Sample records for delayed fluid coking

  1. Fundamentals of Delayed Coking Joint Industry Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michael Volk; Keith Wisecarver

    2004-09-26T23:59:59.000Z

    Delayed coking evolved steadily over the early to mid 1900s to enable refiners to convert high boiling, residual petroleum fractions to light products such as gasoline. Pound for pound, coking is the most energy intensive of any operation in a modern refinery. Large amounts of energy are required to heat the thick, poor-quality petroleum residuum to the 900 to 950 degrees F required to crack the heavy hydrocarbon molecules into lighter, more valuable products. One common misconception of delayed coking is that the product coke is a disadvantage. Although coke is a low valued (near zero economic value) byproduct, compared to transportation fuels, there is a significant worldwide trade and demand for coke as it is an economical fuel. Coke production has increased steadily over the last ten years, with further increases forecast for the foreseeable future. Current domestic production is near 111,000 tons per day. A major driving force behind this increase is the steady decline in crude quality available to refiners. Crude slates are expected to grow heavier with higher sulfur contents while environmental restrictions are expected to significantly reduce the demand for high-sulfur residual fuel oil. Light sweet crudes will continue to be available and in even greater demand than they are today. Refiners will be faced with the choice of purchasing light sweet crudes at a premium price, or adding bottom of the barrel upgrading capability, through additional new investments, to reduce the production of high-sulfur residual fuel oil and increase the production of low-sulfur distillate fuels. A second disadvantage is that liquid products from cokers frequently are unstable, i.e., they rapidly form gum and sediments. Because of intermediate investment and operating costs, delayed coking has increased in popularity among refiners worldwide. Based on the 2000 Worldwide Refining Survey published in the Oil and Gas, the delayed coking capacity for 101 refineries around the world is 2,937,439 barrels/calendar day. These cokers produce 154,607 tons of coke per day and delayed coking accounts for 88% of the world capacity. The delayed coking charge capacity in the United States is 1,787,860 b/cd. Despite its wide commercial use, only relatively few contractors and refiners are truly knowledgeable in delayed-coking design, so that this process carries with it a ''black art'' connotation. Until recently, the expected yield from cokers was determined by a simple laboratory test on the feedstock. As a result of Tulsa University's prior related research, a process model was developed that with additional work could be used to optimize existing delayed cokers over a wide range of potential feedstocks and operating conditions. The objectives of this research program are to: utilize the current micro, batch and pilot unit facilities at The University of Tulsa to enhance the understanding of the coking process; conduct additional micro and pilot unit tests with new and in-house resids and recycles to make current optimization models more robust; conduct focused kinetic experiments to enhance the furnace tube model and to enhance liquid production while minimizing sulfur in the products; conduct detailed foaming studies to optimize the process and minimize process upsets; quantify the parameters that affect coke morphology; and to utilize the knowledge gained from the experimental and modeling studies to enhance the computer programs developed in the previous JIP for optimization of the coking process. These refined computer models will then be tested against refinery data provided by the member companies. Novel concepts will also be explored for hydrogen sulfide removal of furnace gases as well as gas injection studies to reduce over-cracking.

  2. Fundamentals of Delayed Coking Joint Industry Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michael Volk; Keith Wisecarver

