Sample records for demand controlled ventilation

  1. Demand Controlled Ventilation and Classroom Ventilation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fisk, William J.

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    use of demand control ventilation systems in general officedemand controlled  ventilation systems, Dennis DiBartolomeo the demand controlled ventilation system increased the rate 

  2. Demand Controlled Ventilation and Classroom Ventilation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fisk, William J.

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    2 -based demand controlled ventilation using ASHRAE Standardoptimizing energy use and ventilation. ASHRAE TransactionsWJ, Grimsrud DT, et al. 2011. Ventilation rates and health:

  3. DEMAND CONTROLLED VENTILATION AND CLASSROOM VENTILATION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fisk, William J.

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    for demand controlled ventilation in commercial buildings.The energy costs of classroom ventilation and some financialEstimating potential benefits of increased ventilation

  4. DEMAND CONTROLLED VENTILATION AND CLASSROOM VENTILATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fisk, William J.; Mendell, Mark J.; Davies, Molly; Eliseeva, Ekaterina; Faulkner, David; Hong, Tienzen; Sullivan, Douglas P.

    2014-01-06T23:59:59.000Z

    This document summarizes a research effort on demand controlled ventilation and classroom ventilation. The research on demand controlled ventilation included field studies and building energy modeling. Major findings included: ? The single-location carbon dioxide sensors widely used for demand controlled ventilation frequently have large errors and will fail to effectively control ventilation rates (VRs).? Multi-location carbon dioxide measurement systems with more expensive sensors connected to multi-location sampling systems may measure carbon dioxide more accurately.? Currently-available optical people counting systems work well much of the time but have large counting errors in some situations. ? In meeting rooms, measurements of carbon dioxide at return-air grilles appear to be a better choice than wall-mounted sensors.? In California, demand controlled ventilation in general office spaces is projected to save significant energy and be cost effective only if typical VRs without demand controlled ventilation are very high relative to VRs in codes. Based on the research, several recommendations were developed for demand controlled ventilation specifications in the California Title 24 Building Energy Efficiency Standards.The research on classroom ventilation collected data over two years on California elementary school classrooms to investigate associations between VRs and student illness absence (IA). Major findings included: ? Median classroom VRs in all studied climate zones were below the California guideline, and 40percent lower in portable than permanent buildings.? Overall, one additional L/s per person of VR was associated with 1.6percent less IA. ? Increasing average VRs in California K-12 classrooms from the current average to the required level is estimated to decrease IA by 3.4percent, increasing State attendance-based funding to school districts by $33M, with $6.2 M in increased energy costs. Further VR increases would provide additional benefits.? Confirming these findings in intervention studies is recommended. ? Energy costs of heating/cooling unoccupied classrooms statewide are modest, but a large portion occurs in relatively few classrooms.

  5. Demand Controlled Ventilation and Classroom Ventilation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fisk, William J.

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of energy and environmental benefits of demand controlled indicate the energy and cost savings for  demand controlled 24) (California Energy  Commission 2008), demand controlled 

  6. DEMAND CONTROLLED VENTILATION AND CLASSROOM VENTILATION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fisk, William J.

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of energy and environmental benefits of demand controlledindicate the energy and cost savings for demand controlled24) (California Energy Commission 2008), demand controlled

  7. CO2 MONITORING FOR DEMAND CONTROLLED VENTILATION IN COMMERCIAL BUILDINGS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fisk, William J.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    use of demand control ventilation systems in general officethe demand controlled ventilation system increased the ratedemand controlled ventilation systems will, because of poor

  8. Demand Controlled Ventilation for Improved Humidity Control

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rogers, J. K.

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Demand Controlled Ventilation for Improved Humidity Control James K. Rogers, P.E. One Blacksmith Road Chelmsford, Massachusetts ABSTRACT Recently introduced technology makes it possible to continuously monitor for humidity in numerous... is brought in for ventilation. The high "latent load" inherent in this hot, humid outside air is often the reason for installing excess chiller capacity and the cause of peak power demands. Recent concerns over poor indoor air quality (IAQ) due...

  9. Demand Controlled Ventilation and Classroom Ventilation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fisk, William J.

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    to districts for ventilation, heating, and cooling.   Thus G is the gas use for heating ventilation  air, G i  is the air  gas use for heating ventilation air  the time elapsed 

  10. Optimization of Occupancy Based Demand Controlled Ventilation in Residences

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mortensen, Dorthe K.

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    for residential ventilation systems, 2009. CEN, EN15251:The demand controlled ventilation system operated at a lowthe whole house ventilation system that implicitly assumes

  11. HVAC EFFICIENCY BUSINESS CASE DEMAND CONTROL KITCHEN VENTILATION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Davis, University of

    HVAC EFFICIENCY BUSINESS CASE DEMAND CONTROL KITCHEN VENTILATION Selecting, financing ventilation (DCKV) for kitchen exhaust hoods. Implementation can be relatively simple in either new of demand control kitchen ventilation (DCKV) in many small, medium, and large kitchen exhaust hood

  12. Sensor-based demand controlled ventilation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    De Almeida, A.T. [Universidade de Coimbra (Portugal). Dep. Eng. Electrotecnica; Fisk, W.J. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States)

    1997-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In most buildings, occupancy and indoor pollutant emission rates vary with time. With sensor-based demand-controlled ventilation (SBDCV), the rate of ventilation (i.e., rate of outside air supply) also varies with time to compensate for the changes in pollutant generation. In other words, SBDCV involves the application of sensing, feedback and control to modulate ventilation. Compared to ventilation without feedback, SBDCV offers two potential advantages: (1) better control of indoor pollutant concentrations; and (2) lower energy use and peak energy demand. SBDCV has the potential to improve indoor air quality by increasing the rate of ventilation when indoor pollutant generation rates are high and occupants are present. SBDCV can also save energy by decreasing the rate of ventilation when indoor pollutant generation rates are low or occupants are absent. After providing background information on indoor air quality and ventilation, this report provides a relatively comprehensive discussion of SBDCV. Topics covered in the report include basic principles of SBDCV, sensor technologies, technologies for controlling air flow rates, case studies of SBDCV, application of SBDCV to laboratory buildings, and research needs. SBDCV appears to be an increasingly attractive technology option. Based on the review of literature and theoretical considerations, the application of SBDCV has the potential to be cost-effective in applications with the following characteristics: (a) a single or small number of dominant pollutants, so that ventilation sufficient to control the concentration of the dominant pollutants provides effective control of all other pollutants; (b) large buildings or rooms with unpredictable temporally variable occupancy or pollutant emission; and (c) climates with high heating or cooling loads or locations with expensive energy.

  13. STATE OF CALIFORNIA DEMAND CONTROL VENTILATION SYSTEMS ACCEPTANCE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    STATE OF CALIFORNIA DEMAND CONTROL VENTILATION SYSTEMS ACCEPTANCE CEC-MECH-6A (Revised 08/09) CALIFORNIA ENERGY COMMISSION CERTIFICATE OF ACCEPTANCE MECH-6A NA7.5.5 Demand Control Ventilation Systems DEMAND CONTROL VENTILATION SYSTEMS ACCEPTANCE CEC-MECH-6A (Revised 08/09) CALIFORNIA ENERGY COMMISSION

  14. Optimization of Occupancy Based Demand Controlled Ventilation in Residences

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mortensen, Dorthe K.; Walker, Iain S.; Sherman, Max H.

    2011-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Although it has been used for many years in commercial buildings, the application of demand controlled ventilation in residences is limited. In this study we used occupant exposure to pollutants integrated over time (referred to as 'dose') as the metric to evaluate the effectiveness and air quality implications of demand controlled ventilation in residences. We looked at air quality for two situations. The first is that typically used in ventilation standards: the exposure over a long term. The second is to look at peak exposures that are associated with time variations in ventilation rates and pollutant generation. The pollutant generation had two components: a background rate associated with the building materials and furnishings and a second component related to occupants. The demand controlled ventilation system operated at a low airflow rate when the residence was unoccupied and at a high airflow rate when occupied. We used analytical solutions to the continuity equation to determine the ventilation effectiveness and the long-term chronic dose and peak acute exposure for a representative range of occupancy periods, pollutant generation rates and airflow rates. The results of the study showed that we can optimize the demand controlled airflow rates to reduce the quantity of air used for ventilation without introducing problematic acute conditions.

  15. CO2 - Based Demand-Controlled Ventilation Control Strategies for Multi-Zone HVAC Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nassif, N.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    CO2-based demand-controlled ventilation DCV strategy offers a great opportunity to reduce energy consumption in HVAC systems while providing the required ventilation. However, implementing CO2-based DCV under ASHRAE 62.1.2004 through 2010...

  16. CO2 MONITORING FOR DEMAND CONTROLLED VENTILATION IN COMMERCIAL BUILDINGS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fisk, William J.; Sullivan, Douglas P.; Faulkner, David; Eliseeva, Ekaterina

    2010-03-17T23:59:59.000Z

    Carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) sensors are often deployed in commercial buildings to obtain CO{sub 2} data that are used, in a process called demand-controlled ventilation, to automatically modulate rates of outdoor air ventilation. The objective is to keep ventilation rates at or above design specifications and code requirements and also to save energy by avoiding excessive ventilation rates. Demand controlled ventilation is most often used in spaces with highly variable and sometime dense occupancy. Reasonably accurate CO{sub 2} measurements are needed for successful demand controlled ventilation; however, prior research has suggested substantial measurement errors. Accordingly, this study evaluated: (a) the accuracy of 208 CO{sub 2} single-location sensors located in 34 commercial buildings, (b) the accuracy of four multi-location CO{sub 2} measurement systems that utilize tubing, valves, and pumps to measure at multiple locations with single CO{sub 2} sensors, and (c) the spatial variability of CO{sub 2} concentrations within meeting rooms. The field studies of the accuracy of single-location CO{sub 2} sensors included multi-concentration calibration checks of 90 sensors in which sensor accuracy was checked at multiple CO{sub 2} concentrations using primary standard calibration gases. From these evaluations, average errors were small, -26 ppm and -9 ppm at 760 and 1010 ppm, respectively; however, the averages of the absolute values of error were 118 ppm (16%) and 138 ppm (14%), at concentrations of 760 and 1010 ppm, respectively. The calibration data are generally well fit by a straight line as indicated by high values of R{sup 2}. The Title 24 standard specifies that sensor error must be certified as no greater than 75 ppm for a period of five years after sensor installation. At 1010 ppm, 40% of sensors had errors greater than {+-}75 ppm and 31% of sensors has errors greater than {+-}100 ppm. At 760 ppm, 47% of sensors had errors greater than {+-}75 ppm and 37% of sensors had errors greater than {+-}100 ppm. A significant fraction of sensors had errors substantially larger than 100 ppm. For example, at 1010 ppm, 19% of sensors had an error greater than 200 ppm and 13% of sensors had errors greater than 300 ppm. The field studies also included single-concentration calibration checks of 118 sensors at the concentrations encountered in the buildings, which were normally less than 500 ppm during the testing. For analyses, these data were combined with data from the calibration challenges at 510 ppm obtained during the multi-concentration calibration checks. For the resulting data set, the average error was 60 ppm and the average of the absolute value of error was 154 ppm. Statistical analyses indicated that there were statistically significant differences between the average accuracies of sensors from different manufacturers. Sensors with a 'single lamp single wavelength' design tended to have a statistically significantly smaller average error than sensors with other designs except for 'single lamp dual wavelength' sensors, which did not have a statistically significantly lower accuracy. Sensor age was not consistently a statistically significant predictor of error.

  17. Optimization of Occupancy Based Demand Controlled Ventilation in Residences

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mortensen, Dorthe K.

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of intermittent ventilation for providing acceptable indoor253. CEN, EN15665: Ventilation for buildings - Determiningcriteria for residential ventilation systems, 2009. CEN,

  18. Application of CO{sub 2}-based demand-controlled ventilation using ASHRAE Standard 62: Optimizing energy use and ventilation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schell, M.B. [Engelhard Sensor Technologies, Santa Barbara, CA (United States); Turner, S.; Shim, R.O. [Chelsea Group, Ltd., Delray Beach, FL (United States)

    1998-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    CO{sub 2}-based demand-controlled ventilation (DCV), when properly applied in spaces where occupancies vary below design occupancy, can reduce unnecessary overventilation while implementing target per-person ventilation rates. A recent interpretation of ANSI/ASHRAE Standard 62-1989, Interpretation 1C 62-1989-27, has affirmed that carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2})-based demand-controlled ventilation (DCV) systems can use CO{sub 2} as an occupancy indicator to modulate ventilation below the maximum total outdoor air intake rate while still maintaining the required ventilation rate per person, provided that certain conditions are met. This paper, co-written by the author of the interpretation, provides guidelines on the application of CO{sub 2}-based DCV. In addition, a method is presented that allows reasonable estimates of the actual ventilation rate per person being effectively delivered to the space, based on comparing predicted CO{sub 2} ventilation levels with CO{sub 2} levels logged in an occupied space. Finally, a model is presented to evaluate various CO{sub 2}-based DCV strategies to predict their delivery of target per-person ventilation rates within the lag times required by the standard.

  19. International Journal of Ventilation ISSN 1473-3315 Volume 10 No1 June 2011 Optimization of Occupancy Based Demand Controlled Ventilation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    International Journal of Ventilation ISSN 1473-3315 Volume 10 No1 June 2011 ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ 49 Optimization of Occupancy Based Demand Controlled Ventilation in Residences Dorthe K. Mortensen1, the application of demand controlled ventilation in residences is limited. In this study we used occupant exposure

  20. Integrated Demand Controlled Ventilation for Single Duct VAV System with Conference Rooms 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yu, Y.; Liu, M.; Cho, Y.; Xu, K.

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    INTEGRATED DEMAND CONTROLLED VENTILATION FOR SINGLE DUCT VAV SYSTEM WITH CONFERENCE ROOMS Yuebin Yu Mingsheng Liu YoungHum Cho Ke Xu Graduate Student Professor of Architectural Engineering, PhD, PE Graduate.... The total OA intake of IDCV is obtained with the occupancy time ratio considered. The real time distribution of the occupancy and un-occupancy doesn’t much influence the overall calculation. With the amount of OA intake and the local BIN data...

  1. Optical People Counting for Demand Controlled Ventilation: A Pilot Study of Counter Performance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fisk, William J.; Sullivan, Douglas

    2009-12-26T23:59:59.000Z

    This pilot scale study evaluated the counting accuracy of two people counting systems that could be used in demand controlled ventilation systems to provide control signals for modulating outdoor air ventilation rates. The evaluations included controlled challenges of the people counting systems using pre-planned movements of occupants through doorways and evaluations of counting accuracies when naive occupants (i.e., occupants unaware of the counting systems) passed through the entrance doors of the building or room. The two people counting systems had high counting accuracy accuracies, with errors typically less than 10percent, for typical non-demanding counting events. However, counting errors were high in some highly challenging situations, such as multiple people passing simultaneously through a door. Counting errors, for at least one system, can be very high if people stand in the field of view of the sensor. Both counting system have limitations and would need to be used only at appropriate sites and where the demanding situations that led to counting errors were rare.

  2. Recommended Changes to Specifications for Demand Controlled Ventilation in California's Title 24 Building Energy Efficiency Standards

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fisk, William J.; Sullivan, Douglas P.; Faulkner, David

    2010-04-08T23:59:59.000Z

    In demand-controlled ventilation (DCV), rates of outdoor air ventilation are automatically modulated as occupant density varies. The objective is to keep ventilation rates at or above design specifications and code requirements and also to save energy by avoiding excessive ventilation rates. DCV is most often used in spaces with highly variable and sometime dense occupancy. In almost all cases, carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) sensors installed in buildings provide the signal to the ventilation rate control system. People produce and exhale CO{sub 2} as a consequence of their normal metabolic processes; thus, the concentrations of CO{sub 2} inside occupied buildings are higher than the concentrations of CO{sub 2} in the outdoor air. The magnitude of the indoor-outdoor CO{sub 2} concentration difference decreases as the building's ventilation rate per person increases. The difference between the indoor and outdoor CO{sub 2} concentration is also a proxy for the indoor concentrations of other occupant-generated bioeffluents, such as body odors. Reviews of the research literature on DCV indicate a significant potential for energy savings, particularly in buildings or spaces with a high and variable occupancy. Based on modeling, cooling energy savings from applications of DCV are as high as 20%. With support from the California Energy Commission and the U.S. Department of Energy, the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory has performed research on the performance of CO{sub 2} sensing technologies and optical people counters for DCV. In addition, modeling was performed to evaluate the potential energy savings and cost effectiveness of using DCV in general office spaces within the range of California climates. The above-described research has implications for the specifications pertaining to DCV in section 121 of the California Title 24 Standard. Consequently, this document suggests possible changes in these specifications based on the research findings. The suggested changes in specifications were developed in consultation with staff from the Iowa Energy Center who evaluated the accuracy of new CO{sub 2} sensors in laboratory-based research. In addition, staff of the California Energy Commission, and their consultants in the area of DCV, provided input for the suggested changes in specifications.

  3. The Impact of CO2-Based Demand-Controlled Ventilation on Energy Consumptions for Air Source Heat Pumps in Schools

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    AlRaees, N.; Nassif, N.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    There have been increasingly growing concerns for many years over the quality of the air inside buildings and the associated energy use. The CO2-based demand-controlled ventilation DCV offers a great opportunity to reduce energy consumption in HVAC...

  4. Assessment of Energy Savings Potential from the Use of Demand Controlled Ventilation in General Office Spaces in California

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hong, Tianzhen; Fisk, William

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A prototypical office building meeting the prescriptive requirements of the 2008 California building energy efficiency standards (Title 24) was used in EnergyPlus simulations to calculate the energy savings potential of demand controlled ventilation (DCV) in five typical California climates per three design occupancy densities and two minimum ventilation rates. The assumed minimum ventilation rates in offices without DCV, based on two different measurement methods employed in a large survey, were 38 and 13 L/s per occupant. The results of the life cycle cost analysis show DCV is cost effective for office spaces if the typical minimum ventilation rate without DCV is 38 L/s per person, except at the low design occupancy of 10.8 people per 100 m2 in climate zones 3 (north coast) and 6 (south Coast). DCV was not found to be cost effective if the typical minimum ventilation rate without DCV is 13 L/s per occupant, except at high design occupancy of 21.5 people per 100 m2 in climate zones 14 (desert) and 16 (mountains). Until the large uncertainties about the base case ventilation rates in offices without DCV are reduced, the case for requiring DCV in general office spaces will be a weak case. Under the Title 24 Standards office occupant density of 10.8 people per 100 m2, DCV becomes cost effective when the base case minimum ventilation rate is greater than 42.5, 43.0, 24.0, 19.0, and 18.0 L/s per person for climate zone 3, 6, 12, 14, and 16 respectively.

  5. Impact of Independently Controlling Ventilation Rate per Person and Ventilation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1 Impact of Independently Controlling Ventilation Rate per Person and Ventilation Rate per Floor Impact of Independently Controlling Ventilation Rate per Person and Ventilation Rate per Floor Area

  6. Integrated Demand Controlled Ventilation for Single Duct VAV System with Conference Rooms

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yu, Y.; Liu, M.; Cho, Y.; Xu, K.

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Single duct variable air volume (VAV) systems are widely used in office buildings to achieve energy savings. It supplies proper amount of conditioned air to satisfy both the load and the ventilation requirements of each individual zone. To obtain...

  7. Assessment of Energy Savings Potential from the Use of Demand Control Ventilation Systems in General Office Spaces in California

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hong, Tianzhen; Fisk, William J.

    2009-07-08T23:59:59.000Z

    Demand controlled ventilation (DCV) was evaluated for general office spaces in California. A medium size office building meeting the prescriptive requirements of the 2008 California building energy efficiency standards (CEC 2008) was assumed in the building energy simulations performed with the EnergyPlus program to calculate the DCV energy savings potential in five typical California climates. Three design occupancy densities and two minimum ventilation rates were used as model inputs to cover a broader range of design variations. The assumed values of minimum ventilation rates in offices without DCV, based on two different measurement methods, were 81 and 28 cfm per occupant. These rates are based on the co-author's unpublished analyses of data from EPA's survey of 100 U.S. office buildings. These minimum ventilation rates exceed the 15 to 20 cfm per person required in most ventilation standards for offices. The cost effectiveness of applying DCV in general office spaces was estimated via a life cycle cost analyses that considered system costs and energy cost reductions. The results of the energy modeling indicate that the energy savings potential of DCV is largest in the desert area of California (climate zone 14), followed by Mountains (climate zone 16), Central Valley (climate zone 12), North Coast (climate zone 3), and South Coast (climate zone 6). The results of the life cycle cost analysis show DCV is cost effective for office spaces if the typical minimum ventilation rates without DCV is 81 cfm per person, except at the low design occupancy of 10 people per 1000 ft{sup 2} in climate zones 3 and 6. At the low design occupancy of 10 people per 1000 ft{sup 2}, the greatest DCV life cycle cost savings is a net present value (NPV) of $0.52/ft{sup 2} in climate zone 14, followed by $0.32/ft{sup 2} in climate zone 16 and $0.19/ft{sup 2} in climate zone 12. At the medium design occupancy of 15 people per 1000 ft{sup 2}, the DCV savings are higher with a NPV $0.93/ft{sup 2} in climate zone 14, followed by $0.55/ft{sup 2} in climate zone 16, $0.46/ft{sup 2} in climate zone 12, $0.30/ft{sup 2} in climate zone 3, $0.16/ft{sup 2} in climate zone 3. At the high design occupancy of 20 people per 1000 ft{sup 2}, the DCV savings are even higher with a NPV $1.37/ft{sup 2} in climate zone 14, followed by $0.86/ft{sup 2} in climate zone 16, $0.84/ft{sup 2} in climate zone 3, $0.82/ft{sup 2} in climate zone 12, and $0.65/ft{sup 2} in climate zone 6. DCV was not found to be cost effective if the typical minimum ventilation rate without DCV is 28 cfm per occupant, except at high design occupancy of 20 people per 1000 ft{sup 2} in climate zones 14 and 16. Until the large uncertainties about the base case ventilation rates in offices without DCV are reduced, the case for requiring DCV in general office spaces will be a weak case.

  8. Meeting Residential Ventilation Standards Through Dynamic Control of Ventilation Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sherman, Max H.; Walker, Iain S.

    2011-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Existing ventilation standards, including American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air-conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) Standard 62.2, specify continuous operation of a defined mechanical ventilation system to provide minimum ventilation, with time-based intermittent operation as an option. This requirement ignores several factors and concerns including: other equipment such as household exhaust fans that might incidentally provide ventilation, negative impacts of ventilation when outdoor pollutant levels are high, the importance of minimizing energy use particularly during times of peak electricity demand, and how the energy used to condition air as part of ventilation system operation changes with outdoor conditions. Dynamic control of ventilation systems can provide ventilation equivalent to or better than what is required by standards while minimizing energy costs and can also add value by shifting load during peak times and reducing intake of outdoor air contaminants. This article describes the logic that enables dynamic control of whole-house ventilation systems to meet the intent of ventilation standards and demonstrates the dynamic ventilation system control concept through simulations and field tests of the Residential Integrated Ventilation-Energy Controller (RIVEC).

  9. Meeting Residential Ventilation Standards Through Dynamic Control of Ventilation Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sherman, Max H.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    2007. Review of residential ventilation technologies. HVAC&Rof intermittent ventilation for providing acceptable indoorResidential Integrated Ventilation Controller. Energy

  10. Development of a Residential Integrated Ventilation Controller

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Walker, Iain

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Comparative Evaluation of Ventilation Systems. ” ASHRAEChimneys for Residential Ventilation. ” AIVC 25 Conference.1995. “Controlled Ventilation Options for Builders. ” Energy

  11. Development of a Residential Integrated Ventilation Controller

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Staff Scientist; Walker, Iain; Sherman, Max; Dickerhoff, Darryl

    2011-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The goal of this study was to develop a Residential Integrated Ventilation Controller (RIVEC) to reduce the energy impact of required mechanical ventilation by 20percent, maintain or improve indoor air quality and provide demand response benefits. This represents potential energy savings of about 140 GWh of electricity and 83 million therms of natural gas as well as proportional peak savings in California. The RIVEC controller is intended to meet the 2008 Title 24 requirements for residential ventilation as well as taking into account the issues of outdoor conditions, other ventilation devices (including economizers), peak demand concerns and occupant preferences. The controller is designed to manage all the residential ventilation systems that are currently available. A key innovation in this controller is the ability to implement the concept of efficacy and intermittent ventilation which allows time shifting of ventilation. Using this approach ventilation can be shifted away from times of high cost or high outdoor pollution towards times when it is cheaper and more effective. Simulations, based on the ones used to develop the new residential ventilation requirements for the California Buildings Energy code, were used to further define the specific criteria and strategies needed for the controller. These simulations provide estimates of the energy, peak power and contaminant improvement possible for different California climates for the various ventilation systems. Results from a field test of the prototype controller corroborate the predicted performance.

  12. Meeting Residential Ventilation Standards Through Dynamic Control of Ventilation Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sherman, Max H.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Dynamic Control of Ventilation Systems M.H. Sherman and I.S.a defined mechanical ventilation system to provide minimumair as part of ventilation system operation changes with

  13. Review of Literature on Terminal Box Control, Occupancy Sensing Technology and Multi-zone Demand Control Ventilation (DCV)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Guopeng; Dasu, Aravind R.; Zhang, Jian

    2012-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report presents an overall review of the standard requirement, the terminal box control, occupancy sensing technology and DCV. There is system-specific guidance for single-zone systems, but DCV application guidance for multi-zone variable air volume (VAV) systems is not available. No real-world implementation case studies have been found using the CO2-based DCV. The review results also show that the constant minimum air flow set point causes excessive fan power consumption and potential simultaneous heating and cooling. Occupancy-based control (OBC) is needed for the terminal box in order to achieve deep energy savings. Key to OBC is a technology for sensing the actual occupancy of the zone served in real time. Several technologies show promise, but none currently fully meets the need with adequate accuracy and sufficiently low cost.

  14. Demand Controlled Ventilation and Classroom Ventilation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fisk, William J.

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    2008. 2008 Building energy efficiency standards forCalifornia Title 24 Building Energy Efficiency Standards.  in California’s Title 24 Building Energy Efficiency

  15. DEMAND CONTROLLED VENTILATION AND CLASSROOM VENTILATION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fisk, William J.

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Refrigerating, and Air Conditioning Engineers, Inc. ---.Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers, Inc. ASTM.Refrigerating, and Air Conditioning Engineers, Inc. , 213-

  16. Demand Controlled Ventilation and Classroom Ventilation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fisk, William J.

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Refrigerating, and Air Conditioning Engineers, Inc. ---.Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers, Inc. ASTM.Refrigerating, and Air Conditioning Engineers, Inc. , 213-

  17. Demand Controlled Ventilation and Classroom Ventilation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fisk, William J.

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    types.   A  one?time sensor evaluation after a new sensor Laboratory?based evaluations of nine sensors with large a specified existing sensor for evaluation.   In the  prior 

  18. AUTOMATIC VARIABLE VENTILATION CONTROL SYSTEMS BASED ON AIR QUALITY DETECTION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Turiel, Isaac

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    saon Automatic Variable Ventilation Control Systems Based onL Kusuda, "Control Ventilation to Conserve Energy While t·79-3 Automatic variable ventilation control systems based on

  19. AUTOMATIC VARIABLE VENTILATION CONTROL SYSTEMS BASED ON AIR QUALITY DETECTION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Turiel, Isaac

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ~saon Automatic Variable Ventilation Control Systems Based79-3 Automatic variable ventilation control systems based onof automatic variable ventilation control systems, result in

  20. Advanced Controls and Sustainable Systems for Residential Ventilation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1 Advanced Controls and Sustainable Systems for Residential Ventilation William J.N. Turner & Iain..................................................................................................................... 8 Residential Ventilation Standards..........................................................................................9 Passive and Hybrid Ventilation

  1. Advanced Controls and Sustainable Systems for Residential Ventilation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Turner, William J.N.

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    through dynamic control of ventilation systems. Energy andcontinuous mechanical ventilation systems a mean annualcompliant ASHRAE 62.2 ventilation system. Table 12: Average

  2. Controlling electric power demand

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eikenberry, J.

    1984-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Traditionally, demand control has not been viewed as an energy conservation measure, its intent being to reduce the demand peak to lower the electric bill demand charge by deferring the use of a block of power to another demand interval. Any energy savings were essentially incidental and unintentional, resulting from curtailment of loads that could not be assumed at another time. This article considers a microprocessor-based multiplexed system linked to a minicomputer to control electric power demand in a winery. In addition to delivering an annual return on investment of 55 percent in electric bill savings, the system provides a bonus in the form of alarm and monitoring capability for critical processes.

  3. Hybrid Ventilation Optimization and Control Research and Development...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Hybrid Ventilation Optimization and Control Research and Development Hybrid Ventilation Optimization and Control Research and Development Lead Performer: Massachusetts Institute of...

  4. Meeting Residential Ventilation Standards Through Dynamic Control of Ventilation Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sherman, Max H.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    with a detailed heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (well as ventilation systems integrated into heating (naturalventilation standards, including American Society of Heating,

  5. Meeting Residential Ventilation Standards Through Dynamic Control of Ventilation Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sherman, Max H.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Rudd. 2007. Review of residential ventilation technologies.2009. EISG Final Report: Residential Integrated VentilationDesign and Operation of Residential Cooling Systems. Proc.

