National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for demand module include

  1. Industrial Demand Module - NEMS Documentation

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2014-01-01

    Documents the objectives, analytical approach, and development of the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) Industrial Demand Module. The report catalogues and describes model assumptions, computational methodology, parameter estimation techniques, and model source code.

  2. Residential Demand Module - NEMS Documentation

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2014-01-01

    Model Documentation - Documents the objectives, analytical approach, and development of the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) Residential Sector Demand Module. The report catalogues and describes the model assumptions, computational methodology, parameter estimation techniques, and FORTRAN source code.

  3. Commercial Demand Module - NEMS Documentation

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2014-01-01

    Documents the objectives, analytical approach and development of the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) Commercial Sector Demand Module. The report catalogues and describes the model assumptions, computational methodology, parameter estimation techniques, model source code, and forecast results generated through the synthesis and scenario development based on these components.

  4. Multi-processor including data flow accelerator module

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Davidson, George S.; Pierce, Paul E.

    1990-01-01

    An accelerator module for a data flow computer includes an intelligent memory. The module is added to a multiprocessor arrangement and uses a shared tagged memory architecture in the data flow computer. The intelligent memory module assigns locations for holding data values in correspondence with arcs leading to a node in a data dependency graph. Each primitive computation is associated with a corresponding memory cell, including a number of slots for operands needed to execute a primitive computation, a primitive identifying pointer, and linking slots for distributing the result of the cell computation to other cells requiring that result as an operand. Circuitry is provided for utilizing tag bits to determine automatically when all operands required by a processor are available and for scheduling the primitive for execution in a queue. Each memory cell of the module may be associated with any of the primitives, and the particular primitive to be executed by the processor associated with the cell is identified by providing an index, such as the cell number for the primitive, to the primitive lookup table of starting addresses. The module thus serves to perform functions previously performed by a number of sections of data flow architectures and coexists with conventional shared memory therein. A multiprocessing system including the module operates in a hybrid mode, wherein the same processing modules are used to perform some processing in a sequential mode, under immediate control of an operating system, while performing other processing in a data flow mode.

  5. Copper laser modulator driving assembly including a magnetic compression laser

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cook, Edward G.; Birx, Daniel L.; Ball, Don G.

    1994-01-01

    A laser modulator (10) having a low voltage assembly (12) with a plurality of low voltage modules (14) with first stage magnetic compression circuits (20) and magnetic assist inductors (28) with a common core (91), such that timing of the first stage magnetic switches (30b) is thereby synchronized. A bipolar second stage of magnetic compression (42) is coupled to the low voltage modules (14) through a bipolar pulse transformer (36) and a third stage of magnetic compression (44) is directly coupled to the second stage of magnetic compression (42). The low voltage assembly (12) includes pressurized boxes (117) for improving voltage standoff between the primary winding assemblies (34) and secondary winding (40) contained therein.

  6. Level: National and Regional Data; Row: End Uses; Column: Energy Sources, including Net Demand for Electricity;

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    7 End Uses of Fuel Consumption, 2006; Level: National and Regional Data; Row: End Uses; Column: Energy Sources, including Net Demand for Electricity; Unit: Physical Units or Btu. Distillate Coal Fuel Oil (excluding Coal Net Demand Residual and Natural Gas(c) LPG and Coke and Breeze) for Electricity(a) Fuel Oil Diesel Fuel(b) (billion NGL(d) (million End Use (million kWh) (million bbl) (million bbl) cu ft) (million bbl) short tons) Total United States TOTAL FUEL CONSUMPTION 977,338 40 22 5,357 21

  7. Level: National and Regional Data; Row: End Uses; Column: Energy Sources, including Net Demand for Electricity;

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Next MECS will be conducted in 2010 Table 5.8 End Uses of Fuel Consumption, 2006; Level: National and Regional Data; Row: End Uses; Column: Energy Sources, including Net Demand for Electricity; Unit: Trillion Btu. Distillate Fuel Oil Coal Net Demand Residual and LPG and (excluding Coal End Use for Electricity(a) Fuel Oil Diesel Fuel(b) Natural Gas(c) NGL(d) Coke and Breeze) Total United States TOTAL FUEL CONSUMPTION 3,335 251 129 5,512 79 1,016 Indirect Uses-Boiler Fuel 84 133 23 2,119 8 547

  8. Residential Demand Module of the National Energy Modeling System: Model Documentation 2014

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Residential Demand Module of the National Energy Modeling System: Model Documentation 2014 August 2014 Independent Statistics & Analysis www.eia.gov U.S. Department of Energy Washington, DC 20585 U.S. Energy Information Administration | NEMS Residential Demand Module Documentation Report 2014 ii This report was prepared by the U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), the statistical and analytical agency within the U.S. Department of Energy. By law, EIA's data, analyses, and forecasts

  9. Model documentation report: Residential sector demand module of the national energy modeling system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1998-01-01

    This report documents the objectives, analytical approach, and development of the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) Residential Sector Demand Module. The report catalogues and describes the model assumptions, computational methodology, parameter estimation techniques, and FORTRAN source code. This reference document provides a detailed description for energy analysts, other users, and the public. The NEMS Residential Sector Demand Module is currently used for mid-term forecasting purposes and energy policy analysis over the forecast horizon of 1993 through 2020. The model generates forecasts of energy demand for the residential sector by service, fuel, and Census Division. Policy impacts resulting from new technologies, market incentives, and regulatory changes can be estimated using the module. 26 refs., 6 figs., 5 tabs.

  10. Model documentation report: Commercial Sector Demand Module of the National Energy Modeling System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1998-01-01

    This report documents the objectives, analytical approach and development of the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) Commercial Sector Demand Module. The report catalogues and describes the model assumptions, computational methodology, parameter estimation techniques, model source code, and forecast results generated through the synthesis and scenario development based on these components. The NEMS Commercial Sector Demand Module is a simulation tool based upon economic and engineering relationships that models commercial sector energy demands at the nine Census Division level of detail for eleven distinct categories of commercial buildings. Commercial equipment selections are performed for the major fuels of electricity, natural gas, and distillate fuel, for the major services of space heating, space cooling, water heating, ventilation, cooking, refrigeration, and lighting. The algorithm also models demand for the minor fuels of residual oil, liquefied petroleum gas, steam coal, motor gasoline, and kerosene, the renewable fuel sources of wood and municipal solid waste, and the minor services of office equipment. Section 2 of this report discusses the purpose of the model, detailing its objectives, primary input and output quantities, and the relationship of the Commercial Module to the other modules of the NEMS system. Section 3 of the report describes the rationale behind the model design, providing insights into further assumptions utilized in the model development process to this point. Section 3 also reviews alternative commercial sector modeling methodologies drawn from existing literature, providing a comparison to the chosen approach. Section 4 details the model structure, using graphics and text to illustrate model flows and key computations.

  11. Thin film solar cell including a spatially modulated intrinsic layer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Guha, Subhendu; Yang, Chi-Chung; Ovshinsky, Stanford R.

    1989-03-28

    One or more thin film solar cells in which the intrinsic layer of substantially amorphous semiconductor alloy material thereof includes at least a first band gap portion and a narrower band gap portion. The band gap of the intrinsic layer is spatially graded through a portion of the bulk thickness, said graded portion including a region removed from the intrinsic layer-dopant layer interfaces. The band gap of the intrinsic layer is always less than the band gap of the doped layers. The gradation of the intrinsic layer is effected such that the open circuit voltage and/or the fill factor of the one or plural solar cell structure is enhanced.

  12. Level: National Data; Row: End Uses within NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources, including Net Demand for Electricity;

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Next MECS will be conducted in 2010 Table 5.3 End Uses of Fuel Consumption, 2006; Level: National Data; Row: End Uses within NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources, including Net Demand for Electricity; Unit: Physical Units or Btu. Distillate Coal Fuel Oil (excluding Coal Net Demand Residual and Natural Gas(d) LPG and Coke and Breeze) NAICS for Electricity(b) Fuel Oil Diesel Fuel(c) (billion NGL(e) (million Code(a) End Use (million kWh) (million bbl) (million bbl) cu ft) (million bbl) short tons)

  13. Level: National Data; Row: End Uses within NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources, including Net Demand for Electricity;

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    4 End Uses of Fuel Consumption, 2006; Level: National Data; Row: End Uses within NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources, including Net Demand for Electricity; Unit: Trillion Btu. Distillate Fuel Oil Coal NAICS Net Demand Residual and LPG and (excluding Coal Code(a) End Use for Electricity(b) Fuel Oil Diesel Fuel(c) Natural Gas(d) NGL(e) Coke and Breeze) Total United States 311 - 339 ALL MANUFACTURING INDUSTRIES TOTAL FUEL CONSUMPTION 3,335 251 129 5,512 79 1,016 Indirect Uses-Boiler Fuel 84 133 23

  14. Photovoltaic module kit including connector assembly for non-penetrating array installation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Botkin, Jonathan; Graves, Simon; Danning, Matt; Culligan, Matthew

    2013-12-31

    A PV module kit for non-penetrating rooftop installation, including a plurality of PV modules and a plurality of connectors. Each of the PV modules includes a PV laminate and a frame forming a mounting region assembled thereto. The connectors include a male connector having a male fastener extending from a head, and a female connector having a female fastener assempbled within a head. The heads are entirely formed of plastic. The kit provides a mounted array state including a junction at which the mounting regions of at least two of the PV modules are aligned and interconnected by engagement of the male connector with the female connector. The so-formed junction is substantially electrically insulated. The plurality of connectors can further include a spacer connector including a head forming a bore sized slidably receive the male fastener, with all of the connector heads being identical.

  15. Photovoltaic module kit including connector assembly for non-penetrating array installation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Botkin, Jonathan; Graves, Simon; Danning, Matt; Culligan, Matthew

    2012-10-23

    A PV module kit for non-penetrating rooftop installation, including a plurality of PV modules and a plurality of connectors. Each of the PV modules includes a PV laminate and a frame forming a mounting region assembled thereto. The connectors include a male connector having a male fastener extending from a head, and a female connector having a female fastener assembled within a head. The heads are entirely formed of plastic. The kit provides a mounted array state including a junction at which the mounting region of at least two of the PV modules are aligned and interconnected by engagement of the male connector with the female connector. The so-formed junction is substantially electrically insulated. The plurality of connectors can further include a spacer connector including a head forming a bore sized to slidably receive the male fastener, with all of the connector heads being identical.

  16. Photovoltaic module kit including connector assembly for non-penetrating array installation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Botkin, Jonathan; Graves, Simon; Danning, Matt; Culligan, Matthew

    2011-11-22

    A PV module kit for non-penetrating rooftop installation, including a plurality of PV modules and a plurality of connectors. Each of the PV modules includes a PV laminate and a frame forming a mounting region assembled thereto. The connectors include a male connector having a male fastener extending from a head, and a female connector having a female fastener assembled within a head. The heads are entirely formed of plastic. The kit provides a mounted array state including a junction at which the mounting region of at least two of the PV modules are aligned and interconnected by engagement of the male connector with the female connector. The so-formed junction is substantially electrically insulated. The plurality of connectors can further include a spacer connector including a head forming a bore sized to slidably receive the male fastener, with all of the connector heads being identical.

  17. Model documentation report: Residential sector demand module of the National Energy Modeling System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-01-01

    This report documents the objectives, analytical approach, and development of the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) Residential Sector Demand Module. The report catalogues and describes the model assumptions, computational methodology, parameter estimation techniques, and FORTRAN source code. This document serves three purposes. First, it is a reference document that provides a detailed description for energy analysts, other users, and the public. Second, this report meets the legal requirement of the Energy Information Administration (EIA) to provide adequate documentation in support of its statistical and forecast reports according to Public Law 93-275, section 57(b)(1). Third, it facilitates continuity in model development by providing documentation from which energy analysts can undertake model enhancements, data updates, and parameter refinements.

  18. Residential Demand Sector Data, Commercial Demand Sector Data, Industrial Demand Sector Data - Annual Energy Outlook 2006

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2009-01-18

    Tables describing consumption and prices by sector and census division for 2006 - includes residential demand, commercial demand, and industrial demand

  19. Commercial Sector Demand Module

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    the State Energy Data System (SEDS) historical commercial sector consumption, applying an additive correction term to ensure that simulated model results correspond to published...

  20. Residential Sector Demand Module

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Stoves Geothermal Heat Pump Natural Gas Heat Pump Variables: HSYSSHR 2002-5,eg,b,r Benchmarking Data from Short-Term Energy Outlook Definition: Household energy consumption by...

  1. Order Module--DOE O 440.1B, WORKER PROTECTION PROGRAM FOR DOE (INCLUDING NNSA) FEDERAL EMPLOYEES

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The familiar level of this module is divided into two sections. In the first section, we will discuss the objective, requirements, and the responsibilities assigned to the heads of field elements....

  2. Demand Reduction

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Grantees may use funds to coordinate with electricity supply companies and utilities to reduce energy demands on their power systems. These demand reduction programs are usually coordinated through...

  3. Modules

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    it's recommended to use the full version number, i.e. instead of doing "module load python" do "module load python2.7.6". This will preserve a record of the software version...

  4. Demand Response

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Demand Response Assessment for Eastern Interconnection Youngsun Baek, Stanton W. Hadley, Rocio Martinez, Gbadebo Oladosu, Alexander M. Smith, Fran Li, Paul Leiby and Russell Lee Prepared for FY12 DOE-CERTS Transmission Reliability R&D Internal Program Review September 20, 2012 2 Managed by UT-Battelle for the U.S. Department of Energy DOE National Laboratory Studies Funded to Support FOA 63 * DOE set aside $20 million from transmission funding for national laboratory studies. * DOE

  5. travel-demand-modeling

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Demand Modeler, Cambridge Systematics, Tallahassee, FL Abstract ... Travel demand ... Ahmed Mohideen Travel Demand Modeler Cambridge Systematics, Tallahassee, FL Transportation ...

  6. Commercial & Industrial Demand Response

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    & Events Skip navigation links Smart Grid Demand Response Agricultural Residential Demand Response Commercial & Industrial Demand Response Cross-sector Demand Response...

  7. EIA projections of coal supply and demand

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klein, D.E.

    1989-10-23

    Contents of this report include: EIA projections of coal supply and demand which covers forecasted coal supply and transportation, forecasted coal demand by consuming sector, and forecasted coal demand by the electric utility sector; and policy discussion.

  8. Demand Response Programs, 6. edition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2007-10-15

    The report provides a look at the past, present, and future state of the market for demand/load response based upon market price signals. It is intended to provide significant value to individuals and companies who are considering participating in demand response programs, energy providers and ISOs interested in offering demand response programs, and consultants and analysts looking for detailed information on demand response technology, applications, and participants. The report offers a look at the current Demand Response environment in the energy industry by: defining what demand response programs are; detailing the evolution of program types over the last 30 years; discussing the key drivers of current initiatives; identifying barriers and keys to success for the programs; discussing the argument against subsidization of demand response; describing the different types of programs that exist including:direct load control, interruptible load, curtailable load, time-of-use, real time pricing, and demand bidding/buyback; providing examples of the different types of programs; examining the enablers of demand response programs; and, providing a look at major demand response programs.

  9. Demand Response - Policy | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Demand Response - Policy Demand Response - Policy Since its inception, the Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability (OE) has been committed to modernizing the nation's electricity delivery infrastructure to assure consumers a robust, reliable electric power system that meets their increasing demand for energy. OE's mission includes assisting states and regions in developing policies that decrease demand on existing energy infrastructure. Appropriate cost-effective demand response

  10. Model Documentation Report: Commercial Sector Demand Module...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    the State Energy Data System (SEDS) historical commercial sector consumption, applying an additive correction term to ensure that simulated model results correspond to published...

  11. Model Documentation Report: Industrial Sector Demand Module...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    factors are multiplicative for all fuels which have values greater than zero and are additive otherwise. The equation for total industrial electricity consumption is below....

  12. Model Documentation Report: Residential Sector Demand Module...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Stoves Geothermal Heat Pump Natural Gas Heat Pump Variables: HSYSSHR 2006,eg,b,r Benchmarking Data from Short-Term Energy Outlook Definition: Household energy consumption by...

  13. Model Documentation Report: Residential Sector Demand Module...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Stoves Geothermal Heat Pump Natural Gas Heat Pump Variables: HSYSSHR 2001,eg,b,r Benchmarking Data from Short-Term Energy Outlook Definition: Household energy consumption by...

  14. Model Documentation Report: Residential Sector Demand Module...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    The penetration rate for central air-conditioning is estimated by means of time series analysis of RECS survey data. Water Heating: Solar Water Heaters Market shares for solar...

  15. NEMS integrating module documentation report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-12-14

    The National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) is a computer modeling system that produces a general equilibrium solution for energy supply and demand in the US energy markets. The model achieves a supply and demand balance in the end-use demand regions, defined as the nine Census Divisions, by solving for the prices of each energy type such that the quantities producers are willing to supply equal the quantities consumers wish to consume. The system reflects market economics, industry structure, and energy policies and regulations that influence market behavior. The NEMS Integrating Module is the central integrating component of a complex modeling system. As such, a thorough understanding of its role in the modeling process can only be achieved by placing it in the proper context with respect to the other modules. To that end, this document provides an overview of the complete NEMS model, and includes brief descriptions of the modules with which the Integrating Module interacts. The emphasis and focus, however, is on the structure and function of the Integrating Module of NEMS.

  16. Cross-sector Demand Response

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    & Events Skip navigation links Smart Grid Demand Response Agricultural Residential Demand Response Commercial & Industrial Demand Response Cross-sector Demand Response...

  17. Demand Response Analysis Tool

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2012-03-01

    Demand Response Analysis Tool is a software developed at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. It is initially funded by Southern California Edison. Our goal in developing this tool is to provide an online, useable, with standardized methods, an analysis tool to evaluate demand and demand response performance of commercial and industrial facilities. The tool provides load variability and weather sensitivity analysis capabilities as well as development of various types of baselines. It can be usedmore » by researchers, real estate management firms, utilities, or any individuals who are interested in analyzing their demand and demand response capabilities.« less

  18. Demand Response Analysis Tool

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2012-03-01

    Demand Response Analysis Tool is a software developed at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. It is initially funded by Southern California Edison. Our goal in developing this tool is to provide an online, useable, with standardized methods, an analysis tool to evaluate demand and demand response performance of commercial and industrial facilities. The tool provides load variability and weather sensitivity analysis capabilities as well as development of various types of baselines. It can be used by researchers, real estate management firms, utilities, or any individuals who are interested in analyzing their demand and demand response capabilities.

  19. Module Configuration

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Oweis, Salah; D'Ussel, Louis; Chagnon, Guy; Zuhowski, Michael; Sack, Tim; Laucournet, Gaullume; Jackson, Edward J.

    2002-06-04

    A stand alone battery module including: (a) a mechanical configuration; (b) a thermal management configuration; (c) an electrical connection configuration; and (d) an electronics configuration. Such a module is fully interchangeable in a battery pack assembly, mechanically, from the thermal management point of view, and electrically. With the same hardware, the module can accommodate different cell sizes and, therefore, can easily have different capacities. The module structure is designed to accommodate the electronics monitoring, protection, and printed wiring assembly boards (PWAs), as well as to allow airflow through the module. A plurality of modules may easily be connected together to form a battery pack. The parts of the module are designed to facilitate their manufacture and assembly.

  20. Residential Demand Response

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    in-home displays with controllable home area network capabilities and thermal storage devices for home heating. Goals and objectives: Reduce the City's NCP demand above...

  1. Managing Increased Charging Demand

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Managing Increased Charging Demand Carrie Giles ICF International, Supporting the Workplace Charging Challenge Workplace Charging Challenge Do you already own an EV? Are you...

  2. Managing Increased Charging Demand

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Managing Increased Charging Demand Carrie Giles ICF International, Supporting the Workplace Charging Challenge Workplace Charging Challenge Do you already own an EV? Are you ...

  3. Photovoltaic module with removable wind deflector (Patent) |...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Photovoltaic module with removable wind deflector Title: Photovoltaic module with removable wind deflector A photovoltaic (PV) module assembly including a PV module, a deflector, ...

  4. Supported PV module assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mascolo, Gianluigi; Taggart, David F.; Botkin, Jonathan D.; Edgett, Christopher S.

    2013-10-15

    A supported PV assembly may include a PV module comprising a PV panel and PV module supports including module supports having a support surface supporting the module, a module registration member engaging the PV module to properly position the PV module on the module support, and a mounting element. In some embodiments the PV module registration members engage only the external surfaces of the PV modules at the corners. In some embodiments the assembly includes a wind deflector with ballast secured to a least one of the PV module supports and the wind deflector. An array of the assemblies can be secured to one another at their corners to prevent horizontal separation of the adjacent corners while permitting the PV modules to flex relative to one another so to permit the array of PV modules to follow a contour of the support surface.

  5. ECO2M: A TOUGH2 Fluid Property Module for Mixtures of Water, NaCl, and CO2, Including Super- and Sub-Critical Conditions, and Phase Change Between Liquid and Gaseous CO2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pruess, K.

    2011-04-01

    ECO2M is a fluid property module for the TOUGH2 simulator (Version 2.0) that was designed for applications to geologic storage of CO{sub 2} in saline aquifers. It includes a comprehensive description of the thermodynamics and thermophysical properties of H{sub 2}O - NaCl - CO{sub 2} mixtures, that reproduces fluid properties largely within experimental error for temperature, pressure and salinity conditions in the range of 10 C {le} T {le} 110 C, P {le} 600 bar, and salinity from zero up to full halite saturation. The fluid property correlations used in ECO2M are identical to the earlier ECO2N fluid property package, but whereas ECO2N could represent only a single CO{sub 2}-rich phase, ECO2M can describe all possible phase conditions for brine-CO{sub 2} mixtures, including transitions between super- and sub-critical conditions, and phase change between liquid and gaseous CO{sub 2}. This allows for seamless modeling of CO{sub 2} storage and leakage. Flow processes can be modeled isothermally or non-isothermally, and phase conditions represented may include a single (aqueous or CO{sub 2}-rich) phase, as well as two-and three-phase mixtures of aqueous, liquid CO{sub 2} and gaseous CO{sub 2} phases. Fluid phases may appear or disappear in the course of a simulation, and solid salt may precipitate or dissolve. TOUGH2/ECO2M is upwardly compatible with ECO2N and accepts ECO2N-style inputs. This report gives technical specifications of ECO2M and includes instructions for preparing input data. Code applications are illustrated by means of several sample problems, including problems that had been previously solved with TOUGH2/ECO2N.

  6. Demand Response Dispatch Tool

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2012-08-31

    The Demand Response (DR) Dispatch Tool uses price profiles to dispatch demand response resources and create load modifying profiles. These annual profiles are used as inputs to production cost models and regional planning tools (e.g., PROMOD). The tool has been effectively implemented in transmission planning studies conducted by the Western Electricity Coordinating Council via its Transmission Expansion Planning and Policy Committee. The DR Dispatch Tool can properly model the dispatch of DR resources for both reliability and economic conditions.

  7. Demand Dispatch-Intelligent

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Demand Dispatch-Intelligent Demand for a More Efficient Grid 10 August 2011 DOE/NETL- DE-FE0004001 U.S. Department of Energy Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability Prepared by: National Energy Technology Laboratory Disclaimer This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States Government. Neither the United States Government nor any agency thereof, nor any of their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal

  8. Sensor-based demand controlled ventilation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    De Almeida, A.T.; Fisk, W.J.

    1997-07-01

    In most buildings, occupancy and indoor pollutant emission rates vary with time. With sensor-based demand-controlled ventilation (SBDCV), the rate of ventilation (i.e., rate of outside air supply) also varies with time to compensate for the changes in pollutant generation. In other words, SBDCV involves the application of sensing, feedback and control to modulate ventilation. Compared to ventilation without feedback, SBDCV offers two potential advantages: (1) better control of indoor pollutant concentrations; and (2) lower energy use and peak energy demand. SBDCV has the potential to improve indoor air quality by increasing the rate of ventilation when indoor pollutant generation rates are high and occupants are present. SBDCV can also save energy by decreasing the rate of ventilation when indoor pollutant generation rates are low or occupants are absent. After providing background information on indoor air quality and ventilation, this report provides a relatively comprehensive discussion of SBDCV. Topics covered in the report include basic principles of SBDCV, sensor technologies, technologies for controlling air flow rates, case studies of SBDCV, application of SBDCV to laboratory buildings, and research needs. SBDCV appears to be an increasingly attractive technology option. Based on the review of literature and theoretical considerations, the application of SBDCV has the potential to be cost-effective in applications with the following characteristics: (a) a single or small number of dominant pollutants, so that ventilation sufficient to control the concentration of the dominant pollutants provides effective control of all other pollutants; (b) large buildings or rooms with unpredictable temporally variable occupancy or pollutant emission; and (c) climates with high heating or cooling loads or locations with expensive energy.

  9. Demand Response - Policy: More Information | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Demand Response - Policy: More Information Demand Response - Policy: More Information OE's commitment to ensuring non-wires options to modernize the nation's electricity delivery system includes ongoing support of a number of national and regional activities in support of demand response. The New England Demand Response Initiative (NEDRI), OE's initial endeavor to assist states with non-wire solutions, was created to develop a comprehensive, coordinated set of demand response programs for the

  10. Demand Response Dispatch Tool

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2012-08-31

    The Demand Response (DR) Dispatch Tool uses price profiles to dispatch demand response resources and create load modifying profiles. These annual profiles are used as inputs to production cost models and regional planning tools (e.g., PROMOD). The tool has been effectively implemented in transmission planning studies conducted by the Western Electricity Coordinating Council via its Transmission Expansion Planning and Policy Committee. The DR Dispatch Tool can properly model the dispatch of DR resources for bothmore » reliability and economic conditions.« less

  11. Demand Response | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Demand Response Demand Response Demand Response Demand response provides an opportunity for consumers to play a significant role in the operation of the electric grid by reducing or shifting their electricity usage during peak periods in response to time-based rates or other forms of financial incentives. Demand response programs are being used by electric system planners and operators as resource options for balancing supply and demand. Such programs can lower the cost of electricity in

  12. Demand Charges | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Demand Charges Jump to: navigation, search Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgwindex.php?titleDemandCharges&oldid488967" Feedback Contact needs updating Image needs...

  13. Year Modules

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Annual photovoltaic module shipments, 2003-2013 (peak kilowatts) Year Modules 2003 80,062 2004 143,274 2005 204,996 2006 320,208 2007 494,148 2008 920,693 2009 1,188,879 2010 2,644,498 2011 3,772,075 2012 4,655,005 2013 4,984,881 Source: U.S. Energy Information Administration, Form EIA-63B, 'Annual Photovoltaic Cell/Module Shipments Report.' Note: Includes both U.S. Shipments and Exports.

  14. Silicon photonic heater-modulator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zortman, William A.; Trotter, Douglas Chandler; Watts, Michael R.

    2015-07-14

    Photonic modulators, methods of forming photonic modulators and methods of modulating an input optical signal are provided. A photonic modulator includes a disk resonator having a central axis extending along a thickness direction of the disk resonator. The disk resonator includes a modulator portion and a heater portion. The modulator portion extends in an arc around the central axis. A PN junction of the modulator portion is substantially normal to the central axis.

  15. Electricity demand in a developing country. [Paraguay

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Westley, G.D.

    1984-08-01

    This study analyzes the residential and commercial demand for electricity in ten regions in Paraguay for 1970-1977. Models that are both linear and nonlinear in the parameters are estimated. The nonlinear model takes advantage of prior information on the nature of the appliances being utilized and simultaneously deals with the demand discontinuities caused by appliance indivisibility. Three dynamic equations, including a novel cumulative adjustment model, all indicate rapid adjustment to desired appliance stock levels. Finally, the multiproduct surplus loss obtained from an estimated demand equation is used to measure the welfare cost of power outages. 15 references.

  16. FERC sees huge potential for demand response

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2010-04-15

    The FERC study concludes that U.S. peak demand can be reduced by as much as 188 GW -- roughly 20 percent -- under the most aggressive scenario. More moderate -- and realistic -- scenarios produce smaller but still significant reductions in peak demand. The FERC report is quick to point out that these are estimates of the potential, not projections of what could actually be achieved. The main varieties of demand response programs include interruptible tariffs, direct load control (DLC), and a number of pricing schemes.

  17. Ballasted photovoltaic module and module arrays

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Botkin, Jonathan; Graves, Simon; Danning, Matt

    2011-11-29

    A photovoltaic (PV) module assembly including a PV module and a ballast tray. The PV module includes a PV device and a frame. A PV laminate is assembled to the frame, and the frame includes an arm. The ballast tray is adapted for containing ballast and is removably associated with the PV module in a ballasting state where the tray is vertically under the PV laminate and vertically over the arm to impede overt displacement of the PV module. The PV module assembly can be installed to a flat commercial rooftop, with the PV module and the ballast tray both resting upon the rooftop. In some embodiments, the ballasting state includes corresponding surfaces of the arm and the tray being spaced from one another under normal (low or no wind) conditions, such that the frame is not continuously subjected to a weight of the tray.

  18. SHARP Physics Modules Updated | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Physics Modules Updated SHARP Physics Modules Updated January 29, 2013 - 12:37pm Addthis PROTEUS Development The SHARP neutronics module, PROTEUS, includes neutron and gamma ...

  19. Modules Software Environment

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Environment » Modules Environment Modules Software Environment NERSC uses the module utility to manage nearly all software. There are two huge advantages of the module approach: NERSC can provide many different versions and/or installations of a single software package on a given machine, including a default version as well as several older and newer versions; and Users can easily switch to different versions or installations without having to explicitly specify different paths. With modules,

  20. Demand Response Quick Assessment Tool

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2008-12-01

    DRQAT (Demand Response Quick Assessment Tool) is the tool for assessing demand response saving potentials for large commercial buildings. This tool is based on EnergyPlus simulations of prototypical buildings and HVAC equipment. The opportunities for demand reduction and cost savings with building demand responsive controls vary tremendously with building type and location. The assessment tools will predict the energy and demand savings, the economic savings, and the thermal comfor impact for various demand responsive strategies.more » Users of the tools will be asked to enter the basic building information such as types, square footage, building envelope, orientation, utility schedule, etc. The assessment tools will then use the prototypical simulation models to calculate the energy and demand reduction potential under certain demand responsive strategies, such as precooling, zonal temperature set up, and chilled water loop and air loop set points adjustment.« less

  1. Photovoltaic module and interlocked stack of photovoltaic modules

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wares, Brian S.

    2014-09-02

    One embodiment relates to an arrangement of photovoltaic modules configured for transportation. The arrangement includes a plurality of photovoltaic modules, each photovoltaic module including a frame. A plurality of individual male alignment features and a plurality of individual female alignment features are included on each frame. Adjacent photovoltaic modules are interlocked by multiple individual male alignment features on a first module of the adjacent photovoltaic modules fitting into and being surrounded by corresponding individual female alignment features on a second module of the adjacent photovoltaic modules. Other embodiments, features and aspects are also disclosed.

  2. Demand Response Valuation Frameworks Paper

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heffner, Grayson

    2009-02-01

    While there is general agreement that demand response (DR) is a valued component in a utility resource plan, there is a lack of consensus regarding how to value DR. Establishing the value of DR is a prerequisite to determining how much and what types of DR should be implemented, to which customers DR should be targeted, and a key determinant that drives the development of economically viable DR consumer technology. Most approaches for quantifying the value of DR focus on changes in utility system revenue requirements based on resource plans with and without DR. This ''utility centric'' approach does not assign any value to DR impacts that lower energy and capacity prices, improve reliability, lower system and network operating costs, produce better air quality, and provide improved customer choice and control. Proper valuation of these benefits requires a different basis for monetization. The review concludes that no single methodology today adequately captures the wide range of benefits and value potentially attributed to DR. To provide a more comprehensive valuation approach, current methods such as the Standard Practice Method (SPM) will most likely have to be supplemented with one or more alternative benefit-valuation approaches. This report provides an updated perspective on the DR valuation framework. It includes an introduction and four chapters that address the key elements of demand response valuation, a comprehensive literature review, and specific research recommendations.

  3. Thermionic modules

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    King, Donald B.; Sadwick, Laurence P.; Wernsman, Bernard R.

    2002-06-18

    Modules of assembled microminiature thermionic converters (MTCs) having high energy-conversion efficiencies and variable operating temperatures manufactured using MEMS manufacturing techniques including chemical vapor deposition. The MTCs incorporate cathode to anode spacing of about 1 micron or less and use cathode and anode materials having work functions ranging from about 1 eV to about 3 eV. The MTCs also exhibit maximum efficiencies of just under 30%, and thousands of the devices and modules can be fabricated at modest costs.

  4. Hydrogen Demand and Resource Analysis (HyDRA) Model

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    users to view, download, and analyze hydrogen demand, resource, and infrastructure ... HyDRA contains more than 100 datasets, including resource cost and availability, hydrogen ...

  5. Global GPS Phones Market Size, Segmentation, Demand Forecast...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    we deeply analyzed the world's main region market conditions that including the product price, profit, capacity, production, capacity utilization, supply, demand and industry...

  6. Integrating Module - NEMS Documentation

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2014-01-01

    Provides an overview of the complete National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) model, and includes brief descriptions of the modules with which the Integrating Module interacts. The emphasis and focus, however, is on the structure and function of the Integrating Module of NEMS.

  7. Demand Response Technology Roadmap A

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    meetings and workshops convened to develop content for the Demand Response Technology Roadmap. The project team has developed this companion document in the interest of providing...

  8. DEMAND CONTROLLED VENTILATION AND CLASSROOM VENTILATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fisk, William J.; Mendell, Mark J.; Davies, Molly; Eliseeva, Ekaterina; Faulkner, David; Hong, Tienzen; Sullivan, Douglas P.

    2014-01-06

    This document summarizes a research effort on demand controlled ventilation and classroom ventilation. The research on demand controlled ventilation included field studies and building energy modeling. Major findings included: ? The single-location carbon dioxide sensors widely used for demand controlled ventilation frequently have large errors and will fail to effectively control ventilation rates (VRs).? Multi-location carbon dioxide measurement systems with more expensive sensors connected to multi-location sampling systems may measure carbon dioxide more accurately.? Currently-available optical people counting systems work well much of the time but have large counting errors in some situations. ? In meeting rooms, measurements of carbon dioxide at return-air grilles appear to be a better choice than wall-mounted sensors.? In California, demand controlled ventilation in general office spaces is projected to save significant energy and be cost effective only if typical VRs without demand controlled ventilation are very high relative to VRs in codes. Based on the research, several recommendations were developed for demand controlled ventilation specifications in the California Title 24 Building Energy Efficiency Standards.The research on classroom ventilation collected data over two years on California elementary school classrooms to investigate associations between VRs and student illness absence (IA). Major findings included: ? Median classroom VRs in all studied climate zones were below the California guideline, and 40percent lower in portable than permanent buildings.? Overall, one additional L/s per person of VR was associated with 1.6percent less IA. ? Increasing average VRs in California K-12 classrooms from the current average to the required level is estimated to decrease IA by 3.4percent, increasing State attendance-based funding to school districts by $33M, with $6.2 M in increased energy costs. Further VR increases would provide additional benefits.? Confirming these findings in intervention studies is recommended. ? Energy costs of heating/cooling unoccupied classrooms statewide are modest, but a large portion occurs in relatively few classrooms.

  9. DemandDirect | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    DemandDirect Place: Woodbury, Connecticut Zip: 6798 Sector: Efficiency, Renewable Energy, Services Product: DemandDirect provides demand response, energy efficiency, load...

  10. Centralized and Decentralized Control for Demand Response

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lu, Shuai; Samaan, Nader A.; Diao, Ruisheng; Elizondo, Marcelo A.; Jin, Chunlian; Mayhorn, Ebony T.; Zhang, Yu; Kirkham, Harold

    2011-04-29

    Demand response has been recognized as an essential element of the smart grid. Frequency response, regulation and contingency reserve functions performed traditionally by generation resources are now starting to involve demand side resources. Additional benefits from demand response include peak reduction and load shifting, which will defer new infrastructure investment and improve generator operation efficiency. Technical approaches designed to realize these functionalities can be categorized into centralized control and decentralized control, depending on where the response decision is made. This paper discusses these two control philosophies and compares their relative advantages and disadvantages in terms of delay time, predictability, complexity, and reliability. A distribution system model with detailed household loads and controls is built to demonstrate the characteristics of the two approaches. The conclusion is that the promptness and reliability of decentralized control should be combined with the predictability and simplicity of centralized control to achieve the best performance of the smart grid.

  11. China, India demand cushions prices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boyle, M.

    2006-11-15

    Despite the hopes of coal consumers, coal prices did not plummet in 2006 as demand stayed firm. China and India's growing economies, coupled with solid supply-demand fundamentals in North America and Europe, and highly volatile prices for alternatives are likely to keep physical coal prices from wide swings in the coming year.

  12. Photovoltaic module and module arrays

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Botkin, Jonathan; Graves, Simon; Lenox, Carl J. S.; Culligan, Matthew; Danning, Matt

    2013-08-27

    A photovoltaic (PV) module including a PV device and a frame, The PV device has a PV laminate defining a perimeter and a major plane. The frame is assembled to and encases the laminate perimeter, and includes leading, trailing, and side frame members, and an arm that forms a support face opposite the laminate. The support face is adapted for placement against a horizontal installation surface, to support and orient the laminate in a non-parallel or tilted arrangement. Upon final assembly, the laminate and the frame combine to define a unitary structure. The frame can orient the laminate at an angle in the range of 3.degree.-7.degree. from horizontal, and can be entirely formed of a polymeric material. Optionally, the arm incorporates integral feature(s) that facilitate interconnection with corresponding features of a second, identically formed PV module.

  13. Photovoltaic module and module arrays

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Botkin, Jonathan; Graves, Simon; Lenox, Carl J. S.; Culligan, Matthew; Danning, Matt

    2012-07-17

    A photovoltaic (PV) module including a PV device and a frame. The PV device has a PV laminate defining a perimeter and a major plane. The frame is assembled to and encases the laminate perimeter, and includes leading, trailing, and side frame members, and an arm that forms a support face opposite the laminate. The support face is adapted for placement against a horizontal installation surface, to support and orient the laminate in a non-parallel or tilted arrangement. Upon final assembly, the laminate and the frame combine to define a unitary structure. The frame can orient the laminate at an angle in the range of 3.degree.-7.degree. from horizontal, and can be entirely formed of a polymeric material. Optionally, the arm incorporates integral feature(s) that facilitate interconnection with corresponding features of a second, identically formed PV module.

  14. Model Documentation Report: Industrial Demand Module of the National...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    are multiplicative for all fuels that have consumption values greater than zero and are additive otherwise. The equation for total industrial electricity consumption is below....

  15. Commercial Demand Module of the National Energy Modeling System...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    the State Energy Data System (SEDS) historical commercial sector consumption, applying an additive correction term to ensure that simulated model results correspond to published...

  16. Commercial Sector Demand Module of the National Energy Modeling...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    the State Energy Data System (SEDS) historical commercial sector consumption, applying an additive correction term to ensure that simulated model results correspond to published...

  17. Transportation Sector Demand Module of the National Energy Modeling...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    and historic yearly values for car prices at different production levels by applying an additive adjustment to the price of a gasoline-fueled vehicle. a) Car and Light Truck at...

  18. Model Documentation Report: Industrial Demand Module of the National...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    are multiplicative for all fuels that have consumption values greater than zero and are additive otherwise. September 2013 U.S. Energy Information Administration | Model...

  19. Industrial Sector Demand Module of the National Energy Modeling...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    factors are multiplicative for all fuels which have values greater than zero and are additive otherwise. ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) - - - fg...

  20. Model Documentation Report: Residential Demand Module of the...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    (conditioned square footage) based on current Census Bureau data. * Revision of the benchmarking process that incorporates historical and near-term forecasted values. December 2012...