    2003-09-26T23:59:59.000Z

    Delayed coking evolved steadily over the early to mid 1900s to enable refiners to convert high boiling, residual petroleum fractions to light products such as gasoline. Pound for pound, coking is the most energy intensive of any operation in a modern refinery. Large amounts of energy are required to heat the thick, poor-quality petroleum residuum to the 900 to 950 degrees F required to crack the heavy hydrocarbon molecules into lighter, more valuable products. One common misconception of delayed coking is that the product coke is a disadvantage. Although coke is a low valued (near zero economic value) byproduct, compared to transportation fuels, there is a significant worldwide trade and demand for coke as it is an economical fuel. Coke production has increased steadily over the last ten years, with further increases forecast for the foreseeable future. Current domestic production is near 111,000 tons per day. A major driving force behind this increase is the steady decline in crude quality available to refiners. Crude slates are expected to grow heavier with higher sulfur contents while environmental restrictions are expected to significantly reduce the demand for high-sulfur residual fuel oil. Light sweet crudes will continue to be available and in even greater demand than they are today. Refiners will be faced with the choice of purchasing light sweet crudes at a premium price, or adding bottom of the barrel upgrading capability, through additional new investments, to reduce the production of high-sulfur residual fuel oil and increase the production of low-sulfur distillate fuels. A second disadvantage is that liquid products from cokers frequently are unstable, i.e., they rapidly form gum and sediments. Because of intermediate investment and operating costs, delayed coking has increased in popularity among refiners worldwide. Based on the 2000 Worldwide Refining Survey published in the Oil and Gas, the delayed coking capacity for 101 refineries around the world is 2,937,439 barrels/calendar day. These cokers produce 154,607 tons of coke per day and delayed coking accounts for 88% of the world capacity. The delayed coking charge capacity in the United States is 1,787,860 b/cd. Despite its wide commercial use, only relatively few contractors and refiners are truly knowledgeable in delayed-coking design, so that this process carries with it a ''black art'' connotation. Until recently, the expected yield from cokers was determined by a simple laboratory test on the feedstock. As a result of Tulsa University's prior related research, a process model was developed that with additional work could be used to optimize existing delayed cokers over a wide range of potential feedstocks and operating conditions. The objectives of this research program are to: utilize the current micro, batch and pilot unit facilities at The University of Tulsa to enhance the understanding of the coking process; conduct additional micro and pilot unit tests with new and in-house resids and recycles to make current optimization models more robust; conduct focused kinetic experiments to enhance the furnace tube model and to enhance liquid production while minimizing sulfur in the products; conduct detailed foaming studies to optimize the process and minimize process upsets; quantify the parameters that affect coke morphology; and to utilize the knowledge gained from the experimental and modeling studies to enhance the computer programs developed in the previous JIP for optimization of the coking process. These refined computer models will then be tested against refinery data provided by the member companies. Novel concepts will also be explored for hydrogen sulfide removal of furnace gases as well as gas injection studies to reduce over-cracking.

  3. Fundamentals of Delayed Coking Joint Industry Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michael Volk Jr; Keith Wisecarver

    2005-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Delayed coking evolved steadily over the early to mid 1900s to enable refiners to convert high boiling, residual petroleum fractions to light products such as gasoline. Pound for pound, coking is the most energy intensive of any operation in a modern refinery. Large amounts of energy are required to heat the thick, poor-quality petroleum residuum to the 900 to 950 degrees F required to crack the heavy hydrocarbon molecules into lighter, more valuable products. One common misconception of delayed coking is that the product coke is a disadvantage. Although coke is a low valued (near zero economic value) byproduct, compared to transportation fuels, there is a significant worldwide trade and demand for coke as it is an economical fuel. Coke production has increased steadily over the last ten years, with further increases forecast for the foreseeable future. Current domestic production is near 111,000 tons per day. A major driving force behind this increase is the steady decline in crude quality available to refiners. Crude slates are expected to grow heavier with higher sulfur contents while environmental restrictions are expected to significantly reduce the demand for high-sulfur residual fuel oil. Light sweet crudes will continue to be available and in even greater demand than they are today. Refiners will be faced with the choice of purchasing light sweet crudes at a premium price, or adding bottom of the barrel upgrading capability, through additional new investments, to reduce the production of high-sulfur residual fuel oil and increase the production of low-sulfur distillate fuels. A second disadvantage is that liquid products from cokers frequently are unstable, i.e., they rapidly form gum and sediments. Because of intermediate investment and operating costs, delayed coking has increased in popularity among refiners worldwide. Based on the 2000 Worldwide Refining Survey published in the Oil and Gas, the delayed coking capacity for 101 refineries around the world is 2,937,439 barrels/calendar day. These cokers produce 154,607 tons of coke per day and delayed coking accounts for 88% of the world capacity. The delayed coking charge capacity in the United States is 1,787,860 b/cd. Despite its wide commercial use, only relatively few contractors and refiners are truly knowledgeable in delayed-coking design, so that this process carries with it a ''black art'' connotation. Until recently, the expected yield from cokers was determined by a simple laboratory test on the feedstock. As a result of Tulsa University's prior related research, a process model was developed that with additional work could be used to optimize existing delayed cokers over a wide range of potential feedstocks and operating conditions. The objectives of this research program are to: utilize the current micro, batch and pilot unit facilities at The University of Tulsa to enhance the understanding of the coking process; conduct additional micro and pilot unit tests with new and in-house resids and recycles to make current optimization models more robust; conduct focused kinetic experiments to enhance the furnace tube model and to enhance liquid production while minimizing sulfur in the products; conduct detailed foaming studies to optimize the process and minimize process upsets; quantify the parameters that affect coke morphology; and to utilize the knowledge gained from the experimental and modeling studies to enhance the computer programs developed in the previous JIP for optimization of the coking process. These refined computer models will then be tested against refinery data provided by the member companies. Novel concepts will also be explored for hydrogen sulfide removal of furnace gases as well as gas injection studies to reduce over-cracking. The following deliverables are scheduled from the two projects of the three-year JIP: (1) A novel method for enhancing liquid yields from delayed cokers and data that provide insight as to the optimum temperature to remove hydrogen sulfide from furnace gases. (2) An understanding of what causes foaming in c