  6. Carbon-dioxide-controlled ventilation study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McMordie, K.L.; Carroll, D.M.

    1994-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The In-House Energy Management (IHEM) Program has been established by the U.S. Department of Energy to provide funds to federal laboratories to conduct research on energy-efficient technology. The Energy Sciences Department of Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) was tasked by IHEM to research the energy savings potential associated with reducing outdoor-air ventilation of buildings. By monitoring carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) levels in a building, outdoor air provided by the heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) system can be reduced to the percentage required to maintain satisfactory CO{sub 2} levels rather than ventilating with a higher outdoor-air percentage based on an arbitrary minimum outdoor-air setting. During summer months, warm outdoor air brought into a building for ventilation must be cooled to meet the appropriate cooling supply-air temperature, and during winter months, cold outdoor air must be heated. By minimizing the amount of hot or cold outdoor air brought into the HVAC system, the supply air requires less cooling or heating, saving energy and money. Additionally, the CO{sub 2} levels in a building can be monitored to ensure that adequate outdoor air is supplied to a building to maintain air quality levels. The two main considerations prior to implementing CO{sub 2}-based ventilation control are its impact on energy consumption and the adequacy of indoor air quality (IAQ) and occupant comfort. To address these considerations, six portable CO{sub 2} monitors were placed in several Hanford Site buildings to estimate the adequacy of office/workspace ventilation. The monitors assessed the potential for reducing the flow of outdoor-air to the buildings. A candidate building was also identified to monitor various ventilation control strategies for use in developing a plan for implementing and assessing energy savings.

  7. Electrical Demand Control

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eppelheimer, D. M.

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    to the reservoir. Util i ties have iiting for a number of years. d a rebate for reducing their When the utility needs to shed is sent to turn off one or mnre mer's electric water heater or equipment. wges have enticed more and more same strategies... an increased need for demand 1 imiting. As building zone size is reduced, total instal led tonnage increases due to inversfty. Each compressor is cycled by a space thermostat. There is no control system to limit the number of compressors running at any...

  8. Use of Statistical Approach to Design an Optimal Duct System for On-demand Industrial Exhaust Ventilation 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Litomisky, A.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper elaborates on how to use statistics to calculate optimal parameters (including duct diameters) of energy-efficient industrial ventilation systems. Based on the fan-law, on-demand ventilation can save up to 80% ...

  9. Use of Statistical Approach to Design an Optimal Duct System for On-demand Industrial Exhaust Ventilation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Litomisky, A.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper elaborates on how to use statistics to calculate optimal parameters (including duct diameters) of energy-efficient industrial ventilation systems. Based on the fan-law, on-demand ventilation can save up to 80% of electricity compared...

  10. MINING VENTILATION CONTROL: A NEW INDUSTRIAL CASE FOR WIRELESS AUTOMATION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    % of the energy consumed by the mining process goes into the ventilation (including heating the air). It is clearMINING VENTILATION CONTROL: A NEW INDUSTRIAL CASE FOR WIRELESS AUTOMATION E. Witrant1, A. D This paper serves as an introduction to Special Session on Ventilation Control in Large-Scale Systems. We de

  11. Optimal decision making in ventilation control Andrew Kusiak*, Mingyang Li

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kusiak, Andrew

    by heating, ventilating and air- conditioning (HVAC) systems. According to published statistics, HVAC systemsOptimal decision making in ventilation control Andrew Kusiak*, Mingyang Li Department of Mechanical Accepted 24 July 2009 Available online 15 August 2009 Keywords: Ventilation Air quality Multi

  12. Mining ventilation control: a new industrial case for wireless automation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johansson, Karl Henrik

    system with high envi- ronmental impact: the mining ventilation. We do not pretend to solve the global ventilation is an interesting example of a large scale system with high environmental impact where advancedMining ventilation control: a new industrial case for wireless automation E. Witrant1, A. D

  13. Advanced Controls for Residential Whole-House Ventilation Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Turner, William; Walker, Iain; Sherman, Max

    2014-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Whole-house ventilation systems are becoming commonplace in new construction, remodeling/renovation, and weatherization projects, driven by combinations of specific requirements for indoor air quality (IAQ), health and compliance with standards, such as ASHRAE 62.2. Ventilation systems incur an energy penalty on the home via fan power used to drive the airflow, and the additional space-conditioning load associated with heating or cooling the ventilation air. Finding a balance between IAQ and energy use is important if homes are to be adequately ventilated while not increasing the energy burden. This study used computer simulations to examine RIVEC the Residential Integrated Ventilation Controller - a prototype ventilation controller that aims to deliver whole-house ventilation rates that comply with ventilation standards, for the minimum use of energy. Four different whole-house ventilation systems were simulated, both with and without RIVEC, so that the energy and IAQ results could be compared. Simulations were conducted for 13 US climate zones, three house designs, and three envelope leakage values. The results showed that the RIVEC controller could typically return ventilation energy savings greater than 40percent without compromising long-term chronic or short-term acute exposures to relevant indoor contaminants. Critical and average peak power loads were also reduced as a consequence of using RIVEC.

  14. Development of a Residential Integrated Ventilation Controller

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Walker, Iain

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    systems such as those sold by Honeywell, and Aprilaire. Forin the world. Honeywell (http://yourhome.honeywell.com/US/Products/Ventilation/ ) Honeywell makes a line of economy

  15. Gaseous effluents from the combustion of nanocomposites in controlled-ventilation conditions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    Gaseous effluents from the combustion of nanocomposites in controlled-ventilation conditions D on the combustion of nanocomposite samples under various ventilation conditions. Tests have been performed ammonium polyphosphate in equal proportions. During testing, the ventilation-controlled conditions were

  16. New generation of software? Modeling of energy demands for residential ventilation with HTML interface

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Forowicz, T.

    1997-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The paper presents an interactive on-line package for calculation of energy and cost demands for residential infiltration and ventilation, with input and output data entry through a web browser. This is a unique tool. It represents a new kind of approach to developing software employing user (client) and server (package provider) computers. The main program, servicing {open_quotes}intelligent{close_quotes} CGI (Common Gateway Interface) calls, resides on the server and dynamically handles the whole package performance and the procedure of calculations. The {open_quotes}computing engine{close_quotes} consists of two parts: RESVENT - the previously existing program for ventilation calculations and ECONOMICS - for heating and cooling system energy and cost calculations. The user interface is designed in such a way, that it allows simultaneous access by many users from all over the world.

  17. Development of a Residential Integrated Ventilation Controller

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Walker, Iain

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and Ventilation Center. Emmerich, S.J, Dols, W.S. , “LoopDA:8 Int. IPBSA Conf. (2003) Emmerich S.J. Nabinger, S. J. “53484. Wallace, L. A. , Emmerich, S. J. , and Howard-Reed,

  18. Cost effective combined axial fan and throttling valve control of ventilation rate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sengun, Mehmet Haluk

    Cost effective combined axial fan and throttling valve control of ventilation rate C.J. Taylor 1 P with Proportional-Integral-Plus (PIP) control of ventilation rate in mechanically ventilated agricultural buildings ventilation. The new combined fan/valve configuration is compared with a commercially available PID

  19. Wireless Ventilation Control for Large-Scale Systems: the Mining Industrial Case

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    Wireless Ventilation Control for Large-Scale Systems: the Mining Industrial Case E. Witrant1,, A. D, for large scale systems with high environmental impact: the mining ventilation control systems. Ventilation). We propose a new model for underground ventilation. The main components of the system dynamics

  20. AUTOMATIC VARIABLE VENTILATION CONTROL SYSTEMS BASED ON AIR QUALITY DETECTION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Turiel, Isaac

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    SUt1t1ARY Mechanical ventilation systems usually provide aof any 02 based ventilation system is that a ventilationwith type of ventilation system~ weather conditions, and

  1. Wireless Demand Response Controls for HVAC Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Federspiel, Clifford

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Response Controls for HVAC Systems Clifford Federspiel,tests. Figure 5: Specific HVAC electric power consumptioncontrol, demand response, HVAC, wireless Executive Summary

  2. MR-compatible ventilator for small animals: computer-controlled ventilation for proton and noble gas imaging

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of normal breathing gas or experimental test gases. 2. Materials and methods 2.1. Overview of the ventilator/timers control electro-mechanical relays (S2072 relay board, National Instruments Interface Board), which in turn

  3. Controllability and invariance of monotone systems for robust ventilation automation in buildings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Controllability and invariance of monotone systems for robust ventilation automation in buildings [2] and control [3] of Heating, Ventilating and Air Conditioning (HVAC) systems leads to an improved comfort for the users and a reduction of energy consumption. Compared to traditional ceiling ventilation

  4. Cleantech to Market Projects Spring 2011 1. Residential Ventilation Controller; PI -Iain Walker

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kammen, Daniel M.

    Cleantech to Market Projects ­ Spring 2011 1. Residential Ventilation Controller; PI - Iain Walker As homes become more airtight optimizing for energy efficiency. Researchers have designed a smart ventilation system

  5. Direct versus Facility Centric Load Control for Automated Demand Response

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Piette, Mary Ann

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Keywords: Demand response, automation, commercial buildings,Demand Response and Energy Efficiency in Commercial Buildings,Building Control Strategies and Techniques for Demand Response.

  6. Air flow and particle control with different ventilation systems in a classroom

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Qingyan "Yan"

    Air flow and particle control with different ventilation systems in a classroom Sture Holmberg, Ph@mit.edu Phone: +1-617-253-7714, Fax: +1-617-2536152 Abstract Most ventilation and air conditioning systems. For displacement ventilation systems, designers normally assume that all pollutants follow the buoyant air flow

  7. Centralized and Decentralized Control for Demand Response

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lu, Shuai; Samaan, Nader A.; Diao, Ruisheng; Elizondo, Marcelo A.; Jin, Chunlian; Mayhorn, Ebony T.; Zhang, Yu; Kirkham, Harold

    2011-04-29T23:59:59.000Z

    Demand response has been recognized as an essential element of the smart grid. Frequency response, regulation and contingency reserve functions performed traditionally by generation resources are now starting to involve demand side resources. Additional benefits from demand response include peak reduction and load shifting, which will defer new infrastructure investment and improve generator operation efficiency. Technical approaches designed to realize these functionalities can be categorized into centralized control and decentralized control, depending on where the response decision is made. This paper discusses these two control philosophies and compares their relative advantages and disadvantages in terms of delay time, predictability, complexity, and reliability. A distribution system model with detailed household loads and controls is built to demonstrate the characteristics of the two approaches. The conclusion is that the promptness and reliability of decentralized control should be combined with the predictability and simplicity of centralized control to achieve the best performance of the smart grid.

  8. Wireless Demand Response Controls for HVAC Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Federspiel, Clifford

    2009-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The objectives of this scoping study were to develop and test control software and wireless hardware that could enable closed-loop, zone-temperature-based demand response in buildings that have either pneumatic controls or legacy digital controls that cannot be used as part of a demand response automation system. We designed a SOAP client that is compatible with the Demand Response Automation Server (DRAS) being used by the IOUs in California for their CPP program, design the DR control software, investigated the use of cellular routers for connecting to the DRAS, and tested the wireless DR system with an emulator running a calibrated model of a working building. The results show that the wireless DR system can shed approximately 1.5 Watts per design CFM on the design day in a hot, inland climate in California while keeping temperatures within the limits of ASHRAE Standard 55: Thermal Environmental Conditions for Human Occupancy.

  9. CO2 MONITORING FOR DEMAND CONTROLLED VENTILATION IN COMMERCIAL BUILDINGS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fisk, William J.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Laboratory-based evaluations of nine sensors with largespecified existing sensor for evaluation. In the prior fieldIn summary, these evaluations of faulty sensors did not

  10. CO2 MONITORING FOR DEMAND CONTROLLED VENTILATION IN COMMERCIAL BUILDINGS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fisk, William J.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    evaluations of the performance of sensor electronics and measurements of the output of infrared sources within sensors

  11. CO2 MONITORING FOR DEMAND CONTROLLED VENTILATION IN COMMERCIAL BUILDINGS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fisk, William J.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Transactions 105(2). Emmerich, S. J. and A. K. Persily (Fisk and de Almeida 1998; Emmerich and Persily 2001), CO 2Fisk and de Almeida 1998; Emmerich and Persily 2001; Apte

  12. Advanced Controls and Sustainable Systems for Residential Ventilation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Turner, William J.N.

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    10 Peak Energy Demand and DemandDOE, 2011). The energy demand of existing technologies posesand IAQ. Peak Energy Demand and Demand Response ‘Peak energy

  13. Demand Control Utilizing Energy Management Systems - Report of Field Tests

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Russell, B. D.; Heller, R. P.; Perry, L. W.

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Energy Management systems and particularly demand controllers are becoming more popular as commercial and light industrial operations attempt to reduce their electrical usage and demand. Numerous techniques are used to control energy use and demand...

  14. Effect of repository underground ventilation on emplacement drift temperature control

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, H.; Sun, Y.; McKenzie, D.G.; Bhattacharyya, K.K. [Morrison Knudson Corporation, Las Vegas, NV (United States)

    1996-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The repository advanced conceptual design (ACD) is being conducted by the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System, Management & Operating Contractor. Underground ventilation analyses during ACD have resulted in preliminary ventilation concepts and design methodologies. This paper discusses one of the recent evaluations -- effects of ventilation on emplacement drift temperature management.

  15. Wireless Demand Response Controls for HVAC Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Federspiel, Clifford

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Strategies Linking Demand Response and Energy Efficiency,”Fully Automated Demand Response Tests in Large Facilities,technical support from the Demand Response Research Center (

  16. Automated Demand Response Strategies and Commissioning Commercial Building Controls

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Piette, Mary Ann; Watson, David; Motegi, Naoya; Kiliccote, Sila; Linkugel, Eric

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    4 9 . Piette et at Automated Demand Response Strategies andDynamic Controls for Demand Response in New and ExistingFully Automated Demand Response Tests in Large Facilities"

  17. Energy and Cost Associated with Ventilating Office Buildings in a Tropical Climate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rim, Donghyun; Schiavon, Stefano; Nazaroff, William W

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    heating and cooling energy demand in Switzer- land. Energyorder: 1) ventilation energy demand; 2) ventilation energythe study. Ventilation energy demand Fig 2A summarizes the

  18. Demand Controlled Filtration in an Industrial Cleanroom

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Faulkner, David; DiBartolomeo, Dennis; Wang, Duo

    2007-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In an industrial cleanroom, significant energy savings were realized by implementing two types of demand controlled filtration (DCF) strategies, one based on particle counts and one on occupancy. With each strategy the speed of the recirculation fan filter units was reduced to save energy. When the control was based on particle counts, the energy use was 60% of the baseline configuration of continuous fan operation. With simple occupancy sensors, the energy usage was 63% of the baseline configuration. During the testing of DCF, no complaints were registered by the operator of the cleanroom concerning processes and products being affected by the DCF implementation.

  19. Demand response-enabled residential thermostat controls.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Xue; Jang, Jaehwi; Auslander, David M.; Peffer, Therese; Arens, Edward A

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    human dimension of demand response technology from a caseArens, E. , et al. 2008. Demand Response Enabling TechnologyArens, E. , et al. 2006. Demand Response Enabling Technology

  20. Automatic Verification of Wireless Control in a Mining Ventilation Maria D. Di Benedetto1, Alessandro D'Innocenzo1, Emmanuele Serra1, Emmanuel Witrant2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Automatic Verification of Wireless Control in a Mining Ventilation System Maria D. Di Benedetto1 control problem for a mine ventilation system. Ventilation control is essential for the control for the so called secondary ventilation system that ensures air flow in the chambers of the mine where

  1. Assessing the Control Systems Capacity for Demand Response in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    LBNL-5319E Assessing the Control Systems Capacity for Demand Response in California Industries in this report was coordinated by the Demand Response Research Center and funded by the California Energy of the Demand Response Research Center Industrial Controls Experts Working Group: · Jim Filanc, Southern

  2. Occupancy Based Demand Response HVAC Control Strategy Varick L. Erickson

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cerpa, Alberto E.

    Occupancy Based Demand Response HVAC Control Strategy Varick L. Erickson University of California an efficient demand response HVAC control strategy, actual room usage must be considered. Temperature and CO2 are used for simulations but not for predictive demand response strategies. In this paper, we develop

  3. Graphical language for identification of control strategies allowing Demand Response

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Graphical language for identification of control strategies allowing Demand Response David DA SILVA. This will allow the identification of the electric appliance availability for demand response control strategies to be implemented in terms of demand response for electrical appliances. Introduction An important part

  4. Wireless Demand Response Controls for HVAC Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Federspiel, Clifford

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    temperature-based demand response in buildings that havedemand response advantages of global zone temperature setup in buildings

  5. An Integrated Architecture for Demand Response Communications and Control

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gross, George

    An Integrated Architecture for Demand Response Communications and Control Michael LeMay, Rajesh for the MGA and ZigBee wireless communications. Index Terms Demand Response, Advanced Meter Infrastructure. In principle this can be done with demand response techniques in which electricity users take measures

  6. Optimal Demand Response Capacity of Automatic Lighting Control

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mohsenian-Rad, Hamed

    . To remedy this problem, different demand side management programs have been proposed to shape the energy prior studies have extensively studied the capacity of offering demand response in buildings and office buildings. Keywords: Demand response, automatic lighting control, commercial and office buildings

  7. Introduction to Commercial Building Control Strategies and Techniques for Demand Response -- Appendices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Motegi, N.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    for Demand Response in New and Existing Commercial BuildingsBuilding Control Strategies and Techniques for Demand Response -Building Control Strategies and Techniques for Demand Response

  8. Control Mechanisms for Residential Electricity Demand in SmartGrids

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Snyder, Larry

    Email: lvs2@lehigh.edu Abstract--We consider mechanisms to optimize electricity consumption both within subscription plan. Such methods for controlling electricity consumption are part of demand response, whichControl Mechanisms for Residential Electricity Demand in SmartGrids Shalinee Kishore Department

  9. Control of the microclimate around the head with opposing jet local ventilation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, Chonghui; Higuchi, Hiroshi; Arens, Edward; Zhang, Hui Ph.D

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of opposing jet local ventilation. AIAA 2009 Region I-NEImpact of a task-ambient ventilation system on perceived airefficiency for personalized ventilation application. Healthy

  10. Performance testing of a floor-based, occupant-controlled office ventilation system

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bauman, Fred; Johnston, L.; Zhang, H.; Arens, Edward A

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    a room ment ventilation systems." ASHRAE Transactions, Vol.95, Part 2. ence, Ventilation System Performance, 18-21Fountain. 1990. "A ventilation systems in office rooms."

  11. Meeting Residential Ventilation Standards

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ventilation standards, including American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air-conditioning EngineersLBNL 4591E Meeting Residential Ventilation Standards Through Dynamic Control of Ventilation Systems (ASHRAE) Standard 62.2, specify continuous operation of a defined mechanical ventilation system to provide

  12. Implementation of a Hybrid Controller for Ventilation Control Using Soft Computing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Craig G. Rieger; D. Subbaram Naidu

    2005-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Many industrial facilities utilize pressure control gradients to prevent migration of hazardous species from containment areas to occupied zones, often using Proportional-Integral-Derivative (PID) control systems. When operators rebalance the facility, variation from the desired gradients can occur and the operating conditions can change enough that the PID parameters are no longer adequate to maintain a stable system. As the goal of the ventilation control system is to optimize the pressure gradients and associated flows for the facility, Linear Quadratic Tracking (LQT) is a method that provides a time-based approach to guiding facility interactions. However, LQT methods are susceptible to modeling and measurement errors, and therefore the additional use of Soft Computing methods are proposed for implementation to account for these errors and nonlinearities.

  13. ADMINISTRATIVE AND ENGINEERING CONTROLS FOR THE OPERATION OF VENTILATION SYSTEMS FOR UNDERGROUND RADIOACTIVE WASTE STORAGE TANKS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wiersma, B.; Hansen, A.

    2013-11-13T23:59:59.000Z

    Liquid radioactive wastes from the Savannah River Site are stored in large underground carbon steel tanks. The majority of the waste is confined in double shell tanks, which have a primary shell, where the waste is stored, and a secondary shell, which creates an annular region between the two shells, that provides secondary containment and leak detection capabilities should leakage from the primary shell occur. Each of the DST is equipped with a purge ventilation system for the interior of the primary shell and annulus ventilation system for the secondary containment. Administrative flammability controls require continuous ventilation to remove hydrogen gas and other vapors from the waste tanks while preventing the release of radionuclides to the atmosphere. Should a leak from the primary to the annulus occur, the annulus ventilation would also serve this purpose. The functionality of the annulus ventilation is necessary to preserve the structural integrity of the primary shell and the secondary. An administrative corrosion control program is in place to ensure integrity of the tank. Given the critical functions of the purge and annulus ventilation systems, engineering controls are also necessary to ensure that the systems remain robust. The system consists of components that are constructed of metal (e.g., steel, stainless steel, aluminum, copper, etc.) and/or polymeric (polypropylene, polyethylene, silicone, polyurethane, etc.) materials. The performance of these materials in anticipated service environments (e.g., normal waste storage, waste removal, etc.) was evaluated. The most aggressive vapor space environment occurs during chemical cleaning of the residual heels by utilizing oxalic acid. The presence of NO{sub x} and mercury in the vapors generated from the process could potentially accelerate the degradation of aluminum, carbon steel, and copper. Once identified, the most susceptible materials were either replaced and/or plans for discontinuing operations are executed.

  14. Control of the microclimate around the head with opposing jet local ventilation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, Chonghui; Higuchi, Hiroshi; Arens, Edward; Zhang, Hui Ph.D

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of opposing jet local ventilation. AIAA 2009 Region I-NEHead with Opposing Jet Local Ventilation Chonghui Liu 1,* ,

  15. Demand Response (transactional control) - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville Power Administration wouldDECOMPOSITIONPortal DecisionRichlandDelegations,DemandEnergy

  16. Innovative Energy Efficient Industrial Ventilation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Litomisky, A.

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    factories, we found striking dichotomy between the classical “static” design of ventilation systems and constantly changing workflow and business demands. Using data from real factories, we are able to prove that classical industrial ventilation design...

  17. Control System Implementation and Follow-up within the Cooling and Ventilation Contracts for the LHC

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Body, Y; Morodo, M C

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The control system implementation for the cooling and ventilation facilities connected to the LHC Project relies on the technical and human resources that are organised within large-size industrial contracts. Beside the technical aspects, the follow-up of the implementation activities in the framework of such contracts also involves a managerial effort in order to achieve a flexible and coherent control system. The purpose is to assure precise and reliable regulation together with accurate local and remote supervision in conformity with the operational requirements. These objectives can only be reached by a systematic approach that keeps the co-ordination between the in-house and external cross-disciplinary teams as well as the fulfilment of the validation procedures and the contractual formalities. The case that here illustrates this approach is the control system implementation for the heating, ventilation and air conditioning of the LHC surface buildings, which shall extend up to 2004.

  18. Optimal Control of Distributed Energy Resources and Demand Response under Uncertainty

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Siddiqui, Afzal

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Control of Distributed Energy Resources and Demand ResponseControl of Distributed Energy Resources and Demand Responseinstalled distribution energy resources (DER) in the form of

  19. Demand response-enabled autonomous control for interior space conditioning in residential buildings.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Xue

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of demand response for residential buildings. ProfessorDemand Response-enabled Autonomous Control for Interior Space Conditioning in Residential BuildingsDemand Response-enabled Autonomous Control for Interior Space Conditioning in Residential Buildings

  20. Development of a demand defrost controller. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Borton, D.N. [Power Kinetics, Troy, NY (United States); Walker, D.H. [Foster-Miller, Inc., Waltham, MA (United States)

    1993-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this project was to develop and commercialize a demand defrost controller that initiates defrosts of refrigeration systems only when required. The standard method of control is a time clock that usually defrosts too often, which wastes energy. The controller developed by this project uses an algorithm based on the temperature difference between the discharge and return of the display case air curtain along with several time settings to defrost only when needed. This controller was field tested in a supermarket where it controlled defrost of the low-temperature display cases. According to test results the controller could reduce annual energy consumption by 20,000 and 62,000 kWh for hot gas and electric defrost, respectively. The controller saves electric demand as well as energy, is adaptable to ambient air conditions, and provides valuable savings throughout the year. The savings are greatest for low-temperature systems that use the most energy. A less tangible benefit of the demand controller is the improvement in food quality that results from fewer defrosts.

  1. Electric Water Heater Modeling and Control Strategies for Demand Response

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Diao, Ruisheng; Lu, Shuai; Elizondo, Marcelo A.; Mayhorn, Ebony T.; Zhang, Yu; Samaan, Nader A.

    2012-07-22T23:59:59.000Z

    Abstract— Demand response (DR) has a great potential to provide balancing services at normal operating conditions and emergency support when a power system is subject to disturbances. Effective control strategies can significantly relieve the balancing burden of conventional generators and reduce investment on generation and transmission expansion. This paper is aimed at modeling electric water heaters (EWH) in households and tests their response to control strategies to implement DR. The open-loop response of EWH to a centralized signal is studied by adjusting temperature settings to provide regulation services; and two types of decentralized controllers are tested to provide frequency support following generator trips. EWH models are included in a simulation platform in DIgSILENT to perform electromechanical simulation, which contains 147 households in a distribution feeder. Simulation results show the dependence of EWH response on water heater usage . These results provide insight suggestions on the need of control strategies to achieve better performance for demand response implementation. Index Terms— Centralized control, decentralized control, demand response, electrical water heater, smart grid

  2. EVALUATION OF BEST AVAILABLE CONTROL TECHNOLOGY FOR TOXICS -TBACT- DOUBLE SHELL TANK FARMS PRIMARY VENTILATION SYSTEMS SUPPORTING WASTE TRANSFER OPERATIONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    HAAS CC; KOVACH JL; KELLY SE; TURNER DA

    2010-06-24T23:59:59.000Z

    This report is an evaluation of Best Available Control Technology for Toxics (tBACT) for installation and operation of the Hanford double shell (DST) tank primary ventilation systems. The DST primary ventilation systems are being modified to support Hanford's waste retrieval, mixing, and delivery of single shell tank (SST) and DST waste through the DST storage system to the Waste Treatment and Immobilizaiton Plant (WTP).

  3. EVALUATION OF BEST AVAILABLE CONTROL TECHNOLOGY FOR TOXICS (TBACT) DOUBLE SHELL TANK FARMS PRIMARY VENTILATION SYSTEM SUPPORTING WASTE TRANSFER OPERATIONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    KELLY SE; HAASS CC; KOVACH JL; TURNER DA

    2010-06-03T23:59:59.000Z

    This report is an evaluation of Best Available Control Technology for Toxics (tBACT) for installation and operation of the Hanford double shell (DST) tank primary ventilation systems. The DST primary ventilation systems are being modified to support Hanford's waste retrieval, mixing, and delivery of single shell tank (SST) and DST waste throught the DST storage system to the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP).

  4. Summary of Workshop: Barriers to Energy Efficient Residential Ventilation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sherman, Max

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Improved controls for ventilation systems, including betterEfficient Residential Ventilation Held on January 10, 2008Consumers Manufacturers / Ventilation Industry Public Sector

  5. The Impact of Control Technology on the Demand Response Potential of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    LBNL-5750E The Impact of Control Technology on the Demand Response Potential of California was sponsored in part by the Demand Response Research Center which is funded

  6. Modeling, Analysis, and Control of Demand Response Resources

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mathieu, Johanna L.

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    advanced metering and demand response in electricityGoldman, and D. Kathan. “Demand response in U.S. electricity29] DOE. Benefits of demand response in electricity markets

  7. Direct versus Facility Centric Load Control for Automated Demand Response

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Piette, Mary Ann

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Interoperable Automated Demand Response Infrastructure.and Techniques for Demand Response. LBNL Report 59975. Mayand Communications for Demand Response and Energy Efficiency

  8. Automated Demand Response Strategies and Commissioning Commercial Building Controls

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Piette, Mary Ann; Watson, David; Motegi, Naoya; Kiliccote, Sila; Linkugel, Eric

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    for Demand Response in New and Existing Commercial BuildingsDemand Response Strategies and National Conference on BuildingDemand Response Strategies and Commissioning Commercial Building

  9. Advanced control strategies for heating, ventilation, air-conditioning, and refrigeration systems—An overview: Part I: Hard control

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    D. Subbaram Naidu; Craig G. Rieger

    2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A chronological overview of the advanced control strategies for heating, ventilation, air-conditioning, and refrigeration (HVAC&R) is presented in this article. The overview focuses on hard-computing or control techniques, such as proportional-integral-derivative, optimal, nonlinear, adaptive, and robust; soft-computing or control techniques, such as neural networks, fuzzy logic, genetic algorithms; and on the fusion or hybrid of hard- and soft-control techniques. Thus, it is to be noted that the terminology “hard” and “soft” computing/control has nothing to do with the “hardware” and “software” that is being generally used. Part I of a two-part series focuses on hard-control strategies, and Part II focuses on softand fusion-control in addition to some future directions in HVAC&R research. This overview is not intended to be an exhaustive survey on this topic, and any omission of other works is purely unintentional.

