solar storage tank (as well as the existing non-solar heater), and a heat exchanger package. Eight are three-collector systems, one is a four-collector and one a two-collector system. The systems were sized according to family size and predicted hot water demand. The monitoring consists of a separate KW reading on the non-solar water heater, a reading of gallons of how water consumed, and hot and cold outlet temperatures. The purpose for the study was fourfold: (1) to determine the level of acceptance by the general public of solar water heaters if available on a lease rather than a purchase basis; (2) to measure the actual energy savings to the average homeowner in central Illinois with a solar water heater; (3) to measure the potential reduction of Cilco's energy production requirements, should there be widespread utilization of these systems; and (4) to determine the feasibility of an entrepreneur making these systems available on a rental basis and remaining a going concern. The results of this study indicate that the leasing of solar equipment to homeowners has a more widespread acceptance than the direct purchase of such systems. Homeowners, however, do not want to spend as much money on monthly lease payments as the supplier of the equipment would deem necessary. This seriously questions the feasibility of an entrepreneurial leasing program.

Rutherford, S.

1983-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

49

Selecting a New Water Heater | Department of Energy  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Selecting a New Water Heater Selecting a New Water Heater August 29, 2012 - 7:30pm Addthis Water heater testing facility at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Water heater testing...

50

Solar Water Heater Basics | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Solar Water Heater Basics Solar Water Heater Basics Solar Water Heater Basics August 19, 2013 - 3:01pm Addthis Illustration of an active, closed loop solar water heater. A large, flat panel called a flat plate collector is connected to a tank called a solar storage/backup water heater by two pipes. One of these pipes runs through a cylindrical pump into the bottom of the tank, where it becomes a coil called a double-wall heat exchanger. This coil runs up through the tank and out again to the flat plate collector. Antifreeze fluid runs only through this collector loop. Two pipes run out the top of the water heater tank; one is a cold water supply into the tank, and the other sends hot water to the house. Solar water heaters use the sun's heat to provide hot water for a home or

51

Tankless Coil and Indirect Water Heaters | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Tankless Coil and Indirect Water Heaters Tankless Coil and Indirect Water Heaters August 19, 2013 - 3:03pm Addthis Illustration of a tankless coil water heater. The heater is...

52

FS: heat pump water heaters | The Better Buildings Alliance  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Food Service » Install a heat pump Food Service » Install a heat pump water heaterand reduce water heating energy up to 70% using the commercial heat pump water heater specificat Activities Technology Solutions Teams Lighting & Electrical Space Conditioning Plug & Process Loads Food Service Refrigeration Laboratories Energy Management & Information Systems Public Sector Teams Market Solutions Teams Install a heat pump water heaterand reduce water heating energy up to 70% using the commercial heat pump water heater specification The Food Service team developed a Commercial Heat Pump Water Heater Specification that can be used to reduce water heating energy by 70%. An older, electric resistance water heater (operated in a building with a hot water demand of 500 gallons a day) can cost more than $3,500 each year

53

Energy Saving Absorption Heat Pump Water Heater  

energy savings and can reduce the use of fossil fuels by buildings. While conventional heat pump water heater designs are limited to using toxic ammonia water ...

54

Our Environment in Hot Water: Comparing Water Heaters, A Life Cycle Approach Comparing Tank and Tankless Water Heaters in California  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Study on Eco-Design of Water Heaters, Van Holstein en Kemnaand Assessment” in Water Heating Rulemaking TechnicalG. Smith, Tankless Gas Water Heaters: Oregon Market Status,

Lu, Alison

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

55

Economics of residential gas furnaces and water heaters in United States new construction market  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

market research on solar water heaters. National Renewabletankless combined space/water heaterds, solar water heaters,combined solar space/water heater, electric water heaters

Lekov, Alex B.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

56

Condensing Hybrid Water Heater Monitoring Field Evaluation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper summarizes the Mascot home, an abandoned property that was extensively renovated. Several efficiency upgrades were integrated into this home, of particular interest, a unique water heater (a Navien CR240-A). Field monitoring was performed to determine the in-use efficiency of the hybrid condensing water heater. The results were compared to the unit's rated efficiency. This unit is Energy Star qualified and one of the most efficient gas water heaters currently available on the market.

Maguire, J.; Earle, L.; Booten, C.; Hancock, C. E.

2011-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

57

Storage Water Heaters | Department of Energy  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

6:00pm Addthis Consider energy efficiency when selecting a conventional storage water heater to avoid paying more over its lifetime. | Photo courtesy of iStockphoto...

58

The LBNL Water Heater Retail Price Database  

SciTech Connect

Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory developed the LBNL Water Heater Price Database to compile and organize information used in the revision of U.S. energy efficiency standards for water heaters. The Database contains all major components that contribute to the consumer cost of water heaters, including basic retail prices, sales taxes, installation costs, and any associated fees. In addition, the Database provides manufacturing data on the features and design characteristics of more than 1100 different water heater models. Data contained in the Database was collected over a two-year period from 1997 to 1999.

Lekov, Alex; Glover, Julie; Lutz, Jim

2000-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

59

Field Monitoring Protocol: Heat Pump Water Heaters  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Field Monitoring Protocol: Heat Pump Water Heaters B. Sparn, L. Earle, D. Christensen, J. Maguire, and E. Wilson National Renewable Energy Laboratory C.E. Hancock Mountain Energy...

60

DOE_Water_Heater_Meeting_111612.pdf  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

the request for information "... Energy Conservation Standards for Residential Water Heaters", the comments filed therein, and follow-up items from a previous meeting on...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "demand water heaters" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Heat Pump Water Heaters—Laboratory Tests  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

EPRI conducted laboratory tests of several heat pump water heaters to assess their performance and energy efficiency. Among U.S. heat pump water heaters tested were new products from A. O. Smith, General Electric (GE), and Rheem. These units are designed to be integral, drop-in replacements for standard electric water heaters. Additionally, EPRI tested the Japanese-based Eco-cute heat pump water heater from Daikin, which is a split unit with an outdoor heat pump using CO2 as the refrigerant and an indoor...

2009-12-11T23:59:59.000Z

62

Innovative heat exchangers for solar water heaters.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The performance of two innovative collector-loop heat exchangers used in pumped circulation solar water heaters was investigated experimentally and numerically, and TRNSYS simulation models were… (more)

Soo Too, Yen Chean

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

63

Salem Electric - Solar Water Heater Rebate | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Solar Water Heater Rebate Salem Electric - Solar Water Heater Rebate Eligibility Residential Savings For Heating & Cooling Solar Water Heating Program Information Oregon Program...

64

TVA Partner Utilities - Energy Right Water Heater Program | Department...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Water Heater Program Eligibility InstallerContractor Residential Utility Savings For Appliances & Electronics Water Heating Maximum Rebate Member utility water heater rebate...

65

Tankless Coil and Indirect Water Heaters  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Tankless coil and indirect water heaters use a home or building's space heating system to heat water as part of an integrated or combination water and space heating system.

66

Solar Water Heaters | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Solar Water Heaters Solar Water Heaters Solar Water Heaters May 7, 2012 - 9:52am Addthis Solar water heaters -- also called solar domestic hot water systems -- can be a cost-effective way to generate hot water for your home. They can be used in any climate, and the fuel they use -- sunshine -- is free. How They Work Solar water heating systems include storage tanks and solar collectors. There are two types of solar water heating systems: active, which have circulating pumps and controls, and passive, which don't. Active Solar Water Heating Systems There are two types of active solar water heating systems: Direct circulation systems Pumps circulate household water through the collectors and into the home. They work well in climates where it rarely freezes. Indirect circulation systems

67

Solar water heaters | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

heaters heaters Jump to: navigation, search (The following text is derived from the United States Department of Energy's description of Solar Water Heating technology.)[1] Solar Water Heater One of the most cost-effective ways to include renewable technologies into a building is by incorporating solar hot water. A typical residential solar water-heating system reduces the need for conventional water heating by about two-thirds. It minimizes the expense of electricity or fossil fuel to heat the water and reduces the associated environmental impacts. Solar Water Heating for Buildings Most solar water-heating systems for buildings have two main parts: (1) a solar collector and (2) a storage tank. The most common collector used in solar hot water systems is the flat-plate collector. Solar water heaters use the sun to heat either water

68

Economics of Condensing Gas Furnaces and Water Heaters Potential in Residential Single Family Homes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

market research on solar water heaters. National Renewablespace heaters, and solar water heaters, as well as other

Lekov, Alex

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

69

Burbank Water and Power - Solar Water Heater Rebate Program (California) |  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Burbank Water and Power - Solar Water Heater Rebate Program Burbank Water and Power - Solar Water Heater Rebate Program (California) Burbank Water and Power - Solar Water Heater Rebate Program (California) < Back Eligibility Residential Savings Category Heating & Cooling Solar Water Heating Program Info State California Program Type Utility Rebate Program Rebate Amount $1,500 Provider Rebates Burbank Water and Power is providing incentives for the purchase of solar water heaters. Incentives are only available to residential customers with electric water heaters. There is a limit of one solar water heater per year per property. Applicants must provide access to their residence for a pre-inspection to verify the existing use of an electric water heater. Customers must comply with all code and permit requirements. More

70

Clay Electric Cooperative, Inc - Energy Smart Solar Water Heater...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Clay Electric Cooperative, Inc - Energy Smart Solar Water Heater Rebate Program Clay Electric Cooperative, Inc - Energy Smart Solar Water Heater Rebate Program < Back Eligibility...

71

HVAC Water Heater Field Tests Research Project | Department of...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

HVAC Water Heater Field Tests Research Project HVAC Water Heater Field Tests Research Project The U.S. Department of Energy is currently conducting research into heating,...

72

Payback Analysis of Design Options for Residential Water Heaters  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Payback Analysis of Design Options for Residential Water Heaters Title Payback Analysis of Design Options for Residential Water Heaters Publication Type Report LBNL Report Number...

73

Solar Water Heater Roadmap Leads Path to Market Expansion (Fact...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Innovative strategy to reduce installed cost of solar water heater systems can rival conventional natural gas water heaters in the marketplace. Researchers in the Residential...

74

Tankless Water Heaters: Do They Really Work?  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Tankless Water Heaters: Do They Tankless Water Heaters: Do They Really Work? Center for Energy and Environment, NorthernSTAR, Ben Schoenbauer Context * Domestic Water Heating is the next big residential energy in efficiency. - Space heating loads are being reduced - Largest peak load in almost all homes is water heating - Annual water heating load is larger than annual space heating load in many homes - Most DHW equipment is inefficiency 50-60% Technical Approach * TWHs and condensing TWHs have significant energy savings potential - Do these ratings relate to real world performance? - How do TWHs compare to standard water heaters? - What performance/install issues do they have? * 10 home 26 water heater alternating mode field study was conducted Recommended Guidance * In situations where economics are

75

Solar water heaters | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

water heaters water heaters (Redirected from - Solar Hot Water) Jump to: navigation, search (The following text is derived from the United States Department of Energy's description of Solar Water Heating technology.)[1] Solar Water Heater One of the most cost-effective ways to include renewable technologies into a building is by incorporating solar hot water. A typical residential solar water-heating system reduces the need for conventional water heating by about two-thirds. It minimizes the expense of electricity or fossil fuel to heat the water and reduces the associated environmental impacts. Solar Water Heating for Buildings Most solar water-heating systems for buildings have two main parts: (1) a solar collector and (2) a storage tank. The most common collector used in solar hot water systems is the

76

Selecting a New Water Heater | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Selecting a New Water Heater Selecting a New Water Heater Selecting a New Water Heater August 29, 2012 - 7:30pm Addthis Water heater testing facility at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Water heater testing facility at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. When selecting a new water heater for your home, choose a water heating system that will not only provide enough hot water but also that will do so energy efficiently, saving you money. This includes considering the different types of water heaters available and determining the right size and fuel source for your home. Check out the Energy Saver 101: Water Heating infographic to learn more about the different types of water heaters and how to select the right model for your home. Types of Water Heaters It's a good idea to know the different types of water heaters available

77

Heat Pump Water Heaters Demonstration Project  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Heat Pump Water Heaters Heat Pump Water Heaters Demonstration Project Building America Stakeholder Meeting Ron Domitrovic Ammi Amarnath 3/1/2012 Austin, TX 2 © 2011 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved. HPWH Field Demonstration: Research Objectives * Assess heat pump water heater technology by measuring efficiency. * Provide credible data on the performance and reliability of heat pump water heaters. * Assess user satisfaction in a residential setting. 3 © 2011 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved. Demonstration Host Utilities Target: 40 Units per Utility Installed and Potential Sites by Climate Zone Source: Department of Energy (DOE), Building America climate regions 4 © 2011 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved. Installation Locations-Southern Company Region

78

Strategy Guideline: Proper Water Heater Selection  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This strategy guideline provides step-by-step procedures for evaluating preferred cost-effective options for energy efficient water heater alternatives based on local utility rates, climate, and anticipated loads. These procedures, developed both for individual water heater applications (both single and multi-family) and multifamily central systems, provide users with projections on operating cost savings over a 10-year time horizon for retrofit applications and on a cash flow basis for new construction.

Hoeschele, M.; Springer, D.; German, A.; Staller, J.; Zhang, Y.

2012-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

79

Heat Pump Water Heaters for Commercial Buildings  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This technical update from the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) reviews the technology of heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) for commercial building applications. The report discusses the technical and conceptual background of heat pump water heaters, laboratory testing as performed at EPRI's laboratory, and implications of the test results. It provides analysis of the climactic applicability, financial scenarios, the air-cooling benefit or detriment of HPWH technology.

2011-12-22T23:59:59.000Z

80

Economic Analysis of Solar Water Heaters in GuangZhou  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

As a mature applied technology, the largest obstacle to the promotion of the solar water heater is the high initial investment that makes an impact on consumers' choices. The initial investment and maintenance cost of the solar water heater,gas water heater and electrical water heater in Guangzhou was compared and the Annual Cost Calculation Method (ACCM)was introduced to explain the remarkable economic benefits. The social benefits of the solar water heater were introduced from a scientific view.

Wang, Y.; Zhao, L.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "demand water heaters" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Solar Water Heater Rebate | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Solar Water Heater Rebate Solar Water Heater Rebate Solar Water Heater Rebate < Back Eligibility Commercial Fed. Government Residential Savings Category Heating & Cooling Solar Water Heating Program Info State Hawaii Program Type State Rebate Program Rebate Amount Residential Solar Water Heating: $1,000 upfront, or Residential Solar Water Heating Interest Loan Buy-Down: $1,000 Residential Solar Attic Fans: $50 Commercial: $250 per 12,000 Btu/hr derated capacity Provider Hawaii Energy Hawaii Energy, a third-party administered public benefits fund, provides incentives for energy efficiency and conservation to customers of the Hawaiian Electric Company (HECO) and its subsidiaries, Maui Electric Company (MECO) and Hawaii Electric Light Company (HELCO). This incentive is available for installations on the islands of Oahu, Hawaii, Maui, Lanai and

82

Tankless Coil and Indirect Water Heater Basics | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Coil and Indirect Water Heater Basics Coil and Indirect Water Heater Basics Tankless Coil and Indirect Water Heater Basics August 19, 2013 - 3:03pm Addthis Illustration of a tankless coil water heater. The heater is box-shaped, and has two pipes sticking out one end: one a cold water inlet, and one a hot water outlet. These pipes lead into the heater to a cylindrical coil called a heat exchanger. Long tubes surrounding the heat exchanger are labeled the heated water jacket. At the bottom of the box is a row of small flames, called the boiler heat source. Tankless coil and indirect water heaters use a home or building's space heating system to heat water as part of an integrated or combination water and space heating system. How Tankless Coil and Indirect Water Heaters Work A tankless coil water heater uses a heating coil or heat exchanger

83

Combined Systems with Tankless Water Heaters  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Combined Systems with Tankless Water Heaters Combined Systems with Tankless Water Heaters Armin Rudd Residential Energy Efficiency Stakeholder Meeting 2/29 - 3/2/2012 Austin, Texas 2 Residential Energy Efficiency Stakeholder Meeting 2/29 - 3/2/2012 Austin, Texas More builder's wanting to use gas-fired tankless water heaters, and with solar pre-heat  Endless hot water  Helps HERS Index  Space saving 2 3 Residential Energy Efficiency Stakeholder Meeting 2/29 - 3/2/2012 Austin, Texas Problem with elevated TWH inlet temperature 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 130 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5 5 5.5 6 Maximum Inlet Temperature (F) DHW flow rate (gpm) Maximum TWH inlet temperature to stay below 125 F delivered temperature, with 15 kBtu/h minimum firing rate Typical shower temperature 4 Residential Energy Efficiency Stakeholder Meeting

84

Heat pump water heaters. Final report  

SciTech Connect

A survey of the eleven manufacturers of heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) in the United States is presented. Product characteristics and application guidelines, including economic comparisons to other means of water heating, are summarized. A survey of forty-five utilities, identified as having conducted field tests of HPWHs, is also presented. Based on the experiences of these utilities, experimental designs, instrumentation schemes, and data reduction methods are recommended. A brief assessment of utility load profile impacts illustrates that HPWHs can provide peak load reductions compared to electric resistance water heaters. Specific recommendations are made for further research and development of HPWHs.

Dobyns, J.E.; Blatt, M.H.

1984-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

85

Arnold Schwarzenegger WATER HEATERS AND HOT WATER  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

controls. This response applies to markets that have a demand for central water heating systems Distribution Systems Subtask 2.1 Multifamily Water Heating Construction Practices, Pricing and Availability systems in multifamily buildings. This market characterization study is helping HMG develop

86

Insulation refit kit for domestic water heaters  

SciTech Connect

The development, testing, and marketing of an insulation kit which homeowners could apply to gas or electric hot water heaters in order to conserve energy in water heating are described. The kit, being marketed at $20, should save 450 kWh or 3600 ft/sup 3/ of gas per year. (LCL)

1977-03-23T23:59:59.000Z

87

Solar water heater lease program. Interim report  

SciTech Connect

The Solar Water Heater Lease Program consists of the installation and leasing of ten solar systems to central Illinois homeowners. The measured energy savings to the homeowners and the impact of such systems on energy production requirements are studied. Each homeowner collects data on the gallons of hot water used, electricity used to heat water, and the temperatures of the cold and hot water outlet temperatures at the sink. The data are presented and conclusions are drawn, including the optimum slope of the collector, comparison of the actual hot water consumption and the estimated consumption, evaluation of the effects of temperature settings of the non-solar water heater, and the percentage of the energy provided for hot water by the solar system. The monitoring procedures and results are evaluated. Recommendations for improving the solar hot water systems are presented. (LEW)

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

88

Building Technologies Office: HVAC and Water Heater Field Tests Research  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

HVAC and Water Heater HVAC and Water Heater Field Tests Research Project to someone by E-mail Share Building Technologies Office: HVAC and Water Heater Field Tests Research Project on Facebook Tweet about Building Technologies Office: HVAC and Water Heater Field Tests Research Project on Twitter Bookmark Building Technologies Office: HVAC and Water Heater Field Tests Research Project on Google Bookmark Building Technologies Office: HVAC and Water Heater Field Tests Research Project on Delicious Rank Building Technologies Office: HVAC and Water Heater Field Tests Research Project on Digg Find More places to share Building Technologies Office: HVAC and Water Heater Field Tests Research Project on AddThis.com... About Take Action to Save Energy Partner with DOE Activities Appliances Research

89

ENERGY STAR Residential Water Heaters to Save Americans Up to...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

ENERGY STAR Residential Water Heaters to Save Americans Up to 823 Million in the Next Five Years ENERGY STAR Residential Water Heaters to Save Americans Up to 823 Million in the...

90

TVA Partner Utilities- Energy Right Water Heater Program  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

The TVA energy right Water Heater Plan promotes the installation of high efficiency water heaters in homes and small businesses. TVA provides a $50 incentive to local power companies for each...

91

Buildings Energy Data Book: 5.4 Water Heaters  

Buildings Energy Data Book (EERE)

3 Water Heater Manufacturer Market Shares 2006 2008 A.O. SmithState Industries 23% 46% Rheem Manufacturing 37% 37% Bradford-White 14% 13% American Water Heater 14% (1) Others 12%...

92

Tennessee Valley Authority/Bristol Tennessee Essential Services Smart Water Heater Pilot  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report describes the results and analysis of electric consumption (demand), demographic, and customer satisfaction data collected from Smart Water Heater Pilot participants in summer 2009. The demand response control and data collection are implemented using Carina Technology Inc.'s Water Heater Information Solution for Energy (WISE) units installed at 117 residential sites within Bristol Tennessee Essential Services’ operating territory. The results from this study provide insight into the data col...

2010-02-03T23:59:59.000Z

93

NREL Evaluates Performance of Heat Pump Water Heaters (Fact Sheet)  

SciTech Connect

NREL evaluates energy savings potential of heat pump water heaters in homes throughout all U.S. climate zones.

Not Available

2012-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

94

Burbank Water and Power - Solar Water Heater Rebate Program ...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Burbank Water and Power - Solar Water Heater Rebate Program (California) No revision has been approved for this page. It is currently under review by our subject matter experts. No...

95

Feasibility of Using Measurements of Internal Components of Tankless Water Heaters for Field Monitoring of Energy and Water Use  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Products: Test Procedures for Water Heaters; Final Rule,"Testing of Tankless Gas Water Heater Performance," DavisInc. , "T-K2 Instantaneous Water Heater Installation Manual

Lutz, Jim

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

96

AWSWAH - the heat pipe solar water heater  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An all weather heat pipe solar water heater (AWSWAH) comprising a collector of 4 m/sup 2/ (43 ft/sup 2/) and a low profile water tank of 160 liters (42 gal.) was developed. A single heat pipe consisting of 30 risers and two manifolds in the evaporator and a spiral condenser was incorporated into the AWSWAH. Condensate metering was done by synthetic fiber wicks. The AWSWAH was tested alongside two conventional solar water heaters of identical dimensions, an open loop system and a closed loop system. It was found that the AWSWAH was an average of 50% more effective than the open system in the temperature range 30-90 /sup 0/C (86-194 /sup 0/F). The closed loop system was the least efficient of the three systems.

Akyurt, M.

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

97

Field Performance of Heat Pump Water Heaters in the Northeast  

SciTech Connect

Heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) are finally entering the mainstream residential water heater market. Potential catalysts are increased consumer demand for higher energy efficiency electric water heating and a new Federal water heating standard that effectively mandates use of HPWHs for electric storage water heaters with nominal capacities greater than 55 gallons. When compared to electric resistance water heating, the energy and cost savings potential of HPWHs is tremendous. Converting all electric resistance water heaters to HPWHs could save American consumers 7.8 billion dollars annually ($182 per household) in water heating operating costs and cut annual residential source energy consumption for water heating by 0.70 quads. Steven Winter Associates, Inc. embarked on one of the first in situ studies of these newly released HPWH products through a partnership with two sponsoring electric utility companies, National Grid and NSTAR, and one sponsoring energy efficiency service program administrator, Cape Light Compact. Recent laboratory studies have measured performance of HPWHs under various operating conditions, but publicly available field studies have not been as available. This evaluation attempts to provide publicly available field data on new HPWHs by monitoring the performance of three recently released products (General Electric GeoSpring(tm), A.O. Smith Voltex(r), and Stiebel Eltron Accelera(r)300). Fourteen HPWHs were installed in Massachusetts and Rhode Island and monitored for over a year. Of the 14 units, ten were General Electric models (50 gallon units), two were Stiebel Eltron models (80 gallon units), and two were A.O. Smith models (one 60-gallon and one 80-gallon unit).

Shapiro, C.; Puttagunta, S.

2013-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

98

TVA Partner Utilities - Energy Right' Water Heater Program | Department of  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Right' Water Heater Program Right&#039; Water Heater Program TVA Partner Utilities - Energy Right' Water Heater Program < Back Eligibility Installer/Contractor Residential Utility Savings Category Appliances & Electronics Water Heating Maximum Rebate Member utility water heater rebate programs can range from $25 to total cost. Program Info State Mississippi Program Type Utility Rebate Program Rebate Amount Energy Efficient Water Heater: $50 from TVA Provider Tennessee Valley Authority The TVA energy right Water Heater Plan promotes the installation of high efficiency water heaters in homes and small businesses. TVA provides a $50 incentive to local power companies for each installation. Power Companies may pass these incentives on to customers. Customers should contact their local power company to see what programs are

99

Heat Pump Water Heaters and American Homes: A Good Fit?  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

heater analysis model (WHAM) and a hot water draw model,heaters is calculated using WHAM, which accounts for a rangeTo account for this factor, WHAM is expanded to include the

Franco, Victor

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

100

Model for Aggregated Water Heater Load Using Dynamic Bayesian Networks  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The transition to the new generation power grid, or “smart grid”, requires novel ways of using and analyzing data collected from the grid infrastructure. Fundamental functionalities like demand response (DR), that the smart grid needs, rely heavily on the ability of the energy providers and distributors to forecast the load behavior of appliances under different DR strategies. This paper presents a new model of aggregated water heater load, based on dynamic Bayesian networks (DBNs). The model has been validated against simulated data from an open source distribution simulation software (GridLAB-D). The results presented in this paper demonstrate that the DBN model accurately tracks the load profile curves of aggregated water heaters under different testing scenarios.

Vlachopoulou, Maria; Chin, George; Fuller, Jason C.; Lu, Shuai; Kalsi, Karanjit

2012-07-19T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "demand water heaters" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

An Overview of the New Residential Water Heater Efficiency Standards  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

An Overview of the New Residential Water Heater Efficiency Standards An Overview of the New Residential Water Heater Efficiency Standards Speaker(s): Alex Lekov Date: April 26, 2010 - 12:00pm Location: 90-3122 DOE issued new standards for residential water heaters last month that will save an estimated 2.6 quads of energy over 30 years. For most product sizes sold, the new standards can be met with modest changes, such as adding more insulation to today's conventional tank-style water heaters. For the most common size electric water heater (50 gallons), the standards will save 4 percent, while for the most common size gas water heater (40 gallons), the new standards will save 3 percent. However, for the biggest products (those with over 55 gallons in storage capacity, which is about 9% and 4% of the electric and gas storage water heater markets, respectively), the new

102

Energy Cost Calculator for Electric and Gas Water Heaters | Department of  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Electric and Gas Water Heaters Electric and Gas Water Heaters Energy Cost Calculator for Electric and Gas Water Heaters October 8, 2013 - 2:26pm Addthis Vary equipment size, energy cost, hours of operation, and /or efficiency level. INPUT SECTION Input the following data (if any parameter is missing, calculator will set to default value). Defaults Type of Water Heater Electric Gas Electric Average Daily Usage (gallons per day)* gallons 64* Energy Factor† 0.92 (electric) 0.61 (gas) Energy Cost $ / kWh $0.06 per kWh $.60 per therm Quantity of Water Heaters to be Purchased unit(s) 1 unit * See assumptions for various daily water use totals. † The comparison assumes a storage tank water heater as the input type. To allow demand water heaters as the comparison type, users can specify an input EF of up to 0.85; however, 0.66 is currently the best available EF for storage water heaters.

103

Energy Basics: Solar Water Heaters  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

solar storage in one tank. Types of Solar Collectors Solar collectors gather the sun's energy, transform its radiation into heat, and then transfer that heat to water or solar...

104

Condensing Hybrid Water Heater Monitoring Field Evaluation  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Condensing Hybrid Water Heater Condensing Hybrid Water Heater Monitoring Field Evaluation Jeff Maguire, Lieko Earle, and Chuck Booten National Renewable Energy Laboratory C.E. Hancock Mountain Energy Partnership Produced under direction of the Sacramento Municipal Utilities District by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) under Interagency Agreement CRD-05-168 and Task No WR49.3000. Technical Report NREL/TP-5500-52234 October 2011 NREL is a national laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy, operated by the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC. National Renewable Energy Laboratory 1617 Cole Boulevard Golden, Colorado 80401 303-275-3000 * www.nrel.gov Contract No. DE-AC36-08GO28308

105

Field Monitoring Protocol: Heat Pump Water Heaters  

SciTech Connect

This document provides a standard field monitoring protocol for evaluating the installed performance of Heat Pump Water Heaters in residential buildings. The report is organized to be consistent with the chronology of field test planning and execution. Research questions are identified first, followed by a discussion of analysis methods, and then the details of measuring the required information are laid out. A field validation of the protocol at a house near the NREL campus is included for reference.

Sparn, B.; Earle, L.; Christensen, D.; Maguire, J.; Wilson, E.; Hancock, E.

2013-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

106

Estimating Costs and Efficiency of Storage, Demand, and Heat Pump Water  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Estimating Costs and Efficiency of Storage, Demand, and Heat Pump Estimating Costs and Efficiency of Storage, Demand, and Heat Pump Water Heaters Estimating Costs and Efficiency of Storage, Demand, and Heat Pump Water Heaters June 14, 2012 - 7:38pm Addthis A water heater's energy efficiency is determined by the energy factor (EF), which is based on the amount of hot water produced per unit of fuel consumed over a typical day. The higher the energy factor, the more efficient the water heater. A water heater's energy efficiency is determined by the energy factor (EF), which is based on the amount of hot water produced per unit of fuel consumed over a typical day. The higher the energy factor, the more efficient the water heater. What does this mean for me? Estimate the annual operating costs and compare several water heaters to determine whether it is worth investing in a more efficient

107

GeoSprings Hybrid Water Heater - Energy Innovation Portal  

The GeoSpring Hybrid Water Heater creates the same amount of hot water as a traditional electric ... Hydrogen and Fuel Cell; Hydropower, Wave and ...

108

LOW COST HEAT PUMP WATER HEATER (HPWH)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Water heating accounts for the second largest portion of residential building energy consumption, after space conditioning. Existing HPWH products are a technical success, with demonstrated energy savings of 50% or more compared with standard electric resistance water heaters. However, current HPWHs available on the market cost an average of $1000 or more, which is too expensive for significant market penetration. What is needed is a method to reduce the first cost of HPWHs, so that the payback period will be reduced from 8 years to a period short enough for the market to accept this technology. A second problem with most existing HPWH products is the reliability issue associated with the pump and water loop needed to circulate cool water from the storage tank to the HPWH condenser. Existing integral HPWHs have the condenser wrapped around the water tank and thus avoid the pump and circulation issues but require a relatively complex and expensive manufacturing process. A more straightforward potentially less costly approach to the integral, single package HPWH design is to insert the condenser directly into the storage tank, or immersed direct heat exchanger (IDX). Initial development of an IDX HPWH met technical performance goals, achieving measured efficiencies or energy factors (EF) in excess of 1.79. In comparison conventional electric water heaters (EWH) have EFs of about 0.9. However, the initial approach required a 2.5" hole on top of the tank for insertion of the condenser - much larger than the standard openings typically provided. Interactions with water heater manufacturers indicated that the non standard hole size would likely lead to increased manufacturing costs (at least initially) and largely eliminate any cost advantage of the IDX approach. Recently we have been evaluating an approach to allow use of a standard tank hole size for insertion of the IDX condenser. Laboratory tests of a prototype have yielded an EF of 2.02.

Mei, Vince C [ORNL; Baxter, Van D [ORNL

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

109

The influence of a variable volume water heater on the domestic load profile  

SciTech Connect

In this paper a variable volume water heater and a load impact model is presented. The variable volume water heater is a unique system that can be implemented as a residential demand-side management tool. The variable volume water heater can shift the electrical energy consumption, used to heat water, to off-peak time periods. The electrical energy is shifted without influencing the hot water usage of the customer. The load impact model simulates the effect of controlling the volume of stored hot water on a domestic load. The model mathematics as well as the model verification are discussed. The paper ends with a comparative case study on two residential areas. The case study indicates that the variable volume water heater can reduce the system peak as well as increase the off-peak energy consumption.

Lemmer, E.F.; Delport, G.J.

1999-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

110

Measure Guideline: Transitioning to a Tankless Water Heater  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This Measure Guideline provides information to help residential builders and retrofitters with the design, specification, selection, implementation, installation, and maintenance issues of transitioning from tank-type water heaters to tankless water heaters. The report compares the differences between tankless and tank-type water heaters, highlighting the energy savings that can be realized by adopting tankless water heaters over tank-type water heaters. Selection criteria and risks discussed include unit sizing and location, water distribution system, plumbing line length and diameter, water quality, electrical backup, and code issues. Cost and performance data are provided for various types of tankless and tank-type water heaters, both natural gas fired and electric. Also considered are interactions between the tankless water heater and other functional elements of a house, such as cold water supply and low-flow devices. Operating costs and energy use of water distribution systems for single- and two-story houses are provided, along with discussion of the various types of distribution systems that can be used with tankless water heaters. Finally, details to prepare for proper installation of a tankless water heater are described.

Brozyna, K.; Rapport, A.