  4. Delayed coking of decant oil and coal in a laboratory-scale coking unit

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oemer Guel; Leslie R. Rudnick; Harold H. Schobert [Pennsylvania State University Park, PA (United States). Energy Institute, C205 Coal Utilization Laboratory

    2006-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper, we describe the development of a laboratory-scale delayed coker and present results of an investigation on the recovered liquid from the coking of decant oil and decant oil/coal mixtures. Using quantitative gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy (GC/MS) and {sup 1}H and {sup 13}C NMR, a study was made of the chemical composition of the distillate liquids isolated from the overheads collected during the coking and co-coking process. {sup 1}H and {sup 13}C NMR analyses of combined liquids from coking and co-coking did not show any substantial differences. These NMR results of coking and co-coking liquids agree with those of GC/MS. In these studies, it was observed that co-coking with coal resulted in a decrease in the paraffins contents of the liquid. The percentage of cycloparaffins, indenes, naphthalenes, and tetralins did not change significantly. In contrast, alkyl benzenes and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the distillate were higher in the co-coking experiments which may have resulted from the distillation of thermally cracked coal macromolecules and the contribution of these molecules to the overall liquid composition. 40 refs., 3 figs., 13 tabs.

  5. Fundamentals of Delayed Coking Joint Industry Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Volk Jr., Michael; Wisecarver, Keith D.; Sheppard, Charles M.

    2003-02-07T23:59:59.000Z

    The coking test facilities include three reactors (or cokers) and ten utilities. Experiments were conducted using the micro-coker, pilot-coker, and stirred-batch coker. Gas products were analyzed using an on-line gas chromatograph. Liquid properties were analyzed in-house using simulated distillation (HP 5880a), high temperature gas chromatography (6890a), detailed hydrocarbon analysis, and ASTM fractionation. Coke analyses as well as feedstock analyses and some additional liquid analyses (including elemental analyses) were done off-site.

  6. Demineralization of petroleum cokes and fly ash samples obtained from the upgrading of Athabasca oil sands bitumen

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Majid, A.; Ratcliffe, C.I.; Ripmeester, J.A. (National Research Council of Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). Div. of Chemistry)

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Ash reduction of the cokes and fly ash samples derived from the Athabasca oil sands bitumen was attempted by dissolving the mineral matter in acids. The samples used for this investigation included Syncrude fluid coking coke, Suncor delayed coking coke and the two fly ash samples obtained from the combustion of these cokes. All samples were analyzed for C,H,N,O, and S before and after acid demineralization and the analyses results compared. Further, the ash from the samples before and after acid demineralization was analyzed for silica, alumina, iron titanium, nickel and vanadium to assess the acid leaching of these elements. CP/MAS, /sup 13/C NMR spectroscopic study of the demineralized coke and fly ash samples was also attempted.

  7. Coke from coal and petroleum

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wynne, Jr., Francis E. (Allison Park, PA); Lopez, Jaime (Pittsburgh, PA); Zaborowsky, Edward J. (Harwick, PA)

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A carbonaceous coke is manufactured by the delayed coking of a slurry mixture of from about 10 to about 30 weight percent of caking or non-caking coal and the remainder a petroleum resid blended at below 50.degree. C.

  8. Blast furnace coke quality in relation to petroleum coke addition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alvarez, R.; Diez, M.A.; Menendez, J.A.; Barriocanal, C.; Pis, J.J. [CSIC, Oviedo (Spain). Inst. Nacional del Carbon; Sirgado, M. [ENSIDESA, Aviles (Spain)