  10. BUILDING VENTILATION AND INDOOR AIR QUALITY PROGRAM. CHAPTER FROM ENERGY AND ENVIRONMENT DIVISION ANNUAL REPORT 1978

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cairns, Elton J.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of automatic variable ventilation control systems based onof automatic variable ventilation control systems, The Johnbe developed. Automatic Variable Ventilation Control Systems

  11. Heating, Ventilating, and Air-Conditioning: Recent Advances in Diagnostics and Controls to Improve Air-Handling System Performance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wray, Craig P.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Heating, Ventilating, and Air-Conditioning: Recent Advancesthe energy efficiency of many heating, ventilating, and air-system, which delivers heating, cooling, and ventilation air

  12. Modeling, Analysis, and Control of Demand Response Resources

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mathieu, Johanna L.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    El-Saadany. “A summary of demand response in electricityadvanced metering and demand response in electricityWolak. When it comes to demand response is FERC is own worst

  13. The Impact of Control Technology on the Demand Response Potential of California Industrial Refrigerated Facilities Final Report

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Scott, Doug

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    detailed the energy efficiency and demand response measuresto control both their energy usage and demand in order torequires balancing energy efficiency and demand response.

  14. Dynamic Controls for Energy Efficiency and Demand Response: Framework Concepts and a New Construction Study Case in New York

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kiliccote, Sila; Piette, Mary Ann; Watson, David S.; Hughes, Glenn

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    introduction of a demand-side management (DSM) framework forof building controls. Demand-Side Management Framework forDOE 2006). The demand-side management (DSM) framework

  15. Ventilation Air Preconditioning Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Khattar, M.; Brandemuehl, M. J.

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    simply and cost-effectively with a dual path arrangement that treats and controls the ventilation air independently of the recirculation air. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI)--the nonprofit R&D arm of the electric utility industry... particular type of application. EPRI is developing variations of the dual path concept to meet different reeofit and new construction markets. Figure 6. Ventilation Air Conditioner as a Separate Unit EPRVCALMAC System: Separate Unit for Ventilation Air...

  16. An MILP Formulation for Load-Side Demand Control Zhonghui Luo, Ratnesh Kumar*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kumar, Ratnesh

    Demand control systems can be divided functionally into supply-side and load-side control/management systems. Supply-side demand management systems, implemented by the utilities, choose between maintainingAn MILP Formulation for Load-Side Demand Control Zhonghui Luo, Ratnesh Kumar* , Joseph Sottile

  17. Direct versus Facility Centric Load Control for Automated Demand Response

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koch, Ed; Piette, Mary Ann

    2009-11-06T23:59:59.000Z

    Direct load control (DLC) refers to the scenario where third party entities outside the home or facility are responsible for deciding how and when specific customer loads will be controlled in response to Demand Response (DR) events on the electric grid. Examples of third parties responsible for performing DLC may be Utilities, Independent System Operators (ISO), Aggregators, or third party control companies. DLC can be contrasted with facility centric load control (FCLC) where the decisions for how loads are controlled are made entirely within the facility or enterprise control systems. In FCLC the facility owner has more freedom of choice in how to respond to DR events on the grid. Both approaches are in use today in automation of DR and both will continue to be used in future market segments including industrial, commercial and residential facilities. This paper will present a framework which can be used to differentiate between DLC and FCLC based upon where decisions are made on how specific loads are controlled in response to DR events. This differentiation is then used to compare and contrast the differences between DLC and FCLC to identify the impact each has on:(1)Utility/ISO and third party systems for managing demand response, (2)Facility systems for implementing load control, (3)Communications networks for interacting with the facility and (4)Facility operators and managers. Finally a survey of some of the existing DR related specifications and communications standards is given and their applicability to DLC or FCLC. In general FCLC adds more cost and responsibilities to the facilities whereas DLC represents higher costs and complexity for the Utility/ISO. This difference is primarily due to where the DR Logic is implemented and the consequences that creates. DLC may be more certain than FCLC because it is more predictable - however as more loads have the capability to respond to DR signals, people may prefer to have their own control of end-use loads and FCLC systems. Research is needed to understand the predictability of FCLC which is related to the perceived value of the DR from the facility manager or home owner's perspective.

  18. Recommended Changes to Specifications for Demand Controlled Ventilation in California's Title 24 Building Energy Efficiency Standards

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fisk, William J.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    s Title 24 Building Energy Efficiency Standards W.J. Fisk,s Title 24 Building Energy Efficiency Standards Report toCommission, 2008 Building energy efficiency standards for

  19. Optical People Counting for Demand Controlled Ventilation: A Pilot Study of Counter Performance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fisk, William J.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Transactions 105(2). Emmerich, S. J. and A. K. Persily (Brandemuehl and Braun 1999; Emmerich and Persily 2001). An

  20. Impact of Residential Mechanical Ventilation on Energy Cost and Humidity Control

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martin, E.

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The DOE Building America program has been conducting research leading to cost effective high performance homes since the early 1990's. Optimizing whole house mechanical ventilation as part of the program's systems engineered approach to constructing housing has been an important subject of the program's research. Ventilation in residential buildings is one component of an effective, comprehensive strategy for creation and maintenance of a comfortable and healthy indoor air environment. The study described in this white paper is based on building energy modeling with an important focus on the indoor humidity impacts of ventilation. The modeling tools used were EnergyPlus version 7.1 (E+) and EnergyGauge USA (EGUSA). Twelve U.S. cities and five climate zones were represented. A total of 864 simulations (2*2*3*3*12= 864) were run using two building archetypes, two building leakage rates, two building orientations, three ventilation systems, three ventilation rates, and twelve climates.

  1. Distributed Algorithms for Control of Demand Response and Distributed Energy Resources

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liberzon, Daniel

    (DRRs), sign a contract with an aggregating entity--the demand response provider--so as their load canDistributed Algorithms for Control of Demand Response and Distributed Energy Resources Alejandro D networks. These algorithms are relevant for load curtailment control in demand response programs, and also

  2. THE ROLE OF BUILDING TECHNOLOGIES IN REDUCING AND CONTROLLING PEAK ELECTRICITY DEMAND

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    LBNL-49947 THE ROLE OF BUILDING TECHNOLOGIES IN REDUCING AND CONTROLLING PEAK ELECTRICITY DEMAND? ..................................... 8 What are the seasonal aspects of electric peak demand?............................ 9 What because of the California electricity crisis (Borenstein 2001). Uncertainties surrounding the reliability

  3. Ventilative cooling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Graça, Guilherme Carrilho da, 1972-

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis evaluates the performance of daytime and nighttime passive ventilation cooling strategies for Beijing, Shanghai and Tokyo. A new simulation method for cross-ventilated wind driven airflow is presented . This ...

  4. Alternatives generation and analysis for double-shell tank primary ventilation systems emissions control and monitoring

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    SEDERBURG, J.P.

    1999-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    This AGA addresses the question: ''What equipment upgrades, operational changes, and/or other actions are required relative to the DST tanks farms' ventilation systems to support retrieval, staging (including feed sampling), and delivery of tank waste to the Phase I private contractor?'' Issues and options for the various components within the ventilation subsystem affect each other. Recommended design requirements are presented and the preferred alternatives are detailed.

  5. Measure Guideline: Ventilation Cooling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Springer, D.; Dakin, B.; German, A.

    2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this measure guideline on ventilation cooling is to provide information on a cost-effective solution for reducing cooling system energy and demand in homes located in hot-dry and cold-dry climates. This guideline provides a prescriptive approach that outlines qualification criteria, selection considerations, and design and installation procedures.

  6. Heating, Ventilating, and Air-Conditioning: Recent Advances in Diagnostics and Controls to Improve Air-Handling System Performance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wray, Craig P.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    step in designing a ventilation system is determining theto shut down the ventilation system for a period of timeperiod with the ventilation system off (e.g. , at least 6

  7. Aggregated Modeling and Control of Air Conditioning Loads for Demand Response

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Wei

    1 Aggregated Modeling and Control of Air Conditioning Loads for Demand Response Wei Zhang, Member, IEEE Abstract--Demand response is playing an increasingly impor- tant role in the efficient loads is especially important to evaluate the effec- tiveness of various demand response strategies

  8. Control and Optimization Meet the Smart Power Grid: Scheduling of Power Demands for Optimal Energy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Koutsopoulos, Iordanis

    Control and Optimization Meet the Smart Power Grid: Scheduling of Power Demands for Optimal Energy technologies to enforce sensible use of energy through effective demand load management. We envision a scenario con- sumer power demand requests with different power require- ments, durations, and deadlines

  9. Commissioning Residential Ventilation Systems: A Combined Assessment of Energy and Air Quality Potential Values

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Turner, William J.N.

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    through dynamic control of ventilation systems. Energy andcontinuous mechanical ventilation systems a mean annualcompliant ASHRAE 62.2 ventilation system. Table 12: Average

  10. Northwest Open Automated Demand Response Technology Demonstration Project

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kiliccote, Sila

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    loop controls. Heating ventilation and air conditioning (with varying heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (text protocol heating, ventilation, and air conditioning

  11. Equivalence in Ventilation and Indoor Air Quality

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sherman, Max; Walker, Iain; Logue, Jennifer

    2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We ventilate buildings to provide acceptable indoor air quality (IAQ). Ventilation standards (such as American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air-Conditioning Enginners [ASHRAE] Standard 62) specify minimum ventilation rates without taking into account the impact of those rates on IAQ. Innovative ventilation management is often a desirable element of reducing energy consumption or improving IAQ or comfort. Variable ventilation is one innovative strategy. To use variable ventilation in a way that meets standards, it is necessary to have a method for determining equivalence in terms of either ventilation or indoor air quality. This study develops methods to calculate either equivalent ventilation or equivalent IAQ. We demonstrate that equivalent ventilation can be used as the basis for dynamic ventilation control, reducing peak load and infiltration of outdoor contaminants. We also show that equivalent IAQ could allow some contaminants to exceed current standards if other contaminants are more stringently controlled.

  12. International Journal of Ventilation Volume 2 No 3 Application of CFD to Predict and Control Chemical and Biological

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhai, John Z.

    attack, since the conventional ventilation systems are not designed for such an attack. How to design ventilation systems that can protect buildings from such an attack is an urgent issue for ventilation system are especially hazardous when they are dispersed inside of a building, where traditional ventilation systems may

  13. Abstract--This paper formulates and develops a peak demand control tool for electric systems within the framework of direct

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Catholic University of Chile (Universidad CatĂłlica de Chile)

    techniques. Index Terms--Demand Side Management, direct load control, peak demand control, genetic algorithms in order to evaluate the suitability of the decision chosen. The Demand Side Management (DSM) plans attempt for central air conditioning systems in commercial buildings, hence allowing a measured control of peak demand

  14. Abstract--This paper formulates and develops a peak demand control tool for electric systems within the framework of direct

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Catholic University of Chile (Universidad CatĂłlica de Chile)

    techniques. Index Terms--Demand Side Management, direct load control, peak demand control, genetic algorithms in order to evaluate the suitability of the decision chosen. Demand Side Management (DSM) plans attempt for central air conditioning systems in commercial buildings, hence allowing a measured control of peak demand

  15. Modeling, Analysis, and Control of Demand Response Resources

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mathieu, Johanna L.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Modeling and control of aggregated heterogeneous thermostatically controlled loads for ancillary services”. In: Proceedings of the Power SystemsModeling and control of thermostatically controlled loads”. In: Pro- ceedings of 17 th Power Systems

  16. Modeling, Analysis, and Control of Demand Response Resources

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mathieu, Johanna L.

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Modeling and control of aggregated heterogeneous thermostatically controlled loads for ancillary services”. In: Proceedings of the Power SystemsModeling and control of thermostatically controlled loads”. In: Pro- ceedings of 17 th Power Systems

  17. A study of industrial equipment energy use and demand control

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dooley, Edward Scott

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Technologies. A battery storage system, capable of providing up to 5, 000 kW was installed (Hunt 1999). The batterics allow the plant's demand peaks to be lowcrcd by using energy stored in the batteries during off-peak periods to provide a portion...

  18. Ventilation Model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    H. Yang

    1999-11-04T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this analysis and model report (AMR) for the Ventilation Model is to analyze the effects of pre-closure continuous ventilation in the Engineered Barrier System (EBS) emplacement drifts and provide heat removal data to support EBS design. It will also provide input data (initial conditions, and time varying boundary conditions) for the EBS post-closure performance assessment and the EBS Water Distribution and Removal Process Model. The objective of the analysis is to develop, describe, and apply calculation methods and models that can be used to predict thermal conditions within emplacement drifts under forced ventilation during the pre-closure period. The scope of this analysis includes: (1) Provide a general description of effects and heat transfer process of emplacement drift ventilation. (2) Develop a modeling approach to simulate the impacts of pre-closure ventilation on the thermal conditions in emplacement drifts. (3) Identify and document inputs to be used for modeling emplacement ventilation. (4) Perform calculations of temperatures and heat removal in the emplacement drift. (5) Address general considerations of the effect of water/moisture removal by ventilation on the repository thermal conditions. The numerical modeling in this document will be limited to heat-only modeling and calculations. Only a preliminary assessment of the heat/moisture ventilation effects and modeling method will be performed in this revision. Modeling of moisture effects on heat removal and emplacement drift temperature may be performed in the future.

  19. Control and Optimization Meet the Smart Power Grid - Scheduling of Power Demands for Optimal Energy Management

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Koutsopoulos, Iordanis

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The smart power grid aims at harnessing information and communication technologies to enhance reliability and enforce sensible use of energy. Its realization is geared by the fundamental goal of effective management of demand load. In this work, we envision a scenario with real-time communication between the operator and consumers. The grid operator controller receives requests for power demands from consumers, with different power requirement, duration, and a deadline by which it is to be completed. The objective is to devise a power demand task scheduling policy that minimizes the grid operational cost over a time horizon. The operational cost is a convex function of instantaneous power consumption and reflects the fact that each additional unit of power needed to serve demands is more expensive as demand load increases.First, we study the off-line demand scheduling problem, where parameters are fixed and known. Next, we devise a stochastic model for the case when demands are generated continually and sched...

  20. Fuse Control for Demand Side Management: A Stochastic Pricing Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oren, Shmuel S.

    critical infrastructures in modern society. To ensure reliable system operation, control services Oren, Shmuel; University of California, Technical Topic Area : Power system control, Power system markets Key Words: Power system control, Optimization methods, Stochastic systems IEEE PES Transactions

  1. Advanced Control Technologies and Strategies Linking Demand Response and Energy Efficiency 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kiliccote, S.; Piette, M. A.

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ICEBO 2005 Conference Paper September 1, 2005 LBNL # 58179 ADVANCED CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES AND STRATEGIES LINKING DEMAND RESPONSE AND ENERGY EFFICIENCY Sila Kiliccote Mary Ann Piette Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Berkeley..., and nationwide status is outlined. The role of energy management and control systems for DR is described. Building systems such as HVAC and lighting that utilize control technologies and strategies for energy efficiency are mapped on to DR and demand...

  2. Direct Adaptive Control of Electricity Demand S. Keshav and C. Rosenberg

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Waterloo, University of

    Report CS-2010-17 ABSTRACT The legacy electrical grid upper-bounds a customer's en- ergy demand using An electrical grid supplies reliable power to residential, industrial, and commercial customers by dynamicallyDirect Adaptive Control of Electricity Demand S. Keshav and C. Rosenberg School of Computer Science

  3. Indoor Airflow And Pollutant Removal In A Room With Floor-Based Task Ventilation: Results of Additional Experiments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Faulkner, D.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    C , "Displacement Ventilation Systems in Office Rooms,"Controlled Office Ventilation System," ASHRAE Transactions,of a floor-based task ventilation system designed for use in

  4. Ventilation Model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    V. Chipman

    2002-10-05T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of the Ventilation Model is to simulate the heat transfer processes in and around waste emplacement drifts during periods of forced ventilation. The model evaluates the effects of emplacement drift ventilation on the thermal conditions in the emplacement drifts and surrounding rock mass, and calculates the heat removal by ventilation as a measure of the viability of ventilation to delay the onset of peak repository temperature and reduce its magnitude. The heat removal by ventilation is temporally and spatially dependent, and is expressed as the fraction of heat carried away by the ventilation air compared to the fraction of heat produced by radionuclide decay. One minus the heat removal is called the wall heat fraction, or the remaining amount of heat that is transferred via conduction to the surrounding rock mass. Downstream models, such as the ''Multiscale Thermohydrologic Model'' (BSC 2001), use the wall heat fractions as outputted from the Ventilation Model to initialize their post-closure analyses. The Ventilation Model report was initially developed to analyze the effects of preclosure continuous ventilation in the Engineered Barrier System (EBS) emplacement drifts, and to provide heat removal data to support EBS design. Revision 00 of the Ventilation Model included documentation of the modeling results from the ANSYS-based heat transfer model. The purposes of Revision 01 of the Ventilation Model are: (1) To validate the conceptual model for preclosure ventilation of emplacement drifts and verify its numerical application in accordance with new procedural requirements as outlined in AP-SIII-10Q, Models (Section 7.0). (2) To satisfy technical issues posed in KTI agreement RDTME 3.14 (Reamer and Williams 2001a). Specifically to demonstrate, with respect to the ANSYS ventilation model, the adequacy of the discretization (Section 6.2.3.1), and the downstream applicability of the model results (i.e. wall heat fractions) to initialize post-closure thermal models (Section 6.6). (3) To satisfy the remainder of KTI agreement TEF 2.07 (Reamer and Williams 2001b). Specifically to provide the results of post-test ANSYS modeling of the Atlas Facility forced convection tests (Section 7.1.2). This portion of the model report also serves as a validation exercise per AP-SIII.10Q, Models, for the ANSYS ventilation model. (4) To further satisfy KTI agreements RDTME 3.01 and 3.14 (Reamer and Williams 2001a) by providing the source documentation referred to in the KTI Letter Report, ''Effect of Forced Ventilation on Thermal-Hydrologic Conditions in the Engineered Barrier System and Near Field Environment'' (Williams 2002). Specifically to provide the results of the MULTIFLUX model which simulates the coupled processes of heat and mass transfer in and around waste emplacement drifts during periods of forced ventilation. This portion of the model report is presented as an Alternative Conceptual Model with a numerical application, and also provides corroborative results used for model validation purposes (Section 6.3 and 6.4).

  5. Coordinating Inventory Control and Pricing Strategies with Random Demand and Fixed

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Xin

    Coordinating Inventory Control and Pricing Strategies with Random Demand and Fixed Ordering Cost, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 1. Introduction Traditional inventory strategies to manage their inventory effectively. For example, techniques such as revenue management have

  6. Electricity demand as frequency controlled reserves, ForskEL...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    controlled reserve (DFR) implementation, a system that automatically stops or starts electricity consumption in response to system frequency variations. References "EU...

  7. A Dynamic Inventory Control Policy Under Demand, Yield and Lead Time Uncertainties

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    A Dynamic Inventory Control Policy Under Demand, Yield and Lead Time Uncertainties Mohamed Zied@lgi.ecp.fr, dallery@lgi.ecp.fr) ABSTRACT In this paper, we analyze a single-stage and single-item inventory control it. Keywords: inventory control, forecasts, cycle service level, fill rate, safety stock, policy

  8. Assessing the Control Systems Capacity for Demand Response in California Industries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ghatikar, Girish; McKane, Aimee; Goli, Sasank; Therkelsen, Peter; Olsen, Daniel

    2012-01-18T23:59:59.000Z

    California's electricity markets are moving toward dynamic pricing models, such as real-time pricing, within the next few years, which could have a significant impact on an industrial facility's cost of energy use during the times of peak use. Adequate controls and automated systems that provide industrial facility managers real-time energy use and cost information are necessary for successful implementation of a comprehensive electricity strategy; however, little is known about the current control capacity of California industries. To address this gap, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, in close collaboration with California industrial trade associations, conducted a survey to determine the current state of controls technologies in California industries. This,study identifies sectors that have the technical capability to implement Demand Response (DR) and Automated Demand Response (Auto-DR). In an effort to assist policy makers and industry in meeting the challenges of real-time pricing, facility operational and organizational factors were taken into consideration to generate recommendations on which sectors Demand Response efforts should be focused. Analysis of the survey responses showed that while the vast majority of industrial facilities have semi- or fully automated control systems, participation in Demand Response programs is still low due to perceived barriers. The results also showed that the facilities that use continuous processes are good Demand Response candidates. When comparing facilities participating in Demand Response to those not participating, several similarities and differences emerged. Demand Response-participating facilities and non-participating facilities had similar timings of peak energy use, production processes, and participation in energy audits. Though the survey sample was smaller than anticipated, the results seemed to support our preliminary assumptions. Demonstrations of Auto-Demand Response in industrial facilities with good control capabilities are needed to dispel perceived barriers to participation and to investigate industrial subsectors suggested of having inherent Demand Response potential.

  9. Demand Responsive and Energy Efficient Control Technologies andStrategies in Commercial Buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Piette, Mary Ann; Kiliccote, Sila

    2006-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Commercial buildings account for a large portion of summer peak electric demand. Research results show that there is significant potential to reduce peak demand in commercial buildings through advanced control technologies and strategies. However, a better understanding of commercial buildings contribution to peak demand and the use of energy management and control systems is required to develop this demand response resource to its full potential. The main objectives of the study were: (1) To evaluate the size of contributions of peak demand commercial buildings in the U.S.; (2) To understand how commercial building control systems support energy efficiency and DR; and (3) To disseminate the results to the building owners, facility managers and building controls industry. In order to estimate the commercial buildings contribution to peak demand, two sources of data are used: (1) Commercial Building Energy Consumption Survey (CBECS) and (2) National Energy Modeling System (NEMS). These two sources indicate that commercial buildings noncoincidental peak demand is about 330GW. The project then focused on technologies and strategies that deliver energy efficiency and also target 5-10% of this peak. Based on a building operations perspective, a demand-side management framework with three main features: (1) daily energy efficiency, (2) daily peak load management and (3) dynamic, event-driven DR are outlined. A general description of DR, its benefits, and nationwide DR potential in commercial buildings are presented. Case studies involving these technologies and strategies are described. The findings of this project are shared with building owners, building controls industry, researchers and government entities through a webcast and their input is requested. Their input is presented in the appendix section of this report.

  10. Decentralized Control of Aggregated Loads for Demand Response Di Guo, Wei Zhang, Gangfeng Yan, Zhiyun Lin, and Minyue Fu

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Wei

    Decentralized Control of Aggregated Loads for Demand Response Di Guo, Wei Zhang, Gangfeng Yan of residential responsive loads for vari- ous demand response applications. We propose a general hybrid system and effectively reduce the peak power consumption. I. INTRODUCTION Demand response has the potential to shift

  11. Proposal for the award of a contract for the conversion of the former LEP ventilation process control system for the LHC

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This document concerns the award of a contract for the conversion of the former LEP ventilation process control system for the LHC. The Finance Committee is invited to agree to the negotiation of a contract with ASSYSTEM (FR), the lowest bidder, for the conversion of the former LEP ventilation process control system for the LHC and the maintenance of the process control and supervision system hardware and software for five years, for a total amount of 1 670 524 euros (2 628 403 Swiss francs), not subject to revision, with options for an equipment inventory and a code generator, for an additional amount of 67 115 euros (105 599 Swiss francs), bringing the total amount to 1 737 639 euros (2 734 002 Swiss francs) not subject to revision. The rate of exchange used is that stipulated in the tender.

  12. Assessment of Energy Savings Potential from the Use of Demand Control Ventilation Systems in General Office Spaces in California

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hong, Tianzhen

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    California building energy efficiency standards for the  California Building energy Efficiency Standards (CEC 2008 California  building energy efficiency standards (CEC 

  13. Assessment of Energy Savings Potential from the Use of Demand Controlled Ventilation in General Office Spaces in California

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hong, Tianzhen

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    2008).  California building energy efficiency  standards California  building energy efficiency standards (Title 24) 2008 California Building Energy Efficiency Standards (Title 

  14. Assessment of Energy Savings Potential from the Use of Demand Controlled Ventilation in General Office Spaces in California

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hong, Tianzhen

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    2005  through 2035.   Emmerich SJ, Persily AK (2001).  1998,  Carpenter 1996, Emmerich 2001, and Schell 1998.  

  15. Assessment of Energy Savings Potential from the Use of Demand Controlled Ventilation in General Office Spaces in California

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hong, Tianzhen

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    energy consumption survey (EIA 2003) indicating that officeEIA 2003).  Commercial Building Energy  Consumption Survey.  

  16. Transition dynamics between the multiple steady states in natural ventilation systems : from theories to applications in optimal controls

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yuan, Jinchao

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this study, we investigated the multiple steady state behavior, an important observation in numerical and experimental studies in natural ventilation systems. The-oretical models are developed and their applications in ...

  17. Dynamic Demand Control with Differentiated QoS in User-in-the-Loop Controlled Cellular Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yanikomeroglu, Halim

    for data rate due to smart mobile devices and laptop dongles with an estimated traffic growth of almost 100 and energy-efficiency. In this paper the temporal user-in-the-loop (UIL) control ap- proach is assumed. This user-centric model implements demand shaping by incentives in form of a dynamic usage-based tariff

  18. Proposal for the award of a contract for the design, supply, installation and commissioning of a Heating, Ventilation and Air-Conditioning (HVAC) system for the computer room of the CERN Control Centre

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Proposal for the award of a contract for the design, supply, installation and commissioning of a Heating, Ventilation and Air-Conditioning (HVAC) system for the computer room of the CERN Control Centre

  19. Optimal Control of Distributed Energy Resources and Demand Response under Uncertainty

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Siddiqui, Afzal

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Energy Resources and Demand Response under Uncertainty AfzalEnergy Resources and Demand Response under Uncertainty ?DER in conjunction with demand response (DR): the expected

  20. Demand response-enabled autonomous control for interior space conditioning in residential buildings.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Xue

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Demand Response Autonomous Controlssystem under the context of demand response for residential10] E. Arens et al. , Demand response enabling technology

  1. Optimal Control of Distributed Energy Resources and Demand Response under Uncertainty

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Siddiqui, Afzal

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of Distributed Energy Resources and Demand Response underof Distributed Energy Resources and Demand Response underof Distributed Energy Resources and Demand Response under

  2. Demand Responsive and Energy Efficient Control Technologies and Strategies in Commercial Buildings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Piette, Mary Ann; Kiliccote, Sila

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    perspective, a demand-side management framework with threethe integration of DR in demand-side management activitiesdevelopments. The demand-side management (DSM) framework

  3. Load-side Demand Management in Buildings using Controlled Electric Springs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Soni, Jayantika; Krishnanand, KR; Panda, Sanjib

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The concept of demand-side management for electricand simulation of demand-side management potential in urbanin smart grids, demand side management has been a keen topic

  4. Advanced Controls and Communications for Demand Response and Energy Efficiency in Commercial Buildings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kiliccote, Sila; Piette, Mary Ann; Hansen, David

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    buildings. A demand-side management framework from buildingthe integration of DR in demand-side management activitiesdevelopments. The demand-side management (DSM) framework

  5. Demand Responsive and Energy Efficient Control Technologies and Strategies in Commercial Buildings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Piette, Mary Ann; Kiliccote, Sila

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Demand Response in Commercial Buildings 3.1. Demand Response in Commercial Buildings ElectricityDemand Response: Understanding the DR potential in commercial buildings

  6. Intelligent Building Energy Information and Control Systems for Low-Energy Operations and Optimal Demand Response

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Piette, Mary Ann

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    account  demand  response  signals,  building?integrated of Automated Demand Response in Commercial Buildings.  and Demand Response in Commercial  Buildings. , LBNL 

  7. Advanced Controls and Communications for Demand Response and Energy Efficiency in Commercial Buildings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kiliccote, Sila; Piette, Mary Ann; Hansen, David

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    PA. 3. DEMAND RESPONSE IN COMMERCIAL BUILDINGS ElectricityDemand Response and Energy Efficiency in Commercial BuildingsDemand Response and Energy Efficiency in Commercial Buildings

  8. Circulation . Author manuscript Ultrafast and whole-body cooling with total liquid ventilation induces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    ventilation induces favorable neurological and cardiac outcomes after cardiac arrest in rabbits Mourad decrease after resuscitation. Since total liquid ventilation (TLV) with temperature controlled ; physiology ; Liquid Ventilation ; Liver ; physiology ; Lung ; physiology ; Nervous System Physiological

  9. Advanced Control Technologies and Strategies Linking Demand Response and Energy Efficiency

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kiliccote, Sila; Piette, Mary Ann

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    driven building response. Demand Side Management Energybuildings. Table 1 outlines how DR fits into historical demand side management (

  10. Electrical power distribution control methods, electrical energy demand monitoring methods, and power management devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chassin, David P. (Pasco, WA); Donnelly, Matthew K. (Kennewick, WA); Dagle, Jeffery E. (Richland, WA)

    2011-12-06T23:59:59.000Z

    Electrical power distribution control methods, electrical energy demand monitoring methods, and power management devices are described. In one aspect, an electrical power distribution control method includes providing electrical energy from an electrical power distribution system, applying the electrical energy to a load, providing a plurality of different values for a threshold at a plurality of moments in time and corresponding to an electrical characteristic of the electrical energy, and adjusting an amount of the electrical energy applied to the load responsive to an electrical characteristic of the electrical energy triggering one of the values of the threshold at the respective moment in time.

