Sample records for delicious rank solid-state

  1. Solid State Division

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Green, P.H.; Watson, D.M. (eds.)

    1989-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report contains brief discussions on work done in the Solid State Division of Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The topics covered are: Theoretical Solid State Physics; Neutron scattering; Physical properties of materials; The synthesis and characterization of materials; Ion beam and laser processing; and Structure of solids and surfaces. (LSP)

  2. Scalar operators in solid-state NMR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sun, Boqin

    1991-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Selectivity and resolution of solid-state NMR spectra are determined by dispersion of local magnetic fields originating from relaxation effects and orientation-dependent resonant frequencies of spin nuclei. Theoretically, the orientation-dependent resonant frequencies can be represented by a set of irreducible tensors. Among these tensors, only zero rank tensors (scalar operators) are capable of providing high resolution NMR spectra. This thesis presents a series of new developments in high resolution solid-state NMR concerning the reconstruction of various scalar operators motion in solid C{sub 60} is analyzed.

  3. Solid state switch

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Merritt, B.T.; Dreifuerst, G.R.

    1994-07-19T23:59:59.000Z

    A solid state switch, with reverse conducting thyristors, is designed to operate at 20 kV hold-off voltage, 1,500 A peak, 1.0 [mu]s pulsewidth, and 4,500 pps, to replace thyratrons. The solid state switch is more reliable, more economical, and more easily repaired. The switch includes a stack of circuit card assemblies, a magnetic assist and a trigger chassis. Each circuit card assembly contains a reverse conducting thyristor, a resistor capacitor network, and triggering circuitry. 6 figs.

  4. Packaging of solid state devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Glidden, Steven C.; Sanders, Howard D.

    2006-01-03T23:59:59.000Z

    A package for one or more solid state devices in a single module that allows for operation at high voltage, high current, or both high voltage and high current. Low thermal resistance between the solid state devices and an exterior of the package and matched coefficient of thermal expansion between the solid state devices and the materials used in packaging enables high power operation. The solid state devices are soldered between two layers of ceramic with metal traces that interconnect the devices and external contacts. This approach provides a simple method for assembling and encapsulating high power solid state devices.

  5. Solid state rapid thermocycling

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Beer, Neil Reginald; Spadaccini, Christopher

    2014-05-13T23:59:59.000Z

    The rapid thermal cycling of a material is targeted. A solid state heat exchanger with a first well and second well is coupled to a power module. A thermoelectric element is coupled to the first well, the second well, and the power module, is configured to transfer thermal energy from the first well to the second well when current from the power module flows through the thermoelectric element in a first direction, and is configured to transfer thermal energy from the second well to the first well when current from the power module flows through the thermoelectric element in a second direction. A controller may be coupled to the thermoelectric elements, and may switch the direction of current flowing through the thermoelectric element in response to a determination by sensors coupled to the wells that the amount of thermal energy in the wells falls below or exceeds a pre-determined threshold.

  6. Energy Department Announces $4 Million Solicitation for Solid-State

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative FuelsNovember 13,Statement | DepartmentBlog Energy BlogDeploymentNextand Boost

  7. Solid-state lithium battery

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ihlefeld, Jon; Clem, Paul G; Edney, Cynthia; Ingersoll, David; Nagasubramanian, Ganesan; Fenton, Kyle Ross

    2014-11-04T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention is directed to a higher power, thin film lithium-ion electrolyte on a metallic substrate, enabling mass-produced solid-state lithium batteries. High-temperature thermodynamic equilibrium processing enables co-firing of oxides and base metals, providing a means to integrate the crystalline, lithium-stable, fast lithium-ion conductor lanthanum lithium tantalate (La.sub.1/3-xLi.sub.3xTaO.sub.3) directly with a thin metal foil current collector appropriate for a lithium-free solid-state battery.

  8. Solid-state radioluminescent compositions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Clough, Roger L. (Albuquerque, NM); Gill, John T. (Miamisburg, OH); Hawkins, Daniel B. (Fairbanks, AK); Renschler, Clifford L. (Tijeras, NM); Shepodd, Timothy J. (Livermore, CA); Smith, Henry M. (Overland Park, KS)

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A solid state radioluminescent composition for light source comprises an optically clear polymer organic matrix containing tritiated organic materials and dyes capable of "red" shifting primary scintillation emissions from the polymer matrix. The tritiated organic materials are made by reducing, with tritium, an unsaturated organic compound that prior to reduction contains olefinic or alkynylic bonds.

  9. Solid-state membrane module

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gordon, John Howard (Salt Lake City, UT); Taylor, Dale M. (Murray, UT)

    2011-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Solid-state membrane modules comprising at least one membrane unit, where the membrane unit has a dense mixed conducting oxide layer, and at least one conduit or manifold wherein the conduit or manifold comprises a dense layer and at least one of a porous layer and a slotted layer contiguous with the dense layer. The solid-state membrane modules may be used to carry out a variety of processes including the separating of any ionizable component from a feedstream wherein such ionizable component is capable of being transported through a dense mixed conducting oxide layer of the membrane units making up the membrane modules. For ease of construction, the membrane units may be planar.

  10. Solid state electrochemical current source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Potanin, Alexander Arkadyevich (Sarov, RU); Vedeneev, Nikolai Ivanovich (Sarov, RU)

    2002-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

    A cathode and a solid state electrochemical cell comprising said cathode, a solid anode and solid fluoride ion conducting electrolyte. The cathode comprises a metal oxide and a compound fluoride containing at least two metals with different valences. Representative compound fluorides include solid solutions of bismuth fluoride and potassium fluoride; and lead fluoride and potassium fluoride. Representative metal oxides include copper oxide, lead oxide, manganese oxide, vanadium oxide and silver oxide.

  11. Sandia National Laboratories: Solid-State Lighting

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Solid-State Lighting InAs Quantum Dot Transitions On April 5, 2011, in EC, Energy, Energy Efficiency, News, Solid-State Lighting March 1, 2011singlepic id364 w320 h240...

  12. Sandia Energy - Solid-State Lighting Technology: Current State...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Solid-State Lighting Technology: Current State of the Art and Grand Challenges Home Energy Research EFRCs Solid-State Lighting Science EFRC Overview Solid-State Lighting...

  13. Solid state electrochromic light modulator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cogan, S.F.; Rauh, R.D.

    1990-07-03T23:59:59.000Z

    An all solid-state variable transmission electrochromic device has a source of charge compensating ions. An inorganic oxide counter electrode film which on reduction with the accompanying insertion of the charge compensating ions increases its transmission of light of predetermined wavelength is separated from a primary electrochromic film which on reduction with the accompanying insertion of the charge compensating ions decreases its transmission of light of predetermined wavelength by an insulating electrolyte film that transports the charge compensating ions. First and second electrodes are contiguous with the inorganic oxide counter electrode film and the primary electrochromic film, respectively, and separated by the three films. 4 figs.

  14. Solid state electrochromic light modulator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cogan, Stuart F.; Rauh, R. David

    1993-12-07T23:59:59.000Z

    An all solid-state variable transmission electrochromic device has a source of charge compensating ions. An inorganic oxide counterelectrode film which on reduction with the accompanying insertion of the charge compensating ions increases its transmission of light of predetermined wavelength is separated from a primary electrochromic film which on reduction with the accompanying insertion of the charge compensating ions decreases its transmission of light of predetermined wavelength by an insulating electrolyte film that transports the charge compensating ions. First and second electrodes are contiguous with the inorganic oxide counter electrode film and the primary electrochromic film, respectively, and separated by the three films.

  15. Solid state electrochromic light modulator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cogan, Stuart F. (111 Downey St., Norwood, MA 02062); Rauh, R. David (111 Downey St., Norwood, MA 02062)

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An all solid-state variable transmission electrochromic device has a source of charge compensating ions. An inorganic oxide counterelectrode film which on reduction with the accompanying insertion of the charge compensating ions increases its transmission of light of predetermined wavelength is separated from a primary electrochromic film which on reduction with the accompanying insertion of the charge compensating ions decreases its transmission of light of predetermined wavelength by an insulating electrolyte film that transports the charge compensating ions. First and second electrodes are contiguous with the inorganic oxide counter electrode film and the primary electrochromic film, respectively, and separated by the three films.

  16. Solid state electrochromic light modulator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cogan, Stuart F. (Sudbury, MA); Rauh, R. David (Newton, MA)

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An all solid-state variable transmission electrochromic device has a source of charge compensating ions. An inorganic oxide counterelectrode film which on reduction with the accompanying insertion of the charge compensating ions increases its transmission of light of predetermined wavelength is separated from a primary electrochromic film which on reduction with the accompanying insertion of the charge compensating ions decreases its transmission of light of predetermined wavelength by an insulating electrolyte film that transports the charge compensating ions. First and second electrodes are contiguous with the inorganic oxide counter electrode film and the primary electrochromic film, respectively, and separated by the three films.

  17. Contamination and solid state welds.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mills, Bernice E.

    2007-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Since sensitivity to contamination is one of the verities of solid state joining, there is a need for assessing contamination of the part(s) to be joined, preferably nondestructively while it can be remedied. As the surfaces that are joined in pinch welds are inaccessible and thus provide a greater challenge, most of the discussion is of the search for the origin and effect of contamination on pinch welding and ways to detect and mitigate it. An example of contamination and the investigation and remediation of such a system is presented. Suggestions are made for techniques for nondestructive evaluation of contamination of surfaces for other solid state welds as well as for pinch welds. Surfaces that have good visual access are amenable to inspection by diffuse reflection infrared Fourier transform (DRIFT) spectroscopy. Although other techniques are useful for specific classes of contaminants (such as hydrocarbons), DRIFT can be used most classes of contaminants. Surfaces such as the interior of open tubes or stems that are to be pinch welded can be inspected using infrared reflection spectroscopy. It must be demonstrated whether or not this tool can detect graphite based contamination, which has been seen in stems. For tubes with one closed end, the technique that should be investigated is emission infrared spectroscopy.

  18. Solid State Lighting Program (Falcon)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meeks, Steven

    2012-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Over the past two years, KLA-Tencor and partners successfully developed and deployed software and hardware tools that increase product yield for High Brightness LED (HBLED) manufacturing and reduce product development and factory ramp times. This report summarizes our development effort and details of how the results of the Solid State Light Program (Falcon) have started to help HBLED manufacturers optimize process control by enabling them to flag and correct identified killer defect conditions at any point of origin in the process manufacturing flow. This constitutes a quantum leap in yield management over current practice. Current practice consists of die dispositioning which is just rejection of bad die at end of process based upon probe tests, loosely assisted by optical in-line monitoring for gross process deficiencies. For the first time, and as a result of our Solid State Lighting Program, our LED manufacturing partners have obtained the software and hardware tools that optimize individual process steps to control killer defects at the point in the processes where they originate. Products developed during our two year program enable optimized inspection strategies for many product lines to minimize cost and maximize yield. The Solid State Lighting Program was structured in three phases: i) the development of advanced imaging modes that achieve clear separation between LED defect types, improves signal to noise and scan rates, and minimizes nuisance defects for both front end and back end inspection tools, ii) the creation of defect source analysis (DSA) software that connect the defect maps from back-end and front-end HBLED manufacturing tools to permit the automatic overlay and traceability of defects between tools and process steps, suppress nuisance defects, and identify the origin of killer defects with process step and conditions, and iii) working with partners (Philips Lumileds) on product wafers, obtain a detailed statistical correlation of automated defect and DSA map overlay to failed die identified using end product probe test results. Results from our two year effort have led to “automated end-to-end defect detection” with full defect traceability and the ability to unambiguously correlate device killer defects to optically detected features and their point of origin within the process. Success of the program can be measured by yield improvements at our partner’s facilities and new product orders.

  19. Sandia National Laboratories: Solid-State Lighting

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Unfortunately, red emitters that satisfy all criteria for use in solid-state lighting (SSL) applications are ... Sandia's Dr. Jeffrey Tsao Is Recognized as an Asian-American...

  20. Sandia National Laboratories: Solid-State Lighting

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Massachusetts Institute of Technology Date: September 14, 2011 Event: Solid-State Lighting Science Workshop in Novel Emitters and Nanostructured Materials Abstract: The...

  1. Sandia National Laboratories: Solid-State Lighting

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Nuclear Energy photovoltaic Photovoltaics PV Renewable Energy solar Solar Energy solar power Solar Research Solid-State Lighting SSLS Connect Contact Us RSS Google+ Twitter...

  2. Solid state radiative heat pump

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Berdahl, P.H.

    1984-09-28T23:59:59.000Z

    A solid state radiative heat pump operable at room temperature (300 K) utilizes a semiconductor having a gap energy in the range of 0.03-0.25 eV and operated reversibly to produce an excess or deficit of change carriers as compared equilibrium. In one form of the invention an infrared semiconductor photodiode is used, with forward or reverse bias, to emit an excess or deficit of infrared radiation. In another form of the invention, a homogenous semiconductor is subjected to orthogonal magnetic and electric fields to emit an excess or deficit of infrared radiation. Three methods of enhancing transmission of radiation the active surface of the semiconductor are disclosed. In one method, an anti-refection layer is coated into the active surface of the semiconductor, the anti-reflection layer having an index of refraction equal to the square root of that of the semiconductor. In the second method, a passive layer is speaced trom the active surface of the semiconductor by a submicron vacuum gap, the passive layer having an index of refractive equal to that of the semiconductor. In the third method, a coupler with a paraboloid reflecting surface surface is in contact with the active surface of the semiconductor, the coupler having an index of refraction about the same as that of the semiconductor.

  3. Solid state radiative heat pump

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Berdahl, Paul H. (Oakland, CA)

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A solid state radiative heat pump (10, 50, 70) operable at room temperature (300.degree. K.) utilizes a semiconductor having a gap energy in the range of 0.03-0.25 eV and operated reversibly to produce an excess or deficit of charge carriers as compared to thermal equilibrium. In one form of the invention (10, 70) an infrared semiconductor photodiode (21, 71) is used, with forward or reverse bias, to emit an excess or deficit of infrared radiation. In another form of the invention (50), a homogeneous semiconductor (51) is subjected to orthogonal magnetic and electric fields to emit an excess or deficit of infrared radiation. Three methods of enhancing transmission of radiation through the active surface of the semiconductor are disclosed. In one method, an anti-reflection layer (19) is coated into the active surface (13) of the semiconductor (11), the anti-reflection layer (19) having an index of refraction equal to the square root of that of the semiconductor (11). In the second method, a passive layer (75) is spaced from the active surface (73) of the semiconductor (71) by a submicron vacuum gap, the passive layer having an index of refractive equal to that of the semiconductor. In the third method, a coupler (91) with a paraboloid reflecting surface (92) is in contact with the active surface (13, 53) of the semiconductor (11, 51), the coupler having an index of refraction about the same as that of the semiconductor.

  4. Solid state safety jumper cables

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kronberg, James W. (353 Church Rd., Beech Island, SC 29841)

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Solid state jumper cables for connecting two batteries in parallel, having two bridge rectifiers for developing a reference voltage, a four-input decoder for determining which terminals are to be connected based on a comparison of the voltage at each of the four terminals to the reference voltage, and a pair of relays for effecting the correct connection depending on the determination of the decoder. No connection will be made unless only one terminal of each battery has a higher voltage than the reference voltage, indicating "positive" terminals, and one has a lower voltage than the reference voltage, indicating "negative" terminals, and that, therefore, the two high voltage terminals may be connected and the two lower voltage terminals may be connected. Current flows once the appropriate relay device is closed. The relay device is preferably a MOSFET (metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistor) combined with a series array of photodiodes that develop MOSFET gate-closing potential when the decoder output causes an LED to light.

  5. Solid state safety jumper cables

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kronberg, J.W.

    1993-02-23T23:59:59.000Z

    Solid state jumper cables for connecting two batteries in parallel, having two bridge rectifiers for developing a reference voltage, a four-input decoder for determining which terminals are to be connected based on a comparison of the voltage at each of the four terminals to the reference voltage, and a pair of relays for effecting the correct connection depending on the determination of the decoder. No connection will be made unless only one terminal of each battery has a higher voltage than the reference voltage, indicating positive'' terminals, and one has a lower voltage than the reference voltage, indicating negative'' terminals, and that, therefore, the two high voltage terminals may be connected and the two lower voltage terminals may be connected. Current flows once the appropriate relay device is closed. The relay device is preferably a MOSFET (metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistor) combined with a series array of photodiodes that develop MOSFET gate-closing potential when the decoder output causes an LED to light.

  6. Solid State Reactor Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mays, G.T.

    2004-03-10T23:59:59.000Z

    The Solid State Reactor (SSR) is an advanced reactor concept designed to take advantage of Oak Ridge National Laboratory's (ORNL's) recently developed graphite foam that has enhanced heat transfer characteristics and excellent high-temperature mechanical properties, to provide an inherently safe, self-regulated, source of heat for power and other potential applications. This work was funded by the U.S. Department of Energy's Nuclear Energy Research Initiative (NERI) program (Project No. 99-064) from August 1999 through September 30, 2002. The initial concept of utilizing the graphite foam as a basis for developing an advanced reactor concept envisioned that a suite of reactor configurations and power levels could be developed for several different applications. The initial focus was looking at the reactor as a heat source that was scalable, independent of any heat removal/power conversion process. These applications might include conventional power generation, isotope production and destruction (actinides), and hydrogen production. Having conducted the initial research on the graphite foam and having performed the scoping parametric analyses from neutronics and thermal-hydraulic perspectives, it was necessary to focus on a particular application that would (1) demonstrate the viability of the overall concept and (2) require a reasonably structured design analysis process that would synthesize those important parameters that influence the concept the most as part of a feasible, working reactor system. Thus, the application targeted for this concept was supplying power for remote/harsh environments and a design that was easily deployable, simplistic from an operational standpoint, and utilized the new graphite foam. Specifically, a 500-kW(t) reactor concept was pursued that is naturally load following, inherently safe, optimized via neutronic studies to achieve near-zero reactivity change with burnup, and proliferation resistant. These four major areas of research were undertaken: (1) establishing the design and safety-related basis via neutronic and reactor control assessments with the graphite foam as heat transfer medium; (2) evaluating the thermal performance of the graphite foam for heat removal, reactor stability, reactor operations, and overall core thermal characteristics; (3) characterizing the physical properties of the graphite foam under normal and irradiated conditions to determine any effects on structure, dimensional stability, thermal conductivity, and thermal expansion; and (4) developing a power conversion system design to match the reactor operating parameters.

  7. Novel phosphors for solid state lighting

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Furman, Joshua D

    2010-11-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Solid state white light emitting diode lighting devices outperform conventional light sources in terms of lifetime, durability, and lumens per watt. However, the capital contribution is still to high to encourage widespread adoption. Furthermore...

  8. Solid State Thin Film Lithium Microbatteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shi, Z.

    Solid state thin film lithium microbatteries fabricated by pulsed-laser deposition (PLD) are suggested. During deposition the following process parameters must be considered, which are laser energy and fluence, laser pulse ...

  9. Sandia National Laboratories: Solid-State Lighting

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    III-Nitride core-shell nanowire arrayed solar cells On April 27, 2012, in Energy, Energy Efficiency, News, News & Events, Solid-State Lighting In a new EFRC-supported publication...

  10. Sandia National Laboratories: Solid-State Lighting

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    a roughly 50 billion per year cost to the U.S. consumer. Solid-state lighting (SSL) is an emerging technology with the potential to reduce that energy consumption by a...

  11. Sandia National Laboratories: Solid State Lighting EFRC

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Solid State Lighting EFRC SSLS CoffeeDessert Hour Calendar of Topics On June 24, 2013, in All Publications On June 10, 2013, in A list of all publications can be found here: SSLS...

  12. Sandia National Laboratories: Solid-State Lighting

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Dot Transitions On April 5, 2011, in EC, Energy, Energy Efficiency, News, Solid-State Lighting March 1, 2011singlepic id364 w320 h240 floatright The fundamental interaction...

  13. Sandia National Laboratories: Solid-State Lighting

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Assessment of deep level defects in m-plane GaN grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition On February 22, 2012, in Energy Efficiency, News, News & Events, Solid-State...

  14. Solid-State Lighting Videos | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Information Resources Solid-State Lighting Videos Solid-State Lighting Videos On this page you can access DOE Solid-State Lighting (SSL) Program videos. photo of a university...

  15. Grating enhanced solid-state laser amplifiers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Erlandson, Alvin C. (Livermore, CA); Britten, Jerald A. (Clayton, CA)

    2010-11-09T23:59:59.000Z

    A novel method and apparatus for suppressing ASE and parasitic oscillation modes in a high average power laser is introduced. Such an invention, as disclosed herein, uses diffraction gratings to increase gain, stored energy density, and pumping efficiency of solid-state laser gain media, such as, but not limited to rods, disks and slabs. By coupling predetermined gratings to solid-state gain media, such as crystal or ceramic laser gain media, ASE and parasitic oscillation modes can be effectively suppressed.

  16. Solid-State Hydrogen Storage: Storage Capacity,Thermodynamics...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Hydrogen Storage: Storage Capacity,Thermodynamics and Kinetics. Solid-State Hydrogen Storage: Storage Capacity,Thermodynamics and Kinetics. Abstract: Solid-state reversible...

  17. advanced solid state: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    also Paris-Sud XI, Universit de 3 PHYSICS 6555 --ADVANCED SOLID STATE PHYSICS 1 Syllabus --Fall 2013, CRN 95603 Physics Websites Summary: PHYSICS 6555 -- ADVANCED SOLID STATE...

  18. active solid state: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Solid State Transformer Engineering Websites Summary: converters as distribution transformers 1. A power electronics-based solid state transformer (SST) providesAc-Ac Dual...

  19. Ionic Liquid-Enhanced Solid State Electrolyte Interface (SEI...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Liquid-Enhanced Solid State Electrolyte Interface (SEI) for Lithium Sulfur Batteries. Ionic Liquid-Enhanced Solid State Electrolyte Interface (SEI) for Lithium Sulfur Batteries....

  20. The Kanatzidis - Chang Cell: dye sensitized all solid state solar...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    The Kanatzidis - Chang Cell: dye sensitized all solid state solar cell Home > Research > ANSER Research Highlights > The Kanatzidis - Chang Cell: dye sensitized all solid state...

  1. Federal Technology Deployment Pilot: Exterior Solid State Lighting...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Federal Technology Deployment Pilot: Exterior Solid State Lighting Federal Technology Deployment Pilot: Exterior Solid State Lighting Presentation-given at the Fall 2011 Federal...

  2. Apply: Solid-State Lighting Advanced Technology R&D - 2015 Funding

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative Fuels DataEnergyDepartment ofATVMAgriculturalAn1(BENEFIT) - 2014andOpportunity |

  3. Coordinated garbage collection for raid array of solid state disks

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dillow, David A; Ki, Youngjae; Oral, Hakki S; Shipman, Galen M; Wang, Feiyi

    2014-04-29T23:59:59.000Z

    An optimized redundant array of solid state devices may include an array of one or more optimized solid-state devices and a controller coupled to the solid-state devices for managing the solid-state devices. The controller may be configured to globally coordinate the garbage collection activities of each of said optimized solid-state devices, for instance, to minimize the degraded performance time and increase the optimal performance time of the entire array of devices.

  4. Solid-state NMR imaging system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gopalsami, Nachappa (Naperville, IL); Dieckman, Stephen L. (Elmhurst, IL); Ellingson, William A. (Naperville, IL)

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus for use with a solid-state NMR spectrometer includes a special imaging probe with linear, high-field strength gradient fields and high-power broadband RF coils using a back projection method for data acquisition and image reconstruction, and a real-time pulse programmer adaptable for use by a conventional computer for complex high speed pulse sequences.

  5. Energy Conversion: Solid-State Lighting

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    8 Energy Conversion: Solid-State Lighting E. Kioupakis1,2 , P. Rinke1,3 , A. Janotti1 , Q. Yan1 fraction of the world's energy resources [1]. Lighting has been one of the earliest applications. The inefficiency of existing light sources that waste most of the power they consume is the reason for this large

  6. Solid state synthesis of poly(dichlorophosphazene)

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Allen, Christopher W. (Essex Junction, VT); Hneihen, Azzam S. (Burlington, VT); Peterson, Eric S. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for making poly(dichlorophosphazene) using solid state reactants is disclosed and described. The present invention improves upon previous methods by removing the need for chlorinated hydrocarbon solvents, eliminating complicated equipment and simplifying the overall process by providing a "single pot" two step reaction sequence. This may be accomplished by the condensation reaction of raw materials in the melt phase of the reactants and in the absence of an environmentally damaging solvent.

  7. Friction Stir and Ultrasonic Solid State Joining of Magnesium...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    and Ultrasonic Solid State Joining of Magnesium to Steel Friction Stir and Ultrasonic Solid State Joining of Magnesium to Steel 2012 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle...

  8. Doing Business with DOE's Solid-State Lighting Program | Department...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Quality Solid-State Lighting Program Overview Brochure Home About the Solid-State Lighting Program R&D Program Market-Based Programs SSL Basics Using LEDs Information Resources...

  9. Heat Pump Water Heater using Solid-State Energy Converters |...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Heat Pump Water Heater using Solid-State Energy Converters Heat Pump Water Heater using Solid-State Energy Converters Sheetak will work on developing a full scale prototype of its...

  10. Blue Solid-State Photoluminescence and Electroluminescence from Novel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Myrick, Michael Lenn

    Blue Solid-State Photoluminescence and Electroluminescence from Novel Poly copolymers give rise to efficient ( ) 0.16-0.76) blue solid-state emission (max ) 422-443 nm) which can-PPE (max 500-520 nm). The effective and blue-shifted solid-state emission is a result of disrupting

  11. Ris National Laboratory Fuel Cells and Solid State Chemistry Department

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Risø National Laboratory Postprint Fuel Cells and Solid State Chemistry Department Year 2007 Paper Højgaard Jensen1, Jørgen B. Bilde-Sørensen3, Mogens Mogensen1 1Fuel Cells and Solid State Chemistry-Sørensen3 , Mogens Mogensen1 1 Fuel Cells and Solid State Chemistry Department, Risø National Laboratory

  12. Abstract--The FREEDM grid utilizes solid state transformers (SST) and solid state fault interruption devices (FID) which may

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kimball, Jonathan W.

    bidirectional power flow between the system and the renewable energy sources. The system also includes solid of a Distribution Grid with Solid State Power Devices Karl Stefanski, Hengsi Qin, Badrul H. Chowdhury, Senior Member1 Abstract-- The FREEDM grid utilizes solid state transformers (SST) and solid state fault

  13. HIGH INTENSITY DISCHARGE (HID) SOLID STATE BALLAST PROGRAM PHASE I FINAL REPORT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ailing, W.R.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    change in the output power for the solid state ballast asof the solid state ballast's constant output power withswitching power supplies such as the solid state ballast.

  14. Solid state transport-based thermoelectric converter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hu, Zhiyu

    2010-04-13T23:59:59.000Z

    A solid state thermoelectric converter includes a thermally insulating separator layer, a semiconducting collector and an electron emitter. The electron emitter comprises a metal nanoparticle layer or plurality of metal nanocatalyst particles disposed on one side of said separator layer. A first electrically conductive lead is electrically coupled to the electron emitter. The collector layer is disposed on the other side of the separator layer, wherein the thickness of the separator layer is less than 1 .mu.m. A second conductive lead is electrically coupled to the collector layer.

  15. Solid State AC Motor Drives - Conservation Perspectives

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mohan, N.; Ferraro, R. J.

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    sources of electromagnetic interference and their wid~spread use may result in interference with the ne~rby com munication circuits and Power Line Communi?ations (PLC ). EPRI ACTIVITIES RE: HARMONICS The study of harmonics and electrical noise... generated by solid-state control devices ~s been underway at EPRI since the mid 1970's. A ~ecent EPRI project (6) investigated the techniqubs to minimize the generation of harmonics and t~e effects of current and voltage surges on the utili~y distri...

  16. Solid State Marx Modulators for Emerging Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kemp, M.A.; /SLAC

    2012-09-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Emerging linear accelerator applications increasingly push the boundaries of RF system performance and economics. The power modulator is an integral part of RF systems whose characteristics play a key role in the determining parameters such as efficiency, footprint, cost, stability, and availability. Particularly within the past decade, solid-state switch based modulators have become the standard in high-performance, high power modulators. One topology, the Marx modulator, has characteristics which make it particularly attractive for several emerging applications. This paper is an overview of the Marx topology, some recent developments, and a case study of how this architecture can be applied to a few proposed linear accelerators.

  17. Pulsed Power for Solid-State Lasers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gagnon, W; Albrecht, G; Trenholme, J; Newton, M

    2007-04-19T23:59:59.000Z

    Beginning in the early 1970s, a number of research and development efforts were undertaken at U.S. National Laboratories with a goal of developing high power lasers whose characteristics were suitable for investigating the feasibility of laser-driven fusion. A number of different laser systems were developed and tested at ever larger scale in pursuit of the optimum driver for laser fusion experiments. Each of these systems had associated with it a unique pulsed power option. A considerable amount of original and innovative engineering was carried out in support of these options. Ultimately, the Solid-state Laser approach was selected as the optimum driver for the application. Following this, the Laser Program at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and the University of Rochester undertook aggressive efforts directed at developing the technology. In particular, at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, a series of laser systems beginning with the Cyclops laser and culminating in the present with the National Ignition Facility were developed and tested. As a result, a large amount of design information for solid-state laser pulsed power systems has been documented. Some of it is in the form of published papers, but most of it is buried in internal memoranda, engineering reports and LLNL annual reports. One of the goals of this book is to gather this information into a single useable format, such that it is easily accessed and understood by other engineers and physicists for use with future designs. It can also serve as a primer, which when seriously studied, makes the subsequent reading of original work and follow-up references considerably easier. While this book deals only with the solid-state laser pulsed power systems, in the bibliography we have included a representative cross section of papers and references from much of the very fine work carried out at other institutions in support of different laser approaches. Finally, in recent years, there has been a renewed interest in high-average-power solid-state glass lasers. Much of the prime power technology developed in support of this has definite applications in the long term for fusion power plant scenarios.

  18. Passivation-free solid state battery

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Abraham, K.M.; Peramunage, D.

    1998-06-16T23:59:59.000Z

    This invention pertains to passivation-free solid-state rechargeable batteries composed of Li{sub 4}Ti{sub 5}O{sub 12} anode, a solid polymer electrolyte and a high voltage cathode. The solid polymer electrolyte comprises a polymer host, such as polyacrylonitrile, poly(vinyl chloride), poly(vinyl sulfone), and poly(vinylidene fluoride), plasticized by a solution of a Li salt in an organic solvent. The high voltage cathode includes LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4}, LiCoO{sub 2}, LiNiO{sub 2} and LiV{sub 2}O{sub 5} and their derivatives. 5 figs.

  19. Nanoengineering for solid-state lighting.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schubert, E. Fred (Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute,Troy, NY); Koleske, Daniel David; Wetzel, Christian (Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute,Troy, NY); Lee, Stephen Roger; Missert, Nancy A.; Lin, Shawn-Yu (Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute,Troy, NY); Crawford, Mary Hagerott; Fischer, Arthur Joseph

    2009-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes results from a 3-year Laboratory Directed Research and Development project performed in collaboration with researchers at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute. Our collaborative effort was supported by Sandia's National Institute for Nanoengineering and focused on the study and application of nanoscience and nanoengineering concepts to improve the efficiency of semiconductor light-emitting diodes for solid-state lighting applications. The project explored LED efficiency advances with two primary thrusts: (1) the study of nanoscale InGaN materials properties, particularly nanoscale crystalline defects, and their impact on internal quantum efficiency, and (2) nanoscale engineering of dielectric and metal materials and integration with LED heterostructures for enhanced light extraction efficiency.

  20. Sandia Energy - Solid-State Lighting

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of ScienceandMesa del Sol Home Distribution GridDocumentsInstitute ofSiting andSolarSolarSolid-State

  1. Solid-State Lighting | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnual Site EnvironmentalEnergySafely DeliveringSolid-State Lighting Recovery Act AwardEmerging

  2. Solid-State Lighting | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn'tOriginEducationVideo »UsageSecretaryVideos Solid-State Lighting Videos On this page

  3. Solid-state lighting technology perspective.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tsao, Jeffrey Yeenien; Coltrin, Michael Elliott

    2006-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Solid-State Lighting (SSL) uses inorganic light-emitting diodes (LEDs) and organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) to convert electricity into light for illumination. SSL has the potential for enormous energy savings and accompanying environmental benefits if its promise of 50% (or greater) energy efficiencies can be achieved. This report provides a broad summary of the technologies that underlie SSL. The applications for SSL and potential impact on U.S. and world-wide energy consumption, and impact on the human visual experience are discussed. The properties of visible light and different technical metrics to characterize its properties are summarized. The many factors contributing to the capital and operating costs for SSL and traditional lighting sources (incandescent, fluorescent, and high-intensity discharge lamps) are discussed, with extrapolations for future SSL goals. The technologies underlying LEDs and OLEDs are also described, including current and possible alternative future technologies and some of the present limitations.

  4. Electronically shielded solid state charged particle detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Balmer, D.K.; Haverty, T.W.; Nordin, C.W.; Tyree, W.H.

    1996-08-20T23:59:59.000Z

    An electronically shielded solid state charged particle detector system having enhanced radio frequency interference immunity includes a detector housing with a detector entrance opening for receiving the charged particles. A charged particle detector having an active surface is disposed within the housing. The active surface faces toward the detector entrance opening for providing electrical signals representative of the received charged particles when the received charged particles are applied to the active surface. A conductive layer is disposed upon the active surface. In a preferred embodiment, a nonconductive layer is disposed between the conductive layer and the active surface. The conductive layer is electrically coupled to the detector housing to provide a substantially continuous conductive electrical shield surrounding the active surface. The inner surface of the detector housing is supplemented with a radio frequency absorbing material such as ferrite. 1 fig.

  5. Compact high voltage solid state switch

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Glidden, Steven C.

    2003-09-23T23:59:59.000Z

    A compact, solid state, high voltage switch capable of high conduction current with a high rate of current risetime (high di/dt) that can be used to replace thyratrons in existing and new applications. The switch has multiple thyristors packaged in a single enclosure. Each thyristor has its own gate drive circuit that circuit obtains its energy from the energy that is being switched in the main circuit. The gate drives are triggered with a low voltage, low current pulse isolated by a small inexpensive transformer. The gate circuits can also be triggered with an optical signal, eliminating the trigger transformer altogether. This approach makes it easier to connect many thyristors in series to obtain the hold off voltages of greater than 80 kV.

  6. Electronically shielded solid state charged particle detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Balmer, David K. (155 Coral Way, Broomfield, CO 80020); Haverty, Thomas W. (1173 Logan, Northglenn, CO 80233); Nordin, Carl W. (7203 W. 32nd Ave., Wheatridge, CO 80033); Tyree, William H. (1977 Senda Rocosa, Boulder, CO 80303)

    1996-08-20T23:59:59.000Z

    An electronically shielded solid state charged particle detector system having enhanced radio frequency interference immunity includes a detector housing with a detector entrance opening for receiving the charged particles. A charged particle detector having an active surface is disposed within the housing. The active surface faces toward the detector entrance opening for providing electrical signals representative of the received charged particles when the received charged particles are applied to the active surface. A conductive layer is disposed upon the active surface. In a preferred embodiment, a nonconductive layer is disposed between the conductive layer and the active surface. The conductive layer is electrically coupled to the detector housing to provide a substantially continuous conductive electrical shield surrounding the active surface. The inner surface of the detector housing is supplemented with a radio frequency absorbing material such as ferrite.

  7. DOE Solid-State Lighting Program Overview Brochure

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Lighting Program Shaping the Future of Solid-State Lighting Today, LED (light emitting diode) technologies illuminate grocery display cases, make parking garages and...

  8. Technology assessment and market analysis of solid state ultracapacitors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jiang, Zibo

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report provides quantitative analysis of Solid State Ultracapacitors (SSUs) from technological and financial perspectives. SSUs are Ultracapacitors with solid electrolytes predicted to have huge application potential ...

  9. FEMP Outdoor Solid-State Lighting Intiative: Resources for Outdoor...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    sheet describes the Federal Energy Management Program's (FEMP) solid-state lighting (SSL) initiatives that provide information and resources for the application of SSL lighting...

  10. Sandia National Laboratories: Solid State Lighting Science Energy...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Unfortunately, red emitters that satisfy all criteria for use in solid-state lighting (SSL) applications are ... Last Updated: May 23, 2013 Go To Top Exceptional service in...

  11. Solid-State Lighting Program Strategy Overview - 2014 BTO Peer...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Lighting Program Strategy Overview - 2014 BTO Peer Review Solid-State Lighting Program Strategy Overview - 2014 BTO Peer Review Presenter: James Broderick, U.S. Department of...

  12. Solid state photosensitive devices which employ isolated photosyntheti...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    complexes Re-direct Destination: Solid state photosensitive devices including photovoltaic devices are provided which comprise a first electrode and a second electrode in...

  13. Solid State Processing of New Low Cost Titanium Powders Enabling...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Processing of New Low Cost Titanium Powders Enabling Affordable Automotive Components Solid State Processing of New Low Cost Titanium Powders Enabling Affordable Automotive...

  14. Solid state watt-hour meter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hurley, J.R.; Gilker, C.S.

    1984-08-21T23:59:59.000Z

    A watt-hour meter is disclosed which includes: a microprocessor coupled to a solid-state Hall-Effect sensor; an electrically alterable ROM coupled to the microprocessor; a power supply; a power outage timing means using the discharge characteristic of a capacitor; apparatus for supplying a 60 Hz clock signal to the microprocessor; a readout device coupled to the microprocessor to provide an indication of the power consumed; an output on the microprocessor for controlling a circuit breaker; and a switch for overriding the microprocessor controlled circuit breaker. The microprocessor and the electrically alterable ROM are connected and programmed: to sense the time of day as determined from an initial time of day and setting the 60 Hz clock signal; to sense and compute the power used by the consumer; to automatically open the circuit breaker when power demand on the electric power source is high and/or the cost per kilowatt hour is high; to automatically close the circuit breaker when the power demand on the source of electric power is low and/or the cost per kilowatt power is low; and to allow a consumer to override the microprocessor's control of the circuit breaker.

  15. Solid State Replacement of Rotating Mirror Cameras

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Frank, A M; Bartolick, J M

    2006-08-25T23:59:59.000Z

    Rotating mirror cameras have been the mainstay of mega-frame per second imaging for decades. There is still no electronic camera that can match a film based rotary mirror camera for the combination of frame count, speed, resolution and dynamic range. The rotary mirror cameras are predominantly used in the range of 0.1 to 100 micro-seconds per frame, for 25 to more than a hundred frames. Electron tube gated cameras dominate the sub microsecond regime but are frame count limited. Video cameras are pushing into the microsecond regime but are resolution limited by the high data rates. An all solid state architecture, dubbed ''In-situ Storage Image Sensor'' or ''ISIS'', by Prof. Goji Etoh, has made its first appearance into the market and its evaluation is discussed. Recent work at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory has concentrated both on evaluation of the presently available technologies and exploring the capabilities of the ISIS architecture. It is clear though there is presently no single chip camera that can simultaneously match the rotary mirror cameras, the ISIS architecture has the potential to approach their performance.

  16. Modulated optical solid-state spectrometer applications in plasma diagnostics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Howard, John

    Modulated optical solid-state spectrometer applications in plasma diagnostics John Howard Plasma A new electro-optically modulated optical solid-state MOSS interferometer has been constructed for the measurement of the low order spectral moments of line emission from optically thin radiant media

  17. Smart Lighting: A Second Wave in Solid State Lighting?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Salama, Khaled

    Smart Lighting: A Second Wave in Solid State Lighting? OIDA Conference on Green Photonics Bob Karlicek Director, Smart Lighting Engineering Research Center Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute June 2010 #12;2 Outline · The First Wave of Solid State Lighting · Complex Dynamics in the Supply Chain · What

  18. DNA Translocation Governed by Interactions with Solid-State Nanopores

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meller, Amit

    DNA Translocation Governed by Interactions with Solid-State Nanopores Meni Wanunu, Jason Sutin, Ben dynamics of individual DNA molecules through solid-state nanopores in the diameter range 2.7­5 nm. Our with DNA length by two power laws: for short DNA molecules, in the range 150­3500 bp, we find an exponent

  19. A new solid state tritium surface monitor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Willms, R. S. (Richard Scott); Dogruel, D. (David); Myers, R. (Richard); Farrell, R. (Richard)

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Traditionally the amount of tritium on a surface is determined by swiping the surface with a material such as filter paper and counting the removed tritium by scintillation. While effective, this method can be time consuming, can alter the surface and only measures removable tritium. For a given application each of these considerations may or may not be a disadvantage. A solid state monitor, on the other hand, has the potential to provide rapid analysis, not alter the surface and measure all tritium on a surface. This allure has promoted open wall ion chamber and PIN diode-based tritium surface monitor development, and these techniques have enjoyed certain success. Recently the first tests were performed with an avalanche photodiode (APD) for surface tritium measurement. The tritium surface concentration is determined by placing the APD within a few millimeters of the surface of interest. Beta decay from the surface tritium impacts the APD resulting in amplified current through the diode. Analysis of this signal with a multi-channel analyzer enables counting of beta decay events and determination of the beta energy spectrum. While quite similar in concept to PIN diode based measurements, side-by-side testing showed that the APD provided substantially better counting efficiency. Considerations included count rate, background, sensitivity, stability and effect of ambient light. An important factor in the U.S. for a tritium surface monitor is the ability to measure concentrations down to the 'free release' limit, i.e., the concentration below which items can be removed from radiological control areas. The two limits being used are 10,000 disintegrations per min (dpm)/100 cm{sup 2} and 1,000 dpm/100 cm{sup 2}. Present tests show that the APD is capable of measuring down to 1,000 dpm/100 cm{sup 2} in reasonable count times. Data from this promising technique will be presented in this paper.

  20. Bichromatic Driving of a Solid State Cavity QED System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alexander Papageorge; Arka Majumdar; Erik D. Kim; Jelena Vuckovic

    2011-08-27T23:59:59.000Z

    The bichromatic driving of a solid state cavity quantum electrodynamics system is used to probe cavity dressed state transitions and observe coherent interaction between the system and the light field. We theoretically demonstrate the higher order cavity-dressed states, supersplitting, and AC stark shift in a solid state system comprised of a quantum dot strongly coupled to a photonic crystal cavity for on- and far off-resonant cases. For the off-resonant case, phonons mediate off-resonant coupling between the quantum dot and the photonic resonator, a phenomenon unique to solid state cavity quantum electrodynamics.

  1. Solid State Processing of Fully Dense Anistropic Nanocomposition...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    This will be accomplished by a revolutionary solid-state processing technique called Friction Consolidation and Extrusion (FC&E). Processing of sintered (Nd, Dy)-Fe-B type magnets...

  2. MidAmerican Energy (Electric) - Municipal Solid-State Lighting...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    must be an Iowa electric governmental customer of MidAmerican Energy Company. Light-emitting diode and induction types of solid state lighting (SSL) qualify under this program....

  3. A New I/O Scheduler for Solid State Devices 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dunn, Marcus P.

    2010-10-12T23:59:59.000Z

    Since the emergence of solid state devices onto the storage scene, improvements in capacity and price have brought them to the point where they are becoming a viable alternative to traditional magnetic storage for some ...

  4. Transformations in Lighting: The Ninth Annual Solid-State Lighting...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    in DOE's "Transformations in Lighting" Solid-State Lighting (SSL) R&D Workshop. DOE SSL Portfolio Manager James Brodrick kicked off Day 1 by observing that although LED...

