National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for demand economic growth

  1. Energy efficiency, human behavior, and economic growth: Challenges to cutting energy demand to sustainable levels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Santarius, Tilman

    2015-03-30

    Increasing energy efficiency in households, transportation, industries, and services is an important strategy to reduce energy service demand to levels that allow the steep reduction of greenhouse gases, and a full fledged switch of energy systems to a renewable basis. Yet, technological efficiency improvements may generate so-called rebound effects, which may Ďeat upí parts of the technical savings potential. This article provides a comprehensive review of existing research on these effects, raises critiques, and points out open questions. It introduces micro-economic rebound effect and suggests extending consumer-side analysis to incorporate potential Ďpsychological rebound effects.í It then discusses meso-economic rebound effects, i.e. producer-side and market-level rebounds, which so far have achieved little attention in the literature. Finally, the article critically reviews evidence for macro-economic rebound effects as energy efficiency-induced economic growth impacts. For all three categories, the article summarizes assessments of their potential quantitative scope, while pointing out remaining methodological weaknesses and open questions. As a rough ďrule of thumbĒ, in the long term and on gross average, only half the technical savings potential of across-the-board efficiency improvements may actually be achieved in the real world. Policies that aim at cutting energy service demand to sustainable levels are well advised to take due note of detrimental behavioral and economic growth impacts, and should foster policies and measures that can contain them.

  2. Economic Rebalancing and Electricity Demand in China

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    He, Gang; Lin, Jiang; Yuan, Alexandria

    2015-11-01

    Understanding the relationship between economic growth and electricity use is essential for power systems planning. This need is particularly acute now in China, as the Chinese economy is going through a transition to a more consumption and service oriented economy. This study uses 20 years of provincial data on gross domestic product (GDP) and electricity consumption to examine the relationship between these two factors. We observe a plateauing effect of electricity consumption in the richest provinces, as the electricity demand saturates and the economy develops and moves to a more service-based economy. There is a wide range of forecasts for electricity use in 2030, ranging from 5,308 to 8,292 kWh per capita, using different estimating functions, as well as in existing studies. It is therefore critical to examine more carefully the relationship between electricity use and economic development, as China transitions to a new growth phase that is likely to be less energy and resource intensive. The results of this study suggest that policymakers and power system planners in China should seriously re-evaluate power demand projections and the need for new generation capacity to avoid over-investment that could lead to stranded generation assets.

  3. Behavioral Economics Applied to Energy Demand Analysis: A Foundation

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Behavioral Economics Applied to Energy Demand Analysis: A Foundation October 2014 Independent Statistics & Analysis www.eia.gov U.S. Department of Energy Washington, DC 20585 U.S. Energy Information Administration | Behavioral Economics Applied to Energy Demand Analysis i This report was prepared by the U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), the statistical and analytical agency within the U.S. Department of Energy. By law, EIA's data, analyses, and forecasts are independent of

  4. Behavioral Economics Applied to Energy Demand Analysis: A Foundation -

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Energy Information Administration Appendix A Behavioral Economics Applied to Energy Demand Analysis: A Foundation Release date: October 15, 2014 Neoclassical economics has shaped our understanding of human behavior for several decades. While still an important starting point for economic studies, neoclassical frameworks have generally imposed strong assumptions, for example regarding utility maximization, information, and foresight, while treating consumer preferences as given or external to

  5. Residential Electricity Demand in China -- Can Efficiency Reverse the Growth?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Letschert, Virginie; McNeil, Michael A.; Zhou, Nan

    2009-05-18

    The time when energy-related carbon emissions come overwhelmingly from developed countries is coming to a close. China has already overtaken the United States as the world's leading emitter of greenhouse gas emissions. The economic growth that China has experienced is not expected to slow down significantly in the long term, which implies continued massive growth in energy demand. This paper draws on the extensive expertise from the China Energy Group at LBNL on forecasting energy consumption in China, but adds to it by exploring the dynamics of demand growth for electricity in the residential sector -- and the realistic potential for coping with it through efficiency. This paper forecasts ownership growth of each product using econometric modeling, in combination with historical trends in China. The products considered (refrigerators, air conditioners, fans, washing machines, lighting, standby power, space heaters, and water heating) account for 90percent of household electricity consumption in China. Using this method, we determine the trend and dynamics of demandgrowth and its dependence on macroeconomic drivers at a level of detail not accessible by models of a more aggregate nature. In addition, we present scenarios for reducing residential consumption through efficiency measures defined at the product level. The research takes advantage of an analytical framework developed by LBNL (BUENAS) which integrates end use technology parameters into demand forecasting and stock accounting to produce detailed efficiency scenarios, thus allowing for a technologically realistic assessment of efficiency opportunities specifically in the Chinese context.

  6. Wind Power Project Repowering: History, Economics, and Demand (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lantz, E.

    2015-01-01

    This presentation summarizes a related NREL technical report and seeks to capture the current status of wind power project repowering in the U.S. and globally, analyze the economic and financial decision drivers that surround repowering, and to quantify the level and timing of demand for new turbine equipment to supply the repowering market.

  7. Amplified Demand for Solar Trackers to Boost Market Growth in...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Amplified Demand for Solar Trackers to Boost Market Growth in Middle East and Africa Home > Groups > Solar Permitting Roadmap Development Wayne31jan's picture Submitted by...

  8. The Future of Food Demand: Understanding Differences in Global Economic Models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Valin, Hugo; Sands, Ronald; van der Mensbrugghe, Dominique; Nelson, Gerald; Ahammad, Helal; Blanc, Elodie; Bodirsky, Benjamin; Fujimori, Shinichiro; Hasegawa, Tomoko; Havlik, Petr; Heyhoe, Edwina; Kyle, G. Page; Mason d'Croz, Daniel; Paltsev, S.; Rolinski, Susanne; Tabeau, Andrzej; van Meijl, Hans; von Lampe, Martin; Willenbockel, Dirk

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the capacity of agricultural systems to feed the world population under climate change requires a good prospective vision on the future development of food demand. This paper reviews modeling approaches from ten global economic models participating to the AgMIP project, in particular the demand function chosen and the set of parameters used. We compare food demand projections at the horizon 2050 for various regions and agricultural products under harmonized scenarios. Depending on models, we find for a business as usual scenario (SSP2) an increase in food demand of 59-98% by 2050, slightly higher than FAO projection (54%). The prospective for animal calories is particularly uncertain with a range of 61-144%, whereas FAO anticipates an increase by 76%. The projections reveal more sensitive to socio-economic assumptions than to climate change conditions or bioenergy development. When considering a higher population lower economic growth world (SSP3), consumption per capita drops by 9% for crops and 18% for livestock. Various assumptions on climate change in this exercise do not lead to world calorie losses greater than 6%. Divergences across models are however notable, due to differences in demand system, income elasticities specification, and response to price change in the baseline.

  9. "Conflict Between Economic Growth and Environmental Protection...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    9, 2012, 4:15pm Colloquia MBG Auditorium "Conflict Between Economic Growth and Environmental Protection", Dr. Bryan Czech, resident, Center for the Advancement of the Steady State...

  10. U. S. Energy and Economic Growth, 1975--2010

    DOE R&D Accomplishments [OSTI]

    Allen, E. L.; Cooper, C. L.; Edmonds, F. C.; Edmonds, J. A.; Reister, D. B.; Weinberg, A. M.; Whittle, C. E.; Zelby, L. W.

    1976-09-01

    This study projects economic growth (GNP) and energy demand for the U.S. to the year 2010. The main finding is that both GNP and total energy demand are likely to grow significantly more slowly than has been assumed in most analyses of energy policy. Projections of energy, GNP, and electricity (total and per capita) are summarized, with electricity demand expected to grow more rapidly than total energy demand. Two scenarios designated ''high'' and ''low'' were developed in this study. However, even the ''high'' scenario, 126 quads (q; 1 q equals 10/sup 15/ Btu) in 2000, is much lower than most previous estimates. It is felt that this raises serious questions about fundamental energy and energy R and D policies which, generally, have been based on perceptions of more lavish energy futures. Although the aggregate demands and GNP are projected to increase rather modestly, the energy demands per capita and GNP per capita increase at rates comparable to or even higher than historic rates. The authors believe that the projections developed in this study represent a logical culmination of many trends toward lower growth. These trends have not yet been factored into the older energy projections upon which so much energy policy is based.

  11. Energy scarcity and economic growth reconsidered

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Uri, N.D.

    1995-05-01

    This analysis is concerned with the effect of energy scarcity on economic growth in the US. After defining the notion of scarcity and introducing two measures of scarcity, namely unit costs and relative energy price, changes in the trend in resource scarcity are investigated for natural gas, bituminous coal, anthracite coal, and crude oil over the most recent three decades. Each of the energy resources became significantly more scarce during the decade of the 1970s in the Malthusian stock scarcity and Malthusian flow scarcity sense. Unit costs exhibit a similar change for natural gas and crude oil but not for bituminous coal and anthracite coal. The situation reversed itself during the 1980s. Natural gas, bituminous coal, anthracite coal, and crude oil all became significantly less scarce during the 1980s than the 1970s. That is, the increase in scarcity as measured by relative energy prices observed during the 1970s was not reversed completely during the 1980s for natural gas and crude oil. Unit costs for natural gas and crude oil demonstrate analogous patterns and test results. Given that change has take place, it has implications for future economic growth to the extent that resource scarcity and economic growth are interrelated. To see whether this is a relevant concern, subsequent to the examination of changing trends in resource scarcity, an objective effort is made to identify a long-run equilibrium relationship between energy scarcity and economic growth. Relying on cointegration techniques, only for crude oil is there a suggestion that resource scarcity has affected economic growth in the US over the period 1889--1992. 56 refs.

  12. Experts Meeting: Behavioral Economics as Applied to Energy Demand Analysis and Energy Efficiency Programs

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Experts Meeting: Behavioral Economics as Applied to Energy Demand Analysis and Energy Efficiency Programs EIA Office of Energy Consumption and Efficiency Analysis July 17, 2013 | Washington, DC Meeting Agenda Jim Turnure, Director, Office of Energy Consumption and Efficiency Analysis July 17, 2013 2 * EIA WELCOME AND INTRODUCTION (15 minutes) * ORIENTATION/PRESENTATION: OVERVIEW OF EIA RESIDENTIAL AND COMMERCIAL DEMAND MODELS AND CURRENT METHODS FOR INCORPORATING ENERGY EFFICIENCY/EFFICIENCY

  13. Economics of Future Growth in Photovoltaics Manufacturing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Basore, Paul A.; Chung, Donald; Buonassisi, Tonio

    2015-06-14

    The past decade's record of growth in the photovoltaics manufacturing industry indicates that global investment in manufacturing capacity for photovoltaic modules tends to increase in proportion to the size of the industry. The slope of this proportionality determines how fast the industry will grow in the future. Two key parameters determine this slope. One is the annual global investment in manufacturing capacity normalized to the manufacturing capacity for the previous year (capacity-normalized capital investment rate, CapIR, units $/W). The other is how much capital investment is required for each watt of annual manufacturing capacity, normalized to the service life of the assets (capacity-normalized capital demand rate, CapDR, units $/W). If these two parameters remain unchanged from the values they have held for the past few years, global manufacturing capacity will peak in the next few years and then decline. However, it only takes a small improvement in CapIR to ensure future growth in photovoltaics. Any accompanying improvement in CapDR will accelerate that growth.

  14. The impact of demand-controlled and economizer ventilation strategies on energy use in buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brandemuehl, M.J.; Braun, J.E.

    1999-07-01

    The overall objective of this work was to evaluate typical energy requirements associated with alternative ventilation control strategies for constant-air-volume (CAV) systems in commercial buildings. The strategies included different combinations of economizer and demand-controlled ventilation, and energy analyses were performed for four typical building types, eight alternative ventilation systems, and twenty US climates. Only single-zone buildings were considered so that simultaneous heating and cooling did not exist. The energy savings associated with economizer and demand-controlled ventilation strategies were found to be very significant for both heating and cooling. In general, the greatest savings in electrical usage for cooling with the addition of demand-controlled ventilation occur in situations where the opportunities for economizer cooling are less. This is true for warm and humid climates and for buildings that have relatively low internal gains (i.e., low occupant densities). As much as 20% savings in electrical energy for cooling were possible with demand-controlled ventilation. The savings in heating energy associated with demand-controlled ventilation were generally much larger but were strongly dependent upon the building type and occupancy schedule. Significantly greater savings were found for buildings with highly variable occupancy schedules and large internal gains (i.e., restaurants) as compared with office buildings. In some cases, the primary heating energy was virtually eliminated by demand-controlled ventilation as compared with fixed ventilation rates. For both heating and cooling, the savings associated with demand-controlled ventilation are dependent on the fixed minimum ventilation rate of the base case at design conditions.

  15. SU-E-J-102: Separation of Metabolic Supply and Demand: From Power Grid Economics to Cancer Metabolism

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Epstein, T; Xu, L; Gillies, R; Gatenby, R

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To study a new model of glucose metabolism which is primarily governed by the timescale of the energetic demand and not by the oxygen level, and its implication on cancer metabolism (Warburg effect) Methods: 1) Metabolic profiling of membrane transporters activity in several cell lines, which represent the spectrum from normal breast epithelium to aggressive, metastatic cancer, using Seahorse XF reader.2) Spatial localization of oxidative and non-oxidative metabolic components using immunocytochemical imaging of the glycolytic ATP-producing enzyme, pyruvate kinase and mitochondria. 3) Finite element simulations of coupled partial differential equations using COMSOL and MATLAB. Results: Inhibition or activation of pumps on the cell membrane led to reduction or increase in aerobic glycolysis, respectively, while oxidative phosphorylation remained unchanged. These results were consistent with computational simulations of changes in short-timescale demand for energy by cell membrane processes. A specific model prediction was that the spatial distribution of ATP-producing enzymes in the glycolytic pathway must be primarily localized adjacent to the cell membrane, while mitochondria should be predominantly peri-nuclear. These predictions were confirmed experimentally. Conclusion: The results in this work support a new model for glucose metabolism in which glycolysis and oxidative phosphorylation supply different types of energy demand. Similar to power grid economics, optimal metabolic control requires the two pathways, even in normoxic conditions, to match two different types of energy demands. Cells use aerobic metabolism to meet baseline, steady energy demand and glycolytic metabolism to meet short-timescale energy demands, mainly from membrane transport activities, even in the presence of oxygen. This model provides a mechanism for the origin of the Warburg effect in cancer cells. Here, the Warburg effect emerges during carcinogenesis is a physiological response to an increase in energy demands from membrane transporters, required for cell division, growth, and migration. This work is supported by the NIH Physical Sciences in Oncology Center grant 1U54CA143970-03 and NIH R01 CA077575-10.

  16. Before the Subcommittee on Economic Growth, Job Creation and Regulatory

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Affairs - House Committee on Oversight and Governmant Reform | Department of Energy Economic Growth, Job Creation and Regulatory Affairs - House Committee on Oversight and Governmant Reform Before the Subcommittee on Economic Growth, Job Creation and Regulatory Affairs - House Committee on Oversight and Governmant Reform Written statement of Nicholas Whitcombe, Former Acting Director, Advanced Technology Vehicles Manufacturing Loan Program Submitted to the Subcommittee on Economic Growth,

  17. Before the Subcommittee on Economic Growth, Job Creation and...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Written statement of Nicholas Whitcombe, Former Acting Director, Advanced Technology Vehicles Manufacturing Loan Program Submitted to the Subcommittee on Economic Growth, Job ...

  18. LPG export growth will exceed demand by 2000

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    True, W.R.

    1994-08-08

    LPG supplies for international trade will increase sharply through 2000 and begin to outstrip demand by 1997 or 1998. This outlook depends on several production projects proceeding as planned. Leading the way to increased volumes are projects in Algeria, Nigeria, and Australia, among others. Purvin and Gertz, Dallas, projected this trend earlier this year at an international LPG seminar near Houston. Representatives from LPG-supplying countries also presented information to support this view and subsequently supplied more specifics to OGJ in response to questions. This paper discusses this information. Trends in Africa, Australia, North America, and South America are forecast.

  19. Resource demand growth and sustainability due to increased world consumption

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Balatsky, Alexander V.; Balatsky, Galina I.; Borysov, Stanislav S.

    2015-03-20

    The paper aims at continuing the discussion on sustainability and attempts to forecast the impossibility of the expanding consumption worldwide due to the planet‚Äôs limited resources. As the population of China, India and other developing countries continue to increase, they would also require more natural and financial resources to sustain their growth. We coarsely estimate the volumes of these resources (energy, food, freshwater) and the gross domestic product (GDP) that would need to be achieved to bring the population of India and China to the current levels of consumption in the United States. We also provide estimations for potentially neededmore¬†¬Ľ immediate growth of the world resource consumption to meet this equality requirement. Given the tight historical correlation between GDP and energy consumption, the needed increase of GDP per capita in the developing world to the levels of the U.S. would deplete explored fossil fuel reserves in less than two decades. These estimates predict that the world economy would need to find a development model where growth would be achieved without heavy dependence on fossil fuels.¬ę¬†less

  20. Resource demand growth and sustainability due to increased world consumption

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Balatsky, Alexander V.; Balatsky, Galina I.; Borysov, Stanislav S.

    2015-03-20

    The paper aims at continuing the discussion on sustainability and attempts to forecast the impossibility of the expanding consumption worldwide due to the planet’s limited resources. As the population of China, India and other developing countries continue to increase, they would also require more natural and financial resources to sustain their growth. We coarsely estimate the volumes of these resources (energy, food, freshwater) and the gross domestic product (GDP) that would need to be achieved to bring the population of India and China to the current levels of consumption in the United States. We also provide estimations for potentially needed immediate growth of the world resource consumption to meet this equality requirement. Given the tight historical correlation between GDP and energy consumption, the needed increase of GDP per capita in the developing world to the levels of the U.S. would deplete explored fossil fuel reserves in less than two decades. These estimates predict that the world economy would need to find a development model where growth would be achieved without heavy dependence on fossil fuels.

  1. Where has Electricity Demand Growth Gon in PJM and What are the Implications?

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    4 Paul M. Sotkiewicz, Ph.D. Chief Economist PJM Interconnection Where has Electricity Demand Growth Gone in PJM and What are the Implications? 2014 EIA Energy Conference Panel on Implications of a Zero/Low Electricity Demand Growth Scenario July 14, 2014 Washington, DC PJM©2014 2 PJM©2014 3 Why is it Important to Understand the Reasons For Flat to Declining Load Growth? * The industry is facing an unprecedented turnover in generation capital stock - 26,000 MW of retirements since 2009 (nearly

  2. Assessing the state-level consequences of global warming: Socio-economic and energy demand impacts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rubin, B.M. Gailmard, S.; Marsh, D.; Septoff, A.

    1996-12-31

    The large body of research on climate change has begun to recognize a significant deficiency: the lack of analysis of the impact of climate change at a spatial level consistent with the anticipated occurrence of climate change. Climate change is likely to vary by region, while impact analysis has focused on much larger political units. Clearly, adaptation/mitigation strategies must be developed at a level consistent with political and policy-making processes. This paper specifically addresses this deficiency by identifying the potential socio-economic and energy demand consequences of climate change for subnational regions. This is accomplished via the development and application of a regional simultaneous equation, econometric simulation model that focuses on five states (Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Ohio, and Wisconsin) in the Great Lakes region of the US. This paper presents a process for obtaining state-specific assessments of the consequences of climate change for the socio-economic system. As such, it provides an indication of which economic sectors are most sensitive to climate change for a specific state (Indiana), a set of initial mitigation/adaptation strategies for this state, and the results of testing these strategies in the policy analysis framework enabled by the model. In addition, the research demonstrates an effective methodology for assessing impacts and policy implications of climate change at a level consistent with policy making authority.

  3. Impacts of increased bioenergy demand on global food markets: an AgMIP economic model intercomparison

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lotze-Campen, Hermann; von Lampe, Martin; Kyle, G. Page; Fujimori, Shinichiro; Havlik, Petr; van Meijl, Hans; Hasegawa, Tomoko; Popp, Alexander; Schmitz, Christoph; Tabeau, Andrzej; Valin, Hugo; Willenbockel, Dirk; Wise, Marshall A.

    2014-01-01

    Integrated Assessment studies have shown that meeting ambitious greenhouse gas mitigation targets will require substantial amounts of bioenergy as part of the future energy mix. In the course of the Agricultural Model Comparison and Improvement Project (AgMIP), five global agro-economic models were used to analyze a future scenario with global demand for ligno-cellulosic bioenergy rising to about 100 ExaJoule in 2050. From this exercise a tentative conclusion can be drawn that ambitious climate change mitigation need not drive up global food prices much, if the extra land required for bioenergy production is accessible or if the feedstock, e.g. from forests, does not directly compete for agricultural land. Agricultural price effects across models by the year 2050 from high bioenergy demand in an RCP2.6-type scenario appear to be much smaller (+5% average across models) than from direct climate impacts on crop yields in an RCP8.5-type scenario (+25% average across models). However, potential future scarcities of water and nutrients, policy-induced restrictions on agricultural land expansion, as well as potential welfare losses have not been specifically looked at in this exercise.

  4. Note on the structural stability of gasoline demand and the welfare economics of gasoline taxation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kwast, M.L.

    1980-04-01

    A partial adjustment model is used to investigate how the 1973 to 1974 oil embargo affected the structural stability of gasoline demand and to compute the welfare effects of higher gasoline taxes. A variety of statistical tests are used to demonstrate the structural stability of gasoline demand in spite of higher prices. A case study demonstrates only modest price elasticity in response to increased taxes. Higher excise taxes are felt to be justified, however, as an efficient source of revenue even though their effect on demand is limited. 17 references, 4 tables. (DCK)

  5. The development of a charge protocol to take advantage of off- and on-peak demand economics at facilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jeffrey Wishart

    2012-02-01

    This document reports the work performed under Task 1.2.1.1: 'The development of a charge protocol to take advantage of off- and on-peak demand economics at facilities'. The work involved in this task included understanding the experimental results of the other tasks of SOW-5799 in order to take advantage of the economics of electricity pricing differences between on- and off-peak hours and the demonstrated charging and facility energy demand profiles. To undertake this task and to demonstrate the feasibility of plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) and electric vehicle (EV) bi-directional electricity exchange potential, BEA has subcontracted Electric Transportation Applications (now known as ECOtality North America and hereafter ECOtality NA) to use the data from the demand and energy study to focus on reducing the electrical power demand of the charging facility. The use of delayed charging as well as vehicle-to-grid (V2G) and vehicle-to-building (V2B) operations were to be considered.

  6. Japan-Economics of Climate Change and Low Carbon Growth Strategies...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    and Low Carbon Growth Strategies in Northeast Asia Jump to: navigation, search Name Japan-Economics of Climate Change and Low Carbon Growth Strategies in Northeast Asia Agency...

  7. Projection of Chinese motor vehicle growth, oil demand, and CO{sub 2}emissions through 2050.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, M.; Huo, H.; Johnson, L.; He, D.

    2006-12-20

    As the vehicle population in China increases, oil consumption and carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) emissions associated with on-road transportation are rising dramatically. During this study, we developed a methodology to project trends in the growth of the vehicle population, oil demand, and CO{sub 2} emissions associated with on-road transportation in China. By using this methodology, we projected--separately--the number of highway vehicles, motorcycles, and rural vehicles in China through 2050. We used three scenarios of highway vehicle growth (high-, mid-, and low-growth) to reflect patterns of motor vehicle growth that have occurred in different parts of the world (i.e., Europe and Asia). All are essentially business-as-usual scenarios in that almost none of the countries we examined has made concerted efforts to manage vehicle growth or to offer serious alternative transportation means to satisfy people's mobility needs. With this caveat, our projections showed that by 2030, China could have more highway vehicles than the United States has today, and by 2035, it could have the largest number of highway vehicles in the world. By 2050, China could have 486-662 million highway vehicles, 44 million motorcycles, and 28 million rural vehicles. These numbers, which assume essentially unmanaged vehicle growth, would result in potentially disastrous effects on the urban infrastructure, resources, and other social and ecological aspects of life in China. We designed three fuel economy scenarios, from conservative to aggressive, on the basis of current policy efforts and expectations of near-future policies in China and in developed countries. It should be noted that these current and near-future policies have not taken into consideration the significant potential for further fuel economy improvements offered by advanced technologies such as electric drive technologies (e.g., hybrid electric vehicles and fuel-cell vehicles). By using vehicle growth projections and potential vehicle fuel economy, we projected that China's on-road vehicles could consume approximately 614-1016 million metric tons of oil per year (12.4-20.6 million barrels per day) and could emit 1.9-3.2 billion metric tons of CO{sub 2} per year in 2050, which will put tremendous pressure on the balance of the Chinese and world oil supply and demand and could have significant implications on climate change. Our analysis shows that, while improvements in vehicle fuel economy are crucial for reducing transportation energy use, containing the growth of the vehicle population could have an even more profound effect on oil use and CO{sub 2} emissions. This benefit is in addition to other societal and environmental benefits--such as reduced congestion, land use, and urban air pollution--that will result from containing vehicle population growth. Developing public transportation systems for personal travel and rail and other modes for freight transportation will be important for containing the growth of motor vehicles in China. Although the population of passenger cars will far exceed that of all truck types in China in the future, our analysis shows that oil use by and CO{sub 2} emissions from the Chinese truck fleet will be far larger than those related to Chinese passenger cars because trucks are very use intensive (more vehicle miles traveled per year) and energy intensive (lower fuel economy). Unfortunately, the potential for improving fuel economy and reducing air pollutant emissions for trucks has not been fully explored; such efforts are needed. Considering the rapid depletion of the world's oil reserve, the heightened global interest in addressing greenhouse gas emissions, and the geopolitical complications of global oil supply and demand, the study results suggest that unmanaged vehicle growth and limited improvements in vehicle fuel efficiency will lead to an unsustainable and unstable transportation system in China. In other words, while our projections do not definitively indicate what will happen in the Chinese transportation sector by 2050, they do demonstrate that by allowing uncontained growth in the number of motor vehicles and pursuing only incremental improvements in fuel economy, China may face severe consequences in terms of oil use and CO{sub 2} emissions. Many argue that China--and, in fact, the world--will not be able to accommodate such uncontained vehicle growth. The potential problems related to transportation energy use and CO{sub 2} emissions in China are, indeed, global problems; solving these problems will require international collaboration.

  8. Global Energy: Supply, Demand, Consequences, Opportunities

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Majumdar, Arun

    2010-01-08

    July 29, 2008 Berkeley Lab lecture: Arun Majumdar, Director of the Environmental Energy Technologies Division, discusses current and future projections of economic growth, population, and global energy demand and supply, and explores the implications of these trends for the environment.

  9. Faster plant growth in a safe, economical way

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Take-Off(tm) speeds crop emergence, increases growth rates and yields, improves stress tolerance and nutrient value, and reduces need for nitrogen fertilizers. April 3, 2012...

  10. Cart or Horse: Transport and Economic Growth | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    it can constrain growth, as congestion and unreliable transport systems can exact a heavy price. But as long as the transport system is "good enough", the returns to greater...

  11. "Conflict Between Economic Growth and Environmental Protection", Dr. Bryan

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Czech, resident, Center for the Advancement of the Steady State of the Economy | Princeton Plasma Physics Lab 9, 2012, 4:15pm Colloquia MBG Auditorium "Conflict Between Economic Growth and Environmental Protection", Dr. Bryan Czech, resident, Center for the Advancement of the Steady State of the Economy Presentation: Office presentation icon Presentation Abstract: PDF icon Abstract Conflict Between Economic Growth and Environmental Protectio Colloquium Committee: The Princeton

  12. Global Energy: Supply, Demand, Consequences, Opportunities (LBNL Summer Lecture Series)

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Majumdar, Arun

    2011-04-28

    Summer Lecture Series 2009: Arun Majumdar, Director of the Environmental Energy Technologies Division, discusses current and future projections of economic growth, population, and global energy demand and supply, and explores the implications of these trends for the environment.

  13. Global Energy: Supply, Demand, Consequences, Opportunities (LBNL Summer Lecture Series)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Majumdar, Arun

    2008-07-29

    Summer Lecture Series 2009: Arun Majumdar, Director of the Environmental Energy Technologies Division, discusses current and future projections of economic growth, population, and global energy demand and supply, and explores the implications of these trends for the environment.

  14. Promoting Sustainable Economic Growth in Mexico (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Watson, A.; Butheau, M.; Sandor, D.

    2013-11-01

    Mexico is the second largest economy in Latin America, with rapid growth occurring in the industrial and services sectors. A forward-thinking country on climate change, the nation recognizes that the threat of higher temperatures, changes in precipitation patterns, and more frequent weather-related disasters could pose a substantial risk to its expanding economy.

  15. Racial Geography, Economic Growth and Natural Disaster Resilience

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Huiping; Fernandez, Steven J.; Ganguly, Auroop

    2014-03-01

    Recent development of National Response Plans and National Incident Management Plans has emphasized the need for interoperability of plans, systems, technology, and command structures. However, much less emphasis has been placed on equally important elements such as the at-risk populationsí response to those plans, systems, and directions. The community-wide consequences of Hurricane Katrina demonstrated that the protection of communities should no longer be considered only a function of public organizations. Private organizations, nonprofit organizations and individual households have significant roles to play in these plans (Comfort 2006, Salamon 2002). This study is a first attempt to characterize the effect on the resilience (recovery) of metropolitan areas by the presence (or absence) of separate small communities within a larger jurisdiction. These communities can be based on many different social cleavages (ethnic, racial, economic, social, geographic, linguistic, etc.).

  16. U.S. Government Supports Low Emission Economic Growth (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Watson, A.; Sandor, D.; Butheau, M.

    2013-11-01

    Countries around the world face the challenge of maintaining long-term sustainable economic growth and development under the threat of climate change. By identifying and pursuing a sustainable development pathway now, they are better positioned to reach their economic growth goals while addressing climate change impacts and lowering greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Low emission development strategies - development plans that promote sustainable social and economic development while reducing long-term GHG emissions - provide a pathway to preparing for a global low emission future. Partner country governments are working with the U.S. government through the Enhancing Capacity for Low Emission Development Strategies (EC-LEDS) program to further their national development objectives.

  17. Economics of Future Growth in Photovoltaics Manufacturing; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Basore, Paul; Chung, Donald; Buonassisi, Tonio

    2015-06-14

    The past decade’s record of growth in the photovoltaic manufacturing industry indicates that global investment in manufacturing capacity for photovoltaic modules tends to increase in proportion to the size of the industry. The slope of this proportionality determines how fast the industry will grow in the future. Two key parameters determine this slope. One is the annual global investment in manufacturing capacity normalized to the manufacturing capacity for the previous year (capacity-normalized capital investment rate, CapIR, units $/W). The other is how much capital investment is required for each watt of annual manufacturing capacity, normalized to the service life of the assets (capacity-normalized capital demand rate, CapDR, units $/W). If these two parameters remain unchanged from the values they have held for the past few years, global manufacturing capacity will peak in the next few years and then decline. However, it only takes a small improvement in CapIR to ensure future growth in photovoltaics. Any accompanying improvement in CapDR will accelerate that growth.

  18. U.S. and EU Unite to Strengthen Economic Integration and Boost Jobs, Growth and Competitiveness

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    WASHINGTON, DC - Today, the Bush Administration hosted the second informal U.S.-EU economic ministerial meeting to discuss transatlantic economic integration and shared economic challenges. ...

  19. Demand Reduction

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Grantees may use funds to coordinate with electricity supply companies and utilities to reduce energy demands on their power systems. These demand reduction programs are usually coordinated through...

  20. Integrated Dynamic Gloabal Modeling of Land Use, Energy and Economic Growth

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Atul Jain, University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, IL Brian O'Neill, NCAR, Boulder, CO

    2009-10-14

    The overall objective of this collaborative project is to integrate an existing general equilibrium energy-economic growth model with a biogeochemical cycles and biophysical models in order to more fully explore the potential contribution of land use-related activities to future emissions scenarios. Land cover and land use change activities, including deforestation, afforestation, and agriculture management, are important source of not only CO2, but also non-CO2 GHGs. Therefore, contribution of land-use emissions to total emissions of GHGs is important, and consequently their future trends are relevant to the estimation of climate change and its mitigation. This final report covers the full project period of the award, beginning May 2006, which includes a sub-contract to Brown University later transferred to the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) when Co-PI Brian O'Neill changed institutional affiliations.

  1. International Energy Outlook 2016-World energy demand and economc outlook -

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Energy Information Administration Analysis & Projections International Energy Outlook 2016 Release Date: May 11, 2016 | Next Release Date: September 2017 | Complete PDF anticipated May 23 Chapter 1. World energy demand and economic outlook Overview The International Energy Outlook 2016 (IEO2016) Reference case projects significant growth in worldwide energy demand over the 28-year period from 2012 to 2040. Total world consumption of marketed energy expands from 549 quadrillion British

  2. Demand Response Dispatch Tool

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2012-08-31

    The Demand Response (DR) Dispatch Tool uses price profiles to dispatch demand response resources and create load modifying profiles. These annual profiles are used as inputs to production cost models and regional planning tools (e.g., PROMOD). The tool has been effectively implemented in transmission planning studies conducted by the Western Electricity Coordinating Council via its Transmission Expansion Planning and Policy Committee. The DR Dispatch Tool can properly model the dispatch of DR resources for both reliability and economic conditions.

  3. China's Coal: Demand, Constraints, and Externalities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aden, Nathaniel; Fridley, David; Zheng, Nina

    2009-07-01

    This study analyzes China's coal industry by focusing on four related areas. First, data are reviewed to identify the major drivers of historical and future coal demand. Second, resource constraints and transport bottlenecks are analyzed to evaluate demand and growth scenarios. The third area assesses the physical requirements of substituting coal demand growth with other primary energy forms. Finally, the study examines the carbon- and environmental implications of China's past and future coal consumption. There are three sections that address these areas by identifying particular characteristics of China's coal industry, quantifying factors driving demand, and analyzing supply scenarios: (1) reviews the range of Chinese and international estimates of remaining coal reserves and resources as well as key characteristics of China's coal industry including historical production, resource requirements, and prices; (2) quantifies the largest drivers of coal usage to produce a bottom-up reference projection of 2025 coal demand; and (3) analyzes coal supply constraints, substitution options, and environmental externalities. Finally, the last section presents conclusions on the role of coal in China's ongoing energy and economic development. China has been, is, and will continue to be a coal-powered economy. In 2007 Chinese coal production contained more energy than total Middle Eastern oil production. The rapid growth of coal demand after 2001 created supply strains and bottlenecks that raise questions about sustainability. Urbanization, heavy industrial growth, and increasing per-capita income are the primary interrelated drivers of rising coal usage. In 2007, the power sector, iron and steel, and cement production accounted for 66% of coal consumption. Power generation is becoming more efficient, but even extensive roll-out of the highest efficiency units would save only 14% of projected 2025 coal demand for the power sector. A new wedge of future coal consumption is likely to come from the burgeoning coal-liquefaction and chemicals industries. If coal to chemicals capacity reaches 70 million tonnes and coal-to-liquids capacity reaches 60 million tonnes, coal feedstock requirements would add an additional 450 million tonnes by 2025. Even with more efficient growth among these drivers, China's annual coal demand is expected to reach 3.9 to 4.3 billion tonnes by 2025. Central government support for nuclear and renewable energy has not reversed China's growing dependence on coal for primary energy. Substitution is a matter of scale: offsetting one year of recent coal demand growth of 200 million tonnes would require 107 billion cubic meters of natural gas (compared to 2007 growth of 13 BCM), 48 GW of nuclear (compared to 2007 growth of 2 GW), or 86 GW of hydropower capacity (compared to 2007 growth of 16 GW). Ongoing dependence on coal reduces China's ability to mitigate carbon dioxide emissions growth. If coal demand remains on a high growth path, carbon dioxide emissions from coal combustion alone would exceed total US energy-related carbon emissions by 2010. Within China's coal-dominated energy system, domestic transportation has emerged as the largest bottleneck for coal industry growth and is likely to remain a constraint to further expansion. China has a low proportion of high-quality reserves, but is producing its best coal first. Declining quality will further strain production and transport capacity. Furthermore, transporting coal to users has overloaded the train system and dramatically increased truck use, raising transportation oil demand. Growing international imports have helped to offset domestic transport bottlenecks. In the long term, import demand is likely to exceed 200 million tonnes by 2025, significantly impacting regional markets.

  4. Demand for oil and energy in developing countries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wolf, C. Jr.; Relles, D.A.; Navarro, J.

    1980-05-01

    How much of the world's oil and energy supply will the non-OPEC less-developed countries (NOLDCs) demand in the next decade. Will their requirements be small and thus fairly insignificant compared with world demand, or large and relatively important. How will world demand be affected by the economic growth of the NOLDCs. In this report, we try to develop some reasonable forecasts of NOLDC energy demands in the next 10 years. Our focus is mainly on the demand for oil, but we also give some attention to the total commercial energy requirements of these countries. We have tried to be explicit about the uncertainties associated with our forecasts, and with the income and price elasticities on which they are based. Finally, we consider the forecasts in terms of their implications for US policies concerning the NOLDCs and suggest areas of future research on NOLDC energy issues.

  5. EECBG Success Story: Palm Beach County Sees Energy-Smart Economic Growth

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Palm Beach County is a prime example of a community that is embracing energy savings to spur economic development. Learn more.

  6. Demand Response Quick Assessment Tool

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2008-12-01

    DRQAT (Demand Response Quick Assessment Tool) is the tool for assessing demand response saving potentials for large commercial buildings. This tool is based on EnergyPlus simulations of prototypical buildings and HVAC equipment. The opportunities for demand reduction and cost savings with building demand responsive controls vary tremendously with building type and location. The assessment tools will predict the energy and demand savings, the economic savings, and the thermal comfor impact for various demand responsive strategies.more¬†¬Ľ Users of the tools will be asked to enter the basic building information such as types, square footage, building envelope, orientation, utility schedule, etc. The assessment tools will then use the prototypical simulation models to calculate the energy and demand reduction potential under certain demand responsive strategies, such as precooling, zonal temperature set up, and chilled water loop and air loop set points adjustment.¬ę¬†less

  7. Energy technologies and their impact on demand

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Drucker, H.

    1995-06-01

    Despite the uncertainties, energy demand forecasts must be made to guide government policies and public and private-sector capital investment programs. Three principles can be identified in considering long-term energy prospects. First energy demand will continue to grow, driven by population growth, economic development, and the current low per capita energy consumption in developing countries. Second, energy technology advancements alone will not solve the problem. Energy-efficient technologies, renewable resource technologies, and advanced electric power technologies will all play a major role but will not be able to keep up with the growth in world energy demand. Third, environmental concerns will limit the energy technology choices. Increasing concern for environmental protection around the world will restrict primarily large, centralized energy supply facilities. The conclusion is that energy system diversity is the only solution. The energy system must be planned with consideration of both supply and demand technologies, must not rely on a single source of energy, must take advantage of all available technologies that are specially suited to unique local conditions, must be built with long-term perspectives, and must be able to adapt to change.

  8. Demand Response Dispatch Tool

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2012-08-31

    The Demand Response (DR) Dispatch Tool uses price profiles to dispatch demand response resources and create load modifying profiles. These annual profiles are used as inputs to production cost models and regional planning tools (e.g., PROMOD). The tool has been effectively implemented in transmission planning studies conducted by the Western Electricity Coordinating Council via its Transmission Expansion Planning and Policy Committee. The DR Dispatch Tool can properly model the dispatch of DR resources for bothmore¬†¬Ľ reliability and economic conditions.¬ę¬†less

  9. Demand Response

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Demand Response Assessment for Eastern Interconnection Youngsun Baek, Stanton W. Hadley, Rocio Martinez, Gbadebo Oladosu, Alexander M. Smith, Fran Li, Paul Leiby and Russell Lee Prepared for FY12 DOE-CERTS Transmission Reliability R&D Internal Program Review September 20, 2012 2 Managed by UT-Battelle for the U.S. Department of Energy DOE National Laboratory Studies Funded to Support FOA 63 * DOE set aside $20 million from transmission funding for national laboratory studies. * DOE

  10. Climate policy implications for agricultural water demand

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chaturvedi, Vaibhav; Hejazi, Mohamad I.; Edmonds, James A.; Clarke, Leon E.; Kyle, G. Page; Davies, Evan; Wise, Marshall A.; Calvin, Katherine V.

    2013-03-28

    Energy, water and land are scarce resources, critical to humans. Developments in each affect the availability and cost of the others, and consequently human prosperity. Measures to limit greenhouse gas concentrations will inevitably exact dramatic changes on energy and land systems and in turn alter the character, magnitude and geographic distribution of human claims on water resources. We employ the Global Change Assessment Model (GCAM), an integrated assessment model to explore the interactions of energy, land and water systems in the context of alternative policies to limit climate change to three alternative levels: 2.5 Wm-2 (445 ppm CO2-e), 3.5 Wm-2 (535 ppm CO2-e) and 4.5 Wm-2 (645 ppm CO2-e). We explore the effects of two alternative land-use emissions mitigation policy options‚ÄĒone which taxes terrestrial carbon emissions equally with fossil fuel and industrial emissions, and an alternative which only taxes fossil fuel and industrial emissions but places no penalty on land-use change emissions. We find that increasing populations and economic growth could be anticipated to almost triple demand for water for agricultural systems across the century even in the absence of climate policy. In general policies to mitigate climate change increase agricultural demands for water still further, though the largest changes occur in the second half of the century, under both policy regimes. The two policies examined profoundly affected both the sources and magnitudes of the increase in irrigation water demands. The largest increases in agricultural irrigation water demand occurred in scenarios where only fossil fuel emissions were priced (but not land-use change emission) and were primarily driven by rapid expansion in bioenergy production. In these scenarios water demands were large relative to present-day total available water, calling into question whether it would be physically possible to produce the associated biomass energy. We explored the potential of improved water delivery and irrigation system efficiencies. These could potentially reduce demands substantially. However, overall demands remained high under our fossil-fuel-only tax policy. In contrast, when all carbon was priced, increases in agricultural water demands were smaller than under the fossil-fuel-only policy and were driven primarily by increased demands for water by non-biomass crops such as rice. Finally we estimate the geospatial pattern of water demands and find that regions such as China, India and other countries in south and east Asia might be expected to experience greatest increases in water demands.‚ÄÉ

  11. travel-demand-modeling

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Demand Modeler, Cambridge Systematics, Tallahassee, FL Abstract ... Travel demand ... Ahmed Mohideen Travel Demand Modeler Cambridge Systematics, Tallahassee, FL Transportation ...