  1. Residential Sector Demand Module of the National Energy Modeling...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Stoves Geothermal Heat Pump Natural Gas Heat Pump Variables: HSYSSHR 2001,eg,b,r Benchmarking Data from Short-Term Energy Outlook Definition: Household energy consumption by...

  2. Residential Demand Module of the National Energy Modeling System...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    (conditioned square footage) based on current Census Bureau data. * Revision of the benchmarking process that incorporates historical and near-term forecasted values. * Revision of...

  3. Commercial Demand Module of the National Energy Modeling System...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    - non-PC Wood Renewables 10 Warehouse Misc. End-Use Loads (MELs) Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) 11 U.S. Total Other Hydro 12 Waste Hear Other 13 Other Gaseous Fuels (OGF)...

  4. Demand Response for Ancillary Services

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alkadi, Nasr E; Starke, Michael R

    2013-01-01

    Many demand response resources are technically capable of providing ancillary services. In some cases, they can provide superior response to generators, as the curtailment of load is typically much faster than ramping thermal and hydropower plants. Analysis and quantification of demand response resources providing ancillary services is necessary to understand the resources economic value and impact on the power system. Methodologies used to study grid integration of variable generation can be adapted to the study of demand response. In the present work, we describe and illustrate a methodology to construct detailed temporal and spatial representations of the demand response resource and to examine how to incorporate those resources into power system models. In addition, the paper outlines ways to evaluate barriers to implementation. We demonstrate how the combination of these three analyses can be used to translate the technical potential for demand response providing ancillary services into a realizable potential.

  5. Automated Demand Response and Commissioning

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Piette, Mary Ann; Watson, David S.; Motegi, Naoya; Bourassa, Norman

    2005-04-01

    This paper describes the results from the second season of research to develop and evaluate the performance of new Automated Demand Response (Auto-DR) hardware and software technology in large facilities. Demand Response (DR) is a set of activities to reduce or shift electricity use to improve the electric grid reliability and manage electricity costs. Fully-Automated Demand Response does not involve human intervention, but is initiated at a home, building, or facility through receipt of an external communications signal. We refer to this as Auto-DR. The evaluation of the control and communications must be properly configured and pass through a set of test stages: Readiness, Approval, Price Client/Price Server Communication, Internet Gateway/Internet Relay Communication, Control of Equipment, and DR Shed Effectiveness. New commissioning tests are needed for such systems to improve connecting demand responsive building systems to the electric grid demand response systems.

  6. Photovoltaic module and interlocked stack of photovoltaic modules

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wares, Brian S.

    2012-09-04

    One embodiment relates to an arrangement of photovoltaic modules configured for transportation. The arrangement includes a plurality of photovoltaic modules, each photovoltaic module including a frame having at least a top member and a bottom member. A plurality of alignment features are included on the top member of each frame, and a plurality of alignment features are included on the bottom member of each frame. Adjacent photovoltaic modules are interlocked by the alignment features on the top member of a lower module fitting together with the alignment features on the bottom member of an upper module. Other embodiments, features and aspects are also disclosed.

  7. Honeywell Demonstrates Automated Demand Response Benefits for...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Honeywell Demonstrates Automated Demand Response Benefits for Utility, Commercial, and Industrial Customers Honeywell Demonstrates Automated Demand Response Benefits for Utility, ...

  8. Demand Response for Ancillary Services

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Methodologies used to study grid integration of variable generation can be adapted to the study of demand response. In the present work, we describe and implement a methodology to construct detailed temporal and spatial representations of demand response resources and to incorporate those resources into power system models. In addition, the paper outlines ways to evaluate barriers to implementation. We demonstrate how the combination of these three analyses can be used to assess economic value of the realizable potential of demand response for ancillary services.

  9. Assumption to the Annual Energy Outlook 2014 - Residential Demand...

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    oil, liquefied petroleum gas, natural gas, kerosene, electricity, wood, geothermal, and solar energy. The module's output includes number of households, equipment stock, average...

  10. Low-voltage differentially-signaled modulators

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zortman, William A.; Lentine, Anthony L.; Hsia, Alexander H.; Watts, Michael R.

    2015-09-08

    Photonic modulators and methods of modulating an input optical signal are provided. A photonic modulator includes at least one modulator section and differential drive circuitry. The at least one modulator section includes a P-type layer and an N-type layer forming a PN junction in the modulator section. The differential drive circuitry is electrically coupled to the P-type layer and the N-type layer of the at least one modulator section.

  11. Drivers of Future Energy Demand

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Drivers of Future Energy Demand in China Asian Energy Demand Outlook 2014 EIA Energy Conference July 14, 2014 Valerie J. Karplus MIT Sloan School of Management 2 www.china.org.cn www.flickr.com www.wikimedia.org globalchange.mit.edu Global Climate Change Human Development Local Pollution Industrial Development & Resource Needs How to balance? 0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 3500 4000 1981 1991 2001 2011 Non-material Sectors/Other Construction Commercial consumption Residential consumption

  12. China's Coal: Demand, Constraints, and Externalities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aden, Nathaniel; Fridley, David; Zheng, Nina

    2009-07-01

    This study analyzes China's coal industry by focusing on four related areas. First, data are reviewed to identify the major drivers of historical and future coal demand. Second, resource constraints and transport bottlenecks are analyzed to evaluate demand and growth scenarios. The third area assesses the physical requirements of substituting coal demand growth with other primary energy forms. Finally, the study examines the carbon- and environmental implications of China's past and future coal consumption. There are three sections that address these areas by identifying particular characteristics of China's coal industry, quantifying factors driving demand, and analyzing supply scenarios: (1) reviews the range of Chinese and international estimates of remaining coal reserves and resources as well as key characteristics of China's coal industry including historical production, resource requirements, and prices; (2) quantifies the largest drivers of coal usage to produce a bottom-up reference projection of 2025 coal demand; and (3) analyzes coal supply constraints, substitution options, and environmental externalities. Finally, the last section presents conclusions on the role of coal in China's ongoing energy and economic development. China has been, is, and will continue to be a coal-powered economy. In 2007 Chinese coal production contained more energy than total Middle Eastern oil production. The rapid growth of coal demand after 2001 created supply strains and bottlenecks that raise questions about sustainability. Urbanization, heavy industrial growth, and increasing per-capita income are the primary interrelated drivers of rising coal usage. In 2007, the power sector, iron and steel, and cement production accounted for 66% of coal consumption. Power generation is becoming more efficient, but even extensive roll-out of the highest efficiency units would save only 14% of projected 2025 coal demand for the power sector. A new wedge of future coal consumption is likely to come from the burgeoning coal-liquefaction and chemicals industries. If coal to chemicals capacity reaches 70 million tonnes and coal-to-liquids capacity reaches 60 million tonnes, coal feedstock requirements would add an additional 450 million tonnes by 2025. Even with more efficient growth among these drivers, China's annual coal demand is expected to reach 3.9 to 4.3 billion tonnes by 2025. Central government support for nuclear and renewable energy has not reversed China's growing dependence on coal for primary energy. Substitution is a matter of scale: offsetting one year of recent coal demand growth of 200 million tonnes would require 107 billion cubic meters of natural gas (compared to 2007 growth of 13 BCM), 48 GW of nuclear (compared to 2007 growth of 2 GW), or 86 GW of hydropower capacity (compared to 2007 growth of 16 GW). Ongoing dependence on coal reduces China's ability to mitigate carbon dioxide emissions growth. If coal demand remains on a high growth path, carbon dioxide emissions from coal combustion alone would exceed total US energy-related carbon emissions by 2010. Within China's coal-dominated energy system, domestic transportation has emerged as the largest bottleneck for coal industry growth and is likely to remain a constraint to further expansion. China has a low proportion of high-quality reserves, but is producing its best coal first. Declining quality will further strain production and transport capacity. Furthermore, transporting coal to users has overloaded the train system and dramatically increased truck use, raising transportation oil demand. Growing international imports have helped to offset domestic transport bottlenecks. In the long term, import demand is likely to exceed 200 million tonnes by 2025, significantly impacting regional markets.

  13. International Oil Supplies and Demands

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-04-01

    The eleventh Energy Modeling Forum (EMF) working group met four times over the 1989--1990 period to compare alternative perspectives on international oil supplies and demands through 2010 and to discuss how alternative supply and demand trends influence the world's dependence upon Middle Eastern oil. Proprietors of eleven economic models of the world oil market used their respective models to simulate a dozen scenarios using standardized assumptions. From its inception, the study was not designed to focus on the short-run impacts of disruptions on oil markets. Nor did the working group attempt to provide a forecast or just a single view of the likely future path for oil prices. The model results guided the group's thinking about many important longer-run market relationships and helped to identify differences of opinion about future oil supplies, demands, and dependence.

  14. International Oil Supplies and Demands

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-09-01

    The eleventh Energy Modeling Forum (EMF) working group met four times over the 1989--90 period to compare alternative perspectives on international oil supplies and demands through 2010 and to discuss how alternative supply and demand trends influence the world's dependence upon Middle Eastern oil. Proprietors of eleven economic models of the world oil market used their respective models to simulate a dozen scenarios using standardized assumptions. From its inception, the study was not designed to focus on the short-run impacts of disruptions on oil markets. Nor did the working group attempt to provide a forecast or just a single view of the likely future path for oil prices. The model results guided the group's thinking about many important longer-run market relationships and helped to identify differences of opinion about future oil supplies, demands, and dependence.

  15. U.S. Coal Supply and Demand

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Coal > U.S. Coal Supply and Demand > U.S. Coal Supply and Demand U.S. Coal Supply and Demand 2010 Review (entire report also available in printer-friendly format ) Previous ...

  16. Opportunities for Automated Demand Response in California Wastewater Treatment Facilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aghajanzadeh, Arian; Wray, Craig; McKane, Aimee

    2015-08-30

    Previous research over a period of six years has identified wastewater treatment facilities as good candidates for demand response (DR), automated demand response (Auto-­DR), and Energy Efficiency (EE) measures. This report summarizes that work, including the characteristics of wastewater treatment facilities, the nature of the wastewater stream, energy used and demand, as well as details of the wastewater treatment process. It also discusses control systems and automated demand response opportunities. Furthermore, this report summarizes the DR potential of three wastewater treatment facilities. In particular, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) has collected data at these facilities from control systems, submetered process equipment, utility electricity demand records, and governmental weather stations. The collected data were then used to generate a summary of wastewater power demand, factors affecting that demand, and demand response capabilities. These case studies show that facilities that have implemented energy efficiency measures and that have centralized control systems are well suited to shed or shift electrical loads in response to financial incentives, utility bill savings, and/or opportunities to enhance reliability of service. In summary, municipal wastewater treatment energy demand in California is large, and energy-­intensive equipment offers significant potential for automated demand response. In particular, large load reductions were achieved by targeting effluent pumps and centrifuges. One of the limiting factors to implementing demand response is the reaction of effluent turbidity to reduced aeration at an earlier stage of the process. Another limiting factor is that cogeneration capabilities of municipal facilities, including existing power purchase agreements and utility receptiveness to purchasing electricity from cogeneration facilities, limit a facility’s potential to participate in other DR activities.

  17. U.S. electric utility demand-side management 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-07-01

    This report presents comprehensive information on electric power industry demand-side management activities in the United States at the national, regional, and utility levels. Data is included for energy savings, peakload reductions, and costs.

  18. Pump apparatus including deconsolidator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sonwane, Chandrashekhar; Saunders, Timothy; Fitzsimmons, Mark Andrew

    2014-10-07

    A pump apparatus includes a particulate pump that defines a passage that extends from an inlet to an outlet. A duct is in flow communication with the outlet. The duct includes a deconsolidator configured to fragment particle agglomerates received from the passage.

  19. Progress toward Producing Demand-Response-Ready Appliances

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hammerstrom, Donald J.; Sastry, Chellury

    2009-12-01

    This report summarizes several historical and ongoing efforts to make small electrical demand-side devices like home appliances more responsive to the dynamic needs of electric power grids. Whereas the utility community often reserves the word demand response for infrequent 2 to 6 hour curtailments that reduce total electrical system peak load, other beneficial responses and ancillary services that may be provided by responsive electrical demand are of interest. Historically, demand responses from the demand side have been obtained by applying external, retrofitted, controlled switches to existing electrical demand. This report is directed instead toward those manufactured products, including appliances, that are able to provide demand responses as soon as they are purchased and that require few, or no, after-market modifications to make them responsive to needs of power grids. Efforts to be summarized include Open Automated Demand Response, the Association of Home Appliance Manufacturer standard CHA 1, a simple interface being developed by the U-SNAP Alliance, various emerging autonomous responses, and the recent PinBus interface that was developed at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory.

  20. Promising Technology: Demand Control Ventilation

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Demand control ventilation (DCV) measures carbon dioxide concentrations in return air or other strategies to measure occupancy, and accurately matches the ventilation requirement. This system reduces ventilation when spaces are vacant or at lower than peak occupancy. When ventilation is reduced, energy savings are accrued because it is not necessary to heat, cool, or dehumidify as much outside air.

  1. Projecting Electricity Demand in 2050

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hostick, Donna J.; Belzer, David B.; Hadley, Stanton W.; Markel, Tony; Marnay, Chris; Kintner-Meyer, Michael CW

    2014-07-01

    This paper describes the development of end-use electricity projections and load curves that were developed for the Renewable Electricity (RE) Futures Study (hereafter RE Futures), which explored the prospect of higher percentages (30% − 90%) of total electricity generation that could be supplied by renewable sources in the United States. As input to RE Futures, two projections of electricity demand were produced representing reasonable upper and lower bounds of electricity demand out to 2050. The electric sector models used in RE Futures required underlying load profiles, so RE Futures also produced load profile data in two formats: 8760 hourly data for the year 2050 for the GridView model, and in 2-year increments for 17 time slices as input to the Regional Energy Deployment System (ReEDS) model. The process for developing demand projections and load profiles involved three steps: discussion regarding the scenario approach and general assumptions, literature reviews to determine readily available data, and development of the demand curves and load profiles.

  2. Water heater control module

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hammerstrom, Donald J

    2013-11-26

    An advanced electric water heater control system that interfaces with a high temperature cut-off thermostat and an upper regulating thermostat. The system includes a control module that is electrically connected to the high-temperature cut-off thermostat and the upper regulating thermostat. The control module includes a switch to open or close the high-temperature cut-off thermostat and the upper regulating thermostat. The control module further includes circuitry configured to control said switch in response to a signal selected from the group of an autonomous signal, a communicated signal, and combinations thereof.

  3. Demand Management Institute (DMI) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Demand Management Institute (DMI) Jump to: navigation, search Name: Demand Management Institute (DMI) Address: 35 Walnut Street Place: Wellesley, Massachusetts Zip: 02481 Region:...

  4. Generating Demand for Multifamily Building Upgrades | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Generating Demand for Multifamily Building Upgrades Generating Demand for Multifamily Building Upgrades Better Buildings Residential Network Peer Exchange Call Series: Generating...

  5. Marketing & Driving Demand: Social Media Tools & Strategies ...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Marketing & Driving Demand: Social Media Tools & Strategies - January 16, 2011 (Text Version) Marketing & Driving Demand: Social Media Tools & Strategies - January 16, 2011 (Text...

  6. Demand Response - Policy | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Demand Response - Policy Demand Response - Policy Since its inception, the Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability (OE) has been committed to modernizing the nation's ...

  7. The alchemy of demand response: turning demand into supply

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rochlin, Cliff

    2009-11-15

    Paying customers to refrain from purchasing products they want seems to run counter to the normal operation of markets. Demand response should be interpreted not as a supply-side resource but as a secondary market that attempts to correct the misallocation of electricity among electric users caused by regulated average rate tariffs. In a world with costless metering, the DR solution results in inefficiency as measured by deadweight losses. (author)

  8. Addressing Energy Demand through Demand Response. International Experiences and Practices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shen, Bo; Ghatikar, Girish; Ni, Chun Chun; Dudley, Junqiao; Martin, Phil; Wikler, Greg

    2012-06-01

    Demand response (DR) is a load management tool which provides a cost-effective alternative to traditional supply-side solutions to address the growing demand during times of peak electrical load. According to the US Department of Energy (DOE), demand response reflects “changes in electric usage by end-use customers from their normal consumption patterns in response to changes in the price of electricity over time, or to incentive payments designed to induce lower electricity use at times of high wholesale market prices or when system reliability is jeopardized.” 1 The California Energy Commission (CEC) defines DR as “a reduction in customers’ electricity consumption over a given time interval relative to what would otherwise occur in response to a price signal, other financial incentives, or a reliability signal.” 2 This latter definition is perhaps most reflective of how DR is understood and implemented today in countries such as the US, Canada, and Australia where DR is primarily a dispatchable resource responding to signals from utilities, grid operators, and/or load aggregators (or DR providers).

  9. A Buildings Module for the Stochastic Energy Deployment System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lacommare, Kristina S H; Marnay, Chris; Stadler, Michael; Borgeson, Sam; Coffey, Brian; Komiyama, Ryoichi; Lai, Judy

    2008-05-15

    The U.S. Department of Energy (USDOE) is building a new long-range (to 2050) forecasting model for use in budgetary and management applications called the Stochastic Energy Deployment System (SEDS), which explicitly incorporates uncertainty through its development within the Analytica(R) platform of Lumina Decision Systems. SEDS is designed to be a fast running (a few minutes), user-friendly model that analysts can readily run and modify in its entirety through a visual programming interface. Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory is responsible for implementing the SEDS Buildings Module. The initial Lite version of the module is complete and integrated with a shared code library for modeling demand-side technology choice developed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and Lumina. The module covers both commercial and residential buildings at the U.S. national level using an econometric forecast of floorspace requirement and a model of building stock turnover as the basis for forecasting overall demand for building services. Although the module is fundamentally an engineering-economic model with technology adoption decisions based on cost and energy performance characteristics of competing technologies, it differs from standard energy forecasting models by including considerations of passive building systems, interactions between technologies (such as internal heat gains), and on-site power generation.

  10. Inducing Order from Disordered Copolymers: On Demand Generation of Triblock Morphologies Including Networks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tureau, Maëva S.; Kuan, Wei-Fan; Rong, Lixia; Hsiao, Benjamin S.; Epps, III, Thomas H.

    2015-10-15

    Disordered block copolymers are generally impractical in nanopatterning applications due to their inability to self-assemble into well-defined nanostructures. However, inducing order in low molecular weight disordered systems permits the design of periodic structures with smaller characteristic sizes. Here, we have induced nanoscale phase separation from disordered triblock copolymer melts to form well-ordered lamellae, hexagonally packed cylinders, and a triply periodic gyroid network structure, using a copolymer/homopolymer blending approach, which incorporates constituent homopolymers into selective block domains. This versatile blending approach allows one to precisely target multiple nanostructures from a single disordered material and can be applied to a wide variety of triblock copolymer systems for nanotemplating and nanoscale separation applications requiring nanoscale feature sizes and/or high areal feature densities.

  11. Impacts of Demand-Side Resources on Electric Transmission Planning

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hadley, Stanton W.; Sanstad, Alan H.

    2015-01-01

    Will demand resources such as energy efficiency (EE), demand response (DR), and distributed generation (DG) have an impact on electricity transmission requirements? Five drivers for transmission expansion are discussed: interconnection, reliability, economics, replacement, and policy. With that background, we review the results of a set of transmission studies that were conducted between 2010 and 2013 by electricity regulators, industry representatives, and other stakeholders in the three physical interconnections within the United States. These broad-based studies were funded by the US Department of Energy and included scenarios of reduced load growth due to EE, DR, and DG. While the studies were independent and used different modeling tools and interconnect-specific assumptions, all provided valuable results and insights. However, some caveats exist. Demand resources were evaluated in conjunction with other factors, and limitations on transmission additions between scenarios made understanding the role of demand resources difficult. One study, the western study, included analyses over both 10- and 20-year planning horizons; the 10-year analysis did not show near-term reductions in transmission, but the 20-year indicated fewer transmission additions, yielding a 36percent capital cost reduction. In the eastern study the reductions in demand largely led to reductions in local generation capacity and an increased opportunity for low-cost and renewable generation to export to other regions. The Texas study evaluated generation changes due to demand, and is in the process of examining demand resource impacts on transmission.

  12. A Look Ahead at Demand Response in New England

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burke, Robert B.; Henderson, Michael I.; Widergren, Steven E.

    2008-08-01

    The paper describes the demand response programs developed and in operation in New England, and the revised designs for participation in the forward capacity market. This description will include how energy efficiency, demand-side resources, and distributed generation are eligible to participate in this new forward capacity market. The paper will also discuss various methods that can be used to configure and communicate with demand response resources and important concerns in specifying interfaces that accommodate multiple technologies and allow technology choice and evolution.

  13. Dramatic Demand Reduction In The Desert Southwest

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boehm, Robert; Hsieh, Sean; Lee, Joon; Baghzouz, Yahia; Cross, Andrew; Chatterjee, Sarah

    2015-07-06

    This report summarizes a project that was funded to the University of Nevada Las Vegas (UNLV), with subcontractors Pulte Homes and NV Energy. The project was motivated by the fact that locations in the Desert Southwest portion of the US demonstrate very high peak electrical demands, typically in the late afternoons in the summer. These high demands often require high priced power to supply the needs, and the large loads can cause grid supply problems. An approach was proposed through this contact that would reduce the peak electrical demands to an anticipated 65% of what code-built houses of the similar size would have. It was proposed to achieve energy reduction through four approaches applied to a development of 185 homes in northwest part of Las Vegas named Villa Trieste. First, the homes would all be highly energy efficient. Secondly, each house would have a PV array installed on it. Third, an advanced demand response technique would be developed to allow the resident to have some control over the energy used. Finally, some type of battery storage would be used in the project. Pulte Homes designed the houses. The company considered initial cost vs. long-term savings and chose options that had relatively short paybacks. HERS (Home Energy Rating Service) ratings for the homes are approximately 43 on this scale. On this scale, code-built homes rate at 100, zero energy homes rate a 0, and Energy Star homes are 85. In addition a 1.764 Wp (peak Watt) rated PV array was used on each house. This was made up of solar shakes that were in visual harmony with the roofing material used. A demand response tool was developed to control the amount of electricity used during times of peak demand. While demand response techniques have been used in the utility industry for some time, this particular approach is designed to allow the customer to decide the degree of participation in the response activity. The temperature change in the residence can be decided by the residents by adjusting settings. In a sense the customer can choose between greater comfort and greater money savings during demand response circumstances. Finally a battery application was to be considered. Initially it was thought that a large battery (probably a sodium-sulfur type) would be installed. However, after the contract was awarded, it was determined that a single, centrally-located battery system would not be appropriate for many reasons, including that with the build out plan there would not be any location to put it. The price had risen substantially since the budget for the project was put together. Also, that type of battery has to be kept hot all the time, but its use was only sought for summer operation. Hence, individual house batteries would be used, and these are discussed at the end of this report. Many aspects of the energy use for climate control in selected houses were monitored before residents moved in. This was done both to understand the magnitude of the energy flows but also to have data that could be compared to the computer simulations. The latter would be used to evaluate various aspects of our plan. It was found that good agreement existed between actual energy use and computed energy use. Hence, various studies were performed via simulations. Performance simulations showed the impact on peak energy usage between a code built house of same size and shape compared to the Villa Trieste homes with and without the PV arrays on the latter. Computations were also used to understand the effect of varying orientations of the houses in this typical housing development, including the effect of PV electrical generation. Energy conservation features of the Villa Trieste homes decreased the energy use during peak times (as well as all others), but the resulting decreased peak occurred at about the same time as the code-built houses. Consideration of the PV generation decreases the grid energy use further during daylight hours, but did not extend long enough many days to decrease the peak. Hence, a demand response approach, as planned, was needed. With participation of the residents in the demand response program developed does enable the houses to reduce the peak demand between 66% and 72%, depending on the built years. This was addressed fully in the latter part the study and is described in the latter part of this report.

  14. Determination of Thermoelectric Module Efficiency A Survey

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Hsin; McCarty, Robin; Salvador, James R.; Yamamoto, Atsushi; Konig, Jan

    2014-01-01

    The development of thermoelectrics (TE) for energy conversion is in the transition phase from laboratory research to device development. There is an increasing demand to accurately determine the module efficiency, especially for the power generation mode. For many thermoelectrics, the figure of merit, ZT, of the material sometimes cannot be fully realized at the device level. Reliable efficiency testing of thermoelectric modules is important to assess the device ZT and provide the end-users with realistic values on how much power can be generated under specific conditions. We conducted a general survey of efficiency testing devices and their performance. The results indicated the lack of industry standards and test procedures. This study included a commercial test system and several laboratory systems. Most systems are based on the heat flow meter method and some are based on the Harman method. They are usually reproducible in evaluating thermoelectric modules. However, cross-checking among different systems often showed large errors that are likely caused by unaccounted heat loss and thermal resistance. Efficiency testing is an important area for the thermoelectric community to focus on. A follow-up international standardization effort is planned.

  15. Taxonomy for Modeling Demand Response Resources

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Olsen, Daniel; Kiliccote, Sila; Sohn, Michael; Dunn, Laura; Piette, Mary, A

    2014-08-01

    Demand response resources are an important component of modern grid management strategies. Accurate characterizations of DR resources are needed to develop systems of optimally managed grid operations and to plan future investments in generation, transmission, and distribution. The DOE Demand Response and Energy Storage Integration Study (DRESIS) project researched the degree to which demand response (DR) and energy storage can provide grid flexibility and stability in the Western Interconnection. In this work, DR resources were integrated with traditional generators in grid forecasting tools, specifically a production cost model of the Western Interconnection. As part of this study, LBNL developed a modeling framework for characterizing resource availability and response attributes of DR resources consistent with the governing architecture of the simulation modeling platform. In this report, we identify and describe the following response attributes required to accurately characterize DR resources: allowable response frequency, maximum response duration, minimum time needed to achieve load changes, necessary pre- or re-charging of integrated energy storage, costs of enablement, magnitude of controlled resources, and alignment of availability. We describe a framework for modeling these response attributes, and apply this framework to characterize 13 DR resources including residential, commercial, and industrial end-uses. We group these end-uses into three broad categories based on their response capabilities, and define a taxonomy for classifying DR resources within these categories. The three categories of resources exhibit different capabilities and differ in value to the grid. Results from the production cost model of the Western Interconnection illustrate that minor differences in resource attributes can have significant impact on grid utilization of DR resources. The implications of these findings will be explored in future DR valuation studies.

  16. Report: Impacts of Demand-Side Resources on Electric Transmission Planning

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    | Department of Energy Impacts of Demand-Side Resources on Electric Transmission Planning Report: Impacts of Demand-Side Resources on Electric Transmission Planning This report assesses the relationship between high levels of demand-side resources (including end-use efficiency, demand response, and distributed generation) and investment in new transmission or utilization of existing transmission. It summarizes the extensive modeling of transmission scenarios done through DOE-funded studies

  17. Detailed Modeling and Response of Demand Response Enabled Appliances

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vyakaranam, Bharat; Fuller, Jason C.

    2014-04-14

    Proper modeling of end use loads is very important in order to predict their behavior, and how they interact with the power system, including voltage and temperature dependencies, power system and load control functions, and the complex interactions that occur between devices in such an interconnected system. This paper develops multi-state time variant residential appliance models with demand response enabled capabilities in the GridLAB-DTM simulation environment. These models represent not only the baseline instantaneous power demand and energy consumption, but the control systems developed by GE Appliances to enable response to demand response signals and the change in behavior of the appliance in response to the signal. These DR enabled appliances are simulated to estimate their capability to reduce peak demand and energy consumption.

  18. MODELING THE DEMAND FOR E85 IN THE UNITED STATES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Changzheng; Greene, David L

    2013-10-01

    How demand for E85 might evolve in the future in response to changing economics and policies is an important subject to include in the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS). This report summarizes a study to develop an E85 choice model for NEMS. Using the most recent data from the states of Minnesota, North Dakota, and Iowa, this study estimates a logit model that represents E85 choice as a function of prices of E10 and E85, as well as fuel availability of E85 relative to gasoline. Using more recent data than previous studies allows a better estimation of non-fleet demand and indicates that the price elasticity of E85 choice appears to be higher than previously estimated. Based on the results of the econometric analysis, a model for projecting E85 demand at the regional level is specified. In testing, the model produced plausible predictions of US E85 demand to 2040.

  19. Energy demand and population changes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Allen, E.L.; Edmonds, J.A.

    1980-12-01

    Since World War II, US energy demand has grown more rapidly than population, so that per capita consumption of energy was about 60% higher in 1978 than in 1947. Population growth and the expansion of per capita real incomes have led to a greater use of energy. The aging of the US population is expected to increase per capita energy consumption, despite the increase in the proportion of persons over 65, who consume less energy than employed persons. The sharp decline in the population under 18 has led to an expansion in the relative proportion of population in the prime-labor-force age groups. Employed persons are heavy users of energy. The growth of the work force and GNP is largely attributable to the growing participation of females. Another important consequence of female employment is the growth in ownership of personal automobiles. A third factor pushing up labor-force growth is the steady influx of illegal aliens.

  20. Coordination of Energy Efficiency and Demand Response

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    2010-01-01

    Summarizes existing research and discusses current practices, opportunities, and barriers to coordinating energy efficiency and demand response programs.

  1. CO2 MONITORING FOR DEMAND CONTROLLED VENTILATION IN COMMERCIAL BUILDINGS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fisk, William J.; Sullivan, Douglas P.; Faulkner, David; Eliseeva, Ekaterina

    2010-03-17

    Carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) sensors are often deployed in commercial buildings to obtain CO{sub 2} data that are used, in a process called demand-controlled ventilation, to automatically modulate rates of outdoor air ventilation. The objective is to keep ventilation rates at or above design specifications and code requirements and also to save energy by avoiding excessive ventilation rates. Demand controlled ventilation is most often used in spaces with highly variable and sometime dense occupancy. Reasonably accurate CO{sub 2} measurements are needed for successful demand controlled ventilation; however, prior research has suggested substantial measurement errors. Accordingly, this study evaluated: (a) the accuracy of 208 CO{sub 2} single-location sensors located in 34 commercial buildings, (b) the accuracy of four multi-location CO{sub 2} measurement systems that utilize tubing, valves, and pumps to measure at multiple locations with single CO{sub 2} sensors, and (c) the spatial variability of CO{sub 2} concentrations within meeting rooms. The field studies of the accuracy of single-location CO{sub 2} sensors included multi-concentration calibration checks of 90 sensors in which sensor accuracy was checked at multiple CO{sub 2} concentrations using primary standard calibration gases. From these evaluations, average errors were small, -26 ppm and -9 ppm at 760 and 1010 ppm, respectively; however, the averages of the absolute values of error were 118 ppm (16%) and 138 ppm (14%), at concentrations of 760 and 1010 ppm, respectively. The calibration data are generally well fit by a straight line as indicated by high values of R{sup 2}. The Title 24 standard specifies that sensor error must be certified as no greater than 75 ppm for a period of five years after sensor installation. At 1010 ppm, 40% of sensors had errors greater than {+-}75 ppm and 31% of sensors has errors greater than {+-}100 ppm. At 760 ppm, 47% of sensors had errors greater than {+-}75 ppm and 37% of sensors had errors greater than {+-}100 ppm. A significant fraction of sensors had errors substantially larger than 100 ppm. For example, at 1010 ppm, 19% of sensors had an error greater than 200 ppm and 13% of sensors had errors greater than 300 ppm. The field studies also included single-concentration calibration checks of 118 sensors at the concentrations encountered in the buildings, which were normally less than 500 ppm during the testing. For analyses, these data were combined with data from the calibration challenges at 510 ppm obtained during the multi-concentration calibration checks. For the resulting data set, the average error was 60 ppm and the average of the absolute value of error was 154 ppm. Statistical analyses indicated that there were statistically significant differences between the average accuracies of sensors from different manufacturers. Sensors with a 'single lamp single wavelength' design tended to have a statistically significantly smaller average error than sensors with other designs except for 'single lamp dual wavelength' sensors, which did not have a statistically significantly lower accuracy. Sensor age was not consistently a statistically significant predictor of error.

  2. Processing module operating methods, processing modules, and communications systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McCown, Steven Harvey; Derr, Kurt W.; Moore, Troy

    2014-09-09

    A processing module operating method includes using a processing module physically connected to a wireless communications device, requesting that the wireless communications device retrieve encrypted code from a web site and receiving the encrypted code from the wireless communications device. The wireless communications device is unable to decrypt the encrypted code. The method further includes using the processing module, decrypting the encrypted code, executing the decrypted code, and preventing the wireless communications device from accessing the decrypted code. Another processing module operating method includes using a processing module physically connected to a host device, executing an application within the processing module, allowing the application to exchange user interaction data communicated using a user interface of the host device with the host device, and allowing the application to use the host device as a communications device for exchanging information with a remote device distinct from the host device.

  3. Formed photovoltaic module busbars

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rose, Douglas; Daroczi, Shan; Phu, Thomas

    2015-11-10

    A cell connection piece for a photovoltaic module is disclosed herein. The cell connection piece includes an interconnect bus, a plurality of bus tabs unitarily formed with the interconnect bus, and a terminal bus coupled with the interconnect bus. The plurality of bus tabs extend from the interconnect bus. The terminal bus includes a non-linear portion.

  4. Year Modules

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    dollars per peak watt) Year Modules 2003 $3.17 2004 $2.99 2005 $3.19 2006 $3.50 2007 $3.37 2008 $3.49 2009 $2.79 2010 $1.96 2011 $1.59 2012 $1.15 2013 $0.75 Table 4. Average value of photovoltaic modules, 2003-2013 Source: U.S. Energy Information Administration, Form EIA-63B, 'Annual Photovoltaic Cell/Module Shipments Report.' Note: Dollars are not adjusted for inflation.

  5. Industrial demand side management: A status report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hopkins, M.F.; Conger, R.L.; Foley, T.J.

    1995-05-01

    This report provides an overview of and rationale for industrial demand side management (DSM) programs. Benefits and barriers are described, and data from the Manufacturing Energy Consumption Survey are used to estimate potential energy savings in kilowatt hours. The report presents types and examples of programs and explores elements of successful programs. Two in-depth case studies (from Boise Cascade and Eli Lilly and Company) illustrate two types of effective DSM programs. Interviews with staff from state public utility commissions indicate the current thinking about the status and future of industrial DSM programs. A comprehensive bibliography is included, technical assistance programs are listed and described, and a methodology for evaluating potential or actual savings from projects is delineated.

  6. Load Reduction, Demand Response and Energy Efficient Technologies and Strategies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boyd, Paul A.; Parker, Graham B.; Hatley, Darrel D.

    2008-11-19

    The Department of Energys (DOEs) Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) was tasked by the DOE Office of Electricity (OE) to recommend load reduction and grid integration strategies, and identify additional demand response (energy efficiency/conservation opportunities) and strategies at the Forest City Housing (FCH) redevelopment at Pearl Harbor and the Marine Corps Base Hawaii (MCBH) at Kaneohe Bay. The goal was to provide FCH staff a path forward to manage their electricity load and thus reduce costs at these FCH family housing developments. The initial focus of the work was at the MCBH given the MCBH has a demand-ratchet tariff, relatively high demand (~18 MW) and a commensurate high blended electricity rate (26 cents/kWh). The peak demand for MCBH occurs in July-August. And, on average, family housing at MCBH contributes ~36% to the MCBH total energy consumption. Thus, a significant load reduction in family housing can have a considerable impact on the overall site load. Based on a site visit to the MCBH and meetings with MCBH installation, FCH, and Hawaiian Electric Company (HECO) staff, recommended actions (including a "smart grid" recommendation) that can be undertaken by FCH to manage and reduce peak-demand in family housing are made. Recommendations are also made to reduce overall energy consumption, and thus reduce demand in FCH family housing.

  7. Digital optical conversion module

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kotter, D.K.; Rankin, R.A.

    1988-07-19

    A digital optical conversion module used to convert an analog signal to a computer compatible digital signal including a voltage-to-frequency converter, frequency offset response circuitry, and an electrical-to-optical converter. Also used in conjunction with the digital optical conversion module is an optical link and an interface at the computer for converting the optical signal back to an electrical signal. Suitable for use in hostile environments having high levels of electromagnetic interference, the conversion module retains high resolution of the analog signal while eliminating the potential for errors due to noise and interference. The module can be used to link analog output scientific equipment such as an electrometer used with a mass spectrometer to a computer. 2 figs.

  8. Digital optical conversion module

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kotter, Dale K.; Rankin, Richard A.

    1991-02-26

    A digital optical conversion module used to convert an analog signal to a computer compatible digital signal including a voltage-to-frequency converter, frequency offset response circuitry, and an electrical-to-optical converter. Also used in conjunction with the digital optical conversion module is an optical link and an interface at the computer for converting the optical signal back to an electrical signal. Suitable for use in hostile environments having high levels of electromagnetic interference, the conversion module retains high resolution of the analog signal while eliminating the potential for errors due to noise and interference. The module can be used to link analog output scientific equipment such as an electrometer used with a mass spectrometer to a computer.

  9. Grid Integration of Aggregated Demand Response, Part 2: Modeling Demand Response in a Production Cost Model

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Renewable integration studies have evaluated many challenges associated with deploying large amounts of variable wind and solar generation technologies. These studies can evaluate operational impacts associated with variable generation, benefits of improved wind and solar resource forecasting, and trade-offs between institutional changes, including increasing balancing area cooperation and technical changes such as installing new flexible generation. Demand response (DR) resources present a potentially important source of grid flexibility and can aid in integrating variable generation; however, integration analyses have not yet incorporated these resources explicitly into grid simulation models as part of a standard toolkit for resource planners.

  10. NCEP_Demand_Response_Draft_111208.indd

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    National Council on Electricity Policy: Electric Transmission Series for State Offi cials Demand Response and Smart Metering Policy Actions Since the Energy Policy Act of 2005: A Summary for State Offi cials Demand Response and Smart Metering Policy Actions Since the Energy Policy Act of 2005: A Summary for State Offi cials Prepared by the U.S. Demand Response Coordinating Committee for The National Council on Electricity Policy Fall 2008 i National Council on Electricity Policy: Electric

  11. Phase modulation in RF tag

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carrender, Curtis Lee; Gilbert, Ronald W.

    2007-02-20

    A radio frequency (RF) communication system employs phase-modulated backscatter signals for RF communication from an RF tag to an interrogator. The interrogator transmits a continuous wave interrogation signal to the RF tag, which based on an information code stored in a memory, phase-modulates the interrogation signal to produce a backscatter response signal that is transmitted back to the interrogator. A phase modulator structure in the RF tag may include a switch coupled between an antenna and a quarter-wavelength stub; and a driver coupled between the memory and a control terminal of the switch. The driver is structured to produce a modulating signal corresponding to the information code, the modulating signal alternately opening and closing the switch to respectively decrease and increase the transmission path taken by the interrogation signal and thereby modulate the phase of the response signal. Alternatively, the phase modulator may include a diode coupled between the antenna and driver. The modulating signal from the driver modulates the capacitance of the diode, which modulates the phase of the response signal reflected by the diode and antenna.

  12. Demand Response in the ERCOT Markets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Patterson, Mark

    2011-10-25

    ERCOT grid serves 85% of Texas load over 40K+ miles transmission line. Demand response: voluntary load response, load resources, controllable load resources, and emergency interruptible load service.

  13. Reducing Logistics Footprints and Replenishment Demands: Nano...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Water Treatment Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Reducing Logistics Footprints and Replenishment Demands: Nano-engineered Silica Aerogels a Proven Method for Water ...

  14. Geographically Based Hydrogen Demand and Infrastructure Rollout...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Rollout Scenario Analysis Geographically Based Hydrogen Demand and Infrastructure Rollout Scenario Analysis Presentation by Margo Melendez at the 2010-2025 Scenario Analysis for ...

  15. Marketing & Driving Demand Collaborative - Social Media Tools...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Marketing & Driving Demand Collaborative - Social Media Tools & Strategies Presentation slides from the Better Buildings webinar on January 6, 2011. PDF icon Marketing & Driving ...