2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

111

Linn County Rural Electric Cooperative - Solar Water Heater Rebate Program  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Linn County Rural Electric Cooperative - Solar Water Heater Rebate Linn County Rural Electric Cooperative - Solar Water Heater Rebate Program Linn County Rural Electric Cooperative - Solar Water Heater Rebate Program < Back Eligibility Agricultural Commercial Residential Savings Category Heating & Cooling Solar Water Heating Program Info State Iowa Program Type Utility Rebate Program Rebate Amount $500 Provider Linn County Rural Electric Cooperative Association Linn County Rural Electric Cooperative Association (Linn County RECA) is a member-owned cooperative. To encourage energy efficiency, Linn County offers a number of rebates to commercial, residential, and agricultural customers. Owners of both new construction and existing buildings are eligible for a $500 rebate for solar water heaters. The water heaters must have an auxiliary tank of at least 40 gallons and the solar water heater

112

Rock Hill Utilities - Water Heater and Heat Pump Rebate Program |  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Rock Hill Utilities - Water Heater and Heat Pump Rebate Program Rock Hill Utilities - Water Heater and Heat Pump Rebate Program Rock Hill Utilities - Water Heater and Heat Pump Rebate Program < Back Eligibility Residential Savings Category Heating & Cooling Commercial Heating & Cooling Heat Pumps Appliances & Electronics Water Heating Program Info State South Carolina Program Type Utility Rebate Program Rebate Amount Water Heater: up to $275 Heat Pump Replacement: $400 Provider Rock Hill Utilities Through the SmartChoice program, Rock Hill Utilities offers rebates for water heater and heat pump replacements. Information on financing for heat pumps can also be found on the web site listed above. If both the water heater and heat pump are purchased then the customer may qualify for the Great Rate program. The Great Rate program will add a 25% discount to a

113

Carbon Dioxide Heat Pump Water Heater Research Project | Department of  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Emerging Technologies » Carbon Dioxide Heat Pump Water Heater Emerging Technologies » Carbon Dioxide Heat Pump Water Heater Research Project Carbon Dioxide Heat Pump Water Heater Research Project The U.S. Department of Energy is currently conducting research into carbon dioxide (CO2) heat pump water heaters. This project will employ innovative techniques to adapt water heating technology to meet U.S. market requirements, including specifications, cost, and performance targets. Carbon dioxide is a refrigerant with a global warming potential (GWP) of 1. The CO2 heat pump water heater research seeks to develop an improved life cycle climate performance compared to conventional refrigerants. For example, R134a, another type of refrigerant, has a GWP of 1,300. Project Description This project seeks to develop a CO2-based heat pump water heater (HPWH)

114

Aiken Electric Cooperative Inc - Residential Water Heater Rebate Program |  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Aiken Electric Cooperative Inc - Residential Water Heater Rebate Aiken Electric Cooperative Inc - Residential Water Heater Rebate Program Aiken Electric Cooperative Inc - Residential Water Heater Rebate Program < Back Eligibility Residential Savings Category Appliances & Electronics Water Heating Program Info State South Carolina Program Type Utility Rebate Program Rebate Amount Free high efficiency water Heater; $200 installation fee Water heater and timer with normal installation: $2.50 credit for 10 years Timer only: $200 cash payment and $2.50 credit for 10 years New construction contract home: $250 Provider Aiken Electric Cooperative Aiken Electric Cooperative offers residential members rebates for installing high-efficiency electric water heaters and/or timers in their homes. Customers have four rebate options:

115

Coweta-Fayette EMC - Residential Solar Water Heater Rebate Program  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Coweta-Fayette EMC - Residential Solar Water Heater Rebate Program Coweta-Fayette EMC - Residential Solar Water Heater Rebate Program (Georgia) Coweta-Fayette EMC - Residential Solar Water Heater Rebate Program (Georgia) < Back Eligibility Residential Savings Category Heating & Cooling Solar Water Heating Program Info State Georgia Program Type Utility Rebate Program Rebate Amount Existing Homes Solar Water Heater: $750 New Homes Solar Water Heater: $1,250 - $1,500 Provider Coweta-Fayette Electric Membership Corporation Coweta-Fayette Electric Membership Corporation (EMC) provides electric and natural gas service to 58,000 customers in Georgia's Coweta, Fayette, Meriwether, Heard, Troop and Fulton counties. Currently, Coweta-Fayette EMC offers rebates on solar water heaters from $750 up to $1,500 as part of the Touchstone Energy Home Program. Solar

116

The Trials and Tribulations of Testing Water Heaters  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

The Trials and Tribulations of Testing Water Heaters The Trials and Tribulations of Testing Water Heaters Speaker(s): James Lutz Date: August 14, 2001 - 12:00pm Location: Bldg. 90 Seminar Host/Point of Contact: Julie Osborn During our work on efficiency standards for electric water heaters, we discovered significant discrepancies between the rated and tested efficiencies of the highest rated electric resistance water heaters. For high efficiency electric resistance water heaters with an Energy Factor above .92, the heat losses are so small that minor flaws in the tank or obscure problems in the test procedure become more apparent. This seminar reports on our investigation into the causes of inconsistent results obtained during testing of high efficiency electric resistance water heaters at different test labs. We discovered some reasons for the

117

Advances in the Research of Heat Pump Water Heaters  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper presents the progress of many recently correlative research works on the heat pump water heater (HPWH) and on solar-assisted heat pump water heaters. The advances in the research on compressor development, alternative refrigerant technology for a compressor HPWH are separately summarized. A new study on frosting/defrosting of an air source heat pump water heater (ASHPWH) is also discussed. The trends of some new technologies of HPWH are analyzed.

Shan, S.; Wang, D.; Wang, R.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

118

Economics of Residential Gas Furnaces and Water Heaters in United...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

driven by first cost considerations and the availability of power vent and condensing water heaters. Little analysis has been performed to assess the economic impacts of the...

119

Economics of Residential Gas Furnaces and Water Heaters in United...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

single-family home construction market, the choice of what gas furnace and gas water heater combination to install is primarily driven by first cost considerations. In this...

120

Cost of Increased Energy Efficiency for Residential Water Heaters  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

distributor, and installer costs are used to calculate the costs of different water heater designs. Consumer operating expenses are calculated based on the modeled energy...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "demand water heaters" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

NREL Develops Heat Pump Water Heater Simulation Model (Fact Sheet)  

SciTech Connect

A new simulation model helps researchers evaluate real-world impacts of heat pump water heaters in U.S. homes.

Hudon, K.

2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

122

Energy Saving Absorption Heat Pump Water Heater - Energy ...  

ORNL’s new absorption heat pump and water heater technology offers substantial energy savings and can reduce the use of fossil fuels by buildings. While ...

123

Condensing Side-Arm Water Heater - Energy Innovation Portal  

The condensing side-arm element recirculates exhaust gases into heating the cooler part of a water heater tank by the ... Building Energy ... Solar Thermal;

124

Clark Public Utilities - Solar Water Heater Rebate | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Clark Public Utilities - Solar Water Heater Rebate Clark Public Utilities - Solar Water Heater Rebate Clark Public Utilities - Solar Water Heater Rebate < Back Eligibility Commercial Residential Savings Category Heating & Cooling Solar Water Heating Program Info State District of Columbia Program Type Utility Rebate Program Rebate Amount $500 Provider Clark PUD Clark Public Utilities offers a rebate of $500 to customers who install a solar water heating system. Customers must own the residence or business where the solar water heating system is installed and must have an electric water heater. In addition, Clark Public Utilities offers a [http://dsireusa.org/incentives/incentive.cfm?Incentive_Code=WA29F&re=1&ee=1 loan program] for eligible solar water heater equipment. For additional information, call Energy Services at (360) 992-3355.

125

Solar Water Heater Rebate Program (U.S. Virgin Islands) | Department...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Solar Water Heater Rebate Program (U.S. Virgin Islands) Solar Water Heater Rebate Program (U.S. Virgin Islands) Eligibility Residential Savings For Heating & Cooling Solar Water...

126

Clay Electric Cooperative, Inc - Energy Smart Solar Water Heater Rebate  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Clay Electric Cooperative, Inc - Energy Smart Solar Water Heater Clay Electric Cooperative, Inc - Energy Smart Solar Water Heater Rebate Program Clay Electric Cooperative, Inc - Energy Smart Solar Water Heater Rebate Program < Back Eligibility Residential Savings Category Heating & Cooling Solar Water Heating Maximum Rebate $600 Program Info State Florida Program Type Utility Rebate Program Rebate Amount 0.01 per BTU output Provider Clay Electric Co-op Clay Electric Cooperative (CEC) provides a rebate of $0.01 per BTU output to its residential members when they purchase qualified solar water heaters. This rebate is capped at 60,000 BTUs per system, or $600. Eligible solar water heaters can be either passive or active systems. The proposed solar system must meet Florida Solar Energy Center (FSEC) specifications and be installed by a contractor certified to install solar water heating

127

Heat Pump Water Heater Performance in  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

searc searc e er tra A Research Institute of the University of Central Florida FLORIDA SOLAR ENERGY CENTER - A Re h Institut of the Univ sity of Cen l Florida searc e er tra Heat Pump Water Heater Performance in Laboratory House Building America Technical Update 2013 ACI National Home Performance Conference April 29- 30 , 2013 Carlos J. Colon carlos@fsec.ucf.edu A Research Institute of the University of Central Florida FLORIDA SOLAR ENERGY CENTER - A Re h Institut of the Univ sity of Cen l Florida FLORIDA SOLAR ENERGY CENTER - A Research Institute of the University of Central Florida Hot Water Systems (HWS) Laboratory FSEC Grounds, Florida (east coast) 2009 -Present (Currently fourth testing rotation) FLORIDA SOLAR ENERGY CENTER - A Research Institute of the University of Central Florida

128

Water Heaters and Hot Water Distribution Systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The effect on water and gas usage from cross-flow betweencontrols have on water and gas usage over a large number ofsystems, and their water and gas usage. Hourly schedules for

Lutz, Jim

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

129

Tri-County Electric Cooperative - Energy Efficient Water Heater Rebate  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Tri-County Electric Cooperative - Energy Efficient Water Heater Tri-County Electric Cooperative - Energy Efficient Water Heater Rebate Program Tri-County Electric Cooperative - Energy Efficient Water Heater Rebate Program < Back Eligibility Commercial Residential Savings Category Appliances & Electronics Water Heating Program Info State Texas Program Type Utility Rebate Program Rebate Amount $75 Provider Tri-County Electric Cooperative Tri-County Electric Cooperative offers a $75 rebate on the purchase of energy-efficient electric water heaters. The rebate is valid for new or replacement units which have an Energy Factor Rating of 0.90 or higher. The minimum tank size is 40 gallons, with a minimum 4,500 watt heating element. For validation purposes, a copy of the sales or installation receipt must accompany the [http://www.tcectexas.com/Forms/water%20heater%20rebate%20form.pdf

130

Design and Application of Solar Water Heater Intelligent Control System  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Solar water heater intelligent control system is made up of four modules which are data acquisition module, single-chip control module, the implementation and regulation module and human- machine interaction module. The problems of automatic detection ... Keywords: Solar Water Heater, Hardware Design, Detection and Control

Yu Gui Yin

2009-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

131

Review of International Methods of Test to Rate the Efficiency of Water Heaters  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

test procedures for solar water heaters characterizes systemWasted water Solar Heat pump water heater Australia/Newwater_heaters/Annex_IV_8July08 International Organization for Standardization, "Draft International Standard ISO/DIS 9459-4 Solar

Lutz, Jim

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

132

Georgia Power- Residential Solar and Heat Pump Water Heater Rebate (Georgia)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Georgia Power customers may be eligible for rebates up to $250 each toward the installation costs of a 50 gallon or greater solar water heater or heat pump water heater. The solar water heater or...

133

Water heater with an improved thermostat mounting and a method of making such water heaters  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An improvement in an electric water heater is described comprising: a non-metallic tank, a cold water inlet, a hot water outlet, an electrical heating means adapted to heat a body of water contained in the tank and a thermostat having a sensing face with a given area controlling the flow of electric current to the heating means, the improvement comprising a thermally conductive thermostat mounting plate having a surface area substantially larger than the sensing face given area in direct contact with the tank and a thermostat retention means releasably holding the thermostat in contact with the thermostat mounting plate.

Moore, H.J.; Deneau, M.E.

1993-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

134

Cost of Increased Energy Efficiency for Residential Water Heaters  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Cost of Increased Energy Efficiency for Residential Water Heaters Cost of Increased Energy Efficiency for Residential Water Heaters Speaker(s): Alex Lekov Date: March 22, 2001 - 12:00pm Location: Bldg. 90 Seminar Host/Point of Contact: Julie Osborn This presentation describes the analysis of the costs of increased energy efficiency for residential water heaters. Here, we focus on the cost and efficiency data for electric and gas-fired water heaters. This data formed the basis of the Technical Support Document for the Department of Energy's (DOE) Final Rule on Water Heaters. The engineering analysis uses computer simulation models to investigate the efficiency improvements due to design options and combinations thereof. The analysis covers four polyurethane foam insulation types based on non-ozone-depleting substances as blowing

135

Water Heaters and Hot Water Distribution Systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Water Distribution System Recommendations for the 2008 Title- 24 Residential Building Energy Efficiency Standards .. 4 Multi-FamilyWater Distribution System Recommendations for the 2008 Title- 24 Residential Building Energy Efficiency Standards 11 Multi-FamilyWater Distribution System Recommendations for the 2008 Title- 24 Residential Building Energy Efficiency Standards 48 Multi-Family

Lutz, Jim

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

136

Energy conservation for household refrigerators and water heaters  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An energy conservation arrangement for household refrigerators and water heaters, in which the source of cold water to the hot water heater is divided and part is caused to flow through and be warmed in the condenser of the refrigerator. The warmed water is then further heated in the oil cooling loop of the refrigerator compressor, and proceeds then to the top of the hot water tank.

Speicher, T. L.

1984-12-11T23:59:59.000Z

137

Our Environment in Hot Water: Comparing Water Heaters, A Life Cycle Approach Comparing Tank and Tankless Water Heaters in California  

SciTech Connect

Residential water heating is a large source of energy use in California homes. This project took a life cycle approach to comparing tank and tankless water heaters in Northern and Southern California. Information about the life cycle phases was calculated using the European Union?s Methodology study for EcoDesign of Energy-using Products (MEEUP) and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory?s Life Cycle Inventory (NREL LCI) database. In a unit-to-unit comparison, it was found that tankless water heaters would lessen impacts of water heating by reducing annual energy use by 2800 MJ/year (16% compared to tank), and reducing global warming emissions by 175 kg CO2 eqv./year (18% reduction). Overall, the production and combustion of natural gas in the use phase had the largest impact. Total waste, VOCs, PAHs, particulate matter, and heavy-metals-to-air categories were also affected relatively strongly by manufacturing processes. It was estimated that tankless water heater users would have to use 10 more gallons of hot water a day (an increased usage of approximately 20%) to have the same impact as tank water heaters. The project results suggest that if a higher percentage of Californians used tankless water heaters, environmental impacts caused by water heating would be smaller.

Lu, Alison; McMahon, James; Masanet, Eric; Lutz, Jim

2008-08-13T23:59:59.000Z

138

City of San Jose - Solar Hot Water Heaters and Photovoltaic Systems...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Hot Water Heaters and Photovoltaic Systems Permit Requirements City of San Jose - Solar Hot Water Heaters and Photovoltaic Systems Permit Requirements Eligibility Commercial...

139

Energy Efficiency Design Options for Residential Water Heaters: Economic Impacts on Consumers  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

G. Rosenquist. 1998. WHAM: A Simplified Energy ConsumptionWater Heater Analysis Model (WHAM) calculation method, whichcharacteristics of water heaters, WHAM uses parameters from

Lekov, Alex

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

140

Economics of residential gas furnaces and water heaters in US new construction market  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

appliance_standards/residential/water_ pool_heaters_prelim_Star (2008). Energy star residential water heaters: Finalefficiency improvements for residential gas furnaces in the

Lekov, Alex B.; Franco, Victor H.; Wong-Parodi, Gabrielle; McMahon, James E.; Chan, Peter

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "demand water heaters" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Solar Water Heater Roadmap Leads Path to Market Expansion (Fact Sheet)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Innovative strategy to reduce installed cost of solar water heater systems can rival conventional natural gas water heaters in the marketplace.

Not Available

2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

142

Savings Project: Insulate Your Water Heater Tank | Department...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Your Water Heater Tank Addthis Project Level medium Energy Savings 20-45 annually Time to Complete 1.5 hours Overall Cost 30 Insulate your hot water tank to save energy and...

143

Buildings Energy Data Book: 5.4 Water Heaters  

Buildings Energy Data Book (EERE)

4 Water Heater Stock for Commercial Buildings, By Fuel Type Fuel Type Electric 41% Natural Gas 31% Fuel Oil 2% PropaneLPG 3% District Heat 1% No Water Heating 25% Note(s):...

144

Carbon Dioxide-Based Heat Pump Water Heater Research Project  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

The U.S. Department of Energy is currently conducting research into carbon dioxide (CO2) heat pump water heaters. This project will employ innovative techniques to adapt water heating technology to...

145

Blue Ridge Mountain Electric Membership Corporation - Water Heater Rebate  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

You are here You are here Home » Blue Ridge Mountain Electric Membership Corporation - Water Heater Rebate Program Blue Ridge Mountain Electric Membership Corporation - Water Heater Rebate Program < Back Eligibility Residential Savings Category Home Weatherization Commercial Weatherization Sealing Your Home Heating & Cooling Commercial Heating & Cooling Cooling Construction Design & Remodeling Ventilation Manufacturing Heat Pumps Appliances & Electronics Water Heating Program Info State Georgia Program Type Utility Rebate Program Rebate Amount In-Home Energy Evaluation Program Windows: $500 Duct Repair: $500 Rehabilitation Work: $250 HVAC Replacement: $250/unit HVAC Tune-up: $150/unit Insulation: $500 Water Heater and Pipe Insulation: $50 Air Sealing: $500 Energy Right Program

146

New Braunfels Utilities - Residential Solar Water Heater Rebate Program |  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

New Braunfels Utilities - Residential Solar Water Heater Rebate New Braunfels Utilities - Residential Solar Water Heater Rebate Program New Braunfels Utilities - Residential Solar Water Heater Rebate Program < Back Eligibility Residential Savings Category Heating & Cooling Solar Water Heating Program Info State Texas Program Type Utility Rebate Program Rebate Amount $0.265/kWh Provider New Braunfels Utilities New Braunfels Utilities offers a rebate for residential customers who purchase and install solar water heating systems on eligible homes. A rebate of the equivalent of $0.265 per kWh is available to these customers. The maximum rebate amount is $900 for participating customers. Applicants must have an active residential electric service account with NBU in order to be eligible. Solar water heaters must preheat water for an electric

147

The Impact of Blowing Agents on Residential Water Heater Performance  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

The Impact of Blowing Agents on Residential Water Heater Performance The Impact of Blowing Agents on Residential Water Heater Performance Title The Impact of Blowing Agents on Residential Water Heater Performance Publication Type Report LBNL Report Number LBNL-47352 Year of Publication 2001 Authors Lekov, Alexander B., James D. Lutz, Camilla Dunham Whitehead, and James E. McMahon Document Number LBNL-47352 Date Published January 12 Abstract The National Appliance Energy Conservation Act of 1987 (NAECA) requires the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to consider amendments to the energy conservation standards to increase energy efficiency in residential water heaters. A driving force affecting efficiency is the ozone-depletion regulation regarding blowing agents for insulation in all water heater fuel types. This paper presents results of cost and efficiency impacts of three potential blowing agents. Residential water heaters are typically insulated with polyurethane foam in the space between the tank and the jacket. Currently, water heater manufacturers use HCFC-141b, an ozone-depleting substance, as a blowing agent. After 2003, as a result of the Montreal Protocol (1993), manufacturers must use blowing agents that do not deplete the ozone layer. The analysis presented in this paper considers three replacement candidates, HFC-245fa, HFC-134a, and cyclopentane by comparing their efficiency and cost effectiveness when applied to water heater insulation. This analysis used computer simulation models and other analytical methods to investigate the efficiency improvements due to different design options, when alternative blowing agents are applied. The calculations were based on the DOE test procedure for residential water heaters. The analysis used average manufacturer, retailer, and installer costs to calculate the total consumer costs. Consumer operating expenses were calculated based on modeled energy consumption under test procedure conditions and U.S. average energy prices. With this information, a cost-efficiency relationship was developed to show the average manufacturer and consumer cost to achieve increased efficiency.

148

Grays Harbor PUD - Solar Water Heater Loan | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Solar Water Heater Loan Solar Water Heater Loan Grays Harbor PUD - Solar Water Heater Loan < Back Eligibility Residential Savings Category Heating & Cooling Solar Water Heating Maximum Rebate not specified Program Info State District of Columbia Program Type Utility Loan Program Rebate Amount not specified Provider Grays Harbor PUD Since October 2001, Grays Harbor PUD has offered a low-interest loan program (currently 4.0%) for the installation of solar water heaters. Loans are available for the installation of solar collectors of 40 square feet or more. The loans are provided through local lenders, with interest subsidized by the PUD. Only customers who currently use electricity for hot water are eligible. Pre-approval is required for this loan and loan amounts are determined on a case-by-case basis.

149

Grays Harbor PUD - Solar Water Heater Rebate | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Grays Harbor PUD - Solar Water Heater Rebate Grays Harbor PUD - Solar Water Heater Rebate Grays Harbor PUD - Solar Water Heater Rebate < Back Eligibility Commercial Industrial Residential Savings Category Heating & Cooling Solar Water Heating Program Info State District of Columbia Program Type Utility Rebate Program Rebate Amount $600 Provider Grays Harbor PUD Since October 2001, Grays Harbor PUD has offered a rebate program for the installation of solar water heaters. Rebates of $600 are available for the installation of solar collectors of 40 square feet or more. Only customers who currently use electricity for hot water are eligible. This rebate is available on a case-by-case basis, so you must contact the utility in order to take advantage of it. Customers may choose a [http://dsireusa.org/incentives/incentive.cfm?Incentive_Code=WA09F&re=1&ee=1

150

Multifamily Heat Pump Water Heater Evaluation  

SciTech Connect

Although heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) have gained significant attention in recent years as a high efficiency electric water heating solution for single family homes, central HPWHs for commercial or multi-family applications are not as well documented in terms of measured performance and cost effectiveness. To evaluate this technology, the Alliance for Residential Building Innovation team monitored the performance of a 10.5 ton central HPWH installed on a student apartment building at the West Village Zero Net Energy Community in Davis, California. Monitoring data collected over a 16 month period were then used to validate a TRNSYS simulation model. The TRNSYS model was then used to project performance in different climates using local electric rates. Results of the study indicate that after some initial commissioning issues, the HPWH operated reliably with an annual average efficiency of 2.12 (Coefficient of Performance). The observed efficiency was lower than the unit's rated efficiency, primarily due to the fact that the system rarely operated under steady-state conditions. Changes in the system configuration, storage tank sizing, and control settings would likely improve the observed field efficiency. Modeling results suggest significant energy savings relative to electric storage water heating systems (typical annual efficiencies around 0.90) providing for typical simple paybacks of six to ten years without any incentives. The economics versus gas water heating are currently much more challenging given the current low natural gas prices in much of the country. Increased market size for this technology would benefit cost effectiveness and spur greater technology innovation.

Hoeschele, M.; Weitzel, E.

2013-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

151

Solar Water Heaters and the Economy | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Solar Water Heaters and the Economy Solar Water Heaters and the Economy Solar Water Heaters and the Economy July 11, 2012 - 11:59am Addthis Ernie Tucker Editor, National Renewable Energy Laboratory These are the days of hot sun and mortgage refinance frenzy. Somehow, they've both combined in my mind to make me ponder the economics of a solar water heater. Because the sun's been beating down on our garden hose, the initial flush of water can be very hot. The warm spray reminded me of the times on camping trips when we'd bring along a portable solar shower -- essentially a black plastic bag with a tube and shower nozzle -- for bathing. While not an endless supply (perhaps 10 gallons), it was a very enjoyable luxury. Of course, it assumes that there's plenty of sunshine, but if so -- voila -- a

152

Solar Water Heaters and the Economy | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Water Heaters and the Economy Water Heaters and the Economy Solar Water Heaters and the Economy July 11, 2012 - 11:59am Addthis Ernie Tucker Editor, National Renewable Energy Laboratory These are the days of hot sun and mortgage refinance frenzy. Somehow, they've both combined in my mind to make me ponder the economics of a solar water heater. Because the sun's been beating down on our garden hose, the initial flush of water can be very hot. The warm spray reminded me of the times on camping trips when we'd bring along a portable solar shower -- essentially a black plastic bag with a tube and shower nozzle -- for bathing. While not an endless supply (perhaps 10 gallons), it was a very enjoyable luxury. Of course, it assumes that there's plenty of sunshine, but if so -- voila -- a warm and sudsy campsite clean-up is possible.

153

Energy test method development for electric heat pump water heaters  

SciTech Connect

Modifications are proposed for the current US Department of Energy test procedures for water heaters in order to make them applicable to electric heat pump water heaters. The modifications are in the areas of definitions and technical procedures. The latter include the test conditions, test procedures and measurements, and calculations. Reasons for making these modifications and laboratory test data are provided to support the modifications in the technical procedures. The main modifications include: (1) lowering the water supply temperature from 70/sup 0/F to 55/sup 0/F, (2) lowering the tank thermostat setting from 160/sup 0/F to 145/sup 0/F to maintain the same 90/sup 0/F temperature rise, (3) measuring the power input instead of using the nameplate rating as in the case for an electric water heater, and (4) measuring the recovery efficiency instead of calculating it by using the standby losses in the case for an electric water heater.

Wan, C.A.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

154

Technical support document: Energy efficiency standards for consumer products: Room air conditioners, water heaters, direct heating equipment, mobile home furnaces, kitchen ranges and ovens, pool heaters, fluorescent lamp ballasts and television sets. Volume 3, Water heaters, pool heaters, direct heating equipment, and mobile home furnaces  

SciTech Connect

This is Volume 3 in a series of documents on energy efficiency of consumer products. This volume discusses energy efficiency of water heaters. Water heaters are defined by NAECA as products that utilize oil, gas, or electricity to heat potable water for use outside the heater upon demand. These are major appliances, which use a large portion (18% on average) of total energy consumed per household (1). They differ from most other appliances in that they are usually installed in obscure locations as part of the plumbing and are ignored until they fail. Residential water heaters are capable of heating water up to 180{degrees}F, although the setpoints are usually set lower.

Not Available

1993-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

155

Covered Product Category: Gas Storage Water Heaters | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Gas Storage Water Heaters Gas Storage Water Heaters Covered Product Category: Gas Storage Water Heaters October 7, 2013 - 10:43am Addthis ENERGY STAR Qualified Products FEMP provides acquisition guidance across a variety of product categories, including gas storage water heaters, which are an ENERGY STAR®-qualified product category. Federal laws and executive orders mandate that agencies meet these efficiency requirements in all procurement and acquisition actions that are not specifically exempted by law. Most manufacturers display the ENERGY STAR label on complying models. For a model not displaying this label, check the manufacturer's literature to determine if it meets the efficiency requirements outlined by ENERGY STAR. Performance Requirements for Federal Purchases For the most up-to-date efficiency levels required by ENERGY STAR, look for

156

New Home Buyer Solar Water Heater Trade-Off Study  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report details the results of a research conducted in 1998 and 1999 and outlines a marketing deployment plan designed for businesses interested in marketing solar water heaters in the new home industry.

Symmetrics Marketing Corporation

1999-08-18T23:59:59.000Z

157

An Overview of the New Residential Water Heater Efficiency Standards  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

An Overview of the New Residential Water Heater Efficiency Standards Speaker(s): Alex Lekov Date: April 26, 2010 - 12:00pm Location: 90-3122 DOE issued new standards for...

158

Heat Pump Water Heaters and American Homes: A Good Fit?  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

can be cost effective in all regionsfor most single family homes, especially when the water heater is not installed in a conditioned space. HPWHs are not cost effective for most...

159

Tankless Coil and Indirect Water Heaters | Department of Energy  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

as it flows through a heating coil or heat exchanger installed in a main furnace or boiler. Tankless coil water heaters are most efficient during cold months when the heating...

160

Buildings Energy Data Book: 5.4 Water Heaters  

Buildings Energy Data Book (EERE)

1 Water Heater Stock for Residential Buildings, By Fuel Type Electric Natural Gas Fuel Oil PropaneLPG Other 0.2 0.2% Total (1) Note(s): Souce(s): According to RECS, 1.1 million...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "demand water heaters" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Marshall Municipal Utilities- Solar Thermal Water Heater Rebate Program  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Marshall Municipal Utilities (MMU) offers residential customers rebates for installing a ENERGY STAR Solar Thermal Water Heater. Rebates are based on the size of the system; MMU offers $20 per...

162

Savings Project: Insulate Your Water Heater Tank | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Savings Project: Insulate Your Water Heater Tank Savings Project: Insulate Your Water Heater Tank Savings Project: Insulate Your Water Heater Tank Addthis Project Level medium Energy Savings $20-$45 annually Time to Complete 1.5 hours Overall Cost $30 Insulate your hot water tank to save energy and money. | Photo courtesy of iStockphoto.com/glennebo Insulate your hot water tank to save energy and money. | Photo courtesy of iStockphoto.com/glennebo Just like insulating your walls or roof, insulating your hot water tank is an easy and inexpensive way to improve energy efficiency and save you money each month. If your water tank is new, it is likely already insulated. If you have an older hot water tank, check to see if it has insulation with an R-value of at least 24. If not, consider insulating your water tank, which

163

A comprehensive review of market research on solar water heaters  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This is the second report of a four-task project to develop a marketing plan designed for businesses interested in marketing solar water heaters in the new home industry. The objective of this task is to identify key elements in previous studies on the marketing of solar water heaters in the new home industry. This review includes studies performed by FOCUS Marketing Services, the National Association of Home Builders Research Center, Symmetrics Marketing Corporation, and the California Energy Commission.

Ghent, P.; Keller, C.

1999-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

164

Commercial Gas Water Heaters, Purchasing Specifications for Energy-Efficient Products (Fact Sheet)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Performance and purchasing specifications for commercial gas water heaters under the FEMP-designated product program.

Not Available

2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

165

Determining Benefits and Costs of Improved Water Heater Efficiencies  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Determining Benefits and Costs of Improved Water Heater Efficiencies Determining Benefits and Costs of Improved Water Heater Efficiencies Title Determining Benefits and Costs of Improved Water Heater Efficiencies Publication Type Report LBNL Report Number LBNL-45618 Year of Publication 2000 Authors Lekov, Alexander B., James D. Lutz, Xiaomin Liu, Camilla Dunham Whitehead, and James E. McMahon Document Number LBNL-45618 Date Published May 4 Abstract Economic impacts on individual consumers from possible revisions to U.S. residential water heater energy-efficiency standards are examined using a life-cycle cost (LCC) analysis. LCC is the consumer's cost of purchasing and installing a water heater and operating it over its lifetime. This approach makes it possible to evaluate the economic impacts on individual consumers from the revised standards. The methodology allows an examination of groups of the population which benefit or lose from suggested efficiency standards. The results show that the economic benefits to consumers are significant. At the efficiency level examined in this paper, 35% of households with electric water heaters experience LCC savings, with an average savings of $106, while 4% show LCC losses, with an average loss of $40 compared to a pre-standard LCC average of $2,565. The remainder of the population (61%) are largely unaffected.

166

Estimating the Cost and Energy Efficiency of a Solar Water Heater |  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Estimating the Cost and Energy Efficiency of a Solar Water Heater Estimating the Cost and Energy Efficiency of a Solar Water Heater Estimating the Cost and Energy Efficiency of a Solar Water Heater May 30, 2012 - 3:09pm Addthis Solar water heaters are more efficient the gas or electric heaters. | Chart credit ENERGY STAR Solar water heaters are more efficient the gas or electric heaters. | Chart credit ENERGY STAR What does this mean for me? Solar water heaters cost more to purchase and install but may save you money in the long run. Estimate the annual operating costs and compare several solar water heaters to determine whether it is worth investing in a more efficient system. Solar water heating systems usually cost more to purchase and install than conventional water heating systems. However, a solar water heater can

167

Estimating the Cost and Energy Efficiency of a Solar Water Heater |  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Estimating the Cost and Energy Efficiency of a Solar Water Heater Estimating the Cost and Energy Efficiency of a Solar Water Heater Estimating the Cost and Energy Efficiency of a Solar Water Heater May 30, 2012 - 3:09pm Addthis Solar water heaters are more efficient the gas or electric heaters. | Chart credit ENERGY STAR Solar water heaters are more efficient the gas or electric heaters. | Chart credit ENERGY STAR What does this mean for me? Solar water heaters cost more to purchase and install but may save you money in the long run. Estimate the annual operating costs and compare several solar water heaters to determine whether it is worth investing in a more efficient system. Solar water heating systems usually cost more to purchase and install than conventional water heating systems. However, a solar water heater can

168

Estimating Costs and Efficiency of Storage, Demand, and Heat...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

| Chart credit ENERGY STAR Estimating the Cost and Energy Efficiency of a Solar Water Heater Diagram of a tankless water heater. Tankless or Demand-Type Water Heaters Water...

169

SMUD - Solar Water Heater Rebate Program | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Solar Water Heater Rebate Program Solar Water Heater Rebate Program SMUD - Solar Water Heater Rebate Program < Back Eligibility Residential Savings Category Heating & Cooling Solar Water Heating Program Info State California Program Type Utility Rebate Program Rebate Amount 500 - 1,500 per system, depending on energy savings Provider Sacramento Municipal Utility District The Sacramento Municipal Utility District's (SMUD) Solar Domestic Hot Water Program provides rebates and/or loan financing to customers who install solar water heating systems. The amount of the rebate depends on how much electricity the system will offset annually: * 800 - 1,399 kWh: $500 * 1,400 - 2,199 kWh: $1,000 * 2,200 kWh or greater: $1,500 . All solar water-heating units must meet standards set by the Solar Rating

170

List of Water Heaters Incentives | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Heaters Incentives Heaters Incentives Jump to: navigation, search The following contains the list of 973 Water Heaters Incentives. CSV (rows 1-500) CSV (rows 501-973) Incentive Incentive Type Place Applicable Sector Eligible Technologies Active AEP Ohio - Commercial New Construction Energy Efficiency Rebate Program (Ohio) Utility Rebate Program Ohio Commercial Industrial Local Government Municipal Utility Nonprofit Schools State Government Central Air conditioners Chillers Comprehensive Measures/Whole Building Custom/Others pending approval Energy Mgmt. Systems/Building Controls Heat pumps Lighting Lighting Controls/Sensors Motor VFDs Motors Water Heaters Commercial Cooking Equipment Commercial Refrigeration Equipment Room Air Conditioners Yes AEP Public Service Company of Oklahoma - Residential Efficiency Rebate Program (Oklahoma) Utility Rebate Program Oklahoma Residential Building Insulation

171

The Influence of Residential Solar Water Heating on Electric Utility Demand  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Similar sets of residences in Austin, Texas with electric water heaters and solar water heaters with electric back-up were monitored during 1982 to determine their instantaneous electric demands, the purpose being to determine the influence of residential solar water heating on electric utility demand. The electric demand of solar water hears was found to be approximately 0.39 kW lass than conventional electric water heaters during the late late afternoon, early evening period in the summer months when the Austin utility experiences its peak demand. The annual load factor would be only very slightly reduced if there were a major penetration of solar water heaters in the all electric housing sector. Thus solar water heating represents beneficial load management for utilities experiencing summer peaks.

Vliet, G. C.; Askey, J. L.

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

172

Heat Pump Water Heaters and American Homes: A Good Fit?  