  5. Sandia National Laboratories: solid-state lighting technology

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    in the ... Optical performance of top-down fabricated InGaNGaN nanorod light emitting diode arrays On November 30, 2011, in Energy, Energy Efficiency, Solid-State Lighting...

  6. Solid state division progress report, period ending February 29, 1980

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Research is reported concerning theoretical solid state physics; surface and near-surface properties of solids; defects in solids; transport properties of solids; neutron scattering; crystal growth and characterization; and isotope research materials.

  7. Sandia National Laboratories: "Solid-state Lighting: 'The case...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    illumination. Since then, investments in the now-renamed field of solid-state lighting (SSL) have accelerated and considerable progress has been made, not always in the directions...

  8. Solid-state lamp with integral occupancy sensor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cooley, John J.

    Previous work demonstrated a retrofit proximity detector for fluorescent lamps using the lamp's own stray electric fields. This paper extends the retrofit sensor system to a solid-state (LED) lamp. The design and implementation ...

  9. Testimonials - Partnerships in Solid-State Lighting - Soraa,...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Mike Krames: The Department of Energy has done a great job in supporting solid-state lighting in the United States. We have funding programs, EERE does funding, research and...

  10. Sandia National Laboratories: Taiwan Solid-State Lighting

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Taiwan Solid-State Lighting George Wang's Invited Talk at 2013 tSSL On March 26, 2013, in Conferences, EC, Energy, Energy Efficiency, Energy Surety, Events, News, News & Events,...

  11. Sandia National Laboratories: solid-state lighting science

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Efficiency, Solid-State Lighting A new top-down method for fabricating gallium nitride (GaN) nanowires with precisely controlled geometries enables single-mode, rather than...

  12. Municipal Solid-State Street Lighting Consortium Kickoff Webcast

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This May 6, 2010 webcast served as the first official meeting of the new DOE Municipal Solid-State Street Lighting Consortium. Ed Smalley of Seattle City Light and Bruce Kinzey of Pacific Northwest...

  13. Solid-State Lighting Patents Resulting from DOE-Funded Projects...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Solid-State Lighting Patents Resulting from DOE-Funded Projects Solid-State Lighting Patents Resulting from DOE-Funded Projects 2013 DOE Solid-State Lighting Program Fact Sheet...

  14. 150-kV, 80-A SOLID STATE POWER SUPPLY FOR NEUTRAL BEAM INJECTION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Owren, H.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    owned rig 150-kV, 80-A SOLID STATE POWER SUPPLY FOR NEUTRALpaper describes an all solid state power supply designed forment and arc power supplies are also solid state. With the

  15. Synergies Connecting the Photovoltaics and Solid-State Lighting Industries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kurtz, S.

    2003-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Recent increases in the efficiencies of phosphide, nitride, and organic light-emitting diodes (LEDs) inspire a vision of a revolution in lighting. If high efficiencies, long lifetimes, and low cost can be achieved, solid-state lighting could save our country many quads of electricity in the coming years. The solid-state lighting (SSL) and photovoltaic (PV) industries share many of the same challenges. This paper explores the similarities between the two industries and how they might benefit by sharing information.

  16. Solid state power bus controllers for aerospace applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Villarreal, Terry Joseph

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    SOLID STATE POWER BUS CONTROLLERS FOR AEROSPACE APPLICATIONS A Thesis by TERRY JOSEPH VILLARREAL Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER... OF SCIENCE December 1988 Major Subject: Electrical Eny'neering SOLID STATE POWER BUS CONTROLLERS FOR AEROSPACE APPLICATIONS A Thesis TERRY JOSEPH VILLARREAL Approved as to style and content by: Mehrdad Ehsani (Chairman of Committee) Robert D. Nevels...

  17. High Extraction Phosphors for Solid State Lighting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chris Summers; Hisham Menkara; Brent Wagner

    2011-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    We have developed high-index, high efficiency bulk luminescent materials and novel nano-sized phosphors for improved solid-state white LED lamps. These advances can potentially contribute to reducing the loss in luminous efficiencies due to scattering, re-absorption, and thermal quenching. The bulk and nanostructured luminescent materials investigated are index matched to GaN and have broad and size-tunable absorption bands, size and impurity tuned emission bands, size-driven elimination of scattering effects, and a separation between absorption and emission bands. These innovations were accomplished through the use of novel synthesis techniques suitable for high volume production for LED lamp applications. The program produced a full-color set of high quantum yield phosphors with high chemical stability. In the bulk phosphor study, the ZnSeS:Cu,Ag phosphor was optimized to achieve >91% efficiency using erbium (Er) and other activators as sensitizers. Detailed analysis of temperature quenching effects on a large number of ZnSeS:Cu,Ag,X and strontium- and calcium-thiogallate phosphors lead to a breakthrough in the understanding of the â??anti-quenchingâ?ť behavior and a physical bandgap model was developed of this phenomena. In a follow up to this study, optimized phosphor blends for high efficiency and color performance were developed and demonstrated a 2-component phosphor system with good white chromaticity, color temperature, and high color rendering. By extending the protocols of quantum dot synthesis, â??largeâ?ť nanocrystals, greater than 20 nm in diameter were synthesized and exhibited bulk-like behavior and blue light absorption. The optimization of ZnSe:Mn nanophosphors achieved ~85% QE The limitations of core-shell nanocrystal systems were addressed by investigating alternative deltadoped structures. To address the manufacturability of these systems, a one-pot manufacturing protocol was developed for ZnSe:Mn nanophosphors. To enhance the stability of these material systems, the encapsulation of ZnSeS particle phosphors and ZnSeS screens with Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and TiO{sub 2} using ALD was shown to improve the stability by >8X and also increased the luminescence efficiency due to improved surface passivation and optical coupling. A large-volume fluidized bed ALD system was designed that can be adapted to a commercial ALD or vapor deposition system. Throughout the program, optical simulations were developed to evaluate and optimize various phosphor mixtures and device configurations. For example, to define the scattering properties of nanophosphors in an LED device or in a stand-off screen geometry. Also this work significantly promoted and assisted in the implementation of realistic phosphor material models into commercial modeling programs.

  18. Energy Savings Potential of Solid-State Lighting in General Illuminati...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    PROGRAM Energy Savings Potential of Solid-State Lighting in General Illumination Applications January 2012 Prepared for: Solid-State Lighting Program Building Technologies Program...

  19. advanced solid-state array: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Sudesh; Michael Kavaya; Upendra Singh 6 PHYSICS 6555 --ADVANCED SOLID STATE PHYSICS 1 Syllabus --Fall 2013, CRN 95603 Physics Websites Summary: PHYSICS 6555 -- ADVANCED SOLID STATE...

  20. activated solid-state synthesis: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Solid State Transformer Engineering Websites Summary: converters as distribution transformers 1. A power electronics-based solid state transformer (SST) providesAc-Ac Dual...

  1. ON-SITE DEMONSTRATION PROCEDURE FOR SOLID-STATE FLUORESCENT BALLAST

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Verderber, Rudy

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    the solid-state ballast supplies electrical power to theof switching power transistors that are essential for solid-solid-state ballast can transform the input electrical power

  2. 10/10/2014 The Science of Why Beer Is So Delicious -Popular Mechanics http://www.popularmechanics.com/science/the-science-of-why-beer-is-so-delicious-17297163 1/8

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    10/10/2014 The Science of Why Beer Is So Delicious - Popular Mechanics http://www.popularmechanics.com/science/the-science-of-why-beer-is-so-delicious-17297163 1/8 Subscribe / Give a Gift Herkewitz StumbleUpon 0 Tweet 0 Homepage / Science / The Science of Why Beer Is So Delicious The Science

  3. Frequently Asked Questions About the Municipal Solid-State Street Lighting Consortium

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This page addresses many of the questions about the Municipal Solid-State Street Lighting Consortium.

  4. All solid-state SBS phase conjugate mirror

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dane, Clifford B. (Livermore, CA); Hackel, Lloyd A. (Livermore, CA)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) phase conjugate laser mirror uses a solid-state nonlinear gain medium instead of the conventional liquid or high pressure gas medium. The concept has been effectively demonstrated using common optical-grade fused silica. An energy threshold of 2.5 mJ and a slope efficiency of over 90% were achieved, resulting in an overall energy reflectivity of >80% for 15 ns, 1 um laser pulses. The use of solid-state materials is enabled by a multi-pass resonant architecture which suppresses transient fluctuations that would otherwise result in damage to the SBS medium. This all solid state phase conjugator is safer, more reliable, and more easily manufactured than prior art designs. It allows nonlinear wavefront correction to be implemented in industrial and defense laser systems whose operating environments would preclude the introduction of potentially hazardous liquids or high pressure gases.

  5. All solid-state SBS phase conjugate mirror

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dane, C.B.; Hackel, L.A.

    1999-03-09T23:59:59.000Z

    A stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) phase conjugate laser mirror uses a solid-state nonlinear gain medium instead of the conventional liquid or high pressure gas medium. The concept has been effectively demonstrated using common optical-grade fused silica. An energy threshold of 2.5 mJ and a slope efficiency of over 90% were achieved, resulting in an overall energy reflectivity of >80% for 15 ns, 1 um laser pulses. The use of solid-state materials is enabled by a multi-pass resonant architecture which suppresses transient fluctuations that would otherwise result in damage to the SBS medium. This all solid state phase conjugator is safer, more reliable, and more easily manufactured than prior art designs. It allows nonlinear wavefront correction to be implemented in industrial and defense laser systems whose operating environments would preclude the introduction of potentially hazardous liquids or high pressure gases. 8 figs.

  6. Solid-State Sensors for Monitoring Hydrogen | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn'tOriginEducationVideo »UsageSecretaryVideos Solid-State Lighting Videos On this pageSolid-State

  7. Solid-State Lighting R&D Plan

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742EnergyOn April 23, 2014,Zaleski - PolicyWorkSunShot SolarDownloadTerrySolid-StateSolid-State

  8. JY Tsao Evolution of Solid-State Lighting: Market Pull and Technology Push Xiamen 2005 Apr 13 Evolution of Solid-State Lighting

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    JY Tsao · Evolution of Solid-State Lighting: Market Pull and Technology Push · Xiamen · 2005 Apr 13 Evolution of Solid-State Lighting: Market Pull and Technology Push Sandia is a multiprogram laboratory. Solid-state lighting is truly a technology with global benefits, and it is exciting to see so much

  9. TL and TSC Solid State Detectors in Proton Therapy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cirrone, G.A.P.; Sabini, M.G.; Bruzzi, M.; Bucciolini, M.; Cuttone, G.; Guasti, A.; Lo Nigro, S.; Mazzocchi, S.; Pirollo, S.; Raffaele, L.; Sciortino, S.

    2000-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The necessity to develop methods and techniques for a better determination of absorbed dose in the radiotherapy field stimulates new clinical applications of solid state detectors. In this work we have studied the possibility to use of TLD-100 and synthetic CVD diamond detectors as dosimeters for high-energy proton beams.

  10. Two-photoelectrode solid-state photoelectrochemical cell

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sammells, A.F.; Schmidt, S.K.

    1984-09-14T23:59:59.000Z

    The solid-state photoelectrochemical cell p-InP/C44H28N4Fe(+3) Porphine, Nafion 117/Nafion 117/(bpy)3Ru(2+), Nafion 117/n-Cds was prepared and given photopotentials in excess of 1100 mV and appears to be a novel approach for not only specialized storage devices but also in specific detector applications.

  11. Snapshots of Titanium BINOLate Complexes with Diverse Solid State

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Walsh, Patrick J.

    Snapshots of Titanium BINOLate Complexes with Diverse Solid State Structures Timothy J. Davis structures. Reported here are three structures of BINOLate titanium complexes that show an interesting aggregation of (BINOLate)Ti(OiPr)2 with itself and with titanium tetraisopropoxide. These complexes

  12. Performance of a 229 Thorium solid-state nuclear clock

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kazakov, G A; Romanenko, V I; Yatsenko, L P; Romanenko, A V; Schreitl, M; Winkler, G; Schumm, T

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The 7.8 eV nuclear isomer transition in 229 Thorium has been suggested as an etalon transition in a new type of optical frequency standard. Here we discuss the construction of a "solid-state nuclear clock" from Thorium nuclei implanted into single crystals transparent in the vacuum ultraviolet range. We investigate crystal-induced line shifts and broadening effects for the specific system of Calcium fluoride. At liquid Nitrogen temperatures, the clock performance will be limited by decoherence due to magnetic coupling of the Thorium nucleus to neighboring nuclear moments, ruling out the commonly used Rabi or Ramsey interrogation schemes. We propose a clock stabilization based on counting of flourescence photons and present optimized operation parameters. Taking advantage of the high number of quantum oscillators under continuous interrogation, a fractional instability level of 10^{-19} might be reached within the solid-state approach.

  13. Performance of a 229 Thorium solid-state nuclear clock

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    G. A. Kazakov; A. N. Litvinov; V. I. Romanenko; L. P. Yatsenko; A. V. Romanenko; M. Schreitl; G. Winkler; T. Schumm

    2012-10-02T23:59:59.000Z

    The 7.8 eV nuclear isomer transition in 229 Thorium has been suggested as an etalon transition in a new type of optical frequency standard. Here we discuss the construction of a "solid-state nuclear clock" from Thorium nuclei implanted into single crystals transparent in the vacuum ultraviolet range. We investigate crystal-induced line shifts and broadening effects for the specific system of Calcium fluoride. At liquid Nitrogen temperatures, the clock performance will be limited by decoherence due to magnetic coupling of the Thorium nucleus to neighboring nuclear moments, ruling out the commonly used Rabi or Ramsey interrogation schemes. We propose a clock stabilization based on counting of flourescence photons and present optimized operation parameters. Taking advantage of the high number of quantum oscillators under continuous interrogation, a fractional instability level of 10^{-19} might be reached within the solid-state approach.

  14. Structures and fabrication techniques for solid state electrochemical devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Visco, Steven J.; Jacobson, Craig P.; DeJonghe, Lutgard C.

    2006-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Low-cost, mechanically strong, highly electronically conductive porous substrates and associated structures for solid-state electrochemical devices, techniques for forming these structures, and devices incorporating the structures provide solid state electrochemical device substrates of novel composition and techniques for forming thin electrode/membrane/electrolyte coatings on the novel or more conventional substrates. In particular, in one aspect the invention provides techniques for co-firing of device substrate (often an electrode) with an electrolyte or membrane layer to form densified electrolyte/membrane films 5 to 20 microns thick. In another aspect, densified electrolyte/membrane films 5 to 20 microns thick may be formed on a pre-sintered substrate by a constrained sintering process. In some cases, the substrate may be a porous metal, alloy, or non-nickel cermet incorporating one or more of the transition metals Cr, Fe and Cu, or alloys thereof.

  15. Compact Solid State Cooling Systems: Compact MEMS Electrocaloric Module

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    BEETIT Project: UCLA is developing a novel solid-state cooling technology to translate a recent scientific discovery of the so-called giant electrocaloric effect into commercially viable compact cooling systems. Traditional air conditioners use noisy, vapor compression systems that include a polluting liquid refrigerant to circulate within the air conditioner, absorb heat, and pump the heat out into the environment. Electrocaloric materials achieve the same result by heating up when placed within an electric field and cooling down when removed—effectively pumping heat out from a cooler to warmer environment. This electrocaloric-based solid state cooling system is quiet and does not use liquid refrigerants. The innovation includes developing nano-structured materials and reliable interfaces for heat exchange. With these innovations and advances in micro/nano-scale manufacturing technologies pioneered by semiconductor companies, UCLA is aiming to extend the performance/reliability of the cooling module.

  16. Hybrid solid state qubits: the powerful role of electron spins

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    John J. L. Morton; Brendon W. Lovett

    2011-03-02T23:59:59.000Z

    We review progress on the use of electron spins to store and process quantum information, with particular focus on the ability of the electron spin to interact with multiple quantum degrees of freedom. We examine the benefits of hybrid quantum bits (qubits) in the solid state that are based on coupling electron spins to nuclear spin, electron charge, optical photons, and superconducting qubits. These benefits include the coherent storage of qubits for times exceeding seconds, fast qubit manipulation, single qubit measurement, and scalable methods for entangling spatially separated matter-based qubits. In this way, the key strengths of different physical qubit implementations are brought together, laying the foundation for practical solid-state quantum technologies.

  17. Scaling of solid state lasers for satellite power beaming applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Friedman, H.W.; Albrecht, G.F.; Beach, R.J.

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The power requirements for a satellite power beaming laser system depend upon the diameter of the beam director, the performance of the adaptive optics system, and the mission requirements. For an 8 meter beam director and overall Strehl ratio of 50%, a 30 kW laser at 850 nm can deliver an equivalent solar flux to a satellite at geostationary orbit. Advances in Diode Pumped Solid State Lasers (DPSSL) have brought these small, efficient and reliable devices to high average power and they should be considered for satellite power beaming applications. Two solid state systems are described: a diode pumped Alexandrite and diode pumped Thulium doped YAG. Both can deliver high average power at 850 nm in a single aperture.

  18. Structures and fabrication techniques for solid state electrochemical devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Visco, Steven J. (Berkeley, CA); Jacobson, Craig P. (El Cerrito, CA); DeJonghe, Lutgard C. (Lafayette, CA)

    2008-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Porous substrates and associated structures for solid-state electrochemical devices, such as solid-oxide fuel cells (SOFCs), are low-cost, mechanically strong and highly electronically conductive. Some preferred structures have a thin layer of an electrocatalytically active material (e.g., Ni--YSZ) coating a porous high-strength alloy support (e.g., SS-430) to form a porous SOFC fuel electrode. Electrode/electrolyte structures can be formed by co-firing or constrained sintering processes.

  19. Position sensitive solid-state photomultipliers, systems and methods

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shah, Kanai S; Christian, James; Stapels, Christopher; Dokhale, Purushottam; McClish, Mickel

    2014-11-11T23:59:59.000Z

    An integrated silicon solid state photomultiplier (SSPM) device includes a pixel unit including an array of more than 2.times.2 p-n photodiodes on a common substrate, a signal division network electrically connected to each photodiode, where the signal division network includes four output connections, a signal output measurement unit, a processing unit configured to identify the photodiode generating a signal or a center of mass of photodiodes generating a signal, and a global receiving unit.

  20. Low voltage solid-state lateral coloration electrochromic device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tracy, C.E.; Benson, D.K.; Ruth, M.R.

    1984-12-21T23:59:59.000Z

    A solid-state transition metal oxide device comprising a plurality of layers having a predisposed orientation including an electrochromic oxide layer. Conductive material including anode and cathode contacts is secured to the device. Coloration is actuated within the electrochromic oxide layer after the application of a predetermined potential between the contacts. The coloration action is adapted to sweep or dynamically extend across the length of the electrochromic oxide layer.

  1. Low voltage solid-state lateral coloration electrochromic device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tracy, C. Edwin (Golden, CO); Benson, David K. (Golden, CO); Ruth, Marta R. (Boulder, CO)

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A solid-state transition metal oxide device comprising a plurality of lay having a predisposed orientation including an electrochromic oxide layer. Conductive material including anode and cathode contacts is secured to the device. Coloration is actuated within the electrochromic oxide layer after the application of a predetermined potential between the contacts. The coloration action is adapted to sweep or dynamically extend across the length of the electrochromic oxide layer.

  2. Solid state laser media driven by remote nuclear powered fluorescence

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Prelas, Mark A. (Columbia, MO)

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus is provided for driving a solid state laser by a nuclear powered fluorescence source which is located remote from the fluorescence source. A nuclear reaction produced in a reaction chamber generates fluorescence or photons. The photons are collected from the chamber into a waveguide, such as a fiber optic waveguide. The waveguide transports the photons to the remote laser for exciting the laser.

  3. Structures and fabrication techniques for solid state electrochemical devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Visco, Steven J.; Jacobson, Craig P.; DeJonghe, Lutgard C.

    2012-10-09T23:59:59.000Z

    Porous substrates and associated structures for solid-state electrochemical devices, such as solid-oxide fuel cells (SOFCs), are low-cost, mechanically strong and highly electronically conductive. Some preferred structures have a thin layer of an electrocatalytically active material (e.g., Ni--YSZ) coating a porous high-strength alloy support (e.g., SS-430) to form a porous SOFC fuel electrode. Electrode/electrolyte structures can be formed by co-firing or constrained sintering processes.

  4. Solid state photosensitive devices which employ isolated photosynthetic complexes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Peumans, Peter; Forrest, Stephen R.

    2009-09-22T23:59:59.000Z

    Solid state photosensitive devices including photovoltaic devices are provided which comprise a first electrode and a second electrode in superposed relation; and at least one isolated Light Harvesting Complex (LHC) between the electrodes. Preferred photosensitive devices comprise an electron transport layer formed of a first photoconductive organic semiconductor material, adjacent to the LHC, disposed between the first electrode and the LHC; and a hole transport layer formed of a second photoconductive organic semiconductor material, adjacent to the LHC, disposed between the second electrode and the LHC. Solid state photosensitive devices of the present invention may comprise at least one additional layer of photoconductive organic semiconductor material disposed between the first electrode and the electron transport layer; and at least one additional layer of photoconductive organic semiconductor material, disposed between the second electrode and the hole transport layer. Methods of generating photocurrent are provided which comprise exposing a photovoltaic device of the present invention to light. Electronic devices are provided which comprise a solid state photosensitive device of the present invention.

  5. Energy Savings Potential of Solid-State Lighting in General Illuminati...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of Solid-State Lighting in General Illumination Applications - Report A U.S. DOE SSL report on Energy Savings Potential of Solid-State Lighting in General Illumination...

  6. Energy Savings Potential of Solid-State Lighting in General Illuminati...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of Solid-State Lighting in General Illumination Applications - Factsheet A U.S. DOE SSL fact sheet on Energy Savings Potential of Solid-State Lighting in General Illumination...

  7. Progress from DOE EF RC: Solid-State Solar-Thermal Energy Conversion...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Energy Frontier Research Center of the DOE Office of Basic Energy Sciences SOLID-STATE SOLAR-THERMAL ENERGY CONVERSION CENTER Progress from DOE EFRC: Solid-State Solar-Thermal...

  8. High-power single mode solid state laser with short wide unstable cavity: Misprints

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kouznetsov, Dmitrii

    1 High-power single mode solid state laser with short wide unstable cavity: Misprints D. Kouznetsov. Kouznetsov, J.-F. Bisson, K. Takaichi K. Ueda. High-power single mode solid state laser with short wide

  9. Solid-State Halogen Atom Source for Chemical Dynamics and Etching...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Halogen Atom Source for Chemical Dynamics and Etching. Solid-State Halogen Atom Source for Chemical Dynamics and Etching. Abstract: We describe a solid state Br atom source for...

  10. Energy efficient control of polychromatic solid-state lighting using a sensor network

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Energy efficient control of polychromatic solid-state lighting using a sensor network Matthew in smart lighting, energy efficiency, and ubiquitous sensing, we present the design of polychromatic solid-state energy. Keywords: Solid state lighting, energy efficiency, sensor networks, optimization, spectral

  11. An evaluation of solid state video frame recorders

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Terry, P.L.

    1994-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has tasked Sandia with conducting a market survey to identify and evaluate pertinent solid state recorders. This report identifies the chosen recorders and explains why they were selected. It details test procedures and provides the results of the evaluation. Our main focus in this evaluation was to determine whether the frame grabber altered signal quality. To determine the effect on the signal, we evaluated specific parameters: sensitivity, resolution, signal-to-noise ratio, and intrascene dynamic range. These factors were evaluated at the input and output of the frame grabber.

  12. 2009 Solid-State Lighting Vancouver Manufacturing Workshop Highlights

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Well over 150 lighting industry leaders gathered in Vancouver, Washington, on June 24-25, 2009, for the second DOE Solid-State Lighting (SSL) Manufacturing Workshop. The primary purpose was to review and refine a "strawman" roadmap for SSL manufacturing, based on insights and recommendations from the first workshop, which was held in April in Fairfax, Virginia. These insights and recommendations focused on identifying and overcoming the key barriers to developing lower-cost, higher-quality SSL products. The outcome of both workshops will be a working roadmap to guide SSL manufacturing in general and to inform a new DOE manufacturing initiative.

  13. Long cycle life solid-state solid polymer electrolyte cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sammells, A.F.

    1988-02-02T23:59:59.000Z

    This patent describes a rechargeable solid-state lithium conducting solid polymer electrolyte electrochemical cell comprising: a lithium intercalation compound negative electrode selected from the group consisting of: MoO/sub 2/; RuO/sub 2/; WO; OsO/sub 2/; IrO/sub 2/; and Mo1/2V1/2O/sub 2/; a lithium ion conducting solid polymer electrolyte comprising a lithium ion conducting supporting electrolyte complexed with a solid polymer contacting the negative electrode on one side; and a lithium intercalation compound positive electrode contacting the opposite side of the solid polymer electrolyte.

  14. A two-photoelectrode solid-state photoelectrochemical cell

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sammells, A.F.; Schmidt, S.K.

    1985-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This article describes a two photoelectrode solid-state photoelectrochemical cell which is able to produce photopotentials in excess of one voltage and possesses some inherent storage capacity. The storage capacity is presently limited by the low concentration and thin solid polymer electrolyte (SPE) redox layers used between the photoelectrode and the SPE membrane. The use of solid-electrolyte based photoelectrochemical cells provides a unique approach for the photoelectrochemical conversion and storage of selected redox species incorporated within the proximity of the semiconductor/solid electrolyte interface. It is expected that the described cell will be of potential value as not only a specialized storage device, but for specific detector applications.

  15. Barocaloric effect and the pressure induced solid state refrigerator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oliveira, N. A. de [Instituto de Fisica Armando Dias Tavares Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Rua Sao Francisco Xavier 524, Rio de Janeiro, 20550-013, RJ (Brazil)

    2011-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The current refrigerators are based on the heating and cooling of fluids under external pressure variation. The great inconvenience of this refrigeration technology is the damage caused to the environment by the refrigerant fluids. In this paper, we discuss the magnetic barocaloric effect, i.e., the heating or cooling of magnetic materials under pressure variation and its application in the construction of refrigerators using solid magnetic compounds as refrigerant materials and pressure as the external agent. The discussion presented in this paper points out that such a pressure induced solid state refrigerator can be very interesting because it is not harmful to the environment and can exhibit a good performance.

  16. Solid state optical interconnect between distant superconducting quantum chips

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Keyu Xia; Jason Twamley

    2014-08-26T23:59:59.000Z

    We propose a design for a quantum interface exploiting the electron spins in crystals to swap the quantum states between the optical and microwave. Using sideband driving of a superconducting flux qubit and a combined cavity/solid-state spin ensemble Raman transition, we demonstrate how a stimulated Raman adiabatic passage (STIRAP)-type operation can swap the quantum state between a superconducting flux qubit and an optical cavity mode with a fidelity higher than $90\\%$. We further consider two distant superconducting qubits with their respective interfaces joined by an optical fiber and show a quantum transfer fidelity exceeding $90\\%$ between the two distant qubits.

  17. FTIR spectrometer with solid-state drive system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rajic, Slobodan (Knoxville, TN); Seals, Roland D. (Oak Ridge, TN); Egert, Charles M. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An FTIR spectrometer (10) and method using a solid-state drive system with thermally responsive members (27) that are subject to expansion upon heating and to contraction upon cooling. Such members (27) are assembled in the device (10) so as to move an angled, reflective surface (22) a small distance. The sample light beam (13) is received at a detector (24) along with a reference light beam (13) and there it is combined into a resulting signal. This allows the "interference" between the two beams to occur for spectral analysis by a processor (29).

  18. Solid-State Lighting Calendar | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33Frequently AskedEnergyIssues DOE's Nuclear EnergySmart MetersofandSolid-State Lighting

  19. Solid-State Lighting Manufacturing Research and Development - Round 3

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33Frequently AskedEnergyIssues DOE's Nuclear EnergySmart MetersofandSolid-State

  20. Solid-State Lighting Manufacturing Research and Development - Round 4

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33Frequently AskedEnergyIssues DOE's Nuclear EnergySmart MetersofandSolid-State(DE-FOA-0000792)

  1. 2014 Solid-State Lighting Project Portfolio | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYouTube YouTube Note: Since the YouTube platform is always evolving, soFuel Cell24 Solid-State Lighting Project

  2. Solid-State Lighting Consortia | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYouTube YouTube Note: Since the.pdfBreakingMayDepartment of EnergySite Screening Decision TreeinSolidSolid-State

  3. Solid-State Lighting Program Overview Brochure | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742EnergyOn April 23, 2014,Zaleski - PolicyWorkSunShot SolarDownloadTerrySolid-State Lighting

  4. Recent advances in solid-state organic lasers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chenais, Sébastien; 10.1002/pi.3173

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Organic solid-state lasers are reviewed, with a special emphasis on works published during the last decade. Referring originally to dyes in solid-state polymeric matrices, organic lasers also include the rich family of organic semiconductors, paced by the rapid development of organic light emitting diodes. Organic lasers are broadly tunable coherent sources are potentially compact, convenient and manufactured at low-costs. In this review, we describe the basic photophysics of the materials used as gain media in organic lasers with a specific look at the distinctive feature of dyes and semiconductors. We also outline the laser architectures used in state-of-the-art organic lasers and the performances of these devices with regard to output power, lifetime, and beam quality. A survey of the recent trends in the field is given, highlighting the latest developments in terms of wavelength coverage, wavelength agility, efficiency and compactness, or towards integrated low-cost sources, with a special focus on the gr...

  5. HIGH-EFFICIENCY NITRIDE-BASED SOLID-STATE LIGHTING

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dr. Paul T. Fini; Prof. Shuji Nakamura

    2002-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

    In this semiannual report we summarize the progress obtained in the first six months with the support of DoE contract No.DE-FC26-01NT41203, entitled ''High-Efficiency Nitride-Based Solid-State Lighting''. The two teams, from the University of California at Santa Barbara (Principle Investigator: Dr. Shuji Nakamura) and Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (led by Dr. N. Narendran), are pursuing the goals of this contract from thin film growth, characterization, and packaging standpoints. The UCSB team has made significant progress in the development of GaN vertical cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) as well as light-emitting diodes (LEDs) with AlGaN active regions emitting in the ultraviolet (UV). The Rensselaer team has developed target specifications for some of the key parameters for the proposed solid-state lighting system, including a luminous flux requirement matrix for various lighting applications, optimal spectral power distributions, and the performance characteristics of currently available commercial LEDs for eventual comparisons to the devices developed in the scope of this project.

  6. HIGH-EFFICIENCY NITRIDE-BASED SOLID-STATE LIGHTING

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dr. Paul T. Fini; Prof. Shuji Nakamura

    2002-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this annual report we summarize the progress obtained in the first year with the support of DoE contract No.DE-FC26-01NT41203, entitled ''High-Efficiency Nitride-Based Solid-State Lighting''. The two teams, from the University of California at Santa Barbara (Principle Investigator: Dr. Shuji Nakamura) and Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (led by Dr. N. Narendran), are pursuing the goals of this contract from thin film growth, characterization, and packaging standpoints. The UCSB team has made significant progress in the development of GaN vertical cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) as well as light-emitting diodes (LEDs) with AlGaN active regions emitting in the ultraviolet (UV). The Rensselaer team has developed target specifications for some of the key parameters for the proposed solid-state lighting system, including a luminous flux requirement matrix for various lighting applications, optimal spectral power distributions, and the performance characteristics of currently available commercial LEDs for eventual comparisons to the devices developed in the scope of this project.

  7. Standardized Testing Program for Solid-State Hydrogen Storage Technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, Michael A. [Southwest Research Institute; Page, Richard A. [Southwest Research Institute

    2012-07-30T23:59:59.000Z

    In the US and abroad, major research and development initiatives toward establishing a hydrogen-based transportation infrastructure have been undertaken, encompassing key technological challenges in hydrogen production and delivery, fuel cells, and hydrogen storage. However, the principal obstacle to the implementation of a safe, low-pressure hydrogen fueling system for fuel-cell powered vehicles remains storage under conditions of near-ambient temperature and moderate pressure. The choices for viable hydrogen storage systems at the present time are limited to compressed gas storage tanks, cryogenic liquid hydrogen storage tanks, chemical hydrogen storage, and hydrogen absorbed or adsorbed in a solid-state material (a.k.a. solid-state storage). Solid-state hydrogen storage may offer overriding benefits in terms of storage capacity, kinetics and, most importantly, safety.The fervor among the research community to develop novel storage materials had, in many instances, the unfortunate consequence of making erroneous, if not wild, claims on the reported storage capacities achievable in such materials, to the extent that the potential viability of emerging materials was difficult to assess. This problem led to a widespread need to establish a capability to accurately and independently assess the storage behavior of a wide array of different classes of solid-state storage materials, employing qualified methods, thus allowing development efforts to focus on those materials that showed the most promise. However, standard guidelines, dedicated facilities, or certification programs specifically aimed at testing and assessing the performance, safety, and life cycle of these emergent materials had not been established. To address the stated need, the Testing Laboratory for Solid-State Hydrogen Storage Technologies was commissioned as a national-level focal point for evaluating new materials emerging from the designated Materials Centers of Excellence (MCoE) according to established and qualified standards. Working with industry, academia, and the U.S. government, SwRI set out to develop an accepted set of evaluation standards and analytical methodologies. Critical measurements of hydrogen sorption properties in the Laboratory have been based on three analytical capabilities: 1) a high-pressure Sievert-type volumetric analyzer, modified to improve low-temperature isothermal analyses of physisorption materials and permit in situ mass spectroscopic analysis of the sample’s gas space; 2) a static, high-pressure thermogravimetric analyzer employing an advanced magnetic suspension electro-balance, glove-box containment, and capillary interface for in situ mass spectroscopic analysis of the sample’s gas space; and 3) a Laser-induced Thermal Desorption Mass Spectrometer (LTDMS) system for high thermal-resolution desorption and mechanistic analyses. The Laboratory has played an important role in down-selecting materials and systems that have emerged from the MCoEs.

  8. Solid-state energy storage module employing integrated interconnect board

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rouillard, Jean; Comte, Christophe; Daigle, Dominik; Hagen, Ronald A.; Knudson, Orlin B.; Morin, Andre; Ranger, Michel; Ross, Guy; Rouillard, Roger; St-Germain, Philippe; Sudano, Anthony; Turgeon, Thomas A.

    2004-09-28T23:59:59.000Z

    An electrochemical energy storage device includes a number of solid-state thin-film electrochemical cells which are selectively interconnected in series or parallel through use of an integrated interconnect board. The interconnect board is typically disposed within a sealed housing which also houses the electrochemical cells, and includes a first contact and a second contact respectively coupled to first and second power terminals of the energy storage device. The interconnect board advantageously provides for selective series or parallel connectivity with the electrochemical cells, irrespective of electrochemical cell position within the housing. Fuses and various electrical and electro-mechanical devices, such as bypass, equalization, and communication devices for example, may also be mounted to the interconnect board and selectively connected to the electrochemical cells.

  9. Solid-state energy storage module employing integrated interconnect board

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rouillard, Jean; Comte, Christophe; Daigle, Dominik; Hagen, Ronald A.; Knudson, Orlin B.; Morin, Andre; Ranger, Michel; Ross, Guy; Rouillard, Roger; St-Germain, Philippe; Sudano, Anthony; Turgeon, Thomas A.

    2003-11-04T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention is directed to an improved electrochemical energy storage device. The electrochemical energy storage device includes a number of solid-state, thin-film electrochemical cells which are selectively interconnected in series or parallel through use of an integrated interconnect board. The interconnect board is typically disposed within a sealed housing which also houses the electrochemical cells, and includes a first contact and a second contact respectively coupled to first and second power terminals of the energy storage device. The interconnect board advantageously provides for selective series or parallel connectivity with the electrochemical cells, irrespective of electrochemical cell position within the housing. Fuses and various electrical and electromechanical devices, such as bypass, equalization, and communication devices for example, may also be mounted to the interconnect board and selectively connected to the electrochemical cells.

  10. Solid state voltammetry of an anthraquinone molten salt

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Williams, M.E.; Murray, R.W.

    1999-11-18T23:59:59.000Z

    The solid-state voltammetries of the two reduction steps of a novel redox polyether hybrid--an anthraquinone molten salt (triethyl(MePEG350)ammonium anthraquinone sulfonate, (Et{sub 3}NMePEG350{sup +})(AQSO{sub 3}{sup {minus}}))--and its disulfonated analogue, are reported. Multiple effects on charge transport rates are encountered. Currents for the first reduction wave are greater than 10-fold smaller. The relative charge transport rates of the two reductions are examined as a function of temperature and of incrementally replacing the AQSO{sub 3}{sup {minus}} anion in the melt with the electro-inactive BF{sub 4}{sup {minus}} anion. An analysis that includes ionic conductivity measurements shows that the apparent charge transport rate of the second anthraquinone reduction is attenuated primarily as a result of ionic migration of the products of comproportionation reactions occurring in the diffusion layer.

  11. A 50 kV solid state multipulse kicker modulator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Walstrom, P. L. (Peter L.); Cook, E. G. (Edward G.)

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Performance requirements, design concepts, and test results for a prototype multipulse kicker modulator based on solid-state switches and a voltage-adding transformer topology are described. Tape-wound cores are stacked to form the transformer primary windings and a cylindrical pipe that passes through the circular inner diameters of the cores serves as the secondary winding of the step-up transformer. Boards containing MOSFET switches, trigger circuitry, and energy-storage capacitors plug into the core housings. A 50 kV prototype modulator that meets most of the facility requirements has been designed, fabricated, and tested at LLNL. More recent work has been concerned with designing and testing cores and boards with the full volt-second capability needed for 24-pulse operation. Results of the 50 kV prototype tests, preliminary tests of the full-volt-second cores and boards, and future development needs are described.

  12. Clean Energy Manufacturing Initiative Solid-State Lighting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomas, Sunil; Edmond, John; Krames, Michael; Raman, Sudhakar

    2014-09-23T23:59:59.000Z

    The importance of U.S. manufacturing for clean energy technologies, such as solid-state lighting (SSL), is paramount to increasing competitiveness in a global marketplace. SSLs are poised to drive the lighting market, worldwide. In order to continue that competitiveness and support further innovation, the time to invest in U.S. manufacturing of clean energy technologies is now. Across the country, companies developing innovative clean energy technologies find competitive advantages to manufacturing in the U.S. The Department of Energy's Building Technology Office SSL Manufacturing Roadmap is just one example of how we support manufacturing through convening industry perspectives on opportunities to significantly reduce risk, improve quality, increase yields, and lower costs.

  13. High brightness diode-pumped organic solid-state laser

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhao, Zhuang; Nafa, Malik; Chénais, Sébastien; Forget, Sébastien

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    High-power, diffraction-limited organic solid-state laser operation has been achieved in a vertical external cavity surface-emitting organic laser (VECSOL), pumped by a low-cost compact blue laser diode. The diode-pumped VECSOLs were demonstrated with various dyes in a polymer matrix, leading to laser emissions from 540 nm to 660 nm. Optimization of both the pump pulse duration and output coupling leads to a pump slope efficiency of 11% for a DCM based VECSOLs. We report output pulse energy up to 280 nJ with 100 ns long pump pulses, leading to a peak power of 3.5 W in a circularly symmetric, diffraction-limited beam.

  14. Solid State Division progress report, September 30, 1981

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1982-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Progress made during the 19 months from March 1, 1980, through September 30, 1981, is reported in the following areas: theoretical solid state physics (surfaces, electronic and magnetic properties, particle-solid interactions, and laser annealing); surface and near-surface properties of solids (plasma materials interactions, ion-solid interactions, pulsed laser annealing, and semiconductor physics and photovoltaic conversion); defects in solids (radiation effects, fracture, and defects and impurities in insulating crystals); transport properties of solids (fast-ion conductors, superconductivity, and physical properties of insulating materials); neutron scattering (small-angle scattering, lattice dynamics, and magnetic properties); crystal growth and characterization (nuclear waste forms, ferroelectric mateirals, high-temperature materials, and special materials); and isotope research materials. Publications and papers are listed. (WHK)

  15. Clean Energy Manufacturing Initiative Solid-State Lighting

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Thomas, Sunil; Edmond, John; Krames, Michael; Raman, Sudhakar

    2014-12-03T23:59:59.000Z

    The importance of U.S. manufacturing for clean energy technologies, such as solid-state lighting (SSL), is paramount to increasing competitiveness in a global marketplace. SSLs are poised to drive the lighting market, worldwide. In order to continue that competitiveness and support further innovation, the time to invest in U.S. manufacturing of clean energy technologies is now. Across the country, companies developing innovative clean energy technologies find competitive advantages to manufacturing in the U.S. The Department of Energy's Building Technology Office SSL Manufacturing Roadmap is just one example of how we support manufacturing through convening industry perspectives on opportunities to significantly reduce risk, improve quality, increase yields, and lower costs.

  16. Extreme solid state refrigeration using nanostructured Bi-Te alloys.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lima Sharma, Ana L. (San Jose State University, San Jose, CA); Spataru, Dan Catalin; Medlin, Douglas L.; Sharma, Peter Anand; Morales, Alfredo Martin

    2009-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Materials are desperately needed for cryogenic solid state refrigeration. We have investigated nanostructured Bi-Te alloys for their potential use in Ettingshausen refrigeration to liquid nitrogen temperatures. These alloys form alternating layers of Bi{sub 2} and Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3} blocks in equilibrium. The composition Bi{sub 4}Te{sub 3} was identified as having the greatest potential for having a high Ettingshausen figure of merit. Both single crystal and polycrystalline forms of this material were synthesized. After evaluating the Ettingshausen figure of merit for a large, high quality polycrystal, we simulated the limits of practical refrigeration in this material from 200 to 77 K using a simple device model. The band structure was also computed and compared to experiments. We discuss the crystal growth, transport physics, and practical refrigeration potential of Bi-Te alloys.

  17. Solid-State Calculation of Crystalline Color Superconductivity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cao, Gaoqing; Zhuang, Pengfei

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    It is generally believed that the inhomogeneous Larkin-Ovchinnikov-Fulde-Ferrell (LOFF) phase appears in a color superconductor when the pairing between different quark flavors is under the circumstances of mismatched Fermi surfaces. However, the real crystal structure of the LOFF phase is still unclear because an exact treatment of 3D crystal structures is rather difficult. In this work we calculate the ground-state energy of the body-centered cubic (BCC) structure for two-flavor pairing by diagonalizing the Hamiltonian matrix in the Bloch space, in analogy to the \\emph{ab initio} calculations in solid-state physics. We develop a computational scheme to overcome the difficulties in diagonalizing huge matrices. Our results show that the BCC structure is energetically more favorable than the 1D modulation in a narrow window around the conventional LOFF-normal phase transition point, which indicates the significance of the higher-order terms in the Ginzburg-Landau approach.

  18. Solid State Energy Conversion Alliance 2nd Annual Workshop Proceedings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    National Energy Technology Laboratory

    2001-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) and the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) are pleased to provide the proceedings of the second annual Solid State Energy Conversion Alliance (SECA) Workshop held on March 29-30, 2001 in Arlington. The package includes the presentations made during the workshop, a list of participants, and the results of the breakout sessions. Those sessions covered stack materials and processes, power electronics, balance of plant and thermal integration, fuel processing technologies, and stack and system performance modeling. The breakout sessions have been reported as accurately as possible; however, due to the recording and transcription process errors may have occurred. If you note any significant omissions or wish to provide additional information, we welcome your comments and hope that all stakeholder groups will use the enclosed information in their planning endeavors.