  12. Table A19. Components of Total Electricity Demand by Census...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Components of Total Electricity Demand by Census Region and" " Economic Characteristics of ...ansfers","Onsite","Transfers"," ","Row" "Economic Characteristics(a)","Purchases","In(b)",...

  13. Commercial & Industrial Demand Response

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    & Events Skip navigation links Smart Grid Demand Response Agricultural Residential Demand Response Commercial & Industrial Demand Response Cross-sector Demand Response...

  14. LNG demand, shipping will expand through 2010

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    True, W.R.

    1998-02-09

    The 1990s, especially the middle years, have witnessed a dramatic turnaround in the growth of liquefied-natural-gas demand which has tracked equally strong natural-gas demand growth. This trend was underscored late last year by several annual studies of world LNG demand and shipping. As 1998 began, however, economic turmoil in Asian financial markets has clouded near-term prospects for LNG in particular and all energy in general. But the extent of damage to energy markets is so far unclear. A study by US-based Institute of Gas Technology, Des Plaines, IL, reveals that LNG imports worldwide have climbed nearly 8%/year since 1980 and account for 25% of all natural gas traded internationally. In the mid-1970s, the share was only 5%. In 1996, the most recent year for which complete data are available, world LNG trade rose 7.7% to a record 92 billion cu m, outpacing the overall consumption for natural gas which increased 4.7% in 1996. By 2015, says the IGT study, natural-gas use would surpass coal as the world`s second most widely used fuel, after petroleum. Much of this growth will occur in the developing countries of Asia where gas use, before the current economic crisis began, was projected to grow 8%/year through 2015. Similar trends are reflected in another study of LNG trade released at year end 1997, this from Ocean Shipping Consultants Ltd., Surrey, U.K. The study was done too early, however, to consider the effects of the financial problems roiling Asia.

  15. A global perspective on energy markets and economic integration.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baker, Arnold Barry

    2006-04-01

    What will be the effect of Iraqi domestic instability on Iraqi oil production Negotiations for Iranian nuclear technology on Iranian oil supplies Saudi commitment to expanded oil production President Putin's policies on Russian oil and natural gas supplies President Chavez's policies on Venezuelan oil supplies Instability in Nigeria Higher oil prices on world economic growth Effect of economic growth on oil demand in China, India, U.S., etc. Higher oil prices on non-OPEC oil supplies

  16. Economic Development

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Economic Development Economic Development Los Alamos is committed to investing and partnering in economic development initiatives and programs that have a positive impact to stimulate business growth that creates jobs and strengthens communities in Northern New Mexico. September 20, 2013 LANS Venture Acceleration Fund (VAF) award enabled Ideum to develop motion recognition software for international release. Jim Spadaccini (R) has tapped into the Lab's economic development programs: VAF, NMSBA,

  17. Impacts of Demand-Side Resources on Electric Transmission Planning

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hadley, Stanton W.; Sanstad, Alan H.

    2015-01-01

    Will demand resources such as energy efficiency (EE), demand response (DR), and distributed generation (DG) have an impact on electricity transmission requirements? Five drivers for transmission expansion are discussed: interconnection, reliability, economics, replacement, and policy. With that background, we review the results of a set of transmission studies that were conducted between 2010 and 2013 by electricity regulators, industry representatives, and other stakeholders in the three physical interconnections within the United States. These broad-based studies were funded by the US Department of Energy and included scenarios of reduced load growth due to EE, DR, and DG. While the studies were independent and used different modeling tools and interconnect-specific assumptions, all provided valuable results and insights. However, some caveats exist. Demand resources were evaluated in conjunction with other factors, and limitations on transmission additions between scenarios made understanding the role of demand resources difficult. One study, the western study, included analyses over both 10- and 20-year planning horizons; the 10-year analysis did not show near-term reductions in transmission, but the 20-year indicated fewer transmission additions, yielding a 36percent capital cost reduction. In the eastern study the reductions in demand largely led to reductions in local generation capacity and an increased opportunity for low-cost and renewable generation to export to other regions. The Texas study evaluated generation changes due to demand, and is in the process of examining demand resource impacts on transmission.

  18. Energy Efficiency, Demand Response, and Volttron

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ENERGY EFFICIENCY, DEMAND RESPONSE, AND VOLTTRON Presented by Justin Sipe SEEMINGLY SIMPLE STATEMENTS Utilities need more capacity to handle growth on the grid ...

  19. Demand Response for Ancillary Services

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Methodologies used to study grid integration of variable generation can be adapted to the study of demand response. In the present work, we describe and implement a methodology to construct detailed temporal and spatial representations of demand response resources and to incorporate those resources into power system models. In addition, the paper outlines ways to evaluate barriers to implementation. We demonstrate how the combination of these three analyses can be used to assess economic value of the realizable potential of demand response for ancillary services.

  20. Oil and economic performance in industrial countries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nordhaus, W.D.

    1980-01-01

    The Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) countries have experienced slower economic growth and periods of discontinuity in the energy market since the 1973-74 oil embargo. A review of this phenomenon examines changes in the market during the 1960s and 70s, linkages between oil prices and economic performance, and appropriate policy responses. When price elasticities are calculated over time, recent US economic behavior appears to have both historical and cross-sountry consistency. Little flexibility is seen in the available energy-using technologies for producing goods and services, while energy-using capital has been sluggish. Dr. Nordhaus advocates high oil price and high tax policies as the best way to limit demand without slowing economic growth. (DCK)

  1. Demand Response for Ancillary Services

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alkadi, Nasr E; Starke, Michael R

    2013-01-01

    Many demand response resources are technically capable of providing ancillary services. In some cases, they can provide superior response to generators, as the curtailment of load is typically much faster than ramping thermal and hydropower plants. Analysis and quantification of demand response resources providing ancillary services is necessary to understand the resources economic value and impact on the power system. Methodologies used to study grid integration of variable generation can be adapted to the study of demand response. In the present work, we describe and illustrate a methodology to construct detailed temporal and spatial representations of the demand response resource and to examine how to incorporate those resources into power system models. In addition, the paper outlines ways to evaluate barriers to implementation. We demonstrate how the combination of these three analyses can be used to translate the technical potential for demand response providing ancillary services into a realizable potential.

  2. International Oil Supplies and Demands

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-04-01

    The eleventh Energy Modeling Forum (EMF) working group met four times over the 1989--1990 period to compare alternative perspectives on international oil supplies and demands through 2010 and to discuss how alternative supply and demand trends influence the world's dependence upon Middle Eastern oil. Proprietors of eleven economic models of the world oil market used their respective models to simulate a dozen scenarios using standardized assumptions. From its inception, the study was not designed to focus on the short-run impacts of disruptions on oil markets. Nor did the working group attempt to provide a forecast or just a single view of the likely future path for oil prices. The model results guided the group's thinking about many important longer-run market relationships and helped to identify differences of opinion about future oil supplies, demands, and dependence.

  3. International Oil Supplies and Demands

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-09-01

    The eleventh Energy Modeling Forum (EMF) working group met four times over the 1989--90 period to compare alternative perspectives on international oil supplies and demands through 2010 and to discuss how alternative supply and demand trends influence the world's dependence upon Middle Eastern oil. Proprietors of eleven economic models of the world oil market used their respective models to simulate a dozen scenarios using standardized assumptions. From its inception, the study was not designed to focus on the short-run impacts of disruptions on oil markets. Nor did the working group attempt to provide a forecast or just a single view of the likely future path for oil prices. The model results guided the group's thinking about many important longer-run market relationships and helped to identify differences of opinion about future oil supplies, demands, and dependence.

  4. South Korea-ANL Distributed Energy Resources and Demand Side...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    is part of a team that assists the Korean government in analyzing the economic and environmental benefits of distributed resources and demand side management (DSM). DSM has...

  5. Preliminary Examination of the Supply and Demand Balance for Renewable Electricity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Swezey, B.; Aabakken, J.; Bird, L.

    2007-10-01

    In recent years, the demand for renewable electricity has accelerated as a consequence of state and federal policies and the growth of voluntary green power purchase markets, along with the generally improving economics of renewable energy development. This paper reports on a preliminary examination of the supply and demand balance for renewable electricity in the United States, with a focus on renewable energy projects that meet the generally accepted definition of "new" for voluntary market purposes, i.e., projects installed on or after January 1, 1997. After estimating current supply and demand, this paper presents projections of the supply and demand balance out to 2010 and describe a number of key market uncertainties.

  6. Renewable Electricity Futures Study Volume 3: End-Use Electricity Demand

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This volume details the end-use electricity demand and efficiency assumptions. The projection of electricity demand is an important consideration in determining the extent to which a predominantly renewable electricity future is feasible. Any scenario regarding future electricity use must consider many factors, including technological, sociological, demographic, political, and economic changes (e.g., the introduction of new energy-using devices; gains in energy efficiency and process improvements; changes in energy prices, income, and user behavior; population growth; and the potential for carbon mitigation).

  7. Obama Administration Announces Launch of i6 Green Challenge to Promote Clean Energy Innovation and Economic Growth

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The U.S. Department of Energy joined with the U.S. Commerce Department's Economic Development Administration (EDA) and its Office of Innovation and Entrepreneurship today to announce the opening of...

  8. The Economics of Micro Grids

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Blink-less UPS Go Electric Energy Arbitrage Energy Optimization Peak shaving Demand Response & Aggregation FACILITIES UTILITIES 4 Micro Grid Economics: 2 Examples Go Electric ...

  9. Cross-sector Demand Response

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    & Events Skip navigation links Smart Grid Demand Response Agricultural Residential Demand Response Commercial & Industrial Demand Response Cross-sector Demand Response...

  10. Residential Demand Sector Data, Commercial Demand Sector Data, Industrial Demand Sector Data - Annual Energy Outlook 2006

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2009-01-18

    Tables describing consumption and prices by sector and census division for 2006 - includes residential demand, commercial demand, and industrial demand

  11. Energy demand and population changes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Allen, E.L.; Edmonds, J.A.

    1980-12-01

    Since World War II, US energy demand has grown more rapidly than population, so that per capita consumption of energy was about 60% higher in 1978 than in 1947. Population growth and the expansion of per capita real incomes have led to a greater use of energy. The aging of the US population is expected to increase per capita energy consumption, despite the increase in the proportion of persons over 65, who consume less energy than employed persons. The sharp decline in the population under 18 has led to an expansion in the relative proportion of population in the prime-labor-force age groups. Employed persons are heavy users of energy. The growth of the work force and GNP is largely attributable to the growing participation of females. Another important consequence of female employment is the growth in ownership of personal automobiles. A third factor pushing up labor-force growth is the steady influx of illegal aliens.

  12. Demand Response Analysis Tool

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2012-03-01

    Demand Response Analysis Tool is a software developed at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. It is initially funded by Southern California Edison. Our goal in developing this tool is to provide an online, useable, with standardized methods, an analysis tool to evaluate demand and demand response performance of commercial and industrial facilities. The tool provides load variability and weather sensitivity analysis capabilities as well as development of various types of baselines. It can be usedmore¬†¬Ľ by researchers, real estate management firms, utilities, or any individuals who are interested in analyzing their demand and demand response capabilities.¬ę¬†less

  13. Demand Response Analysis Tool

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2012-03-01

    Demand Response Analysis Tool is a software developed at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. It is initially funded by Southern California Edison. Our goal in developing this tool is to provide an online, useable, with standardized methods, an analysis tool to evaluate demand and demand response performance of commercial and industrial facilities. The tool provides load variability and weather sensitivity analysis capabilities as well as development of various types of baselines. It can be used by researchers, real estate management firms, utilities, or any individuals who are interested in analyzing their demand and demand response capabilities.

  14. Conflict Between Economic

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    The confict between economic growth and environmental protection may not be reconciled via ... Physicists and other scholars from the physical sciences are urgently needed for helping ...

  15. Climate Mitigation Policy Implications for Global Irrigation Water Demand

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chaturvedi, Vaibhav; Hejazi, Mohamad I.; Edmonds, James A.; Clarke, Leon E.; Kyle, G. Page; Davies, Evan; Wise, Marshall A.

    2013-08-22

    Energy, water and land are scarce resources, critical to humans. Developments in each affect the availability and cost of the others, and consequently human prosperity. Measures to limit greenhouse gas concentrations will inevitably exact dramatic changes on energy and land systems and in turn alter the character, magnitude and geographic distribution of human claims on water resources. We employ the Global Change Assessment Model (GCAM), an integrated assessment model to explore the interactions of energy, land and water systems in the context of alternative policies to limit climate change to three alternative levels: 2.5 Wm-2 (445 ppm CO2-e), 3.5 Wm-2 (535 ppm CO2-e) and 4.5 Wm-2 (645 ppm CO2-e). We explore the effects of alternative land-use emissions mitigation policy options‚ÄĒone which values terrestrial carbon emissions equally with fossil fuel and industrial emissions, and an alternative which places no penalty on land-use change emissions. We find that increasing populations and economic growth could be anticipated to lead to increased demand for water for agricultural systems (+200%), even in the absence of climate change. In general policies to mitigate climate change will increase agricultural demands for water, regardless of whether or not terrestrial carbon is valued or not. Burgeoning demands for water are driven by the demand for bioenergy in response to emissions mitigation policies. We also find that the policy matters. Increases in the demand for water when terrestrial carbon emissions go un-prices are vastly larger than when terrestrial system carbon emissions are prices at the same rate as fossil fuel and industrial emissions. Our estimates for increased water demands when terrestrial carbon systems go un-priced are larger than earlier studies. We find that the deployment of improved irrigation delivery systems could mitigate some of the increase in water demands, but cannot reverse the increases in water demands when terrestrial carbon emissions go un-priced. Finally we estimates that the geospatial pattern of water demands could stress some parts of the world, e.g. China, India and other countries in south and east Asia, earlier and more intensely than in other parts of the world, e.g. North America.

  16. DOE to Present on Energy Sovereignty, Economic Growth Opportunities at Native American Finance Conference April 17‚Äď19

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Indian Energy is sponsoring the Native American Finance Officers Association‚Äôs (NAFOA‚Äôs) 34th Annual Conference April 17‚Äď19 in Phoenix, Arizona. This two-day conference is an opportunity for tribes to explore solutions to the economic and financial issues facing Indian Country, and provides networking opportunities with tribal leaders, professionals, and influential federal agencies.

  17. Energy Demand (released in AEO2010)

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2010-01-01

    Growth in U.S. energy use is linked to population growth through increases in demand for housing, commercial floorspace, transportation, manufacturing, and services. This affects not only the level of energy use, but also the mix of fuels and consumption by sector.

  18. Energy Demands and Efficiency Strategies in Data Center Buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shehabi, Arman

    2009-09-01

    Information technology (IT) is becoming increasingly pervasive throughout society as more data is digitally processed, stored, and transferred. The infrastructure that supports IT activity is growing accordingly, and data center energy demands haveincreased by nearly a factor of four over the past decade. Data centers house IT equipment and require significantly more energy to operate per unit floor area thanconventional buildings. The economic and environmental ramifications of continued data center growth motivate the need to explore energy-efficient methods to operate these buildings. A substantial portion of data center energy use is dedicated to removing the heat that is generated by the IT equipment. Using economizers to introduce large airflow rates of outside air during favorable weather could substantially reduce the energy consumption of data center cooling. Cooling buildings with economizers is an established energy saving measure, but in data centers this strategy is not widely used, partly owing to concerns that the large airflow rates would lead to increased indoor levels of airborne particles, which could damage IT equipment. The environmental conditions typical of data centers and the associated potential for equipment failure, however, are not well characterized. This barrier to economizer implementation illustrates the general relationship between energy use and indoor air quality in building design and operation. This dissertation investigates how building design and operation influence energy use and indoor air quality in data centers and provides strategies to improve both design goals simultaneously.As an initial step toward understanding data center air quality, measurements of particle concentrations were made at multiple operating northern California data centers. Ratios of measured particle concentrations in conventional data centers to the corresponding outside concentrations were significantly lower than those reported in the literature for office or residential buildings. Estimates using a material-balance model match well with empirical results, indicating that the dominant particle sources and losses -- ventilation and filtration -- have been characterized. Measurements taken at a data center using economizers show nearly an order of magnitude increase in particle concentration during economizer activity. However, even with the increase, themeasured particle concentrations are still below concentration limits recommended in most industry standards. The research proceeds by exploring the feasibility of using economizers in data centers while simultaneously controlling particle concentrations with high-quality air filtration. Physical and chemical properties of indoor and outdoor particles were analyzed at a data center using economizers and varying levels of air filtration efficiency. Results show that when improved filtration is used in combination with an economizer, the indoor/outdoor concentration ratios for most measured particle types were similar to the measurements when using conventional filtration without economizers. An energy analysis of the data center reveals that, even during the summer months, chiller savings from economizer use greatly outweigh the increase in fan power associated with improved filtration. These findings indicate that economizer use combined with improved filtration couldsignificantly reduce data center energy demand while providing a level of protection from particles of outdoor origin similar to that observed with conventional design. The emphasis of the dissertation then shifts to evaluate the energy benefits of economizer use in data centers under different design strategies. Economizer use with high ventilation rates is compared against an alternative, water-side economizer design that does not affect indoor particle concentrations. Building energy models are employed to estimate energy savings of both economizer designs for data centers in

  19. Implications of Low Electricity Demand Growth

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    etc. - From 2012-2040, electric generating capacity additions decline by about 50% ... Other Renewables Solar Wind Natural gasoil Nuclear Hydro Other Coal 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 ...

  20. Residential Demand Response

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    in-home displays with controllable home area network capabilities and thermal storage devices for home heating. Goals and objectives: Reduce the City's NCP demand above...

  1. Managing Increased Charging Demand

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Managing Increased Charging Demand Carrie Giles ICF International, Supporting the Workplace Charging Challenge Workplace Charging Challenge Do you already own an EV? Are you...

  2. Managing Increased Charging Demand

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Managing Increased Charging Demand Carrie Giles ICF International, Supporting the Workplace Charging Challenge Workplace Charging Challenge Do you already own an EV? Are you ...

  3. Demand Dispatch-Intelligent

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Demand Dispatch-Intelligent Demand for a More Efficient Grid 10 August 2011 DOE/NETL- DE-FE0004001 U.S. Department of Energy Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability Prepared by: National Energy Technology Laboratory Disclaimer This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States Government. Neither the United States Government nor any agency thereof, nor any of their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal

  4. Demand Response Valuation Frameworks Paper

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heffner, Grayson

    2009-02-01

    While there is general agreement that demand response (DR) is a valued component in a utility resource plan, there is a lack of consensus regarding how to value DR. Establishing the value of DR is a prerequisite to determining how much and what types of DR should be implemented, to which customers DR should be targeted, and a key determinant that drives the development of economically viable DR consumer technology. Most approaches for quantifying the value of DR focus on changes in utility system revenue requirements based on resource plans with and without DR. This ''utility centric'' approach does not assign any value to DR impacts that lower energy and capacity prices, improve reliability, lower system and network operating costs, produce better air quality, and provide improved customer choice and control. Proper valuation of these benefits requires a different basis for monetization. The review concludes that no single methodology today adequately captures the wide range of benefits and value potentially attributed to DR. To provide a more comprehensive valuation approach, current methods such as the Standard Practice Method (SPM) will most likely have to be supplemented with one or more alternative benefit-valuation approaches. This report provides an updated perspective on the DR valuation framework. It includes an introduction and four chapters that address the key elements of demand response valuation, a comprehensive literature review, and specific research recommendations.

  5. Economic Analysis of Commercial Idling Reduction Technologies...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Economic Analysis of Commercial Idling Reduction Technologies: Which idling reduction ... A Key Enabler of Expanded U.S. Trade and Economic Growth Comparing Emissions Benefits from ...

  6. Demand Response | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Demand Response Demand Response Demand Response Demand response provides an opportunity for consumers to play a significant role in the operation of the electric grid by reducing or shifting their electricity usage during peak periods in response to time-based rates or other forms of financial incentives. Demand response programs are being used by electric system planners and operators as resource options for balancing supply and demand. Such programs can lower the cost of electricity in

  7. Oil, gas tanker industry responding to demand, contract changes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    True, W.R.

    1998-03-02

    Steady if slower growth in demand for crude oil and natural gas, low levels of scrapping, and a moderate newbuilding pace bode well for the world`s petroleum and natural-gas shipping industries. At year-end 1997, several studies of worldwide demand patterns and shipping fleets expressed short and medium-term optimism for seaborne oil and gas trade and fleet growth. The paper discusses steady demand and shifting patterns, the aging fleet, the slowing products traffic, the world`s fleet, gas carriers, LPG demand, and LPG vessels.

  8. Demand Charges | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Demand Charges Jump to: navigation, search Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgwindex.php?titleDemandCharges&oldid488967" Feedback Contact needs updating Image needs...

  9. International Oil Supplies and Demands. Volume 2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-04-01

    The eleventh Energy Modeling Forum (EMF) working group met four times over the 1989--1990 period to compare alternative perspectives on international oil supplies and demands through 2010 and to discuss how alternative supply and demand trends influence the world`s dependence upon Middle Eastern oil. Proprietors of eleven economic models of the world oil market used their respective models to simulate a dozen scenarios using standardized assumptions. From its inception, the study was not designed to focus on the short-run impacts of disruptions on oil markets. Nor did the working group attempt to provide a forecast or just a single view of the likely future path for oil prices. The model results guided the group`s thinking about many important longer-run market relationships and helped to identify differences of opinion about future oil supplies, demands, and dependence.

  10. International Oil Supplies and Demands. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-09-01

    The eleventh Energy Modeling Forum (EMF) working group met four times over the 1989--90 period to compare alternative perspectives on international oil supplies and demands through 2010 and to discuss how alternative supply and demand trends influence the world`s dependence upon Middle Eastern oil. Proprietors of eleven economic models of the world oil market used their respective models to simulate a dozen scenarios using standardized assumptions. From its inception, the study was not designed to focus on the short-run impacts of disruptions on oil markets. Nor did the working group attempt to provide a forecast or just a single view of the likely future path for oil prices. The model results guided the group`s thinking about many important longer-run market relationships and helped to identify differences of opinion about future oil supplies, demands, and dependence.

  11. Model for Analysis of Energy Demand (MAED-2) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    demand based on medium- to long-term scenarios of socio-economic, technological and demographic developments. " References "MAED 2" Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgw...

  12. Economic evaluation of rural woodlots in a developing country: Tanzania

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kihiyo, V.B.M.S.

    1996-03-01

    Rural areas in developing countries use wood as their main source of energy. Previously, wood has been obtained free from natural forests and woodlands. The pressure of increased demand through population growth, and the fact that natural trees take longer to grow, has made this resource scarce. Thus, raising trees in woodlots has been adopted as the solution to its shortage in the wild. However, growing trees in woodlots will inevitably require resources in terms of capital, land and manpower. Economic evaluation becomes necessary to ascertain that these resources are used economically. This paper dwells on some of the salient features of the economic evaluation of woodlots, such as interest rates, shadow prices of factors of production, social opportunity, cost of capital and sensitivity analysis of such woodlots in a developing country such as Tanzania. 19 refs., 5 tabs.

  13. Unconventional gas outlook: resources, economics, and technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Drazga, B.

    2006-08-15

    The report explains the current and potential of the unconventional gas market including country profiles, major project case studies, and new technology research. It identifies the major players in the market and reports their current and forecasted projects, as well as current volume and anticipated output for specific projects. Contents are: Overview of unconventional gas; Global natural gas market; Drivers of unconventional gas sources; Forecast; Types of unconventional gas; Major producing regions Overall market trends; Production technology research; Economics of unconventional gas production; Barriers and challenges; Key regions: Australia, Canada, China, Russia, Ukraine, United Kingdom, United States; Major Projects; Industry Initiatives; Major players. Uneconomic or marginally economic resources such as tight (low permeability) sandstones, shale gas, and coalbed methane are considered unconventional. However, due to continued research and favorable gas prices, many previously uneconomic or marginally economic gas resources are now economically viable, and may not be considered unconventional by some companies. Unconventional gas resources are geologically distinct in that conventional gas resources are buoyancy-driven deposits, occurring as discrete accumulations in structural or stratigraphic traps, whereas unconventional gas resources are generally not buoyancy-driven deposits. The unconventional natural gas category (CAM, gas shales, tight sands, and landfill) is expected to continue at double-digit growth levels in the near term. Until 2008, demand for unconventional natural gas is likely to increase at an AAR corresponding to 10.7% from 2003, aided by prioritized research and development efforts. 1 app.

  14. Experts Meeting: Behavioral Economics as Applied to Energy Demand...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    with the modeling of changing energy markets for ... to work, family, and education are likely more important ... there are persistent, systematic departures from ...

  15. Economics of coal fines utilization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hathi, V.; McHale, E.; Ramezan, M.; Winslow, J.

    1995-12-31

    In the twentieth century, coal has become the major fuel for electric power generation in the U.S. and most of the nonpetroleum-producing countries of the world. In 1998, the world coal-fired capacity for electric power generation was about 815 GW, consuming large quantities of coals of all ranks. Today, coal provides a third of the world`s energy requirements. In fact, coal use for power generation has grown steadily since the oil embargo in 1973 and has seen an even faster rate of growth in recent years. It has been reported that the global demand for new coal will increase by more than 1500 million tons by the year 2000. However, this increased production of coal has its drawbacks, including the concomitant production of coal waste. Reported estimates indicate that billions of tons of coal waste have already been disposed of in waste impoundments throughout the U.S. Further, in the U.S. today, about 20-25 % of each ton of mined coal is discarded by preparation plants as gob and plant tailings. It appears that the most economical near-term approach to coal waste recovery is to utilize the waste coal fines currently discarded with the refuse stream, rather than attempt to recover coal from waste impoundments that require careful prior evaluation and site preparation. A hypothetical circuit was designed to examine the economics of recovery and utilization of waste coal fines. The circuit recovers products from 100 tons per hour (tph) of coal waste feed recovering 70 tph of fine coal that can be used in coal-fired boilers. The present analysis indicates that the coal waste recovery is feasible and economical. In addition, significant environmental benefits can be expected.

  16. Demand Response Programs, 6. edition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2007-10-15

    The report provides a look at the past, present, and future state of the market for demand/load response based upon market price signals. It is intended to provide significant value to individuals and companies who are considering participating in demand response programs, energy providers and ISOs interested in offering demand response programs, and consultants and analysts looking for detailed information on demand response technology, applications, and participants. The report offers a look at the current Demand Response environment in the energy industry by: defining what demand response programs are; detailing the evolution of program types over the last 30 years; discussing the key drivers of current initiatives; identifying barriers and keys to success for the programs; discussing the argument against subsidization of demand response; describing the different types of programs that exist including:direct load control, interruptible load, curtailable load, time-of-use, real time pricing, and demand bidding/buyback; providing examples of the different types of programs; examining the enablers of demand response programs; and, providing a look at major demand response programs.

  17. Establishing Economic Competitiveness

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Establishing Economic Competitiveness Energy storage technologies can transform electric systems operation by providing flexibility. This can improve the efficiency of electric system operation. For example, energy storage systems can smooth the otherwise variable production of renewable energy technologies and help shift the peak demand to reduce peak electric prices. Though energy storage technologies can be game-changing grid technology, they must inevitably compete with alternative

  18. The Boom of Electricity Demand in the Residential Sector in the Developing World and the Potential for Energy Efficiency

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Letschert, Virginie; McNeil, Michael A.

    2008-05-13

    With the emergence of China as the world's largest energy consumer, the awareness of developing country energy consumption has risen. According to common economic scenarios, the rest of the developing world will probably see an economic expansion as well. With this growth will surely come continued rapid growth in energy demand. This paper explores the dynamics of that demand growth for electricity in the residential sector and the realistic potential for coping with it through efficiency. In 2000, only 66% of developing world households had access to electricity. Appliance ownership rates remain low, but with better access to electricity and a higher income one can expect that households will see their electricity consumption rise significantly. This paper forecasts developing country appliance growth using econometric modeling. Products considered explicitly - refrigerators, air conditioners, lighting, washing machines, fans, televisions, stand-by power, water heating and space heating - represent the bulk of household electricity consumption in developing countries. The resulting diffusion model determines the trend and dynamics of demand growth at a level of detail not accessible by models of a more aggregate nature. In addition, the paper presents scenarios for reducing residential consumption through cost-effective and/or best practice efficiency measures defined at the product level. The research takes advantage of an analytical framework developed by LBNL (BUENAS) which integrates end use technology parameters into demand forecasting and stock accounting to produce detailed efficiency scenarios, which allows for a realistic assessment of efficiency opportunities at the national or regional level. The past decades have seen some of the developing world moving towards a standard of living previously reserved for industrialized countries. Rapid economic development, combined with large populations has led to first China and now India to emerging as 'energy giants', a phenomenon that is expected to continue, accelerate and spread to other countries. This paper explores the potential for slowing energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions in the residential sector in developing countries and evaluates the potential of energy savings and emissions mitigation through market transformation programs such as, but not limited to Energy Efficiency Standards and Labeling (EES&L). The bottom-up methodology used allows one to identify which end uses and regions have the greatest potential for savings.

  19. Demand Response Technology Roadmap A

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    meetings and workshops convened to develop content for the Demand Response Technology Roadmap. The project team has developed this companion document in the interest of providing...

  20. Economic Dispatch

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    They are: 1) variable generation resources, 2) energy storage, 3) the production tax credit, 4) market structure, 5) environmental regulations, 6) demand response, and 7) market ...

  1. DemandDirect | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    DemandDirect Place: Woodbury, Connecticut Zip: 6798 Sector: Efficiency, Renewable Energy, Services Product: DemandDirect provides demand response, energy efficiency, load...

  2. Global Green Growth Institute (GGGI) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    "GGGI is dedicated to pioneering and diffusing a new model of economic growth, known as "green growth," that simultaneously targets key aspects of economic performance, such as...

  3. China, India demand cushions prices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boyle, M.

    2006-11-15

    Despite the hopes of coal consumers, coal prices did not plummet in 2006 as demand stayed firm. China and India's growing economies, coupled with solid supply-demand fundamentals in North America and Europe, and highly volatile prices for alternatives are likely to keep physical coal prices from wide swings in the coming year.

  4. Automated Demand Response and Commissioning

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Piette, Mary Ann; Watson, David S.; Motegi, Naoya; Bourassa, Norman

    2005-04-01

    This paper describes the results from the second season of research to develop and evaluate the performance of new Automated Demand Response (Auto-DR) hardware and software technology in large facilities. Demand Response (DR) is a set of activities to reduce or shift electricity use to improve the electric grid reliability and manage electricity costs. Fully-Automated Demand Response does not involve human intervention, but is initiated at a home, building, or facility through receipt of an external communications signal. We refer to this as Auto-DR. The evaluation of the control and communications must be properly configured and pass through a set of test stages: Readiness, Approval, Price Client/Price Server Communication, Internet Gateway/Internet Relay Communication, Control of Equipment, and DR Shed Effectiveness. New commissioning tests are needed for such systems to improve connecting demand responsive building systems to the electric grid demand response systems.

  5. Reducing Peak Demand to Defer Power Plant Construction in Oklahoma

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Reducing Peak Demand to Defer Power Plant Construction in Oklahoma Located in the heart of "Tornado Alley," Oklahoma Gas & Electric Company's (OG&E) electric grid faces significant challenges from severe weather, hot summers, and about 2% annual load growth. To better control costs and manage electric reliability under these conditions, OG&E is pursuing demand response strategies made possible by implementation of smart grid technologies, tools, and techniques from

  6. Honeywell Demonstrates Automated Demand Response Benefits for...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Honeywell Demonstrates Automated Demand Response Benefits for Utility, Commercial, and Industrial Customers Honeywell Demonstrates Automated Demand Response Benefits for Utility, ...

  7. Industrial Demand Module - NEMS Documentation

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2014-01-01

    Documents the objectives, analytical approach, and development of the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) Industrial Demand Module. The report catalogues and describes model assumptions, computational methodology, parameter estimation techniques, and model source code.

  8. Residential Demand Module - NEMS Documentation

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2014-01-01

    Model Documentation - Documents the objectives, analytical approach, and development of the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) Residential Sector Demand Module. The report catalogues and describes the model assumptions, computational methodology, parameter estimation techniques, and FORTRAN source code.

  9. MODELING THE DEMAND FOR E85 IN THE UNITED STATES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Changzheng; Greene, David L

    2013-10-01

    How demand for E85 might evolve in the future in response to changing economics and policies is an important subject to include in the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS). This report summarizes a study to develop an E85 choice model for NEMS. Using the most recent data from the states of Minnesota, North Dakota, and Iowa, this study estimates a logit model that represents E85 choice as a function of prices of E10 and E85, as well as fuel availability of E85 relative to gasoline. Using more recent data than previous studies allows a better estimation of non-fleet demand and indicates that the price elasticity of E85 choice appears to be higher than previously estimated. Based on the results of the econometric analysis, a model for projecting E85 demand at the regional level is specified. In testing, the model produced plausible predictions of US E85 demand to 2040.

  10. Drivers of Future Energy Demand

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Drivers of Future Energy Demand in China Asian Energy Demand Outlook 2014 EIA Energy Conference July 14, 2014 Valerie J. Karplus MIT Sloan School of Management 2 www.china.org.cn www.flickr.com www.wikimedia.org globalchange.mit.edu Global Climate Change Human Development Local Pollution Industrial Development & Resource Needs How to balance? 0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 3500 4000 1981 1991 2001 2011 Non-material Sectors/Other Construction Commercial consumption Residential consumption

  11. Economic Performance

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    in Environmental, Energy, and Economic Performance ... of greenhouse gas emissions a priority for Federal agencies, it is hereby ordered as follows: Section 1. Policy. ...

  12. Home Network Technologies and Automating Demand Response

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McParland, Charles

    2009-12-01

    Over the past several years, interest in large-scale control of peak energy demand and total consumption has increased. While motivated by a number of factors, this interest has primarily been spurred on the demand side by the increasing cost of energy and, on the supply side by the limited ability of utilities to build sufficient electricity generation capacity to meet unrestrained future demand. To address peak electricity use Demand Response (DR) systems are being proposed to motivate reductions in electricity use through the use of price incentives. DR systems are also be design to shift or curtail energy demand at critical times when the generation, transmission, and distribution systems (i.e. the 'grid') are threatened with instabilities. To be effectively deployed on a large-scale, these proposed DR systems need to be automated. Automation will require robust and efficient data communications infrastructures across geographically dispersed markets. The present availability of widespread Internet connectivity and inexpensive, reliable computing hardware combined with the growing confidence in the capabilities of distributed, application-level communications protocols suggests that now is the time for designing and deploying practical systems. Centralized computer systems that are capable of providing continuous signals to automate customers reduction of power demand, are known as Demand Response Automation Servers (DRAS). The deployment of prototype DRAS systems has already begun - with most initial deployments targeting large commercial and industrial (C & I) customers. An examination of the current overall energy consumption by economic sector shows that the C & I market is responsible for roughly half of all energy consumption in the US. On a per customer basis, large C & I customers clearly have the most to offer - and to gain - by participating in DR programs to reduce peak demand. And, by concentrating on a small number of relatively sophisticated energy consumers, it has been possible to improve the DR 'state of the art' with a manageable commitment of technical resources on both the utility and consumer side. Although numerous C & I DR applications of a DRAS infrastructure are still in either prototype or early production phases, these early attempts at automating DR have been notably successful for both utilities and C & I customers. Several factors have strongly contributed to this success and will be discussed below. These successes have motivated utilities and regulators to look closely at how DR programs can be expanded to encompass the remaining (roughly) half of the state's energy load - the light commercial and, in numerical terms, the more important residential customer market. This survey examines technical issues facing the implementation of automated DR in the residential environment. In particular, we will look at the potential role of home automation networks in implementing wide-scale DR systems that communicate directly to individual residences.

  13. Disaggregated analysis of US energy consumption in the 1990s: Evidence of the effects of the internet and rapid economic growth

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Murtishaw, Scott; Schipper, Lee

    2001-07-01

    This paper decomposes US energy use from 1988 to 1998 and attributes the changes in energy use to three underlying factors: activity, structure, and intensity. For this study we use a bottom-up methodology, by separately decomposing delivered energy use in six sectors: travel, freight, manufacturing industries, non-manufacturing industries, residential, and services. The most commonly used indicator of energy efficiency in the total economy, the ratio of energy consumed to unit of GDP (E/GDP) created can often be misleading. The rapid decline in the E/GDP ratio in recent years has been used to support assertions that the Internet and information technologies in general have enabled improvements in energy efficiencies. However, our disaggregate analysis suggests that energy intensities on average are falling more slowly than ever before while actual energy use increased faster than at any time since 1970. The decline in the E/GDP ratio in the mid-to late 1990s owes much more to structural changes in the demand for energy services than to falling energy intensities.

  14. Bioenergy Demand in a Market Driven Forest Economy (U.S. South) |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Demand in a Market Driven Forest Economy (U.S. South) Bioenergy Demand in a Market Driven Forest Economy (U.S. South) Breakout Session 1A: Biomass Feedstocks for the Bioeconomy Bioenergy Demand in a Market Driven Forest Economy (U.S. South) Robert C. Abt, Professor of Natural Resource Economics and Management, North Carolina State University PDF icon abt_bioenergy_2015.pdf More Documents & Publications Biomass Program Peer Review Sustainability Platform Biomass as

  15. U.S. Coal Supply and Demand

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Coal > U.S. Coal Supply and Demand > U.S. Coal Supply and Demand U.S. Coal Supply and Demand 2010 Review (entire report also available in printer-friendly format ) Previous ...

  16. EIA projections of coal supply and demand

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klein, D.E.

    1989-10-23

    Contents of this report include: EIA projections of coal supply and demand which covers forecasted coal supply and transportation, forecasted coal demand by consuming sector, and forecasted coal demand by the electric utility sector; and policy discussion.

  17. Promising Technology: Demand Control Ventilation

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Demand control ventilation (DCV) measures carbon dioxide concentrations in return air or other strategies to measure occupancy, and accurately matches the ventilation requirement. This system reduces ventilation when spaces are vacant or at lower than peak occupancy. When ventilation is reduced, energy savings are accrued because it is not necessary to heat, cool, or dehumidify as much outside air.

  18. Commercial Demand Module - NEMS Documentation

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2014-01-01

    Documents the objectives, analytical approach and development of the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) Commercial Sector Demand Module. The report catalogues and describes the model assumptions, computational methodology, parameter estimation techniques, model source code, and forecast results generated through the synthesis and scenario development based on these components.

  19. Projecting Electricity Demand in 2050

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hostick, Donna J.; Belzer, David B.; Hadley, Stanton W.; Markel, Tony; Marnay, Chris; Kintner-Meyer, Michael CW

    2014-07-01

    This paper describes the development of end-use electricity projections and load curves that were developed for the Renewable Electricity (RE) Futures Study (hereafter RE Futures), which explored the prospect of higher percentages (30% ‚ąí 90%) of total electricity generation that could be supplied by renewable sources in the United States. As input to RE Futures, two projections of electricity demand were produced representing reasonable upper and lower bounds of electricity demand out to 2050. The electric sector models used in RE Futures required underlying load profiles, so RE Futures also produced load profile data in two formats: 8760 hourly data for the year 2050 for the GridView model, and in 2-year increments for 17 time slices as input to the Regional Energy Deployment System (ReEDS) model. The process for developing demand projections and load profiles involved three steps: discussion regarding the scenario approach and general assumptions, literature reviews to determine readily available data, and development of the demand curves and load profiles.

  20. Demand Management Institute (DMI) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Demand Management Institute (DMI) Jump to: navigation, search Name: Demand Management Institute (DMI) Address: 35 Walnut Street Place: Wellesley, Massachusetts Zip: 02481 Region:...

  1. Generating Demand for Multifamily Building Upgrades | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Generating Demand for Multifamily Building Upgrades Generating Demand for Multifamily Building Upgrades Better Buildings Residential Network Peer Exchange Call Series: Generating...

  2. Marketing & Driving Demand: Social Media Tools & Strategies ...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Marketing & Driving Demand: Social Media Tools & Strategies - January 16, 2011 (Text Version) Marketing & Driving Demand: Social Media Tools & Strategies - January 16, 2011 (Text...

  3. Demand Response - Policy | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Demand Response - Policy Demand Response - Policy Since its inception, the Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability (OE) has been committed to modernizing the nation's ...