SciTech Connect

Heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) are over twice as energy-efficient as conventional electric resistance water heaters, with the potential to save substantial amounts of electricity. Drawing on analysis conducted for the U.S. Department of Energy's recently-concluded rulemaking on amended standards for water heaters, this paper evaluates key issues that will determine how well, and to what extent, this technology will fit in American homes. The key issues include: 1) equipment cost of HPWHs; 2) cooling of the indoor environment by HPWHs; 3) size and air flow requirements of HPWHs; 4) performance of HPWH under different climate conditions and varying hot water use patterns; and 5) operating cost savings under different electricity prices and hot water use. The paper presents the results of a life-cycle cost analysis of the adoption of HPWHs in a representative sample of American homes, as well as national impact analysis for different market share scenarios. Assuming equipment costs that would result from high production volume, the results show that HPWHs can be cost effective in all regions for most single family homes, especially when the water heater is not installed in a conditioned space. HPWHs are not cost effective for most manufactured home and multi-family installations, due to lower average hot water use and the water heater in the majority of cases being installed in conditioned space, where cooling of the indoor environment and size and air flow requirements of HPWHs increase installation costs.

Franco, Victor; Lekov, Alex; Meyers, Steve; Letschert, Virginie

2010-05-14T23:59:59.000Z

173

A model for improvement of water heating heat exchanger designs for residential heat pump water heaters.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Heat pump water heaters are a promising technology to reduce energy use and greenhouse gas emissions. A key component is the water heating heat exchanger.… (more)

Weerawoot, Arunwattana

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

174

Outdoor Outfitter Gets Greener With Solar Water Heater | Department of  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Outdoor Outfitter Gets Greener With Solar Water Heater Outdoor Outfitter Gets Greener With Solar Water Heater Outdoor Outfitter Gets Greener With Solar Water Heater October 8, 2010 - 12:51pm Addthis L.L. Bean’s flagship store sees nearly 3 million visitors each year. The store now uses solar-heated water for showers, restrooms and two cafes. | Photo courtesy of L.L. Bean | L.L. Bean's flagship store sees nearly 3 million visitors each year. The store now uses solar-heated water for showers, restrooms and two cafes. | Photo courtesy of L.L. Bean | Lindsay Gsell L.L. Bean is known for its outdoor apparel- jackets, backpacks and cozy winter sweaters. However, the company does more than just dress for the outdoors, it also works to protect and preserve it. For nearly 100 years, L.L. Bean has been committed to environmental conservation and

175

Heat Pump Water Heater Basics | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Water Heater Basics Water Heater Basics Heat Pump Water Heater Basics August 19, 2013 - 2:59pm Addthis Illustration of a heat pump water heater, which looks like a tall cylinder with a small chamber on top and a larger one on the bottom. In the top chamber are a fan, a cylindrical compressor, and an evaporator that runs along the inside of the chamber. Jutting out from the exterior of the bottom chamber is a temperature and pressure relief valve. This valve has a tube called a hot water outlet attached to the top. Below the valve is the upper thermostat, a small square outside the cylinder that is attached to a curved tube inside the heater. Resistance elements run from the upper thermostat to the similarly shaped lower thermostat. Below the lower thermostat is a drain valve with a cold water inlet attached to the top. Inside the cylinder is an anode, a series of thin tubes running through the bottom chamber to a coiled tube called a condenser. Insulation runs along the inside of the cylinder.

176

Apparatus and method for controlling a heat pump water heater  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A method and apparatus for controlling the operation of an add-on heat pump water heater unit is disclosed. A combination of a thermally conductive tube having a flattened portion and a thermostat mounted thereto is utilized to sense the temperature level of water in a tank to which the heater unit is connected. The tube and thermostat are additionally insulated from the ambient. A circulating pump is provided and connected to the water thermostat such that the pump is energized only when it is necessary to operate the heat energy adding unit.

Whitwell, R. J.; Schafer, J. P.

1984-01-08T23:59:59.000Z

177

FEMP Designated Product Assessment for Commercial Gas Water Heaters  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

FEMP Designated Product Assessment for Commercial Gas Water Heaters FEMP Designated Product Assessment for Commercial Gas Water Heaters Title FEMP Designated Product Assessment for Commercial Gas Water Heaters Publication Type Report LBNL Report Number LBNL-5514E Year of Publication 2010 Authors Lutz, James D. Subsidiary Authors Energy Analysis Department Document Number LBNL-5514E Pagination 8 Date Published April 1 Publisher Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory City Berkeley ISBN Number LBNL-5514E Abstract None Notes This work was supported by the Assistant Secretary for Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Office of Building Technology, State, and Community Programs, of the U.S. Department of Energy under Contract No. DE-AC02-05CH11231. Attachment Size PDF 240.22 KB Google Scholar BibTex RIS RTF XML Alternate URL: http://eetd.lbl.gov/node/50317

178

Estimating the Cost and Energy Efficiency of a Solar Water Heater...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Estimating the Cost and Energy Efficiency of a Solar Water Heater Estimating the Cost and Energy Efficiency of a Solar Water Heater May 30, 2012 - 3:09pm Addthis Solar water...

179

Laboratory Performance Evaluation of Residential Integrated Heat Pump Water Heaters  

SciTech Connect

This report discusses how a significant opportunity for energy savings is domestic hot water heating, where an emerging technology has recently arrived in the U.S. market: the residential integrated heat pump water heater. A laboratory evaluation is presented of the five integrated HPWHs available in the U.S. today.

Sparn, B.; Hudon, K.; Christensen, D.

2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

180

Conventional Storage Water Heater Basics | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Conventional Storage Water Heater Basics Conventional Storage Water Heater Basics Conventional Storage Water Heater Basics July 30, 2013 - 3:39pm Addthis Illustration showing the components of a storage water heater. On top of the tank are two thin pipes; one pipe is the hot water outlet, and the other is the cold water inlet. A large pipe in the middle is called a vent pipe. A pressure/temperature relief valve is also on top of the tank and is connected to an open pipe that runs down the side of the tank. Another valve near the bottom of the outside of the tank is the thermostat and gas valve. A cutout shows the parts inside the tank, which include a large tube called a flue tube/heat exchanger. Inside this tube is a jagged insert called a flue baffle. Beside the flue tube/heat exchanger is a thin tube called the anode rod. At the bottom of the tank is a gas burner, and beneath the burner are combustion air openings.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "demand water heaters" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Economics of residential gas furnaces and water heaters in United States new construction market  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

D. Winiarski. (1999). WHAM: Simplified tool for calculatingDepartment of Energy 2009b). WHAM yields total water heaterWater Heater Analysis Model (WHAM) method (Lutz et al. 1999)

Lekov, Alex B.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

182

Economics of residential gas furnaces and water heaters in US new construction market  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Winiarski, D. (1999). WHAM: Simplified tool for calculatingDepartment of Energy 2009b). WHAM yields total water-heaterWater Heater Analysis Model (WHAM) method (Lutz et al. 1999)

Lekov, Alex B.; Franco, Victor H.; Wong-Parodi, Gabrielle; McMahon, James E.; Chan, Peter

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

183

Marketing and promoting solar water heaters to home builders  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This is the final report of a four-task project to develop a marketing plan designed for businesses interested in marketing solar water heaters in the new home industry. This report outlines suggested marketing communication materials and other promotional tools focused on selling products to the new home builder. Information relevant to promoting products to the new home buyer is also included.

Keller, C.; Ghent, P.

1999-12-06T23:59:59.000Z

184

Buildings Energy Data Book: 5.4 Water Heaters  

Buildings Energy Data Book (EERE)

2 Water Heater Stock for Residential Buildings, By Storage Type Small (30 gallons or less) 17.1 17% 1.4 14% 18.5 17% Medium (31 to 49 gallons) 52.4 53% 2.4 24% 54.8 50% Large (50...

185

Modeling and Test-and-Rate Methods for Innovative Thermosiphon Solar Water Heaters: Preprint  

SciTech Connect

Conference paper regarding research in modeling and test-and-rate methods for thermosiphon solar domestic water heaters.

Burch, J.; Shoukas, G.; Brandemuhl, M.; Krarti, M.

2006-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

186

Whole-Home Gas Tankless Water Heaters, Purchasing Specifications for Energy-Efficient Products (Fact Sheet)  

SciTech Connect

Performance and purchasing specifications for whole-home gas water heaters under the FEMP-designated product program.

2010-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

187

Economics of residential gas furnaces and water heaters in United States new construction market  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Refrigeration Institute 2008a). The efficiency of water heaters, depending on the rated volume and other design

Lekov, Alex B.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

188

Economics of residential gas furnaces and water heaters in US new construction market  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Refrigeration Institute 2008a). The efficiency of water heaters, depending on the rated volume and other design

Lekov, Alex B.; Franco, Victor H.; Wong-Parodi, Gabrielle; McMahon, James E.; Chan, Peter

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

189

Diagnosis of Solar Water Heaters Using Solar Storage Tank Surface Temperature Data: Preprint  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Study of solar water heaters by using surface temperature data of solar storage tanks to diagnose proper operations.

Burch, J.; Magnuson, L.; Barker, G.; Bullwinkel, M.

2009-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

190

Fault diagnosis of regenerative water heater based-on multi-class support vector machines  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The main idea of multi-class support vector machines (SVMs) is described. a multi-class model for regenerative water heater fault diagnosis is presented combining the fuzzy logic and SVMs. The typical faults set of regenerative water heater is built ... Keywords: fault diagnosis, fuzzy rules, regenerative water heater, steam turbine, support vector machines

Lei Wang; Rui-Qing Zhang

2009-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

191

Fault Diagnosis of Regenerative Water Heater Based-On Multi-class Support Vector Machines  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The main idea of multi-class support vector machines (SVMs) is described. a multi-class model for regenerative water heater fault diagnosis is presented combining the fuzzy logic and SVMs. The typical faults set of regenerative water heater is built ... Keywords: steam turbine, regenerative water heater, fuzzy rules, support vector machines, fault diagnosis

Lei Wang; Rui-qing Zhang

2009-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

192

Applications Tests of Commercial Heat Pump Water Heaters  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Field application tests have been conducted on three 4 to 6-ton commercial heat pump water heater systems in a restaurant, a coin-operated laundry, and an office building cafeteria in Atlanta. The units provide space cooling while rejecting heat to a water heating load. The tests, conducted for Georgia Power Company, examined both quantitative and qualitative aspects of the heat pumps and the overall water heating systems. The results provide valuable insight into the actual operating characteristics of heat pump water heaters and useful guidelines for system design and operation. The capacity and efficiency of the units agreed with manufacturers' specifications. COP values ranged from 2 .6 to 3.0 for water heating only, and from 4.1 to 5.0 when space cooling benefit was included. It was concluded that heat pump water heaters can provide economical water heating and space conditioning. However, application sites must be selected within certain constraints and a minimum level of operating control and maintenance must be observed.

Oshinski, J. N..; Abrams, D. W.

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

193

Sacramento area, solar domestic water heater installers survey report  

SciTech Connect

Information regarding generic type, make, and costs of solar domestic water heater (SDWH) systems in the Sacramento, Roseville, and Davis area is reported. Sixteen SDWH installers/do-it-yourself kit dealers were identified and surveyed by phone. The survey participants were divided into three categories: (1) installers in business for one year or longer, (eight firms); (2) installers in business less than one year, (five firms); and (3) SDWH do-it-yourself kit dealers, (three firms). The survey report establishes an average cost for SDWH pump systems for new single family unit production housing (1350 square feet), with hot water demand typical of an average family of four, and roof mounted collectors. For the first two categories, the SDWH system average cost is $2469 (this includes both open loop and heat exchanger systems with circulating pumps). The average cost of the open loop pump system is $2321; whereas, the heat exchanger pump system average cost is $2592. The participants were questioned concerning discounts they would offer to builders purchasing SDWH's in volume. From their responses, an 11% discount for a purchase of ten systems was derived for the first two installers categories. The average cost of an installed SDWH pump system purchased in a volume of ten units is $2201. The average cost of an installed SDWH open loop system is $2066, and a heat exchanger system is $2307. For the third category, the do-it-yourself kit dealers, a 12% discount was derived for a purchase of ten systems. The average cost of a do-it-yourself pump kit when purchased in a volume of ten units is $1481. The average cost of an open loop pump kit is $1386, and a heat exchanger pump kit is $1672.

Hutchcraft, T.

1979-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

194

Assessment of Unglazed Solar Domestic Water Heaters  

SciTech Connect

Conference paper investigating cost-performance tradeoffs in replacing glazed collectors with unglazed collectors in solar domestic water heating systems.

Burch, J.; Salasovich, J.; Hillman, T.

2005-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

195

Field Performance of Heat Pump Water Heaters in the Northeast, Massachusetts and Rhode Island (Fact Sheet)  

SciTech Connect

Heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) are finally entering the mainstream residential water heater market. Potential catalysts are increased consumer demand for higher energy efficiency electric water heating and a new Federal water heating standard that effectively mandates use of HPWHs for electric storage water heaters with nominal capacities greater than 55 gallons. When compared to electric resistance water heating, the energy and cost savings potential of HPWHs is tremendous. Converting all electric resistance water heaters to HPWHs could save American consumers 7.8 billion dollars annually ($182 per household) in water heating operating costs and cut annual residential source energy consumption for water heating by 0.70 quads. Steven Winter Associates, Inc. embarked on one of the first in situ studies of these newly released HPWH products through a partnership with two sponsoring electric utility companies, National Grid and NSTAR, and one sponsoring energy efficiency service program administrator, Cape Light Compact. Recent laboratory studies have measured performance of HPWHs under various operating conditions, but publicly available field studies have not been as available. This evaluation attempts to provide publicly available field data on new HPWHs by monitoring the performance of three recently released products (General Electric GeoSpring, A.O. Smith Voltex, and Stiebel Eltron Accelera 300). Fourteen HPWHs were installed in Massachusetts and Rhode Island and monitored for over a year. Of the 14 units, ten were General Electric models (50 gallon units), two were Stiebel Eltron models (80 gallon units), and two were A.O. Smith models (one 60-gallon and one 80-gallon unit).

Not Available

2013-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

196

Orlando Utilities Commission - Residential Solar Water Heater...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Program (Florida) < Back Eligibility Residential Savings Category Heating & Cooling Solar Water Heating Maximum Rebate 1,000 Program Info State Florida Program Type Utility...

197

Review of International Methods of Test to Rate the Efficiency of Water Heaters  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

is ?open. ? An open air intake water heater is assigned theof air intake, physical size and load profile of the waterwater heater does not consume a fossil fuel, the air-intake

Lutz, Jim

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

198

Passive preheating of water-heater feed water (using attic heat)  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Baseboard convectors were installed in a house attic to preheat water prior to entering the home water heater. The system was monitored and not found to be cost effective. (LEW)

Knudsen, E.T. Jr.

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

199

Building Technologies Office: Carbon Dioxide-Based Heat Pump Water Heater  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Carbon Dioxide-Based Carbon Dioxide-Based Heat Pump Water Heater Research Project to someone by E-mail Share Building Technologies Office: Carbon Dioxide-Based Heat Pump Water Heater Research Project on Facebook Tweet about Building Technologies Office: Carbon Dioxide-Based Heat Pump Water Heater Research Project on Twitter Bookmark Building Technologies Office: Carbon Dioxide-Based Heat Pump Water Heater Research Project on Google Bookmark Building Technologies Office: Carbon Dioxide-Based Heat Pump Water Heater Research Project on Delicious Rank Building Technologies Office: Carbon Dioxide-Based Heat Pump Water Heater Research Project on Digg Find More places to share Building Technologies Office: Carbon Dioxide-Based Heat Pump Water Heater Research Project on AddThis.com...

200

Building Technologies Office: Gas-Fired Absorption Heat Pump Water Heater  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Gas-Fired Absorption Gas-Fired Absorption Heat Pump Water Heater Research Project to someone by E-mail Share Building Technologies Office: Gas-Fired Absorption Heat Pump Water Heater Research Project on Facebook Tweet about Building Technologies Office: Gas-Fired Absorption Heat Pump Water Heater Research Project on Twitter Bookmark Building Technologies Office: Gas-Fired Absorption Heat Pump Water Heater Research Project on Google Bookmark Building Technologies Office: Gas-Fired Absorption Heat Pump Water Heater Research Project on Delicious Rank Building Technologies Office: Gas-Fired Absorption Heat Pump Water Heater Research Project on Digg Find More places to share Building Technologies Office: Gas-Fired Absorption Heat Pump Water Heater Research Project on AddThis.com...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "demand water heaters" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Water demand management in Kuwait  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Kuwait is an arid country located in the Middle East, with limited access to water resources. Yet water demand per capita is much higher than in other countries in the world, estimated to be around 450 L/capita/day. There ...

Milutinovic, Milan, M. Eng. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

202

Laboratory Performance Evaluation of Residential Integrated Heat Pump Water Heaters  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Performance Performance Evaluation of Residential Integrated Heat Pump Water Heaters B. Sparn, K. Hudon, and D. Christensen Technical Report NREL/TP-5500-52635 September 2011 NREL is a national laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy, operated by the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC. National Renewable Energy Laboratory 1617 Cole Boulevard Golden, Colorado 80401 303-275-3000 * www.nrel.gov Contract No. DE-AC36-08GO28308 Laboratory Performance Evaluation of Residential Integrated Heat Pump Water Heaters B. Sparn, K. Hudon, and D. Christensen Prepared under Task Nos. WTN9.1000, ARRB.2204 Technical Report NREL/TP-5500-52635 September 2011 NOTICE This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States government.

203

Measure Guideline: Heat Pump Water Heaters in New and Existing Homes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This Building America Measure Guideline is intended for builders, contractors, homeowners, and policy-makers. This document is intended to explore the issues surrounding heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) to ensure that homeowners and contractors have the tools needed to appropriately and efficiently install HPWHs. Heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) promise to significantly reduce energy consumption for domestic hot water (DHW) over standard electric resistance water heaters (ERWHs). While ERWHs perform with energy factors (EFs) around 0.9, new HPWHs boast EFs upwards of 2.0. High energy factors in HPWHs are achieved by combining a vapor compression system, which extracts heat from the surrounding air at high efficiencies, with electric resistance element(s), which are better suited to meet large hot water demands. Swapping ERWHs with HPWHs could result in roughly 50% reduction in water heating energy consumption for 35.6% of all U.S. households. This Building America Measure Guideline is intended for builders, contractors, homeowners, and policy-makers. While HPWHs promise to significantly reduce energy use for DHW, proper installation, selection, and maintenance of HPWHs is required to ensure high operating efficiency and reliability. This document is intended to explore the issues surrounding HPWHs to ensure that homeowners and contractors have the tools needed to appropriately and efficiently install HPWHs. Section 1 of this guideline provides a brief description of HPWHs and their operation. Section 2 highlights the cost and energy savings of HPWHs as well as the variables that affect HPWH performance, reliability, and efficiency. Section 3 gives guidelines for proper installation and maintenance of HPWHs, selection criteria for locating HPWHs, and highlights of important differences between ERWH and HPWH installations. Throughout this document, CARB has included results from the evaluation of 14 heat pump water heaters (including three recently released HPWH products) installed in existing homes in the northeast region of the United States.

Shapiro, C.; Puttagunta, S.; Owens, D.

2012-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

204

Inherent freeze protection for solar water heaters  

SciTech Connect

Research and development of a method for protection of a solar collector from freezing is described. The method is shown to be technically and economically feasible. A prototype water heating system using the inherent freeze protection method was successfully operated during the winter of 1980 to 1981.

Jeter, S.M.; Leonaitis, L.L.; Leonaitis, L.L.

1981-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

205

Inexpensive solar water heater you can build. Publication C-188  

SciTech Connect

Directions are given for constructing a home-made solar water heater that is expected to supply over 50% of the hot water for a family of 3 or 4. System cost is estimated at $250.00. The system utilizes three 2 x 8-foot solar panels. Hot water from the panels is pumped through a preheat-storage tank where it heats domestic water. The preheated water is then drawn into the cold water inlet of the regular home water heater. The pump which circulates the fluid is controlled by a differential thermostat which turns it on when the solar panels become hotter than the water in the preheat-storage tank. The collector panel design, construction, assembly, and installation are described in detail, as are the heat exchanger and storage tank. A thermosiphon system design is also briefly outlined. Sources of necessary materials are given as well as a list of needed materials, miscellaneous supplies, and major tools. Finally, the research and experimental work leading to the design is described, including the testing of models. (LEW)

Herndon, L.P.; Hill, G.C.

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

206

Comparing Heat Pump Water Heaters (HPWHs) to Traditional Resistive Water Heaters: Assessing HPWH Performance for Southern Company  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In 2009, Southern Company partnered with the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) to investigate the use of heat pump water heaters (HPWH) technology. The investigation was part of EPRI's Energy Efficiency Demonstration, which was a field-performance assessment of six emerging, efficient end-use technologies, deployed with extensive measurement instrumentation at multiple sites throughout the U.S. The goals of the multiyear project were to test, evaluate, demonstrate, and—if ...

2013-09-04T23:59:59.000Z

207

Energy Efficiency Design Options for Residential Water Heaters: Economic Impacts on Consumers  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) recently completed a rulemaking process in which it amended the existing energy efficiency standards for residential water heaters. A key factor in DOE?s consideration of new standards is the economic impacts on consumers. Determining such impacts requires a comparison of the additional first cost of energy efficiency design options with the savings in operating costs. This paper describes the method used to conduct the life-cycle cost (LCC) and payback period analysis for gas and electric storage water heaters. It presents the estimated change in LCC associated with more energy-efficient equipment, including heat pump electric water heaters and condensing gas water heaters, for a representative sample of U.S. homes. The study included a detailed accounting of installation costs for the considered design options, with a focus on approaches for accommodating the larger dimensions of more efficient water heaters. For heat pump water heaters, the study also considered airflow requirements, venting issues, and the impact of these products on the indoor environment. The results indicate that efficiency improvement relative to the baseline design reduces the LCC in the majority of homes for both gas and electric storage water heaters, and heat pump electric water heaters and condensing gas water heaters provide a lower LCC for homes with large rated volume water heaters.

Lekov, Alex; Franco, Victor; Meyers, Steve; Thompson, Lisa; Letschert, Virginie

2010-11-24T23:59:59.000Z

208

An Evaluation of the Water Heater Load Potential for Providing Regulation Service  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper investigates the possibility of providing aggregated regulation services with small loads, such as water heaters or air conditioners. A direct-load control algorithm is presented to aggregate the water heater load for the purpose of regulation. A dual-element electric water heater model is developed, which accounts for both thermal dynamics and users’ water consumptions. A realistic regulation signal was used to evaluate the number of water heaters needed and the operational characteristics of a water heater when providing 2-MW regulation service. Modeling results suggest that approximately 33,333 water heaters are needed to provide a 2-MW regulation service 24 hours a day. However, if water heaters only provide regulation from 6:00 to 24:00, approximately 20,000 will be needed. Because the control algorithm has considered the thermal setting of the water heater, the customer comfort is obstructed little. Therefore, the aggregated regulation service provided by water heater loads can become a major source of revenue for load-service entities when the smart grid enables the direct load control.

Kondoh, Junji; Lu, Ning; Hammerstrom, Donald J.

2011-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

209

Assessing the Energy Savings of Tankless Water Heater Retrofits in Public Housing  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report describes the methodology, analysis, and findings from a case study of a 110 unit retrofit of gas tankless water heaters in a hot/humid climate in Alachua County, Florida. The housing units had their gas-fired tank type water heaters replaced with gas-fired tankless water heaters as part of a federal program that targeted reduced energy use in public housing.

Ries, R.; Walters, R.; Dwiantoro, D.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

210

High Efficiency R-744 Commercial Heat Pump Water Heaters  

SciTech Connect

The project investigated the development and improvement process of a R744 (CO2) commercial heat pump water heater (HPWH) package of approximately 35 kW. The improvement process covered all main components of the system. More specific the heat exchangers (Internal heat exchanger, Evaporator, Gas cooler) as well as the expansion device and the compressor were investigated. In addition, a comparison to a commercially available baseline R134a unit of the same capacity and footprint was made in order to compare performance as well as package size reduction potential.

Elbel, Dr. Stefan W.; Petersen, Michael

2013-04-25T23:59:59.000Z

211

Economics of residential gas furnaces and water heaters in United States new construction market  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Experiences of residential consumers and utilities. OakStar (2008). Energy Star Residential Water Heaters: Finalefficiency improvements for residential gas furnaces in the

Lekov, Alex B.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

212

Economics of Condensing Gas Furnaces and Water Heaters Potential in Residential Single Family Homes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

seds.html. USDOE. 2009. Residential Energy ConsumptionUSEPA) 2008. Energy Star Residential Water Heaters: FinalExperiences of residential consumers and utilities. Oak

Lekov, Alex

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

213

Gas-Fired Absorption Heat Pump Water Heater Research Project | Department  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Emerging Technologies » Gas-Fired Absorption Heat Pump Water Emerging Technologies » Gas-Fired Absorption Heat Pump Water Heater Research Project Gas-Fired Absorption Heat Pump Water Heater Research Project The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is currently conducting research into carbon gas-fired absorption heat pump water heaters. This project will employ innovative techniques to increase water heating energy efficiency over conventional gas storage water heaters by 40%. Project Description This project seeks to develop a natural gas-fired water heater using an absorption heat. The development effort is targeting lithium bromide aqueous solutions as a working fluid in order to avoid the negative implications of using more toxic ammonia. Project Partners Research is being undertaken through a Cooperative Research and Development

214

Development of a Low Cost Heat Pump Water Heater - Second Prototype  

SciTech Connect

Since the 1980s various attempts have been made to apply the efficiency of heat pumps to water heating. The products generated in the 80s and 90s were not successful, due in part to a lack of reliability and difficulties with installation and servicing. At the turn of the century, EnvironMaster International (EMI) produced a heat pump water heater (HPWH) based on a design developed by Arthur D. Little (ADL), with subsequent developmental assistance from Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and ADL. This design was a drop-in replacement for conventional electric water heaters. In field and durability testing conducted by ORNL, it proved to be reliable and saved on average more than 50% of the energy used by the best conventional electric water heater. However, the retail price set by EMI was very high, and it failed in the market. ORNL was tasked to examine commercially available HPWH product technology and manufacturing processes for cost saving opportunities. Several cost saving opportunities were found. To verify the feasibility of these cost saving measures, ORNL completed a conceptual design for an HPWH based on an immersed condenser coil that could be directly inserted into a standard water tank through a sleeve affixed to one of the standard penetrations at the top of the tank. After some experimentation, a prototype unit was built with a double-wall coil inserted into the tank. When tested it achieved an energy factor (EF) of 2.12 to 2.2 using DOE-specified test procedures. A.O. Smith contacted ORNL in May 2006 expressing their interest in the ORNL design. The prototype unit was shipped to A.O. Smith to be tested in their laboratory. After they completed their test, ORNL analyzed the raw test data provided by A.O. Smith and calculated the EF to be approximately 1.92. The electric resistance heating elements of a conventional electric water heater are typically retained in a heat pump water heater to provide auxiliary heating capacity in periods of high demand. A.O. Smith informed us that when they applied electric resistance backup heating, using the criterion that resistance heat would be applied whenever the upper thermostat saw water temperatures below the heater s nominal setpoint of 135oF, they found that the EF dropped to approximately 1.5. This is an extremely conservative criterion for backup resistance heating. In a field test of the previously mentioned EMI heat pump water heater, residential consumers found satisfactory performance when the criterion for use of electric resistance backup heating was the upper temperature dropping below the set point minus 27 degrees. Applying this less conservative criterion to the raw data from the original A.O. Smith EF tests indicates that electric resistance heating would never have come on during the test, and thus the EF would have remained in the vicinity of 1.9. A.O. Smith expressed concern about having an EF below 2, as that value triggers certain tax advantages and would assist in their marketing of the product. We believe that insertion of additional length of tubing plus a less conservative set point for electric resistance backup heating would remedy this concern. However, as of this writing, A.O. Smith has not decided to proceed with a commercial product.

Mei, V. C. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (Retired); Craddick, William G [ORNL

2007-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

215

Building America Top Innovations Hall of Fame Profile … Tankless Gas Water Heater Performance  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Incorporating tankless water heaters was one Incorporating tankless water heaters was one of many energy-efficiency recommendations Building America's research team IBACOS had for San Antonio builder Imagine Homes. Although tankless gas water heaters should save approximately 33% on hot water heating compared to a conventional storage water heater, actual energy savings vary significantly based on individual draw volume. Above 10 gallons per draw, the efficiency approaches the rated energy factor. The greatest savings occur at a daily use quantity of about 50 gallons. BUILDING AMERICA TOP INNOVATIONS HALL OF FAME PROFILE INNOVATIONS CATEGORY: 1. Advanced Technologies and Practices 1.2 Energy Efficient Components Tankless Gas Water Heater Performance As improved thermal enclosures dramatically reduce heating and cooling loads,

216

THE EFFECT OF LOCATION OF THE PREDICTED PERFORMANCE OF A HEAT PUMP WATER HEATER  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of houses with a high perfor- mance heat pump as well as resistance, gas, and oil heated houses with a high#12;THE EFFECT OF LOCATION OF THE PREDICTED PERFORMANCE OF A HEAT PUMP WATER HEATER Laboratory testing and field testing have shown that a heat pump water heater (HPWH) uses about half the electrical

Oak Ridge National Laboratory

217

Demonstration of a heat pump water heater. Volume 3. Design report  

SciTech Connect

Work performed during the pilot run manufacturing and laboratory testing stages of a heat pump water heater for residential installations is described. A general description of the heat pump water heater is provided, as are detailed discussions of individual components. Also included is a description of the pilot run manufacturing facility and experience, laboratory operations, and laboratory test data.

Sloane, B.D.; Krise, R.C.; Kent, D.D.

1979-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

218

Heat pump water heater and storage tank assembly  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A water heater and storage tank assembly comprises a housing defining a chamber, an inlet for admitting cold water to the chamber, and an outlet for permitting flow of hot water from the chamber. A compressor is mounted on the housing and is removed from the chamber. A condenser comprises a tube adapted to receive refrigerant from the compressor, and winding around the chamber to impart heat to water in the chamber. An evaporator is mounted on the housing and removed from the chamber, the evaporator being adapted to receive refrigerant from the condenser and to discharge refrigerant to conduits in communication with the compressor. An electric resistance element extends into the chamber, and a thermostat is disposed in the chamber and is operative to sense water temperature and to actuate the resistance element upon the water temperature dropping to a selected level. The assembly includes a first connection at an external end of the inlet, a second connection at an external end of the outlet, and a third connection for connecting the resistance element, compressor and evaporator to an electrical power source.

Dieckmann, John T. (Belmont, MA); Nowicki, Brian J. (Watertown, MA); Teagan, W. Peter (Acton, MA); Zogg, Robert (Belmont, MA)

1999-09-07T23:59:59.000Z

219

Solar hot water systems for the southeastern United States: principles and construction of breadbox water heaters  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The use of solar energy to provide hot water is among the easier solar technologies for homeowners to utilize. In the Southeastern United States, because of the mild climate and abundant sunshine, solar energy can be harnessed to provide a household's hot water needs during the non-freezing weather period mid-April and mid-October. This workbook contains detailed plans for building breadbox solar water heaters that can provide up to 65% of your hot water needs during warm weather. If fuel costs continue to rise, the annual savings obtained from a solar water heater will grow dramatically. The designs in this workbook use readily available materials and the construction costs are low. Although these designs may not be as efficient as some commercially available systems, most of a household's hot water needs can be met with them. The description of the breadbox water heater and other types of solar systems will help you make an informed decision between constructing a solar water heater or purchasing one. This workbook is intended for use in the southeastern United States and the designs may not be suitable for use in colder climates.

None

1983-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

220

Heat pump water heater and method of making the same  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An improved heat pump water heater wherein the condenser assembly of the heat pump is inserted into the water tank through an existing opening in the top of the tank, the assembly comprising a tube-in-a-tube construction with an elongated cylindrical outer body heat exchanger having a closed bottom with the superheated refrigerant that exits the compressor of the heat pump entering the top of the outer body. As the refrigerant condenses along the interior surface of the outer body, the heat from the refrigerant is transferred to the water through the outer body. The refrigerant then enters the bottom of an inner body coaxially disposed within the outer body and exits the top of the inner body into the refrigerant conduit leading into the expansion device of the heat pump. The outer body, in a second embodiment of the invention, acts not only as a heat exchanger but also as the sacrificial anode in the water tank by being constructed of a metal which is more likely to corrode than the metal of the tank.

Mei, Viung C. (Oak Ridge, TN); Tomlinson, John J. (Knoxville, TN); Chen, Fang C. (Knoxville, TN)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "demand water heaters" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

Realistic Hot Water Draw Specification for Rating Solar Water Heaters: Preprint  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

In the United States, annual performance ratings for solar water heaters are simulated, using TMY weather and specified water draw. A more-realistic ratings draw is proposed that eliminates most bias by improving mains inlet temperature and by specifying realistic hot water use. This paper outlines the current and the proposed draws and estimates typical ratings changes from draw specification changes for typical systems in four cities.

Burch, J.

2012-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

222

ENERGY STAR Residential Water Heaters to Save Americans Up to $823 Million  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

STAR Residential Water Heaters to Save Americans Up to $823 STAR Residential Water Heaters to Save Americans Up to $823 Million in the Next Five Years ENERGY STAR Residential Water Heaters to Save Americans Up to $823 Million in the Next Five Years December 31, 2008 - 9:18am Addthis WASHINGTON - The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) today announced the availability of ENERGY STAR® residential water heaters. With today's announcement, the ENERGY STAR® program now addresses every major residential appliance found in most American homes. Introduction of this product provides significant potential savings to consumers. Water heating represents up to 15.5 percent of national residential energy consumption, the second largest end use of energy in homes, following heating and cooling. Using one of five specified water heating technologies, ENERGY

223

Economics of residential gas furnaces and water heaters in United States new construction market  

SciTech Connect

New single-family home construction represents a significant and important market for the introduction of energy-efficient gas-fired space heating and water-heating equipment. In the new construction market, the choice of furnace and water-heater type is primarily driven by first cost considerations and the availability of power vent and condensing water heaters. Few analysis have been performed to assess the economic impacts of the different combinations of space and water-heating equipment. Thus, equipment is often installed without taking into consideration the potential economic and energy savings of installing space and water-heating equipment combinations. In this study, we use a life-cycle cost analysis that accounts for uncertainty and variability of the analysis inputs to assess the economic benefits of gas furnace and water-heater design combinations. This study accounts not only for the equipment cost but also for the cost of installing, maintaining, repairing, and operating the equipment over its lifetime. Overall, this study, which is focused on US single-family new construction households that install gas furnaces and storage water heaters, finds that installing a condensing or power-vent water heater together with condensing furnace is the most cost-effective option for the majority of these houses. Furthermore, the findings suggest that the new construction residential market could be a target market for the large-scale introduction of a combination of condensing or power-vent water heaters with condensing furnaces.