  19. DOE Municipal Solid-State Street Lighting Consortium

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The DOE Municipal Solid-State Street Lighting Consortium shares technical information and experiences related to LED street and area lighting demonstrations and serves as an objective resource for evaluating new products on the market intended for those applications. Cities, power providers, and others who invest in street and area lighting are invited to join the Consortium and share their experiences. The goal is to build a repository of valuable field experience and data that will significantly accelerate the learning curve for buying and implementing high-quality, energy-efficient LED lighting. Consortium members are part of an international knowledge base and peer group, receive updates on Consortium tools and resources, receive the Consortium E-Newsletter, and help steer the work of the Consortium by participating on a committee. Learn more about the Consortium.

  20. Direct Solid-State Conversion of Recyclable Metals and Alloys

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kiran Manchiraju

    2012-03-27T23:59:59.000Z

    Friction Stir Extrusion (FSE) is a novel energy-efficient solid-state material synthesis and recycling technology capable of producing large quantity of bulk nano-engineered materials with tailored, mechanical, and physical properties. The novelty of FSE is that it utilizes the frictional heating and extensive plastic deformation inherent to the process to stir, consolidate, mechanically alloy, and convert the powders, chips, and other recyclable feedstock materials directly into useable product forms of highly engineered materials in a single step (see Figure 1). Fundamentally, FSE shares the same deformation and metallurgical bonding principles as in the revolutionary friction stir welding process. Being a solid-state process, FSE eliminates the energy intensive melting and solidification steps, which are necessary in the conventional metal synthesis processes. Therefore, FSE is highly energy-efficient, practically zero emissions, and economically competitive. It represents a potentially transformational and pervasive sustainable manufacturing technology for metal recycling and synthesis. The goal of this project was to develop the technological basis and demonstrate the commercial viability of FSE technology to produce the next generation highly functional electric cables for electricity delivery infrastructure (a multi-billion dollar market). Specific focus of this project was to (1) establish the process and material parameters to synthesize novel alloys such as nano-engineered materials with enhanced mechanical, physical, and/or functional properties through the unique mechanical alloying capability of FSE, (2) verifying the expected major energy, environmental, and economic benefits of FSE technology for both the early stage 'showcase' electric cable market and the anticipated pervasive future multi-market applications across several industry sectors and material systems for metal recycling and sustainable manufacturing.

  1. all-solid-state lithium secondary: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    10 Characterization of All Solid State Hydrogen Ion Selective Electrode Based on PVC-SR Hybrid Membranes CiteSeer Summary: Abstract: Hydrogen ion selective membranes...

  2. all-solid-state switchable mirror: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    8 Characterization of All Solid State Hydrogen Ion Selective Electrode Based on PVC-SR Hybrid Membranes CiteSeer Summary: Abstract: Hydrogen ion selective membranes...

  3. Apply: Solid-State Lighting Advanced Technology R&D - 2014(DE...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Through research and development of solid-state lighting (SSL),including both light-emitting diode (LED) and organic light emitting diode (OLED) technologies, the objectives of...

  4. High-average-power, diode-pumped solid state lasers for energy and industrial applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krupke, W.F.

    1994-03-02T23:59:59.000Z

    Progress at LLNL in the development high-average-power diode-pumped solid state lasers is summarized, including the development of enabling technologies.

  5. 2014 Solid-State Lighting R&D Workshop Presentations and Materials

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This page provides links to the presentations and materials from the 2014 Solid-State Lighting R&D Workshop, held January 28–30 in Tampa, Florida.

  6. 2013 Solid-State Lighting Manufacturing R&D Workshop Presentations and Materials

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This page provides links to the presentations and materials from the 2013 Solid-State Lighting Manufacturing R&D Workshop, held June 5–6 in Boston.

  7. Text-Alternative Version: Municipal Solid-State Street Lighting Consortium Retrofit Financial Analysis Tool Webcast

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Below is the text-alternative version of the "Municipal Solid-State Street Lighting Consortium Retrofit Financial Analysis Tool" webcast, held April 3, 2012.

  8. Text-Alternative Version: Municipal Solid-State Street Lighting Consortium Kickoff

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Below is the text-alternative version of the Municipal Solid-State Street Lighting Consortium Kickoff webcast, held May 6, 2010.

  9. Energy Savings Potential of Solid-State Lighting in General Illumination Applications- Factsheet

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A U.S. DOE SSL fact sheet on Energy Savings Potential of Solid-State Lighting in General Illumination Applications.

  10. Solid-state energy storage module employing integrated interconnect board

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rouillard, Jean (Saint-Luc, CA); Comte, Christophe (Montreal, CA); Daigle, Dominik (St-Hyacinthe, CA); Hagen, Ronald A. (Stillwater, MN); Knudson, Orlin B. (Vadnais Heights, MN); Morin, Andre (Longueuil, CA); Ranger, Michel (Lachine, CA); Ross, Guy (Beloeil, CA); Rouillard, Roger (Beloeil, CA); St-Germain, Philippe (Outremont, CA); Sudano, Anthony (Laval, CA); Turgeon, Thomas A. (Fridley, MN)

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention is directed to an improved electrochemical energy storage device. The electrochemical energy storage device includes a number of solid-state, thin-film electrochemical cells which are selectively interconnected in series or parallel through use of an integrated interconnect board. The interconnect board is typically disposed within a sealed housing which also houses the electrochemical cells, and includes a first contact and a second contact respectively coupled to first and second power terminals of the energy storage device. The interconnect board advantageously provides for selective series or parallel connectivity with the electrochemical cells, irrespective of electrochemical cell position within the housing. In one embodiment, a sheet of conductive material is processed by employing a known milling, stamping, or chemical etching technique to include a connection pattern which provides for flexible and selective interconnecting of individual electrochemical cells within the housing, which may be a hermetically sealed housing. Fuses and various electrical and electro-mechanical devices, such as bypass, equalization, and communication devices for example, may also be mounted to the interconnect board and selectively connected to the electrochemical cells.

  11. High Efficiency LED Lamp for Solid-State Lighting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    James Ibbetson

    2006-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This report contains a summary of technical achievements during a three-year project to demonstrate high efficiency, solid-state lamps based on gallium nitride/silicon carbide light-emitting diodes. Novel chip designs and fabrication processes are described for a new type of nitride light-emitting diode with the potential for very high efficiency. This work resulted in the demonstration of blue light-emitting diodes in the one watt class that achieved up to 495 mW of light output at 350 mA drive current, corresponding to quantum and wall plug efficiencies of 51% and 45%, respectively. When combined with a phosphor in Cree's 7090 XLamp package, these advanced blue-emitting devices resulted in white light-emitting diodes whose efficacy exceeded 85 lumens per watt. In addition, up to 1040 lumens at greater than 85 lumens per watt was achieved by combining multiple devices to make a compact white lamp module with high optical efficiency.

  12. Nitride and Oxynitride Based Phosphors for Solid State Lighting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tian, Yongchi

    2011-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of the project is to advance the technology of the Lightscape Materials Inc. (Lightscape) proprietary nitride and oxynitride phosphors for solid state lighting (SSL) from the current level of maturity of applied research to advanced engineering development. This objective will be accomplished by optimizing the novel nitride and oxynitride phosphors, whose formulations are listed in Table 1, and establishing cost-effective preparation processes for the phosphors. The target performances of the phosphors are: • High luminescence efficiency: Quantum Yield = 90%. • Superior thermal stability of luminescence: Thermal Quenching Loss <10% at 150 °C. • Superior environmental stability: Luminescence Maintenance >90% after 5,000 hours at 85 °C and 85% relative humidity. • Scattering loss <10%. • Cost-effective preparation processes. The resulting phosphor materials and their preparation processes are anticipated to be a drop-in component for product development paths undertaken by LED lamp makers in the SSL industry. Upon program completion, Lightscape will target market insertion that enables high efficacy, high color rendering index (CRI), high thermal stability and long lifetime LED-based lighting products for general illumination that realizes substantial energy savings.

  13. Solid-State Lighting: An Energy Economics Perspective

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tsao, Jeffrey Y.; Saunders, Harry D.; Creighton, J. Randall; Coltrin, Michael E.; Simmons, Jerry A.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Artificial light has long been a significant factor contributing to the quality and productivity of human life. As a consequence, we are willing to use huge amounts of energy to produce it. Solid-state lighting (SSL) is an emerging technology that promises performance features and efficiencies well beyond those of traditional artificial lighting, accompanied by potentially massive shifts in (a) the consumption of light, (b) the human productivity and energy use associated with that consumption and (c) the semiconductor chip area inventory and turnover required to support that consumption. In this paper, we provide estimates of the baseline magnitudes of these shifts using simple extrapolations of past behaviour into the future. For past behaviour, we use recent studies of historical and contemporary consumption patterns analysed within a simple energy-economics framework (a Cobb–Douglas production function and profit maximization). For extrapolations into the future, we use recent reviews of believed-achievable long-term performance targets for SSL. We also discuss ways in which the actual magnitudes could differ from the baseline magnitudes of these shifts. These include: changes in human societal demand for light; possible demand for features beyond lumens; and guidelines and regulations aimed at economizing on consumption of light and associated energy.

  14. Local solid-state modification of nanopore surface charges

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kox, Ronald; Chen, Chang; Arjmandi, Nima; Lagae, Liesbet; Borghs, Gustaaf; 10.1088/0957-4484/21/33/335703

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The last decade, nanopores have emerged as a new and interesting tool for the study of biological macromolecules like proteins and DNA. While biological pores, especially alpha-hemolysin, have been promising for the detection of DNA, their poor chemical stability limits their use. For this reason, researchers are trying to mimic their behaviour using more stable, solid-state nanopores. The most successful tools to fabricate such nanopores use high energy electron or ions beams to drill or reshape holes in very thin membranes. While the resolution of these methods can be very good, they require tools that are not commonly available and tend to damage and charge the nanopore surface. In this work, we show nanopores that have been fabricated using standard micromachning techniques together with EBID, and present a simple model that is used to estimate the surface charge. The results show that EBID with a silicon oxide precursor can be used to tune the nanopore surface and that the surface charge is stable over a...

  15. HIGH-EFFICIENCY NITRIDE-BASED SOLID-STATE LIGHTING

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paul T. Fini; Shuji Nakamura

    2003-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

    In this second annual report we summarize the progress in the second-year period of Department of Energy contract DE-FC26-01NT41203, entitled ''High- Efficiency Nitride-Based Solid-State Lighting''. The two teams, from the University of California at Santa Barbara (Principle Investigator: Dr. Shuji Nakamura) and Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (led by Dr. N. Narendran), are pursuing the goals of this contract from thin film growth, characterization, and packaging standpoints. The UCSB team has recently made significant progress in the development of light-emitting diodes (LEDs) with AlGaN active regions emitting in the ultraviolet (UV), resonant-cavity LEDs (RCLEDs), as well as lateral epitaxial overgrowth (LEO) techniques to obtain large-area non-polar GaN films with low average dislocation density. The Rensselaer team has benchmarked the performance of commercially available LED systems and has also conducted efforts to develop an optimized RCLED packaging scheme, including development of advanced epoxy encapsulant chemistries.

  16. Storage of hyperentanglement in a solid-state quantum memory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alexey Tiranov; Jonathan Lavoie; Alban Ferrier; Philippe Goldner; Varun B. Verma; Sae Woo Nam; Richard P. Mirin; Adriana E. Lita; Francesco Marsili; Harald Herrmann; Christine Silberhorn; Nicolas Gisin; Mikael Afzelius; Felix Bussieres

    2015-02-27T23:59:59.000Z

    Two photons can simultaneously share entanglement between several degrees of freedom such as polarization, energy-time, spatial mode and orbital angular momentum. This resource is known as hyperentanglement, and it has been shown to be an important tool for optical quantum information processing. Here we demonstrate the quantum storage and retrieval of photonic hyperentanglement in a solid-state quantum memory. A pair of photons entangled in polarization and energy-time is generated such that one photon is stored in the quantum memory, while the other photon has a telecommunication wavelength suitable for transmission in optical fibre. We measured violations of a Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt (CHSH) Bell inequality for each degree of freedom, independently of the other one, which proves the successful storage and retrieval of the two bits of entanglement shared by the photons. Our scheme is compatible with long-distance quantum communication in optical fibre, and is in particular suitable for linear-optical entanglement purification for quantum repeaters.

  17. Characterization of multiport solid state imagers at megahertz data rates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yates, G.J.; Pena, C.R.; Turko, B.T.

    1994-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Test results obtained from two recently developed multiport Charge-Coupled Devices (CCDs) operated at pixel rates in the 10-to-100 MHz range will be presented . The CCDs were evaluated in Los Alamos National Laboratory`s High Speed Solid State Imager Test Station (HSTS) which features PC-based programmable clock waveform generation (Tektronix DAS 9200) and synchronously clocked Digital Sampling Oscilloscopes (DSOs) (LeCroy 9424/9314 series) for CCD pixel data acquisition, analysis and storage. The HSTS also provided special designed optical pinhole array test patterns in the 5-to-50 micron diameter range for use with Xenon Strobe and pulsed laser light sources to simultaneously provide multiple single-pixel illumination patterns to study CCD point-spread-function (PSF) and pixel smear characteristics. The two CCDs tested, EEV model CCD-13 and EG&G Reticon model HSO512J, are both 512 {times} 512 pixel arrays with eight (8) and sixteen (16) video output ports respectively. Both devices are generically Frame Transfer CCDs (FT CCDs) designed for parallel bi-directional vertical readout to augment their multiport design for increased pixel rates over common single port serial readout architecture. Although both CCDs were tested similarly, differences in their designs precluded normalization or any direct comparisons of test results. Rate dependent parameters investigated include S/N, PSF, and MTF. The performance observed for the two imagers at various pixel rates from selected typical output ports is discussed.

  18. Multiport solid-state imager characterization at variable pixel rates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yates, G.J.; Albright, K.A. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Turko, B.T. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)

    1993-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The imaging performance of an 8-port Full Frame Transfer Charge Coupled Device (FFT CCD) as a function of several parameters including pixel clock rate is presented. The device, model CCD- 13, manufactured by English Electric Valve (EEV) is a 512 {times} 512 pixel array designed with four individual programmable bidirectional serial registers and eight output amplifiers permitting simultaneous readout of eight segments (128 horizontal {times} 256 vertical pixels) of the array. The imager was evaluated in Los Alamos National Laboratory`s High-Speed Solid-State Imager Test Station at true pixel rates as high as 50 MHz for effective imager pixel rates approaching 400 MHz from multiporting. Key response characteristics measured include absolute responsivity, Charge-Transfer-Efficiency (CTE), dynamic range, resolution, signal-to-noise ratio, and electronic and optical crosstalk among the eight video channels. Preliminary test results and data obtained from the CCD-13 will be presented and the versatility/capabilities of the test station will be reviewed.

  19. Solid State Nuclear Magnetic Resonance 29 (2006) 105117 Electron-nuclear cross polarization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Griffin, Robert G.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Solid State Nuclear Magnetic Resonance 29 (2006) 105­117 Electron-nuclear cross polarization V from an unpaired electron to neighboring nuclei via electron-nuclear cross polarization (e­Hahn cross polarization (CP) process introduced by Pines et al., that is widely used in solid-state nuclear

  20. GAS ANALYSIS SYSTEM COMPOSED OF A SOLID-STATE SENSOR ARRAY AND HYBRID NEURAL NETWORK

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Osowski, Stanislaw

    1 GAS ANALYSIS SYSTEM COMPOSED OF A SOLID-STATE SENSOR ARRAY AND HYBRID NEURAL NETWORK STRUCTURE of the solid state sensor array used for the gas analysis. The applied neural network is composed of two parts of the gas components. The obtained results have shown that the array of partially selective sensors

  1. Numerical methods for vector Stefan models of solid-state alloys

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vuik, Kees

    -called aluminium-based alloys. Subsequently, the obtained alloy is cast into a mould where it solidifies. DuringNumerical methods for vector Stefan models of solid-state alloys PROEFSCHRIFT ter verkrijging van for vector Stefan models of solid-state alloys. Dissertation at Delft University of Technology. Copyright c

  2. Electrolyte Stability Determines Scaling Limits for Solid-State 3D Li Ion Batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rubloff, Gary W.

    Electrolyte Stability Determines Scaling Limits for Solid-State 3D Li Ion Batteries Dmitry Ruzmetov, all-solid-state Li ion batteries (LIBs) with high specific capacity and small footprint are highly, into the nanometer regime, can lead to rapid self-discharge of the battery even when the electrolyte layer

  3. The development of a solid-state laser-based sensor for absorption detection of OH 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ray, Gustavo Jose?

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A solid-state laser-based sensor for the detection of the OH molecule is described and demonstrated. Novel technology is implemented to produce a compact and portable solid-state sensor for OH absorption measurement. An external cavity diode laser...

  4. Millisecond switching in solid state electrochromic polymer devices fabricated from ionic self-assembled multilayers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heflin, Randy

    Millisecond switching in solid state electrochromic polymer devices fabricated from ionic self The electrochromic switching times of solid state conducting polymer devices fabricated by the ionic self shown to decrease with the active area of the electrochromic device suggesting that even faster

  5. Methods for measuring work surface illuminance in adaptive solid state lighting networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Methods for measuring work surface illuminance in adaptive solid state lighting networks Byungkun, MA 02139, USA ABSTRACT The inherent control flexibility implied by solid-state lighting ­ united with the rich details offered by sensor networks ­ prompts us to rethink lighting control. In this research, we

  6. A novel solid-state self powered neutron detector Nicholas LiCausi*a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Danon, Yaron

    A novel solid-state self powered neutron detector Nicholas LiCausi*a , Justin Dingleyb , Yaron procedures. Keywords: Neutron detector, thermal neutrons, solid-state detector, DRIE, computer simulations 1 source and could be entirely self-powered. With no moving parts it would be robust and work in a variety

  7. Method and system for making integrated solid-state fire-sets and detonators

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    O`Brien, D.W.; Druce, R.L.; Johnson, G.W.; Vogtlin, G.E.; Barbee, T.W. Jr.; Lee, R.S.

    1998-03-24T23:59:59.000Z

    A slapper detonator comprises a solid-state high-voltage capacitor, a low-jitter dielectric breakdown switch and trigger circuitry, a detonator transmission line, an exploding foil bridge, and a flier material. All these components are fabricated in a single solid-state device using thin film deposition techniques. 13 figs.

  8. Solid State Division: Progress report for period ending September 30, 1987

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Green, P.H.; Watson, D.M. (eds.)

    1988-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper contains a collection of articles on research done at the Solid State Division of ORNL. General topics covered are: theoretical solid state physics; neutron scattering; physical properties of superconductors and ceramics; synthesis and characterization of solids; ion beam and laser processing; and surface and defect studies. (LSP)

  9. Method and system for making integrated solid-state fire-sets and detonators

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    O'Brien, Dennis W. (Livermore, CA); Druce, Robert L. (Union City, CA); Johnson, Gary W. (Livermore, CA); Vogtlin, George E. (Fremont, CA); Barbee, Jr., Troy W. (Palo Alto, CA); Lee, Ronald S. (Livermore, CA)

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A slapper detonator comprises a solid-state high-voltage capacitor, a low-jitter dielectric breakdown switch and trigger circuitry, a detonator transmission line, an exploding foil bridge, and a flier material. All these components are fabricated in a single solid-state device using thin film deposition techniques.

  10. JOURNAL OF MATERIALS SCIENCE 34 (1999) 637 644 Cell nucleation in solid-state polymeric foams

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kumar, Vipin

    JOURNAL OF MATERIALS SCIENCE 34 (1999) 637­ 644 Cell nucleation in solid-state polymeric foams-mail: holl@u.washington.edu The mechanism for nucleation phenomenon in solid-state microcellular foams. The nucleation phenomenon is thermally activated at the effective glass transition temperature of the gas

  11. Improving the Efficiency of Solid State Light Sources

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Joanna McKittrick

    2003-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This proposal addresses the national need to develop a high efficiency light source for general illumination applications. The goal is to perform research that would lead to the fabrication of a unique solid state, white-emitting light source. This source is based on an InGaN/GaN UV-emitting chip that activates a luminescent material (phosphor) to produce white light. White-light LEDs are commercially available which use UV from a GaN chip to excite a phosphor suspended in epoxy around the chip. Currently, these devices are relatively inefficient. This research will target one technical barrier that presently limits the efficiency of GaN based devices. Improvements in efficiencies will be achieved by improving the internal conversion efficiency of the LED die, by improving the coupling between the die and phosphor(s) to reduce losses at the surfaces, and by selecting phosphors to maximize the emissions from the LEDs in conversion to white light. The UCSD research team proposes for this project to develop new phosphors that have high quantum efficiencies that can be activated by the UV-blue (360-410 nm) light emitted by the GaN device. The main goal for the UCSD team was to develop new phosphor materials with a very specific property: phosphors that could be excited at long UV-wavelengths ({lambda}=350-410 nm). The photoluminescence of these new phosphors must be activated with photons emitted from GaN based dies. The GaN diodes can be designed to emit UV-light in the same range ({lambda}=350-410 nm). A second objective, which is also very important, is to search for alternate methods to fabricate these phosphors with special emphasis in saving energy and time and reduce pollution.

  12. Coordinating Garbage Collection for Arrays of Solid-state Drives

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, Youngjae [ORNL] [ORNL; Lee, Junghee [ORNL] [ORNL; Oral, H Sarp [ORNL] [ORNL; Dillow, David A [ORNL] [ORNL; Wang, Feiyi [ORNL] [ORNL; Shipman, Galen M [ORNL] [ORNL

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Although solid-state drives (SSDs) offer significant performance improvements over hard disk drives (HDDs) for a number of workloads, they can exhibit substantial variance in request latency and throughput as a result of garbage collection (GC). When GC conflicts with an I/O stream, the stream can make no forward progress until the GC cycle completes. GC cycles are scheduled by logic internal to the SSD based on several factors such as the pattern, frequency, and volume of write requests. When SSDs are used in a RAID with currently available technology, the lack of coordination of the SSD-local GC cycles amplifies this performance variance. We propose a global garbage collection (GGC) mechanism to improve response times and reduce performance variability for a RAID of SSDs. We include a high-level design of SSD-aware RAID controller and GGC-capable SSD devices and algorithms to coordinate the GGC cycles. We develop reactive and proactive GC coordination algorithms and evaluate their I/O performance and block erase counts for various workloads. Our simulations show that GC coordination by a reactive scheme improves average response time and reduces performance variability for a wide variety of enterprise workloads. For bursty, write-dominated workloads, response time was improved by 69% and performance variability was reduced by 71%. We show that a proactive GC coordination algorithm can further improve the I/O response times by up to 9% and the performance variability by up to 15%. We also observe that it could increase the lifetimes of SSDs with some workloads (e.g. Financial) by reducing the number of block erase counts by up to 79% relative to a reactive algorithm for write-dominant enterprise workloads.

  13. Arabidopsis thalianafrom Polarization Transfer Solid-State NMR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    White, Paul B [Ames Laboratory; Wang, Tuo [Ames Laboratory; Park, Yong Bum [Pennsylvania State University; Cosgrove, Daniel J [Pennsylvania State University; Hong, Mei [Ames Laboratory

    2014-07-23T23:59:59.000Z

    Polysaccharide-rich plant cell walls are hydrated under functional conditions, but the molecular interactions between water and polysaccharides in the wall have not been investigated. In this work, we employ polarization transfer solid-state NMR techniques to study the hydration of primary-wall polysaccharides of the model plant, Arabidopsis thaliana. By transferring water 1H polarization to polysaccharides through distance- and mobility-dependent 1H–1H dipolar couplings and detecting it through polysaccharide 13C signals, we obtain information about water proximity to cellulose, hemicellulose, and pectins as well as water mobility. Both intact and partially extracted cell wall samples are studied. Our results show that water–pectin polarization transfer is much faster than water–cellulose polarization transfer in all samples, but the extent of extraction has a profound impact on the water–polysaccharide spin diffusion. Removal of calcium ions and the consequent extraction of homogalacturonan (HG) significantly slowed down spin diffusion, while further extraction of matrix polysaccharides restored the spin diffusion rate. These trends are observed in cell walls with similar water content, thus they reflect inherent differences in the mobility and spatial distribution of water. Combined with quantitative analysis of the polysaccharide contents, our results indicate that calcium ions and HG gelation increase the amount of bound water, which facilitates spin diffusion, while calcium removal disrupts the gel and gives rise to highly dynamic water, which slows down spin diffusion. The recovery of spin diffusion rates after more extensive extraction is attributed to increased water-exposed surface areas of the polysaccharides. Water–pectin spin diffusion precedes water–cellulose spin diffusion, lending support to the single-network model of plant primary walls in which a substantial fraction of the cellulose surface is surrounded by pectins.

  14. GaN based nanorods for solid state lighting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li Shunfeng; Waag, Andreas [Institute of Semiconductor Technology, Braunschweig University of Technology, 38106 Braunschweig (Germany)

    2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In recent years, GaN nanorods are emerging as a very promising novel route toward devices for nano-optoelectronics and nano-photonics. In particular, core-shell light emitting devices are thought to be a breakthrough development in solid state lighting, nanorod based LEDs have many potential advantages as compared to their 2 D thin film counterparts. In this paper, we review the recent developments of GaN nanorod growth, characterization, and related device applications based on GaN nanorods. The initial work on GaN nanorod growth focused on catalyst-assisted and catalyst-free statistical growth. The growth condition and growth mechanisms were extensively investigated and discussed. Doping of GaN nanorods, especially p-doping, was found to significantly influence the morphology of GaN nanorods. The large surface of 3 D GaN nanorods induces new optical and electrical properties, which normally can be neglected in layered structures. Recently, more controlled selective area growth of GaN nanorods was realized using patterned substrates both by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) and by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE). Advanced structures, for example, photonic crystals and DBRs are meanwhile integrated in GaN nanorod structures. Based on the work of growth and characterization of GaN nanorods, GaN nanoLEDs were reported by several groups with different growth and processing methods. Core/shell nanoLED structures were also demonstrated, which could be potentially useful for future high efficient LED structures. In this paper, we will discuss recent developments in GaN nanorod technology, focusing on the potential advantages, but also discussing problems and open questions, which may impose obstacles during the future development of a GaN nanorod based LED technology.

  15. Solid-state semiconductors are better alternatives to arc-lamps for efficient and uniform illumination in minimal access surgery

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rosso, Lula

    of technical and ergonomic limitations. White light-emitting diodes (LEDs) are energy-efficient solid- state Illumination Á Light-emitting diode Á Minimal access surgery Á Solid-state semiconductor In the 1950s

  16. On-site demonstration procedure for solid-state fluorescent ballast

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Verderber, R.; Morse, O.

    1980-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The report was presented to plant engineers and managers who were involved in an on-site demonstration of EETech solid-state ballasts for two 40-watt T12 fluorescent lamps. The report includes a brief review of the operating principles of solid-state fluorescent ballasts and the status of development achieved during the LBL program. The remainder of the test describes the techniques of managing and instrumenting a test area for assessing the performance of solid-state fluorescent ballasts at an occupied site.

  17. Solid state oxygen anion and electron mediating membrane and catalytic membrane reactors containing them

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schwartz, Michael (Boulder, CO); White, James H. (Boulder, CO); Sammels, Anthony F. (Boulder, CO)

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This invention relates to gas-impermeable, solid state materials fabricated into membranes for use in catalytic membrane reactors. This invention particularly relates to solid state oxygen anion- and electron-mediating membranes for use in catalytic membrane reactors for promoting partial or full oxidation of different chemical species, for decomposition of oxygen-containing species, and for separation of oxygen from other gases. Solid state materials for use in the membranes of this invention include mixed metal oxide compounds having the brownmillerite crystal structure.

  18. Solid state oxygen anion and electron mediating membrane and catalytic membrane reactors containing them

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schwartz, Michael; White, James H.; Sammells, Anthony F.

    2005-09-27T23:59:59.000Z

    This invention relates to gas-impermeable, solid state materials fabricated into membranes for use in catalytic membrane reactors. This invention particularly relates to solid state oxygen anion- and electron-mediating membranes for use in catalytic membrane reactors for promoting partial or full oxidation of different chemical species, for decomposition of oxygen-containing species, and for separation of oxygen from other gases. Solid state materials for use in the membranes of this invention include mixed metal oxide compounds having the brownmillerite crystal structure.

  19. Fuel Cells and Solid State Chemistry Department Paper: www.risoe.dtu.dk/rispubl/art/2008_65.pdf

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Risř DTU Postprint Fuel Cells and Solid State Chemistry Department Year 2008 Paper: www neutron diffraction F. Brćstrup a, , B. C. Hauback b, K. K. Hansen a a Fuel Cells and Solid State.1016/j.jssc.2008.05.028 #12;Risř DTU Postprint Fuel Cells and Solid State Chemistry Department Year 2008

  20. Self-powered micro-structured solid state neutron detector with very low leakage current and high efficiency

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Danon, Yaron

    Self-powered micro-structured solid state neutron detector with very low leakage current and high, fabrication, and performance of solid-state neutron detector based on three-dimensional honeycomb-like silicon supply of 3 He gas.2 Solid state neutron detectors (SSND) can overcome many short- comings of gas tube

  1. Pore-Filling of Spiro-OMeTAD in Solid-State Dye Sensitized Solar Cells: Quantification, Mechanism, and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McGehee, Michael

    Pore-Filling of Spiro-OMeTAD in Solid-State Dye Sensitized Solar Cells: Quantification, Mechanism. Introduction Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs) are one of the most promising photovoltaic technologies. Liquid in solid- state dye-sensitized solar cells (ss-DSCs), which have solid-state holetransportmaterials (HTMs

  2. THE TWELFTH ANNUAL SOLID-STATE LIGHTING R&D WORKSHOP

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Nearly 300 researchers, manufacturers, and other industry insiders and observers gathered in San Francisco January 27–29, 2015, to participate in DOE's 12th annual Solid-State Lighting (SSL) R&...

  3. DOE Announces Selections from Solid-State Lighting Product Development Funding Opportunity Announcement

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), on behalf of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), is pleased to announce the selection of five (5) applications in response to the Solid-State...

  4. DOE Awards Seven Small Business Innovation Research Grants for Solid-State Lighting Technology

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has awarded seven Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) grants targeting advances in solid-state lighting (SSL) technology. The SBIR program seeks to...

  5. Commercialization of gallium nitride nanorod arrays on silicon for solid-state lighting

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wee, Qixun

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    One important component in energy usage is lighting, which is currently dominated by incandescent and fluorescent lamps. However, due to potentially higher efficiencies and thus higher energy savings, solid-state lighting ...

  6. Transformations in Lighting: The Eighth Annual Solid-State Lighting R&D Workshop

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    More than 350 researchers, manufacturers, and other industry insiders and observers gathered in San Diego February 1–3, 2011, to participate in DOE's "Transformations in Lighting" Solid-State Lighting (SSL) R&D Workshop.

  7. DOE Awards Two Small Business Innovation Research Phase II Grants for Solid-State Lighting Technology

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has awarded two Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) grants targeting advances in solid-state lighting (SSL) technology. The SBIR program seeks to increase...

  8. Integration of Solid-State Nanopores in Microfluidic Networks via Transfer Printing of Suspended Membranes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jain, Tarun

    Solid-state nanopores have emerged as versatile single-molecule sensors for applications including DNA sequencing, protein unfolding, micro-RNA detection, label-free detection of single nucleotide polymorphisms, and mapping ...

  9. Tunable quantum beam splitters for coherent manipulation of a solid-state tripartite qubit system

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sun, Guozhu; Wen, Xueda; Mao, Bo; Chen, Jian; Yu, Yang; Wu, Peiheng; Han, Siyuan

    2010-08-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Coherent control of quantum states is at the heart of implementing solid-state quantum processors and testing quantum mechanics at the macroscopic level. Despite significant progress made in recent years in controlling ...

  10. DOE Announces Selections for Solid-State Lighting Core Technology Research Call (Round 6)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), on behalf of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), is pleased to announce four selections in response to the Solid-State Lighting (SSL) Core...

  11. MidAmerican Energy (Electric)- Municipal Solid-State Lighting Grant Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    MidAmerican Energy offers grants to munipalities which implement solid-state roadway street lighting upgrades. Grants of up to $5,000 are available to participating entities who install eligible...

  12. Webcast: Municipal Solid-State Street Lighting Consortium Retrofit Financial Analysis Tool

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This April 3, 2012 webcast presented information about the Retrofit Financial Analysis Tool developed by DOE"s Municipal Solid-State Street Lighting Consortium. Doug Elliott of Pacific Northwest...

  13. Solid-State Lighting: Early Lessons Learned on the Way to Market

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This February 20, 2014 webinar presented information from a new DOE report, Solid-State Lighting: Early Lessons Learned on the Way to Market. The SSL market continues to evolve rapidly and LED...

  14. DOE Announces Selections from Solid-State Lighting Core Technologies Funding Opportunity Announcement and Laboratory Call

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), on behalf of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is pleased to announce the selection of sixteen (16) applications in response to the Solid-State...

  15. Methods for measuring work surface illuminance in adaptive solid state lighting networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Byungkun

    The inherent control flexibility implied by solid-state lighting - united with the rich details offered by sensor networks - prompts us to rethink lighting control. In this research, we propose several techniques for ...

  16. 2013 Solid-State Lighting R&D Workshop Presentations and Materials

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This page provides links to the presentations and materials from the 2013 Solid-State Lighting R&D Workshop, held January 29–31 in Long Beach, California.

  17. 2012 Solid-State Lighting Market Introduction Workshop Presentations and Materials

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This page provides links to the presentations and materials from the 2012 Solid-State Lighting Market Introduction Tutorials and Workshop, held July 17–19 in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.

  18. 2012 Solid-State Lighting Manufacturing R&D Workshop Presentations and Materials

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This page provides links to the presentations and materials from the 2012 Solid-State Lighting Manufacturing R&D Workshop, held June 13–14 in San Jose, California.

  19. 2013 Solid-State Lighting Market Introduction Workshop Presentations and Materials

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This page provides links to the presentations and materials from the 2013 Solid-State Lighting Market Introduction Workshop and Pre-Workshop LED Education, held November 12–14 in Portland, OR.

  20. Text-Alternative Version: Solid-State Lighting Early Lessons Learned Webinar

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Linda Sandahl: Welcome, ladies and gentlemen. I'm Linda Sandahl with the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, and I'd like to welcome you to today's webcast, Solid-State Lighting: Early Lessons...

  1. SOLID STATE ELECTRONICS ECE 103 M.S. COMPREHENSIVE EXAM SPRING 2013

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Deli

    SOLID STATE ELECTRONICS ­ ECE 103 M.S. COMPREHENSIVE EXAM SPRING 2013 1. Semiconductor fundamentals-type Si sample with one end heavily doped so that the carrier concentration is 10 times greater than

  2. Dynamic nuclear polarization in biomolecular solid state NMR : methods and applications in peptides and membrane proteins

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bajaj, Vikram Singh

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Solid state NMR can probe structure and dynamics on length scales from the atomic to the supramolecular. However, low sensitivity limits its application in macromolecules. NMR sensitivity can be improved by dynamic nuclear ...

  3. Vacuum space charge effect in laser-based solid-state photoemission spectroscopy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Graf, Jeff

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    G. et al. Development of a vacuum ultraviolet laser-basedB¨ hlow, M. & Kipp, L. Vacuum space-charge e?ects u inVacuum space charge e?ect in laser-based solid-state

  4. Solid State Division Progress Report for period ending March 31, 1986

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Green, P.H.; Watson, D.M. (eds.)

    1986-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report is divided into: theoretical solid-state physics, surface and near-surface properties of solids, defects in solids, transport properties of solids, neutron scattering, and synthesis and properties of novel materials. (DLC)

  5. Fluidic, Solid-State, and Hybrid Reconfiguration Techniques in a Frequency and Polarization Reconfigurable Antenna

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barrera, Joel Daniel

    2014-12-16T23:59:59.000Z

    antenna structure. The fluidic mechanisms use high strength dielectric fluids or liquid metal loaded across the gap discontinuities and the solid-state mechanisms uses readily available RF PIN and varactor diodes integrated across the gaps to enable...

  6. 2014 Solid-State Lighting Manufacturing R&D Workshop Presentations and Materials

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This page provides links to the presentations and materials from the 2014 Solid-State Lighting Manufacturing R&D Workshop, held May 7–8 in San Diego, California.

  7. Energy efficient control of polychromatic solid state lighting using a sensor network

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paradiso, Joseph A.

    Motivated by opportunities in smart lighting, energy efficiency, and ubiquitous sensing, we present the design of polychromatic solid-state lighting controlled using a sensor network. We developed both a spectrally tunable ...

  8. Structure and dynamics studies by solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Itin, Boris

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The major goal of this work is the development of high resolution solid state 205T1 NMR techniques and their application to the elucidation of the mechanism and dynamics of ion exchange in biological solids. The thesis ...

  9. Solid-State NMR Studies of HIV-1 Capsid Protein Assemblies. ...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    or conical structures. In this paper, we present a solid-state NMR analysis of the wild-type HIV-1 CA protein, prepared as conical and spherical assemblies that are stable and...

  10. Fluidic, Solid-State, and Hybrid Reconfiguration Techniques in a Frequency and Polarization Reconfigurable Antenna 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barrera, Joel Daniel

    2014-12-16T23:59:59.000Z

    antenna structure. The fluidic mechanisms use high strength dielectric fluids or liquid metal loaded across the gap discontinuities and the solid-state mechanisms uses readily available RF PIN and varactor diodes integrated across the gaps to enable...

  11. Solid-State NMR Spectroscopic Study of Phosphate Sorption Mechanisms on Aluminum (Hydr)oxides

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sparks, Donald L.

    Solid-State NMR Spectroscopic Study of Phosphate Sorption Mechanisms on Aluminum (Hydr)oxides Wei the mechanism of phosphate sorption on aluminum hydroxides under different environ- mental conditions, including

  12. Combined theoretical and experimental studies of proton migration and transfer in the solid state 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Silva Martins, David Manuel

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Hydrogen bonds are of great interest in the solid state due to their importance in structural, functional and dynamical properties of chemical systems. Moderate hydrogen bonds have been linked with proton transfer, whereas ...

  13. The Eighth Annual DOE Solid-State Lighting Market Introduction Workshop

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    More than 200 lighting leaders from across North America gathered in Portland, OR, November 12–14, 2013, for the eighth annual Solid-State Lighting (SSL) Market Introduction Workshop, hosted by DOE. The diverse audience spanned the spectrum: industry, government, efficiency organizations, utilities, municipalities, designers, specifiers, retailers, and distributors. The purpose was to share the latest insights, updates, and strategies for the successful market introduction of high-quality solid-state lighting products.

  14. A solid-state, harmonic restraint, differential relay for transformer protection

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lowther, Gary Roger

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A SOLID-STATE, HARMONIC RESTRAINT, DIF ERENTIAL RELAY &Y)R TRANSFORMER PROTECTION A Thesis by GARY ROGER I OWTHER Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas ALM University in oartial ulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER... of Department ) (~~Iember ) (1;ember ) (1 mber ) (Hember ) ABSTRACT A Solid-State, Harmonic Restraint, Differential Relay for Transformer Protection. (May 1982) Gary Roger Lowther, B. S. , College of Steubenville Chairman of Advisory Committee: Dr. B. Don...

  15. The Sixth Annual DOE Solid-State Lighting Market Introduction Workshop

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    More than 275 lighting leaders from across North America gathered in Seattle July 12–14, 2011, for the sixth annual Solid-State Lighting (SSL) Market Introduction Workshop, hosted by DOE. The diverse audience spanned the spectrum from industry, to government, to efficiency organizations, to utilities, to municipalities, to designers and specifiers, to retailers and distributors. The purpose was to share the latest insights, updates, and strategies for the successful market introduction of high-quality solid-state lighting products.

  16. High-Efficiency Nitride-Based Solid-State Lighting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paul T. Fini; Shuji Nakamura

    2005-07-30T23:59:59.000Z

    In this final technical progress report we summarize research accomplished during Department of Energy contract DE-FC26-01NT41203, entitled ''High-Efficiency Nitride-Based Solid-State Lighting''. Two teams, from the University of California at Santa Barbara (Principle Investigator: Dr. Shuji Nakamura) and the Lighting Research Center at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (led by Dr. N. Narendran), pursued the goals of this contract from thin film growth, characterization, and packaging/luminaire design standpoints. The UCSB team initially pursued the development of blue gallium nitride (GaN)-based vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers, as well as ultraviolet GaN-based light emitting diodes (LEDs). In Year 2, the emphasis shifted to resonant-cavity light emitting diodes, also known as micro-cavity LEDs when extremely thin device cavities are fabricated. These devices have very directional emission and higher light extraction efficiency than conventional LEDs. Via the optimization of thin-film growth and refinement of device processing, we decreased the total cavity thickness to less than 1 {micro}m, such that micro-cavity effects were clearly observed and a light extraction efficiency of over 10% was reached. We also began the development of photonic crystals for increased light extraction, in particular for so-called ''guided modes'' which would otherwise propagate laterally in the device and be re-absorbed. Finally, we pursued the growth of smooth, high-quality nonpolar a-plane and m-plane GaN films, as well as blue light emitting diodes on these novel films. Initial nonpolar LEDs showed the expected behavior of negligible peak wavelength shift with increasing drive current. M-plane LEDs in particular show promise, as unpackaged devices had unsaturated optical output power of {approx} 3 mW at 200 mA drive current. The LRC's tasks were aimed at developing the subcomponents necessary for packaging UCSB's light emitting diodes, and packaging them to produce a white light fixture. During the third and final year of the project, the LRC team investigated alternate packaging methods for the white LED device to achieve at least 25 percent more luminous efficacy than traditional white LEDs; conducted optical ray-tracing analyses and human factors studies to determine the best form factor for the white light source under development, in terms of high luminous efficacy and greater acceptance by subjects; and developed a new die encapsulant using silicone-epoxy resins that showed less yellowing and slower degradation. At the conclusion of this project, the LRC demonstrated a new packaging method, called scattered photon extraction (SPE), that produced an average luminous flux and corresponding average efficacy of 90.7 lm and 36.3 lm/W, respectively, compared with 56.5 lm and 22.6 lm/W for a similar commercial white LED package. At low currents, the SPE package emitted white light with an efficacy of over 80 lm/W and had chromaticity values very close to the blackbody locus. The SPE package showed an overall improvement of 61% for this particular comparison, exceeding the LRC's third-year goal of 25% improvement.

