National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for demand controlled ventilation

  1. Promising Technology: Demand Control Ventilation

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Demand control ventilation (DCV) measures carbon dioxide concentrations in return air or other strategies to measure occupancy, and accurately matches the ventilation requirement. This system reduces ventilation when spaces are vacant or at lower than peak occupancy. When ventilation is reduced, energy savings are accrued because it is not necessary to heat, cool, or dehumidify as much outside air.

  2. DEMAND CONTROLLED VENTILATION AND CLASSROOM VENTILATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fisk, William J.; Mendell, Mark J.; Davies, Molly; Eliseeva, Ekaterina; Faulkner, David; Hong, Tienzen; Sullivan, Douglas P.

    2014-01-06

    This document summarizes a research effort on demand controlled ventilation and classroom ventilation. The research on demand controlled ventilation included field studies and building energy modeling. Major findings included: ? The single-location carbon dioxide sensors widely used for demand controlled ventilation frequently have large errors and will fail to effectively control ventilation rates (VRs).? Multi-location carbon dioxide measurement systems with more expensive sensors connected to multi-location sampling systems may measure carbon dioxide more accurately.? Currently-available optical people counting systems work well much of the time but have large counting errors in some situations. ? In meeting rooms, measurements of carbon dioxide at return-air grilles appear to be a better choice than wall-mounted sensors.? In California, demand controlled ventilation in general office spaces is projected to save significant energy and be cost effective only if typical VRs without demand controlled ventilation are very high relative to VRs in codes. Based on the research, several recommendations were developed for demand controlled ventilation specifications in the California Title 24 Building Energy Efficiency Standards.The research on classroom ventilation collected data over two years on California elementary school classrooms to investigate associations between VRs and student illness absence (IA). Major findings included: ? Median classroom VRs in all studied climate zones were below the California guideline, and 40percent lower in portable than permanent buildings.? Overall, one additional L/s per person of VR was associated with 1.6percent less IA. ? Increasing average VRs in California K-12 classrooms from the current average to the required level is estimated to decrease IA by 3.4percent, increasing State attendance-based funding to school districts by $33M, with $6.2 M in increased energy costs. Further VR increases would provide additional benefits.? Confirming these findings in intervention studies is recommended. ? Energy costs of heating/cooling unoccupied classrooms statewide are modest, but a large portion occurs in relatively few classrooms.

  3. Demand Controlled Ventilation and Classroom Ventilation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fisk, William J.

    2014-01-01

    columns indicate the energy and cost savings for  demand class size.   (The energy costs  of classroom ventilation $6.2 M in increased energy costs.   Further VR  increases 

  4. Demand Controlled Ventilation for Improved Humidity Control 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rogers, J. K.

    1996-01-01

    , outside air can be minimized without exceeding recommended IAQ guidelines. INTRODUCTION The greatest single contributor to building energy loads in humid climates is the cooling and dehumidifying of outside air which is brought in for ventilation...

  5. Optimization of Occupancy Based Demand Controlled Ventilation in Residences

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mortensen, Dorthe K.; Walker, Iain S.; Sherman, Max H.

    2011-05-01

    Although it has been used for many years in commercial buildings, the application of demand controlled ventilation in residences is limited. In this study we used occupant exposure to pollutants integrated over time (referred to as 'dose') as the metric to evaluate the effectiveness and air quality implications of demand controlled ventilation in residences. We looked at air quality for two situations. The first is that typically used in ventilation standards: the exposure over a long term. The second is to look at peak exposures that are associated with time variations in ventilation rates and pollutant generation. The pollutant generation had two components: a background rate associated with the building materials and furnishings and a second component related to occupants. The demand controlled ventilation system operated at a low airflow rate when the residence was unoccupied and at a high airflow rate when occupied. We used analytical solutions to the continuity equation to determine the ventilation effectiveness and the long-term chronic dose and peak acute exposure for a representative range of occupancy periods, pollutant generation rates and airflow rates. The results of the study showed that we can optimize the demand controlled airflow rates to reduce the quantity of air used for ventilation without introducing problematic acute conditions.

  6. CO2 - Based Demand-Controlled Ventilation Control Strategies for Multi-Zone HVAC Systems 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nassif, N.

    2011-01-01

    CO2-based demand-controlled ventilation DCV strategy offers a great opportunity to reduce energy consumption in HVAC systems while providing the required ventilation. However, implementing CO2-based DCV under ASHRAE 62.1.2004 through 2010...

  7. CO2 MONITORING FOR DEMAND CONTROLLED VENTILATION IN COMMERCIAL BUILDINGS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fisk, William J.; Sullivan, Douglas P.; Faulkner, David; Eliseeva, Ekaterina

    2010-03-17

    Carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) sensors are often deployed in commercial buildings to obtain CO{sub 2} data that are used, in a process called demand-controlled ventilation, to automatically modulate rates of outdoor air ventilation. The objective is to keep ventilation rates at or above design specifications and code requirements and also to save energy by avoiding excessive ventilation rates. Demand controlled ventilation is most often used in spaces with highly variable and sometime dense occupancy. Reasonably accurate CO{sub 2} measurements are needed for successful demand controlled ventilation; however, prior research has suggested substantial measurement errors. Accordingly, this study evaluated: (a) the accuracy of 208 CO{sub 2} single-location sensors located in 34 commercial buildings, (b) the accuracy of four multi-location CO{sub 2} measurement systems that utilize tubing, valves, and pumps to measure at multiple locations with single CO{sub 2} sensors, and (c) the spatial variability of CO{sub 2} concentrations within meeting rooms. The field studies of the accuracy of single-location CO{sub 2} sensors included multi-concentration calibration checks of 90 sensors in which sensor accuracy was checked at multiple CO{sub 2} concentrations using primary standard calibration gases. From these evaluations, average errors were small, -26 ppm and -9 ppm at 760 and 1010 ppm, respectively; however, the averages of the absolute values of error were 118 ppm (16%) and 138 ppm (14%), at concentrations of 760 and 1010 ppm, respectively. The calibration data are generally well fit by a straight line as indicated by high values of R{sup 2}. The Title 24 standard specifies that sensor error must be certified as no greater than 75 ppm for a period of five years after sensor installation. At 1010 ppm, 40% of sensors had errors greater than {+-}75 ppm and 31% of sensors has errors greater than {+-}100 ppm. At 760 ppm, 47% of sensors had errors greater than {+-}75 ppm and 37% of sensors had errors greater than {+-}100 ppm. A significant fraction of sensors had errors substantially larger than 100 ppm. For example, at 1010 ppm, 19% of sensors had an error greater than 200 ppm and 13% of sensors had errors greater than 300 ppm. The field studies also included single-concentration calibration checks of 118 sensors at the concentrations encountered in the buildings, which were normally less than 500 ppm during the testing. For analyses, these data were combined with data from the calibration challenges at 510 ppm obtained during the multi-concentration calibration checks. For the resulting data set, the average error was 60 ppm and the average of the absolute value of error was 154 ppm. Statistical analyses indicated that there were statistically significant differences between the average accuracies of sensors from different manufacturers. Sensors with a 'single lamp single wavelength' design tended to have a statistically significantly smaller average error than sensors with other designs except for 'single lamp dual wavelength' sensors, which did not have a statistically significantly lower accuracy. Sensor age was not consistently a statistically significant predictor of error.

  8. The impact of demand-controlled ventilation on energy use in buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Braun, J.E.; Brandemuehl, M.J.

    1999-07-01

    The overall objective of this work was to evaluate typical energy requirements associated with alternative ventilation control strategies. The strategies included different combinations of economizer and demand-controlled ventilation controls and energy analyses were performed for a range of typical buildings, systems, and climates. Only single zone buildings were considered, so that simultaneous heating and cooling did not exist. The energy savings associated with economizer and demand-controlled ventilation strategies were found to be very significant for both heating and cooling. In general, the greatest savings in electrical usage for cooling with the addition of demand-controlled ventilation occur in situations where the opportunities for economizer cooling are less. This is true for warm and humid climates, and for buildings that have low relative internal gains (i.e., low occupant densities). As much as 10% savings in electrical energy for cooling were possible with demand-controlled ventilation. The savings in heating energy associated with demand-controlled ventilation were generally much larger, but were strongly dependent upon the occupancy schedule. Significantly greater savings were found for buildings with highly variable occupancy schedules (e.g., stores and restaurants) as compared with office buildings. In some cases, the primary heating energy was reduced by a factor of 10 with demand-controlled ventilation as compared with fixed ventilation rates.

  9. The impact of demand-controlled and economizer ventilation strategies on energy use in buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brandemuehl, M.J.; Braun, J.E.

    1999-07-01

    The overall objective of this work was to evaluate typical energy requirements associated with alternative ventilation control strategies for constant-air-volume (CAV) systems in commercial buildings. The strategies included different combinations of economizer and demand-controlled ventilation, and energy analyses were performed for four typical building types, eight alternative ventilation systems, and twenty US climates. Only single-zone buildings were considered so that simultaneous heating and cooling did not exist. The energy savings associated with economizer and demand-controlled ventilation strategies were found to be very significant for both heating and cooling. In general, the greatest savings in electrical usage for cooling with the addition of demand-controlled ventilation occur in situations where the opportunities for economizer cooling are less. This is true for warm and humid climates and for buildings that have relatively low internal gains (i.e., low occupant densities). As much as 20% savings in electrical energy for cooling were possible with demand-controlled ventilation. The savings in heating energy associated with demand-controlled ventilation were generally much larger but were strongly dependent upon the building type and occupancy schedule. Significantly greater savings were found for buildings with highly variable occupancy schedules and large internal gains (i.e., restaurants) as compared with office buildings. In some cases, the primary heating energy was virtually eliminated by demand-controlled ventilation as compared with fixed ventilation rates. For both heating and cooling, the savings associated with demand-controlled ventilation are dependent on the fixed minimum ventilation rate of the base case at design conditions.

  10. Recommended Changes to Specifications for Demand Controlled Ventilation in California's Title 24 Building Energy Efficiency Standards

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fisk, William J.; Sullivan, Douglas P.; Faulkner, David

    2010-04-08

    In demand-controlled ventilation (DCV), rates of outdoor air ventilation are automatically modulated as occupant density varies. The objective is to keep ventilation rates at or above design specifications and code requirements and also to save energy by avoiding excessive ventilation rates. DCV is most often used in spaces with highly variable and sometime dense occupancy. In almost all cases, carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) sensors installed in buildings provide the signal to the ventilation rate control system. People produce and exhale CO{sub 2} as a consequence of their normal metabolic processes; thus, the concentrations of CO{sub 2} inside occupied buildings are higher than the concentrations of CO{sub 2} in the outdoor air. The magnitude of the indoor-outdoor CO{sub 2} concentration difference decreases as the building's ventilation rate per person increases. The difference between the indoor and outdoor CO{sub 2} concentration is also a proxy for the indoor concentrations of other occupant-generated bioeffluents, such as body odors. Reviews of the research literature on DCV indicate a significant potential for energy savings, particularly in buildings or spaces with a high and variable occupancy. Based on modeling, cooling energy savings from applications of DCV are as high as 20%. With support from the California Energy Commission and the U.S. Department of Energy, the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory has performed research on the performance of CO{sub 2} sensing technologies and optical people counters for DCV. In addition, modeling was performed to evaluate the potential energy savings and cost effectiveness of using DCV in general office spaces within the range of California climates. The above-described research has implications for the specifications pertaining to DCV in section 121 of the California Title 24 Standard. Consequently, this document suggests possible changes in these specifications based on the research findings. The suggested changes in specifications were developed in consultation with staff from the Iowa Energy Center who evaluated the accuracy of new CO{sub 2} sensors in laboratory-based research. In addition, staff of the California Energy Commission, and their consultants in the area of DCV, provided input for the suggested changes in specifications.

  11. The Impact of CO2-Based Demand-Controlled Ventilation on Energy Consumptions for Air Source Heat Pumps in Schools 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    AlRaees, N.; Nassif, N.

    2013-01-01

    There have been increasingly growing concerns for many years over the quality of the air inside buildings and the associated energy use. The CO2-based demand-controlled ventilation DCV offers a great opportunity to reduce energy consumption in HVAC...

  12. Assessment of Energy Savings Potential from the Use of Demand Controlled Ventilation in General Office Spaces in California

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hong, Tianzhen; Fisk, William

    2010-01-01

    A prototypical office building meeting the prescriptive requirements of the 2008 California building energy efficiency standards (Title 24) was used in EnergyPlus simulations to calculate the energy savings potential of demand controlled ventilation (DCV) in five typical California climates per three design occupancy densities and two minimum ventilation rates. The assumed minimum ventilation rates in offices without DCV, based on two different measurement methods employed in a large survey, were 38 and 13 L/s per occupant. The results of the life cycle cost analysis show DCV is cost effective for office spaces if the typical minimum ventilation rate without DCV is 38 L/s per person, except at the low design occupancy of 10.8 people per 100 m2 in climate zones 3 (north coast) and 6 (south Coast). DCV was not found to be cost effective if the typical minimum ventilation rate without DCV is 13 L/s per occupant, except at high design occupancy of 21.5 people per 100 m2 in climate zones 14 (desert) and 16 (mountains). Until the large uncertainties about the base case ventilation rates in offices without DCV are reduced, the case for requiring DCV in general office spaces will be a weak case. Under the Title 24 Standards office occupant density of 10.8 people per 100 m2, DCV becomes cost effective when the base case minimum ventilation rate is greater than 42.5, 43.0, 24.0, 19.0, and 18.0 L/s per person for climate zone 3, 6, 12, 14, and 16 respectively.

  13. Integrated Demand Controlled Ventilation for Single Duct VAV System with Conference Rooms 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yu, Y.; Liu, M.; Cho, Y.; Xu, K.

    2007-01-01

    building model is applied to demonstrate the energy saving and show how the indoor air ventilation be satisfied under different circumstance. THE IDCV VAV methodology can be generalized to other similar buildings where the occupancy of critical zones...

  14. Advanced Controls for Residential Whole-House Ventilation Systems...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    AND MISCELLANEOUS Residential ventilation, ventilation controller, ASHRAE Standard 62.2, demand response Word Cloud More Like This Full Text preview image File size NAView Full...

  15. Meeting Residential Ventilation Standards Through Dynamic Control of Ventilation Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sherman, Max H.; Walker, Iain S.

    2011-04-01

    Existing ventilation standards, including American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air-conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) Standard 62.2, specify continuous operation of a defined mechanical ventilation system to provide minimum ventilation, with time-based intermittent operation as an option. This requirement ignores several factors and concerns including: other equipment such as household exhaust fans that might incidentally provide ventilation, negative impacts of ventilation when outdoor pollutant levels are high, the importance of minimizing energy use particularly during times of peak electricity demand, and how the energy used to condition air as part of ventilation system operation changes with outdoor conditions. Dynamic control of ventilation systems can provide ventilation equivalent to or better than what is required by standards while minimizing energy costs and can also add value by shifting load during peak times and reducing intake of outdoor air contaminants. This article describes the logic that enables dynamic control of whole-house ventilation systems to meet the intent of ventilation standards and demonstrates the dynamic ventilation system control concept through simulations and field tests of the Residential Integrated Ventilation-Energy Controller (RIVEC).

  16. Development of a Residential Integrated Ventilation Controller

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Staff Scientist; Walker, Iain; Sherman, Max; Dickerhoff, Darryl

    2011-12-01

    The goal of this study was to develop a Residential Integrated Ventilation Controller (RIVEC) to reduce the energy impact of required mechanical ventilation by 20percent, maintain or improve indoor air quality and provide demand response benefits. This represents potential energy savings of about 140 GWh of electricity and 83 million therms of natural gas as well as proportional peak savings in California. The RIVEC controller is intended to meet the 2008 Title 24 requirements for residential ventilation as well as taking into account the issues of outdoor conditions, other ventilation devices (including economizers), peak demand concerns and occupant preferences. The controller is designed to manage all the residential ventilation systems that are currently available. A key innovation in this controller is the ability to implement the concept of efficacy and intermittent ventilation which allows time shifting of ventilation. Using this approach ventilation can be shifted away from times of high cost or high outdoor pollution towards times when it is cheaper and more effective. Simulations, based on the ones used to develop the new residential ventilation requirements for the California Buildings Energy code, were used to further define the specific criteria and strategies needed for the controller. These simulations provide estimates of the energy, peak power and contaminant improvement possible for different California climates for the various ventilation systems. Results from a field test of the prototype controller corroborate the predicted performance.

  17. Review of Literature on Terminal Box Control, Occupancy Sensing Technology and Multi-zone Demand Control Ventilation (DCV)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Guopeng; Dasu, Aravind R.; Zhang, Jian

    2012-03-01

    This report presents an overall review of the standard requirement, the terminal box control, occupancy sensing technology and DCV. There is system-specific guidance for single-zone systems, but DCV application guidance for multi-zone variable air volume (VAV) systems is not available. No real-world implementation case studies have been found using the CO2-based DCV. The review results also show that the constant minimum air flow set point causes excessive fan power consumption and potential simultaneous heating and cooling. Occupancy-based control (OBC) is needed for the terminal box in order to achieve deep energy savings. Key to OBC is a technology for sensing the actual occupancy of the zone served in real time. Several technologies show promise, but none currently fully meets the need with adequate accuracy and sufficiently low cost.

  18. New generation of software? Modeling of energy demands for residential ventilation with HTML interface

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Forowicz, T

    1997-01-01

    New generation of software? Modeling of energy demands for residential ventilation with HTML interface

  19. Demand Controlled Ventilation and Classroom Ventilation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fisk, William J.

    2014-01-01

    types.   A  one?time sensor evaluation after a new sensor Laboratory?based evaluations of nine sensors with large a specified existing sensor for evaluation.   In the  prior 

  20. Demand Controlled Ventilation and Classroom Ventilation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fisk, William J.

    2014-01-01

    by building energy management systems  were generally very signals to the energy  management systems.    Laboratory?2.3.1.5 Errors from energy management systems versus sensor

  1. Demand Controlled Ventilation and Classroom Ventilation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fisk, William J.

    2014-01-01

    zone level that has an air?side  economizer if the design systems has an air?side  economizer which provides up to volume systems have air side economizers as required by the 

  2. Hybrid Ventilation Optimization and Control Research and Development...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Hybrid Ventilation Optimization and Control Research and Development Hybrid Ventilation Optimization and Control Research and Development Credit: Massachusetts Institute of...

  3. Meeting Residential Ventilation Standards Through Dynamic Control of Ventilation Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sherman, Max H.

    2011-01-01

    heat recovery ventilator [HRV], central fan integratedfor a period of time. Heat recovery ventilator (HRV).A residential HRV includes both supply and exhaust airflows

  4. Outside Air Ventilation Controller - Building America Top Innovation...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    peak demand with no compromise in comfort. This automated night-cooling ventilation system can reduce cooling energy costs up to 40% and peak demand up to 50% in California's...

  5. Use of Statistical Approach to Design an Optimal Duct System for On-demand Industrial Exhaust Ventilation 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Litomisky, A.

    2010-01-01

    This paper elaborates on how to use statistics to calculate optimal parameters (including duct diameters) of energy-efficient industrial ventilation systems. Based on the fan-law, on-demand ventilation can save up to 80% of electricity compared...

  6. Electrical Demand Control 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eppelheimer, D. M.

    1984-01-01

    Almost every building owner or manager is interested in controlling electrical costs. Since the HVAC system is a large user of electricity, this article will discuss what can be done in the HVAC system to influence parts of the utility bill....

  7. Using a Ventilation Controller to Optimize Residential Passive Ventilation For Energy and Indoor Air Quality

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Turner, William; Walker, Iain

    2014-08-01

    One way to reduce the energy impact of providing residential ventilation is to use passive and hybrid systems. However, these passive and hybrid (sometimes called mixed-mode) systems must still meet chronic and acute health standards for ventilation. This study uses a computer simulation approach to examine the energy and indoor air quality (IAQ) implications of passive and hybrid ventilation systems, in 16 California climate zones. Both uncontrolled and flow controlled passive stacks are assessed. A new hybrid ventilation system is outlined that uses an intelligent ventilation controller to minimise energy use, while ensuring chronic and acute IAQ standards are met. ASHRAE Standard 62.2-2010 – the United States standard for residential ventilation - is used as the chronic standard, and exposure limits for PM2.5, formaldehyde and NO2 are used as the acute standards.The results show that controlled passive ventilation and hybrid ventilation can be used in homes to provide equivalent IAQ to continuous mechanical ventilation, for less use of energy.

  8. Optimization of Ventilation Energy Demands and Indoor Air Quality in High-Performance Homes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hun, Diana E; Jackson, Mark C; Shrestha, Som S

    2014-01-01

    High-performance homes require that ventilation energy demands and indoor air quality (IAQ) be simultaneously optimized. We attempted to bridge these two areas by conducting tests in a research house located in Oak Ridge, TN, that was 20 months old, energy-efficient (i.e., expected to consume 50% less energy than a house built per the 2006 IRC), tightly-built (i.e., natural ventilation rate ~0.02 h-1), unoccupied, and unfurnished. We identified air pollutants of concern in the test home that could generally serve as indicators of IAQ, and conduced field experiments and computer simulations to determine the effectiveness and energy required by various techniques that lessened the concentration of these contaminants. Formaldehyde was selected as the main pollutant of concern among the contaminants that were sampled in the initial survey because it was the only compound that showed concentrations that were greater than the recommended exposure levels. Field data indicate that concentrations were higher during the summer primarily because emissions from sources rise with increases in temperature. Furthermore, supply ventilation and gas-phase filtration were effective means to reduce formaldehyde concentrations; however, exhaust ventilation had minimal influence on this pollutant. Results from simulations suggest that formaldehyde concentrations obtained while ventilating per ASHRAE 62.2-2010 could be decreased by about 20% from May through September through three strategies: 1) increasing ASHRAE supply ventilation by a factor of two, 2) reducing the thermostat setpoint from 76 to 74 F, or 3) running a gas-phase filtration system while decreasing supply ventilation per ASHRAE by half. In the mixed-humid climate of Oak Ridge, these strategies caused increases in electricity cost of ~$5 to ~$15/month depending on outdoor conditions.

  9. Optimization of Ventilation Energy Demands and Indoor Air Quality in the ZEBRAlliance Homes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hun, D.; Jackson, M.; Shrestha, S.

    2013-09-01

    High-performance homes require that ventilation energy demands and indoor air quality (IAQ) be simultaneously optimized. In this project, Oak Ridge National Laboratory researchers attempted to bridge these two areas by conducting tests in research houses located in Oak Ridge, TN, that were less than 2 years old, energy-efficient (i.e., expected to consume 50% less energy than a house built per the 2006 IRC), tightly-built, unoccupied, and unfurnished. The team identified air pollutants of concern in the test homes that could generally serve as indicators of IAQ, and conduced field experiments and computer simulations to determine the effectiveness and energy required by various techniques that lessened the concentration of these contaminants. Formaldehyde was selected as the main pollutant of concern from initial air sampling surveys. Field data indicate that concentrations were higher during the summer primarily because emissions from sources rise with increases in temperature. Furthermore, supply ventilation and gas-phase filtration were effective means to reduce formaldehyde concentrations; however, exhaust ventilation had minimal influence on this pollutant. Results from simulations suggest that formaldehyde concentrations obtained while ventilating per ASHRAE 62.2-2010 could be decreased by about 20% from May through September through three strategies: 1) increasing ASHRAE supply ventilation by a factor of two, 2) reducing the thermostat setpoint from 76 to 74°F, or 3) running a gas-phase filtration system while decreasing supply ventilation per ASHRAE by half. In the mixed-humid climate of Oak Ridge, these strategies caused minimal to modest increases in electricity cost of ~$5 to ~$15/month depending on outdoor conditions.

  10. Development of a Residential Integrated Ventilation Controller

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Walker, Iain

    2013-01-01

    HRV) efficient systems (i.e. , ERV or HRV systems) will not workHeat Recovery Ventilator (HRV) In this system, the primary

  11. Control on Demand Customizing Control for Each Application

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bhattacharjee, Samrat "Bobby"

    1 Control on Demand Customizing Control for Each Application Abstract Control on demand significant progress has been made in integrated network transport now offering ``bandwidth on demand control needs. In this paradigm paper we propose an architecture for control on demand. We de­ fine

  12. Development of a Residential Integrated Ventilation Controller

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Walker, Iain

    2013-01-01

    B. , and Gan, G. 1998 “Heat Recovery with Low Pressure LossSherman, M.H. 2003. “Heat Recovery in Building Envelopes. ”1998. “Field Survey of Heat Recovery Ventilation Systems. ”

  13. Building America Top Innovations 2012: Outside Air Ventilation Controller

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    2013-01-01

    venThis Building America Top Innovations profile describes Building America research showing how automated night ventilation can reduce cooling energy costs up to 40% and peak demand up to 50% in California’s hot-dry central valley climates and can eliminate the need for air conditioning altogether in the coastal marine climate.

  14. Wireless Demand Response Controls for HVAC Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Federspiel, Clifford

    2010-01-01

    conditioning. Figure 2: Wireless discharge air temperatureWireless Demand Response Controls for HVAC Systems Cliffordcontrol software and wireless hardware that could enable

  15. MINING VENTILATION CONTROL: A NEW INDUSTRIAL CASE FOR WIRELESS AUTOMATION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    MINING VENTILATION CONTROL: A NEW INDUSTRIAL CASE FOR WIRELESS AUTOMATION E. Witrant1, A. D- scribe a new industrial case on wireless automation, for a large scale system with high environmental- provements. Indeed, one of the first objectives of mod- ern mining industry is to fulfill ecological

  16. Mining ventilation control: a new industrial case for wireless automation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johansson, Karl Henrik

    - lated to motor system energy [2] (p.19). Another inter- esting figure is given in [3] whereMining ventilation control: a new industrial case for wireless automation E. Witrant1, A. D, 2008 Abstract This paper describes a new industrial case on wireless automation, for a large scale

  17. Centralized and Decentralized Control for Demand Response

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lu, Shuai; Samaan, Nader A.; Diao, Ruisheng; Elizondo, Marcelo A.; Jin, Chunlian; Mayhorn, Ebony T.; Zhang, Yu; Kirkham, Harold

    2011-04-29

    Demand response has been recognized as an essential element of the smart grid. Frequency response, regulation and contingency reserve functions performed traditionally by generation resources are now starting to involve demand side resources. Additional benefits from demand response include peak reduction and load shifting, which will defer new infrastructure investment and improve generator operation efficiency. Technical approaches designed to realize these functionalities can be categorized into centralized control and decentralized control, depending on where the response decision is made. This paper discusses these two control philosophies and compares their relative advantages and disadvantages in terms of delay time, predictability, complexity, and reliability. A distribution system model with detailed household loads and controls is built to demonstrate the characteristics of the two approaches. The conclusion is that the promptness and reliability of decentralized control should be combined with the predictability and simplicity of centralized control to achieve the best performance of the smart grid.

  18. MR-compatible ventilator for small animals: computer-controlled ventilation for proton and noble gas imaging

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of normal breathing gas or experimental test gases. 2. Materials and methods 2.1. Overview of the ventilator/timers control electro-mechanical relays (S2072 relay board, National Instruments Interface Board), which in turn

  19. Wireless Demand Response Controls for HVAC Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Federspiel, Clifford

    2009-06-30

    The objectives of this scoping study were to develop and test control software and wireless hardware that could enable closed-loop, zone-temperature-based demand response in buildings that have either pneumatic controls or legacy digital controls that cannot be used as part of a demand response automation system. We designed a SOAP client that is compatible with the Demand Response Automation Server (DRAS) being used by the IOUs in California for their CPP program, design the DR control software, investigated the use of cellular routers for connecting to the DRAS, and tested the wireless DR system with an emulator running a calibrated model of a working building. The results show that the wireless DR system can shed approximately 1.5 Watts per design CFM on the design day in a hot, inland climate in California while keeping temperatures within the limits of ASHRAE Standard 55: Thermal Environmental Conditions for Human Occupancy.

  20. Development of a Residential Integrated Ventilation Controller

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Walker, Iain

    2013-01-01

    Refrigerating, and Air-Conditioning Engineers, Atlanta, GA.Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers. November,Control. ” Heating Air Conditioning and Refrigeration News.

  1. Demand Control Utilizing Energy Management Systems - Report of Field Tests 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Russell, B. D.; Heller, R. P.; Perry, L. W.

    1984-01-01

    Energy Management systems and particularly demand controllers are becoming more popular as commercial and light industrial operations attempt to reduce their electrical usage and demand. Numerous techniques are used to control energy use and demand...

  2. CO2 MONITORING FOR DEMAND CONTROLLED VENTILATION IN COMMERCIAL BUILDINGS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fisk, William J.

    2010-01-01

    Laboratory-based evaluations of nine sensors with largespecified existing sensor for evaluation. In the prior fieldIn summary, these evaluations of faulty sensors did not

  3. CO2 MONITORING FOR DEMAND CONTROLLED VENTILATION IN COMMERCIAL BUILDINGS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fisk, William J.

    2010-01-01

    evaluations of the performance of sensor electronics and measurements of the output of infrared sources within sensors

  4. Development of an Outdoor Temperature Based Control Algorithm for Residential Mechanical Ventilation Control

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Less, Brennan; Walker, Iain; Tang, Yihuan

    2014-08-01

    The Incremental Ventilation Energy (IVE) model developed in this study combines the output of simple air exchange models with a limited set of housing characteristics to estimate the associated change in energy demand of homes. The IVE model was designed specifically to enable modellers to use existing databases of housing characteristics to determine the impact of ventilation policy change on a population scale. The IVE model estimates of energy change when applied to US homes with limited parameterisation are shown to be comparable to the estimates of a well-validated, complex residential energy model.

  5. Advanced Controls and Sustainable Systems for Residential Ventilation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Turner, William J.N.

    2014-01-01

    Demand Response .with ASHRAE 62.2 2. demand response – the shifting (andPeak Energy Demand and Demand Response ‘Peak energy demand

  6. Automated Demand Response Strategies and Commissioning Commercial Building Controls

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Piette, Mary Ann; Watson, David; Motegi, Naoya; Kiliccote, Sila; Linkugel, Eric

    2006-01-01

    4 9 . Piette et at Automated Demand Response Strategies andDynamic Controls for Demand Response in New and ExistingFully Automated Demand Response Tests in Large Facilities"

  7. Demand Controlled Filtration in an Industrial Cleanroom

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Faulkner, David; DiBartolomeo, Dennis; Wang, Duo

    2007-09-01

    In an industrial cleanroom, significant energy savings were realized by implementing two types of demand controlled filtration (DCF) strategies, one based on particle counts and one on occupancy. With each strategy the speed of the recirculation fan filter units was reduced to save energy. When the control was based on particle counts, the energy use was 60% of the baseline configuration of continuous fan operation. With simple occupancy sensors, the energy usage was 63% of the baseline configuration. During the testing of DCF, no complaints were registered by the operator of the cleanroom concerning processes and products being affected by the DCF implementation.

  8. AUTOMATIC VARIABLE VENTILATION CONTROL SYSTEMS BASED ON AIR QUALITY DETECTION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Turiel, Isaac

    2011-01-01

    U"'"'''"'" - e "'~saon Automatic Variable Ventilation1979) LBL~8893 EEB Vent 79-3 Automatic variable ventilationmeasurement capabilities o Automatic operation o Low

  9. Occupancy Based Demand Response HVAC Control Strategy Varick L. Erickson

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cerpa, Alberto E.

    Occupancy Based Demand Response HVAC Control Strategy Varick L. Erickson University of California an efficient demand response HVAC control strategy, actual room usage must be considered. Temperature and CO2 are used for simulations but not for predictive demand response strategies. In this paper, we develop

  10. Assessing the Control Systems Capacity for Demand Response in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    LBNL-5319E Assessing the Control Systems Capacity for Demand Response in California Industries in this report was coordinated by the Demand Response Research Center and funded by the California Energy of the Demand Response Research Center Industrial Controls Experts Working Group: · Jim Filanc, Southern

  11. Comparison of freezing control strategies for residential air-to-air heat recovery ventilators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Phillips, E.G.; Bradley, L.C. ); Chant, R.E. ); Fisher, D.R.