Lekov, Alex B.; Franco, Victor H.; Wong-Parodi, Gabrielle; McMahon, James E.; Chan, Peter

2009-05-06T23:59:59.000Z

224

Assessing Consumer Values and the Supply-Chain Market for the Integrated Water Heater/Dehumidifier  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents a case study of the potential market for the dual-service residential integrated water heater/dehumidifier (WHD). Its principal purpose is to evaluate the extent to which this integrated appliance might penetrate the residential market sector, given current market trends, producer and consumer attributes, and technical parameters. The report's secondary purpose is to gather background information leading to a generic framework for conducting market analyses of technologies. This framework can be used to assess market readiness as well as factor preferred product attributes into the design to drive consumer demand for this product. This study also supports analysis for prototype design. A full market analysis for potential commercialization should be conducted after prototype development. The integrated WHD is essentially a heat-pump water heater (HPWH) with components and controls that allow dedicated dehumidification. Adequate residential humidity control is a growing issue for newly constructed residential homes, which are insulated so well that mechanical ventilation may be necessary to meet fresh air requirements. Leveraging its successful experience with the energy-efficient design improvement for the residential HPWH, the Oak Ridge National Laboratory's (ORNL's) Engineering Science and Technology Division's (ESTD's) Building Equipment Group designed a water-heating appliance that combines HPWH efficiency with dedicated dehumidification. This integrated appliance could be a low-cost solution for dehumidification and efficient electric water heating. ORNL is partnering with Western Carolina University, Asheville-Buncombe Technical Community College, American Carolina Stamping Company, and Clemson University to develop this appliance and assess its market potential. For practical purposes, consumers are indifferent to how water is heated but are very interested in product attributes such as initial first cost, operating cost, performance, serviceability, product size, and installation costs. The principal drivers for penetrating markets are demonstrating reliability, leveraging the dehumidification attributes of the integrated WHD, and creating programs that embrace first-cost and life-cycle cost principles.

Ashdown, BG

2005-01-11T23:59:59.000Z

225

Buildings Energy Data Book: 5.4 Water Heaters  

Buildings Energy Data Book (EERE)

5 5 Water Heater Efficiencies 2005 2010 Efficiency Stock Minimum Best-Available Residential Type Parameter (1) Efficiency New Efficiency New Efficiency Electric Storage EF 0.90 0.90 (2) 0.95 (2) Electric Instantaneous EF 0.82 0.82 0.98 Electric Heat Pump EF 2.00 2.00 2.35 Gas-Fired Storage EF 0.60 0.59 (3) 0.85 (3) Gas-Fired Instantaneous EF 0.82 0.82 0.98 Oil-Fired Storage EF 0.50 0.53 (4) 0.68 (4) Solar SEF 2.50 N.A. 2.50 2007 2010 Efficiency Stock Minimum Best-Available Commercial Type Parameter (1) Efficiency New Efficiency New Efficiency Electric Storage Thermal Efficiency 0.98 0.98 (5) 0.98 (5) Electric Instantaneous Thermal Efficiency 0.98 0.98 0.98 Gas-Fired Storage Thermal Efficiency 0.78 0.80 (6) 0.96 (6) Gas-Fired Instantaneous Thermal Efficiency 0.77 0.80 0.85 Oil-Fired Storage Thermal Efficiency 0.79 0.78 (7) 0.85 (7) Note(s):

226

Development of Environmentally Benign Heat Pump Water Heaters for the US Market  

SciTech Connect

Improving energy efficiency in water heating applications is important to the nation's energy strategies. Water heating in residential and commercial buildings accounts for about 10% of U.S. buildings energy consumption. Heat pump water heating (HPWH) technology is a significant breakthrough in energy efficiency, as an alternative to electric resistance water heating. Heat pump technology has shown acceptable payback period with proper incentives and successful market penetration is emerging. However, current HPWH require the use of refrigerants with high Global Warming Potential (GWP). Furthermore, current system designs depend greatly on the backup resistance heaters when the ambient temperature is below freezing or when hot water demand increases. Finally, the performance of current HPWH technology degrades greatly as the water set point temperature exceeds 330 K. This paper presents the potential for carbon dioxide, CO2, as a natural, environmentally benign alternative refrigerant for HPWH technology. In this paper, we first describe the system design, implications and opportunities of operating a transcritical cycle. Next, a prototype CO2 HPWH design featuring flexible component evaluation capability is described. The experimental setup and results are then illustrated followed by a brief discussion on the measured system performance. The paper ends with conclusions and recommendations for the development of CO2 heat pump water heating technology suitable for the U.S. market.

Abdelaziz, Omar [ORNL; Wang, Kai [ORNL; Vineyard, Edward Allan [ORNL; Roetker, Jack [General Electric - Appliance Park

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

227

Expert Meeting Report: Recommendations for Applying Water Heaters in Combination Space and Domestic Water Heating Systems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The topic of this meeting was 'Recommendations For Applying Water Heaters In Combination Space And Domestic Water Heating Systems.' Presentations and discussions centered on the design, performance, and maintenance of these combination systems, with the goal of developing foundational information toward the development of a Building America Measure Guideline on this topic. The meeting was held at the Westford Regency Hotel, in Westford, Massachusetts on 7/31/2011.

Rudd, A.; Ueno, K.; Bergey, D.; Osser, R.

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

228

Economics of Residential Gas Furnaces and Water Heaters in United States  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Economics of Residential Gas Furnaces and Water Heaters in United States Economics of Residential Gas Furnaces and Water Heaters in United States New Construction Market Speaker(s): Alex Lekov Gabrielle Wong-Parodi James McMahon Victor Franco Date: May 8, 2009 - 12:00pm Location: 90-3122 In the new single-family home construction market, the choice of what gas furnace and gas water heater combination to install is primarily driven by first cost considerations. In this study, the authors use a life-cycle cost analysis approach that accounts for uncertainty and variability of inputs to assess the economic benefits of installing different gas furnace and water heater combinations. Among other factors, it assesses the economic feasibility of eliminating the traditional metal vents and replacing them with vents made of plastic materials used in condensing and power vent

229

Critical Question #8: When are Heat Pump Water Heaters the Best Solution? |  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

8: When are Heat Pump Water Heaters the Best 8: When are Heat Pump Water Heaters the Best Solution? Critical Question #8: When are Heat Pump Water Heaters the Best Solution? What do we know about actual performance compared to promised performance? What is the best way to manage the space conditioning impacts on a home? Is there an easy decision tree for deciding if this is the best solution for a particular home (Climate? Utility prices? Accessibility? Physical space constraints? Workforce?)? cq8_residential_hpwh_costs_maguire.pdf cq8_hpwh_performance_colon.pdf cq8_hpwhs_multifamily_weitzel.pdf More Documents & Publications Track A - Energy Systems Innovations Illustrative Calculation of Economics for Heat Pump and "Grid-Enabled" Water Heaters Standing Technical Committee Working Sessions

230

Energy Savings and Breakeven Cost for Residential Heat Pump Water Heaters in the United States  

SciTech Connect

Heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) have recently reemerged in the U.S. residential water heating market and have the potential to provide homeowners with significant energy savings. However, there are questions as to the actual performance and energy savings potential of these units, in particular in regards to the heat pump's performance in unconditioned space and the impact of the heat pump on space heating and cooling loads when it is located in conditioned space. To help answer these questions, simulations were performed of a HPWH in both conditioned and unconditioned space at over 900 locations across the continental United States and Hawaii. Simulations included a Building America benchmark home so that any interaction between the HPWH and the home's HVAC equipment could be captured. Comparisons were performed to typical gas and electric water heaters to determine the energy savings potential and cost effectiveness of a HPWH relative to these technologies. HPWHs were found to have a significant source energy savings potential when replacing typical electric water heaters, but only saved source energy relative to gas water heater in the most favorable installation locations in the southern US. When replacing an electric water heater, the HPWH is likely to break even in California, the southern US, and parts of the northeast in most situations. However, the HPWH will only break even when replacing a gas water heater in a few southern states.

Maguire, J.; Burch, J.; Merrigan, T.; Ong, S.

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

231

Preliminary Modeling, Testing and Analysis of a Gas Tankless Water Heater  

SciTech Connect

Tankless water heaters offer significant energy savings over conventional storage-tank water heaters, because thermal losses to the environment are much less. Although standard test results are available to compare tankless heaters with storage tank heaters, actual savings depend on the draw details because energy to heat up the internal mass depends on the time since the last draw. To allow accurate efficiency estimates under any assumed draw pattern, a one-node model with heat exchanger mass is posed here. Key model parameters were determined from test data. Burner efficiency showed inconsistency between the two data sets analyzed. Model calculations show that efficiency with a realistic draw pattern is {approx}8% lower than that resulting from using only large {approx}40 liter draws, as specified in standard water-heater tests. The model is also used to indicate that adding a small tank controlled by the tankless heater ameliorates unacceptable oscillations that tankless with feedback control can experience with pre-heated water too hot for the minimum burner setting. The added tank also eliminates problematic low-flow cut-out and hot-water-delay, but it will slightly decrease efficiency. Future work includes model refinements and developing optimal protocols for parameter extraction.

Burch, J.; Thornton, J.; Hoeschele, M.; Springer, D.; Rudd, A.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

232

Climate policy implications for agricultural water demand  

SciTech Connect

Energy, water and land are scarce resources, critical to humans. Developments in each affect the availability and cost of the others, and consequently human prosperity. Measures to limit greenhouse gas concentrations will inevitably exact dramatic changes on energy and land systems and in turn alter the character, magnitude and geographic distribution of human claims on water resources. We employ the Global Change Assessment Model (GCAM), an integrated assessment model to explore the interactions of energy, land and water systems in the context of alternative policies to limit climate change to three alternative levels: 2.5 Wm-2 (445 ppm CO2-e), 3.5 Wm-2 (535 ppm CO2-e) and 4.5 Wm-2 (645 ppm CO2-e). We explore the effects of two alternative land-use emissions mitigation policy options—one which taxes terrestrial carbon emissions equally with fossil fuel and industrial emissions, and an alternative which only taxes fossil fuel and industrial emissions but places no penalty on land-use change emissions. We find that increasing populations and economic growth could be anticipated to almost triple demand for water for agricultural systems across the century even in the absence of climate policy. In general policies to mitigate climate change increase agricultural demands for water still further, though the largest changes occur in the second half of the century, under both policy regimes. The two policies examined profoundly affected both the sources and magnitudes of the increase in irrigation water demands. The largest increases in agricultural irrigation water demand occurred in scenarios where only fossil fuel emissions were priced (but not land-use change emission) and were primarily driven by rapid expansion in bioenergy production. In these scenarios water demands were large relative to present-day total available water, calling into question whether it would be physically possible to produce the associated biomass energy. We explored the potential of improved water delivery and irrigation system efficiencies. These could potentially reduce demands substantially. However, overall demands remained high under our fossil-fuel-only tax policy. In contrast, when all carbon was priced, increases in agricultural water demands were smaller than under the fossil-fuel-only policy and were driven primarily by increased demands for water by non-biomass crops such as rice. Finally we estimate the geospatial pattern of water demands and find that regions such as China, India and other countries in south and east Asia might be expected to experience greatest increases in water demands.?

Chaturvedi, Vaibhav; Hejazi, Mohamad I.; Edmonds, James A.; Clarke, Leon E.; Kyle, G. Page; Davies, Evan; Wise, Marshall A.; Calvin, Katherine V.

2013-03-28T23:59:59.000Z

233

Field Monitoring of a Geothermal Heat Pump Water Heater: Unicoi County High School, Erwin, Tennessee  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A geothermal heat pump water heater (HPWH) system -- installed to preheat water entering a 250-gallon gas-fired water heater (GWH) at a Tennessee high school -- reduced water-heating costs by 34 percent per year, compared to the base case GWH system. This report provides results from field monitoring of the geothermal HPWH system, tested in three distinct operating modes for five months. The program goal was to assess the energy and economic benefits of the GWH system with and without the geothermal HPWH...

2003-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

234

Applications of Commercial Heat Pump Water Heaters in Hot, Humid Climates  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Heat pump water heaters can provide high-efficiency water heating and supplemental space cooling and dehumidification in commercial buildings throughout the United States. They are particularly attractive in hot, humid areas where cooling loads are high and the cooling season is long. Because commercial kitchens and laundry facilities have simultaneous water heating and cooling needs, they are excellent applications for heat pump water heaters. Typical heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) operate at an annual coefficient of performance (COP) of approximately 3.0 for water heating alone. Space conditioning benefits of about 0.67 Btu are delivered at no additional cost for each Btu of water heating output. In situations in which this cooling output is valued, the dual thermal outputs for heating and cooling make heat pump water heaters particularly attractive. The comfort value of added cooling in overheated facilities and the resulting increase in employee and customer satisfaction are frequently cited as additional benefits. This paper describes currently available heat pump water heating equipment and offers guidelines for successful applications in commercial facilities. The results of field test programs involving more than 100 units in Alabama, Georgia, Mississippi, Tennessee, South Carolina, and other areas are incorporated. Initial conclusions are drawn from a reliability database, and interviews with utility applications specialists and manufacturers are discussed. Design tools are reviewed, including a new comprehensive computer simulation model. Emphasis is placed on identifying sound candidates for installations and on application and design considerations. A brief survey is provided of environmental implications of heat pump water heaters and new developments in heat pump water heater equipment.

Johnson, K. F.; Shedd, A. C.

1992-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

235

Selecting a New Water Heater You have a lot to consider when selecting a  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

the water heater's annual operation costs but also its size and energy efficiency. Natural gas, oil if they offer off- peak electricity rates. If available, heating your water during off-peak hours will save you use. Estimating your peak hot water usage will help you identify an appropriate tank for your

236

Heat Pump Water Heater Technology: Experiences of Residential Consumers and Utilities  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents a case study of the residential heat pump water heater (HPWH) market. Its principal purpose is to evaluate the extent to which the HPWH will penetrate the residential market sector, given current market trends, producer and consumer attributes, and technical parameters. The report's secondary purpose is to gather background information leading to a generic framework for conducting market analyses of technologies. This framework can be used to compare readiness and to factor attributes of market demand back into product design. This study is a rapid prototype analysis rather than a detailed case analysis. For this reason, primary data collection was limited and reliance on secondary sources was extensive. Despite having met its technical goals and having been on the market for twenty years, the HPWH has had virtually no impact on contributing to the nation's water heating. In some cases, HPWH reliability and quality control are well below market expectations, and early units developed a reputation for unreliability, especially when measured against conventional water heaters. In addition to reliability problems, first costs of HPWH units can be three to five times higher than conventional units. Without a solid, well-managed business plan, most consumers will not be drawn to this product. This is unfortunate. Despite its higher first costs, efficiency of an HPWH is double that of a conventional water heater. The HPWH also offers an attractive payback period of two to five years, depending on hot water usage. On a strict life-cycle basis it supplies hot water very cost effectively. Water heating accounts for 17% of the nation's residential consumption of electricity (see chart at left)--water heating is second only to space heating in total residential energy use. Simple arithmetic suggests that this figure could be reduced to the extent HPWH technology displaces conventional water heating. In addition, the HPWH offers other benefits. Because it produces hot water by extracting heat from the air it tends to dehumidify and cool the room in which it is placed. Moreover, it tends to spread the water heating load across utility non-peak periods. Thus, electric utilities with peak load issues could justify internal programs to promote this technology to residential and commercial customers. For practical purposes, consumers are indifferent to the manner in which water is heated but are very interested in product attributes such as initial first cost, operating cost, performance, serviceability, product size, and installation costs. Thus, the principal drivers for penetrating markets are demonstrating reliability, leveraging the dehumidification attributes of the HPWH, and creating programs that embrace life-cycle cost principles. To supplement this, a product warranty with scrupulous quality control should be implemented; first-price reduction through engineering, perhaps by reducing level of energy efficiency, should be pursued; and niche markets should be courted. The first step toward market penetration is to address the HPWH's performance reliability. Next, the manufacturers could engage select utilities to aggressively market the HPWH. A good approach would be to target distinct segments of the market with the potential for the highest benefits from the technology. Communications media that address performance issues should be developed. When marketing to new home builders, the HPWH could be introduced as part of an energy-efficient package offered as a standard feature by builders of new homes within a community. Conducting focus groups across the United States to gather input on HPWH consumer values will feed useful data back to the manufacturers. ''Renaming'' and ''repackaging'' the HPWH to improve consumer perception, appliance aesthetics, and name recognition should be considered. Once an increased sales volume is achieved, the manufacturers should reinvest in R&D to lower the price of the units. The manufacturers should work with ''do-it-yourself'' (DIY) stores to facilitate introduction of th

Ashdown, BG

2004-08-04T23:59:59.000Z

237

Regional Variation in Residential Heat Pump Water Heater Performance in the United States  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

NREL is a national laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, operated by the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC. Regional Variation in Residential Heat Pump Water Heater Performance in the US Jeff Maguire 4/30/13 Outline * Why HPWHs? * US Water Heating Market * Overview of HPWHs * Model Description * Results o HPWH Performance o Energy Savings Potential o Breakeven Cost 2 Heat Pump Water Heaters Save $300 a year over standard electric? Save $100 a year over standard gas? Heat Pump Electric Gas 3 Questions about HPWHs * Are HPWHs a good replacement for typical gas and electric storage water heaters? o In different locations across the country? o In conditioned/unconditioned space? o Source energy savings?

238

Assessing Consumer Values and the Supply-Chain Market for the Integrated Water Heater/Dehumidifier  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents a case study of the potential market for the dual-service residential integrated water heater/dehumidifier (WHD). Its principal purpose is to evaluate the extent to which this integrated appliance might penetrate the residential market sector, given current market trends, producer and consumer attributes, and technical parameters. The report's secondary purpose is to gather background information leading to a generic framework for conducting market analyses of technologies. This framework can be used to assess market readiness as well as factor preferred product attributes into the design to drive consumer demand for this product. This study also supports analysis for prototype design. A full market analysis for potential commercialization should be conducted after prototype development. The integrated WHD is essentially a heat-pump water heater (HPWH) with components and controls that allow dedicated dehumidification. Adequate residential humidity control is a growing issue for newly constructed residential homes, which are insulated so well that mechanical ventilation may be necessary to meet fresh air requirements. Leveraging its successful experience with the energy-efficient design improvement for the residential HPWH, the Oak Ridge National Laboratory's (ORNL's) Engineering Science and Technology Division's (ESTD's) Building Equipment Group designed a water-heating appliance that combines HPWH efficiency with dedicated dehumidification. This integrated appliance could be a low-cost solution for dehumidification and efficient electric water heating. ORNL is partnering with Western Carolina University, Asheville-Buncombe Technical Community College, American Carolina Stamping Company, and Clemson University to develop this appliance and assess its market potential. For practical purposes, consumers are indifferent to how water is heated but are very interested in product attributes such as initial first cost, operating cost, performance, serviceability, product size, and installation costs. The principal drivers for penetrating markets are demonstrating reliability, leveraging the dehumidification attributes of the integrated WHD, and creating programs that embrace first-cost and life-cycle cost principles.

Ashdown, BG

2005-01-11T23:59:59.000Z

239

Preliminary Modeling, Testing, and Analysis of a Gas Tankless Water Heater: Preprint  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Today's gas tankless water heaters offer significant energy savings over conventional gas storage tank water heaters, but savings depends on the draw pattern. A one-node model incorporating heat exchanger mass is used to address this and other issues. Key model parameters are determined from least-squares regression on short-term data, including burner efficiency, thermal capacitance, and thermal loss coefficient. The calibrated model agrees with data to ~5% on Qgas, with temperature RMS deviation of ~4..deg..C. Efficiency with a standard realistic draw is 71%, compared to 81% predicted from standard energy-factors. Adding a small tank controlled by the tankless heater solves issues of oscillations with solar pre-heat, low-flow and hot-water-delay issues. Future work includes model refinements and developing optimal data protocols for model parameter extraction.

Burch, J.; Hoeschele, M.; Springer, D.; Rudd, A.

2008-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

240

The Newest Addition to the ENERGY STAR Lineup: Water Heaters | Department  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

The Newest Addition to the ENERGY STAR Lineup: Water Heaters The Newest Addition to the ENERGY STAR Lineup: Water Heaters The Newest Addition to the ENERGY STAR Lineup: Water Heaters February 17, 2009 - 9:48am Addthis Elizabeth Spencer Communicator, National Renewable Energy Laboratory If you've gone shopping for new appliances sometime in the last decade, then you're probably familiar with the ENERGY STAR® label. ENERGY STAR is a partnership between the U.S. Department of Energy and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency that sets higher-than-average standards for household appliances, electronics, and commercial products. Products that meet these rigorous energy requirements can be designated as ENERGY STAR products. For the average consumer, it basically means that ENERGY STAR products are more energy efficient than their standard counterparts, and therefore will

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "demand water heaters" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

City of San Jose - Solar Hot Water Heaters and Photovoltaic Systems Permit  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

San Jose - Solar Hot Water Heaters and Photovoltaic Systems San Jose - Solar Hot Water Heaters and Photovoltaic Systems Permit Requirements City of San Jose - Solar Hot Water Heaters and Photovoltaic Systems Permit Requirements < Back Eligibility Commercial Construction Industrial Installer/Contractor Multi-Family Residential Residential Savings Category Solar Buying & Making Electricity Program Info State California Program Type Solar/Wind Permitting Standards Provider City of San Jose Building, Planning and Electrical Permits are required for Photovoltiac (PV) systems installed in San Jose. In most cases, PV systems must also undergo a Building Plan Review and an Electrical Plan Review. Building Plan Reviews are not required for installations that meet all of the following criteria: 1. Total panel weight (including frame) is not greater than 5 lbs. per

242

Performance Evaluation of Combined Batch Type Solar Water Heater Cum Regenerative Solar Still  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this work, effort is being made to integrate two different solar appliances so that they could work in much better way. Solar water heater cum distillation system is designed and fabricated to carry out two operations simultaneously, heating of water ...

A. Sumit Ambade; B. Tarun Narekar; C. Vikrant Katekar

2009-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

243

Our Environment in Hot Water: Comparing Water Heaters, A Life Cycle Approach Comparing Tank and Tankless Water Heaters in California  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

hot water draw and energy usage for household samples,Support Document [10]. Energy usage for tankless watersuch a large population, energy usage would be reduced and

Lu, Alison

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

244

Development of an Accurate Feed-Forward Temperature Control Tankless Water Heater  

SciTech Connect

The following document is the final report for DE-FC26-05NT42327: Development of an Accurate Feed-Forward Temperature Control Tankless Water Heater. This work was carried out under a cooperative agreement from the Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory, with additional funding from Keltech, Inc. The objective of the project was to improve the temperature control performance of an electric tankless water heater (TWH). The reason for doing this is to minimize or eliminate one of the barriers to wider adoption of the TWH. TWH use less energy than typical (storage) water heaters because of the elimination of standby losses, so wider adoption will lead to reduced energy consumption. The project was carried out by Building Solutions, Inc. (BSI), a small business based in Omaha, Nebraska. BSI partnered with Keltech, Inc., a manufacturer of electric tankless water heaters based in Delton, Michigan. Additional work was carried out by the University of Nebraska and Mike Coward. A background study revealed several advantages and disadvantages to TWH. Besides using less energy than storage heaters, TWH provide an endless supply of hot water, have a longer life, use less floor space, can be used at point-of-use, and are suitable as boosters to enable alternative water heating technologies, such as solar or heat-pump water heaters. Their disadvantages are their higher cost, large instantaneous power requirement, and poor temperature control. A test method was developed to quantify performance under a representative range of disturbances to flow rate and inlet temperature. A device capable of conducting this test was designed and built. Some heaters currently on the market were tested, and were found to perform quite poorly. A new controller was designed using model predictive control (MPC). This control method required an accurate dynamic model to be created and required significant tuning to the controller before good control was achieved. The MPC design was then implemented on a prototype heater that was being developed simultaneously with the controller development. (The prototype's geometry and components are based on a currently marketed heater, but several improvements have been made.) The MPC's temperature control performance was a vast improvement over the existing controller. With a benchmark for superior control performance established, five additional control methods were tested. One problem with MPC control is that it was found to be extremely difficult to implement in a TWH, so that it is unlikely to be widely adopted by manufacturers. Therefore the five additional control methods were selected based on their simplicity; each could be implemented by a typical manufacturer. It was found that one of these methods performed as well as MPC, or even better under many circumstances. This method uses a Feedback-Compensated Feed-Forward algorithm that was developed for this project. Due to its simplicity and excellent performance this method was selected as the controller of choice. A final higher-capacity prototype heater that uses Feedback-Compensated Feed-Forward control was constructed. This prototype has many improvements over the currently marketed heaters: (1) excellent control; (2) a modular design that allows for different capacity heaters to be built easily; (3) built-in fault detection and diagnosis; (4) a secondary remote user-interface; and (5) a TRIAC switching algorithm that will minimize 'flicker factor'. The design and engineering of this prototype unit will allow it to be built without an increase in cost, compared with the currently marketed heater. A design rendering of the new product is shown below. It will be launched with a new marketing campaign by Keltech in early 2009.

David Yuill

2008-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

245

NREL Tests Integrated Heat Pump Water Heater Performance in Different Climates (Fact Sheet)  

SciTech Connect

This technical highlight describes NREL tests to capture information about heat pump performance across a wide range of ambient conditions for five heat pump water heaters (HPWH). These water heaters have the potential to significantly reduce water heater energy use relative to traditional electric resistance water heaters. These tests have provided detailed performance data for these appliances, which have been used to evaluate the cost of saved energy as a function of climate. The performance of HPWHs is dependent on ambient air temperature and humidity and the logic controlling the heat pump and the backup resistance heaters. The laboratory tests were designed to measure each unit's performance across a range of air conditions and determine the specific logic controlling the two heat sources, which has a large effect on the comfort of the users and the energy efficiency of the system. Unlike other types of water heaters, HPWHs are both influenced by and have an effect on their surroundings. Since these effects are complex and different for virtually every house and climate region, creating an accurate HPWH model from the data gathered during the laboratory tests was a main goal of the project. Using the results from NREL's laboratory tests, such as the Coefficient of Performance (COP) curves for different air conditions as shown in Figure 1, an existing HPWH model is being modified to produce more accurate whole-house simulations. This will allow the interactions between the HPWH and the home's heating and cooling system to be evaluated in detail, for any climate region. Once these modeling capabilities are in place, a realistic cost-benefit analysis can be performed for a HPWH installation anywhere in the country. An accurate HPWH model will help to quantify the savings associated with installing a HPWH in the place of a standard electric water heater. In most locations, HPWHs are not yet a cost-effective alternative to natural gas water heaters. The detailed system performance maps that were developed by this testing program will be used to: (1) Target regions of the country that would benefit most from this technology; (2) Identify improvements in current systems to maximize homeowner cost savings; and (3) Explore opportunities for development of advanced hot water heating systems.

Not Available

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

246

Factors Influencing Water Heating Energy Use and Peak Demand in a Large Scale Residential Monitoring Study  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A load research project by the Florida Power Corporation (FPC) is monitoring 200 residences in Central Florida, collecting detailed end-use load data. The monitoring is being performed to better estimate the impact of FPC's load control program, as well as obtain improved appliance energy consumption indexes and load profiles. A portion of the monitoring measures water heater energy use and demand in each home on a 15-minute basis.

Bouchelle, M. P.; Parker, D. S.; Anello, M. T.

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

247

Performance of Heat Pump Water Heaters: Initial Findings of Draw Profile Effect on HPWH Efficiency  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Performance of Heat Pump Water Heaters Performance of Heat Pump Water Heaters © 2011 Steven Winter Associates, Inc. All rights reserved. © 2011 Steven Winter Associates, Inc. All rights reserved. Evaluation Overview  2000-2002 Evaluated 20 installations with CL&P  Product had problems; not ready for prime time (average COPs of 1.67 was not the problem)  New batch of heaters available, including:  GE's GeoSpring Hybrid (50 gal)  A.O.Smith's Voltex Hybrid (60 & 80 gal)  Stiebel-Eltron's Accelera 300 (80 gal)  Evaluating 14 installations for National Grid, NSTAR, & Cape Light Compact. © 2011 Steven Winter Associates, Inc. All rights reserved. © 2011 Steven Winter Associates, Inc. All rights reserved.

248

Chilled Water Storage System and Demand Response at the University...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Chilled Water Storage System and Demand Response at the University of California at Merced Title Chilled Water Storage System and Demand Response at the University of California at...

249

Energy Consumption and Demand as Affected by Heat Pumps that Cool, Heat and Heat Domestic Water  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Products or systems that heat, cool and heat domestic water, which are also referred to as integrated systems, have been available for several years. The concept is simple and appeals to consumers. This paper presents methods for evaluating the potential savings by using an integrated system that heats water by desuperheating discharge gas in the refrigeration cycle. The methods may be applied for any specific location, and their accuracy will depend on the accuracy of building loads and water usage estimates. Power demand can also be affected by electric water heaters. The methods presented demonstrate how integrated systems can be of value in reducing daily summertime peaks.

Cawley, R.

1992-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

250

A Simple Method to Continuous Measurement of Energy Consumption of Tank Less Gas Water Heaters for Commercial Buildings  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

energy consumptions of hot water supply in restaurants or residential houses are large amount, guidelines for optimal design are not presented. measurements of energy consumption of tank less gas water heaters very difficult unless gas flow meters were installed. however a gas flow meters is hardly installed for individual heater. in this study, a simple method to estimate gas consumption of such appliances form temperature of exhaust gas and electric current was presented. experiments of japanese major hot water gas heaters were conducted change under conditions of various water flow rate at constant output temperature. the empirical equations, which related gas consumption to exhaust gas temperature and operative current, were obtained for each type of water heaters, each manufacturer and overall heaters. verification of the method was conducted at a commercial building. some thresholds to decide status of operation, such as anti-freeze operation, were set, and sufficient accuracy of around 10 % error was achieved.

Yamaha, M.; Fujita, M.; Miyoshi, T.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

251

Economics of Condensing Gas Furnaces and Water Heaters Potential in Residential Single Family Homes  

SciTech Connect

Residential space and water heating accounts for over 90percent of total residential primary gas consumption in the United States. Condensing space and water heating equipment are 10-30percent more energy-efficient than conventional space and water heating. Currently, condensing gas furnaces represent 40 percent of shipments and are common in the Northern U.S. market. Meanwhile, manufacturers are planning to develop condensing gas storage water heaters to qualify for Energy Star? certification. Consumers, installers, and builders who make decisions about installing space and water heating equipment generally do not perform an analysis to assess the economic impacts of different combinations and efficiencies of space and water heating equipment. Thus, equipment is often installed without taking into consideration the potential life-cycle economic and energy savings of installing space and water heating equipment combinations. Drawing on previous and current analysis conducted for the United States Department of Energy rulemaking on amended standards for furnaces and water heaters, this paper evaluates the extent to which condensing equipment can provide life-cycle cost-effectiveness in a representative sample of single family American homes. The economic analyses indicate that significant energy savings and consumer benefits may result from large-scale introduction of condensing water heaters combined with condensing furnaces in U.S. residential single-family housing, particularly in the Northern region. The analyses also shows that important benefits may be overlooked when policy analysts evaluate the impact of space and water heating equipment separately.

Lekov, Alex; Franco, Victor; Meyers, Steve

2010-05-14T23:59:59.000Z

252

Laboratory and Field Evaluation of Four Heat Pump Water Heater Systems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Water heating represents the second-largest load in residential buildings in the United States, and also a large load in many commercial and industrial buildings. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) continues research on heat pump water heater (HPWH) systems, which provide high-efficiency electric water heating using the heat pump cycle. In this study, four systems, representing both residential and commercial applications, were tested in the laboratory and/or in the field. An A.O. Smith ...

2012-12-14T23:59:59.000Z

253

Capstone C60 Microturbine as a Water Heater and Standby Generator: Installation at Tomoka Correctional Institution  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A Capstone C60 microturbine and matched Unifin heat recovery heat exchanger were installed as a water heater in the laundry of the Tomoka Correctional Institution in Daytona, Florida. This report chronicles the design, installation, and early operations of the project.

2005-03-29T23:59:59.000Z

254

Development of High Efficiency Carbon Dioxide Commercial Heat Pump Water Heater  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Although heat pump water heaters are today widely accepted in both Japan and Europe, where energy costs are high and government incentives for their use exist, acceptance of such products in the US has been limited. While this trend is slowly changing with the introduction of heat pump water heaters into the residential market, but acceptance remains low in the commercial sector. The objective of the presented work is the development of a high efficiency R744 heat pump water heater for commercial applications with effective utilization of the cooling capability for air conditioning and/or refrigeration. The ultimate goal is to achieve total system COP of up to 8. This unit will be targeted at commercial use where some cooling load is typically needed year round, such as restaurants, hotels, nursing homes, and hospitals. This paper presents the performance results from the development of four R744 commercial heat pump water heater packages of approximately 35 kW and comparison to a commercially available baseline R134a unit of the same capacity and footprint. In addition, the influences of an internal heat exchanger and an enhanced evaporator on the system performance are described and recommendations are made for further improvements of the R744 system.