  11. Electrical power distribution control methods, electrical energy demand monitoring methods, and power management devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chassin, David P. (Pasco, WA); Donnelly, Matthew K. (Kennewick, WA); Dagle, Jeffery E. (Richland, WA)

    2006-12-12T23:59:59.000Z

    Electrical power distribution control methods, electrical energy demand monitoring methods, and power management devices are described. In one aspect, an electrical power distribution control method includes providing electrical energy from an electrical power distribution system, applying the electrical energy to a load, providing a plurality of different values for a threshold at a plurality of moments in time and corresponding to an electrical characteristic of the electrical energy, and adjusting an amount of the electrical energy applied to the load responsive to an electrical characteristic of the electrical energy triggering one of the values of the threshold at the respective moment in time.

  12. Industrial Ventilation Statistics Confirm Energy Savings Opportunity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Litomisky, A.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    is based on installed on-demand ventilation systems, where sensors and PLC are installed with each system, so data is easily collected. Another critical factor for effective dust collecting is proper air velocities in duct system. Having measured air... velocities at drops and at the main ducts of existing classical industrial ventilation designs in 90 factories, 130 systems, and 1000 drops, we have found that only a minimum of air velocities are in the recommended range. There is a striking dichotomy...

  13. Optimization-based Design of Plant-Friendly Input Signals for Model-on-Demand Estimation and Model Predictive Control

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mittelmann, Hans D.

    is shown by applying it to a case study involving composition control of a binary distillation column. I is demonstrated in a binary high-purity distillation column case study by Weischedel and McAvoy [7], a demandingOptimization-based Design of Plant-Friendly Input Signals for Model-on-Demand Estimation and Model

  14. Opportunities for Automated Demand Response in Wastewater Treatment Facilities in California - Southeast Water Pollution Control Plant Case Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Olsen, Daniel; Goli, Sasank; Faulkner, David; McKane, Aimee

    2012-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

    This report details a study into the demand response potential of a large wastewater treatment facility in San Francisco. Previous research had identified wastewater treatment facilities as good candidates for demand response and automated demand response, and this study was conducted to investigate facility attributes that are conducive to demand response or which hinder its implementation. One years' worth of operational data were collected from the facility's control system, submetered process equipment, utility electricity demand records, and governmental weather stations. These data were analyzed to determine factors which affected facility power demand and demand response capabilities The average baseline demand at the Southeast facility was approximately 4 MW. During the rainy season (October-March) the facility treated 40% more wastewater than the dry season, but demand only increased by 4%. Submetering of the facility's lift pumps and centrifuges predicted load shifts capabilities of 154 kW and 86 kW, respectively, with large lift pump shifts in the rainy season. Analysis of demand data during maintenance events confirmed the magnitude of these possible load shifts, and indicated other areas of the facility with demand response potential. Load sheds were seen to be possible by shutting down a portion of the facility's aeration trains (average shed of 132 kW). Load shifts were seen to be possible by shifting operation of centrifuges, the gravity belt thickener, lift pumps, and external pump stations These load shifts were made possible by the storage capabilities of the facility and of the city's sewer system. Large load reductions (an average of 2,065 kW) were seen from operating the cogeneration unit, but normal practice is continuous operation, precluding its use for demand response. The study also identified potential demand response opportunities that warrant further study: modulating variable-demand aeration loads, shifting operation of sludge-processing equipment besides centrifuges, and utilizing schedulable self-generation.

  15. Intelligent Building Energy Information and Control Systems for Low-Energy Operations and Optimal Demand Response

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Piette, Mary Ann

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Systems for  Energy Management and Demand Response in 7.  Linking energy efficiency and demand response.   In for Low-Energy Operations and Optimal Demand Response Mary

  16. Advanced Control Technologies and Strategies Linking Demand Response and Energy Efficiency

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kiliccote, Sila; Piette, Mary Ann

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and individuals. DEMAND RESPONSE BUILDINGS RESEARCH Recentand event driven building response. Demand Side ManagementDemand Response does not involve human intervention, but is initiated at a home, building,

  17. New modeling and control solutions for integrated microgrid system with respect to thermodynamics properties of generation and demand

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, Fang-Yu, S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis investigates microgrid control stability with respect to thermodynamics behaviors of generation and demand. First, a new integrated microgrid model is introduced. This model consists of a combined cycle power ...

  18. Demand Dispatch-Intelligent

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    CA Control Areas CO 2 Carbon Dioxide CHP Combined Heat and Power CPP Critical Peak Pricing DG Distributed Generation DOE Department of Energy DR Demand Response DRCC Demand...

  19. AIR FLOW MODELING IN DEEP WELLS: APPLICATION TO MINING VENTILATION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johansson, Karl Henrik

    AIR FLOW MODELING IN DEEP WELLS: APPLICATION TO MINING VENTILATION E. WITRANT1, K.H. JOHANSSON2. Introduction Traditionally, the control of large-scale systems, such as mining ventilation, has been performed to the preliminary design of the global system and automation devices. Mining ventilation provides for an interesting

  20. AIR FLOW MODELING IN DEEP WELLS: APPLICATION TO MINING VENTILATION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    AIR FLOW MODELING IN DEEP WELLS: APPLICATION TO MINING VENTILATION E. WITRANT1, K.H. JOHANSSON2, the control of large-scale systems, such as mining ventilation, has been performed locally with decentralized of the global system and automation devices. Mining ventilation provides for an interesting exam- ple

  1. A simplified approach to describe complex diffusers in displacement ventilation for CFD simulations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Qingyan "Yan"

    A simplified approach to describe complex diffusers in displacement ventilation for CFD simulations to improve indoor air quality while simultaneously reduce energy demand, displacement ventilation is becom ent ventilation usin g com putational fluid dynamics (CFD) is challenging due to the com plexity

  2. CAN J ANESTH 55: 9 www.cja-jca.org September, 2008 Purpose: Variable ventilation is superior to control mode venti-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Scafetta, Nicola

    no differences between groups, at any time peri- od, for PaO2 , PaCO2 , and static or dynamic respiratory system, and mechanically ventilated. Oleic acid was infused to introduce lung injury. The animals were ventilated, chosen to drive the variable ventilator, had no effect on indices of gas exchange or respiratory

  3. Driving change : evaluating strategies to control automotive energy demand growth in China

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bonde Ĺkerlind, Ingrid Gudrun

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    As the number of vehicles in China has relentlessly grown in the past decade, the energy demand, fuel demand and greenhouse gas emissions associated with these vehicles have kept pace. This thesis presents a model to project ...

  4. Climate control : smart thermostats, demand response, and energy efficiency in Austin, Texas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bowen, Brian (Brian Richard)

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Energy efficiency and demand response are critical resources for the transition to a cleaner electricity grid. Demand-side management programs can reduce electricity use during peak times when power is scarce and expensive, ...

  5. A Ventilation Index for Tropical Cyclones

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tang, Brian

    An important environmental control of both tropical cyclone intensity and genesis is vertical wind shear. One hypothesized pathway by which vertical shear affects tropical cyclones is midlevel ventilation—or the flux of ...

  6. Load-side Demand Management in Buildings using Controlled Electric Springs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Soni, Jayantika; Krishnanand, KR; Panda, Sanjib

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Load-side Demand Management in Buildings using Controlleddemand side management has been a keen topic of interest. Buildings,

  7. Does Mixing Make Residential Ventilation More Effective?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sherman, Max

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Mechanical Ventilation Systems. ” Int. J. Ventilation, 6(4),Residential Mechanical Ventilation Systems. ” ASHRAE HVAC&Rfor Extension of Ventilation System Tracer Gas Testing. ”

  8. Performance of ventilators for noninvasive positive pressure ventilation in children

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    1 Performance of ventilators for noninvasive positive pressure ventilation in children Brigitte title: ventilators for noninvasive ventilation Supports and grants: The research of Brigitte Fauroux;2 Abstract The aim of the study was to evaluate the performance characteristics of all the ventilators

  9. Ventilation Model Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    V. Chipman; J. Case

    2002-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of the Ventilation Model is to simulate the heat transfer processes in and around waste emplacement drifts during periods of forced ventilation. The model evaluates the effects of emplacement drift ventilation on the thermal conditions in the emplacement drifts and surrounding rock mass, and calculates the heat removal by ventilation as a measure of the viability of ventilation to delay the onset of peak repository temperature and reduce its magnitude. The heat removal by ventilation is temporally and spatially dependent, and is expressed as the fraction of heat carried away by the ventilation air compared to the fraction of heat produced by radionuclide decay. One minus the heat removal is called the wall heat fraction, or the remaining amount of heat that is transferred via conduction to the surrounding rock mass. Downstream models, such as the ''Multiscale Thermohydrologic Model'' (BSC 2001), use the wall heat fractions as outputted from the Ventilation Model to initialize their post-closure analyses. The Ventilation Model report was initially developed to analyze the effects of preclosure continuous ventilation in the Engineered Barrier System (EBS) emplacement drifts, and to provide heat removal data to support EBS design. Revision 00 of the Ventilation Model included documentation of the modeling results from the ANSYS-based heat transfer model. Revision 01 ICN 01 included the results of the unqualified software code MULTIFLUX to assess the influence of moisture on the ventilation efficiency. The purposes of Revision 02 of the Ventilation Model are: (1) To validate the conceptual model for preclosure ventilation of emplacement drifts and verify its numerical application in accordance with new procedural requirements as outlined in AP-SIII-10Q, Models (Section 7.0). (2) To satisfy technical issues posed in KTI agreement RDTME 3.14 (Reamer and Williams 2001a). Specifically to demonstrate, with respect to the ANSYS ventilation model, the adequacy of the discretization (Section 6.2.3.1), and the downstream applicability of the model results (i.e. wall heat fractions) to initialize post-closure thermal models (Section 6.6). (3) To satisfy the remainder of KTI agreement TEF 2.07 (Reamer and Williams 2001b). Specifically to provide the results of post-test ANSYS modeling of the Atlas Facility forced convection tests (Section 7.1.2). This portion of the model report also serves as a validation exercise per AP-SIII.10Q, Models, for the ANSYS ventilation model. (4) To asses the impacts of moisture on the ventilation efficiency.

  10. Introduction to Commercial Building Control Strategies and Techniques for Demand Response -- Appendices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Motegi, N.; Piette, M.A.; Watson, D.S.; Kiliccote, S.; Xu, P.

    2007-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    There are 3 appendices listed: (A) DR strategies for HVAC systems; (B) Summary of DR strategies; and (C) Case study of advanced demand response.

  11. Advanced Controls and Communications for Demand Response and Energy Efficiency in Commercial Buildings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kiliccote, Sila; Piette, Mary Ann; Hansen, David

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Reliability - Emergency - Conservation - Environmental Protection - Efficient Shell, Equipment &equipment cycling. DR methods such as demand limiting and shifting can be utilized when the economics and reliability

  12. Building Science- Ventilation

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This presentation was given at the Summer 2012 DOE Building America meeting on July 25, 2012, and addressed the question Ť"What are the best ventilation techniques"

  13. Advanced Demand Responsive Lighting

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Advanced Demand Responsive Lighting Host: Francis Rubinstein Demand Response Research Center demand responsive lighting systems ­ Importance of dimming ­ New wireless controls technologies · Advanced Demand Responsive Lighting (commenced March 2007) #12;Objectives · Provide up-to-date information

  14. Advanced Controls and Communications for Demand Response and Energy Efficiency in Commercial Buildings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kiliccote, Sila; Piette, Mary Ann; Hansen, David

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A demand-side management framework from building operationsdemand-side management (DSM) framework presented in Table 2 provides three major areas for changing electric loads in buildings:buildings in California. This paper summarizes the integration of DR in demand-side management

  15. Demand Responsive and Energy Efficient Control Technologies and Strategies in Commercial Buildings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Piette, Mary Ann; Kiliccote, Sila

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    a building operations perspective, a demand-side managementdemand-side management (DSM) framework presented in Table 2 provides three major areas for changing electric loads in buildings:buildings in California. This report summarizes the integration of DR in demand-side management

  16. Open Automated Demand Response for Small Commerical Buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dudley, June Han; Piette, Mary Ann; Koch, Ed; Hennage, Dan

    2009-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report characterizes small commercial buildings by market segments, systems and end-uses; develops a framework for identifying demand response (DR) enabling technologies and communication means; and reports on the design and development of a low-cost OpenADR enabling technology that delivers demand reductions as a percentage of the total predicted building peak electric demand. The results show that small offices, restaurants and retail buildings are the major contributors making up over one third of the small commercial peak demand. The majority of the small commercial buildings in California are located in southern inland areas and the central valley. Single-zone packaged units with manual and programmable thermostat controls make up the majority of heating ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) systems for small commercial buildings with less than 200 kW peak electric demand. Fluorescent tubes with magnetic ballast and manual controls dominate this customer group's lighting systems. There are various ways, each with its pros and cons for a particular application, to communicate with these systems and three methods to enable automated DR in small commercial buildings using the Open Automated Demand Response (or OpenADR) communications infrastructure. Development of DR strategies must consider building characteristics, such as weather sensitivity and load variability, as well as system design (i.e. under-sizing, under-lighting, over-sizing, etc). Finally, field tests show that requesting demand reductions as a percentage of the total building predicted peak electric demand is feasible using the OpenADR infrastructure.

  17. The role of building technologies in reducing and controlling peak electricity demand

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koomey, Jonathan; Brown, Richard E.

    2002-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Peak power demand issues have come to the fore recently because of the California electricity crisis. Uncertainties surrounding the reliability of electric power systems in restructured markets as well as security worries are the latest reasons for such concerns, but the issues surrounding peak demand are as old as the electric utility system itself. The long lead times associated with building new capacity, the lack of price response in the face of time-varying costs, the large difference between peak demand and average demand, and the necessity for real-time delivery of electricity all make the connection between system peak demand and system reliability an important driver of public policy in the electric utility sector. This exploratory option paper was written at the request of Jerry Dion at the U.S.Department of Energy (DOE). It is one of several white papers commissioned in 2002 exploring key issues of relevance to DOE. This paper explores policy-relevant issues surrounding peak demand, to help guide DOE's research efforts in this area. The findings of this paper are as follows. In the short run, DOE funding of deployment activities on peak demand can help society achieve a more economically efficient balance between investments in supply and demand-side technologies. DOE policies can promote implementation of key technologies to ameliorate peak demand, through government purchasing, technology demonstrations, and improvements in test procedures, efficiency standards, and labeling programs. In the long run, R&D is probably the most important single leverage point for DOE to influence the peak demand issue. Technologies for time-varying price response hold great potential for radically altering the way people use electricity in buildings, but are decades away from widespread use, so DOE R&D and expertise can make a real difference here.

  18. Effect of Ventilation Strategies on

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1 Effect of Ventilation Strategies on Residential Ozone Levels Iain S. Walker ventilation used to reduce concentrations of indoor-generated pollutants. When assessing the effect of deliberate ventilation on occupant health one should consider not only

  19. Multifamily Ventilation Retrofit Strategies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ueno, K.; Lstiburek, J.; Bergey, D.

    2012-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In multifamily buildings, central ventilation systems often have poor performance, overventilating some portions of the building (causing excess energy use), while simultaneously underventilating other portions (causing diminished indoor air quality). BSC and Innova Services Corporation performed a series of field tests at a mid-rise test building undergoing a major energy audit and retrofit, which included ventilation system upgrades.

  20. Ventilation Behavior and Household Characteristics in New California Houses

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Price, Phillip N.; Sherman, Max H.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    pollutant sources get more ventilation. • Except householdshealth issues motivate ventilation behavior. • Security andQuality, IAQ, mechanical ventilation systems, ventilation

  1. Dynamic Controls for Energy Efficiency and Demand Response: Framework Concepts and a New Construction Study Case in New York

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kiliccote, Sila; Piette, Mary Ann; Watson, David S.; Hughes, Glenn

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of Fully Automated Demand Response in Large Facilities.for Energy Efficiency and Demand Response”, Proceedings ofAuthority (NYSERDA), the Demand Response Research Center (

  2. Dynamic Controls for Energy Efficiency and Demand Response: Framework Concepts and a New Construction Study Case in New York

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kiliccote, Sila; Piette, Mary Ann; Watson, David S.; Hughes, Glenn

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    potential demand response in commercial buildings with EMCSbuildings for integrated energy efficiency and demand response (buildings provide an excellent resource for demand response.

  3. Automated Demand Response Opportunities in Wastewater Treatment Facilities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thompson, Lisa

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Interoperable Automated Demand Response Infrastructure,study of automated demand response in wastewater treatmentopportunities for demand response control strategies in

  4. Analysis of the ventilation systems in the Dartford tunnels using a multiscale modelling approach 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Colella, Francesco; Rein, Guillermo; Carvel, Ricky O; Reszka, Pedro; Torero, Jose L

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The capabilities of the ventilation systems in the two road tunnels at Dartford (London, UK) are analysed using a multi-scale modelling approach. Both tunnels have complex semi-transverse ventilation systems with jet fans to control longitudinal...

  5. MODELING VENTILATION SYSTEM RESPONSE TO FIRE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Coutts, D

    2007-04-17T23:59:59.000Z

    Fires in facilities containing nuclear material have the potential to transport radioactive contamination throughout buildings and may lead to widespread downwind dispersal threatening both worker and public safety. Development and implementation of control strategies capable of providing adequate protection from fire requires realistic characterization of ventilation system response which, in turn, depends on an understanding of fire development timing and suppression system response. This paper discusses work in which published HEPA filter data was combined with CFAST fire modeling predictions to evaluate protective control strategies for a hypothetical DOE non-reactor nuclear facility. The purpose of this effort was to evaluate when safety significant active ventilation coupled with safety class passive ventilation might be a viable control strategy.

  6. New Control Plane in 3GPP LTE/EPC Architecture for On-Demand Connectivity Service

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    the on-demand connectivity service. The Software Defined Networking (SDN) is an emerging trend until 2017. On the other hand, a study [2] recently highlighted that network operators risk an "end such as network equipment failure, overload situations and during energy saving measures. In this paper, we focus

  7. Why We Ventilate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Logue, Jennifer M.; Sherman, Max H.; Price, Phil N.; Singer, Brett C.

    2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    It is widely accepted that ventilation is critical for providing good indoor air quality (IAQ) in homes. However, the definition of"good" IAQ, and the most effective, energy efficient methods for delivering it are still matters of research and debate. This paper presents the results of work done at the Lawrence Berkeley National Lab to identify the air pollutants that drive the need for ventilation as part of a larger effort to develop a health-based ventilation standard. First, we present results of a hazard analysis that identified the pollutants that most commonly reach concentrations in homes that exceed health-based standards or guidelines for chronic or acute exposures. Second, we present results of an impact assessment that identified the air pollutants that cause the most harm to the U.S. population from chronic inhalation in residences. Lastly, we describe the implications of our findings for developing effective ventilation standards.

  8. Field-Evaluation of Alternative HVAC Strategies to Meet Ventilation, Comfort and Humidity Control Criteria at Three Full-Serve Restaurants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yborra, S. C.; Spears, J. W.

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Lighting and ventilation represent the majority of the air conditioning loads in office buildings in hot humid climates. Use of motion sensors is one way to minimize the energy used for these loads. This paper describes the methods used...

  9. A Model for Evaluation of Life-Cycle Energy Savings of Occupancy Sensors for Control of Lighting and Ventilation in Office Buildings 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Degelman, L. O.

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Lighting and ventilation represent the majority of the air conditioning loads in office buildings in hot humid climates. Use of motion sensors is one way to minimize the energy used for these loads. This paper describes the methods used...

  10. Field-Evaluation of Alternative HVAC Strategies to Meet Ventilation, Comfort and Humidity Control Criteria at Three Full-Serve Restaurants 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yborra, S. C.; Spears, J. W.

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Lighting and ventilation represent the majority of the air conditioning loads in office buildings in hot humid climates. Use of motion sensors is one way to minimize the energy used for these loads. This paper describes the methods used...

  11. A Model for Evaluation of Life-Cycle Energy Savings of Occupancy Sensors for Control of Lighting and Ventilation in Office Buildings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Degelman, L. O.

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Lighting and ventilation represent the majority of the air conditioning loads in office buildings in hot humid climates. Use of motion sensors is one way to minimize the energy used for these loads. This paper describes the methods used...

  12. Optimal Control of Distributed Energy Resources and Demand Response under Uncertainty

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Siddiqui, Afzal

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Rio de Janeiro, Brazil Optimal Control of Distributed EnergyRio de Janeiro, Brazil Optimal Control of Distributed EnergyRio de Janeiro, Brazil Optimal Control of Distributed Energy

  13. Advanced Controls and Communications for Demand Response and Energy Efficiency in Commercial Buildings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kiliccote, Sila; Piette, Mary Ann; Hansen, David

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    electric loads in buildings: energy efficiency (for steadyof Building Controls and Energy Efficiency Options Usingof Building Controls and Energy Efficiency Options Using

  14. Demand Responsive and Energy Efficient Control Technologies and Strategies in Commercial Buildings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Piette, Mary Ann; Kiliccote, Sila

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    electric loads in buildings: energy efficiency (for steady-of Building Controls and Energy Efficiency Options Usingof Building Controls and Energy Efficiency Options Using

  15. Intelligent Building Energy Information and Control Systems for Low-Energy Operations and Optimal Demand Response

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Piette, Mary Ann

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    As  we  develop low?energy buildings, the need for models Building Energy Information and Control Systems for Low-Building  Energy  Information  and  Control  Systems  for  Low­

  16. Mixed-Mode Ventilation and Building Retrofits

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brager, Gail; Ackerly, Katie

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Page 15 Mixed-Mode Ventilation and Building RetrofitsEngineers. 2000. Mixed-mode ventilation. CIBSE ApplicationsMichael. 2000. Hybrid Ventilation Systems: An Arup Approach

  17. Cooling airflow design tool for displacement ventilation.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schiavon, Stefano; Bauman, Fred

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Tool for Displacement Ventilation: User Notes 2|Page 5.air  temperature.   Ventilation effectiveness is equivalent for Displacement  Ventilation (Chen and Glicksman 2003).  

  18. Infiltration in ASHRAE's Residential Ventilation Standards

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sherman, Max

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of  the effective natural ventilation rate with weather to  Residential  Ventilation  Requirements”.  LBNL  57236.  and  M.H.   Sherman  "Ventilation  Behavior  and  Household 

  19. Equivalence in Ventilation and Indoor Air Quality

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sherman, Max

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    event, the intermittent ventilation equations of Sherman,of the energy impact of ventilation and associated financialReview of Residential Ventilation Technologies. Berkeley,

  20. Design methods for displacement ventilation: Critical review.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schiavon, Stefano

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Displacement ventilation in non-industrial premises, REHVADisplacement ventilation in non-industrial premises, REHVAof displacement ventilation in non-industrial premises. The

  1. Equivalence in Ventilation and Indoor Air Quality

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sherman, Max

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    the use of mechanical ventilation systems in the same way asand operating ventilation systems with variable amounts ofto determine the ventilation system’s operation. We presume

  2. Infiltration in ASHRAE's Residential Ventilation Standards

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sherman, Max

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    often need mechanical ventilation systems to meet current about mechanical ventilation systems but has a default unbalanced mechanical ventilation systems change  the 

  3. Final Scientific Technical Report: INTEGRATED PREDICTIVE DEMAND RESPONSE CONTROLLER FOR COMMERCIAL BUILDINGS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wenzel, Mike

    2013-10-14T23:59:59.000Z

    This project provides algorithms to perform demand response using the thermal mass of a building. Using the thermal mass of the building is an attractive method for performing demand response because there is no need for capital expenditure. The algorithms rely on the thermal capacitance inherent in the building?s construction materials. A near-optimal ?day ahead? predictive approach is developed that is meant to keep the building?s electrical demand constant during the high cost periods. This type of approach is appropriate for both time-of-use and critical peak pricing utility rate structures. The approach uses the past days data in order to determine the best temperature setpoints for the building during the high price periods on the next day. A second ?model predictive approach? (MPC) uses a thermal model of the building to determine the best temperature for the next sample period. The approach uses constant feedback from the building and is capable of appropriately handling real time pricing. Both approaches are capable of using weather forecasts to improve performance.

  4. Particle deposition in ventilation ducts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sippola, Mark R.

    2002-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Exposure to airborne particles is detrimental to human health and indoor exposures dominate total exposures for most people. The accidental or intentional release of aerosolized chemical and biological agents within or near a building can lead to exposures of building occupants to hazardous agents and costly building remediation. Particle deposition in heating, ventilation and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems may significantly influence exposures to particles indoors, diminish HVAC performance and lead to secondary pollutant release within buildings. This dissertation advances the understanding of particle behavior in HVAC systems and the fates of indoor particles by means of experiments and modeling. Laboratory experiments were conducted to quantify particle deposition rates in horizontal ventilation ducts using real HVAC materials. Particle deposition experiments were conducted in steel and internally insulated ducts at air speeds typically found in ventilation ducts, 2-9 m/s. Behaviors of monodisperse particles with diameters in the size range 1-16 {micro}m were investigated. Deposition rates were measured in straight ducts with a fully developed turbulent flow profile, straight ducts with a developing turbulent flow profile, in duct bends and at S-connector pieces located at duct junctions. In straight ducts with fully developed turbulence, experiments showed deposition rates to be highest at duct floors, intermediate at duct walls, and lowest at duct ceilings. Deposition rates to a given surface increased with an increase in particle size or air speed. Deposition was much higher in internally insulated ducts than in uninsulated steel ducts. In most cases, deposition in straight ducts with developing turbulence, in duct bends and at S-connectors at duct junctions was higher than in straight ducts with fully developed turbulence. Measured deposition rates were generally higher than predicted by published models. A model incorporating empirical equations based on the experimental measurements was applied to evaluate particle losses in supply and return duct runs. Model results suggest that duct losses are negligible for particle sizes less than 1 {micro}m and complete for particle sizes greater than 50 {micro}m. Deposition to insulated ducts, horizontal duct floors and bends are predicted to control losses in duct systems. When combined with models for HVAC filtration and deposition to indoor surfaces to predict the ultimate fates of particles within buildings, these results suggest that ventilation ducts play only a small role in determining indoor particle concentrations, especially when HVAC filtration is present. However, the measured and modeled particle deposition rates are expected to be important for ventilation system contamination.

  5. Demand-based Optimal Control to Save Energy: A Case-Study in a Medical Center

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Joo, I. S.; Song, L.; Liu, M.; Carico, M.

    the conditioned air through two parallel air ducts. Terminal boxes modulate either the hot ESL-HH-08-12-16 Proceedings of the Sixteenth Symposium on Improving Building Systems in Hot and Humid Climates, Plano, TX, December 15-17, 2008 airflow or the cold... and pressure required for the ESL-HH-08-12-16 Proceedings of the Sixteenth Symposium on Improving Building Systems in Hot and Humid Climates, Plano, TX, December 15-17, 2008 unit. Therefore, there are many ways to read the demand of equipment and buildings...

  6. Demand Reduction

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Grantees may use funds to coordinate with electricity supply companies and utilities to reduce energy demands on their power systems. These demand reduction programs are usually coordinated through...

  7. Recommended Ventilation Strategies for Energy-Efficient Production Homes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roberson, J.; Brown, R.; Koomey, J.; Warner, J.; Greenberg, S.

    1998-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report evaluates residential ventilation systems for the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) ENERGY STAR{reg_sign} Homes program and recommends mechanical ventilation strategies for new, low-infiltration, energy-efficient, single-family, ENERGY STAR production (site-built tract) homes in four climates: cold, mixed (cold and hot), hot humid, and hot arid. Our group in the Energy Analysis Department at Lawrence Berkeley National Lab compared residential ventilation strategies in four climates according to three criteria: total annualized costs (the sum of annualized capital cost and annual operating cost), predominant indoor pressure induced by the ventilation system, and distribution of ventilation air within the home. The mechanical ventilation systems modeled deliver 0.35 air changes per hour continuously, regardless of actual infiltration or occupant window-opening behavior. Based on the assumptions and analysis described in this report, we recommend independently ducted multi-port supply ventilation in all climates except cold because this strategy provides the safety and health benefits of positive indoor pressure as well as the ability to dehumidify and filter ventilation air. In cold climates, we recommend that multi-port supply ventilation be balanced by a single-port exhaust ventilation fan, and that builders offer balanced heat-recovery ventilation to buyers as an optional upgrade. For builders who continue to install forced-air integrated supply ventilation, we recommend ensuring ducts are airtight or in conditioned space, installing a control that automatically operates the forced-air fan 15-20 minutes during each hour that the fan does not operate for heating or cooling, and offering ICM forced-air fans to home buyers as an upgrade.

  8. Position paper -- Tank ventilation system design air flow rates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goolsby, G.K.

    1995-01-04T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this paper is to document a project position on required ventilation system design air flow rates for the waste storage tanks currently being designed by project W-236A, the Multi-Function Waste Tank Facility (MWTF). The Title 1 design primary tank heat removal system consists of two systems: a primary tank vapor space ventilation system; and an annulus ventilation system. At the conclusion of Title 1 design, air flow rates for the primary and annulus ventilation systems were 960 scfm and 4,400 scfm, respectively, per tank. These design flow rates were capable of removing 1,250,000 Btu/hr from each tank. However, recently completed and ongoing studies have resulted in a design change to reduce the extreme case heat load to 700,000 Btu/hr. This revision of the extreme case heat load, coupled with results of scale model evaporative testing performed by WHC Thermal Hydraulics, allow for a reduction of the design air flow rates for both primary and annulus ventilation systems. Based on the preceding discussion, ICF Kaiser Hanford Co. concludes that the design should incorporate the following design air flow rates: Primary ventilation system--500 scfm maximum and Annulus ventilation system--1,100 scfm maximum. In addition, the minimum air flow rates in the primary and annulus ventilation systems will be investigated during Title 2 design. The results of the Title 2 investigation will determine the range of available temperature control using variable air flows to both ventilation systems.