    1989-01-01

    A comparison of the energy performance of defrost and frost control strategies for residential air-to-air heat recovery ventilators (HRV) has been carried out by using computer simulations for various climatic conditions. This paper discusses the results and conclusions from the comparisons and their implications for the heat recovery ventilator manufacturers and system designers.

  12. Optimal decision making in ventilation control Andrew Kusiak*, Mingyang Li

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kusiak, Andrew

    . In addition, devices such as air-side economizers are also used in ventilation systems to reduce energy Accepted 24 July 2009 Available online 15 August 2009 Keywords: Ventilation Air quality Multi. Using the CO2 concentration as the major indoor air quality index and expected room occupancy schedule

  13. Natural ventilation in buildings : modeling, control and optimization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ip Kiun Chong, Karine

    2014-01-01

    Natural ventilation in buildings has the potential to reduce the energy consumption usually associated with mechanical cooling while maintaining thermal comfort and air quality. It is important to know how building parameters, ...

  14. Fuse Control for Demand Side Management: A Stochastic Pricing Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oren, Shmuel S.

    a service contract for load curtailment. Index Terms--Demand side management, aggregated demand response Reliability Technology Solutions (CERTS) for the project Business Model for Retail Aggregation of ResponsiveFuse Control for Demand Side Management: A Stochastic Pricing Analysis Journal: IEEE Transactions

  15. Adaptive Demand Response: Online Learning of Restless and Controlled Bandits

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, Mingyan

    Adaptive Demand Response: Online Learning of Restless and Controlled Bandits Qingsi Wang, Mingyan realized curtailment, not the curtailment of each load. We develop an adaptive demand response learning like UCB1. I. INTRODUCTION Electric loads participating in demand response programs provide a variety

  16. Optimal Demand Response Capacity of Automatic Lighting Control

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mohsenian-Rad, Hamed

    1 Optimal Demand Response Capacity of Automatic Lighting Control Seyed Ataollah Raziei and Hamed-mails: razieis1@udayton.edu and hamed@ee.ucr.edu Abstract--Demand response programs seek to ad- just the normal prior studies have extensively studied the capacity of offering demand response in buildings

  17. An Integrated Architecture for Demand Response Communications and Control

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gross, George

    An Integrated Architecture for Demand Response Communications and Control Michael LeMay, Rajesh for the MGA and ZigBee wireless communications. Index Terms Demand Response, Advanced Meter Infrastructure. In principle this can be done with demand response techniques in which electricity users take measures

  18. Control Mechanisms for Residential Electricity Demand in SmartGrids

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Snyder, Larry

    Email: lvs2@lehigh.edu Abstract--We consider mechanisms to optimize electricity consumption both within subscription plan. Such methods for controlling electricity consumption are part of demand response, whichControl Mechanisms for Residential Electricity Demand in SmartGrids Shalinee Kishore Department

  19. Production Control with Backlog-Dependent Demand Stanley B. Gershwin

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Veatch, Michael H.

    Production Control with Backlog-Dependent Demand Stanley B. Gershwin Department of Mechanical.veatch@gordon.edu July 2, 2007 Abstract We study a manufacturing firm that builds a product to stock to meet a random demand. Production time is deterministic, so that if there is a backlog, customers are quoted a lead time

  20. Indoor air quality control for improving passenger health in subway platforms using an outdoor air quality dependent ventilation system

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Indoor air quality control for improving passenger health in subway platforms using an outdoor air online 19 May 2015 Keywords: Ventilation control system Indoor air quality Indoor air pollution control Outdoor air quality Passenger health promotion Ventilation energy a b s t r a c t Indoor air quality (IAQ

  1. The role of building technologies in reducing and controlling peak electricity demand

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Koomey, Jonathan; Brown, Richard E.

    2002-01-01

    AND CONTROLLING PEAK ELECTRICITY DEMAND Jonathan Koomey* andData to Improve Electricity Demand Forecasts–Final Report.further research. Electricity demand varies constantly. At

  2. Cost effective combined axial fan and throttling valve control of ventilation rate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sengun, Mehmet Haluk

    Cost effective combined axial fan and throttling valve control of ventilation rate C.J. Taylor 1 P. In partic- ular, it develops a unique fan and throttling valve control system for a 22m3 test chamber, the throttling valve is employed to restrict airflow at the outlet, so generating a higher static pressure differ

  3. ADMINISTRATIVE AND ENGINEERING CONTROLS FOR THE OPERATION OF VENTILATION SYSTEMS FOR UNDERGROUND RADIOACTIVE WASTE STORAGE TANKS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wiersma, B.; Hansen, A.

    2013-11-13

    Liquid radioactive wastes from the Savannah River Site are stored in large underground carbon steel tanks. The majority of the waste is confined in double shell tanks, which have a primary shell, where the waste is stored, and a secondary shell, which creates an annular region between the two shells, that provides secondary containment and leak detection capabilities should leakage from the primary shell occur. Each of the DST is equipped with a purge ventilation system for the interior of the primary shell and annulus ventilation system for the secondary containment. Administrative flammability controls require continuous ventilation to remove hydrogen gas and other vapors from the waste tanks while preventing the release of radionuclides to the atmosphere. Should a leak from the primary to the annulus occur, the annulus ventilation would also serve this purpose. The functionality of the annulus ventilation is necessary to preserve the structural integrity of the primary shell and the secondary. An administrative corrosion control program is in place to ensure integrity of the tank. Given the critical functions of the purge and annulus ventilation systems, engineering controls are also necessary to ensure that the systems remain robust. The system consists of components that are constructed of metal (e.g., steel, stainless steel, aluminum, copper, etc.) and/or polymeric (polypropylene, polyethylene, silicone, polyurethane, etc.) materials. The performance of these materials in anticipated service environments (e.g., normal waste storage, waste removal, etc.) was evaluated. The most aggressive vapor space environment occurs during chemical cleaning of the residual heels by utilizing oxalic acid. The presence of NO{sub x} and mercury in the vapors generated from the process could potentially accelerate the degradation of aluminum, carbon steel, and copper. Once identified, the most susceptible materials were either replaced and/or plans for discontinuing operations are executed.

  4. Optimal Control of Distributed Energy Resources and Demand Response under Uncertainty

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Siddiqui, Afzal

    2010-01-01

    Control of Distributed Energy Resources and Demand ResponseControl of Distributed Energy Resources and Demand Responseinstalled distribution energy resources (DER) in the form of

  5. Optimal Control of Distributed Energy Resources and Demand Response under Uncertainty

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Siddiqui, Afzal

    2010-01-01

    Optimal Control of Distributed Energy Resources and DemandRenewable Energy, former Distributed Energy Program of theOptimal Control of Distributed Energy Resources and Demand

  6. Innovative Energy Efficient Industrial Ventilation 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Litomisky, A.

    2005-01-01

    This paper was written to describe an innovative “on-demand” industrial ventilation system for woodworking, metalworking, food processing, pharmaceutical, chemical, and other industries. Having analyzed existing industrial ventilation in 130...

  7. Electric Water Heater Modeling and Control Strategies for Demand Response

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Diao, Ruisheng; Lu, Shuai; Elizondo, Marcelo A.; Mayhorn, Ebony T.; Zhang, Yu; Samaan, Nader A.

    2012-07-22

    Abstract— Demand response (DR) has a great potential to provide balancing services at normal operating conditions and emergency support when a power system is subject to disturbances. Effective control strategies can significantly relieve the balancing burden of conventional generators and reduce investment on generation and transmission expansion. This paper is aimed at modeling electric water heaters (EWH) in households and tests their response to control strategies to implement DR. The open-loop response of EWH to a centralized signal is studied by adjusting temperature settings to provide regulation services; and two types of decentralized controllers are tested to provide frequency support following generator trips. EWH models are included in a simulation platform in DIgSILENT to perform electromechanical simulation, which contains 147 households in a distribution feeder. Simulation results show the dependence of EWH response on water heater usage . These results provide insight suggestions on the need of control strategies to achieve better performance for demand response implementation. Index Terms— Centralized control, decentralized control, demand response, electrical water heater, smart grid

  8. Aggregate Model for Heterogeneous Thermostatically Controlled Loads with Demand Response

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Wei; Kalsi, Karanjit; Fuller, Jason C.; Elizondo, Marcelo A.; Chassin, David P.

    2012-07-22

    Due to the potentially large number of Distributed Energy Resources (DERs) – demand response, distributed generation, distributed storage - that are expected to be deployed, it is impractical to use detailed models of these resources when integrated with the transmission system. Being able to accurately estimate the fast transients caused by demand response is especially important to analyze the stability of the system under different demand response strategies. On the other hand, a less complex model is more amenable to design feedback control strategies for the population of devices to provide ancillary services. The main contribution of this paper is to develop aggregated models for a heterogeneous population of Thermostatic Controlled Loads (TCLs) to accurately capture their collective behavior under demand response and other time varying effects of the system. The aggregated model efficiently includes statistical information of the population and accounts for a second order effect necessary to accurately capture the collective dynamic behavior. The developed aggregated models are validated against simulations of thousands of detailed building models using GridLAB-D (an open source distribution simulation software) under both steady state and severe dynamic conditions caused due to temperature set point changes.

  9. Direct versus Facility Centric Load Control for Automated Demand Response

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Piette, Mary Ann

    2010-01-01

    Interoperable Automated Demand Response Infrastructure.and Techniques for Demand Response. LBNL Report 59975. Mayand Communications for Demand Response and Energy Efficiency

  10. The Impact of Control Technology on the Demand Response Potential of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    LBNL-5750E The Impact of Control Technology on the Demand Response Potential of California was sponsored in part by the Demand Response Research Center which is funded

  11. An MILP Formulation for Load-Side Demand Control Zhonghui Luo, Ratnesh Kumar*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kumar, Ratnesh

    their operations prone to high demand charges. In fact, demand control has been used in residential power systemsAn MILP Formulation for Load-Side Demand Control Zhonghui Luo, Ratnesh Kumar* , Joseph Sottile linear programming formulation for load-side control of electrical energy demand. The formulation

  12. Load-side Demand Management in Buildings using Controlled Electric Springs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Soni, Jayantika; Krishnanand, KR; Panda, Sanjib

    2014-01-01

    L. Goel, "Demand side load management of smart grids usingP. Shenoy, "Demand-side load management in smart homes," inLoad-side Demand Management in Buildings using Controlled

  13. Performance Assessment of Photovoltaic Attic Ventilator Fans 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Parker, D. S.; Sherwin, J. R.

    2000-01-01

    Controlling summer attic heat gain is important to reducing air conditioning energy use in homes in hot-humid climates. Both heat transfer through ceilings and t attic duct systems can make up a large part of peak cooling demand, Attic ventilation...

  14. Distributed Algorithms for Control of Demand Response and Distributed Energy Resources

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dominguez-Garcia, Alejandro

    Distributed Algorithms for Control of Demand Response and Distributed Energy Resources Alejandro D networks. These algorithms are relevant for load curtailment control in demand response programs, and also is currently achieved through demand response programs in which participants, i.e., demand re- sponse resources

  15. EVALUATION OF BEST AVAILABLE CONTROL TECHNOLOGY FOR TOXICS -TBACT- DOUBLE SHELL TANK FARMS PRIMARY VENTILATION SYSTEMS SUPPORTING WASTE TRANSFER OPERATIONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    HAAS CC; KOVACH JL; KELLY SE; TURNER DA

    2010-06-24

    This report is an evaluation of Best Available Control Technology for Toxics (tBACT) for installation and operation of the Hanford double shell (DST) tank primary ventilation systems. The DST primary ventilation systems are being modified to support Hanford's waste retrieval, mixing, and delivery of single shell tank (SST) and DST waste through the DST storage system to the Waste Treatment and Immobilizaiton Plant (WTP).

  16. EVALUATION OF BEST AVAILABLE CONTROL TECHNOLOGY FOR TOXICS (TBACT) DOUBLE SHELL TANK FARMS PRIMARY VENTILATION SYSTEM SUPPORTING WASTE TRANSFER OPERATIONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    KELLY SE; HAASS CC; KOVACH JL; TURNER DA

    2010-06-03

    This report is an evaluation of Best Available Control Technology for Toxics (tBACT) for installation and operation of the Hanford double shell (DST) tank primary ventilation systems. The DST primary ventilation systems are being modified to support Hanford's waste retrieval, mixing, and delivery of single shell tank (SST) and DST waste throught the DST storage system to the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP).

  17. Ventilation Air Preconditioning Systems 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Khattar, M.; Brandemuehl, M. J.

    1996-01-01

    Increased outside ventilation air requirements demand special attention to how that air will be conditioned. In winter, the incoming air may need preheating; in summer. the mixed air may be too humid for effective dehumidification. Part...

  18. Automated Demand Response Strategies and Commissioning Commercial Building Controls

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Piette, Mary Ann; Watson, David; Motegi, Naoya; Kiliccote, Sila; Linkugel, Eric

    2006-01-01

    efficiency, daily peak load management and demand response.Loads Efficiency, Daily Load Management and Demand ResponseOperations Peak Load Management (Daily) - TOU Savings - Peak

  19. Dynamic Controls for Energy Efficiency and Demand Response: Framework Concepts and a New Construction Study Case in New York

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kiliccote, Sila; Piette, Mary Ann; Watson, David S.; Hughes, Glenn

    2006-01-01

    introduction of a demand-side management (DSM) framework forof building controls. Demand-Side Management Framework forDOE 2006). The demand-side management (DSM) framework

  20. Direct versus Facility Centric Load Control for Automated Demand Response

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koch, Ed; Piette, Mary Ann

    2009-11-06

    Direct load control (DLC) refers to the scenario where third party entities outside the home or facility are responsible for deciding how and when specific customer loads will be controlled in response to Demand Response (DR) events on the electric grid. Examples of third parties responsible for performing DLC may be Utilities, Independent System Operators (ISO), Aggregators, or third party control companies. DLC can be contrasted with facility centric load control (FCLC) where the decisions for how loads are controlled are made entirely within the facility or enterprise control systems. In FCLC the facility owner has more freedom of choice in how to respond to DR events on the grid. Both approaches are in use today in automation of DR and both will continue to be used in future market segments including industrial, commercial and residential facilities. This paper will present a framework which can be used to differentiate between DLC and FCLC based upon where decisions are made on how specific loads are controlled in response to DR events. This differentiation is then used to compare and contrast the differences between DLC and FCLC to identify the impact each has on:(1)Utility/ISO and third party systems for managing demand response, (2)Facility systems for implementing load control, (3)Communications networks for interacting with the facility and (4)Facility operators and managers. Finally a survey of some of the existing DR related specifications and communications standards is given and their applicability to DLC or FCLC. In general FCLC adds more cost and responsibilities to the facilities whereas DLC represents higher costs and complexity for the Utility/ISO. This difference is primarily due to where the DR Logic is implemented and the consequences that creates. DLC may be more certain than FCLC because it is more predictable - however as more loads have the capability to respond to DR signals, people may prefer to have their own control of end-use loads and FCLC systems. Research is needed to understand the predictability of FCLC which is related to the perceived value of the DR from the facility manager or home owner's perspective.

  1. Advanced control strategies for heating, ventilation, air-conditioning, and refrigeration systems—An overview: Part I: Hard control

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    D. Subbaram Naidu; Craig G. Rieger

    2011-02-01

    A chronological overview of the advanced control strategies for heating, ventilation, air-conditioning, and refrigeration (HVAC&R) is presented in this article. The overview focuses on hard-computing or control techniques, such as proportional-integral-derivative, optimal, nonlinear, adaptive, and robust; soft-computing or control techniques, such as neural networks, fuzzy logic, genetic algorithms; and on the fusion or hybrid of hard- and soft-control techniques. Thus, it is to be noted that the terminology “hard” and “soft” computing/control has nothing to do with the “hardware” and “software” that is being generally used. Part I of a two-part series focuses on hard-control strategies, and Part II focuses on softand fusion-control in addition to some future directions in HVAC&R research. This overview is not intended to be an exhaustive survey on this topic, and any omission of other works is purely unintentional.

  2. A study of industrial equipment energy use and demand control 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dooley, Edward Scott

    2001-01-01

    personnel. Comparing a detailed summary of equipment rated loads to annual utility bills, when measurements are not available, can prevent over-estimation of the demand and duty factors for a plant. Raw unadjusted estimates of demand factors of 60...

  3. Control on Demand Gsli Hjlmtsson + and Samrat Bhattacharjee #

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bhattacharjee, Samrat "Bobby"

    Constructing Speculative Demand Functions in Equilibrium Markets Tuomas Sandholm and Fredrik Ygge WUCS­99­26 October 11, 1999 #12; Constructing Speculative Demand Functions Constructing Speculative Demand Functions in Equilibrium Markets Tuomas Sandholm # sandholm@cs.wustl.edu Department of Computer

  4. THE ROLE OF BUILDING TECHNOLOGIES IN REDUCING AND CONTROLLING PEAK ELECTRICITY DEMAND

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    LBNL-49947 THE ROLE OF BUILDING TECHNOLOGIES IN REDUCING AND CONTROLLING PEAK ELECTRICITY DEMAND? ..................................... 8 What are the seasonal aspects of electric peak demand?............................ 9 What because of the California electricity crisis (Borenstein 2001). Uncertainties surrounding the reliability

  5. Scalable Scheduling of Building Control Systems for Peak Demand Reduction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pappas, George J.

    price for their maximum demand to discourage their energy usage in peak load conditions. In buildings of Pennsylvania {nghiem, mbehl, rahulm, pappasg}@seas.upenn.edu Abstract-- In large energy systems, peak demand might cause severe issues such as service disruption and high cost of energy production and distribution

  6. Aggregated Modeling and Control of Air Conditioning Loads for Demand Response

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Wei

    1 Aggregated Modeling and Control of Air Conditioning Loads for Demand Response Wei Zhang, Member, IEEE Abstract--Demand response is playing an increasingly impor- tant role in the efficient loads is especially important to evaluate the effec- tiveness of various demand response strategies

  7. Impact of Residential Mechanical Ventilation on Energy Cost and Humidity Control

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martin, Eric

    2014-01-01

    Optimizing whole house mechanical ventilation as part of the Building Ameerica program's systems engineered approach to constructing housing has been an important subject of the program's research. Ventilation in residential buildings is one component of an effective, comprehensive strategy for creation and maintenance of a comfortable and healthy indoor air environment. The study described in this report is based on building energy modeling with an important focus on the indoor humidity impacts of ventilation. The modeling tools used were EnergyPlus version 7.1 (E+) and EnergyGauge USA (EGUSA). Twelve U.S. cities and five climate zones were represented. A total of 864 simulations (2*2*3*3*12= 864) were run using two building archetypes, two building leakage rates, two building orientations, three ventilation systems, three ventilation rates, and twelve climates.

  8. Impact of Residential Mechanical Ventilation on Energy Cost and Humidity Control

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martin, E.

    2014-01-01

    The DOE Building America program has been conducting research leading to cost effective high performance homes since the early 1990's. Optimizing whole house mechanical ventilation as part of the program's systems engineered approach to constructing housing has been an important subject of the program's research. Ventilation in residential buildings is one component of an effective, comprehensive strategy for creation and maintenance of a comfortable and healthy indoor air environment. The study described in this white paper is based on building energy modeling with an important focus on the indoor humidity impacts of ventilation. The modeling tools used were EnergyPlus version 7.1 (E+) and EnergyGauge USA (EGUSA). Twelve U.S. cities and five climate zones were represented. A total of 864 simulations (2*2*3*3*12= 864) were run using two building archetypes, two building leakage rates, two building orientations, three ventilation systems, three ventilation rates, and twelve climates.

  9. Modeling, Analysis, and Control of Demand Response Resources

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mathieu, Johanna L.

    2013-01-01

    that pre-cool, rebound, or otherwise shift energy use to theexhibit almost no rebound and save some energy on DR days,min) Rebound (kW) Daily peak demand (%) Daily energy (%)

  10. Modeling, Analysis, and Control of Demand Response Resources

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mathieu, Johanna L.

    2012-01-01

    that pre-cool, rebound, or otherwise shift energy use to theexhibit almost no rebound and save some energy on DR days,min) Rebound (kW) Daily peak demand (%) Daily energy (%)

  11. Alternatives generation and analysis for double-shell tank primary ventilation systems emissions control and monitoring

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    SEDERBURG, J.P.

    1999-09-30

    This AGA addresses the question: ''What equipment upgrades, operational changes, and/or other actions are required relative to the DST tanks farms' ventilation systems to support retrieval, staging (including feed sampling), and delivery of tank waste to the Phase I private contractor?'' Issues and options for the various components within the ventilation subsystem affect each other. Recommended design requirements are presented and the preferred alternatives are detailed.

  12. Ventilative cooling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Graça, Guilherme Carrilho da, 1972-

    1999-01-01

    This thesis evaluates the performance of daytime and nighttime passive ventilation cooling strategies for Beijing, Shanghai and Tokyo. A new simulation method for cross-ventilated wind driven airflow is presented . This ...

  13. Control and Optimization Meet the Smart Power Grid - Scheduling of Power Demands for Optimal Energy Management

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Koutsopoulos, Iordanis

    2010-01-01

    The smart power grid aims at harnessing information and communication technologies to enhance reliability and enforce sensible use of energy. Its realization is geared by the fundamental goal of effective management of demand load. In this work, we envision a scenario with real-time communication between the operator and consumers. The grid operator controller receives requests for power demands from consumers, with different power requirement, duration, and a deadline by which it is to be completed. The objective is to devise a power demand task scheduling policy that minimizes the grid operational cost over a time horizon. The operational cost is a convex function of instantaneous power consumption and reflects the fact that each additional unit of power needed to serve demands is more expensive as demand load increases.First, we study the off-line demand scheduling problem, where parameters are fixed and known. Next, we devise a stochastic model for the case when demands are generated continually and sched...

  14. Abstract--This paper formulates and develops a peak demand control tool for electric systems within the framework of direct

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Catholic University of Chile (Universidad Católica de Chile)

    techniques. Index Terms--Demand Side Management, direct load control, peak demand control, genetic algorithms in order to evaluate the suitability of the decision chosen. Demand Side Management (DSM) plans attempt of application has been developed in the field of demand management; however, the high energy consumption growth

  15. Development and Validation of Aggregated Models for Thermostatic Controlled Loads with Demand Response

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kalsi, Karanjit; Elizondo, Marcelo A.; Fuller, Jason C.; Lu, Shuai; Chassin, David P.

    2012-01-04

    Demand response is playing an increasingly important role in smart grid research and technologies being examined in recently undertaken demonstration projects. The behavior of load as it is affected by various load control strategies is important to understanding the degree to which different classes of end-use load can contribute to demand response programs at various times. This paper focuses on developing aggregated control models for a population of thermostatically controlled loads. The effects of demand response on the load population dynamics are investigated.

  16. Green Communications by Demand Shaping and User-in-the-Loop Tariff-based Control

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yanikomeroglu, Halim

    @sce.carleton.ca Abstract--The new field of green communications can be divided into a) energy-efficient communications for controlling the demand side. Dealing with congestion is a consequence of the supply=demand regime and the end, technical solutions which aim at making the wireless network more efficient in terms of specific bit energy

  17. Electricity demand as frequency controlled reserves, ForskEL...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    controlled reserve (DFR) implementation, a system that automatically stops or starts electricity consumption in response to system frequency variations. References "EU...

  18. Equivalence in Ventilation and Indoor Air Quality

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sherman, Max; Walker, Iain; Logue, Jennifer

    2011-08-01

    We ventilate buildings to provide acceptable indoor air quality (IAQ). Ventilation standards (such as American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air-Conditioning Enginners [ASHRAE] Standard 62) specify minimum ventilation rates without taking into account the impact of those rates on IAQ. Innovative ventilation management is often a desirable element of reducing energy consumption or improving IAQ or comfort. Variable ventilation is one innovative strategy. To use variable ventilation in a way that meets standards, it is necessary to have a method for determining equivalence in terms of either ventilation or indoor air quality. This study develops methods to calculate either equivalent ventilation or equivalent IAQ. We demonstrate that equivalent ventilation can be used as the basis for dynamic ventilation control, reducing peak load and infiltration of outdoor contaminants. We also show that equivalent IAQ could allow some contaminants to exceed current standards if other contaminants are more stringently controlled.

  19. Wireless Ventilation Control for Large-Scale Systems: the Mining Industrial Case

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    minimization thanks to a continuous operation of the fans. The second one, based on a hybrid description strategies for fluid systems (pumps, fans and compressors) represent approximately 20 % of the total % or more of the energy consumed by the mining process may go into the ventilation (including heating

  20. Assessing the Control Systems Capacity for Demand Response in California Industries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ghatikar, Girish; McKane, Aimee; Goli, Sasank; Therkelsen, Peter; Olsen, Daniel

    2012-01-18

    California's electricity markets are moving toward dynamic pricing models, such as real-time pricing, within the next few years, which could have a significant impact on an industrial facility's cost of energy use during the times of peak use. Adequate controls and automated systems that provide industrial facility managers real-time energy use and cost information are necessary for successful implementation of a comprehensive electricity strategy; however, little is known about the current control capacity of California industries. To address this gap, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, in close collaboration with California industrial trade associations, conducted a survey to determine the current state of controls technologies in California industries. This,study identifies sectors that have the technical capability to implement Demand Response (DR) and Automated Demand Response (Auto-DR). In an effort to assist policy makers and industry in meeting the challenges of real-time pricing, facility operational and organizational factors were taken into consideration to generate recommendations on which sectors Demand Response efforts should be focused. Analysis of the survey responses showed that while the vast majority of industrial facilities have semi- or fully automated control systems, participation in Demand Response programs is still low due to perceived barriers. The results also showed that the facilities that use continuous processes are good Demand Response candidates. When comparing facilities participating in Demand Response to those not participating, several similarities and differences emerged. Demand Response-participating facilities and non-participating facilities had similar timings of peak energy use, production processes, and participation in energy audits. Though the survey sample was smaller than anticipated, the results seemed to support our preliminary assumptions. Demonstrations of Auto-Demand Response in industrial facilities with good control capabilities are needed to dispel perceived barriers to participation and to investigate industrial subsectors suggested of having inherent Demand Response potential.

  1. A Hierarchical Framework for Demand-Side Frequency Control

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moya, Christian; Zhang, Wei; Lian, Jianming; Kalsi, Karanjit

    2014-06-02

    With large-scale plans to integrate renewable generation, more resources will be needed to compensate for the uncertainty associated with intermittent generation resources. Under such conditions, performing frequency control using only supply-side resources become not only prohibitively expensive but also technically difficult. It is therefore important to explore how a sufficient proportion of the loads could assume a routine role in frequency control to maintain the stability of the system at an acceptable cost. In this paper, a novel hierarchical decentralized framework for frequency based load control is proposed. The framework involves two decision layers. The top decision layer determines the optimal droop gain required from the aggregated load response on each bus using a robust decentralized control approach. The second layer consists of a large number of devices, which switch probabilistically during contingencies so that the aggregated power change matches the desired droop amount according to the updated gains. The proposed framework is based on the classical nonlinear multi-machine power system model, and can deal with timevarying system operating conditions while respecting the physical constraints of individual devices. Realistic simulation results based on a 68-bus system are provided to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed strategy.

  2. An Integrated Architecture for Demand Response Communications and Control

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    and deployment of Advanced Meter Infrastructures (AMIs), Building Automation Systems (BASs), and var- ious, AMI, ZigBee, Building Automation System, BAS, Home Automation, Meter Data Management 1. Introduction Automation Systems (BASs), and embedded control systems. AMI provides intelligent metering based on data net

  3. Demand Responsive and Energy Efficient Control Technologies andStrategies in Commercial Buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Piette, Mary Ann; Kiliccote, Sila

    2006-09-01

    Commercial buildings account for a large portion of summer peak electric demand. Research results show that there is significant potential to reduce peak demand in commercial buildings through advanced control technologies and strategies. However, a better understanding of commercial buildings contribution to peak demand and the use of energy management and control systems is required to develop this demand response resource to its full potential. The main objectives of the study were: (1) To evaluate the size of contributions of peak demand commercial buildings in the U.S.; (2) To understand how commercial building control systems support energy efficiency and DR; and (3) To disseminate the results to the building owners, facility managers and building controls industry. In order to estimate the commercial buildings contribution to peak demand, two sources of data are used: (1) Commercial Building Energy Consumption Survey (CBECS) and (2) National Energy Modeling System (NEMS). These two sources indicate that commercial buildings noncoincidental peak demand is about 330GW. The project then focused on technologies and strategies that deliver energy efficiency and also target 5-10% of this peak. Based on a building operations perspective, a demand-side management framework with three main features: (1) daily energy efficiency, (2) daily peak load management and (3) dynamic, event-driven DR are outlined. A general description of DR, its benefits, and nationwide DR potential in commercial buildings are presented. Case studies involving these technologies and strategies are described. The findings of this project are shared with building owners, building controls industry, researchers and government entities through a webcast and their input is requested. Their input is presented in the appendix section of this report.

  4. Aggregated Modeling of Thermostatic Loads in Demand Response: A Systems and Control Perspective

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kalsi, Karanjit; Chassin, Forrest S.; Chassin, David P.

    2011-12-12

    Demand response is playing an increasingly important role in smart grid research and technologies being examined in recently undertaken demonstration projects. The behavior of load as it is affected by various load control strategies is important to understanding the degree to which different classes of end-use load can contribute to demand response programs at various times. This paper focuses on developing aggregated models for a homogeneous population of thermostatically controlled loads. The different types of loads considered in this paper include, but are not limited to, water heaters and HVAC units. The effects of demand response and user over-ride on the load population dynamics are investigated. The controllability of the developed lumped models is validated which forms the basis for designing different control strategies.

  5. Advanced Control Technologies and Strategies Linking DemandResponse and Energy Efficiency

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kiliccote, Sila; Piette, Mary Ann

    2005-09-02

    This paper presents a preliminary framework to describe how advanced controls can support multiple modes of operations including both energy efficiency and demand response (DR). A general description of DR, its benefits, and nationwide status is outlined. The role of energy management and control systems for DR is described. Building systems such as HVAC and lighting that utilize control technologies and strategies for energy efficiency are mapped on to DR and demand shedding strategies are developed. Past research projects are presented to provide a context for the current projects. The economic case for implementing DR from a building owner perspective is also explored.