Michael PETERSEN; Chad D. BOWERS; Stefan ELBEL; Pega HRNJAK

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

255

Solar water heater installation guidelines. A manual for homeowners and professionals. [Includes glossary  

SciTech Connect

The guidelines include detailed diagrams, a selected glossary, a bibliography of books and manuals which might prove useful and a checklist which should be used during and after the installation. The guidelines explain generally how to install a liquid solar hot water heater, but not a specific system. The following are covered: collector location, collector installation, plumbing, solar storage tanks, electrical, and insulation. (MHR)

1978-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

256

Expert Meeting Report: Recommendations for Applying Water Heaters in Combination Space and Domestic Water Heating Systems  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Recommendations for Applying Recommendations for Applying Water Heaters in Combination Space and Domestic Water Heating Systems A. Rudd, K. Ueno, D. Bergey, R. Osser Building Science Corporation June 2012 i This report received minimal editorial review at NREL. NOTICE This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States government. Neither the United States government nor any agency thereof, nor any of their employees, subcontractors, or affiliated partners makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, or process disclosed, or represents that its use would not infringe privately owned rights. Reference herein to any specific commercial product, process, or service by trade name, trademark,

257

WATER INFLOW INTO BOREHOLES DURING THE STRIPA HEATER EXPERIMENTS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

mm holes (9 of 18) produced water only sporadically Inflowperiod. Because H8 had produced no water for a year, no dataexperiment? have produced an increase in water inflow in

Nelson, P.H.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

258

NREL evaluates energy savings potential of heat pump water heaters in homes throughout all U.S. climate zones.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

in homes compared to traditional electric resistance water heaters. Researchers at the National Renewable is a function of surrounding air temperature, humidity, hot water usage, and the logic controlling the heat pump

259

Tips: Water Heating | Department of Energy  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

2, 2012 - 4:53pm Addthis Keep Your Energy Bills Out of Hot Water. Insulate your water heater to save energy and money, or choose an on-demand hot water heater to save even more....

260

Blue Ridge Mountain Electric Membership Corporation - Water Heater...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Heating & Cooling Cooling Construction Design & Remodeling Ventilation Manufacturing Heat Pumps Appliances & Electronics Water Heating Program Information Georgia Program Type...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "demand water heaters" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Evaluation of TANK Water Heater Simulation Model as Embedded in HWSim  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

TANK Water Heater Simulation Model as Embedded in HWSim TANK Water Heater Simulation Model as Embedded in HWSim Title Evaluation of TANK Water Heater Simulation Model as Embedded in HWSim Publication Type Report LBNL Report Number LBNL-5092E Year of Publication 2010 Authors Lutz, James D. Document Number LBNL-5092E Pagination 11 Date Published December 22 Publisher Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory City Berkeley ISBN Number LBNL-5092E Abstract This report evaluates the hot water temperatures and flow rates as calculated by the combined HWSim and TANK simulation models. Notes This work was sponsored by the Gas Technology Institute (GTI) which is funded by the California Energy Commission, Public Interest Energy Research (PIER) Program, under Residential Water Heating Program Contract No. 500-08-060. This work was supported by the Assistant Secretary for Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Office of Building Technology, State, and Community Programs, of the U.S. Department of Energy under Contract No. DE-AC02-05CH11231.

262

Solar Buildings: Solar Water Heaters, The Next Generation  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This document explains the U.S. Department of Energy's Solar Buildings Program's efforts regarding the research, development, and deployment of solar water heating technology.

NREL

1998-10-29T23:59:59.000Z

263

Energy Efficient Condensing Side-arm Gas Water Heater - Energy ...  

Hydrogen and Fuel Cell; Hydropower, Wave and ... thereby eliminating standby energy losses that occur when heat is transferred from the hot water to ...

264

Orlando Utilities Commission- Residential Solar Water Heater Rebate Program (Florida)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

The Orlando Utilities Commission (OUC) offers residential electric customers a point-of-sale rebate of $1,000 for new solar water heating systems.

265

The effect of location on the predicted performance of a heat pump water heater  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Laboratory testing and field testing have shown that a heat pump water heater (HPWH) uses about half the electrical energy input that an electric resistance water heater does. However, since the HPWH extracts energy from the air in its environment, the question arises as to how this energy extraction would affect the house heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) system if the HPWH were located in a conditioned space of a household. A second question concerns the savings obtained by locating the HPWH in an unconditioned space such as a garage or basement. The effect of locating the HPWH in the conditioned spaces of houses with a high-performance heat pump as well as resistance- gas- and oil-heated houses with a high performance electric air conditioner was studied. All calculations were made on a desktop computer. Weather bin data and inlet water temperatures for each city were used to calcuate the energy consumption for the house first with a resistance water heater, and then with a HPWH. The difference between these values was used to calculate the performance factor (PF) of the HPWH. The HPWH will add to the house heating load in winter and lessen the house cooling load in summer.

Levins, W.P.

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

266

FEMP Designated Product Assessment for Commercial Gas Water Heaters  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

boilers is 80%. The maximum standby loss is specified usingrate. 8 There is no maximum standby loss specified for gas-of hot water use, standby losses are not a significant part

Lutz, Jim

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

267

Energy Basics: Tankless Coil and Indirect Water Heaters  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

to heat a fluid that's circulated through a heat exchanger in the storage tank. The energy stored by the water tank allows the furnace to turn off and on less often, which saves...

268

Solar Water Heater Rebate Program (Kentucky) | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Low Emission Development Strategies Oil & Gas Smart Grid Solar U.S. OpenLabs Utilities Water Wind Page Actions View form View source History View New Pages Recent Changes All...

269

Columbia River PUD - Water Heater Financing Program (Oregon)...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Low Emission Development Strategies Oil & Gas Smart Grid Solar U.S. OpenLabs Utilities Water Wind Page Actions View form View source History View New Pages Recent Changes All...

270

Columbia River PUD - Water Heater Rebate Program (Oregon) | Open...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Low Emission Development Strategies Oil & Gas Smart Grid Solar U.S. OpenLabs Utilities Water Wind Page Actions View form View source History View New Pages Recent Changes All...

271

EPUD - Solar Water Heater Loan (Oregon) | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Low Emission Development Strategies Oil & Gas Smart Grid Solar U.S. OpenLabs Utilities Water Wind Page Actions View form View source History View New Pages Recent Changes All...

272

EPUD - Solar Water Heater Rebate (Oregon) | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Low Emission Development Strategies Oil & Gas Smart Grid Solar U.S. OpenLabs Utilities Water Wind Page Actions View form View source History View New Pages Recent Changes All...

273

Application of a Linear Input/Output Model to Tankless Water Heaters  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

In this study, the applicability of a linear input/output model to gas-fired, tankless water heaters has been evaluated. This simple model assumes that the relationship between input and output, averaged over both active draw and idle periods, is linear. This approach is being applied to boilers in other studies and offers the potential to make a small number of simple measurements to obtain the model parameters. These parameters can then be used to predict performance under complex load patterns. Both condensing and non-condensing water heaters have been tested under a very wide range of load conditions. It is shown that this approach can be used to reproduce performance metrics, such as the energy factor, and can be used to evaluate the impacts of alternative draw patterns and conditions.

Butcher T.; Schoenbauer, B.

2011-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

274

Heat Pump Water Heater Technology Assessment Based on Laboratory Research and Energy Simulation Models: Preprint  

SciTech Connect

This paper explores the laboratory performance of five integrated Heat Pump Water Heaters (HPWHs) across a wide range of operating conditions representative of US climate regions. Laboratory results demonstrate the efficiency of this technology under most of the conditions tested and show that differences in control schemes and design features impact the performance of the individual units. These results were used to understand current model limitations, and then to bracket the energy savings potential for HPWH technology in various US climate regions. Simulation results show that HPWHs are expected to provide significant energy savings in many climate zones when compared to other types of water heaters (up to 64%, including impact on HVAC systems).

Hudon, K.; Sparn, B.; Christensen, D.; Maguire, J.

2012-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

275

Performance Assessment of an Eco-Cute Heat Pump Water Heater  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report describes and documents construction, performance, and application of a heat pump water heater (HPWH) that uses carbon dioxide (CO2) as the refrigerant. The term “Eco-cute” refers to carbon dioxide-based heat pump technology jointly developed by Tokyo Electric Power Company (TEPCO), Denso Corporation, and Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry (CRIEPI). The system received and tested by EPRI is manufactured by Daikin Industries Ltd., located in Osaka, Japan. Use of CO2 as a ref...

2008-12-08T23:59:59.000Z

276

Performance of a Heat Pump Water Heater in the Hot-Humid Climate, Windermere, Florida (Fact Sheet), Building America Case Study: Technology Solutions for New and Existing Homes, Building Technologies Office (BTO)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Performance of a Performance of a Heat Pump Water Heater in the Hot-Humid Climate Windermere, Florida Over recent years, heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) have become more read- ily available and more widely adopted in the marketplace. A key feature of an HPWH unit is that it is a hybrid system. When conditions are favorable, the unit will operate in heat pump mode (using a vapor compression system that extracts heat from the surrounding air) to efficiently provide domestic hot water (DHW). Homeowners need not adjust their behavior to conform to the heat pump's capabilities. If a heat pump cannot meet a higher water draw demand, the heater will switch to electric resistance to provide a higher heating rate. This flexibility

277

Development and Validation of a Gas-Fired Residential Heat Pump Water Heater - Final Report  

SciTech Connect

For gas-fired residential water heating, the U.S. and Canada is predominantly supplied by minimum efficiency storage water heaters with Energy Factors (EF) in the range of 0.59 to 0.62. Higher efficiency and higher cost ($700 - $2,000) options serve about 15% of the market, but still have EFs below 1.0, ranging from 0.65 to 0.95. To develop a new class of water heating products that exceeds the traditional limit of thermal efficiency, the project team designed and demonstrated a packaged water heater driven by a gas-fired ammonia-water absorption heat pump. This gas-fired heat pump water heater can achieve EFs of 1.3 or higher, at a consumer cost of $2,000 or less. Led by Stone Mountain Technologies Inc. (SMTI), with support from A.O. Smith, the Gas Technology Institute (GTI), and Georgia Tech, the cross-functional team completed research and development tasks including cycle modeling, breadboard evaluation of two cycles and two heat exchanger classes, heat pump/storage tank integration, compact solution pump development, combustion system specification, and evaluation of packaged prototype GHPWHs. The heat pump system extracts low grade heat from the ambient air and produces high grade heat suitable for heating water in a storage tank for domestic use. Product features that include conventional installation practices, standard footprint and reasonable economic payback, position the technology to gain significant market penetration, resulting in a large reduction of energy use and greenhouse gas emissions from domestic hot water production.

Michael Garrabrant; Roger Stout; Paul Glanville; Janice Fitzgerald; Chris Keinath

2013-01-21T23:59:59.000Z

278

MEAN MONTHLY PERFORMANCE OF PASSIVE SOLAR HEATERS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

PERFORMANCE OF PASSIVE SOLAR WATER HEATERS W. Place, M.PERFORMANCE OF PASSIVE SOLAR WATER HEATERS* We Place, M.The Performance of Solar Water Heaters with Natu)""al

Place, W.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

279

Dampers for Natural Draft Heaters: Technical Report  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

vented natural-draft gas-fired storage water heater. Thevented natural?draft gas?fired storage water heater. Thevented natural?draft gas?fired storage water heater. The

Lutz, James D.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

280

Study Design And Realization Of Solar Water Heater  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Solar is one of the most easily exploitable energy, it is moreover inexhaustible. His applications are many and are varied. The heating of the domestic water is one of the most immediate, simplest and also of most widespread exploitation of the solar energy. Algeria, from its geographical situation, it deposits one of the largest high sun surface expositions in the world. The exposition duration of the almost territory exceeds 2000 hours annually and can reach the 3900 hours (high plateaus and Sahara). By knowing the daily energy received by 1 m{sup 2} of a horizontal surface of the solar thermal panel is nearly around 1700 KWh/m{sup 2} a year in the north and 2263 KWh/m{sup 2} a year in the south of the country, we release the most important and strategic place of the solar technologies in the present and in the future for Algeria. This work consists to study, conceive and manufacture solar water heating with the available local materials so, this type of the energy will be profitable for all, particularly the poor countries. If we consider the illumination duration of the panel around 6 hours a day, the water heat panel manufactured in our laboratory produce an equivalent energy of 11.615 KWh a day so, 4239 KWh a year. These values of energy can be easily increased with performing the panel manufacture.

Lounis, M. [LAAR Laboratory-Physics Department-USTOMB 31000 Oran (Algeria); Boudjemaa, F.; Akil, S. Kouider [Genie Climatic Department-CUKM 44000-Khemis Miliana (Algeria)

2011-01-17T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "demand water heaters" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

Peak Demand Reduction with Dual-Source Heat Pumps Using Municipal Water  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The objective of this project was to examine a dual-source (air and/or water-coupled) heat pump concept which would reduce or eliminate the need for supplemental electrical resistance heating (strip heaters). The project examined two system options: switching on demand between completely air-source and completely water-coupled or using a concurrent partial water-coupled and partial air-coupled mode operation. The water supply for the water-coupled mode of operation would be the municipal water system. An estimate of the economic worth of this system concept was made by examining the incremental cost to install such a system against the expected savings associated with these systems.

Morehouse, J. H.; Khan, J. A.; Connor, L. N.; Pal, D.

1992-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

282

Revisions to the SRCC Rating Process for Solar Water Heaters: Preprint  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

In the United States, annual performance ratings for solar water heaters are computed with component-based simulation models driven by typical meteorological year weather and specified water draw. Changes in the process are being implemented to enhance credibility through increased transparency and accuracy. Changes to the process include using a graphical rather than text-based model-building tool, performing analytical tests on all components and systems, checking energy balances on every component, loop, and system at every time step, comparing the results to detect outliers and potential errors, and documenting the modeling process in detail. Examples of changes in ratings are shown, along with analytical and comparative testing results.

Burch, J.; Huggins, J.; Long, S.; Thornton, J.

2012-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

283

Control system for electric water heater with heat pump external heat source  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A control system for an electric water heater operatively associated with an external heat source, such as a heat pump. The water heater includes a water storage tank provided with an electric tank heating unit having a tank thermostat which closes in response to water temperature in the tank, allowing a flow of current through the tank heating unit so as to turn it on to heat the water, and which opens when the tank thermostat has been satisfied, interrupting the current flow so as to turn the tank heating unit off. The control system as responsive to the initial current surge through the tank heating unit when the tank thermostat closes to interrupt the current flow to the tank heating unit so as to maintain the heating unit off and to turn on the external heat source and maintain it on until the tank thermostat opens. The initial current surge cleans the contacts of the tank thermostat by burning off any insulating oxide residues which may have formed on them. The control system includes means responsive to abnormal conditions which would prevent the external heat source from heating water effectively for turning off the external heat source and turning on the tank heating unit and maintaining the external heat source off and the tank heating unit on until the tank thermostat is satisfied.

Shaffer Jr., J. E.; Picarello, J. F.

1985-09-10T23:59:59.000Z

284

The impact of water flow configuration on crystallisation in LiBr/H2O absorption water heater  

SciTech Connect

Lithium Bromide (LiBr) strong solution entering the absorber tends to crystallise when the absorber temperature is increased for a fixed evaporating pressure. This is considered the key technical barrier for the development of a LiBr absorption heat pump water heater. There are several approaches to avoid the crystallisation problem, such as chemical crystallisation inhibitors, heat and mass transfer enhancement and thermodynamic cycle modification. This paper investigates and compares two flow configurations of LiBr absorption heat pump water heater to evaluate the allowable operating conditions for each. The simulation results indicated that introducing the process water through the absorber first results in lower absorber temperature and hence less tendency for crystallisation.

Wang, Kai [ORNL; Abdelaziz, Omar [ORNL; Vineyard, Edward Allan [ORNL

2011-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

285

Laboratory Evaluation of Gas-Fired Tankless and Storage Water Heater Approaches to Combination Water and Space Heating  

SciTech Connect

Homebuilders are exploring more cost effective combined space and water heating systems (combo systems) with major water heater manufacturers that are offering pre-engineered forced air space heating combo systems. In this project, unlike standardized tests, laboratory tests were conducted that subjected condensing tankless and storage water heater based combo systems to realistic, coincidental space and domestic hot water loads with the following key findings: 1) The tankless combo system maintained more stable DHW and space heating temperatures than the storage combo system. 2) The tankless combo system consistently achieved better daily efficiencies (i.e. 84%-93%) than the storage combo system (i.e. 81%- 91%) when the air handler was sized adequately and adjusted properly to achieve significant condensing operation. When condensing operation was not achieved, both systems performed with lower (i.e. 75%-88%), but similar efficiencies. 3) Air handlers currently packaged with combo systems are not designed to optimize condensing operation. More research is needed to develop air handlers specifically designed for condensing water heaters. 4) System efficiencies greater than 90% were achieved only on days where continual and steady space heating loads were required with significant condensing operation. For days where heating was more intermittent, the system efficiencies fell below 90%.

Kingston, T.; Scott, S.

2013-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

286

Analysis of the performance and space-conditioning impacts of dedicated heat-pump water heaters  

SciTech Connect

A description is given of the development and testing of the newly-marketed dedicated heat pump water heater (HPWH), and an analysis is presented of its performance and space conditioning impacts. This system utilizes an air-to-water heat pump, costs about $1000 installed, and obtains a coefficient of performance (COP) of about 2.0 in laboratory and field tests. Since a HPWH is usually installed indoors and extracts heat from the air, its operation is a space conditioning benefit if an air conditioning load exists and a penalty if a space heating load exists. To investigate HPWH performance and a space conditioning impacts, a simulation has been developed to model the thermal performance of a residence with resistance baseboard heat, air conditioning, and either heat pump or resistance water heating. The building characteristics are adapted for three US geographical areas (Madison, Wisconsin; Washington, DC; and Ft. Worth, Texas), and the system is simulated for a year with typical weather data. For each city, HPWH COPs are calculated monthly and yearly. In addition, the water heating and space conditioning energy requirements of HPWH operation are compared with those of resistance water heater operation to determine the relative performance ratio (RPR) of the HPWH. The annual simulated RPRs range from 1.5 to 1.7, which indicate a substantial space heating penalty of HPWH operation in these cities.

Morrison, L.; Swisher, J.

1980-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

287

Performance of a Heat Pump Water Heater in the Hot-Humid Climate, Windermere, Florida (Fact Sheet)  

SciTech Connect

Over recent years, heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) have become more readily available and more widely adopted in the marketplace. For a 6-month period, the Building America team Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings monitored the performance of a GE Geospring HPWH in Windermere, Florida. The study found that the HPWH performed 144% more efficiently than a traditional electric resistance water heater, saving approximately 64% on water heating annually. The monitoring showed that the domestic hot water draw was a primary factor affecting the system's operating efficiency.

Metzger, C.; Puttagunta, S.; Williamson, J.

2013-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

288

Impact of Pilot Light Modeling on the Predicted Annual Performance of Residential Gas Water Heaters: Preprint  

SciTech Connect

Modeling residential water heaters with dynamic simulation models can provide accurate estimates of their annual energy consumption, if the units? characteristics and use conditions are known. Most gas storage water heaters (GSWHs) include a standing pilot light. It is generally assumed that the pilot light energy will help make up standby losses and have no impact on the predicted annual energy consumption. However, that is not always the case. The gas input rate and conversion efficiency of a pilot light for a GSWH were determined from laboratory data. The data were used in simulations of a typical GSWH with and without a pilot light, for two cases: 1) the GSWH is used alone; and 2) the GSWH is the second tank in a solar water heating (SWH) system. The sensitivity of wasted pilot light energy to annual hot water use, climate, and installation location was examined. The GSWH used alone in unconditioned space in a hot climate had a slight increase in energy consumption. The GSWH with a pilot light used as a backup to an SWH used up to 80% more auxiliary energy than one without in hot, sunny locations, from increased tank losses.

Maguire, J.; Burch, J.

2013-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

289

15 Ways to Save on Your Water Heating Bill | Department of Energy  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

it surprises me to see that the most popular pages on the site are the ones about solar water heaters and demand (or tankless) water heaters. But considering that water heating can...

290

Microsoft Word - ASHRAE_Water Heater Paper_2010-11-24_Final_LBNL_.docx  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Energy Efficiency Design Options for Residential Water Heaters: Economic Impacts on Consumers Presented at: 2011 ASHRAE Winter Conference, Las Vegas, Nevada January 2011 Alex B. Lekov, Victor H. Franco, Steve Meyers, Lisa Thompson, and Virginie Letschert Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Environmental Energy Technologies Division One Cyclotron Road Berkeley, CA 94720 This work was supported by the Assistant Secretary for Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Office of Building Technology, State, and Community Programs, of the U.S. Department of Energy under Contract No. DE-AC02-05CH11231. ERNEST ORLANDO LAWRENCE BERKELEY NATIONAL LABORATORY 2 Disclaimer This document was prepared as an account of work sponsored by the United States

291

Water Heating Basics | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

- 11:15am Addthis A variety of systems are available for water heating in homes and buildings. Learn about: Conventional Storage Water Heaters Demand (Tankless or Instantaneous)...

292

Performance Testing Residential Heat Pump Water Heaters under South- and Central-Florida Climate Conditions: Hot, Humid Climate and Warm Ground Water Pose Unusual Operating Environment for Heat Pump Water Heaters  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) are known to provide considerable energy savings compared with electric resistance devices in many applications. However, as their performance is climate-dependent, it is important to understand their operation in extreme climates. Southern and Central Florida presents an extreme climate for HPWHs, as the air temperature, humidity, and entering water temperatures are all high nearly year-round. This report examines HPWH performance in the Florida Power & Light ...

2013-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

293

Using prospect theory to create persuasive communications about solar water heaters and energy conservation  

SciTech Connect

Based on predictions advanced by Kahneman and Tversky in their prospect theory, a research plan was developed comparing the effectiveness of cost-benefit presentations which a) were framed in terms of savings or loss, and b) provided isolated or integrated information about tax credit and retail price, about c) either solar water heaters or insulating blankets. After hearing one of the versions of the cost-benefit information, 175 homeowners evaluated the worth and desirability of either solar water heaters or insulating blankets and indicated the likelihood of installing the retrofit within the coming year. Results indicate that, in general, homeowners will find energy-efficient technology more attractive if they are given price information that incorporates the money-saving benefits of tax credits directly into the statement of cost, and which encourages consideration of the money-losing consequences of nonaction. This effect is limited to some extent, however, by how expensive and controversial the time was, and by the individual's prior attitudes toward alternative energy and conservation. When the cost of the device is very high (and the device, itself, controversial), and the homeowner is skeptical about the value of conservation and alternative energy sources, a hard-sell pitch, utilizing the loss-integrated presentation, appears to elicit a strong reactance effect.

Yates, S.M.

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

294

Variability in energy factor test results for residential electric water heaters  

SciTech Connect

Recent modifications to the minimum energy efficiency requirements for residential water heaters have spurred an investigation into the variability in testing high-efficiency electric water heaters. While initial inter-laboratory comparisons showed excellent agreement between test results from different labs, subsequent inter-laboratory comparisons show differences between measured energy factors of up to 0.040. To determine the source of these differences, analyses of various parts of the test procedure are performed. For one case studied, the uncertainty in test results can be as high as +-0.028 if instrument accuracies reach the minimum level allowed in the test procedure. Other areas of the test procedure where variability is introduced are the optional use of pre-draws, the location of the lower tank temperature-measuring device, the use of insulation on tank fittings, and the use of a warm-up period before the simulated-use test commences. The implications of these issues on test results are provided.

Healy, William; Lutz, James D.; Lekov, Alex

2003-04-25T23:59:59.000Z

295

National Solar Water Heater Workshop Present at DOE Region V meeting for managers of State Energy Extension Service and State Energy Conservation Plan, March 18-19, 1981  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

After a brief description of the National Solar Water Heater Workshop and some comments by users of the solar water heater, the hardware supplier handbook is presented. The performance expected of a hardware supplier is described, solar system components and their specifications are listed, and information is provided to assist the hardware supplier in obtaining necessary materials. (LEW)

Mumma, S.A.; Marinello, M.G.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

296

In-situ tuff water migration/heater experiment: experimental plan  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Tuffs on the Nevada Test Site (NTS) are currently under investigation as a potential isolation medium for heat-producing nuclear wastes. The National Academy of Sciences has concurred in our identification of the potentially large water content ({le}40 vol %) of tuffs as one of the important issues affecting their suitability for a repository. This Experimental Plan describes an in-situ experiment intended as an initial assessment of water generation/migration in response to a thermal input. The experiment will be conducted in the Grouse Canyon Welded Tuff in Tunnel U12g (G-Tunnel) located in the north-central region of the NTS. While the Grouse Canyon Welded Tuff is not a potential repository medium, it has physical, thermal, and mechanical properties very similar to those tuffs currently under consideration and is accessible at depth (400 m below the surface) in an existing facility. Other goals of the experiment are to support computer-code and instrumentation development, and to measure in-situ thermal properties. The experimental array consists of a central electrical heater, 1.2 m long x 10.2 cm diameter, surrounded by three holes for measuring water-migration behavior, two holes for measuring temperature profiles, one hole for measuring thermally induced stress in the rock, and one hole perpendicular to the heater to measure displacement with a laser. This Experimental Plan describes the experimental objectives, the technical issues, the site, the experimental array, thermal and thermomechanical modeling results, the instrumentation, the data-acquisition system, posttest characterization, and the organizational details.

Johnstone, J.K.

1980-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

297

NREL evaluates energy savings potential of heat pump water heaters in homes throughout all U.S. climate zones.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

NREL evaluates energy savings potential of heat pump water heaters in homes throughout all U.S in the U.S. market--to evaluate the cost of saved energy as a function of climate. The performance of HPWHs laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, operated

298

Water Utility Demand Management and the Financial, Social and Environmental  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Water Utility Demand Management and the Financial, Social and Environmental Water Utility Demand Management and the Financial, Social and Environmental Drivers Speaker(s): Allan J. Dietemann Date: February 19, 2004 - 12:00pm Location: Bldg. 90 Seminar Host/Point of Contact: Camilla Whitehead At Seattle Public Utilities, Al Dietemann leads a team of 11 persons with a budget of $5 million a year implementing cost-effective resource conservation measures. In 2003, the Seattle area used less water than was used in 1950 on an annual basis. Seattle's demand management programs have been successful in holding total regional water use constant in our service area, despite an annual growth in population served. During this seminar he will speak to the following issues: 1) Water utility demand management and the financial, social and environmental drivers. 2)

299

Performance analysis of dedicated heat-pump water heaters in an office building  

SciTech Connect

An evaluation is made of the performance of two generic dedicated heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) in supplying the domestic hot water (DHW) needs of a medium-sized office building in Colorado. Results are based on preliminary data measurements, and assumptions are made to compensate for a faulty flow meter. A stand-alone heat pump plumbed to a conventional tank obtains a coefficient of performance (COP) of 2.4 but only delivers load water temperatures of about 41/sup 0/C (105/sup 0/F) because of the 15,142 L/day (4000 gal/day) recirculating loop flow. An industrial-grade stand-alone HPWH will replace this unit. An integral heat pump/tank unit is being tested, but results are not available because of compressor starting problems. Recirculating loop losses account for 75% of the energy delivered by the HPWHs. These losses could be reduced by 75% if the recirculating loop were insulated, thus reducing the DHW fuel costs by 50%. The insulation expense could be paid in less than 3 years by savings in DHW fuel costs.

Morrison, L.

1981-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

300

NREL Develops Heat Pump Water Heater Simulation Model (Fact Sheet), NREL Highlights, Research & Development, NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

simulation model helps researchers evaluate real-world simulation model helps researchers evaluate real-world impacts of heat pump water heaters in U.S. homes. Heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) remove heat from the air and use it to heat water, presenting an energy-saving opportunity for homeowners. Researchers at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) developed a simulation model to study the inter- actions of HPWHs and space conditioning equipment, related to climate and installa- tion location in the home. This model was created in TRNSYS and is based on data from HPWHs tested at NREL's Advanced HVAC Systems Laboratory. The HPWH model accounts for the condenser coil wrapped around the outside of the storage tank, and uses a data-based performance map. Researchers found that simulated energy use was within 2% of lab results, which confirms

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "demand water heaters" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

West Village Community: Quality Management Processes and Preliminary Heat Pump Water Heater Performance  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

West Village, a multi-use project underway at the University of California Davis, represents a ground-breaking sustainable community incorporating energy efficiency measures and on-site renewable generation to achieve community-level Zero Net Energy (ZNE) goals. The project when complete will provide housing for students, faculty, and staff with a vision to minimize the community's impact on energy use by reducing building energy use, providing on-site generation, and encouraging alternative forms of transportation. This focus of this research is on the 192 student apartments that were completed in 2011 under Phase I of the West Village multi-year project. The numerous aggressive energy efficiency measures implemented result in estimated source energy savings of 37% over the B10 Benchmark. There are two primary objectives of this research. The first is to evaluate performance and efficiency of the central heat pump water heaters as a strategy to provide efficient electric water heating for net-zero all-electric buildings and where natural gas is not available on site. In addition, effectiveness of the quality assurance and quality control processes implemented to ensure proper system commissioning and to meet program participation requirements is evaluated. Recommendations for improvements that could improve successful implementation for large-scale, high performance communities are identified.

Dakin, B.; Backman, C.; Hoeschele, M.; German, A.

2012-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

302

Tips: Water Heating | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Tips: Water Heating Tips: Water Heating Tips: Water Heating May 2, 2012 - 4:53pm Addthis Keep Your Energy Bills Out of Hot Water. Insulate your water heater to save energy and money, or choose an on-demand hot water heater to save even more. Keep Your Energy Bills Out of Hot Water. Insulate your water heater to save energy and money, or choose an on-demand hot water heater to save even more. Water heating is the second largest energy expense in your home. It typically accounts for about 18% of your utility bill. There are four ways to cut your water heating bills: use less hot water, turn down the thermostat on your water heater, insulate your water heater, or buy a new, more efficient model. Water Heating Tips Install aerating, low-flow faucets and showerheads. Repair leaky faucets promptly; a leaky faucet wastes gallons of

303

Tips: Water Heating | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Water Heating Water Heating Tips: Water Heating May 2, 2012 - 4:53pm Addthis Keep Your Energy Bills Out of Hot Water. Insulate your water heater to save energy and money, or choose an on-demand hot water heater to save even more. Keep Your Energy Bills Out of Hot Water. Insulate your water heater to save energy and money, or choose an on-demand hot water heater to save even more. Water heating is the second largest energy expense in your home. It typically accounts for about 18% of your utility bill. There are four ways to cut your water heating bills: use less hot water, turn down the thermostat on your water heater, insulate your water heater, or buy a new, more efficient model. Water Heating Tips Install aerating, low-flow faucets and showerheads. Repair leaky faucets promptly; a leaky faucet wastes gallons of

304

Solar heater  

SciTech Connect

The invention is a solar heater which may function as a humidifier and which has a reflector that is constructed to provide a window, and external thermal insulation. The window has a cover that is positioned to transmit solar radiation to the reflector. The top portion of the reflector has an opening, and a container is removably positioned in the opening. The reflector has a geometry that reflects a high percentage of solar energy to the container, which has a surface with high absorptance. The container has a removable lid for confining heat within the container for certain functions, such as boiling water or drying clothes. When used as a humidifier, the container is filled with water and the lid is removed.

Hill, C.W.

1981-06-23T23:59:59.000Z

305

New coal plant technologies will demand more water  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Population shifts, growing electricity demand, and greater competition for water resources have heightened interest in the link between energy and water. The US Energy Information Administration projects a 22% increase in US installed generating capacity by 2030. Of the 259 GE of new capacity expected to have come on-line by then, more than 192 GW will be thermoelectric and thus require some water for cooling. Our challenge will become balancing people's needs for power and for water. 1 ref., 7 figs.

Peltier, R.; Shuster, E.; McNemar, A.; Stiegel, G.J.; Murphy, J.

2008-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

306

Water flows, energy demand, and market analysis of the informal water sector in Kisumu, Kenya  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Analysis Water flows, energy demand, and market analysis of the informal water sector in Kisumu Available online xxxx Keywords: Informal water sector Water flows Developing countries Water market analysis to cope with popu- lation growth. Informal water businesses fulfill unmet water supply needs, yet little

Elimelech, Menachem

307

ANN-based residential water end-use demand forecasting model  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Bottom-up urban water demand forecasting based on empirical data for individual water end uses or micro-components (e.g., toilet, shower, etc.) for different households of varying characteristics is undoubtedly superior to top-down estimates originating ... Keywords: Artificial neural network, Residential water demand forecasting, Water demand management, Water end use, Water micro-component

Christopher Bennett; Rodney A. Stewart; Cara D. Beal

2013-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

308

Solar pool heater  

SciTech Connect

A solar pool heater is defined by a submersible tubular ring attached to the perimeter of a transparent or translucent sheet. Floatation of the heater is obtained through an air bubble captured by the sheet and maintained by the ring. The ring is perforated to permit the entry of water within the ring to induce partial submersion and thereby establish a peripheral seal about the captured air bubble. The submersed ring also prevents overlapping of adjacent heaters and reduces the likelihood of the heaters being blown off the pool by wind. By developing the sheet from material transparent to at least a spectrum of the solar rays, the air space intermediate the sheet and the underlying water surface will provide a ''greenhouse'' effect to heat the water through direct impingement by the received radiant energy; additionally, radiation of heat from the water will be reduced by the sheet, whereby, the heater not only collects but retains the impinged radiant energy.

Acker, L.C.

1980-09-16T23:59:59.000Z

309

Analysis of the Effects of the Application of Solar Water Heater in Building Energy Consumption  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

With the development of the economy, civilian construction in the Changjiang River delta region is rapidly expanding. The boom in the construction industry definitely results in that the proportion of building energy consumption to whole energy consumption in the national economy will increase. The energy consumption of the air conditioning system, lighting system and hot-water system are the main components of the building energy consumption. Theoretically, solar energy can meet the requirements for these systems by changing the technology of photo-electricity and photo-thermal. However, the application of these technologies is on the basis of demand of space and atmospheric clarity conditions. This paper focuses on the specific conditions of city and building construction in the Changjiang River delta region, discusses the applying condition of photo-thermal transformation technology of solar energy, then analyzes the influence of mature applications of this technology on energy consumption.

Wang, J.; Li, Z.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

310

Interannual Variability of Water Demand and Summer Climate in Albuquerque, New Mexico  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The effects of interannual climate variability on water demand in Albuquerque, New Mexico, are assessed. This city provides an ideal setting for examining the effects of climate on urban water demand, because at present the municipal water supply ...