  9. Controlled Dispensing and Mixing of Pico- to Nanoliter Volumes Using On-Demand Droplet-Based Microfluidics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sun, Xuefei; Tang, Keqi; Smith, Richard D.; Kelly, Ryan T.

    2013-07-08T23:59:59.000Z

    We present an integrated droplet-on-demand microfluidic platform for dispensing, mixing, incubating, extracting and analyzing by mass spectrometry pico- to nanoliter sized droplets. Droplet generation is accomplished using computer-controlled pneumatic valves. Controlled actuation of valves for different aqueous streams enables controlled dosing and rapid mixing of reagents within droplets in the droplet generation area or in a region with widening channel cross-section. Following incubation, which takes place while droplets travel in the oil stream, the droplet contents are extracted to an aqueous channel for subsequent ionization at an integrated nanoelectrospray emitter. As an initial demonstration of the platform, rapid enzymatic digestions of a model protein are performed in droplets and detected on-line by nanoelectrospray ionization mass spectrometry.

  10. Mechanical Ventilation for Imaging the Small Animal Lung Laurence W. Hedlund and G. Allan Johnson

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mechanical Ventilation for Imaging the Small Animal Lung Laurence W. Hedlund and G. Allan Johnson lung. Because me- chanical ventilation plays a key role in high-quality, high- resolution imaging of the small animal lung, the article focuses particularly on the problems of ventilation support, control

  11. Ventilation and Air Quality in Indoor Ice Skating Arenas Chunxin Yang, Ph.D.1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Qingyan "Yan"

    Ventilation and Air Quality in Indoor Ice Skating Arenas Chunxin Yang, Ph.D.1 Philip Demokritou, and the operation strategy of the ventilation system are significant contributing factors to the indoor air quality exchange rate, air distribution method, and ventilation control strategies on the IAQ in an arena. With CFD

  12. Experimental Study on Displacement and Mixing Ventilation Systems for a Patient Ward

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Qingyan "Yan"

    Experimental Study on Displacement and Mixing Ventilation Systems for a Patient Ward Yonggao Yin., 2004). Thus, ventilation systems in hospital wards should be improved to control airborne infectious. (2008) conducted a review on designing ventilation systems for hospital wards and other multibed rooms

  13. Optimal Control of Distributed Energy Resources and Demand Response under Uncertainty

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Siddiqui, Afzal; Stadler, Michael; Marnay, Chris; Lai, Judy

    2010-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We take the perspective of a microgrid that has installed distribution energy resources (DER) in the form of distributed generation with combined heat and power applications. Given uncertain electricity and fuel prices, the microgrid minimizes its expected annual energy bill for various capacity sizes. In almost all cases, there is an economic and environmental advantage to using DER in conjunction with demand response (DR): the expected annualized energy bill is reduced by 9percent while CO2 emissions decline by 25percent. Furthermore, the microgrid's risk is diminished as DER may be deployed depending on prevailing market conditions and local demand. In order to test a policy measure that would place a weight on CO2 emissions, we use a multi-criteria objective function that minimizes a weighted average of expected costs and emissions. We find that greater emphasis on CO2 emissions has a beneficial environmental impact only if DR is available and enough reserve generation capacity exists. Finally, greater uncertainty results in higher expected costs and risk exposure, the effects of which may be mitigated by selecting a larger capacity.

  14. Ventilation technologies scoping study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Walker, Iain S.; Sherman, Max H.

    2003-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    This document presents the findings of a scoping study commissioned by the Public Interest Energy Research (PIER) program of the California Energy Commission to determine what research is necessary to develop new residential ventilation requirements for California. This study is one of three companion efforts needed to complete the job of determining the needs of California, determining residential ventilation requirements, and determining appropriate ventilation technologies to meet these needs and requirements in an energy efficient manner. Rather than providing research results, this scoping study identifies important research questions along with the level of effort necessary to address these questions and the costs, risks, and benefits of pursuing alternative research questions. In approaching these questions and level of effort, feasibility and timing were important considerations. The Commission has specified Summer 2005 as the latest date for completing this research in time to update the 2008 version of California's Energy Code (Title 24).

  15. Advanced Control Technologies and Strategies Linking Demand Response and Energy Efficiency

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kiliccote, Sila; Piette, Mary Ann

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    technologies and strategies for energy efficiency are mappedchoice of DR and energy efficiency strategy is limited byDemonstration of Energy Management Control Strategies for

  16. RESIDENTIAL VENTILATION AND ENERGY CHARACTERISTICS*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    RESIDENTIAL VENTILATION AND ENERGY CHARACTERISTICS* Max Sherman Nance Matson Energy Performance Berkeley, California The role of ventilation in the housing stock is to provide fresh air and to dilute to provide this ventilation service, either directly for moving the air or indirectly for conditioning

  17. 3, 805826, 2006 Ventilation under

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    OSD 3, 805­826, 2006 Ventilation under global warming A. Gnanadesikan et al. Title Page Abstract ocean ventilation change under global warming? A. Gnanadesikan 1 , J. L. Russell 2 , and F. Zeng 3 1­826, 2006 Ventilation under global warming A. Gnanadesikan et al. Title Page Abstract Introduction

  18. The International Journal of Ventilation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Davis, University of

    air quality and reducing energy required for heating, cooling, and ventilation. One application. Introduction Heating, cooling and ventilation can account for 50 percent of total building energy useThe International Journal of Ventilation Volume 12 Number 4 ISSN 1473 - 3315 March 2014 Contents

  19. Demand response-enabled autonomous control for interior space conditioning in residential buildings.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Xue

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    pubs/history/2002/nov7.htm>. [2] Our history, Honeywell, honeywell.com/ honeywell/about-us/our-history.html>. [companies in this business Honeywell and Johnson Controls.

  20. Ventilation efficiencies of a desk-edge-mounted task ventilation system

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Faulkner, David; Fisk, William J.; Sullivan, Douglas P.; Lee, Seung Min

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    DESK-EDGE-MOUNTED TASK VENTILATION SYSTEM D Faulkner * , WJthe effectiveness of a task ventilation system with an airthe desk. The task ventilation system provided outside air,

  1. ASHRAE and residential ventilation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sherman, Max H.

    2003-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In the last quarter of a century, the western world has become increasingly aware of environmental threats to health and safety. During this period, people psychologically retreated away from outdoors hazards such as pesticides, smog, lead, oil spills, and dioxin to the seeming security of their homes. However, the indoor environment may not be healthier than the outdoor environment, as has become more apparent over the past few years with issues such as mold, formaldehyde, and sick-building syndrome. While the built human environment has changed substantially over the past 10,000 years, human biology has not; poor indoor air quality creates health risks and can be uncomfortable. The human race has found, over time, that it is essential to manage the indoor environments of their homes. ASHRAE has long been in the business of ventilation, but most of the focus of that effort has been in the area of commercial and institutional buildings. Residential ventilation was traditionally not a major concern because it was felt that, between operable windows and envelope leakage, people were getting enough outside air in their homes. In the quarter of a century since the first oil shock, houses have gotten much more energy efficient. At the same time, the kinds of materials and functions in houses changed in character in response to people's needs. People became more environmentally conscious and aware not only about the resources they were consuming but about the environment in which they lived. All of these factors contributed to an increasing level of public concern about residential indoor air quality and ventilation. Where once there was an easy feeling about the residential indoor environment, there is now a desire to define levels of acceptability and performance. Many institutions--both public and private--have interests in Indoor Air Quality (IAQ), but ASHRAE, as the professional society that has had ventilation as part of its mission for over 100 years, is the logical place to provide leadership. This leadership has been demonstrated most recently by the publication of the first nationally recognized standard on ventilation in homes, ASHRAE Standard 62.2-2003, which builds on work that has been part of ASHRAE for many years and will presumably continue. Homeowners and occupants, which includes virtually all of us, will benefit from the application of Standard 62.2 and use of the top ten list. This activity is exactly the kind of benefit to society that the founders of ASHRAE envisioned and is consistent with ASHRAE's mission and vision. ASHRAE members should be proud of their Society for taking leadership in residential ventilation.

  2. ENERGY EFFICIENCY TECHNOLOGY ROADMAP VOLUME 5: HEATING, VENTILATION...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    demand for reduced low cost of utilities operation Control to respond to demand response events Connectivity with smart meter Leverage smart meter system Thermostat design...

  3. Dynamic Controls for Energy Efficiency and Demand Response: Framework Concepts and a New Construction Study Case in New York

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kiliccote, Sila; Piette, Mary Ann; Watson, David S.; Hughes, Glenn

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Demand-Side Management Framework for Commercial BuildingsTimes (NYT) Building and Its Demand-Side Management Lawrencedemand-side management (DSM) framework presented in Table 1 provides three major areas for changing electric loads in buildings:

  4. Ventilation | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative JC3 RSS SeptemberRenewable Energy,Geothermal3: RedAbout(Brochure),Ventilation

  5. Ventilation Behavior and Household Characteristics in New California Houses

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Price, Phillip N.; Sherman, Max H.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    IAQ, mechanical ventilation systems, ventilation standards,to have mechanical ventilation systems resulted in anotherhave and use mechanical ventilation systems; and what is the

  6. Measuring Coordination Demand in Multirobot Teams Conventional models of multirobot control assume independent robots and tasks. This allows an additive model in which the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lewis, Michael

    independent robots and tasks. This allows an additive model in which the operator controls robots sequentially model to situations in which robots must cooperate to perform dependent tasks. In the first experiment operators controlled 2 robot teams to perform a box pushing task under high coordination demand

  7. Danish Building Research Institute, Aalborg University 2009 Humidity as a control parameter for

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ventilation system.....................................................................................11 for ventilation Phase 2: Development and testing of ventilation strategies in the laboratory Alireza Afshari Niels C. Bergsře #12;Title Humidity as a control parameter for ventilation Subtitle Phase 2: Development

  8. Alloy chemistry and microstructural control to meet the demands of the automotive Stirling engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stephens, J.R.

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The automotive Stirling engine now under development by DOE/NASA as an alternative to the internal combustion engine, imposes severe materials requirements for the hot portion of the engine. Materials selected must be low cost and contain a minimum of strategic elements so that availability is not a problem. Heater head tubes contain high pressure hydrogen on the inside and are exposed to hot combustion gases on the outside surface. The cylinders and regenerator housings must be readily castable into complex shapes having varying wall thicknesses and be amenable to brazing and welding operations. Also, high strength, oxidation resistance, resistance to hydrogen permeation, cyclic operation, and long-life are required. A research program conducted by NASA Lewis focused on alloy chemistry and microstructural control to achieve the desired properties over the life of the engine. Results of alloy selection, characterization, evaluation, and actual engine testing of selected materials will be presented.

  9. Ventilation System Effectiveness and Tested Indoor Air Quality Impacts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rudd, A.; Bergey, D.

    2014-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Ventilation system effectiveness testing was conducted at two unoccupied, single-family, detached lab homes at the University of Texas - Tyler. Five ventilation system tests were conducted with various whole-building ventilation systems. Multizone fan pressurization testing characterized building and zone enclosure leakage. PFT testing showed multizone air change rates and interzonal airflow. Cumulative particle counts for six particle sizes, and formaldehyde and other Top 20 VOC concentrations were measured in multiple zones. The testing showed that single-point exhaust ventilation was inferior as a whole-house ventilation strategy. It was inferior because the source of outside air was not direct from outside, the ventilation air was not distributed, and no provision existed for air filtration. Indoor air recirculation by a central air distribution system can help improve the exhaust ventilation system by way of air mixing and filtration. In contrast, the supply and balanced ventilation systems showed that there is a significant benefit to drawing outside air from a known outside location, and filtering and distributing that air. Compared to the Exhaust systems, the CFIS and ERV systems showed better ventilation air distribution and lower concentrations of particulates, formaldehyde and other VOCs. System improvement percentages were estimated based on four System Factor Categories: Balance, Distribution, Outside Air Source, and Recirculation Filtration. Recommended System Factors could be applied to reduce ventilation fan airflow rates relative to ASHRAE Standard 62.2 to save energy and reduce moisture control risk in humid climates. HVAC energy savings were predicted to be 8-10%, or $50-$75/year.

  10. Lightweight ventilated facade prototype: acoustic performance evaluation when the ventilation surface of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    Lightweight ventilated facade prototype: acoustic performance evaluation when the ventilation Conference 23-27 April 2012, Nantes, France 3801 #12;1. INTRODUCTION Lightweight ventilated facades cavity is almost totally open, fully ventilated and not very wide. Therefore, its contribution

  11. Noninvasive Positive Pressure Ventilation in the Emergency

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Noninvasive Positive Pressure Ventilation in the Emergency Department Mei-Ean Yeow, MDa , Jairo I, 1411 East 31st Street, Oakland, CA 94602-1018, USA Noninvasive ventilation is defined as the provision ventilators consist of both negative and positive pressure ventilators. Because negative pressure ventilation

  12. Laboratory Ventilation SafetyLaboratory Ventilation Safety J. Scott WardJ. Scott Ward

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Farritor, Shane

    Laboratory Ventilation SafetyLaboratory Ventilation Safety J. Scott WardJ. Scott Ward #12;In 1925. Labconco CorporationLabconco Corporation #12;Laboratory VentilationLaboratory Ventilation #12;Laboratory Ventilation ProductsLaboratory Ventilation Products #12;History of Fume HoodsHistory of Fume Hoods Thomas

  13. ENERGY IMPACTS OF VARIOUS RESIDENTIAL MECHANICAL VENTILATION STRATEGIES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vieira, R.; Parker, D.; Lixing, G.; Wichers, M.

    ENERGY IMPACTS OF VARIOUS RESIDENTIAL MECHANICAL VENTILATION STRATEGIES Robin K. Vieira, Buildings. Research Division Director Danny S. Parker Principal Research Scientist Lixing Gu Principal Research Engineer Michael Wichers... into the homes. Many of these strategies utilize the central air handler fan from the HVAC system to ventilate when the system runs. Controllers can be purchased to force the air to enter for minimum periods of time or to shut off outside air dampers after...

  14. Ventilation | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directed off Energy.gov. Are you sure you wantJoin us for|Idahothe NewUtility-Scale Solar throughVentilation

  15. Smart Ventilation - RIVEC

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn'tOriginEducationVideo »UsageSecretary ofSmall BusinessSecondary Ventilation Activity Inputs

  16. Natural vs. mechanical ventilation and cooling.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brager, Gail; Alspach, Peter; Nall, Daniel H.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    the drawbacks of each type of ventilation system helps theThe benefits of natural ventilation for occupants in com-In the strictest sense, “ventilation” refers to the exchange

  17. Air Distribution Effectiveness for Different Mechanical Ventilation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    LBNL-62700 Air Distribution Effectiveness for Different Mechanical Ventilation Systems Max H Effectiveness for Different Mechanical Ventilation Systems Max H. Sherman and Iain S. Walker Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, USA ABSTRACT The purpose of ventilation is to dilute indoor contaminants

  18. For natural ventilation to work, solar gains through the facade needed to be reduced by approximately 80% from

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hochberg, Michael

    Engineers, Inc. Laboratory Consultant: Research Facilities Design Energy Modeling: SOLARC ArchitectureFor natural ventilation to work, solar gains through the facade needed to be reduced--largely due to the enormous ventilation demands and the energy associated with moving and conditioning

  19. Air Flow Distribution in a Mechanically-Ventilated High-Rise Residential Building* Richard C. Diamond and Helmut E. Feustel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Diamond, Richard

    energy efficiency in public housing as part of a utility's Demand Side Management (DSM) Program of the supply ventilation register for each corridor. The building is exposed on all sides to the windAir Flow Distribution in a Mechanically-Ventilated High-Rise Residential Building* Richard C

  20. New Air Cleaning Strategies for Reduced Commercial Building Ventilation Energy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sidheswaran, Meera; Destaillats, Hugo; Sullivan, Douglas P.; Fisk, William J.

    2010-10-27T23:59:59.000Z

    Approximately ten percent of the energy consumed in U.S. commercial buildings is used by HVAC systems to condition outdoor ventilation air. Reducing ventilation rates would be a simple and broadly-applicable energy retrofit option, if practical counter measures were available that maintained acceptable concentrations of indoor-generated air pollutants. The two general categories of countermeasures are: 1) indoor pollutant source control, and 2) air cleaning. Although pollutant source control should be used to the degree possible, source control is complicated by the large number and changing nature of indoor pollutant sources. Particle air cleaning is already routinely applied in commercial buildings. Previous calculations indicate that particle filtration consumes only 10percent to 25percent of the energy that would otherwise be required to achieve an equivalent amount of particle removal with ventilation. If cost-effective air cleaning technologies for volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were also available, outdoor air ventilation rates could be reduced substantially and broadly in the commercial building stock to save energy. The research carried out in this project focuses on developing novel VOC air cleaning technologies needed to enable energy-saving reductions in ventilation rates. The minimum required VOC removal efficiency to counteract a 50percent reduction in ventilation rate for air cleaning systems installed in the HVAC supply airstream is modest (generally 20percent or less).

  1. Reverse ventilation--perfusion mismatch

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Palmaz, J.C.; Barnett, C.A.; Reich, S.B.; Krumpe, P.E.; Farrer, P.A.

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Patients having lobar airway obstruction or consolidation usually have decreases of both ventilation and perfusion on lung scans. We report three patients in whom hypoxic vasoconstriction was apparently incomplete, resulting in a ''reversed'' ventilation-perfusion mismatch. Perfusion of the hypoxic lobe on the radionuclide scan was associated with metabolic alkalosis, pulmonary venous and pulmonary arterial hypertension in these patients.

  2. Building America Webinar: Ventilation in Multifamily Buildings...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Ventilation in Multifamily Buildings Building America Webinar: Ventilation in Multifamily Buildings This webinar was presented by research team Consortium for Advanced Residential...

  3. FAQS Qualification Card - Confinement Ventilation and Process...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Confinement Ventilation and Process Gas Treatment FAQS Qualification Card - Confinement Ventilation and Process Gas Treatment A key element for the Department's Technical...

  4. Retrofit Ventilation Strategies in Multifamily Buildings Webinar...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Retrofit Ventilation Strategies in Multifamily Buildings Webinar Retrofit Ventilation Strategies in Multifamily Buildings Webinar Slides from the Building America webinar on...

  5. Solar Ventilation Preheating Resources and Technologies | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Ventilation Preheating Resources and Technologies Solar Ventilation Preheating Resources and Technologies Photo of a dark brown perforated metal wall is pictured on the side of an...

  6. Role of Standard Demand Response Signals for Advanced Automated Aggregation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kiliccote, Sila

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    for the Open Automated Demand Response (OpenADR) StandardsControl for Automated Demand Response, Grid Interop, 2009. [C. McParland, Open Automated Demand Response Communications

  7. Linking Continuous Energy Management and Open Automated Demand Response

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Piette, Mary Ann

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A. Barat, D. Watson. Demand Response Spinning ReserveOpen Automated Demand Response Communication Standards:Dynamic Controls for Demand Response in a New Commercial

  8. Northwest Open Automated Demand Response Technology Demonstration Project

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kiliccote, Sila

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Building Control Strategies and Techniques for Demand Response.Building Systems and DR Strategies 16 Demand ResponseDemand Response Systems. ” Proceedings, 16 th National Conference on Building

  9. Scenarios for Consuming Standardized Automated Demand Response Signals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Koch, Ed

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Keywords: Demand response, automation, commercial buildings,Demand Response and Energy Efficiency in Commercial Buildings,Building Control Strategies and Techniques for Demand Response.

  10. Open Automated Demand Response Dynamic Pricing Technologies and Demonstration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ghatikar, Girish

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    for Automated Demand Response in Commercial Buildings. Inbased demand response information to building controlDemand Response Standard for the Residential Sector. California Energy Commission, PIER Buildings

  11. Northwest Open Automated Demand Response Technology Demonstration Project

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kiliccote, Sila

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    is manual demand response where building staff receive acommercial buildings’ demand response technologies andBuilding Control Strategies and Techniques for Demand Response.

  12. RESIDENTIAL THERMOSTATS: COMFORT CONTROLS IN CALIFORNIA HOMES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meier, Alan K.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    heating, cooling and ventilating controls are more sophisticated than commonly available in North America 29 . Remote

  13. Modeling and Control of Aggregated Air Conditioning Loads Under Realistic Conditions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Wei

    heaters are examples of TCLs. They use local hysteresis control to maintain either air or water units and water heaters is developed in [7] using detailed physical models. In all the aforementioned for a large fraction of electric demand. HVAC (Heating, Ventilation and air conditioning) systems and water

  14. Cardiac gated ventilation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hanson, C.W. III [Hospital of the Univ. of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States). Dept. Anesthesia; Hoffman, E.A. [Univ. of Iowa College of Medicine, Iowa City, IA (United States). Div. of Physiologic Imaging

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    There are several theoretic advantages to synchronizing positive pressure breaths with the cardiac cycle, including the potential for improving distribution of pulmonary and myocardial blood flow and enhancing cardiac output. The authors evaluated the effects of synchronizing respiration to the cardiac cycle using a programmable ventilator and electron beam CT (EBCT) scanning. The hearts of anesthetized dogs were imaged during cardiac gated respiration with a 50 msec scan aperture. Multi slice, short axis, dynamic image data sets spanning the apex to base of the left ventricle were evaluated to determine the volume of the left ventricular chamber at end-diastole and end-systole during apnea, systolic and diastolic cardiac gating. The authors observed an increase in cardiac output of up to 30% with inspiration gated to the systolic phase of the cardiac cycle in a non-failing model of the heart.

  15. Demand Response: Load Management Programs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Simon, J.

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    CenterPoint Load Management Programs CATEE Conference October, 2012 Agenda Outline I. General Demand Response Definition II. General Demand Response Program Rules III. CenterPoint Commercial Program IV. CenterPoint Residential Programs... V. Residential Discussion Points Demand Response Definition of load management per energy efficiency rule 25.181: ? Load control activities that result in a reduction in peak demand, or a shifting of energy usage from a peak to an off...

  16. Coordinating Inventory Control and Pricing Strategies with Random Demand and Fixed Ordering Cost: the Infinite Horizon Case

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Xin

    We analyze an infinite horizon, single product, periodic review model in which pricing and production/inventory decisions are made simultaneously. Demands in different periods are identically distributed random variables ...

  17. Literature Review of Displacement Ventilation 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cho, S.; Im, P.; Haberl, J. S.

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    . Energy Systems Laboratory, Texas A&M University System Page 9 IV. REFERENCES Chen, Q., Glicksman, L.R., Yuan, X., Hu, S. Yang, X. 1999. Performance evaluation and development of design guidelines for displacement ventilation, Final report... testing, and a tracer gas (CO 2 ) step-up procedure. Alamdari, F., Butler, D.J.G., Grigg, P.F., Shaw, M. R. 1998. Chilled ceilings and displacement ventilation. Renewable Energy, Vol. 15, Issues 1-4, pp. 300-305. Abstract: Displacement ventilation...

  18. Ventilation Based on ASHRAE 62.2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Indoor Ventilation Based on ASHRAE 62.2 Arnold Schwarzenegger Governor California Energy Commission Ventilation (ASHRAE 62.2) Minimum Best Practices Guide - Exhaust-Only Ventilation Introduction: The California/ASHRAE Standard 62.2-2007, Ventilation and Acceptable Indoor Air Quality in Low-Rise Residential Buildings (ASHRAE

  19. Laboratory Ventilation Management Ralph Stuart, CHO

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pawlowski, Wojtek

    Laboratory Ventilation Management Program Ralph Stuart, CHO Ellen Sweet, Laboratory Ventilation Specialist Cornell Department of Environmental Health and Safety 3/29/2013 #12;Laboratory Ventilation.1.2 Design and Construction Standards 10 7.1.3 Carbon Dioxide Ventilation Effectiveness Protocol 10 7.2 Job

  20. STATE OF CALIFORNIA MECHANICAL VENTILATION AND REHEAT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    STATE OF CALIFORNIA MECHANICAL VENTILATION AND REHEAT CEC-MECH-3C (Revised 08/09) CALIFORNIA ENERGY COMMISSION MECHANICAL VENTILATION AND REHEAT MECH-3C PROJECT NAME DATE MECHANICAL VENTILATION §121(b)2 REHEAT'D V.A. Max of D or G Design Ventilation Air cfm 50% of Design Zone Supply cfm B x 0.4 cfm/ft˛ Max

  1. Formaldehyde Transfer in Residential Energy Recovery Ventilators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ;1. INTRODUCTION Mechanical ventilation systems were once considered unnecessary for single-family, US homes

  2. Literature Review of Displacement Ventilation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cho, S.; Im, P.; Haberl, J. S.

    Performance Evaluation and Design Guidelines for Displacement Ventilation” by Chen and Clicksman (2003), were used to begin the literature search. Their references include papers, articles, and web sites presenting major contributions to the understanding...

  3. Ventilation efficiencies and thermal comfort results of a desk-edge-mounted task ventilation system

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Faulkner, D.; Fisk, W.J.; Sullivan, D.P.; Lee, S.M.

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    EDGE-MOUNTED TASK VENTILATION SYSTEM D Faulkner, WJ Fisk, DPDESK-EDGE-MOUNTED TASK VENTILATION SYSTEM D Faulkner * , WJcomfort of a task ventilation system with an air supply

  4. Energy saving strategies with personalized ventilation in tropics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schiavon, Stefano; Melikov, Arsen; Chandra Sekhar, Chandra Sekhar

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    integrated personalized ventilation for minimizing crossMelikov, Personalized ventilation, Indoor Air, vol. 14 (to personalized and mixing ventilation, Indoor Air 14 (

  5. Quantitative relationship of sick building syndrome symptoms with ventilation rates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fisk, William J.

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    P. Miettinen (1995). "Ventilation rate in office buildings2005). Outdoor air ventilation and work- related symptoms inand Q. H. Lei (2006). "Ventilation and performance in office

  6. Measured Air Distribution Effectiveness for Residential Mechanical Ventilation Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sherman, Max H.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    6 th AIVC Conference “Ventilation Strategies and MeasurementAir Infiltration and Ventilation Centre, U.K. 1985REFERENCES ASHRAE. 2007. “Ventilation for Acceptable Indoor

  7. New Air Cleaning Strategies for Reduced Commercial Building Ventilation Energy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sidheswaran, Meera

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    VOCs substitute for ventilation in commercial buildings? ."Gorfain J (2008). Analysis of ventilation data from the U.S.Commercial Building Ventilation Energy Meera Sidheswaran,

  8. On The Valuation of Infiltration towards Meeting Residential Ventilation Needs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sherman, Max H.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Related to Residential Ventilation Requirements”. LBNLP.N. and M.H. Sherman "Ventilation Behavior and HouseholdReview of Residential Ventilation Technologies”, LBNL 57730.

  9. Energy-saving strategies with personalized ventilation in cold climates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schiavon, Stefano; Melikov, Arsen

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Journal of heating, Ventilation and Refrigeration Research,on Cold Climate, Heating, Ventilation and Air-Conditioning,Ventilation Effectiveness, Federation of European Heating

  10. Energy saving strategies with personalized ventilation in tropics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schiavon, Stefano; Melikov, Arsen; Chandra Sekhar, Chandra Sekhar

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of a personalized ventilation system in the tropics, in:edged-mounted task ventilation system, Indoor Air, Vol. 14 (a chair-based personalized ventilation system, Building and

  11. Energy-saving strategies with personalized ventilation in cold climates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schiavon, Stefano; Melikov, Arsen

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    potential of personalized ventilation system in the tropics,edged-mounted task ventilation system, Indoor Air, Vol. 14 (a chair-based personalized ventilation system, Building and

  12. On The Valuation of Infiltration towards Meeting Residential Ventilation Needs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sherman, Max H.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    from steady mechanical ventilation system. For the case ofbecause unbalanced mechanical ventilation systems change theoften need mechanical ventilation systems to meet current

  13. Classroom HVAC: Improving ventilation and saving energy -- field study plan

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Apte, Michael G.; Faulkner, David; Hodgson, Alfred T.; Sullivan, Douglas P.

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    in this study. Classroom HVAC: Improving Ventilation andV8doc.sas.com/sashtml. Classroom HVAC: Improving VentilationBerkeley, CA 94720. Classroom HVAC: Improving Ventilation

  14. Economics of User-in-the-Loop Demand Control with Differentiated QoS in Cellular Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yanikomeroglu, Halim

    is expected to grow with a rate of 100% per year. Smart mobile devices, tablets and laptop dongles- gestion and connection failures. Demand shaping is implemented by a dynamic usage-based tariff. Overall this saves money, energy and turns situations of hard congestion into an elastic stationarity

  15. Residential ventilation standards scoping study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McKone, Thomas E.; Sherman, Max H.