  6. IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON SMART GRID, VOL. 5, NO. 4, JULY 2014 2075 A Distributed Demand Response Control Strategy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cai, Lin

    IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON SMART GRID, VOL. 5, NO. 4, JULY 2014 2075 A Distributed Demand Response) systems in demand response (DR), we propose a distributed DR control strategy to dispatch the HVAC loads and demonstrate the effectiveness and efficiency of the proposed control algorithm. Index Terms--Demand response

  7. Distributed Algorithms for Control of Demand Response and Distributed Energy Resources

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liberzon, Daniel

    Distributed Algorithms for Control of Demand Response and Distributed Energy Resources Alejandro D algorithms for control and coordination of loads and distributed energy resources (DERs) in distribution) integration of distributed energy resources (DERs), e.g., photovoltaics (PV); and iii) new storage

  8. Optimal Control of Distributed Energy Resources and Demand Response under Uncertainty

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Siddiqui, Afzal

    2010-01-01

    follows: • EDemand t : electricity demand during day t (incost of reducing electricity demand (in $/MWh e ) • HRDCost:maximum fraction of electricity demand to be met by demand

  9. Decentralized Control of Aggregated Loads for Demand Response Di Guo, Wei Zhang, Gangfeng Yan, Zhiyun Lin, and Minyue Fu

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Wei

    Decentralized Control of Aggregated Loads for Demand Response Di Guo, Wei Zhang, Gangfeng Yan of residential responsive loads for vari- ous demand response applications. We propose a general hybrid system and effectively reduce the peak power consumption. I. INTRODUCTION Demand response has the potential to shift

  10. Quantified User Behavior in User-in-the-Loop Spatially and Demand Controlled Cellular Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yanikomeroglu, Halim

    Networks (ComNets), Faculty 6, RWTH Aachen University, Germany Department of Systems and Computer Engineering, Carleton University, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada § Department of Electrical & Electronics Engineering price) controlled demand rate rC(t) quantitative model of the user behavior. Survey B of autumn 2011 had

  11. Dynamic Demand Control with Differentiated QoS in User-in-the-Loop Controlled Cellular Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yanikomeroglu, Halim

    University, Canada 2 Communication Networks (ComNets), Faculty 6, RWTH Aachen University, Germany Abstract and energy-efficiency. In this paper the temporal user-in-the-loop (UIL) control ap- proach is assumed. This user-centric model implements demand shaping by incentives in form of a dynamic usage-based tariff

  12. Advanced Controls and Communications for Demand Response and Energy Efficiency in Commercial Buildings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kiliccote, Sila; Piette, Mary Ann; Hansen, David

    2006-01-01

    buildings. A demand-side management framework from buildingthe integration of DR in demand-side management activitiesdevelopments. The demand-side management (DSM) framework

  13. Load-side Demand Management in Buildings using Controlled Electric Springs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Soni, Jayantika; Krishnanand, KR; Panda, Sanjib

    2014-01-01

    The concept of demand-side management for electricand simulation of demand-side management potential in urbanin smart grids, demand side management has been a keen topic

  14. Demand Responsive and Energy Efficient Control Technologies and Strategies in Commercial Buildings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Piette, Mary Ann; Kiliccote, Sila

    2006-01-01

    perspective, a demand-side management framework with threethe integration of DR in demand-side management activitiesdevelopments. The demand-side management (DSM) framework

  15. Demand Responsive and Energy Efficient Control Technologies and Strategies in Commercial Buildings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Piette, Mary Ann; Kiliccote, Sila

    2006-01-01

    Energy. “Benefits of Demand Response in Electricity MarketsEnergy Efficiency and Demand Response?7 3.1.Demand Response in Commercial

  16. Optimal Control of Distributed Energy Resources and Demand Response under Uncertainty

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Siddiqui, Afzal

    2010-01-01

    Energy Resources and Demand Response under Uncertainty AfzalEnergy Resources and Demand Response under Uncertainty ?DER in conjunction with demand response (DR): the expected

  17. Advanced Control Technologies and Strategies Linking Demand Response and Energy Efficiency

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kiliccote, Sila; Piette, Mary Ann

    2005-01-01

    Fully Automated Demand Response Tests in Large Facilities”.also provided through the Demand Response Research Center (of Fully Automated Demand Response in Large Facilities”

  18. Advanced Controls and Communications for Demand Response and Energy Efficiency in Commercial Buildings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kiliccote, Sila; Piette, Mary Ann; Hansen, David

    2006-01-01

    of Fully Automated Demand Response in Large Facilities”NYSERDA) and the Demand Response Research Center (LLC “Working Group 2 Demand Response Program Evaluation –

  19. Intelligent Building Energy Information and Control Systems for Low-Energy Operations and Optimal Demand Response

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Piette, Mary Ann

    2014-01-01

    Open  Automated  Demand  Response  Communications from  7 Years of Automated Demand Response in Commercial Management and Demand Response in Commercial  Buildings. , 

  20. Advanced Demand Responsive Lighting

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Advanced Demand Responsive Lighting Host: Francis Rubinstein Demand Response Research Center demand responsive lighting systems ­ Importance of dimming ­ New wireless controls technologies · Advanced Demand Responsive Lighting (commenced March 2007) #12;Objectives · Provide up-to-date information

  1. Aggregated Modeling and Control of Air Conditioning Loads for Demand Response

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Wei; Lian, Jianming; Chang, Chin-Yao; Kalsi, Karanjit

    2013-06-21

    Demand response is playing an increasingly important role in the efficient and reliable operation of the electric grid. Modeling the dynamic behavior of a large population of responsive loads is especially important to evaluate the effectiveness of various demand response strategies. In this paper, a highly-accurate aggregated model is developed for a population of air conditioning loads. The model effectively includes statistical information of the population, systematically deals with load heterogeneity, and accounts for second-order dynamics necessary to accurately capture the transient dynamics in the collective response. Based on the model, a novel aggregated control strategy is designed for the load population under realistic conditions. The proposed controller is fully responsive and achieves the control objective without sacrificing end-use performance. The proposed aggregated modeling and control strategies are validated through realistic simulations using GridLAB-D. Extensive simulation results indicate that the proposed approach can effectively manage a large number of air conditioning systems to provide various demand response services, such as frequency regulation and peak load reduction.

  2. International Journal of Ventilation Volume 2 No 3 Application of CFD to Predict and Control Chemical and Biological

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhai, John Z.

    in an office building in order to find the best locations for CBA sensors and to develop effective ventilation are especially hazardous when they are dispersed inside of a building, where traditional ventilation systems may in a building, even if the CBA release location is the same. Therefore, detailed information about the CBA

  3. Assessment of Energy Savings Potential from the Use of Demand Controlled Ventilation in General Office Spaces in California

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hong, Tianzhen

    2010-01-01

    results in higher energy usage and energy costs for cold or the energy models.  The energy usage difference between the results and calculated energy usage and costs savings.  The 

  4. Assessment of Energy Savings Potential from the Use of Demand Control Ventilation Systems in General Office Spaces in California

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hong, Tianzhen

    2010-01-01

    Results and Calculated Energy Usage and Costs Savings6 – Simulation Results and Calculated Energy Usage and Costsresults in higher energy usage and costs for cold or hot 

  5. Assessment of Energy Savings Potential from the Use of Demand Control Ventilation Systems in General Office Spaces in California

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hong, Tianzhen

    2010-01-01

    DCV costs from the HVAC energy cost  savings.    Table 6 –OA Use Gas Use Energy Energy Cost PV kWh/ft² kBtu/ft² kBtu/n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. HVAC Energy Cost Savings PV $/ft² n.a.

  6. Assessment of Energy Savings Potential from the Use of Demand Control Ventilation Systems in General Office Spaces in California

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hong, Tianzhen

    2010-01-01

    Use Gas Use Energy Energy Cost PV kWh/ft² kBtu/ft² kBtu/ft²n.a. n.a. HVAC Energy Cost Savings PV $/ft² n.a. n.a. n.a.6   Figure 2 – HVAC Energy Costs (PV $/ft 2 ), Climate Zone

  7. Assessment of Energy Savings Potential from the Use of Demand Control Ventilation Systems in General Office Spaces in California

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hong, Tianzhen

    2010-01-01

    terms of whole building energy performance which takes into the whole building  energy performance of the selected building performance simulation provides a quick way to assess the energy 

  8. Assessment of Energy Savings Potential from the Use of Demand Controlled Ventilation in General Office Spaces in California

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hong, Tianzhen

    2010-01-01

    in terms of whole building energy  performance which takes the whole  building  energy performance of the selected 

  9. Assessment of Energy Savings Potential from the Use of Demand Control Ventilation Systems in General Office Spaces in California

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hong, Tianzhen

    2010-01-01

    level that has an air?side economizer and a design occupant PVAV systems has an air side economizer which provides up PVAV systems have air side economizers.   Therefore the 

  10. Assessment of Energy Savings Potential from the Use of Demand Controlled Ventilation in General Office Spaces in California

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hong, Tianzhen

    2010-01-01

    zone level that has an air?side economizer if the design PVAV systems has an air side economizer which  provides up PVAV systems have air side economizers as  required by the 

  11. Electrical power distribution control methods, electrical energy demand monitoring methods, and power management devices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chassin, David P.; Donnelly, Matthew K.; Dagle, Jeffery E.

    2011-12-06

    Electrical power distribution control methods, electrical energy demand monitoring methods, and power management devices are described. In one aspect, an electrical power distribution control method includes providing electrical energy from an electrical power distribution system, applying the electrical energy to a load, providing a plurality of different values for a threshold at a plurality of moments in time and corresponding to an electrical characteristic of the electrical energy, and adjusting an amount of the electrical energy applied to the load responsive to an electrical characteristic of the electrical energy triggering one of the values of the threshold at the respective moment in time.

  12. Electrical power distribution control methods, electrical energy demand monitoring methods, and power management devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chassin, David P. (Pasco, WA); Donnelly, Matthew K. (Kennewick, WA); Dagle, Jeffery E. (Richland, WA)

    2006-12-12

    Electrical power distribution control methods, electrical energy demand monitoring methods, and power management devices are described. In one aspect, an electrical power distribution control method includes providing electrical energy from an electrical power distribution system, applying the electrical energy to a load, providing a plurality of different values for a threshold at a plurality of moments in time and corresponding to an electrical characteristic of the electrical energy, and adjusting an amount of the electrical energy applied to the load responsive to an electrical characteristic of the electrical energy triggering one of the values of the threshold at the respective moment in time.

  13. 1 Design and testing of a control strategy for a large, 2 naturally ventilated office building

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Linden, Paul F.

    of the building has been designed and tested using a 15 modified version of EnergyPlus. Results from studies with EnergyPlus and com- 16 putational fluid dynamics (CFD) are used in designing the control strategy. Ener weather. The control strategy has 10 window 24 opening modes. EnergyPlus was extended to simulate

  14. Opportunities for Automated Demand Response in Wastewater Treatment Facilities in California - Southeast Water Pollution Control Plant Case Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Olsen, Daniel; Goli, Sasank; Faulkner, David; McKane, Aimee

    2012-12-20

    This report details a study into the demand response potential of a large wastewater treatment facility in San Francisco. Previous research had identified wastewater treatment facilities as good candidates for demand response and automated demand response, and this study was conducted to investigate facility attributes that are conducive to demand response or which hinder its implementation. One years' worth of operational data were collected from the facility's control system, submetered process equipment, utility electricity demand records, and governmental weather stations. These data were analyzed to determine factors which affected facility power demand and demand response capabilities The average baseline demand at the Southeast facility was approximately 4 MW. During the rainy season (October-March) the facility treated 40% more wastewater than the dry season, but demand only increased by 4%. Submetering of the facility's lift pumps and centrifuges predicted load shifts capabilities of 154 kW and 86 kW, respectively, with large lift pump shifts in the rainy season. Analysis of demand data during maintenance events confirmed the magnitude of these possible load shifts, and indicated other areas of the facility with demand response potential. Load sheds were seen to be possible by shutting down a portion of the facility's aeration trains (average shed of 132 kW). Load shifts were seen to be possible by shifting operation of centrifuges, the gravity belt thickener, lift pumps, and external pump stations These load shifts were made possible by the storage capabilities of the facility and of the city's sewer system. Large load reductions (an average of 2,065 kW) were seen from operating the cogeneration unit, but normal practice is continuous operation, precluding its use for demand response. The study also identified potential demand response opportunities that warrant further study: modulating variable-demand aeration loads, shifting operation of sludge-processing equipment besides centrifuges, and utilizing schedulable self-generation.

  15. Assessing the Control Systems Capacity for Demand Response in California Industries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ghatikar, Girish

    2013-01-01

    5: Periods of Elevated Electricity Demand 8am-12pm 12pm-2pmC-8: Diurnal Variations in Electricity Demand Figure C-9:Variations in Electricity Demand Figure C-10: Seasonal

  16. New modeling and control solutions for integrated microgrid system with respect to thermodynamics properties of generation and demand

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, Fang-Yu, S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2014-01-01

    This thesis investigates microgrid control stability with respect to thermodynamics behaviors of generation and demand. First, a new integrated microgrid model is introduced. This model consists of a combined cycle power ...

  17. Relationships among Perceived Working Hours, General Stress, Work Centrality, Job Control, Job Demands, and Work Condition Constraints 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, Se Hoon

    2014-06-27

    the relationships among perceived working hours, general stress, work centrality, job control, job demands, and work condition constraints for full-time employees in the United States and Korea. A self-administered questionnaire survey approach was used to collect...

  18. Demand response enabling technology development

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arens, Edward; Auslander, David; Huizenga, Charlie

    2008-01-01

    Sun Description The HVAC (Heating Ventilation and Air Conditioning) relay mote serves three primary purposes: relay control, temperature sensing, and power

  19. LBNL REPORT NUMBER 53776; OCTOBER 2003 ASHRAE &Residential Ventilation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    .........................................................10 11. Water Intrusion Control.............................................................10 What control and ventilation are key control means. People spend, on average, nearly 90% of their time indoors

  20. Control and Optimization Meet the Smart Power Grid: Scheduling of Power Demands for Optimal Energy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Koutsopoulos, Iordanis

    technologies to enforce sensible use of energy through effective demand load management. We envision a scenario of effective management of power supply and demand loads. Load management is primarily employed by the power by transferring non-emergency power demands at off-peak-load times. Demand load management does not significantly

  1. Industrial Ventilation Statistics Confirm Energy Savings Opportunity 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Litomisky, A.

    2006-01-01

    ventilation designers, and factory owners alike. When asked how high the use of machinery is, they usually answer 90% of shift time. That’s far from the facts revealed by our measurements. The data published here is based on installed on...” design of ventilation systems, the constantly changing workflow and business demands (production increase, production decrease, new more effective machinery, and new production technology). I would like to prove that “the older the duct system...

  2. Climate control : smart thermostats, demand response, and energy efficiency in Austin, Texas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bowen, Brian (Brian Richard)

    2015-01-01

    Energy efficiency and demand response are critical resources for the transition to a cleaner electricity grid. Demand-side management programs can reduce electricity use during peak times when power is scarce and expensive, ...

  3. Driving change : evaluating strategies to control automotive energy demand growth in China

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bonde Åkerlind, Ingrid Gudrun

    2013-01-01

    As the number of vehicles in China has relentlessly grown in the past decade, the energy demand, fuel demand and greenhouse gas emissions associated with these vehicles have kept pace. This thesis presents a model to project ...

  4. Commissioning Ventilated Containment Systems in the Laboratory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2008-08-01

    This Best Practices Guide focuses on the specialized approaches required for ventilated containment systems, understood to be all components that drive and control ventilated enclosures and local exhaust systems within the laboratory. Geared toward architects, engineers, and facility managers, this guide provides information about technologies and practices to use in designing, constructing, and operating operating safe, sustainable, high-performance laboratories.

  5. The Impact of Control Technology on the Demand Response Potential of California Industrial Refrigerated Facilities Final Report

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Scott, Doug

    2014-01-01

    and Automated Demand Response in Industrial RefrigeratedDemand Response .. ..Technology on the Demand Response Potential of California

  6. Optimal Control of Distributed Energy Resources and Demand Response under Uncertainty

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Siddiqui, Afzal

    2010-01-01

    Solution Procedure for SDP Energy Prices We use electricityLondon for assistance with energy price modeling. Siddiquiof DER under uncertain energy prices with demand response

  7. Introduction to Commercial Building Control Strategies and Techniques for Demand Response -- Appendices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Motegi, N.; Piette, M.A.; Watson, D.S.; Kiliccote, S.; Xu, P.

    2007-05-01

    There are 3 appendices listed: (A) DR strategies for HVAC systems; (B) Summary of DR strategies; and (C) Case study of advanced demand response.

  8. Dynamic Control of Electricity Cost with Power Demand Smoothing and Peak Shaving for Distributed Internet Data Centers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rahman, A.K.M. Ashikur

    Dynamic Control of Electricity Cost with Power Demand Smoothing and Peak Shaving for Distributed a major part of their running costs. Modern electric power grid provides a feasible way to dynamically and efficiently manage the electricity cost of distributed IDCs based on the Locational Marginal Pricing (LMP

  9. Data Management in Real-Time Systems: a Case of On-Demand Updates in Vehicle Control Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Data Management in Real-Time Systems: a Case of On-Demand Updates in Vehicle Control Systems Thomas option (ODKB) [4] -- decide on necessary updates based on the order data items are read, i.e., bottom and freshness of data they use. At the same time it is important that the re- sources are utilized as efficient

  10. The role of building technologies in reducing and controlling peak electricity demand

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koomey, Jonathan; Brown, Richard E.

    2002-09-01

    Peak power demand issues have come to the fore recently because of the California electricity crisis. Uncertainties surrounding the reliability of electric power systems in restructured markets as well as security worries are the latest reasons for such concerns, but the issues surrounding peak demand are as old as the electric utility system itself. The long lead times associated with building new capacity, the lack of price response in the face of time-varying costs, the large difference between peak demand and average demand, and the necessity for real-time delivery of electricity all make the connection between system peak demand and system reliability an important driver of public policy in the electric utility sector. This exploratory option paper was written at the request of Jerry Dion at the U.S.Department of Energy (DOE). It is one of several white papers commissioned in 2002 exploring key issues of relevance to DOE. This paper explores policy-relevant issues surrounding peak demand, to help guide DOE's research efforts in this area. The findings of this paper are as follows. In the short run, DOE funding of deployment activities on peak demand can help society achieve a more economically efficient balance between investments in supply and demand-side technologies. DOE policies can promote implementation of key technologies to ameliorate peak demand, through government purchasing, technology demonstrations, and improvements in test procedures, efficiency standards, and labeling programs. In the long run, R&D is probably the most important single leverage point for DOE to influence the peak demand issue. Technologies for time-varying price response hold great potential for radically altering the way people use electricity in buildings, but are decades away from widespread use, so DOE R&D and expertise can make a real difference here.

  11. READ THIS: Before You Ventilate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2006-12-08

    This document reviews ventilation strategies for different climate zones and includes schematic drawings and photographs of various ventilation installations.

  12. Open Automated Demand Response for Small Commerical Buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dudley, June Han; Piette, Mary Ann; Koch, Ed; Hennage, Dan

    2009-05-01

    This report characterizes small commercial buildings by market segments, systems and end-uses; develops a framework for identifying demand response (DR) enabling technologies and communication means; and reports on the design and development of a low-cost OpenADR enabling technology that delivers demand reductions as a percentage of the total predicted building peak electric demand. The results show that small offices, restaurants and retail buildings are the major contributors making up over one third of the small commercial peak demand. The majority of the small commercial buildings in California are located in southern inland areas and the central valley. Single-zone packaged units with manual and programmable thermostat controls make up the majority of heating ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) systems for small commercial buildings with less than 200 kW peak electric demand. Fluorescent tubes with magnetic ballast and manual controls dominate this customer group's lighting systems. There are various ways, each with its pros and cons for a particular application, to communicate with these systems and three methods to enable automated DR in small commercial buildings using the Open Automated Demand Response (or OpenADR) communications infrastructure. Development of DR strategies must consider building characteristics, such as weather sensitivity and load variability, as well as system design (i.e. under-sizing, under-lighting, over-sizing, etc). Finally, field tests show that requesting demand reductions as a percentage of the total building predicted peak electric demand is feasible using the OpenADR infrastructure.

  13. Demand-based Optimal Control to Save Energy: A Case-Study in a Medical Center 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Joo, I. S.; Song, L.; Liu, M.; Carico, M.

    2008-01-01

    Continuous Commissioning®1 (CC®) strategies include reducing simultaneous heating and cooling, scheduling the facility’s occupancy needs, utilizing free cooling, and minimizing excessive supply air and outside air. Most significantly, this demand...

  14. A Ventilation Index for Tropical Cyclones

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tang, Brian

    An important environmental control of both tropical cyclone intensity and genesis is vertical wind shear. One hypothesized pathway by which vertical shear affects tropical cyclones is midlevel ventilation—or the flux of ...

  15. Dynamic Controls for Energy Efficiency and Demand Response: Framework Concepts and a New Construction Study Case in New York

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kiliccote, Sila; Piette, Mary Ann; Watson, David S.; Hughes, Glenn

    2006-01-01

    of Fully Automated Demand Response in Large Facilities.for Energy Efficiency and Demand Response”, Proceedings ofAuthority (NYSERDA), the Demand Response Research Center (

  16. Advanced Control Technologies and Strategies Linking Demand Response and Energy Efficiency 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kiliccote, S.; Piette, M. A.

    2005-01-01

    stream_source_info ESL-IE-15-06-13.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 7608 Content-Encoding UTF-8 stream_name ESL-IE-15-06-13.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=UTF-8 Demand Response & Peak Load... additional generation resources • Hurdles to adding additional resources Why Demand Response Exists ESL-IE-15-06-13 Proceedings of the Thrity-Seventh Industrial Energy Technology Conference New Orleans, LA. June 2-4, 2015 What are my Options? • Efficiency...

  17. Automated Demand Response Opportunities in Wastewater Treatment Facilities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thompson, Lisa

    2008-01-01

    Interoperable Automated Demand Response Infrastructure,study of automated demand response in wastewater treatmentopportunities for demand response control strategies in

  18. Optimal Control of Distributed Energy Resources and Demand Response under Uncertainty

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Siddiqui, Afzal

    2010-01-01

    Rio de Janeiro, Brazil Optimal Control of Distributed EnergyRio de Janeiro, Brazil Optimal Control of Distributed EnergyRio de Janeiro, Brazil Optimal Control of Distributed Energy

  19. Intelligent Building Energy Information and Control Systems for Low-Energy Operations and Optimal Demand Response

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Piette, Mary Ann

    2014-01-01

    Co?simulation  of  Building  Energy  and  Control  Systems Development  in  Building  Energy  and  Control  Systems.  by  the  Assistant  Secretary  for  Energy  Efficiency  and 

  20. Enterprise control assessment for the mitigation of renewable energy by demand side management

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jiang, Bo, S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2015-01-01

    The traditional power grid paradigm of centralized and actively controlled power generation facilities serving distributed and passively controlled electrical loads is challenged by the requirements for decarbonization, ...

  1. Advanced Controls and Communications for Demand Response and Energy Efficiency in Commercial Buildings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kiliccote, Sila; Piette, Mary Ann; Hansen, David

    2006-01-01

    devices in energy management systems. Operations Designprice. EMCS (energy management control system) carried outthe use of energy management and control systems is required

  2. Final Scientific Technical Report: INTEGRATED PREDICTIVE DEMAND RESPONSE CONTROLLER FOR COMMERCIAL BUILDINGS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wenzel, Mike

    2013-10-14

    This project provides algorithms to perform demand response using the thermal mass of a building. Using the thermal mass of the building is an attractive method for performing demand response because there is no need for capital expenditure. The algorithms rely on the thermal capacitance inherent in the building?s construction materials. A near-optimal ?day ahead? predictive approach is developed that is meant to keep the building?s electrical demand constant during the high cost periods. This type of approach is appropriate for both time-of-use and critical peak pricing utility rate structures. The approach uses the past days data in order to determine the best temperature setpoints for the building during the high price periods on the next day. A second ?model predictive approach? (MPC) uses a thermal model of the building to determine the best temperature for the next sample period. The approach uses constant feedback from the building and is capable of appropriately handling real time pricing. Both approaches are capable of using weather forecasts to improve performance.

  3. Gray-box model for energy-efficient selection of set point hysteresis in heating, ventilation, air conditioning, and refrigeration controllers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bahrami, Majid

    Energy efficiency Gray-box model a b s t r a c t Many heating, ventilation, air conditioning by Heating, Ventilation, Air Conditioning, and Refrigeration (HVAC­R) systems [1]. HVAC­R energy consumption, for instance, may use up to 80% of the total energy consumed in the supermarket [3]. Moreover, Air Conditioning

  4. Particle deposition in ventilation ducts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sippola, Mark R.

    2002-01-01

    M. and Wang, D. (1999) Duct systems in large commercialin ventilation air supply ducts. Proceedings of Indoor Air ‘filtration efficiency of in-duct ventilation air cleaners.

  5. Multifamily Ventilation Retrofit Strategies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ueno, K.; Lstiburek, J.; Bergey, D.

    2012-12-01

    In multifamily buildings, central ventilation systems often have poor performance, overventilating some portions of the building (causing excess energy use), while simultaneously underventilating other portions (causing diminished indoor air quality). BSC and Innova Services Corporation performed a series of field tests at a mid-rise test building undergoing a major energy audit and retrofit, which included ventilation system upgrades.

  6. Controlled Dispensing and Mixing of Pico- to Nanoliter Volumes Using On-Demand Droplet-Based Microfluidics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sun, Xuefei; Tang, Keqi; Smith, Richard D.; Kelly, Ryan T.

    2013-07-08

    We present an integrated droplet-on-demand microfluidic platform for dispensing, mixing, incubating, extracting and analyzing by mass spectrometry pico- to nanoliter sized droplets. Droplet generation is accomplished using computer-controlled pneumatic valves. Controlled actuation of valves for different aqueous streams enables controlled dosing and rapid mixing of reagents within droplets in the droplet generation area or in a region with widening channel cross-section. Following incubation, which takes place while droplets travel in the oil stream, the droplet contents are extracted to an aqueous channel for subsequent ionization at an integrated nanoelectrospray emitter. As an initial demonstration of the platform, rapid enzymatic digestions of a model protein are performed in droplets and detected on-line by nanoelectrospray ionization mass spectrometry.

  7. Resource Allocation with Unknown Constraints: An Extremum Seeking Control Approach and Applications to Demand Response

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ma, Kai; Hu, Guoqiang; Spanos, Costas

    2014-01-01

    Z. Yang, and Y. Zhang, “Demand response manage- ment withS. H. Low, “Optimal demand response: Problem formulation andYang, and X. Guan, “Optimal demand response scheduling with

  8. Demand Reduction

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Grantees may use funds to coordinate with electricity supply companies and utilities to reduce energy demands on their power systems. These demand reduction programs are usually coordinated through...

  9. Ventilation Control of Volatile Organic Compounds in New U.S. Homes: Results of a Controlled Field Study in Nine Residential Units

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Willem, Henry; Hult, Erin L.; Hotchi, Toshifumi; Russell, Marion L.; Maddalena, Randy L.; Singer, Brett C.

    2013-01-01

    In order to optimize strategies to remove airborne contaminants in residences, it is necessary to determine how contaminant concentrations respond to changes in the air exchange rate. The impact of air exchange rate on the indoor concentrations of 39 target volatile organic compounds (VOCs) was assessed by measuring air exchange rates and VOC concentrations at three ventilation settings in nine residences. Active sampling methods were used for VOC concentration measurements, and passive perfluorocarbon tracer gas emitters with active sampling were used to determine the overall air exchange rate corresponding to the VOC measurements at each ventilation setting. The concentration levels and emission rates of the target VOCs varied by as much as two orders of magnitude across sites. Aldehyde and terpene compounds were typically the chemical classes with highest concentrations, followed by alkanes, aromatics, and siloxanes. For each home, VOC concentrations tended to decrease as the air exchange rate was increased, however, measurement uncertainty was significant. The indoor concentration was inversely proportional to air exchange rate for most compounds. For a subset of compounds including formaldehyde, however, the indoor concentration exhibited a non-linear dependence on the timescale for air exchange

  10. Dynamic Controls for Energy Efficiency and Demand Response: Framework Concepts and a New Construction Study Case in New York

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kiliccote, Sila; Piette, Mary Ann; Watson, David S.; Hughes, Glenn

    2006-01-01

    energy efficiency, peak load management and demand response.minimization); peak load management (for daily operations);Energy Efficiency, Daily Load Management and DR Demand-Side

  11. Advanced Control Technologies and Strategies Linking Demand Response and Energy Efficiency

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kiliccote, Sila; Piette, Mary Ann

    2005-01-01

    technologies and strategies for energy efficiency are mappedchoice of DR and energy efficiency strategy is limited byDemonstration of Energy Management Control Strategies for

  12. Field-Evaluation of Alternative HVAC Strategies to Meet Ventilation, Comfort and Humidity Control Criteria at Three Full-Serve Restaurants 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yborra, S. C.; Spears, J. W.

    2000-01-01

    Lighting and ventilation represent the majority of the air conditioning loads in office buildings in hot humid climates. Use of motion sensors is one way to minimize the energy used for these loads. This paper describes the methods used...

  13. Demand Response Programs Oregon Public Utility Commission

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Demand Response Programs Oregon Public Utility Commission January 6, 2005 Mike Koszalka Director;Demand Response Results, 2004 Load Control ­ Cool Keeper ­ ID Irrigation Load Control Price Responsive

  14. Why We Ventilate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Logue, Jennifer M.; Sherman, Max H.; Price, Phil N.; Singer, Brett C.

    2011-09-01

    It is widely accepted that ventilation is critical for providing good indoor air quality (IAQ) in homes. However, the definition of"good" IAQ, and the most effective, energy efficient methods for delivering it are still matters of research and debate. This paper presents the results of work done at the Lawrence Berkeley National Lab to identify the air pollutants that drive the need for ventilation as part of a larger effort to develop a health-based ventilation standard. First, we present results of a hazard analysis that identified the pollutants that most commonly reach concentrations in homes that exceed health-based standards or guidelines for chronic or acute exposures. Second, we present results of an impact assessment that identified the air pollutants that cause the most harm to the U.S. population from chronic inhalation in residences. Lastly, we describe the implications of our findings for developing effective ventilation standards.

  15. Particle deposition in ventilation ducts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sippola, Mark R.

    2002-09-01

    Exposure to airborne particles is detrimental to human health and indoor exposures dominate total exposures for most people. The accidental or intentional release of aerosolized chemical and biological agents within or near a building can lead to exposures of building occupants to hazardous agents and costly building remediation. Particle deposition in heating, ventilation and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems may significantly influence exposures to particles indoors, diminish HVAC performance and lead to secondary pollutant release within buildings. This dissertation advances the understanding of particle behavior in HVAC systems and the fates of indoor particles by means of experiments and modeling. Laboratory experiments were conducted to quantify particle deposition rates in horizontal ventilation ducts using real HVAC materials. Particle deposition experiments were conducted in steel and internally insulated ducts at air speeds typically found in ventilation ducts, 2-9 m/s. Behaviors of monodisperse particles with diameters in the size range 1-16 {micro}m were investigated. Deposition rates were measured in straight ducts with a fully developed turbulent flow profile, straight ducts with a developing turbulent flow profile, in duct bends and at S-connector pieces located at duct junctions. In straight ducts with fully developed turbulence, experiments showed deposition rates to be highest at duct floors, intermediate at duct walls, and lowest at duct ceilings. Deposition rates to a given surface increased with an increase in particle size or air speed. Deposition was much higher in internally insulated ducts than in uninsulated steel ducts. In most cases, deposition in straight ducts with developing turbulence, in duct bends and at S-connectors at duct junctions was higher than in straight ducts with fully developed turbulence. Measured deposition rates were generally higher than predicted by published models. A model incorporating empirical equations based on the experimental measurements was applied to evaluate particle losses in supply and return duct runs. Model results suggest that duct losses are negligible for particle sizes less than 1 {micro}m and complete for particle sizes greater than 50 {micro}m. Deposition to insulated ducts, horizontal duct floors and bends are predicted to control losses in duct systems. When combined with models for HVAC filtration and deposition to indoor surfaces to predict the ultimate fates of particles within buildings, these results suggest that ventilation ducts play only a small role in determining indoor particle concentrations, especially when HVAC filtration is present. However, the measured and modeled particle deposition rates are expected to be important for ventilation system contamination.

  16. Recommended Ventilation Strategies for Energy-Efficient Production Homes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roberson, J.; Brown, R.; Koomey, J.; Warner, J.; Greenberg, S.