David S. Gutzler; Joshua S. Nims

2005-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

311

Price Impact on the Demand for Water and Energy in California...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

National Laboratory City Berkeley Keywords block rate pricing, california, demand, electricity, natural gas, Price elasticity of demand, water Abstract This paper provides a...

312

Performance and economic evaluation of the seahorse natural gas hot water heater conversion at Fort Stewart. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The Federal government is the largest single energy consumer in the United States with consumption of nearly 1.5 quads/year of energy (10{sup 15} quad = 1015 Btu) and cost valued at nearly $10 billion annually. The US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) supports efforts to reduce energy use and associated expenses in the Federal sector. One such effort, the New Technology Demonstration Program (NTDP) seeks to evaluate new energy -- saving US technologies and secure their more timely adoption by the US government. Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) is one of four DOE laboratories that participate in the New Technologies Demonstration Program, providing technical expertise and equipment to evaluate new, energy-saving technologies being studied under that program. This report provides the results of a field evaluation that PNL conducted for DOE/FEMP with funding support from the US Department of Defense (DoD) Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program (SERDP) to examine the performance of 4 candidate energy-saving technology-a water heater conversion system to convert electrically powered water heaters to natural gas fuel. The unit was installed at a single residence at Fort Stewart, a US Army base in Georgia, and the performance was monitored under the NTDP. Participating in this effort under a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) were Gas Fired Products, developers of the technology; the Public Service Company of North Carolina; Atlanta Gas Light Company; the Army Corps of Engineers; Fort Stewart; and Pacific Northwest Laboratory.

Winiarski, D.W.

1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

313

Econometric Analyses of Public Water Demand in the United States  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Two broad surveys of community- level water consumption and pricing behavior are used to answer questions about water demand in a more flexible and dynamic context than is provided in the literature. Central themes of price representation, aggregation, and dynamic adjustment tie together three econometric demand analyses. The centerpiece of each analysis is an exogenous weighted price representation. A model in first-differences is estimated by ordinary least squares using data from a personally-conducted survey of Texas urban water suppliers. Annual price elasticity is found to vary with weather and income, with a value of -0.127 at the data mean. The dynamic model becomes a periodic error correction model when the residuals of 12 static monthly models are inserted into the difference model. Distinct residential, commercial, and industrial variables and historical climatic conditions are added to the integrated model, using new national data. Quantity demanded is found to be periodically integrated with a common stochastic root. Because of this, the structural monthly models must be cointegrated to be consistent, which they appear to be. The error correction coefficient is estimated at -0.187. Demand is found to be seasonal and slow to adjust to shocks, with little or no adjustment in a single year and 90% adjustment taking a decade or more. Residential and commercial demand parameters are found to be indistinguishable. The sources of price endogeneity and historical fixes are reviewed. Ideal properties of a weighted price index are identified. For schedules containing exactly two rates, weighting is equivalent to a distribution function in consumption. This property is exploited to derive empirical weights from the national data, using values from a nonparametric generalization of the structural demand model and a nonparametric cumulative density function. The result is a generalization of the price difference metric to a weighted level-price index. The validity of a uniform weighting is not rejected. The weighted price index is data intensive, but the payoff is increased depth and precision for the economist and accessibility for the practitioner.

Bell, David

2011-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

314

Auto-Calibration and Control Strategy Determination for a Variable-Speed Heat Pump Water Heater Using Optimization  

SciTech Connect

This paper introduces applications of the GenOpt optimizer coupled with a vapor compression system model for auto-calibration and control strategy determination towards the development of a variable-speed ground-source heat pump water heating unit. The GenOpt optimizer can be linked with any simulation program using input and output text files. It effectively facilitates optimization runs. Using our GenOpt wrapper program, we can flexibly define objectives for optimizations, targets, and constraints. Those functionalities enable running extensive optimization cases for model calibration, configuration design and control strategy determination. In addition, we describe a methodology to improve prediction accuracy using functional calibration curves. Using the calibrated model, we investigated control strategies of the ground-source heat pump water heater, considering multiple control objectives, covering the entire operation range.

Shen, Bo [ORNL; Abdelaziz, Omar [ORNL; Rice, C Keith [ORNL

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

315

Technical support document: Energy efficiency standards for consumer products: Room air conditioners, water heaters, direct heating equipment, mobile home furnaces, kitchen ranges and ovens, pool heaters, fluorescent lamp ballasts and television sets. Volume 1, Methodology  

SciTech Connect

The Energy Policy and Conservation Act (P.L. 94-163), as amended, establishes energy conservation standards for 12 of the 13 types of consumer products specifically covered by the Act. The legislation requires the Department of Energy (DOE) to consider new or amended standards for these and other types of products at specified times. DOE is currently considering amending standards for seven types of products: water heaters, direct heating equipment, mobile home furnaces, pool heaters, room air conditioners, kitchen ranges and ovens (including microwave ovens), and fluorescent light ballasts and is considering establishing standards for television sets. This Technical Support Document presents the methodology, data, and results from the analysis of the energy and economic impacts of the proposed standards. This volume presents a general description of the analytic approach, including the structure of the major models.

Not Available

1993-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

316

Passively operated spool valve for drain-down freeze protection of thermosyphon water heaters. Final technical report  

SciTech Connect

The work done to extend the existing drain-down valve technology to provide passive drain-down freeze protection for thermosyphon-based solar water heaters is described. The basic design of the existing valve model is that of a spool valve, employing a cylindrical spool which moves axially in a mating cartridge to open and close o-rings at the two operating extremes (drain and operate) to perform the valving function. Three passive actuators to drive the basic valving mechanism were designed, fabricated, and tested. Two piping configurations used to integrate the spool valve with the thermosyphon system are described, as are the passive actuators. The three actuator designs are: photovoltaic driven, refrigerant-based bellows, and heat motor cable-drive designs. Costs are compared for the alternative actuator designs, and operating characteristics were examined for the thermosyphon system, including field tests. The market for the valve for thermosyphon systems is then assessed. (LEW)

1982-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

317

Solar Swimming Pool Heaters | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Swimming Pool Heaters Swimming Pool Heaters Solar Swimming Pool Heaters May 29, 2012 - 6:03pm Addthis An example of a solar pool heater. An example of a solar pool heater. You can significantly reduce swimming pool heating costs by installing a solar pool heater. They're cost competitive with both gas and heat pump pool heaters, and they have very low annual operating costs. Actually, solar pool heating is the most cost-effective use of solar energy in many climates. How They Work Most solar pool heating systems include the following: A solar collector -- the device through which pool water is circulated to be heated by the sun A filter -- removes debris before water is pumped through the collector A pump -- circulates water through the filter and collector and back to the pool A flow control valve -- automatic or manual device that diverts pool

318

Solar Swimming Pool Heaters | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Solar Swimming Pool Heaters Solar Swimming Pool Heaters Solar Swimming Pool Heaters May 29, 2012 - 6:03pm Addthis An example of a solar pool heater. An example of a solar pool heater. You can significantly reduce swimming pool heating costs by installing a solar pool heater. They're cost competitive with both gas and heat pump pool heaters, and they have very low annual operating costs. Actually, solar pool heating is the most cost-effective use of solar energy in many climates. How They Work Most solar pool heating systems include the following: A solar collector -- the device through which pool water is circulated to be heated by the sun A filter -- removes debris before water is pumped through the collector A pump -- circulates water through the filter and collector and back to the pool

319

Driving Demand for Home Energy Improvements: Motivating residential customers to invest in comprehensive upgrades that eliminate energy waste, avoid high utility bills, and spur the economy  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

water heater replacement, air conditioner replacement, solarwater heater replacement, air conditioner replacement, solar

Fuller, Merrian C.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

320

Convective heater  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A convective heater for heating fluids such as a coal slurry is constructed of a tube circuit arrangement which obtains an optimum temperature distribution to give a relatively constant slurry film temperature. The heater is constructed to divide the heating gas flow into two equal paths and the tube circuit for the slurry is arranged to provide a mixed flow configuration whereby the slurry passes through the two heating gas paths in successive co-current, counter-current and co-current flow relative to the heating gas flow. This arrangement permits the utilization of minimum surface area for a given maximum film temperature of the slurry consistent with the prevention of coke formation. 14 figs.

Thorogood, R.M.

1983-12-27T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "demand water heaters" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

Convective heater  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A convective heater for heating fluids such as a coal slurry is constructed of a tube circuit arrangement which obtains an optimum temperature distribution to give a relatively constant slurry film temperature. The heater is constructed to divide the heating gas flow into two equal paths and the tube circuit for the slurry is arranged to provide a mixed flow configuration whereby the slurry passes through the two heating gas paths in successive co-current, counter-current and co-current flow relative to the heating gas flow. This arrangement permits the utilization of minimum surface area for a given maximum film temperature of the slurry consistent with the prevention of coke formation.

Thorogood, Robert M. (Macungie, PA)

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

322

Convective heater  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A convective heater for heating fluids such as a coal slurry is constructed of a tube circuit arrangement which obtains an optimum temperature distribution to give a relatively constant slurry film temperature. The heater is constructed to divide the heating gas flow into two equal paths and the tube circuit for the slurry is arranged to provide a mixed flow configuration whereby the slurry passes through the two heating gas paths in successive co-current, counter-current and co-current flow relative to the heating gas flow. This arrangement permits the utilization of minimum surface area for a given maximum film temperature of the slurry consistent with the prevention of coke formation.

Thorogood, Robert M. (Macungie, PA)

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

323

Economics of residential gas furnaces and water heaters in United States new construction market  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

heating appliances 3 , solar water heating, district heatingOther includes solar, wood, no heating c Electric resistance

Lekov, Alex B.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

324

Economics of residential gas furnaces and water heaters in US new construction market  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

heating appliances, 3 solar water heating, district heating,Other includes solar, wood, and no heating b Table 2 US

Lekov, Alex B.; Franco, Victor H.; Wong-Parodi, Gabrielle; McMahon, James E.; Chan, Peter

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

325

Performance and economic evaluation of the seahorse natural gas hot water heater conversion at Fort Stewart. Interim report, 1994 Summer  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The federal government is the largest single energy consumer in the United States cost valued at nearly $10 billion annually. The US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) supports efforts to reduce energy use and associated expenses in the federal sector. One such effort, the New Technology Demonstration Program (NTDP), seeks to evaluate new energy-saving US technologies and secure their more timely adoption by the US government. Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) is one of four DOE laboratories that participate in the New Technologies Demonstration Program, providing technical expertise and equipment to evaluate new, energy-saving technologies being studied under that program. This interim report provides the results of a field evaluation that PNL conducted for DOE/FEMP and the US Department of Defense (DoD) Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program (SERDP) to examine the performance of a candidate energy-saving technology-a hot water heater conversion system to convert electrically heated hot water tanks to natural gas fuel. The unit was installed at a single residence at Fort Stewart, a US Army base in Georgia, and the performance was monitored under the NTDP. Participating in this effort under a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) were Gas Fired Products, developers of the technology; the Public Service Company of North Carolina; Atlanta Gas Light Company; the Army Corps of Engineers; Fort Stewart; and Pacific Northwest Laboratory.

Winiarski, D.W.

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

326

Reclaimed water distribution network design under temporal and spatial growth and demand uncertainties  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A significant-but underutilized-water resource is reclaimed water, i.e., treated wastewater that is reintroduced for various purposes. Especially in water scarce regions, reclaimed water is often the only remaining source of water to meet increasing ... Keywords: Demand and network growth uncertainty, Reclaimed water distribution system, Stochastic optimization, Water resources management

Weini Zhang, Gunhui Chung, Péguy Pierre-Louis, Güzin Bayraksan, Kevin Lansey

2013-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

327

Economics of residential gas furnaces and water heaters in US new construction market  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

gy.gov/buildings/appliance_standards/residential/water_Efficiency in Domestic Appliances and Lighting (EEDAL 06).http://www1.eere.energy.gov/ buildings/appliance_standards/

Lekov, Alex B.; Franco, Victor H.; Wong-Parodi, Gabrielle; McMahon, James E.; Chan, Peter

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

328

Microsoft Word - ASHRAE_Water Heater Paper_2010-11-24_Final_LBNL...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

cost (MPC) at each efficiency level. DOE first identified the most common water heating products on the market and determined their corresponding efficiencies and the...

329

Small Space Heaters  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Small space heaters, also called portable heaters, are typically used when the main heating system is inadequate or when central heating is too costly to install or operate. Space heater capacities...

330

A System Dynamics Approach for Developing Zone Water Demand Forecasting: A Case Study of Linkong Area  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

System dynamics (SD) approach for developing zone water demand forecasting was developed based on the analysis of its water resources system which has multi-feedback and nonlinear interactions amongst system elements. As an example, Tianjin Binhai Linkong ... Keywords: developing zone, system dynamics, water resources demand, Linkong

Xuehua Zhang; Hongwei Zhang; Xinhua Zhao

2008-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

331

An energy equivalency analysis of trade-offs between thermal efficiency and standby loss requirements for commercial gas service water heaters  

SciTech Connect

The American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers, Inc. (ASHRAE) Standing Standard Project Committee 90.1 has approved an addendum (90.lb) to ASHRAE/IES Standard 90.1-1989. The addendum specifies an increase in the minimum thermal efficiency requirement (from 77% to 78%), accompanied by an easing of the standby loss requirements, for commercial gas-fired service water heaters. The Pacific Northwest Laboratory performed an energy equivalency analysis to assess the impact of trade-offs between the improved thermal efficiency and the less stringent standby loss requirements. The analysis objective was to estimate whether the energy savings during firing would offset the increased energy losses during standby periods. The primary focus of this report is to summarize the major results of the analysis and provide a recommendation for minimum energy-efficiency commercial gas-fired service water heaters. Limitations to the availability of detailed performance and energy-use data for these commercial water heaters are also pointed out.

Somasundaram, S.; Jarnagin, R.E.; Keller, J.M.; Schliesing, J.S.

1992-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

332

Design of solar water-heater installations for seasonal users of thermal energy  

SciTech Connect

A mathematical model has been developed for a solar water-heating unit intended to be employed by seasonal users of thermal energy. The expected characteristics of such units are calculated for an ''average'' operating season.

Valyuzhinich, A.A.; Myshko, Yu.L.; Smirnov, S.I.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

333

The energy water nexus : increasing water supply by desalination integrated with renewable power and reducing water demand by corporate water footprinting.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Growing populations and periodic drought conditions have exacerbated water stress in many areas worldwide. Consequently, it would be valuable to manage both supply and demand… (more)

Clayton, Mary Elizabeth

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

334

CPS Energy- Solar Hot Water Rebate Program  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

As part of a larger program designed to reduce electricity demand within its service territory, CPS Energy now offers rebates for solar water heaters to its customers. In general, any CPS Energy...

335

Residential Sector Demand Module 1997, Model Documentation  

Reports and Publications (EIA)

This is the third edition of the Model Documentation Report: Residential Sector DemandModule of the National Energy Modeling System. It reflects changes made to the moduleover the past year for the Annual Energy Outlook 1997. Since last year, a subroutinewas added to the model which allows technology and fuel switching when space heaters,heat pump air conditioners, water heaters, stoves, and clothes dryers are retired in bothpre-1994 and post-1993 single-family homes. Also, a time-dependant function forcomputing the installed capital cost of equipment in new construction and the retail costof replacement equipment in existing housing was added.

John H. Cymbalsky

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

336

Determining energy requirement for future water supply and demand alternatives.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Water and energy are two inextricably linked resources. Each has the potential to limit the development of the other. There is a substantial body of… (more)

Larsen, Sara Gaye

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

337

ArizonaArizona''s Electricity Future:s Electricity Future: The Demand for WaterThe Demand for Water  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

;Estimated water use by plant typeEstimated water use by plant type 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900nuclear pulverized coalw et integrated gasification C C w et com bined cycle w et integrated gasification

Keller, Arturo A.

338

Muffled Price Signals: Household Water Demand Under Increasing-Block Prices  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The distinction has been quite important in the electricity demand literature, in which long-run price elasticity and electricity pricing, and volume discounts in general. Under increasing blocks, the budget constraintMuffled Price Signals: Household Water Demand Under Increasing-Block Prices Sheila M. Cavanagh, W

Kammen, Daniel M.

339

Feedwater Heater Maintenance Guide  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This guide provides plant personnel with information on the operation, maintenance, and performance of feedwater heaters. The contents of this guide will assist plant personnel in improving feedwater heater reliability, performance, and maintenance practices.

2002-05-29T23:59:59.000Z

340

Does Marginal Price Matter? A Regression Discontinuity Approach to Estimating Water Demand  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Groot, and Peter Nijkamp, “Price and Income Elasticities ofJ. Espey and W. D. Shaw, “Price Elasticity of ResidentialDavid J. Molina, “A Note on Price Perception in Water Demand

Nataraj, Shanthi; Hanemann, W. Michael

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "demand water heaters" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Dampers for Natural Draft Heaters: Technical Report  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Energy required for water heating accounts for approximately 40percent of national residential natural gas consumption in California. With water heating contributing such a substantial portion of natural gas consumption, it is important to pay attention to water heater efficiencies. This paper reports on an investigation of a patented, buoyancy-operated flue damper. It is an add-on design to a standard atmospherically vented natural-draft gas-fired storage water heater. The flue damper was expected to reduce off-cycle standby losses, which would lead to improvements in the efficiency of the water heater. The test results showed that the Energy Factor of the baseline water heater was 0.576. The recovery efficiency was 0.768. The standby heat loss coefficient was 10.619 (BTU/hr-oF). After the damper was installed, the test results show an Energy Factor for the baseline water heater of 0.605. The recovery efficiency was 0.786. The standby heat loss coefficient was 9.135 (BTU/hr-oF). The recovery efficiency increased 2.3percent and the standby heat loss coefficient decreased 14percent. When the burner was on, the baseline water heater caused 28.0 CFM of air to flow from the room. During standby, the flow was 12.4 CFM. The addition of the damper reduced the flow when the burner was on to 23.5 CFM. During standby, flow with the damper was reduced to 11.1 CFM. The flue damper reduced off-cycle standby losses, and improved the efficiency of the water heater. The flue damper also improved the recovery efficiency of the water heater by restricting on-cycle air flows through the flue.With or without the flue damper, off-cycle air flow upthe stack is nearly half the air flow rate as when the burner is firing.

Lutz, James D.; Biermayer, Peter; King, Derek

2008-10-27T23:59:59.000Z

342

Managing Water Resource Requirements for Growing Electric Generation Demands  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report is a general guide to analytical techniques used to address water resource management as related to long-term sustainability planning, and short-term regulatory requirements, including total maximum daily loads, endangered species, and relicensing of hydropower facilities. The example applications presented in the report highlight the capability of the techniques, and help electric power company and government regulatory staffs identify the best approach for a specific need.

2009-12-02T23:59:59.000Z

343

Solar Water Heating: What's Hot and What's Not  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A handful of electric utilities in the United States now pay incentives to their customers to install solar water heaters or are developing programs to do so. The solar water heater incentives are part of a broader utility demand-side management program designed to reduce system demand during peak summer hours. Solar hot water has the potential to generate significant savings during periods of high solar intensity. For summer peaking utilities, these periods of high solar intensity coincide with the overall system peak. This paper discusses the basics of analyzing solar water heaters as a demand-side management measure. In addition, four utility solar water heater incentive programs are studied in detail. The paper describes each program and notes the stage of development. Where such information is available, incentive amounts and cost-effectiveness calculations are included.

Stein, J.

1992-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

344

Chilled Water Thermal Storage System and Demand Response at the University of California at Merced  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

University of California at Merced is a unique campus that has benefited from intensive efforts to maximize energy efficiency, and has participated in a demand response program for the past two years. Campus demand response evaluations are often difficult because of the complexities introduced by central heating and cooling, non-coincident and diverse building loads, and existence of a single electrical meter for the entire campus. At the University of California at Merced, a two million gallon chilled water storage system is charged daily during off-peak price periods and used to flatten the load profile during peak demand periods, further complicating demand response scenarios. The goal of this research is to study demand response savings in the presence of storage systems in a campus setting. First, University of California at Merced is described and its participation in a demand response event during 2008 is detailed. Second, a set of demand response strategies were pre-programmed into the campus control system to enable semi-automated demand response during a 2009 event, which is also evaluated. Finally, demand savings results are applied to the utility’s DR incentives structure to calculate the financial savings under various DR programs and tariffs.

Granderson, J.; Dudley, J. H.; Kiliccote, S.; Piette, M. A.

2009-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

345

Chilled Water Thermal Storage System and Demand Response at the University of California at Merced  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The University of California at Merced is a unique campus that has benefited from intensive efforts to maximize energy efficiency, and has participated in a demand response program for the past two years. Campus demand response evaluations are often difficult because of the complexities introduced by central heating and cooling, non-coincident and diverse building loads, and existence of a single electrical meter for the entire campus. At the University of California at Merced, a two million gallon chilled water storage system is charged daily during off-peak price periods and used to flatten the load profile during peak demand periods. This makes demand response more subtle and challenges typical evaluation protocols. The goal of this research is to study demand response savings in the presence of storage systems in a campus setting. First, University of California at Merced summer electric loads are characterized; second, its participation in two demand response events is detailed. In each event a set of strategies were pre-programmed into the campus control system to enable semi-automated response. Finally, demand savings results are applied to the utility's DR incentives structure to calculate the financial savings under various DR programs and tariffs. A key conclusion to this research is that there is significant demand reduction using a zone temperature set point change event with the full off peak storage cooling in use.

Granderson, Jessica; Dudley, Junqiao Han; Kiliccote, Sila; Piette, Mary Ann

2009-10-08T23:59:59.000Z

346

Potential For Energy, Peak Demand, and Water Savings in California Tomato Processing Facilities  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Tomato processing is a major component of California's food industry. Tomato processing is extremely energy intensive, with the processing season coinciding with the local electrical utility peak period. Significant savings are possible in the electrical energy, peak demand, natural gas consumption, and water consumption of facilities. The electrical and natural gas energy usage and efficiency measures will be presented for a sample of California tomato plants. A typical end-use distribution of electrical energy in these plants will be shown. Results from potential electrical efficiency, demand response, and natural gas efficiency measures that have applications in tomato processing facilities will be presented. Additionally, water conservation measures and the associated savings will be presented. It is shown that an estimated electrical energy savings of 12.5%, electrical demand reduction of 17.2%, natural gas savings of 6.0%, and a fresh water usage reduction of 15.6% are achievable on a facility-wide basis.

Trueblood, A. J.; Wu, Y. Y.; Ganji, A. R.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

347

Energy Basics: Small Space Heaters  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

storage, allowing the heater to cycle less and to provide a more constant heat source. More Information Visit the Energy Saver website for more information about portable heaters...

348

Measured electric hot water standby and demand loads from Pacific Northwest homes  

SciTech Connect

The Bonneville Power Administration began the End-Use Load and Consumer Assessment Program (ELCAP) in 1983 to obtain metered hourly end-use consumption data for a large sample of new and existing residential and commercial buildings in the Pacific Northwest. Loads and load shapes from the first 3 years of data fro each of several ELCAP residential studies representing various segments of the housing population have been summarized by Pratt et al. The analysis reported here uses the ELCAP data to investigate in much greater detail the relationship of key occupant and tank characteristics to the consumption of electricity for water heating. The hourly data collected provides opportunities to understand electricity consumption for heating water and to examine assumptions about water heating that are critical to load forecasting and conservation resource assessments. Specific objectives of this analysis are to: (A) determine the current baseline for standby heat losses by determining the standby heat loss of each hot water tank in the sample, (B) examine key assumptions affecting standby heat losses such as hot water temperatures and tank sizes and locations, (C) estimate, where possible, impacts on standby heat losses by conservation measures such as insulating tank wraps, pipe wraps, anticonvection valves or traps, and insulating bottom boards, (D) estimate the EF-factors used by the federal efficiency standards and the nominal R-values of the tanks in the sample, (E) develop estimates of demand for hot water for each home in the sample by subtracting the standby load from the total hot water load, (F) examine the relationship between the ages and number of occupants and the hot water demand, (G) place the standby and demand components of water heating electricity consumption in perspective with the total hot water load and load shape.

Pratt, R.G.; Ross, B.A.

1991-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

349

Measured Impact on Space Conditioning Energy Use in a Residence Due to Operating a Heat Pump Water Heater inside the Conditioned Space  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The impact on space conditioning energy use due to operating a heat pump water heater (HPWH) inside the conditioned space is analyzed based on 2010-2011 data from a research house with simulated occupancy and hot water use controls. The 2700 ft2 (345 m2) house is located in Oak Ridge, TN (mixed-humid climate) and is equipped with a 50 gallon (189 l) HPWH that provided approximately 55 gallons/d (208 l/d) of hot water at 120 F (46 C) to the house during the test period. The HPWH has been operated every other week from December 2010 through November 2011 in two modes; a heat pump only mode, and a standard mode that utilizes 15355 Btu/hr (4500 W) resistance heating elements. The energy consumption of the air-source heat pump (ASHP) that provides space conditioning for the house is compared for the two HPWH operating modes with weather effects taken into account. Impacts during the heating and cooling seasons are compared.

Munk, Jeffrey D [ORNL; Ally, Moonis Raza [ORNL; Baxter, Van D [ORNL

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

350

BEST Winery Guidebook: Benchmarking and Energy and Water Savings Tool for the Wine Industry  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of installing a solar water heater. For those systems, weWhen considering a solar water heater, a specialized

Galitsky, Christina; Worrell, Ernst; Radspieler, Anthony; Healy, Patrick; Zechiel, Susanne

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

351

Pipe Freeze Prevention for Passive Solar Water Heaters Using a Room-Air Natural Convection Loop: Preprint  

SciTech Connect

Conference paper regarding research in the use of freeze prevention for passive solar domestic water heating systems.

Burch, J.; Heater, M.; Brandemuhl, M.; Krarti, M.

2006-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

352

U.S. Water Demand, Supply and Allocation: Trends and Outlook  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

2007-R-3 Water is an essential resource in the U.S. economy. It plays a crucial role in supporting many economic activities and ensuring the quality of human life and the health of ecological systems. Despite this, the value of water may not be widely appreciated because only some water resources and water uses are easily visible or noticed while others are not. Among the Institute for Water Resources (IWR) Future Directions program activities are the identification of emerging water challenges and opportunities and the tactical engagement of U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) senior leaders on these issues. Such critical thinking is an essential prerequisite to strategy development and planning. IWR has developed this series of Water Resources Outlook papers, commissioned utilizing outside experts, to identify emerging issues and implications for the Nation. These issues and implications will be presented in the form of “provocation sessions ” with external and internal subject matter experts and stakeholders and will inform the USACE strategic planning process. U.S. Water Demand, Supply and Allocation: Trends and Outlook Given the overall importance of water, the long-term adequacy of water supply is a major national concern. This first in a series of Water Resources Outlook papers reviews future trends

Jack C. Kiefer, Ph.D.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

353

Integration of supply and demand for water in central Illinois urban areas. Research report  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Water demand functions were estimated using two sets of data for Central Illinois -- community-wide data and household data. The community-wide data consist of total residential consumption for each of four pre-selected medium-sized cities in Central Illinois. The household data consist of residents from five cities who responded to a mail survey. The study investigates comparability of parameter estimates from the two approaches. If the parameter estimates are comparable, it would suggest water demand estimates need not require costly and time-consuming household surveys. Estimates of price elasticity are negative and less than unitary based on the two data sets used. The estimated price elasticity based on community-wide data is -.037, while using household data estimated price elasticities are in the range from -.14 to -.16. The reasons for these differences are not immediately apparent and warrant further investigation.

Miranda, C.S.; Braden, J.B.; Martin, W.E.

1993-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

354

Feedwater Heater Technology Symposium  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Feedwater heaters and associated systems cause significant loss of availability and heat rate degradation in both nuclear and fossil-fired power plants. One reason for this is that feedwater heater (FWH) deterioration tends to be exponential in nature. While the first plugged FWH tubes have very little impact on unit availability, an increase in the number of plugged tubes raises the velocity in the remaining tubes and results in a greater number of tube leaks. Eventually, retubing, replacement, or bypas...

2004-07-26T23:59:59.000Z

355

Regional Differences in Corn Ethanol Production: Profitability and Potential Water Demands  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Through the use of a stochastic simulation model this project analyzes both the impacts of the expanding biofuels sector on water demand in selected regions of the United States and variations in the profitability of ethanol production due to location differences. Changes in consumptive water use in the Texas High Plains, Southern Minnesota, and the Central Valley of California, as impacted by current and proposed grain-based ethanol plants were addressed. In addition, this research assesses the potential impacts of technologies to reduce consumptive water use in the production of ethanol in terms of water usage and the economic viability of each ethanol facility. This research quantifies the role of corn ethanol production on water resource availability and identifies the alternative water pricing schemes at which ethanol production is no longer profitable. The results of this research show that the expansion of regional ethanol production and the resulting changes in the regional agricultural landscapes do relatively little to change consumptive water usage in each location. The California Central Valley has the highest potential for increased water usage with annual water usage in 2017 at levels 15% higher than historical estimates, whereas Southern Minnesota and the Texas High Plains are predicted to have increases of less than 5% during the same time period. Although water use by ethanol plants is extremely minor relative to consumptive regional agricultural water usage, technological adaptations by ethanol facilities have the potential to slightly reduce water usage and prove to be economically beneficial adaptations to make. The sensitivity of net present value (NPV) with respect to changes in water price is shown to be extremely inelastic, indicating that ethanol producers have the ability to pay significantly more for their fresh water with little impact on their 10 year economic performance.

Higgins, Lindsey M.

2009-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

356

Heat Pump Swimming Pool Heaters | Department of Energy  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

from the hot gas to the cooler pool water circulating through the heater. The heated water then returns to the pool. The hot gas, as it flows through the condenser coil, returns...

357

Northward Market Extension for Passive Solar Water Heaters by Using Pipe Freeze Protection with Freeze-Tolerant Piping: Preprint  

SciTech Connect

Conference paper regarding research in freeze-protection methods that could extend market acceptance for passive solar domestic water heating systems in more northern climates if the U.S.

Burch, J.; Heater, M.; Brandemuhl, M.; Krarti, M.

2006-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

358

Chilled Water Thermal Storage System and Demand Response at the University of California at Merced  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and Techniques for Demand Response. California EnergyTest Results of Automated Demand Response in a Large OfficeStorage System and Demand Response at the University of

Granderson, Jessica

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

359

Chilled Water Thermal Storage System and Demand Response at the University of California at Merced  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In 2008 the maximum and average demand reduction throughoutthe table, average and maximum absolute demand reduction arethe average and maximum percent demand reductions, relative

Granderson, Jessica

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

360

Experimental studies on heat transfer and friction factor characteristics of forced circulation solar water heater system fitted with helical twisted tapes  

SciTech Connect

Experimental investigation of heat transfer, friction factor and thermal performance of twisted tape solar water heater with various twist ratios has been conducted and the results are compared with plain tube collector for the same operating conditions with Reynolds number varied from 3000 to 23,000. Experimental data from plain tube collector is validated with the fundamental equations and found that the discrepancy is less than {+-}5.35% and {+-}8.80% for Nusselt number and friction factor, respectively. Correlations have been developed for Nusselt number and friction factor with various twist ratios (Y = 3, 4, 5, 6) and are compared with the experimental values. Results conclude that, heat transfer and pressure drop are higher in twisted tape collector compared to the plain one. Among the various twist ratios, the minimum twist ratio 3 is found to enhance the heat transfer and pressure drop due to swirl generation. As the twist ratio increases, the swirl generation decreases and minimizes the heat transfer and friction factor. (author)

Jaisankar, S. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Oxford Engineering College, Tiruchirappalli 620009, Tamil Nadu (India); Radhakrishnan, T.K.; Sheeba, K.N. [Department of Chemical Engineering, National Institute of Technology, Tiruchirappalli 620015, Tamil Nadu (India)

2009-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "demand water heaters" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

Heat Pump Swimming Pool Heaters | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Swimming Pool Heaters Swimming Pool Heaters Heat Pump Swimming Pool Heaters May 29, 2012 - 1:49pm Addthis How a heat pump works. How a heat pump works. How They Work Heat pumps use electricity to capture heat and move it from one place to another. They don't generate heat. As the pool pump circulates the swimming pool's water, the water drawn from the pool passes through a filter and the heat pump heater. The heat pump heater has a fan that draws in the outside air and directs it over the evaporator coil. Liquid refrigerant within the evaporator coil absorbs the heat from the outside air and becomes a gas. The warm gas in the coil then passes through the compressor. The compressor increases the heat, creating a very hot gas that then passes through the condenser. The condenser transfers the heat from the hot gas to the cooler pool water circulating

362

Water Heating Research | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

research updates. Solar Water Heaters Photo of a solar water heater system mounted on a rooftop. Solar water heaters can be cost-effective options for heating a buildings water...

363

An integrated assessment of global and regional water demands for electricity generation to 2095  

SciTech Connect

Electric power plants currently account for approximately one-half of the global industrial water withdrawal. While continued expansion of the electric sector seems likely into the future, the consequent water demands are quite uncertain, and will depend on highly variable water intensities by electricity technologies, at present and in the future. Using GCAM, an integrated assessment model of energy, agriculture, and climate change, we first establish lower-bound, median, and upper-bound estimates for present-day electric sector water withdrawals and consumption by individual electric generation technologies in each of 14 geopolitical regions, and compare them with available estimates of regional industrial or electric sector water use. We then explore the evolution of global and regional electric sector water use over the next century, focusing on uncertainties related to withdrawal and consumption intensities for a variety of electric generation technologies, rates of change of power plant cooling system types, and rates of adoption of a suite of water-saving technologies. Results reveal that the water withdrawal intensity of electricity generation is likely to decrease in the near term with capital stock turnover, as wet towers replace once-through flow cooling systems and advanced electricity generation technologies replace conventional ones. An increase in consumptive use accompanies the decrease in water withdrawal rates; however, a suite of water conservation technologies currently under development could compensate for this increase in consumption. Finally, at a regional scale, water use characteristics vary significantly based on characteristics of the existing capital stock and the selection of electricity generation technologies into the future.

Davies, Evan; Kyle, G. Page; Edmonds, James A.

2013-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

364

Water and Sustainability (Volume 2): An Assessment of Water Demand, Supply, and Quality in the U.S. -- The Next Half Century  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The fast growing demand for clean, fresh water -- coupled with the need to protect and enhance the environment -- has made many areas of the United States and the rest of the world vulnerable to water shortages for various human uses. As they interact with the electricity industry, these uses encompass agricultural irrigation, thermoelectric generation, municipal water/wastewater treatment and distribution, and industrial processes. The dependency of electricity supply and demand on water availability ca...