    2003-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The goals of this scoping study are to identify research needed to develop improved ventilation standards for California's Title 24 Building Energy Efficiency Standards. The 2008 Title 24 Standards are the primary target for the outcome of this research, but this scoping study is not limited to that timeframe. We prepared this scoping study to provide the California Energy Commission with broad and flexible options for developing a research plan to advance the standards. This document presents the findings of a scoping study commissioned by the Public Interest Energy Research (PIER) program of the California Energy Commission to determine what research is necessary to develop new residential ventilation requirements for California. This study is one of three companion efforts needed to complete the job of determining the ventilation needs of California residences, determining the bases for setting residential ventilation requirements, and determining appropriate ventilation technologies to meet these needs and requirements in an energy efficient manner. Rather than providing research results, this scoping study identifies important research questions along with the level of effort necessary to address these questions and the costs, risks, and benefits of pursuing alternative research questions. In approaching these questions and corresponding levels of effort, feasibility and timing were important considerations. The Commission has specified Summer 2005 as the latest date for completing this research in time to update the 2008 version of California's Energy Code (Title 24).

  16. Indoor Air Quality and Ventilation in Residential Deep Energy Retrofits

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Less, Brennan; Walker, Iain

    2014-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Because airtightening is a significant part of Deep Energy Retrofits (DERs), concerns about ventilation and Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) have emerged. To investigate this, ventilation and IAQ were assessed in 17 non-smoking California Deep Energy Retrofit homes. Inspections and surveys were used to assess household activities and ventilation systems. Pollutant sampling performed in 12 homes included six-day passive samples of nitrogen dioxide (NO2), formaldehyde and air exchange rate (AER); time-resolved data loggers were used to measure particle counts. Half of the homes provided continuous mechanical ventilation. Despite these homes being twice as airtight (3.0 and 7.6 ACH50, respectively), their median AER was indistinguishable from naturally vented homes (0.36 versus 0.37 hr--1). Numerous problems were found with ventilation systems; however, pollutant levels did not reach levels of concern in most homes. Ambient NO2 standards were exceeded in some gas cooking homes that used legacy ranges with standing pilots, and in Passive House-style homes without range hoods exhausted to outside. Cooking exhaust systems were installed and used inconsistently. The majority of homes reported using low-emitting materials, and formaldehyde levels were approximately half those in conventional new CA homes (19.7 versus 36 ?g/m3), with emissions rates nearly 40percent less (12.3 versus 20.6 ?g/m2/hr.). Presence of air filtration systems led to lower indoor particle number concentrations (PN>0.5: 8.80E+06 PN/m3 versus 2.99E+06; PN>2.5: 5.46E+0.5 PN/m3 versus 2.59E+05). The results indicate that DERs can provide adequate ventilation and IAQ, and that DERs should prioritize source control, particle filtration and well-designed local exhaust systems, while still providing adequate continuous ventilation.

  17. MS ID#: CIRCULATIONAHA/2011/039388-Accepted version Ultra-fast and whole body cooling with total liquid ventilation induces favourable3

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    with total liquid ventilation induces favourable3 neurological and cardiac outcomes following cardiac arrest in rabbits4 5 Short title: Liquid ventilation, hypothermia and cardiac arrest6 7 Chenoune M1,2,3 , DVM, MSc liquid ventilation (TLV) with temperature controlled perfluorocarbons induces a very rapid35

  18. Summary of Workshop: Barriers to Energy Efficient Residential Ventilation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sherman, Max

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    for whole-house ventilation, local exhaust ventilation,by mechanical ventilation. Standard 62.2 also requires localVentilation • Mechanical system meeting Section 4 or 'other methods" when approved by LDP • Local

  19. Equivalence in Ventilation and Indoor Air Quality

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sherman, Max

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    dryers, and other local ventilation. ? Occupant activitiesventilation such as that provided by economizers or intermittent locallocal kitchen and bath exhausts, but a large part of the standard focuses on the continuous mechanical whole-house ventilation.

  20. SIMPLIFIED METHODS FOR COMBINING MECHANICAL VENTILATION AND NATURAL INFILTRATION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Modera, M.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of Heating and Ventilating, Royal Institute of Technology,Heating and Ventilating The Royal Institute of Technology

  1. Ventilation-Synchronous Magnetic Resonance Microscopy of Pulmonary Structure and Ventilation in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ventilation-Synchronous Magnetic Resonance Microscopy of Pulmonary Structure and Ventilation helium (3 He) gas to acquire images that dem- onstrate pulmonary vasculature and ventilated airways of these structures relative to the less vascular surrounding tissues. A constant- flow ventilator was developed

  2. We compared the efficacy of positive pressure ventilation (PPV) vs negative pressure ventilation (NPV) in providing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shadmehr, Reza

    the rationale for the use ofintermittent assisted ventilation is based on the premise that it alleviates muscleWe compared the efficacy of positive pressure ventilation (PPV) vs negative pressure ventilationEMG), minute ventilation (VE),tidal volume (VT), and end-tidal CO (etCOĂ during 15 minutes of PPV and NPV

  3. Building America Webinar: Retrofit Ventilation Strategies in...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Strategies in Multifamily Buildings Webinar Building America Webinar: Retrofit Ventilation Strategies in Multifamily Buildings Webinar This webinar, presented by...

  4. Demand Response and Open Automated Demand Response

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    LBNL-3047E Demand Response and Open Automated Demand Response Opportunities for Data Centers G described in this report was coordinated by the Demand Response Research Center and funded by the California. Demand Response and Open Automated Demand Response Opportunities for Data Centers. California Energy

  5. Procedures and Standards for Residential Ventilation System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1 Procedures and Standards for Residential Ventilation System Commissioning: An Annotated and by the California Energy Commission under Pier Contract 500-08-061. Key terms: residential, ventilation.C. and C.P. Wray. 2013. Procedures and Standards for Residential Ventilation System Commissioning

  6. Reduceret energiforbrug til ventilation af bygninger

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reduceret energiforbrug til ventilation af bygninger hvori der systematisk er valgt lav. 23. November 2007 #12;#12;Reduced energy use for ventilation of buildings through selection of low ventilation rate on perceived quality of air polluted by different materials, small ­ scale and full ­ scale

  7. Humidity Implications for Meeting Residential Ventilation Requirements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1 LBNL-62182 Humidity Implications for Meeting Residential Ventilation Requirements Iain S. Walker for Meeting Residential Ventilation Requirements ABSTRACT In 2003 ASHRAE approved the nation's first residential ventilation standard, ASHRAE Standard 62.2. Because meeting this standard can significantly change

  8. Hysteresis effects in hybrid building ventilation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Flynn, Morris R.

    = Heating, ventilation & air conditioning Buildings and energy consumption #12;· Notwithstanding this energy-breeze, displacement ventilation dissipate internal heat gains e.g. from kitchen stove · Wintertime: Spaces filledHysteresis effects in hybrid building ventilation Morris R. Flynn Dept. of Mechanical & Aerospace

  9. Speed and Path Control for Conflict-Free Flight in High Air Traffic Demand in Terminal Airspace

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rezaei, Ali

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    speed control in terminal airspace, AIAA Guidance,Separattomcompltant tn the terminal airspace, Part I: speedSeparattomcompltant tn the terminal airspace, Part II: speed

  10. Model Predictive Control Approach to Online Computation of Demand-Side Flexibility of Commercial Buildings HVAC Systems for Supply Following

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maasoumy, Mehdi

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of commercial building HVAC fan as ancillary service foralgorithm design for hvac systems in energy efficientoptimal control design for HVAC systems,” in Dynamic System

  11. High Temperatures & Electricity Demand

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    High Temperatures & Electricity Demand An Assessment of Supply Adequacy in California Trends.......................................................................................................1 HIGH TEMPERATURES AND ELECTRICITY DEMAND.....................................................................................................................7 SECTION I: HIGH TEMPERATURES AND ELECTRICITY DEMAND ..........................9 BACKGROUND

  12. Infiltration Effects on Residential Pollutant Concentrations for Continuous and Intermittent Mechanical Ventilation Approaches

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sherman, Max

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    emissions, we assume that local ventilation is not used inventilation is user operated and is presumed to run to exhaust the intermittent and localventilation systems with some restrictions. Standard 62.2 requires source control, including local

  13. Demand Response Programs, 6. edition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    2007-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The report provides a look at the past, present, and future state of the market for demand/load response based upon market price signals. It is intended to provide significant value to individuals and companies who are considering participating in demand response programs, energy providers and ISOs interested in offering demand response programs, and consultants and analysts looking for detailed information on demand response technology, applications, and participants. The report offers a look at the current Demand Response environment in the energy industry by: defining what demand response programs are; detailing the evolution of program types over the last 30 years; discussing the key drivers of current initiatives; identifying barriers and keys to success for the programs; discussing the argument against subsidization of demand response; describing the different types of programs that exist including:direct load control, interruptible load, curtailable load, time-of-use, real time pricing, and demand bidding/buyback; providing examples of the different types of programs; examining the enablers of demand response programs; and, providing a look at major demand response programs.

  14. UNICOS CPC New Domains of Application: Vacuum and Cooling & Ventilation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Willeman, D; Bradu, B; Ortola, J

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The UNICOS (UNified Industrial COntrol System) framework, and concretely the CPC (Continuous Process Control) package, has been extensively used in the domain of continuous processes (e.g. cryogenics, gas flows) and also in others specific to the LHC machine as the collimators environmental measurements interlock system. The application of the UNICOS-CPC to other kind of processes: vacuum and the cooling and ventilation cases are depicted here. One of the major challenges was to figure out whether the model and devices created so far were also adapted for other type of processes (e.g. Vacuum). To illustrate this challenge two domain use cases will be shown: ISOLDE vacuum control system and the RFQ4 and STP18 (cooling & ventilation) control systems. Both scenarios will be illustrated emphasizing the adaptability of the UNICOS CPC package to create those applications and highlighting the discovered needed features to include in a future version of the UNICOS CPC package. This paper will a...

  15. Automated Demand Response and Commissioning

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Piette, Mary Ann; Watson, David S.; Motegi, Naoya; Bourassa, Norman

    2005-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper describes the results from the second season of research to develop and evaluate the performance of new Automated Demand Response (Auto-DR) hardware and software technology in large facilities. Demand Response (DR) is a set of activities to reduce or shift electricity use to improve the electric grid reliability and manage electricity costs. Fully-Automated Demand Response does not involve human intervention, but is initiated at a home, building, or facility through receipt of an external communications signal. We refer to this as Auto-DR. The evaluation of the control and communications must be properly configured and pass through a set of test stages: Readiness, Approval, Price Client/Price Server Communication, Internet Gateway/Internet Relay Communication, Control of Equipment, and DR Shed Effectiveness. New commissioning tests are needed for such systems to improve connecting demand responsive building systems to the electric grid demand response systems.

  16. Air change effectiveness in laboratory tests of combined chilled ceiling and displacement ventilation.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schiavon, Stefano; Bauman, Fred; Tully, Brad; Rimmer, Julian

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    for Displacement Ventilation. Atlanta: ASHRAE. ISO. 1993.ceiling and displacement ventilation systems. Energy andceiling and displacement ventilation systems. Submitted to

  17. Demand Response and Open Automated Demand Response Opportunities for Data Centers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ghatikar, Girish; Piette, Mary Ann; Fujita, Sydny; McKane, Aimee; Dudley, Junqiao Han; Radspieler, Anthony; Mares, K.C.; Shroyer, Dave

    2009-12-30T23:59:59.000Z

    This study examines data center characteristics, loads, control systems, and technologies to identify demand response (DR) and automated DR (Open Auto-DR) opportunities and challenges. The study was performed in collaboration with technology experts, industrial partners, and data center facility managers and existing research on commercial and industrial DR was collected and analyzed. The results suggest that data centers, with significant and rapidly growing energy use, have significant DR potential. Because data centers are highly automated, they are excellent candidates for Open Auto-DR. 'Non-mission-critical' data centers are the most likely candidates for early adoption of DR. Data center site infrastructure DR strategies have been well studied for other commercial buildings; however, DR strategies for information technology (IT) infrastructure have not been studied extensively. The largest opportunity for DR or load reduction in data centers is in the use of virtualization to reduce IT equipment energy use, which correspondingly reduces facility cooling loads. DR strategies could also be deployed for data center lighting, and heating, ventilation, and air conditioning. Additional studies and demonstrations are needed to quantify benefits to data centers of participating in DR and to address concerns about DR's possible impact on data center performance or quality of service and equipment life span.

  18. assessing workforce demand: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and Utilization Websites Summary: LBNL-5319E Assessing the Control Systems Capacity for Demand Response in California Industries in this report was coordinated by the Demand...

  19. air passenger demand: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Websites Summary: 1 Aggregated Modeling and Control of Air Conditioning Loads for Demand Response Wei Zhang, Member, IEEE Abstract--Demand response is playing an...

  20. air cargo demand: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Websites Summary: 1 Aggregated Modeling and Control of Air Conditioning Loads for Demand Response Wei Zhang, Member, IEEE Abstract--Demand response is playing an...

  1. Open Automated Demand Response Technologies for Dynamic Pricing and Smart Grid

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ghatikar, Girish

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    for Automated Demand Response in Commercial Buildings. ” InAutomated Demand Response for Small Commercial Buildings. ”in automated demand response programs with building control

  2. Examining Uncertainty in Demand Response Baseline Models and Variability in Automated Response to Dynamic Pricing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mathieu, Johanna L.

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    demand response and energy ef?ciency in commercial buildings,”building control strategies and techniques for demand response,”building electricity use with application to demand response,”

  3. Automation of Capacity Bidding with an Aggregator Using Open Automated Demand Response

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kiliccote, Sila

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    high.  Demand response helps to manage building electricity Building  Control Strategies and Techniques for Demand Response.  Non?Residential Building in California.   Demand Response 

  4. Chilled Water Thermal Storage System and Demand Response at the University of California at Merced

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Granderson, Jessica

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Building Control Strategies and Techniques for Demand Response.of Automated Demand Response in a Large Office Building.there demand response potential in commercial building that

  5. Energy Code Enforcement Training Manual : Covering the Washington State Energy Code and the Ventilation and Indoor Air Quality Code.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Washington State Energy Code Program

    1992-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This manual is designed to provide building department personnel with specific inspection and plan review skills and information on provisions of the 1991 edition of the Washington State Energy Code (WSEC). It also provides information on provisions of the new stand-alone Ventilation and Indoor Air Quality (VIAQ) Code.The intent of the WSEC is to reduce the amount of energy used by requiring energy-efficient construction. Such conservation reduces energy requirements, and, as a result, reduces the use of finite resources, such as gas or oil. Lowering energy demand helps everyone by keeping electricity costs down. (It is less expensive to use existing electrical capacity efficiently than it is to develop new and additional capacity needed to heat or cool inefficient buildings.) The new VIAQ Code (effective July, 1991) is a natural companion to the energy code. Whether energy-efficient or not, an homes have potential indoor air quality problems. Studies have shown that indoor air is often more polluted than outdoor air. The VIAQ Code provides a means of exchanging stale air for fresh, without compromising energy savings, by setting standards for a controlled ventilation system. It also offers requirements meant to prevent indoor air pollution from building products or radon.

  6. Multifamily Individual Heating and Ventilation Systems, Lawrence, Massachusetts (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2013-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The conversion of an older Massachusetts building into condominiums illustrates a safe, durable, and cost-effective solution for heating and ventilation systems that can potentially benefit millions of multifamily buildings. Merrimack Valley Habitat for Humanity (MVHfH) partnered with U.S. Department of Energy Building America team Building Science Corporation (BSC) to provide high performance affordable housing for 10 families in the retrofit of an existing mass masonry building (a former convent). The original ventilation design for the project was provided by a local engineer and consisted of a single large heat recovery ventilator (HRV) located in a mechanical room in the basement with a centralized duct system providing supply air to the main living space and exhausting stale air from the single bathroom in each apartment. This design was deemed to be far too costly to install and operate for several reasons: the large central HRV was oversized and the specified flows to each apartment were much higher than the ASHRAE 62.2 rate; an extensive system of ductwork, smoke and fire dampers, and duct chases were specified; ductwork required a significant area of dropped ceilings; and the system lacked individual ventilation control in the apartments

  7. Evaluation of energy savings related to building envelope retrofit techniques and ventilation strategies for low energy cooling in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    strategies for low energy cooling in offices and commercial sector Laurent Grignon-Massé, Dominique Marchio and automatic controls and the use of adequate ventilation strategies show great potential in energy savingsEvaluation of energy savings related to building envelope retrofit techniques and ventilation

  8. Demand Response and Open Automated Demand Response Opportunities for Data Centers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mares, K.C.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    lighting, and heating, ventilation, and air conditioning.affect heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC)per second heating, ventilation, and air conditioning

  9. Solar Ventilation Preheating Resources and Technologies

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This page provides a brief overview of solar ventilation preheating (SVP) technologies supplemented by specific information to apply SVP within the Federal sector.

  10. Equivalence in Ventilation and Indoor Air Quality

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sherman, Max

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Equivalence in Ventilation and Indoor Air Quality M. H.have a method for determining equivalence in terms of eitherwe need to establish an equivalence principle that allows

  11. Demand Response Programs Oregon Public Utility Commission

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , Demand Side Management #12;Current Programs/Tariffs ­ Load Control Programs Cool Keeper, Utah (currentlyDemand Response Programs Oregon Public Utility Commission January 6, 2005 Mike Koszalka Director 33 MW, building to 90 MW) Irrigation load control, Idaho (35 MW summer, 2004) Lighting load control

  12. Demand Responsive Lighting: A Scoping Study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rubinstein, Francis; Kiliccote, Sila

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    peak demand management. Photo sensors for daylight drivenare done by local photo-sensors and control hardwaresensing device in a photo sensor is typically a photodiode,

  13. Wastewater plant takes plunge into demand response

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Commission and the Bonneville Power Administration, the Eugene-Springfield Water Pollution Control Facility in Eugene, Ore., was put through a series of demand response tests....

  14. Coupling Renewable Energy Supply with Deferrable Demand

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Papavasiliou, Anthony

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    the dispatch of flexible loads and generation resources bothof controllable generation and flexible demand. In the casecontrollable generation resources and flexible loads in the

  15. Natural Ventilation | Department of Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC)Integrated CodesTransparency VisitSilver Toyota1Resourceloading newNatural Ventilation

  16. Ventilation Behavior and Household Characteristics in New California Houses

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Price, Phillip N.; Sherman, Max H.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and Mechanical Ventilation: Use of Local Exhaust Fans:pollutants. Large ventilation fans can cause local thermallocal contaminants such as those from kitchen and bathroom activities, then minimum building ventilation

  17. Commissioning Residential Ventilation Systems: A Combined Assessment of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Commissioning Residential Ventilation Systems: A Combined Assessment of Energy and Air Quality ventilation systems are being installed in new California homes. Few measurements are available of commissioning residential whole- house ventilation systems that are intended to comply

  18. External Authorities and Peers Laboratory Ventilation Management Program

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pawlowski, Wojtek

    External Authorities and Peers Laboratory Ventilation Management Program Guidance Document External Authorities and Peers This group encompasses external groups who do not manage laboratory ventilation systems to laboratory ventilation management. Roles Responsibilities Tracking Indicator Laboratory science peers

  19. RESEARCH ARTICLE Open Access Noninvasive ventilation reduces energy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    RESEARCH ARTICLE Open Access Noninvasive ventilation reduces energy expenditure in amyotrophic with a shift of the burden of ventilation to extradiaphragmatic inspiratory muscles, including neck muscles prognostic value. We hypothesized that noninvasive ventilation (NIV) would relieve inspiratory neck muscles

  20. ENERGY IMPACTS OF VARIOUS RESIDENTIAL MECHANICAL VENTILATION STRATEGIES 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vieira, R.; Parker, D.; Lixing, G.; Wichers, M.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    . Enthalpy recovery ventilation units tend to use more energy overall - despite the heat recovery - than supply or exhaust only ventilation systems, due to using twice as much fan energy. This paper presents simulation results for eight ventilation strategies...

  1. Infiltration in ASHRAE's Residential Ventilation Standards

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sherman, Max

    2008-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of ventilation is to dilute or remove indoor contaminants that an occupant could be exposed to. It can be provided by mechanical or natural means. ASHRAE Standards including standards 62, 119, and 136 have all considered the contribution of infiltration in various ways, using methods and data from 20 years ago. The vast majority of homes in the United States and indeed the world are ventilated through natural means such as infiltration caused by air leakage. Newer homes in the western world are tight and require mechanical ventilation. As we seek to provide acceptable indoor air quality at minimum energy cost, it is important to neither over-ventilate norunder-ventilate. Thus, it becomes critically important to correctly evaluate the contribution infiltration makes to both energy consumption and equivalent ventilation. ASHRAE Standard 62.2 specifies how much mechanical ventilation is considered necessary to provide acceptable indoor air quality, but that standard is weak on how infiltration can contribute towards meeting the total requirement. In the past ASHRAE Standard 136 was used to do this, but new theoretical approaches and expanded weather data have made that standard out of date. This article will describe how to properly treat infiltration as an equivalent ventilation approach and then use new data and these new approaches to demonstrate how these calculations might be done both in general and to update Standard 136.

  2. Ventilation System to Improve Savannah River Site's Liquid Waste...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Ventilation System to Improve Savannah River Site's Liquid Waste Operations Ventilation System to Improve Savannah River Site's Liquid Waste Operations August 28, 2014 - 12:00pm...

  3. Case Study - The Challenge: Improving Ventilation System Energy...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Ventilation System Energy Efficiency in a Textile Plant Case Study - The Challenge: Improving Ventilation System Energy Efficiency in a Textile Plant This case study examines how...

  4. Workers Remove Glove Boxes from Ventilation at Hanford's Plutonium...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Remove Glove Boxes from Ventilation at Hanford's Plutonium Finishing Plant Workers Remove Glove Boxes from Ventilation at Hanford's Plutonium Finishing Plant January 28, 2015 -...

  5. Critical Question #2: What are the Best Practices for Ventilation...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    2: What are the Best Practices for Ventilation Specific to Multifamily Buildings? Critical Question 2: What are the Best Practices for Ventilation Specific to Multifamily...

  6. air ventilation rate: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Requirements University of California eScholarship Repository Summary: typical existing house. Designed passive ventilation systemsPassive Ventilation by Constant Area Vents to...

  7. Adventitious ventilation: a new definition for an old mode?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schiavon, Stefano

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Refrigeration and Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAEof ventilation and air- conditioning system types in officeto natural ventilation, air conditioning, with or without

  8. Summer Infiltration/Ventilation Test Results from the FRTF Laboratory...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Summer InfiltrationVentilation Test Results from the FRTF Laboratory Summer InfiltrationVentilation Test Results from the FRTF Laboratory This presentation was delivered at the...

  9. BUILDING VENTILATION AND INDOOR AIR QUALITY PROGRAM. CHAPTER FROM ENERGY AND ENVIRONMENT DIVISION ANNUAL REPORT 1978

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cairns, Elton J.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and in new "energy-efficient design" hospitals. Developmentenergy-efficient ventilation standards and ventilation designs

  10. Development of a Residential Integrated Ventilation Controller

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Walker, Iain

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    house using the heating/cooling supply ducts. The outdoorfor continuous supply in CZ3 in cooling season R elative Ecooling climate zone 13. The economizer will be modeled as a large supply

  11. Addressing Energy Demand through Demand Response: International Experiences and Practices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shen, Bo

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of integrating demand response and energy efficiencyand D. Kathan (2009), Demand Response in U.S. ElectricityFRAMEWORKS THAT PROMOTE DEMAND RESPONSE 3.1. Demand Response

  12. Addressing Energy Demand through Demand Response: International Experiences and Practices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shen, Bo

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Addressing Energy Demand through Demand Response:both the avoided energy costs (and demand charges) as wellCoordination of Energy Efficiency and Demand Response,

  13. Classroom HVAC: Improving ventilation and saving energy -- field study plan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Apte, Michael G.; Faulkner, David; Hodgson, Alfred T.; Sullivan, Douglas P.

    2004-10-14T23:59:59.000Z

    The primary goals of this research effort are to develop, evaluate, and demonstrate a very practical HVAC system for classrooms that consistently provides classrooms (CRs) with the quantity of ventilation in current minimum standards, while saving energy, and reducing HVAC-related noise levels. This research is motivated by the public benefits of energy efficiency, evidence that many CRs are under-ventilated, and public concerns about indoor environmental quality in CRs. This document provides a summary of the detailed plans developed for the field study that will take place in 2005 to evaluate the energy and IAQ performance of a new classroom HVAC technology. The field study will include measurements of HVAC energy use, ventilation rates, and IEQ conditions in 10 classrooms with the new HVAC technology and in six control classrooms with a standard HVAC system. Energy use and many IEQ parameters will be monitored continuously, while other IEQ measurements will be will be performed seasonally. Continuously monitored data will be remotely accessed via a LonWorks network. Instrument calibration plans that vary with the type of instrumentation used are established. Statistical tests will be employed to compare energy use and IEQ conditions with the new and standard HVAC systems. Strengths of this study plan include the collection of real time data for a full school year, the use of high quality instrumentation, the incorporation of many quality control measures, and the extensive collaborations with industry that limit costs to the sponsors.

  14. A DISTRIBUTED INTELLIGENT AUTOMATED DEMAND RESPONSE BUILDING MANAGEMENT SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Auslander, David; Culler, David; Wright, Paul; Lu, Yan; Piette, Mary

    2013-12-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The goal of the 2.5 year Distributed Intelligent Automated Demand Response (DIADR) project was to reduce peak electricity load of Sutardja Dai Hall at UC Berkeley by 30% while maintaining a healthy, comfortable, and productive environment for the occupants. We sought to bring together both central and distributed control to provide “deep” demand response1 at the appliance level of the building as well as typical lighting and HVAC applications. This project brought together Siemens Corporate Research and Siemens Building Technology (the building has a Siemens Apogee Building Automation System (BAS)), Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (leveraging their Open Automated Demand Response (openADR), Auto-­Demand Response, and building modeling expertise), and UC Berkeley (related demand response research including distributed wireless control, and grid-­to-­building gateway development). Sutardja Dai Hall houses the Center for Information Technology Research in the Interest of Society (CITRIS), which fosters collaboration among industry and faculty and students of four UC campuses (Berkeley, Davis, Merced, and Santa Cruz). The 141,000 square foot building, occupied in 2009, includes typical office spaces and a nanofabrication laboratory. Heating is provided by a district heating system (steam from campus as a byproduct of the campus cogeneration plant); cooling is provided by one of two chillers: a more typical electric centrifugal compressor chiller designed for the cool months (Nov-­ March) and a steam absorption chiller for use in the warm months (April-­October). Lighting in the open office areas is provided by direct-­indirect luminaries with Building Management System-­based scheduling for open areas, and occupancy sensors for private office areas. For the purposes of this project, we focused on the office portion of the building. Annual energy consumption is approximately 8053 MWh; the office portion is estimated as 1924 MWh. The maximum peak load during the study period was 1175 kW. Several new tools facilitated this work, such as the Smart Energy Box, the distributed load controller or Energy Information Gateway, the web-­based DR controller (dubbed the Central Load-­Shed Coordinator or CLSC), and the Demand Response Capacity Assessment & Operation Assistance Tool (DRCAOT). In addition, an innovative data aggregator called sMAP (simple Measurement and Actuation Profile) allowed data from different sources collected in a compact form and facilitated detailed analysis of the building systems operation. A smart phone application (RAP or Rapid Audit Protocol) facilitated an inventory of the building’s plug loads. Carbon dioxide sensors located in conference rooms and classrooms allowed demand controlled ventilation. The extensive submetering and nimble access to this data provided great insight into the details of the building operation as well as quick diagnostics and analyses of tests. For example, students discovered a short-­cycling chiller, a stuck damper, and a leaking cooling coil in the first field tests. For our final field tests, we were able to see how each zone was affected by the DR strategies (e.g., the offices on the 7th floor grew very warm quickly) and fine-­tune the strategies accordingly.

  15. Demand Response Valuation Frameworks Paper

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heffner, Grayson

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    benefits of Demand Side Management (DSM) are insufficient toefficiency, demand side management (DSM) cost effectivenessResearch Center Demand Side Management Demand Side Resources

  16. Industrial Applications of Networked Control Karl H. Johansson

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johansson, Karl Henrik

    of turbine + heater Automatic control of ventilation fans · Mining consists of drilling, blasting, ore control of turbine + heater Controller Turbine- Ventilation Fan Tubes- Primary system Secondary system network rooms Pressure WSN Mobile WSN Automatic control of ventilation fans · Mobility and reconfiguration

  17. INTELLIGENT CONTROL TECHNOLOGY FOR NATURAL VENLTILATION USED IN

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    ventilation will be controlled by driving the windows open. First, the ventilation model using in greenhouse is constructed specially using actuators for driving windows one by one, and control model is analyzed making the control model for natural ventilation is not given as well as how to realize the control

  18. Automation of Capacity Bidding with an Aggregator Using Open Automated Demand Response

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kiliccote, Sila

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Protocol for Building Automation and Control  Networks.  Protocol for Building Automation and Control  Networks, Demand Response Automation Server  Demand Response Research 

  19. Measuring Residential Ventilation System Airflows: Part 1 Laboratory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1 Measuring Residential Ventilation System Airflows: Part 1 ­ Laboratory Evaluation of Airflow: residential, mechanical ventilation, measurement, ASHRAE 62.2, flow hood ABSTRACT Building codes increasingly require tighter homes and mechanical ventilation per ASHRAE Standard 62.2. These ventilation flows must

  20. THE MECHANICS OF LUNG TISSUE UNDER HIGH-FREQUENCY VENTILATION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lewis, Mark

    THE MECHANICS OF LUNG TISSUE UNDER HIGH-FREQUENCY VENTILATION MARKUS R. OWEN AND MARK A. LEWIS SIAM­1761 Abstract. High-frequency ventilation is a radical departure from conventional lung ventilation question concerns ventilator-induced damage to the lung tissue, and a clear protocol for the most effective

  1. THE MECHANICS OF LUNG TISSUE UNDER HIGH-FREQUENCY VENTILATION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    THE MECHANICS OF LUNG TISSUE UNDER HIGH-FREQUENCY VENTILATION MARKUS R. OWEN AND MARK A. LEWIS Abstract. High frequency ventilation is a radical departure from conventional lung ventilation question concerns ventilator induced damage to the lung tissue, and a clear protocol for the most effective

  2. Building America Webinar: Multifamily Ventilation Strategies and Compartmentalization Requirements

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The webinar will focus on key challenges in multifamily ventilation and strategies to address these challenges.