  17. Solid-state actinide acid phosphites from phosphorous acid melts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oh, George N. [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering and Earth Sciences, University of Notre Dame, 156 Fitzpatrick Hall, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States); Burns, Peter C., E-mail: pburns@nd.edu [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering and Earth Sciences, University of Notre Dame, 156 Fitzpatrick Hall, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States); Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States)

    2014-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The reaction of UO{sub 3} and H{sub 3}PO{sub 3} at 100 °C and subsequent reaction with dimethylformamide (DMF) produces crystals of the compound (NH{sub 2}(CH{sub 3}){sub 2})[UO{sub 2}(HPO{sub 2}OH)(HPO{sub 3})]. This compound crystallizes in space group P2{sub 1}/n and consists of layers of uranyl pentagonal bipyramids that share equatorial vertices with phosphite units, separated by dimethylammonium. In contrast, the reaction of phosphorous acid and actinide oxides at 210 °C produces a viscous syrup. Subsequent dilution in solvents and use of standard solution-state methods results in the crystallization of two polymorphs of the actinide acid phosphites An(HPO{sub 2}OH){sub 4} (An=U, Th) and of the mixed acid phosphite–phosphite U(HPO{sub 3})(HPO{sub 2}OH){sub 2}(H{sub 2}O)·2(H{sub 2}O). ?- and ?-An(HPO{sub 2}OH){sub 4} crystallize in space groups C2/c and P2{sub 1}/n, respectively, and comprise a three-dimensional network of An{sup 4+} cations in square antiprismatic coordination corner-sharing with protonated phosphite units, whereas U(HPO{sub 3})(HPO{sub 2}OH){sub 2}(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}·(H{sub 2}O) crystallizes in a layered structure in space group Pbca that is composed of An{sup 4+} cations in square antiprismatic coordination corner-sharing with protonated phosphites and water ligands. We discuss our findings in using solid inorganic reagents to produce a solution-workable precursor from which solid-state compounds can be crystallized. - Graphical abstract: Reaction of UO{sub 3} and H{sub 3}PO{sub 3} at 100 °C and subsequent reaction with DMF produces crystals of (NH{sub 2}(CH{sub 3}){sub 2})[UO{sub 2}(HPO{sub 2}OH)(HPO{sub 3})] with a layered structure. Reaction of phosphorous acid and actinide oxides at 210 °C produces a viscous syrup and further solution-state reactions result in the crystallization of the actinide acid phosphites An(HPO{sub 2}OH){sub 4} (An=U, Th), with a three-dimensional network structure, and the mixed acid phosphite–phosphite U(HPO{sub 3})(HPO{sub 2}OH){sub 2}(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}·(H{sub 2}O) with a layered structure. - Highlights: • U(VI), U(IV) and Th(IV) phosphites were synthesized by solution-state methods. • A new uranyl phosphite structure is based upon uranyl phosphite anionic sheets. • New U and Th phosphites have framework structures.

  18. Energy savings with solid-state ballasted high-pressure sodium lamps

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Verderber, R.R.; Morse, O.

    1981-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The performance of three types of solid-state ballasts used to operate high-pressure sodium lamps is discussed. Each type of solid-state ballast has been designed to operate an HPS lamp of a different wattage (150, 200, and 400 watts). The performance of these ballasts compared to standard core-coil ballasts operating the same HPS lamps shows that system efficiency improves as much as 17%. The solid-state ballasted HPS system also demonstrates excellent regulation with respect to input voltage and output power. These new ballasts can dim the HPS lamps and reduce flicker from more than 60% to less than 3%. Refitting street lighting with these new HPS systims provides an attractive return on initial capital investment.

  19. The Use of Large Transparent Ceramics in a High Powered, Diode Pumped Solid State Laser

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yamamoto, R; Bhachu, B; Cutter, K; Fochs, S; Letts, S; Parks, C; Rotter, M; Soules, T

    2007-09-24T23:59:59.000Z

    The advent of large transparent ceramics is one of the key enabling technological advances that have shown that the development of very high average power compact solid state lasers is achievable. Large ceramic neodymium doped yttrium aluminum garnet (Nd:YAG) amplifier slabs are used in Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's (LLNL) Solid State Heat Capacity Laser (SSHCL), which has achieved world record average output powers in excess of 67 kilowatts. We will describe the attributes of using large transparent ceramics, our present system architecture and corresponding performance; as well as describe our near term future plans.

  20. Solid-state NMR studies of the adsorption of acetylene on platinum/alumina catalysts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lambregts, Marsha Jo Lupher

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    SOLID-STATE NMR STUDIES OF THE ADSORPTION OF ACETYLENE ON PLATINUM/ALUMINA CATALYSTS A Thesis by MARSHA JO LUPHER LAMBREGTS Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements... for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1991 Major Subject: Chemistry SOLID-STATE NMR STUDIES OF THE ADSORPTION OF ACETYLENE ON PLATINUM/ALUMINA CATALYSTS A Thesis by MARSHA JO LUPHER LAMBREGTS Approved as to style and content by: ames F. Haw...

  1. Parasitic oscillation suppression in solid state lasers using absorbing thin films

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zapata, L.E.

    1994-08-02T23:59:59.000Z

    A thin absorbing film is bonded onto at least certain surfaces of a solid state laser gain medium. An absorbing metal-dielectric multilayer film is optimized for a broad range of incidence angles, and is resistant to the corrosive/erosive effects of a coolant such as water, used in the forced convection cooling of the film. Parasitic oscillations hamper the operation of solid state lasers by causing the decay of stored energy to amplified rays trapped within the gain medium by total and partial internal reflections off the gain medium facets. Zigzag lasers intended for high average power operation require the ASE absorber. 16 figs.

  2. Solid state RF power: The route to 1W per euro cent

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heid, Oliver [Siemens AG, Mozartstrasse 57, Erlangen (Germany)

    2013-04-19T23:59:59.000Z

    In most particle accelerators RF power is a decisive design constraint due to high costs and relative inflexibility of current electron beam based RF sources, i.e. Klystrons, Magnetrons, Tetrodes etc. At VHF/UHF frequencies the transition to solid state devices promises to fundamentally change the situation. Recent progress brings 1 Watt per Euro cent installed cost within reach. We present a Silicon Carbide semiconductor solution utilising the Solid State Direct Drive technology at unprecedented efficiency, power levels and power densities. The proposed solution allows retrofitting of existing RF accelerators and opens the route to novel particle accelerator concepts.

  3. Parasitic oscillation suppression in solid state lasers using absorbing thin films

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zapata, Luis E. (Livermore, CA)

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A thin absorbing film is bonded onto at least certain surfaces of a solid state laser gain medium. An absorbing metal-dielectric multilayer film is optimized for a broad range of incidence angles, and is resistant to the corrosive/erosive effects of a coolant such as water, used in the forced convection cooling of the film. Parasitic oscillations hamper the operation of solid state lasers by causing the decay of stored energy to amplified rays trapped within the gain medium by total and partial internal reflections off the gain medium facets. Zigzag lasers intended for high average power operation require the ASE absorber.

  4. The Ninth Annual DOE Solid-State Lighting Market Development Workshop

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Nearly 200 lighting leaders from across North America gathered in Detroit from November 12–13, 2014, for the ninth annual Solid-State Lighting (SSL) Market Development Workshop, hosted by DOE. The diverse audience spanned the spectrum of SSL stakeholders, representing industry, government, efficiency organizations, utilities, municipalities, designers, specifiers, retailers, and distributors. The workshop’s purpose was to create a forum for airing issues and questions regarding today’s solid-state lighting products, and identifying strategies that will speed market adoption.

  5. Tetraphosphine Linker Scaffolds with a Tetraphenyltin Core for Superior Immobilized Catalysts: A Solid-State NMR Study 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Perera, Melanie Ingrid

    2012-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

    TETRAPHOSPHINE LINKER SCAFFOLDS WITH A TETRAPHENYLTIN CORE FOR SUPERIOR IMMOBILIZED CATALYSTS: A SOLID-STATE NMR STUDY A Thesis by MELANIE INGRID PERERA Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University... Catalysts: A Solid-State NMR Study Copyright 2011 Melanie Ingrid Perera TETRAPHOSPHINE LINKER SCAFFOLDS WITH A TETRAPHENYLTIN CORE FOR SUPERIOR IMMOBILIZED CATALYSTS: A SOLID-STATE NMR STUDY A Thesis by MELANIE INGRID PERERA Submitted...

  6. Solid State Blending of Poly(ethylene terephthalate) with Polystyrene: Extent of PET Amorphization and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mitchell, Brian S.

    Solid State Blending of Poly(ethylene terephthalate) with Polystyrene: Extent of PET Amorphization.interscience.wiley.com). ABSTRACT: Polystyrene (PS) and poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) were blended to- gether in the solid. CMA PS/PET blend morphologies were characterized both qualitatively and quantitatively through

  7. DEVELOPMENT OF MULTIPLE SAMPLE SOLID-STATE NMR PROBES FOR ANALYSIS OF PHARMACEUTICAL COMPOUNDS AND FORMULATIONS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nelson, Benjamin Nels

    2011-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Solid-state NMR spectroscopy (ssNMR) is an extremely powerful technique for the analysis of pharmaceutical dosage forms. A major limitation of ssNMR is the number of samples that can be analyzed in a given period of time. ...

  8. Solid State Division progress report for period ending September 30, 1990

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Green, P.H.; Hinton, L.W. (eds.)

    1991-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report covers research progress in the Solid State Division from April 1, 1989, to September 30, 1990. During this period, division research programs were significantly enhanced by the restart of the High-Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) and by new initiatives in processing and characterization of materials.

  9. System efficiency analysis for high power solid state radio frequency transmitter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jain, Akhilesh, E-mail: ajain@rrcat.gov.in; Sharma, D. K.; Gupta, A. K.; Lad, M. R.; Hannurkar, P. R. [RF Systems Division, Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology, Indore 452013 (India)] [RF Systems Division, Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology, Indore 452013 (India); Pathak, S. K. [Electromagnetics and Microwave Engineering, Institute for Plasma Research, Gandhinagar 382 428 (India)] [Electromagnetics and Microwave Engineering, Institute for Plasma Research, Gandhinagar 382 428 (India)

    2014-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper examines some important relationships, related with the system efficiency, for very high power, radio frequency solid-state transmitter; incorporating multiple solid-state power amplifier modules, power combiners, dividers, couplers, and control/interlock hardware. In particular, the characterization of such transmitters, at the component as well as the system level, is discussed. The analysis for studying the influence of the amplitude and phase imbalance, on useful performance parameters like system efficiency and power distribution is performed. This analysis is based on a scattering parameter model. This model serves as a template for fine-tuning the results, with the help of a system level simulator. For experimental study, this approach is applied to a recently designed modular and scalable solid-state transmitter, operating at the centre frequency of 505.8?MHz and capable of delivering a continuous power of 75 kW. Such first time presented, system level study and experimental characterization for the real time operation will be useful for the high power solid-state amplifier designs, deployed in particle accelerators.

  10. Adsorption of Ruthenium and Iron Metallocenes on Silica: A Solid-State NMR Study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bluemel, Janet

    Adsorption of Ruthenium and Iron Metallocenes on Silica: A Solid- State NMR Study Kyle J. Cluff on silica surfaces by grinding the polycrystalline materials with silica. The adsorption process proceeds dry silica surface, wet and TMS- capped silica have been used as supports. The adsorption leads

  11. Solid State Research CenterDOE Fuel Cell Portable Power Workshop End User Perspective Industrial

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Usage :KU 19901980 :KU 2000 :KU 2010 :KU On Body Energy Solid State Research CenterDOE Fuel Cell · Notebook - ~20.0W ·High unit growth of Mobile phones driving energy demand ·Laptop computer power demands) Power(W) Energy & Power of Portable Devices Cellular Phone Laptop Computer Palm III Palm VII 2-way Radio

  12. A Hybrid Solid-State Storage Architecture for the Performance, Energy Consumption, and Lifetime Improvement

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Giles, C. Lee

    A Hybrid Solid-State Storage Architecture for the Performance, Energy Consumption, and Lifetime-place updating so that it significantly im- proves the usage efficiency of log pages by eliminating out- of results show that our proposed methods can substantially improve the perfor- mance, energy consumption

  13. Degradation of PEO in the Solid State: A Theoretical Kinetic Model Pascal de Sainte Claire*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Degradation of PEO in the Solid State: A Theoretical Kinetic Model Pascal de Sainte Claire of the inner mechanisms that play a key role in the natural oxidative degradation (photoinduced and thermal grasps the complexity of the degradation mechanism, results depend mainly on the reactivity of peroxy

  14. Solid-State Electrochromic Devices via Ionic Self-Assembled Multilayers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heflin, Randy

    Solid-State Electrochromic Devices via Ionic Self-Assembled Multilayers (ISAM) of a Polyviologena-Galva´n, Harry W. Gibson, James R. Heflin* Introduction Electrochromic (EC) devices undergo reversible absorbance/ transmittance change on application of external voltage.[1] Since the first major report on electrochromism

  15. Module Title: Solid state and ultrafast lasers Module Code: OPTO6002

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anderson, Jim

    and techniques Heat generation and thermal management Power scaling strategies (cladding-pumping, MOP calculations on the operating parameter and output parameters of a wide variety of solid state and ultrafast efficiency, output power, gain Laser modes and resonator design Pump sources, pump delivery and coupling

  16. SOLID STATE NMR STUDY SUPPORTING THE LITHIUM VACANCY DEFECT MODEL IN CONGRUENT LITHIUM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bluemel, Janet

    @ Pergamon SOLID STATE NMR STUDY SUPPORTING THE LITHIUM VACANCY DEFECT MODEL IN CONGRUENT LITHIUM performed on powdered and single crystal lithium niobate of defectivecongruent composition (48.4%LirO;51.6% NbrOr) using a magnetic field strength of 7.05 Tesla with the aim to distinguish between a lithium

  17. ECE 103 Solid State Electronics Master Exam 2012 Assume silicon, room temperature, complete ionization.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Deli

    ECE 103 Solid State Electronics Master Exam 2012 Assume silicon, room temperature, complete ionization. (q=1.6×10-19 C, ox=3.9×8.85×10-14 F/cm, si=11.7×8.85×10-14 F/cm, kT/q=0.0259 V, Eg=1.12 e

  18. Measurement of solid-state optical refrigeration by two-band differential luminescence thermometry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sheik-Bahae, Mansoor

    The University of New Mexico, 800 Yale Boulevard Northeast, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87131, USA 2 Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545, USA *Corresponding author: wendy5@unm.edu Received-end thermoelectric coolers [6] and underscores the potential of laser cooling as an emerging solid-state cryogenic

  19. Solid-State Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Measurements of HIV Fusion Peptide 13

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weliky, David

    Solid-State Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Measurements of HIV Fusion Peptide 13 CO to Lipid 31 P ABSTRACT: Fusion of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) membrane and the host cell membrane is an initial step of infection of the host cell. Fusion is catalyzed by gp41, which is an integral membrane

  20. Determination of Peptide Amide Configuration in a Model Amyloid Fibril by Solid-State NMR

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Griffin, Robert G.

    -42, with sequence LMVGGVVIA) forms a structured aggregate which is classified as an amyloid fibril based primarilyDetermination of Peptide Amide Configuration in a Model Amyloid Fibril by Solid-State NMR P. R these aggregates form. The primary constituent of the amyloid plaques characteristic of AD are a family of 39

  1. Solid State Division progress report for period ending March 31, 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Green, P.H.; Hinton, L.W. [eds.

    1992-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    During this period, the division conducted a broad, interdisciplinary materials research program with emphasis on theoretical solid state physics, superconductivity, neutron scattering, synthesis and characterization of materials, ion beam and laser processing, and the structure of solids and surfaces. The High Flux Isotope Reactor was returned to full operation.

  2. THE INSTITUTE FOR SOLID STATE PHYSICS 2013 Laser and Synchrotron Research Center

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Katsumoto, Shingo

    develops new lasers with extreme performance of ultra-precise, high intensity and ultra-short pulse lasers67 THE INSTITUTE FOR SOLID STATE PHYSICS 2013 Laser and Synchrotron Research Center LASOR X X LASOR D X E SPring-8 BL07 X Laser and Synchrotron Research (LASOR) Center

  3. Innovative Development of Next Generation and Energy Efficient Solid State Light Sources for General Illumination

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ian Ferguson

    2006-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This two year program resulted in a novel broadband spectrally dynamic solid state illumination source (BSDLED) that uses a dual wavelength light emitting diode (LED) and combinations of phosphors to create a broadband emission that is real-time controllable. Four major focuses of this work were as follows: (1) creation of a two terminal dual wavelength LED with control of the relative intensities of the two emission peaks, (2) bandgap modeling of the two terminal dual LED to explain operation based on the doping profile, (3) novel use of phosphor combinations with dual LEDs to create a broadband spectral power distribution that can be varied to mimic a blackbody radiator over a certain range and (4) investigation of novel doping schemes to create tunnel junctions or equivalent buried current spreading layers in the III-nitrides. Advances were achieved in each of these four areas which could lead to more efficient solid state light sources with greater functionality over existing devices. The two-terminal BSDLED is an important innovation for the solid-state lighting industry as a variable spectrum source. A three-terminal dual emitter was also investigated and appears to be the most viable approach for future spectrally dynamic solid state lighting sources. However, at this time reabsorption of emission between the two active regions limits the usefulness of this device for illumination applications.

  4. Study of Solid State Photon Detectors Read Out of Scintillator Tiles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. Calcaterra; R. de Sangro; G. Finocchiaro; E. Kuznetsova; P. Patteri; M. Piccolo

    2009-01-14T23:59:59.000Z

    We present preliminary results on efficiency and light collection uniformity read out performances of different assemblies of scintillator tiles, coupled with solid state photon detectors of different make. Our test beam data suggest that the use of 2 mm scintillator tiles without wavelength shifting fibers may be possible in an ILC hadron calorimeter.

  5. Solid-State NMR Study of Intercalated Species in Poly( -caprolactone)/Clay Nanocomposites

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Solid-State NMR Study of Intercalated Species in Poly( - caprolactone)/Clay Nanocomposites J of surfactant and polymer chains in intercalated poly( - caprolactone)/clay nanocomposites are characterized by 31 P magic-angle spinning (MAS) and 13 C cross-polarization MAS NMR techniques. To obtain hybrid

  6. Homogeneous, dual layer, solid state, thin film deposition for structural and/or electrochemical characteristics

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pitts, J. Roland; Lee, Se-Hee; Tracy, C. Edwin; Li, Wenming

    2014-04-08T23:59:59.000Z

    Solid state, thin film, electrochemical devices (10) and methods of making the same are disclosed. An exemplary device 10 includes at least one electrode (14) and an electrolyte (16) deposited on the electrode (14). The electrolyte (16) includes at least two homogenous layers of discrete physical properties. The two homogenous layers comprise a first dense layer (15) and a second porous layer (16).

  7. Fuel Cells and Solid State Chemistry Department August 2008 Ris National Laboratory for Sustainable Energy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fuel Cells and Solid State Chemistry Department August 2008 Risř National Laboratory 2008 2 Summary This project aimed at development and optimization of Danish SOFC stack technology and by optimization of the spacer components. Decoupling between end plates and the outermost interconnects has been

  8. Quantum interfaces between atomic and solid state systems Nikos Daniilidis and Hartmut Haffner

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haeffner, Hartmut

    such as superconducting Josephson-junction devices or nanomechanical oscillators. Such hybrid quantum systems could ease of applications, especially in electronics. With respect to exploiting quantum properties, superconducting devices to mechanical sys- tems. Superconducting devices are currently the most advanced solid-state platform

  9. Fuel Cells and Solid State Chemistry Department Paper: www.risoe.dk/rispubl/art/2007_316.pdf

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Risř DTU Postprint Fuel Cells and Solid State Chemistry Department 2007 Paper: www.risoe.dk/rispubl/art/2007_316.pdf Electrochemical Reduction of O2 and NO on Ni, Pt and Au K. Kammer Hansen Fuel Cells Electrochemical Reduction of O2 and NO on Ni, Pt and Au K. Kammer Hansen Fuel Cells and Solid State Chemistry

  10. Fuel Cells and Solid State Chemistry Department Paper: www.risoe.dk/rispubl/art/2007_343.pdf

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Risř DTU Postprint Fuel Cells and Solid State Chemistry Department 2007 Paper: www, Linda Nřrskov and Kent Kammer Hansen Fuel Cells and Solid State Chemistry Department, National of NO and O2 on La2-xSrxCuO4 Based Electrodes Vibe L.E. Simonsen, Linda Nřrskov and Kent Kammer Hansen Fuel

  11. Sixth International Conference on Solid State Lighting, edited by Ian T. Ferguson, Nadarajah Narendran, Tsunemasa Taguchi, Ian E. Ashdown,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weiss, Sharon

    commercial white light emitting diodes (LEDs) rely on complicated fabrication methods to produce white light: Cadmium Selenide, Nanocrystal, Photoluminescence, Phosphor, White Light, Light Emitting Diode, LED 1. INTRODUCTION 1.1 Solid state lighting Solid state lighting, in the form of white light emitting diodes (LEDs

  12. Solid-State NMR/NQR and First-Principles Study of Two Niobium Halide Cluster Compounds

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    1 Solid-State NMR/NQR and First-Principles Study of Two Niobium Halide Cluster Compounds Berislav : 10.1016/j.ssnmr.2014.02.001 #12;2 Abstract Two hexanuclear niobium halide cluster compounds solid-state NMR/NQR techniques and PAW/GIPAW calculations. For niobium sites the NMR parameters were

  13. This image presents a scanning electron microscopy image of solid state dye-sensitized solar cell with a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McGehee, Michael

    This image presents a scanning electron microscopy image of solid state dye-sensitized solar cell­57 Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs) have received wide-spread research attention due to their high power incorporated into solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells (ss-DSCs) by nanoimprint lithography. The reflectors

  14. Deposition of hole-transport materials in solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells by doctor-blading

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McGehee, Michael

    Deposition of hole-transport materials in solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells by doctor Accepted 19 April 2010 Available online xxxx Keywords: Dye-sensitized solar cells Organic semiconductors)-9,90 -spirobifluorene) in solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells. Doctor-blading is a roll

  15. Colloids and Surfaces A: Physicochem. Eng. Aspects 263 (2005) 336340 Phenomenology of bubble nucleation in the solid-state

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kumar, Vipin

    nucleation in the solid-state nitrogen­polystyrene microcellular foams Vipin Kumar Department of Mechanical that the classical theory may not be applicable to nucleation in thermoplastic polymers near the glass transition. © 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Keywords: Microcellular foams; Solid-state foams; Bubble

  16. Sustainability Internship Turtle Mountain LLC, the makers of the SO Delicious Dairy Free (SDDF) brand of products is looking for a Sustainability

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grünwald, Niklaus J.

    Sustainability Internship Turtle Mountain LLC, the makers of the SO Delicious Dairy Free (SDDF) brand of products is looking for a Sustainability the opportunity to gain hands-on experience and learn lessons on two sustainability focused

  17. High-Efficiency Solid State Cooling Technologies: Non-Equilibrium Asymmetic Thermoelectrics (NEAT) Devices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    BEETIT Project: Sheetak is developing a thermoelectric-based solid state cooling system to replace typical air conditioners that use vapor compression to cool air. With noisy mechanical components, vapor compression systems use a liquid refrigerant to circulate within the air conditioner, absorb heat, and pump the heat out into the external environment. With no noisy moving parts or polluting refrigerants, thermoelectric systems rely on an electrical current being passed through the junction of the two different conducting materials to change temperature. Using advanced semiconductor technology, Sheetak is improving solid state cooling systems by using proprietary thermoelectric materials along with other innovations to achieve significant energy efficiency. Sheetak’s new design displaces compressor-based technology; improves reliability; and decreases energy usage. Sheetak’s use of semiconductor manufacturing methods leads to less material use—facilitating cheaper production.

  18. Quantum Simulation of Helium Hydride in a Solid-State Spin Register

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ya Wang; Florian Dolde; Jacob Biamonte; Ryan Babbush; Ville Bergholm; Sen Yang; Ingmar Jakobi; Philipp Neumann; Alán Aspuru-Guzik; James D. Whitfield; Jörg Wrachtrup

    2014-05-12T23:59:59.000Z

    \\emph{Ab initio} computation of molecular properties is one of the most promising applications of quantum computing. While this problem is widely believed to be intractable for classical computers, efficient quantum algorithms exist which have the potential to vastly accelerate research throughput in fields ranging from material science to drug discovery. Using a solid-state quantum register realized in a nitrogen-vacancy (NV) defect in diamond, we compute the bond dissociation curve of the minimal basis helium hydride cation, HeH$^+$. Moreover, we report an energy uncertainty (given our model basis) of the order of $10^{-14}$ Hartree, which is ten orders of magnitude below desired chemical precision. As NV centers in diamond provide a robust and straightforward platform for quantum information processing, our work provides several important steps towards a fully scalable solid state implementation of a quantum chemistry simulator.

  19. High energy bursts from a solid state laser operated in the heat capacity limited regime

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Albrecht, G.; George, E.V.; Krupke, W.F.; Sooy, W.; Sutton, S.B.

    1996-06-11T23:59:59.000Z

    High energy bursts are produced from a solid state laser operated in a heat capacity limited regime. Instead of cooling the laser, the active medium is thermally well isolated. As a result, the active medium will heat up until it reaches some maximum acceptable temperature. The waste heat is stored in the active medium itself. Therefore, the amount of energy the laser can put out during operation is proportional to its mass, the heat capacity of the active medium, and the temperature difference over which it is being operated. The high energy burst capacity of a heat capacity operated solid state laser, together with the absence of a heavy, power consuming steady state cooling system for the active medium, will make a variety of applications possible. Alternately, cooling takes place during a separate sequence when the laser is not operating. Industrial applications include new material working processes. 5 figs.

  20. High energy bursts from a solid state laser operated in the heat capacity limited regime

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Albrecht, Georg (Livermore, CA); George, E. Victor (Livermore, CA); Krupke, William F. (Pleasanton, CA); Sooy, Walter (Pleasanton, CA); Sutton, Steven B. (Manteca, CA)

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    High energy bursts are produced from a solid state laser operated in a heat capacity limited regime. Instead of cooling the laser, the active medium is thermally well isolated. As a result, the active medium will heat up until it reaches some maximum acceptable temperature. The waste heat is stored in the active medium itself. Therefore, the amount of energy the laser can put out during operation is proportional to its mass, the heat capacity of the active medium, and the temperature difference over which it is being operated. The high energy burst capacity of a heat capacity operated solid state laser, together with the absence of a heavy, power consuming steady state cooling system for the active medium, will make a variety of applications possible. Alternately, cooling takes place during a separate sequence when the laser is not operating. Industrial applications include new material working processes.

  1. Solid state research. Quarterly technical report 1 February--30 April 1999

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shaver, D.C.

    1999-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report covers in detail the research work of the Solid State Division at Lincoln Laboratory for the period 1 February--30 April 1999. The topics covered are Quantum Electronics, Electro-optical Materials and Devices, Submicrometer Technology, Biosensor and Molecular Technologies, Microelectronics, Analog Device Technology, and Advanced Silicon Technology. Funding is provided by several DoD organizations--including the Air Force, Army, BMDO, DARPA, Navy, NSA, and OSD--and also by the DOE, NASA, and NIST.

  2. Industry Leaders, Research Experts Gather for Fourth Annual DOE Solid-State Lighting Workshop

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    More than 250 attendees gathered in Phoenix, Arizona, to participate in the 2007 DOE Solid-State Lighting (SSL) Program Planning Workshop on January 31-February 2, 2007. Lighting industry leaders, fixture manufacturers, researchers, academia, trade associations, lighting designers, energy efficiency organizations, and utilities joined DOE to share perspectives on the rapidly evolving SSL market. The workshop provided a forum for building partnerships and strategies to accelerate technology advances and guide market introduction of high efficiency, high-performance SSL products.

  3. Industry Leaders, Research Experts Gather for Second Annual DOE Solid-State Lighting Workshop

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Technology leaders from industry, research institutions, universities, and national laboratories gathered in San Diego, California, on February 3 and 4, 2005 to attend a workshop focused on advancing solid-state lighting (SSL) technology from the laboratory to the marketplace. Sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Building Technologies Office, the workshop provided an interactive forum for shaping and prioritizing DOE's SSL research and development activities.

  4. Development of A Self Biased High Efficiency Solid-State Neutron Detector for MPACT Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Danon, Yaron; Bhat, Ishwara; Jian-Qiang Lu, James

    2013-09-03T23:59:59.000Z

    Neutron detection is an important aspect of materials protection, accounting, and control for transmutation (MPACT). Currently He-3 filled thermal neutron detectors are utilized in many applications; these detectors require high-voltage bias for operation, which complicates the system when multiple detectors are used. In addition, due to recent increase in homeland security activity and the nuclear renaissance, there is a shortage of He-3, and these detectors become more expensive. Instead, cheap solid-state detectors that can be mass produced like any other computer chips will be developed. The new detector does not require a bias for operation, has low gamma sensitivity, and a fast response. The detection system is based on a honeycomb-like silicon device, which is filled with B-10 as the neutron converter; while a silicon p-n diode (i.e., solar cell type device) formed on the thin silicon wall of the honeycomb structure detects the energetic charged particles emitted from the B-10 conversion layer. Such a detector has ~40% calculated thermal neutron detection efficiency with an overall detector thickness of about 200 ?m. Stacking of these devices allows over 90% thermal neutron detection efficiency. The goal of the proposed research is to develop a high-efficiency, low-noise, self-powered solid-state neutron detector system based on the promising results of the existing research program. A prototype of this solid-state neutron detector system with sufficient detector size (up to 8-inch diam., but still portable and inexpensive) and integrated with interface electronics (e.g., preamplifier) will be designed, fabricated, and tested as a coincidence counter for MPACT applications. All fabrications proposed are based on silicon-compatible processing; thus, an extremely cheap detector system could be massively produced like any other silicon chips. Such detectors will revolutionize current neutron detection systems by providing a solid-state alternative to traditional gas-based neutron detectors.

  5. MEDIUM POWER 352 MHZ SOLID STATE PULSED RF AMPLIFIERS FOR THE CERN LINAC4 PROJECT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    MEDIUM POWER 352 MHZ SOLID STATE PULSED RF AMPLIFIERS FOR THE CERN LINAC4 PROJECT J. Broere, J in the CERN Linac4. The amplifiers are water-cooled and can provide up to 33 kW pulsed RF Power, 1.5 ms pulse RF Power for the debuncher cavity. The concept is based on 1.2 kW RF power modules using the latest 6

  6. Solid State Division progress report for period ending September 30, 1984

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Green, P.H.; Watson, D.M. (eds.)

    1985-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    During the reporting period, relatively minor changes have occurred in the research areas of interest to the Division. Nearly all the research of the Division can be classified broadly as mission-oriented basic research. Topics covered include: theoretical solid state physics; surface and near-surface properties of solids; defects in solids; transport properties of solids; neutron scattering; and preparation and characterization of research materials. (GHT)

  7. Solid State Division progress report for period ending March 31, 1997

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Green, P.H.; Hinton, L.W. [eds.

    1997-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report covers research progress in the Solid State Division from April 1, 1995, through March 31, 1997. During this period, the division conducted a broad, interdisciplinary materials research program in support of Department of Energy science and technology missions. The report includes brief summaries of research activities in condensed matter theory, neutron scattering, synthesis and characterization of materials, ion beam and laser processing, and the structure of solids and surfaces. An addendum includes listings of division publications and professional activities.

  8. Light-Emitting Diodes in the Solid-State Lighting Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sparavigna, Amelia Carolina

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Red and green light-emitting diodes (LEDs) had been produced for several decades before blue emitting diodes, suitable for lighting applications, were widely available. Today, we have the possibility of combining the three fundamental colours to have a bright white light. And therefore, a new form of lighting, the solid-state lighting, has now become a reality. Here we discuss LEDs and some of their applications in displays and lamps.

  9. Long-term measurements of unattached radon progeny concentrations using solid-state nuclear track detectors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yu, K.N.

    Long-term measurements of unattached radon progeny concentrations using solid-state nuclear track of radon progeny from a set of measured (f1, f2, f3) values, where fiÂĽCi/C0 (iÂĽ1, 2, 3), and C0, C1, C2 is mainly due to short-lived radon progeny, i.e., 218 Po, 214 Pb, 214 Bi and 214 Po, but not to the radon

  10. Solid state nuclear magnetic resonance methodology and applications to structure determination of peptides, proteins and amyloid fibrils

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jaroniec, Christopher P

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Several methodological developments and applications of multidimensional solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance to biomolecular structure determination are presented. Studies are performed in uniformly 3C, 15N isotope ...

  11. DOE Announces Selections for Solid-State Lighting Core Technology and Product Development Funding Opportunities (Round 3)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), on behalf of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), is pleased to announce eight selections in response to the Solid-State Lighting (SSL) Core...

  12. [superscript 2]H-DNP-enhanced [superscript 2]H-[superscript 13]C solid-state NMR correlation spectroscopy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maly, Thorsten

    Perdeuteration of biological macromolecules for magic angle spinning solid-state NMR spectroscopy can yield high-resolution [superscript 2]H–[superscript 13]C correlation spectra and the method is therefore of great interest ...

  13. Solid-State Lighting on a Shoestring Budget: The Economics of Off-Grid Lighting for Small Businesses in Kenya

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Radecsky, Kristen

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Report #3 Solid-State Lighting on a Shoestring Budget:The Economics of Off-Grid Lighting for Small Businesses inProject includes an Off-Grid Lighting Technology Assessment

  14. DOE Announces Selections for Solid-State Lighting Core Technology and Product Development Funding Opportunities (Round 4)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), on behalf of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), is pleased to announce 13 selections in response to the Solid-State Lighting (SSL) Core...

  15. Solid-State Lighting: Early Lessons Learned on the Way to Market

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sandahl, Linda J.; Cort, Katherine A.; Gordon, Kelly L.

    2013-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this report is to document early challenges and lessons learned in the solid-state lighting (SSL) market development as part of the DOE’s SSL Program efforts to continually evaluate market progress in this area. This report summarizes early actions taken by DOE and others to avoid potential problems anticipated based on lessons learned from the market introduction of compact fluorescent lamps and identifies issues, challenges, and new lessons that have been learned in the early stages of the SSL market introduction. This study identifies and characterizes12 key lessons that have been distilled from DOE SSL program results.

  16. Transformations in Lighting: The Sixth Annual Solid-State Lighting R&D Workshop

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    More than 400 SSL technology leaders from industry, research organizations, universities, national laboratories, manufacturing, energy efficiency organizations, utilities and municipalities gathered in San Francisco, CA to participate in the "Transformations in Lighting" Solid-State Lighting Workshop on February 3-5, 2009. The workshop, hosted by DOE, with sponsors BetaLED, Echelon, Pacific Gas & Electric, and Southern California Edison, was the sixth annual DOE meeting to accelerate SSL technology advances and guide market introduction of quality SSL products. The workshop brought together a diverse gathering of participants - from the R&D community to lighting designers and architects - to share insights, ideas, and updates on the rapidly evolving SSL market.

  17. Lochon Catalyzed D-D Fusion in Deuterated Palladium in the Solid State

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sinha, K P

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Lochons (local charged bosons or local electron pairs) can form on D+ to give D- (bosonic ions) in Palladium Deuteride in the solid state. Such entities will occur at special sites or in linear channel owing to strong electron-phonon interaction or due to potential inversion on metallic electrodes. These lochons can catalyze D- - D+ fusion as a consequence of internal conversion leading to the formation of He-4 plus production of energy (Q=23.8 MeV) which is carried by the alpha particle and the ejected electron-pair. The reaction rate for this fusion process is calculated.

  18. Lochon Catalyzed D-D Fusion in Deuterated Palladium in the Solid State

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    K. P. Sinha; A. Meulenberg

    2007-05-04T23:59:59.000Z

    Lochons (local charged bosons or local electron pairs) can form on D+ to give D- (bosonic ions) in Palladium Deuteride in the solid state. Such entities will occur at special sites or in linear channel owing to strong electron-phonon interaction or due to potential inversion on metallic electrodes. These lochons can catalyze D- - D+ fusion as a consequence of internal conversion leading to the formation of He-4 plus production of energy (Q=23.8 MeV) which is carried by the alpha particle and the ejected electron-pair. The reaction rate for this fusion process is calculated.

  19. Solid-State Division progress report for period ending March 31, 1983

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Green, P.H.; Watson, D.M. (eds.)

    1983-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Progress and activities are reported on: theoretical solid-state physics (surfaces; electronic, vibrational, and magnetic properties; particle-solid interactions; laser annealing), surface and near-surface properties of solids (surface, plasma-material interactions, ion implantation and ion-beam mixing, pulsed-laser and thermal processing), defects in solids (radiation effects, fracture, impurities and defects, semiconductor physics and photovoltaic conversion), transport properties of solids (fast-ion conductors, superconductivity, mass and charge transport in materials), neutron scattering (small-angle scattering, lattice dynamics, magnetic properties, structure and instrumentation), and preparation and characterization of research materials (growth and preparative methods, nuclear waste forms, special materials). (DLC)

  20. Readout of solid-state charge qubits using a single-electron pump

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    C. Hines; K. Jacobs; J. B. Wang

    2007-06-21T23:59:59.000Z

    A major difficulty in realizing a solid-state quantum computer is the reliable measurement of the states of the quantum registers. In this paper, we propose an efficient readout scheme making use of the resonant tunneling of a ballistic electron produced by a single electron pump. We treat the measurement interaction in detail by modeling the full spatial configuration, and show that for pumped electrons with suitably chosen energy the transmission coefficient is very sensitive to the qubit state. We further show that by using a short sequence of pumping events, coupled with a simple feedback control procedure, the qubit can be measured with high accuracy.

  1. The Use of a Solid State Analog Television Transmitter as a Superconducting Electron Gun Power Amplifier

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J.G. Kulpin, K.J. Kleman, R.A. Legg

    2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A solid state analog television transmitter designed for 200 MHz operation is being commissioned as a radio frequency power amplifier on the Wisconsin superconducting electron gun cavity. The amplifier consists of three separate radio frequency power combiner cabinets and one monitor and control cabinet. The transmitter employs rugged field effect transistors built into one kilowatt drawers that are individually hot swappable at maximum continuous power output. The total combined power of the transmitter system is 33 kW at 200 MHz, output through a standard coaxial transmission line. A low level radio frequency system is employed to digitally synthesize the 200 MHz signal and precisely control amplitude and phase.

  2. Quantum coherence in an all-solid-state dye-sentizied solar cell

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    C. Benedek

    2013-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The reported new type of all-solid-state, inorganic solar cell will be discussed by a semiclassical light-matter interaction method. The molecular compound will be treated by a three times two-level coupled quantum system. The equation of motion of the density matrix of this system will be analytical solved, in linear approximation and due to the coherent superposition of certain states, time-independent off-diagonal elements will be obtained. These elements represent an important components for the overal optical performane of this cell.

  3. Bistable Photon Emission from a Solid-State Single-Atom Laser

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Neill Lambert; Franco Nori; Christian Flindt

    2015-05-29T23:59:59.000Z

    We predict a dynamical bistability in the photon emission from a solid-state single-atom laser comprised of a microwave cavity coupled to a voltage-biased double quantum dot. The switching rates of the bistability can be extracted from the average electrical current and the shot noise in the quantum dots. Using large-deviation techniques we demonstrate that the full counting statistics of emitted photons is captured by the universal shape of a tilted ellipse whose form can be controlled by modulating the electronic transport in the quantum dots. Our prediction is robust against moderate electronic decoherence and dephasing due to phonons and may be tested using current technology.

  4. Robust control pulses design for electron shuttling in solid state devices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jun Zhang; Loren Greenman; Xiaotian Deng; K. Birgitta Whaley

    2012-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper we study robust pulse design for electron shuttling in solid state devices. This is crucial for many practical applications of coherent quantum mechanical systems. Our objective is to design control pulses that can transport an electron along a chain of donors, and also make this process robust to parameter uncertainties. We formulate it as a set of optimal control problems on the special unitary group SU(n), and derive explicit expressions for the gradients of the aggregate transfer fidelity. Numerical results for a donor chain of ionized phosphorus atoms in bulk silicon demonstrate the efficacy of our algorithm.

  5. Industry Leaders, Research Experts Gather for 2006 DOE Solid-State Lighting Workshop

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Solid-state lighting (SSL) technology leaders from industry, research institutions, universities, and national laboratories gathered in Orlando, Florida from February 1-3, 2006 to attend a workshop focused on advancing SSL technologies from the laboratory to the marketplace. The workshop was hosted by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (Building Technologies Office) and the Office of Science (Basic Energy Sciences Program). The 2006 workshop provided a forum for sharing updates on basic research underlying SSL technology, SSL core technology research, product development, commercialization support, and the ultimate goal of bringing energy-efficient, cost-competitive products to the market.

  6. Solid-state lighting : the III-V Epi Killer App.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tsao, Jeffrey Yeenien

    2010-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Throughout its history, lighting technology has made tremendous progress: the efficiency with which power is converted into usable light has increased 2.8 orders of magnitude over three centuries. This progress has, in turn, fueled large increases in the consumption of light and productivity of human society. In this talk, we review an emerging new technology, solid-state lighting: its frontier performance potential; the underlying advances in physics and materials that might enable this performance potential; the resulting energy consumption and human productivity benefits; and the impact on worldwide III-V epi manufacture.

  7. Maskelynite formation via solid-state transformation: Evidence of infrared and x-ray anisotropy

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Jaret, Steven J.; Ehm, Lars; Woerner, William R.; Phillips, Brian L.; Nekvasil, Hanna; Wright, Shawn P.; Glotch, Timothy D.

    2015-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We present optical microscopy, micro-Raman spectroscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, high-energy X-ray total scattering experiments, and micro-Fourier transform infrared (micro-FTIR) spectroscopy on shocked labradorite from the Lonar Crater, India. We show that maskelynite of shock class 2 is structurally more similar to fused glass than to crystalline plagioclase. However, there are slight but significant differences – preservation of original pre-impact igneous zoning, anisotropy at Infrared wavelengths, X-ray anisotropy, and preservation of some intermediate range order – which are all consistent with a solid-state transformation formation of maskelynite.

  8. Quantum coherence in an all-solid-state dye-sentizied solar cell

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Benedek, C

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The reported new type of all-solid-state, inorganic solar cell will be discussed by a semiclassical light-matter interaction method. The molecular compound will be treated by a three times two-level coupled quantum system. The equation of motion of the density matrix of this system will be analytical solved, in linear approximation and due to the coherent superposition of certain states, time-independent off-diagonal elements will be obtained. These elements represent an important components for the overal optical performane of this cell.

  9. The Progress of SBIR Supported R& D of Solid State Pulse Modulators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koontz, R

    2004-05-04T23:59:59.000Z

    The Small Business Innovative Research (SBIR) grant program funded by the US Department of Energy makes a number of awards each year for R&D in the field of accelerator technology including high power pulse modulators and their components. This paper outlines program requirements, and reviews some of the awards made in the last three years in support of high power modulator systems and solid state switching. A number of award recipients are presenting the results of their SBIR R&D at this workshop.

  10. NOVEL INTEGRATING SOLID STATE DETECTOR WITH SEGMENTATION FOR SCANNING TRANSMISSION SOFT X-RAY MICROSCOPY.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    FESER,M.; JACOBSEN,C.; REHAK,P.; DE GERONIMO,G.; HOLL,P.; STUDER,L.

    2001-07-29T23:59:59.000Z

    An integrating solid state detector with segmentation has been developed that addresses the needs in scanning transmission x-ray microscopy below 1 keV photon energy. The detector is not cooled and can be operated without an entrance window which leads to a total photon detection efficiency close to 100%. The chosen segmentation with 8 independent segments is matched to the geometry of the STXM to maximize image mode flexibility. In the bright field configuration for 1 ms integration time and 520 eV x-rays the rms noise is 8 photons per integration.

  11. Solid-State Lighting R&D Plan | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33Frequently AskedEnergyIssues DOE's Nuclear EnergySmartOverview - 2015 BTO PeerSolid-State

  12. Solid-State Lighting Overview - 2015 BTO Peer Review | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn'tOriginEducationVideo »UsageSecretary ofSmallConfidential,2CycleofAutomotiveMay 2015Solid-State

  13. Solid-State Lighting Patents Resulting from DOE-Funded Projects

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn'tOriginEducationVideo »UsageSecretary ofSmallConfidential,2CycleofAutomotiveMay 2015Solid-State

  14. Solid-State Lighting R&D Plan | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn'tOriginEducationVideo »UsageSecretary ofSmallConfidential,2CycleofAutomotiveMayJamesSolid-State

  15. Solid State Solar Cells Based On Tio2 Sensitized With Natural Pigment Extracted From the Anthurium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    G. R. A. Kumara

    Abstract: The purpose of this experiment was to create functional dye-sensitized solid state solar cells using natural pigments extracted from the blood red Anthurium as the electron donating species. Natural dye was extracted and adsorbed onto a nano-porous titania substrate. Platinum coated glass was used as the counter electrode. The cells were prepared using drop coating method to get a thickness around 10?m using 25 nm size TiO2 particles. Using the extracted natural dye we have been able to obtain high efficiencies with CuSCN over CuI hole conductor. The prepared cells show open circuit voltage (Voc) of 0.46 V and 0.43 of fill factor (FF) with an overall efficiency (?) of 0.34 % for CuSCN over the CuI hole conductor. Nevertheless short circuit current density (Jsc) was 2.37 mA cm-2 for CuI, it was 1.73 mA cm-2 for CuSCN. Key words: Dye Sensitized Solid State Solar Cells, Cyanidin, Anthurium, hole conductor. 1.