2002-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

365

Fuel heater thermostat  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A thermostat is described for fuel heaters wherein the fuel is heated by engine coolant and the thermostat comprises: a temperature sensing means for sensing the temperature of fuel in the fuel heater, the temperature sensing means in contacting relation with the first end of a coolant flow restricting piston, the piston having a second end in contacting relation with a pressure means wherein the temperature sensing means and the pressure means assert opposing forces against the piston and the piston in response to an increase in force from the temperature sensing means will restrict the flow of coolant through the fuel heater, and the piston further having a bleed port therein to allow coolant to flow to the first and second ends of the piston.

Ray, D.A.

1989-05-09T23:59:59.000Z

366

Austin, TexasPARAMETRIC STUDY OF COMPONENT SELECTION AND OPERATION ON GENERIC DRAIN-BACK SOLAR WATER HEATER CERTIFICATION  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

I. Early experimental results of a research program to investigate the practicality of replacing the Solar Rating and Certification Corporation four day rating procedure with a more cost effective rating method for generic solar domestic hot water systems are reported. The generic systems experimental procedure and facility are described. Results from four experiments give an initial indication that the recirculation flow rate has little effect on system rating. Further experiments are required to assess the feasibility of replacing the current rating method with a simulated rating. 1.

W. T. Carlson; J. H. Davidson; W. S. Duff; D. M. Leone

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

367

Development of a gas backup heater for solar domestic hot-water systems. Final report, April 1978-April 1980  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A comprehensive program was undertaken to develop a unique gas fired backup for solar domestic hot water systems. Detailed computer design tools were written. A series of heat transfer experiments were performed to characterize the performance of individual components. A full scale engineering prototype, including the solar preheat tank and solar heat exchanger, was designed, fabricated and subjected to limited testing. Firing efficiency for the backup system was found to be 81.4% at a firing rate of 50,000 Btu/h. Long term standby losses should be negligible.

Morrison, D.J.; Grunes, H.E.; de Winter, F.; Armstrong, P.R.

1980-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

368

Portable Heaters | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Portable Heaters Portable Heaters Portable Heaters November 26, 2013 - 2:41pm Addthis Portable heaters can be an efficient way to supplement inadequate heating. | Photo courtesy iStockphoto.com Portable heaters can be an efficient way to supplement inadequate heating. | Photo courtesy iStockphoto.com What does this mean for me? A portable heater is a good choice if you have a space that requires supplemental heating or is infrequently occupied. You should carefully follow all the manufacturer's installation and operation instructions. Small space heaters are typically used when the main heating system is inadequate or when central heating is too costly to install or operate. In some cases, small space heaters can be less expensive to use if you only want to heat one room or supplement inadequate heating in one room. They

369

Energy Basics: Small Space Heaters  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

allowing the heater to cycle less and to provide a more constant heat source. More Information Visit the Energy Saver website for more information about portable heaters in homes...

370

Irrigation water demand forecasting: a data pre-processing and data mining approach based on spatio-temporal data  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

World population is increasing at a fast rate resulting in huge pressure on limited water resources. Just about 3% of the earth's total water is freshwater that can be used for various applications including irrigation. Therefore, an efficient irrigation ... Keywords: data mining, data pre-processing, decision support system, decision tree, demand forecasting, water management

Mahmood A. Khan, Zahidul Islam, Mohsin Hafeez

2011-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

371

A Model for Estimating Demand for Irrigation Water on the Texas High Plains  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

With rapidly changing conditions in production agriculture, the need for highly flexible and quickly applicable methods of analysis is emphasized. The purpose of this study was to develop such a model for a homogeneous production region in the Texas High Plains. A linear programming model was constructed whereby crop or input prices are readily adjustable. In addition, limitations on quantities of inputs available can easily be evaluated. The model contains cotton, grain sorghum, corn, wheat and soybeans. Inputs that can be evaluated include irrigation water, natural gas, diesel, nitrogen fertilizer and herbicides. The primary focus of this work was to estimate the demand for irrigation water in the study area. The model was applied using alternative crop prices and input prices. Assuming average crop prices, current input prices and only variable costs of production, as the price of water was increased wheat shifted from irrigated to dryland production, then grain sorghum, cotton, corn and soybeans, in that order. The price of water was $71.75 per acre foot plus current pumping cost when all land shifted to dryland production. The same analysis, except variable and fixed costs both included, gave similar results relative to the sequence of crops that shift to dryland production as the price of water was increased. However, the shifts occurred at much lower water prices; i.e., at $24.47 per acre foot plus current pumping costs, all land had shifted to dryland production. This suggests that over the long run, irrigation in the Texas High Plains is quite sensitive to the price of energy used in pumping water. Further, there are strong implications relative to farmer's "ability to pay" for water imported to the High Plains from other regions. In this report, several scenarios including low, high and average crop prices and average and high input prices were evaluated.

Condra, G. D.; Lacewell, R. D.; Sprott, J. M.; Adams, B. M.

1975-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

372

New demands, new supplies : a national look at the water balance of carbon dioxide capture and sequestration.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Concerns over rising concentrations of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere have resulted in serious consideration of policies aimed at reduction of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. If large scale abatement efforts are undertaken, one critical tool will be geologic sequestration of CO2 captured from large point sources, specifically coal and natural gas fired power plants. Current CO2 capture technologies exact a substantial energy penalty on the source power plant, which must be offset with make-up power. Water demands increase at the source plant due to added cooling loads. In addition, new water demand is created by water requirements associated with generation of the make-up power. At the sequestration site however, saline water may be extracted to manage CO2 plum migration and pressure build up in the geologic formation. Thus, while CO2 capture creates new water demands, CO2 sequestration has the potential to create new supplies. Some or all of the added demand may be offset by treatment and use of the saline waters extracted from geologic formations during CO2 sequestration. Sandia National Laboratories, with guidance and support from the National Energy Technology Laboratory, is creating a model to evaluate the potential for a combined approach to saline formations, as a sink for CO2 and a source for saline waters that can be treated and beneficially reused to serve power plant water demands. This presentation will focus on the magnitude of added U.S. power plant water demand under different CO2 emissions reduction scenarios, and the portion of added demand that might be offset by saline waters extracted during the CO2 sequestration process.

Krumhansl, James Lee; McNemar, Andrea (National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), Morgantown, WV); Kobos, Peter Holmes; Roach, Jesse Dillon; Klise, Geoffrey Taylor

2010-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

373

Immersible solar heater for fluids  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An immersible solar heater comprising a light-absorbing panel attached to a frame for absorbing heat energy from the light and transferring the absorbed heat energy directly to the fluid in which the heater is immersed. The heater can be used to heat a swimming pool, for example, and is held in position and at a preselected angle by a system of floats, weights and tethers so that the panel can operate efficiently. A skid can be used in one embodiment to prevent lateral movement of the heater along the bottom of the pool. Alternative embodiments include different arrangements of the weights, floats and tethers and methods for making the heater.

Kronberg, James W. (Aiken, SC)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

374

Regulation Services with Demand Response - Available ...  

Reduced generator maintenance costs ... The software has been demonstrated on a hot-water heaters and electric vehicle battery charging systems. ...

375

Chilled Water Storage System and Demand Response at the University of California at Merced  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

53E 53E Chilled Water Storage System and Demand Response at the University of California at Merced J. Granderson, J.H. Dudley, S. Kiliccote, M.A. Piette Environmental Energy Technologies Division September 2009 Presented at the 9 th International Conference for Enhanced Building Operations, Austin, TX, November 17-18, 2009, and published in the Proceedings DISCLAIMER This document was prepared as an account of work sponsored by the United States Government. While this document is believed to contain correct information, neither the United States Government nor any agency thereof, nor The Regents of the University of California, nor any of their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information,

376

Low Cost Solar Water Heater  

SciTech Connect

This project was directed by NREL to pursue development of an all polymer solar thermal collector. The proposed design utilized a dual sheet thermoform process to coincidentally form the absorber as well as the containment structure to support the glazing. It utilized ventilation to overcome stagnation degradation of the polymer materials.

William Bostic

2005-12-16T23:59:59.000Z

377

Gas Water Heater Energy Losses  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

non-firing, non- recovery mode, i.e. , during standby mode.The stack losses while in standby mode account for about 43%can be made by reducing standby heat losses. This paper

Biermayer, Peter

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

378

Gas Water Heater Energy Losses  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Insul. Thk. (in) 11. Supply Pipe Heat Trap (0,1,-1)* 12.Draw Pipe Heat Trap (0,1,-1)* * 0 = No heat trap 1 = Metallosses through the pipes by improving heat traps and by

Biermayer, Peter

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

379

The Effect of Changing Input and Product Prices on the Demand for Irrigation Water in Texas  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Agriculture is a major income-producing sector in the Texas economy and a large part of this economic activity originates in irrigated crop production. For example, in 1973, 50% of all grain sorghum and 46% of all cotton in Texas were produced on irrigated acreage [Texas Crop and Livestock Reporting Service]. These two crops alone produced 26% of the cash receipts from the sale of Texas farm commodities in 1973 [Texas Crop and Livestock Reporting Service]. There are several other crops in Texas including vegetables which generate significant levels of income and rely heavily on irrigation. Further there are several associated industries which rely on production from irrigated agriculture, such as the cattle feeding industry in the Texas Panhandle. It is evident from this rather cursory examination of statistics that irrigation plays a large role in Texas agriculture. Both producers and policy-makers have found themselves faced in the past two years with many uncertainties. The U.S., plagued in the past with surplus production and supply control problems, now finds itself in a world shortage of food products. The long range signals seem to call for increased production, yet the policy-maker faces decisions concerning not only how to increase production, but more basically, how to maintain current levels of production. Groundwater resources in many areas are being diminished and annual irrigation water supplies fully committed in other areas. Long run planning for Texas agriculture requires that interbasin transfers of water be evaluated. Texas holds a position of prominence in the production of U.S. food and fiber products, and the evaluation of these alternatives has implications not only for Texas, but for the U.S. and possibly the world. To objectively evaluate water transfer proposals, it is necessary that the value of irrigation water in different regions of Texas be established. The producer faces the same call for maintaining or increasing production as the policy-maker, but he does so with many uncertainties which often have not disturbed the policy-maker in evaluating alternatives. Product prices have risen and fallen at an unprecedented rate while input prices have steadily risen at rates which preclude realistic budgeting. For example, during the recent energy crisis, the prices of fuel and fertilizer have more than doubled. These variable input and product prices weigh heavily upon production decisions by the producer, and likewise must receive serious consideration in evaluation of resource allocation alternatives by policy-makers. The demand for irrigation water is derived from the production of crops and any change in production patterns, input prices or availability, and product prices directly affects this demand. Current and future water resources planning requires an estimate of the various quantities of water which will be used for irrigation under differing assumptions concerning price of water, other input prices, and product prices. Of particular importance are shifts in cropping patterns, changes in level of agricultural production and net effect on producers income. Since many policy decisions are made in relatively short periods of time, there is an urgent need for a capability to evaluate alternative policies and change input or product prices in a timely fashion.

Lacewell, R. D.; Condra, G. D.

1976-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

380

Cedarburg Light and Water Utility - Residential Energy Efficiency...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

300 Water Heaters: 25 - 100 Tankless Water Heaters: 100 Heat Pump Water Heater: 300 Air SealingAttic Insulation: Up to 300 Energy Star Home Performance: 33.3% of cost up to...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "demand water heaters" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Regenerative air heater  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A gas-cooled steel skirt is used to support a refractory cored brick matrix and dome structure in a high temperature regenerative air heater useful in magnetohydrodynamic power generation. The steel skirt thermally expands to accommodate the thermal expansion of the dome structure despite substantial temperature differential thereby reducing relative movement between the dome bricks. Gas cooling of the steel skirt allows the structure to operate above its normal temperature during clean-out cycles and also allows for the control of the thermal expansion of the steel skirt.

Hasselquist, Paul B. (Maple Grove, MN); Baldner, Richard (Minnetonka, MN)

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

382

Regenerative air heater  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A gas-cooled steel skirt is used to support a refractory cored brick matrix and dome structure in a high temperature regenerative air heater useful in magnetohydrodynamic power generation. The steel skirt thermally expands to accommodate the thermal expansion of the dome structure despite substantial temperature differential thereby reducing relative movement between the dome bricks. Gas cooling of the steel skirt allows the structure to operate above its normal temperature during clean-out cycles and also allows for the control of the thermal expansion of the steel skirt.

Hasselquist, P.B.; Baldner, R.

1980-11-26T23:59:59.000Z

383

Heater element design for electrically powered heater assemblies  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This invention is comprised of an apparatus for electrically simulating a nuclear reactor fuel assembly. It includes a heater assembly having a top end and a bottom end and a plurality of concentric heater tubes having electrical circuitry connected to a power source, and radially spaced from each other. An outer target tube and an inner target tube is concentric with the heater tubes and with each other, and the outer target tube surrounds and is radially spaced from the heater tubes. The inner target tube is surrounded by and radially spaced from the heater tubes and outer target tube. The top of the assembly is generally open to allow for the electrical power connection to the heater tubes, and the bottom of the assembly includes means for completing the electrical circuitry in the heater tubes to provide electrical resistance heating to simulate the power profile in a nuclear reactor. The embedded conductor elements in each heater tube is split into two halves for a substantial portion of its length and provided with electrical isolation such that each half of the conductor is joined at one end and is not joined at the other end.

Berta, V.T.

1992-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

384

Managing Feedwater Heater Shell Thinning  

SciTech Connect

Thinning of feedwater heater (FWH) shells has become an important issue throughout the U.S. nuclear industry. The thinning occurs primarily in the vicinity of the extraction steam and drain inlet nozzles where two-phase steam/water mixtures enter the heater. The thinning can be general wall thinning over a large area or highly localized thinning in a limited area. Eventually, shell repairs become necessary to ensure integrity of the pressure boundary and personnel safety, and to restore compliance with the ASME pressure vessel code. Ideally, long-term monitoring of the thickness of FWH shells would allow for timely repairs before the wall thickness decreases below the ASME Code minimum wall thickness. However, since most plants did not start inspecting FWH shells until recently, the initial inspection may find shells that are thinned to near or below the ASME Code minimum wall thickness. Because the cost and manpower requirements for shell repairs can be significant, it is imperative that shell repairs provide a long-term solution and that they be implemented as a planned outage evolution. Accordingly, the approach to managing FWH shell thinning must provide sufficient advance warning of the need for repairs while ensuring safe operation until the permanent repair can be implemented. The approach outlined in this paper does both. Establish acceptance criteria to ensure safe, interim operation with thinned shells until a permanent repair can be implemented. Develop contingency plans for interim repairs should the inspections identify thinning below the interim acceptance criteria. Inspect FWH shells during a refueling outage or possibly during planned system outages or power reductions. If necessary, perform interim repairs to ensure safe operation until the next refueling outage. Develop and implement permanent repairs that will prevent shell thinning. (authors)

Simons, John W.; Keating, Robert B. [MPR Associates Inc., 140 Mustang Circle, Simpsonville, SC 29681 (United States)

2002-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

385

System Demand-Side Management: Regional results  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

To improve the Bonneville Power Administration's (Bonneville's) ability to analyze the value and impacts of demand-side programs, Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) developed and implemented the System Demand-Side Management (SDSM) model, a microcomputer-based model of the Pacific Northwest Public Power system. This document outlines the development and application of the SDSM model, which is an hourly model. Hourly analysis makes it possible to examine the change in marginal revenues and marginal costs that accrue from the movement of energy consumption from daytime to nighttime. It also allows a more insightful analysis of programs such as water heater control in the context of hydroelectric-based generation system. 7 refs., 10 figs., 10 tabs.

Englin, J.E.; Sands, R.D.; De Steese, J.G.; Marsh, S.J.

1990-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

386

Subsurface heaters with low sulfidation rates  

SciTech Connect

A system for heating a hydrocarbon containing formation includes a heater having an elongated ferromagnetic metal heater section. The heater is located in an opening in a formation. The heater section is configured to heat the hydrocarbon containing formation. The exposed ferromagnetic metal has a sulfidation rate that goes down with increasing temperature of the heater, when the heater is in a selected temperature range.

John, Randy Carl; Vinegar, Harold J

2013-12-10T23:59:59.000Z

387

SC: Gas Heater | The Better Buildings Alliance  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Space Conditioning Install a gas heater that uses 10% less energy using the gas heater specification Activities Technology Solutions Teams Lighting & Electrical Space...

388

Immersible solar heater for fluids  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An immersible solar heater is described comprising a light-absorbing panel attached to a frame for absorbing heat energy from the light and transferring the absorbed heat energy directly to the fluid in which the heater is immersed. The heater can be used to heat a swimming pool, for example, and is held in position and at a preselected angle by a system of floats, weights and tethers so that the panel can operate efficiently. A skid can be used in one embodiment to prevent lateral movement of the heater along the bottom of the pool. Alternative embodiments include different arrangements of the weights, floats and tethers and methods for making the heater. 11 figs.

Kronberg, J.W.

1995-07-11T23:59:59.000Z

389

Immersible solar heater for fluids  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An immersible solar heater is described comprising a light-absorbing panel attached to a frame for absorbing heat energy from the light and transferring the absorbed heat energy directly to the fluid in which the heater is immersed. The heater can be used to heat a swimming pool, for example, and is held in position and at a preselected angle by a system of floats, weights and tethers so that the panel can operate efficiently. A skid can be used in one embodiment to prevent lateral movement of the heater along the bottom of the pool. Alternative embodiments include different arrangements of the weights, floats and tethers and methods for making the heater.

Hazen, T.C.; Fliermans, C.B.

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

390

The Relative Effects of U.S. Population Shifts (1930-80) on Potential Heating, Cooling and Water Demand  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The effects on potential heating, cooling and water demand induced by the shift and growth of population from cooler and wetter regions of the country to warmer and drier areas were examined. Heating and cooling degree day totals for each of the ...

Henry F. Diaz; Ronald L. Holle

1984-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

391

ORNL and General Electric Collaborate on Superefficient Water ...  

Star criteria for electric heat-pump water heaters. The GE® Hybrid Water Heater is affordable and designed to be 50 percent

392

Measured electric hot water standby and demand loads from Pacific Northwest homes. End-Use Load and Consumer Assessment Program  

SciTech Connect

The Bonneville Power Administration began the End-Use Load and Consumer Assessment Program (ELCAP) in 1983 to obtain metered hourly end-use consumption data for a large sample of new and existing residential and commercial buildings in the Pacific Northwest. Loads and load shapes from the first 3 years of data fro each of several ELCAP residential studies representing various segments of the housing population have been summarized by Pratt et al. The analysis reported here uses the ELCAP data to investigate in much greater detail the relationship of key occupant and tank characteristics to the consumption of electricity for water heating. The hourly data collected provides opportunities to understand electricity consumption for heating water and to examine assumptions about water heating that are critical to load forecasting and conservation resource assessments. Specific objectives of this analysis are to: (A) determine the current baseline for standby heat losses by determining the standby heat loss of each hot water tank in the sample, (B) examine key assumptions affecting standby heat losses such as hot water temperatures and tank sizes and locations, (C) estimate, where possible, impacts on standby heat losses by conservation measures such as insulating tank wraps, pipe wraps, anticonvection valves or traps, and insulating bottom boards, (D) estimate the EF-factors used by the federal efficiency standards and the nominal R-values of the tanks in the sample, (E) develop estimates of demand for hot water for each home in the sample by subtracting the standby load from the total hot water load, (F) examine the relationship between the ages and number of occupants and the hot water demand, (G) place the standby and demand components of water heating electricity consumption in perspective with the total hot water load and load shape.

Pratt, R.G.; Ross, B.A.

1991-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

393

Reducing Logistics Footprints and Replenishment Demands: Nano-engineered Silica Aerogels a Proven Method for Water Treatment  

SciTech Connect

Rapid deployment and the use of objective force aggressively reduce logistic footprints and replenishment demands. Maneuver Sustainment requires that Future Combat Systems be equipped with water systems that are lightweight, have small footprints, and are highly adaptable to a variety of environments. Technologies employed in these settings must be able to meet these demands. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory has designed and previously field tested nano-engineered materials for the treatment of water. These materials have been either based on silica aerogel materials or consist of composites of these aerogels with granular activated carbon (GAC). Recent tests have proven successful for the removal of contaminants including uranium, hexavalent chromium, and arsenic. Silica aerogels were evaluated for their ability to purify water that had been spiked with the nerve agent VX (O-ethyl S-(2-diisopropylaminoethyl) methylphosphonothiolate). These results demonstrated that silica aerogels were able to remove the VX from the supply water and were nearly 30 times more adsorbent than GAC. This performance could result in REDUCING CHANGEOUT FREQUENCY BY A FACTOR OF 30 or DECREASING the VOLUME of adsorbent BY A FACTOR OF 30; thereby significantly reducing logistic footprints and replenishment demands. The use of the nano-engineered Silica Aerogel/GAC composites would provide a water purification technology that meets the needs of Future Combat Systems.

Daily, W; Coleman, S; Love, A; Reynolds, J; O'Brien, K; Gammon, S

2004-09-22T23:59:59.000Z

394

15 Ways to Save on Your Water Heating Bill | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

15 Ways to Save on Your Water Heating Bill 15 Ways to Save on Your Water Heating Bill 15 Ways to Save on Your Water Heating Bill October 26, 2009 - 3:49pm Addthis Allison Casey Senior Communicator, NREL Sometimes it surprises me to see that the most popular pages on the site are the ones about solar water heaters and demand (or tankless) water heaters. But considering that water heating can account for around 12% of a family's utility bill-the biggest chunk after space heating and cooling-it really shouldn't be that surprising that you want to know how to heat your water more efficiently. Obviously, not everyone is in a position to go out and buy a new water heater, but we can all do something to use less water and save on our bills. Whether you're looking for no-cost habit changes, low-cost purchases or

395

Hot water tank for use with a combination of solar energy and heat-pump desuperheating  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A water heater or system is described which includes a hot water tank having disposed therein a movable baffle to function as a barrier between the incoming volume of cold water entering the tank and the volume of heated water entering the tank which is heated by the circulation of the cold water through a solar collector and/or a desuperheater of a heat pump so as to optimize the manner in which heat is imparted to the water in accordance to the demand on the water heater or system. A supplemental heater is also provided and it is connected so as to supplement the heating of the water in the event that the solar collector and/or desuperheater cannot impart all of the desired heat input into the water.

Andrews, J.W.

1980-06-25T23:59:59.000Z

396

Hot water tank for use with a combination of solar energy and heat-pump desuperheating  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A water heater or system which includes a hot water tank having disposed therein a movable baffle to function as a barrier between the incoming volume of cold water entering the tank and the volume of heated water entering the tank which is heated by the circulation of the cold water through a solar collector and/or a desuperheater of a heat pump so as to optimize the manner in which heat is imparted to the water in accordance to the demand on the water heater or system. A supplemental heater is also provided and it is connected so as to supplement the heating of the water in the event that the solar collector and/or desuperheater cannot impart all of the desired heat input into the water.

Andrews, John W. (Sag Harbor, NY)

1983-06-28T23:59:59.000Z

397

Tuning The Laser Heater Undulator  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The laser heater undulator for the LCLS requires different tuning techniques than the main undulators. It is a pure permanent magnet (PPM) undulator, rather than the hybrid design of the main undulators. The PPM design allows analytic calculation of the undulator fields. The calculations let errors be introduced and correction techniques be derived. This note describes how the undulator was modelled, and the methods which were found to correct potential errors in the undulator. The laser heater undulator for the LCLS is a pure permanent magnet device requiring different tuning techniques than the main undulators. In this note, the laser heater undulator is modelled and tuning techniques to compensate various errors are derived.

Wolf, Zackary

2010-12-03T23:59:59.000Z

398

High efficiency solar air heaters with novel built-in heat storage for use in a humidification-dehumidification desalination cycle  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Compared to solar water heaters, solar air heaters have received relatively little investigation and have resulted in few commercial products. However, in the context of a Humidification-Dehumidification (HD) Desalination ...

Summers, Edward K

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

399

Oil and Gas Air Heaters  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Most conventional air heaters adopt indirect heat transfer, which uses combustion gases to indirectly heat fresh air by heating surfaces to generate hot air used for material drying and dehumidification. We call them indirect air heaters. However, they have a higher manufacturing cost and lower thermal efficiency, especially when high temperature air is needed. For this reason, a direct air heater applicable for or feed and industrial raw products is put forward, which has advantages such as less production cost, smaller dimensions and higher thermal efficiency. Their design, working principles, characteristics, structure and applications are presented in this article, and brief comparisons are made between the indirect and direct air heater. Finally, the relation of hot-air temperature, oil or gas consumption and fresh airflow is determined based on energy equilibrium.

Kou, G.; Wang, H.; Zhou, J.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

400

Heater head for stirling engine  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A monolithic heater head assembly which augments cast fins with ceramic inserts which narrow the flow of combustion gas and obtains high thermal effectiveness with the assembly including an improved flange design which gives greater durability and reduced conduction loss.

Corey, John A. (R.D. #2, Box 101 E, North Troy, NY 12182)

1985-07-09T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "demand water heaters" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

BUILDINGS SECTOR DEMAND-SIDE EFFICIENCY TECHNOLOGY SUMMARIES  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

: Small Commercial, Residential Author: Haider Taha VII. Solar Domestic Water Heaters........................................................................... 59 End-Use: Water Heating Sector: Residential Author: Jim Lutz VIII. Heat Pump Water Heaters ................................................................................. 63 End-Use: Water Heating Sector: Residential Author: Jim Lutz IX. Energy-Efficient Motors

402

Water Heaters and Hot Water Distribution Systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

distribution system, ground-source heat pump and ground heatdistribution systems, ground-source heat pumps and ground

Lutz, Jim

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

403

Water Heaters and Hot Water Distribution Systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

the elimination of the standby losses common to gas storageflow rates. Eliminating the standby heat loss results in ais used to account for standby losses. Although storage

Lutz, Jim

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

404

Simulating the impact of pricing policies on residential water demand: a Southern France case study  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. Author-produced version of the article published in Water Resources Management, 2012, 26 (7-sectional data set, an Author-produced version of the article published in Water Resources Management, 2012, 26 employed relate to price, water use, and estimates of the cost of drilling. The Author-produced version

405

Estimating Costs and Efficiency of Storage, Demand, and Heat...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

more efficient system. When considering a water heater model for your home, estimate its energy efficiency and annual operating cost. Then, compare costs with other more andor...

406

Small Space Heater Basics | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Small Space Heater Basics Small Space Heater Basics Small Space Heater Basics August 19, 2013 - 10:38am Addthis Small space heaters, also called portable heaters, are typically used when the main heating system is inadequate or when central heating is too costly to install or operate. Space heater capacities generally range between 10,000 Btu to 40,000 Btu per hour. Common fuels used for this purpose are electricity, propane, natural gas, and kerosene. Although most space heaters rely on convection (the circulation of air in a room), some rely on radiant heating; that is, they emit infrared radiation that directly heats up objects and people that are within their line of sight. Combustion Space Heaters Space heaters are classified as vented and unvented, or "vent free." Unvented combustion units are not recommended for inside use, as they

407

Water Heating | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Water Heating Water Heating Water Heating Infographic: Water Heaters 101 Everything you need to know about saving money on water heating costs Read more Selecting a New Water Heater Tankless? Storage? Solar? Save money on your water heating bill by choosing the right type of energy-efficient water heater for your needs. Read more Sizing a New Water Heater When buying a new water heater, bigger is not always better. Learn how to buy the right size of water heater. Read more You can reduce your monthly water heating bills by selecting the appropriate water heater for your home or pool and by using some energy-efficient water heating strategies. Some simple do-it-yourself projects, like insulating hot water pipes and lowering your water heating temperature, can also help you save money and energy on your water heating.

408

Does Marginal Price Matter? A Regression Discontinuity Approach to Estimating Water Demand  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Does Marginal Price Matter? A Regression DiscontinuityCCF discontinuity, though, does not correspond to any waterin the RD analysis. A consumer does not know her exact water

Nataraj, Shanthi; Hanemann, W. Michael

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

409

Advanced Process Heater  

SciTech Connect

The Roadmap for Process Heating Technology (March 16, 2001), identified the following priority R&D needs: Improved performance of high temperature materials; Improved methods for stabilizing low emission flames; Heating technologies that simultaneously reduce emissions, increase efficiency, and increase heat transfer. This Category I award entitled ''Proof of Concept of an Advanced Process Heater (APH) for Steel, Aluminum, and Petroleum Industries of the Future'' met the technical feasibility goals of: (1) Doubling the heat transfer rates (2) Improving thermal efficiencies by 20%, (3) Improving temperature uniformity by 100 degrees F and (4) simultaneously reducing NOx and CO2 emissions. The APH address EERE's mission priority of increasing efficiency/reducing fuel usage in energy intensive industries. One component of the APH, the SpyroCorTM, was commercialized by STORM Development's partner, Spinworks LLC. Over 2000 SpyrCorsTM were sold in 2004 resulting in 480 million BTU's of energy savings, 20% reduction in NOx and CO2 levels, and 9 jobs in N.W. Pennsylvania. A second component, the HeatCorTM, a low-cost high-temperature heat exchanger will be demonstrated by Spinworks in 2005 in preparation for commercial sales in 2006. The project occurred in the 21st Congressional District of Pennsylvania. Once fully commercialized, the APH energy savings potential is 339 trillion BTUs annually in the U.S. and will process 1.5 million more tons annually without major capital equipment expenditures. Spinworks will commercialize the APH and add over 100 U.S. workers. To accomplish the objective, STORM Development LLC teamed with Penn State University, SyCore, Inc, Spinworks LLC, and Schunk-INEX, Inc. The project consisted of component engineering and integration of the APH followed by parametric testing. All components of the system were tested in a lab furnace that simulates a full scale industrial installation. The target areas for development include: (1) Scale up STORM's Finned Stabilized Combustion, (2) Optimization of SyCore's SiGr Inserts such that the heat transfer on the exhaust leg will match the high luminosity burner leg., (3) Evaluation of the heat transfer characteristics of Schunk-INEX's finned composite tubes as a heat exchanger, and (4) Design of a system to monitor all components of the APH and control its performance such that the objectives are met.

Tom Briselden, Chris Parrish

2005-03-07T23:59:59.000Z

410

Heater head for Stirling engine  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a heater head for a Stirling engine comprising: a housing for enclosing the heater head with gas at a substantial elevated pressure; insulator means attached to the housing for insulating the heater head; inlet means attached to a regenerator in the housing for admission of relatively high pressure working fluid from the regenerator of a Stirling engine; a first annular heating wall in the housing attached to the inlet means for heating the working fluid; and, a second annular heating wall in the housing concentric with the first heating wall but of lesser diameters so that an annular space is formed between the first heating wall and the second heating wall for heating working fluid; and a third heating wall in the housing concentric with and smaller in diameter than the second heating wall forming the condensing area of a heat pipe between the second heating wall and the third heating wall.

White, M.A.; Emigh, S.G.

1987-06-09T23:59:59.000Z

411

Energy Conservation in Process Heaters  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Energy savings in refinery and petrochemical fired heaters can basically be achieved in two ways: Thru optimization on energy use which can be done with small or no investments, or with extensive energy recovery systems. Various alternatives for the first case are given while the second concept is examined in more detail. Upgrading of heater efficiency should primarily aim at transferring as much energy as feasible to the actual process. When this is not possible the secondary target should be energy recycling in the combustion process by air preheating systems. The third possibility to re-use waste energy is recovery by utility systems like waste heat boilers. This paper gives an overview of different approaches to energy conservation in process heaters. It also includes the concepts, design considerations, apparatus, profitability aspects and actual operating experience.

Bagge, R. W.

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

412

Texas Hot Water Report  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

coil hot water storage tank, a backup instantaneous electric water heater, a hydronic fan coil unit for space heating, and an efficient plumbing manifold for domestic hot water...

413

Feedwater Heater Technology Seminar and Symposium  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Feedwater heater and associated systems performance strongly affects availability and heat rate in fossil and nuclear power plants. Fifteen papers were presented at a 2001 symposium to discuss industrial experience and case histories of feedwater heater problems and solutions.

2001-09-17T23:59:59.000Z

414

Gas Swimming Pool Heaters | Department of Energy  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

can be a good choice for pools that aren't used on a regular basis. Unlike heat pump and solar pool heaters, gas pool heaters can maintain any desired temperature regardless of...

415

Development and testing of a wastewater recycler and heater. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The results of this program have demonstrated the feasibility of an automatic and self-contained appliance that can recover and store usable hot water from waste laundry water, using essentially the same amount of energy as an equivalent-capacity water heater. It has been shown by extended evaluation tests with a waste stream of real laundry water that this unit is capable of recovering sterile hot water at a steady state rate of 22.7 liters/hour (6 gph) with a specific energy draw of 79 watt-hours/liter (299 watt-hours/gal), without the use of any expendable chemicals. It has also been shown by extended evaluation tests with a feed that simulates hospital wastewater preconcentrated by ultrafiltration and reverse osmosis that this unit can increase the solids concentration of a waste water from less than 2% to at least 29.3%. The results of a manufacturing cost analysis have shown that a conservative annual cost (that is, a maximum annual cost) of this appliance is $717 per year. Economic feasibility therefore is not demonstrable at present on a large scale. However, should water cost increase or the cost of the appliance decrease, a viable demand for household water recovery with the appliance would be possible.

Guarino, V.J.; Bambenek, R.A.