  3. RECOMMENDED VENTILATION STRATEGIES FOR ENERGY-EFFICIENT PRODUCTION HOMES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    -port exhaust ventilation fan, and that builders offer balanced heat- recovery ventilation to buyersLBNL-40378 UC-000 RECOMMENDED VENTILATION STRATEGIES FOR ENERGY-EFFICIENT PRODUCTION HOMES Judy A of Energy under Contract No. DE-AC03-76SF00098. #12;i Abstract This report evaluates residential ventilation

  4. Summary of Workshop: Barriers to Energy Efficient Residential Ventilation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sherman, Max; Sherman, Max

    2008-01-10T23:59:59.000Z

    The objectives for this workshop were to bring together those with different viewpoints on the implementation of energy efficient ventilation in homes to share their perspectives. The primary benefit of the workshop is to allow the participants to get a broader understanding of the issues involved and thereby make themselves more able to achieve their own goals in this area. In order to achieve this objective each participant was asked to address four objectives from their point of view: (1) Drivers for energy efficient residential ventilation: Why is this an important issue? Who cares about it? Where is the demand: occupants, utilities, regulation, programs, etc? What does sustainability mean in this context? (2) Markets & Technologies: What products, services and systems are out there? What kinds of things are in the pipeline? What is being installed now? Are there regional or other trends? What are the technology interactions with other equipment and the envelope? (3) Barriers to Implementation: What is stopping decision makers from implementing energy-efficient residential ventilation systems? What kind of barriers are there: technological, cost, informational, structural, etc. What is the critical path? (4) Solutions: What can be done to overcome the barriers and how can/should we do it? What is the role of public vs. private institutions? Where can investments be made to save energy while improving the indoor environment? Ten participants prepared presentations for the workshop. Those presentations are included in sections at the end of this workshop report. These presentations provided the principal context for the discussions that happened during the workshop. Critical path issues were raised and potential solutions discussed during the workshop. As a secondary objective they have listed key issues and some potential consensus items which resulted from the discussions.

  5. Field Demonstration of Automated Demand Response for Both Winter and Summer Events in Large Buildings in the Pacific Northwest

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Piette, Mary Ann

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    automated demand response systems in large buildings in theBuilding Control Strategies and Techniques for Demand Response,buildings were able to provide significant demand response

  6. Midlevel ventilation's constraint on tropical cyclone intensity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tang, Brian Hong-An

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Midlevel ventilation, or the flux of low-entropy air into the inner core of a tropical cyclone (TC), is a hypothesized mechanism by which environmental vertical wind shear can constrain a TC's intensity. An idealized ...

  7. Tunnel ventilation effectiveness in fire scenarios 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Colella, Francesco; Rein, Guillermo; Carvel, Ricky O; Torero, Jose L

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Throughout most of a tunnel network the ventilation behaviour may be approximated with a simple 1D flow model. However, there are some important - but relatively small - regions of the tunnel that require CFD analysis. The multi-scale model...

  8. Midlevel Ventilation's Constraint on Tropical Cyclone Intensity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tang, Brian Hong-An

    Midlevel ventilation, or the flux of low-entropy air into the inner core of a tropical cyclone (TC), is a hypothesized mechanism by which environmental vertical wind shear can constrain a tropical cyclone’s intensity. An ...

  9. Performance Assessment of Photovoltaic Attic Ventilator Fans 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Parker, D. S.; Sherwin, J. R.

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    has long been identified as a method to abate such heat gains. We present test results from using the photovoltaic (PV) attic ventilator fans in a test home to assess impact on attic and cooling energy performance....

  10. Floor-supply displacement ventilation system

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kobayashi, Nobukazu, 1967-

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Research on indoor environments has received more attention recently because reports of symptoms and other health complaints related to indoor environments have been increasing. Heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning ...

  11. May 1999 LBNL -42975 ASHRAE'S RESIDENTIAL VENTILATION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    May 1999 LBNL - 42975 ASHRAE'S RESIDENTIAL VENTILATION STANDARD: EXEGESIS OF PROPOSED STANDARD 62 standard. 1 Max Sherman is a Senior Scientist at LBNL and the group leader of its Energy Performance

  12. Scale model studies of displacement ventilation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Okutan, Galip Mehmet

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Displacement ventilation is an air conditioning method that provides conditioned air to indoor environments with the goal to improve air quality while reducing energy consumption. This study investigates the performance ...

  13. Performance Assessment of Photovoltaic Attic Ventilator Fans

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Parker, D. S.; Sherwin, J. R.

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    has long been identified as a method to abate such heat gains. We present test results from using the photovoltaic (PV) attic ventilator fans in a test home to assess impact on attic and cooling energy performance....

  14. Disposable colorimetric carbon dioxide detector use as an indicator of a patent airway during noninvasive mask ventilation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Leone, T A; Lange, A; Rich, W; Finer, N N

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    During Noninvasive Mask Ventilation Tina A. Leone, Allisonduring bag and mask ventilation and en- courage others toposi- tive pressure ventilation in preterm babies ventilated

  15. Room air stratification in combined chilled ceiling and displacement ventilation systems.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schiavon, Stefano; Bauman, Fred; Tully, Brad; Rimmer, Julian

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    nodal model for displacement ventilation and chilled ceiling2002. Displacement ventilation in non- industrial premises.ceiling/displacement ventilation hybrid air conditioning

  16. Assessment of Indoor Air Quality Benefits and Energy Costs of Mechanical Ventilation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Logue, J.M.

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Energy Costs of Mechanical Ventilation KEMA-XENERGY.2004.Offermann, F. J.2009. Ventilation and indoor air quality intowards meeting residential ventilation needs. Berkeley, CA,

  17. Infiltration Effects on Residential Pollutant Concentrations for Continuous and Intermittent Mechanical Ventilation Approaches

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sherman, Max

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    P. (2002). Technical Note AIVC 57: Residential Ventilation.Air Infiltration and Ventilation Center (AIVC) Edwards, R.Related to Residential Ventilation Requirements. Berkeley,

  18. BUILDING VENTILATION AND INDOOR AIR QUALITY PROGRAM. CHAPTER FROM ENERGY AND ENVIRONMENT DIVISION ANNUAL REPORT 1978

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cairns, Elton J.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The first section on the Ventilation Program, funded by thea large study on hospital ventilation require- ments.iii Ventilation Program C. D. Hollowell, A. Anaclerio, D. W.

  19. Created: July, 2014 Laboratory Safety Design Guide Section 3 Laboratory Ventilation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Queitsch, Christine

    Created: July, 2014 Laboratory Safety Design Guide Section 3 ­ Laboratory Ventilation 3-1 Section 3 LABORATORY VENTILATION Contents A. Scope .................................................................................................................3-2 B. General Laboratory Ventilation

  20. Risk Factors in Heating, Ventilating, and Air-Conditioning Systems for Occupant Symptoms in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mendell, M.J.; Lei-Gomez, Q.; Mirer, A.; Seppanen, O.; Brunner, G.

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    LBNL-61870 Risk Factors in Heating, Ventilating, and Air-for Occupant Symptoms in Heating, Ventilating, and Air-uncertain. Characteristics of heating, ventilating, and air-

  1. BUILDING VENTILATION AND INDOOR AIR QUALITY PROGRAM. CHAPTER FROM ENERGY AND ENVIRONMENT DIVISION ANNUAL REPORT 1978

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cairns, Elton J.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    occupants. The heating, ventilation and air conditioning (third of the heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (see Fig. 1) Heating ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC)

  2. Modelica Library for Building Heating, Ventilation and Air-Conditioning Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wetter, Michael

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    for Building Heating, Ventilation and Air-Conditioningfor Building Heating, Ventilation and Air-Conditioningfor building heating, ventilation and air con- ditioning

  3. INDOOR AIR QUALITY AND ENERGY EFFICIENT VENTILATION RATES AT A NEW YORK CITY ELEMENTARY SCHOOL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Young, Rodger A.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    To determine the yearly ventilation-heating load for thecalculations of ventilation heating load 25 in variousexi~ting school heating and ventilation conditions. It must

  4. Risk Factors in Heating, Ventilating, and Air-Conditioning Systems for Occupant Symptoms in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mendell, M.J.; Lei-Gomez, Q.; Mirer, A.; Seppanen, O.; Brunner, G.

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    for building ventilation systems." Retrieved December 15,of moisture and ventilation system contamination in U.S.installed in office ventilation systems on workers' health

  5. Relationship of SBS-symptoms and ventilation system type in office buildings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Seppanen, O.; Fisk, W.J.

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    SBS-SYMPTOMS AND VENTILATION SYSTEM TYPE IN OFFICE BUILDINGSSBS-SYMPTOMS AND VENTILATION SYSTEM TYPE IN OFFICE BUILDINGSabout the associations of ventilation system types in office

  6. Air change effectiveness in laboratory tests of combined chilled ceiling and displacement ventilation.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schiavon, Stefano; Bauman, Fred; Tully, Brad; Rimmer, Julian

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and displacement ventilation systems. Energy and Buildings,and displacement ventilation systems. Submitted to HVAC&R (and displacement ventilation system. According to Novoselac

  7. Procedures and Standards for Residential Ventilation System Commissioning: An Annotated Bibliography

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stratton, J. Chris

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Residential Mechanical Ventilation Systems”. CAN/CSA-F326-of Domestic Ventilation Systems”. International EnergyPassive Stack Ventilation Systems: Design and Installation”.

  8. Energy and air quality implications of passive stack ventilation in residential buildings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mortensen, Dorthe Kragsig

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    tighter, designed ventilation systems are more frequentlyof passive stack ventilation systems. They have been usedto having a good ventilation system and therefore also to

  9. OCCUPANT-GENERATED CO2 AS AN INDICATOR OF VENTILATION RATE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Turiel, Isaac

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ln mechanical ventilation systems are often inconvenientlywas conducted, the ventilation system mixes outside air withon a day when the ventilation system was in the all-outside-

  10. Infiltration Effects on Residential Pollutant Concentrations for Continuous and Intermittent Mechanical Ventilation Approaches

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sherman, Max

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of whole-house ventilation systems in meeting exposurefor residential ventilation system design is the Americanand operating ventilation systems with variable amounts of

  11. Room air stratification in combined chilled ceiling and displacement ventilation systems.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schiavon, Stefano; Bauman, Fred; Tully, Brad; Rimmer, Julian

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and displacement ventilation systems. HVAC&R Research, 12 (and displacement ventilation system. ASHRAE RP-1438 Finalof Displacement Ventilation System—Experimental and

  12. Association of ventilation system type with SBS symptoms in office workers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Seppanen, Olli; Fisk, William J.

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Evaluation of Swedish ventilation systems” Building andP. (1995) “Type of ventilation system in office buildingsEvaluation of ventilation system materials as sources of

  13. Open Automated Demand Response for Small Commerical Buildings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dudley, June Han

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    15  Heating Ventilation and Air Conditioning (HVAC) Institute  Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning the  majority of heating ventilation and air conditioning (

  14. Worker performance and ventilation in a call center: Analyses of work performance data for registered nurses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Federspiel, C.C.; Fisk, W.J.; Price, P.N.; Liu, G.; Faulkner, D.; Dibartolomeo, D.L.; Sullivan, D.P.; Lahiff, M.

    2004-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We investigated the relationship between ventilation rates and individual work performance in a call center, and controlled for other factors of the indoor environment. We randomized the position of the outdoor air control dampers, and measured ventilation rate, differential (indoor minus outdoor) carbon dioxide ({Delta}CO{sub 2}) concentration, supply air velocity, temperature, humidity, occupant density, degree of under-staffing, shift length, time of day, and time required to complete two different work performance tasks (talking with clients and post-talk wrap-up to process information). {Delta}CO{sub 2} concentrations ranged from 13 to 611 ppm. We used multi-variable regression to model the association between the predictors and the responses. We found that agents performed talk tasks fastest when the ventilation rate was highest, but that the relationship between talk performance and ventilation was not strong or monotonic. We did not find a statistically significant association between wrap-up performance and ventilation rate. Agents were slower at the wrap-up task when the temperature was high (>25.4 C). Agents were slower at wrap-up during long shifts and when the call center was under-staffed.

  15. Cleanup and Dismantling of Highly Contaminated Ventilation Systems Using Robotic Tools - 13162

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chambon, Frederic [AREVA FEDERAL SERVICES, Columbia MD (United States)] [AREVA FEDERAL SERVICES, Columbia MD (United States); CIZEL, Jean-Pierre [AREVA BE/NV, Marcoule (France)] [AREVA BE/NV, Marcoule (France); Blanchard, Samuel [CEA DEN/DPAD, Marcoule (France)] [CEA DEN/DPAD, Marcoule (France)

    2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The UP1 plant reprocessed nearly 20,000 tons of used natural uranium gas cooled reactor fuel coming from the first generation of civil nuclear reactors in France. Following operating incidents in the eighties, the ventilation system of the continuous dissolution line facility was shut down and replaced. Two types of remote controlled tool carriers were developed to perform the decontamination and dismantling operations of the highly contaminated ventilation duct network. The first one, a dedicated small robot, was designed from scratch to retrieve a thick powder deposit within a duct. The robot, managed and confined by two dedicated glove boxes, was equipped for intervention inside the ventilation duct and used for carrying various cleanup and inspection tools. The second type, consisting of robotic tools developed on the base of an industrial platform, was used for the clean-up and dismantling of the ventilation duct system. Depending on the type of work to be performed, on the shape constraints of the rooms and any equipment to be dismantled, different kinds of robotic tools were developed and installed on a Brokk 40 carrier. After more than ten years of ventilation duct D and D operations at the UP1 plant, a lot of experience was acquired about remote operations. The three main important lessons learned in terms of remote controlled operation are: characterizing the initial conditions as much as reasonably possible, performing non-radioactive full scale testing and making it as simple and modular as possible. (authors)

  16. Addressing Energy Demand through Demand Response: International Experiences and Practices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shen, Bo

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    DECC aggregator managed portfolio automated demand responseaggregator designs their own programs, and offers demand responseaggregator is responsible for designing and implementing their own demand response

  17. Addressing Energy Demand through Demand Response: International Experiences and Practices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shen, Bo

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Data for Automated Demand Response in Commercial Buildings,Demand Response Infrastructure for Commercial Buildings",demand response and energy efficiency functions into the design of buildings,

  18. Demand response enabling technology development

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arens, Edward; Auslander, David; Huizenga, Charlie

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    behavior in developing a demand response future. Phase_II_Demand Response Enabling Technology Development Phase IIYi Yuan The goal of the Demand Response Enabling Technology

  19. Demand Response Spinning Reserve Demonstration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    F) Enhanced ACP Date RAA ACP Demand Response – SpinningReserve Demonstration Demand Response – Spinning Reservesupply spinning reserve. Demand Response – Spinning Reserve

  20. Demand response enabling technology development

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Demand Response Enabling Technology Development Phase IEfficiency and Demand Response Programs for 2005/2006,Application to Demand Response Energy Pricing” SenSys 2003,

  1. Automated Demand Response and Commissioning

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Piette, Mary Ann; Watson, David S.; Motegi, Naoya; Bourassa, Norman

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and Demand Response in Commercial Buildings”, Lawrencesystems. Demand Response using HVAC in Commercial BuildingsDemand Response Test in Large Facilities13 National Conference on Building

  2. Computer Simulation of Cooling Effect of Wind Tower on Passively Ventilated Building 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Seryak, J.; Kissock, J. K.

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Traditional buildings are cooled and ventilated by mechanically induced drafts. Natural ventilation aspires to cool and ventilate a building by natural means, such as cross ventilation or wind towers, without mechanical equipment. A simple computer...

  3. Estimated costs of ventilation systems complying with the HUD ventilation standard for manufactured homes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, J.D.; Conner, C.C.

    1993-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    At the request of the US Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD), the Pacific Northwest Laboratory estimated the material, labor, and operating costs for ventilation equipment needed for compliance with HUD`s proposed revision to the ventilation standard for manufactured housing. This was intended to bound the financial impacts of the ventilation standard revision. Researchers evaluated five possible prototype ventilation systems that met the proposed ventilation requirements. Of those five, two systems were determined to be the most likely used by housing manufacturers: System 1 combines a fresh air duct with the existing central forced-air system to supply and circulate fresh air to conditioned spaces. System 2 uses a separate exhaust fan to remove air from the manufactured home. The estimated material and labor costs for these two systems range from $200 to $300 per home. Annual operating costs for the two ventilation systems were estimated for 20 US cities. The estimated operating costs for System 1 ranged from $55/year in Las Vegas, Nevada, to $83/year in Bismarck, North Dakota. Operating costs for System 2 ranged from a low of $35/year in Las Vegas to $63/year in Bismarck. Thus, HUD`s proposed increase in ventilation requirements will add less than $100/year to the energy cost of a manufactured home.

  4. Energy Demand Staff Scientist

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eisen, Michael

    Energy Demand in China Lynn Price Staff Scientist February 2, 2010 #12;Founded in 1988 Focused,000 2,000 3,000 4,000 5,000 6,000 7,000 2007 USChina #12;Overview:Overview: Key Energy Demand DriversKey Energy Demand Drivers · 290 million new urban residents 1990-2007 · 375 million new urban residents 2007

  5. Industrial Demand Module

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Boiler, Steam, and Cogeneration (BSC) Component. The BSC Component satisfies the steam demand from the PA and BLD Components. In some industries, the PA Component produces...

  6. Demand Response In California

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation covers the demand response in California and is given at the FUPWG 2006 Fall meeting, held on November 1-2, 2006 in San Francisco, California.

  7. Design of a Natural Ventilation System in the Dunhuang Museum 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Y.; Guan, W.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    that also meets architectural standards. Natural ventilation design methods are presented in this paper. A natural ventilation system is designed in the DunHuang museum. Thermal dynamic simulation and CFD simulation were analyzed in the exhibition hall...

  8. Modeling buoyancy-driven airflow in ventilation shafts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ray, Stephen D. (Stephen Douglas)

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Naturally ventilated buildings can significantly reduce the required energy for cooling and ventilating buildings by drawing in outdoor air using non-mechanical forces. Buoyancy-driven systems are common in naturally ...

  9. Design of a Natural Ventilation System in the Dunhuang Museum

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Y.; Guan, W.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Fresh air and good air quality can be obtained by a natural ventilation system, to fulfill the requirement of near natural conditions for the psychological health of mankind. A natural ventilation system is an ecological, energy saving system...

  10. Study on Influencing Factors of Night Ventilation in Office Rooms

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Z.; Sun, X.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A mathematical and physical model on night ventilation is set up. The fields of indoor air temperature, air velocity and thermal comfort are simulated using Airpak software. Some main influencing factors of night ventilation in office rooms...

  11. Analyzing Ventilation Effects of Different Apartment Styles by CFD

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, X.; Wang, L.; Ye, Z.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    in different directions have distinct ventilation environments. By compare the velocity fields of each apartment in four directions, results show that the apartment in the east has favorable ventilation effects. There are some disadvantages of other apartments...

  12. Application Study on Combined Ventilation System of Improving IAQ

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hu, S.; Li, G.; Zhang, C.; Ye, B.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A type of combined ventilating system is put forward in this paper. Through CFD simulation and testing of contaminant concentrations in a prototype residential room, the results demonstrate that the new ventilating system is advantageous...

  13. GASTRIC REFLUX IN MECHANICALLY VENTILATED GASTRIC FED ICU PATIENTS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schallom, Marilyn

    2013-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

    in ventilated patients is a major cause of ventilator associated pneumonia (VAP). Guidelines that recommend head of bed (HOB) elevation greater than 30? to prevent reflux, aspiration and VAP conflict with guidelines to prevent pressure ulcers which recommend HOB...

  14. A scale model study of displacement ventilation with chilled ceilings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Holden, Katherine J. A. (Katherine Joan Adrienne)

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Displacement ventilation is a form of air-conditioning which provides good air quality and some energy savings. The air quality is better than for a conventional mixed ventilation system. The maximum amount of cooling that ...

  15. Natural ventilation : design for suburban houses in Thailand

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tantasavasdi, Chalermwat, 1971-

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Natural Ventilation is the most effective passive cooling design strategy for architecture in hot and humid climates. In Thailand, natural ventilation has been the most essential element in the vernacular architecture such ...

  16. Study of natural ventilation in buildings with large eddy simulation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jiang, Yi, 1972-

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    With the discovery of many economic, environmental, and health problems in sealed and mechanically ventilated buildings, the concept of natural ventilation has been revived. "Buildings that breathe" have become more and ...

  17. HOSPITAL VENTILATION STANDARDS AND ENERGY CONSERVATION: CHEMICAL CONTAMINATION OF HOSPITAL AIR. FINAL REPORT.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rainer, David

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    open bench top local exhaust ventilation, The OSHA standardsuch as local ex- haust ventilation when properly applied,

  18. HOSPITAL VENTILATION STANDARDS AND ENERGY CONSERVATION: A SUMMARY OF THE LITERATURE WITH CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS, FY 78 FINAL REPORT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    DeRoos, R.L.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    on the premise that current hospital ventilation standardsand ,ventilation rates based on the premise of reducing

  19. V&A Medieval & Renaissance Galleries: A Passive Approach to Humidity Control

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lerpiniere, A.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    controlling ventilation on moisture content so that it only operates when helping the internal conditions. The control system constantly compares internal and external air moisture content, introducing outside air through the ventilation system only when...

  20. Summary Report: Control Strategies for Mixed-Mode Buildings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brager, Gail; Borgeson, Sam; Lee, Yoonsu

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    control over their local thermal and ventilation conditions,local system through central Johnson Controls system. Even if they had not gone to natural ventilation,local constraint PAGE 20 UCLA’s Kinsey Hall AKA Humanities Building) SF Federal Building (site specific wind driven ventilation )

  1. Contribution of Gular Pumping to Lung Ventilation in Monitor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brainerd, Elizabeth

    Contribution of Gular Pumping to Lung Ventilation in Monitor Lizards Tomasz Owerkowicz,1 * Colleen that lizards are subject to a speed- dependent axial constraint that prevents effective lung ventilation during locomotion, varanids use a positive pressure gular pump to assist lung ventilation. Disabling the gular pump

  2. Care of a cardiac pt on mechanical ventilation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kay, Mark A.

    Care of a cardiac pt on mechanical ventilation CVICU New Hires Orientation Day 2 Winnie Yung, RN, MN #12;Outline · Physiology of breathing · Terminology · Intubation · Mode of mechanical ventilation· Mode of mechanical ventilation · Nursing care of a vented pt · Nursing care of a vented single

  3. STATE OF CALIFORNIA INDOOR AIR QUALITY AND MECHANICAL VENTILATION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    STATE OF CALIFORNIA INDOOR AIR QUALITY AND MECHANICAL VENTILATION CEC- CF-6R-MECH-05 (Revised 08 Ventilation (Page 1 of 7) Site Address: Enforcement Agency: Permit Number: 2008 Residential Compliance Forms August 2009 Ventilation for Indoor Air Quality (IAQ): All dwelling units shall meet the requirements

  4. Improved Wireless Performance from Mode Scattering in Ventilation Ducts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stancil, Daniel D.

    Improved Wireless Performance from Mode Scattering in Ventilation Ducts Benjamin E. Henty, PA 15230. henty@eirp.org and stancil@cmu.edu Abstract Ventilation ducts are a convenient present in a ventilation duct T-junction and note with some surprise that improvement in the performance

  5. Experimental Study of Ventilation Performance in Laboratories with Chemical Spills

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Qingyan "Yan"

    1 Experimental Study of Ventilation Performance in Laboratories with Chemical Spills Mingang Chemical spills occur frequently in laboratories. The current ventilation code for laboratories recommends a ventilation rate of 12 ACH for maintaining a safe laboratory environment. On the other hand, the energy saving

  6. Estimating ventilation time scales using overturning stream functions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Döös, Kristofer

    Estimating ventilation time scales using overturning stream functions Bijoy Thompson & Jonas for estimating ventilation time scales from overturning stream functions is proposed. The stream function may describing an ide- alized semi-enclosed ocean basin ventilated through a narrow strait over a sill

  7. Utilizing Passive Ventilation to Complement HVAC Systems in Enclosed Buildings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mountziaris, T. J.

    Utilizing Passive Ventilation to Complement HVAC Systems in Enclosed Buildings Tom Rogg REU Student are important considerations in building design. Incorporation of a combination of passive ventilation systems of the National Science Foundation. Research Objectives · To provide proof of concept that a passive ventilation

  8. Natural Ventilation Design for Houses in Thailand Chalermwat Tantasavasdia

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Qingyan "Yan"

    1 Natural Ventilation Design for Houses in Thailand Chalermwat Tantasavasdia , Jelena Srebricb This paper explores the potential of using natural ventilation as a passive cooling system for new house conditions in Bangkok, the study found that it is possible to use natural ventilation to create a thermally

  9. Article original Influence du mode de ventilation des litires

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    Article original Influence du mode de ventilation des litičres sur les émissions gazeuses d expérimentalement l'effet de la ventilation des litičres sur le devenir de l'azote, dans un élevage intensif porcin systčmes de ventilation de litičre (ascendante et descendante) sont testés par rapport ŕ un systčme témoin

  10. Validation of CFD Simulations for Natural Ventilation , Camille Allocca1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Qingyan "Yan"

    1 Validation of CFD Simulations for Natural Ventilation Yi Jiang1 , Camille Allocca1 , and Qingyan ventilation, which may provide occupants with good indoor air quality and a high level of thermal comfort-driven and buoyancy-drive natural ventilation. The validation of the CFD models used the experimental data of wind

  11. SURFACE CIRCULATION AND VENTILATION Lynne D. Talley(1)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Talley, Lynne D.

    SURFACE CIRCULATION AND VENTILATION Lynne D. Talley(1) , Rana Fine(2) , Rick Lumpkin (3) , Nikolai by high frequency radars. Ventilation and upwelling processes connect the surface layer and underlying quantitative information on formation rates and residence times, and compelling evidence of decadal ventilation

  12. Should Title 24 Ventilation Requirements Be Amended to

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Should Title 24 Ventilation Requirements Be Amended to include an Indoor Air Quality Procedure Ventilation Requirements Be Amended to include an Indoor Air Quality Procedure? William J. Fisk, Spencer M Berkeley, CA 94720 May 10, 2013 ABSTRACT Minimum outdoor air ventilation rates (VRs) for buildings

  13. Estimating ventilation time scales using overturning stream functions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Döös, Kristofer

    Estimating ventilation time scales using overturning stream functions Bijoy Thompson & Jonas 2014 # Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2014 Abstract A simple method for estimating ventilation time-enclosed ocean basin ventilated through a narrow strait over a sill, and the result is compared to age estimates

  14. Harms of Unintentional Leaks during Volume Targeted Pressure Support Ventilation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 Harms of Unintentional Leaks during Volume Targeted Pressure Support Ventilation Sonia Khirani1 Background: Volume targeted pressure support ventilation (VT-PSV) is a hybrid mode increasingly used. The objective of the study was to determine the ability of home ventilators to maintain the preset minimal VT

  15. "Passive Ventilation in a Simple Structure" Thomas Rogg

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mountziaris, T. J.

    "Passive Ventilation in a Simple Structure" Thomas Rogg Faculty Mentor: Dr. Scott Civjan, Civil & Environmental Engineering The research concept is to investigate the addition of a passive ventilation system in a greener and more efficient ventilation system. The project is in the very early stages and I have been

  16. Variable ventilation induces endogenous surfactant release in normal guinea pigs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lutchen, Kenneth

    Variable ventilation induces endogenous surfactant release in normal guinea pigs Stephen P. Arold,1. Alencar, Kenneth R. Lutchen, and Edward P. Ingenito. Variable ventilation induces endogenous surfactant.00036.2003.--Variable or noisy ventilation, which includes random breath-to-breath variations in tidal

  17. TOP DOWN VENTILATION AND COOLING Stephen A. Gage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Linden, Paul F.

    TOP DOWN VENTILATION AND COOLING Stephen A. Gage G.R. Hunt P.F. Linden This paper examines the problems inherent in passively ventilating and cooling low and medium rise urban buildings. We focus openings in passive displacement ventilation systems. A solution is suggested. The concept that is examined

  18. Measuring Residential Ventilation System Airflows: Part 2 -Field

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1 Measuring Residential Ventilation System Airflows: Part 2 - Field Evaluation of Airflow Meter Residential Ventilation System Airflows: Part 2 - Field Evaluation of Airflow Meter Devices and System Flow, mechanical ventilation, measurement, ASHRAE 62.2, flow hood ABSTRACT The 2008 California State Energy Code

  19. Ventilation planning at Energy West's Deer Creek mine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tonc, L.; Prosser, B.; Gamble, G. [Pacific Corp., Huntington, UT (United States)

    2009-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    In 2004 ventilation planning was initiated to exploit a remote area of Deer Creek mine's reserve (near Huntington, Utah), the Mill Fork Area, located under a mountain. A push-pull ventilation system was selected. This article details the design process of the ventilation system upgrade, the procurement process for the new fans, and the new fan startup testing. 5 figs., 1 photo.