  16. Fabricate-on-Demand Vacuum Insulating Glazings

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    PPG is working to design a fabricate-on-demand process to overcome the cost and supply chain issues preventing widespread adoption of vacuum insulating glazings (VIGs).

  17. BPA, Energy Northwest launch demand response pilot

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    BPA-Energy-Northwest-launch-demand-response-pilot Sign In About | Careers | Contact | Investors | bpa.gov Search News & Us Expand News & Us Projects & Initiatives Expand...

  18. Integration of Demand Side Management, Distributed Generation...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    various aspects of demand response, distributed generation, smart grid and energy storage. Annex 9 is a list of pilot programs and case studies, with links to those...

  19. Demand Response and Energy Storage Integration Study

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Demand response and energy storage resources present potentially important sources of bulk power system services that can aid in integrating variable renewable generation. While renewable...

  20. Demand Response (transactional control) - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Energy Analysis Energy Analysis Electricity Transmission Electricity Transmission Find More Like This Return to Search Demand Response (transactional control) Pacific Northwest ...

  1. Distributed Automated Demand Response - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Energy Analysis Energy Analysis Electricity Transmission Electricity Transmission Find More Like This Return to Search Distributed Automated Demand Response Lawrence Livermore ...

  2. Energy Efficiency, Demand Response, and Volttron

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ENERGY EFFICIENCY, DEMAND RESPONSE, AND VOLTTRON Presented by Justin Sipe SEEMINGLY SIMPLE STATEMENTS Utilities need more capacity to handle growth on the grid ...

  3. Geographically Based Hydrogen Consumer Demand and Infrastructure...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Geographically Based Hydrogen Consumer Demand and Infrastructure Analysis Final Report M. Melendez and A. Milbrandt Technical Report NRELTP-540-40373 October 2006 NREL is operated...

  4. Greater fuel diversity needed to meet growing US electricity demand

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burt, B.; Mullins, S.

    2008-01-15

    Electricity demand is growing in the USA. One way to manage the uncertainty is to diversity fuel sources. Fuel sources include coal, natural gas, nuclear and renewable energy sources. Tables show actual and planned generation projects by fuel types. 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  5. Mounting support for a photovoltaic module

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brandt, Gregory Michael; Barsun, Stephan K.; Coleman, Nathaniel T.; Zhou, Yin

    2013-03-26

    A mounting support for a photovoltaic module is described. The mounting support includes a foundation having an integrated wire-way ledge portion. A photovoltaic module support mechanism is coupled with the foundation.

  6. Providing Reliability Services through Demand Response: A Prelimnary Evaluation of the Demand Response Capabilities of Alcoa Inc.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Starke, Michael R; Kirby, Brendan J; Kueck, John D; Todd, Duane; Caulfield, Michael; Helms, Brian

    2009-02-01

    Demand response is the largest underutilized reliability resource in North America. Historic demand response programs have focused on reducing overall electricity consumption (increasing efficiency) and shaving peaks but have not typically been used for immediate reliability response. Many of these programs have been successful but demand response remains a limited resource. The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) report, 'Assessment of Demand Response and Advanced Metering' (FERC 2006) found that only five percent of customers are on some form of demand response program. Collectively they represent an estimated 37,000 MW of response potential. These programs reduce overall energy consumption, lower green house gas emissions by allowing fossil fuel generators to operate at increased efficiency and reduce stress on the power system during periods of peak loading. As the country continues to restructure energy markets with sophisticated marginal cost models that attempt to minimize total energy costs, the ability of demand response to create meaningful shifts in the supply and demand equations is critical to creating a sustainable and balanced economic response to energy issues. Restructured energy market prices are set by the cost of the next incremental unit of energy, so that as additional generation is brought into the market, the cost for the entire market increases. The benefit of demand response is that it reduces overall demand and shifts the entire market to a lower pricing level. This can be very effective in mitigating price volatility or scarcity pricing as the power system responds to changing demand schedules, loss of large generators, or loss of transmission. As a global producer of alumina, primary aluminum, and fabricated aluminum products, Alcoa Inc., has the capability to provide demand response services through its manufacturing facilities and uniquely through its aluminum smelting facilities. For a typical aluminum smelter, electric power accounts for 30% to 40% of the factory cost of producing primary aluminum. In the continental United States, Alcoa Inc. currently owns and/or operates ten aluminum smelters and many associated fabricating facilities with a combined average load of over 2,600 MW. This presents Alcoa Inc. with a significant opportunity to respond in areas where economic opportunities exist to help mitigate rising energy costs by supplying demand response services into the energy system. This report is organized into seven chapters. The first chapter is the introduction and discusses the intention of this report. The second chapter contains the background. In this chapter, topics include: the motivation for Alcoa to provide demand response; ancillary service definitions; the basics behind aluminum smelting; and a discussion of suggested ancillary services that would be particularly useful for Alcoa to supply. Chapter 3 is concerned with the independent system operator, the Midwest ISO. Here the discussion examines the evolving Midwest ISO market structure including specific definitions, requirements, and necessary components to provide ancillary services. This section is followed by information concerning the Midwest ISO's classifications of demand response parties. Chapter 4 investigates the available opportunities at Alcoa's Warrick facility. Chapter 5 involves an in-depth discussion of the regulation service that Alcoa's Warrick facility can provide and the current interactions with Midwest ISO. Chapter 6 reviews future plans and expectations for Alcoa providing ancillary services into the market. Last, chapter 7, details the conclusion and recommendations of this paper.

  7. Photovoltaic module with adhesion promoter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    2013-10-08

    Photovoltaic modules with adhesion promoters and methods for fabricating photovoltaic modules with adhesion promoters are described. A photovoltaic module includes a solar cell including a first surface and a second surface, the second surface including a plurality of interspaced back-side contacts. A first glass layer is coupled to the first surface by a first encapsulating layer. A second glass layer is coupled to the second surface by a second encapsulating layer. At least a portion of the second encapsulating layer is bonded directly to the plurality of interspaced back-side contacts by an adhesion promoter.

  8. Strategies for Demand Response in Commercial Buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Watson, David S.; Kiliccote, Sila; Motegi, Naoya; Piette, Mary Ann

    2006-06-20

    This paper describes strategies that can be used in commercial buildings to temporarily reduce electric load in response to electric grid emergencies in which supplies are limited or in response to high prices that would be incurred if these strategies were not employed. The demand response strategies discussed herein are based on the results of three years of automated demand response field tests in which 28 commercial facilities with an occupied area totaling over 11 million ft{sup 2} were tested. Although the demand response events in the field tests were initiated remotely and performed automatically, the strategies used could also be initiated by on-site building operators and performed manually, if desired. While energy efficiency measures can be used during normal building operations, demand response measures are transient; they are employed to produce a temporary reduction in demand. Demand response strategies achieve reductions in electric demand by temporarily reducing the level of service in facilities. Heating ventilating and air conditioning (HVAC) and lighting are the systems most commonly adjusted for demand response in commercial buildings. The goal of demand response strategies is to meet the electric shed savings targets while minimizing any negative impacts on the occupants of the buildings or the processes that they perform. Occupant complaints were minimal in the field tests. In some cases, ''reductions'' in service level actually improved occupant comfort or productivity. In other cases, permanent improvements in efficiency were discovered through the planning and implementation of ''temporary'' demand response strategies. The DR strategies that are available to a given facility are based on factors such as the type of HVAC, lighting and energy management and control systems (EMCS) installed at the site.

  9. Coordination of Energy Efficiency and Demand Response

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goldman, Charles; Reid, Michael; Levy, Roger; Silverstein, Alison

    2010-01-29

    This paper reviews the relationship between energy efficiency and demand response and discusses approaches and barriers to coordinating energy efficiency and demand response. The paper is intended to support the 10 implementation goals of the National Action Plan for Energy Efficiency's Vision to achieve all cost-effective energy efficiency by 2025. Improving energy efficiency in our homes, businesses, schools, governments, and industries - which consume more than 70 percent of the nation's natural gas and electricity - is one of the most constructive, cost-effective ways to address the challenges of high energy prices, energy security and independence, air pollution, and global climate change. While energy efficiency is an increasingly prominent component of efforts to supply affordable, reliable, secure, and clean electric power, demand response is becoming a valuable tool in utility and regional resource plans. The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) estimated the contribution from existing U.S. demand response resources at about 41,000 megawatts (MW), about 5.8 percent of 2008 summer peak demand (FERC, 2008). Moreover, FERC recently estimated nationwide achievable demand response potential at 138,000 MW (14 percent of peak demand) by 2019 (FERC, 2009).2 A recent Electric Power Research Institute study estimates that 'the combination of demand response and energy efficiency programs has the potential to reduce non-coincident summer peak demand by 157 GW' by 2030, or 14-20 percent below projected levels (EPRI, 2009a). This paper supports the Action Plan's effort to coordinate energy efficiency and demand response programs to maximize value to customers. For information on the full suite of policy and programmatic options for removing barriers to energy efficiency, see the Vision for 2025 and the various other Action Plan papers and guides available at www.epa.gov/eeactionplan.

  10. Autonomous Demand Response for Primary Frequency Regulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Donnelly, Matt; Trudnowski, Daniel J.; Mattix, S.; Dagle, Jeffery E.

    2012-02-28

    The research documented within this report examines the use of autonomous demand response to provide primary frequency response in an interconnected power grid. The work builds on previous studies in several key areas: it uses a large realistic model (i.e., the interconnection of the western United States and Canada); it establishes a set of metrics that can be used to assess the effectiveness of autonomous demand response; and it independently adjusts various parameters associated with using autonomous demand response to assess effectiveness and to examine possible threats or vulnerabilities associated with the technology.

  11. Thermoelectric module

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kortier, William E.; Mueller, John J.; Eggers, Philip E.

    1980-07-08

    A thermoelectric module containing lead telluride as the thermoelectric mrial is encapsulated as tightly as possible in a stainless steel canister to provide minimum void volume in the canister. The lead telluride thermoelectric elements are pressure-contacted to a tungsten hot strap and metallurgically bonded at the cold junction to iron shoes with a barrier layer of tin telluride between the iron shoe and the p-type lead telluride element.

  12. Next Update: December 2011 Net Internal Demand

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Net Internal Demand (MW) Capacity Resources (MW) Capacity Margin (percent) Net Internal Demand (MW) Capacity Resources (MW) Capacity Margin (percent) Net Internal Demand (MW) Capacity Resources (MW) Capacity Margin (percent) Net Internal Demand (MW) Capacity Resources (MW) Capacity Margin (percent) 2005 746,470 882,125 15.4 45,950 50,200 8.5 38,266 46,792 18.2 57,402 72,258 20.6 2006 760,108 906,155 16.1 43,824 53,171 17.6 41,754 49,792 16.1 59,727 70,607 15.4 2007 768,061 946,631 18.9 46,434

  13. SAN ANTONIO SPURS DEMAND FOR ENERGY EFFICIENCY

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    As a city that experiences seasonal spikes in energy demand and accompanying energy bills, San Antonio, Texas, wanted to help homeowners and businesses reduce their energy use and save on energy...

  14. Solar in Demand | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    In case you missed it... This week, the Wall Street Journal published an article, "U.S. Solar-Panel Demand Expected to Double," highlighting the successes of the U.S. solar ...

  15. Demand Response and Energy Storage Integration Study

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This study is a multi-national laboratory effort to assess the potential value of demand response and energy storage to electricity systems with different penetration levels of variable renewable...

  16. Global Energy: Supply, Demand, Consequences, Opportunities

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Majumdar, Arun

    2010-01-08

    July 29, 2008 Berkeley Lab lecture: Arun Majumdar, Director of the Environmental Energy Technologies Division, discusses current and future projections of economic growth, population, and global energy demand and supply, and explores the implications of these trends for the environment.

  17. Climate policy implications for agricultural water demand

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chaturvedi, Vaibhav; Hejazi, Mohamad I.; Edmonds, James A.; Clarke, Leon E.; Kyle, G. Page; Davies, Evan; Wise, Marshall A.; Calvin, Katherine V.

    2013-03-28

    Energy, water and land are scarce resources, critical to humans. Developments in each affect the availability and cost of the others, and consequently human prosperity. Measures to limit greenhouse gas concentrations will inevitably exact dramatic changes on energy and land systems and in turn alter the character, magnitude and geographic distribution of human claims on water resources. We employ the Global Change Assessment Model (GCAM), an integrated assessment model to explore the interactions of energy, land and water systems in the context of alternative policies to limit climate change to three alternative levels: 2.5 Wm-2 (445 ppm CO2-e), 3.5 Wm-2 (535 ppm CO2-e) and 4.5 Wm-2 (645 ppm CO2-e). We explore the effects of two alternative land-use emissions mitigation policy options—one which taxes terrestrial carbon emissions equally with fossil fuel and industrial emissions, and an alternative which only taxes fossil fuel and industrial emissions but places no penalty on land-use change emissions. We find that increasing populations and economic growth could be anticipated to almost triple demand for water for agricultural systems across the century even in the absence of climate policy. In general policies to mitigate climate change increase agricultural demands for water still further, though the largest changes occur in the second half of the century, under both policy regimes. The two policies examined profoundly affected both the sources and magnitudes of the increase in irrigation water demands. The largest increases in agricultural irrigation water demand occurred in scenarios where only fossil fuel emissions were priced (but not land-use change emission) and were primarily driven by rapid expansion in bioenergy production. In these scenarios water demands were large relative to present-day total available water, calling into question whether it would be physically possible to produce the associated biomass energy. We explored the potential of improved water delivery and irrigation system efficiencies. These could potentially reduce demands substantially. However, overall demands remained high under our fossil-fuel-only tax policy. In contrast, when all carbon was priced, increases in agricultural water demands were smaller than under the fossil-fuel-only policy and were driven primarily by increased demands for water by non-biomass crops such as rice. Finally we estimate the geospatial pattern of water demands and find that regions such as China, India and other countries in south and east Asia might be expected to experience greatest increases in water demands. 

  18. Measuring the capacity impacts of demand response

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Earle, Robert; Kahn, Edward P.; Macan, Edo

    2009-07-15

    Critical peak pricing and peak time rebate programs offer benefits by increasing system reliability, and therefore, reducing capacity needs of the electric power system. These benefits, however, decrease substantially as the size of the programs grows relative to the system size. More flexible schemes for deployment of demand response can help address the decreasing returns to scale in capacity value, but more flexible demand response has decreasing returns to scale as well. (author)

  19. Photovoltaic concentrator module improvements study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Levy, S.L.; Kerschen, K.A. ); Hutchison, G. ); Nowlan, M.J. )

    1991-08-01

    This report presents results of a project to design and fabricate an improved photovoltaic concentrator module. Using previous work as a baseline, this study conducted analyses and testing to select major module components and design features. The lens parquet and concentrator solar cell were selected from the highest performing, available components. A single 185X point-focus module was fabricated by the project team and tested at Sandia. Major module characteristics include a 6 by 4 compression-molded acrylic lens parquet (0.737 m{sup 2} area), twenty-four 0.2 ohms-cm, FZ, p-Si solar cells (1.56 cm{sup 2} area) soldered to ceramic substrates and copper heat spreaders, and an aluminized steel housing with corrugated bottom. This project marked the first attempt to use prismatic covers on solar cells in a high-concentration, point-focus application. Cells with 15 percent metallization were obtained, but problems with the fabrication and placement of prismatic covers on these cells lead to the decision not to use covers in the prototype module. Cell assembly fabrication, module fabrication, and module optical design activities are presented here. Test results are also presented for bare cells, cell assemblies, and module. At operating conditions of 981 watts/m{sup 2} DNI and an estimated cell temperature of 65{degrees}C, the module demonstrated an efficiency of 13.9 percent prior to stressed environmental exposure. 12 refs., 56 figs., 7 tabs.

  20. Ethanol Demand in United States Gasoline Production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hadder, G.R.

    1998-11-24

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (OWL) Refinery Yield Model (RYM) has been used to estimate the demand for ethanol in U.S. gasoline production in year 2010. Study cases examine ethanol demand with variations in world oil price, cost of competing oxygenate, ethanol value, and gasoline specifications. For combined-regions outside California summer ethanol demand is dominated by conventional gasoline (CG) because the premised share of reformulated gasoline (RFG) production is relatively low and because CG offers greater flexibility for blending high vapor pressure components like ethanol. Vapor pressure advantages disappear for winter CG, but total ethanol used in winter RFG remains low because of the low RFG production share. In California, relatively less ethanol is used in CG because the RFG production share is very high. During the winter in California, there is a significant increase in use of ethanol in RFG, as ethanol displaces lower-vapor-pressure ethers. Estimated U.S. ethanol demand is a function of the refiner value of ethanol. For example, ethanol demand for reference conditions in year 2010 is 2 billion gallons per year (BGY) at a refiner value of $1.00 per gallon (1996 dollars), and 9 BGY at a refiner value of $0.60 per gallon. Ethanol demand could be increased with higher oil prices, or by changes in gasoline specifications for oxygen content, sulfur content, emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCS), and octane numbers.

  1. Opportunities for Automated Demand Response in Wastewater Treatment Facilities in California - Southeast Water Pollution Control Plant Case Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Olsen, Daniel; Goli, Sasank; Faulkner, David; McKane, Aimee

    2012-12-20

    This report details a study into the demand response potential of a large wastewater treatment facility in San Francisco. Previous research had identified wastewater treatment facilities as good candidates for demand response and automated demand response, and this study was conducted to investigate facility attributes that are conducive to demand response or which hinder its implementation. One years' worth of operational data were collected from the facility's control system, submetered process equipment, utility electricity demand records, and governmental weather stations. These data were analyzed to determine factors which affected facility power demand and demand response capabilities The average baseline demand at the Southeast facility was approximately 4 MW. During the rainy season (October-March) the facility treated 40% more wastewater than the dry season, but demand only increased by 4%. Submetering of the facility's lift pumps and centrifuges predicted load shifts capabilities of 154 kW and 86 kW, respectively, with large lift pump shifts in the rainy season. Analysis of demand data during maintenance events confirmed the magnitude of these possible load shifts, and indicated other areas of the facility with demand response potential. Load sheds were seen to be possible by shutting down a portion of the facility's aeration trains (average shed of 132 kW). Load shifts were seen to be possible by shifting operation of centrifuges, the gravity belt thickener, lift pumps, and external pump stations These load shifts were made possible by the storage capabilities of the facility and of the city's sewer system. Large load reductions (an average of 2,065 kW) were seen from operating the cogeneration unit, but normal practice is continuous operation, precluding its use for demand response. The study also identified potential demand response opportunities that warrant further study: modulating variable-demand aeration loads, shifting operation of sludge-processing equipment besides centrifuges, and utilizing schedulable self-generation.

  2. Aggregate Model for Heterogeneous Thermostatically Controlled Loads with Demand Response

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Wei; Kalsi, Karanjit; Fuller, Jason C.; Elizondo, Marcelo A.; Chassin, David P.

    2012-07-22

    Due to the potentially large number of Distributed Energy Resources (DERs) demand response, distributed generation, distributed storage - that are expected to be deployed, it is impractical to use detailed models of these resources when integrated with the transmission system. Being able to accurately estimate the fast transients caused by demand response is especially important to analyze the stability of the system under different demand response strategies. On the other hand, a less complex model is more amenable to design feedback control strategies for the population of devices to provide ancillary services. The main contribution of this paper is to develop aggregated models for a heterogeneous population of Thermostatic Controlled Loads (TCLs) to accurately capture their collective behavior under demand response and other time varying effects of the system. The aggregated model efficiently includes statistical information of the population and accounts for a second order effect necessary to accurately capture the collective dynamic behavior. The developed aggregated models are validated against simulations of thousands of detailed building models using GridLAB-D (an open source distribution simulation software) under both steady state and severe dynamic conditions caused due to temperature set point changes.

  3. NREL: dGen: Distributed Generation Market Demand Model - Documentation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Documentation The Distributed Generation Market Demand (dGen) model documentation summarizes the default data inputs and assumptions for the model. Input data for the model are regularly updated and include recent EIA Annual Energy Outlook projections, state-level net metering and incentive policies, and utility-level retail electricity rates. Note that the dGen model builds on, extends, and provides significant advances over NREL's deprecated SolarDS model. Documentation Outline Introduction

  4. Evidence is growing on demand side of an oil peak

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2009-07-15

    After years of continued growth, the number of miles driven by Americans started falling in December 2007. Not only are the number of miles driven falling, but as cars become more fuel efficient, they go further on fewer gallons - further reducing demand for gasoline. This trend is expected to accelerate. Drivers include, along with higher-efficiency cars, mass transit, reversal in urban sprawl, biofuels, and plug-in hybrid vehicles.

  5. Refrigerated Warehouse Demand Response Strategy Guide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scott, Doug; Castillo, Rafael; Larson, Kyle; Dobbs, Brian; Olsen, Daniel

    2015-11-01

    This guide summarizes demand response measures that can be implemented in refrigerated warehouses. In an appendix, it also addresses related energy efficiency opportunities. Reducing overall grid demand during peak periods and energy consumption has benefits for facility operators, grid operators, utility companies, and society. State wide demand response potential for the refrigerated warehouse sector in California is estimated to be over 22.1 Megawatts. Two categories of demand response strategies are described in this guide: load shifting and load shedding. Load shifting can be accomplished via pre-cooling, capacity limiting, and battery charger load management. Load shedding can be achieved by lighting reduction, demand defrost and defrost termination, infiltration reduction, and shutting down miscellaneous equipment. Estimation of the costs and benefits of demand response participation yields simple payback periods of 2-4 years. To improve demand response performance, it’s suggested to install air curtains and another form of infiltration barrier, such as a rollup door, for the passageways. Further modifications to increase efficiency of the refrigeration unit are also analyzed. A larger condenser can maintain the minimum saturated condensing temperature (SCT) for more hours of the day. Lowering the SCT reduces the compressor lift, which results in an overall increase in refrigeration system capacity and energy efficiency. Another way of saving energy in refrigerated warehouses is eliminating the use of under-floor resistance heaters. A more energy efficient alternative to resistance heaters is to utilize the heat that is being rejected from the condenser through a heat exchanger. These energy efficiency measures improve efficiency either by reducing the required electric energy input for the refrigeration system, by helping to curtail the refrigeration load on the system, or by reducing both the load and required energy input.

  6. Module isolation devices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carolan, Michael Francis; Cooke, John Albert; Buzinski, Michael David

    2010-04-27

    A gas flow isolation device includes a gas flow isolation valve movable from an opened condition to a closed condition. The module isolation valve in one embodiment includes a rupture disk in flow communication with a flow of gas when the module isolation valve is in an opened condition. The rupture disk ruptures when a predetermined pressure differential occurs across it causing the isolation valve to close. In one embodiment the valve is mechanically linked to the rupture disk to maintain the valve in an opened condition when the rupture disk is intact, and which permits the valve to move into a closed condition when the rupture disk ruptures. In another embodiment a crushable member maintains the valve in an open condition, and the flow of gas passed the valve upon rupturing of the rupture disk compresses the crushable member to close the isolation valve.

  7. Tandem resonator reflectance modulator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fritz, I.J.; Wendt, J.R.

    1994-09-06

    A wide band optical modulator is grown on a substrate as tandem Fabry-Perot resonators including three mirrors spaced by two cavities. The absorption of one cavity is changed relative to the absorption of the other cavity by an applied electric field, to cause a change in total reflected light, as light reflecting from the outer mirrors is in phase and light reflecting from the inner mirror is out of phase with light from the outer mirrors. 8 figs.

  8. Tandem resonator reflectance modulator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fritz, Ian J. (Albuquerque, NM); Wendt, Joel R. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1994-01-01

    A wide band optical modulator is grown on a substrate as tandem Fabry-Perot resonators including three mirrors spaced by two cavities. The absorption of one cavity is changed relative to the absorption of the other cavity by an applied electric field, to cause a change in total reflected light, as light reflecting from the outer mirrors is in phase and light reflecting from the inner mirror is out of phase with light from the outer mirrors.

  9. Wireless Demand Response Controls for HVAC Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Federspiel, Clifford

    2009-06-30

    The objectives of this scoping study were to develop and test control software and wireless hardware that could enable closed-loop, zone-temperature-based demand response in buildings that have either pneumatic controls or legacy digital controls that cannot be used as part of a demand response automation system. We designed a SOAP client that is compatible with the Demand Response Automation Server (DRAS) being used by the IOUs in California for their CPP program, design the DR control software, investigated the use of cellular routers for connecting to the DRAS, and tested the wireless DR system with an emulator running a calibrated model of a working building. The results show that the wireless DR system can shed approximately 1.5 Watts per design CFM on the design day in a hot, inland climate in California while keeping temperatures within the limits of ASHRAE Standard 55: Thermal Environmental Conditions for Human Occupancy.

  10. International Oil Supplies and Demands. Volume 2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-04-01

    The eleventh Energy Modeling Forum (EMF) working group met four times over the 1989--1990 period to compare alternative perspectives on international oil supplies and demands through 2010 and to discuss how alternative supply and demand trends influence the world`s dependence upon Middle Eastern oil. Proprietors of eleven economic models of the world oil market used their respective models to simulate a dozen scenarios using standardized assumptions. From its inception, the study was not designed to focus on the short-run impacts of disruptions on oil markets. Nor did the working group attempt to provide a forecast or just a single view of the likely future path for oil prices. The model results guided the group`s thinking about many important longer-run market relationships and helped to identify differences of opinion about future oil supplies, demands, and dependence.

  11. International Oil Supplies and Demands. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-09-01

    The eleventh Energy Modeling Forum (EMF) working group met four times over the 1989--90 period to compare alternative perspectives on international oil supplies and demands through 2010 and to discuss how alternative supply and demand trends influence the world`s dependence upon Middle Eastern oil. Proprietors of eleven economic models of the world oil market used their respective models to simulate a dozen scenarios using standardized assumptions. From its inception, the study was not designed to focus on the short-run impacts of disruptions on oil markets. Nor did the working group attempt to provide a forecast or just a single view of the likely future path for oil prices. The model results guided the group`s thinking about many important longer-run market relationships and helped to identify differences of opinion about future oil supplies, demands, and dependence.

  12. Utility Sector Impacts of Reduced Electricity Demand

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Coughlin, Katie

    2014-12-01

    This report presents a new approach to estimating the marginal utility sector impacts associated with electricity demand reductions. The method uses publicly available data and provides results in the form of time series of impact factors. The input data are taken from the Energy Information Agency's Annual Energy Outlook (AEO) projections of how the electric system might evolve in the reference case, and in a number of side cases that incorporate different effciency and other policy assumptions. The data published with the AEO are used to define quantitative relationships between demand-side electricity reductions by end use and supply-side changes to capacity by plant type, generation by fuel type and emissions of CO2, Hg, NOx and SO2. The impact factors define the change in each of these quantities per unit reduction in site electricity demand. We find that the relative variation in these impacts by end use is small, but the time variation can be significant.

  13. The Role of Demand Resources In Regional Transmission Expansion Planning and Reliable Operations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kirby, Brendan J

    2006-07-01

    Investigating the role of demand resources in regional transmission planning has provided mixed results. On one hand there are only a few projects where demand response has been used as an explicit alternative to transmission enhancement. On the other hand there is a fair amount of demand response in the form of energy efficiency, peak reduction, emergency load shedding, and (recently) demand providing ancillary services. All of this demand response reduces the need for transmission enhancements. Demand response capability is typically (but not always) factored into transmission planning as a reduction in the load which must be served. In that sense demand response is utilized as an alternative to transmission expansion. Much more demand response is used (involuntarily) as load shedding under extreme conditions to prevent cascading blackouts. The amount of additional transmission and generation that would be required to provide the current level of reliability if load shedding were not available is difficult to imagine and would be impractical to build. In a very real sense demand response solutions are equitably treated in every region - when proposed, demand response projects are evaluated against existing reliability and economic criteria. The regional councils, RTOs, and ISOs identify needs. Others propose transmission, generation, or responsive load based solutions. Few demand response projects get included in transmission enhancement plans because few are proposed. But this is only part of the story. Several factors are responsible for the current very low use of demand response as a transmission enhancement alternative. First, while the generation, transmission, and load business sectors each deal with essentially the same amount of electric power, generation and transmission companies are explicitly in the electric power business but electricity is not the primary business focus of most loads. This changes the institutional focus of each sector. Second, market and reliability rules have, understandably, been written around the capabilities and limitations of generators, the historic reliability resources. Responsive load limitations and capabilities are often not accommodated in markets or reliability criteria. Third, because of the institutional structure, demand response alternatives are treated as temporary solutions that can delay but not replace transmission enhancement. Financing has to be based on a three to five year project life as opposed to the twenty to fifty year life of transmission facilities. More can be done to integrate demand response options into transmission expansion planning. Given the societal benefits it may be appropriate for independent transmission planning organizations to take a more proactive role in drawing demand response alternatives into the resource mix. Existing demand response programs provide a technical basis to build from. Regulatory and market obstacles will have to be overcome if demand response alternatives are to be routinely considered in transmission expansion planning.

  14. Demand Responsive Lighting: A Scoping Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rubinstein, Francis; Kiliccote, Sila

    2007-01-03

    The objective of this scoping study is: (1) to identify current market drivers and technology trends that can improve the demand responsiveness of commercial building lighting systems and (2) to quantify the energy, demand and environmental benefits of implementing lighting demand response and energy-saving controls strategies Statewide. Lighting systems in California commercial buildings consume 30 GWh. Lighting systems in commercial buildings often waste energy and unnecessarily stress the electrical grid because lighting controls, especially dimming, are not widely used. But dimmable lighting equipment, especially the dimming ballast, costs more than non-dimming lighting and is expensive to retrofit into existing buildings because of the cost of adding control wiring. Advances in lighting industry capabilities coupled with the pervasiveness of the Internet and wireless technologies have led to new opportunities to realize significant energy saving and reliable demand reduction using intelligent lighting controls. Manufacturers are starting to produce electronic equipment--lighting-application specific controllers (LAS controllers)--that are wirelessly accessible and can control dimmable or multilevel lighting systems obeying different industry-accepted protocols. Some companies make controllers that are inexpensive to install in existing buildings and allow the power consumed by bi-level lighting circuits to be selectively reduced during demand response curtailments. By intelligently limiting the demand from bi-level lighting in California commercial buildings, the utilities would now have an enormous 1 GW demand shed capability at hand. By adding occupancy and light sensors to the remotely controllable lighting circuits, automatic controls could harvest an additional 1 BkWh/yr savings above and beyond the savings that have already been achieved. The lighting industry's adoption of DALI as the principal wired digital control protocol for dimming ballasts and increased awareness of the need to standardize on emerging wireless technologies are evidence of this transformation. In addition to increased standardization of digital control protocols controller capabilities, the lighting industry has improved the performance of dimming lighting systems over the last two years. The system efficacy of today's current dimming ballasts is approaching that of non-dimming program start ballasts. The study finds that the benefits of applying digital controls technologies to California's unique commercial buildings market are enormous. If California were to embark on an concerted 20 year program to improve the demand responsiveness and energy efficiency of commercial building lighting systems, the State could avoid adding generation capacity, improve the elasticity of the grid, save Californians billion of dollars in avoided energy charges and significantly reduce greenhouse gas emissions.

  15. Chinese Oil Demand: Steep Incline Ahead

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Chinese Oil Demand: Steep Incline Ahead Malcolm Shealy Alacritas, Inc. April 7, 2008 Oil Demand: China, India, Japan, South Korea 0 2 4 6 8 1995 2000 2005 2010 Million Barrels/Day China South Korea Japan India IEA China Oil Forecast 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 2000 2005 2010 2015 2020 2025 2030 Million Barrels/Day WEO 2007 16.3 mbd 12.7 mbd IEA China Oil Forecasts 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 2000 2005 2010 2015 2020 2025 2030 Million Barrels/Day WEO 2007 WEO 2006 WEO 2004 WEO 2002 Vehicle Sales in

  16. PV module mounting method and mounting assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lenox, Carl J.S.; Johnson, Kurt M.

    2013-04-23

    A method for mounting PV modules to a deck includes selecting PV module layout pattern so that adjacent PV module edges are spaced apart. PV mounting and support assemblies are secured to the deck according to the layout pattern using fasteners extending into the deck. The PV modules are placed on the PV mounting and support assemblies. Retaining elements are located over and secured against the upper peripheral edge surfaces of the PV modules so to secure them to the deck with the peripheral edges of the PV modules spaced apart from the deck. In some examples a PV module mounting assembly, for use on a shingled deck, comprises flashing, a base mountable on the flashing, a deck-penetrating fastener engageable with the base and securable to the deck so to secure the flashing and the base to the shingled deck, and PV module mounting hardware securable to the base.

  17. Tankless Demand Water Heater Basics | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Water Heating Tankless Demand Water Heater Basics Tankless Demand Water Heater Basics August 19, 2013 - 2:57pm Addthis Illustration of an electric demand water heater. At the ...

  18. Washington: Sustainability Training for Realtors in High Demand...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Sustainability Training for Realtors in High Demand Washington: Sustainability Training for Realtors in High Demand March 6, 2014 - 5:50pm Addthis Demand has been high for a free ...

  19. Issues in International Energy Consumption Analysis: Chinese Transportation Fuel Demand

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2014-01-01

    Since the 1990s, China has experienced tremendous growth in its transportation sector. By the end of 2010, China's road infrastructure had emerged as the second-largest transportation system in the world after the United States. Passenger vehicle sales are dramatically increasing from a little more than half a million in 2000, to 3.7 million in 2005, to 13.8 million in 2010. This represents a twenty-fold increase from 2000 to 2010. The unprecedented motorization development in China led to a significant increase in oil demand, which requires China to import progressively more petroleum from other countries, with its share of petroleum imports exceeding 50% of total petroleum demand since 2009. In response to growing oil import dependency, the Chinese government is adopting a broad range of policies, including promotion of fuel-efficient vehicles, fuel conservation, increasing investments in oil resources around the world, and many others.

  20. Energy technologies and their impact on demand

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Drucker, H.

    1995-06-01

    Despite the uncertainties, energy demand forecasts must be made to guide government policies and public and private-sector capital investment programs. Three principles can be identified in considering long-term energy prospects. First energy demand will continue to grow, driven by population growth, economic development, and the current low per capita energy consumption in developing countries. Second, energy technology advancements alone will not solve the problem. Energy-efficient technologies, renewable resource technologies, and advanced electric power technologies will all play a major role but will not be able to keep up with the growth in world energy demand. Third, environmental concerns will limit the energy technology choices. Increasing concern for environmental protection around the world will restrict primarily large, centralized energy supply facilities. The conclusion is that energy system diversity is the only solution. The energy system must be planned with consideration of both supply and demand technologies, must not rely on a single source of energy, must take advantage of all available technologies that are specially suited to unique local conditions, must be built with long-term perspectives, and must be able to adapt to change.

  1. Indianapolis Offers a Lesson on Driving Demand

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Successful program managers know that understanding the factors that drive homeowners to make upgrades is critical to the widespread adoption of energy efficiency. What better place to learn about driving demand for upgrades than in Indianapolis, America's most famous driving city?

  2. Energy Demand (released in AEO2010)

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2010-01-01

    Growth in U.S. energy use is linked to population growth through increases in demand for housing, commercial floorspace, transportation, manufacturing, and services. This affects not only the level of energy use, but also the mix of fuels and consumption by sector.

  3. Reflective coherent spatial light modulator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Simpson, John T.; Richards, Roger K.; Hutchinson, Donald P.; Simpson, Marcus L.

    2003-04-22

    A reflective coherent spatial light modulator (RCSLM) includes a subwavelength resonant grating structure (SWS), the SWS including at least one subwavelength resonant grating layer (SWL) have a plurality of areas defining a plurality of pixels. Each pixel represents an area capable of individual control of its reflective response. A structure for modulating the resonant reflective response of at least one pixel is provided. The structure for modulating can include at least one electro-optic layer in optical contact with the SWS. The RCSLM is scalable in both pixel size and wavelength. A method for forming a RCSLM includes the steps of selecting a waveguide material and forming a SWS in the waveguide material, the SWS formed from at least one SWL, the SWL having a plurality of areas defining a plurality of pixels.

  4. Structuring Rebate and Incentive Programs for Sustainable Demand...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Structuring Rebate and Incentive Programs for Sustainable Demand Structuring Rebate and ... Loan Rates and Demand Peer Exchange Call on Financing and Revenue: Bond Funding Marketing ...

  5. Structuring Rebate and Incentive Programs for Sustainable Demand...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Structuring Rebate and Incentive Programs for Sustainable Demand Structuring Rebate and Incentive Programs for Sustainable Demand Better Buildings Neighborhood Program Peer...

  6. Using Mobile Applications to Generate Customer Demand | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Using Mobile Applications to Generate Customer Demand Using Mobile Applications to Generate Customer Demand Better Buildings Residential Network Peer Exchange Call Series: Using...

  7. Strategies for Marketing and Driving Demand for Commercial Financing...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Marketing and Driving Demand for Commercial Financing Products Strategies for Marketing and Driving Demand for Commercial Financing Products Better Buildings Neighborhood Program ...

  8. Demand Response and Energy Storage Integration Study - Past Workshops...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Demand Response and Energy Storage Integration Study - Past Workshops Demand Response and Energy Storage Integration Study - Past Workshops The project was initiated and informed...

  9. Draft Chapter 3: Demand-Side Resources | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Demand-Side Resources Draft Chapter 3: Demand-Side Resources Utilities in many states have been implementing energy efficiency and load management programs (collectively called ...

  10. Agreement Template for Energy Conservation and Demand Side Management...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Agreement Template for Energy Conservation and Demand Side Management Services Agreement Template for Energy Conservation and Demand Side Management Services Template agreement ...

  11. Estimating Costs and Efficiency of Storage, Demand, and Heat...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Costs and Efficiency of Storage, Demand, and Heat Pump Water Heaters Estimating Costs and Efficiency of Storage, Demand, and Heat Pump Water Heaters A water heater's energy ...

  12. Estimating Costs and Efficiency of Storage, Demand, and Heat...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Estimating Costs and Efficiency of Storage, Demand, and Heat Pump Water Heaters Estimating Costs and Efficiency of Storage, Demand, and Heat Pump Water Heaters A water heater's ...

  13. Tool Improves Electricity Demand Predictions to Make More Room...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Tool Improves Electricity Demand Predictions to Make More Room for Renewables Tool Improves Electricity Demand Predictions to Make More Room for Renewables October 3, 2011 - ...

  14. Reducing Energy Demand in Buildings Through State Energy Codes...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Reducing Energy Demand in Buildings Through State Energy Codes Reducing Energy Demand in ... More Documents & Publications Technology Performance Exchange - 2013 BTO Peer Review ...

  15. Estimating Costs and Efficiency of Storage, Demand, and Heat...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Estimating Costs and Efficiency of Storage, Demand, and Heat Pump Water Heaters Estimating Costs and Efficiency of Storage, Demand, and Heat Pump Water Heaters A water heater's...

  16. Can Automotive Battery Recycling Help Meet Lithium Demand? |...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Can Automotive Battery Recycling Help Meet Lithium Demand? Title Can Automotive Battery Recycling Help Meet Lithium Demand? Publication Type Presentation Year of Publication 2013...

  17. SGDP Report Now Available: Interoperability of Demand Response...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    SGDP Report Now Available: Interoperability of Demand Response Resources Demonstration in NY (February 2015) SGDP Report Now Available: Interoperability of Demand Response ...

  18. SGDP Report: Interoperability of Demand Response Resources Demonstrati...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    SGDP Report: Interoperability of Demand Response Resources Demonstration in NY (February 2015) SGDP Report: Interoperability of Demand Response Resources Demonstration in NY ...

  19. FERC Presendation: Demand Response as Power System Resources...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    FERC Presendation: Demand Response as Power System Resources, October 29, 2010 FERC Presendation: Demand Response as Power System Resources, October 29, 2010 Federal Energy ...