1976-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

416

Wetland Water Cooling Partnership: The Use of Restored Wetlands to Enhance Thermoelectric Power Plant Cooling and Mitigate the Demand on Surface Water Use  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Pierina noceti Pierina noceti Project Manager National Energy Technology Laboratory 626 Cochrans Mill Road P.O. Box 10940 Pittsburgh, PA 15236-0940 412-386-5428 pierina.noceti@netl.doe.gov steven I. apfelbaum Principal Investigator Applied Ecological Services, Inc. 17921 Smith Road P.O. Box 256 Brodhead, WI 53520 608-897-8641 steve@appliedeco.com Wetland Water Cooling PartnershiP: the Use of restored Wetlands to enhanCe thermoeleCtriC PoWer Plant Cooling and mitigate the demand on sUrfaCe Water Use Background Thermoelectric power plants require a significant volume of water to operate, accounting for 39 percent of freshwater (136 billion gallons per day) withdrawn in the United States in 2000, according to a U.S. Geological Survey study. This significant use of water ranks second only to the agricultural sector

417

Impact of a solar domestic hot water demand-side management program on an electric utility and its customers  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A methodology to assess the economic and environmental impacts of a large scale implementation of solar domestic hot water (SDHW) systems is developed. Energy, emission and demand reductions and their respective savings are quantified. It is shown that, on average, an SDHW system provides an energy reduction of about 3200 kWH, avoided emissions of about 2 tons and a capacity contribution of 0.7 kW to a typical Wisconsin utility that installs 5000 SDHW system. The annual savings from these reductions to utility is {dollar_sign}385,000, providing a return on an investment of over 20{percent}. It is shown that, on average, a consumer will save {dollar_sign}211 annually in hot water heating bills. 8 refs., 7 figs.

Trzeniewski, J.; Mitchell, J.W.; Klein, S.A.; Beckman, W.A.

1996-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

418

Welding shield for coupling heaters  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Systems for coupling end portions of two elongated heater portions and methods of using such systems to treat a subsurface formation are described herein. A system may include a holding system configured to hold end portions of the two elongated heater portions so that the end portions are abutted together or located near each other; a shield for enclosing the end portions, and one or more inert gas inlets configured to provide at least one inert gas to flush the system with inert gas during welding of the end portions. The shield may be configured to inhibit oxidation during welding that joins the end portions together. The shield may include a hinged door that, when closed, is configured to at least partially isolate the interior of the shield from the atmosphere. The hinged door, when open, is configured to allow access to the interior of the shield.

Menotti, James Louis (Dickinson, TX)

2010-03-09T23:59:59.000Z

419

EWEB - Residential Solar Water Heating Loan Program | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

EWEB - Residential Solar Water Heating Loan Program EWEB - Residential Solar Water Heating Loan Program EWEB - Residential Solar Water Heating Loan Program < Back Eligibility Residential Savings Category Heating & Cooling Solar Swimming Pool Heaters Water Heating Maximum Rebate $7,000 Program Info State Oregon Program Type Utility Loan Program Rebate Amount Up to 75% of system cost after rebate Provider Eugene Water and Electric Board Eugene Water and Electric Board (EWEB) offers residential customers a loan and cash discount program called, "The Bright Way To Heat Water." The program is designed to promote the installation of solar water heaters and solar pool heating systems. It began in May 1990 as part of a demand-side management initiative. The loans have been offered since May 1995. EWEB provides all funding for both loans and cash discounts. Customers may

420

Demand Response  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Peak load diagram Demand Response Demand Response (DR) is a set of time-dependent activities that reduce or shift electricity use to improve electric grid reliability, manage...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "demand water heaters" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

Demand Response  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Peak load diagram Demand Response Demand response (DR) is a set of time-dependent activities that reduce or shift electricity use to improve electric grid reliability, manage...

422

Small scale heater tests in argillite of the Eleana Formation at the Nevada Test Site  

SciTech Connect

Near-surface heater tests were run in the Eleana Formation at the Nevada Test Site, in an effort to evaluate argillaceous rock for nuclear waste storage. The main test, which employed a full-scale heater with a thermal output approximating commercial borosilicate waste, was designed to operate for several months. Two smaller, scaled tests were run prior to the full-scale test. This report develops the thermal scaling laws, describes the pretest thermal and thermomechanical analysis conducted for these two tests, and discusses the material properties data used in the analyses. In the first test, scaled to a large heater of 3.5 kW power, computed heater temperatures were within 7% of measured values for the entire 96-hour test run. The second test, scaled to a large heater having 5.0 kW power, experienced periodic water in-flow onto the heater, which tended to damp the temperature. For the second test, the computed temperatures were within 7% of measured for the first 20 hours. After this time, the water effect became significant and the measured temperatures were 15 to 20% below those predicted. On the second test, rock surface spallation was noted in the bore hole above the heater, as predicted. The scaled tests indicated that in-situ argillite would not undergo major thermostructural failure during the follow-on, 3.5 kW, full-scale test. 24 figures, 6 tables.

McVey, D.F.; Thomas, R.K.; Lappin, A.R.

1979-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

423

Joint used for coupling long heaters  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Systems for coupling ends of elongated heaters and methods of using such systems to treat a subsurface formation are described herein. A system may include two elongated heaters with an end portion of one heater abutted or near to an end portion of the other heater and a core coupling material. The core coupling material may extend between the two elongated heaters. The elongated heaters may include cores and at least one conductor substantially concentrically surrounds the cores. The cores may have a lower melting point than the conductors. At least one end portion of the conductor may have a beveled edge. The gap formed by the beveled edge may be filled with a coupling material for coupling the one or more conductors. One end portion of at least one core may have a recessed opening and the core coupling material may be partially inside the recessed opening.

Menottie, James Louis

2013-02-26T23:59:59.000Z

424

Measurement of Temperature and Velocity Fields in a Heater Unit by Liquid Crystal Thermometry and Particle Image Velocimetry  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Temperature and velocity fields in a heating unit for automobiles are measured through a model experiment in water tunnel using flow visualizations and image analysis to investigate the mixing mechanism of the flow that has passed through the heater ... Keywords: flow measurement, flow visualization, heater unit, liquid crystal, particle image velocimetry, temperature measurement

N. Fujisawa; H. Ikeda; R. Saito; M. Yokota

2000-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

425

Parallel heater system for subsurface formations  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A heating system for a subsurface formation is disclosed. The system includes a plurality of substantially horizontally oriented or inclined heater sections located in a hydrocarbon containing layer in the formation. At least a portion of two of the heater sections are substantially parallel to each other. The ends of at least two of the heater sections in the layer are electrically coupled to a substantially horizontal, or inclined, electrical conductor oriented substantially perpendicular to the ends of the at least two heater sections.

Harris, Christopher Kelvin (Houston, TX); Karanikas, John Michael (Houston, TX); Nguyen, Scott Vinh (Houston, TX)

2011-10-25T23:59:59.000Z

426

Design of a 6- by 6-foot coal-fired heater for a CCGT air heater  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Coal-fired heaters for closed-cycle gas turbine have been designed and tested. One of the heater concepts employs the atmospheric pressure fluidized bed coal combustion process. The paper describes a research-oriented bed for the research program. Details are described and discussed of such heaters for cogeneration applications. 2 refs.

Russell, L.H.; Campbell, J. Jr.

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

427

Demand Response  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Assessment for Eastern Interconnection Youngsun Baek, Stanton W. Hadley, Rocio Martinez, Gbadebo Oladosu, Alexander M. Smith, Fran Li, Paul Leiby and Russell Lee Prepared for FY12 DOE-CERTS Transmission Reliability R&D Internal Program Review September 20, 2012 2 Managed by UT-Battelle for the U.S. Department of Energy DOE National Laboratory Studies Funded to Support FOA 63 * DOE set aside $20 million from transmission funding for national laboratory studies. * DOE identified four areas of interest: 1. Transmission Reliability 2. Demand Side Issues 3. Water and Energy 4. Other Topics * Argonne, NREL, and ORNL support for EIPC/SSC/EISPC and the EISPC Energy Zone is funded through Area 4. * Area 2 covers LBNL and NREL work in WECC and

428

The effect of efficiency standards on water use and water heating energy use in the US: A detailed end-use treatment  

SciTech Connect

Water heating is an important end-use, accounting for roughly 16% of total primary energy consumption in the US residential sector. Recently enacted efficiency standards on water heaters and hot water-using equipment (e.g., dishwashers, clothes washers, showerheads, and faucets) will substantially affect the energy use of water heaters in the future. Assessment of current and future utility programs and government policies requires that regulators, resource planners, and forecasters understand the effects of these regulations. In order to quantify these impacts, this paper presents a detailed end-use breakdown of household hot and cold water use developed for the US Department of Energy. This breakdown is based on both previous studies and new data and analysis. It is implemented in a spreadsheet forecasting framework, which allows significant flexibility in specifying end-use demands and linkages between water heaters and hot water-using appliances. We disaggregate total hot and cold water use (gallons per day) into their component parts: showers, baths, faucets (flow dominated and volume dominated), toilets, landscaping/other, dishwashers, and clotheswashers. We then use the end-use breakdown and data on equipment characteristics to assess the impacts of current efficiency standards on hot water use and water heater energy consumption.

Koomey, J.G.; Dunham, C.; Lutz, J.D.

1994-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

429

Combustion heater for oil shale  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A combustion heater for oil shale heats particles of spent oil shale containing unburned char by burning the char. A delayed fall is produced by flowing the shale particles down through a stack of downwardly sloped overlapping baffles alternately extending from opposite sides of a vertical column. The delayed fall and flow reversal occurring in passing from each baffle to the next increase the residence time and increase the contact of the oil shale particles with combustion supporting gas flowed across the column to heat the shale to about 650 to 700/sup 0/C for use as a process heat source.

Mallon, R.; Walton, O.; Lewis, A.E.; Braun, R.

1983-09-21T23:59:59.000Z

430

Combustion heater for oil shale  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A combustion heater for oil shale heats particles of spent oil shale containing unburned char by burning the char. A delayed fall is produced by flowing the shale particles down through a stack of downwardly sloped overlapping baffles alternately extending from opposite sides of a vertical column. The delayed fall and flow reversal occurring in passing from each baffle to the next increase the residence time and increase the contact of the oil shale particles with combustion supporting gas flowed across the column to heat the shale to about 650.degree.-700.degree. C. for use as a process heat source.

Mallon, Richard G. (Livermore, CA); Walton, Otis R. (Livermore, CA); Lewis, Arthur E. (Los Altos, CA); Braun, Robert L. (Livermore, CA)

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

431

SINGLE HEATER TEST FINAL REPORT  

SciTech Connect

The Single Heater Test is the first of the in-situ thermal tests conducted by the U.S. Department of Energy as part of its program of characterizing Yucca Mountain in Nevada as the potential site for a proposed deep geologic repository for the disposal of spent nuclear fuel and high-level nuclear waste. The Site Characterization Plan (DOE 1988) contained an extensive plan of in-situ thermal tests aimed at understanding specific aspects of the response of the local rock-mass around the potential repository to the heat from the radioactive decay of the emplaced waste. With the refocusing of the Site Characterization Plan by the ''Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program Plan'' (DOE 1994), a consolidated thermal testing program emerged by 1995 as documented in the reports ''In-Situ Thermal Testing Program Strategy'' (DOE 1995) and ''Updated In-Situ Thermal Testing Program Strategy'' (CRWMS M&O 1997a). The concept of the Single Heater Test took shape in the summer of 1995 and detailed planning and design of the test started with the beginning fiscal year 1996. The overall objective of the Single Heater Test was to gain an understanding of the coupled thermal, mechanical, hydrological, and chemical processes that are anticipated to occur in the local rock-mass in the potential repository as a result of heat from radioactive decay of the emplaced waste. This included making a priori predictions of the test results using existing models and subsequently refining or modifying the models, on the basis of comparative and interpretive analyses of the measurements and predictions. A second, no less important, objective was to try out, in a full-scale field setting, the various instruments and equipment to be employed in the future on a much larger, more complex, thermal test of longer duration, such as the Drift Scale Test. This ''shake down'' or trial aspect of the Single Heater Test applied not just to the hardware, but also to the teamwork and cooperation between multiple organizations performing their part in the test.

J.B. Cho

1999-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

432

Addressing Energy Demand through Demand Response: International...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Addressing Energy Demand through Demand Response: International Experiences and Practices Title Addressing Energy Demand through Demand Response: International Experiences and...

433

Addressing Energy Demand through Demand Response: International...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Energy Demand through Demand Response: International Experiences and Practices Title Addressing Energy Demand through Demand Response: International Experiences and Practices...

434

Lakeland Electric - Solar Water Heating Program | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Lakeland Electric - Solar Water Heating Program Lakeland Electric - Solar Water Heating Program Lakeland Electric - Solar Water Heating Program < Back Eligibility Residential Savings Category Heating & Cooling Solar Water Heating Program Info Start Date June 2010 State Florida Program Type Other Incentive Provider Lakeland Electric Lakeland Electric, a municipal utility in Florida, is the nation's first utility to offer solar-heated domestic hot water on a "pay-for-energy" basis. The utility has contracted with a solar equipment vendor, Regenesis Lakeland, LLC, to install solar water heaters on participating customers' homes. Lakeland Electric bills the customer $34.95 per month regardless of use. Each solar heater is metered and equipped with a heating element timer as a demand management feature. The $34.95 monthly charge is a bulk energy

435

EPRI Feedwater Heater Technology Conference Proceedings  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report documents the proceedings of EPRI's 2013 Feedwater Heater Technology Conference.BackgroundFeedwater heaters and associated systems cause significant loss of availability and heat rate degradation in both nuclear and fossil-fired power plants. Improving design, materials, and operation and maintenance practices can correct most losses. EPRI, utility members, equipment manufacturers, and others have worked to improve system reliability, ...

2013-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

436

Space Heaters, Computers, Cell Phone Chargers: How Plugged In...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Space Heaters, Computers, Cell Phone Chargers: How Plugged In Are Commercial Buildings? Title Space Heaters, Computers, Cell Phone Chargers: How Plugged In Are Commercial...

437

Subsurface connection methods for subsurface heaters  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A system for heating a subsurface formation is described. The system includes a first elongated heater in a first opening in the formation. The first elongated heater includes an exposed metal section in a portion of the first opening. The portion is below a layer of the formation to be heated. The exposed metal section is exposed to the formation. A second elongated heater is in a second opening in the formation. The second opening connects to the first opening at or near the portion of the first opening below the layer to be heated. At least a portion of an exposed metal section of the second elongated heater is electrically coupled to at least a portion of the exposed metal section of the first elongated heater in the portion of the first opening below the layer to be heated.

Vinegar, Harold J. (Bellaire, TX); Bass, Ronald Marshall (Houston, TX); Kim, Dong Sub (Sugar Land, TX); Mason, Stanley Leroy (Allen, TX); Stegemeier, George Leo (Houston, TX); Keltner, Thomas Joseph (Spring, TX); Carl, Jr., Frederick Gordon (Houston, TX)

2010-12-28T23:59:59.000Z

438

Warren RECC- Electric Water Heater Rebate  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Warren Rural Electric Cooperative Corporation (RECC) provides service to customers in the south-central Kentucky counties of Ohio, Butler, Grayson, Edmonson, Warren, Simpson, Logan and Barren. Upon...

439

Energy Basics: Heat Pump Water Heaters  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

for optimum operation in either summer or winter. Homeowners primarily install geothermal heat pumps-which draw heat from the ground during the winter and from the indoor air...

440

Solar Water Heaters | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

and metal absorber tube attached to a fin. The fin is covered with a coating that absorbs solar energy well, but which inhibits radiative heat loss. Air is removed, or evacuated,...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "demand water heaters" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

Water Heater Controller - Energy Innovation Portal  

Hydrogen and Fuel Cell; Hydropower, Wave and Tidal; ... The autonomous benefits begin accruing immediately without significantly impacting the ...

442

THERMOSIPHON WATER HEATERS WITH HEAT EXCHANGERS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

maximum supply solar radiation storag~ tank vertical22r- 18[ G::- 6 ;_;I Solar radiation Richmond, Co June IQ St daily t.otal solar radiation, kcal/m2day (Btu/ftiday)

Mertol, Atila

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

443

THERMOSIPHON WATER HEATERS WITH HEAT EXCHANGERS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

the collector and heat exchanger (Uc and Uhel · ~Constant tNational Standard, "Solar Heat Exchangers," ANSI/ASME SES 1,connecting pipes header heat exchanger insulation maximum

Mertol, Atila

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

444

Heat Pump Water Heaters | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

with a small chamber on top and a larger one on the bottom. In the top chamber are a fan, a cylindrical compressor, and an evaporator that runs along the inside of the chamber....

445

THERMOSIPHON WATER HEATERS WITH HEAT EXCHANGERS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

11 ector connecting pipes header heat exchanger insulationLt total connecting pipe length, m (ft) total number of heat

Mertol, Atila

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

446

Solar Water Heaters | Department of Energy  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

only in mild-freeze climates because the outdoor pipes could freeze in severe, cold weather. Evacuated-tube solar collectors They feature parallel rows of transparent glass...

447

Price and Non-Price Influences on Water Conservation: An Econometric Model of Aggregate Demand under Nonlinear Budget Constraint  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

PRICE INFLUENCES ON WATER CONSERVATION: ECONOMETRIC AN MODELPrice Influences on Water Conservation: An Econometric ModelPrice Influences on Water Conservation: An Econometric Model

Corral, Leonardo; Fisher, Anthony C.; Hatch, Nile W.

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

448

A Realistic Hot Water Draw Specification for Rating Solar Water...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

thornton@tess-inc.com ABSTRACT In the United States, annual performance ratings for solar water heaters are simulated, using TMY weather and specified water draw. Bias...

449

Columbia Water & Light- Solar Rebates  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Columbia Water & Light (CWL) offers rebates to its commercial and residential customers for the purchase of solar water heaters and solar photovoltaic systems. These rebates are available for...

450

Particulate matter sensor with a heater  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An apparatus to detect particulate matter. The apparatus includes a sensor electrode, a shroud, and a heater. The electrode measures a chemical composition within an exhaust stream. The shroud surrounds at least a portion of the sensor electrode, exclusive of a distal end of the sensor electrode exposed to the exhaust stream. The shroud defines an air gap between the sensor electrode and the shroud and an opening toward the distal end of the sensor electrode. The heater is mounted relative to the sensor electrode. The heater burns off particulate matter in the air gap between the sensor electrode and the shroud.

Hall, Matthew (Austin, TX)

2011-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

451

Consumer-products minimum energy-efficiency-standards program. Topical report on Subtask 3. 1. Evaluation of energy consumption savings of boost heaters in dishwashers  

SciTech Connect

An analysis of the energy conservation and life cycle cost benefits of boost heaters for dishwashers is presented to provide technical information to assist in determining whether to modify the dishwasher test procedure to include boost heaters. Two manufacturers are offering dishwashers which have an inlet water temperature requirement of 120/sup 0/F. Cleaning performance in these appliances is maintained with an electric coil in the sump of the dishwasher, which boosts the incoming water to its final temperature. Both manufacturers have petitioned DOE for exemption from efficiency standards, since current DOE test procedures give no credit for water heater energy savings. The evaluation shows boost heaters to be energy conserving for all conditions. The life cycle cost analysis indicates boost heaters are cost effective in all cases for homes with electric water heaters, and in most cases for homes having gas water heaters. Additionally the proposed standards for dishwashers will lower water consumption in 1985 model dishwashers such that boost heaters will become cost effective in all cases.

Not Available

1980-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

452

Modeling, Analysis, and Control of Demand Response Resources  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

2011), pp. 411–419. [31] EERE. EnergyPlus energy simulationcfm/weather_data.cfm. [32] EERE. Estimating appliance andmytopic=10040. [33] EERE. Lower water heater temperature for

Mathieu, Johanna L.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

453

Gas Swimming Pool Heaters | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

You'll probably need to tune up your pool heater annually. Also, scaling in the burner or heat exchanger may decrease efficiency over a period of time. With proper installation and...

454

Heater head for a Stirling engine  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A heater head is described for a compound Stirling engine modules, each including a displacer cylinder coaxially aligned with the displacer cylinder of the other of the engine modules, a displacer piston mounted for reciprocation in the displacer cylinder.

Darooka, D.K.

1988-09-06T23:59:59.000Z

455

A Gas-Fired Heat Pipe Zone Heater  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A gas-fired vented zone heater has recently been developed by the Altar Corporation for Colorado State University (CSU) under a Gas Research Institute (GRI) contract. The unit war developed for auxiliary heating applications in passive solar buildings. An early prototype was tested at Altas and operated as expected. The final model was shipped to CSU in December 1983 for testing in the REPEAT Facility at CSU. A heat pipe extends through the wall to the outside of the building. It has a modest water charge which can freeze repeatedly with no damage, since the heat pips is only partially filled. Firing efficiency at 4,000 Btu/b (1.17 kW thermal) is approximately 80%. The unit features a 3 foot by 3 foot radiator mounted inside the room to be heated, and is thermostatically controlled. Ignition is accomplished with an electronic sparker (pilot). The radiator typically operates at 150-180°F (65-82°C), and has been operated at between 2,000 and 5,000 Btu/h (0.6-1.47 kW). Results of testing the vented heat pipe zone heater at CSU arm presented. Also, a method for determining the optimal combination of zone heater, passive solar heating and energy conservation measures has been developed. Nomographs have been developed that may be used by a building designer to determine the optimal combination of zone heater size, passive solar system size, and energy conservation measures for given types of passive solar heating systems in selected locations. A representative nomograph is presented along with a design example.

Winn, C. B.; Burns, P.; Guire, J.

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

456

Water | Department of Energy  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

daylighting, passive solar and active solar. They also have an 80 gallon solar hot water heater. | Photo by Dennis Schroeder, National Renewable Energy Laboratory. A guide to...

457

Diesel particulate filter with zoned resistive heater  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A diesel particulate filter assembly comprises a diesel particulate filter (DPF) and a heater assembly. The DPF filters a particulate from exhaust produced by an engine. The heater assembly has a first metallic layer that is applied to the DPF, a resistive layer that is applied to the first metallic layer, and a second metallic layer that is applied to the resistive layer. The second metallic layer is etched to form a plurality of zones.

Gonze, Eugene V [Pinckney, MI

2011-03-08T23:59:59.000Z

458

Green Systems Solar Hot Water  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Green Systems Solar Hot Water Heating the Building Co-generation: Heat Recovery System: Solar Thermal Panels (Trex enclosure) Hot Water Storage Tank (TS-5; basement) Hot Water Heaters (HW-1,2; basement) Pre-heats water so water heaters don't need to use as much energy Gas-powered, high efficiency

Schladow, S. Geoffrey

459

Residential Electricity Demand in China -- Can Efficiency Reverse the Growth?  

SciTech Connect

The time when energy-related carbon emissions come overwhelmingly from developed countries is coming to a close. China has already overtaken the United States as the world's leading emitter of greenhouse gas emissions. The economic growth that China has experienced is not expected to slow down significantly in the long term, which implies continued massive growth in energy demand. This paper draws on the extensive expertise from the China Energy Group at LBNL on forecasting energy consumption in China, but adds to it by exploring the dynamics of demand growth for electricity in the residential sector -- and the realistic potential for coping with it through efficiency. This paper forecasts ownership growth of each product using econometric modeling, in combination with historical trends in China. The products considered (refrigerators, air conditioners, fans, washing machines, lighting, standby power, space heaters, and water heating) account for 90percent of household electricity consumption in China. Using this method, we determine the trend and dynamics of demandgrowth and its dependence on macroeconomic drivers at a level of detail not accessible by models of a more aggregate nature. In addition, we present scenarios for reducing residential consumption through efficiency measures defined at the product level. The research takes advantage of an analytical framework developed by LBNL (BUENAS) which integrates end use technology parameters into demand forecasting and stock accounting to produce detailed efficiency scenarios, thus allowing for a technologically realistic assessment of efficiency opportunities specifically in the Chinese context.

Letschert, Virginie; McNeil, Michael A.; Zhou, Nan

2009-05-18T23:59:59.000Z

460

Hot tips on water heating  

SciTech Connect

Water-heater manufacturers responded to the call for energy conservation with innovations and efficiency standards for the home, business, and plant. Conventional tank-type water heaters offer better design and insulation, but the heat-pump water heater offers the highest efficiency. Available in add-on units and integral units, they now represent up to 40% of manufacturers' sales. Other advances are the desuperheater devices which recapture air-conditioner waste heat, solar-water-heating systems, instantaneous water heaters, and industrial heat-recovery systems for process water. 1 figure. (DCK)

Forker, J.

1982-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "demand water heaters" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


461

Performance Study of Swimming Pool Heaters  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The objective of this report is to perform a controlled laboratory study on the efficiency and emissions of swimming pool heaters based on a limited field investigation into the range of expected variations in operational parameters. Swimming pool heater sales trends have indicated a significant decline in the number of conventional natural gas-fired swimming pool heaters (NGPH). On Long Island the decline has been quite sharp, on the order of 50%, in new installations since 2001. The major portion of the decline has been offset by a significant increase in the sales of electric powered heat pump pool heaters (HPPH) that have been gaining market favor. National Grid contracted with Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) to measure performance factors in order to compare the relative energy, environmental and economic consequences of using one technology versus the other. A field study was deemed inappropriate because of the wide range of differences in actual load variations (pool size), geographic orientations, ground plantings and shading variations, number of hours of use, seasonal use variations, occupancy patterns, hour of the day use patterns, temperature selection, etc. A decision was made to perform a controlled laboratory study based on a limited field investigation into the range of expected operational variations in parameters. Critical to this are the frequency of use, temperature selection, and sizing of the heater to the associated pool heating loads. This would be accomplished by installing a limited amount of relatively simple compact field data acquisition units on selected pool installations. This data included gas usage when available and alternately heater power or gas consumption rates were inferred from the manufacturer's specifications when direct metering was not available in the field. Figure 1 illustrates a typical pool heater installation layout.

McDonald, R.J.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

462

NEXT GENERATION COMMERCIAL HEAT PUMPWATER HEATER USING CARBON DIOXIDE USING DIFFERENT IMPROVEMENT APPROACHES  

SciTech Connect

Although heat pump water heaters are today widely accepted in Japan, where energy costs are high and government incentives for their use exist, acceptance of such a product in the U.S. has been slow. This trend is slowly changing with the introduction of heat pump water heaters into the residential market, but remains in the commercial sector. Barriers to heat pump water heater acceptance in the commercial market have historically been performance, reliability and first/operating costs. The use of carbon dioxide (R744) as the refrigerant in such a system can improve performance for relatively small increase in initial cost and make this technology more appealing. What makes R744 an excellent candidate for use in heat pump water heaters is not only the wide range of ambient temperatures within which it can operate, but also the excellent ability to match water to refrigerant temperatures on the high side, resulting in very high exit water temperatures of up to 82�ºC, as required by sanitary codes in the U.S. (Food Code, 2005), in a single pass, temperatures that are much more difficult to reach with other refrigerants. This can be especially attractive in applications where this water is used for the purpose of sanitation. While reliability has also been of concern historically, dramatic improvements have been made over the last several years through research done in the automotive industry and commercialization of R744 technology in residential water heating mainly in Japan. This paper presents the performance results from the development of an R744 commercial heat pump water heater of approximately 35 kW and a comparison to a baseline R134a unit of the same capacity and footprint. In addition, recommendations are made for further improvements of the R744 system which could result in possible energy savings of up to 20 %.

Chad Bowers; Michael Petersen; Stefan Elbel; Pega Hrnjak

2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

463

Activities of key metabolic enzymes in the heater organs of scombroid fishes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Maximal in vitro activities of key metabolic enzymes were measured in brain and eye heaters of five species of scombroid fishes. Istiophorid billfishes (blue marlin, striped marlin and Mediterranean spearfish), xiphiid billfishes (Pacific and Mediterranean stocks) and a scombrid fish (butterfly mackerel) were included in the analysis. Our main objectives were (1) to assess the maximum possible substrate flux in heater tissue, and (2) to determine what metabolic substrates could fuel heat production. Heater tissue of all scombroids examined showed extremely high oxidative capacity. Activities of citrate synthase, a commonly measured index of oxidative metabolism, included the highest value ever reported for vertebrate tissue. In most billfishes, citrate synthase activities were similar to or higher than those found for mammalian cardiac and avian flight muscle. Marker enzymes for aerobic carbohydrate metabolism (hexokinase) and fatty acid metabolism (carnitine palmitoyltransferase and 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase) also displayed extraordinarily high activities. Activities of carnitine palmitoyltransferase measured in heater organs were among the highest reported for vertebrates. These results indicate that heat production could be fueled aerobically by either lipid or carbohydrate metabolism. Inter- and intraspecifically, heater organs of fishes from the colder Mediterranean waters had a higher aerobic capacity and, hence, a greater heat-generating potential, than fishes from the warmer waters of the Pacific. This difference may be attributed to different thermal environments or it may result from allometry, since fishes caught in the Mediterranean were considerably smaller than those caught in the Pacific.

Alexa Tullis; Barbara A. Block; Bruce; D. Sidell

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

464

Performance characterization of a hydrogen catalytic heater.  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report describes the performance of a high efficiency, compact heater that uses the catalytic oxidation of hydrogen to provide heat to the GM Hydrogen Storage Demonstration System. The heater was designed to transfer up to 30 kW of heat from the catalytic reaction to a circulating heat transfer fluid. The fluid then transfers the heat to one or more of the four hydrogen storage modules that make up the Demonstration System to drive off the chemically bound hydrogen. The heater consists of three main parts: (1) the reactor, (2) the gas heat recuperator, and (3) oil and gas flow distribution manifolds. The reactor and recuperator are integrated, compact, finned-plate heat exchangers to maximize heat transfer efficiency and minimize mass and volume. Detailed, three-dimensional, multi-physics computational models were used to design and optimize the system. At full power the heater was able to catalytically combust a 10% hydrogen/air mixture flowing at over 80 cubic feet per minute and transfer 30 kW of heat to a 30 gallon per minute flow of oil over a temperature range from 100 C to 220 C. The total efficiency of the catalytic heater, defined as the heat transferred to the oil divided by the inlet hydrogen chemical energy, was characterized and methods for improvement were investigated.

Johnson, Terry Alan; Kanouff, Michael P.

2010-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

465

Water-Heating Dehumidifier - Energy Innovation Portal  

Hydrogen and Fuel Cell; Hydropower, Wave and Tidal; Industrial Technologies; Solar ... When the tank of water heater is full of hot water or a ...

466

Subterrene electrical heater design and morphology  

SciTech Connect

The design, construction, and testing of a variety of electrical heaters for small-diameter Subterrene penetrators has been pursued. The incompatibility of refractory materials at the required operating temperatures of ~2000 deg K and the large heat-flux requirements posed the most difflcult design problems. Heat fluxes of up to 2.0 MW/m/sup 2/ were obtained from pyrolytic-graphite radiant heattransfer elements and were as high as 2.5 MW/m/sup 2/ when this type of heater was combined with a lithium heat-pipe assembly. Penetrators using radiant heaters produced both vertical and horizontal holes of 50 mm dia up to lengths of 25 m, whereas holes of up to 64 mm dia and 0.5 m long were produced in basalt and other rock samples in the laboratory. (auth)

Armstrong, P.E.

1974-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

467

System design description for the HMT Rotation Motor Heater System  

SciTech Connect

This document is the design description for the Rotation Motor Heater System on waste tank 241-SY-101. The description includes the certified vendor (CV) file number, operators instructions, and heater sizing calculations.

Vargo, G.F. Jr.

1995-05-18T23:59:59.000Z

468

Transportation Demand  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

page intentionally left blank page intentionally left blank 69 U.S. Energy Information Administration | Assumptions to the Annual Energy Outlook 2011 Transportation Demand Module The NEMS Transportation Demand Module estimates transportation energy consumption across the nine Census Divisions (see Figure 5) and over ten fuel types. Each fuel type is modeled according to fuel-specific technology attributes applicable by transportation mode. Total transportation energy consumption is the sum of energy use in eight transport modes: light-duty vehicles (cars and light trucks), commercial light trucks (8,501-10,000 lbs gross vehicle weight), freight trucks (>10,000 lbs gross vehicle weight), buses, freight and passenger aircraft, freight and passenger rail, freight shipping, and miscellaneous

469

Tube skin temperature prediction of catalytic reforming unit (CRU) heaters  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The maximum duty of reformer heaters is governed by the occurance of maximum tube skin temperature of the heaters. The value of maximum tube skin temperatures of the heaters must not exceed theirs' maximum allowable design temperature. The paper highlights ... Keywords: coke formation, finite element, simulations, tube furnance

Suzana Yusup; Nguyen Duy Vinh; Nurhayati Mellon; Abdullah Hassan

2006-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

470

Fired heater for coal liquefaction process  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A fired heater for a coal liquefaction process is constructed with a heat transfer tube having U-bends at regular intervals along the length thereof to increase the slug frequency of the multi-phase mixture flowing therethrough to thereby improve the heat transfer efficiency.

Ying, David H. S. (Macungie, PA)

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

471

Building Technologies Office: Open-Standard Wireless Controllers for Water  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Open-Standard Wireless Open-Standard Wireless Controllers for Water Heaters Research Project to someone by E-mail Share Building Technologies Office: Open-Standard Wireless Controllers for Water Heaters Research Project on Facebook Tweet about Building Technologies Office: Open-Standard Wireless Controllers for Water Heaters Research Project on Twitter Bookmark Building Technologies Office: Open-Standard Wireless Controllers for Water Heaters Research Project on Google Bookmark Building Technologies Office: Open-Standard Wireless Controllers for Water Heaters Research Project on Delicious Rank Building Technologies Office: Open-Standard Wireless Controllers for Water Heaters Research Project on Digg Find More places to share Building Technologies Office: Open-Standard Wireless Controllers for Water Heaters Research Project on

472

Our Environment in Hot Water: Comparing Water Heaters, A Life...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Group Electricity Markets and Policy Group Energy Efficiency Standards Group Indoor Environment Group International Energy Studies Group Sustainable Energy Systems Group Energy...

473

Electric heater for nuclear fuel rod simulators  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention is directed to an electric cartridge-type heater for use as a simulator for a nuclear fuel pin in reactor studies. The heater comprises an elongated cylindrical housing containing a longitudinally extending helically wound heating element with the heating element radially inwardly separated from the housing. Crushed cold-pressed preforms of boron nitride electrically insulate the heating element from the housing while providing good thermal conductivity. Crushed cold-pressed preforms of magnesia or a magnesia-15 percent boron nitride mixture are disposed in the cavity of the helical heating element. The coefficient of thermal expansion of the magnesia or the magnesia-boron nitride mixture is higher than that of the boron nitride disposed about the heating element for urging the boron nitride radially outwardly against the housing during elevated temperatures to assure adequate thermal contact between the housing and the boron nitride.

McCulloch, Reginald W. (Knoxville, TN); Morgan, Jr.,