  4. The alchemy of demand response: turning demand into supply

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rochlin, Cliff

    2009-11-15

    Paying customers to refrain from purchasing products they want seems to run counter to the normal operation of markets. Demand response should be interpreted not as a supply-side resource but as a secondary market that attempts to correct the misallocation of electricity among electric users caused by regulated average rate tariffs. In a world with costless metering, the DR solution results in inefficiency as measured by deadweight losses. (author)

  5. Addressing Energy Demand through Demand Response. International Experiences and Practices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shen, Bo; Ghatikar, Girish; Ni, Chun Chun; Dudley, Junqiao; Martin, Phil; Wikler, Greg

    2012-06-01

    Demand response (DR) is a load management tool which provides a cost-effective alternative to traditional supply-side solutions to address the growing demand during times of peak electrical load. According to the US Department of Energy (DOE), demand response reflects ‚Äúchanges in electric usage by end-use customers from their normal consumption patterns in response to changes in the price of electricity over time, or to incentive payments designed to induce lower electricity use at times of high wholesale market prices or when system reliability is jeopardized.‚ÄĚ 1 The California Energy Commission (CEC) defines DR as ‚Äúa reduction in customers‚Äô electricity consumption over a given time interval relative to what would otherwise occur in response to a price signal, other financial incentives, or a reliability signal.‚ÄĚ 2 This latter definition is perhaps most reflective of how DR is understood and implemented today in countries such as the US, Canada, and Australia where DR is primarily a dispatchable resource responding to signals from utilities, grid operators, and/or load aggregators (or DR providers).

  6. Irrigation and the demand for electricity. Progress report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maddigan, R. J.; Chern, W. S.; Gallagher, C. A.

    1980-03-01

    In order to anticipate the need for generating capacity, utility planners must estimate the future growth in electricity demand. The need for demand forecasts is no less important for the nation's Rural Electric Cooperatives (RECs) than it is for the investor-owned utilities. The RECs serve an historically agrarian region; therefore, the irrigation sector accounts for a significant portion of the western RECs' total demand. A model is developed of the RECs' demand for electricity used in irrigation. The model is a simultaneous equation system which focuses on both the short-run utilization of electricity in irrigation and the long-run determination of the number of irrigators using electricity. Irrigation demand is described by a set of equations in which the quantity of electricity demanded, the average electricity price, the number of irrigation customers, and the ratio of electricity to total energy used for irrigation are endogenous. The structural equations are estimated using pooled state-level data for the period 1961-1977. In light of the model's results, the impact of changes in relative energy prices on irrigation can be examined.

  7. Economics | NISAC

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    NISACEconomics content top NISAC Agent-Based Laboratory for Economics (N-ABLE(tm)) Posted by Admin on Mar 1, 2012 in | Comments 0 comments NISAC Agent-Based Laboratory for Economics (N-ABLE(tm)) NISAC has developed N-ABLE(tm) to assist federal decision makers in improving the security and resilience of the U.S. economy. N-ABLE(tm) is a large-scale microeconomic simulation tool that models the complex supply-chain, spatial market dynamics, and critical-infrastructure interdependencies of

  8. ECONOMIC DISPATCH

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    ECONOMIC DISPATCH OF ELECTRIC GENERATION CAPACITY A REPORT TO CONGRESS AND THE STATES PURSUANT TO SECTIONS 1234 AND 1832 OF THE ENERGY POLICY ACT OF 2005 United States Department of Energy February 2007 ECONOMIC DISPATCH OF ELECTRIC GENERATION CAPACITY A REPORT TO CONGRESS AND THE STATES PURSUANT TO SECTIONS 1234 AND 1832 OF THE ENERGY POLICY ACT OF 2005 Sections 1234 and 1832 of the Energy Policy Act of 2005 (EPAct) 1 direct the U.S. Department of Energy (the Department, or DOE) to: 1) Study

  9. Demand Response - Policy | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Demand Response - Policy Demand Response - Policy Since its inception, the Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability (OE) has been committed to modernizing the nation's electricity delivery infrastructure to assure consumers a robust, reliable electric power system that meets their increasing demand for energy. OE's mission includes assisting states and regions in developing policies that decrease demand on existing energy infrastructure. Appropriate cost-effective demand response

  10. Turtle Mountain Band of Chippewa Indians 10 Y Energy, Environmental, and Economic Development Platform

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Turtle Mountain Band of Chippewa Indians - TMBCI 10Y Energy, Environmental and Economic Development Platform DOE Office of Indian Energy Tribal Leader Forum Series Indian Pueblo Cultural Center - Albuquerque, NM July 27, 2015 10Y Governance, Financial and Environmental Impacts TMBCI Current Annual Energy Spend: $6.5 Million est. Daily Demand: 18MW est. 0 50 100 150 200 10Y1 10Y2 10Y3 10Y4 10Y5 10Y6 10Y7 10Y8 10Y9 10Y10 10Y Growth Projection Non-tribal Utility Hydrocarbons TMBCI Efficiency and

  11. Scenario Analysis of Peak Demand Savings for Commercial Buildings with Thermal Mass in California

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yin, Rongxin; Kiliccote, Sila; Piette, Mary Ann; Parrish, Kristen

    2010-05-14

    This paper reports on the potential impact of demand response (DR) strategies in commercial buildings in California based on the Demand Response Quick Assessment Tool (DRQAT), which uses EnergyPlus simulation prototypes for office and retail buildings. The study describes the potential impact of building size, thermal mass, climate, and DR strategies on demand savings in commercial buildings. Sensitivity analyses are performed to evaluate how these factors influence the demand shift and shed during the peak period. The whole-building peak demand of a commercial building with high thermal mass in a hot climate zone can be reduced by 30percent using an optimized demand response strategy. Results are summarized for various simulation scenarios designed to help owners and managers understand the potential savings for demand response deployment. Simulated demand savings under various scenarios were compared to field-measured data in numerous climate zones, allowing calibration of the prototype models. The simulation results are compared to the peak demand data from the Commercial End-Use Survey for commercial buildings in California. On the economic side, a set of electricity rates are used to evaluate the impact of the DR strategies on economic savings for different thermal mass and climate conditions. Our comparison of recent simulation to field test results provides an understanding of the DR potential in commercial buildings.

  12. Providing Reliability Services through Demand Response: A Prelimnary Evaluation of the Demand Response Capabilities of Alcoa Inc.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Starke, Michael R; Kirby, Brendan J; Kueck, John D; Todd, Duane; Caulfield, Michael; Helms, Brian

    2009-02-01

    Demand response is the largest underutilized reliability resource in North America. Historic demand response programs have focused on reducing overall electricity consumption (increasing efficiency) and shaving peaks but have not typically been used for immediate reliability response. Many of these programs have been successful but demand response remains a limited resource. The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) report, 'Assessment of Demand Response and Advanced Metering' (FERC 2006) found that only five percent of customers are on some form of demand response program. Collectively they represent an estimated 37,000 MW of response potential. These programs reduce overall energy consumption, lower green house gas emissions by allowing fossil fuel generators to operate at increased efficiency and reduce stress on the power system during periods of peak loading. As the country continues to restructure energy markets with sophisticated marginal cost models that attempt to minimize total energy costs, the ability of demand response to create meaningful shifts in the supply and demand equations is critical to creating a sustainable and balanced economic response to energy issues. Restructured energy market prices are set by the cost of the next incremental unit of energy, so that as additional generation is brought into the market, the cost for the entire market increases. The benefit of demand response is that it reduces overall demand and shifts the entire market to a lower pricing level. This can be very effective in mitigating price volatility or scarcity pricing as the power system responds to changing demand schedules, loss of large generators, or loss of transmission. As a global producer of alumina, primary aluminum, and fabricated aluminum products, Alcoa Inc., has the capability to provide demand response services through its manufacturing facilities and uniquely through its aluminum smelting facilities. For a typical aluminum smelter, electric power accounts for 30% to 40% of the factory cost of producing primary aluminum. In the continental United States, Alcoa Inc. currently owns and/or operates ten aluminum smelters and many associated fabricating facilities with a combined average load of over 2,600 MW. This presents Alcoa Inc. with a significant opportunity to respond in areas where economic opportunities exist to help mitigate rising energy costs by supplying demand response services into the energy system. This report is organized into seven chapters. The first chapter is the introduction and discusses the intention of this report. The second chapter contains the background. In this chapter, topics include: the motivation for Alcoa to provide demand response; ancillary service definitions; the basics behind aluminum smelting; and a discussion of suggested ancillary services that would be particularly useful for Alcoa to supply. Chapter 3 is concerned with the independent system operator, the Midwest ISO. Here the discussion examines the evolving Midwest ISO market structure including specific definitions, requirements, and necessary components to provide ancillary services. This section is followed by information concerning the Midwest ISO's classifications of demand response parties. Chapter 4 investigates the available opportunities at Alcoa's Warrick facility. Chapter 5 involves an in-depth discussion of the regulation service that Alcoa's Warrick facility can provide and the current interactions with Midwest ISO. Chapter 6 reviews future plans and expectations for Alcoa providing ancillary services into the market. Last, chapter 7, details the conclusion and recommendations of this paper.

  13. Fuel economizer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zwierzelewski, V.F.

    1984-06-26

    A fuel economizer device for use with an internal combustion engine fitted with a carburetor is disclosed. The fuel economizer includes a plate member which is mounted between the carburetor and the intake portion of the intake manifold. The plate member further has at least one aperture formed therein. One tube is inserted through the at least one aperture in the plate member. The one tube extends longitudinally in the passage of the intake manifold from the intake portion toward the exit portion thereof. The one tube concentrates the mixture of fuel and air from the carburetor and conveys the mixture of fuel and air to a point adjacent but spaced away from the inlet port of the internal combustion engine.

  14. ECONOMIC IMPACT

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ECONOMIC IMPACT 2015 SANDIA NATIONAL LABORATORIES National Security Sandia's primary mission is ensuring the U.S. nuclear arsenal is safe, secure, and reliable, and can fully support our nation's deterrence policy. NUCLEAR WEAPONS DEFENSE SYSTEMS & ASSESSMENTS We provide technical solutions for global security by engineering and integrating advanced science and technology to help defend and protect the United States. Jill Hruby President and Laboratories Director "Qualified, diverse

  15. Freight Transportation Demand: Energy-Efficient Scenarios for a Low-Carbon Future

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Freight transportation demand is projected to grow to 27.5 billion tons in 2040, and by extrapolation, to nearly 30.2 billion tons in 2050, requiring ever-greater amounts of energy. This report describes the current and future demand for freight transportation in terms of tons and ton-miles of commodities moved by truck, rail, water, pipeline, and air freight carriers. It outlines the economic, logistics, transportation, and policy and regulatory factors that shape freight demand; the possible trends and 2050 outlook for these factors, and their anticipated effect on freight demand and related energy use.After describing federal policy actions that could influence freight demand, the report then summarizes the available analytical models for forecasting freight demand, and identifies possible areas for future action.

  16. Market and energy demand analysis of a US maglev system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vyas, A.D.; Rote, D.M.

    1993-06-01

    High-speed magnetically levitated (maglev) vehicles can provide an alternative mode of transportation for intercity travel, particularly for short- and medium-distance trips between 100 to 600 mi (160 and 960 km). The patterns of growth and the underlying factors affecting that growth In the year 2010 are evaluated to determine the magnitude of US Intercity travel that would become the basis for maglev demand. A methodology that is sensitive to the travelers` socioeconomic attributes was developed to Forecast intercity travel. Travel between 78 major metropolitan areas by air and highway modes is projected, and 12 high-density travel corridors are Identified and selected. The potential for a maglev system to substitute for part or that travel is calculated by using a model that estimates the extent of diversion from highway and air to maglev. Energy demand is estimated on the basis of energy usage during acceleration and cruise phases for each corridor and corridor connections.

  17. Market and energy demand analysis of a US maglev system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vyas, A.D.; Rote, D.M.

    1993-01-01

    High-speed magnetically levitated (maglev) vehicles can provide an alternative mode of transportation for intercity travel, particularly for short- and medium-distance trips between 100 to 600 mi (160 and 960 km). The patterns of growth and the underlying factors affecting that growth In the year 2010 are evaluated to determine the magnitude of US Intercity travel that would become the basis for maglev demand. A methodology that is sensitive to the travelers' socioeconomic attributes was developed to Forecast intercity travel. Travel between 78 major metropolitan areas by air and highway modes is projected, and 12 high-density travel corridors are Identified and selected. The potential for a maglev system to substitute for part or that travel is calculated by using a model that estimates the extent of diversion from highway and air to maglev. Energy demand is estimated on the basis of energy usage during acceleration and cruise phases for each corridor and corridor connections.

  18. Geothermal District Heating Economics

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1995-07-12

    GEOCITY is a large-scale simulation model which combines both engineering and economic submodels to systematically calculate the cost of geothermal district heating systems for space heating, hot-water heating, and process heating based upon hydrothermal geothermal resources. The GEOCITY program simulates the entire production, distribution, and waste disposal process for geothermal district heating systems, but does not include the cost of radiators, convectors, or other in-house heating systems. GEOCITY calculates the cost of district heating basedmore¬†¬Ľ on the climate, population, and heat demand of the district; characteristics of the geothermal resource and distance from the distribution center; well-drilling costs; design of the distribution system; tax rates; and financial conditions.¬ę¬†less

  19. Evidence is growing on demand side of an oil peak

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2009-07-15

    After years of continued growth, the number of miles driven by Americans started falling in December 2007. Not only are the number of miles driven falling, but as cars become more fuel efficient, they go further on fewer gallons - further reducing demand for gasoline. This trend is expected to accelerate. Drivers include, along with higher-efficiency cars, mass transit, reversal in urban sprawl, biofuels, and plug-in hybrid vehicles.

  20. Coordination of Energy Efficiency and Demand Response

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    2010-01-01

    Summarizes existing research and discusses current practices, opportunities, and barriers to coordinating energy efficiency and demand response programs.

  1. Driving Economic Growth: Advanced Technology Vehicles Manufacturing

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    With $8 billion in loans and commitments to projects that have supported the production of more than 4 million fuel-efficient cars and more than 35,000 direct jobs across eight states, the Loan Programs Office Advanced Technology Vehicles Manufacturing (ATVM) loan program has played a key role in helping the American auto industry propel the resurgence of manufacturing in the United States.

  2. Appendix B: High Economic Growth case projections

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Japan 21.2 20.8 22.0 22.8 22.8 22.8 22.2 0.2 South Korea 11.3 11.4 14.0 14.9 15.8 16.7 17.7 1.6 Australia and New Zealand 6.9 6.8 7.6 8.2 8.7 9.5 10.6 1.6 Total OECD 242.0 238.4 ...

  3. Appendix B: High Economic Growth case projections

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Japan 4,299 4,373 4,735 5,037 5,191 5,379 5,458 0.8 South Korea 1,528 1,563 1,984 2,191 2,418 2,669 2,946 2.3 Australia and New Zealand 1,077 1,115 1,393 1,586 1,796 2,059 2,393 ...

  4. Appendix B: Economic growth case comparisons

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    energy. See Table A17 for selected nonmarketed residential and commercial renewable energy data. 5 Includes non-biogenic municipal waste, liquid hydrogen, methanol, and some...

  5. Ecological economizer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peterson, E.M.

    1992-06-16

    This patent describes an engine economizer system adapted to supply an internal combustion engine with a heated air and water vapor mixture. It comprises a containment vessel, the vessel having: water level control means, an engine coolant fluid circuit, an engine lubricant circuit, an elongated air passage, air disbursement means, a water reservoir, air filter means, a vacuum aspiration port, and engine induction means associated with one of the carburetor and intake manifold and adapted to draw in the heated air and water vapor mixture by means of a hose connection to the aspiration port.

  6. Effects of Demand Response on Retail and Wholesale Power Markets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chassin, David P.; Kalsi, Karanjit

    2012-07-26

    Demand response has grown to be a part of the repertoire of resources used by utilities to manage the balance between generation and load. In recent years, advances in communications and control technology have enabled utilities to consider continuously controlling demand response to meet generation, rather than the other way around. This paper discusses the economic applications of a general method for load resource analysis that parallels the approach used to analyze generation resources and uses the method to examine the results of the US Department of Energyís Olympic Peninsula Demonstration Testbed. A market-based closed-loop system of controllable assets is discussed with necessary and sufficient conditions on system controllability, observability and stability derived.

  7. Table E13.1. Electricity: Components of Net Demand, 1998

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    1. Electricity: Components of Net Demand, 1998;" " Level: National and Regional Data; " " Row: Values of Shipments and Employment Sizes;" " Column: Electricity Components;" " Unit: Million Kilowatthours." " ",," "," ",," " ,,,,"Sales and","Net Demand","RSE" "Economic",,,"Total Onsite","Transfers","for","Row"

  8. Economic Development Impacts in Colorado from Four Vestas Manufacturing Facilities, Wind Powering America Fact Sheet Series

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2009-04-01

    This case study summarizes the economic development benefits to Colorado from four Vestas manufacturing facilities: one in Windsor, two in Brighton, and one in Pueblo (which is planned to be the world's largest tower-manufacturing facility). In the midst of an economic slowdown during which numerous U.S. manufacturers have closed their doors, wind energy component manufacturing is one U.S. industry that has experienced unprecedented growth during the past few years. As demand for wind power in the United States has increased and transportation costs have increased around the world, states have seen a significant increase in the number of manufacturers that produce wind turbine components in the United States. Vestas' Colorado operations will bring approximately $700 million in capital investment and nearly 2,500 jobs to the state.

  9. The impact of demand-controlled ventilation on energy use in buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Braun, J.E.; Brandemuehl, M.J.

    1999-07-01

    The overall objective of this work was to evaluate typical energy requirements associated with alternative ventilation control strategies. The strategies included different combinations of economizer and demand-controlled ventilation controls and energy analyses were performed for a range of typical buildings, systems, and climates. Only single zone buildings were considered, so that simultaneous heating and cooling did not exist. The energy savings associated with economizer and demand-controlled ventilation strategies were found to be very significant for both heating and cooling. In general, the greatest savings in electrical usage for cooling with the addition of demand-controlled ventilation occur in situations where the opportunities for economizer cooling are less. This is true for warm and humid climates, and for buildings that have low relative internal gains (i.e., low occupant densities). As much as 10% savings in electrical energy for cooling were possible with demand-controlled ventilation. The savings in heating energy associated with demand-controlled ventilation were generally much larger, but were strongly dependent upon the occupancy schedule. Significantly greater savings were found for buildings with highly variable occupancy schedules (e.g., stores and restaurants) as compared with office buildings. In some cases, the primary heating energy was reduced by a factor of 10 with demand-controlled ventilation as compared with fixed ventilation rates.

  10. Green Growth e-Learning | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Green Growth e-Learning AgencyCompany Organization: Green Growth Best Practice Initiative (GGBPI) Focus Area: Economic Development, Energy...

  11. The Biofuels Revolution: Understanding the Social, Cultural and Economic Impacts of Biofuels Development on Rural Communities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dr. Theresa L. Selfa; Dr. Richard Goe; Dr. Laszlo Kulcsar; Dr. Gerad Middendorf; Dr. Carmen Bain

    2013-02-11

    The aim of this research was an in-depth analysis of the impacts of biofuels industry and ethanol plants on six rural communities in the Midwestern states of Kansas and Iowa. The goal was to provide a better understanding of the social, cultural, and economic implications of biofuels development, and to contribute to more informed policy development regarding bioenergy.Specific project objectives were: 1. To understand how the growth of biofuel production has affected and will affect Midwestern farmers and rural communities in terms of economic, demographic, and socio-cultural impacts; 2. To determine how state agencies, groundwater management districts, local governments and policy makers evaluate or manage bioenergy development in relation to competing demands for economic growth, diminishing water resources, and social considerations; 3. To determine the factors that influence the water management practices of agricultural producers in Kansas and Iowa (e.g. geographic setting, water management institutions, competing water-use demands as well as producers√ʬĬô attitudes, beliefs, and values) and how these influences relate to bioenergy feedstock production and biofuel processing; 4. To determine the relative importance of social-cultural, environmental and/or economic factors in the promotion of biofuels development and expansion in rural communities; The research objectives were met through the completion of six detailed case studies of rural communities that are current or planned locations for ethanol biorefineries. Of the six case studies, two will be conducted on rural communities in Iowa and four will be conducted on rural communities in Kansas. A √ʬĬúmulti-method√Ę¬Ä¬Ě or √ʬĬúmixed method√Ę¬Ä¬Ě research methodology was employed for each case study.

  12. A Full Demand Response Model in Co-Optimized Energy and

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Guodong; Tomsovic, Kevin

    2014-01-01

    It has been widely accepted that demand response will play an important role in reliable and economic operation of future power systems and electricity markets. Demand response can not only influence the prices in the energy market by demand shifting, but also participate in the reserve market. In this paper, we propose a full model of demand response in which demand flexibility is fully utilized by price responsive shiftable demand bids in energy market as well as spinning reserve bids in reserve market. A co-optimized day-ahead energy and spinning reserve market is proposed to minimize the expected net cost under all credible system states, i.e., expected total cost of operation minus total benefit of demand, and solved by mixed integer linear programming. Numerical simulation results on the IEEE Reliability Test System show effectiveness of this model. Compared to conventional demand shifting bids, the proposed full demand response model can further reduce committed capacity from generators, starting up and shutting down of units and the overall system operating costs.

  13. NCEP_Demand_Response_Draft_111208.indd

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    National Council on Electricity Policy: Electric Transmission Series for State Offi cials Demand Response and Smart Metering Policy Actions Since the Energy Policy Act of 2005: A Summary for State Offi cials Demand Response and Smart Metering Policy Actions Since the Energy Policy Act of 2005: A Summary for State Offi cials Prepared by the U.S. Demand Response Coordinating Committee for The National Council on Electricity Policy Fall 2008 i National Council on Electricity Policy: Electric

  14. Demand Response in the ERCOT Markets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Patterson, Mark

    2011-10-25

    ERCOT grid serves 85% of Texas load over 40K+ miles transmission line. Demand response: voluntary load response, load resources, controllable load resources, and emergency interruptible load service.

  15. Reducing Logistics Footprints and Replenishment Demands: Nano...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Water Treatment Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Reducing Logistics Footprints and Replenishment Demands: Nano-engineered Silica Aerogels a Proven Method for Water ...

  16. Geographically Based Hydrogen Demand and Infrastructure Rollout...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Rollout Scenario Analysis Geographically Based Hydrogen Demand and Infrastructure Rollout Scenario Analysis Presentation by Margo Melendez at the 2010-2025 Scenario Analysis for ...

  17. Marketing & Driving Demand Collaborative - Social Media Tools...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Marketing & Driving Demand Collaborative - Social Media Tools & Strategies Presentation slides from the Better Buildings webinar on January 6, 2011. PDF icon Marketing & Driving ...

  18. Fabricate-on-Demand Vacuum Insulating Glazings

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    PPG is working to design a fabricate-on-demand process to overcome the cost and supply chain issues preventing widespread adoption of vacuum insulating glazings (VIGs).

  19. BPA, Energy Northwest launch demand response pilot

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    BPA-Energy-Northwest-launch-demand-response-pilot Sign In About | Careers | Contact | Investors | bpa.gov Search News & Us Expand News & Us Projects & Initiatives Expand...

  20. Integration of Demand Side Management, Distributed Generation...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    various aspects of demand response, distributed generation, smart grid and energy storage. Annex 9 is a list of pilot programs and case studies, with links to those...

  1. Demand Response and Energy Storage Integration Study

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Demand response and energy storage resources present potentially important sources of bulk power system services that can aid in integrating variable renewable generation. While renewable...

  2. Demand Response (transactional control) - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Energy Analysis Energy Analysis Electricity Transmission Electricity Transmission Find More Like This Return to Search Demand Response (transactional control) Pacific Northwest ...

  3. Distributed Automated Demand Response - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Energy Analysis Energy Analysis Electricity Transmission Electricity Transmission Find More Like This Return to Search Distributed Automated Demand Response Lawrence Livermore ...

  4. Geographically Based Hydrogen Consumer Demand and Infrastructure...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Geographically Based Hydrogen Consumer Demand and Infrastructure Analysis Final Report M. Melendez and A. Milbrandt Technical Report NRELTP-540-40373 October 2006 NREL is operated...

  5. Economic and policy implications of pandemic influenza.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, Braeton J.; Starks, Shirley J.; Loose, Verne W.; Brown, Theresa Jean; Warren, Drake E.; Vargas, Vanessa N.

    2010-03-01

    Pandemic influenza has become a serious global health concern; in response, governments around the world have allocated increasing funds to containment of public health threats from this disease. Pandemic influenza is also recognized to have serious economic implications, causing illness and absence that reduces worker productivity and economic output and, through mortality, robs nations of their most valuable assets - human resources. This paper reports two studies that investigate both the short- and long-term economic implications of a pandemic flu outbreak. Policy makers can use the growing number of economic impact estimates to decide how much to spend to combat the pandemic influenza outbreaks. Experts recognize that pandemic influenza has serious global economic implications. The illness causes absenteeism, reduced worker productivity, and therefore reduced economic output. This, combined with the associated mortality rate, robs nations of valuable human resources. Policy makers can use economic impact estimates to decide how much to spend to combat the pandemic influenza outbreaks. In this paper economists examine two studies which investigate both the short- and long-term economic implications of a pandemic influenza outbreak. Resulting policy implications are also discussed. The research uses the Regional Economic Modeling, Inc. (REMI) Policy Insight + Model. This model provides a dynamic, regional, North America Industrial Classification System (NAICS) industry-structured framework for forecasting. It is supported by a population dynamics model that is well-adapted to investigating macro-economic implications of pandemic influenza, including possible demand side effects. The studies reported in this paper exercise all of these capabilities.

  6. Table A26. Components of Total Electricity Demand by Census Region, Census Di

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Components of Total Electricity Demand by Census Region, Census Division, and" " Economic Characteristics of the Establishment, 1994" " (Estimates in Million Kilowatthours)" " "," "," "," ","Sales/"," ","RSE" " "," ","Transfers","Onsite","Transfers"," ","Row" "Economic

  7. Turkey opens electricity markets as demand grows

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McKeigue, J.; Da Cunha, A.; Severino, D. [Global Business Reports (United States)

    2009-06-15

    Turkey's growing power market has attracted investors and project developers for over a decade, yet their plans have been dashed by unexpected political or financial crises or, worse, obstructed by a lengthy bureaucratic approval process. Now, with a more transparent retail electricity market, government regulators and investors are bullish on Turkey. Is Turkey ready to turn the power on? This report closely examine Turkey's plans to create a power infrastructure capable of providing the reliable electricity supplies necessary for sustained economic growth. It was compiled with on-the-ground research and extensive interview with key industrial and political figures. Today, hard coal and lignite account for 21% of Turkey's electricity generation and gas-fired plants account for 50%. The Alfin Elbistan-B lignite-fired plant has attracted criticism for its lack of desulfurization units and ash dam facilities that have tarnished the industry's image. A 1,100 MW hard-coal fired plant using supercritical technology is under construction. 9 figs., 1 tab.

  8. Demand Response in the West: Lessons for States and Provinces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Douglas C. Larson; Matt Lowry; Sharon Irwin

    2004-06-29

    OAK-B135 This paper is submitted in fulfillment of DOE Grant No. DE-FG03-015F22369 on the experience of western states/provinces with demand response (DR) in the electricity sector. Demand-side resources are often overlooked as a viable option for meeting load growth and addressing the challenges posed by the region's aging transmission system. Western states should work together with utilities and grid operators to facilitate the further deployment of DR programs which can provide benefits in the form of decreased grid congestion, improved system reliability, market efficiency, price stabilization, hedging against volatile fuel prices and reduced environmental impacts of energy production. This report describes the various types of DR programs; provides a survey of DR programs currently in place in the West; considers the benefits, drawbacks and barriers to DR; and presents lessons learned and recommendations for states/provinces.

  9. Issues in International Energy Consumption Analysis: Chinese Transportation Fuel Demand

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2014-01-01

    Since the 1990s, China has experienced tremendous growth in its transportation sector. By the end of 2010, China's road infrastructure had emerged as the second-largest transportation system in the world after the United States. Passenger vehicle sales are dramatically increasing from a little more than half a million in 2000, to 3.7 million in 2005, to 13.8 million in 2010. This represents a twenty-fold increase from 2000 to 2010. The unprecedented motorization development in China led to a significant increase in oil demand, which requires China to import progressively more petroleum from other countries, with its share of petroleum imports exceeding 50% of total petroleum demand since 2009. In response to growing oil import dependency, the Chinese government is adopting a broad range of policies, including promotion of fuel-efficient vehicles, fuel conservation, increasing investments in oil resources around the world, and many others.

  10. The Role of Demand Resources In Regional Transmission Expansion Planning and Reliable Operations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kirby, Brendan J

    2006-07-01

    Investigating the role of demand resources in regional transmission planning has provided mixed results. On one hand there are only a few projects where demand response has been used as an explicit alternative to transmission enhancement. On the other hand there is a fair amount of demand response in the form of energy efficiency, peak reduction, emergency load shedding, and (recently) demand providing ancillary services. All of this demand response reduces the need for transmission enhancements. Demand response capability is typically (but not always) factored into transmission planning as a reduction in the load which must be served. In that sense demand response is utilized as an alternative to transmission expansion. Much more demand response is used (involuntarily) as load shedding under extreme conditions to prevent cascading blackouts. The amount of additional transmission and generation that would be required to provide the current level of reliability if load shedding were not available is difficult to imagine and would be impractical to build. In a very real sense demand response solutions are equitably treated in every region - when proposed, demand response projects are evaluated against existing reliability and economic criteria. The regional councils, RTOs, and ISOs identify needs. Others propose transmission, generation, or responsive load based solutions. Few demand response projects get included in transmission enhancement plans because few are proposed. But this is only part of the story. Several factors are responsible for the current very low use of demand response as a transmission enhancement alternative. First, while the generation, transmission, and load business sectors each deal with essentially the same amount of electric power, generation and transmission companies are explicitly in the electric power business but electricity is not the primary business focus of most loads. This changes the institutional focus of each sector. Second, market and reliability rules have, understandably, been written around the capabilities and limitations of generators, the historic reliability resources. Responsive load limitations and capabilities are often not accommodated in markets or reliability criteria. Third, because of the institutional structure, demand response alternatives are treated as temporary solutions that can delay but not replace transmission enhancement. Financing has to be based on a three to five year project life as opposed to the twenty to fifty year life of transmission facilities. More can be done to integrate demand response options into transmission expansion planning. Given the societal benefits it may be appropriate for independent transmission planning organizations to take a more proactive role in drawing demand response alternatives into the resource mix. Existing demand response programs provide a technical basis to build from. Regulatory and market obstacles will have to be overcome if demand response alternatives are to be routinely considered in transmission expansion planning.

  11. Strategies for Demand Response in Commercial Buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Watson, David S.; Kiliccote, Sila; Motegi, Naoya; Piette, Mary Ann

    2006-06-20

    This paper describes strategies that can be used in commercial buildings to temporarily reduce electric load in response to electric grid emergencies in which supplies are limited or in response to high prices that would be incurred if these strategies were not employed. The demand response strategies discussed herein are based on the results of three years of automated demand response field tests in which 28 commercial facilities with an occupied area totaling over 11 million ft{sup 2} were tested. Although the demand response events in the field tests were initiated remotely and performed automatically, the strategies used could also be initiated by on-site building operators and performed manually, if desired. While energy efficiency measures can be used during normal building operations, demand response measures are transient; they are employed to produce a temporary reduction in demand. Demand response strategies achieve reductions in electric demand by temporarily reducing the level of service in facilities. Heating ventilating and air conditioning (HVAC) and lighting are the systems most commonly adjusted for demand response in commercial buildings. The goal of demand response strategies is to meet the electric shed savings targets while minimizing any negative impacts on the occupants of the buildings or the processes that they perform. Occupant complaints were minimal in the field tests. In some cases, ''reductions'' in service level actually improved occupant comfort or productivity. In other cases, permanent improvements in efficiency were discovered through the planning and implementation of ''temporary'' demand response strategies. The DR strategies that are available to a given facility are based on factors such as the type of HVAC, lighting and energy management and control systems (EMCS) installed at the site.

  12. Coordination of Energy Efficiency and Demand Response

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goldman, Charles; Reid, Michael; Levy, Roger; Silverstein, Alison

    2010-01-29

    This paper reviews the relationship between energy efficiency and demand response and discusses approaches and barriers to coordinating energy efficiency and demand response. The paper is intended to support the 10 implementation goals of the National Action Plan for Energy Efficiency's Vision to achieve all cost-effective energy efficiency by 2025. Improving energy efficiency in our homes, businesses, schools, governments, and industries - which consume more than 70 percent of the nation's natural gas and electricity - is one of the most constructive, cost-effective ways to address the challenges of high energy prices, energy security and independence, air pollution, and global climate change. While energy efficiency is an increasingly prominent component of efforts to supply affordable, reliable, secure, and clean electric power, demand response is becoming a valuable tool in utility and regional resource plans. The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) estimated the contribution from existing U.S. demand response resources at about 41,000 megawatts (MW), about 5.8 percent of 2008 summer peak demand (FERC, 2008). Moreover, FERC recently estimated nationwide achievable demand response potential at 138,000 MW (14 percent of peak demand) by 2019 (FERC, 2009).2 A recent Electric Power Research Institute study estimates that 'the combination of demand response and energy efficiency programs has the potential to reduce non-coincident summer peak demand by 157 GW' by 2030, or 14-20 percent below projected levels (EPRI, 2009a). This paper supports the Action Plan's effort to coordinate energy efficiency and demand response programs to maximize value to customers. For information on the full suite of policy and programmatic options for removing barriers to energy efficiency, see the Vision for 2025 and the various other Action Plan papers and guides available at www.epa.gov/eeactionplan.

  13. The United States after the great recession: the challenge of sustainable growth

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meltzer, Joshua

    2013-02-15

    The paper outlines the strengths and weaknesses of the U.S. economic growth model, assesses its’ ability to respond to the key economic, environmental and social challenges currently facing the U.S. and proposes policies that if adopted would move the U.S. onto a more sustainable growth path. The paper provides scenarios of projected future growth trajectories, as well as recommendations for specific policies in key areas: employment, infrastructure, energy and fiscal rebalancing. To reach this goal this paper focuses on four areas for action: Increasing employment, which is the most urgent priority to accelerate recovery from the Great Recession, while addressing underlying structural issues that have led to a decade of poor economic outcomes for most citizens; Investing in the future, as the key marker of whether the United States is prepared to make farsighted decisions to improve education, build new infrastructure and increase innovation; Maximizing an increased energy endowment in a way that grows the economy, while reinforcing the trend towards reducing resource demand and reducing greenhouse gas emissions; and, Fiscal rebalancing, where the United States must insulate economic recovery from the process of fiscal reform while reducing and stabilizing debt over the long term. Finally, we argue that President Obama can re-energize America’s global leadership if he builds on a platform of domestic actions that enhance the sustainability of America’s society and economy.

  14. Electricity demand in a developing country. [Paraguay

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Westley, G.D.

    1984-08-01

    This study analyzes the residential and commercial demand for electricity in ten regions in Paraguay for 1970-1977. Models that are both linear and nonlinear in the parameters are estimated. The nonlinear model takes advantage of prior information on the nature of the appliances being utilized and simultaneously deals with the demand discontinuities caused by appliance indivisibility. Three dynamic equations, including a novel cumulative adjustment model, all indicate rapid adjustment to desired appliance stock levels. Finally, the multiproduct surplus loss obtained from an estimated demand equation is used to measure the welfare cost of power outages. 15 references.

  15. Autonomous Demand Response for Primary Frequency Regulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Donnelly, Matt; Trudnowski, Daniel J.; Mattix, S.; Dagle, Jeffery E.

    2012-02-28

    The research documented within this report examines the use of autonomous demand response to provide primary frequency response in an interconnected power grid. The work builds on previous studies in several key areas: it uses a large realistic model (i.e., the interconnection of the western United States and Canada); it establishes a set of metrics that can be used to assess the effectiveness of autonomous demand response; and it independently adjusts various parameters associated with using autonomous demand response to assess effectiveness and to examine possible threats or vulnerabilities associated with the technology.

  16. FERC sees huge potential for demand response

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2010-04-15

    The FERC study concludes that U.S. peak demand can be reduced by as much as 188 GW -- roughly 20 percent -- under the most aggressive scenario. More moderate -- and realistic -- scenarios produce smaller but still significant reductions in peak demand. The FERC report is quick to point out that these are estimates of the potential, not projections of what could actually be achieved. The main varieties of demand response programs include interruptible tariffs, direct load control (DLC), and a number of pricing schemes.

  17. Economic Effects of High Oil Prices (released in AEO2006)

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2006-01-01

    The Annual Energy Outlook 2006 projections of future energy market conditions reflect the effects of oil prices on the macroeconomic variables that affect oil demand, in particular, and energy demand in general. The variables include real gross domestic product (GDP) growth, inflation, employment, exports and imports, and interest rates.

  18. Japan's Residential Energy Demand Outlook to 2030 Considering Energy Efficiency Standards"Top-Runner Approach"

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lacommare, Kristina S H; Komiyama, Ryoichi; Marnay, Chris

    2008-05-15

    As one of the measures to achieve the reduction in greenhouse gas emissions agreed to in the"Kyoto Protocol," an institutional scheme for determining energy efficiency standards for energy-consuming appliances, called the"Top-Runner Approach," was developed by the Japanese government. Its goal is to strengthen the legal underpinnings of various energy conservation measures. Particularly in Japan's residential sector, where energy demand has grown vigorously so far, this efficiency standard is expected to play a key role in mitigating both energy demand growth and the associated CO2 emissions. This paper presents an outlook of Japan's residential energy demand, developed by a stochastic econometric model for the purpose of analyzing the impacts of the Japan's energy efficiency standards, as well as the future stochastic behavior of income growth, demography, energy prices, and climate on the future energy demand growth to 2030. In this analysis, we attempt to explicitly take into consideration more than 30 kinds of electricity uses, heating, cooling and hot water appliances in order to comprehensively capture the progress of energy efficiency in residential energy end-use equipment. Since electricity demand, is projected to exhibit astonishing growth in Japan's residential sector due to universal increasing ownership of electric and other appliances, it is important to implement an elaborate efficiency standards policy for these appliances.

  19. Next Update: December 2011 Net Internal Demand

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Net Internal Demand (MW) Capacity Resources (MW) Capacity Margin (percent) Net Internal Demand (MW) Capacity Resources (MW) Capacity Margin (percent) Net Internal Demand (MW) Capacity Resources (MW) Capacity Margin (percent) Net Internal Demand (MW) Capacity Resources (MW) Capacity Margin (percent) 2005 746,470 882,125 15.4 45,950 50,200 8.5 38,266 46,792 18.2 57,402 72,258 20.6 2006 760,108 906,155 16.1 43,824 53,171 17.6 41,754 49,792 16.1 59,727 70,607 15.4 2007 768,061 946,631 18.9 46,434

  20. SAN ANTONIO SPURS DEMAND FOR ENERGY EFFICIENCY

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    As a city that experiences seasonal spikes in energy demand and accompanying energy bills, San Antonio, Texas, wanted to help homeowners and businesses reduce their energy use and save on energy...

  1. Solar in Demand | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    In case you missed it... This week, the Wall Street Journal published an article, "U.S. Solar-Panel Demand Expected to Double," highlighting the successes of the U.S. solar ...

  2. Demand Response and Energy Storage Integration Study

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This study is a multi-national laboratory effort to assess the potential value of demand response and energy storage to electricity systems with different penetration levels of variable renewable...

  3. An Analysis of the Price Elasticity of Demand for Household Appliances

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fujita, Kimberly; Dale, Larry; Fujita, K. Sydny

    2008-01-25

    This report summarizes our study of the price elasticity of demand for home appliances, including refrigerators, clothes washers, and dishwashers. In the context of increasingly stringent appliance standards, we are interested in what kind of impact the increased manufacturing costs caused by higher efficiency requirements will have on appliance sales. We begin with a review of existing economics literature describing the impact of economic variables on the sale of durable goods.We then describe the market for home appliances and changes in this market over the past 20 years, performing regression analysis on the shipments of home appliances and relevant economic variables including changes to operating cost and household income. Based on our analysis, we conclude that the demand for home appliances is price inelastic.

  4. Measuring the capacity impacts of demand response

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Earle, Robert; Kahn, Edward P.; Macan, Edo

    2009-07-15

    Critical peak pricing and peak time rebate programs offer benefits by increasing system reliability, and therefore, reducing capacity needs of the electric power system. These benefits, however, decrease substantially as the size of the programs grows relative to the system size. More flexible schemes for deployment of demand response can help address the decreasing returns to scale in capacity value, but more flexible demand response has decreasing returns to scale as well. (author)

  5. Transportation Energy Futures Series: Freight Transportation Demand: Energy-Efficient Scenarios for a Low-Carbon Future

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grenzeback, L. R.; Brown, A.; Fischer, M. J.; Hutson, N.; Lamm, C. R.; Pei, Y. L.; Vimmerstedt, L.; Vyas, A. D.; Winebrake, J. J.

    2013-03-01

    Freight transportation demand is projected to grow to 27.5 billion tons in 2040, and to nearly 30.2 billion tons in 2050. This report describes the current and future demand for freight transportation in terms of tons and ton-miles of commodities moved by truck, rail, water, pipeline, and air freight carriers. It outlines the economic, logistics, transportation, and policy and regulatory factors that shape freight demand, the trends and 2050 outlook for these factors, and their anticipated effect on freight demand. After describing federal policy actions that could influence future freight demand, the report then summarizes the capabilities of available analytical models for forecasting freight demand. This is one in a series of reports produced as a result of the Transportation Energy Futures project, a Department of Energy-sponsored multi-agency effort to pinpoint underexplored strategies for reducing GHGs and petroleum dependence related to transportation.