  16. Structure and properties of composites synthesized in situ using solid state displacement reactions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Henager, C.H. Jr.; Brimhall, J.L.

    1993-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Solid state displacement reactions can produce in situ intermetallic and ceramic matrix composites in a process where an intermetallic or ceramic phase(s) and a potential reinforcing phase(s) are grown together during a solid state reaction. Interpenetrating and dispersed microstructures, important for desirable composite properties, have been produced by means of displacement reaction processing techniques. Two such composites have been synthesized which exhibit two distinct microstructures: MoSi{sub 2} reinforced with SiC particles, which exhibits a dispersed-phase structure, and NiAl/Ni{sub 3}Al reinforced with Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, which exhibits an interpenetrating-phase structure. Strength in bending and chevron-notch fracture toughness have been determined as a function of temperature, and measured properties compare favorably with composites produced by other means. The measured properties are discussed with regard to the observed microstructures. The potential for displacement reaction processing is assessed, and it appears to be a cost-effective synthesis method compared to others.

  17. Improved performance of high average power semiconductor arrays for applications in diode pumped solid state lasers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beach, R.; Emanuel, M.; Benett, W.; Freitas, B.; Ciarlo, D.; Carlson, N.; Sutton, S.; Skidmore, J.; Solarz, R.

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The average power performance capability of semiconductor diode laser arrays has improved dramatically over the past several years. These performance improvements, combined with cost reductions pursued by LLNL and others in the fabrication and packaging of diode lasers, have continued to reduce the price per average watt of laser diode radiation. Presently, we are at the point where the manufacturers of commercial high average power solid state laser systems used in material processing applications can now seriously consider the replacement of their flashlamp pumps with laser diode pump sources. Additionally, a low cost technique developed and demonstrated at LLNL for optically conditioning the output radiation of diode laser arrays has enabled a new and scalable average power diode-end-pumping architecture that can be simply implemented in diode pumped solid state laser systems (DPSSL`s). This development allows the high average power DPSSL designer to look beyond the Nd ion for the first time. Along with high average power DPSSL`s which are appropriate for material processing applications, low and intermediate average power DPSSL`s are now realizable at low enough costs to be attractive for use in many medical, electronic, and lithographic applications.

  18. Characterization of proton exchange membrane materials for fuel cells by solid state nuclear magnetic resonance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kong, Zueqian

    2010-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) has been used to explore the nanometer-scale structure of Nafion, the widely used fuel cell membrane, and its composites. We have shown that solid-state NMR can characterize chemical structure and composition, domain size and morphology, internuclear distances, molecular dynamics, etc. The newly-developed water channel model of Nafion has been confirmed, and important characteristic length-scales established. Nafion-based organic and inorganic composites with special properties have also been characterized and their structures elucidated. The morphology of Nafion varies with hydration level, and is reflected in the changes in surface-to-volume (S/V) ratio of the polymer obtained by small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS). The S/V ratios of different Nafion models have been evaluated numerically. It has been found that only the water channel model gives the measured S/V ratios in the normal hydration range of a working fuel cell, while dispersed water molecules and polymer ribbons account for the structures at low and high hydration levels, respectively.

  19. Multi-Faceted Scientific Strategies Toward Better Solid-State Lighting of Phosphorescent OLEDs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mohammad Omary; Bruce Gnade; Qi Wang; Oussama Elbjeirami; Chi Yang; Nigel Shepherd; Huiping Jia; Manuel Quevedo; Husam Alshareef; Minghang Li; Ming-Te Lin; Wei-Hsuan Chen; Iain Oswald; Pankaj Sinha; Ravi Arvapally; Usha Kaipa; John Determan; Sreekar Marpu; Roy McDougald; Gustavo Garza; Jason Halbert; Unnat Bhansali; Michael Perez

    2010-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This project has advanced solid-state lighting (SSL) by utilizing new phosphorescent systems for use in organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs). The technical approach was two-fold: a) Targeted synthesis and screening of emitters designed to exhibit phosphorescence with maximized brightness in the solid state; and b) Construction and optimizing the performance of monochromatic and white OLEDs from the best new emitters to improve performance metrics versus the state of the art. The phosphorescent systems were screened candidates among a large variety of recentlysynthesized and newly-designed molecular and macromolecular metal-organic phosphors. The emitters and devices have been optimized to maximize light emission and color metrics, improve the long-term durability of emitters and devices, and reduce the manufacturing cost both by simplifying the process flow and by seeking less expensive device components than common ones. The project succeeded in all these goals upon comparison of the best materials and devices investigated vs. the state of the art of the technology.

  20. The tetrafluoroaluminate anion -- a new species for the synthesis of new, solid-state, fluoroaluminate materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Herron, N.; Thorn, D.L.; Harlow, R.L.; Davidson, F.; Parise, J.B. [The Du Pont Company, Wilmington, DE (United States)

    1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    All previous solid-state structures of fluoroaluminate species have as their basic building-block the octahedral AlF{sub 6} unit - either as a discreet trianion or fused via corner-sharing. The long suspected, but controversial and elusive, tetrafluoroaluminate ion has now been produced via anhyrdous organoaluminum chemistry, crystallized as a series of organic cations salts and proven to have the anticipated tetrahedral geometry. The authors have obtained three x-ray structures cataloging the structural properties of this ion and revealing much about its chemical nature. The salts themselves can be extremely soluble in organic media where nmr techniques confirm the tetrahedral natural of the ion. Fusion of such ions into more complex solid-state structures proceeds to reveal octahedral AlF{sub 6} units having a novel edge-sharing, and then the more typical corner-sharing, motif. Upon thermolysis, certain of the protic tetrafluoroaluminate salts lead to a new solid acid HAlF/4 and eventually to new crystalline structural phases of AlF{sub 3} at temperature below 250{degrees}C.

  1. Solid State Division progress report for period ending September 30, 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Green, P.H.; Hinton, L.W. [eds.

    1994-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report covers research progress in the Solid State Division from April 1, 1992, to September 30, 1993. During this period, the division conducted a broad, interdisciplinary materials research program with emphasis on theoretical solid state physics, neutron scattering, synthesis and characterization of materials, ion beam and laser processing, and the structure of solids and surfaces. This research effort was enhanced by new capabilities in atomic-scale materials characterization, new emphasis on the synthesis and processing of materials, and increased partnering with industry and universities. The theoretical effort included a broad range of analytical studies, as well as a new emphasis on numerical simulation stimulated by advances in high-performance computing and by strong interest in related division experimental programs. Superconductivity research continued to advance on a broad front from fundamental mechanisms of high-temperature superconductivity to the development of new materials and processing techniques. The Neutron Scattering Program was characterized by a strong scientific user program and growing diversity represented by new initiatives in complex fluids and residual stress. The national emphasis on materials synthesis and processing was mirrored in division research programs in thin-film processing, surface modification, and crystal growth. Research on advanced processing techniques such as laser ablation, ion implantation, and plasma processing was complemented by strong programs in the characterization of materials and surfaces including ultrahigh resolution scanning transmission electron microscopy, atomic-resolution chemical analysis, synchrotron x-ray research, and scanning tunneling microscopy.

  2. Scalable Architecture for a Room Temperature Solid-State Quantum Information Processor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Norman Y. Yao; Liang Jiang; Alexey V. Gorshkov; Peter C. Maurer; Geza Giedke; J. Ignacio Cirac; Mikhail D. Lukin

    2010-12-13T23:59:59.000Z

    The realization of a scalable quantum information processor has emerged over the past decade as one of the central challenges at the interface of fundamental science and engineering. Much progress has been made towards this goal. Indeed, quantum operations have been demonstrated on several trapped ion qubits, and other solid-state systems are approaching similar levels of control. Extending these techniques to achieve fault-tolerant operations in larger systems with more qubits remains an extremely challenging goal, in part, due to the substantial technical complexity of current implementations. Here, we propose and analyze an architecture for a scalable, solid-state quantum information processor capable of operating at or near room temperature. The architecture is applicable to realistic conditions, which include disorder and relevant decoherence mechanisms, and includes a hierarchy of control at successive length scales. Our approach is based upon recent experimental advances involving Nitrogen-Vacancy color centers in diamond and will provide fundamental insights into the physics of non-equilibrium many-body quantum systems. Additionally, the proposed architecture may greatly alleviate the stringent constraints, currently limiting the realization of scalable quantum processors.

  3. Quantification of the solid-state charge mobility in a model radical polymer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baradwaj, Aditya G.; Rostro, Lizbeth; Boudouris, Bryan W., E-mail: boudouris@purdue.edu [School of Chemical Engineering, Purdue University, 480 Stadium Mall Drive, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 (United States); Alam, Muhammad A. [School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Purdue University, 475 Northwestern Avenue, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 (United States)

    2014-05-26T23:59:59.000Z

    We establish that an oft-used radical polymer, poly(2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidinyloxy methacrylate) (PTMA), has a solid-state hole mobility value on the order of 10{sup ?4} cm{sup 2} V{sup ?1} s{sup ?1} in a space charge-limited device geometry. Despite being completely amorphous and lacking any ?-conjugation, these results demonstrate that the hole mobility of PTMA is comparable to many well-studied conjugated polymers [e.g., poly(3-hexylthiophene)]. Furthermore, we show that the space charge-limited charge carrier mobility of these macromolecules is only a weak function of temperature, in contrast to many thermally-activated models of charge transport in polymeric materials. This key result demonstrates that the charge transport in radical polymers is inherently different than that in semicrystalline, conjugated polymers. These results establish the mechanism of solid-state charge transport in radical polymers and provide macromolecular design principles for this emerging class of organic electronic materials.

  4. Development of solid-state induction modulators for high PRF accelerators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kirbie, H.; Hawkins, S.; Hickman, B. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., Livermore, CA (United States)] [and others

    1995-07-05T23:59:59.000Z

    Researchers at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and EG&G Energy Measurements are developing a new solid-state power system for two proposed accelerators. One of the accelerators is a circular arrangement of induction cells called a recirculator. It is designed to accelerate heavy ions for an inertial fusion study that proposes to substitute heavy-ion beams for laser beams as the driver for fusion targets. The other accelerator is a linear induction accelerator for electron beams called the Advanced Radiographic Machine (ARM). Both accelerators require their induction cells to be pulsed at a very high repetition frequency (prf) for a short burst containing 5 to 15 pulses. The recirculator has a pulse schedule that varies in pulse width from 1 {mu}s to 400 ns and in prf from 50 to 150 kHz. The ARM accelerator has a pulse schedule that varies in pulse width from 1 {mu}s to 200 ns and in prf from 150 kHz to 1 MHz. The need for complex pulse agility in these accelerators led the authors to examine solid-state switching components that have an on/off capability. The intrinsic speed of solid-state switching satisfies the high prf requirements, while the on/off switching action of some semiconductor devices enables the authors to select an arbitrary pulse width. To accommodate these requirements, they selected field effect transistors (FETs) as the preferred switching elements. The same FET switching technology applies to both accelerators due to their similar pulse requirements. However, these two accelerators differ greatly in peak power and prf range. For example, the power system for the ARM accelerator must supply over 3 kA of beam-current loading to a 150-kV induction cell. For the authors research, two full-scale prototypes were built - a 5-kV induction recirculator cell and a single 15-kV induction modulator for the ARM accelerator. The authors discuss the general network features that are common to both machines, followed by performance and modeling data.

  5. Phase-locked indistinguishable photons with synthesized waveforms from a solid-state source

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Clemens Matthiesen; Martin Geller; Carsten H. H. Schulte; Claire Le Gall; Jack Hansom; Zhengyong Li; Maxime Hugues; Edmund Clarke; Mete Atatüre

    2013-03-27T23:59:59.000Z

    Resonance fluorescence in the Heitler regime provides access to single photons with coherence well beyond the Fourier transform limit of the transition, and holds the promise to circumvent environment-induced dephasing common to all solid-state systems. Here we demonstrate that the coherently generated single photons from a single self-assembled InAs quantum dot display mutual coherence with the excitation laser on a timescale exceeding 3 seconds. Exploiting this degree of mutual coherence we synthesize near-arbitrary coherent photon waveforms by shaping the excitation laser field. In contrast to post-emission filtering, our technique avoids both photon loss and degradation of the single photon nature for all synthesized waveforms. By engineering pulsed waveforms of single photons, we further demonstrate that separate photons generated coherently by the same laser field are fundamentally indistinguishable, lending themselves to creation of distant entanglement through quantum interference.

  6. Novel solid state proton-conductors based on polymeric non-oxy acids. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Appleby, A.J.; Srinivasan, S.; Parthasarathy, A.; Gonzalez, E.R. [Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (United States). Center for Electrochemical Systems and Hydrogen Research; DesMarteau, D.; Gillette, M.S.; Ghosh, J.K. [Clemson Univ., SC (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Jalan, V.; Desai, M. [ElectroChem, Inc., Woburn, MA (United States)

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Objectives of this project were to prepare and characterize novel solid state proton-conductors and to evaluate these compounds as fuel cell electrolytes. The thrust was on the synthesis of new proton-conducting ``model`` and ``polymeric`` compounds, based on acid functions of the type (R{sub f}SO{sub 2}){sub 2}NH and (R{sub f}SO{sub 2}){sub 2}CH{sub 2} in appropriate fluorinated carbon structures, their physics-chemical characterization (Infra-red, Nuclear Magnetic Resonance, Differential Scanning Calorimetry, and X-ray Diffraction), and is pro. evaluation as candidate fuel cell electrolytes for use at elevated temperatures. This project consisted of four tasks (i) Synthesis of Proton-Conducting Polymer Electrolytes; (ii) Physical and Chemical Characterization of Proton-Conducting Polymer Electrolytes; (iii) Electrochemical Characterization of Proton-Conducting Polymer Electrolytes; and (iv) Evaluation of Proton-Conducting Polymer Electrolytes for Fuel Cells.

  7. The Fourth Annual DOE Solid-State Lighting Manufacturing R&D Workshop

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Two hundred lighting industry leaders from across the country, representing every link in the supply chain—from chip makers, to luminaire manufacturers, to material and equipment suppliers, to packagers, to luminaire testers, to the makers of testing equipment—gathered in San Jose, CA, June 13–14, 2012, to share insights, ideas, and updates at the fourth annual Solid-State Lighting (SSL) Manufacturing R&D Workshop, hosted by DOE. The workshop is a key component of an initiative launched by DOE in 2009 to enhance the quality and lower the cost of SSL products through improvements in manufacturing equipment and processes, and to foster a significant manufacturing role in the U.S. This year in San Jose, attendees explored a wide range of related topics and focused on reexamining and updating the DOE Manufacturing R&D Roadmap.

  8. The Third Annual DOE Solid-State Lighting Manufacturing R&D Workshop

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    More than 250 lighting industry leaders from across the country, representing every link in the supply chain—from chip makers, to luminaire manufacturers, to material and equipment suppliers, to packagers, to luminaire testers, to the makers of testing equipment—gathered in Boston April 12–13, 2011, to share insights, ideas, and updates at the third annual Solid-State Lighting (SSL) Manufacturing R&D Workshop, hosted by DOE. The workshop is a key component of an initiative launched by DOE in 2009 to enhance the quality and lower the cost of SSL products through improvements in manufacturing equipment and processes and to foster a significant manufacturing role in the U.S. This year in Boston, attendees explored a wide range of related topics and focused on reexamining and updating the DOE Manufacturing R&D Roadmap.

  9. The Second Annual DOE Solid-State Lighting Manufacturing R&D Workshop

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    More than 250 industry leaders from all corners of the supply chain – including chip makers, luminaire manufacturers, material and equipment suppliers, packagers, luminaire testers, and makers of testing equipment – gathered in San Jose, CA, April 21-22, 2010, to share insights, ideas, and updates at the second annual Solid-State Lighting (SSL) Manufacturing R&D Workshop, hosted by DOE. This workshop is a key part of an initiative launched by DOE in 2009 to enhance the quality and lower the cost of SSL products through improvements in manufacturing equipment and processes and to foster a significant manufacturing role in the U.S. This year in San Jose, attendees explored a wide range of related topics and focused on reexamining and updating the DOE Manufacturing R&D Roadmap.

  10. The Tenth Annual Solid-State Lighting R&D Workshop

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Nearly 250 researchers, manufacturers, and other industry insiders and observers gathered in Long Beach, CA, January 29–31, 2013, to participate in DOE's tenth annual Solid-State Lighting (SSL) R&D Workshop. DOE SSL Program Manager James Brodrick kicked off Day 1 by noting how far SSL has come in the past 10 years. Whereas in 2003 LEDs were just starting to gain a foothold in traffic signals and exit signs, today they're used for nearly every lighting application, and OLED niche products are gaining traction. Brodrick noted that despite the progress, there's still significant headroom, and urged attendees to explore ways to maximize efficacy, "not compared to what was, but compared to what is and what can be." He emphasized the present opportunity to push the boundaries with new approaches, product designs, form factors, and value-added features.

  11. The Eleventh Annual Solid-State Lighting R&D Workshop

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Two hundred researchers, manufacturers, and other industry insiders and observers gathered in Tampa, FL, January 28–30, 2014, to participate in DOE's 11th annual Solid-State Lighting (SSL) R&D Workshop. DOE SSL Program Manager James Brodrick kicked off Day 1 by reminding attendees that it takes time to achieve market adoption, and that "we're still early in the game." He emphasized that the true value of SSL has yet to be "mined" by the industry, and pointed out that the technology has the potential to be far more than a commodity in the old lighting paradigm. Brodrick predicted that SSL's value-added features will drive adoption, and noted that smart-lighting options can significantly increase the energy savings.

  12. Low-temperature synthesis of actinide tetraborides by solid-state metathesis reactions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lupinetti, Anthony J. (Los Alamos, NM); Garcia, Eduardo (Los Alamos, NM); Abney, Kent D. (Los Alamos, NM)

    2004-12-14T23:59:59.000Z

    The synthesis of actinide tetraborides including uranium tetraboride (UB.sub.4), plutonium tetraboride (PuB.sub.4) and thorium tetraboride (ThB.sub.4) by a solid-state metathesis reaction are demonstrated. The present method significantly lowers the temperature required to .ltoreq.850.degree. C. As an example, when UCl.sub.4 is reacted with an excess of MgB.sub.2, at 850.degree. C., crystalline UB.sub.4 is formed. Powder X-ray diffraction and ICP-AES data support the reduction of UCl.sub.3 as the initial step in the reaction. The UB.sub.4 product is purified by washing water and drying.

  13. III-nitride nanowires : novel materials for solid-state lighting.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, George T.; Upadhya, Prashanth C. (Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM); Prasankumar, Rohit P. (Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM); Armstrong, Andrew M.; Huang, Jian Yu; Li, Qiming; Talin, Albert Alec (NIST, Gaithersburg, MD)

    2010-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Although planar heterostructures dominate current solid-state lighting architectures (SSL), 1D nanowires have distinct and advantageous properties that may eventually enable higher efficiency, longer wavelength, and cheaper devices. However, in order to fully realize the potential of nanowire-based SSL, several challenges exist in the areas of controlled nanowire synthesis, nanowire device integration, and understanding and controlling the nanowire electrical, optical, and thermal properties. Here recent results are reported regarding the aligned growth of GaN and III-nitride core-shell nanowires, along with extensive results providing insights into the nanowire properties obtained using cutting-edge structural, electrical, thermal, and optical nanocharacterization techniques. A new top-down fabrication method for fabricating periodic arrays of GaN nanorods and subsequent nanorod LED fabrication is also presented.

  14. Science and the Energy Security Challenge: The Example of Solid-State Lighting

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Julia Phillips

    2010-01-08T23:59:59.000Z

    Securing a viable, carbon neutral energy future for humankind will require an effort of gargantuan proportions. As outlined clearly in a series of workshops sponsored by the DOE Office of Basic Energy Sciences (http://www.sc.doe.gov/bes/reports/list.html), fundamental advances in scientific understanding are needed to broadly implement many of the technologies that are held out as promising options to meet future energy needs, ranging from solar energy, to nuclear energy, to approaches to clean combustion. Using solid state lighting based on inorganic materials as an example, I will discuss some recent results and new directions, emphasizing the multidisciplinary, team nature of the endeavor. I will also offer some thoughts about how to encourage translation of the science into attractive, widely available products ? a significant challenge that cannot be ignored. This case study offers insight into approaches that are likely to be beneficial for addressing other aspects of the energy security challenge.

  15. Multiple intrinsically identical single photon emitters in the solid-state

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lachlan J. Rogers; Kay D. Jahnke; T. Teraji; Luca Marseglia; Christoph. Müller; Boris Naydenov; Hardy Schauffert; C. Kranz; Junichi Isoya; Liam P. McGuinness; Fedor Jelezko

    2014-06-05T23:59:59.000Z

    Emitters of indistinguishable single photons are crucial for the growing field of quantum technologies. To realize scalability and increase the complexity of quantum optics technologies, multiple independent yet identical single photon emitters are also required. However typical solid-state single photon sources are inherently dissimilar, necessitating the use of electrical feedback or optical cavities to improve spectral overlap between distinct emitters. Here, we demonstrate bright silicon-vacancy (SiV-) centres in low-strain bulk diamond which intrinsically show spectral overlap of up to 91% and near transform-limited excitation linewidths. Our results have impact upon the application of single photon sources for quantum optics and cryptography, and the production of next generation fluorophores for bio-imaging.

  16. Development of all-solid-state flash x-ray generator with photoconductive semiconductor switches

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xun, Ma; Jianjun, Deng; Hongwei, Liu; Jianqiang, Yuan; Jinfeng, Liu; Bing, Wei; Yanling, Qing; Wenhui, Han; Lingyun, Wang; Pin, Jiang; Hongtao, Li [Key Laboratory of Pulsed Power, Institute of Fluid Physics, CAEP, P.O. Box 919-108, Mianyang 621900 (China)

    2014-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A compact, low-jitter, and high repetitive rate all-solid-state flash x-ray generator making use of photo conductive semiconductor switches was developed recently for the diagnostic purpose of some hydrokinetical experiments. The generator consisted of twelve stages of Blumlein pulse forming networks, and an industrial cold cathode diode was used to generate intense x-ray radiations with photon energy up to 220 keV. Test experiments showed that the generator could produce >1 kA electron beam currents and x-ray pulses with ?40 ns duration under 100 Hz repetitive rates at least (limited by the triggering laser on hand), also found was that the delay time of the cathode explosive emission is crucial to the energy transfer efficiency of the whole system. In addition, factors affecting the diode impedance, how the switching synchronization and diode impedance determining the allowable operation voltage were discussed.

  17. Technical Report (Final): Development of Solid State Reagents for Preparing Radiolabeled Imaging Agents

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kabalka, George W

    2011-05-20T23:59:59.000Z

    The goal of this research was on the development of new, rapid, and efficient synthetic methods for incorporating short-lived radionuclides into agents of use in measuring dynamic processes. The initial project period (Year 1) was focused on the preparation of stable, solid state precursors that could be used to efficiently incorporate short-lived radioisotopes into small molecules of use in biological applications (environmental, plant, and animal). The investigation included development and evaluation of new methods for preparing carbon-carbon and carbon-halogen bonds for use in constructing the substrates to be radiolabeled. The second phase (Year 2) was focused on developing isotope incorporation techniques using the stable, boronated polymeric precursors. The final phase (Year 3), was focused on the preparation of specific radiolabeled agents and evaluation of their biodistribution using micro-PET and micro-SPECT. In addition, we began the development of a new series of polymeric borane reagents based on polyethylene glycol backbones.

  18. High fidelity readout scheme for rare-earth solid state quantum computing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. Walther; L. Rippe; Y. Yan; J. Karlsson; D. Serrano; A. N. Nilsson; S. Bengtsson; S. Kröll

    2015-03-29T23:59:59.000Z

    We propose and analyze a high fidelity readout scheme for a single instance approach to quantum computing in rare-earth-ion-doped crystals. The scheme is based on using different species of qubit and readout ions, and it is shown that by allowing the closest qubit ion to act as a readout buffer, the readout error can be reduced by more than an order of magnitude. The scheme is shown to be robust against certain experimental variations, such as varying detection efficiencies, and we use the scheme to predict the expected quantum fidelity of a CNOT gate in these solid state systems. In addition, we discuss the potential scalability of the protocol to larger qubit systems. The results are based on parameters which we believed are experimentally feasible with current technology, and which can be simultaneously realized.

  19. Nonequilibrium fluctuations in quantum heat engines: Theory, example, and possible solid state experiments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Michele Campisi; Jukka Pekola; Rosario Fazio

    2014-12-02T23:59:59.000Z

    We study the stochastic energetic exchanges in quantum heat engines. Due to microreversibility, these obey a fluctuation relation, called the heat engine fluctuation relation, which implies the Carnot bound: no machine can have an efficiency larger than Carnot's efficiency. The stochastic thermodynamics of a quantum heat engine (including the joint statistics of heat and work and the statistics of efficiency) is illustrated by means of an optimal two-qubit heat engine, where each qubit is coupled to a thermal bath and a two-qubit gate determines energy exchanges between the two qubits. We discuss possible solid state implementations with Cooper pair boxes and flux qubits, quantum gate operations, and fast calorimetric on-chip measurements of single stochastic events.

  20. SOLID STATE ENERGY CONVERSION ALLIANCE (SECA) SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELL PROGRAM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Unknown

    2003-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes the progress made during the September 2001-March 2002 reporting period under Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-01NT41245 for the U. S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE/NETL) entitled ''Solid State Energy Conversion Alliance (SECA) Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Program''. The program focuses on the development of a low-cost, high-performance 3-to-10-kW solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) system suitable for a broad spectrum of power-generation applications. The overall objective of the program is to demonstrate a modular SOFC system that can be configured to create highly efficient, cost-competitive, and environmentally benign power plants tailored to specific markets. When fully developed, the system will meet the efficiency, performance, life, and cost goals for future commercial power plants.

  1. Demonstration experiments for solid state physics using a table top mechanical Stirling refrigerator

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Osorio, M R; Rodrigo, J G; Suderow, H; Vieira, S; 10.1088/0143-0807/33/4/757

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Liquid free cryogenic devices are acquiring importance in basic science and engineering. But they can also lead to improvements in teaching low temperature an solid state physics to graduate students and specialists. Most of the devices are relatively expensive, but small sized equipment is slowly becoming available. Here, we have designed several simple experiments which can be performed using a small Stirling refrigerator. We discuss the measurement of the critical current and temperature of a bulk YBa2Cu3O(7-d) (YBCO) sample, the observation of the levitation of a magnet over a YBCO disk when cooled below the critical temperature and the observation of a phase transition using ac calorimetry. The equipment can be easily handled by students, and also used to teach the principles of liquid free cooling.

  2. Quantum process tomography and Linblad estimation of a solid state qubit

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. Howard; J. Twamley; C. Wittmann; T. Gaebel; F. Jelezko; J. Wrachtrup

    2006-01-25T23:59:59.000Z

    We present an example of quantum process tomography (QPT) performed on a single solid state qubit. The qubit used is two energy levels of the triplet state in the Nitrogen-Vacancy defect in Diamond. Quantum process tomography is applied to a qubit which has been allowed to decohere for three different time periods. In each case the process is found in terms of the chi matrix representation and the affine map representation. The discrepancy between experimentally estimated process and the closest physically valid process is noted. The results of QPT performed after three different decoherence times are used to find the error generators, or Lindblad operators, for the system, using the technique introduced by Boulant et al. [N. Boulant, T.F. Havel, M.A. Pravia and D.G. Cory, Phys. Rev. A 67, 042322 (2003)].

  3. Design of interferometer system for Keda Torus eXperiment using terahertz solid-state diode sources

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xie, Jinlin, E-mail: jlxie@ustc.edu.cn; Wang, Haibo; Li, Hong; Lan, Tao; Liu, Adi; Liu, Wandong; Yu, Changxuan [School of Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Ding, Weixing [School of Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); University of California-Los Angeles, P. O. Box 957099, Los Angeles, California 90095-7099 (United States)

    2014-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A solid-state source based terahertz (THz) interferometer diagnostic system has been designed and characterized for the Keda Torus eXperiment (KTX). The THz interferometer utilizes the planar diodes based frequency multiplier (X48) to provide the probing beam at fixed frequency 0.650 THz, and local oscillator is provided by an independent solid-state diode source with tunable frequency (0.650 THz +/? 10 MHz). Both solid-state sources have approximately 1 mW power. The planar-diode mixers optimized for high sensitivity, ?750 mV/mW, are used in the heterodyne detection system, which permits multichannel interferometer on KTX with a low phase noise. A sensitivity of {sub min} = 4.5 × 10{sup 16} m{sup ?2} and a temporal resolution of 0.2 ?s have been achieved during the initial bench test.

  4. Colloquium: Majorana Fermions in nuclear, particle and solid-state physics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S. R. Elliott; M. Franz

    2014-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Ettore Majorana (1906-1938) disappeared while traveling by ship from Palermo to Naples in 1938. His fate has never been fully resolved and several articles have been written that explore the mystery itself. His demise intrigues us still today because of his seminal work, published the previous year, that established symmetric solutions to the Dirac equation that describe a fermionic particle that is its own anti-particle. This work has long had a significant impact in neutrino physics, where this fundamental question regarding the particle remains unanswered. But the formalism he developed has found many uses as there are now a number of candidate spin-1/2 neutral particles that may be truly neutral with no quantum number to distinguish them from their anti-particles. If such particles exist, they will influence many areas of nuclear and particle physics. Most notably the process of neutrinoless double beta decay can only exist if neutrinos are massive Majorana particles. Hence, many efforts to search for this process are underway. Majorana's influence doesn't stop with particle physics, however, even though that was his original consideration. The equations he derived also arise in solid state physics where they describe electronic states in materials with superconducting order. Of special interest here is the class of solutions of the Majorana equation in one and two spatial dimensions at exactly zero energy. These Majorana zero modes are endowed with some remarkable physical properties that may lead to advances in quantum computing and, in fact, there is evidence that they have been experimentally observed. This review first summarizes the basics of Majorana's theory and its implications. It then provides an overview of the rich experimental programs trying to find a fermion that is its own anti-particle in nuclear, particle, and solid state physics.

  5. Guide to journal rankings 1. What are journal rankings?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCusker, Guy

    Opus Guide to journal rankings 1. What are journal rankings? Journal rankings are metrics that provide information on how a journal performs in comparison with other journals in the same discipline. Articles in high impact journals are more likely to be cited. Good citation counts are often considered

  6. 744 IEEE JOURNAL OF SOLID-STATE CIRCUITS, VOL. 40, NO. 3, MARCH 2005 Nonlinear Transmission Lines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Afshari, Ehsan

    744 IEEE JOURNAL OF SOLID-STATE CIRCUITS, VOL. 40, NO. 3, MARCH 2005 Nonlinear Transmission Lines--Nonlinear transmission lines (NLTL) are used for pulse shaping. We developed the theory of pulse propagation through sharpening, nonlinear effects, nonlinear transmission lines, pulse shaping, soli- tons, transmission lines. I

  7. Space Technology and Applications International Forum Proceedings, Albuquerque, New Mexico, January 2000 Miniaturized Radioisotope Solid State Power Sources

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    thermoelectric generators (RTGs) have been successfully used for a number of deep space missions RTGs. However 2000 Miniaturized Radioisotope Solid State Power Sources J.-P. Fleurial, G.J. Snyder, J. Patel, J-pierre.fleurial@jpl.nasa.gov Abstract. Electrical power requirements for the next generation of deep space missions cover a wide range

  8. Correlation of solid-state NMR relaxation times to functional properties such as chemical stability and particle size

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dempah, Kassibla Elodie

    2013-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of the work presented in this dissertation was to investigate the correlation between the particle size of crystalline active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) and their solid-state NMR (SSNMR) proton spin-lattice relaxation times (1H T1...

  9. Data Management Plan GOALI: Novel 3-dimensional microphotonics for high-efficiency color-mixing to enable solid-state

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tipple, Brett

    Data Management Plan GOALI: Novel 3-dimensional microphotonics for high-efficiency color-mixing to enable solid-state lighting. The objective of this GOALI proposal is to enable high-efficiency white and backed up on stand-alone computers in the (locked) lab of the PI. Research data will be stored in USpace

  10. Seventh International Conference on Solid State Lighting, Edited by Ian T. Ferguson, Nadarajah Narendran, Tsunemasa Taguchi, Ian E. Ashdown,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weiss, Sharon

    Selenide, Nanocrystal, Photoluminescence, Phosphor, White Light, Light Emitting Diode, LED 1. INTRODUCTION 1.1 Solid state lighting and white-light LEDs The use of white light emitting diodes (LEDs emitting diodes[11] , though they are a less mature technology as compared to inorganic semiconductor

  11. Laser Transferable Polymer-Ionic Liquid Separator/Electrolytes for Solid-State Rechargeable Lithium-Ion Microbatteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arnold, Craig B.

    Laser Transferable Polymer-Ionic Liquid Separator/Electrolytes for Solid-State Rechargeable Lithium-Ion characterized by ac-impedance spectroscopy and in lithium- ion microbatteries. Size and weight percent effects be laser transferred onto a substrate to form a solid separator/electrolyte layer for a lithium ion power

  12. IEEE JOURNAL OF SOLID-STATE CIRCUITS, VOL. 45, NO. 12, DECEMBER 2010 2709 A CMOS Broadband Power Amplifier With

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hajimiri, Ali

    bandwidth, optimum load impedance, power amplifier, transformer. I. INTRODUCTION CMOS technology offers, the output matching network for a CMOS PA requires a large impedance transformation ratio to generate highIEEE JOURNAL OF SOLID-STATE CIRCUITS, VOL. 45, NO. 12, DECEMBER 2010 2709 A CMOS Broadband Power

  13. SINGLE-MOLECULE DNA TRANSLOCATION THROUGH Si3N4-AND GRAPHENE1 SOLID-STATE NANOPORES2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bielefeld, Universität

    openings with diameters typically 20-60 nm in size.21 22 2.3 Graphene Preparation and Electrical#12;SINGLE-MOLECULE DNA TRANSLOCATION THROUGH Si3N4- AND GRAPHENE1 SOLID-STATE NANOPORES2 3 4 5 6 7DNA was threaded through single nanolayer graphene27 NP by a transmembrane voltage. Whereas distinct single

  14. Development of the Solid State X-band Radar and the Phased Array Radar System in Japan

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Droegemeier, Kelvin K.

    Development of the Solid State X-band Radar and the Phased Array Radar System in Japan By DR. TOMOO array radar system have been developed. Toshiba has developed the latest model of weather radar of precipitation and to achieve drastic reduction of its size and life cycle cost. It is now well known

  15. Control of the Pump Cycle in Bacteriorhodopsin: Mechanisms Elucidated by Solid-State NMR of the D85N Mutant

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Griffin, Robert G.

    Control of the Pump Cycle in Bacteriorhodopsin: Mechanisms Elucidated by Solid-State NMR of the D85 as an inward-driven hydroxyl pump (analogous to halorhodopsin) rather than an outward-driven proton pump. Third. INTRODUCTION Proton pumps create transmembrane electrochemical poten- tials that provide energy for cellular

  16. Structural characterization of water-bearing silicate and aluminosilicate glasses by high-resolution solid-state NMR

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    Structural characterization of water-bearing silicate and aluminosilicate glasses by high-resolution solid-state NMR techniques have been applied to hydrous silicate and aluminosilicate glasses: simple as to completely exclude any of the different previously proposed models for water incorporation in silicate

  17. High contrast solid state electrochromic devices based on Ruthenium Purple nanocomposites fabricated by layer-by-layer assemblyw

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heflin, Randy

    High contrast solid state electrochromic devices based on Ruthenium Purple nanocomposites: 10.1039/b803915a Electrochromic Ruthenium Purple­polymer nanocomposite films, fabricated by multilayer assembly, were found to exhibit sub-second switching speed and the highest electrochromic con

  18. Solid-state electrochromic devices based on poly ,,phenylene vinylene... A. L. Holt, J. M. Leger, and S. A. Cartera

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carter, Sue

    Solid-state electrochromic devices based on poly ,,phenylene vinylene... polymers A. L. Holt, J. M state electrochromic device based on poly phenylene vinylene light-emitting polymers and explore device-of-the-art conducting polymer electrochromic devices. © 2005 American Institute of Physics. DOI: 10

  19. Tetraphosphine Linker Scaffolds with a Tetraphenyltin Core for Superior Immobilized Catalysts: A Solid-State NMR Study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Perera, Melanie Ingrid

    2012-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

    the mechanism of the phosphonium formation in more detail by utilizing solid-state NMR spectroscopy. It has also been a point of interest to study the linkers and catalysts under realistic conditions, in the presence of solvents. Therefore, HRMAS (high...

  20. 1504 IEEE JOURNAL OF SOLID-STATE CIRCUITS, VOL. 39, NO. 9, SEPTEMBER 2004 Standby Power Reduction Using Dynamic Voltage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Calhoun, Benton H.

    1504 IEEE JOURNAL OF SOLID-STATE CIRCUITS, VOL. 39, NO. 9, SEPTEMBER 2004 Standby Power Reduction. Chandrakasan, Fellow, IEEE Abstract--Lowering during standby mode reduces power by decreasing both voltage where state is lost gives the best power savings. We show that "canary" flip-flops provide a mechanism

  1. IEEE JOURNAL OF SOLID-STATE CIRCUITS, VOL. 37, NO. 3, MARCH 2002 371 Fully Integrated CMOS Power Amplifier Design

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    IEEE JOURNAL OF SOLID-STATE CIRCUITS, VOL. 37, NO. 3, MARCH 2002 371 Fully Integrated CMOS Power-chip impedance matching and power- combining method, the distributed active transformer is presented. It combines output power while maintaining a 50- match. It also uses virtual ac grounds and magnetic couplings

  2. High-resolution solid-state NMR of anisotropically mobile molecules under very low-power 1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hong, Mei

    High-resolution solid-state NMR of anisotropically mobile molecules under very low-power 1 H Revised 13 May 2009 Available online 21 May 2009 Keywords: Low-power decoupling Lipid membranes Solid such as WALTZ-16. We demonstrate this moderate MAS low-power decoupling technique on hydrated POPC lipid

  3. 1220 IEEE JOURNAL OF SOLID-STATE CIRCUITS, VOL. 45, NO. 6, JUNE 2010 Energy-Efficient Design Methodologies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Davis, University of

    1220 IEEE JOURNAL OF SOLID-STATE CIRCUITS, VOL. 45, NO. 6, JUNE 2010 Energy-Efficient Design and system constraints. In this paper, methodology for energy-efficient design applied to 64-bit adders Terms--Arithmetic and logic structures, computer arith- metic, energy-efficient design, high

  4. Solid-State, Flexible, High Strength Paper-Based Supercapacitors Xiaodan Zhang, Ziyin Lin, Bo Chen, Yulin Deng

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Das, Suman

    Solid-State, Flexible, High Strength Paper-Based Supercapacitors Xiaodan Zhang, Ziyin Lin, Bo Chen Supercapacitors are one of the main energy storage devices and are key technological enablers ranging from transportation to customer electronics. Compared to their competitors--batteries, supercapacitors have superior

  5. Laminating solution-processed silver nanowire mesh electrodes onto solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McGehee, Michael

    Accepted 6 March 2011 Available online 21 March 2011 Keywords: Dye-sensitized solar cells Nanomaterials meshes (Ag NWs) were laminated on top of solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells (ss-DSCs) as a reflective. Introduction Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs) [1­3] are an emerging photovoltaic technology on the verge

  6. 870 IEEE JOURNAL OF SOLID-STATE CIRCUITS, VOL. 32, NO. 6, JUNE 1997 Jitter in Ring Oscillators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Palermo, Sam

    870 IEEE JOURNAL OF SOLID-STATE CIRCUITS, VOL. 32, NO. 6, JUNE 1997 Jitter in Ring Oscillators John A. McNeill Abstract-- Jitter in ring oscillators is theoretically described, and predictions jitter in a phase-locked loop (PLL). A major contribution is the identification of a design figure

  7. 1166 IEEE JOURNAL OF SOLID-STATE CIRCUITS, VOL. 40, NO. 5, MAY 2005 Design Analysis and Circuit Enhancements for

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Long, Stephen I.

    1166 IEEE JOURNAL OF SOLID-STATE CIRCUITS, VOL. 40, NO. 5, MAY 2005 Design Analysis and Circuit from the layout in an analysis, see [6]. A. Open Circuit Time Constants The method of open circuit time finds exactly the value of for a linear circuit (corre- sponding to the dominant pole in the circuit

  8. Long-term determination of airborne radon progeny concentrations using LR 115 solid-state nuclear track detectors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yu, K.N.

    Long-term determination of airborne radon progeny concentrations using LR 115 solid-state nuclear. Introduction The radon-related absorbed dose in the lung is mainly due to short-lived radon progeny, i.e., 218-term measurements of the concentrations of radon progeny or the equilibrium factor F, among other information

  9. Impact Strength of High Relative Density Solid State CO, Blown CPET Microcellular Foams Impact Strength of High Relative Density

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kumar, Vipin

    is an increased glass transition temperature (T,), thus requiring higher foaming temperatures. Baldwin and SuhImpact Strength of High Relative Density Solid State CO, Blown CPET Microcellular Foams ImpactTerephthalate) Microcellular Foams Vipin KurnaW, Richard P Juntunena, and Chris Barlowb University of Washington, Seattle

  10. Solid state NMR method development and studies of biological and biomimetic nanocomposites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hu, Yanyan

    2011-02-07T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis describes application and development of advanced solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance techniques for complex materials, in particular organic-inorganic nanocomposites and thermoelectric tellurides. The apatite-collagen interface, essential for understanding the biomineralization process in bone and engineering the interface for controlled bio-mimetic synthesis and optimized mechanical properties, is buried within the nanocomposite of bone. We used multinuclear solid-state NMR to study the composition and structure of the interface. Citrate has been identified as the main organic molecule strongly bound to the apatite surface with a density of 1/(2 nm){sup 2}, covering 1/6 of the total surface area in bovine bone. Citrate provides more carboxylate groups, one of the key functional groups found to affect apatite nucleation and growth, than all the non-collagenous proteins all together in bone; thus we propose that citrate stabilizes apatite crystals at a very small thickness of {approx}3 nm (4 unit cells) to increase bone fracture tolerance. The hypothesis has been confirmed in vitro by adding citrate in the bio-mimetic synthesis of polymerhydroxyapatite nanocomposites. The results have shown that the size of hydroxyapatite nanocrystals decreases as increasing citrate concentration. With citrate concentrations comparable to that in body fluids, similar-sized nanocrystals as in bone have been produced. Besides the dimensions of the apatite crystals, the composition of bone also affects its biofunctional and macroscopic mechanical properties; therefore, our team also extended its effort to enhance the inorganic portion in our bio-mimetic synthesis from originally 15 wt% to current 50 wt% compared to 65 wt% in bovine bone, by using Lysine-Leucine hydroxyapatite nucleating diblock co-polypeptide, which forms a gel at very low concentration. In this thesis, various advanced solid state NMR techniques have been employed to characterize nanocomposites. Meanwhile, we have developed new methods to achieve broadband high resolution NMR and improve the accuracy of inter-nuclear distance measurements involving quadrupolar spins. Broadband high resolution NMR of spin-1/2 nuclei has been accomplished by the adaptation of the magic angle turning (MAT) method to fast magic angle spinning, termed fast MAT, by solving technical problems such as off resonance effects. Fast MAT separates chemical shift anisotropy and isotropic chemical shifts over a spectral range of {approx}1.8 {gamma}B{sub 1} without significant distortions. Fast MAT {sup 125}Te NMR has been applied to study technologically important telluride materials with spectra spreading up to 190 kHz. The signal-to-noise ratio of the spectra is significantly improved by using echo-matched Gaussian filtering in offline data processing. The accuracy of the measured distances between spin-1/2 and quadrupolar nuclei with methods such as SPIDER and REAPDOR has been improved by compensating for the fast longitudinal quadrupolar relaxation on the sub-millisecond with a modified S{sub 0} pulse sequence. Also, the T1Q effect on the spin coherence and its spinning speed dependency has been explored and documented with analytical and numerical simulations as well as experimental measurements.