    1998-12-01

    This report evaluates residential ventilation systems for the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) ENERGY STAR{reg_sign} Homes program and recommends mechanical ventilation strategies for new, low-infiltration, energy-efficient, single-family, ENERGY STAR production (site-built tract) homes in four climates: cold, mixed (cold and hot), hot humid, and hot arid. Our group in the Energy Analysis Department at Lawrence Berkeley National Lab compared residential ventilation strategies in four climates according to three criteria: total annualized costs (the sum of annualized capital cost and annual operating cost), predominant indoor pressure induced by the ventilation system, and distribution of ventilation air within the home. The mechanical ventilation systems modeled deliver 0.35 air changes per hour continuously, regardless of actual infiltration or occupant window-opening behavior. Based on the assumptions and analysis described in this report, we recommend independently ducted multi-port supply ventilation in all climates except cold because this strategy provides the safety and health benefits of positive indoor pressure as well as the ability to dehumidify and filter ventilation air. In cold climates, we recommend that multi-port supply ventilation be balanced by a single-port exhaust ventilation fan, and that builders offer balanced heat-recovery ventilation to buyers as an optional upgrade. For builders who continue to install forced-air integrated supply ventilation, we recommend ensuring ducts are airtight or in conditioned space, installing a control that automatically operates the forced-air fan 15-20 minutes during each hour that the fan does not operate for heating or cooling, and offering ICM forced-air fans to home buyers as an upgrade.

  17. Training Workers to use Localized Ventilation for Radiological Work

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    WAGGONER, L.O.

    2000-09-01

    Work on radiological systems and components needs to be accomplished using techniques that reduce radiation dose to workers, limit contamination spread, and minimize radioactive waste. One of the best methods to control contamination spread is to use localized ventilation to capture radioactive material and keep it from spreading. The Fluor Hanford ALARA Center teaches workers how to use ventilation in partnership with other engineered controls and this has resulted in improved work practices, minimized the impact on adjacent work operations, and decreased the amount of radioactive waste generated. This presentation will emphasize how the workers are trained to use localized ventilation for contamination control.

  18. Increased Natural Ventilation Flow Rates through Ventilation Shafts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ray, Stephen D.

    Buoyancy-driven natural ventilation in ventilation shafts is investigated with a small scale physical experiment within a duct and CFD simulations of an office building. For a fixed exhaust opening, smaller shafts lead to ...

  19. Ventilation technologies scoping study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Walker, Iain S.; Sherman, Max H.

    2003-09-30

    This document presents the findings of a scoping study commissioned by the Public Interest Energy Research (PIER) program of the California Energy Commission to determine what research is necessary to develop new residential ventilation requirements for California. This study is one of three companion efforts needed to complete the job of determining the needs of California, determining residential ventilation requirements, and determining appropriate ventilation technologies to meet these needs and requirements in an energy efficient manner. Rather than providing research results, this scoping study identifies important research questions along with the level of effort necessary to address these questions and the costs, risks, and benefits of pursuing alternative research questions. In approaching these questions and level of effort, feasibility and timing were important considerations. The Commission has specified Summer 2005 as the latest date for completing this research in time to update the 2008 version of California's Energy Code (Title 24).

  20. Natural ventilation generates building form

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Shaw-Bing

    1996-01-01

    Natural ventilation is an efficient design strategy for thermal comfort in hot and humid climates. The building forms can generate different pressures and temperatures to induce natural ventilation. This thesis develops a ...

  1. RESIDENTIAL VENTILATION AND ENERGY CHARACTERISTICS*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    best available data, the energy liability as- sociated with providing the current levels of ventilationRESIDENTIAL VENTILATION AND ENERGY CHARACTERISTICS* Max Sherman Nance Matson Energy Performance of Buildings Group Energy and Environment Division Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory University of California

  2. Management of a high mix production system with interdependent demands : finished goods requirements and raw materials control

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Palano, Diego

    2009-01-01

    A product line, characterized by high level of customization, diversification and demand correlation between different finished goods products, requires increased efficiency and effectiveness. The product line, along with ...

  3. Linking Continuous Energy Management and Open Automated Demand Response

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Piette, Mary Ann

    2009-01-01

    A. Barat, D. Watson. Demand Response Spinning ReserveOpen Automated Demand Response Communication Standards:Dynamic Controls for Demand Response in a New Commercial

  4. Evaluation of Existing Technologies for Meeting Residential Ventilation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ................................................................................................ 8 4. Heat Recovery Ventilator (HRV

  5. Ventilation System Effectiveness and Tested Indoor Air Quality Impacts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rudd, A.; Bergey, D.

    2014-02-01

    Ventilation system effectiveness testing was conducted at two unoccupied, single-family, detached lab homes at the University of Texas - Tyler. Five ventilation system tests were conducted with various whole-building ventilation systems. Multizone fan pressurization testing characterized building and zone enclosure leakage. PFT testing showed multizone air change rates and interzonal airflow. Cumulative particle counts for six particle sizes, and formaldehyde and other Top 20 VOC concentrations were measured in multiple zones. The testing showed that single-point exhaust ventilation was inferior as a whole-house ventilation strategy. It was inferior because the source of outside air was not direct from outside, the ventilation air was not distributed, and no provision existed for air filtration. Indoor air recirculation by a central air distribution system can help improve the exhaust ventilation system by way of air mixing and filtration. In contrast, the supply and balanced ventilation systems showed that there is a significant benefit to drawing outside air from a known outside location, and filtering and distributing that air. Compared to the Exhaust systems, the CFIS and ERV systems showed better ventilation air distribution and lower concentrations of particulates, formaldehyde and other VOCs. System improvement percentages were estimated based on four System Factor Categories: Balance, Distribution, Outside Air Source, and Recirculation Filtration. Recommended System Factors could be applied to reduce ventilation fan airflow rates relative to ASHRAE Standard 62.2 to save energy and reduce moisture control risk in humid climates. HVAC energy savings were predicted to be 8-10%, or $50-$75/year.

  6. Ventilation System Effectiveness and Tested Indoor Air Quality Impacts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rudd, Armin; Bergey, Daniel

    2014-02-01

    In this project, Building America research team Building Science Corporation tested the effectiveness of ventilation systems at two unoccupied, single-family, detached lab homes at the University of Texas - Tyler. Five ventilation system tests were conducted with various whole-building ventilation systems. Multizone fan pressurization testing characterized building and zone enclosure leakage. PFT testing showed multizone air change rates and interzonal airflow. Cumulative particle counts for six particle sizes, and formaldehyde and other Top 20 VOC concentrations were measured in multiple zones. The testing showed that single-point exhaust ventilation was inferior as a whole-house ventilation strategy. This was because the source of outside air was not direct from outside, the ventilation air was not distributed, and no provision existed for air filtration. Indoor air recirculation by a central air distribution system can help improve the exhaust ventilation system by way of air mixing and filtration. In contrast, the supply and balanced ventilation systems showed that there is a significant benefit to drawing outside air from a known outside location, and filtering and distributing that air. Compared to the exhaust systems, the CFIS and ERV systems showed better ventilation air distribution and lower concentrations of particulates, formaldehyde and other VOCs. System improvement percentages were estimated based on four system factor categories: balance, distribution, outside air source, and recirculation filtration. Recommended system factors could be applied to reduce ventilation fan airflow rates relative to ASHRAE Standard 62.2 to save energy and reduce moisture control risk in humid climates. HVAC energy savings were predicted to be 8-10%, or $50-$75/year.

  7. Smart Ventilation - RIVEC

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious RankADVANCED MANUFACTURINGEnergy BillsNo.Hydrogen4 »DigitalanDepartmentSecondary Ventilation Activity Inputs

  8. Ventilation | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFinancialInvestingRenewableTeachDevelopment |of EnergyVentilation

  9. Pilot Testing of Commercial Refrigeration-Based Demand Response

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hirsch, Adam; Clark, Jordan; Deru, Michael; Trenbath, Kim; Doebber, Ian; Studer, Daniel

    2015-10-08

    Supermarkets potentially offer a substantial demand response (DR) resource because of their high energy intensity and use patterns. This report describes a pilot project conducted to better estimate supermarket DR potential. Previous work has analyzed supermarket DR using heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC), lighting, and anti-condensate heaters. This project was concerned with evaluating DR using the refrigeration system and quantifying the DR potential inherent in supermarket refrigeration systems. Ancillary aims of the project were to identify practical barriers to the implementation of DR programs in supermarkets and to determine which high-level control strategies were most appropriate for achieving certain DR objectives. The scope of this project does not include detailed control strategy development for DR or development of a strategy for regional implementation of DR in supermarkets.

  10. Demand Response: Load Management Programs 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Simon, J.

    2012-01-01

    Management Programs CATEE Conference October, 2012 Agenda Outline I. General Demand Response Definition II. General Demand Response Program Rules III. CenterPoint Commercial Program IV. CenterPoint Residential Programs V. Residential Discussion... Points Demand Response Definition of load management per energy efficiency rule 25.181: ? Load control activities that result in a reduction in peak demand, or a shifting of energy usage from a peak to an off-peak period or from high-price periods...

  11. New Air Cleaning Strategies for Reduced Commercial Building Ventilation Energy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sidheswaran, Meera; Destaillats, Hugo; Sullivan, Douglas P.; Fisk, William J.

    2010-10-27

    Approximately ten percent of the energy consumed in U.S. commercial buildings is used by HVAC systems to condition outdoor ventilation air. Reducing ventilation rates would be a simple and broadly-applicable energy retrofit option, if practical counter measures were available that maintained acceptable concentrations of indoor-generated air pollutants. The two general categories of countermeasures are: 1) indoor pollutant source control, and 2) air cleaning. Although pollutant source control should be used to the degree possible, source control is complicated by the large number and changing nature of indoor pollutant sources. Particle air cleaning is already routinely applied in commercial buildings. Previous calculations indicate that particle filtration consumes only 10percent to 25percent of the energy that would otherwise be required to achieve an equivalent amount of particle removal with ventilation. If cost-effective air cleaning technologies for volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were also available, outdoor air ventilation rates could be reduced substantially and broadly in the commercial building stock to save energy. The research carried out in this project focuses on developing novel VOC air cleaning technologies needed to enable energy-saving reductions in ventilation rates. The minimum required VOC removal efficiency to counteract a 50percent reduction in ventilation rate for air cleaning systems installed in the HVAC supply airstream is modest (generally 20percent or less).

  12. Economics of User-in-the-Loop Demand Control with Differentiated QoS in Cellular Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yanikomeroglu, Halim

    , Canada 2 Communication Networks (ComNets), Faculty 6, RWTH Aachen University, Germany Abstract- gestion and connection failures. Demand shaping is implemented by a dynamic usage-based tariff. Overall this saves money, energy and turns situations of hard congestion into an elastic stationarity

  13. Modeling particle loss in ventilation ducts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sippola, Mark R.; Nazaroff, William W.

    2003-01-01

    particles in turbulent duct flows. Chemical EngineeringDeposition in Ventilation Ducts. Ph.D. Dissertation,Deposition in Ventilating Duct Systems. Ph.D. Dissertation,

  14. InDemandInDemandInDemand Energize Your Career

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wolberg, George

    InDemandInDemandInDemand Energize Your Career You can join the next generation of workers who in Energy #12;#12;In Demand | 1 No, this isn't a quiz...but if you answered yes to any or all and Training Administration wants you to have this publication, In Demand: Careers in Energy. It will let you

  15. Resource Allocation with Unknown Constraints: An Extremum Seeking Control Approach and Applications to Demand Response

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ma, Kai; Hu, Guoqiang; Spanos, Costas

    2014-01-01

    wind energy conversion systems using extremum seeking,” IEEE Transactions on Control Systems Technology,

  16. VideoonDemandVideoonDemandVideoonDemand Video on Demand Testbed

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eleftheriadis, Alexandros

    VideoonDemandVideoonDemandVideoonDemand Columbia's Video on Demand Testbed and Interoperability Experiment Columbia's Video on Demand Testbed and Interoperability Experiment S.-F. Chang and A Columbia UniversityColumbia University www.www.ctrctr..columbiacolumbia..eduedu/advent/advent #12;VideoonDemandVideoonDemandVideoonDemand

  17. VideoonDemandVideoonDemandVideoonDemand Video on Demand Testbed

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eleftheriadis, Alexandros

    #12;VideoonDemandVideoonDemandVideoonDemand Columbia's Video on Demand Testbed and Interoperability Experiment Columbia's Video on Demand Testbed and Interoperability Experiment H.H. KalvaKalva, A.www.eeee..columbiacolumbia..eduedu/advent/advent #12;VideoonDemandVideoonDemandVideoonDemand VoD Testbed ArchitectureVoD Testbed Architecture Video

  18. Energy and air quality implications of passive stack ventilation in residential buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mortensen, Dorthe Kragsig; Walker, Iain S.; Sherman, Max

    2011-01-01

    Ventilation requires energy to transport and condition the incoming air. The energy consumption for ventilation in residential buildings depends on the ventilation rate required to maintain an acceptable indoor air quality. Historically, U.S. residential buildings relied on natural infiltration to provide sufficient ventilation, but as homes get tighter, designed ventilation systems are more frequently required particularly for new energy efficient homes and retrofitted homes. ASHRAE Standard 62.2 is used to specify the minimum ventilation rate required in residential buildings and compliance is normally achieved with fully mechanical whole-house systems; however, alternative methods may be used to provide the required ventilation when their air quality equivalency has been proven. One appealing method is the use of passive stack ventilation systems. They have been used for centuries to ventilate buildings and are often used in ventilation regulations in other countries. Passive stacks are appealing because they require no fans or electrical supply (which could lead to lower cost) and do not require maintenance (thus being more robust and reliable). The downside to passive stacks is that there is little control of ventilation air flow rates because they rely on stack and wind effects that depend on local time-varying weather. In this study we looked at how passive stacks might be used in different California climates and investigated control methods that can be used to optimize indoor air quality and energy use. The results showed that passive stacks can be used to provide acceptable indoor air quality per ASHRAE 62.2 with the potential to save energy provided that they are sized appropriately and flow controllers are used to limit over-ventilation.

  19. Demand Response and Open Automated Demand Response

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    LBNL-3047E Demand Response and Open Automated Demand Response Opportunities for Data Centers G described in this report was coordinated by the Demand Response Research Center and funded by the California. Demand Response and Open Automated Demand Response Opportunities for Data Centers. California Energy

  20. Decentralized demand management for water distribution 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zabolio, Dow Joseph

    1989-01-01

    OF THE DEMAND CURVE 30 31 35 39 Model Development Results 39 45 VI CONTROLLER DESIGN AND COSTS 49 Description of Controller Production and Installation Costs 49 50 VII SYSTEM EVALUATION AND ECONOMICS 53 System Response and Degree of Control... Patterns 9 Typical Winter Diurnal Patterns 10 Trace of Marginal Pump Efficiency and Hourly Demand 11 Original Demand Distribution and Possible Redistributions 33 34 40 41 43 46 12 Typical Nodal Responses to Demand Change 54 ix LIST OF TABLES...

  1. Measure Guideline: Ventilation Cooling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Springer, D.; Dakin, B.; German, A.

    2012-04-01

    The purpose of this measure guideline is to provide information on a cost-effective solution for reducing cooling system energy and demand in homes located in hot-dry and cold-dry climates. This guideline provides a prescriptive approach that outlines qualification criteria, selection considerations, and design and installation procedures.

  2. Literature Review of Displacement Ventilation 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cho, S.; Im, P.; Haberl, J. S.

    2005-01-01

    Performance Evaluation and Design Guidelines for Displacement Ventilation” by Chen and Clicksman (2003), were used to begin the literature search. Their references include papers, articles, and web sites presenting major contributions to the understanding...

  3. Green Scheduling of Control Systems for Peak Demand Reduction Truong X. Nghiem, Madhur Behl, Rahul Mangharam and George J. Pappas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pappas, George J.

    Mangharam and George J. Pappas Abstract-- Building systems such as heating, air quality control approach for fine-grained scheduling of control systems within an aggregate peak power envelop while this by combining: (a) minimization of the feasible peak power constraint of the systems; and (b) coordination

  4. High Temperatures & Electricity Demand

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    High Temperatures & Electricity Demand An Assessment of Supply Adequacy in California Trends.......................................................................................................1 HIGH TEMPERATURES AND ELECTRICITY DEMAND.....................................................................................................................7 SECTION I: HIGH TEMPERATURES AND ELECTRICITY DEMAND ..........................9 BACKGROUND

  5. Classroom HVAC: Improving ventilation and saving energy -- field study plan

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Apte, Michael G.; Faulkner, David; Hodgson, Alfred T.; Sullivan, Douglas P.

    2004-01-01

    Improving Ventilation and Saving Energy (IVSE) Field StudyImproving Ventilation and Saving Energy (IVSE) Field StudyImproving Ventilation and Saving Energy (IVSE) Field Study

  6. Demand Response Programs, 6. edition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2007-10-15

    The report provides a look at the past, present, and future state of the market for demand/load response based upon market price signals. It is intended to provide significant value to individuals and companies who are considering participating in demand response programs, energy providers and ISOs interested in offering demand response programs, and consultants and analysts looking for detailed information on demand response technology, applications, and participants. The report offers a look at the current Demand Response environment in the energy industry by: defining what demand response programs are; detailing the evolution of program types over the last 30 years; discussing the key drivers of current initiatives; identifying barriers and keys to success for the programs; discussing the argument against subsidization of demand response; describing the different types of programs that exist including:direct load control, interruptible load, curtailable load, time-of-use, real time pricing, and demand bidding/buyback; providing examples of the different types of programs; examining the enablers of demand response programs; and, providing a look at major demand response programs.

  7. 2008-2010 Research Summary: Analysis of Demand Response Opportunities in California Industry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goli, Sasank

    2013-01-01

    Energy Efficiency Energy Management Control System Environmental Protection Agency Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Global Energy Partners Gigawatt Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning

  8. Residential ventilation standards scoping study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McKone, Thomas E.; Sherman, Max H.

    2003-10-01

    The goals of this scoping study are to identify research needed to develop improved ventilation standards for California's Title 24 Building Energy Efficiency Standards. The 2008 Title 24 Standards are the primary target for the outcome of this research, but this scoping study is not limited to that timeframe. We prepared this scoping study to provide the California Energy Commission with broad and flexible options for developing a research plan to advance the standards. This document presents the findings of a scoping study commissioned by the Public Interest Energy Research (PIER) program of the California Energy Commission to determine what research is necessary to develop new residential ventilation requirements for California. This study is one of three companion efforts needed to complete the job of determining the ventilation needs of California residences, determining the bases for setting residential ventilation requirements, and determining appropriate ventilation technologies to meet these needs and requirements in an energy efficient manner. Rather than providing research results, this scoping study identifies important research questions along with the level of effort necessary to address these questions and the costs, risks, and benefits of pursuing alternative research questions. In approaching these questions and corresponding levels of effort, feasibility and timing were important considerations. The Commission has specified Summer 2005 as the latest date for completing this research in time to update the 2008 version of California's Energy Code (Title 24).

  9. Demand Response and Open Automated Demand Response Opportunities for Data Centers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ghatikar, Girish; Piette, Mary Ann; Fujita, Sydny; McKane, Aimee; Dudley, Junqiao Han; Radspieler, Anthony; Mares, K.C.; Shroyer, Dave

    2009-12-30

    This study examines data center characteristics, loads, control systems, and technologies to identify demand response (DR) and automated DR (Open Auto-DR) opportunities and challenges. The study was performed in collaboration with technology experts, industrial partners, and data center facility managers and existing research on commercial and industrial DR was collected and analyzed. The results suggest that data centers, with significant and rapidly growing energy use, have significant DR potential. Because data centers are highly automated, they are excellent candidates for Open Auto-DR. 'Non-mission-critical' data centers are the most likely candidates for early adoption of DR. Data center site infrastructure DR strategies have been well studied for other commercial buildings; however, DR strategies for information technology (IT) infrastructure have not been studied extensively. The largest opportunity for DR or load reduction in data centers is in the use of virtualization to reduce IT equipment energy use, which correspondingly reduces facility cooling loads. DR strategies could also be deployed for data center lighting, and heating, ventilation, and air conditioning. Additional studies and demonstrations are needed to quantify benefits to data centers of participating in DR and to address concerns about DR's possible impact on data center performance or quality of service and equipment life span.

  10. Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning Design

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning Design Strategy for a Hot-Humid Production Builder P% postconsumer waste #12;iii Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning Design Strategy for a Hot

  11. Energy Recovery Ventilator Membrane Efficiency Testing 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rees, Jennifer Anne

    2013-05-07

    A test setup was designed and built to test energy recovery ventilator membranes. The purpose of this test setup was to measure the heat transfer and water vapor transfer rates through energy recover ventilator membranes and find their effectiveness...

  12. Whole-House Ventilation | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    - 2:37pm Addthis A whole-house ventilation system with dedicated ducting in a new energy-efficient home. | Photo courtesy of iStockphotobrebca. A whole-house ventilation...

  13. Promising Technology: Energy Recovery Ventilation

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Energy recovery ventilation (ERV) systems exchange heat between outgoing exhaust air and the incoming outdoor air. Using exhaust air to pre-condition supply air can reduce the capacity of the heating and cooling system and save heating and cooling energy consumption.

  14. Demand Response in the ERCOT Markets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Patterson, Mark

    2011-10-25

    ERCOT grid serves 85% of Texas load over 40K+ miles transmission line. Demand response: voluntary load response, load resources, controllable load resources, and emergency interruptible load service.

  15. Numerical study of variable lung ventilation strategies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yadav, Reena; Hiremath, Kirankumar; Bagler, Ganesh

    2015-01-01

    Mechanical ventilation is used for patients with a variety of lung diseases. Traditionally, ventilators have been designed to monotonously deliver equal sized breaths. While it may seem intuitive that lungs may benefit from unvarying and stable ventilation pressure strategy, recently it has been reported that variable lung ventilation is advantageous. In this study, we analyze the mean tidal volume in response to different `variable ventilation pressure' strategies. We found that uniformly distributed variability in pressure gives the best tidal volume as compared to that of normal, scale- free, log normal and linear distributions.

  16. A Demand Driven Computation Strategy for Lazy Narrowing ?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Loogen, Rita

    Control on Demand Gísli Hjálmtýsson + and Samrat Bhattacharjee # + AT&T Labs -- Research, 180 Park 30332 1 Abstract. Control on demand is a paradigm for network programmability at the network transport functionality, relegating programmability to control plane connection management. In con­ trast, control­on­demand

  17. Energy and air quality implications of passive stack ventilation in residential buildings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mortensen, Dorthe Kragsig

    2011-01-01

    of passive stack ventilation in residential buildings Dortheof passive stack ventilation in residential buildings Dorthepassive stack ventilation systems. They have been used for centuries to ventilate buildings

  18. Addressing Energy Demand through Demand Response: International Experiences and Practices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shen, Bo

    2013-01-01

    of integrating demand response and energy efficiencyand D. Kathan (2009), Demand Response in U.S. ElectricityFRAMEWORKS THAT PROMOTE DEMAND RESPONSE 3.1. Demand Response

  19. Energy Code Enforcement Training Manual : Covering the Washington State Energy Code and the Ventilation and Indoor Air Quality Code.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Washington State Energy Code Program

    1992-05-01

    This manual is designed to provide building department personnel with specific inspection and plan review skills and information on provisions of the 1991 edition of the Washington State Energy Code (WSEC). It also provides information on provisions of the new stand-alone Ventilation and Indoor Air Quality (VIAQ) Code.The intent of the WSEC is to reduce the amount of energy used by requiring energy-efficient construction. Such conservation reduces energy requirements, and, as a result, reduces the use of finite resources, such as gas or oil. Lowering energy demand helps everyone by keeping electricity costs down. (It is less expensive to use existing electrical capacity efficiently than it is to develop new and additional capacity needed to heat or cool inefficient buildings.) The new VIAQ Code (effective July, 1991) is a natural companion to the energy code. Whether energy-efficient or not, an homes have potential indoor air quality problems. Studies have shown that indoor air is often more polluted than outdoor air. The VIAQ Code provides a means of exchanging stale air for fresh, without compromising energy savings, by setting standards for a controlled ventilation system. It also offers requirements meant to prevent indoor air pollution from building products or radon.

  20. Evaluation of energy savings related to building envelope retrofit techniques and ventilation strategies for low energy cooling in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    strategies for low energy cooling in offices and commercial sector Laurent Grignon-Massé, Dominique Marchio and automatic controls and the use of adequate ventilation strategies show great potential in energy savingsEvaluation of energy savings related to building envelope retrofit techniques and ventilation

  1. Value of Demand Response -Introduction Klaus Skytte

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    -of-supply and DR 15 minutes DaysHoursSeconds Adjustments of planned production Prognosis errors Excess capacity in demand to prices. Similar to Least-cost planning and demand-side management. DR differs by using prices: Curtailment of load, Direct load control, e.g. central control of electric comfort heating. Reservation prices

  2. Demand Response Valuation Frameworks Paper

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heffner, Grayson

    2010-01-01

    benefits of Demand Side Management (DSM) are insufficient toefficiency, demand side management (DSM) cost effectivenessResearch Center Demand Side Management Demand Side Resources

  3. Multifamily Individual Heating and Ventilation Systems, Lawrence, Massachusetts (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2013-11-01

    The conversion of an older Massachusetts building into condominiums illustrates a safe, durable, and cost-effective solution for heating and ventilation systems that can potentially benefit millions of multifamily buildings. Merrimack Valley Habitat for Humanity (MVHfH) partnered with U.S. Department of Energy Building America team Building Science Corporation (BSC) to provide high performance affordable housing for 10 families in the retrofit of an existing mass masonry building (a former convent). The original ventilation design for the project was provided by a local engineer and consisted of a single large heat recovery ventilator (HRV) located in a mechanical room in the basement with a centralized duct system providing supply air to the main living space and exhausting stale air from the single bathroom in each apartment. This design was deemed to be far too costly to install and operate for several reasons: the large central HRV was oversized and the specified flows to each apartment were much higher than the ASHRAE 62.2 rate; an extensive system of ductwork, smoke and fire dampers, and duct chases were specified; ductwork required a significant area of dropped ceilings; and the system lacked individual ventilation control in the apartments

  4. A DISTRIBUTED INTELLIGENT AUTOMATED DEMAND RESPONSE BUILDING MANAGEMENT SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Auslander, David; Culler, David; Wright, Paul; Lu, Yan; Piette, Mary

    2013-12-30

    The goal of the 2.5 year Distributed Intelligent Automated Demand Response (DIADR) project was to reduce peak electricity load of Sutardja Dai Hall at UC Berkeley by 30% while maintaining a healthy, comfortable, and productive environment for the occupants. We sought to bring together both central and distributed control to provide “deep” demand response1 at the appliance level of the building as well as typical lighting and HVAC applications. This project brought together Siemens Corporate Research and Siemens Building Technology (the building has a Siemens Apogee Building Automation System (BAS)), Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (leveraging their Open Automated Demand Response (openADR), Auto-­Demand Response, and building modeling expertise), and UC Berkeley (related demand response research including distributed wireless control, and grid-­to-­building gateway development). Sutardja Dai Hall houses the Center for Information Technology Research in the Interest of Society (CITRIS), which fosters collaboration among industry and faculty and students of four UC campuses (Berkeley, Davis, Merced, and Santa Cruz). The 141,000 square foot building, occupied in 2009, includes typical office spaces and a nanofabrication laboratory. Heating is provided by a district heating system (steam from campus as a byproduct of the campus cogeneration plant); cooling is provided by one of two chillers: a more typical electric centrifugal compressor chiller designed for the cool months (Nov-­ March) and a steam absorption chiller for use in the warm months (April-­October). Lighting in the open office areas is provided by direct-­indirect luminaries with Building Management System-­based scheduling for open areas, and occupancy sensors for private office areas. For the purposes of this project, we focused on the office portion of the building. Annual energy consumption is approximately 8053 MWh; the office portion is estimated as 1924 MWh. The maximum peak load during the study period was 1175 kW. Several new tools facilitated this work, such as the Smart Energy Box, the distributed load controller or Energy Information Gateway, the web-­based DR controller (dubbed the Central Load-­Shed Coordinator or CLSC), and the Demand Response Capacity Assessment & Operation Assistance Tool (DRCAOT). In addition, an innovative data aggregator called sMAP (simple Measurement and Actuation Profile) allowed data from different sources collected in a compact form and facilitated detailed analysis of the building systems operation. A smart phone application (RAP or Rapid Audit Protocol) facilitated an inventory of the building’s plug loads. Carbon dioxide sensors located in conference rooms and classrooms allowed demand controlled ventilation. The extensive submetering and nimble access to this data provided great insight into the details of the building operation as well as quick diagnostics and analyses of tests. For example, students discovered a short-­cycling chiller, a stuck damper, and a leaking cooling coil in the first field tests. For our final field tests, we were able to see how each zone was affected by the DR strategies (e.g., the offices on the 7th floor grew very warm quickly) and fine-­tune the strategies accordingly.

  5. Fire protection countermeasures for containment ventilation systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alvares, N.J.; Beason, D.G.; Bergman, W.; Ford, H.W.; Lipska, A.E.

    1980-01-01

    The goal of this project is to find countermeasures to protect HEPA filters in exit ventilation ducts from the heat and smoke generated by fire. Several methods for partially mitigating the smoke exposure to the HEPA filters were identified through testing and analysis. These independently involve controlling the fuel, controlling the fire, and intercepting the smoke aerosol prior to its sorption on the HEPA filter. Exit duct treatment of aerosols is not unusual in industrial applications and involves the use of scrubbers, prefilters, and inertial impaction, depending on the size, distribution, and concentration of the subject aerosol. However, when these unmodified techniques were applied to smoke aerosols from fires on materials, common to experimental laboratories of LLNL, it was found they offered minimal protection to the HEPA filters. Ultimately, a continuous, movable, high-efficiency prefilter using modified commercial equipment was designed. This technique is capable of protecting HEPA filters over the total duration of the test fires. The reason for success involved the modificaton of the prefiltration media. Commercially available filter media has a particle sorption efficiency that is inversely proportional to media strength. To achieve properties of both efficiency and strength, we laminated rolling filter media with the desired properties. It is not true that the use of rolling prefilters solely to protect HEPA filters from fire-generated smoke aerosols is cost effective in every type of containment system, especially if standard fire-protection systems are available in the space. But in areas of high fire risk, where the potential fuel load is large and ignition sources are plentiful, the complication of a rolling prefilter in exit ventilation ducts to protect HEPA filters from smoke aerosols is definitely justified.

  6. Automation of Capacity Bidding with an Aggregator Using Open Automated Demand Response

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kiliccote, Sila

    2011-01-01

    Protocol for Building Automation and Control  Networks.  Protocol for Building Automation and Control  Networks, Demand Response Automation Server  Demand Response Research 

  7. Residential Demand Sector Data, Commercial Demand Sector Data, Industrial Demand Sector Data - Annual Energy Outlook 2006

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2009-01-18

    Tables describing consumption and prices by sector and census division for 2006 - includes residential demand, commercial demand, and industrial demand

  8. Infiltration as Ventilation: Weather-Induced Dilution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sherman, Max H.

    2014-01-01

    LOGICS. 1999. Canadian Weather for Energy Calculations, In:natural ventilation rate with weather conditions, Renewablefor ASHRAE 136 [1/h] WSF Weather and Shielding Factor [1/h

  9. Does Mixing Make Residential Ventilation More Effective?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sherman, Max

    2011-01-01

    Does Mixing Make Residential Ventilation More Effective? Maxmanufacturer, or otherwise, does not necessarily constitutethe University of California. Does Mixing Make Residential

  10. Building America Case Study: Ventilation System Effectiveness...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Location: Tyler, TX Partners: University of Texas, TxAIRE, uttyler.edutxairehouses Building Science Corporation, buildingscience.com Building Component: Heating, ventilating,...

  11. Building America Technologies Solutions Case Study: Ventilation...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Building America team Building Science Corporation tested the effectiveness of various ventilation systems at two unoccupied, single-family lab homes at the University of Texas at...