  6. Ethanol Demand in United States Gasoline Production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hadder, G.R.

    1998-11-24

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (OWL) Refinery Yield Model (RYM) has been used to estimate the demand for ethanol in U.S. gasoline production in year 2010. Study cases examine ethanol demand with variations in world oil price, cost of competing oxygenate, ethanol value, and gasoline specifications. For combined-regions outside California summer ethanol demand is dominated by conventional gasoline (CG) because the premised share of reformulated gasoline (RFG) production is relatively low and because CG offers greater flexibility for blending high vapor pressure components like ethanol. Vapor pressure advantages disappear for winter CG, but total ethanol used in winter RFG remains low because of the low RFG production share. In California, relatively less ethanol is used in CG because the RFG production share is very high. During the winter in California, there is a significant increase in use of ethanol in RFG, as ethanol displaces lower-vapor-pressure ethers. Estimated U.S. ethanol demand is a function of the refiner value of ethanol. For example, ethanol demand for reference conditions in year 2010 is 2 billion gallons per year (BGY) at a refiner value of $1.00 per gallon (1996 dollars), and 9 BGY at a refiner value of $0.60 per gallon. Ethanol demand could be increased with higher oil prices, or by changes in gasoline specifications for oxygen content, sulfur content, emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCS), and octane numbers.

  7. Climate, extreme heat, and electricity demand in California

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, N.L.; Hayhoe, K.; Jin, J.; Auffhammer, M.

    2008-04-01

    Climate projections from three atmosphere-ocean climate models with a range of low to mid-high temperature sensitivity forced by the Intergovernmental Panel for Climate Change SRES higher, middle, and lower emission scenarios indicate that, over the 21st century, extreme heat events for major cities in heavily air-conditioned California will increase rapidly. These increases in temperature extremes are projected to exceed the rate of increase in mean temperature, along with increased variance. Extreme heat is defined here as the 90 percent exceedance probability (T90) of the local warmest summer days under the current climate. The number of extreme heat days in Los Angeles, where T90 is currently 95 F (32 C), may increase from 12 days to as many as 96 days per year by 2100, implying current-day heat wave conditions may last for the entire summer, with earlier onset. Overall, projected increases in extreme heat under the higher A1fi emission scenario by 2070-2099 tend to be 20-30 percent higher than those projected under the lower B1 emission scenario, ranging from approximately double the historical number of days for inland California cities (e.g. Sacramento and Fresno), up to four times for previously temperate coastal cities (e.g. Los Angeles, San Diego). These findings, combined with observed relationships between high temperature and electricity demand for air-conditioned regions, suggest potential shortfalls in transmission and supply during T90 peak electricity demand periods. When the projected extreme heat and peak demand for electricity are mapped onto current availability, maintaining technology and population constant only for demand side calculations, we find the potential for electricity deficits as high as 17 percent. Similar increases in extreme heat days are suggested for other locations across the U.S. southwest, as well as for developing nations with rapidly increasing electricity demands. Electricity response to recent extreme heat events, such as the July 2006 heat wave in California, suggests that peak electricity demand will challenge current supply, as well as future planned supply capacities when population and income growth are taken into account.

  8. Refrigerated Warehouse Demand Response Strategy Guide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scott, Doug; Castillo, Rafael; Larson, Kyle; Dobbs, Brian; Olsen, Daniel

    2015-11-01

    This guide summarizes demand response measures that can be implemented in refrigerated warehouses. In an appendix, it also addresses related energy efficiency opportunities. Reducing overall grid demand during peak periods and energy consumption has benefits for facility operators, grid operators, utility companies, and society. State wide demand response potential for the refrigerated warehouse sector in California is estimated to be over 22.1 Megawatts. Two categories of demand response strategies are described in this guide: load shifting and load shedding. Load shifting can be accomplished via pre-cooling, capacity limiting, and battery charger load management. Load shedding can be achieved by lighting reduction, demand defrost and defrost termination, infiltration reduction, and shutting down miscellaneous equipment. Estimation of the costs and benefits of demand response participation yields simple payback periods of 2-4 years. To improve demand response performance, it’s suggested to install air curtains and another form of infiltration barrier, such as a rollup door, for the passageways. Further modifications to increase efficiency of the refrigeration unit are also analyzed. A larger condenser can maintain the minimum saturated condensing temperature (SCT) for more hours of the day. Lowering the SCT reduces the compressor lift, which results in an overall increase in refrigeration system capacity and energy efficiency. Another way of saving energy in refrigerated warehouses is eliminating the use of under-floor resistance heaters. A more energy efficient alternative to resistance heaters is to utilize the heat that is being rejected from the condenser through a heat exchanger. These energy efficiency measures improve efficiency either by reducing the required electric energy input for the refrigeration system, by helping to curtail the refrigeration load on the system, or by reducing both the load and required energy input.

  9. Growing Brazilian demand to spur gas network in South America

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Deffarges, E.H. ); Maurer, L.I.A. )

    1993-01-18

    A recent combination in South America of economic and geopolitical factors is prompting development of a new integrated gas-pipeline network in the continent's Southern Cone. The crucial factors include privatization, regional integration, economic growth, and environmental concerns. The area, Latin America's largest regional entity, includes Brazil (population 150 million and a 1990 GNP of about $375 billion, 9th largest in the world), Argentina (population 32 million and the third largest Latin American economy after Brazil and Mexico), Bolivia, Chile, Paraguay, and Uruguay. Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay, and Uruguay are members of the MercoSur economic bloc whose objective is to develop free trade in the region. There are very few integrated pipeline networks in the world. Besides the giant North American system, with hundreds of producers and pipelines, there is only one other large integrated network. It connects continental European countries to their outside suppliers such as Norway, the C.I.S., and Algeria. The emergence of a new pipeline system is therefore important for the natural-gas industry worldwide and even more so if it occurs in a region now growing rapidly after a decade of economic difficulties.

  10. Office of Indian Energy and Economic Development Renewable Energy Program

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    ASSISTANT SECRETARY INDIAN AFFAIRS OFFICE OF INDIAN ENERGY AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT RENEWABLE ENERGY PROGRAM OFFICE OF INDIAN ENERGY AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT (OIEED) Office of Indian Energy and Economic Development (IEED) seeks to spur job growth and sustainable economies on American Indian reservations. OFFICE OF INDIAN ENERGY AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT (OIEED) OIEED BUSINESS MODEL INDIAN TRUST LANDS RENEWABLE ENERGY POTENTIAL Resource Number of Reservations Wind 60 Woody Biomass 179 Waste to

  11. Wireless Demand Response Controls for HVAC Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Federspiel, Clifford

    2009-06-30

    The objectives of this scoping study were to develop and test control software and wireless hardware that could enable closed-loop, zone-temperature-based demand response in buildings that have either pneumatic controls or legacy digital controls that cannot be used as part of a demand response automation system. We designed a SOAP client that is compatible with the Demand Response Automation Server (DRAS) being used by the IOUs in California for their CPP program, design the DR control software, investigated the use of cellular routers for connecting to the DRAS, and tested the wireless DR system with an emulator running a calibrated model of a working building. The results show that the wireless DR system can shed approximately 1.5 Watts per design CFM on the design day in a hot, inland climate in California while keeping temperatures within the limits of ASHRAE Standard 55: Thermal Environmental Conditions for Human Occupancy.

  12. Centralized and Decentralized Control for Demand Response

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lu, Shuai; Samaan, Nader A.; Diao, Ruisheng; Elizondo, Marcelo A.; Jin, Chunlian; Mayhorn, Ebony T.; Zhang, Yu; Kirkham, Harold

    2011-04-29

    Demand response has been recognized as an essential element of the smart grid. Frequency response, regulation and contingency reserve functions performed traditionally by generation resources are now starting to involve demand side resources. Additional benefits from demand response include peak reduction and load shifting, which will defer new infrastructure investment and improve generator operation efficiency. Technical approaches designed to realize these functionalities can be categorized into centralized control and decentralized control, depending on where the response decision is made. This paper discusses these two control philosophies and compares their relative advantages and disadvantages in terms of delay time, predictability, complexity, and reliability. A distribution system model with detailed household loads and controls is built to demonstrate the characteristics of the two approaches. The conclusion is that the promptness and reliability of decentralized control should be combined with the predictability and simplicity of centralized control to achieve the best performance of the smart grid.

  13. Utility Sector Impacts of Reduced Electricity Demand

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Coughlin, Katie

    2014-12-01

    This report presents a new approach to estimating the marginal utility sector impacts associated with electricity demand reductions. The method uses publicly available data and provides results in the form of time series of impact factors. The input data are taken from the Energy Information Agency's Annual Energy Outlook (AEO) projections of how the electric system might evolve in the reference case, and in a number of side cases that incorporate different effciency and other policy assumptions. The data published with the AEO are used to define quantitative relationships between demand-side electricity reductions by end use and supply-side changes to capacity by plant type, generation by fuel type and emissions of CO2, Hg, NOx and SO2. The impact factors define the change in each of these quantities per unit reduction in site electricity demand. We find that the relative variation in these impacts by end use is small, but the time variation can be significant.

  14. DEMAND CONTROLLED VENTILATION AND CLASSROOM VENTILATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fisk, William J.; Mendell, Mark J.; Davies, Molly; Eliseeva, Ekaterina; Faulkner, David; Hong, Tienzen; Sullivan, Douglas P.

    2014-01-06

    This document summarizes a research effort on demand controlled ventilation and classroom ventilation. The research on demand controlled ventilation included field studies and building energy modeling. Major findings included: ? The single-location carbon dioxide sensors widely used for demand controlled ventilation frequently have large errors and will fail to effectively control ventilation rates (VRs).? Multi-location carbon dioxide measurement systems with more expensive sensors connected to multi-location sampling systems may measure carbon dioxide more accurately.? Currently-available optical people counting systems work well much of the time but have large counting errors in some situations. ? In meeting rooms, measurements of carbon dioxide at return-air grilles appear to be a better choice than wall-mounted sensors.? In California, demand controlled ventilation in general office spaces is projected to save significant energy and be cost effective only if typical VRs without demand controlled ventilation are very high relative to VRs in codes. Based on the research, several recommendations were developed for demand controlled ventilation specifications in the California Title 24 Building Energy Efficiency Standards.The research on classroom ventilation collected data over two years on California elementary school classrooms to investigate associations between VRs and student illness absence (IA). Major findings included: ? Median classroom VRs in all studied climate zones were below the California guideline, and 40percent lower in portable than permanent buildings.? Overall, one additional L/s per person of VR was associated with 1.6percent less IA. ? Increasing average VRs in California K-12 classrooms from the current average to the required level is estimated to decrease IA by 3.4percent, increasing State attendance-based funding to school districts by $33M, with $6.2 M in increased energy costs. Further VR increases would provide additional benefits.? Confirming these findings in intervention studies is recommended. ? Energy costs of heating/cooling unoccupied classrooms statewide are modest, but a large portion occurs in relatively few classrooms.

  15. Advanced Control Technologies and Strategies Linking DemandResponse and Energy Efficiency

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kiliccote, Sila; Piette, Mary Ann

    2005-09-02

    This paper presents a preliminary framework to describe how advanced controls can support multiple modes of operations including both energy efficiency and demand response (DR). A general description of DR, its benefits, and nationwide status is outlined. The role of energy management and control systems for DR is described. Building systems such as HVAC and lighting that utilize control technologies and strategies for energy efficiency are mapped on to DR and demand shedding strategies are developed. Past research projects are presented to provide a context for the current projects. The economic case for implementing DR from a building owner perspective is also explored.

  16. Deployment of Behind-The-Meter Energy Storage for Demand Charge Reduction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Neubauer, J.; Simpson, M.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates how economically motivated customers will use energy storage for demand charge reduction, as well as how this changes in the presence of on-site photovoltaic power generation, to investigate the possible effects of incentivizing increased quantities of behind-the-meter storage. It finds that small, short-duration batteries are most cost effective regardless of solar power levels, serving to reduce short load spikes on the order of 2.5% of peak demand. While profitable to the customer, such action is unlikely to adequately benefit the utility as may be desired, thus highlighting the need for modified utility rate structures or properly structured incentives.

  17. Demand Responsive Lighting: A Scoping Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rubinstein, Francis; Kiliccote, Sila

    2007-01-03

    The objective of this scoping study is: (1) to identify current market drivers and technology trends that can improve the demand responsiveness of commercial building lighting systems and (2) to quantify the energy, demand and environmental benefits of implementing lighting demand response and energy-saving controls strategies Statewide. Lighting systems in California commercial buildings consume 30 GWh. Lighting systems in commercial buildings often waste energy and unnecessarily stress the electrical grid because lighting controls, especially dimming, are not widely used. But dimmable lighting equipment, especially the dimming ballast, costs more than non-dimming lighting and is expensive to retrofit into existing buildings because of the cost of adding control wiring. Advances in lighting industry capabilities coupled with the pervasiveness of the Internet and wireless technologies have led to new opportunities to realize significant energy saving and reliable demand reduction using intelligent lighting controls. Manufacturers are starting to produce electronic equipment--lighting-application specific controllers (LAS controllers)--that are wirelessly accessible and can control dimmable or multilevel lighting systems obeying different industry-accepted protocols. Some companies make controllers that are inexpensive to install in existing buildings and allow the power consumed by bi-level lighting circuits to be selectively reduced during demand response curtailments. By intelligently limiting the demand from bi-level lighting in California commercial buildings, the utilities would now have an enormous 1 GW demand shed capability at hand. By adding occupancy and light sensors to the remotely controllable lighting circuits, automatic controls could harvest an additional 1 BkWh/yr savings above and beyond the savings that have already been achieved. The lighting industry's adoption of DALI as the principal wired digital control protocol for dimming ballasts and increased awareness of the need to standardize on emerging wireless technologies are evidence of this transformation. In addition to increased standardization of digital control protocols controller capabilities, the lighting industry has improved the performance of dimming lighting systems over the last two years. The system efficacy of today's current dimming ballasts is approaching that of non-dimming program start ballasts. The study finds that the benefits of applying digital controls technologies to California's unique commercial buildings market are enormous. If California were to embark on an concerted 20 year program to improve the demand responsiveness and energy efficiency of commercial building lighting systems, the State could avoid adding generation capacity, improve the elasticity of the grid, save Californians billion of dollars in avoided energy charges and significantly reduce greenhouse gas emissions.

  18. Chinese Oil Demand: Steep Incline Ahead

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Chinese Oil Demand: Steep Incline Ahead Malcolm Shealy Alacritas, Inc. April 7, 2008 Oil Demand: China, India, Japan, South Korea 0 2 4 6 8 1995 2000 2005 2010 Million Barrels/Day China South Korea Japan India IEA China Oil Forecast 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 2000 2005 2010 2015 2020 2025 2030 Million Barrels/Day WEO 2007 16.3 mbd 12.7 mbd IEA China Oil Forecasts 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 2000 2005 2010 2015 2020 2025 2030 Million Barrels/Day WEO 2007 WEO 2006 WEO 2004 WEO 2002 Vehicle Sales in

  19. China’s rare earth supply chain: Illegal production, and response to new cerium demand

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Nguyen, Ruby Thuy; Imholte, D. Devin

    2016-03-29

    As the demand for personal electronic devices, wind turbines, and electric vehicles increases, the world becomes more dependent on rare earth elements. Given the volatile, Chinese-concentrated supply chain, global attempts have been made to diversify supply of these materials. However, the overall effect of supply diversification on the entire supply chain, including increasing low-value rare earth demand, is not fully understood. This paper is the first attempt to shed some light on China‚Äôs supply chain from both demand and supply perspectives, taking into account different Chinese policies such as mining quotas, separation quotas, export quotas, and resource taxes. We constructedmore¬†¬Ľ a simulation model using Powersim Studio that analyzes production (both legal and illegal), production costs, Chinese and rest-of-world demand, and market dynamics. We also simulated new demand of an automotive aluminum-cerium alloy in the U.S. market starting from 2018. Results showed that market share of the illegal sector has grown since 2007 to 2015, ranging between 22% and 25% of China‚Äôs rare earth supply, translating into 59‚Äď65% illegal heavy rare earths and 14‚Äď16% illegal light rare earths. There would be a shortage in certain light and heavy rare earths given three production quota scenarios and constant demand growth rate from 2015 to 2030. The new simulated Ce demand would require supply beyond that produced in China. Lastly, we illustrated revenue streams for different ore compositions in China in 2015.¬ę¬†less

  20. Tankless Demand Water Heater Basics | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Water Heating Tankless Demand Water Heater Basics Tankless Demand Water Heater Basics August 19, 2013 - 2:57pm Addthis Illustration of an electric demand water heater. At the ...

  1. Washington: Sustainability Training for Realtors in High Demand...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Sustainability Training for Realtors in High Demand Washington: Sustainability Training for Realtors in High Demand March 6, 2014 - 5:50pm Addthis Demand has been high for a free ...

  2. Opportunities, Barriers and Actions for Industrial Demand Response in California

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McKane, Aimee T.; Piette, Mary Ann; Faulkner, David; Ghatikar, Girish; Radspieler Jr., Anthony; Adesola, Bunmi; Murtishaw, Scott; Kiliccote, Sila

    2008-01-31

    In 2006 the Demand Response Research Center (DRRC) formed an Industrial Demand Response Team to investigate opportunities and barriers to implementation of Automated Demand Response (Auto-DR) systems in California industries. Auto-DR is an open, interoperable communications and technology platform designed to: Provide customers with automated, electronic price and reliability signals; Provide customers with capability to automate customized DR strategies; Automate DR, providing utilities with dispatchable operational capability similar to conventional generation resources. This research began with a review of previous Auto-DR research on the commercial sector. Implementing Auto-DR in industry presents a number of challenges, both practical and perceived. Some of these include: the variation in loads and processes across and within sectors, resource-dependent loading patterns that are driven by outside factors such as customer orders or time-critical processing (e.g. tomato canning), the perceived lack of control inherent in the term 'Auto-DR', and aversion to risk, especially unscheduled downtime. While industry has demonstrated a willingness to temporarily provide large sheds and shifts to maintain grid reliability and be a good corporate citizen, the drivers for widespread Auto-DR will likely differ. Ultimately, most industrial facilities will balance the real and perceived risks associated with Auto-DR against the potential for economic gain through favorable pricing or incentives. Auto-DR, as with any ongoing industrial activity, will need to function effectively within market structures. The goal of the industrial research is to facilitate deployment of industrial Auto-DR that is economically attractive and technologically feasible. Automation will make DR: More visible by providing greater transparency through two-way end-to-end communication of DR signals from end-use customers; More repeatable, reliable, and persistent because the automated controls strategies that are 'hardened' and pre-programmed into facility's software and hardware; More affordable because automation can help reduce labor costs associated with manual DR strategies initiated by facility staff and can be used for long-term.

  3. Economic Impact | Jefferson Lab

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Economic Impact Jefferson Lab generates many economic benefits. For the nation, Jefferson Lab generates $679.1 million in economic output and 4,422 jobs. The economic output and related jobs represent the potential loss of gross output and employment that would be felt by the country if the lab suddenly were to vanish. For the Commonwealth of Virginia, Jefferson Lab generates $271.1 million in economic output and 2,200 jobs. For the Hampton Roads area, the lab creates an economic benefit in the

  4. Indianapolis Offers a Lesson on Driving Demand

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Successful program managers know that understanding the factors that drive homeowners to make upgrades is critical to the widespread adoption of energy efficiency. What better place to learn about driving demand for upgrades than in Indianapolis, America's most famous driving city?

  5. Structuring Rebate and Incentive Programs for Sustainable Demand...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Structuring Rebate and Incentive Programs for Sustainable Demand Structuring Rebate and ... Loan Rates and Demand Peer Exchange Call on Financing and Revenue: Bond Funding Marketing ...

  6. Structuring Rebate and Incentive Programs for Sustainable Demand...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Structuring Rebate and Incentive Programs for Sustainable Demand Structuring Rebate and Incentive Programs for Sustainable Demand Better Buildings Neighborhood Program Peer...

  7. Using Mobile Applications to Generate Customer Demand | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Using Mobile Applications to Generate Customer Demand Using Mobile Applications to Generate Customer Demand Better Buildings Residential Network Peer Exchange Call Series: Using...

  8. Strategies for Marketing and Driving Demand for Commercial Financing...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Marketing and Driving Demand for Commercial Financing Products Strategies for Marketing and Driving Demand for Commercial Financing Products Better Buildings Neighborhood Program ...

  9. Demand Response and Energy Storage Integration Study - Past Workshops...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Demand Response and Energy Storage Integration Study - Past Workshops Demand Response and Energy Storage Integration Study - Past Workshops The project was initiated and informed...

  10. Draft Chapter 3: Demand-Side Resources | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Demand-Side Resources Draft Chapter 3: Demand-Side Resources Utilities in many states have been implementing energy efficiency and load management programs (collectively called ...

  11. Agreement Template for Energy Conservation and Demand Side Management...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Agreement Template for Energy Conservation and Demand Side Management Services Agreement Template for Energy Conservation and Demand Side Management Services Template agreement ...

  12. Estimating Costs and Efficiency of Storage, Demand, and Heat...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Costs and Efficiency of Storage, Demand, and Heat Pump Water Heaters Estimating Costs and Efficiency of Storage, Demand, and Heat Pump Water Heaters A water heater's energy ...

  13. Estimating Costs and Efficiency of Storage, Demand, and Heat...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Estimating Costs and Efficiency of Storage, Demand, and Heat Pump Water Heaters Estimating Costs and Efficiency of Storage, Demand, and Heat Pump Water Heaters A water heater's ...

  14. Tool Improves Electricity Demand Predictions to Make More Room...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Tool Improves Electricity Demand Predictions to Make More Room for Renewables Tool Improves Electricity Demand Predictions to Make More Room for Renewables October 3, 2011 - ...

  15. Reducing Energy Demand in Buildings Through State Energy Codes...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Reducing Energy Demand in Buildings Through State Energy Codes Reducing Energy Demand in ... More Documents & Publications Technology Performance Exchange - 2013 BTO Peer Review ...

  16. Estimating Costs and Efficiency of Storage, Demand, and Heat...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Estimating Costs and Efficiency of Storage, Demand, and Heat Pump Water Heaters Estimating Costs and Efficiency of Storage, Demand, and Heat Pump Water Heaters A water heater's...

  17. Can Automotive Battery Recycling Help Meet Lithium Demand? |...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Can Automotive Battery Recycling Help Meet Lithium Demand? Title Can Automotive Battery Recycling Help Meet Lithium Demand? Publication Type Presentation Year of Publication 2013...

  18. SGDP Report Now Available: Interoperability of Demand Response...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    SGDP Report Now Available: Interoperability of Demand Response Resources Demonstration in NY (February 2015) SGDP Report Now Available: Interoperability of Demand Response ...

  19. SGDP Report: Interoperability of Demand Response Resources Demonstrati...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    SGDP Report: Interoperability of Demand Response Resources Demonstration in NY (February 2015) SGDP Report: Interoperability of Demand Response Resources Demonstration in NY ...

  20. FERC Presendation: Demand Response as Power System Resources...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    FERC Presendation: Demand Response as Power System Resources, October 29, 2010 FERC Presendation: Demand Response as Power System Resources, October 29, 2010 Federal Energy ...

  1. Implementation Proposal for the National Action Plan on Demand...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Implementation Proposal for the National Action Plan on DemandResponse - July 2011 Implementation Proposal for the National Action Plan on Demand Response - July 2011 Report to ...

  2. Sustainable Energy Resources for Consumers (SERC) - On-Demand...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    On-Demand Tankless Water Heaters Sustainable Energy Resources for Consumers (SERC) - On-Demand Tankless Water Heaters This presentation, aimed at Sustainable Energy Resources for ...

  3. High-Performance with Solar Electric Reduced Peak Demand: Premier...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    with Solar Electric Reduced Peak Demand: Premier Homes Rancho Cordoba, CA - Building America Top Innovation High-Performance with Solar Electric Reduced Peak Demand: Premier Homes ...

  4. Energy in the United States: environmental and economic values in conflict

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McKinley, A.F.; Swisher, J.N.

    1982-01-01

    A national energy policy with which most people can agree has failed to emerge since the 1973 oil embargo. The cause is not a lack of reliable data or reasonable goals. Rather, a major divergence exists in the fundamental social vlaues that influence energy decisions. People with environmental values and those with conventional values have disagreed on most energy issues, especially nuclear power. Summarized is a two-year Stanford University study which identified the conflicting value systems and several future energy systems that could evolve, given the influence of each value system. Some recent conclusions are included. Although no compromise between environmentalists and conventionalists is likely, the energy problem is soluble regardless of which bias dominates policy decisions, but only if energy demand growth is arrested. Many efficiency improvements can be implemented without significant lifestyle interruptions. Implementation of these improvements is uncertain due to institutional obstacles and economic distortions.

  5. MTBE Production Economics

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    MTBE Production Economics Tancred C. M. Lidderdale Contents 1. Summary 2. MTBE Production ... End Notes 1. For an analysis of MTBE economics through 1999 refer to: U.S. ...

  6. U.S. Regional Demand Forecasts Using NEMS and GIS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cohen, Jesse A.; Edwards, Jennifer L.; Marnay, Chris

    2005-07-01

    The National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) is a multi-sector, integrated model of the U.S. energy system put out by the Department of Energy's Energy Information Administration. NEMS is used to produce the annual 20-year forecast of U.S. energy use aggregated to the nine-region census division level. The research objective was to disaggregate this regional energy forecast to the county level for select forecast years, for use in a more detailed and accurate regional analysis of energy usage across the U.S. The process of disaggregation using a geographic information system (GIS) was researched and a model was created utilizing available population forecasts and climate zone data. The model's primary purpose was to generate an energy demand forecast with greater spatial resolution than what is currently produced by NEMS, and to produce a flexible model that can be used repeatedly as an add-on to NEMS in which detailed analysis can be executed exogenously with results fed back into the NEMS data flow. The methods developed were then applied to the study data to obtain residential and commercial electricity demand forecasts. The model was subjected to comparative and statistical testing to assess predictive accuracy. Forecasts using this model were robust and accurate in slow-growing, temperate regions such as the Midwest and Mountain regions. Interestingly, however, the model performed with less accuracy in the Pacific and Northwest regions of the country where population growth was more active. In the future more refined methods will be necessary to improve the accuracy of these forecasts. The disaggregation method was written into a flexible tool within the ArcGIS environment which enables the user to output the results in five year intervals over the period 2000-2025. In addition, the outputs of this tool were used to develop a time-series simulation showing the temporal changes in electricity forecasts in terms of absolute, per capita, and density of demand.

  7. Demand for petrochem feedstock to buoy world LPG industry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-05-18

    This paper reports that use of liquefied petroleum gas as petrochemical feedstock will increase worldwide, providing major growth opportunities for LPG producers. World exports of liquefied petroleum gas will increase more slowly than production as producers choose to use LPG locally as chemical feedstock and export in value added forms such as polyethylene. So predicts Poten and Partners Inc., New York. Poten forecasts LPG production in exporting countries will jump to 95 million tons in 2010 from 45 million tons in 1990. However, local and regional demand will climb to 60 million tons/year from 23 million tons/year during the same period. So supplies available for export will rise to 35 million tons in 2010 from 22 million tons in 1990.

  8. Price Responsive Demand in New York Wholesale Electricity Market using OpenADR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, Joyce Jihyun; Kiliccote, Sila

    2012-06-01

    In New York State, the default electricity pricing for large customers is Mandatory Hourly Pricing (MHP), which is charged based on zonal day-ahead market price for energy. With MHP, retail customers can adjust their building load to an economically optimal level according to hourly electricity prices. Yet, many customers seek alternative pricing options such as fixed rates through retail access for their electricity supply. Open Automated Demand Response (OpenADR) is an XML (eXtensible Markup Language) based information exchange model that communicates price and reliability information. It allows customers to evaluate hourly prices and provide demand response in an automated fashion to minimize electricity costs. This document shows how OpenADR can support MHP and facilitate price responsive demand for large commercial customers in New York City.

  9. Electric power supply and demand for the contiguous United States, 1980-1989

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1980-06-01

    A limited review is presented of the outlook for the electric power supply and demand during the period 1980 to 1989. Only the adequacy and reliability aspects of bulk electric power supply in the contiguous US are considered. The economic, financial and environmental aspects of electric power system planning and the distribution of electricity (below the transmission level) are topics of prime importance, but they are outside the scope of this report.

  10. Demand for superpremium needle cokes on upswing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Acciarri, J.A.; Stockman, G.H. )

    1989-12-01

    The authors discuss how recent supply shortages of super-premium quality needle cokes, plus the expectation of increased shortfalls in the future, indicate that refiners should consider upgrading their operations to fill these demands. Calcined, super-premium needle cokes are currently selling for as much as $550/metric ton, fob producer, and increasing demand will continue the upward push of the past year. Needle coke, in its calcined form, is the major raw material in the manufacture of graphite electrodes. Used in steelmaking, graphite electrodes are the electrical conductors that supply the heat source, through arcing electrode column tips, to electric arc steel furnaces. Needle coke is commercially available in three grades - super premium, premium, and intermediate. Super premium is used to produce electrodes for the most severe electric arc furnace steelmaking applications, premium for electrodes destined to less severe operations, and intermediate for even less critical needs.

  11. What is a High Electric Demand Day?

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This presentation by T. McNevin of the New Jersey Bureau of Air Quality Planning was part of the July 2008 Webcast sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Weatherization and Intergovernmental Program Clean Energy and Air Quality Integration Initiative that was titled Role of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy in Improving Air Quality and Addressing Greenhouse Gas Reduction Goals on High Electric Demand Days.

  12. Retail Demand Response in Southwest Power Pool

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    LBNL-1470E Retail Demand Response in Southwest Power Pool Ranjit Bharvirkar, Grayson Heffner and Charles Goldman Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Environmental Energy Technologies Division January 2009 The work described in this report was funded by the Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability, Permitting, Siting and Analysis of the U.S. Department of Energy under Contract No. DE-AC02-05CH11231. ERNEST ORLANDO LAWRENCE BERKELEY NATIONAL LABORATORY Disclaimer This document was

  13. Price-responsive demand management for a smart grid world

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chao, Hung-po

    2010-01-15

    Price-responsive demand is essential for the success of a smart grid. However, existing demand-response programs run the risk of causing inefficient price formation. This problem can be solved if each retail customer could establish a contract-based baseline through demand subscription before joining a demand-response program. (author)

  14. Electricity pricing as a demand-side management strategy: Western lessons for developing countries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hill, L.J.

    1990-12-01

    Electric utilities in the Western world have increasingly realized that load commitments can be met not only by constructing new generating plants but also by influencing electricity demand. This demand-side management (DSM) process requires that electric utilities promote measures on the customer's side of the meter to directly or indirectly influence electricity consumption to meet desired load objectives. An important demand-side option to achieve these load objectives is innovative electricity pricing, both by itself and as a financial incentive for other demand-site measures. This study explores electricity pricing as a DSM strategy, addressing four questions in the process: What is the Western experience with DSM in general and electricity pricing in particular Do innovative pricing strategies alter the amount and pattern of electricity consumption Do the benefits of these pricing strategies outweigh the costs of implementation What are future directions in electricity pricing Although DSM can be used to promote increases in electricity consumption for electric utilities with excess capacity as well as to slow demand growth for capacity-short utilities, emphasis here is placed on the latter. The discussion should be especially useful for electric utilities in developing countries that are exploring alternatives to capacity expansion to meet current and future electric power demand.

  15. A hybrid inventory management system respondingto regular demand and surge demand

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mohammad S. Roni; Mingzhou Jin; Sandra D. Eksioglu

    2014-06-01

    This paper proposes a hybrid policy for a stochastic inventory system facing regular demand and surge demand. The combination of two different demand patterns can be observed in many areas, such as healthcare inventory and humanitarian supply chain management. The surge demand has a lower arrival rate but higher demand volume per arrival. The solution approach proposed in this paper incorporates the level crossing method and mixed integer programming technique to optimize the hybrid inventory policy with both regular orders and emergency orders. The level crossing method is applied to obtain the equilibrium distributions of inventory levels under a given policy. The model is further transformed into a mixed integer program to identify an optimal hybrid policy. A sensitivity analysis is conducted to investigate the impact of parameters on the optimal inventory policy and minimum cost. Numerical results clearly show the benefit of using the proposed hybrid inventory model. The model and solution approach could help healthcare providers or humanitarian logistics providers in managing their emergency supplies in responding to surge demands.

  16. Dramatic Demand Reduction In The Desert Southwest

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boehm, Robert; Hsieh, Sean; Lee, Joon; Baghzouz, Yahia; Cross, Andrew; Chatterjee, Sarah

    2015-07-06

    This report summarizes a project that was funded to the University of Nevada Las Vegas (UNLV), with subcontractors Pulte Homes and NV Energy. The project was motivated by the fact that locations in the Desert Southwest portion of the US demonstrate very high peak electrical demands, typically in the late afternoons in the summer. These high demands often require high priced power to supply the needs, and the large loads can cause grid supply problems. An approach was proposed through this contact that would reduce the peak electrical demands to an anticipated 65% of what code-built houses of the similar size would have. It was proposed to achieve energy reduction through four approaches applied to a development of 185 homes in northwest part of Las Vegas named Villa Trieste. First, the homes would all be highly energy efficient. Secondly, each house would have a PV array installed on it. Third, an advanced demand response technique would be developed to allow the resident to have some control over the energy used. Finally, some type of battery storage would be used in the project. Pulte Homes designed the houses. The company considered initial cost vs. long-term savings and chose options that had relatively short paybacks. HERS (Home Energy Rating Service) ratings for the homes are approximately 43 on this scale. On this scale, code-built homes rate at 100, zero energy homes rate a 0, and Energy Star homes are 85. In addition a 1.764 Wp (peak Watt) rated PV array was used on each house. This was made up of solar shakes that were in visual harmony with the roofing material used. A demand response tool was developed to control the amount of electricity used during times of peak demand. While demand response techniques have been used in the utility industry for some time, this particular approach is designed to allow the customer to decide the degree of participation in the response activity. The temperature change in the residence can be decided by the residents by adjusting settings. In a sense the customer can choose between greater comfort and greater money savings during demand response circumstances. Finally a battery application was to be considered. Initially it was thought that a large battery (probably a sodium-sulfur type) would be installed. However, after the contract was awarded, it was determined that a single, centrally-located battery system would not be appropriate for many reasons, including that with the build out plan there would not be any location to put it. The price had risen substantially since the budget for the project was put together. Also, that type of battery has to be kept hot all the time, but its use was only sought for summer operation. Hence, individual house batteries would be used, and these are discussed at the end of this report. Many aspects of the energy use for climate control in selected houses were monitored before residents moved in. This was done both to understand the magnitude of the energy flows but also to have data that could be compared to the computer simulations. The latter would be used to evaluate various aspects of our plan. It was found that good agreement existed between actual energy use and computed energy use. Hence, various studies were performed via simulations. Performance simulations showed the impact on peak energy usage between a code built house of same size and shape compared to the Villa Trieste homes with and without the PV arrays on the latter. Computations were also used to understand the effect of varying orientations of the houses in this typical housing development, including the effect of PV electrical generation. Energy conservation features of the Villa Trieste homes decreased the energy use during peak times (as well as all others), but the resulting decreased peak occurred at about the same time as the code-built houses. Consideration of the PV generation decreases the grid energy use further during daylight hours, but did not extend long enough many days to decrease the peak. Hence, a demand response approach, as planned, was needed. With participation of the residents in the demand response program developed does enable the houses to reduce the peak demand between 66% and 72%, depending on the built years. This was addressed fully in the latter part the study and is described in the latter part of this report.

  17. Demand Response - Policy: More Information | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Demand Response - Policy: More Information Demand Response - Policy: More Information OE's commitment to ensuring non-wires options to modernize the nation's electricity delivery system includes ongoing support of a number of national and regional activities in support of demand response. The New England Demand Response Initiative (NEDRI), OE's initial endeavor to assist states with non-wire solutions, was created to develop a comprehensive, coordinated set of demand response programs for the

  18. Taxonomy for Modeling Demand Response Resources

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Olsen, Daniel; Kiliccote, Sila; Sohn, Michael; Dunn, Laura; Piette, Mary, A

    2014-08-01

    Demand response resources are an important component of modern grid management strategies. Accurate characterizations of DR resources are needed to develop systems of optimally managed grid operations and to plan future investments in generation, transmission, and distribution. The DOE Demand Response and Energy Storage Integration Study (DRESIS) project researched the degree to which demand response (DR) and energy storage can provide grid flexibility and stability in the Western Interconnection. In this work, DR resources were integrated with traditional generators in grid forecasting tools, specifically a production cost model of the Western Interconnection. As part of this study, LBNL developed a modeling framework for characterizing resource availability and response attributes of DR resources consistent with the governing architecture of the simulation modeling platform. In this report, we identify and describe the following response attributes required to accurately characterize DR resources: allowable response frequency, maximum response duration, minimum time needed to achieve load changes, necessary pre- or re-charging of integrated energy storage, costs of enablement, magnitude of controlled resources, and alignment of availability. We describe a framework for modeling these response attributes, and apply this framework to characterize 13 DR resources including residential, commercial, and industrial end-uses. We group these end-uses into three broad categories based on their response capabilities, and define a taxonomy for classifying DR resources within these categories. The three categories of resources exhibit different capabilities and differ in value to the grid. Results from the production cost model of the Western Interconnection illustrate that minor differences in resource attributes can have significant impact on grid utilization of DR resources. The implications of these findings will be explored in future DR valuation studies.

  19. Economic assessment model architecture for AGC/AVLIS selection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hoglund, R.L.

    1984-05-24

    The economic assessment model architecture described provides the flexibility and completeness in economic analysis that the selection between AGC and AVLIS demands. Process models which are technology-specific will provide the first-order responses of process performance and cost to variations in process parameters. The economics models can be used to test the impacts of alternative deployment scenarios for a technology. Enterprise models provide global figures of merit for evaluating the DOE perspective on the uranium enrichment enterprise, and business analysis models compute the financial parameters from the private investor's viewpoint.

  20. Demand-Side Response from Industrial Loads

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Starke, Michael R; Alkadi, Nasr E; Letto, Daryl; Johnson, Brandon; Dowling, Kevin; George, Raoule; Khan, Saqib

    2013-01-01

    Through a research study funded by the Department of Energy, Smart Grid solutions company ENBALA Power Networks along with the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) have geospatially quantified the potential flexibility within industrial loads to leverage their inherent process storage to help support the management of the electricity grid. The study found that there is an excess of 12 GW of demand-side load flexibility available in a select list of top industrial facilities in the United States. Future studies will expand on this quantity of flexibility as more in-depth analysis of different industries is conducted and demonstrations are completed.

  1. WEF-Green Growth Partnerships Initiative | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    World Economic Forum Partner Global Green Growth Institute, Climate and Development Knowledge Network (CDKN), United Kingdom Government Sector Energy, Land, Climate Topics...

  2. SWAMC Economic Summit

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The 27th Annual Southwest Alaska Economic Summit and Business Meeting is a three-day conference covering energy efficiency planning, information on Alaska programs, and more.

  3. Economic Values | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Economic Values Jump to: navigation, search Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgwindex.php?titleEconomicValues&oldid612356...

  4. Economic impacts of irrigation load management controls

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Taylor, D.C. )

    1988-01-01

    Irrigators subject to load management controls experience electric power interruptions during periods of peak power demand. The resulting interruptions in irrigation pumping may result in moisture stress-induced crop yield reductions. The results of analysis show a great sensitivity of irrigator incomes to such yield losses. The sensitivity is of such a magnitude that rural electric cooperatives (RECs) would have to offer load management incentives of at least five times their monthly demand charges for irrigators under typical conditions (not oversized irrigation pumps) to remain under load control when irrigated crops are experiencing yield-reducing moisture stress. Incentives of this magnitude cannot be economically justified by most RECs. Thus, provision for the voluntary withdrawal of irrigators from load control is an essential feature of most workable and effective irrigation laod management programs.

  5. Evaluating the economic effectiveness of a cogeneration plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Korik, L.; Yeaple, D.: Hajosy, M.

    1996-08-01

    Economic considerations constitute the major factor in the decision to build a cogeneration plant and to its eventual design - topics which have been the focus of many studies and papers. These economic concerns continue when the plant is built and on-line, thus plant operation must be geared to provide the customers` demand in the most economically effective manner possible. Unfortunately, the complexity of and high degree of interaction between the disparate components of a cogeneration plant oftentimes, make it difficult to conceptualize the plant configuration required to maximize plant economic performance for a given demand, Indeed, actions taken to increase the thermal performance of individual plant components can actually decrease the overall economic effectiveness of the plant as a whole in the context of converting fuels to sendouts. What is needed, then, is a way to meld the performance of individual plant components into a total plant performance index that accurately measures the economic effectiveness of the plant. This paper details such a method developed by the Cogeneration Management Company to accomplish the performance evaluation of its Medical Area Total Energy Plant which supplies electricity, steam, and chilled water to the Longwood. Medical Area in Boston, This method - which is easily adapted to a variety of cogeneration designs - addresses the aforementioned complexities in the assessing of a cogeneration plant`s effectiveness and results in simple-to-understand plant performance quantifications which have proved to be of great utility in ensuring the economically sound operation of MATEP.

  6. Global Green Growth Forum (3GF) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    find new green avenues to growth. Green growth has to be at the core of a sustainable strategy to get us out of the economic crisis. To advance this global agenda, Denmark as well...

  7. World pipeline work set for rapid growth

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-08-01

    This paper reports on international pipeline construction which has entered a fast-growth period, accelerated by the new political and economic realities around the world and increasing demand for natural gas, crude oil and refined petroleum products. Many projects are under way or in planning for completion in the mid- to late 1990s in Europe, South America, Asia and the Middle East. Pipeline And Gas Journal's projection calls for construction or other work on 30,700 miles of new natural gas, crude oil and refined products pipelines in the 1992-93 period outside Canada and the U.S. These projects will cost an estimated $30 billion-plus. Natural gas pipelines will comprise most of the mileage, accounting for almost 23,000 miles at an estimated cost of $26.3 billion. Products pipelines, planned or under construction, will add another 5,800 miles at a cost of $2.8 billion. Crude oil pipelines, at a minimum, will total 1,900 new miles at a cost of slightly under $1 billion.