  11. A Solid-State Nanosecond Beam Kicker Modulator Based on the DSRD Switch

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Akre, R.; Benwell, A.; Burkhart, C.; Krasnykh, A.; Tang, T.; /SLAC; Kardo-Sysoev, A.; /Ioffe Phys. Tech. Inst.

    2011-08-19T23:59:59.000Z

    A fast solid-state beam kicker modulator is under development at the SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory. The program goal is to develop a modulator that will deliver 4 ns, {+-}5 kV pulses to the ATF2 damping ring beam extraction kicker. The kicker is a 50 {Omega}, bipolar strip line, 60 cm long, fed at the downstream end and terminated at the upstream end. The bunch spacing in the ring is 5.6 ns, bunches are removed from the back end of the train, and there is a gap of 103.6 ns before the next train. The modulator design is based on an opening switch topology that uses Drift Step Recovery Diodes as the opening switches. The design and results of the modulator development are discussed. There are many applications that benefit from very fast high power switching. However, at MW power levels and nanosecond time scales, solid state options are limited. One option, the Drift Step Recovery Diode (DSRD) has been demonstrated as capable of blocking thousands of volts and switching in nanosecond to sub-nanosecond ranges. When used as an opening switch, the DSRD exhibits a very fast turn off transient. The process is described in detail by its pioneers in [5,6]. In essence, charge is pumped into and then extracted from the DSRD under pulsed conditions. The turn off transient occurs precisely when the pumped charge is equal to the extracted charge and the DSRD is switched off. At the SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, a DSRD is being used as an opening switch in the development of a fast kicker modulator. The modulator is designed to create {+-}5kV pulses with <1ns rise and fall time on a 50{Omega} strip line kicker. As is common in beam optics, the absence of power in the kicker before and after the pulse is very important. The entire {+-}5kV kicker modulator is composed of two identical 5kV pulsing circuits, each with its own DSRD component. This paper describes the modulator topology and the status of tests on one of the two 5kV pulse circuits.

  12. Solid state phase equilibria and intermetallic compounds of the Al-Cr-Ho system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pang, Mingjun [Laboratory of Nonferrous Metal Materials and New Processing Technology, Ministry of Education, Guangxi University, Nanning, Guangxi 530004 (China) [Laboratory of Nonferrous Metal Materials and New Processing Technology, Ministry of Education, Guangxi University, Nanning, Guangxi 530004 (China); SAIC-GM-Wuling Automobile Co., Ltd., Liuzhou, Guangxi 545007 (China); Zhan, Yongzhong, E-mail: zyzmatres@yahoo.com.cn [Laboratory of Nonferrous Metal Materials and New Processing Technology, Ministry of Education, Guangxi University, Nanning, Guangxi 530004 (China)] [Laboratory of Nonferrous Metal Materials and New Processing Technology, Ministry of Education, Guangxi University, Nanning, Guangxi 530004 (China); Du, Yong [State Key Laboratory of Powder Metallurgy, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan 410083 (China)] [State Key Laboratory of Powder Metallurgy, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan 410083 (China)

    2013-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The solid state phase equilibria of the Al-Cr-Ho ternary system at 500 Degree-Sign C were experimentally investigated. The phase relations at 500 Degree-Sign C are governed by 14 three-phase regions, 29 two-phase regions and 15 single-phase regions. The existences of 10 binary compounds and 2 ternary phases have been confirmed. Al{sub 11}Cr{sub 2}, Al{sub 11}Cr{sub 4} and Al{sub 17}Ho{sub 2} were not found at 500 Degree-Sign C. Crystal structures of Al{sub 9}Cr{sub 4} and Al{sub 8}Cr{sub 4}Ho were determined by the Rietveld X-ray powder data refinement. Al{sub 9}Cr{sub 4} was found to exhibit cubic structure with space group I4-bar 3m (no. 217) and lattice parameters a=0.9107(5) nm. Al{sub 8}Cr{sub 4}Ho crystallizes in ThMn{sub 12} structure type with space group I4/mmm (no. 139) and lattice parameters a=0.8909(4) nm, c=0.5120(5) nm. It is concluded that the obtained Al{sub 4}Cr phase in this work should be {mu}-Al{sub 4}Cr by comparing with XRD pattern of the hexagonal {mu}-Al{sub 4}Mn compound. - Graphical abstract: The solid state phase equilibria of the Al-Cr-Ho ternary system at 500 Degree-Sign C. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Al-Cr-Ho system has been investigated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Al{sub 9}Cr{sub 4} has cubic structure with space group I4-bar 3m. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Al{sub 8}Cr{sub 4}Ho crystallizes in ThMn{sub 12} type with space group I4/mmm. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Al{sub 4}Cr phase is {mu}-type at 500 Degree-Sign C.

  13. High-fidelity projective readout of a solid-state spin quantum register

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lucio Robledo; Lilian Childress; Hannes Bernien; Bas Hensen; Paul F. A. Alkemade; Ronald Hanson

    2013-01-03T23:59:59.000Z

    Initialization and readout of coupled quantum systems are essential ingredients for the implementation of quantum algorithms. If the state of a multi-qubit register can be read out in a single shot, this enables further key resources such as quantum error correction and deterministic quantum teleportation, as well as direct investigation of quantum correlations (entanglement). While spins in solids are attractive candidates for scalable quantum information processing, thus far single-shot detection has only been achieved for isolated qubits. Here, we demonstrate preparation and measurement of a multi-spin quantum register by implementing resonant optical excitation techniques originally developed in atomic physics. We achieve high-fidelity readout of the electronic spin associated with a single nitrogen-vacancy (NV) centre in diamond at low temperature, and exploit this readout to project up to three nearby nuclear spin qubits onto a well-defined state. Conversely, we can distinguish the state of the nuclear spins in a single shot by mapping it onto and subsequently measuring the electronic spin. Finally, we show compatibility with qubit control by demonstrating initialization, coherent manipulation, and single-shot readout in a single experiment on a two-qubit register, using techniques suitable for extension to larger registers. These results pave the way for the first test of Bell's inequalities on solid-state spins and the implementation of measurement-based quantum information protocols.

  14. Heralded entanglement between solid-state qubits separated by 3 meters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    H. Bernien; B. Hensen; W. Pfaff; G. Koolstra; M. S. Blok; L. Robledo; T. H. Taminiau; M. Markham; D. J. Twitchen; L. Childress; R. Hanson

    2012-12-26T23:59:59.000Z

    Quantum entanglement between spatially separated objects is one of the most intriguing phenomena in physics. The outcomes of independent measurements on entangled objects show correlations that cannot be explained by classical physics. Besides being of fundamental interest, entanglement is a unique resource for quantum information processing and communication. Entangled qubits can be used to establish private information or implement quantum logical gates. Such capabilities are particularly useful when the entangled qubits are spatially separated, opening the opportunity to create highly connected quantum networks or extend quantum cryptography to long distances. Here we present a key experiment towards the realization of long-distance quantum networks with solid-state quantum registers. We have entangled two electron spin qubits in diamond that are separated by a three-meter distance. We establish this entanglement using a robust protocol based on local creation of spin-photon entanglement and a subsequent joint measurement of the photons. Detection of the photons heralds the projection of the spin qubits onto an entangled state. We verify the resulting non-local quantum correlations by performing single-shot readout on the qubits in different bases. The long-distance entanglement reported here can be combined with recently achieved initialization, readout and entanglement operations on local long-lived nuclear spin registers, enabling deterministic long-distance teleportation, quantum repeaters and extended quantum networks.

  15. Multi-Year Program Plan FY'09-FY'15 Solid-State Lighting Research and Development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2009-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    President Obama's energy and environment agenda calls for deployment of 'the Cheapest, Cleanest, Fastest Energy Source - Energy Efficiency.' The Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) plays a critical role in advancing the President's agenda by helping the United States advance toward an energy-efficient future. Lighting in the United States is projected to consume nearly 10 quads of primary energy by 2012.3 A nation-wide move toward solid-state lighting (SSL) for general illumination could save a total of 32.5 quads of primary energy between 2012 and 2027. No other lighting technology offers the DOE and our nation so much potential to save energy and enhance the quality of our built environment. The DOE has set forth the following mission statement for the SSL R&D Portfolio: Guided by a Government-industry partnership, the mission is to create a new, U.S.-led market for high-efficiency, general illumination products through the advancement of semiconductor technologies, to save energy, reduce costs and enhance the quality of the lighted environment.

  16. Multifunctional (NOx/CO/O2) Solid-State Sensors For Coal Combustion Control

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eric D. Wachsman

    2006-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Solid-state sensors were developed for coal combustion control and the understanding of sensing mechanisms was advanced. Several semiconducting metal oxides (p-type and n-type) were used to fabricate sensor electrodes. The adsorption/desorption characteristics and catalytic activities of these materials were measured with Temperature Programmed Desorption (TPD) and Temperature Programmed Reaction (TPR) experiments. The sensitivity, selectivity, and response time of these sensors were measured for steps of NO, NO{sub 2}, CO, CO{sub 2}, O{sub 2}, and H{sub 2}O vapor in simple N{sub 2}-balanced and multi-component, simulated combustion-exhaust streams. The role of electrode microstructure and fabrication parameters on sensing performance was investigated. Proof for the proposed sensing mechanism, Differential Electrode Equilibria, was demonstrated by relating the sensing behavior (sensitivities and cross-sensitivities) of the various electrode materials to their gas adsorption/desorption behaviors and catalytic activities. A multifunctional sensor array consisting of three sensing electrodes and an integrated heater and temperature sensors was fabricated with tape-casting and screen-printing and its NO{sub x} sensing performance was measured. The multifunctional sensor demonstrated it was possible to measure NO{sub 2} independent of NO by locally heating one of the sensing electrodes. The sensor technology was licensed to Fuel FX International, Inc. Fuel FX has obtained investor funding and is developing prototype sensors as a first step in their commercialization strategy for this technology.

  17. Quantum Dot Light Enhancement Substrate for OLED Solid-State Lighting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    James Perkins; Matthew Stevenson; Gagan Mahan; Seth Coe-Sullivan; Peter Kazlas

    2011-01-21T23:59:59.000Z

    With DOE Award No. DE-EE00000628, QD Vision developed and demonstrated a cost-competitive solution for increasing the light extraction efficiency of OLEDs with efficient and stable color rendering index (CRI) for solid state lighting (SSL). Solution processable quantum dot (QD) films were integrated into OLED ITO-glass substrates to generate tunable white emission from blue emitting OLED) devices as well as outcouple light from the ITO film. This QD light-enhancement substrate (QD-LED) technology demonstrated a 60% increase in OLED forward light out-coupling, a value which increases to 76% when considering total increase in multi-directional light output. The objective for the first year was an 80% increase in light output. This project seeks to develop and demonstrate a cost-competitive solution for realizing increased extraction efficiency organic light emitting devices (OLEDs) with efficient and stable color rendering index (CRI) for SSL. Solution processible quantum dot (QD) films will be utilized to generate tunable white emission from blue emitting phosphorescent OLED (Ph-OLED) devices.

  18. MOCVD synthesis of group III-nitride heterostructure nanowires for solid-state lighting.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, George T.; Creighton, James Randall; Talin, Albert Alec

    2006-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Solid-state lighting (SSL) technologies, based on semiconductor light emitting devices, have the potential to reduce worldwide electricity consumption by more than 10%, which could significantly reduce U.S. dependence on imported energy and improve energy security. The III-nitride (AlGaInN) materials system forms the foundation for white SSL and could cover a wide spectral range from the deep UV to the infrared. For this LDRD program, we have investigated the synthesis of single-crystalline III-nitride nanowires and heterostructure nanowires, which may possess unique optoelectronic properties. These novel structures could ultimately lead to the development of novel and highly efficient SSL nanodevice applications. GaN and III-nitride core-shell heterostructure nanowires were successfully synthesized by metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) on two-inch wafer substrates. The effect of process conditions on nanowire growth was investigated, and characterization of the structural, optical, and electrical properties of the nanowires was also performed.

  19. The transported entropies of ions in solid state fluorides and beta-alumina

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sharivker, V.S.; Ratkje, S.K. [Univ. of Trondheim (Norway)

    1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The technical relevance of reversible heat effects is discussed with reference to high temperature batteries and electrolysis systems. The transported entropies of Na{sup +} in solid state mixtures of NaF and Na{sub 3}AlF{sub 6} are presented. The transported entropies are S{sup *cry}{sub Na{sup +}} = 140 {+-} 7 J K{sup {minus}1} mol{sup {minus}1} for cryolite, S{sup *NaF}{sub Na{sup +}} = 81 {+-} 8 J K{sup {minus}1} mol{sup {minus}1} for sodium fluoride and S{sup *{beta}}{sub Na{sup +}} = 60 {+-} 5 J K{sup {minus}1} mol{sup {minus}1} for sodium {beta}{double_prime}-alumina at the temperature range 380--500 C. The value obtained for sodium in the solid cryolite is higher than transported entropy of Na{sup +} in other solid sodium conductors and makes the authors predict that the transported entropy for Na{sup +} in the molten electrolyte mixture for aluminum production is substantial, and that so are the reversible heat effects in the aluminum electrolysis cell.

  20. Nanostructured High Performance Ultraviolet and Blue Light Emitting Diodes for Solid State Lighting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arto V. Nurmikko; Jung Han

    2005-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    We report on research results in this project which synergize advanced material science approaches with fundamental optical physics concepts pertaining to light-matter interaction, with the goal of solving seminal problems for the development of very high performance light emitting diodes (LEDs) in the blue and near ultraviolet for Solid State Lighting applications. Accomplishments in the second 12 month contract period include (i) new means of synthesizing AlGaN and InN quantum dots by droplet heteroepitaxy, (ii) synthesis of AlGaInN nanowires as building blocks for GaN-based microcavity devices, (iii) progress towards direct epitaxial alignment of the dense arrays of nanowires, (iv) observation and measurements of stimulated emission in dense InGaN nanopost arrays, (v) design and fabrication of InGaN photonic crystal emitters, and (vi) observation and measurements of enhanced fluorescence from coupled quantum dot and plasmonic nanostructures. The body of results is presented in this report shows how a solid foundation has been laid, with several noticeable accomplishments, for innovative research, consistent with the stated milestones.

  1. NANOSTRUCTURED HIGH PERFORMANCE ULTRAVIOLET AND BLUE LIGHT EMITTING DIODES FOR SOLID STATE LIGHTING

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arto V. Nurmikko; Jung Han

    2004-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We report on research results in this project which synergize advanced material science approaches with fundamental optical physics concepts pertaining to light-matter interaction, with the goal of solving seminal problems for the development of very high performance light emitting diodes (LEDs) in the blue and near ultraviolet for Solid State Lighting applications. Accomplishments in the first 12 month contract period include (1) new means of synthesizing zero- and one-dimensional GaN nanostructures, (2) establishment of the building blocks for making GaN-based microcavity devices, and (3) demonstration of top-down approach to nano-scale photonic devices for enhanced spontaneous emission and light extraction. These include a demonstration of eight-fold enhancement of the external emission efficiency in new InGaN QW photonic crystal structures. The body of results is presented in this report shows how a solid foundation has been laid, with several noticeable accomplishments, for innovative research, consistent with the stated milestones.

  2. The Effect of Cellulose Crystal Structure and Solid-State Morphology on the Activity of Cellulases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Yao; Stipanovic, Arthur J [SUNY-ESF; Winter, William T. [SUNY-ESF; Wilson, David B.; Kim, Young-Jun

    2007-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Consistent with the US-DOE and USDA "Roadmap" objective of producing ethanol and chemicals from cellulosic feedstocks more efficiently, a three year research project entitled "The Effect of Cellulose Crystal Structure and Solid-State Morphology on the Activity of Cellulases" was initiated in early 2003 under DOE sponsorship (Project Number DE-FG02-02ER15356). A three year continuation was awarded in June 2005 for the period September 15, 2005 through September 14, 2008. The original goal of this project was to determine the effect of cellulose crystal structure, including allomorphic crystalline form (Cellulose I, II, III, IV and sub-allomorphs), relative degree of crystallinity and crystallite size, on the activity of different types of genetically engineered cellulase enzymes to provide insight into the mechanism and kinetics of cellulose digestion by "pure" enzymes rather than complex mixtures. We expected that such information would ultimately help enhance the accessibility of cellulose to enzymatic conversion processes thereby creating a more cost-effective commercial process yielding sugars for fermentation into ethanol and other chemical products. Perhaps the most significant finding of the initial project phase was that conversion of native bacterial cellulose (Cellulose I; BC-I) to the Cellulose II (BC-II) crystal form by aqueous NaOH "pretreatment" provided an increase in cellulase conversion rate approaching 2-4 fold depending on enzyme concentration and temperature, even when initial % crystallinity values were similar for both allomorphs.

  3. Multinuclear and multidimensional solid-state NMR investigations of combustion chamber deposits

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Edwards, J.C. [Texaco Research Center, Beacon, NY (United States)

    1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Multinuclear solid-state NMR has been used to study the carbonaceous backbone of combustion chamber deposits (CCDs) generated in both gasoline and diesel engines. The combination of {sup 1}H-{sup 13}C cross-polarization, and dipolar dephasing techniques have been used to {open_quotes}average molecule{close_quotes} parameters for a large number of CCDs. These parameters were correlated with gasoline composition and cylinder cleanliness. Discussion will be presented on deposits from different areas of the chamber - piston top, cylinder head, squish, non-squish, end-gas, non-end gas regions. Deposits from various cylinders in a number of dynamometer engines, fleet car engines will be compared. The use of NMR to observe the effects of bench-test engine modifications on CCD structure will be demonstrated. The macromolecular structure of the deposits was studied by {sup 13}C-{sup 13}C spin-exchange experiments which allow one to observe internuclear dipolar interactions between the various carbon functionalities in the deposit. The spatial information on fuel additive - CCD interactions that these experiments provide will be discussed.

  4. Precision Micron Hole Drilling using a Frequency Doubled, Diode Pumped Solid State Laser

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Friedman, H W; Pierce, E L

    2004-04-21T23:59:59.000Z

    This work represents the second phase of a program to demonstrate precision laser drilling with minimal Heat Affected Zone. The technique uses a Diode Pumped Solid State Laser with two wavelengths and two modes of operation. The fundamental mode of the DPSSL at 1.06 microns is used to drill a hole with a diameter of a fraction of a millimeter diameter in a millimeter thick substrate quickly, but with low precision. This hole is then machined to precision dimensions using the second harmonic of the DPSSL Laser at 532 nm using a trepanning technique. Both lasers operate in the ablative mode with peak powers at or above a giga-watt per square centimeter and pulse durations in the 80 - 100 ns range. Under these conditions, the thermal diffusion distance is of the order of a micron or less and that fact coupled with the ablative nature of the process results in little or no HAZ (heat affected zone). With no HAZ, there isn't any change in the crystalline structure surrounding the hole and the strength of the substrate is maintained. Applications for these precision holes include cooling passages in turbine blades, ports for diesel injectors, suction holes for boundary layer control on wings and holes for dies in precision extrusion processes.

  5. Solid State Energy Conversion Alliance (SECA) Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nguyen Minh

    2006-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes the work performed for Phase I (October 2001 - August 2006) under Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-01NT41245 for the U. S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE/NETL) entitled 'Solid State Energy Conversion Alliance (SECA) Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Program'. The program focuses on the development of a low-cost, high-performance 3-to-10-kW solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) system suitable for a broad spectrum of power-generation applications. During Phase I of the program significant progress has been made in the area of SOFC technology. A high-efficiency low-cost system was designed and supporting technology developed such as fuel processing, controls, thermal management, and power electronics. Phase I culminated in the successful demonstration of a prototype system that achieved a peak efficiency of 41%, a high-volume cost of $724/kW, a peak power of 5.4 kW, and a degradation rate of 1.8% per 500 hours. . An improved prototype system was designed, assembled, and delivered to DOE/NETL at the end of the program. This prototype achieved an extraordinary peak efficiency of 49.6%.

  6. The Effect of Cellulose Crystal Structure and Solid-State Morphology on the Activity of Cellulases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stipanovic, Arthur J [SUNY College of Environmental Science and Forestry

    2014-11-17T23:59:59.000Z

    Consistent with the US-DOE and USDA “Roadmap” objective of producing ethanol and chemicals from cellulosic feedstocks more efficiently, a three year research project entitled “The Effect of Cellulose Crystal Structure and Solid-State Morphology on the Activity of Cellulases” was initiated in early 2003 under DOE sponsorship (Project Number DE-FG02-02ER15356). A three year continuation was awarded in June 2005 for the period September 15, 2005 through September 14, 2008. The original goal of this project was to determine the effect of cellulose crystal structure, including allomorphic crystalline form (Cellulose I, II, III, IV and sub-allomorphs), relative degree of crystallinity and crystallite size, on the activity of different types of genetically engineered cellulase enzymes to provide insight into the mechanism and kinetics of cellulose digestion by “pure” enzymes rather than complex mixtures. We expected that such information would ultimately help enhance the accessibility of cellulose to enzymatic conversion processes thereby creating a more cost-effective commercial process yielding sugars for fermentation into ethanol and other chemical products. Perhaps the most significant finding of the initial project phase was that conversion of native bacterial cellulose (Cellulose I; BC-I) to the Cellulose II (BC-II) crystal form by aqueous NaOH “pretreatment” provided an increase in cellulase conversion rate approaching 2-4 fold depending on enzyme concentration and temperature, even when initial % crystallinity values were similar for both allomorphs.

  7. MHz repetition rate solid-state driver for high current induction accelerators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brooksby, C; Caporaso, G; Goerz, D; Hanks, R; Hickman, B; Kirbie, H; Lee, B; Saethre, R

    1999-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A research team from the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and Bechtel Nevada Corporation is developing an all solid-state power source for high current induction accelerators. The original power system design, developed for heavy-ion fusion accelerators, is based on the simple idea of using an array of field effect transistors to switch energy from a pre-charged capacitor bank to an induction accelerator cell. Recently, that idea has been expanded to accommodate the greater power needs of a new class of high-current electron accelerators for advanced radiography. For this purpose, we developed a 3-stage induction adder that uses over 4,000 field effect transistors to switch peak voltages of 45 kV at currents up to 4.8 kA with pulse repetition rates of up to 2 MHz. This radically advanced power system can generate a burst of five or more pulses that vary from 200 ns to 2 µs at a duty cycle of up to 25%. Our new source is precise, robust, flexible, and exceeds all previous drivers for induction machines by a factor of 400 in repetition rate and a factor of 1000 in duty cycle.

  8. Experimental studies in solid state and low temperature physics. Final report for 1966-1980

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goldman, A.M.; Weyhmann, W.V.; Zimmermann, W. Jr.

    1980-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Experimental and theoretical investigations have been carried out in a broad area of low temperature and solid state physics which includes superconductivity, theory of quantum crystals (through 1973), magnetism in metals, and liquid helium. The work in superconductivity has involved investigations of the Josephson effect, studies of the pair-field susceptibility of superconductors and investigations of the thermodynamics of the superconducting phase transition. The competition between the metal-nonmetal transition and superconductivity has also been studied in random metal-rare gas systems. In the area of magnetism, magnetically ordered materials and dilute magnetic alloys have been investigated. Enhanced hyperfine nuclear magnetic ordering was discovered in PrCu/sub 6/ at about 2.5 mK. The research on liquid /sup 4/He and /sup 3/He//sup 4/He mixtures has been directed at the quantum aspects of superfluid flow and rotation, the critical behavior near the lambda transition and the properties of the tricritical point. The theoretical program (through 1973) encompassed a broad spectrum of research on the properties of quantum liquids and solids with particular emphasis on crystalline /sup 3/He.

  9. 0-7803-8363-X/04/$20.00 2004 IEEE 20th IEEE SEMI-THERM Symposium Nanoscale Devices for Solid State Refrigeration and Power Generation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    on superlattice and quantum dot thermoelectrics and solid- state and vacuum thermionic thin film devices are reviewed. We also present an overview of the research activities at the multi university Thermionic Energy Conversion Center on the design of solid-state and vacuum devices that could convert heat into electricity

  10. 26. L. Y. Chen and N. C. MacDonald, Digest IEEE Int. Cont Solid-State Sensors Actuators (June 1991), p. 739.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Scott, William

    -- - 118 26. L. Y. Chen and N. C. MacDonald, Digest IEEE Int. Cont Solid-State Sensors Actuators. Najali, Digest IEEE Int. Electron Devices Meeting (Decem- ber 1991), in press. 29. K. Suzuki, ibid., p. 625. 30. W. Ehrfeld, F. Gotz, D. Munchmeyer, W. Schelb, D. Schmidt, Digest IEEE Solid-State Sensor

  11. GEOC Martial Taillefert Monday, April 08, 2013 72 Glyphosate sorption mechanism at the boehmite/water interface using solid state 31P NMR and P XANES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sparks, Donald L.

    /water interface using solid state 31P NMR and P XANES Wei Li1, weili@udel.edu, Xionghan Feng1,4, Paul Northrup2 examined the sorption mechanism of glyphosate to boehmite, a variablecharge soil mineral, using 31P solid state NMR, P Kedge XANES, and density function theory (DFT). The 31P NMR spectra contain three resolved

  12. Solid-State Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Evidence for an Extended Strand Conformation of the Membrane-Bound HIV-1 Fusion Peptide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weliky, David

    Solid-State Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Evidence for an Extended Strand Conformation of the Membrane-Bound HIV-1 Fusion Peptide Jun Yang, Charles M. Gabrys, and David P. Weliky* Department of ChemistryVed May 4, 2001 ABSTRACT: Solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy was applied

  13. Development of Advanced LED Phosphors by Spray-based Processes for Solid State Lighting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cabot Corporation

    2007-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The overarching goal of the project was to develop luminescent materials using aerosol processes for making improved LED devices for solid state lighting. In essence this means improving white light emitting phosphor based LEDs by improvement of the phosphor and phosphor layer. The structure of these types of light sources, displayed in Figure 1, comprises of a blue or UV LED under a phosphor layer that converts the blue or UV light to a broad visible (white) light. Traditionally, this is done with a blue emitting diode combined with a blue absorbing, broadly yellow emitting phosphor such as Y{sub 3}Al{sub 5}O{sub 12}:Ce (YAG). A similar result may be achieved by combining a UV emitting diode and at least three different UV absorbing phosphors: red, green, and blue emitting. These emitted colors mix to make white light. The efficiency of these LEDs is based on the combined efficiency of the LED, phosphor, and the interaction between the two. The Cabot SSL project attempted to improve the over all efficiency of the LED light source be improving the efficiency of the phosphor and the interaction between the LED light and the phosphor. Cabot's spray based process for producing phosphor powders is able to improve the brightness of the powder itself by increasing the activator (the species that emits the light) concentration without adverse quenching effects compared to conventional synthesis. This will allow less phosphor powder to be used, and will decrease the cost of the light source; thus lowering the barrier of entry to the lighting market. Cabot's process also allows for chemical flexibility of the phosphor particles, which may result in tunable emission spectra and so light sources with improved color rendering. Another benefit of Cabot's process is the resulting spherical morphology of the particles. Less light scattering results when spherical particles are used in the phosphor layer (Figure 1) compared to when conventional, irregular shaped phosphor particles are used. This spherical morphology will result in better light extraction and so an improvement of efficiency in the overall device. Cabot is a 2.5 billion dollar company that makes specialized materials using propriety spray based technologies. It is a core competency of Cabot's to exploit the spray based technology and resulting material/morphology advantages. Once a business opportunity is clearly identified, Cabot is positioned to increase the scale of the production to meet opportunity's need. Cabot has demonstrated the capability to make spherical morphology micron-sized phosphor powders by spray based routes for PDP and CRT applications, but the value proposition is still unproven for LED applications. Cabot believes that the improvements in phosphor powders yielded by their process will result in a commercial advantage over existing technologies. Through the SSL project, Cabot has produced a number of different compositions in a spherical morphology that may be useful for solid state lights, as well as demonstrated processes that are able to produce particles from 10 nanometers to 3 micrometers. Towards the end of the project we demonstrated that our process produces YAG:Ce powder that has both higher internal quantum efficiency (0.6 compared to 0.45) and external quantum efficiency (0.85 compared to 0.6) than the commercial standard (see section 3.4.4.3). We, however, only produced these highly bright materials in research and development quantities, and were never able to produce high quantum efficiency materials in a reproducible manner at a commercial scale.

  14. Hard Disk/Solid State Drive Synergy in Support of Data-Intensive Computing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu,Ke [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Jiang, Song [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Davis, Kei [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-07-19T23:59:59.000Z

    Data-intensive applications are becoming increasingly common in high-performance computing. Examples include combustion simulation, human genome analysis, and satellite image processing. Efficient access of data sets is critical to the performance of these applications. Because of the size of the data today's economically feasible approach is to store the data files on an array of hard disks or data servers equipped with hard disks and managed by a parallel file system such as PVFS or Lustre wherein the data is striped over a (large) number of disks for high aggregate I/O throughout. With file striping, a request for a segment of logically contiguous file space is decomposed into multiple sub-requests, each to a different server. While the data unit for this striping is usually reasonably large to benefit disk efficiency, the first and/or last sub-requests can be much smaller than the striping unit if the request does not align with the striping pattern, severely compromising hard disk efficiency and thus application performance. We propose to exploit solid state drives (SSD), whose efficiency is much less sensitive to small random accesses, to enable the alignment of requests to disk with the data striping pattern. In this scheme hard disks mainly serve large, aligned, sequential requests, with SSDs serving small or unaligned requests, thus respecting the relative cost, performance, and durability characteristics of the two media, and thereby achieving synergy in performance/cost. We will describe the design of the proposed scheme, its implementation on CCS-7's Darwin cluster, and performance results.

  15. High-Resolution NMR of Quadrupolar Nuclei in the Solid State

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gann, Sheryl Lee

    1995-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

    This dissertation describes recent developments in solid state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), for the most part involving the use of dynamic-angle spinning (DAS) NMR to study quadrupolar nuclei. Chapter 1 introduces some of the basic concepts and theory that will be referred to in later chapters, such as the density operator, product operators, rotations, coherence transfer pathways, phase cycling, and the various nuclear spin interactions, including the quadrupolar interaction. Chapter 2 describes the theory behind motional averaging experiments, including DAS, which is a technique where a sample is spun sequentially about two axis oriented at different angles with respect to the external magnetic field such that the chemical shift and quadrupolar anisotropy are averaged to zero. Work done on various rubidium-87 salts is presented as a demonstration of DAS. Chapter 3 explains how to remove sidebands from DAS and magic-angle spinning (MAS) experiments, which result from the time-dependence of the Hamiltonian under sample spinning conditions, using rotor-synchronized {pi}-pulses. Data from these experiments, known as DAH-180 and MAH-180, respectively, are presented for both rubidium and lead salts. In addition, the applicability of this technique to double rotation (DOR) experiments is discussed. Chapter 4 concerns the addition of cross-polarization to DAS (CPDAS). The theory behind spin locking and cross polarizing quadrupolar nuclei is explained and a method of avoiding the resulting problems by performing cross polarization at 0{sup o} (parallel) with respect to the magnetic field is presented. Experimental results are shown for a sodium-23 compound, sodium pyruvate, and for oxygen-17 labeled L-akmine. In Chapter 5, a method for broadening the Hartmann-Hahn matching condition under MAS, called variable effective field cross-polarization (VEFCI?), is presented, along with experimental work on adamantane and polycarbonate.

  16. Solid-state Structural Characterization of a Rigid Framework of Lacunary Heteropolyniobates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nyman,M.; Celestian, A.; Holland, G.; Alam, T.; Parise, J.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In our ongoing investigations of heteropolyniobate chemistry, a phase featuring decorated, A-type trivacant {alpha}-Keggin ions linked by their charge-balancing sodium cations has been isolated and structurally characterized. This is the first heteropolyniobate reported that has a true lacunary structure type. Na{sub 15}[(PO{sub 2}){sub 3}PNb{sub 9}O{sub 34}]{center_dot}22H{sub 2}O (1) [triclinic space group P{bar 1} (No. 2); a = 12.242 (2) Angstroms, b = 12.291 (3) Angstroms, c = 22.056 (4) Angstroms; {alpha}= 93.12 (3), {beta}= 99.78 (3), {gamma}= 119.84 (3); Z = 4, V = 2799.2 (10) Angstroms{sup 3}] is composed of bilayers of the heteropolyanions alternating with layers of hydrated Na{sup +} cations. Sodium cations also bridge the clusters within their layers through Na-Ot-Nb, Na-Ob-Nb2, and Na-Ot-P bonds (t = terminal and b = bridging). This phase is poorly soluble in water, suggesting that it is more characteristic of a framework of linked heteropolyanions rather than a water-soluble heteropolyanion salt. Two-dimensional solid-state {sup 23}Na multiple-quantum magic angle spinning (MAS) NMR of 1 reveals five distinctive chemical and structural environments for sodium, which agrees with the crystallographic data. The {sup 23}Na and {sup 1}H MAS NMR studies further illustrate the rigid and immobile nature of this framework of cations and anions.

  17. Solid-State NMR Examination of Alteration Layers on a Nuclear Waste Glasses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Murphy, Kelly A. [Penn State Univ., State College, PA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Washton, Nancy M. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States). Environmental Molecular Science Lab.; Ryan, Joseph V. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Pantano, Carlo G. [Penn State Univ., State College, PA (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering; Mueller, Karl T. [Penn State Univ., State College, PA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States). Environmental Molecular Science Lab.

    2013-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Solid-state NMR is a powerful tool for probing the role and significance of alteration layers in determining the kinetics for the corrosion of nuclear waste glass. NMR methods are used to probe the chemical structure of the alteration layers to elucidate information about their chemical complexity, leading to increased insight into the mechanism of altered layer formation. Two glass compositions were examined in this study: a glass preliminarily designed for nuclear waste immobilization (called AFCI) and a simplified version of this AFCI glass (which we call SA1R). Powdered glasses with controlled and known particles sizes were corroded at 90 °C for periods of one and five months with a surface-area to solution-volume ratio of 100,000 m-1. 1H-29Si CP-CPMG MAS NMR, 1H-27Al CP-MAS NMR, 1H-11B CP-MAS NMR, and 1H-23Na CP-MAS NMR experiments provide isolated structural information about the alteration layers, which differ in structure from that of the pristine glass. Both glasses studied here develop alteration layers composed primarily of [IV]Si species. Aluminum is also retained in the alteration layers, perhaps facilitated by the observed increase in coordination from [IV]Al to [VI]Al, which correlates with a loss of charge balancing cations. 1H-11B CP-MAS NMR observations indicated a retention of boron in hydrated glass layers, which has not been characterized by previous work. For the AFCI glass, secondary phase formation begins during the corrosion times considered here, and these neophases are detected within the alteration layers. We identify precursor phases as crystalline sodium metasilicates. An important finding is that layer thickness depends on the length of the initial alteration stages and varies only with respect to silicon species during the residual rate regime.

  18. Development of bulk-type all-solid-state lithium-sulfur battery using LiBH{sub 4} electrolyte

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Unemoto, Atsushi, E-mail: unemoto@imr.tohoku.ac.jp; Ikeshoji, Tamio [WPI-Advanced Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, 2-1-1 Katahira, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); Yasaku, Syun; Matsuo, Motoaki [Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, 2-1-1 Katahira, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); Nogami, Genki; Tazawa, Masaru; Taniguchi, Mitsugu [Mitsubishi Gas Chemicals Co., Ltd., 182 Tayuhama Shinwari, Kita-ku, Niigata 950-3112 (Japan); Orimo, Shin-ichi [WPI-Advanced Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, 2-1-1 Katahira, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, 2-1-1 Katahira, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan)

    2014-08-25T23:59:59.000Z

    Stable battery operation of a bulk-type all-solid-state lithium-sulfur battery was demonstrated by using a LiBH{sub 4} electrolyte. The electrochemical activity of insulating elemental sulfur as the positive electrode was enhanced by the mutual dispersion of elemental sulfur and carbon in the composite powders. Subsequently, a tight interface between the sulfur-carbon composite and the LiBH{sub 4} powders was manifested only by cold-pressing owing to the highly deformable nature of the LiBH{sub 4} electrolyte. The high reducing ability of LiBH{sub 4} allows using the use of a Li negative electrode that enhances the energy density. The results demonstrate the interface modification of insulating sulfur and the architecture of an all-solid-state Li-S battery configuration with high energy density.

  19. Low-rank coal research

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weber, G. F.; Laudal, D. L.

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This work is a compilation of reports on ongoing research at the University of North Dakota. Topics include: Control Technology and Coal Preparation Research (SO{sub x}/NO{sub x} control, waste management), Advanced Research and Technology Development (turbine combustion phenomena, combustion inorganic transformation, coal/char reactivity, liquefaction reactivity of low-rank coals, gasification ash and slag characterization, fine particulate emissions), Combustion Research (fluidized bed combustion, beneficiation of low-rank coals, combustion characterization of low-rank coal fuels, diesel utilization of low-rank coals), Liquefaction Research (low-rank coal direct liquefaction), and Gasification Research (hydrogen production from low-rank coals, advanced wastewater treatment, mild gasification, color and residual COD removal from Synfuel wastewaters, Great Plains Gasification Plant, gasifier optimization).

  20. INVESTIGATING THE EFFECT OF ENANTIOMERIC RATIO AND PREPARATION METHOD ON CRYSTALLINE FORMS OF PROLINE USING SOLID-STATE NMR SPECTROSCOPY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Berendt, Robert Thomas

    2010-08-26T23:59:59.000Z

    and to Dr. Sury for time on the powder X-ray difractometer at the University of Minnesota Characterization Facility. I am greatly indebted to Al and Lila Self. The programing of the Madison & Lila Self Graduate Felowship enriched my time here...................................................22 1.7.2 Binary phase diagrams............................................................25 1.8 Methods for analyzing chiral molecules in the solid-state......................27 1.8.1 Solution methods...

  1. A green synthesis of a layered titanate, potassium lithium titanate; lower temperature solid-state reaction and improved materials performance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ogawa, Makoto, E-mail: waseda.ogawa@gmail.com [Graduate School of Creative Science and Engineering, Waseda University, 1-6-1 Nishiwaseda, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 169-8050 (Japan); Department of Earth Sciences, Waseda University, 1-6-1 Nishiwaseda, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 169-8050 (Japan); Morita, Masashi, E-mail: m-masashi@y.akane.waseda.jp [Graduate School of Creative Science and Engineering, Waseda University, 1-6-1 Nishiwaseda, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 169-8050 (Japan); Igarashi, Shota, E-mail: uxei_yoshi_yoshi@yahoo.co.jp [Graduate School of Creative Science and Engineering, Waseda University, 1-6-1 Nishiwaseda, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 169-8050 (Japan); Sato, Soh, E-mail: rookie_so_sleepy@yahoo.co.jp [Graduate School of Creative Science and Engineering, Waseda University, 1-6-1 Nishiwaseda, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 169-8050 (Japan)

    2013-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A layered titanate, potassium lithium titanate, with the size range from 0.1 to 30 µm was prepared to show the effects of the particle size on the materials performance. The potassium lithium titanate was prepared by solid-state reaction as reported previously, where the reaction temperature was varied. The reported temperature for the titanate preparation was higher than 800 °C, though 600 °C is good enough to obtain single-phase potassium lithium titanate. The lower temperature synthesis is cost effective and the product exhibit better performance as photocatalysts due to surface reactivity. - Graphical abstract: Finite particle of a layered titanate, potassium lithium titanate, was prepared by solid-state reaction at lower temperature to show modified materials performance. Display Omitted - Highlights: • Potassium lithium titanate was prepared by solid-state reaction. • Lower temperature reaction resulted in smaller sized particles of titanate. • 600 °C was good enough to obtain single phased potassium lithium titanate. • The product exhibited better performance as photocatalyst.

  2. It all began in 2001, when three NREL researchers took their thin-film expertise from window technology research and applied it to a solid-state, thin-film lithium battery. The researchers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    window technology research and applied it to a solid-state, thin-film lithium battery. The researchers

  3. Astronomy Ranking Task: Stellar Evolution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Farritor, Shane

    Cloud of Gas and Dust C Neutron Star I White Dwarf D Supernova Type II J Black Hole E Nothing K Supernova Type I F Giant L Nova M Gravity Collapse of Gas/Dust Cloud A) Ranking Instructions: Rank, from

  4. DOE Announces Selection of National Laboratory Center for Solid-State Lighting R&D and Seven Projects for Core Technology Research in Nanotechnology

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), on behalf of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), is pleased to announce the selection of the National Laboratory Center for Solid-State Lighting...

  5. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Solid State NMR Studies of Li-Rich NMC Cathodes: Investigating Structure Change and Its Effect on Voltage Fade Phenomenon

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by Argonne National Laboratory at 2014 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about solid state NMR...

  6. Solid State Joining of High Temperature Alloy Tubes for USC and Heat-Exchanger Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bimal Kad

    2011-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The principal objective of this project was to develop materials enabling joining technologies for use in forward looking heat-exchanger fabrication in Brayton cycle HIPPS, IGCC, FutureGen concepts capable of operating at temperatures in excess of 1000{degree}C as well as conventional technology upgrades via Ultra Super-Critical (USC) Rankine-cycle boilers capable of operating at 760{degree}C (1400F)/38.5MPa (5500psi) steam, while still using coal as the principal fossil fuel. The underlying mission in Rankine, Brayton or Brayton-Rankine, or IGCC combined cycle heat engine is a steady quest to improving operating efficiency while mitigating global environmental concerns. There has been a progressive move to higher overall cycle efficiencies, and in the case of fossil fuels this has accelerated recently in part because of concerns about greenhouse gas emissions, notably CO{sub 2}. For a heat engine, the overall efficiency is closely related to the difference between the highest temperature in the cycle and the lowest temperature. In most cases, efficiency gains are prompted by an increase in the high temperature, and this in turn has led to increasing demands on the materials of construction used in the high temperature end of the systems. Our migration to new advanced Ni-base and Oxide Dispersion Strengthened (ODS) alloys poses significant fabrication challenges, as these materials are not readily weldable or the weld performs poorly in the high temperature creep regime. Thus the joining challenge is two-fold to a) devise appropriate joining methodologies for similar/dissimilar Ni-base and ODS alloys while b) preserving the near baseline creep performance in the welded region. Our program focus is on solid state joining of similar and dissimilar metals/alloys for heat exchanger components currently under consideration for the USC, HIPPS and IGCC power systems. The emphasis is to manipulate the joining methods and variables available to optimize joint creep performance compared to the base material creep performance. Similar and dissimilar butt joints were fabricated of MA956, IN740 alloys and using inertia welding techniques. We evaluated joining process details and heat treatments and its overall effect on creep response. Fixed and incrementally accelerated temperature creep tests were performed for similar and dissimilar joints and such incremental creep life data is compiled and reported. Long term MA956-MA556 joint tests indicate a firm 2Ksi creep stress threshold performance at 850{degree}C with a maximum exposure of over 9725 hours recorded in the current program. A Larsen Miller Parameter (LMP) of 48.50 for a 2Ksi test at 850{degree}C was further corroborated with tests at 2Ksi stress at 900{degree}C yielding a LMP=48.80. Despite this threshold the joints exhibit immense temperature sensitivity and fail promptly when test temperature raised above 900{degree}C. In comparison the performance of dissimilar joints was inferior, perhaps dictated by the creep characteristics of the mating nickel-base alloys. We describe a parametric window of joint development, and post weld heat treatment (PWHT) in dissimilar joints with solid solution (IN601, IN617) and precipitate strengthened (IN740) materials. Some concerns are evident regarding the diffusion of aluminum in dissimilar joints during high temperature recrystallization treatments. It is noted that aggressive treatments rapidly deplete the corrosion protecting aluminum reservoir in the vicinity of the joint interface. Subsequently, the impact of varying PWHT has been evaluated in the context on ensuing creep performance.