    1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The incorporation of petroleum coke as an additive in industrial coking coal blends is a practice often used by steel companies. A suitable blast furnace coke produced by replacing part of the coking coal blend with a suitable petroleum coke (addition of 5 to 15%), was made by Great Lakes Carbon Corporation and successfully tested at several blast furnaces. This coke had lower reactivity, less ash and slightly higher sulfur content than coke made without the addition of petroleum coke. In contrast with these results, it has been reported in a BCRA study that additions of petroleum coke to a strong coking coal, above 5 wt%, increased coke reactivity. These differences may be explained on the basis of the coal or blend characteristics to which petroleum coke is added. Petroleum coke addition seems to give better results if the coal/blend has high fluidity. The present situation in Spain is favorable for the use of petroleum coke. So, a study of laboratory and semi-industrial scale was made to assess the possibility of using petroleum coke as an additive to the typical industrial coal blend coked by the Spanish Steel Company, ENSIDESA. The influence of the petroleum coke particle size was also studied to semi-industrial scale.

  9. Western Canadian coking coals -- Thermal rheology and coking quality

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leeder, W.R. [Teck Corp. (Canada); Price, J.T.; Gransden, J.F. [CANMET Energy Technology Centre, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada)

    1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Methods of predicting coke strength developed from the thermal rheological properties of Carboniferous coals frequently indicate that Cretaceous coals would not make high quality coke -- yet both types of coals produce coke suitable for the iron blast furnace. This paper will discuss the reasons why Western Canadian coals exhibit lower rheological values and how to predict the strength of coke produced from them.

  10. Integration of stripping of fines slurry in a coking and gasification process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    DeGeorge, Charles W. (Chester, NJ)

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In an integrated fluid coking and gasification process wherein a stream of fluidized solids is passed from a fluidized bed coking zone to a second fluidized bed and wherein entrained solid fines are recovered by a wet scrubbing process and wherein the resulting solids-liquid slurry is stripped to remove acidic gases, the stripped vapors of the stripping zone are sent to the gas cleanup stage of the gasification product gas. The improved stripping integration is particularly useful in the combination coal liquefaction process, fluid coking of bottoms of the coal liquefaction zone and gasification of the product coke.

  11. Met coke world summit 2005

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    2005-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Papers are presented under the following session headings: industry overview and market outlook; coke in the Americas; the global coke industry; and new developments. All the papers (except one) only consist of a copy of the overheads/viewgraphs.

  12. Coking and gasification process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Billimoria, Rustom M. (Houston, TX); Tao, Frank F. (Baytown, TX)

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An improved coking process for normally solid carbonaceous materials wherein the yield of liquid product from the coker is increased by adding ammonia or an ammonia precursor to the coker. The invention is particularly useful in a process wherein coal liquefaction bottoms are coked to produce both a liquid and a gaseous product. Broadly, ammonia or an ammonia precursor is added to the coker ranging from about 1 to about 60 weight percent based on normally solid carbonaceous material and is preferably added in an amount from about 2 to about 15 weight percent.

  13. High coking value pitch

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, Douglas J.; Chang, Ching-Feng; Lewis, Irwin C.; Lewis, Richard T.

    2014-06-10T23:59:59.000Z

    A high coking value pitch prepared from coal tar distillate and has a low softening point and a high carbon value while containing substantially no quinoline insolubles is disclosed. The pitch can be used as an impregnant or binder for producing carbon and graphite articles.

  14. Design and construction of coke battery 1A at Radlin coke plant, Poland

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    A.M. Kravchenko; D.P. Yarmoshik; V.B. Kamenyuka; G.E. Kos'kova; N.I. Shkol'naya; V.V. Derevich; A.S. Grankin [Giprokoks, the State Institute for the Design of Coke-Industry Enterprises, Kharkov (Ukraine)

    2009-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    In the design and construction of coke battery 1A at Radlin coke plant (Poland), coking of rammed coke with a stationary system was employed for the first time. The coke batteries are grouped in blocks. Safety railings are provided on the coke and machine sides of the maintenance areas.

  15. COKEMASTER: Coke plant management system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johanning, J.; Reinke, M. [Krupp Koppers GmbH, Essen (Germany)

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    To keep coke utilization in ironmaking as competitive as possible, the potential to improve the economics of coke production has to be utilized. As one measure to meet this need of its customers, Krupp Koppers has expanded its existing ECOTROL computer system for battery heating control to a comprehensive Coke Plant Management System. Increased capacity utilization, lower energy consumption, stabilization of plant operation and ease of operation are the main targets.