  8. Real-time Pricing Demand Response in Operations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Widergren, Steven E.; Marinovici, Maria C.; Berliner, Teri; Graves, Alan

    2012-07-26

    AbstractóDynamic pricing schemes have been implemented in commercial and industrial application settings, and recently they are getting attention for application to residential customers. Time-of-use and critical-peak-pricing rates are in place in various regions and are being piloted in many more. These programs are proving themselves useful for balancing energy during peak periods; however, real-time (5 minute) pricing signals combined with automation in end-use systems have the potential to deliver even more benefits to operators and consumers. Besides system peak shaving, a real-time pricing system can contribute demand response based on the locational marginal price of electricity, reduce load in response to a generator outage, and respond to local distribution system capacity limiting situations. The US Department of Energy (DOE) is teaming with a mid-west electricity service provider to run a distribution feeder-based retail electricity market that negotiates with residential automation equipment and clears every 5 minutes, thus providing a signal for lowering or raising electric consumption based on operational objectives of economic efficiency and reliability. This paper outlines the capability of the real-time pricing system and the operational scenarios being tested as the system is rolled-out starting in the first half of 2012.

  9. Wind Economic Development (Postcard)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2011-08-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Wind Powering America initiative provides information on the economic development benefits of wind energy. This postcard is a marketing piece that stakeholders can provide to interested parties; it will guide them to the economic development benefits section on the Wind Powering America website.

  10. East Coast blizzard cuts into gasoline demand, but home electricity demand rises

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    East Coast blizzard cuts into gasoline demand, but home electricity demand rises U.S. monthly gasoline consumption declined in January, as the big winter storm that shut down many East Coast cities kept people in their homes and off the road. In its new monthly forecast, the U.S. Energy Information Administration said monthly gasoline consumption dropped 230,000 barrels per day in January compared to year-ago levels and that marked the first year-over-year decline in monthly gasoline use since

  11. Economic Incentives for Cybersecurity: Using Economics to Design Technologies Ready for Deployment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vishik, Claire; Sheldon, Frederick T; Ott, David

    2013-01-01

    Cybersecurity practice lags behind cyber technology achievements. Solutions designed to address many problems may and do exist but frequently cannot be broadly deployed due to economic constraints. Whereas security economics focuses on the cost/benefit analysis and supply/demand, we believe that more sophisticated theoretical approaches, such as economic modeling, rarely utilized, would derive greater societal benefits. Unfortunately, today technologists pursuing interesting and elegant solutions have little knowledge of the feasibility for broad deployment of their results and cannot anticipate the influences of other technologies, existing infrastructure, and technology evolution, nor bring the solutions lifecycle into the equation. Additionally, potentially viable solutions are not adopted because the risk perceptions by potential providers and users far outweighs the economic incentives to support introduction/adoption of new best practices and technologies that are not well enough defined. In some cases, there is no alignment with redominant and future business models as well as regulatory and policy requirements. This paper provides an overview of the economics of security, reviewing work that helped to define economic models for the Internet economy from the 1990s. We bring forward examples of potential use of theoretical economics in defining metrics for emerging technology areas, positioning infrastructure investment, and building real-time response capability as part of software development. These diverse examples help us understand the gaps in current research. Filling these gaps will be instrumental for defining viable economic incentives, economic policies, regulations as well as early-stage technology development approaches, that can speed up commercialization and deployment of new technologies in cybersecurity.

  12. California: Geothermal Plant to Help Meet High Lithium Demand...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Geothermal Plant to Help Meet High Lithium Demand California: Geothermal Plant to Help Meet High Lithium Demand May 21, 2013 - 5:54pm Addthis Through funding provided by the...

  13. Tankless or Demand-Type Water Heaters | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    or Demand-Type Water Heaters Tankless or Demand-Type Water Heaters Diagram of a tankless water heater. Diagram of a tankless water heater. Tankless water heaters, also known as ...

  14. Demand Response: Lessons Learned with an Eye to the Future |...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Demand Response: Lessons Learned with an Eye to the Future Demand Response: Lessons Learned with an Eye to the Future July 11, 2013 - 11:56am Addthis Patricia A. Hoffman Patricia...

  15. A National Forum on Demand Response: Results on What Remains...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Part of the July 2011 Implementation Proposal called for a "National Forum" on demand response to be conducted by DOE and FERC. Given the rapid development of the demand response ...

  16. California Geothermal Power Plant to Help Meet High Lithium Demand...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    California Geothermal Power Plant to Help Meet High Lithium Demand California Geothermal Power Plant to Help Meet High Lithium Demand September 20, 2012 - 1:15pm Addthis Ever ...

  17. Tankless or Demand-Type Water Heaters | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Tankless or Demand-Type Water Heaters Tankless or Demand-Type Water Heaters Diagram of a tankless water heater. Diagram of a tankless water heater. Tankless water heaters, also...

  18. A Hierarchical Framework for Demand-Side Frequency Control (Conference...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    A Hierarchical Framework for Demand-Side Frequency Control Citation Details In-Document Search Title: A Hierarchical Framework for Demand-Side Frequency Control With large-scale ...

  19. Industrial demand side management: A status report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hopkins, M.F.; Conger, R.L.; Foley, T.J.

    1995-05-01

    This report provides an overview of and rationale for industrial demand side management (DSM) programs. Benefits and barriers are described, and data from the Manufacturing Energy Consumption Survey are used to estimate potential energy savings in kilowatt hours. The report presents types and examples of programs and explores elements of successful programs. Two in-depth case studies (from Boise Cascade and Eli Lilly and Company) illustrate two types of effective DSM programs. Interviews with staff from state public utility commissions indicate the current thinking about the status and future of industrial DSM programs. A comprehensive bibliography is included, technical assistance programs are listed and described, and a methodology for evaluating potential or actual savings from projects is delineated.

  20. Sensor-based demand controlled ventilation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    De Almeida, A.T.; Fisk, W.J.

    1997-07-01

    In most buildings, occupancy and indoor pollutant emission rates vary with time. With sensor-based demand-controlled ventilation (SBDCV), the rate of ventilation (i.e., rate of outside air supply) also varies with time to compensate for the changes in pollutant generation. In other words, SBDCV involves the application of sensing, feedback and control to modulate ventilation. Compared to ventilation without feedback, SBDCV offers two potential advantages: (1) better control of indoor pollutant concentrations; and (2) lower energy use and peak energy demand. SBDCV has the potential to improve indoor air quality by increasing the rate of ventilation when indoor pollutant generation rates are high and occupants are present. SBDCV can also save energy by decreasing the rate of ventilation when indoor pollutant generation rates are low or occupants are absent. After providing background information on indoor air quality and ventilation, this report provides a relatively comprehensive discussion of SBDCV. Topics covered in the report include basic principles of SBDCV, sensor technologies, technologies for controlling air flow rates, case studies of SBDCV, application of SBDCV to laboratory buildings, and research needs. SBDCV appears to be an increasingly attractive technology option. Based on the review of literature and theoretical considerations, the application of SBDCV has the potential to be cost-effective in applications with the following characteristics: (a) a single or small number of dominant pollutants, so that ventilation sufficient to control the concentration of the dominant pollutants provides effective control of all other pollutants; (b) large buildings or rooms with unpredictable temporally variable occupancy or pollutant emission; and (c) climates with high heating or cooling loads or locations with expensive energy.

  1. Marketing & Driving Demand Collaborative - Social Media Tools & Strategies

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    | Department of Energy & Driving Demand Collaborative - Social Media Tools & Strategies Marketing & Driving Demand Collaborative - Social Media Tools & Strategies Presentation slides from the Better Buildings webinar on January 6, 2011. PDF icon Marketing & Driving Demand Collaborative More Documents & Publications Using Social Media for Long-Term Branding Marketing & Driving Demand: Social Media Tools & Strategies - January 16, 2011 (Text Version) Generating

  2. Using Partnerships to Drive Demand and Provide Services in Communities |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Partnerships to Drive Demand and Provide Services in Communities Using Partnerships to Drive Demand and Provide Services in Communities Better Buildings Neighborhood Program Multifamily and Low-Income Peer Exchange Call: Using Partnerships to Drive Demand and Provide Services in Communities, February 2, 2012. PDF icon Call Slides and Discussion Summary More Documents & Publications Strategies for Marketing and Driving Demand for Commercial Financing Products

  3. 2010 Assessment of Demand Response and Advanced Metering - Staff Report |

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Department of Energy Assessment of Demand Response and Advanced Metering - Staff Report 2010 Assessment of Demand Response and Advanced Metering - Staff Report 2010 Assessment of Demand Response and Advanced Metering - Staff Report. The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission's 2010 Demand Response and Advanced Metering Survey (2010 FERC Survey, covering calendar year 2009) indicates that advanced metering penetration (i.e., the fraction of all installed meters that are advanced meters) reached

  4. International Transportation Energy Demand Determinants (ITEDD): Prototype Results for China

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Jim Turnure, Director Office of Energy Consumption & Efficiency Analysis, EIA EIA Conference: Asian Energy Demand July 14, 2014 | Washington, DC International Transportation Energy Demand Determinants (ITEDD): Prototype Results for China Dawn of new global oil market paradigm? 2 Jim Turnure, EIA Conference July 14, 2014 * Conventional wisdom has centered around $100-120/barrel oil and 110-115 million b/d global liquid fuel demand in the long term (2030-2040) * Demand in non-OECD may push

  5. FERC Presendation: Demand Response as Power System Resources, October 29,

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    2010 | Department of Energy FERC Presendation: Demand Response as Power System Resources, October 29, 2010 FERC Presendation: Demand Response as Power System Resources, October 29, 2010 Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) presentation on demand response as power system resources before the Electicity Advisory Committee, October 29, 2010 PDF icon Demand Response as Power System Resources More Documents & Publications Ancillary Service Revenue Potential for Geothermal Generators in

  6. Economic Potential of CHP in Detroit Edison Service Area: the Customer Perspective

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kelly, J.

    2003-10-10

    DOE's mission under the Distributed Energy and Electricity Reliability (DEER) Program is to strengthen America's electric energy infrastructure and provide utilities and consumers with a greater array of energy-efficient technology choices for generating, transmitting, distributing, storing, and managing demand for electric power and thermal energy. DOE recognizes that distributed energy technologies can help accomplish this mission. Distributed energy (DE) technologies have received much attention for the potential energy savings and electric power reliability assurances that may be achieved by their widespread adoption. Fueling the attention has been the desire to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and concern about easing power transmission and distribution system capacity limitations and congestion. However, these benefits may come at a cost to the electric utility companies in terms of lost revenue and other potential impacts on the distribution system. It is important to assess the costs and benefits of DE to consumers and distribution system companies. DOE commissioned this study to assess the costs and benefits of DE technologies to consumers and to better understand the effect of DE on the grid. Current central power generation units vent more waste heat (energy) than the entire transportation sector consumes and this wasted thermal energy is projected to grow by 45% within the next 20 years. Consumer investment in technologies that increase power generation efficiency is a key element of the DOE Energy Efficiency program. The program aims to increase overall cycle efficiency from 30% to 70% within 20 years as well. DOE wants to determine the impact of DE in several small areas within cities across the U.S. Ann Arbor, Michigan, was chosen as the city for this case study. Ann Arbor has electric and gas rates that can substantially affect the market penetration of DE. This case study analysis was intended to: (1) Determine what DE market penetration can realistically be expected, based on consumer investment in combined heat and power systems (CHP) and the effect of utility applied demand response (DR). (2) Evaluate and quantify the impact on the distribution utility feeder from the perspective of customer ownership of the DE equipment. (3) Determine the distribution feeder limits and the impact DE may have on future growth. For the case study, the Gas Technology Institute analyzed a single 16-megawatt grid feeder circuit in Ann Arbor, Michigan to determine whether there are economic incentives to use small distributed power generation systems that would offset the need to increase grid circuit capacity. Increasing circuit capacity would enable the circuit to meet consumer's energy demands at all times, but it would not improve the circuit's utilization factor. The analysis spans 12 years, to a planning horizon of 2015. By 2015, the demand for power is expected to exceed the grid circuit capacity for a significant portion of the year. The analysis was to determine whether economically acceptable implementation of customer-owned DE systems would reduce the peak power demands enough to forestall the need to upgrade the capacity of the grid circuit. The analysis was based on economics and gave no financial credit for improved power reliability or mitigation of environmental impacts. Before this study was completed, the utility expanded the capacity of the circuit to 22 MW. Although this expansion will enable the circuit to meet foreseeable increases in peak demand, it also will significantly decrease the circuit's overall utilization factor. The study revealed that DE penetration on the selected feeder is not expected to forestall the need to upgrade the grid circuit capacity unless interconnection barriers are removed. Currently, a variety of technical, business practice, and regulatory barriers discourage DE interconnection in the US market.

  7. Proceedings of the Chinese-American symposium on energy markets and the future of energy demand

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meyers, S.

    1988-11-01

    The Symposium was organized by the Energy Research Institute of the State Economic Commission of China, and the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory and Johns Hopkins University from the United States. It was held at the Johns Hopkins University Nanjing Center in late June 1988. It was attended by about 15 Chinese and an equal number of US experts on various topics related to energy demand and supply. Each presenter is one of the best observers of the energy situation in their field. A Chinese and US speaker presented papers on each topic. In all, about 30 papers were presented over a period of two and one half days. Each paper was translated into English and Chinese. The Chinese papers provide an excellent overview of the emerging energy demand and supply situation in China and the obstacles the Chinese planners face in managing the expected increase in demand for energy. These are matched by papers that discuss the energy situation in the US and worldwide, and the implications of the changes in the world energy situation on both countries. The papers in Part 1 provide historical background and discuss future directions. The papers in Part 2 focus on the historical development of energy planning and policy in each country and the methodologies and tools used for projecting energy demand and supply. The papers in Part 3 examine the pattern of energy demand, the forces driving demand, and opportunities for energy conservation in each of the major sectors in China and the US. The papers in Part 4 deal with the outlook for global and Pacific region energy markets and the development of the oil and natural gas sector in China.

  8. Economic Development Office

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Economic Development Office Is your technology business looking for a door to the Laboratory? The Economic Development Office at PNNL is here to help you start, grow, or relocate your business. We help you tap into technology experts, facilities, and other resources available at the Laboratory...some at no cost to you. We've helped more than 400 companies in our region and 100 more nationwide. Our goals: to expand the economy's technology sector and create high-value jobs. Economic Development

  9. Philippines' downstream sector poised for growth

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-05-11

    This paper reports that the Philippines' downstream sector is poised for sharp growth. Despite a slip in refined products demand in recent years, Philippines products demand will rebound sharply by 2000, East-West Center (EWC), Honolulu, predicts. Philippines planned refinery expansions are expected to meet that added demand, EWC Director Fereidun Fesharaki says. Like the rest of the Asia-Pacific region, product specifications are changing, but major refiners in the area expect to meet the changes without major case outlays. At the same time, Fesharaki says, push toward deregulation will further bolster the outlook for the Philippines downstream sector.

  10. Economic evaluation and market analysis for natural gas utilization. Topical report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hackworth, J.H.; Koch, R.W.; Rezaiyan, A.J.

    1995-04-01

    During the past decade, the U.S. has experienced a surplus gas supply. Future prospects are brightening because of increased estimates of the potential size of undiscovered gas reserves. At the same time, U.S. oil reserves and production have steadily declined, while oil imports have steadily increased. Reducing volume growth of crude oil imports was a key objective of the Energy Policy Act of 1992. Natural gas could be an important alternative energy source to liquid products derived from crude oil to help meet market demand. The purpose of this study was to (1) analyze three energy markets to determine whether greater use could be made of natural gas or its derivatives and (2) determine whether those products could be provided on an economically competitive basis. The following three markets were targeted for possible increases in gas use: transportation fuels, power generation, and chemical feedstock. Gas-derived products that could potentially compete in these three markets were identified, and the economics of the processes for producing those products were evaluated. The processes considered covered the range from commercial to those in early stages of process development. The analysis also evaluated the use of both high-quality natural gas and lower-quality gases containing CO{sub 2} and N{sub 2} levels above normal pipeline quality standards.

  11. SWAMC Economic Summit

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Hosted by the Southwest Alaska Municipal Conference (SWAMC), the 27th Annual Southwest Alaska Economic Summit and Business Meeting is a three-day conference covering energy efficiency planning,...

  12. Tribal Economic Outlook Conference

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Hosted by Northern Arizona University, the Tribal Economic Outlook Conference will preview the conditions that will impact business and economy in the year ahead. Hear what the experts are predicting for 2016 at the tribal, state, and local level.

  13. Model documentation report: Commercial Sector Demand Module of the National Energy Modeling System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1998-01-01

    This report documents the objectives, analytical approach and development of the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) Commercial Sector Demand Module. The report catalogues and describes the model assumptions, computational methodology, parameter estimation techniques, model source code, and forecast results generated through the synthesis and scenario development based on these components. The NEMS Commercial Sector Demand Module is a simulation tool based upon economic and engineering relationships that models commercial sector energy demands at the nine Census Division level of detail for eleven distinct categories of commercial buildings. Commercial equipment selections are performed for the major fuels of electricity, natural gas, and distillate fuel, for the major services of space heating, space cooling, water heating, ventilation, cooking, refrigeration, and lighting. The algorithm also models demand for the minor fuels of residual oil, liquefied petroleum gas, steam coal, motor gasoline, and kerosene, the renewable fuel sources of wood and municipal solid waste, and the minor services of office equipment. Section 2 of this report discusses the purpose of the model, detailing its objectives, primary input and output quantities, and the relationship of the Commercial Module to the other modules of the NEMS system. Section 3 of the report describes the rationale behind the model design, providing insights into further assumptions utilized in the model development process to this point. Section 3 also reviews alternative commercial sector modeling methodologies drawn from existing literature, providing a comparison to the chosen approach. Section 4 details the model structure, using graphics and text to illustrate model flows and key computations.

  14. Renewable Energy Economic Potential

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The report describes a geospatial analysis method to estimate the economic potential of several renewable resources available for electricity generation in the United States. Economic potential, one measure of renewable generation potential, is defined in this report as the subset of the available resource technical potential where the cost required to generate the electricity (which determines the minimum revenue requirements for development of the resource) is below the revenue available in terms of displaced energy and displaced capacity.

  15. Regional Economic Development

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Regional Economic Development Regional Economic Development Supporting companies in every stage of development through access to technology, technical assistance or investment Questions Richard P. Feynman Center for Innovation Regional Programs (505) 665-9090 New Mexico Small Business Assistance Email Venture Acceleration Fund Email DisrupTECH Email SBIR/STTR Email FCI facilitates commercialization in New Mexico to accelerate and enhance our efforts to convert federal and state research

  16. Automated Demand Response Opportunities in Wastewater Treatment Facilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thompson, Lisa; Song, Katherine; Lekov, Alex; McKane, Aimee

    2008-11-19

    Wastewater treatment is an energy intensive process which, together with water treatment, comprises about three percent of U.S. annual energy use. Yet, since wastewater treatment facilities are often peripheral to major electricity-using industries, they are frequently an overlooked area for automated demand response opportunities. Demand response is a set of actions taken to reduce electric loads when contingencies, such as emergencies or congestion, occur that threaten supply-demand balance, and/or market conditions occur that raise electric supply costs. Demand response programs are designed to improve the reliability of the electric grid and to lower the use of electricity during peak times to reduce the total system costs. Open automated demand response is a set of continuous, open communication signals and systems provided over the Internet to allow facilities to automate their demand response activities without the need for manual actions. Automated demand response strategies can be implemented as an enhanced use of upgraded equipment and facility control strategies installed as energy efficiency measures. Conversely, installation of controls to support automated demand response may result in improved energy efficiency through real-time access to operational data. This paper argues that the implementation of energy efficiency opportunities in wastewater treatment facilities creates a base for achieving successful demand reductions. This paper characterizes energy use and the state of demand response readiness in wastewater treatment facilities and outlines automated demand response opportunities.

  17. Measurement and evaluation techniques for automated demand response demonstration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Motegi, Naoya; Piette, Mary Ann; Watson, David S.; Sezgen, Osman; ten Hope, Laurie

    2004-08-01

    The recent electricity crisis in California and elsewhere has prompted new research to evaluate demand response strategies in large facilities. This paper describes an evaluation of fully automated demand response technologies (Auto-DR) in five large facilities. Auto-DR does not involve human intervention, but is initiated at a facility through receipt of an external communications signal. This paper summarizes the measurement and evaluation of the performance of demand response technologies and strategies in five large facilities. All the sites have data trending systems such as energy management and control systems (EMCS) and/or energy information systems (EIS). Additional sub-metering was applied where necessary to evaluate the facility's demand response performance. This paper reviews the control responses during the test period, and analyzes demand savings achieved at each site. Occupant comfort issues are investigated where data are available. This paper discusses methods to estimate demand savings and results from demand response strategies at five large facilities.

  18. Incentives for demand-side management

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reid, M.W.; Brown, J.B.

    1992-01-01

    This report is the first product of an ongoing project to monitor the efforts of states to remove regulatory barriers to, and provide financial incentives for, utility investment in demand-side management (DSM) resources. The project was commissioned by the National Association of Regulatory Utility Commissioners (NARUC) in response to growing interest among regulators for a comprehensive survey of developments in this area. Each state report beings with an overview of the state`s progress toward removing regulatory barriers and providing incentives for DSM. Information is organized under five headings: status; IRP regulations and practice; current treatment of DSM, directions and trends; commission contact person. Where applicable, each overview is followed by one or more sections that report on specific incentive proposals or mechanisms within the state. Information on each proposal or mechanism is organized under eight headings. A notation on each page identifies the utility or other group associated with the proposal or mechanism. The eight headings are as follows: status; background; treatment of cost recovery; treatment of lost revenues/decoupling; treatment of profitability; other features; issues, and additional observations.

  19. Incentives for demand-side management

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reid, M.W.; Brown, J.B. )

    1992-01-01

    This report is the first product of an ongoing project to monitor the efforts of states to remove regulatory barriers to, and provide financial incentives for, utility investment in demand-side management (DSM) resources. The project was commissioned by the National Association of Regulatory Utility Commissioners (NARUC) in response to growing interest among regulators for a comprehensive survey of developments in this area. Each state report beings with an overview of the state's progress toward removing regulatory barriers and providing incentives for DSM. Information is organized under five headings: status; IRP regulations and practice; current treatment of DSM, directions and trends; commission contact person. Where applicable, each overview is followed by one or more sections that report on specific incentive proposals or mechanisms within the state. Information on each proposal or mechanism is organized under eight headings. A notation on each page identifies the utility or other group associated with the proposal or mechanism. The eight headings are as follows: status; background; treatment of cost recovery; treatment of lost revenues/decoupling; treatment of profitability; other features; issues, and additional observations.

  20. Growth in global oil inventories slows, drawdown in stocks expected...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    to stronger growth in world oil demand, with ... In its new monthly forecast, the U.S. Energy Information ... will be led by stronger fuel consumption in China and India. ...

  1. Investigation of structural changes in residential electricity demand

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chern, W.S.; Bouis, H.E.

    1982-09-23

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the stability of aggregate national residential electricity demand coefficients over time. The hypothesis is maintained that the aggregate residential demand is the sum of various end-use demand components. Since the end-use composition changes over time, the demand relationship may change as well. Since the end-use composition differs among regions, the results obtained from this study can be used for making inferences about regional differences in electricity demand relationships. There are two additional sources for a possible structural change. One is that consumers may react differently to declining and rising prices, secondly, the impact of the 1973 oil embargo may have shifted demand preferences. The electricity demand model used for this study is presented. A moving regression method was employed to investigate changes in residential electricity demand over time. The statistical results show a strikingly consistent pattern of change for most of the structural variables. The most important finding of this study is that the estimated structure of residential electricity demand changes systematically over time as a result of changes in the characteristics (both durability and saturation level) of the stock of appliances. Furthermore, there is not strong evidence that the structural changes in demand occurred due to either the reversal of the declining trend of electricity prices or the impact of the 1973 oil embarge. (LCL)

  2. Opportunities for Automated Demand Response in California Agricultural Irrigation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Olsen, Daniel; Aghajanzadeh, Arian; McKane, Aimee

    2015-08-01

    Pumping water for agricultural irrigation represents a significant share of California’s annual electricity use and peak demand. It also represents a large source of potential flexibility, as farms possess a form of storage in their wetted soil. By carefully modifying their irrigation schedules, growers can participate in demand response without adverse effects on their crops. This report describes the potential for participation in demand response and automated demand response by agricultural irrigators in California, as well as barriers to widespread participation. The report first describes the magnitude, timing, location, purpose, and manner of energy use in California. Typical on-­farm controls are discussed, as well as common impediments to participation in demand response and automated demand response programs. Case studies of demand response programs in California and across the country are reviewed, and their results along with overall California demand estimates are used to estimate statewide demand response potential. Finally, recommendations are made for future research that can enhance the understanding of demand response potential in this industry.

  3. AVTA: EVSE Charging Protocol for On and Off-Peak Demand

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Vehicle Technologies Office's Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity carries out testing on a wide range of advanced vehicles and technologies on dynamometers, closed test tracks, and on-the-road. These results provide benchmark data that researchers can use to develop technology models and guide future research and development. The following report is a description of development of a charge protocol to take advantage of off and on-peak demand economics at facilities, as informed by the AVTA's testing on plug-in electric vehicle charging equipment. This research was conducted by Idaho National Laboratory.

  4. Utility rebates for efficient motors -- The outlook for demand-side management

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nailen, R.L.

    1997-01-01

    Since 1987, many electric utilities throughout North America have been actively promoting demand-side management (DSM), the attempt to conserve fuels and postpone costly generating capacity increases by encouraging customers to use more efficient electrical equipment, including motors. One popular DSM program has been utility payment of cash rebates to purchasers of more efficient motors. Today, such payments face extinction in a rapidly changing utility economic climate based on deregulation. How rebates originated, the basis for such payments, how successful rebate programs have been, and what the future holds for them are the subjects of this paper.

  5. Utility rebates for efficient motors -- The outlook for demand-side management

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nailen, R.L.

    1995-12-31

    Since 1987, many electric utilities throughout North America have been actively promoting DSM--demand-side management, the attempt to conserve fuels and postpone costly generating capacity increases by encouraging customers to use more efficient electrical equipment, including motors. One popular DSM program has been utility payment of cash rebates to purchasers of more efficient motors. Today, such payments face extinction in a rapidly changing utility economic climate based on deregulation. How rebates originated, the basis for such payments, how successful rebate programs have been, and what the future holds for them--these are the subjects of this paper.

  6. Economic Environment 0 Anirban Basu, Chairman & CEO, Sage Policy Group,

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Inc. | Department of Energy Economic Environment 0 Anirban Basu, Chairman & CEO, Sage Policy Group, Inc. Economic Environment 0 Anirban Basu, Chairman & CEO, Sage Policy Group, Inc. Topics Discussed: Real GDP Growth, 20 Fastest and Slowest Growing Countries Estimated Growth in Output by Select Global Areas Median Weekly Earnings, Full-Time U.S. Workers Construction Employment Cost Index Industrial Production Gross Domestic Product More... PDF icon Workshop 2015 - Basu_Economic

  7. Economical wind protection - underground

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kiesling, E.W.

    1980-01-01

    Earth-sheltered buildings inherently posess near-absolute occupant protection from severe winds. They should sustain no structural damage and only minimal facial damage. Assuming that the lower-hazard risk attendant to this type of construction results in reduced insurance-premium rates, the owner accrues economic benefits from the time of construction. Improvements to aboveground buildings, in contrast, may not yield early economic benefits in spite of a favorable benefit-to-cost ratio. This, in addition to sensitivity to initial costs, traditionalism in residential construction, and lack of professional input to design, impede the widespread use of underground improvements and the subsequent economic losses from severe winds. Going underground could reverse the trend. 7 references.

  8. Using Mobile Applications to Generate Customer Demand | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Mobile Applications to Generate Customer Demand Using Mobile Applications to Generate Customer Demand Better Buildings Residential Network Peer Exchange Call Series: Using Mobile Applications to Generate Customer Demand, Call Slides and Discussion Summary, March 12, 2015. PDF icon Call Slides and Discussion Summary More Documents & Publications Better Buildings Network View | October 2014 Incorporating Behavior Change Efforts Into Energy Efficiency Programs Outreach to Multifamily

  9. Executive Order 13693 Training Now Available On Demand | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Executive Order 13693 Training Now Available On Demand Executive Order 13693 Training Now Available On Demand January 4, 2016 - 8:00am Addthis Executive Order (E.O.) 13693: Recent Developments, Implementation Updates, and Opportunities Training is now available on-demand. The seminar covers the major goals of E. O. 13693 and offers examples of technologies and concepts the U.S. Department of Energy and other federal agencies are using to meet these goals. Addthis Related Articles

  10. Monitoring SERC Technologies: On-Demand Tankless Water Heaters | Department

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of Energy Weatherization Assistance Program ¬Ľ Pilot Projects ¬Ľ Monitoring SERC Technologies: On-Demand Tankless Water Heaters Monitoring SERC Technologies: On-Demand Tankless Water Heaters On Oct. 4, 2011, Ethan MacCormick, VP for Services to Energy Businesses at Performance Systems Development, presented a Webinar about On-Demand Tankless Water Heaters and how to properly monitor their installation. View the webinar presentation. More Information Some resources and tools mentioned in the

  11. Sustainable Energy Resources for Consumers (SERC) - On-Demand Tankless

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Water Heaters | Department of Energy On-Demand Tankless Water Heaters Sustainable Energy Resources for Consumers (SERC) - On-Demand Tankless Water Heaters This presentation, aimed at Sustainable Energy Resources for Consumers (SERC) grantees, provides information on Monitoring Checklists for the installation of On-Demand Tankless Water Heaters. PDF icon serc_webinar_presentation_20111004.pdf More Documents & Publications Sustainable Energy Resources for Consumers (SERC) - Solar Hot

  12. Report: Natural Gas Infrastructure Implications of Increased Demand from

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    the Electric Power Sector | Department of Energy Natural Gas Infrastructure Implications of Increased Demand from the Electric Power Sector Report: Natural Gas Infrastructure Implications of Increased Demand from the Electric Power Sector This report examines the potential infrastructure needs of the U.S. interstate natural gas pipeline transmission system across a range of future natural gas demand scenarios that drive increased electric power sector natural gas use. To perform this

  13. Retail Demand Response in Southwest Power Pool | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Retail Demand Response in Southwest Power Pool Retail Demand Response in Southwest Power Pool In 2007, the Southwest Power Pool (SPP) formed the Customer Response Task Force (CRTF) to identify barriers to deploying demand response (DR) resources in wholesale markets and develop policies to overcome these barriers. One of the initiatives of this Task Force was to develop more detailed information on existing retail DR programs and dynamic pricing tariffs, program rules, and utility operating

  14. SGDP Report Now Available: Interoperability of Demand Response Resources

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Demonstration in NY (February 2015) | Department of Energy SGDP Report Now Available: Interoperability of Demand Response Resources Demonstration in NY (February 2015) SGDP Report Now Available: Interoperability of Demand Response Resources Demonstration in NY (February 2015) March 20, 2015 - 4:42pm Addthis The Interoperability of Demand Response Resources Demonstration in NY was awarded to Con Edison in 2009 as part of DOE's Smart Grid Demonstration Project (SGDP) grants funded by the

  15. SGDP Report: Interoperability of Demand Response Resources Demonstration in

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    NY (February 2015) | Department of Energy SGDP Report: Interoperability of Demand Response Resources Demonstration in NY (February 2015) SGDP Report: Interoperability of Demand Response Resources Demonstration in NY (February 2015) The Interoperability of Demand Response Resources Demonstration in NY was awarded to Con Edison in 2009 as part of DOE's Smart Grid Demonstration Project (SGDP) grants funded by the Recovery Act. The objective of the project was to develop and demonstrate

  16. Generating Demand for Multifamily Building Upgrades | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Demand for Multifamily Building Upgrades Generating Demand for Multifamily Building Upgrades Better Buildings Residential Network Peer Exchange Call Series: Generating Demand for Multifamily Building Upgrades, call slides and discussion summary, May 14, 2015. PDF icon Call Slides and Discussion Summary More Documents & Publications Strategies to Address Split Incentives in Multifamily Buildings Outreach to Multifamily Landlords and Tenants Trends in Multifamily Programs: What's Working and

  17. Honeywell Demonstrates Automated Demand Response Benefits for Utility,

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Commercial, and Industrial Customers | Department of Energy Honeywell Demonstrates Automated Demand Response Benefits for Utility, Commercial, and Industrial Customers Honeywell Demonstrates Automated Demand Response Benefits for Utility, Commercial, and Industrial Customers September 22, 2014 - 5:59pm Addthis Honeywell's Smart Grid Investment Grant (SGIG) project demonstrates utility-scale performance of a hardware/software platform for automated demand response (ADR). This project stands

  18. Regulation Services with Demand Response - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Regulation Services with Demand Response Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Contact PNNL About This Technology Using grid frequency information, researchers have created algorithms that intelligently control power demand while meeting consumer objectives (i.e. target pricing). Using grid frequency information, researchers have created algorithms that intelligently control power demand while meeting consumer objectives (i.e. target pricing). Technology Marketing Summary Grid Friendly(tm)

  19. Demand Response National Trends: Implications for the West? | Department of

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Energy National Trends: Implications for the West? Demand Response National Trends: Implications for the West? Committee on Regional Electric Power Cooperation. San Francisco, CA. March 25, 2004 PDF icon Demand Response National Trends: Implications for the West? More Documents & Publications Demand Response in U.S. Electricity Markets: Empirical Evidence Technical Assistance to ISO's and Grid Operators For Loads Providing Ancillary Services To Enhance Grid Reliability Transmission

  20. Demand and Price Outlook for Phase 2 Reformulated Gasoline, 2000

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Demand and Price Outlook for Phase 2 Reformulated Gasoline, 2000 Tancred Lidderdale and Aileen Bohn (1) Contents * Summary * Introduction * Reformulated Gasoline Demand * Oxygenate Demand * Logistics o Interstate Movements and Storage o Local Distribution o Phase 2 RFG Logistics o Possible Opt-Ins to the RFG Program o State Low Sulfur, Low RVP Gasoline Initiatives o NAAQS o Tier 2 Gasoline * RFG Production Options o Toxic Air Pollutants (TAP) Reduction o Nitrogen Oxides (NOx) Reduction o

  1. Agreement Template for Energy Conservation and Demand Side Management

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Services | Department of Energy Agreement Template for Energy Conservation and Demand Side Management Services Agreement Template for Energy Conservation and Demand Side Management Services Template agreement between a federal agency and a utility company for the implementation of energy conservation measures and demand side management services. A detailed description of the template is also available below. PDF icon Download the template agreement. PDF icon Download the model agreement

  2. Hydrogen Demand and Resource Analysis (HyDRA) Model

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    users to view, download, and analyze hydrogen demand, resource, and infrastructure ... HyDRA contains more than 100 datasets, including resource cost and availability, hydrogen ...

  3. Strategies for Aligning Program Demand with Contractor's Seasonal...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Strategies for Aligning Program Demand with Contractor's Seasonal Fluctuations Better Buildings Neighborhood Program Workforce Peer Exchange Call: Strategies for Aligning Program ...

  4. Strategies for Marketing and Driving Demand for Commercial Financing Products

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Better Buildings Neighborhood Program Financing and Commercial Peer Exchange Call: Strategies for Marketing and Driving Demand for Commercial Financing Products, Call Slides and Discussion Summary, February 2, 2012.

  5. Assessment of Energy Savings Potential from the Use of Demand...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Energy Savings Potential from the Use of Demand Controlled Ventilation in General Office Spaces in California Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Assessment of Energy ...

  6. Calculating impacts of energy standards on energy demand in U...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Calculating impacts of energy standards on energy demand in U.S. buildings with uncertainty in an integrated assessment model Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Calculating ...

  7. Strategies for Aligning Program Demand with Contractor's Seasonal Fluctuations

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Better Buildings Neighborhood Program Workforce Peer Exchange Call: Strategies for Aligning Program Demand with Contractor’s Seasonal Fluctuations, Call Slides and Discussion Summary, June 7, 2012.

  8. Using Partnerships to Drive Demand and Provide Services in Communities...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Using Partnerships to Drive Demand and Provide Services in Communities Better Buildings Neighborhood Program Multifamily and Low-Income Peer Exchange Call: Using Partnerships to ...

  9. Optical People Counting for Demand Controlled Ventilation: A...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    of Counter Performance Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Optical People Counting for Demand Controlled Ventilation: A Pilot Study of Counter Performance This pilot ...

  10. Optical People Counting for Demand Controlled Ventilation: A...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    of Counter Performance Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Optical People Counting for Demand Controlled Ventilation: A Pilot Study of Counter Performance You are ...

  11. Global GPS Phones Market Size, Segmentation, Demand Forecast...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    we deeply analyzed the world's main region market conditions that including the product price, profit, capacity, production, capacity utilization, supply, demand and industry...

  12. China-Transportation Demand Management in Beijing: Mitigation...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    demand management (TDM) in Beijing in order to manage the steadily increasing traffic density. The project provides capacity building for decision-makers and transport planners in...

  13. Network-Driven Demand Side Management Website | Open Energy Informatio...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    URI: cleanenergysolutions.orgcontentnetwork-driven-demand-side-management Language: English Policies: "Deployment Programs,Regulations" is not in the list of possible...

  14. Estimating Demand Response Market Potential | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    URI: cleanenergysolutions.orgcontentestimating-demand-response-market-pot Language: English Policies: "Deployment Programs,Regulations" is not in the list of possible...

  15. Demand Response Energy Consulting LLC | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Response Energy Consulting LLC Jump to: navigation, search Name: Demand Response & Energy Consulting LLC Place: Delanson, New York Zip: NY 12053 Sector: Efficiency Product:...

  16. Coordination of Energy Efficiency and Demand Response: A Resource...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Coordination of Energy Efficiency and Demand Response: A Resource of the National Action Plan for Energy Efficiency Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name:...

  17. Benefits of Demand Response in Electricity Markets and Recommendations...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Demand Response in Electricity Markets and Recommendations for Achieving Them. A report to the United States Congress Pursuant to Section 1252 of the Energy Policy Act of 2005 ...

  18. Chapter 3 Demand-Side Resources | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Typically, these resources result from one of two methods of reducing load: energy efficiency or demand response load management. The energy efficiency method designs and deploys ...

  19. Reducing Peak Demand to Defer Power Plant Construction in Oklahoma

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    To better control costs and manage electric reliability under these conditions, OG&E is pursuing demand response strategies made possible by implementation of smart grid ...

  20. Heat wave contributes to higher summer electricity demand in...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Heat wave contributes to higher summer electricity demand in the Northeast In its new energy forecast, the U.S. Energy Information Administration expects summer retail electricity ...

  1. Electricity demand as frequency controlled reserves, ForskEL...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    ForskEL (Smart Grid Project) Jump to: navigation, search Project Name Electricity demand as frequency controlled reserves, ForskEL Country Denmark Coordinates 56.26392,...

  2. Electricity demand as frequency controlled reserves, ENS (Smart...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    ENS (Smart Grid Project) Jump to: navigation, search Project Name Electricity demand as frequency controlled reserves, ENS Country Denmark Coordinates 56.26392, 9.501785...

  3. U.S. Electric Utility Demand-Side Management

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2002-01-01

    Final issue of this report. - Presents comprehensive information on electric power industry demand side management (DSM) activities in the United States at the national, regional, and utility levels.

  4. Opportunities for Mass Market Demand Response to Provide Ancillary Services

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pratt, Rob; Najewicz, Dave

    2011-10-01

    Discusses what is meant by mass market demand response to provide ancillary services and outlines opportunities for adoption, and barriers to adoption.

  5. Structuring Rebate and Incentive Programs for Sustainable Demand

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Better Buildings Neighborhood Program Peer Exchange Call: Structuring Rebate and Incentive Programs for Sustainable Demand, call slides and discussion summary, August 18, 2011.

  6. Hydrogen Demand and Resource Assessment Tool | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Resource Assessment Tool Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Hydrogen Demand and Resource Assessment Tool AgencyCompany Organization: National Renewable...

  7. EnergySolve Demand Response | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Demand Response Place: Somerset, New Jersey Product: Somerset-based utility bill outsourcing company that provides electronic utility bill auditing, tariff analysis, late fee...

  8. Table 11.2 Electricity: Components of Net Demand, 2010;

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Electricity: Components of Net Demand, 2010; Level: National and Regional Data; Row: Values of Shipments and Employment Sizes; Column: Electricity Components; Unit: Million ...

  9. Assumption to the Annual Energy Outlook 2014 - Commercial Demand...

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    chosen to meet the projected service demands for the seven major end uses. Once technologies are chosen, the energy consumed by the equipment stock (both existing and purchased...

  10. Grid Integration of Aggregated Demand Response, Part 2: Modeling Demand Response in a Production Cost Model

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Renewable integration studies have evaluated many challenges associated with deploying large amounts of variable wind and solar generation technologies. These studies can evaluate operational impacts associated with variable generation, benefits of improved wind and solar resource forecasting, and trade-offs between institutional changes, including increasing balancing area cooperation and technical changes such as installing new flexible generation. Demand response (DR) resources present a potentially important source of grid flexibility and can aid in integrating variable generation; however, integration analyses have not yet incorporated these resources explicitly into grid simulation models as part of a standard toolkit for resource planners.

  11. Jobs and Economic Development Modeling

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Project objective: Develop models to estimate jobs and economic impacts from geothermal project development and operation.