  7. International trends in solid-state lighting : analyses of the article and patent literature.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tsao, Jeffrey Yeenien; Huey, Mark C. (Strategic Perspectives, Incorporated, McLean, VA); Boyack, Kevin W.; Miksovic, Ann E. (Strategic Perspectives, Incorporated, McLean, VA)

    2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We present an analysis of the literature of solid-state lighting, based on a comprehensive dataset of 35,851 English-language articles and 12,420 U.S. patents published or issued during the years 1977-2004 in the foundational knowledge domain of electroluminescent materials and phenomena. The dataset was created using a complex, iteratively developed search string. The records in the dataset were then partitioned according to: whether they are articles or patents, their publication or issue date, their national or continental origin, whether the active electroluminescent material was inorganic or organic, and which of a number of emergent knowledge sub-domains they aggregate into on the basis of bibliographic coupling. From these partitionings, we performed a number of analyses, including: identification of knowledge sub-domains of historical and recent importance, and trends over time of the contributions of various nations and continents to the knowledge domain and its sub-domains. Among the key results: (1) The knowledge domain as a whole has been growing quickly: the average growth rates of the inorganic and organic knowledge sub-domains have been 8%/yr and 25%/yr, respectively, compared to average growth rates less than 5%/yr for English-language articles and U.S. patents in other knowledge domains. The growth rate of the organic knowledge sub-domain is so high that its historical dominance by the inorganic knowledge sub-domain will, at current trajectories, be reversed in the coming decade. (2) Amongst nations, the U.S. is the largest contributor to the overall knowledge domain, but Japan is on a trajectory to become the largest contributor within the coming half-decade. Amongst continents, Asia became the largest contributor during the past half-decade, overwhelmingly so for the organic knowledge sub-domain. (3) The relative contributions to the article and patent datasets differ for the major continents: North America contributing relatively more patents, Europe contributing relatively more articles, and Asia contributing in a more balanced fashion. (4) For the article dataset, the nations that contribute most in quantity also contribute most in breadth, while the nations that contribute less in quantity concentrate their contributions in particular knowledge sub-domains. For the patent dataset, North America and Europe tend to contribute improvements in end-use applications (e.g., in sensing, phototherapy and communications), while Asia tends to contribute improvements at the materials and chip levels. (5) The knowledge sub-domains that emerge from aggregations based on bibliographic coupling are roughly organized, for articles, by the degree of localization of electrons and holes in the material or phenomenon of interest, and for patents, according to both their emphasis on chips, systems or applications, and their emphasis on organic or inorganic materials. (6) The six 'hottest' topics in the article dataset are: spintronics, AlGaN UV LEDs, nanowires, nanophosphors, polyfluorenes and electrophosphorescence. The nine 'hottest' topics in the patent dataset are: OLED encapsulation, active-matrix displays, multicolor OLEDs, thermal transfer for OLED fabrication, ink-jet printed OLEDs, phosphor-converted LEDs, ornamental LED packages, photocuring and phototherapy, and LED retrofitting lamps. A significant caution in interpreting these results is that they are based on English-language articles and U.S. patents, and hence will tend to over-represent the strength of English-speaking nations (particularly the U.S.), and under-represent the strength of non-English-speaking nations (particularly China).

  8. A self-injected, diode-pumped, solid-state ring laser for laser cooling of Li atoms

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Miake, Yudai; O'Hara, Kenneth M; Gensemer, Stephen

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We have constructed a solid-state light source for experiments with laser cooled lithium atoms based on a Nd:YVO$_4$ ring laser with second-harmonic generation. Unidirectional lasing, an improved mode selection, and a high output power of the ring laser was achieved by weak coupling to an external cavity which contained the lossy elements required for single frequency operation. Continuous frequency tuning is accomplished by controlling two PZTs in the internal and the external cavities simultaneously. The light source has been utilized to trap and cool fermionic lithium atoms into the quantum degenerate regime.

  9. Local structure analysis of solid state ionic conductors, perovskite-derived structures by NMR and computational studies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dervisoglu, Riza

    2013-10-08T23:59:59.000Z

    , supportive, encouraging, and patient wife Gulay. Despite the physical distance I have felt her comforting presence by my side throughout all these years. Thank you. Abstract In this work, local environments of ions in solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) elec... conductors so as to develop new materials for use in solid state devices such as Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFCs), sensors and gas separation membranes.(Shewmon [29], Julien and Nazri [30], Kharton et al. [31], Tillement [32]) SOFCs have the potential to be a...

  10. Reconstituted Polymeric Materials Derived From Post-Consumer Waste, Industrial Scrap And Virgin Resins Made By Solid State Shear Pulverizat

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Khait, Klementina (Skokie, IL)

    2005-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of making polymeric particulates wherein polymeric scrap material, virgin polymeric material and mixtures thereof are supplied to intermeshing extruder screws which are rotated to transport the polymeric material along their length and subject the polymeric material to solid state shear pulverization and in-situ polymer compatibilization, if two or more incompatible polymers are present. Uniform pulverized particulates are produced without addition of a compatibilizing agent. The pulverized particulates are directly melt processable (as powder feedstock) and surprisingly yield a substantially homogeneous light color product.

  11. Reconstituted polymeric materials derived from post-consumer waste, industrial scrap and virgin resins made by solid state pulverization

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Khait, Klementina (Skokie, IL)

    1998-09-29T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of making polymeric particulates wherein polymeric scrap material, virgin polymeric material and mixtures thereof are supplied to intermeshing extruder screws which are rotated to transport the polymeric material along their length and subject the polymeric material to solid state shear pulverization and in-situ polymer compatibilization, if two or more incompatible polymers are present. Uniform pulverized particulates are produced without addition of a compatibilizing agent. The pulverized particulates are directly melt processable (as powder feedstock) and surprisingly yield a substantially homogeneous light color product.

  12. Reconstituted polymeric materials derived from post-consumer waste, industrial scrap and virgin resins made by solid state shear pulverization

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Khait, Klementina (Skokie, IL)

    2001-01-30T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of making polymeric particulates wherein polymeric scrap material, virgin polymeric material and mixtures thereof are supplied to intermeshing extruder screws which are rotated to transport the polymeric material along their length and subject the polymeric material to solid state shear pulverization and in-situ polymer compatibilization, if two or more incompatible polymers are present. Uniform pulverized particulates are produced without addition of a compatibilizing agent. The pulverized particulates are directly melt processable (as powder feedstock) and surprisingly yield a substantially homogeneous light color product.

  13. Variable-temperature solid-state NMR studies of iron(II) and iron(III) complexes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shepard, Patricia Arlene

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    the first communication reporting the use of C CP/MAS NMR to observe paramagnetic solids directly. Zust as shift reagents had been used in solution-state NMR, selected paramagnetic lanthanide acetates exhibited paramagnetic shifts in the solid state... of the Fe(III) chloride salt yields the w-oxo-bis[porphine- iron(III)] dimer where the two iron centers are bridged via an oxygen. The synthesis, characterization and crystal structure of the metallo-porphyrin dimer w-oxo-bis[tetra- phenylporphineiron...

  14. Reconstituted polymeric materials derived from post-consumer waste, industrial scrap and virgin resins made by solid state pulverization

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Khait, K.

    1998-09-29T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of making polymeric particulates is described wherein polymeric scrap material, virgin polymeric material and mixtures thereof are supplied to intermeshing extruder screws which are rotated to transport the polymeric material along their length and subject the polymeric material to solid state shear pulverization and in-situ polymer compatibilization, if two or more incompatible polymers are present. Uniform pulverized particulates are produced without addition of a compatible agent. The pulverized particulates are directly melt processable (as powder feedstock) and surprisingly yield a substantially homogeneous light color product. 29 figs.

  15. PageRank of integers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    K. M. Frahm; A. D. Chepelianskii; D. L. Shepelyansky

    2012-05-29T23:59:59.000Z

    We build up a directed network tracing links from a given integer to its divisors and analyze the properties of the Google matrix of this network. The PageRank vector of this matrix is computed numerically and it is shown that its probability is inversely proportional to the PageRank index thus being similar to the Zipf law and the dependence established for the World Wide Web. The spectrum of the Google matrix of integers is characterized by a large gap and a relatively small number of nonzero eigenvalues. A simple semi-analytical expression for the PageRank of integers is derived that allows to find this vector for matrices of billion size. This network provides a new PageRank order of integers.

  16. Scaling Up: Kilolumen Solid-State Lighting Exceeding 100 LPW via Remote Phosphor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Waqidi Falicoff

    2008-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    This thirty-month project was successful in attaining its ambitious objectives of demonstrating a radically novel 'remote-phosphor' LED light source that can out-perform conventional conformal coated phosphor LED sources. Numerous technical challenges were met with innovative techniques and optical configurations. This product development program for a new generation of solid-state light sources has attained unprecedented luminosity (over 1 kilo-lumen) and efficacy (based on the criterion lumens per 100mw radiant blue). LPI has successfully demonstrated its proprietary technology for optical synthesis of large uniform sources out of the light output of an array of separated LEDs. Numerous multiple blue LEDs illuminate single a phosphor patch. By separating the LEDs from the phosphor, the phosphor and LEDs operate cooler and with higher efficiency over a wide range of operating conditions (from startup to steady state). Other benefits of the system include: better source uniformity, more types of phosphor can be used (chemical interaction and high temperatures are no longer an issue), and the phosphor can be made up from a pre-manufactured sheet (thereby lowering cost and complexity of phosphor deposition). Several laboratory prototypes were built and operated at the expected high performance level. The project fully explored two types of remote phosphor system: transmissive and reflective. The first was found to be well suited for a replacement for A19 type incandescent bulbs, as it was able to replicate the beam pattern of a traditional filament bulb. The second type has the advantages that it is pre-collimate source that has an adjustable color temperature. The project was divided in two phases: Phase I explored a transmissive design and Phase II of the project developed reflective architectures. Additionally, in Phase II the design of a spherical emitting transmissive remote phosphor bulb was developed that is suitable for replacement of A19 and similar light bulbs. In Phase II several new reflective remote phosphor systems were developed and patents applied for. This research included the development of reflective systems in which the short-pass filter operated at a nominal incidence angle of 15{sup o}, a major advancement of this technology. Another goal of the project was to show that it is possible to align multiple optics to multiple LEDs (spaced apart for better thermal management) to within an accuracy in the z-direction of 10 microns or less. This goal was achieved. A further goal was to show it is possible to combine and homogenize the output from multiple LEDs without any flux loss or significant increase in etendue. This goal also was achieved. The following color-coded computer drawing of the Phase 2 reflective remote phosphor prototype gives an idea of the accuracy challenges encountered in such an assembly. The actual setup has less functional clarity due to the numerous items of auxiliary equipment involved. Not only did 10 degrees of freedoms alignment have to be supplied to the LEDs and component prisms as well, but there were also micro-titrating glue dispensers and vacuum hoses. The project also utilized a recently introduced high-index glass, available in small customized prisms. This prototype also embodies a significant advance in thin-film design, by which an unprecedented 98% single-pass efficiency was attained over a 30 degree range of incidence angle (Patents Pending). Such high efficiency is especially important since it applies to the blue light going to the phosphor and then again to the phosphor's light, so that the 'system' efficiency associated with short-pass filter was 95.5%. Other losses have to be kept equally small, towards which a new type of ultra-clear injection-moldable acrylic was discovered and used to make ultra-transparent CPC optics. Several transmissive remote phosphor prototypes were manufactured that could replace screw-in type incandescent bulbs. The CRI of the white light from these prototypes varied from 55 to 93. The system efficiency achieved was between 27 to 29.5

  17. Raman and absorption spectrophotometric studies of selected lanthanide, californium-doped lanthanide, and actinide trihalides in the solid state

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wilmarth, W.R.

    1988-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The solid-state absorption spectra of Cf(III) ions as a dopant in lanthanide trihalide hosts (LnCl/sub 3/: Ln = Ce, Sm, and Y; LnBr/sub 3/: Ln = Ce, Sm, Tb, and Y; LnI/sub 3/: Ln = Ce and Y) have been recorded. The spectra of Cf(III) have been correlated with the various crystal structures. The phonon Raman spectra and solid-state absorption spectra of PmF/sub 3/, PmCl/sub 3/, PmBr/sub 3/, and two crystal modifications of PmI/sub 3/ have been recorded. Symmetry assignments have been made for the Raman-active bands for these trihalides and also the sesquioxide. The room-temperature absorption spectra have been correlated to crystal field effects. The symmetry assignments of the Raman-active phonon modes have been made based on polarized Raman spectra from single crystals of YF/sub 3/-type orthorhombic TbF/sub 3/ and PuBr/sub 3/-type orthorhombic NdBr/sub 3/. Raman spectra of other isostructural lanthanide compounds have been recorded and compared. Symmetry assignments for these compounds have been made by analogy to the single-crystal assignments. Raman spectra have been obtained and catalogued for a number of actinide compounds. Symmetry assignments have been made for the observed Raman-active phonon bands in this work based on the assignments made for isostructural lanthanide compounds. 29 figs., 22 tabs.

  18. Solid-state NMR analysis of the {beta}-strand orientation of the protofibrils of amyloid {beta}-protein

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Doi, Takashi [Graduate School of Science, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan)] [Graduate School of Science, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Masuda, Yuichi, E-mail: masuda@mail.pharm.tohoku.ac.jp [Graduate School of Science, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan) [Graduate School of Science, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8578 (Japan); Irie, Kazuhiro [Graduate School of Agriculture, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan)] [Graduate School of Agriculture, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Akagi, Ken-ichi; Monobe, Youko; Imazawa, Takayoshi [Section of Laboratory Equipment, Division of Biomedical Research, National Institute of Biomedical Innovation, Osaka 567-0085 (Japan)] [Section of Laboratory Equipment, Division of Biomedical Research, National Institute of Biomedical Innovation, Osaka 567-0085 (Japan); Takegoshi, K. [Graduate School of Science, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan)] [Graduate School of Science, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan)

    2012-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The supramolecular structure of A{beta}42 protofibrils was analyzed by solid-state NMR. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The Ala-21 residue in the A{beta}42 protofibrils is included in a slightly disordered {beta}-strand. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The A{beta}42 protofibrils do not form intermolecular in-register parallel {beta}-sheets. -- Abstract: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is caused by abnormal deposition (fibrillation) of a 42-residue amyloid {beta}-protein (A{beta}42) in the brain. During the process of fibrillation, the A{beta}42 takes the form of protofibrils with strong neurotoxicity, and is thus believed to play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of AD. To elucidate the supramolecular structure of the A{beta}42 protofibrils, the intermolecular proximity of the Ala-21 residues in the A{beta}42 protofibrils was analyzed by {sup 13}C-{sup 13}C rotational resonance experiments in the solid state. Unlike the A{beta}42 fibrils, an intermolecular {sup 13}C-{sup 13}C correlation was not found in the A{beta}42 protofibrils. This result suggests that the {beta}-strands of the A{beta}42 protofibrils are not in an in-register parallel orientation. A{beta}42 monomers would assemble to form protofibrils with the {beta}-strand conformation, then transform into fibrils by forming intermolecular parallel {beta}-sheets.

  19. “Zero-length” Cross-linking in Solid State as an Approach for Analysis of Protein -Protein Interactions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elshafey, Ahmed; Tolic, Nikola; Young, Malin M.; Sale, Kenneth L.; Smith, Richard D.; Kery, Vladimir

    2006-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Analyzing the architecture of protein complexes is a difficult task. Chemical cross-linking is often used in combination with mass spectrometric analysis to elucidate the interaction interfaces between proteins. We have developed a new approach for the analysis of interacting interfaces in protein complexes based on cross-linking in the solid state. Protein complexes are freeze-dried under vacuum and cross-links are introduced in the solid phase by dehydrating the protein in a non-water solvent, thus, creating peptide bonds between amino and carboxyl groups of the interacting peptides. Cross-linked proteins are digested into peptides with trypsin in both H216O and H218O and then readily distinguished in mass spectra by characteristic 8 atomic mass unit (amu) shifts reflecting incorporation of two 18O atoms into each C-terminus of proteolytic peptides. Computer analysis of mass spectrometry (MS) and MS/MS data is used to identify the cross-linked peptides.We demonstrated our method by cross-linking homooligomeric protein complexes alone or in a mixture of many other proteins. Cross-linking in the solid state was shown to be specific and reproducible. Glutathione-S-transferase (GST) from Schistosoma japonicum was studied in more detail. Twenty-seven unique intra-molecular and two inter-molecular cross-linked peptides were identified using tryptic mapping followed by LTQ-MS analysis. Identified cross-links were predominantly of amide origin, but six esters and thioesters were also found. Identified cross-linked peptides were validated by computational (visualization of cross-links in the three-dimensional [3D] structure of GST) and experimental (MS/MS) analyses. Most of the identified cross-links matched interacting peptides in the native 3D structure of GST indicating that the structure of GST and its oligomeric complex remained primarily intact after freeze drying. The pattern of oligomeric GST obtained in solid state was the same as that obtained in solution by Ru(II)Bpy32+ catalyzed, oxidative ?zero-length? cross-linking, confirming that it is feasible to use our strategy for analyzing the molecular interfaces of interacting proteins or peptides.

  20. Ranking species in mutualistic networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Domínguez-García, Virginia

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Understanding the architectural subtleties of ecological networks, believed to confer them enhanced stability and robustness, is a subject of outmost relevance. Mutualistic interactions have been profusely studied and their corresponding bipartite networks, such as plant-pollinator networks, have been reported to exhibit a characteristic "nested" structure. Assessing the importance of any given species in mutualistic networks is a key task when evaluating extinction risks and possible cascade effects. Inspired in a recently introduced algorithm --similar in spirit to Google's PageRank but with a built-in non-linearity-- here we propose a method which --by exploiting their nested architecture-- allows us to derive a sound ranking of species importance in mutualistic networks. This method clearly outperforms other existing ranking schemes and can become very useful for ecosystem management and biodiversity preservation, where decisions on what aspects of ecosystems to explicitly protect need to be made.

  1. Structural Evolution and Li Dynamics in Nanophase Li3PS4 by Solid-State and Pulsed Field Gradient NMR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gobet, Mallory [Hunter College of the City University of New York] [Hunter College of the City University of New York; Greenbaum, Steve [Hunter College of the City University of New York] [Hunter College of the City University of New York; Sahu, Gayatri [ORNL] [ORNL; Liang, Chengdu [ORNL] [ORNL

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The ceramic lithium ion conductor -Li3PS4 has a disordered and nanoporous structure that leads to an enhancement in ionic conductivity by some three orders of magnitude compared to the crystalline phase. The phase is prepared by thermal treatment of an inorganic-organic complex based on Li3PS4 and THF. Multinuclear (1H, 6,7Li, 31P) solid state NMR spectroscopy is used to characterize the structural phase evolution of the starting material at various steps in the thermal treatment. The phase formed after high temperature treatment is recognized as spectroscopically distinct from the bulk -Li3PS4 compound. Also formed is an amorphous lithium thiophosphate phase that is metastable as verified by annealing over an extended period. Lithium ion self-diffusion coefficients are measurable by standard pulsed gradient NMR methods at 100oC and with values consistent with the high ionic conductivity previously reported for this material.

  2. Thermally-induced solid state transformation of ??Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanoparticles in various atmospheres

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Malina, Ondrej, E-mail: ondrej.malina@upol.cz; Kaslik, Josef, E-mail: ondrej.malina@upol.cz; Tucek, Jiri, E-mail: ondrej.malina@upol.cz; Cuda, Jan, E-mail: ondrej.malina@upol.cz; Medrik, Ivo, E-mail: ondrej.malina@upol.cz; Zboril, Radek, E-mail: ondrej.malina@upol.cz [Regional Centre of Advanced Technologies and Materials, Departments of Experimental Physics and Physical Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Palacký University Olomouc, 17. listopadu 1192/12, 771 46 Olomouc (Czech Republic)

    2014-10-27T23:59:59.000Z

    To date, iron oxides have become one of the most studied nanomaterials due to their interesting and aaplication appealing physical, chemical, and biological properties in comparison with their bulk counterparts. In general, four forms of iron(III) oxide can be distinguished depending on their crystallographic and magnetic properties. In this work, one of the rare phases of iron(III) oxide, ??Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}, prepared by the solid state reaction was explored for the thermal transformations in various ambient atmospheres, including O{sub 2}, N{sub 2}, and CO{sub 2} atmospheres. The thermally treated products were investigated employing X-ray powder diffraction and {sup 57}Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy.

  3. Robust Rankings for College Football

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2012-01-06T23:59:59.000Z

    Oct 11, 2011 ... tournament at the end of a season to determine the best team (or national champion). ?Department of Management Sciences, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA, ... practice. One such method, which is one of six computer rankings used ...... inconsequential set I. One could also manually choose a completely ...

  4. POLYTOPES OF MINIMUM POSITIVE SEMIDEFINITE RANK 1 ...

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2012-05-23T23:59:59.000Z

    M ? rank M. In Exam- ple 2.3 we saw that the first inequality may be strict. We now ..... Let Si denote the ith row of SP . Since rank SP = n+ 1, we have ? n+2.

  5. J. Phys. C: Solid State Phys., Vol. 8, 1975.Printed in Great Britain. @ 1975 The metal-insulator transition in lanthanum strontium vanadate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Reuven

    + and an enhanced hole conduction in the system of vanadium 3d bands. Mott (1972)has suggested that this systemJ. Phys. C: Solid State Phys., Vol. 8, 1975.Printed in Great Britain. @ 1975 The metal in AC conductivity and a temperature dependent activation energy at temperatures below 100K

  6. J. Phys. C: Solid State Phys., Vol. 8, 1975.Printed in Great Britain. @ 1975 Free energies of inhomogeneous spatially dispersive media:11.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chan, Derek Y C

    J. Phys. C: Solid State Phys., Vol. 8, 1975.Printed in Great Britain. @ 1975 Free energies and surface free energies in terms of the dielectric response functions ~ ( q ,CO)which characterize the bulk inconsistencies connected with the zero frequency contribution or classical limit of the interaction free energy

  7. 958 IEEE JOURNAL OF SOLID-STATE CIRCUITS, VOL. 38, NO. 6, JUNE 2003 A Low-Power Low-Noise CMOS Amplifier for

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harrison, Reid R.

    , biosignal amplifier, low noise, low-power circuit design, neural amplifier, noise efficiency factor958 IEEE JOURNAL OF SOLID-STATE CIRCUITS, VOL. 38, NO. 6, JUNE 2003 A Low-Power Low-Noise CMOS Amplifier for Neural Recording Applications Reid R. Harrison, Member, IEEE, and Cameron Charles, Student

  8. motion of crystalline domains in an otherwise rigid solid-state Received 7 January; accepted 10 June 2002; doi:10.1038/nature00901.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Suslick, Kenneth S.

    non- aqueous cells. J. Power Sources 14, 153­166 (1985). 3. Ohzuku, T. & Hirai, T. An electrochromic., Morzilli, S. & Scrosati, B. The electrochromic characteristics of titanium oxide thin film electrodes. Solid State Ionics 20, 197­202 (1986). 5. Cantao, M. P., Cisneros, J. I. & Torresi, R. M. Electrochromic

  9. A Solid-State NMR Study of Tungsten Methyl Group Dynamics in [W(5-C5Me5)Me4][PF6

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Griffin, Robert G.

    A Solid-State NMR Study of Tungsten Methyl Group Dynamics in [W(5-C5Me5)Me4][PF6] Douglas C. Maus Spinning (MAS) 13C and static 2H NMR studies of the dynamics of the methyl groups coordinated to tungsten

  10. MoSe2 thin films synthesized by solid state reactions between Mo and Se J. Pouzet (1) and J. C. Bernede (2)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    807 MoSe2 thin films synthesized by solid state reactions between Mo and Se thin films J. Pouzet (1 reaction, induced by annealing, between the Mo and Se constituents in thin films form. The films have been thin films annealed under selenium pressure at only 770 K are well crystallized. The electrical

  11. 1204 IEEE JOURNAL OF SOLID-STATE CIRCUITS, VOL. 34, NO. 9, SEPTEMBER 1999 Breakdown in Millimeter-Wave Power InP

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    del Alamo, Jesús A.

    1204 IEEE JOURNAL OF SOLID-STATE CIRCUITS, VOL. 34, NO. 9, SEPTEMBER 1999 Breakdown in Millimeter-Wave Power InP HEMT's: A Comparison with GaAs PHEMT's J. A. del Alamo and M. H. Somerville Abstract's) deliver lower output power than GaAs pseudomorphic HEMT's (PHEMT's) throughout most of the millimeter

  12. 1512 IEEE JOURNAL OF SOLID-STATE CIRCUITS, VOL. 39, NO. 9, SEPTEMBER 2004 A Low-Power Content-Addressable Memory (CAM)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sheikholeslami, Ali

    1512 IEEE JOURNAL OF SOLID-STATE CIRCUITS, VOL. 39, NO. 9, SEPTEMBER 2004 A Low-Power Content Sheikholeslami, Senior Member, IEEE Abstract--This paper presents two techniques to reduce power consumption, the search operation is discontinued for subsequent segments, hence reducing power. The second tech- nique

  13. 614 IEEE JOURNAL OF SOLID-STATE CIRCUITS, VOL. 38, NO. 4, APRIL 2003 Jitter Transfer Characteristics of Delay-Locked

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Thomas H.

    614 IEEE JOURNAL OF SOLID-STATE CIRCUITS, VOL. 38, NO. 4, APRIL 2003 Jitter Transfer and experimental re- sults on the jitter transfer of delay-locked loops (DLLs). Through a -domain model, we show that in a widely used DLL configuration, jitter peaking always exists and high-frequency jitter does not get

  14. 790 IEEE JOURNAL OF SOLID-STATE CIRCUITS, VOL. 34, NO. 6, JUNE 1999 Jitter and Phase Noise in Ring Oscillators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Thomas H.

    790 IEEE JOURNAL OF SOLID-STATE CIRCUITS, VOL. 34, NO. 6, JUNE 1999 Jitter and Phase Noise in Ring of clock jitter and phase noise of single-ended and differential ring oscillators is presented. The impulse sensitivity functions are used to derive expressions for the jitter and phase noise of ring oscillators

  15. IEEE JOURNAL OF SOLID-STATE CIRCUITS, VOL. 37, NO. 11, NOVEMBER 2002 1375 Jitter Optimization Based on Phase-Locked Loop

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Palermo, Sam

    IEEE JOURNAL OF SOLID-STATE CIRCUITS, VOL. 37, NO. 11, NOVEMBER 2002 1375 Jitter Optimization Based--This paper investigates the effects of varying phase- locked loop (PLL) design parameters on timing jitter, a closed-form equations are derived that relate PLL output clock jitter to parameters of a second-order PLL

  16. Solid-State Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Evidence for Parallel and Antiparallel Strand Arrangements in the Membrane-Associated HIV-1 Fusion Peptide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weliky, David

    Solid-State Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Evidence for Parallel and Antiparallel Strand Arrangements in the Membrane-Associated HIV-1 Fusion Peptide Jun Yang and David P. Weliky* Department of Chemistry, Michigan 7, 2003 ABSTRACT: The HIV-1 fusion peptide serves as a useful model system for understanding viral

  17. Rapid Microwave Preparation of Highly Efficient Ce[superscript 3+]-Substituted Garnet Phosphors for Solid State White Lighting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Birkel, Alexander; Denault, Kristin A.; George, Nathan C.; Doll, Courtney E.; Héry, Bathylle; Mikhailovsky, Alexander A.; Birkel, Christina S.; Hong, Byung-Chul; Seshadri, Ram (UCSB); (Mitsubishi)

    2012-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Ce{sup 3+}-substituted aluminum garnet compounds of yttrium (Y{sub 3}Al{sub 5}O{sub 12}) and lutetium (Lu{sub 3}Al{sub 5}O{sub 12}) - both important compounds in the generation of (In,Ga)N-based solid state white lighting - have been prepared using a simple microwave heating technique involving the use of a microwave susceptor to provide the initial heat source. Carbon used as the susceptor additionally creates a reducing atmosphere around the sample that helps stabilize the desired luminescent compound. High quality, phase-pure materials are prepared within a fraction of the time and using a fraction of the energy required in a conventional ceramic preparation; the microwave technique allows for a reduction of about 95% in preparation time, making it possible to obtain phase pure, Ce{sup 3+}-substituted garnet compounds in under 20 min of reaction time. It is estimated that the overall reduction in energy compared with ceramic routes as practiced in the lab is close to 99%. Conventionally prepared material is compared with material prepared using microwave heating in terms of structure, morphology, and optical properties, including quantum yield and thermal quenching of luminescence. Finally, the microwave-prepared compounds have been incorporated into light-emitting diode 'caps' to test their performance characteristics in a real device, in terms of their photon efficiency and color coordinates.

  18. Solid-State Selective 13C Excitation and Spin Diffusion NMR to Resolve Spatial Dimensions in Plant Cell Walls

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Foston, M.; Katahira, R.; Gjersing, E.; Davis, M. F.; Ragauskas, A. J.

    2012-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The average spatial dimensions between major biopolymers within the plant cell wall can be resolved using a solid-state NMR technique referred to as a {sup 13}C cross-polarization (CP) SELDOM (selectively by destruction of magnetization) with a mixing time delay for spin diffusion. Selective excitation of specific aromatic lignin carbons indicates that lignin is in close proximity to hemicellulose followed by amorphous and finally crystalline cellulose. {sup 13}C spin diffusion time constants (T{sub SD}) were extracted using a two-site spin diffusion theory developed for {sup 13}C nuclei under magic angle spinning (MAS) conditions. These time constants were then used to calculate an average lower-limit spin diffusion length between chemical groups within the plant cell wall. The results on untreated {sup 13}C enriched corn stover stem reveal that the lignin carbons are, on average, located at distances {approx}0.7-2.0 nm from the carbons in hemicellulose and cellulose, whereas the pretreated material had larger separations.

  19. Photochemistry of the PAH pyrene in water ice: the case for ion-mediated solid-state astrochemistry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bouwman, J; Bakker, A; Allamandola, L J; Linnartz, H

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Context. Icy dust grains play an important role in the formation of complex inter- and circumstellar molecules. Observational studies show that polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are abundantly present in the ISM in the gas phase. It is likely that these non-volatile species freeze out onto dust grains as well and participate in the astrochemical solid-state network, but experimental PAH ice studies are largely lacking. Methods. Near UV/VIS spectroscopy is used to track the in situ VUV driven photochemistry of pyrene containing ices at temperatures ranging from 10 to 125 K. Results. The main photoproducts of VUV photolyzed pyrene ices are spectroscopically identified and their band positions are listed for two host ices, \\water and CO. Pyrene ionisation is found to be most efficient in \\water ices at low temperatures. The reaction products, triplet pyrene and the 1-hydro-1-pyrenyl radical are most efficiently formed in higher temperature water ices and in low temperature CO ice. Formation routes and band...

  20. Long-cycle-life solid-state solid-polymer electrolyte cells. Final report. Report on Phase 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sammells, A.F.; Semkow, K.W.; Cook, R.L.

    1986-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Experimental work was directed toward determining the viability of two complementary solid-state electrochemical cells incorporating Na/sup +/ and Li/sup +/ conducting solid polymer electrolytes (SPE). SPEs used included those based upon poly(ethylene oxide), poly(ethylene oxide)/poly(ethylene glycol) mixtures, and polyphosphazenes. For Li/sup +/ conducting SPEs, LixWO/sub 2/ was used for the negative and TiS/sub 2/ for the positive electrode. In cells utilizing Na+ conducting SPEs, homogeneous matrix electrodes based upon transition-metal-doped B'-alumina were used for the positive and negative electrodes. Here transition metals were incorporated into immobile A1/sup 3 +/ lattice sites within the B'-alumina structure, where changed in electrochemical potential upon cell charge/discharge cycling occurred via redox electrochemistry involving the doped immobile transition-metal species. Secondary cells were found to have respective open-circuit potentials of 2.2 and 1.5V, high electrochemical reversibility, and theoretical energy densities of 175 and 178 Wh/kg.

  1. Solid-State Fault Current Limiter Development : Design and Testing Update of a 15kV SSCL Power Stack

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dr. Ram Adapa; Mr. Dante Piccone

    2012-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

    ABSTRACT The Solid-State Fault Current Limiter (SSCL) is a promising technology that can be applied to utility power delivery systems to address the problem of increasing fault currents associated with load growth. As demand continues to grow, more power is added to utility system either by increasing generator capacity or by adding distributed generators, resulting in higher available fault currents, often beyond the capabilities of the present infrastructure. The SSCL is power-electronics based equipment designed to work with the present utility system to address this problem. The SSCL monitors the line current and dynamically inserts additional impedance into the line in the event of a fault being detected. The SSCL is based on a modular design and can be configured for 5kV through 69kV systems at nominal current ratings of 1000A to 4000A. Results and Findings This report provides the final test results on the development of 15kV class SSCL single phase power stack. The scope of work included the design of the modular standard building block sub-assemblies, the design and manufacture of the power stack and the testing of the power stack for the key functional tests of continuous current capability and fault current limiting action. Challenges and Objectives Solid-State Current Limiter technology impacts a wide spectrum of utility engineering and operating personnel. It addresses the problems associated with load growth both at Transmission and Distribution class networks. The design concept is pioneering in terms of developing the most efficient and compact power electronics equipment for utility use. The initial test results of the standard building blocks are promising. The independent laboratory tests of the power stack are promising. However the complete 3 phase system needs rigorous testing for performance and reliability. Applications, Values, and Use The SSCL is an intelligent power-electronics device which is modular in design and can provide current limiting or current interrupting capabilities. It can be applied to variety of applications from distribution class to transmission class power delivery grids and networks. It can also be applied to single major commercial and industrial loads and distributed generator supplies. The active switching of devices can be further utilized for protection of substation transformers. The stress on the system can be reduced substantially improving the life of the power system. It minimizes the voltage sag by speedy elimination of heavy fault currents and promises to be an important element of the utility power system. DOE Perspective This development effort is now focused on a 15kV system. This project will help mitigate the challenges of increasing available fault current. DOE has made a major contribution in providing a cost effective SSCL designed to integrate seamlessly into the Transmission and Distribution networks of today and the future. Approach SSCL development program for a 69kV SSCL was initiated which included the use of the Super GTO advanced semiconductor device which won the 2007 R&D100 Award. In the beginning, steps were identified to accomplish the economically viable design of a 69kV class Solid State Current Limiter that is extremely reliable, cost effective, and compact enough to be applied in urban transmission. The prime thrust in design and development was to encompass the 1000A and the 3000A ratings and provide a modular design to cover the wide range of applications. The focus of the project was then shifted to a 15kV class SSCL. The specifications for the 15kV power stack are reviewed. The design changes integrated into the 15kV power stack are discussed. In this Technical Update the complete project is summarized followed by a detailed test report. The power stack independent high voltage laboratory test requirements and results are presented. Keywords Solid State Current Limiter, SSCL, Fault Current Limiter, Fault Current Controller, Power electronics controller, Intelligent power-electronics Device, IED

  2. Role of solid-state interactions in the acid-catalyzed thermolysis of surface-attached diphenylalkanes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Buchanan, A.C. III; Britt, P.F.; Biggs, C.A.

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The cross-linked, network structure of coal may impose constraints on conventional reaction mechanisms as a consequence of restricted mass transport. We have examined this phenomenon for thermal reactions through the study of model compounds that are covalently anchored to an inert silica surface (1). We have now initiated studies that employ these immobilized model compounds as solid-state probes in modeling fundamental aspects of catalyzed, heterogeneous reactions of coal. There have been numerous recent reports on the development of unsupported, highly dispersed catalysts for improving the conversion and product selectivity in coal liquefaction (2,3) and hydropyrolysis (4). A potential advantage of such dispersed catalysts is the improved contact between the coal, solvent vehicle if present, hydrogen gas, and the catalyst surface, particularly when catalysts with very small particle sizes can be generated. In this paper, we report initial results from a model system that begins to address the mechanistic question of if, in the early stages of coal dissolution, significant activation of solid coal particles by solid catalyst can occur. For this study, surface-immobilized 1,3-diphenylpropane ({approx}DPP) has been employed as a model for related trimethylene (and longer) aliphatic linking groups between aromatic clusters in coal, and its reactivity in the presence of a dispersed aluminosilicate at 310--375{degree}C has been investigated. 8 refs., 2 figs.

  3. In-situ investigation of thermal instabilities and solid state dewetting in polycrystalline platinum thin films via confocal laser microscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jahangir, S.; Cheng, Xuan; Huang, H. H.; Nagarajan, V. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of New South Wales, Sydney 2052 (Australia); Ihlefeld, J. [Electronic, Optical, and Nanomaterials Department, Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185 (United States)

    2014-10-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Solid state dewetting and the subsequent morphological changes for platinum thin films grown on zinc oxide (ZnO) buffered (001) silicon substrates (Pt/ZnO/SiO{sub 2}/(001)Si system) is investigated under vacuum conditions via a custom-designed confocal laser microscope coupled with a laser heating system. Live imaging of thin film dewetting under a range of heating and quenching vacuum ambients reveals events including hillock formation, hole formation, and hole growth that lead to formation of a network of Pt ligaments, break up of Pt ligaments to individual islands and subsequent Pt islands shape reformation, in chronological fashion. These findings are corroborated by ex-situ materials characterization and quantitative electron microscopy analysis. A secondary hole formation via blistering before film rupture is revealed to be the critical stage, after which a rapid dewetting catastrophe occurs. This process is instantaneous and cannot be captured by ex-situ methods. Finally, an intermetallic phase forms at 900?°C and alters the morphology of Pt islands, suggesting a practical limit to the thermal environments that may be used for these platinized silicon wafers in vacuum conditions.

  4. Temperature activated absorption during laser-induced damage: The evolution of laser-supported solid-state absorption fronts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carr, C W; Bude, J D; Shen, N; Demange, P

    2010-10-26T23:59:59.000Z

    Previously we have shown that the size of laser induced damage sites in both KDP and SiO{sub 2} is largely governed by the duration of the laser pulse which creates them. Here we present a model based on experiment and simulation that accounts for this behavior. Specifically, we show that solid-state laser-supported absorption fronts are generated during a damage event and that these fronts propagate at constant velocities for laser intensities up to 4 GW/cm{sup 2}. It is the constant absorption front velocity that leads to the dependence of laser damage site size on pulse duration. We show that these absorption fronts are driven principally by the temperature-activated deep sub band-gap optical absorptivity, free electron transport, and thermal diffusion in defect-free silica for temperatures up to 15,000K and pressures < 15GPa. In addition to the practical application of selecting an optimal laser for pre-initiation of large aperture optics, this work serves as a platform for understanding general laser-matter interactions in dielectrics under a variety of conditions.

  5. Dynamic solid state lighting

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aldrich, Matthew (Matthew Henry)

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Energy conservation concerns will mandate near-future environments to regulate themselves to accommodate occupants' objectives and best tend to their comfort while minimizing energy consumption. Accordingly, smart energy ...

  6. Solid-State Lighting

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    into the market. On the market side, DOE works closely with drivers, heat sinks, and optics. LEDs must be carefully energy efficiency program partners, lighting professionals,...

  7. Solid State Lighting Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Theodore D. Moustakas

    2007-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The project had two main tasks: One addressed the materials and device development and it was carried out at Boston University. The second addressed the theory and simulation of materials and devices and it was carried out at Science Application International Corporation (SAIC). Each task had a number of sub-tasks which are described in the following table. Progress in these tasks is described in this section.

  8. Solid state electrochemical composite

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Visco, Steven J. (Berkeley, CA); Jacobson, Craig P. (Moraga, CA); DeJonghe, Lutgard C. (Lafayette, CA)

    2009-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Provided is a composite electrochemical device fabricated from highly electronically conductive materials such as metals, metal alloys, or electronically conductive ceramics. The electronic conductivity of the electrode substrate is maximized. The invention allows for an electrode with high electronic conductivity and sufficient catalytic activity to achieve high power density in ionic (electrochemical) devices such as fuel cells and electrolytic gas separation systems including oxygen generation system.

  9. Solid state lighting component

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yuan, Thomas; Keller, Bernd; Ibbetson, James; Tarsa, Eric; Negley, Gerald

    2010-10-26T23:59:59.000Z

    An LED component comprising an array of LED chips mounted on a planar surface of a submount with the LED chips capable of emitting light in response to an electrical signal. The LED chips comprise respective groups emitting at different colors of light, with each of the groups interconnected in a series circuit. A lens is included over the LED chips. Other embodiments can comprise thermal spreading structures included integral to the submount and arranged to dissipate heat from the LED chips.

  10. Solid state lighting component

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Keller, Bernd; Ibbetson, James; Tarsa, Eric; Negley, Gerald; Yuan, Thomas

    2012-07-10T23:59:59.000Z

    An LED component comprising an array of LED chips mounted on a planar surface of a submount with the LED chips capable of emitting light in response to an electrical signal. The LED chips comprise respective groups emitting at different colors of light, with each of the groups interconnected in a series circuit. A lens is included over the LED chips. Other embodiments can comprise thermal spreading structures included integral to the submount and arranged to dissipate heat from the LED chips.

  11. Solid-state microrefrigerator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ullom, Joel N.

    2003-06-24T23:59:59.000Z

    A normal-insulator-superconductor (NIS) microrefrigerator in which a superconducting single crystal is both the substrate and the superconducting electrode of the NIS junction. The refrigerator consists of a large ultra-pure superconducting single crystal and a normal metal layer on top of the superconducting crystal, separated by a thin insulating layer. The superconducting crystal can be either cut from bulk material or grown as a thick epitaxial film. The large single superconducting crystal allows quasiparticles created in the superconducting crystal to easily diffuse away from the NIS junction through the lattice structure of the crystal to normal metal traps to prevent the quasiparticles from returning across the NIS junction. In comparison to thin film NIS refrigerators, the invention provides orders of magnitude larger cooling power than thin film microrefrigerators. The superconducting crystal can serve as the superconducting electrode for multiple NIS junctions to provide an array of microrefrigerators. The normal electrode can be extended and supported by microsupports to provide support and cooling of sensors or arrays of sensors.

  12. Solid State Lighting Reliability

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn'tOriginEducationVideo »UsageSecretary ofSmallConfidential,2Cycleof EnergyEnergySCRSolid

  13. Coal rank trends in eastern Kentucky

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hower, J.C.; Trinkle, E.J.