  16. New coke-sorting system at OAO Koks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    B.Kh. Bulaevskii; V.S. Shved; Yu.V. Kalimin; S.D. Filippov [OAO Koks, Kemerovo (Russian Federation)

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A new coke-sorting system has been introduced at OAO Koks. It differs from the existing system in that it has no bunkers for all-purpose coke but only bunkers for commercial coke. In using this system with coke from battery 4, the crushing of the coke on conveyer belts, at roller screens, and in the commercial-coke bunkers is studied. After installing braking elements in the coke path, their effectiveness in reducing coke disintegration and improving coke screening is investigated. The granulometric composition and strength of the commercial coke from coke battery 3, with the new coke-sorting system, is evaluated.

  17. Trends in the automation of coke production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    R.I. Rudyka; Y.E. Zingerman; K.G. Lavrov [Giprokoks, the State Institute for the Design of Coke-Industry Enterprises, Kharkov (Ukraine)

    2009-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Up-to-date mathematical methods, such as correlation analysis and expert systems, are employed in creating a model of the coking process. Automatic coking-control systems developed by Giprokoks rule out human error. At an existing coke battery, after introducing automatic control, the heating-gas consumption is reduced by {>=}5%.

  18. Clean Production of Coke from Carbonaceous Fines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Craig N. Eatough

    2004-11-16T23:59:59.000Z

    In order to produce steel (a necessary commodity in developed nations) using conventional technologies, you must have metallurgical coke. Current coke-making technology pyrolyzes high-quality coking coals in a slot oven, but prime coking coals are becoming more expensive and slot ovens are being shut-down because of age and environmental problems. The United States typically imports about 4 million tons of coke per year, but because of a world-wide coke scarcity, metallurgical coke costs have risen from about $77 per tonne to more than $225. This coke shortage is a long-term challenge driving up the price of steel and is forcing steel makers to search for alternatives. Combustion Resources (CR) has developed a technology to produce metallurgical coke from alternative feedstocks in an environmentally clean manner. The purpose of the current project was to refine material and process requirements in order to achieve improved economic benefits and to expand upon prior work on the proposed technology through successful prototype testing of coke products. The ultimate objective of this project is commercialization of the proposed technology. During this project period, CR developed coke from over thirty different formulations that meet the strength and reactivity requirements for use as metallurgical coke. The technology has been termed CR Clean Coke because it utilizes waste materials as feedstocks and is produced in a continuous process where pollutant emissions can be significantly reduced compared to current practice. The proposed feed material and operating costs for a CR Clean Coke plant are significantly less than conventional coke plants. Even the capital costs for the proposed coke plant are about half that of current plants. The remaining barrier for CR Clean Coke to overcome prior to commercialization is full-scale testing in a blast furnace. These tests will require a significant quantity of product (tens of thousands of tons) necessitating the construction of a demonstration facility. Talks are currently underway with potential partners and investors to build a demonstration facility that will generate enough coke for meaningful blast furnace evaluation tests. If the testing is successful, CR Clean Coke could potentially eliminate the need for the United States to import any coke, effectively decreasing US Steel industry dependence on foreign nations and reducing the price of domestic steel.

  19. Method and apparatus for quenching coke

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Calderon, A.

    1980-07-22T23:59:59.000Z

    A method is described for controlling pollutions during the discharge of coke from a coke oven having a pusher side and a coke discharge opening. The method comprises the steps of moving a carriage into alignment with the coke discharge opening, pushing a body of hot coke out of the discharge opening of the oven, guiding the coke pushed from the oven into a chamber supported on said carriage, quenching the coke by directing liquid at coke which is pushed into said chamber for dropping the temperature of the coke, confining steam and vapor generated during the dropping of the temperature of the coke in the chamber for building a positive pressure within the chamber, forcing the steam and vapors generated from the quenching of the coke out of the chamber through a venturi-like opening by means of the positive pressure built up in the chamber, and spraying liquid at the gases forced through said venturi-like opening by the positive pressure in the chamber for cleaning the gases.

  20. Mathematical modeling of clearance between wall of coke oven and coke cake

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nushiro, K.; Matsui, T.; Hanaoka, K.; Igawa, K.; Sorimachi, K.

    1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A mathematical model was developed for estimating the clearance between the wall of the coke oven and the coke cake. The prediction model is based on the balance between the contractile force and the coking pressure. A clearance forms when the contractile force exceeds the coking pressure in this model. The contractile force is calculated in consideration of the visco-elastic behavior of the thermal shrinkage of the coke. The coking pressure is calculated considering the generation and dispersion of gas in the melting layer. The relaxation time off coke used in this model was obtained with a dilatometer under the load application. The clearance was measured by the laser sensor, and the internal gas pressure was measured in a test oven. The clearance calculated during the coking process were in good agreement with the experimental results, which supported the validity of the mathematical model.