  12. India Energy Outlook: End Use Demand in India to 2020

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    de la Rue du Can, Stephane; McNeil, Michael; Sathaye, Jayant

    2009-03-30

    Integrated economic models have been used to project both baseline and mitigation greenhouse gas emissions scenarios at the country and the global level. Results of these scenarios are typically presented at the sectoral level such as industry, transport, and buildings without further disaggregation. Recently, a keen interest has emerged on constructing bottom up scenarios where technical energy saving potentials can be displayed in detail (IEA, 2006b; IPCC, 2007; McKinsey, 2007). Analysts interested in particular technologies and policies, require detailed information to understand specific mitigation options in relation to business-as-usual trends. However, the limit of information available for developing countries often poses a problem. In this report, we have focus on analyzing energy use in India in greater detail. Results shown for the residential and transport sectors are taken from a previous report (de la Rue du Can, 2008). A complete picture of energy use with disaggregated levels is drawn to understand how energy is used in India and to offer the possibility to put in perspective the different sources of end use energy consumption. For each sector, drivers of energy and technology are indentified. Trends are then analyzed and used to project future growth. Results of this report provide valuable inputs to the elaboration of realistic energy efficiency scenarios.

  13. Factors that will influence oil and gas supply and demand in the 21st century

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holditch, S.A.; Chianelli, R.R.

    2008-04-15

    A recent report published by the National Petroleum Council (NPC) in the United States predicted a 50-60% growth in total global demand for energy by 2030. Because oil, gas, and coal will continue to be the primary energy sources during this time, the energy industry will have to continue increasing the supply of these fuels to meet this increasing demand. Achieving this goal will require the exploitation of both conventional and unconventional reservoirs of oil and gas in (including coalbed methane) an environmentally acceptable manner. Such efforts will, in turn, require advancements in materials science, particularly in the development of materials that can withstand high-pressure, high-temperature, and high-stress conditions.

  14. Opportunities for Automated Demand Response in California Wastewater Treatment Facilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aghajanzadeh, Arian; Wray, Craig; McKane, Aimee

    2015-08-30

    Previous research over a period of six years has identified wastewater treatment facilities as good candidates for demand response (DR), automated demand response (Auto-­DR), and Energy Efficiency (EE) measures. This report summarizes that work, including the characteristics of wastewater treatment facilities, the nature of the wastewater stream, energy used and demand, as well as details of the wastewater treatment process. It also discusses control systems and automated demand response opportunities. Furthermore, this report summarizes the DR potential of three wastewater treatment facilities. In particular, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) has collected data at these facilities from control systems, submetered process equipment, utility electricity demand records, and governmental weather stations. The collected data were then used to generate a summary of wastewater power demand, factors affecting that demand, and demand response capabilities. These case studies show that facilities that have implemented energy efficiency measures and that have centralized control systems are well suited to shed or shift electrical loads in response to financial incentives, utility bill savings, and/or opportunities to enhance reliability of service. In summary, municipal wastewater treatment energy demand in California is large, and energy-­intensive equipment offers significant potential for automated demand response. In particular, large load reductions were achieved by targeting effluent pumps and centrifuges. One of the limiting factors to implementing demand response is the reaction of effluent turbidity to reduced aeration at an earlier stage of the process. Another limiting factor is that cogeneration capabilities of municipal facilities, including existing power purchase agreements and utility receptiveness to purchasing electricity from cogeneration facilities, limit a facility’s potential to participate in other DR activities.

  15. Energy, economics, and foreign policy in the Soviet Union

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hewett, A.

    1984-01-01

    This book has the merit of looking at the Soviet energy problem (oil, gas, coal, other) as a whole, something that Westen experts (and Soviet officials) have often failed to do. It makes fairly precise projections for the mid-1980s and cloudier ones for 1990. Hewett sees no crisis of the kind predicted by the CIA for the 1980s, but the Moscow will face hard decisions imposed by the rising cost of energy, competing economic demands, and political constraints.

  16. Fact #742: August 27, 2012 Oil Price and Economic Growth

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Major oil price shocks have disrupted world energy markets five times in the past 30 years (1973-74, 1979-80, 1990-91, 1999-2000, and 2008). Most of the oil price shocks were followed by an...

  17. Palm Beach County Sees Energy-Smart Economic Growth | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    After making energy efficiency upgrades, Smart for Life expects to save 58 percent annually on its energy bills. Thanks to reduced operating costs, the company is able to increase ...

  18. DOE to Present on Energy Sovereignty, Economic Growth Opportunities...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Indian Energy is sponsoring the Native ... Senior Policy Advisor Doug MacCourt will be among the speakers presenting on these topics. ...

  19. Secretary Bodman Highlights Economic Benefits of President Bush's Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Initiatives in Kansas City | Department of Energy Economic Benefits of President Bush's Energy Initiatives in Kansas City Secretary Bodman Highlights Economic Benefits of President Bush's Energy Initiatives in Kansas City March 10, 2006 - 11:46am Addthis KANSAS CITY, MO - Department of Energy (DOE) Secretary Samuel W. Bodman today highlighted America's robust economy and the role the energy sector plays to ensure its continued growth, while speaking to the Greater Kansas City Chamber of

  20. Material to Efficiently and Economically Obtain Microorganism and

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Microalgae - Energy Innovation Portal Biomass and Biofuels Biomass and Biofuels Advanced Materials Advanced Materials Find More Like This Return to Search Material to Efficiently and Economically Obtain Microorganism and Microalgae Ames Laboratory Contact AMES About This Technology Technology Marketing SummaryTechnology provides an economical and efficient process to harvest microorganisms like microalgae from its growth media.Description The interest in using algae as feedstock for biofuel

  1. Comments on the Glen Canyon Dam EIS treatment of demand-side management

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cavallo, J.D.

    1992-10-08

    The Glen Canyon Dam EIS has developed a substantial body of research on the economic consequences of altering the dam and plant operation. The following comments deals only with the electric power planning aspects of the study in general and the demand-side management estimates in particular. Most of the material in the report Power System Impacts of Potential Changes in Glen Canyon Power Plant Operations'' is outside the area of DSM/C RE, but appears reasonable. In particular, the input assumptions relating to the potential costs of power plants for capacity expansion planning are not unlike the costs Argonne is using in its studies and those which are used by others when comparison are made to DSM program choices. Statement of Major Concerns. The central concerns of the DSM/C RE results shown in the Glen Canyon study are as follows: (1) The assumption that DSM will penetrate the systems of Western's customers to a level which would reduce peak demand by 10 percent in the baseline alternative is overly optimistic given (a) the current reductions from the C RE programs, (b) the economic incentives faced by Western's customers, and (c) the current manner in which Western's power is used by its customers. (2) The result that DSM will reduce load by the same amount in each alternative is suspicious and unlikely.

  2. Comments on the Glen Canyon Dam EIS treatment of demand-side management

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cavallo, J.D.

    1992-10-08

    The Glen Canyon Dam EIS has developed a substantial body of research on the economic consequences of altering the dam and plant operation. The following comments deals only with the electric power planning aspects of the study in general and the demand-side management estimates in particular. Most of the material in the report ``Power System Impacts of Potential Changes in Glen Canyon Power Plant Operations`` is outside the area of DSM/C&RE, but appears reasonable. In particular, the input assumptions relating to the potential costs of power plants for capacity expansion planning are not unlike the costs Argonne is using in its studies and those which are used by others when comparison are made to DSM program choices. Statement of Major Concerns. The central concerns of the DSM/C&RE results shown in the Glen Canyon study are as follows: (1) The assumption that DSM will penetrate the systems of Western`s customers to a level which would reduce peak demand by 10 percent in the baseline alternative is overly optimistic given (a) the current reductions from the C&RE programs, (b) the economic incentives faced by Western`s customers, and (c) the current manner in which Western`s power is used by its customers. (2) The result that DSM will reduce load by the same amount in each alternative is suspicious and unlikely.

  3. Role of Storage and Demand Response, Greening the Grid

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Author: Denholm, Paul

    2015-09-01

    Greening the Grid provides technical assistance to energy system planners, regulators, and grid operators to overcome challenges associated with integrating variable renewable energy into the grid. This document, part of a Greening the Grid toolkit, examines storage and demand response as means to match renewable energy supply with demand.

  4. Open Automated Demand Response for Small Commerical Buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dudley, June Han; Piette, Mary Ann; Koch, Ed; Hennage, Dan

    2009-05-01

    This report characterizes small commercial buildings by market segments, systems and end-uses; develops a framework for identifying demand response (DR) enabling technologies and communication means; and reports on the design and development of a low-cost OpenADR enabling technology that delivers demand reductions as a percentage of the total predicted building peak electric demand. The results show that small offices, restaurants and retail buildings are the major contributors making up over one third of the small commercial peak demand. The majority of the small commercial buildings in California are located in southern inland areas and the central valley. Single-zone packaged units with manual and programmable thermostat controls make up the majority of heating ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) systems for small commercial buildings with less than 200 kW peak electric demand. Fluorescent tubes with magnetic ballast and manual controls dominate this customer group's lighting systems. There are various ways, each with its pros and cons for a particular application, to communicate with these systems and three methods to enable automated DR in small commercial buildings using the Open Automated Demand Response (or OpenADR) communications infrastructure. Development of DR strategies must consider building characteristics, such as weather sensitivity and load variability, as well as system design (i.e. under-sizing, under-lighting, over-sizing, etc). Finally, field tests show that requesting demand reductions as a percentage of the total building predicted peak electric demand is feasible using the OpenADR infrastructure.

  5. Progress toward Producing Demand-Response-Ready Appliances

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hammerstrom, Donald J.; Sastry, Chellury

    2009-12-01

    This report summarizes several historical and ongoing efforts to make small electrical demand-side devices like home appliances more responsive to the dynamic needs of electric power grids. Whereas the utility community often reserves the word demand response for infrequent 2 to 6 hour curtailments that reduce total electrical system peak load, other beneficial responses and ancillary services that may be provided by responsive electrical demand are of interest. Historically, demand responses from the demand side have been obtained by applying external, retrofitted, controlled switches to existing electrical demand. This report is directed instead toward those manufactured products, including appliances, that are able to provide demand responses as soon as they are purchased and that require few, or no, after-market modifications to make them responsive to needs of power grids. Efforts to be summarized include Open Automated Demand Response, the Association of Home Appliance Manufacturer standard CHA 1, a simple interface being developed by the U-SNAP Alliance, various emerging autonomous responses, and the recent PinBus interface that was developed at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory.

  6. Reducing Energy Demand in Buildings Through State Energy Codes | Department

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of Energy Reducing Energy Demand in Buildings Through State Energy Codes Reducing Energy Demand in Buildings Through State Energy Codes Building Codes Project for the 2013 Building Technologies Office's Program Peer Review PDF icon bldgcodes03_guttman_040213.pdf More Documents & Publications Technology Performance Exchange - 2013 BTO Peer Review Atmospheric Pressure Deposition for Electrochromic Windows Building America System Research

  7. Interoperability of Demand Response Resources Demonstration in NY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wellington, Andre

    2014-03-31

    The Interoperability of Demand Response Resources Demonstration in NY (Interoperability Project) was awarded to Con Edison in 2009. The objective of the project was to develop and demonstrate methodologies to enhance the ability of customer sited Demand Response resources to integrate more effectively with electric delivery companies and regional transmission organizations.

  8. WINDExchange: Wind Economic Development

    Wind Powering America (EERE)

    Development WINDExchange provides software applications and publications to help individuals, developers, local governments, and utilities make decisions about wind power. Projecting costs and benefits of new installations, including the economic development impacts created, is a key element in looking at potential wind applications. Communities, states, regions, job markets (i.e., construction, operations and maintenance), the tax base, tax revenues, and others can be positively affected. These

  9. Cogeneration: Economics and politics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Prince, R.G.H.; Poole, M.L.

    1996-12-31

    Cogeneration is a well established process for supplying heat and electricity from a single fuel source. Its feasibility and implementation in any particular case depend on technical, economic and internal and external {open_quotes}cultural{close_quotes} factors, including government policies. This paper describes the current status of small scale industrial cogeneration in Australia. A model has been developed to analyse the technical and economic aspects of retrofitting gas turbine cogeneration in the size range 3 to 30MW to industrial sites. The model demonstrates that for typical Australian energy cost data, the payback and the size of the optimized cogeneration plant depend strongly on electricity buyback prices. Also reviewed are some of the {open_quotes}cultural{close_quotes} factors which often militate against an otherwise economic installation, and government policies which may retard cogeneration by concern about local air emissions or favor it as increasing efficiency of energy use and reducing greenhouse emissions. A case study of a small gas turbine plant in Australia is outlined. 2 refs., 2 figs.

  10. Air-conditioning electricity savings and demand reductions from exterior masonry wall insulation applied to Arizona residences

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ternes, M.P.; Wilkes, K.E.

    1993-06-01

    A field test involving eight single-family houses was performed during the summer of 1991 in Scottsdale, Arizona to evaluate the potential of reducing air-conditioning electricity consumption and demand by insulating their exterior masonry walls. Total per house costs to perform the installations ranged from $3610 to $4550. The average annual savings was estimated to be 491 kWh, or 9% of pre-retrofit consumption. Peak demands without and with insulation on the hottest day of an average weather year for Phoenix were estimated to be 4.26 and 3.61 kill, for a demand reduction of 0.65 kill (15%). We conclude that exterior masonry wall insulation reduces air-conditioning electricity consumption and peak demand in hot, dry climates similar to that of Phoenix. Peak demand reductions are a primary benefit, making the retrofit worthy of consideration in electric utility conservation programs. Economics can be attractive from a consumer viewpoint if considered within a renovation or home improvement program.

  11. Air-conditioning electricity savings and demand reductions from exterior masonry wall insulation applied to Arizona residences

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ternes, M.P.; Wilkes, K.E.

    1993-01-01

    A field test involving eight single-family houses was performed during the summer of 1991 in Scottsdale, Arizona to evaluate the potential of reducing air-conditioning electricity consumption and demand by insulating their exterior masonry walls. Total per house costs to perform the installations ranged from $3610 to $4550. The average annual savings was estimated to be 491 kWh, or 9% of pre-retrofit consumption. Peak demands without and with insulation on the hottest day of an average weather year for Phoenix were estimated to be 4.26 and 3.61 kill, for a demand reduction of 0.65 kill (15%). We conclude that exterior masonry wall insulation reduces air-conditioning electricity consumption and peak demand in hot, dry climates similar to that of Phoenix. Peak demand reductions are a primary benefit, making the retrofit worthy of consideration in electric utility conservation programs. Economics can be attractive from a consumer viewpoint if considered within a renovation or home improvement program.

  12. Laser-isotope-separation technology. [Review; economics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jensen, R.J.; Blair, L.S.

    1981-01-01

    The Molecular Laser Isotope Separation (MLIS) process currently under development is discussed as an operative example of the use of lasers for material processing. The MLIS process, which uses infrared and ultraviolet lasers to process uranium hexafluoride (UF/sub 6/) resulting in enriched uranium fuel to be used in electrical-power-producing nuclear reactor, is reviewed. The economics of the MLIS enrichment process is compared with conventional enrichment technique, and the projected availability of MLIS enrichment capability is related to estimated demands for U.S. enrichment service. The lasers required in the Los Alamos MLIS program are discussed in detail, and their performance and operational characteristics are summarized. Finally, the timely development of low-cost, highly efficient ultraviolet and infrared lasers is shownd to be the critical element controlling the ultimate deployment of MLIS uranium enrichment. 8 figures, 7 tables.

  13. Can combining economizers with improved filtration save energy and protect equipment in data centers?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shehabi, Arman; Ganguly, Srirupa; Gundel, Lara A.; Horvath, Arpad; Kirchstetter, Thomas W.; Lunden, Melissa M.; Tschudi, William; Gadgil, Ashok J.; Nazaroff, William W

    2009-06-05

    Economizer use in data centers is an energy efficiency strategy that could significantly limit electricity demand in this rapidly growing economic sector. Widespread economizer implementation, however, has been hindered by potential equipment reliability concerns associated with exposing information technology equipment to particulate matter of outdoor origin. This study explores the feasibility of using economizers in data centers to save energy while controlling particle concentrations with high-quality air filtration. Physical and chemical properties of indoor and outdoor particles were analyzed at an operating northern California data center equipped with an economizer under varying levels of air filtration efficiency. Results show that when improved filtration is used in combination with an economizer, the indoor/outdoor concentration ratios for most measured particle types were similar to levels when using conventional filtration without economizers. An energy analysis of the data center reveals that, even during the summer months, chiller savings from economizer use greatly outweigh any increase in fan power associated with improved filtration. These findings indicate that economizer use combined with improved filtration could reduce data center energy demand while providing a level of protection from particles of outdoor origin similar to that observed with conventional design.

  14. Analysis of Residential Demand Response and Double-Auction Markets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fuller, Jason C.; Schneider, Kevin P.; Chassin, David P.

    2011-10-10

    Demand response and dynamic pricing programs are expected to play increasing roles in the modern Smart Grid environment. While direct load control of end-use loads has existed for decades, price driven response programs are only beginning to be explored at the distribution level. These programs utilize a price signal as a means to control demand. Active markets allow customers to respond to fluctuations in wholesale electrical costs, but may not allow the utility to control demand. Transactive markets, utilizing distributed controllers and a centralized auction can be used to create an interactive system which can limit demand at key times on a distribution system, decreasing congestion. With the current proliferation of computing and communication resources, the ability now exists to create transactive demand response programs at the residential level. With the combination of automated bidding and response strategies coupled with education programs and customer response, emerging demand response programs have the ability to reduce utility demand and congestion in a more controlled manner. This paper will explore the effects of a residential double-auction market, utilizing transactive controllers, on the operation of an electric power distribution system.

  15. Open Automated Demand Response Communications Specification (Version 1.0)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Piette, Mary Ann; Ghatikar, Girish; Kiliccote, Sila; Koch, Ed; Hennage, Dan; Palensky, Peter; McParland, Charles

    2009-02-28

    The development of the Open Automated Demand Response Communications Specification, also known as OpenADR or Open Auto-DR, began in 2002 following the California electricity crisis. The work has been carried out by the Demand Response Research Center (DRRC), which is managed by Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. This specification describes an open standards-based communications data model designed to facilitate sending and receiving demand response price and reliability signals from a utility or Independent System Operator to electric customers. OpenADR is one element of the Smart Grid information and communications technologies that are being developed to improve optimization between electric supply and demand. The intention of the open automated demand response communications data model is to provide interoperable signals to building and industrial control systems that are preprogrammed to take action based on a demand response signal, enabling a demand response event to be fully automated, with no manual intervention. The OpenADR specification is a flexible infrastructure to facilitate common information exchange between the utility or Independent System Operator and end-use participants. The concept of an open specification is intended to allow anyone to implement the signaling systems, the automation server or the automation clients.

  16. Assessment of Industrial Load for Demand Response across Western Interconnect

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alkadi, Nasr E; Starke, Michael R; Ma, Ookie

    2013-11-01

    Demand response (DR) has the ability to both increase power grid reliability and potentially reduce operating system costs. Understanding the role of demand response in grid modeling has been difficult due to complex nature of the load characteristics compared to the modeled generation and the variation in load types. This is particularly true of industrial loads, where hundreds of different industries exist with varying availability for demand response. We present a framework considering industrial loads for the development of availability profiles that can provide more regional understanding and can be inserted into analysis software for further study. The developed framework utilizes a number of different informational resources, algorithms, and real-world measurements to perform a bottom-up approach in the development of a new database with representation of the potential demand response resource in the industrial sector across the U.S. This tool houses statistical values of energy and demand response (DR) potential by industrial plant and geospatially locates the information for aggregation for different territories without proprietary information. This report will discuss this framework and the analyzed quantities of demand response for Western Interconnect (WI) in support of evaluation of the cost production modeling with power grid modeling efforts of demand response.

  17. A Look Ahead at Demand Response in New England

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burke, Robert B.; Henderson, Michael I.; Widergren, Steven E.

    2008-08-01

    The paper describes the demand response programs developed and in operation in New England, and the revised designs for participation in the forward capacity market. This description will include how energy efficiency, demand-side resources, and distributed generation are eligible to participate in this new forward capacity market. The paper will also discuss various methods that can be used to configure and communicate with demand response resources and important concerns in specifying interfaces that accommodate multiple technologies and allow technology choice and evolution.

  18. Demand response compensation, net Benefits and cost allocation: comments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hogan, William W.

    2010-11-15

    FERC's Supplemental Notice of Public Rulemaking addresses the question of proper compensation for demand response in organized wholesale electricity markets. Assuming that the Commission would proceed with the proposal ''to require tariff provisions allowing demand response resources to participate in wholesale energy markets by reducing consumption of electricity from expected levels in response to price signals, to pay those demand response resources, in all hours, the market price of energy for such reductions,'' the Commission posed questions about applying a net benefits test and rules for cost allocation. This article summarizes critical points and poses implications for the issues of net benefit tests and cost allocation. (author)

  19. Arctic Economics Model

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1995-03-01

    AEM (Arctic Economics Model) for oil and gas was developed to provide an analytic framework for understanding the arctic area resources. It provides the capacity for integrating the resource and technology information gathered by the arctic research and development (R&D) program, measuring the benefits of alternaive R&D programs, and providing updated estimates of the future oil and gas potential from arctic areas. AEM enables the user to examine field or basin-level oil and gas recovery,more¬†¬Ľ costs, and economics. It provides a standard set of selected basin-specified input values or allows the user to input their own values. AEM consists of five integrated submodels: geologic/resource submodel, which distributes the arctic resource into 15 master regions, consisting of nine arctic offshore regions, three arctic onshore regions, and three souhtern Alaska (non-arctic) regions; technology submodel, which selects the most appropriate exploration and production structure (platform) for each arctic basin and water depth; oil and gas production submodel, which contains the relationship of per well recovery as a function of field size, production decline curves, and production decline curves by product; engineering costing and field development submodel, which develops the capital and operating costs associated with arctic oil and gas development; and the economics submodel, which captures the engineering costs and development timing and links these to oil and gas prices, corporate taxes and tax credits, depreciation, and timing of investment. AEM provides measures of producible oil and gas, costs, and ecomonic viability under alternative technology or financial conditions.¬ę¬†less

  20. Balancing Autonomy and Utilization of Solar Power and Battery Storage for Demand Based Microgrids.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lawder, Matthew T.; Viswanathan, Vilayanur V.; Subramanian, Venkat R.

    2015-04-01

    The growth of intermittent solar power has developed a need for energy storage systems in order to decouple generation and supply of energy. Microgrid (MG) systems comprising of solar arrays with battery energy storage studied in this paper desire high levels of autonomy, seeking to meet desired demand at all times. Large energy storage capacity is required for high levels of autonomy, but much of this expensive capacity goes unused for a majority of the year due to seasonal fluctuations of solar generation. In this paper, a model-based study of MGs comprised of solar generation and battery storage shows the relationship between system autonomy and battery utilization applied to multiple demand cases using a single particle battery model (SPM). The SPM allows for more accurate state-of-charge and utilization estimation of the battery than previous studies of renewably powered systems that have used empirical models. The increased accuracy of battery state estimation produces a better assessment of system performance. Battery utilization will depend on the amount of variation in solar insolation as well as the type of demand required by the MG. Consumers must balance autonomy and desired battery utilization of a system within the needs of their grid.

  1. Response to several FOIA requests - Renewable Energy. Demand...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Demand for fossil fuels surely will overrun supply sooner or later, as indeed it already has in the casc of United States domestic oil drilling. Recognition also is growing that ...

  2. U.S. electric utility demand-side management 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-07-01

    This report presents comprehensive information on electric power industry demand-side management activities in the United States at the national, regional, and utility levels. Data is included for energy savings, peakload reductions, and costs.

  3. Demand response medium sized industry consumers (Smart Grid Project...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    demand and regulation power in Danish Industry consumers via a price and control signal from the supplier of electricity. The aim is to develop a valuable solution for the...

  4. Detailed Modeling and Response of Demand Response Enabled Appliances

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vyakaranam, Bharat; Fuller, Jason C.

    2014-04-14

    Proper modeling of end use loads is very important in order to predict their behavior, and how they interact with the power system, including voltage and temperature dependencies, power system and load control functions, and the complex interactions that occur between devices in such an interconnected system. This paper develops multi-state time variant residential appliance models with demand response enabled capabilities in the GridLAB-DTM simulation environment. These models represent not only the baseline instantaneous power demand and energy consumption, but the control systems developed by GE Appliances to enable response to demand response signals and the change in behavior of the appliance in response to the signal. These DR enabled appliances are simulated to estimate their capability to reduce peak demand and energy consumption.

  5. Tankless or Demand-Type Water Heaters | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    a demand water heater at each hot water outlet. ENERGY STAR estimates that a typical family can save 100 or more per year with an ENERGY STAR qualified tankless water heater....

  6. Chapter 3: Demand-Side Resources | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    According to one source, U.S. electric utilities spent 14.7 billion on DSM programs between 1989 and 1999, an average of 1.3 billion per year. PDF icon Chapter 3: Demand-Side ...

  7. Demand charge schedule data | OpenEI Community

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Demand charge schedule data Home > Groups > Utility Rate Hi, I'm a new user of this database,so first, thanks for creating it, and apologies if this question is answered in...

  8. Low Carbon Green Growth Roadmap for Asia and the Pacific | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Green Growth Roadmap for Asia and the Pacific AgencyCompany Organization: Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP), Korea International Cooperation Agency...

  9. Demand Response and Open Automated Demand Response Opportunities for Data Centers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ghatikar, Girish; Piette, Mary Ann; Fujita, Sydny; McKane, Aimee; Dudley, Junqiao Han; Radspieler, Anthony; Mares, K.C.; Shroyer, Dave

    2009-12-30

    This study examines data center characteristics, loads, control systems, and technologies to identify demand response (DR) and automated DR (Open Auto-DR) opportunities and challenges. The study was performed in collaboration with technology experts, industrial partners, and data center facility managers and existing research on commercial and industrial DR was collected and analyzed. The results suggest that data centers, with significant and rapidly growing energy use, have significant DR potential. Because data centers are highly automated, they are excellent candidates for Open Auto-DR. 'Non-mission-critical' data centers are the most likely candidates for early adoption of DR. Data center site infrastructure DR strategies have been well studied for other commercial buildings; however, DR strategies for information technology (IT) infrastructure have not been studied extensively. The largest opportunity for DR or load reduction in data centers is in the use of virtualization to reduce IT equipment energy use, which correspondingly reduces facility cooling loads. DR strategies could also be deployed for data center lighting, and heating, ventilation, and air conditioning. Additional studies and demonstrations are needed to quantify benefits to data centers of participating in DR and to address concerns about DR's possible impact on data center performance or quality of service and equipment life span.

  10. California Geothermal Power Plant to Help Meet High Lithium Demand |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy California Geothermal Power Plant to Help Meet High Lithium Demand California Geothermal Power Plant to Help Meet High Lithium Demand September 20, 2012 - 1:15pm Addthis Ever wonder how we get the materials for the advanced batteries that power our cell phones, laptops, and even some electric vehicles? The U.S. Department of Energy's Geothermal Technologies Program (GTP) is working with California's Simbol Materials to develop technologies that extract battery materials

  11. Benefits of Demand Response in Electricity Markets and Recommendations for

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Achieving Them. A report to the United States Congress Pursuant to Section 1252 of the Energy Policy Act of 2005 (February 2006) | Department of Energy Demand Response in Electricity Markets and Recommendations for Achieving Them. A report to the United States Congress Pursuant to Section 1252 of the Energy Policy Act of 2005 (February 2006) Benefits of Demand Response in Electricity Markets and Recommendations for Achieving Them. A report to the United States Congress Pursuant to Section

  12. Light-Duty Vehicle Energy Demand, Demographics, and Travel Behavior

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    EIA Conference July 15, 2014 | Washington, DC By Trisha Hutchins, Office of Energy Consumption and Efficiency Analysis Light-duty vehicle energy demand, demographics, and travel behavior Examining changes in light-duty vehicle travel trends 2 EIA Conference: Light-duty vehicle energy demand, demographics, and travel behavior July 15, 2014 * Recent data indicate possible structural shift in travel behavior, measured as vehicle miles traveled (VMT) - VMT per licensed driver, vehicles per capita,

  13. Reducing Logistics Footprints and Replenishment Demands: Nano-engineered

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Silica Aerogels a Proven Method for Water Treatment (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect Technical Report: Reducing Logistics Footprints and Replenishment Demands: Nano-engineered Silica Aerogels a Proven Method for Water Treatment Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Reducing Logistics Footprints and Replenishment Demands: Nano-engineered Silica Aerogels a Proven Method for Water Treatment Rapid deployment and the use of objective force aggressively reduce logistic footprints and

  14. Expert Panel: Forecast Future Demand for Medical Isotopes | Department of

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Energy Expert Panel: Forecast Future Demand for Medical Isotopes Expert Panel: Forecast Future Demand for Medical Isotopes The Expert Panel has concluded that the Department of Energy and National Institutes of Health must develop the capability to produce a diverse supply of radioisotopes for medical use in quantities sufficient to support research and clinical activities. Such a capability would prevent shortages of isotopes, reduce American dependence on foreign radionuclide sources and

  15. Load Reduction, Demand Response and Energy Efficient Technologies and Strategies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boyd, Paul A.; Parker, Graham B.; Hatley, Darrel D.

    2008-11-19

    The Department of Energyís (DOEís) Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) was tasked by the DOE Office of Electricity (OE) to recommend load reduction and grid integration strategies, and identify additional demand response (energy efficiency/conservation opportunities) and strategies at the Forest City Housing (FCH) redevelopment at Pearl Harbor and the Marine Corps Base Hawaii (MCBH) at Kaneohe Bay. The goal was to provide FCH staff a path forward to manage their electricity load and thus reduce costs at these FCH family housing developments. The initial focus of the work was at the MCBH given the MCBH has a demand-ratchet tariff, relatively high demand (~18 MW) and a commensurate high blended electricity rate (26 cents/kWh). The peak demand for MCBH occurs in July-August. And, on average, family housing at MCBH contributes ~36% to the MCBH total energy consumption. Thus, a significant load reduction in family housing can have a considerable impact on the overall site load. Based on a site visit to the MCBH and meetings with MCBH installation, FCH, and Hawaiian Electric Company (HECO) staff, recommended actions (including a "smart grid" recommendation) that can be undertaken by FCH to manage and reduce peak-demand in family housing are made. Recommendations are also made to reduce overall energy consumption, and thus reduce demand in FCH family housing.

  16. China`s macro economic trends and power industry structure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Binsheng Li; Johnson, C.J.; Hagen, R.

    1994-09-01

    Since China adopted an open door policy in 1978, its economy has grown rapidly. Between 1980 and 1993, China`s real GNP growth averaged 9.4 percent per year. Economists at the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences forecast that GNP will increase by 11.5 percent in 1994. During the rest of the decade, the Chinese government plans to reduce its annual GNP growth rate to 8-9 percent. During the 2001-2010 period, the economic growth rate is projected to decline to 6.5 percent per year. Table 1 compares China`s economic growth to other Asia-Pacific Economies, and includes projections to 2010. During the 1980s, China`s GDP growth rate was only second to that of South Korea. In the 1990`s, China is projected to have the highest economic growth in the Asia-Pacific region. China`s rapid economic growth is due to dramatic increases in the effective labor supply and effective capital stock. For the remainder of the 1990s, the effective labor supply should continue to increase rapidly because: (1) Chinese state enterprises are over-staffed and labor system reforms will move millions of these workers into more productive activities; (2) reforms in the wage system will provide increased incentives to work harder; (3) relaxation of migration controls from rural to urban areas will cause nominal labor in the industrial sector to accelerate; (4) differentials in personal income will increase and develop peer pressure on workers to work harder and earn more money; and (5) at China`s low personal income level, Chinese people are willing to trade leisure for more income as wages increase.

  17. renewable sources of power. Demand for fossil fuels surely will...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    ... to meet future energy needs and worsen the national dependency on foreign petroleum. ... This trend towards a dependency on the transmission grid to facilitate not only economic ...

  18. Natural Gas Infrastructure Implications of Increased Demand from...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    ... While coal has regained some of its market share because of gradually rising natural gas prices, the combination of favorable economics and the lower conventional air pollution and ...

  19. Integration of Renewables Via Demand Management: Highly Dispatchable and Distributed Demand Response for the Integration of Distributed Generation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2012-02-11

    GENI Project: AutoGrid, in conjunction with Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and Columbia University, will design and demonstrate automated control software that helps manage real-time demand for energy across the electric grid. Known as the Demand Response Optimization and Management System - Real-Time (DROMS-RT), the software will enable personalized price signal to be sent to millions of customers in extremely short timeframesóincentivizing them to alter their electricity use in response to grid conditions. This will help grid operators better manage unpredictable demand and supply fluctuations in short time-scales ómaking the power generation process more efficient and cost effective for both suppliers and consumers. DROMS-RT is expected to provide a 90% reduction in the cost of operating demand response and dynamic pricing Projects in the U.S.

  20. Variables Affecting Economic Development of Wind Energy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lantz, E.; Tegen, S.

    2008-02-01

    Report on the specific factors driving wind-power-related economic development and on the impact of specific economic development variables on new wind project economic benefits.

  1. Energy Demand: Limits on the Response to Higher Energy Prices in the End-Use Sectors (released in AEO2007)

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2007-01-01

    Energy consumption in the end-use demand sectorsresidential, commercial, industrial, and transportationgenerally shows only limited change when energy prices increase. Several factors that limit the sensitivity of end-use energy demand to price signals are common across the end-use sectors. For example, because energy generally is consumed in long-lived capital equipment, short-run consumer responses to changes in energy prices are limited to reductions in the use of energy services or, in a few cases, fuel switching; and because energy services affect such critical lifestyle areas as personal comfort, medical services, and travel, end-use consumers often are willing to absorb price increases rather than cut back on energy use, especially when they are uncertain whether price increases will be long-lasting. Manufacturers, on the other hand, often are able to pass along higher energy costs, especially in cases where energy inputs are a relatively minor component of production costs. In economic terms, short-run energy demand typically is inelastic, and long-run energy demand is less inelastic or moderately elastic at best.

  2. Using Utility Load Data to Estimate Demand for Space Cooling and Potential for Shiftable Loads

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Denholm, P.; Ong, S.; Booten, C.

    2012-05-01

    This paper describes a simple method to estimate hourly cooling demand from historical utility load data. It compares total hourly demand to demand on cool days and compares these estimates of total cooling demand to previous regional and national estimates. Load profiles generated from this method may be used to estimate the potential for aggregated demand response or load shifting via cold storage.

  3. SRS Economic Impact Study - SRSCRO

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    SRS Economic Impact Study The operations at Savannah River Site (SRS) create jobs, generate income, and contribute to the tax revenues across both South Carolina and Georgia. When economic multipliers are factored in, the economic ripple effect is enormous. Despite its significance in recent years, there has been little understanding beyond qualitative observations about the value of SRS's contributions to the region and what that impact means in quantifiable terms. Consequently, the SRSCRO

  4. Hawaii demand-side management resource assessment. Final report: DSM opportunity report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-08-01

    The Hawaii Demand-Side Management Resource Assessment was the fourth of seven projects in the Hawaii Energy Strategy (HES) program. HES was designed by the Department of Business, Economic Development, and Tourism (DBEDT) to produce an integrated energy strategy for the State of Hawaii. The purpose of Project 4 was to develop a comprehensive assessment of Hawaii`s demand-side management (DSM) resources. To meet this objective, the project was divided into two phases. The first phase included development of a DSM technology database and the identification of Hawaii commercial building characteristics through on-site audits. These Phase 1 products were then used in Phase 2 to identify expected energy impacts from DSM measures in typical residential and commercial buildings in Hawaii. The building energy simulation model DOE-2.1E was utilized to identify the DSM energy impacts. More detailed information on the typical buildings and the DOE-2.1E modeling effort is available in Reference Volume 1, ``Building Prototype Analysis``. In addition to the DOE-2.1E analysis, estimates of residential and commercial sector gas and electric DSM potential for the four counties of Honolulu, Hawaii, Maui, and Kauai through 2014 were forecasted by the new DBEDT DSM Assessment Model. Results from DBEDTs energy forecasting model, ENERGY 2020, were linked with results from DOE-2.1E building energy simulation runs and estimates of DSM measure impacts, costs, lifetime, and anticipated market penetration rates in the DBEDT DSM Model. Through its algorithms, estimates of DSM potential for each forecast year were developed. Using the load shape information from the DOE-2.1E simulation runs, estimates of electric peak demand impacts were developed. 10 figs., 55 tabs.

  5. Optimal Control of Distributed Energy Resources and Demand Response under Uncertainty

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Siddiqui, Afzal; Stadler, Michael; Marnay, Chris; Lai, Judy

    2010-06-01

    We take the perspective of a microgrid that has installed distribution energy resources (DER) in the form of distributed generation with combined heat and power applications. Given uncertain electricity and fuel prices, the microgrid minimizes its expected annual energy bill for various capacity sizes. In almost all cases, there is an economic and environmental advantage to using DER in conjunction with demand response (DR): the expected annualized energy bill is reduced by 9percent while CO2 emissions decline by 25percent. Furthermore, the microgrid's risk is diminished as DER may be deployed depending on prevailing market conditions and local demand. In order to test a policy measure that would place a weight on CO2 emissions, we use a multi-criteria objective function that minimizes a weighted average of expected costs and emissions. We find that greater emphasis on CO2 emissions has a beneficial environmental impact only if DR is available and enough reserve generation capacity exists. Finally, greater uncertainty results in higher expected costs and risk exposure, the effects of which may be mitigated by selecting a larger capacity.

  6. economic hydrogen fuel cell vehicles

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    economic hydrogen fuel cell vehicles - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future ...

  7. U.S. electric utility demand-side management 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-12-01

    The US Electric Utility Demand-Side Management report presents comprehensive information on electric power industry demand-side management (DSM) activities in the US at the national, regional, and utility levels. The objective of the publication is to provide industry decision makers, government policy makers, analysts, and the general public with historical data that may be used in understanding DSM as it related to the US electric power industry. The first chapter, ``Profile: U.S. Electric Utility Demand-Side Management,`` presents a general discussion of DSM, its history, current issues, and a review of key statistics for the year. Subsequent chapters present discussions and more detailed data on energy savings, peak load reductions and costs attributable to DSM. 9 figs., 24 tabs.

  8. Magnetic fusion reactor economics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krakowski, R.A.

    1995-12-01

    An almost primordial trend in the conversion and use of energy is an increased complexity and cost of conversion systems designed to utilize cheaper and more-abundant fuels; this trend is exemplified by the progression fossil fission {yields} fusion. The present projections of the latter indicate that capital costs of the fusion ``burner`` far exceed any commensurate savings associated with the cheapest and most-abundant of fuels. These projections suggest competitive fusion power only if internal costs associate with the use of fossil or fission fuels emerge to make them either uneconomic, unacceptable, or both with respect to expensive fusion systems. This ``implementation-by-default`` plan for fusion is re-examined by identifying in general terms fusion power-plant embodiments that might compete favorably under conditions where internal costs (both economic and environmental) of fossil and/or fission are not as great as is needed to justify the contemporary vision for fusion power. Competitive fusion power in this context will require a significant broadening of an overly focused program to explore the physics and simbiotic technologies leading to more compact, simplified, and efficient plasma-confinement configurations that reside at the heart of an attractive fusion power plant.

  9. Fabricate-on-Demand Vacuum Insulating Glazings | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Fabricate-on-Demand Vacuum Insulating Glazings Fabricate-on-Demand Vacuum Insulating Glazings 1 of 3 PPG developed and commercialized the Intercept¬ģ Spacer System that revolutionized the manufacture of double-pane insulated glazing units (IGUs) 25 years ago. Over 125 PPG-licensed Intercept¬ģ Spacer System lines are in operation in the US. Currently in use in more than 600 million residential windows, the Intercept¬ģ Spacer System is the top-selling product of its kind in North America. Image:

  10. Demand Response in U.S. Electricity Markets: Empirical Evidence |

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Department of Energy in U.S. Electricity Markets: Empirical Evidence Demand Response in U.S. Electricity Markets: Empirical Evidence The work described in this paper was funded by the Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability, Permitting, Siting and Analysis of the U.S. Department of Energy under contract No. DE-AC02-05CH11231. The authors are solely responsible for any omissions or errors contained herein. PDF icon Demand Response in U.S. Electricity Markets: Empirical Evidence

  11. Evaluation of Representative Smart Grid Investment Project Technologies: Demand Response

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fuller, Jason C.; Prakash Kumar, Nirupama; Bonebrake, Christopher A.

    2012-02-14

    This document is one of a series of reports estimating the benefits of deploying technologies similar to those implemented on the Smart Grid Investment Grant (SGIG) projects. Four technical reports cover the various types of technologies deployed in the SGIG projects, distribution automation, demand response, energy storage, and renewables integration. A fifth report in the series examines the benefits of deploying these technologies on a national level. This technical report examines the impacts of a limited number of demand response technologies and implementations deployed in the SGIG projects.

  12. Advanced Small Modular Reactor Economics Status Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harrison, Thomas J.