  12. Control Measures: Engineering: Ensure Ventilation is

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lance, Veronica P.

    the area. Call Public Safety, and EH&S as soon as possible Use appropriate PPE during any spill clean. Hazards: There are four principal areas of hazards related to the use of cryogenic fluids or in cryogenic systems: Burns & Frostbite: Cryogenic fluids (liquid or cold gas) allowed to come into direct contact

  13. Development of a Residential Integrated Ventilation Controller

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Walker, Iain

    2013-01-01

    Paul, MN. ASHRAE. 1999. “ANSI/ASHRAE Standard 52.2-1999,Inc. ASHRAE. 1989. “ANSI/ASHRAE Standard 62-1989 -Engineers, Inc. ASHRAE. 2001. “ANSI/ASHRAE Standard 90.2-

  14. Summer Infiltration/Ventilation Test Results from the FRTF Laboratory...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Summer InfiltrationVentilation Test Results from the FRTF Laboratory Summer InfiltrationVentilation Test Results from the FRTF Laboratory This presentation was delivered at the...

  15. Critical Question #2: What are the Best Practices for Ventilation...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    2: What are the Best Practices for Ventilation Specific to Multifamily Buildings? Critical Question 2: What are the Best Practices for Ventilation Specific to Multifamily...

  16. Energy-saving strategies with personalized ventilation in cold climates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schiavon, Stefano; Melikov, Arsen

    2009-01-01

    Energy-saving strategies with personalized ventilation inon energy consumption and the energy-saving potentials of amixing ventilation alone if energy-saving strategies are not

  17. Promising Technology: Variable-Air-Volume Ventilation System

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Variable-air-volume (VAV) ventilation saves energy compared to a constant-air-volume (CAV) ventilation system, mainly by reducing energy consumption associated with fans.

  18. Case Study - The Challenge: Improving Ventilation System Energy...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Ventilation System Energy Efficiency in a Textile Plant Case Study - The Challenge: Improving Ventilation System Energy Efficiency in a Textile Plant This case study examines how...

  19. Low-Cost Ventilation in Production Housing - Building America...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Low-Cost Ventilation in Production Housing - Building America Top Innovation Low-Cost Ventilation in Production Housing - Building America Top Innovation This drawing shows simple...

  20. DEMAND INTERPROCEDURAL PROGRAM ANALYSIS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reps, Thomas W.

    1 DEMAND INTERPROCEDURAL PROGRAM ANALYSIS USING LOGIC DATABASES Thomas W. Reps Computer Sciences@cs.wisc.edu ABSTRACT This paper describes how algorithms for demand versions of inerprocedural program­ analysis for all elements of the program. This paper concerns the solution of demand versions of interprocedural

  1. Capacity Demand Power (GW)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Davis, University of

    Capacity Demand Power (GW) Hour of the Day The "Dip" Electricity Demand in Electricity Demand Every weekday, Japan's electricity use dips about 6 GW at 12 but it also shows that: · Behavior affects naHonal electricity use in unexpected ways

  2. Demand Response Assessment INTRODUCTION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Demand Response Assessment INTRODUCTION This appendix provides more detail on some of the topics raised in Chapter 4, "Demand Response" of the body of the Plan. These topics include 1. The features, advantages and disadvantages of the main options for stimulating demand response (price mechanisms

  3. Economizer system cost effectiveness: Accounting for the influence of ventilation rate on sick leave

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fisk, William J.; Seppanen, Olli; Faulkner, David; Huang, Joe

    2003-06-01

    This study estimated the health, energy, and economic benefits of an economizer ventilation control system that increases outside air supply during mild weather to save energy. A model of the influence of ventilation rate on airborne transmission of respiratory illnesses was used to extend the limited data relating ventilation rate with illness and sick leave. An energy simulation model calculated ventilation rates and energy use versus time for an office building in Washington, DC with fixed minimum outdoor air supply rates, with and without an economizer. Sick leave rates were estimated with the disease transmission model. In the modeled 72-person office building, our analyses indicate that the economizer reduces energy costs by approximately $2000 and, in addition, reduces sick leave. The financial benefit of the decrease in sick leave is estimated to be between $6,000 and $16,000. This modelling suggests that economizers are much more cost effective than currently recognized.

  4. Houses are Dumb without Smart Ventilation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Walker, Iain

    2014-01-01

    to respond to demand response events, (5) flexibility thatcan also integrate with the demand response needs of utility

  5. Addressing Energy Demand through Demand Response: International Experiences and Practices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shen, Bo

    2013-01-01

    DECC aggregator managed portfolio automated demand responseaggregator designs their own programs, and offers demand responseaggregator is responsible for designing and implementing their own demand response

  6. Automated Demand Response and Commissioning

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Piette, Mary Ann; Watson, David S.; Motegi, Naoya; Bourassa, Norman

    2005-01-01

    Fully-Automated Demand Response Test in Large Facilities14in DR systems. Demand Response using HVAC in Commercialof Fully Automated Demand Response in Large Facilities”

  7. Demand Response Spinning Reserve Demonstration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2007-01-01

    F) Enhanced ACP Date RAA ACP Demand Response – SpinningReserve Demonstration Demand Response – Spinning Reservesupply spinning reserve. Demand Response – Spinning Reserve

  8. Demand Response Programs for Oregon

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Demand Response Programs for Oregon Utilities Public Utility Commission May 2003 Public Utility ....................................................................................................................... 1 Types of Demand Response Programs............................................................................ 3 Demand Response Programs in Oregon

  9. Building America Webinar: Multifamily Ventilation Strategies and Compartmentalization Requirements

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The webinar will focus on key challenges in multifamily ventilation and strategies to address these challenges.

  10. Maintenance Guide for Greenhouse Ventilation, Evaporative Cooling Heating Systems1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hill, Jeffrey E.

    AE26 Maintenance Guide for Greenhouse Ventilation, Evaporative Cooling Heating Systems1 D. E and preventive maintenance procedures for ventilation, evaporative cooling and heating systems. Ventilation a ventilation system is not operating properly, the results can be pockets of stagnant air, inadequate cooling

  11. Ventilation Requirements in Hot Humid Climates 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Walker, I. S.; Sherman, M. H.

    2006-01-01

    ,” To be publicshed ASHRAE Trans. Sherman, M.H. and Matson, N.E “Residential Ventilation and Energy Characteristics,” ASHRAE Trans. 103(1), 1997, [LBNL- 39036]. Sherman M. H., “Over-ventilating in Hot, Humid Climates”, IAQ Applications, 7(1) pp. 1-4 ASHRAE, 2006...a. Sherman M. H. , “House Need to Breathe…Right?” Fine Homebuilding, April/May 2006; pp. 64-69, LBL Report 54496. Sherman M.H, Matson N.E. , “Air Tightness in New U.S. Housing” Proc. 22 nd AIVC Conference, Air Infiltration and Ventilation...

  12. Exponential Demand Simulation Tool

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reed, Derek D.

    2015-05-15

    Operant behavioral economics investigates the relation between environmental constraint and reinforcer consumption. The standard approach to quantifying this relation is through the use of behavioral economic demand curves. ...

  13. Managing Increased Charging Demand

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Managing Increased Charging Demand Carrie Giles ICF International, Supporting the Workplace Charging Challenge Workplace Charging Challenge Do you already own an EV? Are you...

  14. Ventilation Systems for Cooling | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ventilation can help keep your home cool during hot days. To avoid heat buildup in your home, plan ahead by landscaping your lot to shade your house. If you replace your roof,...

  15. Scale model studies of displacement ventilation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Okutan, Galip Mehmet

    1995-01-01

    Displacement ventilation is an air conditioning method that provides conditioned air to indoor environments with the goal to improve air quality while reducing energy consumption. This study investigates the performance ...

  16. Building America Technology Solutions Case Study: Ventilation...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    ventilation systems at two unoccupied, single-family lab homes at the University of Texas at Tyler. The only difference was that House 1 had a vented attic and House 2 had an...

  17. Floor-supply displacement ventilation system

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kobayashi, Nobukazu, 1967-

    2001-01-01

    Research on indoor environments has received more attention recently because reports of symptoms and other health complaints related to indoor environments have been increasing. Heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning ...

  18. Evaluating Ventilation Systems for Existing Homes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aldrich, Robb; Arena, Lois

    2013-02-01

    In an effort to improve housing options near Las Vegas, Nevada, the Clark County Community Resources Division (CCCRD) performs substantial renovations to foreclosed homes. After dramatic energy, aesthetic, and health and safety improvements are made, homes are rented or sold to qualified residents. This report describes the evaluation and selection of ventilation systems for these homes, including key considerations when selecting an ideal system. The report then describes CCCRD’s decision process with respect to ventilation.

  19. Electrical Demand Management 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fetters, J. L.; Teets, S. J.

    1983-01-01

    The Demand Management Plan set forth in this paper has proven to be a viable action to reduce a 3 million per year electric bill at the Columbus Works location of Western Electric. Measures are outlined which have reduced the peak demand 5% below...

  20. Invasive Mechanical Ventilation in California Over 2000-2009: Implications for Emergency Medicine

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2015-01-01

    meta-analysis. BMJ. of mechanical ventilation: a population-NM, Dettmer M, et al. Mechanical ventilation and Westernet al. Invasive Mechanical Ventilation in California from

  1. Energy and Cost Associated with Ventilating Office Buildings in a Tropical Climate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rim, Donghyun; Schiavon, Stefano; Nazaroff, William W

    2015-01-01

    RESEARCH ARTICLE Energy and Cost Associated with VentilatingS, Nazaroff WW (2015) Energy and Cost Associated withcost on ventilation energy and cost; and 4) limitations and

  2. Assessment of Indoor Air Quality Benefits and Energy Costs of Mechanical Ventilation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Logue, J.M.

    2012-01-01

    Quality Benefits and Energy Costs of Mechanical VentilationQuality Benefits and Energy Costs of Mechanical VentilationQuality Benefits and Energy Costs of Mechanical Ventilation

  3. Improving Ventilation and Saving Energy: Relocatable Classroom Field Study Interim Report

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2005-01-01

    Improving Ventilation and Saving Energy Field Study Plan,Improving Ventilation and Saving Energy: Laboratory Study inVentilation and Saving Energy: Relocatable Classroom Field

  4. Advanced Rooftop Control (ARC) Retrofit: Field-Test Results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Weimin; Katipamula, Srinivas; Ngo, Hung; Underhill, Ronald M.; Taasevigen, Danny J.; Lutes, Robert G.

    2013-07-31

    The multi-year research study was initiated to find solutions to improve packaged equipment operating efficiency in the field. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), with funding from the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Building Technologies Office (BTO) and Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) conducted this research, development and demonstration (RD&D) study. Packaged equipment with constant speed supply fans is designed to provide ventilation at the design rate at all times when the fan is operating as required by building code. Although there are a number of hours during the day when a building may not be fully occupied or the need for ventilation is lower than designed, the ventilation rate cannot be adjusted easily with a constant speed fan. Therefore, modulating the supply fan in conjunction with demand controlled ventilation (DCV) will not only reduce the coil energy but also reduce the fan energy. The objective of this multi-year research, development and demonstration project was to determine the magnitude of energy savings achievable by retrofitting existing packaged rooftop air conditioners with advanced control strategies not ordinarily used for packaged units. First, through detailed simulation analysis, it was shown that significant energy (between 24% and 35%) and cost savings (38%) from fan, cooling and heating energy consumption could be realized when packaged air conditioning units with gas furnaces are retrofitted with advanced control packages (combining multi-speed fan control, integrated economizer controls and DCV). The simulation analysis also showed significant savings for heat pumps (between 20% and 60%). The simulation analysis was followed by an extensive field test of a retrofittable advanced rooftop unit (RTU) controller.

  5. Software Verification & Validation Report for the 244-AR Vault Interim Stabilization Ventilation System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    YEH, T.

    2002-11-20

    This document reports on the analysis, testing and conclusions of the software verification and validation for the 244-AR Vault Interim Stabilization ventilation system. Automation control system will use the Allen-Bradley software tools for programming and programmable logic controller (PLC) configuration. The 244-AR Interim Stabilization Ventilation System will be used to control the release of radioactive particles to the environment in the containment tent, located inside the canyon of the 244-AR facility, and to assist the waste stabilization efforts. The HVAC equipment, ducts, instruments, PLC hardware, the ladder logic executable software (documented code), and message display terminal are considered part of the temporary ventilation system. The system consists of a supply air skid, temporary ductwork (to distribute airflow), and two skid-mounted, 500-cfm exhausters connected to the east filter building and the vessel vent system. The Interim Stabilization Ventilation System is a temporary, portable ventilation system consisting of supply side and exhaust side. Air is supplied to the containment tent from an air supply skid. This skid contains a constant speed fan, a pre-filter, an electric heating coil, a cooling coil, and a constant flow device (CFD). The CFD uses a passive component that allows a constant flow of air to pass through the device. Air is drawn out of the containment tent, cells, and tanks by two 500-cfm exhauster skids running in parallel. These skids are equipped with fans, filters, stack, stack monitoring instrumentation, and a PLC for control. The 500CFM exhaust skids were fabricated and tested previously for saltwell pumping activities. The objective of the temporary ventilation system is to maintain a higher pressure to the containment tent, relative to the canyon and cell areas, to prevent contaminants from reaching the containment tent.

  6. Demand Responsive Lighting: A Scoping Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rubinstein, Francis; Kiliccote, Sila

    2007-01-03

    The objective of this scoping study is: (1) to identify current market drivers and technology trends that can improve the demand responsiveness of commercial building lighting systems and (2) to quantify the energy, demand and environmental benefits of implementing lighting demand response and energy-saving controls strategies Statewide. Lighting systems in California commercial buildings consume 30 GWh. Lighting systems in commercial buildings often waste energy and unnecessarily stress the electrical grid because lighting controls, especially dimming, are not widely used. But dimmable lighting equipment, especially the dimming ballast, costs more than non-dimming lighting and is expensive to retrofit into existing buildings because of the cost of adding control wiring. Advances in lighting industry capabilities coupled with the pervasiveness of the Internet and wireless technologies have led to new opportunities to realize significant energy saving and reliable demand reduction using intelligent lighting controls. Manufacturers are starting to produce electronic equipment--lighting-application specific controllers (LAS controllers)--that are wirelessly accessible and can control dimmable or multilevel lighting systems obeying different industry-accepted protocols. Some companies make controllers that are inexpensive to install in existing buildings and allow the power consumed by bi-level lighting circuits to be selectively reduced during demand response curtailments. By intelligently limiting the demand from bi-level lighting in California commercial buildings, the utilities would now have an enormous 1 GW demand shed capability at hand. By adding occupancy and light sensors to the remotely controllable lighting circuits, automatic controls could harvest an additional 1 BkWh/yr savings above and beyond the savings that have already been achieved. The lighting industry's adoption of DALI as the principal wired digital control protocol for dimming ballasts and increased awareness of the need to standardize on emerging wireless technologies are evidence of this transformation. In addition to increased standardization of digital control protocols controller capabilities, the lighting industry has improved the performance of dimming lighting systems over the last two years. The system efficacy of today's current dimming ballasts is approaching that of non-dimming program start ballasts. The study finds that the benefits of applying digital controls technologies to California's unique commercial buildings market are enormous. If California were to embark on an concerted 20 year program to improve the demand responsiveness and energy efficiency of commercial building lighting systems, the State could avoid adding generation capacity, improve the elasticity of the grid, save Californians billion of dollars in avoided energy charges and significantly reduce greenhouse gas emissions.

  7. Demand Dispatch-Intelligent

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    such as wind, solar, and electric vehicles as well as dispatchable loads and microgrids. Many of these resources will be "behind-the-meter" (i.e., demand resources) and...

  8. Demand Response Opportunities in Industrial Refrigerated Warehouses in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    LBNL-4837E Demand Response Opportunities in Industrial Refrigerated Warehouses in California Sasank thereof or The Regents of the University of California. #12;Demand Response Opportunities in Industrial centralized control systems can be excellent candidates for Automated Demand Response (Auto- DR) due

  9. 2008-2010 Research Summary: Analysis of Demand Response

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    LBNL-5680E 2008-2010 Research Summary: Analysis of Demand Response Opportunities in California. · #12;· · · 1.1. Role of the Demand Response Research Center · · · · · · #12;Figure 2: Discovery Process Treatment Facility Controls #12;2.1.2. Automated Demand Response Strategies #12;2.1.3. San Luis Rey

  10. Demand and Price Uncertainty: Rational Habits in International Gasoline Demand

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Scott, K. Rebecca

    2013-01-01

    World crude oil and natural gas: a demand and supply model.analysis of the demand for oil in the Middle East. EnergyEstimates elasticity of demand for crude oil, not gasoline.

  11. Demand and Price Volatility: Rational Habits in International Gasoline Demand

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Scott, K. Rebecca

    2011-01-01

    World crude oil and natural gas: a demand and supply model.analysis of the demand for oil in the Middle East. EnergyEstimates elasticity of demand for crude oil, not gasoline.

  12. Demand and Price Volatility: Rational Habits in International Gasoline Demand

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Scott, K. Rebecca

    2011-01-01

    H. , and James M. Gri¢ n. 1983. Gasoline demand in the OECDof dynamic demand for gasoline. Journal of Econometrics 77(An empirical analysis of gasoline demand in Denmark using

  13. Demand and Price Volatility: Rational Habits in International Gasoline Demand

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Scott, K. Rebecca

    2011-01-01

    shift in the short-run price elasticity of gasoline demand.A meta-analysis of the price elasticity of gasoline demand.2007. Consumer demand un- der price uncertainty: Empirical

  14. FERC sees huge potential for demand response

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2010-04-15

    The FERC study concludes that U.S. peak demand can be reduced by as much as 188 GW -- roughly 20 percent -- under the most aggressive scenario. More moderate -- and realistic -- scenarios produce smaller but still significant reductions in peak demand. The FERC report is quick to point out that these are estimates of the potential, not projections of what could actually be achieved. The main varieties of demand response programs include interruptible tariffs, direct load control (DLC), and a number of pricing schemes.

  15. Demand and Price Uncertainty: Rational Habits in International Gasoline Demand

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Scott, K. Rebecca

    2013-01-01

    Sterner. 1991. Analysing gasoline demand elasticities: A2011. Measuring global gasoline and diesel price and incomeMutairi. 1995. Demand for gasoline in Kuwait: An empirical

  16. Demand Response and Electric Grid Reliability 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wattles, P.

    2012-01-01

    and Regional Transmission Organizations are the ?air traffic controllers? of the bulk electric power grids 4 Power supply (generation) must match load (demand) CATEE Conference October 10, 2012 ? The fundamental concept behind ERCOT operations... changes or incentives.? (FERC) ? ?Changes in electric use by demand-side resources from their normal consumption patterns in response to changes in the price of electricity, or to incentive payments designed to induce lower electricity use at times...

  17. Demand Response Projects: Technical and Market Demonstrations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    signal · Reinforces conservation program efforts in areas such as insulation and heat pumps Voluntary DR Commercial & Industrial DR Pilot ­ Internet communication/control of imbedded load control devices on up storage Commercial & Industrial DR Pilot (8 customers)* · Open Automated Demand Response Communication

  18. Estimated costs of ventilation systems complying with the HUD ventilation standard for manufactured homes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, J.D.; Conner, C.C.

    1993-11-01

    At the request of the US Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD), the Pacific Northwest Laboratory estimated the material, labor, and operating costs for ventilation equipment needed for compliance with HUD`s proposed revision to the ventilation standard for manufactured housing. This was intended to bound the financial impacts of the ventilation standard revision. Researchers evaluated five possible prototype ventilation systems that met the proposed ventilation requirements. Of those five, two systems were determined to be the most likely used by housing manufacturers: System 1 combines a fresh air duct with the existing central forced-air system to supply and circulate fresh air to conditioned spaces. System 2 uses a separate exhaust fan to remove air from the manufactured home. The estimated material and labor costs for these two systems range from $200 to $300 per home. Annual operating costs for the two ventilation systems were estimated for 20 US cities. The estimated operating costs for System 1 ranged from $55/year in Las Vegas, Nevada, to $83/year in Bismarck, North Dakota. Operating costs for System 2 ranged from a low of $35/year in Las Vegas to $63/year in Bismarck. Thus, HUD`s proposed increase in ventilation requirements will add less than $100/year to the energy cost of a manufactured home.

  19. Demand Response Valuation Frameworks Paper

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heffner, Grayson

    2010-01-01

    No. ER06-615-000 CAISO Demand Response Resource User Guide -8 2.1. Demand Response Provides a Range of Benefits to8 2.2. Demand Response Benefits can be Quantified in Several

  20. Investigation of room ventilation for improved operation of a downdraft table

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jayaraman, B.; Kristoffersen, A.; Finlayson, E.; Gadgil, A.

    2004-01-01

    Investigation of Room Ventilation for Improved Operation ofInvestigation of Room Ventilation for Improved Operation of

  1. Natural ventilation : design for suburban houses in Thailand

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tantasavasdi, Chalermwat, 1971-

    1998-01-01

    Natural Ventilation is the most effective passive cooling design strategy for architecture in hot and humid climates. In Thailand, natural ventilation has been the most essential element in the vernacular architecture such ...

  2. Study of natural ventilation in buildings with large eddy simulation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jiang, Yi, 1972-

    2002-01-01

    With the discovery of many economic, environmental, and health problems in sealed and mechanically ventilated buildings, the concept of natural ventilation has been revived. "Buildings that breathe" have become more and ...

  3. A scale model study of displacement ventilation with chilled ceilings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Holden, Katherine J. A. (Katherine Joan Adrienne)

    1995-01-01

    Displacement ventilation is a form of air-conditioning which provides good air quality and some energy savings. The air quality is better than for a conventional mixed ventilation system. The maximum amount of cooling that ...

  4. Modeling buoyancy-driven airflow in ventilation shafts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ray, Stephen D. (Stephen Douglas)

    2012-01-01

    Naturally ventilated buildings can significantly reduce the required energy for cooling and ventilating buildings by drawing in outdoor air using non-mechanical forces. Buoyancy-driven systems are common in naturally ...

  5. Optimal Demand Response Libin Jiang

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Optimal Demand Response Libin Jiang Steven Low Computing + Math Sciences Electrical Engineering Caltech Oct 2011 #12;Outline Caltech smart grid research Optimal demand response #12;Global trends 1

  6. ENERGY DEMAND FORECAST METHODS REPORT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ....................................................................................................1-16 Energy Consumption Data...............................................1-15 Data Sources for Energy Demand Forecasting ModelsCALIFORNIA ENERGY COMMISSION ENERGY DEMAND FORECAST METHODS REPORT Companion Report

  7. Natural Ventilation for Energy Savings in California Commercial Buildings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2014-01-01

    hybrid natural ventilation system was unable to provide ample cooling during the winter months, which caused a heat pump

  8. Development of an Outdoor Temperature-Based Control Algorithm...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Development of an Outdoor Temperature-Based Control Algorithm for Residential Mechanical Ventilation Control Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Development of an Outdoor...

  9. Coordination of Energy Efficiency and Demand Response

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goldman, Charles

    2010-01-01

    ventilating, and air conditioning. Energy efficiency is alsoenergy efficiency programs (e.g. , lighting, air conditioning)energy efficiency and sell large, capital-intensive technology solutions, such as boiler and heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (

  10. Estimating a Demand System with Nonnegativity Constraints: Mexican Meat Demand

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carlini, David

    Estimating a Demand System with Nonnegativity Constraints: Mexican Meat Demand Amos Golan* Jeffrey an almost ideal demand system for five types of meat using cross-sectional data from Mexico, where most households did not buy at least one type of meat during the survey week. The system of demands is shown

  11. Peer-Assisted On-Demand Streaming: Characterizing Demands and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Baochun

    Peer-Assisted On-Demand Streaming: Characterizing Demands and Optimizing Supplies Fangming Liu Abstract--Nowadays, there has been significant deployment of peer-assisted on-demand streaming services over the Internet. Two of the most unique and salient features in a peer-assisted on-demand streaming

  12. Building America Webinar: Ventilation Strategies for High Performance Homes, Part I: Application-Specific Ventilation Guidelines

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This webinar, held on Aug. 26, 2015, covered what makes high-performance homes different from a ventilation perspective and how they might need to be treated differently than traditional construction.

  13. Energy Demand Staff Scientist

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eisen, Michael

    #12;Sources: China National Bureau of Statistics; U.S. Energy Information Administration, Annual Energy Outlook. Overview:Overview: Energy Use in China and the U.S.Energy Use in China and the U.S. 5 0Energy Demand in China Lynn Price Staff Scientist February 2, 2010 #12;Founded in 1988 Focused

  14. Air Distribution Effectiveness for Different Mechanical Ventilation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    LBNL-62700 Air Distribution Effectiveness for Different Mechanical Ventilation Systems Max H Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory is an equal opportunity employer. #12;1 Air Distribution depending on the effectiveness of their air distribution systems and the location of sources and occupants

  15. Mixed-Mode Ventilation and Building Retrofits

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brager, Gail; Ackerly, Katie

    2010-01-01

    of low-energy ventilation strategies in four generalized UKUK offices: How adaptive comfort theories might influence future low energy office refurbishment strategies’,UK Department of the Environment, Transport and the Regions’ Energy Efficiency Best Practice Programme Numerous guidelines for developing the most appropriate design strategy

  16. Modeling particle loss in ventilation ducts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sippola, Mark R.; Nazaroff, William W.

    2003-04-01

    Empirical equations were developed and applied to predict losses of 0.01-100 {micro}m airborne particles making a single pass through 120 different ventilation duct runs typical of those found in mid-sized office buildings. For all duct runs, losses were negligible for submicron particles and nearly complete for particles larger than 50 {micro}m. The 50th percentile cut-point diameters were 15 {micro}m in supply runs and 25 {micro}m in return runs. Losses in supply duct runs were higher than in return duct runs, mostly because internal insulation was present in portions of supply duct runs, but absent from return duct runs. Single-pass equations for particle loss in duct runs were combined with models for predicting ventilation system filtration efficiency and particle deposition to indoor surfaces to evaluate the fates of particles of indoor and outdoor origin in an archetypal mechanically ventilated building. Results suggest that duct losses are a minor influence for determining indoor concentrations for most particle sizes. Losses in ducts were of a comparable magnitude to indoor surface losses for most particle sizes. For outdoor air drawn into an unfiltered ventilation system, most particles smaller than 1 {micro}m are exhausted from the building. Large particles deposit within the building, mostly in supply ducts or on indoor surfaces. When filters are present, most particles are either filtered or exhausted. The fates of particles generated indoors follow similar trends as outdoor particles drawn into the building.

  17. Energy Demands and Efficiency Strategies in Data Center Buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shehabi, Arman

    2009-09-01

    Information technology (IT) is becoming increasingly pervasive throughout society as more data is digitally processed, stored, and transferred. The infrastructure that supports IT activity is growing accordingly, and data center energy demands haveincreased by nearly a factor of four over the past decade. Data centers house IT equipment and require significantly more energy to operate per unit floor area thanconventional buildings. The economic and environmental ramifications of continued data center growth motivate the need to explore energy-efficient methods to operate these buildings. A substantial portion of data center energy use is dedicated to removing the heat that is generated by the IT equipment. Using economizers to introduce large airflow rates of outside air during favorable weather could substantially reduce the energy consumption of data center cooling. Cooling buildings with economizers is an established energy saving measure, but in data centers this strategy is not widely used, partly owing to concerns that the large airflow rates would lead to increased indoor levels of airborne particles, which could damage IT equipment. The environmental conditions typical of data centers and the associated potential for equipment failure, however, are not well characterized. This barrier to economizer implementation illustrates the general relationship between energy use and indoor air quality in building design and operation. This dissertation investigates how building design and operation influence energy use and indoor air quality in data centers and provides strategies to improve both design goals simultaneously.As an initial step toward understanding data center air quality, measurements of particle concentrations were made at multiple operating northern California data centers. Ratios of measured particle concentrations in conventional data centers to the corresponding outside concentrations were significantly lower than those reported in the literature for office or residential buildings. Estimates using a material-balance model match well with empirical results, indicating that the dominant particle sources and losses -- ventilation and filtration -- have been characterized. Measurements taken at a data center using economizers show nearly an order of magnitude increase in particle concentration during economizer activity. However, even with the increase, themeasured particle concentrations are still below concentration limits recommended in most industry standards. The research proceeds by exploring the feasibility of using economizers in data centers while simultaneously controlling particle concentrations with high-quality air filtration. Physical and chemical properties of indoor and outdoor particles were analyzed at a data center using economizers and varying levels of air filtration efficiency. Results show that when improved filtration is used in combination with an economizer, the indoor/outdoor concentration ratios for most measured particle types were similar to the measurements when using conventional filtration without economizers. An energy analysis of the data center reveals that, even during the summer months, chiller savings from economizer use greatly outweigh the increase in fan power associated with improved filtration. These findings indicate that economizer use combined with improved filtration couldsignificantly reduce data center energy demand while providing a level of protection from particles of outdoor origin similar to that observed with conventional design. The emphasis of the dissertation then shifts to evaluate the energy benefits of economizer use in data centers under different design strategies. Economizer use with high ventilation rates is compared against an alternative, water-side economizer design that does not affect indoor particle concentrations. Building energy models are employed to estimate energy savings of both economizer designs for data centers in

  18. Measurement and evaluation techniques for automated demand response demonstration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Motegi, Naoya; Piette, Mary Ann; Watson, David S.; Sezgen, Osman; ten Hope, Laurie

    2004-08-01

    The recent electricity crisis in California and elsewhere has prompted new research to evaluate demand response strategies in large facilities. This paper describes an evaluation of fully automated demand response technologies (Auto-DR) in five large facilities. Auto-DR does not involve human intervention, but is initiated at a facility through receipt of an external communications signal. This paper summarizes the measurement and evaluation of the performance of demand response technologies and strategies in five large facilities. All the sites have data trending systems such as energy management and control systems (EMCS) and/or energy information systems (EIS). Additional sub-metering was applied where necessary to evaluate the facility's demand response performance. This paper reviews the control responses during the test period, and analyzes demand savings achieved at each site. Occupant comfort issues are investigated where data are available. This paper discusses methods to estimate demand savings and results from demand response strategies at five large facilities.

  19. California Energy Demand Scenario Projections to 2050

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCarthy, Ryan; Yang, Christopher; Ogden, Joan M.

    2008-01-01

    fraction of residential and commercial demands, leading16 Residential electricity demand endspecific residential electricity demands into electricity

  20. Demand Forecast INTRODUCTION AND SUMMARY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Demand Forecast INTRODUCTION AND SUMMARY A 20-year forecast of electricity demand is a required in electricity demand is, of course, crucial to determining the need for new electricity resources and helping of any forecast of electricity demand and developing ways to reduce the risk of planning errors

  1. SY Tank Farm ventilation isolation option risk assessment report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Powers, T.B.; Morales, S.D.

    1994-03-01

    The safety of the 241-SY Tank Farm ventilation system has been under extensive scrutiny due to safety concerns associated with tank 101-SY. Hydrogen and other gases are generated and trapped in the waste below the liquid surface. Periodically, these gases are released into the dome space and vented through the exhaust system. This attention to the ventilation system has resulted in the development of several alternative ventilation system designs. The ventilation system provides the primary means of mitigation of accidents associated with flammable gases. This report provides an assessment of various alternatives ventilation system designs.

  2. Outdoor Air, Heat Wheels and JCPenney: A New Approach to Retail Ventilation 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Smith, C. S.; Bartlett, T. A.

    1998-01-01

    grains/lbat) Winter 70°F Dry Bulb Ventilation Rates 0.3 cWSF for the 1" Floor 0.2 cWSF for the 2"* Floor Design Electrical Loading 2.3 W/SF average over the sales area - Ambient Design Conditions Summer 95°F Design Dry Bulb 77°F Mean... with the heat wheel were significant at approximately $1 1,000, they were limited by the low utility rate of hs location. Neither the energy charge nor the electrical demand charge were significantly high. This lower utility rate lengthened the simple...