  20. Implementation Proposal for the National Action Plan on Demand...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Implementation Proposal for the National Action Plan on DemandResponse - July 2011 Implementation Proposal for the National Action Plan on Demand Response - July 2011 Report to ...

  1. Sustainable Energy Resources for Consumers (SERC) - On-Demand...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    On-Demand Tankless Water Heaters Sustainable Energy Resources for Consumers (SERC) - On-Demand Tankless Water Heaters This presentation, aimed at Sustainable Energy Resources for ...

  2. High-Performance with Solar Electric Reduced Peak Demand: Premier...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    with Solar Electric Reduced Peak Demand: Premier Homes Rancho Cordoba, CA - Building America Top Innovation High-Performance with Solar Electric Reduced Peak Demand: Premier Homes ...

  3. Electric Water Heater Modeling and Control Strategies for Demand Response

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Diao, Ruisheng; Lu, Shuai; Elizondo, Marcelo A.; Mayhorn, Ebony T.; Zhang, Yu; Samaan, Nader A.

    2012-07-22

    Abstract Demand response (DR) has a great potential to provide balancing services at normal operating conditions and emergency support when a power system is subject to disturbances. Effective control strategies can significantly relieve the balancing burden of conventional generators and reduce investment on generation and transmission expansion. This paper is aimed at modeling electric water heaters (EWH) in households and tests their response to control strategies to implement DR. The open-loop response of EWH to a centralized signal is studied by adjusting temperature settings to provide regulation services; and two types of decentralized controllers are tested to provide frequency support following generator trips. EWH models are included in a simulation platform in DIgSILENT to perform electromechanical simulation, which contains 147 households in a distribution feeder. Simulation results show the dependence of EWH response on water heater usage . These results provide insight suggestions on the need of control strategies to achieve better performance for demand response implementation. Index Terms Centralized control, decentralized control, demand response, electrical water heater, smart grid

  4. NERSC Python Modules

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    NERSC Python Modules NERSC Python Modules Python Interpreter Modules To use the NERSC-built installation, type: module load python This loads the default version of the following useful core modules: python_base: Python 2.7.x module. numpy: Defines the numerical array and matrix type and basic operations on them. scipy: Uses numpy to do advanced math, signal processing, optimization, statistics and much more. matplotlib: Plotting/visualization library. ipython: Interactive python shell offering

  5. Force Modulation System for Vehicle Manufacturing | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Recent U.S. automobile sales show a growing demand for more fuel-efficient and environmentally-friendly vehicles, including hybrids. The U.S. auto industry is pursuing at least two ...

  6. Demand for superpremium needle cokes on upswing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Acciarri, J.A.; Stockman, G.H. )

    1989-12-01

    The authors discuss how recent supply shortages of super-premium quality needle cokes, plus the expectation of increased shortfalls in the future, indicate that refiners should consider upgrading their operations to fill these demands. Calcined, super-premium needle cokes are currently selling for as much as $550/metric ton, fob producer, and increasing demand will continue the upward push of the past year. Needle coke, in its calcined form, is the major raw material in the manufacture of graphite electrodes. Used in steelmaking, graphite electrodes are the electrical conductors that supply the heat source, through arcing electrode column tips, to electric arc steel furnaces. Needle coke is commercially available in three grades - super premium, premium, and intermediate. Super premium is used to produce electrodes for the most severe electric arc furnace steelmaking applications, premium for electrodes destined to less severe operations, and intermediate for even less critical needs.

  7. Home Network Technologies and Automating Demand Response

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McParland, Charles

    2009-12-01

    Over the past several years, interest in large-scale control of peak energy demand and total consumption has increased. While motivated by a number of factors, this interest has primarily been spurred on the demand side by the increasing cost of energy and, on the supply side by the limited ability of utilities to build sufficient electricity generation capacity to meet unrestrained future demand. To address peak electricity use Demand Response (DR) systems are being proposed to motivate reductions in electricity use through the use of price incentives. DR systems are also be design to shift or curtail energy demand at critical times when the generation, transmission, and distribution systems (i.e. the 'grid') are threatened with instabilities. To be effectively deployed on a large-scale, these proposed DR systems need to be automated. Automation will require robust and efficient data communications infrastructures across geographically dispersed markets. The present availability of widespread Internet connectivity and inexpensive, reliable computing hardware combined with the growing confidence in the capabilities of distributed, application-level communications protocols suggests that now is the time for designing and deploying practical systems. Centralized computer systems that are capable of providing continuous signals to automate customers reduction of power demand, are known as Demand Response Automation Servers (DRAS). The deployment of prototype DRAS systems has already begun - with most initial deployments targeting large commercial and industrial (C & I) customers. An examination of the current overall energy consumption by economic sector shows that the C & I market is responsible for roughly half of all energy consumption in the US. On a per customer basis, large C & I customers clearly have the most to offer - and to gain - by participating in DR programs to reduce peak demand. And, by concentrating on a small number of relatively sophisticated energy consumers, it has been possible to improve the DR 'state of the art' with a manageable commitment of technical resources on both the utility and consumer side. Although numerous C & I DR applications of a DRAS infrastructure are still in either prototype or early production phases, these early attempts at automating DR have been notably successful for both utilities and C & I customers. Several factors have strongly contributed to this success and will be discussed below. These successes have motivated utilities and regulators to look closely at how DR programs can be expanded to encompass the remaining (roughly) half of the state's energy load - the light commercial and, in numerical terms, the more important residential customer market. This survey examines technical issues facing the implementation of automated DR in the residential environment. In particular, we will look at the potential role of home automation networks in implementing wide-scale DR systems that communicate directly to individual residences.

  8. What is a High Electric Demand Day?

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This presentation by T. McNevin of the New Jersey Bureau of Air Quality Planning was part of the July 2008 Webcast sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Weatherization and Intergovernmental Program Clean Energy and Air Quality Integration Initiative that was titled Role of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy in Improving Air Quality and Addressing Greenhouse Gas Reduction Goals on High Electric Demand Days.

  9. Retail Demand Response in Southwest Power Pool

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    LBNL-1470E Retail Demand Response in Southwest Power Pool Ranjit Bharvirkar, Grayson Heffner and Charles Goldman Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Environmental Energy Technologies Division January 2009 The work described in this report was funded by the Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability, Permitting, Siting and Analysis of the U.S. Department of Energy under Contract No. DE-AC02-05CH11231. ERNEST ORLANDO LAWRENCE BERKELEY NATIONAL LABORATORY Disclaimer This document was

  10. Price-responsive demand management for a smart grid world

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chao, Hung-po

    2010-01-15

    Price-responsive demand is essential for the success of a smart grid. However, existing demand-response programs run the risk of causing inefficient price formation. This problem can be solved if each retail customer could establish a contract-based baseline through demand subscription before joining a demand-response program. (author)

  11. NREL: dGen: Distributed Generation Market Demand Model - Publications

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Publications The following are publications-including technical reports, journal articles, conference papers, and posters-focusing on the Distributed Generation Market Demand Model (dGen) and its predecessor, the Solar Deployment System (SolarDS) model. Cole, Wesley, Haley Lewis, Ben Sigrin, and Robert Margolis. 2016. "Interactions of rooftop PV deployment with the capacity expansion of the bulk power system." Applied Energy 168 (April 2016) 473-81. doi:10.1016/j.apenergy.2016.02.004

  12. A hybrid inventory management system respondingto regular demand and surge demand

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mohammad S. Roni; Mingzhou Jin; Sandra D. Eksioglu

    2014-06-01

    This paper proposes a hybrid policy for a stochastic inventory system facing regular demand and surge demand. The combination of two different demand patterns can be observed in many areas, such as healthcare inventory and humanitarian supply chain management. The surge demand has a lower arrival rate but higher demand volume per arrival. The solution approach proposed in this paper incorporates the level crossing method and mixed integer programming technique to optimize the hybrid inventory policy with both regular orders and emergency orders. The level crossing method is applied to obtain the equilibrium distributions of inventory levels under a given policy. The model is further transformed into a mixed integer program to identify an optimal hybrid policy. A sensitivity analysis is conducted to investigate the impact of parameters on the optimal inventory policy and minimum cost. Numerical results clearly show the benefit of using the proposed hybrid inventory model. The model and solution approach could help healthcare providers or humanitarian logistics providers in managing their emergency supplies in responding to surge demands.

  13. Regression Models for Demand Reduction based on Cluster Analysis of Load Profiles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yamaguchi, Nobuyuki; Han, Junqiao; Ghatikar, Girish; Piette, Mary Ann; Asano, Hiroshi; Kiliccote, Sila

    2009-06-28

    This paper provides new regression models for demand reduction of Demand Response programs for the purpose of ex ante evaluation of the programs and screening for recruiting customer enrollment into the programs. The proposed regression models employ load sensitivity to outside air temperature and representative load pattern derived from cluster analysis of customer baseline load as explanatory variables. The proposed models examined their performances from the viewpoint of validity of explanatory variables and fitness of regressions, using actual load profile data of Pacific Gas and Electric Company's commercial and industrial customers who participated in the 2008 Critical Peak Pricing program including Manual and Automated Demand Response.

  14. A DISTRIBUTED INTELLIGENT AUTOMATED DEMAND RESPONSE BUILDING MANAGEMENT SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Auslander, David; Culler, David; Wright, Paul; Lu, Yan; Piette, Mary

    2013-12-30

    The goal of the 2.5 year Distributed Intelligent Automated Demand Response (DIADR) project was to reduce peak electricity load of Sutardja Dai Hall at UC Berkeley by 30% while maintaining a healthy, comfortable, and productive environment for the occupants. We sought to bring together both central and distributed control to provide “deep” demand response1 at the appliance level of the building as well as typical lighting and HVAC applications. This project brought together Siemens Corporate Research and Siemens Building Technology (the building has a Siemens Apogee Building Automation System (BAS)), Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (leveraging their Open Automated Demand Response (openADR), Auto-­Demand Response, and building modeling expertise), and UC Berkeley (related demand response research including distributed wireless control, and grid-­to-­building gateway development). Sutardja Dai Hall houses the Center for Information Technology Research in the Interest of Society (CITRIS), which fosters collaboration among industry and faculty and students of four UC campuses (Berkeley, Davis, Merced, and Santa Cruz). The 141,000 square foot building, occupied in 2009, includes typical office spaces and a nanofabrication laboratory. Heating is provided by a district heating system (steam from campus as a byproduct of the campus cogeneration plant); cooling is provided by one of two chillers: a more typical electric centrifugal compressor chiller designed for the cool months (Nov-­ March) and a steam absorption chiller for use in the warm months (April-­October). Lighting in the open office areas is provided by direct-­indirect luminaries with Building Management System-­based scheduling for open areas, and occupancy sensors for private office areas. For the purposes of this project, we focused on the office portion of the building. Annual energy consumption is approximately 8053 MWh; the office portion is estimated as 1924 MWh. The maximum peak load during the study period was 1175 kW. Several new tools facilitated this work, such as the Smart Energy Box, the distributed load controller or Energy Information Gateway, the web-­based DR controller (dubbed the Central Load-­Shed Coordinator or CLSC), and the Demand Response Capacity Assessment & Operation Assistance Tool (DRCAOT). In addition, an innovative data aggregator called sMAP (simple Measurement and Actuation Profile) allowed data from different sources collected in a compact form and facilitated detailed analysis of the building systems operation. A smart phone application (RAP or Rapid Audit Protocol) facilitated an inventory of the building’s plug loads. Carbon dioxide sensors located in conference rooms and classrooms allowed demand controlled ventilation. The extensive submetering and nimble access to this data provided great insight into the details of the building operation as well as quick diagnostics and analyses of tests. For example, students discovered a short-­cycling chiller, a stuck damper, and a leaking cooling coil in the first field tests. For our final field tests, we were able to see how each zone was affected by the DR strategies (e.g., the offices on the 7th floor grew very warm quickly) and fine-­tune the strategies accordingly.

  15. Module 4- Budgeting

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This module outlines basic costing concepts such as control accounts, work packages and planning packages.

  16. Wide-range voltage modulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rust, K.R.; Wilson, J.M.

    1992-06-01

    The Superconducting Super Collider`s Medium Energy Booster Abort (MEBA) kicker modulator will supply a current pulse to the abort magnets which deflect the proton beam from the MEB ring into a designated beam stop. The abort kicker will be used extensively during testing of the Low Energy Booster (LEB) and the MEB rings. When the Collider is in full operation, the MEBA kicker modulator will abort the MEB beam in the event of a malfunction during the filling process. The modulator must generate a 14-{mu}s wide pulse with a rise time of less than 1 {mu}s, including the delay and jitter times. It must also be able to deliver a current pulse to the magnet proportional to the beam energy at any time during ramp-up of the accelerator. Tracking the beam energy, which increases from 12 GeV at injection to 200 GeV at extraction, requires the modulator to operate over a wide range of voltages (4 kV to 80 kV). A vacuum spark gap and a thyratron have been chosen for test and evaluation as candidate switches for the abort modulator. Modulator design, switching time delay, jitter and pre-fire data are presented.

  17. LNG demand, shipping will expand through 2010

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    True, W.R.

    1998-02-09

    The 1990s, especially the middle years, have witnessed a dramatic turnaround in the growth of liquefied-natural-gas demand which has tracked equally strong natural-gas demand growth. This trend was underscored late last year by several annual studies of world LNG demand and shipping. As 1998 began, however, economic turmoil in Asian financial markets has clouded near-term prospects for LNG in particular and all energy in general. But the extent of damage to energy markets is so far unclear. A study by US-based Institute of Gas Technology, Des Plaines, IL, reveals that LNG imports worldwide have climbed nearly 8%/year since 1980 and account for 25% of all natural gas traded internationally. In the mid-1970s, the share was only 5%. In 1996, the most recent year for which complete data are available, world LNG trade rose 7.7% to a record 92 billion cu m, outpacing the overall consumption for natural gas which increased 4.7% in 1996. By 2015, says the IGT study, natural-gas use would surpass coal as the world`s second most widely used fuel, after petroleum. Much of this growth will occur in the developing countries of Asia where gas use, before the current economic crisis began, was projected to grow 8%/year through 2015. Similar trends are reflected in another study of LNG trade released at year end 1997, this from Ocean Shipping Consultants Ltd., Surrey, U.K. The study was done too early, however, to consider the effects of the financial problems roiling Asia.

  18. Demand-Side Response from Industrial Loads

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Starke, Michael R; Alkadi, Nasr E; Letto, Daryl; Johnson, Brandon; Dowling, Kevin; George, Raoule; Khan, Saqib

    2013-01-01

    Through a research study funded by the Department of Energy, Smart Grid solutions company ENBALA Power Networks along with the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) have geospatially quantified the potential flexibility within industrial loads to leverage their inherent process storage to help support the management of the electricity grid. The study found that there is an excess of 12 GW of demand-side load flexibility available in a select list of top industrial facilities in the United States. Future studies will expand on this quantity of flexibility as more in-depth analysis of different industries is conducted and demonstrations are completed.

  19. Economic Rebalancing and Electricity Demand in China

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    He, Gang; Lin, Jiang; Yuan, Alexandria

    2015-11-01

    Understanding the relationship between economic growth and electricity use is essential for power systems planning. This need is particularly acute now in China, as the Chinese economy is going through a transition to a more consumption and service oriented economy. This study uses 20 years of provincial data on gross domestic product (GDP) and electricity consumption to examine the relationship between these two factors. We observe a plateauing effect of electricity consumption in the richest provinces, as the electricity demand saturates and the economy develops and moves to a more service-based economy. There is a wide range of forecasts for electricity use in 2030, ranging from 5,308 to 8,292 kWh per capita, using different estimating functions, as well as in existing studies. It is therefore critical to examine more carefully the relationship between electricity use and economic development, as China transitions to a new growth phase that is likely to be less energy and resource intensive. The results of this study suggest that policymakers and power system planners in China should seriously re-evaluate power demand projections and the need for new generation capacity to avoid over-investment that could lead to stranded generation assets.

  20. China’s rare earth supply chain: Illegal production, and response to new cerium demand

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Nguyen, Ruby Thuy; Imholte, D. Devin

    2016-03-29

    As the demand for personal electronic devices, wind turbines, and electric vehicles increases, the world becomes more dependent on rare earth elements. Given the volatile, Chinese-concentrated supply chain, global attempts have been made to diversify supply of these materials. However, the overall effect of supply diversification on the entire supply chain, including increasing low-value rare earth demand, is not fully understood. This paper is the first attempt to shed some light on China’s supply chain from both demand and supply perspectives, taking into account different Chinese policies such as mining quotas, separation quotas, export quotas, and resource taxes. We constructedmore » a simulation model using Powersim Studio that analyzes production (both legal and illegal), production costs, Chinese and rest-of-world demand, and market dynamics. We also simulated new demand of an automotive aluminum-cerium alloy in the U.S. market starting from 2018. Results showed that market share of the illegal sector has grown since 2007 to 2015, ranging between 22% and 25% of China’s rare earth supply, translating into 59–65% illegal heavy rare earths and 14–16% illegal light rare earths. There would be a shortage in certain light and heavy rare earths given three production quota scenarios and constant demand growth rate from 2015 to 2030. The new simulated Ce demand would require supply beyond that produced in China. Lastly, we illustrated revenue streams for different ore compositions in China in 2015.« less

  1. WRAP module 1 treatment plan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mayancsik, B.A.

    1995-05-01

    This document provides the methodology to treat waste in the Waste Receiving and Processing Module 1 facility to meet the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) land disposal restrictions or the Waste Isolation and Pilot Plant waste acceptance criteria. This includes Low-Level Mixed Waste, Transuranic Waste, and Transuranic Mixed Waste.

  2. East Coast blizzard cuts into gasoline demand, but home electricity demand rises

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    East Coast blizzard cuts into gasoline demand, but home electricity demand rises U.S. monthly gasoline consumption declined in January, as the big winter storm that shut down many East Coast cities kept people in their homes and off the road. In its new monthly forecast, the U.S. Energy Information Administration said monthly gasoline consumption dropped 230,000 barrels per day in January compared to year-ago levels and that marked the first year-over-year decline in monthly gasoline use since

  3. DOE/EIA-M066(2010) Commercial Sector Demand Module

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    the State Energy Data System (SEDS) historical commercial sector consumption, applying an additive correction term to ensure that simulated model results correspond to published...

  4. DOE/EIA-M066(2009) Commercial Sector Demand Module

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    the State Energy Data System (SEDS) historical commercial sector consumption, applying an additive correction term to ensure that simulated model results correspond to published...

  5. Demand Response Opportunities in Industrial Refrigerated Warehouses in California

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goli, Sasank; McKane, Aimee; Olsen, Daniel

    2011-06-14

    Industrial refrigerated warehouses that implemented energy efficiency measures and have centralized control systems can be excellent candidates for Automated Demand Response (Auto-DR) due to equipment synergies, and receptivity of facility managers to strategies that control energy costs without disrupting facility operations. Auto-DR utilizes OpenADR protocol for continuous and open communication signals over internet, allowing facilities to automate their Demand Response (DR). Refrigerated warehouses were selected for research because: They have significant power demand especially during utility peak periods; most processes are not sensitive to short-term (2-4 hours) lower power and DR activities are often not disruptive to facility operations; the number of processes is limited and well understood; and past experience with some DR strategies successful in commercial buildings may apply to refrigerated warehouses. This paper presents an overview of the potential for load sheds and shifts from baseline electricity use in response to DR events, along with physical configurations and operating characteristics of refrigerated warehouses. Analysis of data from two case studies and nine facilities in Pacific Gas and Electric territory, confirmed the DR abilities inherent to refrigerated warehouses but showed significant variation across facilities. Further, while load from California's refrigerated warehouses in 2008 was 360 MW with estimated DR potential of 45-90 MW, actual achieved was much less due to low participation. Efforts to overcome barriers to increased participation may include, improved marketing and recruitment of potential DR sites, better alignment and emphasis on financial benefits of participation, and use of Auto-DR to increase consistency of participation.

  6. Power module assemblies with staggered coolant channels

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Herron, Nicholas Hayden; Mann, Brooks S; Korich, Mark D

    2013-07-16

    A manifold is provided for supporting a power module assembly with a plurality of power modules. The manifold includes a first manifold section. The first face of the first manifold section is configured to receive the first power module, and the second face of the first manifold section defines a first cavity with a first baseplate thermally coupled to the first power module. The first face of the second manifold section is configured to receive the second power module, and the second face of the second manifold section defines a second cavity with a second baseplate thermally coupled to the second power module. The second face of the first manifold section and the second face of the second manifold section are coupled together such that the first cavity and the second cavity form a coolant channel. The first cavity is at least partially staggered with respect to second cavity.

  7. California: Geothermal Plant to Help Meet High Lithium Demand...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Geothermal Plant to Help Meet High Lithium Demand California: Geothermal Plant to Help Meet High Lithium Demand May 21, 2013 - 5:54pm Addthis Through funding provided by the...

  8. Tankless or Demand-Type Water Heaters | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    or Demand-Type Water Heaters Tankless or Demand-Type Water Heaters Diagram of a tankless water heater. Diagram of a tankless water heater. Tankless water heaters, also known as ...

  9. Demand Response: Lessons Learned with an Eye to the Future |...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Demand Response: Lessons Learned with an Eye to the Future Demand Response: Lessons Learned with an Eye to the Future July 11, 2013 - 11:56am Addthis Patricia A. Hoffman Patricia...

  10. A National Forum on Demand Response: Results on What Remains...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Part of the July 2011 Implementation Proposal called for a "National Forum" on demand response to be conducted by DOE and FERC. Given the rapid development of the demand response ...

  11. California Geothermal Power Plant to Help Meet High Lithium Demand...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    California Geothermal Power Plant to Help Meet High Lithium Demand California Geothermal Power Plant to Help Meet High Lithium Demand September 20, 2012 - 1:15pm Addthis Ever ...

  12. Tankless or Demand-Type Water Heaters | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Tankless or Demand-Type Water Heaters Tankless or Demand-Type Water Heaters Diagram of a tankless water heater. Diagram of a tankless water heater. Tankless water heaters, also...

  13. A Hierarchical Framework for Demand-Side Frequency Control (Conference...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    A Hierarchical Framework for Demand-Side Frequency Control Citation Details In-Document Search Title: A Hierarchical Framework for Demand-Side Frequency Control With large-scale ...

  14. Marketing & Driving Demand Collaborative - Social Media Tools & Strategies

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    | Department of Energy & Driving Demand Collaborative - Social Media Tools & Strategies Marketing & Driving Demand Collaborative - Social Media Tools & Strategies Presentation slides from the Better Buildings webinar on January 6, 2011. PDF icon Marketing & Driving Demand Collaborative More Documents & Publications Using Social Media for Long-Term Branding Marketing & Driving Demand: Social Media Tools & Strategies - January 16, 2011 (Text Version) Generating

  15. Using Partnerships to Drive Demand and Provide Services in Communities |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Partnerships to Drive Demand and Provide Services in Communities Using Partnerships to Drive Demand and Provide Services in Communities Better Buildings Neighborhood Program Multifamily and Low-Income Peer Exchange Call: Using Partnerships to Drive Demand and Provide Services in Communities, February 2, 2012. PDF icon Call Slides and Discussion Summary More Documents & Publications Strategies for Marketing and Driving Demand for Commercial Financing Products

  16. 2010 Assessment of Demand Response and Advanced Metering - Staff Report |

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Department of Energy Assessment of Demand Response and Advanced Metering - Staff Report 2010 Assessment of Demand Response and Advanced Metering - Staff Report 2010 Assessment of Demand Response and Advanced Metering - Staff Report. The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission's 2010 Demand Response and Advanced Metering Survey (2010 FERC Survey, covering calendar year 2009) indicates that advanced metering penetration (i.e., the fraction of all installed meters that are advanced meters) reached

  17. International Transportation Energy Demand Determinants (ITEDD): Prototype Results for China

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Jim Turnure, Director Office of Energy Consumption & Efficiency Analysis, EIA EIA Conference: Asian Energy Demand July 14, 2014 | Washington, DC International Transportation Energy Demand Determinants (ITEDD): Prototype Results for China Dawn of new global oil market paradigm? 2 Jim Turnure, EIA Conference July 14, 2014 * Conventional wisdom has centered around $100-120/barrel oil and 110-115 million b/d global liquid fuel demand in the long term (2030-2040) * Demand in non-OECD may push

  18. FERC Presendation: Demand Response as Power System Resources, October 29,

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    2010 | Department of Energy FERC Presendation: Demand Response as Power System Resources, October 29, 2010 FERC Presendation: Demand Response as Power System Resources, October 29, 2010 Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) presentation on demand response as power system resources before the Electicity Advisory Committee, October 29, 2010 PDF icon Demand Response as Power System Resources More Documents & Publications Ancillary Service Revenue Potential for Geothermal Generators in

  19. Opportunities for Demand Response in California Agricultural Irrigation: A Scoping Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marks, Gary; Wilcox, Edmund; Olsen, Daniel; Goli, Sasank

    2013-01-02

    California agricultural irrigation consumes more than ten billion kilowatt hours of electricity annually and has significant potential for contributing to a reduction of stress on the grid through demand response, permanent load shifting, and energy efficiency measures. To understand this potential, a scoping study was initiated for the purpose of determining the associated opportunities, potential, and adoption challenges in California agricultural irrigation. The primary research for this study was conducted in two ways. First, data was gathered and parsed from published sources that shed light on where the best opportunities for load shifting and demand response lie within the agricultural irrigation sector. Secondly, a small limited survey was conducted as informal face-to-face interviews with several different California growers to get an idea of their ability and willingness to participate in permanent load shifting and/or demand response programs. Analysis of the data obtained from published sources and the survey reveal demand response and permanent load shifting opportunities by growing region, irrigation source, irrigation method, grower size, and utility coverage. The study examines some solutions for demand response and permanent load shifting in agricultural irrigation, which include adequate irrigation system capacity, automatic controls, variable frequency drives, and the contribution from energy efficiency measures. The study further examines the potential and challenges for grower acceptance of demand response and permanent load shifting in California agricultural irrigation. As part of the examination, the study considers to what extent permanent load shifting, which is already somewhat accepted within the agricultural sector, mitigates the need or benefit of demand response for agricultural irrigation. Recommendations for further study include studies on how to gain grower acceptance of demand response as well as other related studies such as conducting a more comprehensive survey of California growers.

  20. The Impact of Uncertain Physical Parameters on HVAC Demand Response

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sun, Yannan; Elizondo, Marcelo A.; Lu, Shuai; Fuller, Jason C.

    2014-03-01

    HVAC units are currently one of the major resources providing demand response (DR) in residential buildings. Models of HVAC with DR function can improve understanding of its impact on power system operations and facilitate the deployment of DR technologies. This paper investigates the importance of various physical parameters and their distributions to the HVAC response to DR signals, which is a key step to the construction of HVAC models for a population of units with insufficient data. These parameters include the size of floors, insulation efficiency, the amount of solid mass in the house, and efficiency of the HVAC units. These parameters are usually assumed to follow Gaussian or Uniform distributions. We study the effect of uncertainty in the chosen parameter distributions on the aggregate HVAC response to DR signals, during transient phase and in steady state. We use a quasi-Monte Carlo sampling method with linear regression and Prony analysis to evaluate sensitivity of DR output to the uncertainty in the distribution parameters. The significance ranking on the uncertainty sources is given for future guidance in the modeling of HVAC demand response.

  1. Expected international demand for woody and herbaceous feedstock

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lamers, Patrick; Jacobson, Jacob; Mohammad, Roni; Wright, Christopher

    2015-03-01

    The development of a U.S. bioenergy market and ultimately ‘bioeconomy’ has primarily been investigated with a national focus. Limited attention has been given to the potential impacts of international market developments. The goal of this project is to advance the current State of Technology of a single biorefinery to the global level providing quantitative estimates on how international markets may influence the domestic feedstock supply costs. The scope of the project is limited to feedstock that is currently available and new crops being developed to be used in a future U.S. bioeconomy including herbaceous residues (e.g., corn stover), woody biomass (e.g., pulpwood), and energy crops (e.g., switchgrass). The timeframe is set to the periods of 2022, 2030, and 2040 to align with current policy targets (e.g., the RFS2) and future updates of the Billion Ton data. This particular milestone delivers demand volumes for generic woody and herbaceous feedstocks for the main (net) importing regions along the above timeframes. The regional focus of the study is the European Union (EU), currently the largest demand region for U.S. pellets made from pulpwood and forest residues. The pellets are predominantly used in large-scale power plants (>5MWel) in the United Kingdom (UK), the Netherlands (NL), Belgium (BE), and Denmark (DK).

  2. Solid-state membrane module

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gordon, John Howard; Taylor, Dale M.

    2011-06-07

    Solid-state membrane modules comprising at least one membrane unit, where the membrane unit has a dense mixed conducting oxide layer, and at least one conduit or manifold wherein the conduit or manifold comprises a dense layer and at least one of a porous layer and a slotted layer contiguous with the dense layer. The solid-state membrane modules may be used to carry out a variety of processes including the separating of any ionizable component from a feedstream wherein such ionizable component is capable of being transported through a dense mixed conducting oxide layer of the membrane units making up the membrane modules. For ease of construction, the membrane units may be planar.

  3. Module 8- Reporting

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This module illustrates and defines the different cost performance reports (CPR) available for reporting earned value information.

  4. Common Geometry Module

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2005-01-01

    The Common Geometry Module (CGM) is a code library which provides geometry functionality used for mesh generation and other applications. This functionality includes that commonly found in solid modeling engines, like geometry creation, query and modification; CGM also includes capabilities not commonly found in solid modeling engines, like geometry decomposition tools and support for shared material interfaces. CGM is built upon the ACIS solid modeling engine, but also includes geometry capability developed beside and onmore » top of ACIS. CGM can be used as-is to provide geometry functionality for codes needing this capability. However, CGM can also be extended using derived classes in C++, allowing the geometric model to serve as the basis for other applications, for example mesh generation. CGM is supported on Sun Solaris, SGI, HP, IBM, DEC, Linux and Windows NT platforms. CGM also indudes support for loading ACIS models on parallel computers, using MPI-based communication. Future plans for CGM are to port it to different solid modeling engines, including Pro/Engineer or SolidWorks. CGM is being released into the public domain under an LGPL license; the ACIS-based engine is available to ACIS licensees on request.« less

  5. Modulating lignin in plants

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Apuya, Nestor; Bobzin, Steven Craig; Okamuro, Jack; Zhang, Ke

    2013-01-29

    Materials and methods for modulating (e.g., increasing or decreasing) lignin content in plants are disclosed. For example, nucleic acids encoding lignin-modulating polypeptides are disclosed as well as methods for using such nucleic acids to generate transgenic plants having a modulated lignin content.

  6. WRAP Module 1 sampling and analysis plan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mayancsik, B.A.

    1995-03-24

    This document provides the methodology to sample, screen, and analyze waste generated, processed, or otherwise the responsibility of the Waste Receiving and Processing Module 1 facility. This includes Low-Level Waste, Transuranic Waste, Mixed Waste, and Dangerous Waste.

  7. Fortran 90 Source Module

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1998-01-13

    A major advance contained in the new Fortran 90 language standard is the ability to define new data types and the operators associated with them. Writing computer code to implement computations with real and complex three domensional vectors and dyadics is greatly simplified if the equations can be implemented directly, without the need to code the vector arithmetic explicitly. The Fortran 90 module VECTORS contains source code which defines new data types for real andmore » complex 3-dimensional vectors and dyadics, along with the common operations needed to work with these objects. Routines to allow convenient initalization and output of the new types are also included. in keeping with the philosophy of data abstraction, the details of the implementation of the data types are maintained private, and the functions and operators are made generic to simplify the combining of real, complex, single and double precision vectors and dyadics.« less

  8. Light modulating device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rauh, R. David; Goldner, Ronald B.

    1989-01-01

    In a device for transmitting light, means for controlling the transmissivity of the device, including a ceramic, reversibly electrochromic, crystalline element having a highly reflective state when injected with electrons and charge compensating ions and a highly transmissive state when the electrons and ions are removed, the crystalline element being characterized as having a reflectivity of at least 50% in the reflective state and not greater than 10% in the transmissive state, and means for modulating the crystalline element between the reflective and transmissive states by injecting ions into the crystalline element in response to an applied electrical current of a first polarity and removing the ions in response to an applied electrical current of a second polarity.

  9. Light modulating device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rauh, R.D.; Goldner, R.B.

    1989-12-26

    In a device for transmitting light, means for controlling the transmissivity of the device, including a ceramic, reversibly electrochromic, crystalline element having a highly reflective state when injected with electrons and charge compensating ions and a highly transmissive state when the electrons and ions are removed, the crystalline element being characterized as having a reflectivity of at least 50% in the reflective state and not greater than 10% in the transmissive state, and means for modulating the crystalline element between the reflective and transmissive states by injecting ions into the crystalline element in response to an applied electrical current of a first polarity and removing the ions in response to an applied electrical current of a second polarity are disclosed. 1 fig.

  10. Photovoltaic module mounting system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Miros, Robert H. J.; Mittan, Margaret Birmingham; Seery, Martin N.; Holland, Rodney H.

    2012-04-17

    A solar array mounting system having unique installation, load distribution, and grounding features, and which is adaptable for mounting solar panels having no external frame. The solar array mounting system includes flexible, pedestal-style feet and structural links connected in a grid formation on the mounting surface. The photovoltaic modules are secured in place via the use of attachment clamps that grip the edge of the typically glass substrate. The panel mounting clamps are then held in place by tilt brackets and/or mid-link brackets that provide fixation for the clamps and align the solar panels at a tilt to the horizontal mounting surface. The tilt brackets are held in place atop the flexible feet and connected link members thus creating a complete mounting structure.

  11. Photovoltaic module mounting system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Miros, Robert H. J.; Mittan, Margaret Birmingham; Seery, Martin N; Holland, Rodney H

    2012-09-18

    A solar array mounting system having unique installation, load distribution, and grounding features, and which is adaptable for mounting solar panels having no external frame. The solar array mounting system includes flexible, pedestal-style feet and structural links connected in a grid formation on the mounting surface. The photovoltaic modules are secured in place via the use of attachment clamps that grip the edge of the typically glass substrate. The panel mounting clamps are then held in place by tilt brackets and/or mid-link brackets that provide fixation for the clamps and align the solar panels at a tilt to the horizontal mounting surface. The tilt brackets are held in place atop the flexible feet and connected link members thus creating a complete mounting structure.

  12. Automated Demand Response Opportunities in Wastewater Treatment Facilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thompson, Lisa; Song, Katherine; Lekov, Alex; McKane, Aimee

    2008-11-19

    Wastewater treatment is an energy intensive process which, together with water treatment, comprises about three percent of U.S. annual energy use. Yet, since wastewater treatment facilities are often peripheral to major electricity-using industries, they are frequently an overlooked area for automated demand response opportunities. Demand response is a set of actions taken to reduce electric loads when contingencies, such as emergencies or congestion, occur that threaten supply-demand balance, and/or market conditions occur that raise electric supply costs. Demand response programs are designed to improve the reliability of the electric grid and to lower the use of electricity during peak times to reduce the total system costs. Open automated demand response is a set of continuous, open communication signals and systems provided over the Internet to allow facilities to automate their demand response activities without the need for manual actions. Automated demand response strategies can be implemented as an enhanced use of upgraded equipment and facility control strategies installed as energy efficiency measures. Conversely, installation of controls to support automated demand response may result in improved energy efficiency through real-time access to operational data. This paper argues that the implementation of energy efficiency opportunities in wastewater treatment facilities creates a base for achieving successful demand reductions. This paper characterizes energy use and the state of demand response readiness in wastewater treatment facilities and outlines automated demand response opportunities.

  13. Measurement and evaluation techniques for automated demand response demonstration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Motegi, Naoya; Piette, Mary Ann; Watson, David S.; Sezgen, Osman; ten Hope, Laurie

    2004-08-01

    The recent electricity crisis in California and elsewhere has prompted new research to evaluate demand response strategies in large facilities. This paper describes an evaluation of fully automated demand response technologies (Auto-DR) in five large facilities. Auto-DR does not involve human intervention, but is initiated at a facility through receipt of an external communications signal. This paper summarizes the measurement and evaluation of the performance of demand response technologies and strategies in five large facilities. All the sites have data trending systems such as energy management and control systems (EMCS) and/or energy information systems (EIS). Additional sub-metering was applied where necessary to evaluate the facility's demand response performance. This paper reviews the control responses during the test period, and analyzes demand savings achieved at each site. Occupant comfort issues are investigated where data are available. This paper discusses methods to estimate demand savings and results from demand response strategies at five large facilities.

  14. Pilot Testing of Commercial Refrigeration-Based Demand Response

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hirsch, Adam; Clark, Jordan; Deru, Michael; Trenbath, Kim; Doebber, Ian; Studer, Daniel

    2015-10-08

    Supermarkets potentially offer a substantial demand response (DR) resource because of their high energy intensity and use patterns. This report describes a pilot project conducted to better estimate supermarket DR potential. Previous work has analyzed supermarket DR using heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC), lighting, and anti-condensate heaters. This project was concerned with evaluating DR using the refrigeration system and quantifying the DR potential inherent in supermarket refrigeration systems. Ancillary aims of the project were to identify practical barriers to the implementation of DR programs in supermarkets and to determine which high-level control strategies were most appropriate for achieving certain DR objectives. The scope of this project does not include detailed control strategy development for DR or development of a strategy for regional implementation of DR in supermarkets.

  15. Value of Demand Response: Quantities from Production Cost Modeling (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hummon, M.

    2014-04-01

    Demand response (DR) resources present a potentially important source of grid flexibility particularly on future systems with high penetrations of variable wind and solar power generation. However, managed loads in grid models are limited by data availability and modeling complexity. This presentation focuses on the value of co-optimized DR resources to provide energy and ancillary services in a production cost model. There are significant variations in the availabilities of different types of DR resources, which affect both the operational savings as well as the revenue for each DR resource. The results presented include the system-wide avoided fuel and generator start-up costs as well as the composite revenue for each DR resource by energy and operating reserves. In addition, the revenue is characterized by the capacity, energy, and units of DR enabled.

  16. Incentives for demand-side management

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reid, M.W.; Brown, J.B.

    1992-01-01

    This report is the first product of an ongoing project to monitor the efforts of states to remove regulatory barriers to, and provide financial incentives for, utility investment in demand-side management (DSM) resources. The project was commissioned by the National Association of Regulatory Utility Commissioners (NARUC) in response to growing interest among regulators for a comprehensive survey of developments in this area. Each state report beings with an overview of the state`s progress toward removing regulatory barriers and providing incentives for DSM. Information is organized under five headings: status; IRP regulations and practice; current treatment of DSM, directions and trends; commission contact person. Where applicable, each overview is followed by one or more sections that report on specific incentive proposals or mechanisms within the state. Information on each proposal or mechanism is organized under eight headings. A notation on each page identifies the utility or other group associated with the proposal or mechanism. The eight headings are as follows: status; background; treatment of cost recovery; treatment of lost revenues/decoupling; treatment of profitability; other features; issues, and additional observations.

  17. Incentives for demand-side management

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reid, M.W.; Brown, J.B. )

    1992-01-01

    This report is the first product of an ongoing project to monitor the efforts of states to remove regulatory barriers to, and provide financial incentives for, utility investment in demand-side management (DSM) resources. The project was commissioned by the National Association of Regulatory Utility Commissioners (NARUC) in response to growing interest among regulators for a comprehensive survey of developments in this area. Each state report beings with an overview of the state's progress toward removing regulatory barriers and providing incentives for DSM. Information is organized under five headings: status; IRP regulations and practice; current treatment of DSM, directions and trends; commission contact person. Where applicable, each overview is followed by one or more sections that report on specific incentive proposals or mechanisms within the state. Information on each proposal or mechanism is organized under eight headings. A notation on each page identifies the utility or other group associated with the proposal or mechanism. The eight headings are as follows: status; background; treatment of cost recovery; treatment of lost revenues/decoupling; treatment of profitability; other features; issues, and additional observations.