    2014-10-01

    This report describes the data collection work performed for an advanced small modular reactor (AdvSMR) economics analysis activity at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The methodology development and analytical results are described in separate, stand-alone documents as listed in the references. The economics analysis effort for the AdvSMR program combines the technical and fuel cycle aspects of advanced (non-light water reactor [LWR]) reactors with the market and production aspects of SMRs. This requires the collection, analysis, and synthesis of multiple unrelated and potentially high-uncertainty data sets from a wide range of data sources. Further, the nature of both economic and nuclear technology analysis requires at least a minor attempt at prediction and prognostication, and the far-term horizon for deployment of advanced nuclear systems introduces more uncertainty. Energy market uncertainty, especially the electricity market, is the result of the integration of commodity prices, demand fluctuation, and generation competition, as easily seen in deregulated markets. Depending on current or projected values for any of these factors, the economic attractiveness of any power plant construction project can change yearly or quarterly. For long-lead construction projects such as nuclear power plants, this uncertainty generates an implied and inherent risk for potential nuclear power plant owners and operators. The uncertainty in nuclear reactor and fuel cycle costs is in some respects better understood and quantified than the energy market uncertainty. The LWR-based fuel cycle has a long commercial history to use as its basis for cost estimation, and the current activities in LWR construction provide a reliable baseline for estimates for similar efforts. However, for advanced systems, the estimates and their associated uncertainties are based on forward-looking assumptions for performance after the system has been built and has achieved commercial operation. Advanced fuel materials and fabrication costs have large uncertainties based on complexities of operation, such as contact-handled fuel fabrication versus remote handling, or commodity availability. Thus, this analytical work makes a good faith effort to quantify uncertainties and provide qualifiers, caveats, and explanations for the sources of these uncertainties. The overall result is that this work assembles the necessary information and establishes the foundation for future analyses using more precise data as nuclear technology advances.

  13. Energy Implications of Economizer Use in California Data Centers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shehabi, Arman; Ganguly, Srirupa; Traber, Kim; Price, Hillary; Horvath, Arpad; Nazaroff, William W.; Gadgil, Ashok J.

    2008-08-01

    In the US, data center operations currently account for about 61 billion kWh/y of electricity consumption, which is more than 1.5percent of total demand. Data center energy consumption is rising rapidly, having doubled in the last five years. A substantial portion of data-center energy use is dedicated to removing the heat generated by the computer equipment. Data-center cooling load might be met with substantially reduced energy consumption with the use of air-side economizers. This energy saving measure, however, has been shown to expose servers to an order-of-magnitude increase in indoor particle concentrations with an unquantified increase in the risk of equipment failure. An alternative energy saving option is the use of water-side economizers, which do not affect the indoor particle concentration but require additional mechanical equipment and tend to be less beneficial in high humidity areas. Published research has only presented qualitative benefits of economizer use, providing industry with inadequate information on which to base their design decisions. Energy savings depend on local climate and the specific building-design characteristics. In this paper, based on building energy models, we report energy savings for air-side and water-side economizer use in data centers in several climate zones in California. Results show that in terms of energy savings, air-side economizers consistently outperform water-side economizers, though the performance difference varies by location. Model results also show that conventional humidity restrictions must by relaxed or removed to gain the energy benefits of air-side economizers.

  14. How Can China Lighten Up? Urbanization, Industrialization and Energy Demand Scenarios

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aden, Nathaniel T.; Zheng, Nina; Fridley, David G.

    2009-07-01

    Urbanization has re-shaped China's economy, society, and energy system. Between 1990 and 2007 China added 290 million new urban residents, bringing the total urbanization rate to 45%. This population adjustment spurred energy demand for construction of new buildings and infrastructure, as well as additional residential use as rural biomass was replaced with urban commercial energy services. Primary energy demand grew at an average annual rate of 10% between 2000 and 2007. Urbanization's effect on energy demand was compounded by the boom in domestic infrastructure investment, and in the export trade following World Trade Organization (WTO) accession in 2001. Industry energy consumption was most directly affected by this acceleration. Whereas industry comprised 32% of 2007 U.S. energy use, it accounted for 75% of China's 2007 energy consumption. Five sub-sectors accounted for 78% of China's industry energy use in 2007: iron and steel, energy extraction and processing, chemicals, cement, and non-ferrous metals. Ferrous metals alone accounted for 25% of industry and 18% of total primary energy use. The rapid growth of heavy industry has led China to become by far the world's largest producer of steel, cement, aluminum, and other energy-intensive commodities. However, the energy efficiency of heavy industrial production continues to lag world best practice levels. This study uses scenario analysis to quantify the impact of urbanization and trade on industrial and residential energy consumption from 2000 to 2025. The BAU scenario assumed 67% urbanization, frozen export amounts of heavy industrial products, and achievement of world best practices by 2025. The China Lightens Up (CLU) scenario assumed 55% urbanization, zero net exports of heavy industrial products, and more aggressive efficiency improvements by 2025. The five dominant industry sub-sectors were modeled in both scenarios using a LEAP energy end-use accounting model. The results of this study show that a CLU-style development path would avoid 430 million tonnes coal-equivalent energy use by 2025. More than 60% of these energy savings would come from reduced activity and production levels. In carbon terms, this would amount to more than a billion-tonne reduction of energy-related carbon emissions compared with the BAU scenario in 2025, though the absolute level of emissions rises in both scenarios. Aside from the energy and carbon savings related to CLU scenario development, this study showed impending saturation effects in commercial construction, urban appliance ownership, and fertilizer application. The implication of these findings is that urbanization will have a direct impact on future energy use and emissions - policies to guide urban growth can play a central role in China's efforts to mitigate emissions growth.

  15. Competitive economics of nuclear power

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hellman, R.

    1981-03-02

    Some 12 components of a valid study of the competitive economics of a newly ordered nuclear power plant are identified and explicated. These are then used to adjust the original cost projections of four authoritative studies of nuclear and coal power economics.

  16. Optimization of Occupancy Based Demand Controlled Ventilation in Residences

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mortensen, Dorthe K.; Walker, Iain S.; Sherman, Max H.

    2011-05-01

    Although it has been used for many years in commercial buildings, the application of demand controlled ventilation in residences is limited. In this study we used occupant exposure to pollutants integrated over time (referred to as 'dose') as the metric to evaluate the effectiveness and air quality implications of demand controlled ventilation in residences. We looked at air quality for two situations. The first is that typically used in ventilation standards: the exposure over a long term. The second is to look at peak exposures that are associated with time variations in ventilation rates and pollutant generation. The pollutant generation had two components: a background rate associated with the building materials and furnishings and a second component related to occupants. The demand controlled ventilation system operated at a low airflow rate when the residence was unoccupied and at a high airflow rate when occupied. We used analytical solutions to the continuity equation to determine the ventilation effectiveness and the long-term chronic dose and peak acute exposure for a representative range of occupancy periods, pollutant generation rates and airflow rates. The results of the study showed that we can optimize the demand controlled airflow rates to reduce the quantity of air used for ventilation without introducing problematic acute conditions.

  17. Demand, Supply, and Price Outlook for Reformulated Motor Gasoline 1995

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    1994-01-01

    Provisions of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 designed to reduce ground-level ozone will increase the demand for reformulated motor gasoline in a number of U.S. metropolitan areas. This article discusses the effects of the new regulations on the motor gasoline market and the refining industry.

  18. Greater fuel diversity needed to meet growing US electricity demand

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burt, B.; Mullins, S.

    2008-01-15

    Electricity demand is growing in the USA. One way to manage the uncertainty is to diversity fuel sources. Fuel sources include coal, natural gas, nuclear and renewable energy sources. Tables show actual and planned generation projects by fuel types. 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  19. Aggregate Model for Heterogeneous Thermostatically Controlled Loads with Demand Response

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Wei; Kalsi, Karanjit; Fuller, Jason C.; Elizondo, Marcelo A.; Chassin, David P.

    2012-07-22

    Due to the potentially large number of Distributed Energy Resources (DERs) Ė demand response, distributed generation, distributed storage - that are expected to be deployed, it is impractical to use detailed models of these resources when integrated with the transmission system. Being able to accurately estimate the fast transients caused by demand response is especially important to analyze the stability of the system under different demand response strategies. On the other hand, a less complex model is more amenable to design feedback control strategies for the population of devices to provide ancillary services. The main contribution of this paper is to develop aggregated models for a heterogeneous population of Thermostatic Controlled Loads (TCLs) to accurately capture their collective behavior under demand response and other time varying effects of the system. The aggregated model efficiently includes statistical information of the population and accounts for a second order effect necessary to accurately capture the collective dynamic behavior. The developed aggregated models are validated against simulations of thousands of detailed building models using GridLAB-D (an open source distribution simulation software) under both steady state and severe dynamic conditions caused due to temperature set point changes.

  20. Demand Response and Energy Storage Integration Study- Past Workshops

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The project was initiated and informed by the results of two DOE workshops; one on energy storage and the other on demand response. The workshops were attended by members of the electric power industry, researchers, and policy makers; and the study design and goals reflect their contributions to the collective thinking of the project team.

  1. Using Community-Based Social Marketing to Drive Demand for Energy...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Using Community-Based Social Marketing to Drive Demand for Energy Efficiency Using Community-Based Social Marketing to Drive Demand for Energy Efficiency Slides presented in the ...

  2. Property:OpenEI/UtilityRate/DemandChargePeriod1 | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Jump to: navigation, search This is a property of type Number. Name: Demand Charge Period 1 Pages using the property "OpenEIUtilityRateDemandChargePeriod1"...

  3. Property:OpenEI/UtilityRate/DemandRatchetPercentage | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Jump to: navigation, search This is a property of type Number. Name: Demand Ratchet Percentage Pages using the property "OpenEIUtilityRateDemandRatchetPercentag...

  4. Bioenergy Demand in a Market Driven Forest Economy (U.S. South...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    to model supply over time * Then look at the impact of various demand scenarios * Pellet demand scenarios and carbon consequences dominate current research - biofuels not so...

  5. Automation systems for Demand Response, ForskEL (Smart Grid Project...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    systems for Demand Response, ForskEL (Smart Grid Project) Jump to: navigation, search Project Name Automation systems for Demand Response, ForskEL Country Denmark Coordinates...

  6. ADB-Methods and Tools for Energy Demand Projection | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    ADB-Methods and Tools for Energy Demand Projection Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Methods and Tools for Energy Demand Projection AgencyCompany...

  7. Renewable Electricity Futures Study. Volume 3: End-Use Electricity Demand

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hostick, D.; Belzer, D.B.; Hadley, S.W.; Markel, T.; Marnay, C.; Kintner-Meyer, M.

    2012-06-01

    The Renewable Electricity Futures (RE Futures) Study investigated the challenges and impacts of achieving very high renewable electricity generation levels in the contiguous United States by 2050. The analysis focused on the sufficiency of the geographically diverse U.S. renewable resources to meet electricity demand over future decades, the hourly operational characteristics of the U.S. grid with high levels of variable wind and solar generation, and the potential implications of deploying high levels of renewables in the future. RE Futures focused on technical aspects of high penetration of renewable electricity; it did not focus on how to achieve such a future through policy or other measures. Given the inherent uncertainties involved with analyzing alternative long-term energy futures as well as the multiple pathways that might be taken to achieve higher levels of renewable electricity supply, RE Futures explored a range of scenarios to investigate and compare the impacts of renewable electricity penetration levels (30%-90%), future technology performance improvements, potential constraints to renewable electricity development, and future electricity demand growth assumptions. RE Futures was led by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT).

  8. Renewable Electricity Futures Study. Volume 3. End-Use Electricity Demand

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hostick, Donna; Belzer, David B.; Hadley, Stanton W.; Markel, Tony; Marnay, Chris; Kintner-Meyer, Michael

    2012-06-15

    The Renewable Electricity Futures (RE Futures) Study investigated the challenges and impacts of achieving very high renewable electricity generation levels in the contiguous United States by 2050. The analysis focused on the sufficiency of the geographically diverse U.S. renewable resources to meet electricity demand over future decades, the hourly operational characteristics of the U.S. grid with high levels of variable wind and solar generation, and the potential implications of deploying high levels of renewables in the future. RE Futures focused on technical aspects of high penetration of renewable electricity; it did not focus on how to achieve such a future through policy or other measures. Given the inherent uncertainties involved with analyzing alternative long-term energy futures as well as the multiple pathways that might be taken to achieve higher levels of renewable electricity supply, RE Futures explored a range of scenarios to investigate and compare the impacts of renewable electricity penetration levels (30%‚Äď90%), future technology performance improvements, potential constraints to renewable electricity development, and future electricity demand growth assumptions. RE Futures was led by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT). Learn more at the RE Futures website. http://www.nrel.gov/analysis/re_futures/

  9. The Role of Demand Response in Default Service Pricing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barbose, Galen; Goldman, Chuck; Neenan, Bernie

    2006-03-10

    Dynamic retail electricity pricing, especially real-time pricing (RTP), has been widely heralded as a panacea for providing much-needed demand response in electricity markets. However, in designing default service for competitive retail markets, demand response often appears to be an afterthought. But that may be changing as states that initiated customer choice in the past 5-7 years reach an important juncture in retail market design. Most states with retail choice established an initial transitional period, during which utilities were required to offer a default or ''standard offer'' generation service, often at a capped or otherwise administratively-determined rate. Many retail choice states have reached, or are nearing, the end of their transitional period and several states have adopted an RTP-type default service for large commercial and industrial (C&I) customers. Are these initiatives motivated by the desire to induce greater demand response, or is RTP being called upon to serve a different role in competitive markets? Surprisingly, we found that in most cases, the primary reason for adopting RTP as the default service was not to encourage demand response, but rather to advance policy objectives related to the development of competitive retail markets. However, we also find that, if efforts are made in its design and implementation, default RTP service can also provide a solid foundation for developing price responsive demand, creating an important link between wholesale and retail market transactions. This paper, which draws from a lengthier report, describes the experience to date with default RTP in the U.S., identifying findings related to its actual and potential role as an instrument for cultivating price responsive demand [1]. For each of the five states currently with default RTP, we conducted a detailed review of the regulatory proceedings leading to its adoption. To further understand the intentions and expectations of those involved in its design and implementation, we also interviewed regulatory staff and utilities in each state, as well as eight of the most prominent competitive retail suppliers operating in these markets which, together, comprised about 60-65% of competitive C&I sales in the U.S. in 2004 [2].

  10. Smart Growth Resources

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Transportation efficiency reduces travel demand as measured by vehicle miles traveled (VMT). While transportation efficiency policies are often implemented under local governments, national and...

  11. Impact of Rate Design Alternatives on Residential Solar Customer Bills. Increased Fixed Charges, Minimum Bills and Demand-based Rates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bird, Lori; Davidson, Carolyn; McLaren, Joyce; Miller, John

    2015-09-01

    With rapid growth in energy efficiency and distributed generation, electric utilities are anticipating stagnant or decreasing electricity sales, particularly in the residential sector. Utilities are increasingly considering alternative rates structures that are designed to recover fixed costs from residential solar photovoltaic (PV) customers with low net electricity consumption. Proposed structures have included fixed charge increases, minimum bills, and increasingly, demand rates - for net metered customers and all customers. This study examines the electricity bill implications of various residential rate alternatives for multiple locations within the United States. For the locations analyzed, the results suggest that residential PV customers offset, on average, between 60% and 99% of their annual load. However, roughly 65% of a typical customer's electricity demand is non-coincidental with PV generation, so the typical PV customer is generally highly reliant on the grid for pooling services.

  12. On-demand Overlay Networks for Large Scientific Data Transfers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ramakrishnan, Lavanya; Guok, Chin; Jackson, Keith; Kissel, Ezra; Swany, D. Martin; Agarwal, Deborah

    2009-10-12

    Large scale scientific data transfers are central to scientific processes. Data from large experimental facilities have to be moved to local institutions for analysis or often data needs to be moved between local clusters and large supercomputing centers. In this paper, we propose and evaluate a network overlay architecture to enable highthroughput, on-demand, coordinated data transfers over wide-area networks. Our work leverages Phoebus and On-demand Secure Circuits and AdvanceReservation System (OSCARS) to provide high performance wide-area network connections. OSCARS enables dynamic provisioning of network paths with guaranteed bandwidth and Phoebus enables the coordination and effective utilization of the OSCARS network paths. Our evaluation shows that this approach leads to improved end-to-end data transfer throughput with minimal overheads. The achievedthroughput using our overlay was limited only by the ability of the end hosts to sink the data.

  13. Apparatus producing constant cable tension for intermittent demand

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lauritzen, T.

    1984-05-23

    This invention relates to apparatus for producing constant tension in cable or the like when it is unreeled and reeled from a drum or spool under conditions of intermittent demand. The invention is particularly applicable to the handling of superconductive cable, but the invention is also applicable to the unreeling and reeling of other strands, such as electrical cable, wire, cord, other cables, fish line, wrapping paper and numerous other materials.

  14. Regulatory risks paralyzing power industry while demand grows

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maize, K.; Peltier, R.

    2008-01-15

    2008 will be the year the US generation industry grapples with CO{sub 2} emission. Project developers are suddenly coal-shy, mostly flirting with new nuclear plants waiting impatiently in line for equipment manufacturers to catch up with the demand for wind turbines, and finding gas more attractive again. With no proven greenhouse gas sequestration technology on the horizon, utilities will be playing it safe with energy-efficiency ploys rather than rushing to contract for much-needed new generation.

  15. ECIS-Princeton Power Systems, Inc.: Demand Response Inverter

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Princeton Power Systems, Inc.: Demand Response Inverter - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing Nuclear Fuel Cycle Defense

  16. National Microalgae Biofuel Production Potential and Resource Demand

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wigmosta, Mark S.; Coleman, Andre M.; Skaggs, Richard; Huesemann, Michael H.; Lane, Leonard J.

    2011-04-14

    Microalgae continue to receive global attention as a potential sustainable "energy crop" for biofuel production. An important step to realizing the potential of algae is quantifying the demands commercial-scale algal biofuel production will place on water and land resources. We present a high-resolution national resource and oil production assessment that brings to bear fundamental research questions of where open pond microalgae production can occur, how much land and water resource is required, and how much energy is produced. Our study suggests under current technology microalgae have the potential to generate 220 billion liters/year of oil, equivalent to 48% of current U.S. petroleum imports for transportation fuels. However, this level of production would require 5.5% of the land area in the conterminous U.S., and nearly three times the volume of water currently used for irrigated agriculture, averaging 1,421 L water per L of oil. Optimizing the selection of locations for microalgae production based on water use efficiency can greatly reduce total water demand. For example, focusing on locations along the Gulf Coast, Southeastern Seaboard, and areas adjacent to the Great Lakes, shows a 75% reduction in water demand to 350 L per L of oil produced with a 67% reduction in land use. These optimized locations have the potential to generate an oil volume equivalent to 17% of imports for transportation fuels, equal to the Energy Independence and Security Act year 2022 "advanced biofuels" production target, and utilizing some 25% of the current irrigation consumptive water demand for the U. S. These results suggest that, with proper planning, adequate land and water are available to meet a significant portion of the U.S. renewable fuel goals.

  17. Tribal Facilities Retrofits: Freeing Up Resources through Reduced Demand

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    up resources through reduced demand" Elias Duran - Facilities Manager ¬° Day to day operations of facilities ¬° Budget control over facilities ¬° Project needs for future space requirements ¬° Maintenance ¬° Capital improvements ¬° Brief history of the Tlingit & Haida Tribes ¬° Tour of our existing facilities ¬° Historical utility cost data ¬° Summary of Project Objectives ¬° Expected cost and emission reductions ¬° Strategic planning for future implementation Two separate Tribes United

  18. NREL: dGen: Distributed Generation Market Demand Model - Documentation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Documentation The Distributed Generation Market Demand (dGen) model documentation summarizes the default data inputs and assumptions for the model. Input data for the model are regularly updated and include recent EIA Annual Energy Outlook projections, state-level net metering and incentive policies, and utility-level retail electricity rates. Note that the dGen model builds on, extends, and provides significant advances over NREL's deprecated SolarDS model. Documentation Outline Introduction

  19. The Role of Demand Response in Default Service Pricing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barbose, Galen; Goldman, Charles; Neenan, Bernie

    2005-11-09

    Dynamic retail pricing, especially real-time pricing (RTP), has been widely heralded as a panacea for providing much-needed demand response in electricity markets. However, in designing default service for competitive retail markets, demand response has been an afterthought, and in some cases not given any weight at all. But that may be changing, as states that initiated customer choice in the past 5-7 years reach an important juncture in retail market design. Most states with retail choice established an initial transitional period during which utilities were required to offer a default or standard offer generation service, often at a capped or otherwise administratively-determined rate. Many retail choice states have reached the end of their transitional period, and several have adopted or are actively considering an RTP-type default service for large commercial and industrial (C&I) customers. In most cases, the primary reason for adopting RTP as the default service has been to advance policy objectives related to the development of competitive retail markets. However, if attention is paid in its design and implementation, default RTP service can also provide a solid foundation for developing price responsive demand, creating an important link between wholesale and retail market transactions. This article, which draws from a lengthier report, describes experience to date with RTP as a default service, focusing on its role as an instrument for cultivating price responsive demand.1 As of summer 2005, default service RTP was in place or approved for future implementation in five U.S. states: New Jersey, Maryland, Pennsylvania, New York, and Illinois. For each of these states, we conducted a detailed review of the regulatory proceedings leading to adoption of default RTP and interviewed regulatory staff and utilities in these states, as well as eight competitive retail suppliers active in these markets.

  20. Electric Water Heater Modeling and Control Strategies for Demand Response

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Diao, Ruisheng; Lu, Shuai; Elizondo, Marcelo A.; Mayhorn, Ebony T.; Zhang, Yu; Samaan, Nader A.

    2012-07-22

    Abstractó Demand response (DR) has a great potential to provide balancing services at normal operating conditions and emergency support when a power system is subject to disturbances. Effective control strategies can significantly relieve the balancing burden of conventional generators and reduce investment on generation and transmission expansion. This paper is aimed at modeling electric water heaters (EWH) in households and tests their response to control strategies to implement DR. The open-loop response of EWH to a centralized signal is studied by adjusting temperature settings to provide regulation services; and two types of decentralized controllers are tested to provide frequency support following generator trips. EWH models are included in a simulation platform in DIgSILENT to perform electromechanical simulation, which contains 147 households in a distribution feeder. Simulation results show the dependence of EWH response on water heater usage . These results provide insight suggestions on the need of control strategies to achieve better performance for demand response implementation. Index Termsó Centralized control, decentralized control, demand response, electrical water heater, smart grid

  1. Electricity Demand Evolution Driven by Storm Motivated Population Movement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Allen, Melissa R; Fernandez, Steven J; Fu, Joshua S; Walker, Kimberly A

    2014-01-01

    Managing the risks posed by climate change to energy production and delivery is a challenge for communities worldwide. Sea Level rise and increased frequency and intensity of natural disasters due to sea surface temperature rise force populations to move locations, resulting in changing patterns of demand for infrastructure services. Thus, Infrastructures will evolve to accommodate new load centers while some parts of the network are underused, and these changes will create emerging vulnerabilities. Combining climate predictions and agent based population movement models shows promise for exploring the universe of these future population distributions and changes in coastal infrastructure configurations. In this work, we created a prototype agent based population distribution model and developed a methodology to establish utility functions that provide insight about new infrastructure vulnerabilities that might result from these patterns. Combining climate and weather data, engineering algorithms and social theory, we use the new Department of Energy (DOE) Connected Infrastructure Dynamics Models (CIDM) to examine electricity demand response to increased temperatures, population relocation in response to extreme cyclonic events, consequent net population changes and new regional patterns in electricity demand. This work suggests that the importance of established evacuation routes that move large populations repeatedly through convergence points as an indicator may be under recognized.

  2. Laboratory Testing of Demand-Response Enabled Household Appliances

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sparn, B.; Jin, X.; Earle, L.

    2013-10-01

    With the advent of the Advanced Metering Infrastructure (AMI) systems capable of two-way communications between the utility's grid and the building, there has been significant effort in the Automated Home Energy Management (AHEM) industry to develop capabilities that allow residential building systems to respond to utility demand events by temporarily reducing their electricity usage. Major appliance manufacturers are following suit by developing Home Area Network (HAN)-tied appliance suites that can take signals from the home's 'smart meter,' a.k.a. AMI meter, and adjust their run cycles accordingly. There are numerous strategies that can be employed by household appliances to respond to demand-side management opportunities, and they could result in substantial reductions in electricity bills for the residents depending on the pricing structures used by the utilities to incent these types of responses. The first step to quantifying these end effects is to test these systems and their responses in simulated demand-response (DR) conditions while monitoring energy use and overall system performance.

  3. Laboratory Testing of Demand-Response Enabled Household Appliances

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sparn, B.; Jin, X.; Earle, L.

    2013-10-01

    With the advent of the Advanced Metering Infrastructure (AMI) systems capable of two-way communications between the utility's grid and the building, there has been significant effort in the Automated Home Energy Management (AHEM) industry to develop capabilities that allow residential building systems to respond to utility demand events by temporarily reducing their electricity usage. Major appliance manufacturers are following suit by developing Home Area Network (HAN)-tied appliance suites that can take signals from the home's 'smart meter,' a.k.a. AMI meter, and adjust their run cycles accordingly. There are numerous strategies that can be employed by household appliances to respond to demand-side management opportunities, and they could result in substantial reductions in electricity bills for the residents depending on the pricing structures used by the utilities to incent these types of responses.The first step to quantifying these end effects is to test these systems and their responses in simulated demand-response (DR) conditions while monitoring energy use and overall system performance.

  4. Condensing economizers for small coal-fired boilers and furnaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Butcher, T.A.; Litzke, W.

    1994-01-01

    Condensing economizers increase the thermal efficiency of boilers by recovering sensible and latent heat from exhaust gas. These economizers are currently being used commercially for this purpose in a wide range of applications. Performance is dependent upon application-specific factors affecting the utility of recovered heat. With the addition of a condensing economizer boiler efficiency improvements up to 10% are possible. Condensing economizers can also capture flue gas particulates. In this work, the potential use of condensing economizers for both efficiency improvement and control of particulate emissions from small, coal water slurry-fired boilers was evaluated. Analysis was done to predict heat transfer and particulate capture by mechanisms including: inertial impaction, interception, diffusion, thermophoretic forces, and condensation growth. Shell-and-tube geometries were considered with flue gas on the outside of Teflon-covered tubes. Experimental studies were done with both air- and water-cooled economizers refit to a small boiler. Two experimental arrangements were used including oil-firing with injection of flyash upstream of the economizer and direct coal water slurry firing. Firing rates ranged from 27 to 82 kW (92,000 to 280,000 Btu/hr). Inertial impaction was found to be the most important particulate capture mechanism and removal efficiencies to 95% were achieved. With the addition of water sprays directly on the first row of tubes, removal efficiencies increased to 98%. Use of these sprays adversely affects heat recovery. Primary benefits of the sprays are seen to be the addition of small impaction sites and future design improvements are suggested in which such small impactors are permanently added to the highest velocity regions of the economizer. Predicted effects of these added impactors on particulate removal and pressure drop are presented.

  5. Coiled tubing drilling requires economic and technical analyses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gary, S.C. )

    1995-02-20

    Field experience has proven that coiled tubing drilling is a technical and economic option on some wells; however, coiled tubing drilling is not the solution to every drilling prospect or production-enhancement job. To determine if coiled tubing drilling is viable, the geographic, technical, and economic aspects of each project must be considered in detail. Generally, with some limitations, coiled tubing drilling is feasible primarily when jointed pipe cannot be used effectively. Also, coiled tubing drilling may be more appropriate because of some special well site requirements, such as environmental regulations requiring less surface disturbance. The paper discusses technical considerations which need to be considered, economic feasibility, limitations of well types (new shallow wells, conventional reentry, through-tubing reentry, and underbalanced drilling), and outlook for further growth in the coiled tubing drilling industry.

  6. Northwest Open Automated Demand Response Technology Demonstration Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kiliccote, Sila; Piette, Mary Ann; Dudley, Junqiao

    2010-03-17

    The Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) Demand Response Research Center (DRRC) demonstrated and evaluated open automated demand response (OpenADR) communication infrastructure to reduce winter morning and summer afternoon peak electricity demand in commercial buildings the Seattle area. LBNL performed this demonstration for the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) in the Seattle City Light (SCL) service territory at five sites: Seattle Municipal Tower, Seattle University, McKinstry, and two Target stores. This report describes the process and results of the demonstration. OpenADR is an information exchange model that uses a client-server architecture to automate demand-response (DR) programs. These field tests evaluated the feasibility of deploying fully automated DR during both winter and summer peak periods. DR savings were evaluated for several building systems and control strategies. This project studied DR during hot summer afternoons and cold winter mornings, both periods when electricity demand is typically high. This is the DRRC project team's first experience using automation for year-round DR resources and evaluating the flexibility of commercial buildings end-use loads to participate in DR in dual-peaking climates. The lessons learned contribute to understanding end-use loads that are suitable for dispatch at different times of the year. The project was funded by BPA and SCL. BPA is a U.S. Department of Energy agency headquartered in Portland, Oregon and serving the Pacific Northwest. BPA operates an electricity transmission system and markets wholesale electrical power at cost from federal dams, one non-federal nuclear plant, and other non-federal hydroelectric and wind energy generation facilities. Created by the citizens of Seattle in 1902, SCL is the second-largest municipal utility in America. SCL purchases approximately 40% of its electricity and the majority of its transmission from BPA through a preference contract. SCL also provides ancillary services within its own balancing authority. The relationship between BPA and SCL creates a unique opportunity to create DR programs that address both BPA's and SCL's markets simultaneously. Although simultaneously addressing both market could significantly increase the value of DR programs for BPA, SCL, and the end user, establishing program parameters that maximize this value is challenging because of complex contractual arrangements and the absence of a central Independent System Operator or Regional Transmission Organization in the northwest.

  7. A DISTRIBUTED INTELLIGENT AUTOMATED DEMAND RESPONSE BUILDING MANAGEMENT SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Auslander, David; Culler, David; Wright, Paul; Lu, Yan; Piette, Mary

    2013-12-30

    The goal of the 2.5 year Distributed Intelligent Automated Demand Response (DIADR) project was to reduce peak electricity load of Sutardja Dai Hall at UC Berkeley by 30% while maintaining a healthy, comfortable, and productive environment for the occupants. We sought to bring together both central and distributed control to provide ‚Äúdeep‚ÄĚ demand response1 at the appliance level of the building as well as typical lighting and HVAC applications. This project brought together Siemens Corporate Research and Siemens Building Technology (the building has a Siemens Apogee Building Automation System (BAS)), Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (leveraging their Open Automated Demand Response (openADR), Auto-¬≠Demand Response, and building modeling expertise), and UC Berkeley (related demand response research including distributed wireless control, and grid-¬≠to-¬≠building gateway development). Sutardja Dai Hall houses the Center for Information Technology Research in the Interest of Society (CITRIS), which fosters collaboration among industry and faculty and students of four UC campuses (Berkeley, Davis, Merced, and Santa Cruz). The 141,000 square foot building, occupied in 2009, includes typical office spaces and a nanofabrication laboratory. Heating is provided by a district heating system (steam from campus as a byproduct of the campus cogeneration plant); cooling is provided by one of two chillers: a more typical electric centrifugal compressor chiller designed for the cool months (Nov-¬≠ March) and a steam absorption chiller for use in the warm months (April-¬≠October). Lighting in the open office areas is provided by direct-¬≠indirect luminaries with Building Management System-¬≠based scheduling for open areas, and occupancy sensors for private office areas. For the purposes of this project, we focused on the office portion of the building. Annual energy consumption is approximately 8053 MWh; the office portion is estimated as 1924 MWh. The maximum peak load during the study period was 1175 kW. Several new tools facilitated this work, such as the Smart Energy Box, the distributed load controller or Energy Information Gateway, the web-¬≠based DR controller (dubbed the Central Load-¬≠Shed Coordinator or CLSC), and the Demand Response Capacity Assessment & Operation Assistance Tool (DRCAOT). In addition, an innovative data aggregator called sMAP (simple Measurement and Actuation Profile) allowed data from different sources collected in a compact form and facilitated detailed analysis of the building systems operation. A smart phone application (RAP or Rapid Audit Protocol) facilitated an inventory of the building‚Äôs plug loads. Carbon dioxide sensors located in conference rooms and classrooms allowed demand controlled ventilation. The extensive submetering and nimble access to this data provided great insight into the details of the building operation as well as quick diagnostics and analyses of tests. For example, students discovered a short-¬≠cycling chiller, a stuck damper, and a leaking cooling coil in the first field tests. For our final field tests, we were able to see how each zone was affected by the DR strategies (e.g., the offices on the 7th floor grew very warm quickly) and fine-¬≠tune the strategies accordingly.

  8. WINDExchange: Jobs and Economic Development Impact Models

    Wind Powering America (EERE)

    Deployment Activities Printable Version Bookmark and Share Regional Resource Centers Economic Development Jobs and Economic Development Impacts Model Resources & Tools Siting Jobs and Economic Development Impact Models JEDI: Jobs and Economic Development Impacts Model Fact Sheet PDF The Jobs and Economic Development Impact (JEDI) models are user-friendly tools that estimate the economic impacts of constructing and operating power generation at the local and state levels. Based on

  9. Transcript of Tribal Energy and Economic Webinar: Energy Planning for Tribal Economic Development

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Transcript for the Tribal Energy and Economic Webinar: Energy Planning for Tribal Economic Development held on Jan. 27, 2016.

  10. Travois Indian Country Affordable Housing & Economic Development...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Travois Indian Country Affordable Housing & Economic Development Conference Travois Indian Country Affordable Housing & Economic Development Conference April 4, 2016 8:00AM CDT to ...

  11. Chemical incident economic impact analysis methodology. (Technical...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Chemical incident economic impact analysis methodology. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Chemical incident economic impact analysis methodology. You are accessing a ...

  12. Workforce and Economic Development | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Workforce and Economic Development Workforce and Economic Development Slides presented in the "What's Working in Residential Energy Efficiency Upgrade Programs Conference - ...

  13. Renewable Energy: science, politics, and economics (Technical...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Technical Report: Renewable Energy: science, politics, and economics Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Renewable Energy: science, politics, and economics You are ...

  14. Chemical incident economic impact analysis methodology. (Technical...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Technical Report: Chemical incident economic impact analysis methodology. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Chemical incident economic impact analysis methodology. ...

  15. PERI Green Economics | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    PERI Green Economics Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: PERI Green Economics AgencyCompany Organization: Political Economy Research Institute Sector:...

  16. Economic, Energy, and Environmental Benefits of Concentrating...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Economic, Energy, and Environmental Benefits of Concentrating Solar Power in California L. ... NRELSR-550-39291 April 2006 Economic, Energy, and Environmental Benefits of ...

  17. Demand Response Opportunities in Industrial Refrigerated Warehouses in California

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goli, Sasank; McKane, Aimee; Olsen, Daniel

    2011-06-14

    Industrial refrigerated warehouses that implemented energy efficiency measures and have centralized control systems can be excellent candidates for Automated Demand Response (Auto-DR) due to equipment synergies, and receptivity of facility managers to strategies that control energy costs without disrupting facility operations. Auto-DR utilizes OpenADR protocol for continuous and open communication signals over internet, allowing facilities to automate their Demand Response (DR). Refrigerated warehouses were selected for research because: They have significant power demand especially during utility peak periods; most processes are not sensitive to short-term (2-4 hours) lower power and DR activities are often not disruptive to facility operations; the number of processes is limited and well understood; and past experience with some DR strategies successful in commercial buildings may apply to refrigerated warehouses. This paper presents an overview of the potential for load sheds and shifts from baseline electricity use in response to DR events, along with physical configurations and operating characteristics of refrigerated warehouses. Analysis of data from two case studies and nine facilities in Pacific Gas and Electric territory, confirmed the DR abilities inherent to refrigerated warehouses but showed significant variation across facilities. Further, while load from California's refrigerated warehouses in 2008 was 360 MW with estimated DR potential of 45-90 MW, actual achieved was much less due to low participation. Efforts to overcome barriers to increased participation may include, improved marketing and recruitment of potential DR sites, better alignment and emphasis on financial benefits of participation, and use of Auto-DR to increase consistency of participation.

  18. Role of Standard Demand Response Signals for Advanced Automated Aggregation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory; Kiliccote, Sila

    2011-11-18

    Emerging standards such as OpenADR enable Demand Response (DR) Resources to interact directly with Utilities and Independent System Operators to allow their facility automation equipment to respond to a variety of DR signals ranging from day ahead to real time ancillary services. In addition, there are Aggregators in today‚Äôs markets who are capable of bringing together collections of aggregated DR assets and selling them to the grid as a single resource. However, in most cases these aggregated resources are not automated and when they are, they typically use proprietary technologies. There is a need for a framework for dealing with aggregated resources that supports the following requirements: ‚ÄĘ Allows demand-side resources to participate in multiple DR markets ranging from wholesale ancillary services to retail tariffs without being completely committed to a single entity like an Aggregator; ‚ÄĘ Allow aggregated groups of demand-side resources to be formed in an ad hoc fashion to address specific grid-side issues and support the optimization of the collective response of an aggregated group along a number of different dimensions. This is important in order to taylor the aggregated performance envelope to the needs to of the grid; ‚ÄĘ Allow aggregated groups to be formed in a hierarchical fashion so that each group can participate in variety of markets from wholesale ancillary services to distribution level retail tariffs. This paper explores the issues of aggregated groups of DR resources as described above especially within the context of emerging smart grid standards and the role they will play in both the management and interaction of various grid-side entities with those resources.

  19. NREL: dGen: Distributed Generation Market Demand Model - Publications

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Publications The following are publications-including technical reports, journal articles, conference papers, and posters-focusing on the Distributed Generation Market Demand Model (dGen) and its predecessor, the Solar Deployment System (SolarDS) model. Cole, Wesley, Haley Lewis, Ben Sigrin, and Robert Margolis. 2016. "Interactions of rooftop PV deployment with the capacity expansion of the bulk power system." Applied Energy 168 (April 2016) 473-81. doi:10.1016/j.apenergy.2016.02.004

  20. Demand Response Resources for Energy and Ancillary Services (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hummon, M.

    2014-04-01

    Demand response (DR) resources present a potentially important source of grid flexibility particularly on future systems with high penetrations of variable wind an solar power generation. However, DR in grid models is limited by data availability and modeling complexity. This presentation focuses on the co-optimization of DR resources to provide energy and ancillary services in a production cost model of the Colorado test system. We assume each DR resource can provide energy services by either shedding load or shifting its use between different times, as well as operating

  1. Economic Analysis Case Studies of Battery Energy Storage with SAM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DiOrio, Nicholas; Dobos, Aron; Janzou, Steven

    2015-11-01

    Interest in energy storage has continued to increase as states like California have introduced mandates and subsidies to spur adoption. This energy storage includes customer sited behind-the-meter storage coupled with photovoltaics (PV). This paper presents case study results from California and Tennessee, which were performed to assess the economic benefit of customer-installed systems. Different dispatch strategies, including manual scheduling and automated peak-shaving were explored to determine ideal ways to use the storage system to increase the system value and mitigate demand charges. Incentives, complex electric tariffs, and site specific load and PV data were used to perform detailed analysis. The analysis was performed using the free, publically available System Advisor Model (SAM) tool. We find that installation of photovoltaics with a lithium-ion battery system priced at $300/kWh in Los Angeles under a high demand charge utility rate structure and dispatched using perfect day-ahead forecasting yields a positive net-present value, while all other scenarios cost the customer more than the savings accrued. Different dispatch strategies, including manual scheduling and automated peak-shaving were explored to determine ideal ways to use the storage system to increase the system value and mitigate demand charges. Incentives, complex electric tariffs, and site specific load and PV data were used to perform detailed analysis. The analysis was performed using the free, publically available System Advisor Model (SAM) tool. We find that installation of photovoltaics with a lithium-ion battery system priced at $300/kWh in Los Angeles under a high demand charge utility rate structure and dispatched using perfect day-ahead forecasting yields a positive net-present value, while all other scenarios cost the customer more than the savings accrued.

  2. Adrian Cooper CEO, Oxford Economics

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    macroeconomic impact of lower oil prices June 2015 Adrian Cooper CEO, Oxford Economics acooper@oxfordeconomics.com Lower oil prices big boost for the global economy... 2 ...but global economic news has been disappointing 3 Who should be the winners? 4 ...and losers? 5 Fall in oil prices give US households extra $1,000 6 But investment down sharply... 7 ...and further falls likely 8 Extraction sector employment also hit hard 9 But not all countries have seen lower gas prices 10 Contrasting

  3. China Energy Group - Sustainable Growth Through EnergyEfficiency

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Levine, Mark; Fridley, David; Lin, Jiang; Sinton, Jonathan; Zhou,Nan; Aden, Nathaniel; Huang, Joe; Price, Lynn; McKane, Aimee T.

    2006-03-20

    China is fueling its phenomenal economic growth with huge quantities of coal. The environmental consequences reach far beyond its borders--China is second only to the United States in greenhouse gas emissions. Expanding its supply of other energy sources, like nuclear power and imported oil, raises trade and security issues. Soaring electricity demand necessitates the construction of 40-70 GW of new capacity per year, creating sustained financing challenges. While daunting, the challenge of meeting China's energy needs presents a wealth of opportunities, particularly in meeting demand through improved energy efficiency and other clean energy technologies. The China Energy Group at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) is committed to understanding these opportunities, and to exploring their implications for policy and business. We work collaboratively with energy researchers, suppliers, regulators, and consumers in China and elsewhere to: better understand the dynamics of energy use in China. Our Research Focus Encompasses Three Major Areas: Buildings, Industry, and Cross-Cutting Activities. Buildings--working to promote energy-efficient buildings and energy-efficient equipment used in buildings. Current work includes promoting the design and use of minimum energy efficiency standards and energy labeling for appliances, and assisting in the development and implementation of building codes for energy-efficient residential and commercial/public buildings. Past work has included a China Residential Energy Consumption Survey and a study of the health impacts of rural household energy use. Industry--understanding China's industrial sector, responsible for the majority of energy consumption in China. Current work includes benchmarking China's major energy-consuming industries to world best practice, examining energy efficiency trends in China's steel and cement industries, implementing voluntary energy efficiency agreements in various industries, and developing a multi-year program for standards and for optimizing the industrial motor systems in China. Past work has included a comprehensive study of China's oil refining sector. Cross-Cutting--analysis and research focused on multisector, policy, and long-term development issues. Current cross-cutting policy and analysis research includes work on government procurement programs; energy service companies; a national energy policy assessment including the National Energy Strategy released by the government in early 2005; energy efficiency policy; an analysis of past trends in energy consumption in China as well as of future scenarios; and our China Energy Databook accompanied by chapter summaries and analysis of recent trends.