  3. Automated Demand Response Opportunities in Wastewater Treatment Facilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thompson, Lisa; Song, Katherine; Lekov, Alex; McKane, Aimee

    2008-11-19

    Wastewater treatment is an energy intensive process which, together with water treatment, comprises about three percent of U.S. annual energy use. Yet, since wastewater treatment facilities are often peripheral to major electricity-using industries, they are frequently an overlooked area for automated demand response opportunities. Demand response is a set of actions taken to reduce electric loads when contingencies, such as emergencies or congestion, occur that threaten supply-demand balance, and/or market conditions occur that raise electric supply costs. Demand response programs are designed to improve the reliability of the electric grid and to lower the use of electricity during peak times to reduce the total system costs. Open automated demand response is a set of continuous, open communication signals and systems provided over the Internet to allow facilities to automate their demand response activities without the need for manual actions. Automated demand response strategies can be implemented as an enhanced use of upgraded equipment and facility control strategies installed as energy efficiency measures. Conversely, installation of controls to support automated demand response may result in improved energy efficiency through real-time access to operational data. This paper argues that the implementation of energy efficiency opportunities in wastewater treatment facilities creates a base for achieving successful demand reductions. This paper characterizes energy use and the state of demand response readiness in wastewater treatment facilities and outlines automated demand response opportunities.

  4. 2013 IREP Symposium-Bulk Power System Dynamics and Control -IX (IREP), August 25-30, 2013, Rethymnon, Greece A Comparative Assessment of Demand Response and Energy Storage Resource

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gross, George

    , Rethymnon, Greece A Comparative Assessment of Demand Response and Energy Storage Resource Economic (ES) and demand response resources (DRRs) to address power system economic and environmental concerns the utilization of demand response (DR) and ES resources (ESRs) to reliably and effectively meet the supply

  5. Addressing Energy Demand through Demand Response: International Experiences and Practices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shen, Bo

    2013-01-01

    retail regulatory authority prohibit such activity. Demand response integration into US wholesale power marketsretail or wholesale level. 17 While demand response began participating at scale in wholesale power markets

  6. Demand Response Valuation Frameworks Paper

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heffner, Grayson

    2009-02-01

    While there is general agreement that demand response (DR) is a valued component in a utility resource plan, there is a lack of consensus regarding how to value DR. Establishing the value of DR is a prerequisite to determining how much and what types of DR should be implemented, to which customers DR should be targeted, and a key determinant that drives the development of economically viable DR consumer technology. Most approaches for quantifying the value of DR focus on changes in utility system revenue requirements based on resource plans with and without DR. This ''utility centric'' approach does not assign any value to DR impacts that lower energy and capacity prices, improve reliability, lower system and network operating costs, produce better air quality, and provide improved customer choice and control. Proper valuation of these benefits requires a different basis for monetization. The review concludes that no single methodology today adequately captures the wide range of benefits and value potentially attributed to DR. To provide a more comprehensive valuation approach, current methods such as the Standard Practice Method (SPM) will most likely have to be supplemented with one or more alternative benefit-valuation approaches. This report provides an updated perspective on the DR valuation framework. It includes an introduction and four chapters that address the key elements of demand response valuation, a comprehensive literature review, and specific research recommendations.

  7. Web-based energy information systems for energy management and demand response in commercial buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Motegi, Naoya; Piette, Mary Ann; Kinney, Satkartar; Herter, Karen

    2003-04-18

    Energy Information Systems (EIS) for buildings are becoming widespread in the U.S., with more companies offering EIS products every year. As a result, customers are often overwhelmed by the quickly expanding portfolio of EIS feature and application options, which have not been clearly identified for consumers. The object of this report is to provide a technical overview of currently available EIS products. In particular, this report focuses on web-based EIS products for large commercial buildings, which allow data access and control capabilities over the Internet. EIS products combine software, data acquisition hardware, and communication systems to collect, analyze and display building information to aid commercial building energy managers, facility managers, financial managers and electric utilities in reducing energy use and costs in buildings. Data types commonly processed by EIS include energy consumption data; building characteristics; building system data, such as heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) and lighting data; weather data; energy price signals; and energy demand-response event information. This project involved an extensive review of research and trade literature to understand the motivation for EIS technology development. This study also gathered information on currently commercialized EIS. This review is not an exhaustive analysis of all EIS products; rather, it is a technical framework and review of current products on the market. This report summarizes key features available in today's EIS, along with a categorization framework to understand the relationship between EIS, Energy Management and Control Systems (EMCSs), and similar technologies. Four EIS types are described: Basic Energy Information Systems (Basic-EIS); Demand Response Systems (DRS); Enterprise Energy Management (EEM); and Web-based Energy Management and Control Systems (Web-EMCS). Within the context of these four categories, the following characteristics of EIS are discussed: Metering and Connectivity; Visualization and Analysis Features; Demand Response Features; and Remote Control Features. This report also describes the following technologies and the potential benefits of incorporating them into future EIS products: Benchmarking; Load Shape Analysis; Fault Detection and Diagnostics; and Savings Analysis.

  8. Performance Assessment of Photovoltaic Attic Ventilator Fans

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A case study of photovoltaic attic ventilator fans was conducted on an occupied single family home in Central Florida. Two fans were installed at mid-summer in an instrumented home where attic air temperature, meteorological conditions and space cooling electric power were measured. The home already had an attic radiant barrier, but still experienced attic air temperatures in excess of 130oF.

  9. Demand Dispatch-Intelligent

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration would like submit theCovalent Bonding Low-Cost2DepartmentDelta Dental Claim Form PDF iconDemand

  10. Demand Response Design based on a Stackelberg Game in Smart Grid

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bahk, Saewoong

    Demand Response Design based on a Stackelberg Game in Smart Grid Sung-Guk Yoon, Young-June Choi- time demand response can be applied. A smart grid network consisting of one retailer and many customers, demand response (DR) [3] is an indirect way to control the demand through hourly pricing information

  11. Division of IT Convergence Engineering Optimal Demand-Side Energy Management Under

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boutaba, Raouf

    Division of IT Convergence Engineering Optimal Demand-Side Energy Management Under Real-time Demand and wastage through better demand-side management and control is considered a key solution ingredient of appliance specific adapters. Designed and implemented GHS Modeled the demand-side energy management

  12. Revelation on Demand Nicolas Anciaux

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Revelation on Demand Nicolas Anciaux 1 · Mehdi Benzine1,2 · Luc Bouganim1 · Philippe Pucheral1 "revelation on demand". Keywords: Confidentiality and privacy, Secure device, Data warehousing, Indexing model

  13. by popular demand: Addiction II

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Niv, Yael

    by popular demand: Addiction II PSY/NEU338:Animal learning and decision making: Psychological, size of other non-drug rewards, and cost (but ultimately the demand is inelastic, or at least

  14. Chord on Demand Alberto Montresor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jelasity, Márk

    Chord on Demand Alberto Montresor University of Bologna, Italy montresor@cs.unibo.it M´ark Jelasity to solve a specific task on demand. We introduce T- CHORD, that can build a Chord network efficiently to solve a specific task on demand. Existing join protocols are not designed to handle the massive

  15. Supply Chain Supernetworks Random Demands

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nagurney, Anna

    Supply Chain Supernetworks with Random Demands June Dong and Ding Zhang Department of Marketing of three tiers of decision-makers: the manufacturers, the distributors, and the retailers, with the demands equilibrium model with electronic commerce and with random demands for which modeling, qualitative analysis

  16. Chord on Demand Alberto Montresor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chord on Demand Alberto Montresor University of Bologna, Italy montresor@cs.unibo.it Mark Jelasity to solve a specific task on demand. We introduce T- CHORD, that can build a Chord network efficiently on demand. Existing join protocols are not designed to handle the massive concurrency involved in a jump

  17. ERCOT Demand Response Paul Wattles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mohsenian-Rad, Hamed

    ERCOT Demand Response Paul Wattles Senior Analyst, Market Design & Development, ERCOT Whitacre;Definitions of Demand Response · `The short-term adjustment of energy use by consumers in response to price to market or reliability conditions.' (NAESB) #12;Definitions of Demand Response · The common threads

  18. Assessment of Demand Response Resource

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Assessment of Demand Response Resource Potentials for PGE and Pacific Power Prepared for: Portland January 15, 2004 K:\\Projects\\2003-53 (PGE,PC) Assess Demand Response\\Report\\Revised Report_011504.doc #12;#12;quantec Assessment of Demand Response Resource Potentials for I-1 PGE and Pacific Power I. Introduction

  19. A New Ventilation System Integrates Total Energy Recovery, Conventional Cooling and a Novel 'Passive' Dehumidification Wheel to Mitigate the Energy, Humidity Control and First Cost Concerns Often Raised when Designing for ASHRAE Standard 62-1999 Compliance 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fischer, J. C.

    2000-01-01

    to very low dewpoints unattainable with conventional cooling approaches. The system allows for precise control of the indoor space humidity while delivering high quantities of outdoor air, at both peak and part load conditions, and during both occupied...

  20. Energy savings and economics of advanced control strategies for packaged air conditioners with gas heat

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Weimin; Katipamula, Srinivas; Huang, Yunzhi; Brambley, Michael R.

    2013-10-01

    This paper presents an evaluation of the potential energy savings from adding advanced control to existing packaged air conditioners. Advanced control options include air-side economizer, multi-speed fan control, demand control ventilation and staged cooling. The energy and cost savings from the different control strategies individually and in combination are estimated using the EnergyPlus detailed energy simulation program for four building types, namely, a small office building, a stand-alone retail building, a strip mall building and a supermarket building. For each of the four building types, the simulation was run for 16 locations covering all 15 climate zones in the U.S. The maximum installed cost of a replacement controller that provides acceptable payback periods to owners is estimated.

  1. Installation and Commissioning Automated Demand Response Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Global Energy Partners; Pacific Gas and Electric Company; Kiliccote, Sila; Kiliccote, Sila; Piette, Mary Ann; Wikler, Greg; Prijyanonda, Joe; Chiu, Albert

    2008-04-21

    Demand Response (DR) can be defined as actions taken to reduce electric loads when contingencies, such as emergencies and congestion, occur that threaten supply-demand balance, or market conditions raise supply costs. California utilities have offered price and reliability DR based programs to customers to help reduce electric peak demand. The lack of knowledge about the DR programs and how to develop and implement DR control strategies is a barrier to participation in DR programs, as is the lack of automation of DR systems. Most DR activities are manual and require people to first receive notifications, and then act on the information to execute DR strategies. Levels of automation in DR can be defined as follows. Manual Demand Response involves a labor-intensive approach such as manually turning off or changing comfort set points at each equipment switch or controller. Semi-Automated Demand Response involves a pre-programmed demand response strategy initiated by a person via centralized control system. Fully-Automated Demand Response does not involve human intervention, but is initiated at a home, building, or facility through receipt of an external communications signal. The receipt of the external signal initiates pre-programmed demand response strategies. We refer to this as Auto-DR (Piette et. al. 2005). Auto-DR for commercial and industrial facilities can be defined as fully automated DR initiated by a signal from a utility or other appropriate entity and that provides fully-automated connectivity to customer end-use control strategies. One important concept in Auto-DR is that a homeowner or facility manager should be able to 'opt out' or 'override' a DR event if the event comes at time when the reduction in end-use services is not desirable. Therefore, Auto-DR is not handing over total control of the equipment or the facility to the utility but simply allowing the utility to pass on grid related information which then triggers facility defined and programmed strategies if convenient to the facility. From 2003 through 2006 Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) and the Demand Response Research Center (DRRC) developed and tested a series of demand response automation communications technologies known as Automated Demand Response (Auto-DR). In 2007, LBNL worked with three investor-owned utilities to commercialize and implement Auto-DR programs in their territories. This paper summarizes the history of technology development for Auto-DR, and describes the DR technologies and control strategies utilized at many of the facilities. It outlines early experience in commercializing Auto-DR systems within PG&E DR programs, including the steps to configure the automation technology. The paper also describes the DR sheds derived using three different baseline methodologies. Emphasis is given to the lessons learned from installation and commissioning of Auto-DR systems, with a detailed description of the technical coordination roles and responsibilities, and costs.

  2. Measured Air Distribution Effectiveness for Residential Mechanical Ventilation Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sherman, Max H.

    2008-01-01

    In Review J. Indoor Air) 2007 LBNL-63193 Tarantola, Albert,Gas Measurement to Determine Air Movements in a House,Measurement Techniques”, Air Infiltration and Ventilation

  3. Energy-saving strategies with personalized ventilation in cold climates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schiavon, Stefano; Melikov, Arsen

    2009-01-01

    Energy-saving strategies with personalized ventilation inalone if energy-saving strategies are not applied. TheHowever, this energy- saving strategy can be recommended

  4. Building America Webinar: Multifamily Ventilation Strategies and Compartmentalization Requirements

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This Building America webinar, held on Sept. 24, 2014, focused on key challenges in multifamily ventilation and strategies to address these challenges.

  5. 2014-02-07 Issuance: Certification of Commercial Heating, Ventilation...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Certification of Commercial Heating, Ventilation, and Air-conditioning, Water Heating, and Refrigeration Equipment; Notice of Proposed Rulemaking 2014-02-07 Issuance: Certification...

  6. Energy and IAQ Implications of Residential Ventilation Cooling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Turner, William; Walker, Iain

    2014-08-01

    This study evaluates the energy, humidity and indoor air quality (IAQ) implications of residential ventilation cooling in all U.S. IECC climate zones. A computer modeling approach was adopted, using an advanced residential building simulation tool with airflow, energy and humidity models. An economizer (large supply fan) was simulated to provide ventilation cooling while outdoor air temperatures were lower than indoor air temperatures (typically at night). The simulations were performed for a full year using one-minute time steps to allow for scheduling of ventilation systems and to account for interactions between ventilation and heating/cooling systems.

  7. Analysis of Residential Demand Response and Double-Auction Markets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fuller, Jason C.; Schneider, Kevin P.; Chassin, David P.

    2011-10-10

    Demand response and dynamic pricing programs are expected to play increasing roles in the modern Smart Grid environment. While direct load control of end-use loads has existed for decades, price driven response programs are only beginning to be explored at the distribution level. These programs utilize a price signal as a means to control demand. Active markets allow customers to respond to fluctuations in wholesale electrical costs, but may not allow the utility to control demand. Transactive markets, utilizing distributed controllers and a centralized auction can be used to create an interactive system which can limit demand at key times on a distribution system, decreasing congestion. With the current proliferation of computing and communication resources, the ability now exists to create transactive demand response programs at the residential level. With the combination of automated bidding and response strategies coupled with education programs and customer response, emerging demand response programs have the ability to reduce utility demand and congestion in a more controlled manner. This paper will explore the effects of a residential double-auction market, utilizing transactive controllers, on the operation of an electric power distribution system.

  8. A Bench Study of Intensive Care Unit Ventilators: New versus Old and Turbine-Based versus Compressed Gas-Based Ventilators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    . Material: Four turbine- based ventilators and nine conventional servo-valve compressed-gas ventilators were1 A Bench Study of Intensive Care Unit Ventilators: New versus Old and Turbine-Based versus Compressed Gas-Based Ventilators Arnaud W. Thille,1 MD; Aissam Lyazidi,1 Biomed Eng MS; Jean-Christophe M

  9. Sensitivity of Tropical Cyclone Intensity to Ventilation in an Axisymmetric Model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tang, Brian

    The sensitivity of tropical cyclone intensity to ventilation of cooler, drier air into the inner core is examined using an axisymmetric tropical cyclone model with parameterized ventilation. Sufficiently strong ventilation ...

  10. Demonstrations of Integrated Advanced Rooftop Unit Controls and...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    confirmed that advanced RTU controllers can achieve heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) energy and cost savings of more than 40% over the typical packaged air...

  11. Guide to Closing and Conditioning Ventilated Crawlspaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dickson, B.

    2013-01-01

    This how-to guide explains the issues and concerns with conventional ventilated crawlspaces and provides prescriptive measures for improvements that will create healthier and more durable spaces. The methods described in this guide are not the only acceptable ways to treat a crawlspace but represent a proven strategy that works in many areas of the United States. The designs discussed in this guide may or may not meet the local building codes and as such will need to be researched before beginning the project.

  12. C-106 tank process ventilation test

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bailey, J.W.

    1998-07-20

    Project W-320 Acceptance Test Report for tank 241-C-106, 296-C-006 Ventilation System Acceptance Test Procedure (ATP) HNF-SD-W320-012, C-106 Tank Process Ventilation Test, was an in depth test of the 296-C-006 ventilation system and ventilation support systems required to perform the sluicing of tank C-106. Systems involved included electrical, instrumentation, chiller and HVAC. Tests began at component level, moved to loop level, up to system level and finally to an integrated systems level test. One criteria was to perform the test with the least amount of risk from a radioactive contamination potential stand point. To accomplish this a temporary configuration was designed that would simulate operation of the systems, without being connected directly to the waste tank air space. This was done by blanking off ducting to the tank and connecting temporary ducting and an inlet air filter and housing to the recirculation system. This configuration would eventually become the possible cause of exceptions. During the performance of the test, there were points where the equipment did not function per the directions listed in the ATP. These events fell into several different categories. The first and easiest problems were field configurations that did not match the design documentation. This was corrected by modifying the field configuration to meet design documentation and reperforming the applicable sections of the ATP. A second type of problem encountered was associated with equipment which did not operate correctly, at which point an exception was written against the ATP, to be resolved later. A third type of problem was with equipment that actually operated correctly but the directions in the ATP were in error. These were corrected by generating an Engineering Change Notice (ECN) against the ATP. The ATP with corrected directions was then re-performed. A fourth type of problem was where the directions in the ATP were as the equipment should operate, but the design of the equipment was not correct for that type of operation. To correct this problem an ECN was generated against the design documents, the equipment modified accordingly, and the ATP re-performed. The last type of problem was where the equipment operated per the direct ions in the ATP, agreed with the design documents, yet violated requirements of the Basis of Interim Operation (BIO). In this instance a Non Conformance Report (NCR) was generated. To correct problems documented on an NCR, an ECN was generated to modify the design and field work performed, followed by retesting to verify modifications corrected noted deficiencies. To expedite the completion of testing and maintain project schedules, testing was performed concurrent with construct on, calibrations and the performance of other ATP`s.

  13. Ventilation in Multifamily Buildings | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIX E LIST OF APPLICABLEStatutoryinEnable LowNews VehicleDepartmentVentilation in

  14. Demand Response (transactional control) - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration would like submit theCovalent Bonding Low-Cost2DepartmentDelta Dental Claim Form PDF

  15. Demand Controlled Filtration in an Industrial Cleanroom

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Faulkner, David; DiBartolomeo, Dennis; Wang, Duo

    2007-01-01

    facility. G-5 (Group-5) is an ISO Class 4 cleanroom. G-2 (Group-2) is an ISO Class 7 cleanroom. G- 1 (Group-1) and G-Group-3) is an ISO Class 6 cleanroom and G-6 (Group-6) is an

  16. Demand response-enabled residential thermostat controls.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Xue; Jang, Jaehwi; Auslander, David M.; Peffer, Therese; Arens, Edward A

    2008-01-01

    Summer Study on Energy Efficiency in Buildings. Peffer, T. ,on 2008 ACEEE Summer Study on Energy Efficiency in BuildingsSummer Study on Energy Efficiency in Buildings References

  17. Demand response-enabled residential thermostat controls.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Xue; Jang, Jaehwi; Auslander, David M.; Peffer, Therese; Arens, Edward A

    2008-01-01

    their activity. Occupants’ behavior such as opening windowspredictable behavior and energy savings to the occupants.

  18. Wireless Demand Response Controls for HVAC Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Federspiel, Clifford

    2010-01-01

    Linksys WRT54G3G-ST Wireless G router for mobile broadband.This router includes a 4-port switch, a wireless G accessrouters for connecting to the DRAS, and tested the wireless

  19. Generating Demand for Multifamily Building Upgrades | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Demand for Multifamily Building Upgrades Generating Demand for Multifamily Building Upgrades Better Buildings Residential Network Peer Exchange Call Series: Generating Demand for...

  20. China's Coal: Demand, Constraints, and Externalities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aden, Nathaniel

    2010-01-01

    raising transportation oil demand. Growing internationalcoal by wire could reduce oil demand by stemming coal roadEastern oil production. The rapid growth of coal demand

  1. Coordination of Energy Efficiency and Demand Response

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goldman, Charles

    2010-01-01

    of Energy demand-side management energy information systemdemand response. Demand-side management (DSM) program goalsa goal for demand-side management (DSM) coordination and

  2. Demand Responsive Lighting: A Scoping Study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rubinstein, Francis; Kiliccote, Sila

    2007-01-01

    3 2.1 Demand-Side Managementbuildings. The demand side management framework is discussedIssues 2.1 Demand-Side Management Framework Forecasting

  3. Home Network Technologies and Automating Demand Response

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McParland, Charles

    2010-01-01

    LBNL Commercial and Residential Demand Response Overview ofmarket [5]. Residential demand reduction programs have beenin the domain of residential demand response. There are a

  4. Installation and Commissioning Automated Demand Response Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kiliccote, Sila; Global Energy Partners; Pacific Gas and Electric Company

    2008-01-01

    their partnership in demand response automation research andand Techniques for Demand Response. LBNL Report 59975. Mayof Fully Automated Demand Response in Large Facilities.

  5. Coupling Renewable Energy Supply with Deferrable Demand

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Papavasiliou, Anthony

    2011-01-01

    8.4 Demand Response Integration . . . . . . . . . . .for each day type for the demand response study - moderatefor each day type for the demand response study - deep

  6. Strategies for Demand Response in Commercial Buildings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Watson, David S.; Kiliccote, Sila; Motegi, Naoya; Piette, Mary Ann

    2006-01-01

    Fully Automated Demand Response Tests in Large Facilities”of Fully Automated Demand Response in Large Facilities”,was coordinated by the Demand Response Research Center and

  7. Demand Responsive Lighting: A Scoping Study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rubinstein, Francis; Kiliccote, Sila

    2007-01-01

    2 2.0 Demand ResponseFully Automated Demand Response Tests in Large Facilities,was coordinated by the Demand Response Research Center and

  8. Coordination of Energy Efficiency and Demand Response

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goldman, Charles

    2010-01-01

    and D. Kathan (2009). Demand Response in U.S. ElectricityEnergy Financial Group. Demand Response Research Center [2008). Assessment of Demand Response and Advanced Metering.

  9. Hawaiian Electric Company Demand Response Roadmap Project

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Levy, Roger

    2014-01-01

    Like HECO actual utility demand response implementations canindustry-wide utility demand response applications tend toobjective. Figure 4. Demand Response Objectives 17  

  10. Retail Demand Response in Southwest Power Pool

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bharvirkar, Ranjit

    2009-01-01

    23 ii Retail Demand Response in SPP List of Figures and10 Figure 3. Demand Response Resources by11 Figure 4. Existing Demand Response Resources by Type of

  11. Demand Response - Policy | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Coordination of Energy Efficiency and Demand Response Demand Response in U.S. Electricity Markets: Empirical Evidence 2009 Retail Demand Response in Southwest Power Pool (January...

  12. Demand Response as a System Reliability Resource

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Joseph, Eto

    2014-01-01

    Barat, and D. Watson. 2007. Demand Response Spinning ReserveKueck, and B. Kirby. 2009. Demand Response Spinning Reserveand B. Kirby. 2012. The Demand Response Spinning Reserve

  13. California Energy Demand Scenario Projections to 2050

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCarthy, Ryan; Yang, Christopher; Ogden, Joan M.

    2008-01-01

    duty fuel demand in alternate scenarios. ..for light-duty fuel demand in alternate scenarios. Minimum52 Heavy-duty vehicle fuel demand for each alternate

  14. California Energy Demand Scenario Projections to 2050

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCarthy, Ryan; Yang, Christopher; Ogden, Joan M.

    2008-01-01

    2006-2016: Staff energy demand forecast (Revised SeptemberCEC (2005b) Energy demand forecast methods report.California energy demand 2003-2013 forecast. California

  15. Experiments measuring particle deposition from fully developed turbulent flow in ventilation ducts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sippola, Mark R.; Nazaroff, William W.

    2003-01-01

    of Particles in Vertical Ducts with Smooth and RoughDeposition in Ventilation Ducts, Ph. D. Dissertation,Applicability to Ventilation Ducts in Commercial Buildings,

  16. Buoyancy-Driven Ventilation of Hydrogen from Buildings: Laboratory Test and Model Validation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barley, C. D.; Gawlik, K.

    2009-05-01

    Passive, buoyancy-driven ventilation is one approach to limiting hydrogen concentration. We explored the relationship between leak rate, ventilation design, and hydrogen concentrations.

  17. ASHRAE Standard 62.2. Ventilation and Acceptable Indoor Air Quality...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    ASHRAE Standard 62.2. Ventilation and Acceptable Indoor Air Quality in Low- Rise Residential Buildings - Building America Top Innovation ASHRAE Standard 62.2. Ventilation and...

  18. Air Distribution Effectiveness for Residential Mechanical Ventilation: Simulation and Comparison of Normalized Exposures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Petithuguenin, T.D.P.

    2009-01-01

    and strength, on occupants’ behavior, on the ventilationSince the occupants’ behavior drives ventilation (viaa more realistic approach to occupant behavior and exposure

  19. Improved Wireless Performance from Mode Scattering in Ventilation Ducts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stancil, Daniel D.

    Improved Wireless Performance from Mode Scattering in Ventilation Ducts Benjamin E. Henty, PA 15230. henty@eirp.org and stancil@cmu.edu Abstract Ventilation ducts are a convenient undesirable in a ven- tilation duct setting. With this in mind we investigate the mode scattering effects

  20. Influence of Air Conditioner Operation on Electricity Use and Peak Demand 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McGarity, A. E.; Feuermann, D.; Kempton, W.; Norford, L. K.

    1987-01-01

    Electricity demand due to occupant controlled room air conditioners in a large mater-metered apartment building is analyzed. Hourly data on the electric demand of the building and of individual air conditioners are used in analyses of annual...

  1. Demand Response Technology Roadmap A

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    meetings and workshops convened to develop content for the Demand Response Technology Roadmap. The project team has developed this companion document in the interest of providing...

  2. Opportunities for Automated Demand Response in California Wastewater Treatment Facilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aghajanzadeh, Arian; Wray, Craig; McKane, Aimee

    2015-08-30

    Previous research over a period of six years has identified wastewater treatment facilities as good candidates for demand response (DR), automated demand response (Auto-­DR), and Energy Efficiency (EE) measures. This report summarizes that work, including the characteristics of wastewater treatment facilities, the nature of the wastewater stream, energy used and demand, as well as details of the wastewater treatment process. It also discusses control systems and automated demand response opportunities. Furthermore, this report summarizes the DR potential of three wastewater treatment facilities. In particular, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) has collected data at these facilities from control systems, submetered process equipment, utility electricity demand records, and governmental weather stations. The collected data were then used to generate a summary of wastewater power demand, factors affecting that demand, and demand response capabilities. These case studies show that facilities that have implemented energy efficiency measures and that have centralized control systems are well suited to shed or shift electrical loads in response to financial incentives, utility bill savings, and/or opportunities to enhance reliability of service. In summary, municipal wastewater treatment energy demand in California is large, and energy-­intensive equipment offers significant potential for automated demand response. In particular, large load reductions were achieved by targeting effluent pumps and centrifuges. One of the limiting factors to implementing demand response is the reaction of effluent turbidity to reduced aeration at an earlier stage of the process. Another limiting factor is that cogeneration capabilities of municipal facilities, including existing power purchase agreements and utility receptiveness to purchasing electricity from cogeneration facilities, limit a facility’s potential to participate in other DR activities.

  3. Measure Guideline: Selecting Ventilation Systems for Existing Homes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aldrich, R.

    2014-02-01

    This document addresses adding -or improving - mechanical ventilation systems to existing homes. The purpose of ventilation is to remove contaminants from homes, and this report discusses where, when, and how much ventilation is appropriate in a home, including some discussion of relevant codes and standards. Advantages, disadvantages, and approximate costs of various system types are presented along with general guidelines for implementing the systems in homes. CARB intends for this document to be useful to decision makers and contractors implementing ventilation systems in homes. Choosing the "best" system is not always straightforward; selecting a system involves balancing performance, efficiency, cost, required maintenance, and several other factors. It is the intent of this document to assist contractors in making more informed decisions when selecting systems. Ventilation is an integral part of a high-performance home. With more air-sealed envelopes, a mechanical means of removing contaminants is critical for indoor environmental quality and building durability.

  4. Supply Chain Supernetworks With Random Demands

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nagurney, Anna

    Supply Chain Supernetworks With Random Demands June Dong Ding Zhang School of Business State Field Warehouses: stocking points Customers, demand centers sinks Production/ purchase costs Inventory Customer Demand Customer Demand Retailer OrdersRetailer Orders Distributor OrdersDistributor Orders

  5. Marketing & Driving Demand Collaborative - Social Media Tools...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    & Driving Demand Collaborative - Social Media Tools & Strategies Marketing & Driving Demand Collaborative - Social Media Tools & Strategies Presentation slides from the Better...

  6. Retail Demand Response in Southwest Power Pool

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bharvirkar, Ranjit

    2009-01-01

    Data Collection for Demand-side Management for QualifyingPrepared by Demand-side Management Task Force of the

  7. Honeywell Demonstrates Automated Demand Response Benefits for...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Honeywell Demonstrates Automated Demand Response Benefits for Utility, Commercial, and Industrial Customers Honeywell Demonstrates Automated Demand Response Benefits for Utility,...

  8. Effects of the drought on California electricity supply and demand

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Benenson, P.

    2010-01-01

    Acknowledgments SUMMARY Electricity Demand ElectricityAdverse Impacts ELECTRICITY DEMAND . . . .Demand forElectricity Sales Electricity Demand by Major Utility

  9. Demand Response for Ancillary Services

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alkadi, Nasr E; Starke, Michael R

    2013-01-01

    Many demand response resources are technically capable of providing ancillary services. In some cases, they can provide superior response to generators, as the curtailment of load is typically much faster than ramping thermal and hydropower plants. Analysis and quantification of demand response resources providing ancillary services is necessary to understand the resources economic value and impact on the power system. Methodologies used to study grid integration of variable generation can be adapted to the study of demand response. In the present work, we describe and illustrate a methodology to construct detailed temporal and spatial representations of the demand response resource and to examine how to incorporate those resources into power system models. In addition, the paper outlines ways to evaluate barriers to implementation. We demonstrate how the combination of these three analyses can be used to translate the technical potential for demand response providing ancillary services into a realizable potential.

  10. Fire protection countermeasures for containment ventilation systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alvares, N.; Beason, D.; Bergman, V.; Creighton, J.; Ford, H.; Lipska, A.

    1980-08-25

    The goal of this project is to find countermeasures to protect High Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA) filters, in exit ventilation ducts, from the heat and smoke generated by fire. Initially, methods were developed to cool fire-heated air by fine water spray upstream of the filters. It was recognized that smoke aerosol exposure to HEPA filters could also cause disruption of the containment system. Through testing and analysis, several methods to partially mitigate the smoke exposure to the HEPA filters were identified. A continuous, movable, high-efficiency prefilter using modified commercial equipment was designed. The technique is capable of protecting HEPA filters over the total time duration of the test fires. The reason for success involved the modification of the prefiltration media. Commercially available filter media has particle sorption efficiency that is inversely proportional to media strength. To achieve properties of both efficiency and strength, rolling filter media were laminated with the desired properties. The approach was Edisonian, but truncation in short order to a combination of prefilters was effective. The application of this technique was qualified, since it is of use only to protect HEPA filters from fire-generated smoke aerosols. It is not believed that this technique is cost effective in the total spectrum of containment systems, especially if standard fire protection systems are available in the space. But in areas of high-fire risk, where the potential fuel load is large and ignition sources are plentiful, the complication of a rolling prefilter in exit ventilation ducts to protect HEPA filters from smoke aerosols is definitely justified.