  20. CONFIDENTIAL: DO NOT QUOTE 1 Equivalence in Ventilation and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    CONFIDENTIAL: DO NOT QUOTE 1 Equivalence in Ventilation and Indoor Air Quality M. H. Sherman, I ventilate buildings to provide acceptable indoor air quality (IAQ). Ventilation standards (such as American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air-Conditioning Enginners [ASHRAE] Standard 62) specify minimum

  1. Advanced Rooftop Control (ARC) Retrofit: Field-Test Results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Weimin; Katipamula, Srinivas; Ngo, Hung; Underhill, Ronald M.; Taasevigen, Danny J.; Lutes, Robert G.

    2013-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The multi-year research study was initiated to find solutions to improve packaged equipment operating efficiency in the field. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), with funding from the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Building Technologies Office (BTO) and Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) conducted this research, development and demonstration (RD&D) study. Packaged equipment with constant speed supply fans is designed to provide ventilation at the design rate at all times when the fan is operating as required by building code. Although there are a number of hours during the day when a building may not be fully occupied or the need for ventilation is lower than designed, the ventilation rate cannot be adjusted easily with a constant speed fan. Therefore, modulating the supply fan in conjunction with demand controlled ventilation (DCV) will not only reduce the coil energy but also reduce the fan energy. The objective of this multi-year research, development and demonstration project was to determine the magnitude of energy savings achievable by retrofitting existing packaged rooftop air conditioners with advanced control strategies not ordinarily used for packaged units. First, through detailed simulation analysis, it was shown that significant energy (between 24% and 35%) and cost savings (38%) from fan, cooling and heating energy consumption could be realized when packaged air conditioning units with gas furnaces are retrofitted with advanced control packages (combining multi-speed fan control, integrated economizer controls and DCV). The simulation analysis also showed significant savings for heat pumps (between 20% and 60%). The simulation analysis was followed by an extensive field test of a retrofittable advanced rooftop unit (RTU) controller.

  2. Hood Commissioning Laboratory Ventilation Management Program

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pawlowski, Wojtek

    Hood Commissioning Laboratory Ventilation Management Program Form In the interest of efficiency and effective use of our limited resources, EHS will not initiate or schedule the commissioning process for any____Other (describe) Hood is:______New _______Relocated_______Reconfigured (Describe ) Requested Commissioning Date (s

  3. Mixed-Mode Ventilation and Building Retrofits

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brager, Gail; Ackerly, Katie

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of low-energy ventilation strategies in four generalized UKUK offices: How adaptive comfort theories might influence future low energy office refurbishment strategies’,UK Department of the Environment, Transport and the Regions’ Energy Efficiency Best Practice Programme Numerous guidelines for developing the most appropriate design strategy

  4. Does Mixing Make Residential Ventilation More Effective?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sherman, Max; Walker, Iain

    2010-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Ventilation dilutes or removes indoor contaminants to reduce occupant exposure. In a multi-zone environment such as a house, there will be different dilution rates and different source strengths in every zone. The total ventilation rate is the most important factor in determining the exposure of occupants to given sources, but the zone- specific distribution of exhaust and supply air, and the mixing of ventilation air can have significant roles. Different types of ventilation systems will provide different amounts of mixing depending on several factors such as air leakage through the building envelope, air distribution systems and the location of sources and occupants. This paper reports recent results of investigations to determine the impact that air mixing has on exposures of residential occupants to prototypical contaminants of concern. Evaluations of existing field measurements and simulations reported in the literature are combined with new analyses to provide an integrated overview of the topic. The results show that for extreme cases additional mixing can be a significant factor but for typical homes looking at average exposures mixing is not helpful and can even make exposures worse.

  5. Modeling particle loss in ventilation ducts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sippola, Mark R.; Nazaroff, William W.

    2003-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Empirical equations were developed and applied to predict losses of 0.01-100 {micro}m airborne particles making a single pass through 120 different ventilation duct runs typical of those found in mid-sized office buildings. For all duct runs, losses were negligible for submicron particles and nearly complete for particles larger than 50 {micro}m. The 50th percentile cut-point diameters were 15 {micro}m in supply runs and 25 {micro}m in return runs. Losses in supply duct runs were higher than in return duct runs, mostly because internal insulation was present in portions of supply duct runs, but absent from return duct runs. Single-pass equations for particle loss in duct runs were combined with models for predicting ventilation system filtration efficiency and particle deposition to indoor surfaces to evaluate the fates of particles of indoor and outdoor origin in an archetypal mechanically ventilated building. Results suggest that duct losses are a minor influence for determining indoor concentrations for most particle sizes. Losses in ducts were of a comparable magnitude to indoor surface losses for most particle sizes. For outdoor air drawn into an unfiltered ventilation system, most particles smaller than 1 {micro}m are exhausted from the building. Large particles deposit within the building, mostly in supply ducts or on indoor surfaces. When filters are present, most particles are either filtered or exhausted. The fates of particles generated indoors follow similar trends as outdoor particles drawn into the building.

  6. Ventilation of the Baltic Sea deep water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mohrholz, Volker

    , Powstaców Warszawy 55, PL­81­712 Sopot, Poland 4 Department of Oceanography, G¨oteborg University, Box 460 by thermohaline intrusions, ventilate the deep water of the eastern Gotland Basin. A recent study of the energy that about 30% of the energy needed below the halocline for deep water mixing is explained by the breaking

  7. A Bench Study of Intensive Care Unit Ventilators: New versus Old and Turbine-Based versus Compressed Gas-Based Ventilators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    . Material: Four turbine- based ventilators and nine conventional servo-valve compressed-gas ventilators were1 A Bench Study of Intensive Care Unit Ventilators: New versus Old and Turbine-Based versus patient's effort. On average, turbine-based ventilators performed better than conventional ventilators

  8. International Journal of Ventilation ISSN 1473-3315 Volume 4 No 4 Interacting Turbulent Plumes in a Naturally Ventilated Enclosure

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Linden, Paul F.

    International Journal of Ventilation ISSN 1473-3315 Volume 4 No 4 ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ 301 Interacting Turbulent Plumes in a Naturally Ventilated Enclosure P. F. Linden1 and N. B. Kaye2 1 of turbulent plumes is examined in the context of building ventilation flows. Recent models for natural

  9. On The Valuation of Infiltration towards Meeting Residential Ventilation Needs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sherman, Max H.

    2008-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of ventilation is dilute or remove indoor contaminants that an occupant is exposed to. It can be provided by mechanical or natural means. In most homes, especially existing homes, infiltration provides the dominant fraction of the ventilation. As we seek to provide acceptable indoor air quality at minimum energy cost, it is important to neither over-ventilate nor under-ventilate. Thus, it becomes critically important to correctly evaluate the contribution infiltration makes to both energy consumption and equivalent ventilation. ASHRAE Standards including standards 62, 119, and 136 have all considered the contribution of infiltration in various ways, using methods and data from 20 years ago.

  10. Demand Response Opportunities and Enabling Technologies for Data Centers: Findings From Field Studies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ghatikar, Girish

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    centers. 4. Demand Response Strategies Building from theBuilding Control Strategies and Techniques for Demand Response.Demand Response Load Impacts: Evaluation of Baseline Load Models for Non-Residential Building

  11. Quantifying Changes in Building Electricity Use, with Application to Demand Response

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mathieu, Johanna L.

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    building control strategies and techniques for demand response,”demand response systems,” in Proceedings of 16th National Conference on BuildingBuilding Electricity Use, with Application to Demand Response

  12. Field Test Results of Automated Demand Response in a Large Office Building

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Han, Junqiao

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Building Control Strategies and Techniques for Demand Response,Automated Demand Response in a Large Office Building JunqiaoDemand Response Load Impacts: Evaluation of Baseline Load Models for Non-Residential Building

  13. Price Responsive Demand in New York Wholesale Electricity Market using OpenADR

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, Joyce Jihyun

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and provide demand response (DR) through building controland provide demand response (DR) through building controlDemand Response Automation Server (DRAS) in a 15-minute interval. This allows the continuous monitoring of the building's

  14. Regression Models for Demand Reduction based on Cluster Analysis of Load Profiles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kiliccote, Sila

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Automated Demand Response in a Large Office Building”, CECBuilding Control Strategies and Techniques for Demand Response”,Demand Response Load Impacts: Evaluation of Baseline Load Models for Non-Residential Buildings

  15. Evaluation of an Incremental Ventilation Energy Model for Estimating Impacts of Air Sealing and Mechanical Ventilation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Logue, Jennifer M.

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    associated change in energy demand of homes. The IVE modelmodels that calculate energy demand by solving a series ofand (b) the change in energy demand resulting in a change in

  16. Demand Responsive Lighting: A Scoping Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rubinstein, Francis; Kiliccote, Sila

    2007-01-03T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this scoping study is: (1) to identify current market drivers and technology trends that can improve the demand responsiveness of commercial building lighting systems and (2) to quantify the energy, demand and environmental benefits of implementing lighting demand response and energy-saving controls strategies Statewide. Lighting systems in California commercial buildings consume 30 GWh. Lighting systems in commercial buildings often waste energy and unnecessarily stress the electrical grid because lighting controls, especially dimming, are not widely used. But dimmable lighting equipment, especially the dimming ballast, costs more than non-dimming lighting and is expensive to retrofit into existing buildings because of the cost of adding control wiring. Advances in lighting industry capabilities coupled with the pervasiveness of the Internet and wireless technologies have led to new opportunities to realize significant energy saving and reliable demand reduction using intelligent lighting controls. Manufacturers are starting to produce electronic equipment--lighting-application specific controllers (LAS controllers)--that are wirelessly accessible and can control dimmable or multilevel lighting systems obeying different industry-accepted protocols. Some companies make controllers that are inexpensive to install in existing buildings and allow the power consumed by bi-level lighting circuits to be selectively reduced during demand response curtailments. By intelligently limiting the demand from bi-level lighting in California commercial buildings, the utilities would now have an enormous 1 GW demand shed capability at hand. By adding occupancy and light sensors to the remotely controllable lighting circuits, automatic controls could harvest an additional 1 BkWh/yr savings above and beyond the savings that have already been achieved. The lighting industry's adoption of DALI as the principal wired digital control protocol for dimming ballasts and increased awareness of the need to standardize on emerging wireless technologies are evidence of this transformation. In addition to increased standardization of digital control protocols controller capabilities, the lighting industry has improved the performance of dimming lighting systems over the last two years. The system efficacy of today's current dimming ballasts is approaching that of non-dimming program start ballasts. The study finds that the benefits of applying digital controls technologies to California's unique commercial buildings market are enormous. If California were to embark on an concerted 20 year program to improve the demand responsiveness and energy efficiency of commercial building lighting systems, the State could avoid adding generation capacity, improve the elasticity of the grid, save Californians billion of dollars in avoided energy charges and significantly reduce greenhouse gas emissions.

  17. Demand Response Opportunities in Industrial Refrigerated Warehouses in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    LBNL-4837E Demand Response Opportunities in Industrial Refrigerated Warehouses in California Sasank thereof or The Regents of the University of California. #12;Demand Response Opportunities in Industrial centralized control systems can be excellent candidates for Automated Demand Response (Auto- DR) due

  18. Smoothing the Energy Consumption: Peak Demand Reduction in Smart Grid

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Xiang-Yang

    for autonomous demand side management within one house. The DRS devices are able to sense and control the peak energy consumption or demand. We assume that several appliances within one building access to oneSmoothing the Energy Consumption: Peak Demand Reduction in Smart Grid Shaojie Tang , Qiuyuan Huang

  19. Demand and Price Uncertainty: Rational Habits in International Gasoline Demand

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Scott, K. Rebecca

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    World crude oil and natural gas: a demand and supply model.analysis of the demand for oil in the Middle East. EnergyEstimates elasticity of demand for crude oil, not gasoline.

  20. Demand and Price Volatility: Rational Habits in International Gasoline Demand

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Scott, K. Rebecca

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    World crude oil and natural gas: a demand and supply model.analysis of the demand for oil in the Middle East. EnergyEstimates elasticity of demand for crude oil, not gasoline.

  1. Temperature stratification and air change effectiveness in a high cooling load office with two heat source heights in a combined chilled ceiling and displacement ventilation system

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schiavon, Stefano; Bauman, Fred; Tully, Brad; Rimmer, Julian

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ceiling and displacement ventilation system. Submitted toceiling and displacement ventilation system. Submitted toceiling and displacement ventilation systems, Energy Build.

  2. FERC sees huge potential for demand response

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    2010-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The FERC study concludes that U.S. peak demand can be reduced by as much as 188 GW -- roughly 20 percent -- under the most aggressive scenario. More moderate -- and realistic -- scenarios produce smaller but still significant reductions in peak demand. The FERC report is quick to point out that these are estimates of the potential, not projections of what could actually be achieved. The main varieties of demand response programs include interruptible tariffs, direct load control (DLC), and a number of pricing schemes.

  3. Demand and Price Volatility: Rational Habits in International Gasoline Demand

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Scott, K. Rebecca

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An Exploration of Australian Petrol Demand: Unobserv- ableRelative Prices: Simulating Petrol Con- sumption Behavior.habit stock variable in a petrol demand regression, they

  4. Performance Assessment of Photovoltaic Attic Ventilator Fans

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A case study of photovoltaic attic ventilator fans was conducted on an occupied single family home in Central Florida. Two fans were installed at mid-summer in an instrumented home where attic air temperature, meteorological conditions and space cooling electric power were measured. The home already had an attic radiant barrier, but still experienced attic air temperatures in excess of 130oF.

  5. Recovering Energy From Ventilation and Process Airstreams

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cheney, W. A.

    RECOVERING ENERGY FROM VENTILATION AND PROCESS AIRSTREAMS Heat Exchangers and contaminant Recovery William A. Cheney united Air Specialists, Inc. Cincinnati, Ohio The high cost of energy has prompted industry to look for new ways to reduce... 17-19, 1986 CONTAMINANT RECOVERY The ability to capture waste energy from an airstream, while simultaneously condensing hydrocarbon vapors, is a rela tively new technique in the heat-recovery market. In this process, high concentra tions...

  6. Demand Response Valuation Frameworks Paper

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heffner, Grayson

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    No. ER06-615-000 CAISO Demand Response Resource User Guide -8 2.1. Demand Response Provides a Range of Benefits to8 2.2. Demand Response Benefits can be Quantified in Several

  7. Physically-based demand modeling 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Calloway, Terry Marshall

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Transactions on Automatic Control, vol. AC-19, December 1974, pp. 887-893. L3] |4] LS] [6] [7] LB] C. W. Brice and S. K. Jones, MPhysically-Based Demand Modeling, d EC-77-5-01-5057, RF 3673, Electric Power Institute, Texas A&M University, October 1978.... C. W. Br ice and 5, K, Jones, MStochastically-Based Physical Load Models Topical Report, " EC-77-5-01-5057, RF 3673, Electric Power Institute, Texas A&M University, May 1979. S. K. Jones and C. W. Brice, "Point Process Models for Power System...

  8. Final Report Balancing energy conservation and occupant needs in ventilation rate standards for Big Box stores in California: predicted indoor air quality and energy consumption using a matrix of ventilation scenarios

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Apte, Michael G.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    evaluation of displacement ventilation and dedicated outdoorB, Carlson N (2009). Ventilation requirements in a retailof Intermittent Ventilation for Providing Acceptable Indoor

  9. Final Report Balancing energy conservation and occupant needs in ventilation rate standards for Big Box stores in California: predicted indoor air quality and energy consumption using a matrix of ventilation scenarios

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Apte, Michael G.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Air cleaning and local ventilation near strong sources bothair cleaning, and local ventilation may be needed at reducedremoval, air cleaning, and local ventilation may be the best

  10. Optimal Demand Response Libin Jiang

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Optimal Demand Response Libin Jiang Steven Low Computing + Math Sciences Electrical Engineering Caltech Oct 2011 #12;Outline Caltech smart grid research Optimal demand response #12;Global trends 1

  11. Engineering Applications of Artificial Intelligence 18 (2005) 279296 A genetic rule weighting and selection process for fuzzy control of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Granada, Universidad de

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and selection process for fuzzy control of heating, ventilating and air conditioning systems$ Rafael Alcala are generally applied only to the control of active systems, i.e., heating, ventilating, and air conditioning management system; HVAC, heating, ventilating, and air conditioning; FLC, fuzzy logic controller; KB

  12. Energy Demands and Efficiency Strategies in Data Center Buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shehabi, Arman

    2009-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Information technology (IT) is becoming increasingly pervasive throughout society as more data is digitally processed, stored, and transferred. The infrastructure that supports IT activity is growing accordingly, and data center energy demands haveincreased by nearly a factor of four over the past decade. Data centers house IT equipment and require significantly more energy to operate per unit floor area thanconventional buildings. The economic and environmental ramifications of continued data center growth motivate the need to explore energy-efficient methods to operate these buildings. A substantial portion of data center energy use is dedicated to removing the heat that is generated by the IT equipment. Using economizers to introduce large airflow rates of outside air during favorable weather could substantially reduce the energy consumption of data center cooling. Cooling buildings with economizers is an established energy saving measure, but in data centers this strategy is not widely used, partly owing to concerns that the large airflow rates would lead to increased indoor levels of airborne particles, which could damage IT equipment. The environmental conditions typical of data centers and the associated potential for equipment failure, however, are not well characterized. This barrier to economizer implementation illustrates the general relationship between energy use and indoor air quality in building design and operation. This dissertation investigates how building design and operation influence energy use and indoor air quality in data centers and provides strategies to improve both design goals simultaneously.As an initial step toward understanding data center air quality, measurements of particle concentrations were made at multiple operating northern California data centers. Ratios of measured particle concentrations in conventional data centers to the corresponding outside concentrations were significantly lower than those reported in the literature for office or residential buildings. Estimates using a material-balance model match well with empirical results, indicating that the dominant particle sources and losses -- ventilation and filtration -- have been characterized. Measurements taken at a data center using economizers show nearly an order of magnitude increase in particle concentration during economizer activity. However, even with the increase, themeasured particle concentrations are still below concentration limits recommended in most industry standards. The research proceeds by exploring the feasibility of using economizers in data centers while simultaneously controlling particle concentrations with high-quality air filtration. Physical and chemical properties of indoor and outdoor particles were analyzed at a data center using economizers and varying levels of air filtration efficiency. Results show that when improved filtration is used in combination with an economizer, the indoor/outdoor concentration ratios for most measured particle types were similar to the measurements when using conventional filtration without economizers. An energy analysis of the data center reveals that, even during the summer months, chiller savings from economizer use greatly outweigh the increase in fan power associated with improved filtration. These findings indicate that economizer use combined with improved filtration couldsignificantly reduce data center energy demand while providing a level of protection from particles of outdoor origin similar to that observed with conventional design. The emphasis of the dissertation then shifts to evaluate the energy benefits of economizer use in data centers under different design strategies. Economizer use with high ventilation rates is compared against an alternative, water-side economizer design that does not affect indoor particle concentrations. Building energy models are employed to estimate energy savings of both economizer designs for data centers in

  13. The Ocean's Memory of the Atmosphere: Residence-Time and Ventilation-Rate Distributions of Water Masses

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Primeau, Francois W; Holzer, Mark

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    in steady state. Local ventilation rates for non- steadyrespec- tively. The local ventilation fluxes regardless ofmaps of ventilation The residence-time-partitioned, local

  14. THE EFFECTS OF ENERGY-EFFICIENT VENTILATION RATES ON INDOOR AIR QUALITY AT AN OHIO ELEMENTARY SCHOOL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Berk, J.V.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    To determine the ventilation~heating load for the 2778calculations of ventilation~heating load 19 in variousthrough heating, cooling, and ventilation (see Figure l).

  15. HOSPITAL VENTILATION STANDARDS AND ENERGY CONSERVATION: A SUMMARY OF THE LITERATURE WITH CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS, FY 78 FINAL REPORT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    DeRoos, R.L.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    to prelude higher ventilation heating or cooling. InRequirements: --The ventilation, heating, air conditioning,and comfort. --The ventilation, heating, air conditioning,

  16. An Index for Evaluation of Air Quality Improvement in Rooms with Personalized Ventilation Based on Occupied Density and Normalized Concentration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schiavon, Stefano; Melikov, Arsen; Cermak, Radim; De Carli, Michele; Li, Xianting

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    potential of personalized ventilation system in the tropics.edge mounted task ventilation system. Proceedings of Indoorwith a total-volume ventilation system. The index is applied

  17. HOSPITAL VENTILATION STANDARDS AND ENERGY CONSERVATION: A SUMMARY OF THE LITERATURE WITH CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS, FY 78 FINAL REPORT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    DeRoos, R.L.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    laminar") flow ventilation system for patient isolation.MICHAELSEN, G. S. Ventilation system maintenance practices:1974. A new ventilation system for cleaner operating

  18. Reducing Mortality from Terrorist Releases of Chemical and Biological Agents: I. Filtration for Ventilation Systems in Commercial Building

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thatcher, Tracy L.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Filtration for Ventilation Systems in Commercial BuildingsFiltration for Ventilation Systems in Commercial Buildingsbuilding's mechanical ventilation system and by infiltration

  19. Energy analysis of a personalized ventilation system in a cold climate: influence of the supplied air temperature

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schiavon, Stefano; Melikov, Arsen

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    potential of personalized ventilation system in the tropics.a chair-based personalized ventilation system. Building andedged-mounted task ventilation system. Indoor Air, Vol. 14 (

  20. A Survey and Critical Review of the Literature on Indoor Air Quality, Ventilation and Health Symptoms in Schools

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Daisey, Joan M.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    between seasons and ventilation systems, Proceedings ofto Old school: ventilation system, one constructed prior toall had mechanical ventilation systems of some type. C 0

  1. A Survey and Critical Review of the Literature on Indoor Air Quality, Ventilation and Health Symptoms in Schools

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Daisey, Joan M.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    is experiencing IAQ and ventilation problems, and relatedis experiencing IAQ and ventilation problems, and relatedof air quality and ventilation problems in California

  2. HOSPITAL VENTILATION STANDARDS AND ENERGY CONSERVATION: A SUMMARY OF THE LITERATURE WITH CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS, FY 78 FINAL REPORT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    DeRoos, R.L.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    the largest problem facing the ventilation engineer; sourcesthe heating and ventilation was already a problem. 6 In thethe hospital odor problem with regards to ventilation rates.

  3. Travel Demand Modeling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Southworth, Frank [ORNL; Garrow, Dr. Laurie [Georgia Institute of Technology

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This chapter describes the principal types of both passenger and freight demand models in use today, providing a brief history of model development supported by references to a number of popular texts on the subject, and directing the reader to papers covering some of the more recent technical developments in the area. Over the past half century a variety of methods have been used to estimate and forecast travel demands, drawing concepts from economic/utility maximization theory, transportation system optimization and spatial interaction theory, using and often combining solution techniques as varied as Box-Jenkins methods, non-linear multivariate regression, non-linear mathematical programming, and agent-based microsimulation.

  4. Computer Simulation of Cooling Effect of Wind Tower on Passively Ventilated Building

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Seryak, J.; Kissock, J. K.

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Computer Simulation of Cooling Effect of Wind Tower on Passively Ventilated Building John Seryak Kelly Kissock Project Engineer Associate Professor Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering... University of Dayton Dayton, Ohio ABSTRACT Traditional buildings are cooled and ventilated by mechanically induced drafts. Natural ventilation aspires to cool and ventilate a building by natural means, such as cross ventilation or wind towers...

  5. CALIFORNIA ENERGY DEMAND 2006-2016 STAFF ENERGY DEMAND FORECAST

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    CALIFORNIA ENERGY COMMISSION CALIFORNIA ENERGY DEMAND 2006-2016 STAFF ENERGY DEMAND FORECAST Manager Kae Lewis Acting Manager Demand Analysis Office Valerie T. Hall Deputy Director Energy Efficiency Demand Forecast report is the product of the efforts of many current and former California Energy

  6. Microsoft Word - Determination of Class to Update Ventilation...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Solutions LLC Original Signatures on File Determination of Class Modification Update Ventilation Language for Consistency Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Carlsbad, New Mexico Permit...

  7. Summer Infiltration/Ventilation Test Results from the FRTF Laboratory

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Summer InfiltrationVentilation Test Results from the FRTF Laboratory Building America Technical Review Meeting April 29-30, 2013 A Research Institute of the University of Central...

  8. Energy-saving strategies with personalized ventilation in cold climates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schiavon, Stefano; Melikov, Arsen

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Energy-saving strategies with personalized ventilation inalone if energy-saving strategies are not applied. TheHowever, this energy- saving strategy can be recommended

  9. Natural Ventilation for Energy Savings in California Commercial Buildings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    heating, ventilating and air conditioning survey of small2004) Workplace air-conditioning and health servicesventilating, and air-conditioning applications. Bauman, F. ,

  10. Building America Webinar: Multifamily Ventilation Strategies and Compartmentalization Requirements

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This Building America webinar, held on Sept. 24, 2014, focused on key challenges in multifamily ventilation and strategies to address these challenges.

  11. Measured Air Distribution Effectiveness for Residential Mechanical Ventilation Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sherman, Max H.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In Review J. Indoor Air) 2007 LBNL-63193 Tarantola, Albert,Gas Measurement to Determine Air Movements in a House,Measurement Techniques”, Air Infiltration and Ventilation

  12. Summary of Workshop: Barriers to Energy Efficient Residential Ventilation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sherman, Max

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    quality problems. Traditionally residential ventilation wasquality problems such as moisture. Residential ventilationventilation air is only one way of tackling the R H problem

  13. Measurement and evaluation techniques for automated demand response demonstration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Motegi, Naoya; Piette, Mary Ann; Watson, David S.; Sezgen, Osman; ten Hope, Laurie

    2004-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The recent electricity crisis in California and elsewhere has prompted new research to evaluate demand response strategies in large facilities. This paper describes an evaluation of fully automated demand response technologies (Auto-DR) in five large facilities. Auto-DR does not involve human intervention, but is initiated at a facility through receipt of an external communications signal. This paper summarizes the measurement and evaluation of the performance of demand response technologies and strategies in five large facilities. All the sites have data trending systems such as energy management and control systems (EMCS) and/or energy information systems (EIS). Additional sub-metering was applied where necessary to evaluate the facility's demand response performance. This paper reviews the control responses during the test period, and analyzes demand savings achieved at each site. Occupant comfort issues are investigated where data are available. This paper discusses methods to estimate demand savings and results from demand response strategies at five large facilities.

  14. ENERGY DEMAND FORECAST METHODS REPORT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    CALIFORNIA ENERGY COMMISSION ENERGY DEMAND FORECAST METHODS REPORT Companion Report to the California Energy Demand 2006-2016 Staff Energy Demand Forecast Report STAFFREPORT June 2005 CEC-400. Hall Deputy Director Energy Efficiency and Demand Analysis Division Scott W. Matthews Acting Executive

  15. Demand Forecast INTRODUCTION AND SUMMARY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    electricity demand forecast means that the region's electricity needs would grow by 5,343 average megawattsDemand Forecast INTRODUCTION AND SUMMARY A 20-year forecast of electricity demand is a required in electricity demand is, of course, crucial to determining the need for new electricity resources and helping

  16. Guide to Closing and Conditioning Ventilated Crawlspaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dickson, B.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This how-to guide explains the issues and concerns with conventional ventilated crawlspaces and provides prescriptive measures for improvements that will create healthier and more durable spaces. The methods described in this guide are not the only acceptable ways to treat a crawlspace but represent a proven strategy that works in many areas of the United States. The designs discussed in this guide may or may not meet the local building codes and as such will need to be researched before beginning the project.

  17. Ventilation System Basics | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directed off Energy.gov. Are you sureReportsofDepartmentSeries |Attacks | DepartmentVentilation System Basics

  18. Microsoft Word - Ventilation System Sampling Results 1

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville PowerCherries 82981-1cnHighandSWPA / SPRA / USACE625 FINALOptimizationFor Immediate48Ventilation

  19. OCCUPANT-GENERATED CO2 AS AN INDICATOR OF VENTILATION RATE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Turiel, Isaac

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    1977. 7. Hunt, C.M. , "Ventilation Measurements in theJ. , and Hollowell, C.D. , Ventilation on Indoor Quality inThe Effect of Reduced Ventilation on Indoor Air Quality And

  20. Modeling indoor exposures to VOCs and SVOCs as ventilation rates vary

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Parthasarathy, Srinandini

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    J. 2008. Analysis of ventilation data from the United StatesASHRAE Standard 62.1-2010, Ventilation for Acceptable Indoorto VOCs and   SVOCs as ventilation rates vary   Srinandini