  18. RFID tag modification for full depth backscatter modulation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Scott, Jeffrey Wayne [Pasco, WA; Pratt, Richard M [Richland, WA

    2010-07-20

    A modulated backscatter radio frequency identification device includes a diode detector configured to selectively modulate a reply signal onto an incoming continuous wave; communications circuitry configured to provide a modulation control signal to the diode detector, the diode detector being configured to modulate the reply signal in response to be modulation control signal; and circuitry configured to increase impedance change at the diode detector which would otherwise not occur because the diode detector rectifies the incoming continuous wave while modulating the reply signal, whereby reducing the rectified signal increases modulation depth by removing the reverse bias effects on impedance changes. Methods of improving depth of modulation in a modulated backscatter radio frequency identification device are also provided.

  19. The impact of demand-controlled ventilation on energy use in buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Braun, J.E.; Brandemuehl, M.J.

    1999-07-01

    The overall objective of this work was to evaluate typical energy requirements associated with alternative ventilation control strategies. The strategies included different combinations of economizer and demand-controlled ventilation controls and energy analyses were performed for a range of typical buildings, systems, and climates. Only single zone buildings were considered, so that simultaneous heating and cooling did not exist. The energy savings associated with economizer and demand-controlled ventilation strategies were found to be very significant for both heating and cooling. In general, the greatest savings in electrical usage for cooling with the addition of demand-controlled ventilation occur in situations where the opportunities for economizer cooling are less. This is true for warm and humid climates, and for buildings that have low relative internal gains (i.e., low occupant densities). As much as 10% savings in electrical energy for cooling were possible with demand-controlled ventilation. The savings in heating energy associated with demand-controlled ventilation were generally much larger, but were strongly dependent upon the occupancy schedule. Significantly greater savings were found for buildings with highly variable occupancy schedules (e.g., stores and restaurants) as compared with office buildings. In some cases, the primary heating energy was reduced by a factor of 10 with demand-controlled ventilation as compared with fixed ventilation rates.

  20. Optimization Based Data Mining Approah for Forecasting Real-Time Energy Demand

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Omitaomu, Olufemi A; Li, Xueping; Zhou, Shengchao

    2015-01-01

    The worldwide concern over environmental degradation, increasing pressure on electric utility companies to meet peak energy demand, and the requirement to avoid purchasing power from the real-time energy market are motivating the utility companies to explore new approaches for forecasting energy demand. Until now, most approaches for forecasting energy demand rely on monthly electrical consumption data. The emergence of smart meters data is changing the data space for electric utility companies, and creating opportunities for utility companies to collect and analyze energy consumption data at a much finer temporal resolution of at least 15-minutes interval. While the data granularity provided by smart meters is important, there are still other challenges in forecasting energy demand; these challenges include lack of information about appliances usage and occupants behavior. Consequently, in this paper, we develop an optimization based data mining approach for forecasting real-time energy demand using smart meters data. The objective of our approach is to develop a robust estimation of energy demand without access to these other building and behavior data. Specifically, the forecasting problem is formulated as a quadratic programming problem and solved using the so-called support vector machine (SVM) technique in an online setting. The parameters of the SVM technique are optimized using simulated annealing approach. The proposed approach is applied to hourly smart meters data for several residential customers over several days.

  1. Hole-thru-laminate mounting supports for photovoltaic modules

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wexler, Jason; Botkin, Jonathan; Culligan, Matthew; Detrick, Adam

    2015-02-17

    A mounting support for a photovoltaic module is described. The mounting support includes a pedestal having a surface adaptable to receive a flat side of a photovoltaic module laminate. A hole is disposed in the pedestal, the hole adaptable to receive a bolt or a pin used to couple the pedestal to the flat side of the photovoltaic module laminate.

  2. Thermoelectrics Partnership: Automotive Thermoelectric Modules...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Solution for Automotive Thermoelectric Modules Application Thermoelectrics Partnership: Automotive Thermoelectric Modules with Scalable Thermo- and Electro-Mechanical Interfaces

  3. Investigation of structural changes in residential electricity demand

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chern, W.S.; Bouis, H.E.

    1982-09-23

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the stability of aggregate national residential electricity demand coefficients over time. The hypothesis is maintained that the aggregate residential demand is the sum of various end-use demand components. Since the end-use composition changes over time, the demand relationship may change as well. Since the end-use composition differs among regions, the results obtained from this study can be used for making inferences about regional differences in electricity demand relationships. There are two additional sources for a possible structural change. One is that consumers may react differently to declining and rising prices, secondly, the impact of the 1973 oil embargo may have shifted demand preferences. The electricity demand model used for this study is presented. A moving regression method was employed to investigate changes in residential electricity demand over time. The statistical results show a strikingly consistent pattern of change for most of the structural variables. The most important finding of this study is that the estimated structure of residential electricity demand changes systematically over time as a result of changes in the characteristics (both durability and saturation level) of the stock of appliances. Furthermore, there is not strong evidence that the structural changes in demand occurred due to either the reversal of the declining trend of electricity prices or the impact of the 1973 oil embarge. (LCL)

  4. Opportunities for Automated Demand Response in California Agricultural Irrigation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Olsen, Daniel; Aghajanzadeh, Arian; McKane, Aimee

    2015-08-01

    Pumping water for agricultural irrigation represents a significant share of California’s annual electricity use and peak demand. It also represents a large source of potential flexibility, as farms possess a form of storage in their wetted soil. By carefully modifying their irrigation schedules, growers can participate in demand response without adverse effects on their crops. This report describes the potential for participation in demand response and automated demand response by agricultural irrigators in California, as well as barriers to widespread participation. The report first describes the magnitude, timing, location, purpose, and manner of energy use in California. Typical on-­farm controls are discussed, as well as common impediments to participation in demand response and automated demand response programs. Case studies of demand response programs in California and across the country are reviewed, and their results along with overall California demand estimates are used to estimate statewide demand response potential. Finally, recommendations are made for future research that can enhance the understanding of demand response potential in this industry.

  5. Photovoltaic module with removable wind deflector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Botkin, Jonathan; Graves, Simon; Danning, Matt; Culligan, Matthew

    2012-08-07

    A photovoltaic (PV) module assembly including a PV module, a deflector, and a clip. The PV module includes a PV device and a frame. A PV laminate is assembled to the frame, and the frame includes a support arm forming a seat. The deflector defines a front face and a rear face, with the clip extending from either the trailing frame member or the rear face of the deflector. In a mounted state, the deflector is nested within the seat and is releasably mounted to the trailing frame member via the clip. In some embodiments, the support arm forms a second seat, with the PV module assembly providing a second mounted state in which the deflector is in a differing orientation/slope, nested within the second seat and releasably mounted to the trailing frame member via the clip.

  6. Photovoltaic module with removable wind deflector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Botkin, Jonathan; Graves, Simon; Danning, Matt; Culligan, Matthew

    2013-05-28

    A photovoltaic (PV) module assembly including a PV module, a deflector, and a clip. The PV module includes a PV device and a frame. A PV laminate is assembled to the frame, and the frame includes a support arm forming a seat. The deflector defines a front face and a rear face, with the clip extending from either the trailing frame member or the rear face of the deflector. In a mounted state, the deflector is nested within the seat and is releasably mounted to the trailing frame member via the clip. In some embodiments, the support arm forms a second seat, with the PV module assembly providing a second mounted state in which the deflector is in a differing orientation/slope, nested within the second seat and releasably mounted to the trailing frame member via the clip.

  7. Photovoltaic module with removable wind deflector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Botkin, Jonathan; Graves, Simon; Danning, Matt; Culligan, Matthew

    2014-02-18

    A photovoltaic (PV) module assembly including a PV module, a deflector, and a clip. The PV module includes a PV device and a frame. A PV laminate is assembled to the frame, and the frame includes a support arm forming a seat. The deflector defines a front face and a rear face, with the clip extending from either the trailing frame member or the rear face of the deflector. In a mounted state, the deflector is nested within the seat and is releasably mounted to the trailing frame member via the clip. In some embodiments, the support arm forms a second seat, with the PV module assembly providing a second mounted state in which the deflector is in a differing orientation/slope, nested within the second seat and releasably mounted to the trailing frame member via the clip.

  8. Multidimensional signal modulation and/or demodulation for data communications

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Smith, Stephen F.; Dress, William B.

    2008-03-04

    Systems and methods are described for multidimensional signal modulation and/or demodulation for data communications. A method includes modulating a carrier signal in a first domain selected from the group consisting of phase, frequency, amplitude, polarization and spread; modulating the carrier signal in a second domain selected from the group consisting of phase, frequency, amplitude, polarization and spread; and modulating the carrier signal in a third domain selected from the group consisting of phase, frequency, amplitude, polarization and spread.

  9. Modeling of GE Appliances in GridLAB-D: Peak Demand Reduction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fuller, Jason C.; Vyakaranam, Bharat GNVSR; Prakash Kumar, Nirupama; Leistritz, Sean M.; Parker, Graham B.

    2012-04-29

    The widespread adoption of demand response enabled appliances and thermostats can result in significant reduction to peak electrical demand and provide potential grid stabilization benefits. GE has developed a line of appliances that will have the capability of offering several levels of demand reduction actions based on information from the utility grid, often in the form of price. However due to a number of factors, including the number of demand response enabled appliances available at any given time, the reduction of diversity factor due to the synchronizing control signal, and the percentage of consumers who may override the utility signal, it can be difficult to predict the aggregate response of a large number of residences. The effects of these behaviors can be modeled and simulated in open-source software, GridLAB-D, including evaluation of appliance controls, improvement to current algorithms, and development of aggregate control methodologies. This report is the first in a series of three reports describing the potential of GE's demand response enabled appliances to provide benefits to the utility grid. The first report will describe the modeling methodology used to represent the GE appliances in the GridLAB-D simulation environment and the estimated potential for peak demand reduction at various deployment levels. The second and third reports will explore the potential of aggregated group actions to positively impact grid stability, including frequency and voltage regulation and spinning reserves, and the impacts on distribution feeder voltage regulation, including mitigation of fluctuations caused by high penetration of photovoltaic distributed generation and the effects on volt-var control schemes.

  10. Nuclear modules of ITER tokamak systems code

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gohar, Y.; Baker, C.; Brooks, J.; Finn, P.; Hassanein, A.; Willms, S.; Barr, W.; Bushigin, A.; Kalyanam, K.M.; Haines, J.

    1987-10-01

    Nuclear modules were developed to model various reactor components in the ITER systems code. Several design options and cost algorithms are included for each component. The first wall, blanket and shield modules calculate the beryllium zone thickness, the disruptions results, the nuclear responses in different components including the toroidal field coils. Tungsten shield/water coolant/steel structure and steel shield/water coolant are the shield options for the inboard and outboard sections of the reactor. Lithium nitrate dissolved in the water coolant with a variable beryllium zone thickness in the outboard section of the reactor provides the tritium breeding capability. The reactor vault module defines the thickness of the reactor wall and the roof based on the dose equivalent during operation including skyshine contribution. The impurity control module provides the design parameters for the divertor including plate design, heat load, erosion rate, tritium permeation through the plate material to the coolant, plasma contamination by sputtered impurities, and plate lifetime. Several materials: Be, C, V, Mo, and W can be used for the divertor plate to cover a range of plasma edge temperatures. The tritium module calculates tritium and deuterium flow rates for the reactor plant. The tritium inventory in the fuelers, neutral beams, vacuum pumps, impurity control, first wall, and blanket is calculated. Tritium requirements are provided for different operating conditions. The nuclear models are summarized in this paper including the different design options and key analyses of each module. 39 refs., 3 tabs.

  11. Opportunities, Barriers and Actions for Industrial Demand Response in California

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McKane, Aimee T.; Piette, Mary Ann; Faulkner, David; Ghatikar, Girish; Radspieler Jr., Anthony; Adesola, Bunmi; Murtishaw, Scott; Kiliccote, Sila

    2008-01-31

    In 2006 the Demand Response Research Center (DRRC) formed an Industrial Demand Response Team to investigate opportunities and barriers to implementation of Automated Demand Response (Auto-DR) systems in California industries. Auto-DR is an open, interoperable communications and technology platform designed to: Provide customers with automated, electronic price and reliability signals; Provide customers with capability to automate customized DR strategies; Automate DR, providing utilities with dispatchable operational capability similar to conventional generation resources. This research began with a review of previous Auto-DR research on the commercial sector. Implementing Auto-DR in industry presents a number of challenges, both practical and perceived. Some of these include: the variation in loads and processes across and within sectors, resource-dependent loading patterns that are driven by outside factors such as customer orders or time-critical processing (e.g. tomato canning), the perceived lack of control inherent in the term 'Auto-DR', and aversion to risk, especially unscheduled downtime. While industry has demonstrated a willingness to temporarily provide large sheds and shifts to maintain grid reliability and be a good corporate citizen, the drivers for widespread Auto-DR will likely differ. Ultimately, most industrial facilities will balance the real and perceived risks associated with Auto-DR against the potential for economic gain through favorable pricing or incentives. Auto-DR, as with any ongoing industrial activity, will need to function effectively within market structures. The goal of the industrial research is to facilitate deployment of industrial Auto-DR that is economically attractive and technologically feasible. Automation will make DR: More visible by providing greater transparency through two-way end-to-end communication of DR signals from end-use customers; More repeatable, reliable, and persistent because the automated controls strategies that are 'hardened' and pre-programmed into facility's software and hardware; More affordable because automation can help reduce labor costs associated with manual DR strategies initiated by facility staff and can be used for long-term.

  12. Development of GREET Catalyst Module

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Zhichao; Benavides, Pahola T.; Dunn, Jennifer B.; Cronauer, Donald C.

    2015-09-01

    In this report, we develop energy and material flows for the production of five different catalysts (tar reforming, alcohol synthesis, Zeolite Socony Mobil-5 [ZSM-5], Mo/Co/ γ-Al2O3, and Pt/ γ-Al2O3) and two chemicals (olivine, dimethyl ether of polyethylene glycol [DEPG]). These compounds and catalysts are now included in the Greenhouse Gases, Regulated Emissions and Energy Use in Transportation (GREET™) catalyst module.

  13. Pulse amplitude modulated chlorophyll fluorometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Greenbaum, Elias; Wu, Jie

    2015-12-29

    Chlorophyll fluorometry may be used for detecting toxins in a sample because of changes in micro algae. A portable lab on a chip ("LOAC") based chlorophyll fluorometer may be used for toxin detection and environmental monitoring. In particular, the system may include a microfluidic pulse amplitude modulated ("PAM") chlorophyll fluorometer. The LOAC PAM chlorophyll fluorometer may analyze microalgae and cyanobacteria that grow naturally in source drinking water.

  14. Gas separation membrane module assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wynn, Nicholas P; Fulton, Donald A.

    2009-03-31

    A gas-separation membrane module assembly and a gas-separation process using the assembly. The assembly includes a set of tubes, each containing gas-separation membranes, arranged within a housing. The housing contains a tube sheet that divides the space within the housing into two gas-tight spaces. A permeate collection system within the housing gathers permeate gas from the tubes for discharge from the housing.

  15. National Action Plan on Demand Response

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Energy Nashville Turns an Eyesore into an Energy-Efficient Asset Nashville Turns an Eyesore into an Energy-Efficient Asset September 19, 2012 - 10:43am Addthis The completed Nashville Bridge Company's building (called NABRICO for short) includes a geothermal heat pump system to keep public energy costs low. | Photo courtesy of David Powell, AIA. The completed Nashville Bridge Company's building (called NABRICO for short) includes a geothermal heat pump system to keep public energy costs low.

  16. Using Mobile Applications to Generate Customer Demand | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Mobile Applications to Generate Customer Demand Using Mobile Applications to Generate Customer Demand Better Buildings Residential Network Peer Exchange Call Series: Using Mobile Applications to Generate Customer Demand, Call Slides and Discussion Summary, March 12, 2015. PDF icon Call Slides and Discussion Summary More Documents & Publications Better Buildings Network View | October 2014 Incorporating Behavior Change Efforts Into Energy Efficiency Programs Outreach to Multifamily

  17. Executive Order 13693 Training Now Available On Demand | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Executive Order 13693 Training Now Available On Demand Executive Order 13693 Training Now Available On Demand January 4, 2016 - 8:00am Addthis Executive Order (E.O.) 13693: Recent Developments, Implementation Updates, and Opportunities Training is now available on-demand. The seminar covers the major goals of E. O. 13693 and offers examples of technologies and concepts the U.S. Department of Energy and other federal agencies are using to meet these goals. Addthis Related Articles

  18. Monitoring SERC Technologies: On-Demand Tankless Water Heaters | Department

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of Energy Weatherization Assistance Program » Pilot Projects » Monitoring SERC Technologies: On-Demand Tankless Water Heaters Monitoring SERC Technologies: On-Demand Tankless Water Heaters On Oct. 4, 2011, Ethan MacCormick, VP for Services to Energy Businesses at Performance Systems Development, presented a Webinar about On-Demand Tankless Water Heaters and how to properly monitor their installation. View the webinar presentation. More Information Some resources and tools mentioned in the

  19. Sustainable Energy Resources for Consumers (SERC) - On-Demand Tankless

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Water Heaters | Department of Energy On-Demand Tankless Water Heaters Sustainable Energy Resources for Consumers (SERC) - On-Demand Tankless Water Heaters This presentation, aimed at Sustainable Energy Resources for Consumers (SERC) grantees, provides information on Monitoring Checklists for the installation of On-Demand Tankless Water Heaters. PDF icon serc_webinar_presentation_20111004.pdf More Documents & Publications Sustainable Energy Resources for Consumers (SERC) - Solar Hot

  20. Report: Natural Gas Infrastructure Implications of Increased Demand from

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    the Electric Power Sector | Department of Energy Natural Gas Infrastructure Implications of Increased Demand from the Electric Power Sector Report: Natural Gas Infrastructure Implications of Increased Demand from the Electric Power Sector This report examines the potential infrastructure needs of the U.S. interstate natural gas pipeline transmission system across a range of future natural gas demand scenarios that drive increased electric power sector natural gas use. To perform this

  1. Retail Demand Response in Southwest Power Pool | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Retail Demand Response in Southwest Power Pool Retail Demand Response in Southwest Power Pool In 2007, the Southwest Power Pool (SPP) formed the Customer Response Task Force (CRTF) to identify barriers to deploying demand response (DR) resources in wholesale markets and develop policies to overcome these barriers. One of the initiatives of this Task Force was to develop more detailed information on existing retail DR programs and dynamic pricing tariffs, program rules, and utility operating

  2. SGDP Report Now Available: Interoperability of Demand Response Resources

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Demonstration in NY (February 2015) | Department of Energy SGDP Report Now Available: Interoperability of Demand Response Resources Demonstration in NY (February 2015) SGDP Report Now Available: Interoperability of Demand Response Resources Demonstration in NY (February 2015) March 20, 2015 - 4:42pm Addthis The Interoperability of Demand Response Resources Demonstration in NY was awarded to Con Edison in 2009 as part of DOE's Smart Grid Demonstration Project (SGDP) grants funded by the

  3. SGDP Report: Interoperability of Demand Response Resources Demonstration in

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    NY (February 2015) | Department of Energy SGDP Report: Interoperability of Demand Response Resources Demonstration in NY (February 2015) SGDP Report: Interoperability of Demand Response Resources Demonstration in NY (February 2015) The Interoperability of Demand Response Resources Demonstration in NY was awarded to Con Edison in 2009 as part of DOE's Smart Grid Demonstration Project (SGDP) grants funded by the Recovery Act. The objective of the project was to develop and demonstrate

  4. Generating Demand for Multifamily Building Upgrades | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Demand for Multifamily Building Upgrades Generating Demand for Multifamily Building Upgrades Better Buildings Residential Network Peer Exchange Call Series: Generating Demand for Multifamily Building Upgrades, call slides and discussion summary, May 14, 2015. PDF icon Call Slides and Discussion Summary More Documents & Publications Strategies to Address Split Incentives in Multifamily Buildings Outreach to Multifamily Landlords and Tenants Trends in Multifamily Programs: What's Working and

  5. Honeywell Demonstrates Automated Demand Response Benefits for Utility,

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Commercial, and Industrial Customers | Department of Energy Honeywell Demonstrates Automated Demand Response Benefits for Utility, Commercial, and Industrial Customers Honeywell Demonstrates Automated Demand Response Benefits for Utility, Commercial, and Industrial Customers September 22, 2014 - 5:59pm Addthis Honeywell's Smart Grid Investment Grant (SGIG) project demonstrates utility-scale performance of a hardware/software platform for automated demand response (ADR). This project stands

  6. Regulation Services with Demand Response - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Regulation Services with Demand Response Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Contact PNNL About This Technology Using grid frequency information, researchers have created algorithms that intelligently control power demand while meeting consumer objectives (i.e. target pricing). Using grid frequency information, researchers have created algorithms that intelligently control power demand while meeting consumer objectives (i.e. target pricing). Technology Marketing Summary Grid Friendly(tm)

  7. Demand Response National Trends: Implications for the West? | Department of

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Energy National Trends: Implications for the West? Demand Response National Trends: Implications for the West? Committee on Regional Electric Power Cooperation. San Francisco, CA. March 25, 2004 PDF icon Demand Response National Trends: Implications for the West? More Documents & Publications Demand Response in U.S. Electricity Markets: Empirical Evidence Technical Assistance to ISO's and Grid Operators For Loads Providing Ancillary Services To Enhance Grid Reliability Transmission

  8. Demand and Price Outlook for Phase 2 Reformulated Gasoline, 2000

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Demand and Price Outlook for Phase 2 Reformulated Gasoline, 2000 Tancred Lidderdale and Aileen Bohn (1) Contents * Summary * Introduction * Reformulated Gasoline Demand * Oxygenate Demand * Logistics o Interstate Movements and Storage o Local Distribution o Phase 2 RFG Logistics o Possible Opt-Ins to the RFG Program o State Low Sulfur, Low RVP Gasoline Initiatives o NAAQS o Tier 2 Gasoline * RFG Production Options o Toxic Air Pollutants (TAP) Reduction o Nitrogen Oxides (NOx) Reduction o

  9. Agreement Template for Energy Conservation and Demand Side Management

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Services | Department of Energy Agreement Template for Energy Conservation and Demand Side Management Services Agreement Template for Energy Conservation and Demand Side Management Services Template agreement between a federal agency and a utility company for the implementation of energy conservation measures and demand side management services. A detailed description of the template is also available below. PDF icon Download the template agreement. PDF icon Download the model agreement

  10. Cavity enhanced terahertz modulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Born, N.; Scheller, M.; Moloney, J. V.; Koch, M.

    2014-03-10

    We present a versatile concept for all optical terahertz (THz) amplitude modulators based on a Fabry-Prot semiconductor cavity design. Employing the high reflectivity of two parallel meta-surfaces allows for trapping selected THz photons within the cavity and thus only a weak optical modulation of the semiconductor absorbance is required to significantly damp the field within the cavity. The optical switching yields to modulation depths of more than 90% with insertion efficiencies of 80%.

  11. Oil, gas tanker industry responding to demand, contract changes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    True, W.R.

    1998-03-02

    Steady if slower growth in demand for crude oil and natural gas, low levels of scrapping, and a moderate newbuilding pace bode well for the world`s petroleum and natural-gas shipping industries. At year-end 1997, several studies of worldwide demand patterns and shipping fleets expressed short and medium-term optimism for seaborne oil and gas trade and fleet growth. The paper discusses steady demand and shifting patterns, the aging fleet, the slowing products traffic, the world`s fleet, gas carriers, LPG demand, and LPG vessels.

  12. Strategies for Aligning Program Demand with Contractor's Seasonal...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Strategies for Aligning Program Demand with Contractor's Seasonal Fluctuations Better Buildings Neighborhood Program Workforce Peer Exchange Call: Strategies for Aligning Program ...

  13. Strategies for Marketing and Driving Demand for Commercial Financing Products

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Better Buildings Neighborhood Program Financing and Commercial Peer Exchange Call: Strategies for Marketing and Driving Demand for Commercial Financing Products, Call Slides and Discussion Summary, February 2, 2012.

  14. Assessment of Energy Savings Potential from the Use of Demand...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Energy Savings Potential from the Use of Demand Controlled Ventilation in General Office Spaces in California Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Assessment of Energy ...

  15. Calculating impacts of energy standards on energy demand in U...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Calculating impacts of energy standards on energy demand in U.S. buildings with uncertainty in an integrated assessment model Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Calculating ...

  16. Table A19. Components of Total Electricity Demand by Census...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Components of Total Electricity Demand by Census Region and" " Economic Characteristics of ...ansfers","Onsite","Transfers"," ","Row" "Economic Characteristics(a)","Purchases","In(b)",...

  17. Strategies for Aligning Program Demand with Contractor's Seasonal Fluctuations

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Better Buildings Neighborhood Program Workforce Peer Exchange Call: Strategies for Aligning Program Demand with Contractor’s Seasonal Fluctuations, Call Slides and Discussion Summary, June 7, 2012.

  18. Using Partnerships to Drive Demand and Provide Services in Communities...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Using Partnerships to Drive Demand and Provide Services in Communities Better Buildings Neighborhood Program Multifamily and Low-Income Peer Exchange Call: Using Partnerships to ...

  19. Optical People Counting for Demand Controlled Ventilation: A...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    of Counter Performance Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Optical People Counting for Demand Controlled Ventilation: A Pilot Study of Counter Performance This pilot ...

  20. Optical People Counting for Demand Controlled Ventilation: A...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    of Counter Performance Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Optical People Counting for Demand Controlled Ventilation: A Pilot Study of Counter Performance You are ...

  1. China-Transportation Demand Management in Beijing: Mitigation...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    demand management (TDM) in Beijing in order to manage the steadily increasing traffic density. The project provides capacity building for decision-makers and transport planners in...

  2. South Korea-ANL Distributed Energy Resources and Demand Side...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    is part of a team that assists the Korean government in analyzing the economic and environmental benefits of distributed resources and demand side management (DSM). DSM has...

  3. Amplified Demand for Solar Trackers to Boost Market Growth in...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Amplified Demand for Solar Trackers to Boost Market Growth in Middle East and Africa Home > Groups > Solar Permitting Roadmap Development Wayne31jan's picture Submitted by...

  4. Network-Driven Demand Side Management Website | Open Energy Informatio...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    URI: cleanenergysolutions.orgcontentnetwork-driven-demand-side-management Language: English Policies: "Deployment Programs,Regulations" is not in the list of possible...

  5. Estimating Demand Response Market Potential | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    URI: cleanenergysolutions.orgcontentestimating-demand-response-market-pot Language: English Policies: "Deployment Programs,Regulations" is not in the list of possible...

  6. Demand Response Energy Consulting LLC | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Response Energy Consulting LLC Jump to: navigation, search Name: Demand Response & Energy Consulting LLC Place: Delanson, New York Zip: NY 12053 Sector: Efficiency Product:...

  7. Coordination of Energy Efficiency and Demand Response: A Resource...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Coordination of Energy Efficiency and Demand Response: A Resource of the National Action Plan for Energy Efficiency Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name:...

  8. Benefits of Demand Response in Electricity Markets and Recommendations...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Demand Response in Electricity Markets and Recommendations for Achieving Them. A report to the United States Congress Pursuant to Section 1252 of the Energy Policy Act of 2005 ...

  9. Chapter 3 Demand-Side Resources | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Typically, these resources result from one of two methods of reducing load: energy efficiency or demand response load management. The energy efficiency method designs and deploys ...

  10. Reducing Peak Demand to Defer Power Plant Construction in Oklahoma

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    To better control costs and manage electric reliability under these conditions, OG&E is pursuing demand response strategies made possible by implementation of smart grid ...

  11. Heat wave contributes to higher summer electricity demand in...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Heat wave contributes to higher summer electricity demand in the Northeast In its new energy forecast, the U.S. Energy Information Administration expects summer retail electricity ...

  12. Electricity demand as frequency controlled reserves, ForskEL...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    ForskEL (Smart Grid Project) Jump to: navigation, search Project Name Electricity demand as frequency controlled reserves, ForskEL Country Denmark Coordinates 56.26392,...

  13. Electricity demand as frequency controlled reserves, ENS (Smart...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    ENS (Smart Grid Project) Jump to: navigation, search Project Name Electricity demand as frequency controlled reserves, ENS Country Denmark Coordinates 56.26392, 9.501785...

  14. U.S. Electric Utility Demand-Side Management

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2002-01-01

    Final issue of this report. - Presents comprehensive information on electric power industry demand side management (DSM) activities in the United States at the national, regional, and utility levels.

  15. Opportunities for Mass Market Demand Response to Provide Ancillary Services

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pratt, Rob; Najewicz, Dave

    2011-10-01

    Discusses what is meant by mass market demand response to provide ancillary services and outlines opportunities for adoption, and barriers to adoption.

  16. Structuring Rebate and Incentive Programs for Sustainable Demand

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Better Buildings Neighborhood Program Peer Exchange Call: Structuring Rebate and Incentive Programs for Sustainable Demand, call slides and discussion summary, August 18, 2011.

  17. Hydrogen Demand and Resource Assessment Tool | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Resource Assessment Tool Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Hydrogen Demand and Resource Assessment Tool AgencyCompany Organization: National Renewable...

  18. EnergySolve Demand Response | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Demand Response Place: Somerset, New Jersey Product: Somerset-based utility bill outsourcing company that provides electronic utility bill auditing, tariff analysis, late fee...

  19. Table 11.2 Electricity: Components of Net Demand, 2010;

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Electricity: Components of Net Demand, 2010; Level: National and Regional Data; Row: Values of Shipments and Employment Sizes; Column: Electricity Components; Unit: Million ...

  20. Assumption to the Annual Energy Outlook 2014 - Commercial Demand...

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    chosen to meet the projected service demands for the seven major end uses. Once technologies are chosen, the energy consumed by the equipment stock (both existing and purchased...

  1. Bracket for photovoltaic modules

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ciasulli, John; Jones, Jason

    2014-06-24

    Brackets for photovoltaic ("PV") modules are described. In one embodiment, a saddle bracket has a mounting surface to support one or more PV modules over a tube, a gusset coupled to the mounting surface, and a mounting feature coupled to the gusset to couple to the tube. The gusset can have a first leg and a second leg extending at an angle relative to the mounting surface. Saddle brackets can be coupled to a torque tube at predetermined locations. PV modules can be coupled to the saddle brackets. The mounting feature can be coupled to the first gusset and configured to stand the one or more PV modules off the tube.

  2. Module 3- Project Scheduling

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This module differentiates between planning and scheduling and outlines basic scheduling concepts, the logic relationships and critical path, and different schedule formats.

  3. PV modules modelling

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Energy PVsyst Summary Losses in a PV system simulation may be: - Determined by specific models (shadings) - Interpretations of models (PV module behaviour) - User's parameter...

  4. Testing Protocol for Module Encapsulant Creep (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kempe, M. D.; Miller, D. C.; Wohlgemuth, J. H.; Kurtz, S. R.; Moseley, J. M.; Shah, Q.; Tamizhmani, G.; Sakurai, K.; Inoue, M.; Doi, T.; Masuda, A.

    2012-02-01

    Recently there has been an interest in the use of thermoplastic encapsulant materials in photovoltaic modules to replace chemically crosslinked materials, e.g., ethylene-vinyl acetate. The related motivations include the desire to: reduce lamination time or temperature; use less moisture-permeable materials; or use materials with better corrosion characteristics. However, the use of any thermoplastic material in a high-temperature environment raises safety and performance concerns, as the standardized tests currently do not expose the modules to temperatures in excess of 85C, yet modules may experience temperatures above 100C in operation. Here we constructed eight pairs of crystalline-silicon modules and eight pairs of glass/encapsulation/glass mock modules using different encapsulation materials of which only two were designed to chemically crosslink. One module set was exposed outdoors with insulation on the back side in Arizona in the summer, and an identical set was exposed in environmental chambers. High precision creep measurements and performance measurements indicate that despite many of these polymeric materials being in the melt state at some of the highest outdoor temperatures achievable, very little creep was seen because of their high viscosity, temperature heterogeneity across the modules, and in the case of the crystalline-silicon modules, the physical restraint of the backsheet. These findings have very important implications for the development of IEC and UL qualification and safety standards, and in regards to the necessary level of cure during the processing of crosslinking encapsulants.

  5. "Note: All Others includes Canada, Czech Republic, Federal Republic...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    . Photovoltaic module import shipments by country, 2013" "(peak kilowatts)" ... Information Administration, Form EIA-63B, 'Annual Photovoltaic CellModule Shipments

  6. Advanced Control Technologies and Strategies Linking DemandResponse and Energy Efficiency

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kiliccote, Sila; Piette, Mary Ann

    2005-09-02

    This paper presents a preliminary framework to describe how advanced controls can support multiple modes of operations including both energy efficiency and demand response (DR). A general description of DR, its benefits, and nationwide status is outlined. The role of energy management and control systems for DR is described. Building systems such as HVAC and lighting that utilize control technologies and strategies for energy efficiency are mapped on to DR and demand shedding strategies are developed. Past research projects are presented to provide a context for the current projects. The economic case for implementing DR from a building owner perspective is also explored.

  7. Renewable Electricity Futures Study Volume 3: End-Use Electricity Demand

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This volume details the end-use electricity demand and efficiency assumptions. The projection of electricity demand is an important consideration in determining the extent to which a predominantly renewable electricity future is feasible. Any scenario regarding future electricity use must consider many factors, including technological, sociological, demographic, political, and economic changes (e.g., the introduction of new energy-using devices; gains in energy efficiency and process improvements; changes in energy prices, income, and user behavior; population growth; and the potential for carbon mitigation).

  8. The Future of U.S. Natural Gas: Supply, Demand & Infrastructure Developments

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This analysis forecasts natural gas supply, demand, and infrastructure developments through 2030 using an inventory and cell model. After introduction of methodology and market approach, the analysis describes expectations of production and supply and demand. This includes how production shifts in North America have shifted Midstream needs, trends in drilling that are leading to more wells with fewer rigs, and processing capacity considerations. Finally, the analysis describing the regionally driven infrastructure requirements and the impact on natural gas price forecasts and regional basis and volatility is presented.

  9. The impact of demand-controlled and economizer ventilation strategies on energy use in buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brandemuehl, M.J.; Braun, J.E.

    1999-07-01

    The overall objective of this work was to evaluate typical energy requirements associated with alternative ventilation control strategies for constant-air-volume (CAV) systems in commercial buildings. The strategies included different combinations of economizer and demand-controlled ventilation, and energy analyses were performed for four typical building types, eight alternative ventilation systems, and twenty US climates. Only single-zone buildings were considered so that simultaneous heating and cooling did not exist. The energy savings associated with economizer and demand-controlled ventilation strategies were found to be very significant for both heating and cooling. In general, the greatest savings in electrical usage for cooling with the addition of demand-controlled ventilation occur in situations where the opportunities for economizer cooling are less. This is true for warm and humid climates and for buildings that have relatively low internal gains (i.e., low occupant densities). As much as 20% savings in electrical energy for cooling were possible with demand-controlled ventilation. The savings in heating energy associated with demand-controlled ventilation were generally much larger but were strongly dependent upon the building type and occupancy schedule. Significantly greater savings were found for buildings with highly variable occupancy schedules and large internal gains (i.e., restaurants) as compared with office buildings. In some cases, the primary heating energy was virtually eliminated by demand-controlled ventilation as compared with fixed ventilation rates. For both heating and cooling, the savings associated with demand-controlled ventilation are dependent on the fixed minimum ventilation rate of the base case at design conditions.

  10. Microscale autonomous sensor and communications module

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Okandan, Murat; Nielson, Gregory N

    2014-03-25

    Various technologies pertaining to a microscale autonomous sensor and communications module are described herein. Such a module includes a sensor that generates a sensor signal that is indicative of an environmental parameter. An integrated circuit receives the sensor signal and generates an output signal based at least in part upon the sensor signal. An optical emitter receives the output signal and generates an optical signal as a function of the output signal. An energy storage device is configured to provide power to at least the integrated circuit and the optical emitter, and wherein the module has a relatively small diameter and thickness.

  11. Aggregated Modeling of Thermostatic Loads in Demand Response: A Systems and Control Perspective

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kalsi, Karanjit; Chassin, Forrest S.; Chassin, David P.

    2011-12-12

    Demand response is playing an increasingly important role in smart grid research and technologies being examined in recently undertaken demonstration projects. The behavior of load as it is affected by various load control strategies is important to understanding the degree to which different classes of end-use load can contribute to demand response programs at various times. This paper focuses on developing aggregated models for a homogeneous population of thermostatically controlled loads. The different types of loads considered in this paper include, but are not limited to, water heaters and HVAC units. The effects of demand response and user over-ride on the load population dynamics are investigated. The controllability of the developed lumped models is validated which forms the basis for designing different control strategies.

  12. Quantifying Changes in Building Electricity Use, with Application to Demand Response

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mathieu, Johanna L.; Price, Phillip N.; Kiliccote, Sila; Piette, Mary Ann

    2010-11-17

    We present methods for analyzing commercial and industrial facility 15-minute-interval electric load data. These methods allow building managers to better understand their facility's electricity consumption over time and to compare it to other buildings, helping them to ask the right questions to discover opportunities for demand response, energy efficiency, electricity waste elimination, and peak load management. We primarily focus on demand response. Methods discussed include graphical representations of electric load data, a regression-based electricity load model that uses a time-of-week indicator variable and a piecewise linear and continuous outdoor air temperature dependence, and the definition of various parameters that characterize facility electricity loads and demand response behavior. In the future, these methods could be translated into easy-to-use tools for building managers.

  13. Logs Perl Module

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2007-04-04

    A perl module designed to read and parse the voluminous set of event or accounting log files produced by a Portable Batch System (PBS) server. This module can filter on date-time and/or record type. The data can be returned in a variety of formats.

  14. Module Safety Issues (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wohlgemuth, J.

    2012-02-01

    Description of how to make PV modules so that they are less likely to turn into safety hazards. Making modules inherently safer with minimum additional cost is the preferred approach for PV. Safety starts with module design to ensure redundancy within the electrical circuitry to minimize open circuits and proper mounting instructions to prevent installation related ground faults. Module manufacturers must control the raw materials and processes to ensure that that every module is built like those qualified through the safety tests. This is the reason behind the QA task force effort to develop a 'Guideline for PV Module Manufacturing QA'. Periodic accelerated stress testing of production products is critical to validate the safety of the product. Combining safer PV modules with better systems designs is the ultimate goal. This should be especially true for PV arrays on buildings. Use of lower voltage dc circuits - AC modules, DC-DC converters. Use of arc detectors and interrupters to detect arcs and open the circuits to extinguish the arcs.

  15. Membrane module assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kaschemekat, J.

    1994-03-15

    A membrane module assembly is described which is adapted to provide a flow path for the incoming feed stream that forces it into prolonged heat-exchanging contact with a heating or cooling mechanism. Membrane separation processes employing the module assembly are also disclosed. The assembly is particularly useful for gas separation or pervaporation. 2 figures.

  16. Membrane module assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kaschemekat, Jurgen

    1994-01-01

    A membrane module assembly adapted to provide a flow path for the incoming feed stream that forces it into prolonged heat-exchanging contact with a heating or cooling mechanism. Membrane separation processes employing the module assembly are also disclosed. The assembly is particularly useful for gas separation or pervaporation.

  17. Role of Storage and Demand Response, Greening the Grid

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Author: Denholm, Paul

    2015-09-01

    Greening the Grid provides technical assistance to energy system planners, regulators, and grid operators to overcome challenges associated with integrating variable renewable energy into the grid. This document, part of a Greening the Grid toolkit, examines storage and demand response as means to match renewable energy supply with demand.