  11. Demand and Price Volatility: Rational Habits in International Gasoline Demand

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Scott, K. Rebecca

    2011-01-01

    A Joint Model of the Global Crude Oil Market and the U.S.Noureddine. 2002. World crude oil and natural gas: a demandelasticity of demand for crude oil, not gasoline. Results

  12. Demand and Price Uncertainty: Rational Habits in International Gasoline Demand

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Scott, K. Rebecca

    2013-01-01

    A Joint Model of the Global Crude Oil Market and the U.S.Noureddine. 2002. World crude oil and natural gas: a demandelasticity of demand for crude oil, not gasoline. Results

  13. Addressing Energy Demand through Demand Response: International Experiences and Practices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shen, Bo

    2013-01-01

    electricity. In this manner, demand side management is directly integrated into the wholesale capacity marketcapacity market U.S. Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Florida Reliability Coordinating Council incremental auctions independent electricity

  14. Demand and Price Uncertainty: Rational Habits in International Gasoline Demand

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Scott, K. Rebecca

    2013-01-01

    global gasoline and diesel price and income elasticities.shift in the short-run price elasticity of gasoline demand.Habits and Uncertain Relative Prices: Simulating Petrol Con-

  15. Text-Alternative Version of Building America Webinar: Multifamily Ventilation Strategies and Compartmentalization Requirements

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Transcript of Building America webinar, "Multifamily Ventilation Strategies and Compartmentalization Requirements," held on Sept. 24, 2014.

  16. California Baseline Energy Demands to 2050 for Advanced Energy Pathways

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCarthy, Ryan; Yang, Christopher; Ogden, Joan M.

    2008-01-01

    demands. Residential and commercial demand has a significantDemand by Sector Residential Peak Demand (MW) Commercialwe convert residential electricity demand based upon climate

  17. Demand Response for Ancillary Services

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Methodologies used to study grid integration of variable generation can be adapted to the study of demand response. In the present work, we describe and implement a methodology to construct detailed temporal and spatial representations of demand response resources and to incorporate those resources into power system models. In addition, the paper outlines ways to evaluate barriers to implementation. We demonstrate how the combination of these three analyses can be used to assess economic value of the realizable potential of demand response for ancillary services.

  18. Physically-based demand modeling 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Calloway, Terry Marshall

    1980-01-01

    nts on the demand. Of course the demand of a real a1r cond1t1oner has lower and upper bounds equal to 0 and 0 , respec- u tively. A constra1ned system can be simulated numerically, but there 1s no explicit system response formula s1m11ar... sect1on. It may now be instruct1ve to relate this model to that of Jones and Bri ce [5] . The average demand pred1 cted by their model is the expected value of the product of a load response factor 0 and a U sw1tching process H(t), which depends...

  19. Seasonality in air transportation demand

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reichard Megwinoff, H?tor Nicolas

    1988-01-01

    This thesis investigates the seasonality of demand in air transportation. It presents three methods for computing seasonal indices. One of these methods, the Periodic Average Method, is selected as the most appropriate for ...

  20. Demand response enabling technology development

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2006-01-01

    Monitoring in an Agent-Based Smart Home, Proceedings of theConference on Smart Homes and Health Telematics, September,Smart Meter Motion sensors Figure 1: Schematic of the Demand Response Electrical Appliance Manager in a Home.

  1. Full Rank Rational Demand Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    LaFrance, Jeffrey T; Pope, Rulon D.

    2006-01-01

    Dover Publications 1972. Barnett, W.A. and Y.W. Lee. “TheEconometrica 53 (1985): 1421- Barnett, W.A. , Lee, Y.W. ,Laurent demand systems (Barnett and Lee 1985; Barnett, Lee,

  2. Residential Demand Module - NEMS Documentation

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2014-01-01

    Model Documentation - Documents the objectives, analytical approach, and development of the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) Residential Sector Demand Module. The report catalogues and describes the model assumptions, computational methodology, parameter estimation techniques, and FORTRAN source code.

  3. Marketing Demand-Side Management 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    O'Neill, M. L.

    1988-01-01

    Demand-Side Management is an organizational tool that has proven successful in various realms of the ever changing business world in the past few years. It combines the multi-faceted desires of the customers with the increasingly important...

  4. Demand Response Spinning Reserve Demonstration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eto, Joseph H.; Nelson-Hoffman, Janine; Torres, Carlos; Hirth,Scott; Yinger, Bob; Kueck, John; Kirby, Brendan; Bernier, Clark; Wright,Roger; Barat, A.; Watson, David S.

    2007-05-01

    The Demand Response Spinning Reserve project is a pioneeringdemonstration of how existing utility load-management assets can providean important electricity system reliability resource known as spinningreserve. Using aggregated demand-side resources to provide spinningreserve will give grid operators at the California Independent SystemOperator (CAISO) and Southern California Edison (SCE) a powerful, newtool to improve system reliability, prevent rolling blackouts, and lowersystem operating costs.

  5. Tackling Co-existence and Fairness Challenges in Autonomous Demand Side Management

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mohsenian-Rad, Hamed

    Tackling Co-existence and Fairness Challenges in Autonomous Demand Side Management Zahra Baharlouei--Consider a smart grid system in which every user may or may not choose to participate in Demand Side Manage- ment Demand side management (DSM) commonly refers to pro- grams implemented by utility companies to control

  6. Advanced Demand Side Management for the Future Smart Grid Using Mechanism Design

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wong, Vincent

    1 Advanced Demand Side Management for the Future Smart Grid Using Mechanism Design Pedram Samadi for demand side management such as efficiency, user truthfulness, and nonnegative transfer. Simulation: Demand side management, VCG mechanism design, energy consumption control, smart grid. I. INTRODUCTION

  7. Distributed Multi-Period Optimal Power Flow for Demand Response in Microgrids

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Trumpf, Jochen

    Distributed Multi-Period Optimal Power Flow for Demand Response in Microgrids Paul Scott Methodologies]: Artificial Intelligence Keywords OPF; ADMM; demand response; distributed control; micro- grid-coupled behaviours. In this new regime demand response (DR) techniques will play a central role in providing

  8. Study of airflow and thermal stratification in naturally ventilated rooms

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Menchaca Brandan, María Alejandra

    2012-01-01

    Natural ventilation (NV) can considerably contribute to reducing the cooling energy consumption of a building and increase occupant productivity, if correctly implemented. Such energy savings depend on the number of hours ...

  9. Measure Guideline: Selecting Ventilation Systems for Existing Homes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aldrich, R.

    2014-02-01

    This report, developed by Building America research team CARB, addresses adding or improving mechanical ventilation systems to existing homes. The goal of this report is to assist decision makers and contractors in making informed decisions when selecting ventilation systems for homes. With more air-sealed envelopes, a mechanical means of removing contaminants is critical for indoor environmental quality and building durability. The purpose of ventilation is to remove contaminants from homes, and this report discusses where, when, and how much ventilation is appropriate in a home, including examination of relevant codes and standards. Choosing the "best" system is not always straightforward; selecting a system involves balancing performance, efficiency, cost, required maintenance, and several other factors.

  10. Natural ventilation possibilities for buildings in the United States

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dean, Brian N. (Brian Nathan), 1974-

    2001-01-01

    In the United States, many of the commercial buildings built in the last few decades are completely mechanically air conditioned, without the capability to use natural ventilation. This habit has occurred in building designs ...

  11. Key Factors in Displacement Ventilation Systems for Better IAQ 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, X.; Chen, J.; Li, Y.; Wang, Z.

    2006-01-01

    This paper sets up a mathematical model of three-dimensional steady turbulence heat transfer in an air-conditioned room of multi-polluting heat sources. Numerical simulation helps identify key factors in displacement ventilation systems that affect...

  12. Open Automated Demand Response Communications in Demand Response for Wholesale Ancillary Services

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kiliccote, Sila

    2010-01-01

    A. Barat, D. Watson. 2006 Demand Response Spinning ReserveKueck, and B. Kirby 2008. Demand Response Spinning ReserveReport 2009. Open Automated Demand Response Communications

  13. Demand Response and Open Automated Demand Response Opportunities for Data Centers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mares, K.C.

    2010-01-01

    Standardized Automated Demand Response Signals. Presented atand Automated Demand Response in Industrial RefrigeratedActions for Industrial Demand Response in California. LBNL-

  14. Optimal Demand Response and Power Flow

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Willett, Rebecca

    Optimal Demand Response and Power Flow Steven Low Computing + Math Sciences Electrical Engineering #12;Outline Optimal demand response n With L. Chen, L. Jiang, N. Li Optimal power flow n With S. Bose;Optimal demand response Model Results n Uncorrelated demand: distributed alg n Correlated demand

  15. Thermal Comfort of Neutral Ventilated Buildings in Different Cities 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ye, X.; Zhou, Z.; Lian, Z.; Wen, Y.; Zhou, Z.; Jiang, C.

    2006-01-01

    .Jiang. Thermal comfort in naturally ventilated houses in Beijing. Journal of HVAC [J], 1999, 29(2):1-5. (In Chinese) [16] N.Zhu. Studies on some key issues of thermal ICEBO2006, Shenzhen, China Maximize Comfort: Temperature..., China Maximize Comfort: Temperature, Humidity, and IAQ Vol. I-1-2 Thermal Comfort of Neutral Ventilated Buildings in Different Cities1 Xiaojiang Ye Zhaoxiao Zhou Zhiwei Lian Yuangao Wen Zhengping Zhou Chunxiao...

  16. Educational placements for children who are ventilator assisted

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jones, David E.; Clatterburk, Chris C.; Marquis, Janet; Turnbull, H. Rutherford; Moberly, Rebecca L.

    1996-01-01

    Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission. Educational placements for children who are ventilator assisted Jones, David E;Clatterbuck, Chris C;Marquis, Janet;Turnbull, H Rutherford, III...Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission. Educational placements for children who are ventilator assisted Jones, David E;Clatterbuck, Chris C;Marquis, Janet;Turnbull, H Rutherford, III...

  17. Commissioning Trial for Mechanical Ventilation System Installed in Houses 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ohta, I.; Fukushima, A.

    2004-01-01

    at the bottom of the main unit. Fig. 2 Floor plan and the ventilation system of the model house The ideal air flow pattern of the model house is shown in Figure 3. Each arrow shows the airflow direction...-8588 Summary Airflow rate of a mechanical ventilation system for houses may not exceed the designed or rated airflow rate because of construction problem and lack of maintenance. According to our survey, half of the houses were enjoying less than 50...

  18. Progress toward Producing Demand-Response-Ready Appliances

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hammerstrom, Donald J.; Sastry, Chellury

    2009-12-01

    This report summarizes several historical and ongoing efforts to make small electrical demand-side devices like home appliances more responsive to the dynamic needs of electric power grids. Whereas the utility community often reserves the word demand response for infrequent 2 to 6 hour curtailments that reduce total electrical system peak load, other beneficial responses and ancillary services that may be provided by responsive electrical demand are of interest. Historically, demand responses from the demand side have been obtained by applying external, retrofitted, controlled switches to existing electrical demand. This report is directed instead toward those manufactured products, including appliances, that are able to provide demand responses as soon as they are purchased and that require few, or no, after-market modifications to make them responsive to needs of power grids. Efforts to be summarized include Open Automated Demand Response, the Association of Home Appliance Manufacturer standard CHA 1, a simple interface being developed by the U-SNAP Alliance, various emerging autonomous responses, and the recent PinBus interface that was developed at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory.

  19. Detailed Modeling and Response of Demand Response Enabled Appliances

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vyakaranam, Bharat; Fuller, Jason C.

    2014-04-14

    Proper modeling of end use loads is very important in order to predict their behavior, and how they interact with the power system, including voltage and temperature dependencies, power system and load control functions, and the complex interactions that occur between devices in such an interconnected system. This paper develops multi-state time variant residential appliance models with demand response enabled capabilities in the GridLAB-DTM simulation environment. These models represent not only the baseline instantaneous power demand and energy consumption, but the control systems developed by GE Appliances to enable response to demand response signals and the change in behavior of the appliance in response to the signal. These DR enabled appliances are simulated to estimate their capability to reduce peak demand and energy consumption.

  20. Opportunities for Energy Efficiency and Automated Demand Response in Industrial Refrigerated Warehouses in California

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lekov, Alex

    2009-01-01

    energy efficiency, load management, and demand response caseenergy efficiency and load management purposes can often bein place controls for load management programs as well as

  1. Outside Air Ventilation Controller - Building America Top Innovation |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious RankADVANCED MANUFACTURINGEnergy Bills andOrder 422.1, CONDUCT OF OPERATIONSEnergyOurDepartment of

  2. Advanced Controls for Residential Whole-House Ventilation Systems

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefield MunicipalTechnicalInformation4563Abuse Tolerance(Conference) |stabilized by an

  3. Advanced Controls for Residential Whole-House Ventilation Systems

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefield MunicipalTechnicalInformation4563Abuse Tolerance(Conference) |stabilized by an(Technical Report) |

  4. Hybrid ventilation optimization and control research and development

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:FinancingPetroleum12,ExecutiveFinancingR Walls - BuildingofDepartmentHybirdNDE MethodHybrid

  5. Hybrid Ventilation Optimization and Control Research and Development |

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on DeliciousMathematicsEnergy HeadquartersFuelB IMSofNewsletterGuidingUpdate Webinar Slidess gHurricaneDepartment of

  6. THE ROLE OF DIRECT DIGITAL CONTROLS IN COMMERCIAL BUILDINGS 1 Scholarly Report

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Austin, Mark

    ................................................................................................................ 8 V. Energy Management and Building Automation Systems) serve as an advanced integration system between building Heating, Ventilation Digital Controls in Commercial Buildings Jonathan Kumi Civil Systems

  7. REVISED CALIFORNIA ENERGY DEMAND FORECAST 20122022

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    relatively high economic/demographic growth, relatively low electricity and natural gas rates REVISED CALIFORNIA ENERGY DEMAND FORECAST 20122022 Volume 1: Statewide Electricity Demand Bill Junker Manager DEMAND ANALYSIS OFFICE Sylvia Bender Deputy Director ELECTRICITY SUPPLY ANALYSIS

  8. CALIFORNIA ENERGY DEMAND 20142024 REVISED FORECAST

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    high economic/demographic growth, relatively low electricity and natural gas rates, and relatively low CALIFORNIA ENERGY DEMAND 20142024 REVISED FORECAST Volume 2: Electricity Demand Manager DEMAND ANALYSIS OFFICE Sylvia Bender Deputy Director ELECTRICITY SUPPLY ANALYSIS DIVISION

  9. CALIFORNIA ENERGY DEMAND 20142024 FINAL FORECAST

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    relatively high economic/demographic growth, relatively low electricity and natural gas rates CALIFORNIA ENERGY DEMAND 2014­2024 FINAL FORECAST Volume 1: Statewide Electricity Demand Gough Office Manager DEMAND ANALYSIS OFFICE Sylvia Bender Deputy Director ELECTRICITY SUPPLY ANALYSIS

  10. Demand Response as a System Reliability Resource

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Joseph, Eto

    2014-01-01

    Barat, and D. Watson. 2007. Demand Response Spinning ReserveKueck, and B. Kirby. 2009. Demand Response Spinning ReserveFormat of 2009-2011 Demand Response Activity Applications.

  11. OPPORTUNITIES FOR AUTOMATED DEMAND RESPONSE IN CALIFORNIA’S DAIRY PROCESSING INDUSTRY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Homan, Gregory K.; Aghajanzadeh, Arian; McKane, Aimee

    2015-08-30

    During periods of peak electrical demand on the energy grid or when there is a shortage of supply, the stability of the grid may be compromised or the cost of supplying electricity may rise dramatically, respectively. Demand response programs are designed to mitigate the severity of these problems and improve reliability by reducing the demand on the grid during such critical times. In 2010, the Demand Response Research Center convened a group of industry experts to suggest potential industries that would be good demand response program candidates for further review. The dairy industry was suggested due to the perception that the industry had suitable flexibility and automatic controls in place. The purpose of this report is to provide an initial description of the industry with regard to demand response potential, specifically automated demand response. This report qualitatively describes the potential for participation in demand response and automated demand response by dairy processing facilities in California, as well as barriers to widespread participation. The report first describes the magnitude, timing, location, purpose, and manner of energy use. Typical process equipment and controls are discussed, as well as common impediments to participation in demand response and automated demand response programs. Two case studies of demand response at dairy facilities in California and across the country are reviewed. Finally, recommendations are made for future research that can enhance the understanding of demand response potential in this industry.

  12. Commissioning Residential Ventilation Systems: A Combined Assessment of Energy and Air Quality Potential Values

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Turner, William J.N.

    2014-01-01

    Demand Response .with ASHRAE 62.2 2. demand response – the shifting (andPeak Energy Demand and Demand Response ‘Peak energy demand

  13. Exponential Communication Ine ciency of Demand Queries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sandholm, Tuomas W.

    FORECAST COMBINATION IN REVENUE MANAGEMENT DEMAND FORECASTING SILVIA RIEDEL A thesissubmitted Combination in RevenueManagement Demand Forecasting Abstract The domain of multi level forecastcombination

  14. Generating Demand for Multifamily Building Upgrades | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Generating Demand for Multifamily Building Upgrades Generating Demand for Multifamily Building Upgrades Better Buildings Residential Network Peer Exchange Call Series: Generating...

  15. Coordination of Energy Efficiency and Demand Response

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goldman, Charles

    2010-01-01

    demand response: ? Distribution utility ? ISO ? Aggregator (demand response less obstructive and inconvenient for the customer (particularly if DR resources are aggregated by a load aggregator).

  16. California Energy Demand Scenario Projections to 2050

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCarthy, Ryan; Yang, Christopher; Ogden, Joan M.

    2008-01-01

    annual per-capita electricity consumption by demand15 California electricity consumption projections by demandannual per-capita electricity consumption by demand

  17. Coordination of Energy Efficiency and Demand Response

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goldman, Charles

    2010-01-01

    California Long-term Energy Efficiency Strategic Plan. B-2 Coordination of Energy Efficiency and Demand Response> B-4 Coordination of Energy Efficiency and Demand Response

  18. Coordination of Energy Efficiency and Demand Response

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goldman, Charles

    2010-01-01

    Energy Efficiency, Demand Response, and Peak Load Managementdemand response, and load management programs in the Ebefore they undertake load management and demand response

  19. Supply chain planning decisions under demand uncertainty

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Huang, Yanfeng Anna

    2008-01-01

    Sales and operational planning that incorporates unconstrained demand forecasts has been expected to improve long term corporate profitability. Companies are considering such unconstrained demand forecasts in their decisions ...

  20. Coordination of Energy Efficiency and Demand Response

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goldman, Charles

    2010-01-01

    > B-2 Coordination of Energy Efficiency and Demand Response> B-4 Coordination of Energy Efficiency and Demand Responseand integration is: Energy efficiency, energy conservation,

  1. Generating Demand for Multifamily Building Upgrades | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Generating Demand for Multifamily Building Upgrades Generating Demand for Multifamily Building Upgrades May 14, 2015 12:30PM to 2:00PM EDT Learn more...

  2. Healthy Zero Energy Buildings (HZEB) Program - Cross-Sectional Study of Contaminant Levels, Source, Strengths, and Ventilation Rates in Retail Stores

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chan, Wanyu R.; Sidheswaran, Meera; Cohn, Sebastian; Sullivan, Douglas P.; Fisk, William

    2014-02-01

    This field study measured ventilation rates and indoor air quality parameters in 21 visits to retail stores in California. The data was collected to guide the development of new, science-based commercial building ventilation rate standards that balance the dual objectives of increasing energy efficiency and maintaining acceptable indoor air quality. Data collection occurred between September 2011 and March 2013. Three types of stores participated in this study: grocery stores, furniture/hardware stores, and apparel stores. Ventilation rates and indoor air contaminant concentrations were measured on a weekday, typically between 9 am and 6 pm. Ventilation rates measured using a tracer gas decay method exceeded the minimum requirement of California’s Title 24 Standard in all but one store. Even though there was adequate ventilation according to Title 24, concentrations of formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, and acrolein exceeded the most stringent chronic health guidelines. Other indoor air contaminants measured included carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), carbon monoxide (CO), ozone (O{sub 3}), and particulate matter (PM). Concentrations of CO{sub 2} were kept low by adequate ventilation, and were assumed low also because the sampling occurred on a weekday when retail stores were less busy. CO concentrations were also low. The indoor-outdoor ratios of O{sub 3} showed that the first-order loss rate may vary by store trade types and also by ventilation mode (mechanical versus natural). Analysis of fine and ultrafine PM measurements showed that a substantial portion of the particle mass in grocery stores with cooking-related emissions was in particles less than 0.3 ?m. Stores without cooking as an indoor source had PM size distributions that were more similar indoors and outdoors. The whole-building emission rates of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and PM were estimated from the measured ventilation rates and indoor and outdoor contaminant concentrations. Mass balance models were then used to determine the ventilation rates, filtration strategies, or source reductions needed to maintain indoor contaminant concentrations below reference levels. Several scenarios of potential concern were considered: (i) formaldehyde levels in furniture/hardware stores, (ii) contaminants associated with cooking (e.g., PM, acrolein, and acetaldehyde) in grocery stores, and (iii) outdoor contaminants (e.g., PM and O{sub 3}) impacting stores that use natural ventilation. Estimated formaldehyde emission rates suggest that retail stores would need to ventilate at levels far exceeding the current Title 24 requirement to lower indoor concentrations below California’s stringent formaldehyde reference level. Given the high costs of providing ventilation but only modest chronic health benefit is expected, effective source control is an attractive alternative, as demonstrated by some retail stores in this study. Predictions showed that grocery stores need MERV 13 air filters, instead of MERV 8 filters that are more commonly used, to maintain indoor PM at levels that meet the chronic health standards for PM. Exposure to acrolein is a potential health concern in grocery stores, and should be addressed by increasing the use of kitchen range hoods or improving their contaminant removal efficiency. In stores that rely on natural ventilation, indoor PM can be a health concern if the stores are located in areas with high outdoor PM. This concern may be addressed by switching to mechanical ventilation when the outdoor air quality is poor, while continuing natural ventilation when outdoor air quality is good.

  3. Turkey's energy demand and supply

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Balat, M. [Sila Science, Trabzon (Turkey)

    2009-07-01

    The aim of the present article is to investigate Turkey's energy demand and the contribution of domestic energy sources to energy consumption. Turkey, the 17th largest economy in the world, is an emerging country with a buoyant economy challenged by a growing demand for energy. Turkey's energy consumption has grown and will continue to grow along with its economy. Turkey's energy consumption is high, but its domestic primary energy sources are oil and natural gas reserves and their production is low. Total primary energy production met about 27% of the total primary energy demand in 2005. Oil has the biggest share in total primary energy consumption. Lignite has the biggest share in Turkey's primary energy production at 45%. Domestic production should be to be nearly doubled by 2010, mainly in coal (lignite), which, at present, accounts for almost half of the total energy production. The hydropower should also increase two-fold over the same period.

  4. International Oil Supplies and Demands

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-04-01

    The eleventh Energy Modeling Forum (EMF) working group met four times over the 1989--1990 period to compare alternative perspectives on international oil supplies and demands through 2010 and to discuss how alternative supply and demand trends influence the world's dependence upon Middle Eastern oil. Proprietors of eleven economic models of the world oil market used their respective models to simulate a dozen scenarios using standardized assumptions. From its inception, the study was not designed to focus on the short-run impacts of disruptions on oil markets. Nor did the working group attempt to provide a forecast or just a single view of the likely future path for oil prices. The model results guided the group's thinking about many important longer-run market relationships and helped to identify differences of opinion about future oil supplies, demands, and dependence.

  5. International Oil Supplies and Demands

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-09-01

    The eleventh Energy Modeling Forum (EMF) working group met four times over the 1989--90 period to compare alternative perspectives on international oil supplies and demands through 2010 and to discuss how alternative supply and demand trends influence the world's dependence upon Middle Eastern oil. Proprietors of eleven economic models of the world oil market used their respective models to simulate a dozen scenarios using standardized assumptions. From its inception, the study was not designed to focus on the short-run impacts of disruptions on oil markets. Nor did the working group attempt to provide a forecast or just a single view of the likely future path for oil prices. The model results guided the group's thinking about many important longer-run market relationships and helped to identify differences of opinion about future oil supplies, demands, and dependence.

  6. Demand Response and Energy Efficiency 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2009-01-01

    stream_source_info ESL-IC-09-11-05.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 14615 Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 stream_name ESL-IC-09-11-05.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 Demand Response... 4 An Innovative Solution to Get the Ball Rolling ? Demand Response (DR) ? Monitoring Based Commissioning (MBCx) EnerNOC has a solution involving two complementary offerings. ESL-IC-09-11-05 Proceedings of the Ninth International Conference...

  7. Open Automated Demand Response Communications Specification (Version 1.0)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Piette, Mary Ann; Ghatikar, Girish; Kiliccote, Sila; Koch, Ed; Hennage, Dan; Palensky, Peter; McParland, Charles

    2009-02-28

    The development of the Open Automated Demand Response Communications Specification, also known as OpenADR or Open Auto-DR, began in 2002 following the California electricity crisis. The work has been carried out by the Demand Response Research Center (DRRC), which is managed by Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. This specification describes an open standards-based communications data model designed to facilitate sending and receiving demand response price and reliability signals from a utility or Independent System Operator to electric customers. OpenADR is one element of the Smart Grid information and communications technologies that are being developed to improve optimization between electric supply and demand. The intention of the open automated demand response communications data model is to provide interoperable signals to building and industrial control systems that are preprogrammed to take action based on a demand response signal, enabling a demand response event to be fully automated, with no manual intervention. The OpenADR specification is a flexible infrastructure to facilitate common information exchange between the utility or Independent System Operator and end-use participants. The concept of an open specification is intended to allow anyone to implement the signaling systems, the automation server or the automation clients.

  8. Home Network Technologies and Automating Demand Response

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McParland, Charles

    2009-12-01

    Over the past several years, interest in large-scale control of peak energy demand and total consumption has increased. While motivated by a number of factors, this interest has primarily been spurred on the demand side by the increasing cost of energy and, on the supply side by the limited ability of utilities to build sufficient electricity generation capacity to meet unrestrained future demand. To address peak electricity use Demand Response (DR) systems are being proposed to motivate reductions in electricity use through the use of price incentives. DR systems are also be design to shift or curtail energy demand at critical times when the generation, transmission, and distribution systems (i.e. the 'grid') are threatened with instabilities. To be effectively deployed on a large-scale, these proposed DR systems need to be automated. Automation will require robust and efficient data communications infrastructures across geographically dispersed markets. The present availability of widespread Internet connectivity and inexpensive, reliable computing hardware combined with the growing confidence in the capabilities of distributed, application-level communications protocols suggests that now is the time for designing and deploying practical systems. Centralized computer systems that are capable of providing continuous signals to automate customers reduction of power demand, are known as Demand Response Automation Servers (DRAS). The deployment of prototype DRAS systems has already begun - with most initial deployments targeting large commercial and industrial (C & I) customers. An examination of the current overall energy consumption by economic sector shows that the C & I market is responsible for roughly half of all energy consumption in the US. On a per customer basis, large C & I customers clearly have the most to offer - and to gain - by participating in DR programs to reduce peak demand. And, by concentrating on a small number of relatively sophisticated energy consumers, it has been possible to improve the DR 'state of the art' with a manageable commitment of technical resources on both the utility and consumer side. Although numerous C & I DR applications of a DRAS infrastructure are still in either prototype or early production phases, these early attempts at automating DR have been notably successful for both utilities and C & I customers. Several factors have strongly contributed to this success and will be discussed below. These successes have motivated utilities and regulators to look closely at how DR programs can be expanded to encompass the remaining (roughly) half of the state's energy load - the light commercial and, in numerical terms, the more important residential customer market. This survey examines technical issues facing the implementation of automated DR in the residential environment. In particular, we will look at the potential role of home automation networks in implementing wide-scale DR systems that communicate directly to individual residences.

  9. Revelation on Demand Nicolas Anciaux

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    is willing to reveal the aggregate response (according to his company's policy) to the customer dataRevelation on Demand Nicolas Anciaux 1 · Mehdi Benzine1,2 · Luc Bouganim1 · Philippe Pucheral1 time to support epidemiological studies. In these and many other situations, aggregate data or partial

  10. Demand Response Providing Ancillary Services

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1 Demand Response Providing Ancillary Services: A Comparison of Opportunities and Challenges in US to operate (likely price takers) ­ Statistical reliability (property of large aggregations of small resources size based on Mid-Atlantic Reserve Zone #12;Market Rules: Resource Size Min. Size (MW) Aggregation

  11. Projecting Electricity Demand in 2050

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hostick, Donna J.; Belzer, David B.; Hadley, Stanton W.; Markel, Tony; Marnay, Chris; Kintner-Meyer, Michael CW

    2014-07-01

    This paper describes the development of end-use electricity projections and load curves that were developed for the Renewable Electricity (RE) Futures Study (hereafter RE Futures), which explored the prospect of higher percentages (30% ? 90%) of total electricity generation that could be supplied by renewable sources in the United States. As input to RE Futures, two projections of electricity demand were produced representing reasonable upper and lower bounds of electricity demand out to 2050. The electric sector models used in RE Futures required underlying load profiles, so RE Futures also produced load profile data in two formats: 8760 hourly data for the year 2050 for the GridView model, and in 2-year increments for 17 time slices as input to the Regional Energy Deployment System (ReEDS) model. The process for developing demand projections and load profiles involved three steps: discussion regarding the scenario approach and general assumptions, literature reviews to determine readily available data, and development of the demand curves and load profiles.

  12. Water demand management in Kuwait

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Milutinovic, Milan, M. Eng. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2006-01-01

    Kuwait is an arid country located in the Middle East, with limited access to water resources. Yet water demand per capita is much higher than in other countries in the world, estimated to be around 450 L/capita/day. There ...

  13. On-demand data broadcasting 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kothandaraman, Kannan

    1998-01-01

    related to on-demand data broadcasting. We look at the problem of data broadcasting in an environment where clients make explicit requests to the server. The server broadcasts requested data items to all the clients, including those who have not requested...

  14. Mixed-Mode Ventilation and Building Retrofits

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brager, Gail; Ackerly, Katie

    2010-01-01

    they focus on how occupant behaviors and attitudes adaptedoccupants) in order to promote efficient control behavior. A

  15. Effects of the drought on California electricity supply and demand

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Benenson, P.

    2010-01-01

    DEMAND . . . .Demand for Electricity and Power PeakDemand . . • . . ELECTRICITY REQUIREMENTS FOR AGRICULTUREResults . . Coriclusions ELECTRICITY SUPPLY Hydroelectric

  16. Northwest Open Automated Demand Response Technology Demonstration Project

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kiliccote, Sila

    2010-01-01

    Report 2009. Open Automated Demand Response Communicationsand Techniques for Demand Response. California Energyand S. Kiliccote. Estimating Demand Response Load Impacts:

  17. Opportunities, Barriers and Actions for Industrial Demand Response in California

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McKane, Aimee T.