  4. The Impact of Uncertain Physical Parameters on HVAC Demand Response

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sun, Yannan; Elizondo, Marcelo A.; Lu, Shuai; Fuller, Jason C.

    2014-03-01

    HVAC units are currently one of the major resources providing demand response (DR) in residential buildings. Models of HVAC with DR function can improve understanding of its impact on power system operations and facilitate the deployment of DR technologies. This paper investigates the importance of various physical parameters and their distributions to the HVAC response to DR signals, which is a key step to the construction of HVAC models for a population of units with insufficient data. These parameters include the size of floors, insulation efficiency, the amount of solid mass in the house, and efficiency of the HVAC units. These parameters are usually assumed to follow Gaussian or Uniform distributions. We study the effect of uncertainty in the chosen parameter distributions on the aggregate HVAC response to DR signals, during transient phase and in steady state. We use a quasi-Monte Carlo sampling method with linear regression and Prony analysis to evaluate sensitivity of DR output to the uncertainty in the distribution parameters. The significance ranking on the uncertainty sources is given for future guidance in the modeling of HVAC demand response.

  5. Expected international demand for woody and herbaceous feedstock

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lamers, Patrick; Jacobson, Jacob; Mohammad, Roni; Wright, Christopher

    2015-03-01

    The development of a U.S. bioenergy market and ultimately ‚Äėbioeconomy‚Äô has primarily been investigated with a national focus. Limited attention has been given to the potential impacts of international market developments. The goal of this project is to advance the current State of Technology of a single biorefinery to the global level providing quantitative estimates on how international markets may influence the domestic feedstock supply costs. The scope of the project is limited to feedstock that is currently available and new crops being developed to be used in a future U.S. bioeconomy including herbaceous residues (e.g., corn stover), woody biomass (e.g., pulpwood), and energy crops (e.g., switchgrass). The timeframe is set to the periods of 2022, 2030, and 2040 to align with current policy targets (e.g., the RFS2) and future updates of the Billion Ton data. This particular milestone delivers demand volumes for generic woody and herbaceous feedstocks for the main (net) importing regions along the above timeframes. The regional focus of the study is the European Union (EU), currently the largest demand region for U.S. pellets made from pulpwood and forest residues. The pellets are predominantly used in large-scale power plants (>5MWel) in the United Kingdom (UK), the Netherlands (NL), Belgium (BE), and Denmark (DK).

  6. Demand Response Performance of GE Hybrid Heat Pump Water Heater

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Widder, Sarah H.; Parker, Graham B.; Petersen, Joseph M.; Baechler, Michael C.

    2013-07-01

    This report describes a project to evaluate and document the DR performance of HPWH as compared to ERWH for two primary types of DR events: peak curtailments and balancing reserves. The experiments were conducted with GE second-generation ‚ÄúBrillion‚ÄĚ-enabled GeoSpring hybrid water heaters in the PNNL Lab Homes, with one GE GeoSpring water heater operating in ‚ÄúStandard‚ÄĚ electric resistance mode to represent the baseline and one GE GeoSpring water heater operating in ‚ÄúHeat Pump‚ÄĚ mode to provide the comparison to heat pump-only demand response. It is expected that ‚ÄúHybrid‚ÄĚ DR performance, which would engage both the heat pump and electric elements, could be interpolated from these two experimental extremes. Signals were sent simultaneously to the two water heaters in the side-by-side PNNL Lab Homes under highly controlled, simulated occupancy conditions. This report presents the results of the evaluation, which documents the demand-response capability of the GE GeoSpring HPWH for peak load reduction and regulation services. The sections describe the experimental protocol and test apparatus used to collect data, present the baselining procedure, discuss the results of the simulated DR events for the HPWH and ERWH, and synthesize key conclusions based on the collected data.

  7. BEST (Battery Economics for more Sustainable Transportation)

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2009-12-31

    Computer software for the simulation of battery economics based on various transportation business models.

  8. Availability of Canadian imports to meet U.S. demand for ethane, propane and butane

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hawkins, D.J.

    1996-12-31

    Historically, Canada has had a surplus of ethane, propane and butane. Almost all of the available propane and butane in Canadian natural gas streams is recovered. While there is significant ethane recovery in Canada, ethane that cannot be economically sold is left in the gas streams. All of the surplus Canadian ethane and most of the Canadian surplus propane and butane is exported to the US. Some volumes of Canadian propane and butane have been moved offshore by marine exports to the Asia-Pacific region or South America, or directly to Mexico by rail. Essentially all of the Canadian ethane, 86% of the propane and 74% of the butane are recovered by gas processing. Canadian natural gas production has increased significantly over the last 10 years. Canadian gas resources in the Western Canadian Sedimentary Basin should permit further expansion of gas exports, and several gas pipeline projects are pending to expand the markets for Canadian gas in the US. The prospective increase in Canadian gas production will yield higher volumes of ethane, propane and butane. While there is a potential to expand domestic markets for ethane, propane and butane, a significant part of the incremental production will move to export markets. This paper provides a forecast of the expected level of ethane, propane and butane exports from Canada and discusses the supply, demand and logistical developments which may affect export availability from Canada.

  9. Opportunities for Automated Demand Response in California’s Dairy Processing Industry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Homan, Gregory K.; Aghajanzadeh, Arian; McKane, Aimee

    2015-08-30

    During periods of peak electrical demand on the energy grid or when there is a shortage of supply, the stability of the grid may be compromised or the cost of supplying electricity may rise dramatically, respectively. Demand response programs are designed to mitigate the severity of these problems and improve reliability by reducing the demand on the grid during such critical times. In 2010, the Demand Response Research Center convened a group of industry experts to suggest potential industries that would be good demand response program candidates for further review. The dairy industry was suggested due to the perception that the industry had suitable flexibility and automatic controls in place. The purpose of this report is to provide an initial description of the industry with regard to demand response potential, specifically automated demand response. This report qualitatively describes the potential for participation in demand response and automated demand response by dairy processing facilities in California, as well as barriers to widespread participation. The report first describes the magnitude, timing, location, purpose, and manner of energy use. Typical process equipment and controls are discussed, as well as common impediments to participation in demand response and automated demand response programs. Two case studies of demand response at dairy facilities in California and across the country are reviewed. Finally, recommendations are made for future research that can enhance the understanding of demand response potential in this industry.

  10. The Impact of Retail Rate Structure on the Economics of Commercial Photovoltaic Systems in California

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Impact of Retail Rate Structure on the Economics of Commercial Photovoltaic Systems in California Ryan Wiser, Andrew Mills, Galen Barbose & William Golove State Energy Advisory Board Meeting Berkeley, CA August 14, 2007 The Electricity Markets and Policy Group Conducts research and provides assistance to policy makers on issues related to: ¬ĺ Energy Efficiency and Demand Response (Chuck Goldman) - Tracking industry trends - Program administration, planning, implementation, and evaluation -

  11. Advanced Fuel Cycle Economic Tools, Algorithms, and Methodologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David E. Shropshire

    2009-05-01

    The Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) Systems Analysis supports engineering economic analyses and trade-studies, and requires a requisite reference cost basis to support adequate analysis rigor. In this regard, the AFCI program has created a reference set of economic documentation. The documentation consists of the ‚ÄúAdvanced Fuel Cycle (AFC) Cost Basis‚ÄĚ report (Shropshire, et al. 2007), ‚ÄúAFCI Economic Analysis‚ÄĚ report, and the ‚ÄúAFCI Economic Tools, Algorithms, and Methodologies Report.‚ÄĚ Together, these documents provide the reference cost basis, cost modeling basis, and methodologies needed to support AFCI economic analysis. The application of the reference cost data in the cost and econometric systems analysis models will be supported by this report. These methodologies include: the energy/environment/economic evaluation of nuclear technology penetration in the energy market‚ÄĒdomestic and internationally‚ÄĒand impacts on AFCI facility deployment, uranium resource modeling to inform the front-end fuel cycle costs, facility first-of-a-kind to nth-of-a-kind learning with application to deployment of AFCI facilities, cost tradeoffs to meet nuclear non-proliferation requirements, and international nuclear facility supply/demand analysis. The economic analysis will be performed using two cost models. VISION.ECON will be used to evaluate and compare costs under dynamic conditions, consistent with the cases and analysis performed by the AFCI Systems Analysis team. Generation IV Excel Calculations of Nuclear Systems (G4-ECONS) will provide static (snapshot-in-time) cost analysis and will provide a check on the dynamic results. In future analysis, additional AFCI measures may be developed to show the value of AFCI in closing the fuel cycle. Comparisons can show AFCI in terms of reduced global proliferation (e.g., reduction in enrichment), greater sustainability through preservation of a natural resource (e.g., reduction in uranium ore depletion), value from weaning the U.S. from energy imports (e.g., measures of energy self-sufficiency), and minimization of future high level waste (HLW) repositories world-wide.

  12. What Is the Right Rate? Loan Rates and Demand | Department of...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Is the Right Rate? Loan Rates and Demand What Is the Right Rate? Loan Rates and Demand Better Buildings Neighborhood Program Financing Peer Exchange Call: "What is the Right Rate?" ...

  13. Property:OpenEI/UtilityRate/FixedDemandChargeMonth1 | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Jump to: navigation, search This is a property of type Number. Name: Fixed Demand Charge Month 1 Pages using the property "OpenEIUtilityRateFixedDemandChargeMonth1"...

  14. Property:OpenEI/UtilityRate/FixedDemandChargeMonth11 | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    1 Jump to: navigation, search This is a property of type Number. Name: Fixed Demand Charge Month 11 Pages using the property "OpenEIUtilityRateFixedDemandChargeMonth11" Showing 2...

  15. Property:OpenEI/UtilityRate/FixedDemandChargeMonth2 | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Jump to: navigation, search This is a property of type Number. Name: Fixed Demand Charge Month 2 Pages using the property "OpenEIUtilityRateFixedDemandChargeMonth2"...

  16. Property:OpenEI/UtilityRate/FixedDemandChargeMonth3 | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Jump to: navigation, search This is a property of type Number. Name: Fixed Demand Charge Month 3 Pages using the property "OpenEIUtilityRateFixedDemandChargeMonth3"...

  17. Property:OpenEI/UtilityRate/FixedDemandChargeMonth6 | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Jump to: navigation, search This is a property of type Number. Name: Fixed Demand Charge Month 6 Pages using the property "OpenEIUtilityRateFixedDemandChargeMonth6"...

  18. Property:OpenEI/UtilityRate/FixedDemandChargeMonth8 | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Jump to: navigation, search This is a property of type Number. Name: Fixed Demand Charge Month 8 Pages using the property "OpenEIUtilityRateFixedDemandChargeMonth8"...

  19. Property:OpenEI/UtilityRate/FixedDemandChargeMonth7 | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Jump to: navigation, search This is a property of type Number. Name: Fixed Demand Charge Month 7 Pages using the property "OpenEIUtilityRateFixedDemandChargeMonth7"...

  20. US DOE Hydrgoen Program- HyDRA (Hydrogen Demand and Resource...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    US DOE Hydrgoen Program- HyDRA (Hydrogen Demand and Resource Analysis Tool US DOE Hydrgoen Program- HyDRA (Hydrogen Demand and Resource Analysis Tool HYDRA Program PDF icon...

  1. Property:OpenEI/UtilityRate/FixedDemandChargeMonth9 | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Jump to: navigation, search This is a property of type Number. Name: Fixed Demand Charge Month 9 Pages using the property "OpenEIUtilityRateFixedDemandChargeMonth9"...

  2. Property:OpenEI/UtilityRate/FixedDemandChargeMonth5 | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Jump to: navigation, search This is a property of type Number. Name: Fixed Demand Charge Month 5 Pages using the property "OpenEIUtilityRateFixedDemandChargeMonth5"...

  3. Property:OpenEI/UtilityRate/FixedDemandChargeMonth4 | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Jump to: navigation, search This is a property of type Number. Name: Fixed Demand Charge Month 4 Pages using the property "OpenEIUtilityRateFixedDemandChargeMonth4"...

  4. Property:OpenEI/UtilityRate/FixedDemandChargeMonth12 | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    2 Jump to: navigation, search This is a property of type Number. Name: Fixed Demand Charge Month 12 Pages using the property "OpenEIUtilityRateFixedDemandChargeMonth12" Showing 2...

  5. Property:OpenEI/UtilityRate/FixedDemandChargeMonth10 | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    0 Jump to: navigation, search This is a property of type Number. Name: Fixed Demand Charge Month 10 Pages using the property "OpenEIUtilityRateFixedDemandChargeMonth10" Showing 2...

  6. Bioenergy Demand in a Market Driven Forest Economy (U.S. South...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Bioenergy Demand in a Market Driven Forest Economy (U.S. South) Bioenergy Demand in a Market Driven Forest Economy (U.S. South) Breakout Session 1A: Biomass Feedstocks for the...

  7. A National Forum on Demand Response: What Remains to Be Done...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    A National Forum on Demand Response: What Remains to Be Done to Achieve Its Potential A National Forum on Demand Response: What Remains to Be Done to Achieve Its Potential In July ...

  8. On-demand hypermedia/multimedia service over broadband networks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bouras, C.; Kapoulas, V.; Spirakis, P.

    1996-12-31

    In this paper we present a unified approach for delivering hypermedia/multimedia objects over broadband networks. Documents are stored in various multimedia servers, while the inline data may reside in their own media servers, attached to the multimedia servers. The described service consists of several multimedia servers and a set of functions that intend to present to the end user interactive information in real-time. Users interact with the service requesting multimedia documents on demand. Various media streams are transmitted over different parallel connections according lo their transmission requirements. The hypermedia documents are structured using a hypermedia markup language that keeps information of the spatiotemporal relationships among document`s media components. In order to deal with the variant network behavior, buffering manipulation mechanisms and grading of the transmitted media quality techniques are proposed to smooth presentation and synchronization anomalies.

  9. OPEC production: Untapped reserves, world demand spur production expansion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ismail, I.A.H. )

    1994-05-02

    To meet projected world oil demand, almost all members of the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) have embarked on ambitious capacity expansion programs aimed at increasing oil production capabilities. These expansion programs are in both new and existing oil fields. In the latter case, the aim is either to maintain production or reduce the production decline rate. However, the recent price deterioration has led some major OPEC producers, such as Saudi Arabia and Iran, to revise downward their capacity plans. Capital required for capacity expansion is considerable. Therefore, because the primary source of funds will come from within each OPEC country, a reasonably stable and relatively high oil price is required to obtain enough revenue for investing in upstream projects. This first in a series of two articles discusses the present OPEC capacity and planned expansion in the Middle East. The concluding part will cover the expansion plans in the remaining OPEC countries, capital requirements, and environmental concerns.

  10. Market and Policy Barriers for Demand Response Providing Ancillary Services

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    In this study, we attempt to provide a comprehensive examination of various market and policy barriers to demand response providing ancillary services in both ISO/RTO and non-ISO/RTO regions, especially at the program provider level. It is useful to classify barriers in order to create a holistic understanding and identify parties that could be responsible for their removal. This study develops a typology of barriers focusing on smaller customers that must rely on a program provider (i.e., electric investor owned utility or IOU, ARC) to create an aggregated DR resource in order to bring ancillary services to the balancing authority. The barriers were identified through examinations of regulatory structures, market environments, and product offerings; and discussions with industry stakeholders and regulators.

  11. Pilot Testing of Commercial Refrigeration-Based Demand Response

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hirsch, Adam; Clark, Jordan; Deru, Michael; Trenbath, Kim; Doebber, Ian; Studer, Daniel

    2015-10-08

    Supermarkets potentially offer a substantial demand response (DR) resource because of their high energy intensity and use patterns. This report describes a pilot project conducted to better estimate supermarket DR potential. Previous work has analyzed supermarket DR using heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC), lighting, and anti-condensate heaters. This project was concerned with evaluating DR using the refrigeration system and quantifying the DR potential inherent in supermarket refrigeration systems. Ancillary aims of the project were to identify practical barriers to the implementation of DR programs in supermarkets and to determine which high-level control strategies were most appropriate for achieving certain DR objectives. The scope of this project does not include detailed control strategy development for DR or development of a strategy for regional implementation of DR in supermarkets.

  12. Value of Demand Response: Quantities from Production Cost Modeling (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hummon, M.

    2014-04-01

    Demand response (DR) resources present a potentially important source of grid flexibility particularly on future systems with high penetrations of variable wind and solar power generation. However, managed loads in grid models are limited by data availability and modeling complexity. This presentation focuses on the value of co-optimized DR resources to provide energy and ancillary services in a production cost model. There are significant variations in the availabilities of different types of DR resources, which affect both the operational savings as well as the revenue for each DR resource. The results presented include the system-wide avoided fuel and generator start-up costs as well as the composite revenue for each DR resource by energy and operating reserves. In addition, the revenue is characterized by the capacity, energy, and units of DR enabled.

  13. National Action Plan on Demand Response, June 2010 | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Action Plan on Demand Response, June 2010 National Action Plan on Demand Response, June 2010 The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) is required to develop the National Action Plan on Demand Response (National Action Plan) as outlined in section 529 of the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 (EISA), entitled "Electricity Sector Demand Response." This National Action Plan is designed to meet three objectives: Identify "requirements for technical assistance to

  14. Report: Impacts of Demand-Side Resources on Electric Transmission Planning

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    | Department of Energy Impacts of Demand-Side Resources on Electric Transmission Planning Report: Impacts of Demand-Side Resources on Electric Transmission Planning This report assesses the relationship between high levels of demand-side resources (including end-use efficiency, demand response, and distributed generation) and investment in new transmission or utilization of existing transmission. It summarizes the extensive modeling of transmission scenarios done through DOE-funded studies

  15. Demand Response and Smart Metering Policy Actions Since the Energy Policy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Act of 2005: A Summary for State Officials | Department of Energy Demand Response and Smart Metering Policy Actions Since the Energy Policy Act of 2005: A Summary for State Officials Demand Response and Smart Metering Policy Actions Since the Energy Policy Act of 2005: A Summary for State Officials This report represents a review of policy developments on demand response and other related areas such as smart meters and smart grid. It has been prepared by the Demand Response Coordinating

  16. Impact of Interruptible Natural Gas Service on Northeast Heating Oil Demand

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2001-01-01

    Assesses the extent of interruptible natural gas contracts and their effect on heating oil demand in the Northeast.

  17. Greening the Grid: The Role of Storage and Demand Response, Greening the Grid (Fact Sheet)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    STORAGE AND DEMAND RESPONSE GREENING THE GRID THE NEED FOR FLEXIBILITY Affordably integrating high levels of variable renewable energy (VRE) sources such as wind and solar requires a flexible grid. Numerous grid integration studies have identified two major categories of tools for increasing grid flexibility: 1) Resources that allow VRE to be used directly to offset demand and increase instantaneous VRE penetration; 1 and 2) Resources that improve the alignment of VRE supply and demand. Demand

  18. Regional growth and energy supply: Is there an energy security issue?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roop, J.M.; Freund, K.A.; Godoy-Kain, P.; Gu, A.Y.; Johnson, A.K.; Paananen, O.H.; Woodruff, M.G.

    1996-12-01

    This study examines how the growth of the developing world might affect energy markets in the future. Based on recent growth trends, world energy demand could reasonably be expected to grow from about 350 Exajoules (EJ: 1.0E18=0.95 Quad) to nearly 1025 EJ by the year 2020, nearly 3x current consumption estimates. Introduction of more energy-efficient technologies could reduce this growth by about 17% to 830 EJ. But one cannot rely exclusively on current trends to forecast future energy demand. The growth of the developing world will interact with supply to affect prices, which in turn will mitigate the growth of demand, and growth rates of energy use will be much more modes. Under the Business as Usual scenario, energy demand will grow to 835 EJ by 2020, and this could be reduced a further 15% to 714 EJ through the adoption of more energy efficient technologies. Fuel prices based on model results are analyzed. Energy security implications of rapid growth in the developing world are considered and found to be of likely little significance.

  19. Nuclear-Renewable Hybrid System Economic Basis for Electricity, Fuel, and Hydrogen

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Charles Forsberg; Steven Aumeier

    2014-04-01

    Concerns about climate change and altering the ocean chemistry are likely to limit the use of fossil fuels. That implies a transition to a low-carbon nuclear-renewable electricity grid. Historically variable electricity demand was met using fossil plants with low capital costs, high operating costs, and substantial greenhouse gas emissions. However, the most easily scalable very-low-emissions generating options, nuclear and non-dispatchable renewables (solar and wind), are capital-intensive technologies with low operating costs that should operate at full capacities to minimize costs. No combination of fully-utilized nuclear and renewables can meet the variable electricity demand. This implies large quantities of expensive excess generating capacity much of the time. In a free market this results in near-zero electricity prices at times of high nuclear renewables output and low electricity demand with electricity revenue collapse. Capital deployment efficiency‚ÄĒthe economic benefit derived from energy systems capital investment at a societal level‚ÄĒstrongly favors high utilization of these capital-intensive systems, especially if low-carbon nuclear renewables are to replace fossil fuels. Hybrid energy systems are one option for better utilization of these systems that consumes excess energy at times of low prices to make some useful product.The economic basis for development of hybrid energy systems is described for a low-carbon nuclear renewable world where much of the time there are massivequantities of excess energy available from the electric sector.Examples include (1) high-temperature electrolysis to generate hydrogen for non-fossil liquid fuels, direct use as a transport fuel, metal reduction, etc. and (2) biorefineries.Nuclear energy with its concentrated constant heat output may become the enabling technology for economically-viable low-carbon electricity grids because hybrid nuclear systems may provide an economic way to produce dispatachable variable electricity with economic base-load operation of the reactor.

  20. Water demands for electricity generation in the U.S.: Modeling different scenarios for the water‚Äďenergy nexus

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Lu; Hejazi, Mohamad I.; Patel, Pralit L.; Kyle, G. Page; Davies, Evan; Zhou, Yuyu; Clarke, Leon E.; Edmonds, James A.

    2015-05-01

    Water withdrawal for electricity generation in the United States accounts for approximately half the total freshwater withdrawal. With steadily growing electricity demands, a changing climate, and limited water supplies in many water-scarce states, meeting future energy and water demands poses a significant socio-economic challenge. Employing an integrated modeling approach that can capture the energy-water interactions at regional and national scales is essential to improve our understanding of the key drivers that govern those interactions and the role of national policies. In this study, the Global Change Assessment Model (GCAM), a technologically-detailed integrated model of the economy, energy, agriculture and land use, water, and climate systems, was extended to model the electricity and water systems at the state level in the U.S. (GCAM-USA). GCAM-USA was employed to estimate future state-level electricity generation and consumption, and their associated water withdrawals and consumption under a set of six scenarios with extensive details on the generation fuel portfolio, cooling technology mix, and their associated water use intensities. Six scenarios of future water demands of the U.S. electric-sector were explored to investigate the implications of socioeconomics development and growing electricity demands, climate mitigation policy, the transition of cooling systems, electricity trade, and water saving technologies. Our findings include: 1) decreasing water withdrawals and substantially increasing water consumption from both climate mitigation and the conversion from open-loop to closed-loop cooling systems; 2) open trading of electricity benefiting energy scarce yet demand intensive states; 3) within state variability under different driving forces while across state homogeneity under certain driving force ; 4) a clear trade-off between water consumption and withdrawal for the electricity sector in the U.S. The paper discusses this withdrawal-consumption trade-off in the context of current national policies and regulations that favor decreasing withdrawals (increasing consumptive use), and the role of water saving technologies. The highly-resolved nature of this study both geographically and technologically provides a useful platform to address scientific and policy relevant and emerging issues at the heart of the water-energy nexus in the U.S.

  1. Economics of a multimedia approach

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Phillips, J.B.; Hindawi, M.A.

    1996-02-01

    One of the major driving forces in the decision of a facility operator to implement a multimedia approach to examining pollution is the economics of the situation. A multimedia approach has gained favor with many facility operators because it has been shown to be more cost-effective than dealing with a number of phases, or media, separately. To a great extent, this is due to elimination of inefficiencies involved with cross-media transfer of pollutants. Even more basic to the problem of industrial pollution is the generation of waste. All industrial processes yield some percentage of waste products, but frequently during the design phase the costs associated with producing wastes are underestimated. As part of this series on multimedia issues, the costs related to manufacturing waste products are examined in detail. An obvious inefficiency associated with waste generation is the loss of material that potentially could be converted to salable products. The value of commodity raw materials frequently is ignored when considering the total costs of pollution generation at an industrial facility. Although the economics of pollution generation are affected by a number of factors, including regulatory costs, disposal costs and impacts on health and safety, this article focuses on the economics of lost production in industrial facilities.

  2. Calculating impacts of energy standards on energy demand in U.S. buildings with uncertainty in an integrated assessment model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scott, Michael J.; Daly, Don S.; Hathaway, John E.; Lansing, Carina S.; Liu, Ying; McJeon, Haewon C.; Moss, Richard H.; Patel, Pralit L.; Peterson, Marty J.; Rice, Jennie S.; Zhou, Yuyu

    2015-10-01

    In this paper, an integrated assessment model (IAM) uses a newly-developed Monte Carlo analysis capability to analyze the impacts of more aggressive U.S. residential and commercial building-energy codes and equipment standards on energy consumption and energy service costs at the state level, explicitly recognizing uncertainty in technology effectiveness and cost, socioeconomics, presence or absence of carbon prices, and climate impacts on energy demand. The paper finds that aggressive building-energy codes and equipment standards are an effective, cost-saving way to reduce energy consumption in buildings and greenhouse gas emissions in U.S. states. This conclusion is robust to significant uncertainties in population, economic activity, climate, carbon prices, and technology performance and costs.

  3. Biomass Resource Demand Characterization Study: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-11-436

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mann, M.

    2015-02-01

    Competing demands for U.S. biomass resources and resulting impacts on regional feedstock availability could have a significant impact on the ability of the biofuels industry to transition to lower cost feedstocks, such as wood, agricultural residues, and energy crops, as well as on the ability of U.S. electric utilities and consumers to meet Renewable Portfolio Standards (RPS) and transition to lower carbon-footprint sources of electricity. Promulgation of regulations that place a cost on CO2 emissions from fossil fuels will also impact this situation as biomass to power applications become increasingly cost competitive. This increased competition for biomass feedstocks could create technical and economic risks for the Government, industry, and investors, and has the potential to impede commercialization of bio-energy in the U.S. at a meaningful scale.

  4. Northwest Open Automated Demand Response Technology Demonstration Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kiliccote, Sila; Dudley, Junqiao Han; Piette, Mary Ann

    2009-08-01

    Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) and the Demand Response Research Center (DRRC) performed a technology demonstration and evaluation for Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) in Seattle City Light's (SCL) service territory. This report summarizes the process and results of deploying open automated demand response (OpenADR) in Seattle area with winter morning peaking commercial buildings. The field tests were designed to evaluate the feasibility of deploying fully automated demand response (DR) in four to six sites in the winter and the savings from various building systems. The project started in November of 2008 and lasted 6 months. The methodology for the study included site recruitment, control strategy development, automation system deployment and enhancements, and evaluation of sites participation in DR test events. LBNL subcontracted McKinstry and Akuacom for this project. McKinstry assisted with recruitment, site survey collection, strategy development and overall participant and control vendor management. Akuacom established a new server and enhanced its operations to allow for scheduling winter morning day-of and day-ahead events. Each site signed a Memorandum of Agreement with SCL. SCL offered each site $3,000 for agreeing to participate in the study and an additional $1,000 for each event they participated. Each facility and their control vendor worked with LBNL and McKinstry to select and implement control strategies for DR and developed their automation based on the existing Internet connectivity and building control system. Once the DR strategies were programmed, McKinstry commissioned them before actual test events. McKinstry worked with LBNL to identify control points that can be archived at each facility. For each site LBNL collected meter data and trend logs from the energy management and control system. The communication system allowed the sites to receive day-ahead as well as day-of DR test event signals. Measurement of DR was conducted using three different baseline models for estimation peak load reductions. One was three-in-ten baseline, which is based on the site electricity consumption from 7 am to 10 am for the three days with the highest consumption of the previous ten business days. The second model, the LBNL outside air temperature (OAT) regression baseline model, is based on OAT data and site electricity consumption from the previous ten days, adjusted using weather regressions from the fifteen-minute electric load data during each DR test event for each site. A third baseline that simply averages the available load data was used for sites less with less than 10 days of historical meter data. The evaluation also included surveying sites regarding any problems or issues that arose during the DR test events. Question covered occupant comfort, control issues and other potential problems.

  5. CO2 MONITORING FOR DEMAND CONTROLLED VENTILATION IN COMMERCIAL BUILDINGS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fisk, William J.; Sullivan, Douglas P.; Faulkner, David; Eliseeva, Ekaterina

    2010-03-17

    Carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) sensors are often deployed in commercial buildings to obtain CO{sub 2} data that are used, in a process called demand-controlled ventilation, to automatically modulate rates of outdoor air ventilation. The objective is to keep ventilation rates at or above design specifications and code requirements and also to save energy by avoiding excessive ventilation rates. Demand controlled ventilation is most often used in spaces with highly variable and sometime dense occupancy. Reasonably accurate CO{sub 2} measurements are needed for successful demand controlled ventilation; however, prior research has suggested substantial measurement errors. Accordingly, this study evaluated: (a) the accuracy of 208 CO{sub 2} single-location sensors located in 34 commercial buildings, (b) the accuracy of four multi-location CO{sub 2} measurement systems that utilize tubing, valves, and pumps to measure at multiple locations with single CO{sub 2} sensors, and (c) the spatial variability of CO{sub 2} concentrations within meeting rooms. The field studies of the accuracy of single-location CO{sub 2} sensors included multi-concentration calibration checks of 90 sensors in which sensor accuracy was checked at multiple CO{sub 2} concentrations using primary standard calibration gases. From these evaluations, average errors were small, -26 ppm and -9 ppm at 760 and 1010 ppm, respectively; however, the averages of the absolute values of error were 118 ppm (16%) and 138 ppm (14%), at concentrations of 760 and 1010 ppm, respectively. The calibration data are generally well fit by a straight line as indicated by high values of R{sup 2}. The Title 24 standard specifies that sensor error must be certified as no greater than 75 ppm for a period of five years after sensor installation. At 1010 ppm, 40% of sensors had errors greater than {+-}75 ppm and 31% of sensors has errors greater than {+-}100 ppm. At 760 ppm, 47% of sensors had errors greater than {+-}75 ppm and 37% of sensors had errors greater than {+-}100 ppm. A significant fraction of sensors had errors substantially larger than 100 ppm. For example, at 1010 ppm, 19% of sensors had an error greater than 200 ppm and 13% of sensors had errors greater than 300 ppm. The field studies also included single-concentration calibration checks of 118 sensors at the concentrations encountered in the buildings, which were normally less than 500 ppm during the testing. For analyses, these data were combined with data from the calibration challenges at 510 ppm obtained during the multi-concentration calibration checks. For the resulting data set, the average error was 60 ppm and the average of the absolute value of error was 154 ppm. Statistical analyses indicated that there were statistically significant differences between the average accuracies of sensors from different manufacturers. Sensors with a 'single lamp single wavelength' design tended to have a statistically significantly smaller average error than sensors with other designs except for 'single lamp dual wavelength' sensors, which did not have a statistically significantly lower accuracy. Sensor age was not consistently a statistically significant predictor of error.

  6. Direct versus Facility Centric Load Control for Automated Demand Response

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koch, Ed; Piette, Mary Ann

    2009-11-06

    Direct load control (DLC) refers to the scenario where third party entities outside the home or facility are responsible for deciding how and when specific customer loads will be controlled in response to Demand Response (DR) events on the electric grid. Examples of third parties responsible for performing DLC may be Utilities, Independent System Operators (ISO), Aggregators, or third party control companies. DLC can be contrasted with facility centric load control (FCLC) where the decisions for how loads are controlled are made entirely within the facility or enterprise control systems. In FCLC the facility owner has more freedom of choice in how to respond to DR events on the grid. Both approaches are in use today in automation of DR and both will continue to be used in future market segments including industrial, commercial and residential facilities. This paper will present a framework which can be used to differentiate between DLC and FCLC based upon where decisions are made on how specific loads are controlled in response to DR events. This differentiation is then used to compare and contrast the differences between DLC and FCLC to identify the impact each has on:(1)Utility/ISO and third party systems for managing demand response, (2)Facility systems for implementing load control, (3)Communications networks for interacting with the facility and (4)Facility operators and managers. Finally a survey of some of the existing DR related specifications and communications standards is given and their applicability to DLC or FCLC. In general FCLC adds more cost and responsibilities to the facilities whereas DLC represents higher costs and complexity for the Utility/ISO. This difference is primarily due to where the DR Logic is implemented and the consequences that creates. DLC may be more certain than FCLC because it is more predictable - however as more loads have the capability to respond to DR signals, people may prefer to have their own control of end-use loads and FCLC systems. Research is needed to understand the predictability of FCLC which is related to the perceived value of the DR from the facility manager or home owner's perspective.

  7. Technology Transfer: Triggering New Global Markets and Job Growth |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Transfer: Triggering New Global Markets and Job Growth Technology Transfer: Triggering New Global Markets and Job Growth September 20, 2011 - 11:33am Addthis The Global Positioning System (GPS) was initially a government technology developed to guide nuclear missiles, and is one of the many examples of the economic potential of successful technology transfer -- the now worldwide location technologies market is projected to grow to $75 billion by 2013. The Global

  8. Japan's Long-term Energy Demand and Supply Scenario to 2050 - Estimation for the Potential of Massive CO2 Mitigation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Komiyama, Ryoichi; Marnay, Chris; Stadler, Michael; Lai, Judy; Borgeson, Sam; Coffey, Brian; Azevedo, Ines Lima

    2009-09-01

    In this analysis, the authors projected Japan's energy demand/supply and energy-related CO{sub 2} emissions to 2050. Their analysis of various scenarios indicated that Japan's CO{sub 2} emissions in 2050 could be potentially reduced by 26-58% from the current level (FY 2005). These results suggest that Japan could set a CO{sub 2} emission reduction target for 2050 at between 30% and 60%. In order to reduce CO{sub 2} emissions by 60% in 2050 from the present level, Japan will have to strongly promote energy conservation at the same pace as an annual rate of 1.9% after the oil crises (to cut primary energy demand per GDP (TPES/GDP) in 2050 by 60% from 2005) and expand the share of non-fossil energy sources in total primary energy supply in 2050 to 50% (to reduce CO{sub 2} emissions per primary energy demand (CO{sub 2}/TPES) in 2050 by 40% from 2005). Concerning power generation mix in 2050, nuclear power will account for 60%, solar and other renewable energy sources for 20%, hydro power for 10% and fossil-fired generation for 10%, indicating substantial shift away from fossil fuel in electric power supply. Among the mitigation measures in the case of reducing CO{sub 2} emissions by 60% in 2050, energy conservation will make the greatest contribution to the emission reduction, being followed by solar power, nuclear power and other renewable energy sources. In order to realize this massive CO{sub 2} abatement, however, Japan will have to overcome technological and economic challenges including the large-scale deployment of nuclear power and renewable technologies.

  9. Electrochemical Solution Growth: Gallium Nitride Crystal Growth...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ID Number Title and Abstract Primary Lab Date Patent 7,435,297 Patent 7,435,297 Molten-salt-based growth of group III nitrides A method for growing Group III nitride...

  10. Economic Dispatch of Electric Generation Capacity | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Economic Dispatch of Electric Generation Capacity A report to congress and the states pursuant to sections 1234 and 1832 of the Energy Polict Act of 2005. PDF icon Economic ...

  11. Variables Affecting Economic Development of Wind Energy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lantz, E.; Tegen, S.

    2008-07-01

    NREL's JEDI Wind model performed an analysis of wind-power-related economic development drivers. Economic development benefits for wind and coal were estimated using NREL's JEDI Wind and JEDI Coal models.

  12. Projecting household energy consumption within a conditional demand framework

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Teotia, A.; Poyer, D.

    1991-01-01

    Few models attempt to assess and project household energy consumption and expenditure by taking into account differential household choices correlated with such variables as race, ethnicity, income, and geographic location. The Minority Energy Assessment Model (MEAM), developed by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) for the US Department of Energy (DOE), provides a framework to forecast the energy consumption and expenditure of majority, black, Hispanic, poor, and nonpoor households. Among other variables, household energy demand for each of these population groups in MEAM is affected by housing factors (such as home age, home ownership, home type, type of heating fuel, and installed central air conditioning unit), demographic factors (such as household members and urban/rural location), and climate factors (such as heating degree days and cooling degree days). The welfare implications of the revealed consumption patterns by households are also forecast. The paper provides an overview of the model methodology and its application in projecting household energy consumption under alternative energy scenarios developed by Data Resources, Inc., (DRI).

  13. Projecting household energy consumption within a conditional demand framework

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Teotia, A.; Poyer, D.

    1991-12-31

    Few models attempt to assess and project household energy consumption and expenditure by taking into account differential household choices correlated with such variables as race, ethnicity, income, and geographic location. The Minority Energy Assessment Model (MEAM), developed by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) for the US Department of Energy (DOE), provides a framework to forecast the energy consumption and expenditure of majority, black, Hispanic, poor, and nonpoor households. Among other variables, household energy demand for each of these population groups in MEAM is affected by housing factors (such as home age, home ownership, home type, type of heating fuel, and installed central air conditioning unit), demographic factors (such as household members and urban/rural location), and climate factors (such as heating degree days and cooling degree days). The welfare implications of the revealed consumption patterns by households are also forecast. The paper provides an overview of the model methodology and its application in projecting household energy consumption under alternative energy scenarios developed by Data Resources, Inc., (DRI).

  14. Open Automated Demand Response Dynamic Pricing Technologies and Demonstration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ghatikar, Girish; Mathieu, Johanna L.; Piette, Mary Ann; Koch, Ed; Hennage, Dan

    2010-08-02

    This study examines the use of OpenADR communications specification, related data models, technologies, and strategies to send dynamic prices (e.g., real time prices and peak prices) and Time of Use (TOU) rates to commercial and industrial electricity customers. OpenADR v1.0 is a Web services-based flexible, open information model that has been used in California utilities' commercial automated demand response programs since 2007. We find that data models can be used to send real time prices. These same data models can also be used to support peak pricing and TOU rates. We present a data model that can accommodate all three types of rates. For demonstration purposes, the data models were generated from California Independent System Operator's real-time wholesale market prices, and a California utility's dynamic prices and TOU rates. Customers can respond to dynamic prices by either using the actual prices, or prices can be mapped into"operation modes," which can act as inputs to control systems. We present several different methods for mapping actual prices. Some of these methods were implemented in demonstration projects. The study results demonstrate show that OpenADR allows interoperability with existing/future systems/technologies and can be used within related dynamic pricing activities within Smart Grid.

  15. Economic Impact Tools | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Economic Impact Tools Economic Impact Tools Photo of a well drilling rig. A man stands on the platform while another is climbing the rig. Technology Feasibility and Cost Analysis is performed to determine the potential economic viability of geothermal energy production and helps to identify which technologies have the greatest likelihood of economic success. Results from technology feasibility analysis efforts provide input to the Geothermal Technologies Office (GTO) research, development, and

  16. Environmentally and Economically Beneficial Practices on Federal...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Environmentally and Economically Beneficial Practices on Federal Landscaped Grounds This Environmental Protection Agency report contains recommendations for a series of...

  17. Techno-Economic Modeling, Analysis, and Support

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Techno-Economic Modeling, Analysis, and Support - Sandia ... Transportation Energy Co-Evolution of Biofuels ... Biological and Environmental Research Collaborations ...

  18. This Week In Petroleum Printer-Friendly Version

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    95 per barrel at the beginning of this month. EIA believes that supply and demand fundamentals, including strong world economic growth driving growth in oil use, moderate...

  19. This Week In Petroleum Printer-Friendly Version

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    certain trips. Gasoline demand is more sensitive to such factors as economic growth, personal income, and miles traveled, which probably explains most of the growth spurt so far...

  20. A National-Scale Comparison of Resource and Nutrient Demands for Algae-Based Biofuel Production by Lipid Extraction and Hydrothermal Liquefaction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Venteris, Erik R.; Skaggs, Richard; Wigmosta, Mark S.; Coleman, Andre M.

    2014-03-01

    Algae’s high productivity provides potential resource advantages over other fuel crops. However, demand for land, water, and nutrients must be minimized to avoid impacts on food production. We apply our national-scale, open-pond, growth and resource models to assess several biomass to fuel technological pathways based on Chlorella. We compare resource demands between hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) and lipid extraction (LE) to meet 1.89E+10 and 7.95E+10 L yr-1 biofuel targets. We estimate nutrient demands where post-fuel biomass is consumed as co-products and recycling by anaerobic digestion (AD) or catalytic hydrothermal gasification (CHG). Sites are selected through prioritization based on fuel value relative to a set of site-specific resource costs. The highest priority sites are located along the Gulf of Mexico coast, but potential sites exist nationwide. We find that HTL reduces land and freshwater consumption by up to 46% and saline groundwater by around 70%. Without recycling, nitrogen (N) and phosphorous (P) demand is reduced 33%, but is large relative to current U.S. agricultural consumption. The most nutrient-efficient pathways are LE+CHG for N and HTL+CHG for P (by 42%). Resource gains for HTL+CHG are offset by a 344% increase in N consumption relative to LE+CHG (with potential for further recycling). Nutrient recycling is essential to effective use of alternative nutrient sources. Modeling of utilization availability and costs remains, but we find that for HTL+CHG at the 7.95E+10 L yr-1 production target, municipal sources can offset 17% of N and 40% of P demand and animal manures can generally meet demands.