  18. Open Automated Demand Response for Small Commerical Buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dudley, June Han; Piette, Mary Ann; Koch, Ed; Hennage, Dan

    2009-05-01

    This report characterizes small commercial buildings by market segments, systems and end-uses; develops a framework for identifying demand response (DR) enabling technologies and communication means; and reports on the design and development of a low-cost OpenADR enabling technology that delivers demand reductions as a percentage of the total predicted building peak electric demand. The results show that small offices, restaurants and retail buildings are the major contributors making up over one third of the small commercial peak demand. The majority of the small commercial buildings in California are located in southern inland areas and the central valley. Single-zone packaged units with manual and programmable thermostat controls make up the majority of heating ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) systems for small commercial buildings with less than 200 kW peak electric demand. Fluorescent tubes with magnetic ballast and manual controls dominate this customer group's lighting systems. There are various ways, each with its pros and cons for a particular application, to communicate with these systems and three methods to enable automated DR in small commercial buildings using the Open Automated Demand Response (or OpenADR) communications infrastructure. Development of DR strategies must consider building characteristics, such as weather sensitivity and load variability, as well as system design (i.e. under-sizing, under-lighting, over-sizing, etc). Finally, field tests show that requesting demand reductions as a percentage of the total building predicted peak electric demand is feasible using the OpenADR infrastructure.

  19. Reducing Energy Demand in Buildings Through State Energy Codes | Department

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of Energy Reducing Energy Demand in Buildings Through State Energy Codes Reducing Energy Demand in Buildings Through State Energy Codes Building Codes Project for the 2013 Building Technologies Office's Program Peer Review PDF icon bldgcodes03_guttman_040213.pdf More Documents & Publications Technology Performance Exchange - 2013 BTO Peer Review Atmospheric Pressure Deposition for Electrochromic Windows Building America System Research

  20. Interoperability of Demand Response Resources Demonstration in NY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wellington, Andre

    2014-03-31

    The Interoperability of Demand Response Resources Demonstration in NY (Interoperability Project) was awarded to Con Edison in 2009. The objective of the project was to develop and demonstrate methodologies to enhance the ability of customer sited Demand Response resources to integrate more effectively with electric delivery companies and regional transmission organizations.

  1. Force Modulator System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Redmond Clark

    2009-04-30

    Many metal parts manufacturers use large metal presses to shape sheet metal into finished products like car body parts, jet wing and fuselage surfaces, etc. These metal presses take sheet metal and - with enormous force - reshape the metal into a fully formed part in a manner of seconds. Although highly efficient, the forces involved in forming metal parts also damage the press itself, limit the metals used in part production, slow press operations and, when not properly controlled, cause the manufacture of large volumes of defective metal parts. To date, the metal-forming industry has not been able to develop a metal-holding technology that allows full control of press forces during the part forming process. This is of particular importance in the automotive lightweighting efforts under way in the US automotive manufacturing marketplace. Metalforming Controls Technology Inc. (MC2) has developed a patented press control system called the Force Modulator that has the ability to control these press forces, allowing a breakthrough in stamping process control. The technology includes a series of hydraulic cylinders that provide controlled tonnage at all points in the forming process. At the same time, the unique cylinder design allows for the generation of very high levels of clamping forces (very high tonnages) in very small spaces; a requirement for forming medium and large panels out of HSS and AHSS. Successful production application of these systems testing at multiple stamping operations - including Ford and Chrysler - has validated the capabilities and economic benefits of the system. Although this technology has been adopted in a number of stamping operations, one of the primary barriers to faster adoption and application of this technology in HSS projects is system cost. The cost issue has surfaced because the systems currently in use are built for each individual die as a custom application, thus driving higher tooling costs. This project proposed to better marry the die-specific Force Modulator technology with stamping presses in the form of a press cushion. This system would be designed to operate the binder ring for multiple parts, thus cutting the per-die cost of the technology. This study reports the results of technology field application. This project produced the following conclusions: (1) The Force Modulator system is capable of operating at very high tempos in the stamping environment; (2) The company can generate substantial, controlled holding tonnage (binder ring pressure) necessary to hold high strength steel parts for proper formation during draw operations; (3) A single system can be designed to operate with a family of parts, thus significantly reducing the per-die cost of a FM system; (4) High strength steel parts made with these systems appear to show significant quality improvements; (5) The amounts of steel required to make these parts is typically less than the amounts required with traditional blank-holding technologies; and (6) This technology will aid in the use of higher strength steels in auto and truck production, thus reducing weight and improving fuel efficiency.

  2. Primary coal crushers grow to meet demand

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fiscor, S.

    2009-09-15

    Mine operators look for more throughput with less fines generation in primary crushers (defined here as single role crushers and two stage crushers). The article gives advice on crusher selection and application. Some factors dictating selection include the desired product size, capacity, Hard Grove grindability index, percentage of rock to be freed and hardness of that rock. The hardness of coal probably has greatest impact on product fineness. 2 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  3. Assembly of opto-electronic module with improved heat sink

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chan, Benson; Fortier, Paul Francis; Freitag, Ladd William; Galli, Gary T.; Guindon, Francois; Johnson, Glen Walden; Letourneau, Martial; Sherman, John H.; Tetreault, Real

    2004-11-23

    A heat sink for a transceiver optoelectronic module including dual direct heat paths and a structure which encloses a number of chips having a central web which electrically isolates transmitter and receiver chips from each other. A retainer for an optical coupler having a port into which epoxy is poured. An overmolded base for an optoelectronic module having epoxy flow controller members built thereon. Assembly methods for an optoelectronic module including gap setting and variation of a TAB bonding process.

  4. Demand for oil and energy in developing countries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wolf, C. Jr.; Relles, D.A.; Navarro, J.

    1980-05-01

    How much of the world's oil and energy supply will the non-OPEC less-developed countries (NOLDCs) demand in the next decade. Will their requirements be small and thus fairly insignificant compared with world demand, or large and relatively important. How will world demand be affected by the economic growth of the NOLDCs. In this report, we try to develop some reasonable forecasts of NOLDC energy demands in the next 10 years. Our focus is mainly on the demand for oil, but we also give some attention to the total commercial energy requirements of these countries. We have tried to be explicit about the uncertainties associated with our forecasts, and with the income and price elasticities on which they are based. Finally, we consider the forecasts in terms of their implications for US policies concerning the NOLDCs and suggest areas of future research on NOLDC energy issues.

  5. Quantitative Analysis of Biofuel Sustainability, Including Land...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Quantitative Analysis of Biofuel Sustainability, Including Land Use Change GHG Emissions Quantitative Analysis of Biofuel Sustainability, Including Land Use Change GHG Emissions ...

  6. Flat-Plate Photovoltaic Module Basics | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Module Basics Flat-Plate Photovoltaic Module Basics August 20, 2013 - 4:25pm Addthis Flat-plate photovoltaic (PV) modules are made of several components, including the front surface materials, encapsulant, rear surface, and frame. Front Surface Materials The front surface of a flat-plate PV module must have a high transmission in the wavelengths that can be used by the solar cells in the module. For example, for silicon solar cells, the top surface must have high transmission of light with

  7. Northwest Open Automated Demand Response Technology Demonstration Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kiliccote, Sila; Dudley, Junqiao Han; Piette, Mary Ann

    2009-08-01

    Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) and the Demand Response Research Center (DRRC) performed a technology demonstration and evaluation for Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) in Seattle City Light's (SCL) service territory. This report summarizes the process and results of deploying open automated demand response (OpenADR) in Seattle area with winter morning peaking commercial buildings. The field tests were designed to evaluate the feasibility of deploying fully automated demand response (DR) in four to six sites in the winter and the savings from various building systems. The project started in November of 2008 and lasted 6 months. The methodology for the study included site recruitment, control strategy development, automation system deployment and enhancements, and evaluation of sites participation in DR test events. LBNL subcontracted McKinstry and Akuacom for this project. McKinstry assisted with recruitment, site survey collection, strategy development and overall participant and control vendor management. Akuacom established a new server and enhanced its operations to allow for scheduling winter morning day-of and day-ahead events. Each site signed a Memorandum of Agreement with SCL. SCL offered each site $3,000 for agreeing to participate in the study and an additional $1,000 for each event they participated. Each facility and their control vendor worked with LBNL and McKinstry to select and implement control strategies for DR and developed their automation based on the existing Internet connectivity and building control system. Once the DR strategies were programmed, McKinstry commissioned them before actual test events. McKinstry worked with LBNL to identify control points that can be archived at each facility. For each site LBNL collected meter data and trend logs from the energy management and control system. The communication system allowed the sites to receive day-ahead as well as day-of DR test event signals. Measurement of DR was conducted using three different baseline models for estimation peak load reductions. One was three-in-ten baseline, which is based on the site electricity consumption from 7 am to 10 am for the three days with the highest consumption of the previous ten business days. The second model, the LBNL outside air temperature (OAT) regression baseline model, is based on OAT data and site electricity consumption from the previous ten days, adjusted using weather regressions from the fifteen-minute electric load data during each DR test event for each site. A third baseline that simply averages the available load data was used for sites less with less than 10 days of historical meter data. The evaluation also included surveying sites regarding any problems or issues that arose during the DR test events. Question covered occupant comfort, control issues and other potential problems.

  8. module 4 | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    module 4 module 4 HR5 TRANSITION BRIEFING PDF icon module 4 More Documents & Publications Microsoft Word - Rev5functionalaccountabilityimplementationplan..doc High Risk Plan Department of Energy (DOE) Acquisition Guide

  9. Interface module for transverse energy input to dye laser modules

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    English, R.E. Jr.; Johnson, S.A.

    1994-10-11

    An interface module for transverse energy input to dye laser modules is provided particularly for the purpose of delivering enhancing transverse energy beams in the form of illumination bar to the lasing zone of a dye laser device, in particular to a dye laser amplifier. The preferred interface module includes an optical fiber array having a plurality of optical fibers arrayed in a co-planar fashion with their distal ends receiving coherent laser energy from an enhancing laser source, and their proximal ends delivered into a relay structure. The proximal ends of the optical fibers are arrayed so as to be coplanar and to be aimed generally at a common point. The transverse energy beam array delivered from the optical fiber array is acted upon by an optical element array to produce an illumination bar which has a cross section in the form of a elongated rectangle at the position of the lasing window. The illumination bar is selected to have substantially uniform intensity throughout. 5 figs.

  10. Interface module for transverse energy input to dye laser modules

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    English, Jr., Ronald E.; Johnson, Steve A.

    1994-01-01

    An interface module (10) for transverse energy input to dye laser modules is provided particularly for the purpose of delivering enhancing transverse energy beams (36) in the form of illumination bar (54) to the lasing zone (18) of a dye laser device, in particular to a dye laser amplifier (12). The preferred interface module (10) includes an optical fiber array (30) having a plurality of optical fibers (38) arrayed in a co-planar fashion with their distal ends (44) receiving coherent laser energy from an enhancing laser source (46), and their proximal ends (4) delivered into a relay structure (3). The proximal ends (42) of the optical fibers (38) are arrayed so as to be coplanar and to be aimed generally at a common point. The transverse energy beam array (36) delivered from the optical fiber array (30) is acted upon by an optical element array (34) to produce an illumination bar (54) which has a cross section in the form of a elongated rectangle at the position of the lasing window (18). The illumination bar (54) is selected to have substantially uniform intensity throughout.

  11. Analysis of Residential Demand Response and Double-Auction Markets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fuller, Jason C.; Schneider, Kevin P.; Chassin, David P.

    2011-10-10

    Demand response and dynamic pricing programs are expected to play increasing roles in the modern Smart Grid environment. While direct load control of end-use loads has existed for decades, price driven response programs are only beginning to be explored at the distribution level. These programs utilize a price signal as a means to control demand. Active markets allow customers to respond to fluctuations in wholesale electrical costs, but may not allow the utility to control demand. Transactive markets, utilizing distributed controllers and a centralized auction can be used to create an interactive system which can limit demand at key times on a distribution system, decreasing congestion. With the current proliferation of computing and communication resources, the ability now exists to create transactive demand response programs at the residential level. With the combination of automated bidding and response strategies coupled with education programs and customer response, emerging demand response programs have the ability to reduce utility demand and congestion in a more controlled manner. This paper will explore the effects of a residential double-auction market, utilizing transactive controllers, on the operation of an electric power distribution system.

  12. Open Automated Demand Response Communications Specification (Version 1.0)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Piette, Mary Ann; Ghatikar, Girish; Kiliccote, Sila; Koch, Ed; Hennage, Dan; Palensky, Peter; McParland, Charles

    2009-02-28

    The development of the Open Automated Demand Response Communications Specification, also known as OpenADR or Open Auto-DR, began in 2002 following the California electricity crisis. The work has been carried out by the Demand Response Research Center (DRRC), which is managed by Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. This specification describes an open standards-based communications data model designed to facilitate sending and receiving demand response price and reliability signals from a utility or Independent System Operator to electric customers. OpenADR is one element of the Smart Grid information and communications technologies that are being developed to improve optimization between electric supply and demand. The intention of the open automated demand response communications data model is to provide interoperable signals to building and industrial control systems that are preprogrammed to take action based on a demand response signal, enabling a demand response event to be fully automated, with no manual intervention. The OpenADR specification is a flexible infrastructure to facilitate common information exchange between the utility or Independent System Operator and end-use participants. The concept of an open specification is intended to allow anyone to implement the signaling systems, the automation server or the automation clients.

  13. Assessment of Industrial Load for Demand Response across Western Interconnect

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alkadi, Nasr E; Starke, Michael R; Ma, Ookie

    2013-11-01

    Demand response (DR) has the ability to both increase power grid reliability and potentially reduce operating system costs. Understanding the role of demand response in grid modeling has been difficult due to complex nature of the load characteristics compared to the modeled generation and the variation in load types. This is particularly true of industrial loads, where hundreds of different industries exist with varying availability for demand response. We present a framework considering industrial loads for the development of availability profiles that can provide more regional understanding and can be inserted into analysis software for further study. The developed framework utilizes a number of different informational resources, algorithms, and real-world measurements to perform a bottom-up approach in the development of a new database with representation of the potential demand response resource in the industrial sector across the U.S. This tool houses statistical values of energy and demand response (DR) potential by industrial plant and geospatially locates the information for aggregation for different territories without proprietary information. This report will discuss this framework and the analyzed quantities of demand response for Western Interconnect (WI) in support of evaluation of the cost production modeling with power grid modeling efforts of demand response.

  14. Sonication standard laboratory module

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Beugelsdijk, Tony; Hollen, Robert M.; Erkkila, Tracy H.; Bronisz, Lawrence E.; Roybal, Jeffrey E.; Clark, Michael Leon

    1999-01-01

    A standard laboratory module for automatically producing a solution of cominants from a soil sample. A sonication tip agitates a solution containing the soil sample in a beaker while a stepper motor rotates the sample. An aspirator tube, connected to a vacuum, draws the upper layer of solution from the beaker through a filter and into another beaker. This beaker can thereafter be removed for analysis of the solution. The standard laboratory module encloses an embedded controller providing process control, status feedback information and maintenance procedures for the equipment and operations within the standard laboratory module.

  15. Demand response compensation, net Benefits and cost allocation: comments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hogan, William W.

    2010-11-15

    FERC's Supplemental Notice of Public Rulemaking addresses the question of proper compensation for demand response in organized wholesale electricity markets. Assuming that the Commission would proceed with the proposal ''to require tariff provisions allowing demand response resources to participate in wholesale energy markets by reducing consumption of electricity from expected levels in response to price signals, to pay those demand response resources, in all hours, the market price of energy for such reductions,'' the Commission posed questions about applying a net benefits test and rules for cost allocation. This article summarizes critical points and poses implications for the issues of net benefit tests and cost allocation. (author)

  16. Direct versus Facility Centric Load Control for Automated Demand Response

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koch, Ed; Piette, Mary Ann

    2009-11-06

    Direct load control (DLC) refers to the scenario where third party entities outside the home or facility are responsible for deciding how and when specific customer loads will be controlled in response to Demand Response (DR) events on the electric grid. Examples of third parties responsible for performing DLC may be Utilities, Independent System Operators (ISO), Aggregators, or third party control companies. DLC can be contrasted with facility centric load control (FCLC) where the decisions for how loads are controlled are made entirely within the facility or enterprise control systems. In FCLC the facility owner has more freedom of choice in how to respond to DR events on the grid. Both approaches are in use today in automation of DR and both will continue to be used in future market segments including industrial, commercial and residential facilities. This paper will present a framework which can be used to differentiate between DLC and FCLC based upon where decisions are made on how specific loads are controlled in response to DR events. This differentiation is then used to compare and contrast the differences between DLC and FCLC to identify the impact each has on:(1)Utility/ISO and third party systems for managing demand response, (2)Facility systems for implementing load control, (3)Communications networks for interacting with the facility and (4)Facility operators and managers. Finally a survey of some of the existing DR related specifications and communications standards is given and their applicability to DLC or FCLC. In general FCLC adds more cost and responsibilities to the facilities whereas DLC represents higher costs and complexity for the Utility/ISO. This difference is primarily due to where the DR Logic is implemented and the consequences that creates. DLC may be more certain than FCLC because it is more predictable - however as more loads have the capability to respond to DR signals, people may prefer to have their own control of end-use loads and FCLC systems. Research is needed to understand the predictability of FCLC which is related to the perceived value of the DR from the facility manager or home owner's perspective.

  17. Barrier Immune Radio Communications for Demand Response

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rubinstein, Francis; Ghatikar, Girish; Granderson, Jessica; Haugen, Paul; Romero, Carlos; Watson, David

    2009-02-01

    Various wireless technologies were field-tested in a six-story laboratory building to identify wireless technologies that can scale for future DR applications through very low node density power consumption, and unit cost. Data analysis included analysis of the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), packet loss, and link quality at varying power levels and node densities. The narrowband technologies performed well, penetrating the floors of the building with little loss and exhibiting better range than the wideband technology. 900 MHz provided full coverage at 1 watt and substantially complete coverage at 500 mW at the test site. 900 MHz was able to provide full coverage at 100 mW with only one additional relay transmitter, and was the highest-performing technology in the study. 2.4 GHz could not provide full coverage with only a single transmitter at the highest power level tested (63 mW). However, substantially complete coverage was provided at 2.4 GHz at 63 mW with the addition of one repeater node.

  18. Plasmon absorption modulator systems and methods

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kekatpure, Rohan Deodatta; Davids, Paul

    2014-07-15

    Plasmon absorption modulator systems and methods are disclosed. A plasmon absorption modulator system includes a semiconductor substrate, a plurality of quantum well layers stacked on a top surface of the semiconductor substrate, and a metal layer formed on a top surface of the stack of quantum well layers. A method for modulating plasmonic current includes enabling propagation of the plasmonic current along a metal layer, and applying a voltage across the stack of quantum well layers to cause absorption of a portion of energy of the plasmonic current by the stack of quantum well layers. A metamaterial switching system includes a semiconductor substrate, a plurality of quantum well layers stacked on a top surface of the semiconductor substrate, and at least one metamaterial structure formed on a top surface of the stack of quantum well layers.

  19. Low thermal resistance power module assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hassani, Vahab; Vlahinos, Andreas; Bharathan, Desikan

    2007-03-13

    A power module assembly with low thermal resistance and enhanced heat dissipation to a cooling medium. The assembly includes a heat sink or spreader plate with passageways or openings for coolant that extend through the plate from a lower surface to an upper surface. A circuit substrate is provided and positioned on the spreader plate to cover the coolant passageways. The circuit substrate includes a bonding layer configured to extend about the periphery of each of the coolant passageways and is made up of a substantially nonporous material. The bonding layer may be solder material which bonds to the upper surface of the plate to provide a continuous seal around the upper edge of each opening in the plate. The assembly includes power modules mounted on the circuit substrate on a surface opposite the bonding layer. The power modules are positioned over or proximal to the coolant passageways.

  20. Rack assembly for mounting solar modules

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Plaisted, Joshua Reed; West, Brian

    2012-09-04

    A rack assembly is provided for mounting solar modules over an underlying body. The rack assembly may include a plurality of rail structures that are arrangeable over the underlying body to form an overall perimeter for the rack assembly. One or more retention structures may be provided with the plurality of rail structures, where each retention structure is configured to support one or more solar modules at a given height above the underlying body. At least some of the plurality of rail structures are adapted to enable individual rail structures to be sealed over the underlying body so as to constrain air flow underneath the solar modules. Additionally, at least one of (i) one or more of the rail structures, or (ii) the one or more retention structures are adjustable so as to adapt the rack assembly to accommodate solar modules of varying forms or dimensions.

  1. Rack assembly for mounting solar modules

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Plaisted, Joshua Reed; West, Brian

    2010-12-28

    A rack assembly is provided for mounting solar modules over an underlying body. The rack assembly may include a plurality of rail structures that are arrangeable over the underlying body to form an overall perimeter for the rack assembly. One or more retention structures may be provided with the plurality of rail structures, where each retention structure is configured to support one or more solar modules at a given height above the underlying body. At least some of the plurality of rail structures are adapted to enable individual rail structures o be sealed over the underlying body so as to constrain air flow underneath the solar modules. Additionally, at least one of (i) one or more of the rail structures, or (ii) the one or more retention structures are adjustable so as to adapt the rack assembly to accommodate solar modules of varying forms or dimensions.

  2. Optimal design of reverse osmosis module networks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maskan, F.; Wiley, D.E.; Johnston, L.P.M.; Clements, D.J.

    2000-05-01

    The structure of individual reverse osmosis modules, the configuration of the module network, and the operating conditions were optimized for seawater and brackish water desalination. The system model included simple mathematical equations to predict the performance of the reverse osmosis modules. The optimization problem was formulated as a constrained multivariable nonlinear optimization. The objective function was the annual profit for the system, consisting of the profit obtained from the permeate, capital cost for the process units, and operating costs associated with energy consumption and maintenance. Optimization of several dual-stage reverse osmosis systems were investigated and compared. It was found that optimal network designs are the ones that produce the most permeate. It may be possible to achieve economic improvements by refining current membrane module designs and their operating pressures.

  3. GREET Pretreatment Module

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adom, Felix K.; Dunn, Jennifer B.; Han, Jeongwoo

    2014-09-01

    A wide range of biofuels and biochemicals can be produced from biomass via different pretreatment technologies that yield sugars. This report documents the material and energy flows that occur when fermentable sugars from four lignocellulosic feedstocks (corn stover, miscanthus, switchgrass, and poplar) are produced via dilute acid pretreatment and ammonia fiber expansion. These flows are documented for inclusion in the pretreatment module of the Greenhouses Gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy Use in Transportation (GREET) model. Process simulations of each pretreatment technology were developed in Aspen Plus. Material and energy consumption data from Aspen Plus were then compiled in the GREET pretreatment module. The module estimates the cradle-to-gate fossil energy consumption (FEC) and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions associated with producing fermentable sugars. This report documents the data and methodology used to develop this module and the cradle-to-gate FEC and GHG emissions that result from producing fermentable sugars.

  4. International Energy Module

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    self-contained units which are linked by an integrating mechanism. The NEMS International Energy Module (IEM) computes world oil prices, provides a set of crude oil and refined...

  5. NEMS International Energy Module

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    EIA NEMS International Energy Module Model Documentation Report vii Mr. G. Daniel Butler U.S. Department of Energy EI-812 1000 Independence Ave., SW Washington, DC 20585 Tel:...

  6. International Energy Module

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    EIA NEMS International Energy Module Model Documentation Report vii Mr. G. Daniel Butler U.S. Department of Energy EI-812 1000 Independence Ave., SW Washington, DC 20585 Tel:...

  7. Apparatus producing constant cable tension for intermittent demand

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lauritzen, Ted

    1985-01-01

    The disclosed apparatus produces constant tension in superconducting electrical cable, or some other strand, under conditions of intermittent demand, as the cable is unreeled from a reel or reeled thereon. The apparatus comprises a pivotally supported swing frame on which the reel is rotatably supported, a rotary motor, a drive train connected between the motor and the reel and including an electrically controllable variable torque slip clutch, a servo transducer connected to the swing frame for producing servo input signals corresponding to the position thereof, a servo control system connected between the transducer and the clutch for regulating the torque transmitted by the clutch to maintain the swing frame in a predetermined position, at least one air cylinder connected to the swing frame for counteracting the tension in the cable, and pressure regulating means for supplying a constant air pressure to the cylinder to establish the constant tension in the cable, the servo system and the clutch being effective to produce torque on the reel in an amount sufficient to provide tension in the cable corresponding to the constant force exerted by the air cylinder. The drive train also preferably includes a fail-safe brake operable to its released position by electrical power in common with the servo system, for preventing rotation of the reel if there is a power failure. A shock absorber and biasing springs may also be connected to the swing frame, such springs biasing the frame toward its predetermined position. The tension in the cable may be measured by force measuring devices engageable with the bearings for the reel shaft, such bearings being supported for slight lateral movement. The reel shaft is driven by a Shmidt coupler which accommodates such movement.

  8. Method of manufacturing a large-area segmented photovoltaic module

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lenox, Carl

    2013-11-05

    One embodiment of the invention relates to a segmented photovoltaic (PV) module which is manufactured from laminate segments. The segmented PV module includes rectangular-shaped laminate segments formed from rectangular-shaped PV laminates and further includes non-rectangular-shaped laminate segments formed from rectangular-shaped and approximately-triangular-shaped PV laminates. The laminate segments are mechanically joined and electrically interconnected to form the segmented module. Another embodiment relates to a method of manufacturing a large-area segmented photovoltaic module from laminate segments of various shapes. Other embodiments relate to processes for providing a photovoltaic array for installation at a site. Other embodiments and features are also disclosed.

  9. Photovoltaic module reliability workshop

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mrig, L.

    1990-01-01

    The paper and presentations compiled in this volume form the Proceedings of the fourth in a series of Workshops sponsored by Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI/DOE) under the general theme of photovoltaic module reliability during the period 1986--1990. The reliability Photo Voltaic (PV) modules/systems is exceedingly important along with the initial cost and efficiency of modules if the PV technology has to make a major impact in the power generation market, and for it to compete with the conventional electricity producing technologies. The reliability of photovoltaic modules has progressed significantly in the last few years as evidenced by warranties available on commercial modules of as long as 12 years. However, there is still need for substantial research and testing required to improve module field reliability to levels of 30 years or more. Several small groups of researchers are involved in this research, development, and monitoring activity around the world. In the US, PV manufacturers, DOE laboratories, electric utilities and others are engaged in the photovoltaic reliability research and testing. This group of researchers and others interested in this field were brought together under SERI/DOE sponsorship to exchange the technical knowledge and field experience as related to current information in this important field. The papers presented here reflect this effort.

  10. Response to several FOIA requests - Renewable Energy. Demand...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Demand for fossil fuels surely will overrun supply sooner or later, as indeed it already has in the casc of United States domestic oil drilling. Recognition also is growing that ...

  11. Demand response medium sized industry consumers (Smart Grid Project...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    demand and regulation power in Danish Industry consumers via a price and control signal from the supplier of electricity. The aim is to develop a valuable solution for the...

  12. Global Energy: Supply, Demand, Consequences, Opportunities (LBNL Summer Lecture Series)

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Majumdar, Arun

    2011-04-28

    Summer Lecture Series 2009: Arun Majumdar, Director of the Environmental Energy Technologies Division, discusses current and future projections of economic growth, population, and global energy demand and supply, and explores the implications of these trends for the environment.

  13. Global Energy: Supply, Demand, Consequences, Opportunities (LBNL Summer Lecture Series)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Majumdar, Arun

    2008-07-29

    Summer Lecture Series 2009: Arun Majumdar, Director of the Environmental Energy Technologies Division, discusses current and future projections of economic growth, population, and global energy demand and supply, and explores the implications of these trends for the environment.

  14. Tankless or Demand-Type Water Heaters | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    a demand water heater at each hot water outlet. ENERGY STAR estimates that a typical family can save 100 or more per year with an ENERGY STAR qualified tankless water heater....

  15. Chapter 3: Demand-Side Resources | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    According to one source, U.S. electric utilities spent 14.7 billion on DSM programs between 1989 and 1999, an average of 1.3 billion per year. PDF icon Chapter 3: Demand-Side ...

  16. Demand charge schedule data | OpenEI Community

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Demand charge schedule data Home > Groups > Utility Rate Hi, I'm a new user of this database,so first, thanks for creating it, and apologies if this question is answered in...

  17. Demand Response and Open Automated Demand Response Opportunities for Data Centers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ghatikar, Girish; Piette, Mary Ann; Fujita, Sydny; McKane, Aimee; Dudley, Junqiao Han; Radspieler, Anthony; Mares, K.C.; Shroyer, Dave

    2009-12-30

    This study examines data center characteristics, loads, control systems, and technologies to identify demand response (DR) and automated DR (Open Auto-DR) opportunities and challenges. The study was performed in collaboration with technology experts, industrial partners, and data center facility managers and existing research on commercial and industrial DR was collected and analyzed. The results suggest that data centers, with significant and rapidly growing energy use, have significant DR potential. Because data centers are highly automated, they are excellent candidates for Open Auto-DR. 'Non-mission-critical' data centers are the most likely candidates for early adoption of DR. Data center site infrastructure DR strategies have been well studied for other commercial buildings; however, DR strategies for information technology (IT) infrastructure have not been studied extensively. The largest opportunity for DR or load reduction in data centers is in the use of virtualization to reduce IT equipment energy use, which correspondingly reduces facility cooling loads. DR strategies could also be deployed for data center lighting, and heating, ventilation, and air conditioning. Additional studies and demonstrations are needed to quantify benefits to data centers of participating in DR and to address concerns about DR's possible impact on data center performance or quality of service and equipment life span.

  18. Apparatus and method for interaction phenomena with world modules in data-flow-based simulation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Xavier, Patrick G.; Gottlieb, Eric J.; McDonald, Michael J.; Oppel, III, Fred J.

    2006-08-01

    A method and apparatus accommodate interaction phenomenon in a data-flow-based simulation of a system of elements, by establishing meta-modules to simulate system elements and by establishing world modules associated with interaction phenomena. World modules are associated with proxy modules from a group of meta-modules associated with one of the interaction phenomenon. The world modules include a communication world, a sensor world, a mobility world, and a contact world. World modules can be further associated with other world modules if necessary. Interaction phenomenon are simulated in corresponding world modules by accessing member functions in the associated group of proxy modules. Proxy modules can be dynamically allocated at a desired point in the simulation to accommodate the addition of elements in the system of elements such as a system of robots, a system of communication terminals, or a system of vehicles, being simulated.

  19. California Geothermal Power Plant to Help Meet High Lithium Demand |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy California Geothermal Power Plant to Help Meet High Lithium Demand California Geothermal Power Plant to Help Meet High Lithium Demand September 20, 2012 - 1:15pm Addthis Ever wonder how we get the materials for the advanced batteries that power our cell phones, laptops, and even some electric vehicles? The U.S. Department of Energy's Geothermal Technologies Program (GTP) is working with California's Simbol Materials to develop technologies that extract battery materials

  20. Benefits of Demand Response in Electricity Markets and Recommendations for

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Achieving Them. A report to the United States Congress Pursuant to Section 1252 of the Energy Policy Act of 2005 (February 2006) | Department of Energy Demand Response in Electricity Markets and Recommendations for Achieving Them. A report to the United States Congress Pursuant to Section 1252 of the Energy Policy Act of 2005 (February 2006) Benefits of Demand Response in Electricity Markets and Recommendations for Achieving Them. A report to the United States Congress Pursuant to Section

  1. Behavioral Economics Applied to Energy Demand Analysis: A Foundation

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Behavioral Economics Applied to Energy Demand Analysis: A Foundation October 2014 Independent Statistics & Analysis www.eia.gov U.S. Department of Energy Washington, DC 20585 U.S. Energy Information Administration | Behavioral Economics Applied to Energy Demand Analysis i This report was prepared by the U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), the statistical and analytical agency within the U.S. Department of Energy. By law, EIA's data, analyses, and forecasts are independent of

  2. Light-Duty Vehicle Energy Demand, Demographics, and Travel Behavior

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    EIA Conference July 15, 2014 | Washington, DC By Trisha Hutchins, Office of Energy Consumption and Efficiency Analysis Light-duty vehicle energy demand, demographics, and travel behavior Examining changes in light-duty vehicle travel trends 2 EIA Conference: Light-duty vehicle energy demand, demographics, and travel behavior July 15, 2014 * Recent data indicate possible structural shift in travel behavior, measured as vehicle miles traveled (VMT) - VMT per licensed driver, vehicles per capita,

  3. Reducing Peak Demand to Defer Power Plant Construction in Oklahoma

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Reducing Peak Demand to Defer Power Plant Construction in Oklahoma Located in the heart of "Tornado Alley," Oklahoma Gas & Electric Company's (OG&E) electric grid faces significant challenges from severe weather, hot summers, and about 2% annual load growth. To better control costs and manage electric reliability under these conditions, OG&E is pursuing demand response strategies made possible by implementation of smart grid technologies, tools, and techniques from

  4. Reducing Logistics Footprints and Replenishment Demands: Nano-engineered

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Silica Aerogels a Proven Method for Water Treatment (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect Technical Report: Reducing Logistics Footprints and Replenishment Demands: Nano-engineered Silica Aerogels a Proven Method for Water Treatment Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Reducing Logistics Footprints and Replenishment Demands: Nano-engineered Silica Aerogels a Proven Method for Water Treatment Rapid deployment and the use of objective force aggressively reduce logistic footprints and

  5. Expert Panel: Forecast Future Demand for Medical Isotopes | Department of

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Energy Expert Panel: Forecast Future Demand for Medical Isotopes Expert Panel: Forecast Future Demand for Medical Isotopes The Expert Panel has concluded that the Department of Energy and National Institutes of Health must develop the capability to produce a diverse supply of radioisotopes for medical use in quantities sufficient to support research and clinical activities. Such a capability would prevent shortages of isotopes, reduce American dependence on foreign radionuclide sources and

  6. International Energy Outlook 2016-World energy demand and economc outlook -

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Energy Information Administration Analysis & Projections International Energy Outlook 2016 Release Date: May 11, 2016 | Next Release Date: September 2017 | Complete PDF anticipated May 23 Chapter 1. World energy demand and economic outlook Overview The International Energy Outlook 2016 (IEO2016) Reference case projects significant growth in worldwide energy demand over the 28-year period from 2012 to 2040. Total world consumption of marketed energy expands from 549 quadrillion British

  7. Electrostatically actuatable light modulating device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Koehler, Dale R.

    1991-01-01

    The electrostatically actuatable light modulator utilizes an opaque substrate plate patterned with an array of aperture cells, the cells comprised of physically positionable dielectric shutters and electrostatic actuators. With incorporation of a light source and a viewing screen, a projection display system is effected. Inclusion of a color filter array aligned with the aperture cells accomplishes a color display. The system is realized in terms of a silicon based manufacturing technology allowing fabrication of a high resolution capability in a physically small device which with the utilization of included magnification optics allows both large and small projection displays.

  8. Irrigation and the demand for electricity. Progress report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maddigan, R. J.; Chern, W. S.; Gallagher, C. A.

    1980-03-01

    In order to anticipate the need for generating capacity, utility planners must estimate the future growth in electricity demand. The need for demand forecasts is no less important for the nation's Rural Electric Cooperatives (RECs) than it is for the investor-owned utilities. The RECs serve an historically agrarian region; therefore, the irrigation sector accounts for a significant portion of the western RECs' total demand. A model is developed of the RECs' demand for electricity used in irrigation. The model is a simultaneous equation system which focuses on both the short-run utilization of electricity in irrigation and the long-run determination of the number of irrigators using electricity. Irrigation demand is described by a set of equations in which the quantity of electricity demanded, the average electricity price, the number of irrigation customers, and the ratio of electricity to total energy used for irrigation are endogenous. The structural equations are estimated using pooled state-level data for the period 1961-1977. In light of the model's results, the impact of changes in relative energy prices on irrigation can be examined.

  9. Automated Demand Response: The Missing Link in the Electricity Value Chain

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McKane, Aimee; Rhyne, Ivin; Piette, Mary Ann; Thompson, Lisa; Lekov, Alex

    2008-08-01

    In 2006, the Public Interest Energy Research Program (PIER) Demand Response Research Center (DRRC) at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory initiated research into Automated Demand Response (OpenADR) applications in California industry. The goal is to improve electric grid reliability and lower electricity use during periods of peak demand. The purpose of this research is to begin to define the relationship among a portfolio of actions that industrial facilities can undertake relative to their electricity use. This 'electricity value chain' defines energy management and demand response (DR) at six levels of service, distinguished by the magnitude, type, and rapidity of response. One element in the electricity supply chain is OpenADR, an open-standards based communications system to send signals to customers to allow them to manage their electric demand in response to supply conditions, such as prices or reliability, through a set of standard, open communications. Initial DRRC research suggests that industrial facilities that have undertaken energy efficiency measures are probably more, not less, likely to initiate other actions within this value chain such as daily load management and demand response. Moreover, OpenADR appears to afford some facilities the opportunity to develop the supporting control structure and to 'demo' potential reductions in energy use that can later be applied to either more effective load management or a permanent reduction in use via energy efficiency. Under the right conditions, some types of industrial facilities can shift or shed loads, without any, or minimal disruption to operations, to protect their energy supply reliability and to take advantage of financial incentives. In 2007 and 2008, 35 industrial facilities agreed to implement OpenADR, representing a total capacity of nearly 40 MW. This paper describes how integrated or centralized demand management and system-level network controls are linked to OpenADR systems. Case studies of refrigerated warehouses and wastewater treatment facilities are used to illustrate OpenADR load reduction potential. Typical shed and shift strategies include: turning off or operating compressors, aerator blowers and pumps at reduced capacity, increasing temperature set-points or pre-cooling cold storage areas and over-oxygenating stored wastewater prior to a DR event. This study concludes that understanding industrial end-use processes and control capabilities is a key to support reduced service during DR events and these capabilities, if DR enabled, hold significant promise in reducing the electricity demand of the industrial sector during utility peak periods.

  10. Automated Demand Response: The Missing Link in the Electricity Value Chain

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McKane, Aimee; Rhyne, Ivin; Lekov, Alex; Thompson, Lisa; Piette, MaryAnn

    2009-08-01

    In 2006, the Public Interest Energy Research Program (PIER) Demand Response Research Center (DRRC) at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory initiated research into Automated Demand Response (OpenADR) applications in California industry. The goal is to improve electric grid reliability and lower electricity use during periods of peak demand. The purpose of this research is to begin to define the relationship among a portfolio of actions that industrial facilities can undertake relative to their electricity use. This ?electricity value chain? defines energy management and demand response (DR) at six levels of service, distinguished by the magnitude, type, and rapidity of response. One element in the electricity supply chain is OpenADR, an open-standards based communications system to send signals to customers to allow them to manage their electric demand in response to supply conditions, such as prices or reliability, through a set of standard, open communications. Initial DRRC research suggests that industrial facilities that have undertaken energy efficiency measures are probably more, not less, likely to initiate other actions within this value chain such as daily load management and demand response. Moreover, OpenADR appears to afford some facilities the opportunity to develop the supporting control structure and to"demo" potential reductions in energy use that can later be applied to either more effective load management or a permanent reduction in use via energy efficiency. Under the right conditions, some types of industrial facilities can shift or shed loads, without any, or minimal disruption to operations, to protect their energy supply reliability and to take advantage of financial incentives.1 In 2007 and 2008, 35 industrial facilities agreed to implement OpenADR, representing a total capacity of nearly 40 MW. This paper describes how integrated or centralized demand management and system-level network controls are linked to OpenADR systems. Case studies of refrigerated warehouses and wastewater treatment facilities are used to illustrate OpenADR load reduction potential. Typical shed and shift strategies include: turning off or operating compressors, aerator blowers and pumps at reduced capacity, increasing temperature set-points or pre-cooling cold storage areas and over-oxygenating stored wastewater prior to a DR event. This study concludes that understanding industrial end-use processes and control capabilities is a key to support reduced service during DR events and these capabilities, if DR enabled, hold significant promise in reducing the electricity demand of the industrial sector during utility peak periods.