    1984-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Examination of coal rank (by vitrinite maximum reflectance) for eastern Kentucky coals has revealed several regional trends. Coal rank varies from high volatile C (0.5% R/sub max/) to medium volatile bituminous (1.1% R/sub max/), and generally increases to the southeast. One east-west-trending rank high and at least four north-south-trending rank highs interrupt the regional increase. The east-west-trending rank high is associated with the Kentucky River faults in northeastern Kentucky. It is the only rank high clearly associated with a fault zone. The four north-south-trending rank highs are parallel with portions of major tectonic features such as the Eastern Kentucky syncline. Overall, though, the association of north-south-trending rank highs with tectonic expression is not as marked as that with the anomaly associated with the Kentucky River faults. It is possible that the rank trends are related to basement features with subdued surface expression. Rank generally increases with depth, and regional trends observed in one coal are also seen in overlying and underlying coals. The cause of the regional southeastward increase in rank is likely to be the combined influence of greater depth of burial and proximity to late Paleozoic orogenic activity. The anomalous trends could be due to increased depth of burial, but are more likely to have resulted from tectonic activity along faults and basement discontinuities. The thermal disturbances necessary to increase the coal rank need not have been great, perhaps on the order of 10-20/sup 0/C (18-36/sup 0/F) above the metamorphic temperatures of the lower rank coals.

  14. A15 superconductors through direct solid-state precipitation: V/sub 3/Ga and Nb/sub 3/Al

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hong, M.

    1980-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A solid-state precipitation process was used to prepare superconducting tapes containing an A15 phase, V/sub 3/Ga or Nb/sub 3/Al, in a ductile niobium or vanadium containing BCC matrix. Ingots weighing as large as 30 to 50 gms of V-(14 approx. 19 at. %) Ga and Nb-(13 approx. 22 at. %) Al were prepared by arc-melting, homogenized, quenched, warm-rolled over 99% into tape, and aged at temperatures in the range 600/sup 0/C to 1000/sup 0/C to precipitate the superconducting A15 phase. The features demonstrated by the process are very attractive for practical applications. In the V-Ga system, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) studies revealed the A15 precipitates in an elongated form. However, for the Nb-Al samples, deformed and aged at 750/sup 0/C, TEM studies revealed A15 precipitation in fine equi-axed particles which formed as a semi-continuous network over sub-grain boundaries formed by the recovery of deformation-induced dislocations. In the V-Ga system, the maximum critical transition temperature (approx. 15 K) was found in materials aged at temperatures of 750/sup 0/C or below. At these aging temperatures the T/sub c/ initially increased with aging time and passed through a distinct maximum. The source of the exceptionally high T/sub c/ is discussed. In the Nb-Al system, the aging response of the T/sub c/ of the tested samples was somewhat different; the T/sub c/ increased with aging time to a plateau, and then increased again to a second plateau. The maximum T/sub c/ measured was approx. 17 K. Promising high-field overall critical currents were obtained in the Nb-Al system (overall J/sub c/ approx. 10/sup 4/ A/cm/sup 2/ in a magnetic field of 140 KG at 4.2 K).

  15. Crystallinity and compositional changes in carbonated apatites: Evidence from {sup 31}P solid-state NMR, Raman, and AFM analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McElderry, John-David P.; Zhu, Peizhi [Department of Chemistry, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1055 (United States); Mroue, Kamal H. [Department of Chemistry, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1055 (United States); Department of Biophysics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1055 (United States); Xu, Jiadi [Department of Biophysics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1055 (United States); Pavan, Barbara [Department of Chemistry and Science of Advanced Materials Program, Central Michigan University, Mt. Pleasant, MI 48859 (United States); Fang, Ming [Department of Chemistry, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1055 (United States); Zhao, Guisheng; McNerny, Erin; Kohn, David H.; Franceschi, Renny T. [School of Dentistry, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1055 (United States); Holl, Mark M.Banaszak [Department of Chemistry, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1055 (United States); Tecklenburg, Mary M.J., E-mail: mary.tecklenburg@cmich.edu [Department of Chemistry and Science of Advanced Materials Program, Central Michigan University, Mt. Pleasant, MI 48859 (United States); Ramamoorthy, Ayyalusamy [Department of Chemistry, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1055 (United States); Department of Biophysics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1055 (United States); Morris, Michael D. [Department of Chemistry, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1055 (United States)

    2013-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Solid-state (magic-angle spinning) NMR spectroscopy is a useful tool for obtaining structural information on bone organic and mineral components and synthetic model minerals at the atomic-level. Raman and {sup 31}P NMR spectral parameters were investigated in a series of synthetic B-type carbonated apatites (CAps). Inverse {sup 31}P NMR linewidth and inverse Raman PO{sub 4}{sup 3?}?{sub 1} bandwidth were both correlated with powder XRD c-axis crystallinity over the 0.3–10.3 wt% CO{sub 3}{sup 2?} range investigated. Comparison with bone powder crystallinities showed agreement with values predicted by NMR and Raman calibration curves. Carbonate content was divided into two domains by the {sup 31}P NMR chemical shift frequency and the Raman phosphate ?{sub 1} band position. These parameters remain stable except for an abrupt transition at 6.5 wt% carbonate, a composition which corresponds to an average of one carbonate per unit cell. This near-binary distribution of spectroscopic properties was also found in AFM-measured particle sizes and Ca/P molar ratios by elemental analysis. We propose that this transition differentiates between two charge-balancing ion-loss mechanisms as measured by Ca/P ratios. These results define a criterion for spectroscopic characterization of B-type carbonate substitution in apatitic minerals. - Graphical abstract: Carbonated apatite shows an abrupt change in spectral (NMR, Raman) and morphological (AFM) properties at a composition of about one carbonate substitution per unit cell. Display Omitted - Highlights: • Crystallinity (XRD), particle size (AFM) of carbonated apatites and bone mineral. • Linear relationships among crystallinity, {sup 31}P NMR and Raman inverse bandwidths. • Low and high carbonated apatites use different charge-balancing ion-loss mechanism.

  16. Proton Dynamics in ZnO Nanorods Quantified by In Situ Solid-State 1H Nuclear Magnetic Resonance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Li Q.; Zhou, Xiao Dong; Exarhos, Gregory J.; Pederson, Larry R.; Wang, Chong M.; Windisch, Charles F.; Yao, Chunhua

    2007-10-22T23:59:59.000Z

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) adopts wurtzite structure and possesses a direct wide band gap (Eg ~ 3.3 eV at 300 K), similar to that of GaN (Eg ~ 3.4 eV at 300 K), which enables ZnO as an alternative candidate to replace GaN for use in optoelectronic devices. The present controversy is centered at the microscopic origin of the “native donors”, particularly after ab initio calculations by Van de Walle, which indicate that hydrogen is soluble in ZnO at the interstitial sites, effectively forming a donor level just below the conduction band in ZnO. Hence, the origin of n type conductivity in ZnO is proposed due to the presence of hydrogen. Electron paramagnetic resonance and spectroscopic observations of muons provide experimental evidence of hydrogen presence in ZnO. Whereas, Look et al. suggests that the complex of zinc interstitial and nitrogen defect is a stronger candidate for donor than hydrogen interstitials under N ambient. Hydrogen-oxygen complex is claimed to be stable even at T > 1000°C in the hydrothermally synthesized ZnO. Therefore, the thermodynamic nature of hydrogen characteristics remains controversial, particularly its role on resident defects. In this letter, in situ temperature dependent solid state 1H magic angle spinning (MAS) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy is employed to probe the local chemical environments of hydrogen in ZnO nanorods. To best knowledge of ours, this is the first time that the presence of hydrogen, its concentration, and local transport dynamics are directly chemically determined. Moreover, in situ NMR allows a new approach to investigate the absorption and desorption of protons from different sites on the ZnO nanorods, thus study of site-specific proton dynamics in ZnO becomes feasible.

  17. Photodegradation of oligomeric polyesters containing anthraquinone and 1,2-diamine units. Single electron transfer induced cation radical bond cleavage in the solid state

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leon, J.W.; Whitten, D.G. (Univ. of Rochester, NY (United States))

    1995-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Oligomeric polyesters containing light-absorbing anthraquinone electron acceptor chromophores and fragmentable 1,2-diamine donors have been synthesized. Irradiation with [lambda] [ge] 340 nm in solution or as solid films results in photooxidative C-C bond cleavage of the 1,2-diamine units yielding essentially the same products in either case. The solid state photodegradation reaction was monitored using size exclusion chromatography and was found to be substantially less efficient than the corresponding solution reaction. This is attributed to an inefficient forward electron transfer step and the possibility of an induced reversibility of the fragmentation. The efficiency of photodegradation is suggested to be dependent on the donor/acceptor orientations in the solid state. 49 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab.

  18. A compact 10 kW, 476 MHz solid state radio frequency amplifier for pre-buncher cavity of free electron laser injector linear accelerator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mohania, Praveen; Mahawar, Ashish; Shrivastava, Purushottam; Gupta, P. D. [Raja Rammana Centre for Advanced Technology (RRCAT), Indore 452013 (India)] [Raja Rammana Centre for Advanced Technology (RRCAT), Indore 452013 (India)

    2013-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A 10 kW, 476 MHz, 0.1% duty cycle solid state RF amplifier system for driving sub-harmonic, pre-buncher cavity of IR-FEL injector LINAC, has been developed at RRCAT. The 10 kW power is achieved by combining output of eight 1400 W amplifier modules using 8-way planar corporate combiner. The solid state amplifier modules have been developed using 50 V RF LDMOS transistors which although meant for push-pull operation are being used in single ended configuration with matching circuit developed on a thin (25 mils), high dielectric constant (9.7), low loss microwave laminate with an aim to have a compact structure. Ease of fabrication, modularity, small size, and low cost are the important features of this design which could be used as a template for low duty cycle medium to high pulsed power UHF amplifier system.

  19. Raman Spectroscopy of the Reaction of Thin Films of Solid-State Benzene with Vapor-Deposited Ag, Mg, and Al

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schalnat, Matthew C. [Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States). Dept. of Chemistry and Biochemistry; Hawkridge, Adam M. [Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States). Dept. of Chemistry and Biochemistry; Pemberton, Jeanne E. [Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States). Dept. of Chemistry and Biochemistry

    2011-07-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Thin films of solid-state benzene at 30 K were reacted with small quantities of vapor-deposited Ag, Mg, and Al under ultrahigh vacuum, and products were monitored using surface Raman spectroscopy. Although Ag and Mg produce small amounts of metal–benzene adduct products, the resulting Raman spectra are dominated by surface enhancement of the normal benzene modes from metallic nanoparticles suggesting rapid Ag or Mg metallization of the film. In contrast, large quantities of Al adduct products are observed. Vibrational modes of the products in all three systems suggest adducts that are formed through a pathway initiated by an electron transfer reaction. The difference in reactivity between these metals is ascribed to differences in ionization potential of the metal atoms; ionization potential values for Ag and Mg are similar but larger than that for Al. These studies demonstrate the importance of atomic parameters, such as ionization potential, in solid-state metal–organic reaction chemistry.

  20. 1010 IEEE JOURNAL OF SOLID-STATE CIRCUITS, VOL. 43, NO. 4, APRIL 2008 A Scalable 515 Gbps, 1475 mW Low-Power I/O

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Palermo, Sam

    1010 IEEE JOURNAL OF SOLID-STATE CIRCUITS, VOL. 43, NO. 4, APRIL 2008 A Scalable 5­15 Gbps, 14­75 mW Low-Power I/O Transceiver in 65 nm CMOS Ganesh Balamurugan, Member, IEEE, Joseph Kennedy, Member, IEEE'Mahony, Bryan Casper, and Randy Mooney, Member, IEEE Abstract--We present a scalable low-power I/O transceiver

  1. Surface Passivation of Nanoporous TiO2 via Atomic Layer Deposition of ZrO2 for Solid-State Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    to the spiro-OMeTAD. Introduction Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs) based on mesoporous titania and liquidSurface Passivation of Nanoporous TiO2 via Atomic Layer Deposition of ZrO2 for Solid-State Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell Applications Tina C. Li, Ma´rcio S. Go´es,,§ Francisco Fabregat-Santiago,*, Juan Bisquert

  2. Accepted @ Solid State Sci. 20.11.13 11:11 The U4Re7Si6 type Trends in electronic structure and chemical

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    chemistry with T1@X6 and T2@X4 coordination polyhedra. The uranium compounds are found to be stabilized and uranium containing U4Re7Si6, U4Ru7Ge6, and U4Ru7As6 show common bonding characteristics pertaining to main uranium (8c), two hal-00906699,version1-20Nov2013 Author manuscript, published in "Solid State Sciences 27

  3. High-temperature steam-treatment of PBI, PEEK, and PEKK polymers with H2O and D2O: A solid-state NMR study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bluemel, Janet

    High-temperature steam-treatment of PBI, PEEK, and PEKK polymers with H2O and D2O: A solid 2014 Keywords: Steam-treatment of PBI, PEEK, PEKK Solid-state NMR Water and D2O uptake polymers a b with D2O steam at temperatures of 150 and 315 C. All samples are studied by TGA, IR, 13 C CP/MAS, 1 H

  4. RANK-SPARSITY INCOHERENCE FOR MATRIX DECOMPOSITION ...

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2009-06-11T23:59:59.000Z

    Jun 11, 2009 ... nuclear norm of the components. We develop a notion of rank-sparsity incoherence, expressed as an uncertainty principle between the sparsity ...

  5. An alternative solid-state method to prepare pyrochlore-free KTaO{sub 3} at low temperature

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Su Tingting [School of Chemistry and Materials Science, Liaoning Shihua University, Fushun 113001 (China); Jiang Heng, E-mail: hjiang78@hotmail.com [School of Chemistry and Materials Science, Liaoning Shihua University, Fushun 113001 (China); Gong Hong [School of Chemistry and Materials Science, Liaoning Shihua University, Fushun 113001 (China)

    2011-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Perovskite-type KTaO{sub 3} powder was synthesized by an alternative solid-state method at low temperature. Stoichiometric ammonium tantalum hydroxide, K{sub 2}C{sub 2}O{sub 4} and KF were mixed in water and then dried at room temperature. The crude product was formed by calcining the dried mixture at different temperatures. Pyrochlore-free KTaO{sub 3} powder was successfully synthesized after treating the crude product with water. KF plays an important role to inhibit the formation of pyrochlore K{sub 2}Ta{sub 2}O{sub 6} during the calcination process of ammonium tantalum hydroxide/K{sub 2}C{sub 2}O{sub 4}/KF mixture. X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, UV-vis diffuse reflectance (UV-vis) spectroscopy and thermogravimetric (TG) analysis were used to characterize the precursor compound and as-prepared samples. XRD results show that pyrochlore-free KTaO{sub 3} powder can be obtained at 600 deg. C. SEM results reveal that the as-prepared products are agglomerated and each of the agglomerations consists of many small grains with 10-30 nm in diameter. - Graphical abstract: Pyrochlore-free KTaO{sub 3} powder was prepared at 600 deg. C using tantalum hydroxide/K{sub 2}C{sub 2}O{sub 4}/KF raw materials. Pyrochlore K{sub 2}Ta{sub 2}O{sub 6} and perovskite KTaO{sub 3} coexist at 600 deg. C using tantalum hydroxide/K{sub 2}C{sub 2}O{sub 4} raw materials. Highlights: > In-situ degradation of TaO{sub x}(OH){sub 5-x}(NH{sub 4}){sub x}, K{sub 2}C{sub 2}O{sub 4} and KF promotes the reaction. > Synthesis of KTaO{sub 3} displayed a two-step reaction path with the intermediate formation of K{sub 2}TaO{sub 3}F. > Formation of intermediate K{sub 2}TaO{sub 3}F benefits to prepare pyrochlore-free KTaO{sub 3} at low temperature. > Pyrochlore-free KTaO{sub 3} is prepared at 600 deg. C, which is the lowest temperature reported so far by hard chemistry method. > Synthetic method is a facile, rapid, low price and environment friendly route.

  6. Top for economics Rank Business School

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lin, Xiaodong

    Top for economics Rank Business School 1 University of Chicago: Booth Rutgers Business School University of Toronto: Rotman Cranfield School of Management University of California at Irvine: Merage University of Rochester: Simon Columbia/London Business School 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Rank Business School 1

  7. (psd) rank of a nonnegative matrix w

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2013-05-20T23:59:59.000Z

    at least k and we pose the problem of deciding whether the psd rank is exactly k. Using geometry ... referred to as the psd rank of P) is exactly the smallest k such that P is the linear image of an ..... References. [1] J. Bochnak, M. Coste, M. Roy.

  8. Energy Department Announces Outdoor Winners of Next Generation

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative FuelsNovember 13,Statement | DepartmentBlog EnergyFuelsLuminaires(tm) Solid-State

  9. Universal Emergence of PageRank

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    K. M. Frahm; B. Georgeot; D. L. Shepelyansky

    2011-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

    The PageRank algorithm enables to rank the nodes of a network through a specific eigenvector of the Google matrix, using a damping parameter $\\alpha \\in ]0,1[$. Using extensive numerical simulations of large web networks, with a special accent on British University networks, we determine numerically and analytically the universal features of PageRank vector at its emergence when $\\alpha \\rightarrow 1$. The whole network can be divided into a core part and a group of invariant subspaces. For $ \\alpha \\rightarrow 1$ the PageRank converges to a universal power law distribution on the invariant subspaces whose size distribution also follows a universal power law. The convergence of PageRank at $ \\alpha \\rightarrow 1$ is controlled by eigenvalues of the core part of the Google matrix which are extremely close to unity leading to large relaxation times as for example in spin glasses.

  10. Application of an all-solid-state diode-laser-based sensor for carbon monoxide detection by optical absorption in the 4.4 ? 4.8 µm spectral region 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rodolfo, Barron Jimenez

    2005-02-17T23:59:59.000Z

    An all-solid-state continuous-wave (cw) laser system for mid-infrared absorption measurements of the carbon monoxide (CO) molecule has been developed and demonstrated. The single-mode, tunable output of an external-cavity ...

  11. 31P Solid State NMR Studies of Metal Selenophosphates Containing [P2Se6]4-, [P4Se10]4-, [PSe4]3-, [P2Se7]4-, and [P2Se9]4-Ligands

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weliky, David

    31P Solid State NMR Studies of Metal Selenophosphates Containing [P2Se6]4-, [P4Se10]4-, [PSe4]3-, [P2Se7]4-, and [P2Se9]4- Ligands Christian G. Canlas, Mercouri G. Kanatzidis, and David P. Weliky P solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra of 12 metal-containing selenophosphates have

  12. MS Exam, Fall 2012, Solid State Electronic Devices (ECE 230A-B) 1. III-V compound semiconductor GaAs has two families of cleavage planes (110) and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Deli

    MS Exam, Fall 2012, Solid State Electronic Devices (ECE 230A-B) ECE230A: 1. III-V compound of GaAs crystal. 1 #12;MS Exam, Fall 2012, Solid State Electronic Devices (ECE 230A-B) ECE 230B: Assume silicon, room temperature, complete ionization. 1. For an abrupt n+-p diode in Si, the n+ doping is 1020

  13. Ranking Outlier Nodes in Subspaces of Attributed Graphs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Antwerpen, Universiteit

    . Our graph outlier ranking (GOutRank) introduces scoring functions based on these selected subgraphs by looking at the most promising objects first. They 1http://www.ipd.kit.edu/~muellere/GOutRank/ allow users

  14. Low-rank coal oil agglomeration

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Knudson, Curtis L. (Grand Forks, ND); Timpe, Ronald C. (Grand Forks, ND)

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A low-rank coal oil agglomeration process. High mineral content, a high ash content subbituminous coals are effectively agglomerated with a bridging oil which is partially water soluble and capable of entering the pore structure, and usually coal derived.

  15. Provable Low-Rank Tensor Recovery

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2014-02-26T23:59:59.000Z

    Feb 26, 2014 ... rank, which here we refer to as the sum-of-nuclear-norms (SNN), has been proposed in [23] and serves as a tractable measure of the tensor ...

  16. Penalty Decomposition Methods for Rank Minimization ?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2010-11-22T23:59:59.000Z

    Nov 22, 2010 ... In Section 2, we establish some technical results on a class of rank minimization ..... Without loss of generality, assume that {( ŻZk. X,. Ż. Zk ...... Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Illinois, 2009.

  17. Development of White-Light Emitting Active Layers in Nitride Based Heterostructures for Phosphorless Solid State Lighting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jan Talbot; Kailash Mishra

    2007-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This report provides a summary of research activities carried out at the University of California, San Diego and Central Research of OSRAM SYLVANIA in Beverly, MA partially supported by a research contract from US Department of Energy, DE-FC26-04NT422274. The main objective of this project was to develop III-V nitrides activated by rare earth ions, RE{sup 3+}, which could eliminate the need for phosphors in nitride-based solid state light sources. The main idea was to convert electron-hole pairs injected into the active layer in a LED die to white light directly through transitions within the energy levels of the 4f{sup n}-manifold of RE{sup 3+}. We focused on the following materials: Eu{sup 3+}(red), Tb{sup 3+}(green), Er{sup 3+}(green), Dy{sup 3+}(yellow) and Tm{sup 3+}(blue) in AlN, GaN and alloys of AlN and GaN. Our strategy was to explore candidate materials in powder form first, and then study their behavior in thin films. Thin films of these materials were to be deposited on sapphire substrates using pulsed laser deposition (PLD) and metal organic vapor phase epitaxy (MOVPE). The photo- and cathode-luminescence measurements of these materials were used to investigate their suitability for white light generation. The project proceeded along this route with minor modifications needed to produce better materials and to expedite our progress towards the final goal. The project made the following accomplishments: (1) red emission from Eu{sup 3+}, green from Tb{sup 3+}, yellow from Dy{sup 3+} and blue from Tm{sup 3+} in AlN powders; (2) red emission from Eu{sup 3+} and green emission from Tb{sup 3+} in GaN powder; (3) red emission from Eu{sup 3+} in alloys of GaN and AlN; (4) green emission from Tb{sup 3+} in GaN thin films by PLD; (5) red emission from Eu{sup 3+} and Tb{sup 3+} in GaN thin films deposited by MOVPE; (6) energy transfer from host to RE{sup 3+}; (7) energy transfer from Tb{sup 3+} to Eu{sup 3+} in AlN powders; (8) emission from AlN powder samples codoped with (Eu{sup 3+} ,Tb{sup 3+} ) and (Dy{sup 3+}, Tm{sup 3+}); and (9) white emission from AlN codoped with Dy{sup 3+} and Tm{sup 3+}. We also extensively studied the stabilities of rare earth ions in GaN, and the nature of oxygen defects in GaN and its impact on the optical properties of the host material, using first principles method. Results from these theoretical calculations together with fluorescence measurements from the materials essentially proved the underlying concepts for generating white light using RE{sup 3+}-activated nitrides. For this project, we successfully built a horizontal MOVPE reactor and used it to deposit thin films of undoped and doped nitrides of GaN and InGaN, which is a very significant achievement. Since this reactor was designed and built by in-house experts, it could be easily modified and reassembled for specific research purposes. During this study, it was successfully modified for homogeneous distribution of rare earth ions in a deposited film. It will be an ideal tool for future research involving novel thin film material concepts. We examined carefully the suitability of various metal organic precursors for incorporating RE{sup 3+}. In order to avoid oxygen contamination, several oxygen-free RE{sup 3+} precursors were identified. Both oxygen-free and oxygen- containing metal organic precursors were used for certain rare earth ions (Eu{sup 3+}, Tb{sup 3+} and Er{sup 3+}). However, the suitability of any particular type of precursor for MOVPE deposition was not established during this study, and further study is needed. More intensive research in the future is needed to improve the film quality, and eliminate the separation of rare earth oxide phases during the deposition of thin films by MOVPE. The literature in the area of the chemistry of rare earth ions in nitrides is almost nonexistent, in spite of the significant research on luminescence of RE{sup 3+} in nitrides. Consequently, MOVPE as a method of deposition of RE{sup 3+}-activated nitrides is relatively unexplored. In the following sections of this report, the ou

  18. Calibration of a solid state nuclear track detector (SSNTD) with high detection threshold to search for rare events in cosmic rays

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S. Dey; D. Gupta; A. Maulik; Sibaji Raha; Swapan K. Saha; D. Syam; J. Pakarinen; D. Voulot; F. Wenander

    2011-03-23T23:59:59.000Z

    We have investigated a commercially available polymer for its suitability as a solid state nuclear track detector (SSNTD). We identified that polymer to be polyethylene terephthalate (PET) and found that it has a higher detection threshold compared to many other widely used SSNTDs which makes this detector particularly suitable for rare event search in cosmic rays as it eliminates the dominant low Z background. Systematic studies were carried out to determine its charge response which is essential before any new material can be used as an SSNTD. In this paper we describe the charge response of PET to 129Xe, 78Kr and 49Ti ions from the REX-ISOLDE facility at CERN, present the calibration curve for PET and characterize it as a nuclear track detector.

  19. Method for manufacturing solid-state thermal neutron detectors with simultaneous high thermal neutron detection efficiency (>50%) and neutron to gamma discrimination (>1.0E4)

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nikolic, Rebecca J.; Conway, Adam M.; Heineck, Daniel; Voss, Lars F.; Wang, Tzu Fang; Shao, Qinghui

    2013-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Methods for manufacturing solid-state thermal neutron detectors with simultaneous high thermal neutron detection efficiency (>50%) and neutron to gamma discrimination (>10.sup.4) are provided. A structure is provided that includes a p+ region on a first side of an intrinsic region and an n+ region on a second side of the intrinsic region. The thickness of the intrinsic region is minimized to achieve a desired gamma discrimination factor of at least 1.0E+04. Material is removed from one of the p+ region or the n+ region and into the intrinsic layer to produce pillars with open space between each pillar. The open space is filed with a neutron sensitive material. An electrode is placed in contact with the pillars and another electrode is placed in contact with the side that is opposite of the intrinsic layer with respect to the first electrode.

  20. Comparison of different liquid anaerobic digestion effluents as inocula and nitrogen sources for solid-state batch anaerobic digestion of corn stover

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xu Fuqing; Shi Jian [Department of Food, Agricultural and Biological Engineering, Ohio State University, Ohio Agricultural Research and Development Center, 1680 Madison Ave., Wooster, OH 44691 (United States); Lv Wen; Yu Zhongtang [Department of Animal Sciences, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Li Yebo, E-mail: li.851@osu.edu [Department of Food, Agricultural and Biological Engineering, Ohio State University, Ohio Agricultural Research and Development Center, 1680 Madison Ave., Wooster, OH 44691 (United States)

    2013-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Compared methane production of solid AD inoculated with different effluents. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Food waste effluent (FWE) had the largest population of acetoclastic methanogens. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Solid AD inoculated with FWE produced the highest methane yield at F/E ratio of 4. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Dairy waste effluent (DWE) was rich of cellulolytic and xylanolytic bacteria. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Solid AD inoculated with DWE produced the highest methane yield at F/E ratio of 2. - Abstract: Effluents from three liquid anaerobic digesters, fed with municipal sewage sludge, food waste, or dairy waste, were evaluated as inocula and nitrogen sources for solid-state batch anaerobic digestion of corn stover in mesophilic reactors. Three feedstock-to-effluent (F/E) ratios (i.e., 2, 4, and 6) were tested for each effluent. At an F/E ratio of 2, the reactor inoculated by dairy waste effluent achieved the highest methane yield of 238.5 L/kgVS{sub feed}, while at an F/E ratio of 4, the reactor inoculated by food waste effluent achieved the highest methane yield of 199.6 L/kgVS{sub feed}. The microbial population and chemical composition of the three effluents were substantially different. Food waste effluent had the largest population of acetoclastic methanogens, while dairy waste effluent had the largest populations of cellulolytic and xylanolytic bacteria. Dairy waste also had the highest C/N ratio of 8.5 and the highest alkalinity of 19.3 g CaCO{sub 3}/kg. The performance of solid-state batch anaerobic digestion reactors was closely related to the microbial status in the liquid anaerobic digestion effluents.

  1. Low-rank coal oil agglomeration

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Knudson, C.L.; Timpe, R.C.

    1991-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

    A low-rank coal oil agglomeration process is described. High mineral content, a high ash content subbituminous coals are effectively agglomerated with a bridging oil which is partially water soluble and capable of entering the pore structure, and is usually coal-derived.

  2. Computational Enhancements in Low-Rank Semidefinite ...

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2004-07-12T23:59:59.000Z

    Jul 12, 2004 ... ?Department of Management Sciences, University of Iowa, Iowa City, .... Moreover, it has been observed in practice that the ... do not suggest that one particular version of the low-rank algorithm is best for all problem ...... Scientific Library Reference Manual, second edition. http://www.gnu.org/software/.

  3. Rank Project Name Directorate, Dept/Div

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ,370.00 0.32 72 ft3 solid rad waste; 35 gal of mixed waste; 108 gal of haz waste; 324 ft3 of rad DIS waste 6Rank Project Name Directorate, Dept/Div and POC Cost Savings Payback (Years) Waste Reduction 1 waste 2 Replacement of Mercury Thermometers Basic Energy Sciences, Condensed Matter Physics & Material

  4. The generating rank of the symplectic grassmannians

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Blok, Rieuwert J.

    . Blok Department of Mathematics and Statistics Bowling Green State University Bowling Green, OH 43403 U and Statistics Bowling Green State University Bowling Green, OH 43403 Tel.: +1 (419) 372-7455 FAX : +1 (419) 372, the generating rank of a geometry equals the dimension of the universal embedding of that geometry, if it exists

  5. Link Analysis Ranking Algorithms, Theory, and Experiments #

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rosenthal, Jeffrey S.

    and the widespread accessibility of the Web has led to surge of research activity in the area of information retrieval on the World Wide Web. The seminal papers of Kleinberg [31], and Brin and Page [9] introduced Link Analysis Ranking, where hyperlink structures are used to determine the relative authority of a Web page

  6. Rank Project Name Directorate, Dept/Div

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    waste 2 Motion Lights Energy Sciences & Technology, EENS (Dave Elling) $3,200 $7,000.00 0.46 Energy Light Source, NSLS (John Aloi) $1,500 $5,200.00 0.29 200 gallons corrosive waste 6 Electronic RecyclingRank Project Name Directorate, Dept/Div and POC Cost Savings Payback (Years) Waste Reduction 1

  7. HPGMG 1.0: A Benchmark for Ranking High Performance Computing Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Adams, Mark

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    for Ranking High Performance Computing Systems Mark F. Adamsmetric for ranking high performance computing systems. HPLmetric for ranking high performance computing systems. When

  8. Quantifier rank spectrum of L-infinity-omega

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ackerman, Nathaniel Leedom

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In Part A we will study the quantifier rank spectrum of sentences of L!1,!. We will show that there are scattered sentences with models of arbitrarily high but bounded quantifier rank. We will also consider the case of ...

  9. Graded Relevance Ranking for Synonym Discovery Andrew Yates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    the pointwise mutual information (PMI) between the 16-term windows that a given pair of terms appear in. When used to rank synonym candidates, this method ranks them by the PMI between a target term and each

  10. IEEE JOURNAL OF SOLID-STATE CIRCUITS, VOL. 48, NO. 8, AUGUST 2013 1885 A 6-b 1.6-GS/s ADC With Redundant Cycle One-Tap

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Palermo, Sam

    IEEE JOURNAL OF SOLID-STATE CIRCUITS, VOL. 48, NO. 8, AUGUST 2013 1885 A 6-b 1.6-GS/s ADC equalization inside the front-end ADC can potentially result in lowering the complexity of back-end DSP and.-W. Yang, S. Hoyos, and S. Palermo are with the Analog and Mixed Signal Center, Electrical Engineering

  11. ECS Journal of Solid State Science and Technology, 2 (11) Q205-Q210 (2013) Q205 2162-8769/2013/2(11)/Q205/6/$31.00 The Electrochemical Society

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ECS Journal of Solid State Science and Technology, 2 (11) Q205-Q210 (2013) Q205 2162 and demonstrate the front-back coupling of the 1/f noise. At the same time, a large variability is induced) in small-area transistors.10­14 In the past, RTN was only relevant for analog and mixed signal applications

  12. 86 2005 IEEE International Solid-State Circuits Conference 0-7803-8904-2/05/$20.00 2005 IEEE. ISSCC 2005 / SESSION 4 / TD: MIXED-DOMAIN SYSTEMS / 4.6

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Emami-Neyestanak, Azita

    86 · 2005 IEEE International Solid-State Circuits Conference 0-7803-8904-2/05/$20.00 ©2005 IEEE. ISSCC 2005 / SESSION 4 / TD: MIXED-DOMAIN SYSTEMS / 4.6 4.6 Opportunities for Optics in Integrated for off-chip interconnects are grow- ing, and on-chip possibilities pose key questions [2]. Optical back

  13. Solid State Electronics (ECE 103) ECE MS Comp Exam, Fall 2013 (a) Draw the energy band diagram of a piece of Si at room temperature (label the diagram) and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at San Diego, University of

    Solid State Electronics (ECE 103) ­ ECE MS Comp Exam, Fall 2013 (a) Draw the energy band diagram of a piece of Si at room temperature (label the diagram) and use the band diagram to illustrate the doping (r.t.). (b) Use band diagrams to illustrate the formation of p/n junction. (c) For a p/n+ diode, p-Si

  14. Rank-Based Estimation for GARCH Processes Beth Andrews

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Andrews, Beth

    Rank-Based Estimation for GARCH Processes Beth Andrews Northwestern University September 7, 2011 Abstract We consider a rank-based technique for estimating GARCH model parameters, some of which are scale transformations of conventional GARCH parameters. The estimators are obtained by minimizing a rank-based residual

  15. Diode pumped solid state kilohertz disk laser system for time-resolved combustion diagnostics under microgravity at the drop tower Bremen

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wagner, Volker; Paa, Wolfgang; Triebel, Wolfgang [Institute of Photonic Technology, Laser Diagnostics, Albert-Einstein-Str. 9, 07745 Jena (Germany)] [Institute of Photonic Technology, Laser Diagnostics, Albert-Einstein-Str. 9, 07745 Jena (Germany); Eigenbrod, Christian; Klinkov, Konstantin [Center of Applied Space Technology and Microgravity, University Bremen, Am Fallturm, 28359 Bremen (Germany)] [Center of Applied Space Technology and Microgravity, University Bremen, Am Fallturm, 28359 Bremen (Germany); Larionov, Mikhail; Giesen, Adolf; Stolzenburg, Christian [Institut für Strahlwerkzeuge (IFSW), Pfaffenwaldring 43, 70569 Stuttgart (Germany)] [Institut für Strahlwerkzeuge (IFSW), Pfaffenwaldring 43, 70569 Stuttgart (Germany)

    2014-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We describe a specially designed diode pumped solid state laser system based on the disk laser architecture for combustion diagnostics under microgravity (?g) conditions at the drop tower in Bremen. The two-stage oscillator-amplifier-system provides an excellent beam profile (TEM{sub 00}) at narrowband operation (?? < 1 pm) and is tunable from 1018 nm to 1052 nm. The laser repetition rate of up to 4 kHz at pulse durations of 10 ns enables the tracking of processes on a millisecond time scale. Depending on the specific issue it is possible to convert the output radiation up to the fourth harmonic around 257 nm. The very compact laser system is integrated in a slightly modified drop capsule and withstands decelerations of up to 50 g (>11 ms). At first the concept of the two-stage disk laser is briefly explained, followed by a detailed description of the disk laser adaption to the drop tower requirements with special focus on the intended use under ?g conditions. In order to demonstrate the capabilities of the capsule laser as a tool for ?g combustion diagnostics, we finally present an investigation of the precursor-reactions before the droplet ignition using 2D imaging of the Laser Induced Fluorescence of formaldehyde.

  16. Dye-Sensitized Solid State Solar Cells Sensitized with Natural Pigment Extracted from the Grapes G.G.G.M.N.Hemamali * , G.R.A.Kumara **

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    unknown authors

    Abstract- The solar energy is an abundant, continuous and clean source of energy that can be used to produce electricity using many different photovoltaic designs. Dye sensitized solar cells based on TiO2 have drawn attention worldwide due to their low cost and easy preparation techniques compared to conventional silicon based photovoltaic devices. The objective of this work was to develop dye-sensitized solid-state solar cell (DSSC), in which the liquid electrolyte, commonly applied in photoelectrochemical cells, is replaced by CuSCN and compared the performance of the solar cells with anthocyanin extracted from grapes. Highly porous, TiO2 films have been prepared, on fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO) glass substrate, using P25 nm TiO2 particles in a TiO2 colloidal suspension. These films were used to construct FTO/TiO2/Natural Dye/CuSCN/Pt/FTO, DSSCs with natural anthocyanin sensitizer extracted from grapes and CuSCN as the hole conductor. The cells show open circuit voltage (Voc) of 0.449V, short-circuit current density (Jsc) of 1.91 mA cm-2 and 0.50 fill factor (FF) with an overall efficiency (?) of 0.43 %.

  17. Perturbation of nuclear spin polarizations in solid state NMR of nitroxide-doped samples by magic-angle spinning without microwaves

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thurber, Kent R., E-mail: thurberk@niddk.nih.gov; Tycko, Robert [Laboratory of Chemical Physics, National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892-0520 (United States)] [Laboratory of Chemical Physics, National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892-0520 (United States)

    2014-05-14T23:59:59.000Z

    We report solid state {sup 13}C and {sup 1}H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) experiments with magic-angle spinning (MAS) on frozen solutions containing nitroxide-based paramagnetic dopants that indicate significant perturbations of nuclear spin polarizations without microwave irradiation. At temperatures near 25 K, {sup 1}H and cross-polarized {sup 13}C NMR signals from {sup 15}N,{sup 13}C-labeled L-alanine in trinitroxide-doped glycerol/water are reduced by factors as large as six compared to signals from samples without nitroxide doping. Without MAS or at temperatures near 100 K, differences between signals with and without nitroxide doping are much smaller. We attribute most of the reduction of NMR signals under MAS near 25 K to nuclear spin depolarization through the cross-effect dynamic nuclear polarization mechanism, in which three-spin flips drive nuclear polarizations toward equilibrium with spin polarization differences between electron pairs. When T{sub 1e} is sufficiently long relative to the MAS rotation period, the distribution of electron spin polarization across the nitroxide electron paramagnetic resonance lineshape can be very different from the corresponding distribution in a static sample at thermal equilibrium, leading to the observed effects. We describe three-spin and 3000-spin calculations that qualitatively reproduce the experimental observations.

  18. Towards a beyond 1 GHz solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance: External lock operation in an external current mode for a 500 MHz nuclear magnetic resonance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Takahashi, Masato; Maeda, Hideaki [RIKEN Systems and Structural Biology Center, Yokohama, Kanagawa 230-0045 (Japan); Graduate School of Yokohama City University, Yokohama, Kanagawa 230-0045 (Japan); Ebisawa, Yusuke; Tennmei, Konosuke [Graduate School of Yokohama City University, Yokohama, Kanagawa 230-0045 (Japan); Yanagisawa, Yoshinori; Nakagome, Hideki [Graduate School of Chiba University, Chiba, Chiba 263-8522 (Japan); Hosono, Masami; Takasugi, Kenji [JEOL RESONANCE Inc., Akishima, Tokyo 196-8558 (Japan); Hase, Takashi; Miyazaki, Takayoshi [Kobe Steel, Ltd., Kobe, Hyogo 651-2271 (Japan); Fujito, Teruaki [Probe Laboratory Inc., Hamura, Tokyo 205-0021 (Japan); Kiyoshi, Tsukasa [Superconducting Wire Unit, National Institute for Materials Science, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0003 (Japan); Yamazaki, Toshio [RIKEN Systems and Structural Biology Center, Yokohama, Kanagawa 230-0045 (Japan)

    2012-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Achieving a higher magnetic field is important for solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). But a conventional low temperature superconducting (LTS) magnet cannot exceed 1 GHz (23.5 T) due to the critical magnetic field. Thus, we started a project to replace the Nb{sub 3}Sn innermost coil of an existing 920 MHz NMR (21.6 T) with a Bi-2223 high temperature superconducting (HTS) innermost coil. Unfortunately, the HTS magnet cannot be operated in persistent current mode; an external dc power supply is required to operate the NMR magnet, causing magnetic field fluctuations. These fluctuations can be stabilized by a field-frequency lock system based on an external NMR detection coil. We demonstrate here such a field-frequency lock system in a 500 MHz LTS NMR magnet operated in an external current mode. The system uses a {sup 7}Li sample in a microcoil as external NMR detection system. The required field compensation is calculated from the frequency of the FID as measured with a frequency counter. The system detects the FID signal, determining the FID frequency, and calculates the required compensation coil current to stabilize the sample magnetic field. The magnetic field was stabilized at 0.05 ppm/3 h for magnetic field fluctuations of around 10 ppm. This method is especially effective for a magnet with large magnetic field fluctuations. The magnetic field of the compensation coil is relatively inhomogeneous in these cases and the inhomogeneity of the compensation coil can be taken into account.

  19. A combined solid-state NMR and synchrotron x-ray diffraction powder study on the structure of the antioxidant(+)-catechin 4.5 hydrate.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harper, J. K.; Doebbler, J. A.; Jaccques, E.; Grant, D. M.; Von Dreele, R. B.; Univ. of Utah

    2010-03-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Analyses combining X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) and solid-state NMR (SSNMR) data can now provide crystal structures in challenging powders that are inaccessible by traditional methods. The flavonoid catechin is an ideal candidate for these methods, as it has eluded crystallographic characterization despite extensive study. Catechin was first described nearly two centuries ago, and its powders exhibit numerous levels of hydration. Here, synchrotron XRD data provide all heavy-atom positions in (+)-catechin 4.5-hydrate and establish the space group as C2. SSNMR data ({sup 13}C tensor and {sup 1}H/{sup 13}C correlation) complete the conformation by providing catechin's five OH hydrogen orientations. Since 1903, this phase has been erroneously identified as a 4.0 hydrate, but XRD and density data establish that this discrepancy is due to the facile loss of the water molecule located at a Wyckoff special position in the unit cell. A final improvement to heavy-atom positions is provided by a geometry optimization of bond lengths and valence angles with XRD torsion angles held constant. The structural enhancement in this final structure is confirmed by the significantly improved fit of computed {sup 13}C tensors to experimental data.

  20. Materials for solid state lighting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, S.G.; Simmons, J.A.

    2002-03-26T23:59:59.000Z

    Dramatic improvement in the efficiency of inorganic and organic light emitting diodes (LEDs and OLEDs) within the last decade has made these devices viable future energy efficient replacements for current light sources. However, both technologies must overcome major technical barriers, requiring significant advances in material science, before this goal can be achieved. Attention will be given to each technology associated with the following major areas of material research: (1) material synthesis, (2) process development, (3) device and defect physics, and (4) packaging. The discussion on material synthesis will emphasize the need for further development of component materials, including substrates and electrodes, necessary for improving device performance. The process technology associated with the LEDs and OLEDs is very different, but in both cases it is one factor limiting device performance. Improvements in process control and methodology are expected to lead to additional benefits of higher yield, greater reliability and lower costs. Since reliability and performance are critical to these devices, an understanding of the basic physics of the devices and device failure mechanisms is necessary to effectively improve the product. The discussion will highlight some of the more basic material science problems remaining to be solved. In addition, consideration will be given to packaging technology and the need for the development of novel materials and geometries to increase the efficiencies and reliability of the devices. The discussion will emphasize the performance criteria necessary to meet lighting applications, in order to illustrate the gap between current status and market expectations for future product.