    2009-01-01

    and Techniques for Demand Response, report for theand Reliability Demand Response Programs: Final Report.Demand Response

  18. Incorporating Demand Response into Western Interconnection Transmission Planning

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Satchwell, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Aggregator Programs. Demand Response Measurement andIncorporating Demand Response into Western Interconnection13 Demand Response Dispatch

  19. Upply Chain Supernetworks with Random Demands

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nagurney, Anna

    Upply Chain Supernetworks with Random Demands June Dong & Ding Zhang School of Business State Warehouses: stocking points Field Warehouses: stocking points Customers, demand centers sinks Production Commerce and Value Chain Management, 1998 Customer Demand Customer Demand Retailer OrdersRetailer Orders

  20. Assessment of Demand Response and Advanced Metering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tesfatsion, Leigh

    #12;#12;2008 Assessment of Demand Response and Advanced Metering Staff Report Federal Energy metering penetration and potential peak load reduction from demand response have increased since 2006. Significant activity to promote demand response or to remove barriers to demand response occurred at the state

  1. The alchemy of demand response: turning demand into supply

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rochlin, Cliff

    2009-11-15

    Paying customers to refrain from purchasing products they want seems to run counter to the normal operation of markets. Demand response should be interpreted not as a supply-side resource but as a secondary market that attempts to correct the misallocation of electricity among electric users caused by regulated average rate tariffs. In a world with costless metering, the DR solution results in inefficiency as measured by deadweight losses. (author)

  2. Addressing Energy Demand through Demand Response. International Experiences and Practices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shen, Bo; Ghatikar, Girish; Ni, Chun Chun; Dudley, Junqiao; Martin, Phil; Wikler, Greg

    2012-06-01

    Demand response (DR) is a load management tool which provides a cost-effective alternative to traditional supply-side solutions to address the growing demand during times of peak electrical load. According to the US Department of Energy (DOE), demand response reflects “changes in electric usage by end-use customers from their normal consumption patterns in response to changes in the price of electricity over time, or to incentive payments designed to induce lower electricity use at times of high wholesale market prices or when system reliability is jeopardized.” 1 The California Energy Commission (CEC) defines DR as “a reduction in customers’ electricity consumption over a given time interval relative to what would otherwise occur in response to a price signal, other financial incentives, or a reliability signal.” 2 This latter definition is perhaps most reflective of how DR is understood and implemented today in countries such as the US, Canada, and Australia where DR is primarily a dispatchable resource responding to signals from utilities, grid operators, and/or load aggregators (or DR providers).

  3. Integration of Renewables Via Demand Management: Highly Dispatchable and Distributed Demand Response for the Integration of Distributed Generation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2012-02-11

    GENI Project: AutoGrid, in conjunction with Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and Columbia University, will design and demonstrate automated control software that helps manage real-time demand for energy across the electric grid. Known as the Demand Response Optimization and Management System - Real-Time (DROMS-RT), the software will enable personalized price signal to be sent to millions of customers in extremely short timeframes—incentivizing them to alter their electricity use in response to grid conditions. This will help grid operators better manage unpredictable demand and supply fluctuations in short time-scales —making the power generation process more efficient and cost effective for both suppliers and consumers. DROMS-RT is expected to provide a 90% reduction in the cost of operating demand response and dynamic pricing Projects in the U.S.

  4. Advance of Systematic Design Methods on Fuzzy Control 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, J.; Chen, Y.

    2006-01-01

    The heating, ventilation and air-conditioning (HVAC) system possesses some characteristics such as multi-parameters, nonlinear, and coupled parameters. Aimed at control problems, the author targets real-time fuzzy control and research systematically...

  5. Design and prototyping of a low-cost portable mechanical ventilator

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Powelson, Stephen K. (Stephen Kirby)

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the design and prototyping of a low-cost portable mechanical ventilator for use in mass casualty cases and resource-poor environments. The ventilator delivers breaths by compressing a conventional ...

  6. Internal Microclimate Resulting From Ventilated Attics in Hot and Humid Regions 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mooney, B. L.; Porter, W. A.

    2010-01-01

    Ventilated spaces in the built environment create unique and beneficial microclimates. While the current trends in building physics suggest sealing attics and crawlspaces, comprehensive research still supports the benefits of the ventilated...

  7. Methodology for the evaluation of natural ventilation in buildings using a reduced-scale air model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Walker, Christine E. (Christine Elaine)

    2006-01-01

    Commercial office buildings predominantly are designed to be ventilated and cooled using mechanical systems. In temperate climates, passive ventilation and cooling techniques can be utilized to reduce energy consumption ...

  8. Commissioning of a Coupled Earth Tube and Natural Ventilation System at the Design Phase 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yoshida, H.; Pan, S.; Zheng, M.

    2007-01-01

    Natural ventilation airflow rate is generally calculated using indoor and outdoor temperature difference without consideration of thermal interaction between the ventilated air and the room in simple analytical method based on pressure balance...

  9. Beyond blue and red arrows : optimizing natural ventilation in large buildings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meguro, Wendy (Wendy Kei)

    2005-01-01

    Our growing understanding of technology and environment has expanded the complexities of producing large naturally ventilated buildings. While it may be argued that designing for natural ventilation is a straightforward, ...

  10. Airflow Simulation and Energy Analysis in Ventilated Room with a New Type of Air Conditioning 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, D.; Tang, G.; Zhao, F.

    2006-01-01

    Airflow simulation in one ventilated room with radiant heating and natural ventilation has been carried out. Three cases are compared: the closed room, the room with full openings, and the room with small openings. The ...

  11. Evaluating the performance of natural ventilation in buildings through simulation and on-site monitoring

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cheng, Haofan

    2013-01-01

    Natural ventilation in buildings is capable of reducing energy consumption while maintaining a comfortable indoor at the same time. It is important that natural ventilation is taken into consideration in the early design ...

  12. ENERGY IMPACTS OF VARIOUS RESIDENTIAL MECHANICAL VENTILATION STRATEGIES 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vieira, R.; Parker, D.; Lixing, G.; Wichers, M.

    2008-01-01

    in Energy Use with Eight Ventilation Strategies Tampa -5.00% 0.00% 5.00% 10.00% 15.00% 20.00% 25.00% 30.00% 35.00% E n e r g y I n cr ea se fr o m N o V en t Supply Exhaust Balanced ERV 60% eff Runtime Vent (R-V) R-V 25% min R-V 25% max R-V 25% min... OF VARIOUS RESIDENTIAL MECHANICAL VENTILATION STRATEGIES Robin K. Vieira, Buildings. Research Division Director Danny S. Parker Principal Research Scientist Lixing Gu Principal Research Engineer Michael Wichers Technical Specialist Florida...

  13. Water spray ventilator system for continuous mining machines

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Page, Steven J. (Pittsburgh, PA); Mal, Thomas (Pittsburgh, PA)

    1995-01-01

    The invention relates to a water spray ventilator system mounted on a continuous mining machine to streamline airflow and provide effective face ventilation of both respirable dust and methane in underground coal mines. This system has two side spray nozzles mounted one on each side of the mining machine and six spray nozzles disposed on a manifold mounted to the underside of the machine boom. The six spray nozzles are angularly and laterally oriented on the manifold so as to provide non-overlapping spray patterns along the length of the cutter drum.

  14. Particle Concentration Dynamics in the Ventilation Duct after an Artificial Release: for Countering Potential Bioterriorist Attack

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    You , Siming; Wan, Man Pun

    2014-01-01

    leads to In this work, the models of particle concentration dynamics in the ventilation duct following a resuspension

  15. Improving Ventilation and Saving Energy: Final Report on Indoor Environmental Quality and Energy Monitoring in Sixteen Relocatable Classrooms

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Apte, Michael G.; Norman, Bourassa; Faulkner, David; Hodgson, Alfred T.; Hotchi, Toshfumi; Spears, Michael; Sullivan, Douglas P.; Wang, Duo

    2008-04-04

    An improved HVAC system for portable classrooms was specified to address key problems in existing units. These included low energy efficiency, poor control of and provision for adequate ventilation, and excessive acoustic noise. Working with industry, a prototype improved heat pump air conditioner was developed to meet the specification. A one-year measurement-intensive field-test of ten of these IHPAC systems was conducted in occupied classrooms in two distinct California climates. These measurements are compared to those made in parallel in side by side portable classrooms equipped with standard 10 SEER heat pump air conditioner equipment. The IHPAC units were found to work as designed, providing predicted annual energy efficiency improvements of about 36 percent to 42 percent across California's climate zones, relative to 10 SEER units. Classroom ventilation was vastly improved as evidenced by far lower indoor minus outdoor CO2 concentrations. TheIHPAC units were found to provide ventilation that meets both California State energy and occupational codes and the ASHRAE minimum ventilation requirements; the classrooms equipped with the 10 SEER equipment universally did not meet these targets. The IHPAC system provided a major improvement in indoor acoustic conditions. HVAC system generated background noise was reduced in fan-only and fan and compressor modes, reducing the nose levels to better than the design objective of 45 dB(A), and acceptable for additional design points by the Collaborative on High Performance Schools. The IHPAC provided superior ventilation, with indoor minus outdoor CO2 concentrations that showed that the Title 24 minimum ventilation requirement of 15 CFM per occupant was nearly always being met. The opposite was found in the classrooms utilizing the 10 SEER system, where the indoor minus outdoor CO2 concentrations frequently exceeded levels that reflect inadequate ventilation. Improved ventilation conditions in the IHPAC lead to effective removal of volatile organic compounds and aldehydes, on average lowering the concentrations by 57 percent relative to the levels in the 10 SEER classrooms. The average IHPAC to 10 SEER formaldehyde ratio was about 67 percent, indicating only a 33 percent reduction of this compound in indoor air. The IHPAC thermal control system provided less variability in occupied classroom temperature than the 10 SEER thermostats. The average room temperatures in all seasons tended to be slightly lower in the IHPAC classrooms, often below the lower limit of the ASHRAE 55 thermal comfort band. State-wide and national energy modeling provided conservative estimates of potential energy savings by use of the IHPAC system that would provide payback a the range of time far lower than the lifetime of the equipment. Assuming electricity costs of $0.15/kWh, the perclassroom range of savings is from about $85 to $195 per year in California, and about $89 to $250 per year in the U.S., depending upon the city. These modelsdid not include the non-energy benefits to the classrooms including better air quality and acoustic conditions that could lead to improved health and learning in school. Market connection efforts that were part of the study give all indication that this has been a very successful project. The successes include the specification of the IHPAC equipment in the CHPS portable classroom standards, the release of a commercial product based on the standards that is now being installed in schools around the U.S., and the fact that a public utility company is currently considering the addition of the technology to its customer incentive program. These successes indicate that the IHPAC may reach its potential to improve ventilation and save energy in classrooms.

  16. Multi-objective optimization of the HVAC (heating, ventilation, and air conditioning) system performance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kusiak, Andrew

    Multi-objective optimization of the HVAC (heating, ventilation, and air conditioning) system, ventilation, and air conditioning) system in a typical office facility is presented. A multi-layer perceptron. 1. Introduction HVAC (heating, ventilating and air conditioning) systems are designed to maintain

  17. On the role of mesoscale eddies in the ventilation of Antarctic intermediate water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fischlin, Andreas

    On the role of mesoscale eddies in the ventilation of Antarctic intermediate water Zouhair Lachkar Mesoscale eddies CFC-11 Ventilation Southern Ocean a b s t r a c t The spatial distribution of Antarctic and ventilation are substantially affected by mesoscale eddies. To diagnose the role of eddies, we made global CFC

  18. Data-driven classification of ventilated lung tissues using electrical impedance tomography

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Adler, Andy

    Data-driven classification of ventilated lung tissues using electrical impedance tomography Camille for identifying ventilated lung regions utilizing electrical impedance tomography (EIT) images rely on dividing of a data-driven classification method to identify ventilated lung ROI based on forming k clusters from

  19. Dramatic Demand Reduction In The Desert Southwest

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boehm, Robert; Hsieh, Sean; Lee, Joon; Baghzouz, Yahia; Cross, Andrew; Chatterjee, Sarah

    2015-07-06

    This report summarizes a project that was funded to the University of Nevada Las Vegas (UNLV), with subcontractors Pulte Homes and NV Energy. The project was motivated by the fact that locations in the Desert Southwest portion of the US demonstrate very high peak electrical demands, typically in the late afternoons in the summer. These high demands often require high priced power to supply the needs, and the large loads can cause grid supply problems. An approach was proposed through this contact that would reduce the peak electrical demands to an anticipated 65% of what code-built houses of the similar size would have. It was proposed to achieve energy reduction through four approaches applied to a development of 185 homes in northwest part of Las Vegas named Villa Trieste. First, the homes would all be highly energy efficient. Secondly, each house would have a PV array installed on it. Third, an advanced demand response technique would be developed to allow the resident to have some control over the energy used. Finally, some type of battery storage would be used in the project. Pulte Homes designed the houses. The company considered initial cost vs. long-term savings and chose options that had relatively short paybacks. HERS (Home Energy Rating Service) ratings for the homes are approximately 43 on this scale. On this scale, code-built homes rate at 100, zero energy homes rate a 0, and Energy Star homes are 85. In addition a 1.764 Wp (peak Watt) rated PV array was used on each house. This was made up of solar shakes that were in visual harmony with the roofing material used. A demand response tool was developed to control the amount of electricity used during times of peak demand. While demand response techniques have been used in the utility industry for some time, this particular approach is designed to allow the customer to decide the degree of participation in the response activity. The temperature change in the residence can be decided by the residents by adjusting settings. In a sense the customer can choose between greater comfort and greater money savings during demand response circumstances. Finally a battery application was to be considered. Initially it was thought that a large battery (probably a sodium-sulfur type) would be installed. However, after the contract was awarded, it was determined that a single, centrally-located battery system would not be appropriate for many reasons, including that with the build out plan there would not be any location to put it. The price had risen substantially since the budget for the project was put together. Also, that type of battery has to be kept hot all the time, but its use was only sought for summer operation. Hence, individual house batteries would be used, and these are discussed at the end of this report. Many aspects of the energy use for climate control in selected houses were monitored before residents moved in. This was done both to understand the magnitude of the energy flows but also to have data that could be compared to the computer simulations. The latter would be used to evaluate various aspects of our plan. It was found that good agreement existed between actual energy use and computed energy use. Hence, various studies were performed via simulations. Performance simulations showed the impact on peak energy usage between a code built house of same size and shape compared to the Villa Trieste homes with and without the PV arrays on the latter. Computations were also used to understand the effect of varying orientations of the houses in this typical housing development, including the effect of PV electrical generation. Energy conservation features of the Villa Trieste homes decreased the energy use during peak times (as well as all others), but the resulting decreased peak occurred at about the same time as the code-built houses. Consideration of the PV generation decreases the grid energy use further during daylight hours, but did not extend long enough many days to decrease the peak. Hence, a demand response approach, as planned, was needed. With p

  20. Chapter 19: HVAC Controls (DDC/EMS/BAS) Evaluation Protocol

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Romberger, J.

    2014-11-01

    The HVAC Controls Evaluation Protocol is designed to address evaluation issues for direct digital controls/energy management systems/building automation systems (DDC/EMS/BAS) that are installed to control heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) equipment in commercial and institutional buildings. (This chapter refers to the DDC/EMS/BAS measure as HVAC controls.) This protocol may also be applicable to industrial facilities such as clean rooms and labs, which have either significant HVAC equipment or spaces requiring special environmental conditions. This protocol addresses only HVAC-related equipment and the energy savings estimation methods associated with installing such control systems as an energy efficiency measure. The affected equipment includes: Air-side equipment (air handlers, direct expansion systems, furnaces, other heating- and cooling-related devices, terminal air distribution equipment, and fans); Central plant equipment (chillers, cooling towers, boilers, and pumps). These controls may also operate or affect other end uses, such as lighting, domestic hot water, irrigation systems, and life safety systems such as fire alarms and other security systems. Considerable nonenergy benefits, such as maintenance scheduling, system component troubleshooting, equipment failure alarms, and increased equipment lifetime, may also be associated with these systems. When connected to building utility meters, these systems can also be valuable demand-limiting control tools. However, this protocol does not evaluate any of these additional capabilities and benefits.

  1. Direct Digital Control- A Tool for Energy Management of HVAC Systems 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Swanson, K.

    1993-01-01

    Direct digital control (DDC) applied to heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems corrects many of the deficiencies of conventional automatic temperature control systems. By applying new control sequences, ...

  2. Optimal Demand Response with Energy Storage Management

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Huang, Longbo; Ramchandran, Kannan

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we consider the problem of optimal demand response and energy storage management for a power consuming entity. The entity's objective is to find an optimal control policy for deciding how much load to consume, how much power to purchase from/sell to the power grid, and how to use the finite capacity energy storage device and renewable energy, to minimize his average cost, being the disutility due to load- shedding and cost for purchasing power. Due to the coupling effect of the finite size energy storage, such problems are challenging and are typically tackled using dynamic programming, which is often complex in computation and requires substantial statistical information of the system dynamics. We instead develop a low-complexity algorithm called Demand Response with Energy Storage Management (DR-ESM). DR-ESM does not require any statistical knowledge of the system dynamics, including the renewable energy and the power prices. It only requires the entity to solve a small convex optimization pr...

  3. Controlling Energy-Efficient Buildings in the Context of Smart Grid: A Cyber Physical System Approach

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maasoumy, Mehdi

    2014-01-01

    through automated demand response events. 10 Mechanisms ofControl (DLC) and Demand Response (DR) programs that requirethrough automated demand response events. an MPC scheme to

  4. Coordinated Aggregation of Distributed Demand-Side Resources

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    community control. It includes renewable micro-generation, storage, combined heat and power, and highlyCoordinated Aggregation of Distributed Demand-Side Resources Final Project Report Power Systems@cornell.edu Phone: 607-255-7156 Power Systems Engineering Research Center The Power Systems Engineering

  5. Coordinated Aggregation of Distributed Demand-Side Resources

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    control. It includes renewable micro-generation, storage, combined heat and power, and highly adjustableCoordinated Aggregation of Distributed Demand-Side Resources Final Project Report Power Systems@cornell.edu Phone: 607-255-7156 Power Systems Engineering Research Center The Power Systems Engineering

  6. Technology Solutions Case Study: Selecting Ventilation Systems for Existing Homes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2014-12-01

    In multifamily buildings, particularly in the Northeast, exhaust ventilation strategies are the norm as a means of meeting both local exhaust and whole-unit mechanical ventilation rates. The issue of where the "fresh" air is coming from is gaining significance as air-tightness standards for enclosures become more stringent, and the normal leakage paths through the building envelope disappear. Researchers from the Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB) found that the majority of high performance, new construction, multifamily housing in the Northeast use one of four general strategies for ventilation: continuous exhaust only with no designated supply or make-up air source, continuous exhaust with ducted make-up air to apartments, continuous exhaust with supply through a make-up air device integral to the unit HVAC, and continuous exhaust with supply through a passive inlet device, such as a trickle vent. Insufficient information is available to designers on how these various systems are best applied. In this project, the CARB team evaluated the four different strategies for providing make-up air to multifamily residential buildings and developed guidelines to help contractors and building owners choose the best ventilation systems.

  7. Energy Impact of Residential Ventilation Standards in California

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    by the Assistant Secretary for Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Building Technologies Program, of the U was also supported by the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, U.S. Department of Energy underLBNL 61282 Energy Impact of Residential Ventilation Standards in California Max H. Sherman and Iain

  8. Energy Impact of Residential Ventilation Norms in the United States

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    by the Assistant Secretary for Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Building Technologies Program, of the U solutions. These solutions, however, may have a different energy costs and non- energy benefits. This reportLBNL 62341 Energy Impact of Residential Ventilation Norms in the United States Max H. Sherman

  9. Evaluation of Ventilation Strategies in New Construction Multifamily Buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maxwell, S.; Berger, D.; Zuluaga, M.

    2014-07-01

    In multifamily buildings, particularly in the Northeast, exhaust ventilation strategies are the norm as a means of meeting both local exhaust and whole-unit mechanical ventilation rates. The issue of where the "fresh" air is coming from is gaining significance as air-tightness standards for enclosures become more stringent. CARB researchers have found that most new high performance, multifamily housing in the Northeast use one of four strategies for ventilation: continuous exhaust only with no designated supply or make-up air source, continuous exhaust with ducted make-up air to apartments, continuous exhaust with supply through a make-up air device integral to the unit HVAC, and continuous exhaust with supply through a passive inlet device, such as a trickle vent. Insufficient information is available to designers on how these various systems are best applied. Product performance data are based on laboratory tests, but there is no guarantee that those conditions will exist consistently in the finished building. In this research project, CARB evaluated the four ventilation strategies in the field to validate system performance.

  10. TOP DOWN VENTILATION AND COOLING Stephen A. Gage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Linden, Paul F.

    the problems inherent in passively ventilating and cooling low and medium rise urban buildings. We focus are reported which substantiate this concept, and two wind-driven devices which may be used to assist the top.K. The work at Cambridge by Hunt and Linden is part of an ongoing project in which laboratory modeling

  11. Study on Influencing Factors of Night Ventilation in Office Rooms 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Z.; Sun, X.

    2006-01-01

    in Harbin are simulated and analyzed. The results show that the inlet velocity and area can influence the effects of night ventilation. When the inlet velocity is 2.5m/s, both indoor air temperature and air velocity meet ASHRAE standard 55-2004. Indoor...

  12. Ventilation System Basics | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    a building. Air moves from areas of high pressure to areas of low pressure, with gravity and wind pressure affecting the airflow. The placement and control of doors and...

  13. Open Automated Demand Response Communications in Demand Response for Wholesale Ancillary Services

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kiliccote, Sila; Piette, Mary Ann; Ghatikar, Girish; Koch, Ed; Hennage, Dan; Hernandez, John; Chiu, Albert; Sezgen, Osman; Goodin, John

    2009-11-06

    The Pacific Gas and Electric Company (PG&E) is conducting a pilot program to investigate the technical feasibility of bidding certain demand response (DR) resources into the California Independent System Operator's (CAISO) day-ahead market for ancillary services nonspinning reserve. Three facilities, a retail store, a local government office building, and a bakery, are recruited into the pilot program. For each facility, hourly demand, and load curtailment potential are forecasted two days ahead and submitted to the CAISO the day before the operation as an available resource. These DR resources are optimized against all other generation resources in the CAISO ancillary service. Each facility is equipped with four-second real time telemetry equipment to ensure resource accountability and visibility to CAISO operators. When CAISO requests DR resources, PG&E's OpenADR (Open Automated DR) communications infrastructure is utilized to deliver DR signals to the facilities energy management and control systems (EMCS). The pre-programmed DR strategies are triggered without a human in the loop. This paper describes the automated system architecture and the flow of information to trigger and monitor the performance of the DR events. We outline the DR strategies at each of the participating facilities. At one site a real time electric measurement feedback loop is implemented to assure the delivery of CAISO dispatched demand reductions. Finally, we present results from each of the facilities and discuss findings.

  14. Effects of Demand Response on Retail and Wholesale Power Markets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chassin, David P.; Kalsi, Karanjit

    2012-07-26

    Demand response has grown to be a part of the repertoire of resources used by utilities to manage the balance between generation and load. In recent years, advances in communications and control technology have enabled utilities to consider continuously controlling demand response to meet generation, rather than the other way around. This paper discusses the economic applications of a general method for load resource analysis that parallels the approach used to analyze generation resources and uses the method to examine the results of the US Department of Energy’s Olympic Peninsula Demonstration Testbed. A market-based closed-loop system of controllable assets is discussed with necessary and sufficient conditions on system controllability, observability and stability derived.

  15. MODELING INSTABILITY IN THE CONTROL SYSTEM FOR HUMAN RESPIRATION: APPLICATIONS TO INFANT NONREM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    the ventila­ tion rate in response to the levels of CO 2 and O 2 in the body. Models of the respiratory theory of the control of ventilation in 1946 [33]. The first dynamic model of CO 2 regulation using of ventilation control and CO 2 regulation [43]. Quantitative studies began with Gray and his multiple factor

  16. Realt-Time Building Occupancy Sensing for Supporting Demand Driven HVAC Operations 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ekwevugbe, T.; Brown, N.; Pakka, V.

    2013-01-01

    use. Previous research have proposed up to 56% HVAC related energy savings with improvements in operation and management of HVAC systems (Sun et al., 2011, Tachwali et al., 2007). Real- time building occupancy sensing is useful for efficient.... The area enjoys good natural lighting due to its large side windows, although it is shaded from the direct effect of the sun by an adjacent part of the building. It is ventilated with three glazed roof vents. The vents are controlled together by room...

  17. STEO December 2012 - coal demand

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home RoomPreservation of Fe(II) byMultidayAlumni > The2/01/12 Page 1NEWSSupportcoal demand seen below

  18. Scaling Microblogging Services with Divergent Traffic Demands

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fu, Xiaoming

    Scaling Microblogging Services with Divergent Traffic Demands Tianyin Xu, Yang Chen, Lei Jiao, Ben-server architecture has not scaled with user demands, lead- ing to server overload and significant impairment

  19. Michel Meulpolder Managing Supply and Demand of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Michel Meulpolder Managing Supply and Demand of Bandwidth in Peer-to-Peer Communities #12;#12;Managing Supply and Demand of Bandwidth in Peer-to-Peer Communities Proefschrift ter verkrijging van de

  20. REVISED CALIFORNIA ENERGY DEMAND FORECAST 20122022

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    relatively high economic/demographic growth, relatively low electricity and natural gas rates REVISED CALIFORNIA ENERGY DEMAND FORECAST 20122022 Volume 2: Electricity Demand by Utility OFFICE Sylvia Bender Deputy Director ELECTRICITY SUPPLY ANALYSIS DIVISION Robert P

  1. CALIFORNIA ENERGY DEMAND 20122022 FINAL FORECAST

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    /demographic growth, relatively low electricity and natural gas rates, and relatively low efficiency program CALIFORNIA ENERGY DEMAND 20122022 FINAL FORECAST Volume 1: Statewide Electricity Manager Bill Junker Manager DEMAND ANALYSIS OFFICE Sylvia Bender Deputy Director ELECTRICITY SUPPLY

  2. CALIFORNIA ENERGY DEMAND 20142024 FINAL FORECAST

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    incorporates relatively high economic/demographic growth, relatively low electricity and natural gas rates CALIFORNIA ENERGY DEMAND 20142024 FINAL FORECAST Volume 2: Electricity Demand Sylvia Bender Deputy Director ELECTRICITY SUPPLY ANALYSIS DIVISION Robert P. Oglesby Executive

  3. CALIFORNIA ENERGY DEMAND 20122022 FINAL FORECAST

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    incorporates relatively high economic/demographic growth, relatively low electricity and natural gas rates CALIFORNIA ENERGY DEMAND 20122022 FINAL FORECAST Volume 2: Electricity Demand OFFICE Sylvia Bender Deputy Director ELECTRICITY SUPPLY ANALYSIS DIVISION Robert P

  4. Solar in Demand | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Solar in Demand Solar in Demand June 15, 2012 - 10:23am Addthis Kyle Travis, left and Jon Jackson, with Lighthouse Solar, install microcrystalline PV modules on top of Kevin...

  5. Demand Effects in Productivity and Efficiency Analysis 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Chia-Yen

    2012-07-16

    Demand fluctuations will bias the measurement of productivity and efficiency. This dissertation described three ways to characterize the effect of demand fluctuations. First, a two-dimensional efficiency decomposition (2DED) of profitability...

  6. Industrial Equipment Demand and Duty Factors 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dooley, E. S.; Heffington, W. M.

    1998-01-01

    Demand and duty factors have been measured for selected equipment (air compressors, electric furnaces, injection molding machines, centrifugal loads, and others) in industrial plants. Demand factors for heavily loaded air ...

  7. Coordination of Energy Efficiency and Demand Response

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    2010-01-01

    Summarizes existing research and discusses current practices, opportunities, and barriers to coordinating energy efficiency and demand response programs.

  8. Topic 4: Demand Response A.H. MohsenianRad (U of T) 1Networking and Distributed Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mohsenian-Rad, Hamed

    Topic 4: Demand Response A.H. MohsenianRad (U of T) 1Networking and Distributed Systems Department;Definition of Demand Response Dr. Hamed Mohsenian-Rad Texas Tech UniversityCommunications and Control in Smart Grid · According to the U.S. Department of Energy: Demand response (DR) is defined as changes

  9. The Pacific Northwest Demand Response Market Demonstration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chassin, David P.; Hammerstrom, Donald J.; DeSteese, John G.

    2008-07-20

    This paper describes the implementation and results of a field demonstration wherein residential electric water heaters and thermostats, commercial building space conditioning, municipal water pump loads, and several distributed generators were coordinated to manage constrained feeder electrical distribution through the two-way communication of load status and electric price signals. The field demonstration took place in Washington and Oregon and was paid for by the U.S. Department of Energy and several northwest utilities. Price is found to be an effective control signal for managing transmission or distribution congestion. Real-time signals at 5-minute intervals are shown to shift controlled load in time. The behaviors of customers and their responses under fixed, time-ofuse, and real-time price contracts are compared. Peak loads are effectively reduced on the experimental feeder. A novel application of portfolio theory is applied to the selection of an optimal mix of customer contract types. Index Terms—demand response, power markets, retail markets, distribution automation, distributed resources, load control.

  10. Demand Queries with Preprocessing Uriel Feige

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Demand Queries with Preprocessing Uriel Feige and Shlomo Jozeph May 1, 2014 )>IJH=?J Given a set of items and a submodular set-function f that determines the value of every subset of items, a demand query, the value of S minus its price. The use of demand queries is well motivated in the context of com

  11. DemandDriven Pointer Analysis Nevin Heintze

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tardieu, Olivier

    Demand­Driven Pointer Analysis Nevin Heintze Research, Agere Systems (formerly Lucent Technologies analysis of a pro­ gram or program component. In this paper we introduce a demand­driven approach for pointer analysis. Specifically, we describe a demand­driven flow­insensitive, subset­based, context

  12. APPLICATION-FORM DEMANDED'ADMISSION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Opportunities and Challenges for Data Center Demand Response Adam Wierman Zhenhua Liu Iris Liu of renewable energy into the grid as well as electric power peak-load shaving: data center demand response. Data center demand response sits at the intersection of two growing fields: energy efficient data

  13. Airline Pilot Demand Projections What this is-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bustamante, Fabián E.

    60 Mobile applications constantly demand additional memory, and traditional designs increase but also e-mail, Internet access, digital camera features, and video on demand. With feature expansion demanding additional storage and memory in all com- puting devices, DRAM and flash memory densities

  14. Algorithms Demands and Bounds Applications of Flow

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kabanets, Valentine

    2/28/2014 1 Algorithms ­ Demands and Bounds Applications of Flow Networks Design and Analysis of Algorithms Andrei Bulatov Algorithms ­ Demands and Bounds 12-2 Lower Bounds The problem can be generalized) capacities (ii) demands (iii) lower bounds A circulation f is feasible if (Capacity condition) For each e E

  15. Adapton: Composable, Demand-Driven Incremental Computation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hicks, Michael

    Adapton: Composable, Demand-Driven Incremental Computation CS-TR-5027 -- July 12, 2013 Matthew A demands on the program output; that is, if a program input changes, all depen- dencies will be recomputed. To address these problems, we present cdd ic , a core calculus that applies a demand-driven seman- tics

  16. Pricing Cloud Bandwidth Reservations under Demand Uncertainty

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Baochun

    Heap Assumptions on Demand Andreas Podelski1 , Andrey Rybalchenko2 , and Thomas Wies1 1 University analysis produces heap assumptions on demand to eliminate counterexamples, i.e., non-terminating abstract of a non-terminating abstract computation, i.e., it applies shape analysis on demand. The shape analysis

  17. Demand And Response Transportation Rider's Guide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Acton, Scott

    Demand And Response Transportation Rider's Guide http://www.virginia.edu/parking/disabilities/dart Version 14.5 (8/13/14) Welcome DART Rider: The Demand and Response Transportation (DART) Service rides: #12;Demand And Response Transportation Rider's Guide http

  18. Scaling Microblogging Services with Divergent Traffic Demands

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Almeroth, Kevin C.

    Scaling Microblogging Services with Divergent Traffic Demands Tianyin Xu1 , Yang Chen1 , Lei Jiao1 client-server architecture has not scaled with user demands, leading to server overload and significant #12;Scaling Microblogging Services with Divergent Traffic Demands 21 producing effective predictions

  19. Demande de diplmes NOM,Prnom : ......................................................................................................................

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chamroukhi, Faicel

    Optimal demand response: problem formulation and deterministic case Lijun Chen, Na Li, Libin Jiang load through real-time demand response and purchases balancing power on the spot market to meet the aggregate demand. Hence optimal supply procurement by the LSE and the consumption decisions by the users

  20. Precision On Demand: An Improvement in Probabilistic

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Precision On Demand: An Improvement in Probabilistic Hashing Igor Melatti, Robert Palmer approach Precision on Demand or POD). #12;This paper provides a scientific evaluation of the pros and cons time likely to increase by a factor of 1.8 or less. #12;Precision On Demand: An Improvement