  11. Support arrangements for core modules of nuclear reactors. [PWR

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bollinger, L.R.

    1983-11-03

    A support arrangement is provided for the core modules of a nuclear reactor which provides support access through the control drive mechanisms of the reactor. This arrangement provides axial support of individual reactor core modules from the pressure vessel head in a manner which permits attachment and detachment of the modules from the head to be accomplished through the control drive mechanisms after their leadscrews have been removed. The arrangement includes a module support nut which is suspended from the pressure vessel head and screw threaded to the shroud housing for the module. A spline lock prevents loosening of the screw connection. An installation tool assembly, including a cell lifting and preloading tool and a torquing tool, fits through the control drive mechanism and provides lifting of the shroud housing while disconnecting the spline lock, as well as application of torque to the module support nut.

  12. Support arrangement for core modules of nuclear reactors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bollinger, Lawrence R.

    1987-01-01

    A support arrangement is provided for the core modules of a nuclear reactor which provides support access through the control drive mechanisms of the reactor. This arrangement provides axial support of individual reactor core modules from the pressure vessel head in a manner which permits attachment and detachment of the modules from the head to be accomplished through the control drive mechanisms after their leadscrews have been removed. The arrangement includes a module support nut which is suspended from the pressure vessel head and screw threaded to the shroud housing for the module. A spline lock prevents loosening of the screw connection. An installation tool assembly, including a cell lifting and preloading tool and a torquing tool, fits through the control drive mechanism and provides lifting of the shroud housing while disconnecting the spline lock, as well as application of torque to the module support nut.

  13. Methods and devices for optimizing the operation of a semiconductor optical modulator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zortman, William A.

    2015-07-14

    A semiconductor-based optical modulator includes a control loop to control and optimize the modulator's operation for relatively high data rates (above 1 GHz) and/or relatively high voltage levels. Both the amplitude of the modulator's driving voltage and the bias of the driving voltage may be adjusted using the control loop. Such adjustments help to optimize the operation of the modulator by reducing the number of errors present in a modulated data stream.

  14. An Analysis of the Price Elasticity of Demand for Household Appliances

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fujita, Kimberly; Dale, Larry; Fujita, K. Sydny

    2008-01-25

    This report summarizes our study of the price elasticity of demand for home appliances, including refrigerators, clothes washers, and dishwashers. In the context of increasingly stringent appliance standards, we are interested in what kind of impact the increased manufacturing costs caused by higher efficiency requirements will have on appliance sales. We begin with a review of existing economics literature describing the impact of economic variables on the sale of durable goods.We then describe the market for home appliances and changes in this market over the past 20 years, performing regression analysis on the shipments of home appliances and relevant economic variables including changes to operating cost and household income. Based on our analysis, we conclude that the demand for home appliances is price inelastic.

  15. Integration of Renewables Via Demand Management: Highly Dispatchable and Distributed Demand Response for the Integration of Distributed Generation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2012-02-11

    GENI Project: AutoGrid, in conjunction with Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and Columbia University, will design and demonstrate automated control software that helps manage real-time demand for energy across the electric grid. Known as the Demand Response Optimization and Management System - Real-Time (DROMS-RT), the software will enable personalized price signal to be sent to millions of customers in extremely short timeframesincentivizing them to alter their electricity use in response to grid conditions. This will help grid operators better manage unpredictable demand and supply fluctuations in short time-scales making the power generation process more efficient and cost effective for both suppliers and consumers. DROMS-RT is expected to provide a 90% reduction in the cost of operating demand response and dynamic pricing Projects in the U.S.

  16. Development and evaluation of fully automated demand response in large facilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Piette, Mary Ann; Sezgen, Osman; Watson, David S.; Motegi, Naoya; Shockman, Christine; ten Hope, Laurie

    2004-03-30

    This report describes the results of a research project to develop and evaluate the performance of new Automated Demand Response (Auto-DR) hardware and software technology in large facilities. Demand Response (DR) is a set of activities to reduce or shift electricity use to improve electric grid reliability, manage electricity costs, and ensure that customers receive signals that encourage load reduction during times when the electric grid is near its capacity. The two main drivers for widespread demand responsiveness are the prevention of future electricity crises and the reduction of electricity prices. Additional goals for price responsiveness include equity through cost of service pricing, and customer control of electricity usage and bills. The technology developed and evaluated in this report could be used to support numerous forms of DR programs and tariffs. For the purpose of this report, we have defined three levels of Demand Response automation. Manual Demand Response involves manually turning off lights or equipment; this can be a labor-intensive approach. Semi-Automated Response involves the use of building energy management control systems for load shedding, where a preprogrammed load shedding strategy is initiated by facilities staff. Fully-Automated Demand Response is initiated at a building or facility through receipt of an external communications signal--facility staff set up a pre-programmed load shedding strategy which is automatically initiated by the system without the need for human intervention. We have defined this approach to be Auto-DR. An important concept in Auto-DR is that a facility manager is able to ''opt out'' or ''override'' an individual DR event if it occurs at a time when the reduction in end-use services is not desirable. This project sought to improve the feasibility and nature of Auto-DR strategies in large facilities. The research focused on technology development, testing, characterization, and evaluation relating to Auto-DR. This evaluation also included the related decisionmaking perspectives of the facility owners and managers. Another goal of this project was to develop and test a real-time signal for automated demand response that provided a common communication infrastructure for diverse facilities. The six facilities recruited for this project were selected from the facilities that received CEC funds for new DR technology during California's 2000-2001 electricity crises (AB970 and SB-5X).

  17. INSTRUMENTATION, INCLUDING NUCLEAR AND PARTICLE DETECTORS; RADIATION

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    interval technical basis document Chiaro, P.J. Jr. 44 INSTRUMENTATION, INCLUDING NUCLEAR AND PARTICLE DETECTORS; RADIATION DETECTORS; RADIATION MONITORS; DOSEMETERS;...

  18. Annual Technology Baseline (Including Supporting Data); NREL...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Annual Technology Baseline (Including Supporting Data); NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory) Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Annual Technology Baseline ...

  19. Reduced-Order Modeling of Aggregated Thermostatic Loads With Demand Response

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Wei; Lian, Jianming; Chang, Chin-Yao; Kalsi, Karanjit; Sun, Yannan

    2012-12-12

    Demand Response is playing an increasingly important role in smart grid control strategies. Modeling the behavior of populations of appliances under demand response is especially important to evaluate the effectiveness of these demand response programs. In this paper, an aggregated model is proposed for a class of Thermostatically Controlled Loads (TCLs). The model efficiently includes statistical information of the population, systematically deals with heterogeneity, and accounts for a second-order effect necessary to accurately capture the transient dynamics in the collective response. However, an accurate characterization of the collective dynamics however requires the aggregate model to have a high state space dimension. Most of the existing model reduction techniques require the stability of the underlying system which does not hold for the proposed aggregated model. In this work, a novel model reduction approach is developed for the proposed aggregated model, which can significantly reduce its complexity with small performance loss. The original and the reducedorder aggregated models are validated against simulations of thousands of detailed building models using GridLAB-D, which is a realistic open source distribution simulation software. Index Terms demand response, aggregated model, ancillary

  20. The Impact of Energy Efficiency and Demand Response Programs on the U.S. Electricity Market

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baek, Young Sun; Hadley, Stanton W

    2012-01-01

    This study analyzes the impact of the energy efficiency (EE) and demand response (DR) programs on the grid and the consequent level of production. Changes in demand caused by EE and DR programs affect not only the dispatch of existing plants and new generation technologies, the retirements of old plants, and the finances of the market. To find the new equilibrium in the market, we use the Oak Ridge Competitive Electricity Dispatch Model (ORCED) developed to simulate the operations and costs of regional power markets depending on various factors including fuel prices, initial mix of generation capacity, and customer response to electricity prices. In ORCED, over 19,000 plant units in the nation are aggregated into up to 200 plant groups per region. Then, ORCED dispatches the power plant groups in each region to meet the electricity demands for a given year up to 2035. In our analysis, we show various demand, supply, and dispatch patterns affected by EE and DR programs across regions.

  1. Lightweight photovoltaic module development for unmanned aerial vehicles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nowlan, M.J.; Maglitta, J.C.; Lamp, T.R.

    1998-07-01

    Lightweight photovoltaic modules are being developed for powering high altitude unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs). Terrestrial crystalline silicon solar cell and module technologies are being applied to minimize module cost, with modifications to improve module specific power (W/kg) and power density (W/m{sup 2}). New module processes are being developed for assembling standard thickness (320 mm) and thin (125 mm) solar cells, thin (50 to 100 mm) encapsulant films, and thin (25 mm) cover films. In comparison, typical terrestrial modules use 300 to 400 mm thick solar cells, 460 mm thick encapsulants, and 3.2 mm thick glass covers. The use of thin, lightweight materials allows the fabrication of modules with specific powers ranging from 120 to 200 W/kg, depending on cell thickness and efficiency, compared to 15 W/kg or less for conventional terrestrial modules. High efficiency designs based on ultra-thin (5 mm) GaAs cells have also been developed, with the potential for achieving substantially higher specific powers. Initial design, development, and module assembly work is completed. Prototype modules were fabricated in sizes up to 45 cm x 99 cm. Module materials and processes are being evaluated through accelerated environmental testing, including thermal cycling, humidity-freeze cycling, mechanical cycling, and exposure to UV and visible light.

  2. Module level solutions to solar cell polarization

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Xavier, Grace , Li; Bo

    2012-05-29

    A solar cell module includes interconnected solar cells, a transparent cover over the front sides of the solar cells, and a backsheet on the backsides of the solar cells. The solar cell module includes an electrical insulator between the transparent cover and the front sides of the solar cells. An encapsulant protectively packages the solar cells. To prevent polarization, the insulator has resistance suitable to prevent charge from leaking from the front sides of the solar cells to other portions of the solar cell module by way of the transparent cover. The insulator may be attached (e.g., by coating) directly on an underside of the transparent cover or be a separate layer formed between layers of the encapsulant. The solar cells may be back junction solar cells.

  3. [Article 1 of 7: Motivates and Includes the Consumer

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Motivating the consumer to participate gives the electric system more options for solutions and resources, from home energy management and demand response to participating in the ...

  4. [Article 1 of 7: Motivates and Includes the Consumer

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    asset loadings is limited given the relatively limited penetration of distribution Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition systems (SCADA) and demand response into today's grid. ...

  5. Addressing grid challenges and exploring opportunities, including DR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Simms, Scott

    2011-10-25

    Wind is valuable to PNW power generation mix. BPA supports development of wind generation forecasting, utility operational protocols and business practices, Demand Response, and storage applications.

  6. Smart Fan Modules And System

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cipolla, Thomas M.; Kaufman, Richard I.; Mok, Lawrence S.

    2003-07-15

    A fan module including: two or more individual fans, each fan having an air movement means and a motor engaged with the air movement means for accelerating air entering each of the two or more individual fans; a temperature sensor for sensing a temperature associated with the two or more fans and for outputting a first signal corresponding to the temperature; rotational speed sensor for outputting a second signal corresponding to a rotational speed of each of the two or more fans; and a processor for receiving the first and second signals and controlling the two or more individual fans based on the first and second signals. A fan module including: two or more individual fans, each fan having an air movement means and a motor engaged with the air movement means for accelerating air entering each of the two or more individual fans; a temperature sensor for sensing a temperature associated with the two or more fans and for outputting a first signal corresponding to the temperature; rotational speed sensor for outputting a second signal corresponding to a rotational speed of each of the two or more fans; and a processor for receiving the first and second signals and controlling the two or more individual fans based on the first and second signals.

  7. Power module assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Campbell, Jeremy B.; Newson, Steve

    2011-11-15

    A power module assembly of the type suitable for deployment in a vehicular power inverter, wherein the power inverter has a grounded chassis, is provided. The power module assembly comprises a conductive base layer electrically coupled to the chassis, an insulating layer disposed on the conductive base layer, a first conductive node disposed on the insulating layer, a second conductive node disposed on the insulating layer, wherein the first and second conductive nodes are electrically isolated from each other. The power module assembly also comprises a first capacitor having a first electrode electrically connected to the conductive base layer, and a second electrode electrically connected to the first conductive node, and further comprises a second capacitor having a first electrode electrically connected to the conductive base layer, and a second electrode electrically connected to the second conductive node.

  8. Printed Module Interconnects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stockert, Talysa R.; Fields, Jeremy D.; Pach, Gregory F.; Mauger, Scott A.; van Hest, Maikel F. A. M.

    2015-06-14

    Monolithic interconnects in photovoltaic modules connect adjacent cells in series, and are typically formed sequentially involving multiple deposition and scribing steps. Interconnect widths of 500 um every 10 mm result in 5% dead area, which does not contribute to power generation in an interconnected solar panel. This work expands on previous work that introduced an alternative interconnection method capable of producing interconnect widths less than 100 um. The interconnect is added to the module in a single step after deposition of the photovoltaic stack, eliminating the need for scribe alignment. This alternative method can be used for all types of thin film photovoltaic modules. Voltage addition with copper-indium-gallium-diselenide (CIGS) solar cells using a 2-scribe printed interconnect approach is demonstrated. Additionally, interconnect widths of 250 um are shown.

  9. Climate Mitigation Policy Implications for Global Irrigation Water Demand

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chaturvedi, Vaibhav; Hejazi, Mohamad I.; Edmonds, James A.; Clarke, Leon E.; Kyle, G. Page; Davies, Evan; Wise, Marshall A.

    2013-08-22

    Energy, water and land are scarce resources, critical to humans. Developments in each affect the availability and cost of the others, and consequently human prosperity. Measures to limit greenhouse gas concentrations will inevitably exact dramatic changes on energy and land systems and in turn alter the character, magnitude and geographic distribution of human claims on water resources. We employ the Global Change Assessment Model (GCAM), an integrated assessment model to explore the interactions of energy, land and water systems in the context of alternative policies to limit climate change to three alternative levels: 2.5 Wm-2 (445 ppm CO2-e), 3.5 Wm-2 (535 ppm CO2-e) and 4.5 Wm-2 (645 ppm CO2-e). We explore the effects of alternative land-use emissions mitigation policy options—one which values terrestrial carbon emissions equally with fossil fuel and industrial emissions, and an alternative which places no penalty on land-use change emissions. We find that increasing populations and economic growth could be anticipated to lead to increased demand for water for agricultural systems (+200%), even in the absence of climate change. In general policies to mitigate climate change will increase agricultural demands for water, regardless of whether or not terrestrial carbon is valued or not. Burgeoning demands for water are driven by the demand for bioenergy in response to emissions mitigation policies. We also find that the policy matters. Increases in the demand for water when terrestrial carbon emissions go un-prices are vastly larger than when terrestrial system carbon emissions are prices at the same rate as fossil fuel and industrial emissions. Our estimates for increased water demands when terrestrial carbon systems go un-priced are larger than earlier studies. We find that the deployment of improved irrigation delivery systems could mitigate some of the increase in water demands, but cannot reverse the increases in water demands when terrestrial carbon emissions go un-priced. Finally we estimates that the geospatial pattern of water demands could stress some parts of the world, e.g. China, India and other countries in south and east Asia, earlier and more intensely than in other parts of the world, e.g. North America.

  10. Flexible programmable logic module

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Robertson, Perry J.; Hutchinson, Robert L.; Pierson, Lyndon G.

    2001-01-01

    The circuit module of this invention is a VME board containing a plurality of programmable logic devices (PLDs), a controlled impedance clock tree, and interconnecting buses. The PLDs are arranged to permit systolic processing of a problem by offering wide data buses and a plurality of processing nodes. The board contains a clock reference and clock distribution tree that can drive each of the PLDs with two critically timed clock references. External clock references can be used to drive additional circuit modules all operating from the same synchronous clock reference.

  11. Order Module--DOE O 440.1B, WORKER PROTECTION PROGRAM FOR DOE...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Order Module--DOE O 440.1B, WORKER PROTECTION PROGRAM FOR DOE (INCLUDING NNSA) FEDERAL ... PDF icon DOE Order Self Study Modules - DOE O 440.1B, Worker Protection Management for DOE ...

  12. CdTe Thin Film Solar Cells and Modules Tutorial; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Albin, David S.

    2015-06-13

    This is a tutorial presented at the 42nd IEEE Photovoltaics Specialists Conference to cover the introduction, background, and updates on CdTe cell and module technology, including CdTe cell and module structure and fabrication.

  13. Gas storage materials, including hydrogen storage materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mohtadi, Rana F; Wicks, George G; Heung, Leung K; Nakamura, Kenji

    2013-02-19

    A material for the storage and release of gases comprises a plurality of hollow elements, each hollow element comprising a porous wall enclosing an interior cavity, the interior cavity including structures of a solid-state storage material. In particular examples, the storage material is a hydrogen storage material such as a solid state hydride. An improved method for forming such materials includes the solution diffusion of a storage material solution through a porous wall of a hollow element into an interior cavity.

  14. Gas storage materials, including hydrogen storage materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mohtadi, Rana F; Wicks, George G; Heung, Leung K; Nakamura, Kenji

    2014-11-25

    A material for the storage and release of gases comprises a plurality of hollow elements, each hollow element comprising a porous wall enclosing an interior cavity, the interior cavity including structures of a solid-state storage material. In particular examples, the storage material is a hydrogen storage material, such as a solid state hydride. An improved method for forming such materials includes the solution diffusion of a storage material solution through a porous wall of a hollow element into an interior cavity.

  15. Communications circuit including a linear quadratic estimator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ferguson, Dennis D.

    2015-07-07

    A circuit includes a linear quadratic estimator (LQE) configured to receive a plurality of measurements a signal. The LQE is configured to weight the measurements based on their respective uncertainties to produce weighted averages. The circuit further includes a controller coupled to the LQE and configured to selectively adjust at least one data link parameter associated with a communication channel in response to receiving the weighted averages.

  16. Intentionally Including - Engaging Minorities in Physics Careers |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Intentionally Including - Engaging Minorities in Physics Careers Intentionally Including - Engaging Minorities in Physics Careers April 24, 2013 - 4:37pm Addthis Joining Director Dot Harris (second from left) were Marlene Kaplan, the Deputy Director of Education and director of EPP, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Claudia Rankins, a Program Officer with the National Science Foundation and Jim Stith, the past Vice-President of the American Institute of

  17. MHK technologies include current energy conversion

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    technologies include current energy conversion (CEC) devices, e.g., hydrokinetic turbines that extract power from water currents (riverine, tidal, and ocean) and wave energy conversion (WEC) devices that extract power from wave motion. Sandia's MHK research leverages decades of experience in engineering and design and analysis (D&A) of wind power technologies, and its vast research complex, including high-performance computing (HPC), advanced materials and coatings, nondestructive

  18. Using Utility Load Data to Estimate Demand for Space Cooling and Potential for Shiftable Loads

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Denholm, P.; Ong, S.; Booten, C.

    2012-05-01

    This paper describes a simple method to estimate hourly cooling demand from historical utility load data. It compares total hourly demand to demand on cool days and compares these estimates of total cooling demand to previous regional and national estimates. Load profiles generated from this method may be used to estimate the potential for aggregated demand response or load shifting via cold storage.

  19. Impacts of Climate Change on Energy Consumption and Peak Demand in Buildings: A Detailed Regional Approach

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dirks, James A.; Gorrissen, Willy J.; Hathaway, John E.; Skorski, Daniel C.; Scott, Michael J.; Pulsipher, Trenton C.; Huang, Maoyi; Liu, Ying; Rice, Jennie S.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the results of numerous commercial and residential building simulations, with the purpose of examining the impact of climate change on peak and annual building energy consumption over the portion of the Eastern Interconnection (EIC) located in the United States. The climate change scenario considered (IPCC A2 scenario as downscaled from the CASCaDE data set) has changes in mean climate characteristics as well as changes in the frequency and duration of intense weather events. This investigation examines building energy demand for three annual periods representative of climate trends in the CASCaDE data set at the beginning, middle, and end of the century--2004, 2052, and 2089. Simulations were performed using the Building ENergy Demand (BEND) model which is a detailed simulation platform built around EnergyPlus. BEND was developed in collaboration with the Platform for Regional Integrated Modeling and Analysis (PRIMA), a modeling framework designed to simulate the complex interactions among climate, energy, water, and land at decision-relevant spatial scales. Over 26,000 building configurations of different types, sizes, vintages, and, characteristics which represent the population of buildings within the EIC, are modeled across the 3 EIC time zones using the future climate from 100 locations within the target region, resulting in nearly 180,000 spatially relevant simulated demand profiles for each of the 3 years. In this study, the building stock characteristics are held constant based on the 2005 building stock in order to isolate and present results that highlight the impact of the climate signal on commercial and residential energy demand. Results of this analysis compare well with other analyses at their finest level of specificity. This approach, however, provides a heretofore unprecedented level of specificity across multiple spectrums including spatial, temporal, and building characteristics. This capability enables the ability to perform detailed hourly impact studies of building adaptation and mitigation strategies on energy use and electricity peak demand within the context of the entire grid and economy.

  20. The Demand Reduction Potential of Smart Appliances in U.S. Homes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Makhmalbaf, Atefe; Srivastava, Viraj; Parker, Graham B.

    2013-08-14

    The widespread deployment of demand respond (DR) enabled home appliances is expected to have significant reduction in the demand of electricity during peak hours. The work documented in this paper focuses on estimating the energy shift resulting from the installation of DR enabled smart appliances in the U.S. This estimation is based on analyzing the market for smart appliances and calculating the total energy demand that can potentially be shifted by DR control in appliances. Appliance operation is examined by considering their sub components individually to identify their energy consumptions and savings resulting from interrupting and shifting their load, e.g., by delaying the refrigerator defrost cycle. In addition to major residential appliances, residential pool pumps are also included in this study given their energy consumption profiles that make them favorable for DR applications. In the market analysis study documented in this paper, the U.S. Energy Information Administration's (EIA) Residential Energy Consumption Survey (RECS) and National Association of Home Builders (NAHB) databases are used to examine the expected life of an appliance, the number of appliances installed in homes constructed in 10 year intervals after 1940 and home owner income. Conclusions about the effectiveness of the smart appliances in reducing electrical demand have been drawn and a ranking of appliances in terms of their contribution to load shift is presented. E.g., it was concluded that DR enabled water heaters result in the maximum load shift; whereas, dishwashers have the highest user elasticity and hence the highest potential for load shifting through DR. This work is part of a larger effort to bring novel home energy management concepts and technologies to reduce energy consumption, reduce peak electricity demand, integrate renewables and storage technology, and change homeowner behavior to manage and consume less energy and potentially save consumer energy costs.

  1. U.S. electric utility demand-side management 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-12-01

    The US Electric Utility Demand-Side Management report presents comprehensive information on electric power industry demand-side management (DSM) activities in the US at the national, regional, and utility levels. The objective of the publication is to provide industry decision makers, government policy makers, analysts, and the general public with historical data that may be used in understanding DSM as it related to the US electric power industry. The first chapter, ``Profile: U.S. Electric Utility Demand-Side Management,`` presents a general discussion of DSM, its history, current issues, and a review of key statistics for the year. Subsequent chapters present discussions and more detailed data on energy savings, peak load reductions and costs attributable to DSM. 9 figs., 24 tabs.

  2. Method and apparatus for resonant frequency waveform modulation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Taubman, Matthew S [Richland, WA

    2011-06-07

    A resonant modulator device and process are described that provide enhanced resonant frequency waveforms to electrical devices including, e.g., laser devices. Faster, larger, and more complex modulation waveforms are obtained than can be obtained by use of conventional current controllers alone.

  3. DOE TMD transportation training module 14 transportation of explosives

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Griffith, R.L. Jr.

    1994-07-01

    The Department of Energy Transportation Management Division has developed training module 14, entitled {open_quotes}Transportation of Explosives{close_quotes} to compliment the basic {open_quotes}core ten{close_quotes} training modules of the Hazardous Materials Modular Training Program. The purpose of this training module is to increase awareness of the Department of Transportation (DOT) requirements concerning the packaging and transportation of explosives. Topics covered in module 14 include the classification of explosives, approval and registration of explosives, packaging requirements, hazard communication requirements, separation and segregation compatibility requirements, loading and unloading operations, as well as safety measures required in the event of a vehicle accident involving explosives.

  4. Fabricate-on-Demand Vacuum Insulating Glazings | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Fabricate-on-Demand Vacuum Insulating Glazings Fabricate-on-Demand Vacuum Insulating Glazings 1 of 3 PPG developed and commercialized the Intercept® Spacer System that revolutionized the manufacture of double-pane insulated glazing units (IGUs) 25 years ago. Over 125 PPG-licensed Intercept® Spacer System lines are in operation in the US. Currently in use in more than 600 million residential windows, the Intercept® Spacer System is the top-selling product of its kind in North America. Image:

  5. Demand Response in U.S. Electricity Markets: Empirical Evidence |

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Department of Energy in U.S. Electricity Markets: Empirical Evidence Demand Response in U.S. Electricity Markets: Empirical Evidence The work described in this paper was funded by the Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability, Permitting, Siting and Analysis of the U.S. Department of Energy under contract No. DE-AC02-05CH11231. The authors are solely responsible for any omissions or errors contained herein. PDF icon Demand Response in U.S. Electricity Markets: Empirical Evidence

  6. Evaluation of Representative Smart Grid Investment Project Technologies: Demand Response

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fuller, Jason C.; Prakash Kumar, Nirupama; Bonebrake, Christopher A.

    2012-02-14

    This document is one of a series of reports estimating the benefits of deploying technologies similar to those implemented on the Smart Grid Investment Grant (SGIG) projects. Four technical reports cover the various types of technologies deployed in the SGIG projects, distribution automation, demand response, energy storage, and renewables integration. A fifth report in the series examines the benefits of deploying these technologies on a national level. This technical report examines the impacts of a limited number of demand response technologies and implementations deployed in the SGIG projects.

  7. Scramjet including integrated inlet and combustor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kutschenreuter, P.H. Jr.; Blanton, J.C.

    1992-02-04

    This patent describes a scramjet engine. It comprises: a first surface including an aft facing step; a cowl including: a leading edge and a trailing edge; an upper surface and a lower surface extending between the leading edge and the trailing edge; the cowl upper surface being spaced from and generally parallel to the first surface to define an integrated inlet-combustor therebetween having an inlet for receiving and channeling into the inlet-combustor supersonic inlet airflow; means for injecting fuel into the inlet-combustor at the step for mixing with the supersonic inlet airflow for generating supersonic combustion gases; and further including a spaced pari of sidewalls extending between the first surface to the cowl upper surface and wherein the integrated inlet-combustor is generally rectangular and defined by the sidewall pair, the first surface and the cowl upper surface.

  8. Method of monolithic module assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gee, James M.; Garrett, Stephen E.; Morgan, William P.; Worobey, Walter

    1999-01-01

    Methods for "monolithic module assembly" which translate many of the advantages of monolithic module construction of thin-film PV modules to wafered c-Si PV modules. Methods employ using back-contact solar cells positioned atop electrically conductive circuit elements affixed to a planar support so that a circuit capable of generating electric power is created. The modules are encapsulated using encapsulant materials such as EVA which are commonly used in photovoltaic module manufacture. The methods of the invention allow multiple cells to be electrically connected in a single encapsulation step rather than by sequential soldering which characterizes the currently used commercial practices.

  9. Electric Power Monthly, August 1990. [Glossary included

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-11-29

    The Electric Power Monthly (EPM) presents monthly summaries of electric utility statistics at the national, Census division, and State level. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decisionmakers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead. Data includes generation by energy source (coal, oil, gas, hydroelectric, and nuclear); generation by region; consumption of fossil fuels for power generation; sales of electric power, cost data; and unusual occurrences. A glossary is included.

  10. Processing incommensurately modulated protein diffraction data with Eval15

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Porta, Jason [Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE 68198-7696 (United States); Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE 68198-7696 (United States); Lovelace, Jeffrey J. [Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE 68198-7696 (United States); Schreurs, Antoine M. M.; Kroon-Batenburg, Loes M. J. [Utrecht University, Padualaan 8, 3584 CH Utrecht (Netherlands); Borgstahl, Gloria E. O., E-mail: gborgstahl@unmc.edu [Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE 68198-7696 (United States); Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE 68198-7696 (United States)

    2011-07-01

    Data processing of an incommensurately modulated profilinactin crystal is described. Recent challenges in biological X-ray crystallography include the processing of modulated diffraction data. A modulated crystal has lost its three-dimensional translational symmetry but retains long-range order that can be restored by refining a periodic modulation function. The presence of a crystal modulation is indicated by an X-ray diffraction pattern with periodic main reflections flanked by off-lattice satellite reflections. While the periodic main reflections can easily be indexed using three reciprocal-lattice vectors a*, b*, c*, the satellite reflections have a non-integral relationship to the main lattice and require a q vector for indexing. While methods for the processing of diffraction intensities from modulated small-molecule crystals are well developed, they have not been applied in protein crystallography. A recipe is presented here for processing incommensurately modulated data from a macromolecular crystal using the Eval program suite. The diffraction data are from an incommensurately modulated crystal of profilinactin with single-order satellites parallel to b*. The steps taken in this report can be used as a guide for protein crystallographers when encountering crystal modulations. To our knowledge, this is the first report of the processing of data from an incommensurately modulated macromolecular crystal.

  11. A solar module fabrication process for HALE solar electric UAVs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carey, P.G.; Aceves, R.C.; Colella, N.J.; Williams, K.A.; Sinton, R.A.; Glenn, G.S.

    1994-12-12

    We describe a fabrication process used to manufacture high power-to-weight-ratio flexible solar array modules for use on high-altitude-long-endurance (HALE) solar-electric unmanned air vehicles (UAVs). These modules have achieved power-to-weight ratios of 315 and 396 W/kg for 150{mu}m-thick monofacial and 110{mu}m-thick bifacial silicon solar cells, respectively. These calculations reflect average module efficiencies of 15.3% (150{mu}m) and 14.7% (110{mu}m) obtained from electrical tests performed by Spectrolab, Inc. under AMO global conditions at 25{degrees}C, and include weight contributions from all module components (solar cells, lamination material, bypass diodes, interconnect wires, and adhesive tape used to attach the modules to the wing). The fabrication, testing, and performance of 32 m{sup 2} of these modules will be described.

  12. Ponderomotive Forces On Waves In Modulated Media

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dodin, I.Y; Fisch, Nathaniel

    2014-02-28

    Nonlinear interactions of waves via instantaneous cross-phase modulation can be cast in the same way as ponderomotive wave-particle interactions in high-frequency electromagnetic fi eld. The ponderomotive effect arises when rays of a probe wave scatter off perturbations of the underlying medium produced by a second, modulation wave, much like charged particles scatter off a quasiperiodic field. Parallels with the point-particle dynamics, which itself is generalized by this theory, lead to new methods of wave manipulation, including asymmetric barriers for light.

  13. PSCAD Modules Representing PV Generator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Muljadi, E.; Singh, M.; Gevorgian, V.

    2013-08-01

    Photovoltaic power plants (PVPs) have been growing in size, and the installation time is very short. With the cost of photovoltaic (PV) panels dropping in recent years, it can be predicted that in the next 10 years the contribution of PVPs to the total number of renewable energy power plants will grow significantly. In this project, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) developed a dynamic modeling of the modules to be used as building blocks to develop simulation models of single PV arrays, expanded to include Maximum Power Point Tracker (MPPT), expanded to include PV inverter, or expanded to cover an entire PVP. The focus of the investigation and complexity of the simulation determines the components that must be included in the simulation. The development of the PV inverter was covered in detail, including the control diagrams. Both the current-regulated voltage source inverter and the current-regulated current source inverter were developed in PSCAD. Various operations of the PV inverters were simulated under normal and abnormal conditions. Symmetrical and unsymmetrical faults were simulated, presented, and discussed. Both the three-phase analysis and the symmetrical component analysis were included to clarify the understanding of unsymmetrical faults. The dynamic model validation was based on the testing data provided by SCE. Testing was conducted at SCE with the focus on the grid interface behavior of the PV inverter under different faults and disturbances. The dynamic model validation covers both the symmetrical and unsymmetrical faults.

  14. Factors that will influence oil and gas supply and demand in the 21st century

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holditch, S.A.; Chianelli, R.R.

    2008-04-15

    A recent report published by the National Petroleum Council (NPC) in the United States predicted a 50-60% growth in total global demand for energy by 2030. Because oil, gas, and coal will continue to be the primary energy sources during this time, the energy industry will have to continue increasing the supply of these fuels to meet this increasing demand. Achieving this goal will require the exploitation of both conventional and unconventional reservoirs of oil and gas in (including coalbed methane) an environmentally acceptable manner. Such efforts will, in turn, require advancements in materials science, particularly in the development of materials that can withstand high-pressure, high-temperature, and high-stress conditions.

  15. Open Automated Demand Response Technologies for Dynamic Pricing and Smart Grid

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ghatikar, Girish; Mathieu, Johanna L.; Piette, Mary Ann; Kiliccote, Sila

    2010-06-02

    We present an Open Automated Demand Response Communications Specifications (OpenADR) data model capable of communicating real-time prices to electricity customers. We also show how the same data model could be used to for other types of dynamic pricing tariffs (including peak pricing tariffs, which are common throughout the United States). Customers participating in automated demand response programs with building control systems can respond to dynamic prices by using the actual prices as inputs to their control systems. Alternatively, prices can be mapped into"building operation modes," which can act as inputs to control systems. We present several different strategies customers could use to map prices to operation modes. Our results show that OpenADR can be used to communicate dynamic pricing within the Smart Grid and that OpenADR allows for interoperability with existing and future systems, technologies, and electricity markets.

  16. In-line thermoelectric module

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pento, Robert; Marks, James E.; Staffanson, Clifford D.

    2000-01-01

    A thermoelectric module with a plurality of electricity generating units each having a first end and a second end, the units being arranged first end to second end along an in-line axis. Each unit includes first and second elements each made of a thermoelectric material, an electrically conductive hot member arranged to heat one side of the first element, and an electrically conductive cold member arranged to cool another side of the first element and to cool one side of the second element. The hot member, the first element, the cold member and the second element are supported in a fixture, are electrically connected respectively to provide an electricity generating unit, and are arranged respectively in positions along the in-line axis. The individual components of each generating unit and the respective generating units are clamped in their in-line positions by a loading bolt at one end of the fixture and a stop wall at the other end of the fixture. The hot members may have a T-shape and the cold members an hourglass shape to facilitate heat transfer. The direction of heat transfer through the hot members may be perpendicular to the direction of heat transfer through the cold members, and both of these heat transfer directions may be perpendicular to the direction of current flow through the module.

  17. In-Line Thermoelectric Module

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pento, Robert; Marks, James E.; Staffanson, Clifford D.

    1998-07-28

    A thermoelectric module with a plurality of electricity generating units each having a first end and a second end, the units being arranged first end to second end along an-in-line axis. Each unit includes first and second elements each made of a thermoelectric material, an electrically conductive hot member arranged to heat one side of the first element, and an electrically conductive cold member arranged to cool another side of the first element and to cool one side of the second element. The hot member, the first element, the cold member and the second element are supported in a fixture, are electrically connected respectively to provide an electricity generating unit, and are arranged respectively in positions along the in-line axis. The individual components of each generating unit and the respective generating units are clamped in their in-line positions by a loading bolt at one end of the fixture and a stop wall at the other end of the fixture. The hot members may have a T-shape and the cold members an hourglass shape to facilitate heat transfer. The direction of heat transfer through the hot members may be perpendicular to the direction of heat transfer through the cold members, and both of these heat transfer directions maybe perpendicular to the direction-of current flow through the module.

  18. Optimization of Occupancy Based Demand Controlled Ventilation in Residences

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mortensen, Dorthe K.; Walker, Iain S.; Sherman, Max H.

    2011-05-01

    Although it has been used for many years in commercial buildings, the application of demand controlled ventilation in residences is limited. In this study we used occupant exposure to pollutants integrated over time (referred to as 'dose') as the metric to evaluate the effectiveness and air quality implications of demand controlled ventilation in residences. We looked at air quality for two situations. The first is that typically used in ventilation standards: the exposure over a long term. The second is to look at peak exposures that are associated with time variations in ventilation rates and pollutant generation. The pollutant generation had two components: a background rate associated with the building materials and furnishings and a second component related to occupants. The demand controlled ventilation system operated at a low airflow rate when the residence was unoccupied and at a high airflow rate when occupied. We used analytical solutions to the continuity equation to determine the ventilation effectiveness and the long-term chronic dose and peak acute exposure for a representative range of occupancy periods, pollutant generation rates and airflow rates. The results of the study showed that we can optimize the demand controlled airflow rates to reduce the quantity of air used for ventilation without introducing problematic acute conditions.

  19. Demand, Supply, and Price Outlook for Reformulated Motor Gasoline 1995

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    1994-01-01

    Provisions of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 designed to reduce ground-level ozone will increase the demand for reformulated motor gasoline in a number of U.S. metropolitan areas. This article discusses the effects of the new regulations on the motor gasoline market and the refining industry.

  20. Demand Response and Energy Storage Integration Study- Past Workshops

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The project was initiated and informed by the results of two DOE workshops; one on energy storage and the other on demand response. The workshops were attended by members of the electric power industry, researchers, and policy makers; and the study design and goals reflect their contributions to the collective thinking of the project team.

  1. Wind Power Project Repowering: History, Economics, and Demand (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lantz, E.

    2015-01-01

    This presentation summarizes a related NREL technical report and seeks to capture the current status of wind power project repowering in the U.S. and globally, analyze the economic and financial decision drivers that surround repowering, and to quantify the level and timing of demand for new turbine equipment to supply the repowering market.

  2. Subterranean barriers including at least one weld

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nickelson, Reva A.; Sloan, Paul A.; Richardson, John G.; Walsh, Stephanie; Kostelnik, Kevin M.

    2007-01-09

    A subterranean barrier and method for forming same are disclosed, the barrier including a plurality of casing strings wherein at least one casing string of the plurality of casing strings may be affixed to at least another adjacent casing string of the plurality of casing strings through at least one weld, at least one adhesive joint, or both. A method and system for nondestructively inspecting a subterranean barrier is disclosed. For instance, a radiographic signal may be emitted from within a casing string toward an adjacent casing string and the radiographic signal may be detected from within the adjacent casing string. A method of repairing a barrier including removing at least a portion of a casing string and welding a repair element within the casing string is disclosed. A method of selectively heating at least one casing string forming at least a portion of a subterranean barrier is disclosed.

  3. Photoactive devices including porphyrinoids with coordinating additives

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Forrest, Stephen R; Zimmerman, Jeramy; Yu, Eric K; Thompson, Mark E; Trinh, Cong; Whited, Matthew; Diev, Vlacheslav

    2015-05-12

    Coordinating additives are included in porphyrinoid-based materials to promote intermolecular organization and improve one or more photoelectric characteristics of the materials. The coordinating additives are selected from fullerene compounds and organic compounds having free electron pairs. Combinations of different coordinating additives can be used to tailor the characteristic properties of such porphyrinoid-based materials, including porphyrin oligomers. Bidentate ligands are one type of coordinating additive that can form coordination bonds with a central metal ion of two different porphyrinoid compounds to promote porphyrinoid alignment and/or pi-stacking. The coordinating additives can shift the absorption spectrum of a photoactive material toward higher wavelengths, increase the external quantum efficiency of the material, or both.

  4. SiC Power Module

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    R&D 100 Entry SiC Power Module 2 R&D 100 Entry SiC Power Module Submitting OrganizatiOn Sandia National Laboratories PO Box 5800, MS 1033 Albuquerque, NM 87185-1033 USA Stanley ...

  5. Power generation method including membrane separation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lokhandwala, Kaaeid A.

    2000-01-01

    A method for generating electric power, such as at, or close to, natural gas fields. The method includes conditioning natural gas containing C.sub.3+ hydrocarbons and/or acid gas by means of a membrane separation step. This step creates a leaner, sweeter, drier gas, which is then used as combustion fuel to run a turbine, which is in turn used for power generation.

  6. Nuclear reactor shield including magnesium oxide

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rouse, Carl A.; Simnad, Massoud T.

    1981-01-01

    An improvement in nuclear reactor shielding of a type used in reactor applications involving significant amounts of fast neutron flux, the reactor shielding including means providing structural support, neutron moderator material, neutron absorber material and other components as described below, wherein at least a portion of the neutron moderator material is magnesium in the form of magnesium oxide either alone or in combination with other moderator materials such as graphite and iron.

  7. Electric power monthly, September 1990. [Glossary included

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-12-17

    The purpose of this report is to provide energy decision makers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues. The power plants considered include coal, petroleum, natural gas, hydroelectric, and nuclear power plants. Data are presented for power generation, fuel consumption, fuel receipts and cost, sales of electricity, and unusual occurrences at power plants. Data are compared at the national, Census division, and state levels. 4 figs., 52 tabs. (CK)

  8. Rotor assembly including superconducting magnetic coil

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Snitchler, Gregory L. (Shrewsbury, MA); Gamble, Bruce B. (Wellesley, MA); Voccio, John P. (Somerville, MA)

    2003-01-01

    Superconducting coils and methods of manufacture include a superconductor tape wound concentrically about and disposed along an axis of the coil to define an opening having a dimension which gradually decreases, in the direction along the axis, from a first end to a second end of the coil. Each turn of the superconductor tape has a broad surface maintained substantially parallel to the axis of the coil.

  9. Using Community-Based Social Marketing to Drive Demand for Energy...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Using Community-Based Social Marketing to Drive Demand for Energy Efficiency Using Community-Based Social Marketing to Drive Demand for Energy Efficiency Slides presented in the ...

  10. Property:OpenEI/UtilityRate/DemandChargePeriod1 | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Jump to: navigation, search This is a property of type Number. Name: Demand Charge Period 1 Pages using the property "OpenEIUtilityRateDemandChargePeriod1"...

  11. Property:OpenEI/UtilityRate/DemandRatchetPercentage | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Jump to: navigation, search This is a property of type Number. Name: Demand Ratchet Percentage Pages using the property "OpenEIUtilityRateDemandRatchetPercentag...

  12. Bioenergy Demand in a Market Driven Forest Economy (U.S. South...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    to model supply over time * Then look at the impact of various demand scenarios * Pellet demand scenarios and carbon consequences dominate current research - biofuels not so...

  13. Automation systems for Demand Response, ForskEL (Smart Grid Project...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    systems for Demand Response, ForskEL (Smart Grid Project) Jump to: navigation, search Project Name Automation systems for Demand Response, ForskEL Country Denmark Coordinates...

  14. ADB-Methods and Tools for Energy Demand Projection | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    ADB-Methods and Tools for Energy Demand Projection Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Methods and Tools for Energy Demand Projection AgencyCompany...

  15. 16th Workshop on Crystalline Silicon Solar Cells and Modules: Materials and Processes; Program, Extended Abstracts, and Papers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sopori, B. L.

    2006-08-01

    The National Center for Photovoltaics sponsored the 16th Workshop on Crystalline Silicon Solar Cells and Modules: Materials and Processes held August 6-9, 2006 in Denver, Colorado. The workshop addressed the fundamental properties of PV-Si, new solar cell designs, and advanced solar cell processing techniques. It provided a forum for an informal exchange of technical and scientific information between international researchers in the photovoltaic and relevant non-photovoltaic fields. The Workshop Theme was: "Getting more (Watts) for Less ($i)". A combination of oral presentations by invited speakers, poster sessions, and discussion sessions reviewed recent advances in crystal growth, new cell structures, new processes and process characterization techniques, and cell fabrication approaches suitable for future manufacturing demands. The special sessions included: Feedstock Issues: Si Refining and Purification; Metal-impurity Engineering; Thin Film Si; and Diagnostic Techniques.

  16. Thermoelectrics Partnership: Automotive Thermoelectric Modules...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Thermoelectrics Partnership: Automotive Thermoelectric Modules with Scalable Thermo- and Electro-Mechanical Interfaces Novel Nanostructured Interface Solution for Automotive ...

  17. Module Solar AG | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Module Solar AG Jump to: navigation, search Name: Module Solar AG Place: Baar, Switzerland Product: A Swiss PV module and materials supplier and developer Coordinates: 40.808083,...

  18. Photovoltaic module with removable wind deflector (Patent) |...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Patent: Photovoltaic module with removable wind deflector Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Photovoltaic module with removable wind deflector A photovoltaic (PV) module ...

  19. Detailed Course Module Description | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Detailed Course Module Description Detailed Course Module Description This document lists the course modules for building science courses offered at Cornell's Collaborator...

  20. Research Opportunities in Reliability of Photovoltaic Modules (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hacke, P.

    2010-05-01

    The motivation for an increased scope and a more proactive effort in reliability research of photovoltaic modules and systems includes reducing the levelized cost of energy and gaining better confidence in the energy and financial payback for photovoltaic systems. This increased reliability and confidence will lead to greater penetration of photovoltaics in the energy portfolio and greater employment in photovoltaics and related industries. Present research needs include the fundamental degradation mechanisms of polymers, connectors and other module components, mapping of failure mechanisms observed in the field to those in accelerated lifetime tests, determining the acceleration factors, and improving standards for modules such that tests can appropriately be assigned to evaluate their long term durability. Specific mechanisms discussed are corrosion in module components, metastability in thin-film active layers, delamination and loss of elastic properties in module polymeric materials, and inverter failure. Presently, there is hiring of reliability scientists and engineers at many levels of the value chain for photovoltaics.

  1. VERDE Analytic Modules

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2008-01-15

    The Verde Analytic Modules permit the user to ingest openly available data feeds about phenomenology (storm tracks, wind, precipitation, earthquake, wildfires, and similar natural and manmade power grid disruptions and forecast power outages, restoration times, customers outaged, and key facilities that will lose power. Damage areas are predicted using historic damage criteria of the affected area. The modules use a cellular automata approach to estimating the distribution circuits assigned to geo-located substations. Population estimates servedmore » within the service areas are located within 1 km grid cells and converted to customer counts by conversion through demographic estimation of households and commercial firms within the population cells. Restoration times are estimated by agent-based simulation of restoration crews working according to utility published prioritization calibrated by historic performance.« less

  2. 2015 PV Module Reliability Workshop

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory hosts an annual Photovoltaic (PV) Module Reliability Workshop so that solar technology experts can share information leading to the improvement of PV module reliability. Improvements to module reliability reduce the cost of solar electricity and promotes investor confidence in the technology—both critical goals for moving PV technologies deeper into the electricity marketplace.

  3. Information processing systems, reasoning modules, and reasoning system design methods

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hohimer, Ryan E; Greitzer, Frank L; Hampton, Shawn D

    2014-03-04

    Information processing systems, reasoning modules, and reasoning system design methods are described. According to one aspect, an information processing system includes working memory comprising a semantic graph which comprises a plurality of abstractions, wherein the abstractions individually include an individual which is defined according to an ontology and a reasoning system comprising a plurality of reasoning modules which are configured to process different abstractions of the semantic graph, wherein a first of the reasoning modules is configured to process a plurality of abstractions which include individuals of a first classification type of the ontology and a second of the reasoning modules is configured to process a plurality of abstractions which include individuals of a second classification type of the ontology, wherein the first and second classification types are different.

  4. Information processing systems, reasoning modules, and reasoning system design methods

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hohimer, Ryan E.; Greitzer, Frank L.; Hampton, Shawn D.

    2015-08-18

    Information processing systems, reasoning modules, and reasoning system design methods are described. According to one aspect, an information processing system includes working memory comprising a semantic graph which comprises a plurality of abstractions, wherein the abstractions individually include an individual which is defined according to an ontology and a reasoning system comprising a plurality of reasoning modules which are configured to process different abstractions of the semantic graph, wherein a first of the reasoning modules is configured to process a plurality of abstractions which include individuals of a first classification type of the ontology and a second of the reasoning modules is configured to process a plurality of abstractions which include individuals of a second classification type of the ontology, wherein the first and second classification types are different.

  5. Measurements and Characterization: Cell and Module Performance (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2011-02-01

    Capabilities fact sheet for the National Center for Photovoltaics: Measurements and Characterization -- Cell and Module Performance. One-sided sheet that includes Scope, Core Competencies and Capabilities, and Contact/Web information.

  6. PV QA Task Group #2: Thermal and Mechanical Fatigue Including...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    for Rating System Agenda for the PV Module Reliability Workshop, February 26 - 27 2013, Golden, Colorado Accelerated Stress Testing, Qualification Testing, HAST, Field Experience

  7. Hawaii demand-side management resource assessment. Final report, Reference Volume 1: Building prototype analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-04-01

    This report provides a detailed description of, and the baseline assumptions and simulation results for, the building prototype simulations conducted for the building types designated in the Work Plan for Demand-side Management Assessment of Hawaii`s Demand-Side Resources (HES-4, Phase 2). This report represents the second revision to the initial building prototype description report provided to DBEDT early in the project. Modifications and revisions to the prototypes, based on further calibration efforts and on comments received from DBEDT Staff have been incorporated into this final version. These baseline prototypes form the basis upon which the DSM measure impact estimates and the DSM measure data base were developed for this project. This report presents detailed information for each of the 17 different building prototypes developed for use with the DOE-21E program (23 buildings in total, including resorts and hotels defined separately for each island) to estimate the impact of the building technologies and measures included in this project. The remainder of this section presents some nomenclature and terminology utilized in the reports, tables, and data bases developed from this project to denote building type and vintage. Section 2 contains a more detailed discussion of the data sources, the definition of the residential sector building prototypes, and results of the DOE-2 analysis. Section 3 provides a similar discussion for the commercial sector. The prototype and baseline simulation results are presented in a separate section for each building type. Where possible, comparison of the baseline simulation results with benchmark data from the ENERGY 2020 model or other demand forecasting models specific to Hawaii is included for each building. Appendix A contains a detailed listing of the commercial sector baseline indoor lighting technologies included in the existing and new prototypes by building type.

  8. Climate, extreme heat, and electricity demand in California

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, N.L.; Hayhoe, K.; Jin, J.; Auffhammer, M.

    2008-04-01

    Climate projections from three atmosphere-ocean climate models with a range of low to mid-high temperature sensitivity forced by the Intergovernmental Panel for Climate Change SRES higher, middle, and lower emission scenarios indicate that, over the 21st century, extreme heat events for major cities in heavily air-conditioned California will increase rapidly. These increases in temperature extremes are projected to exceed the rate of increase in mean temperature, along with increased variance. Extreme heat is defined here as the 90 percent exceedance probability (T90) of the local warmest summer days under the current climate. The number of extreme heat days in Los Angeles, where T90 is currently 95 F (32 C), may increase from 12 days to as many as 96 days per year by 2100, implying current-day heat wave conditions may last for the entire summer, with earlier onset. Overall, projected increases in extreme heat under the higher A1fi emission scenario by 2070-2099 tend to be 20-30 percent higher than those projected under the lower B1 emission scenario, ranging from approximately double the historical number of days for inland California cities (e.g. Sacramento and Fresno), up to four times for previously temperate coastal cities (e.g. Los Angeles, San Diego). These findings, combined with observed relationships between high temperature and electricity demand for air-conditioned regions, suggest potential shortfalls in transmission and supply during T90 peak electricity demand periods. When the projected extreme heat and peak demand for electricity are mapped onto current availability, maintaining technology and population constant only for demand side calculations, we find the potential for electricity deficits as high as 17 percent. Similar increases in extreme heat days are suggested for other locations across the U.S. southwest, as well as for developing nations with rapidly increasing electricity demands. Electricity response to recent extreme heat events, such as the July 2006 heat wave in California, suggests that peak electricity demand will challenge current supply, as well as future planned supply capacities when population and income growth are taken into account.

  9. The Role of Demand Response in Default Service Pricing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barbose, Galen; Goldman, Chuck; Neenan, Bernie

    2006-03-10

    Dynamic retail electricity pricing, especially real-time pricing (RTP), has been widely heralded as a panacea for providing much-needed demand response in electricity markets. However, in designing default service for competitive retail markets, demand response often appears to be an afterthought. But that may be changing as states that initiated customer choice in the past 5-7 years reach an important juncture in retail market design. Most states with retail choice established an initial transitional period, during which utilities were required to offer a default or ''standard offer'' generation service, often at a capped or otherwise administratively-determined rate. Many retail choice states have reached, or are nearing, the end of their transitional period and several states have adopted an RTP-type default service for large commercial and industrial (C&I) customers. Are these initiatives motivated by the desire to induce greater demand response, or is RTP being called upon to serve a different role in competitive markets? Surprisingly, we found that in most cases, the primary reason for adopting RTP as the default service was not to encourage demand response, but rather to advance policy objectives related to the development of competitive retail markets. However, we also find that, if efforts are made in its design and implementation, default RTP service can also provide a solid foundation for developing price responsive demand, creating an important link between wholesale and retail market transactions. This paper, which draws from a lengthier report, describes the experience to date with default RTP in the U.S., identifying findings related to its actual and potential role as an instrument for cultivating price responsive demand [1]. For each of the five states currently with default RTP, we conducted a detailed review of the regulatory proceedings leading to its adoption. To further understand the intentions and expectations of those involved in its design and implementation, we also interviewed regulatory staff and utilities in each state, as well as eight of the most prominent competitive retail suppliers operating in these markets which, together, comprised about 60-65% of competitive C&I sales in the U.S. in 2004 [2].

  10. Aggregated Modeling and Control of Air Conditioning Loads for Demand Response

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Wei; Lian, Jianming; Chang, Chin-Yao; Kalsi, Karanjit

    2013-06-21

    Demand response is playing an increasingly important role in the efficient and reliable operation of the electric grid. Modeling the dynamic behavior of a large population of responsive loads is especially important to evaluate the effectiveness of various demand response strategies. In this paper, a highly-accurate aggregated model is developed for a population of air conditioning loads. The model effectively includes statistical information of the population, systematically deals with load heterogeneity, and accounts for second-order dynamics necessary to accurately capture the transient dynamics in the collective response. Based on the model, a novel aggregated control strategy is designed for the load population under realistic conditions. The proposed controller is fully responsive and achieves the control objective without sacrificing end-use performance. The proposed aggregated modeling and control strategies are validated through realistic simulations using GridLAB-D. Extensive simulation results indicate that the proposed approach can effectively manage a large number of air conditioning systems to provide various demand response services, such as frequency regulation and peak load reduction.

  11. Analysis of Open Automated Demand Response Deployments in California and Guidelines to Transition to Industry Standards

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ghatikar, Girish; Riess, David; Piette, Mary Ann

    2014-01-02

    This report reviews the Open Automated Demand Response (OpenADR) deployments within the territories serviced by California?s investor-owned utilities (IOUs) and the transition from the OpenADR 1.0 specification to the formal standard?OpenADR 2.0. As demand response service providers and customers start adopting OpenADR 2.0, it is necessary to ensure that the existing Automated Demand Response (AutoDR) infrastructure investment continues to be useful and takes advantage of the formal standard and its many benefits. This study focused on OpenADR deployments and systems used by the California IOUs and included a summary of the OpenADR deployment from the U.S. Department of Energy-funded demonstration conducted by the Sacramento Municipal Utility District (SMUD). Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory collected and analyzed data about OpenADR 1.0 deployments, categorized architectures, developed a data model mapping to understand the technical compatibility of each version, and compared the capabilities and features of the two specifications. The findings, for the first time, provided evidence of the total enabled load shed and average first cost for system enablement in the IOU and SMUD service territories. The OpenADR 2.0a profile specification semantically supports AutoDR system architectures and data propagation with a testing and certification program that promotes interoperability, scaled deployments by multiple vendors, and provides additional features that support future services.

  12. Drapery assembly including insulated drapery liner

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cukierski, Gwendolyn (Ithaca, NY)

    1983-01-01

    A drapery assembly is disclosed for covering a framed wall opening, the assembly including drapery panels hung on a horizontal traverse rod, the rod having a pair of master slides and means for displacing the master slides between open and closed positions. A pair of insulating liner panels are positioned behind the drapery, the remote side edges of the liner panels being connected with the side portions of the opening frame, and the adjacent side edges of the liner panels being connected with a pair of vertically arranged center support members adapted for sliding movement longitudinally of a horizontal track member secured to the upper horizontal portion of the opening frame. Pivotally arranged brackets connect the center support members with the master slides of the traverse rod whereby movement of the master slides to effect opening and closing of the drapery panels effects simultaneous opening and closing of the liner panels.

  13. Thermovoltaic semiconductor device including a plasma filter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Baldasaro, Paul F.

    1999-01-01

    A thermovoltaic energy conversion device and related method for converting thermal energy into an electrical potential. An interference filter is provided on a semiconductor thermovoltaic cell to pre-filter black body radiation. The semiconductor thermovoltaic cell includes a P/N junction supported on a substrate which converts incident thermal energy below the semiconductor junction band gap into electrical potential. The semiconductor substrate is doped to provide a plasma filter which reflects back energy having a wavelength which is above the band gap and which is ineffectively filtered by the interference filter, through the P/N junction to the source of radiation thereby avoiding parasitic absorption of the unusable portion of the thermal radiation energy.

  14. Optical panel system including stackable waveguides

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    DeSanto, Leonard; Veligdan, James T.

    2007-03-06

    An optical panel system including stackable waveguides is provided. The optical panel system displays a projected light image and comprises a plurality of planar optical waveguides in a stacked state. The optical panel system further comprises a support system that aligns and supports the waveguides in the stacked state. In one embodiment, the support system comprises at least one rod, wherein each waveguide contains at least one hole, and wherein each rod is positioned through a corresponding hole in each waveguide. In another embodiment, the support system comprises at least two opposing edge structures having the waveguides positioned therebetween, wherein each opposing edge structure contains a mating surface, wherein opposite edges of each waveguide contain mating surfaces which are complementary to the mating surfaces of the opposing edge structures, and wherein each mating surface of the opposing edge structures engages a corresponding complementary mating surface of the opposite edges of each waveguide.

  15. Optical panel system including stackable waveguides

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    DeSanto, Leonard; Veligdan, James T.

    2007-11-20

    An optical panel system including stackable waveguides is provided. The optical panel system displays a projected light image and comprises a plurality of planar optical waveguides in a stacked state. The optical panel system further comprises a support system that aligns and supports the waveguides in the stacked state. In one embodiment, the support system comprises at least one rod, wherein each waveguide contains at least one hole, and wherein each rod is positioned through a corresponding hole in each waveguide. In another embodiment, the support system comprises at least two opposing edge structures having the waveguides positioned therebetween, wherein each opposing edge structure contains a mating surface, wherein opposite edges of each waveguide contain mating surfaces which are complementary to the mating surfaces of the opposing edge structures, and wherein each mating surface of the opposing edge structures engages a corresponding complementary mating surface of the opposite edges of each waveguide.

  16. WRAP Module 1 waste characterization plan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mayancsik, B.A.

    1995-01-23

    The purpose of this document is to present the characterization methodology for waste generated, processed, or otherwise the responsibility of the Waste Receiving and Processing (WRAP) Module 1 facility. The scope of this document includes all solid low level waste (LLW), transuranic (TRU), mixed waste (MW), and dangerous waste. This document is not meant to be all-inclusive of the waste processed or generated within WRAP Module 1, but to present a methodology for characterization. As other streams are identified, the method of characterization will be consistent with the other streams identified in this plan. The WRAP Module 1 facility is located in the 200 West Area of the Hanford Site. The facility`s function is two-fold. The first is to verify/characterize, treat and repackage contact handled (CH) waste currently in retrievable storage in the LLW Burial Grounds, Hanford Central Waste Complex, and the Transuranic Storage and Assay Facility (TRUSAF). The second is to verify newly generated CH TRU waste and LLW, including MW. The WRAP Module 1 facility provides NDE and NDA of the waste for both drums and boxes. The NDE is used to identify the physical contents of the waste containers to support waste characterization and processing, verification, or certification. The NDA results determine the radioactive content and distribution of the waste.

  17. Oxygenate Supply/Demand Balances in the Short-Term Integrated Forecasting Model (Released in the STEO March 1998)

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    1998-01-01

    The blending of oxygenates, such as fuel ethanol and methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE), into motor gasoline has increased dramatically in the last few years because of the oxygenated and reformulated gasoline programs. Because of the significant role oxygenates now have in petroleum product markets, the Short-Term Integrated Forecasting System (STIFS) was revised to include supply and demand balances for fuel ethanol and MTBE. The STIFS model is used for producing forecasts in the Short-Term Energy Outlook. A review of the historical data sources and forecasting methodology for oxygenate production, imports, inventories, and demand is presented in this report.

  18. Demand Response in the West: Lessons for States and Provinces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Douglas C. Larson; Matt Lowry; Sharon Irwin

    2004-06-29

    OAK-B135 This paper is submitted in fulfillment of DOE Grant No. DE-FG03-015F22369 on the experience of western states/provinces with demand response (DR) in the electricity sector. Demand-side resources are often overlooked as a viable option for meeting load growth and addressing the challenges posed by the region's aging transmission system. Western states should work together with utilities and grid operators to facilitate the further deployment of DR programs which can provide benefits in the form of decreased grid congestion, improved system reliability, market efficiency, price stabilization, hedging against volatile fuel prices and reduced environmental impacts of energy production. This report describes the various types of DR programs; provides a survey of DR programs currently in place in the West; considers the benefits, drawbacks and barriers to DR; and presents lessons learned and recommendations for states/provinces.

  19. On-demand Overlay Networks for Large Scientific Data Transfers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ramakrishnan, Lavanya; Guok, Chin; Jackson, Keith; Kissel, Ezra; Swany, D. Martin; Agarwal, Deborah

    2009-10-12

    Large scale scientific data transfers are central to scientific processes. Data from large experimental facilities have to be moved to local institutions for analysis or often data needs to be moved between local clusters and large supercomputing centers. In this paper, we propose and evaluate a network overlay architecture to enable highthroughput, on-demand, coordinated data transfers over wide-area networks. Our work leverages Phoebus and On-demand Secure Circuits and AdvanceReservation System (OSCARS) to provide high performance wide-area network connections. OSCARS enables dynamic provisioning of network paths with guaranteed bandwidth and Phoebus enables the coordination and effective utilization of the OSCARS network paths. Our evaluation shows that this approach leads to improved end-to-end data transfer throughput with minimal overheads. The achievedthroughput using our overlay was limited only by the ability of the end hosts to sink the data.

  20. Effects of Demand Response on Retail and Wholesale Power Markets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chassin, David P.; Kalsi, Karanjit

    2012-07-26

    Demand response has grown to be a part of the repertoire of resources used by utilities to manage the balance between generation and load. In recent years, advances in communications and control technology have enabled utilities to consider continuously controlling demand response to meet generation, rather than the other way around. This paper discusses the economic applications of a general method for load resource analysis that parallels the approach used to analyze generation resources and uses the method to examine the results of the US Department of Energys Olympic Peninsula Demonstration Testbed. A market-based closed-loop system of controllable assets is discussed with necessary and sufficient conditions on system controllability, observability and stability derived.

  1. Market and energy demand analysis of a US maglev system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vyas, A.D.; Rote, D.M.

    1993-06-01

    High-speed magnetically levitated (maglev) vehicles can provide an alternative mode of transportation for intercity travel, particularly for short- and medium-distance trips between 100 to 600 mi (160 and 960 km). The patterns of growth and the underlying factors affecting that growth In the year 2010 are evaluated to determine the magnitude of US Intercity travel that would become the basis for maglev demand. A methodology that is sensitive to the travelers` socioeconomic attributes was developed to Forecast intercity travel. Travel between 78 major metropolitan areas by air and highway modes is projected, and 12 high-density travel corridors are Identified and selected. The potential for a maglev system to substitute for part or that travel is calculated by using a model that estimates the extent of diversion from highway and air to maglev. Energy demand is estimated on the basis of energy usage during acceleration and cruise phases for each corridor and corridor connections.

  2. Market and energy demand analysis of a US maglev system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vyas, A.D.; Rote, D.M.

    1993-01-01

    High-speed magnetically levitated (maglev) vehicles can provide an alternative mode of transportation for intercity travel, particularly for short- and medium-distance trips between 100 to 600 mi (160 and 960 km). The patterns of growth and the underlying factors affecting that growth In the year 2010 are evaluated to determine the magnitude of US Intercity travel that would become the basis for maglev demand. A methodology that is sensitive to the travelers' socioeconomic attributes was developed to Forecast intercity travel. Travel between 78 major metropolitan areas by air and highway modes is projected, and 12 high-density travel corridors are Identified and selected. The potential for a maglev system to substitute for part or that travel is calculated by using a model that estimates the extent of diversion from highway and air to maglev. Energy demand is estimated on the basis of energy usage during acceleration and cruise phases for each corridor and corridor connections.

  3. Apparatus producing constant cable tension for intermittent demand

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lauritzen, T.

    1984-05-23

    This invention relates to apparatus for producing constant tension in cable or the like when it is unreeled and reeled from a drum or spool under conditions of intermittent demand. The invention is particularly applicable to the handling of superconductive cable, but the invention is also applicable to the unreeling and reeling of other strands, such as electrical cable, wire, cord, other cables, fish line, wrapping paper and numerous other materials.

  4. Regulatory risks paralyzing power industry while demand grows

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maize, K.; Peltier, R.

    2008-01-15

    2008 will be the year the US generation industry grapples with CO{sub 2} emission. Project developers are suddenly coal-shy, mostly flirting with new nuclear plants waiting impatiently in line for equipment manufacturers to catch up with the demand for wind turbines, and finding gas more attractive again. With no proven greenhouse gas sequestration technology on the horizon, utilities will be playing it safe with energy-efficiency ploys rather than rushing to contract for much-needed new generation.

  5. ECIS-Princeton Power Systems, Inc.: Demand Response Inverter

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Princeton Power Systems, Inc.: Demand Response Inverter - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing Nuclear Fuel Cycle Defense

  6. National Microalgae Biofuel Production Potential and Resource Demand

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wigmosta, Mark S.; Coleman, Andre M.; Skaggs, Richard; Huesemann, Michael H.; Lane, Leonard J.

    2011-04-14

    Microalgae continue to receive global attention as a potential sustainable "energy crop" for biofuel production. An important step to realizing the potential of algae is quantifying the demands commercial-scale algal biofuel production will place on water and land resources. We present a high-resolution national resource and oil production assessment that brings to bear fundamental research questions of where open pond microalgae production can occur, how much land and water resource is required, and how much energy is produced. Our study suggests under current technology microalgae have the potential to generate 220 billion liters/year of oil, equivalent to 48% of current U.S. petroleum imports for transportation fuels. However, this level of production would require 5.5% of the land area in the conterminous U.S., and nearly three times the volume of water currently used for irrigated agriculture, averaging 1,421 L water per L of oil. Optimizing the selection of locations for microalgae production based on water use efficiency can greatly reduce total water demand. For example, focusing on locations along the Gulf Coast, Southeastern Seaboard, and areas adjacent to the Great Lakes, shows a 75% reduction in water demand to 350 L per L of oil produced with a 67% reduction in land use. These optimized locations have the potential to generate an oil volume equivalent to 17% of imports for transportation fuels, equal to the Energy Independence and Security Act year 2022 "advanced biofuels" production target, and utilizing some 25% of the current irrigation consumptive water demand for the U. S. These results suggest that, with proper planning, adequate land and water are available to meet a significant portion of the U.S. renewable fuel goals.

  7. Tribal Facilities Retrofits: Freeing Up Resources through Reduced Demand

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    up resources through reduced demand" Elias Duran - Facilities Manager ¡ Day to day operations of facilities ¡ Budget control over facilities ¡ Project needs for future space requirements ¡ Maintenance ¡ Capital improvements ¡ Brief history of the Tlingit & Haida Tribes ¡ Tour of our existing facilities ¡ Historical utility cost data ¡ Summary of Project Objectives ¡ Expected cost and emission reductions ¡ Strategic planning for future implementation Two separate Tribes United

  8. The Role of Demand Response in Default Service Pricing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barbose, Galen; Goldman, Charles; Neenan, Bernie

    2005-11-09

    Dynamic retail pricing, especially real-time pricing (RTP), has been widely heralded as a panacea for providing much-needed demand response in electricity markets. However, in designing default service for competitive retail markets, demand response has been an afterthought, and in some cases not given any weight at all. But that may be changing, as states that initiated customer choice in the past 5-7 years reach an important juncture in retail market design. Most states with retail choice established an initial transitional period during which utilities were required to offer a default or standard offer generation service, often at a capped or otherwise administratively-determined rate. Many retail choice states have reached the end of their transitional period, and several have adopted or are actively considering an RTP-type default service for large commercial and industrial (C&I) customers. In most cases, the primary reason for adopting RTP as the default service has been to advance policy objectives related to the development of competitive retail markets. However, if attention is paid in its design and implementation, default RTP service can also provide a solid foundation for developing price responsive demand, creating an important link between wholesale and retail market transactions. This article, which draws from a lengthier report, describes experience to date with RTP as a default service, focusing on its role as an instrument for cultivating price responsive demand.1 As of summer 2005, default service RTP was in place or approved for future implementation in five U.S. states: New Jersey, Maryland, Pennsylvania, New York, and Illinois. For each of these states, we conducted a detailed review of the regulatory proceedings leading to adoption of default RTP and interviewed regulatory staff and utilities in these states, as well as eight competitive retail suppliers active in these markets.

  9. Behavioral Economics Applied to Energy Demand Analysis: A Foundation -

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Energy Information Administration Appendix A Behavioral Economics Applied to Energy Demand Analysis: A Foundation Release date: October 15, 2014 Neoclassical economics has shaped our understanding of human behavior for several decades. While still an important starting point for economic studies, neoclassical frameworks have generally imposed strong assumptions, for example regarding utility maximization, information, and foresight, while treating consumer preferences as given or external to

  10. Engine lubrication circuit including two pumps

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lane, William H.

    2006-10-03

    A lubrication pump coupled to the engine is sized such that the it can supply the engine with a predetermined flow volume as soon as the engine reaches a peak torque engine speed. In engines that operate predominately at speeds above the peak torque engine speed, the lubrication pump is often producing lubrication fluid in excess of the predetermined flow volume that is bypassed back to a lubrication fluid source. This arguably results in wasted power. In order to more efficiently lubricate an engine, a lubrication circuit includes a lubrication pump and a variable delivery pump. The lubrication pump is operably coupled to the engine, and the variable delivery pump is in communication with a pump output controller that is operable to vary a lubrication fluid output from the variable delivery pump as a function of at least one of engine speed and lubrication flow volume or system pressure. Thus, the lubrication pump can be sized to produce the predetermined flow volume at a speed range at which the engine predominately operates while the variable delivery pump can supplement lubrication fluid delivery from the lubrication pump at engine speeds below the predominant engine speed range.

  11. Electricity Demand Evolution Driven by Storm Motivated Population Movement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Allen, Melissa R; Fernandez, Steven J; Fu, Joshua S; Walker, Kimberly A

    2014-01-01

    Managing the risks posed by climate change to energy production and delivery is a challenge for communities worldwide. Sea Level rise and increased frequency and intensity of natural disasters due to sea surface temperature rise force populations to move locations, resulting in changing patterns of demand for infrastructure services. Thus, Infrastructures will evolve to accommodate new load centers while some parts of the network are underused, and these changes will create emerging vulnerabilities. Combining climate predictions and agent based population movement models shows promise for exploring the universe of these future population distributions and changes in coastal infrastructure configurations. In this work, we created a prototype agent based population distribution model and developed a methodology to establish utility functions that provide insight about new infrastructure vulnerabilities that might result from these patterns. Combining climate and weather data, engineering algorithms and social theory, we use the new Department of Energy (DOE) Connected Infrastructure Dynamics Models (CIDM) to examine electricity demand response to increased temperatures, population relocation in response to extreme cyclonic events, consequent net population changes and new regional patterns in electricity demand. This work suggests that the importance of established evacuation routes that move large populations repeatedly through convergence points as an indicator may be under recognized.

  12. Residential Electricity Demand in China -- Can Efficiency Reverse the Growth?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Letschert, Virginie; McNeil, Michael A.; Zhou, Nan

    2009-05-18

    The time when energy-related carbon emissions come overwhelmingly from developed countries is coming to a close. China has already overtaken the United States as the world's leading emitter of greenhouse gas emissions. The economic growth that China has experienced is not expected to slow down significantly in the long term, which implies continued massive growth in energy demand. This paper draws on the extensive expertise from the China Energy Group at LBNL on forecasting energy consumption in China, but adds to it by exploring the dynamics of demand growth for electricity in the residential sector -- and the realistic potential for coping with it through efficiency. This paper forecasts ownership growth of each product using econometric modeling, in combination with historical trends in China. The products considered (refrigerators, air conditioners, fans, washing machines, lighting, standby power, space heaters, and water heating) account for 90percent of household electricity consumption in China. Using this method, we determine the trend and dynamics of demandgrowth and its dependence on macroeconomic drivers at a level of detail not accessible by models of a more aggregate nature. In addition, we present scenarios for reducing residential consumption through efficiency measures defined at the product level. The research takes advantage of an analytical framework developed by LBNL (BUENAS) which integrates end use technology parameters into demand forecasting and stock accounting to produce detailed efficiency scenarios, thus allowing for a technologically realistic assessment of efficiency opportunities specifically in the Chinese context.

  13. Laboratory Testing of Demand-Response Enabled Household Appliances

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sparn, B.; Jin, X.; Earle, L.

    2013-10-01

    With the advent of the Advanced Metering Infrastructure (AMI) systems capable of two-way communications between the utility's grid and the building, there has been significant effort in the Automated Home Energy Management (AHEM) industry to develop capabilities that allow residential building systems to respond to utility demand events by temporarily reducing their electricity usage. Major appliance manufacturers are following suit by developing Home Area Network (HAN)-tied appliance suites that can take signals from the home's 'smart meter,' a.k.a. AMI meter, and adjust their run cycles accordingly. There are numerous strategies that can be employed by household appliances to respond to demand-side management opportunities, and they could result in substantial reductions in electricity bills for the residents depending on the pricing structures used by the utilities to incent these types of responses. The first step to quantifying these end effects is to test these systems and their responses in simulated demand-response (DR) conditions while monitoring energy use and overall system performance.

  14. Laboratory Testing of Demand-Response Enabled Household Appliances

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sparn, B.; Jin, X.; Earle, L.

    2013-10-01

    With the advent of the Advanced Metering Infrastructure (AMI) systems capable of two-way communications between the utility's grid and the building, there has been significant effort in the Automated Home Energy Management (AHEM) industry to develop capabilities that allow residential building systems to respond to utility demand events by temporarily reducing their electricity usage. Major appliance manufacturers are following suit by developing Home Area Network (HAN)-tied appliance suites that can take signals from the home's 'smart meter,' a.k.a. AMI meter, and adjust their run cycles accordingly. There are numerous strategies that can be employed by household appliances to respond to demand-side management opportunities, and they could result in substantial reductions in electricity bills for the residents depending on the pricing structures used by the utilities to incent these types of responses.The first step to quantifying these end effects is to test these systems and their responses in simulated demand-response (DR) conditions while monitoring energy use and overall system performance.

  15. Grid Integration of Aggregated Demand Response, Part 1: Load Availability Profiles and Constraints for the Western Interconnection

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Demand response (DR) has the potential to improve electric grid reliability and reduce system operation costs. However, including DR in grid modeling can be difficult due to its variable and non-traditional response characteristics, compared to traditional generation. Therefore, efforts to value the participation of DR in procurement of grid services have been limited. In this report, we present methods and tools for predicting demand response availability profiles, representing their capability to participate in capacity, energy, and ancillary services. With the addition of response characteristics mimicking those of generation, the resulting profiles will help in the valuation of the participation of demand response through production cost modeling, which informs infrastructure and investment planning.

  16. License Structure for Multi-Module Facilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomas Hicks

    2010-08-01

    The Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Project is intended to be the prototype for multi-module commercial high temperature gas reactors (HTGRs) for process heat and/or electricity generation. Part of the objectives of the project are to establish the conditions that would govern or enhance the design, licensing, construction and operation of numerous, modular nuclear plants, particularly suited for industrial applications or that could reduce the risk of such projects. A determination is desired regarding whether a multi-module reactor plant can be licensed with a single Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) review, hearing, and safety evaluation report. If it is determined that a multi-modular reactor plant can be licensed under a single review/hearing process, the structure and the duration of the license for each module will also need to be determined. The purpose of this paper is to describe for the NRC the NGNP position on these two issues and obtain either NRC general concurrence or comments on the approach to these issues. While the current NGNP planning provides for only a single reactor module, the project is intended to provide the basis and establish a licensing framework that can be used by future commercial HTGRs and other reactor designs, including a variety of small modular reactor technologies, with configurations reflecting design standardization of multi-module plants. Therefore, it is important to identify a path for addressing these modular reactor plant issues so that the resolution can be factored into the NGNP Project planning. The NGNP position is that a single combined license (COL) application can be submitted for a multi-modular reactor facility, the COL application can undergo a single NRC review/hearing process, and each module should be issued a separate license.

  17. Preliminary assessment of the availability of U.S. natural gas resources to meet U.S. transportation energy demand.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Singh, M. K.; Moore, J. S.

    2002-03-04

    Recent studies have indicated that substitutes for conventional petroleum resources will be needed to meet U.S. transportation energy demand in the first half of this century. One possible substitute is natural gas which can be used as a transportation fuel directly in compressed natural gas or liquefied natural gas vehicles or as resource fuel for the production of hydrogen for fuel cell vehicles. This paper contains a preliminary assessment of the availability of U.S. natural gas resources to meet future U.S. transportation fuel demand. Several scenarios of natural gas demand, including transportation demand, in the U.S. to 2050 are developed. Natural gas resource estimates for the U. S. are discussed. Potential Canadian and Mexican exports to the U.S. are estimated. Two scenarios of potential imports from outside North America are also developed. Considering all these potential imports, U.S. natural gas production requirements to 2050 to meet the demand scenarios are developed and compared with the estimates of U.S. natural gas resources. The comparison results in a conclusion that (1) given the assumptions made, there are likely to be supply constraints on the availability of U.S. natural gas supply post-2020 and (2) if natural gas use in transportation grows substantially, it will have to compete with other sectors of the economy for that supply-constrained natural gas.

  18. TASMANIAN Sparse Grids Module

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2013-09-20

    Sparse Grids are the family of methods of choice for multidimensional integration and interpolation in low to moderate number of dimensions. The method is to select extend a one dimensional set of abscissas, weights and basis functions by taking a subset of all possible tensor products. The module provides the ability to create global and local approximations based on polynomials and wavelets. The software has three components, a library, a wrapper for the library thatmore » provides a command line interface via text files ad a MATLAB interface via the command line tool.« less

  19. Utility rebates for efficient motors -- The outlook for demand-side management

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nailen, R.L.

    1997-01-01

    Since 1987, many electric utilities throughout North America have been actively promoting demand-side management (DSM), the attempt to conserve fuels and postpone costly generating capacity increases by encouraging customers to use more efficient electrical equipment, including motors. One popular DSM program has been utility payment of cash rebates to purchasers of more efficient motors. Today, such payments face extinction in a rapidly changing utility economic climate based on deregulation. How rebates originated, the basis for such payments, how successful rebate programs have been, and what the future holds for them are the subjects of this paper.

  20. Utility rebates for efficient motors -- The outlook for demand-side management

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nailen, R.L.

    1995-12-31

    Since 1987, many electric utilities throughout North America have been actively promoting DSM--demand-side management, the attempt to conserve fuels and postpone costly generating capacity increases by encouraging customers to use more efficient electrical equipment, including motors. One popular DSM program has been utility payment of cash rebates to purchasers of more efficient motors. Today, such payments face extinction in a rapidly changing utility economic climate based on deregulation. How rebates originated, the basis for such payments, how successful rebate programs have been, and what the future holds for them--these are the subjects of this paper.