  1. Characterization of liquids derived from laboratory coking of decant oil and co-coking of Pittsburgh seam bituminous coal with decant oil

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Omer Gul; Caroline Clifford; Leslie R. Rudnick; Harold H. Schobert [Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA (United States)

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    In this study, decant oil and a blend of Pittsburgh seam bituminous coal with decant oil were subjected to coking and co-coking in a laboratory-scale delayed coker. Higher yields of coke and gas were obtained from co-coking than from coking. Coal addition into the feedstock resulted in lighter overhead liquid. GC/MS analyses of gasoline, jet fuel, and diesel show that co-coking of coal/decant oil gave higher quantity aromatic components than that of coking of decant oil alone. Simulated distillation gas chromatography analyses of overhead liquids and GC/MS analyses of vacuum fractions show that when coal was reacted with a decant oil, the coal constituents contributed to the distillable liquids. To address the reproducibility of the liquid products, overhead liquid samples collected at the first, third, and fifth hours of experiments of 6 h duration were evaluated using simulated distillation gas chromatography and {sup 1}H and {sup 13}C NMR. NMR analyses of the liquid products showed that, even though there were slight changes in the {sup 1}H and {sup 13}C spectra, the standard deviation was low for the time-dependent samples. Simulated distillation gas chromatography showed that the yields of refinery boiling range materials (i.e., gasoline, jet fuel, diesel, and fuel oil cuts) were reproducible between runs. Fractionation of the overhead liquids into refinery boiling range materials (gasoline, jet fuel, diesel, fuel oil fractions) showed that the boiling range materials and chemical compositions of fractions were found to be reproducible. 54 refs., 17 tabs.

  2. Coke cake behavior under compressive forces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Watakabe, S.; Takeda, T.; Itaya, H.; Suginobe, H.

    1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The deformation of the coke cake and load on the side wall during pushing were studied using an electric furnace equipped with a movable wall. Coke cake was found to deform in three stages under compressive forces. The coke cake was shortened in the pushing direction in the cake deformation stage, and load was generated on the side walls in the high wall load stage. Secondary cracks in the coke cake were found to prevent load transmission on the wall. The maximum load transmission rate was controlled by adjusting the maximum fluidity and mean reflectance of the blended coal.

  3. Collector main replacement at Indianapolis Coke

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sickle, R.R. Van

    1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Indianapolis Coke is a merchant coke producer, supplying both foundry and blast furnace coke to the industry. The facility has three coke batteries: two 3 meter batteries, one Wilputte four divided and one Koppers Becker. Both batteries are underjet batteries and are producing 100% foundry coke at a net coking time of 30.6 hours. This paper deals with the No. 1 coke battery, which is a 72 oven, gun fired, 5 meter Still battery. No. 1 battery produces both foundry and blast furnace coke at a net coking rate of 25.4 hours. No. 1 battery was commissioned in 1979. The battery is equipped with a double collector main. Although many renovations have been completed to the battery, oven machinery and heating system, to date no major construction projects have taken place. Deterioration of the collector main was caused in part from elevated levels of chlorides in the flushing liquor, and temperature fluctuations within the collector main. The repair procedures are discussed.

  4. Estimating Coke and Pepsi's price and advertising strategies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Golan, Amos; Karp, Larry; Perloff, Jeffrey M.

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    No. 789 ESTIMATING COKE AND PEPSI’ PRICE S AND ADVERTISINGAdvertising Strategies: Coke and Pepsi) by Amos Golan, LarryMarch 1999 Estimating Coke and Pepsi’s Price and Advertising

  5. New designs in the reconstruction of coke-sorting systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    A.S. Larin; V.V. Demenko; V.L. Voitanik [Giprokoks, the State Institute for the Design of Coke-Industry Enterprises, Kharkov (Ukraine)

    2009-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    In recent Giprokoks designs for the reconstruction of coke-sorting systems, high-productivity vibrational-inertial screens have been employed. This permits single-stage screening and reduction in capital and especially operating expenditures, without loss of coke quality. In two-stage screening, >80 mm coke (for foundry needs) is additionally separated, with significant improvement in quality of the metallurgical coke (25-80 mm). New designs for the reconstruction of coke-sorting systems employ mechanical treatment of the coke outside the furnace, which offers new scope for stabilization of coke quality and permits considerable improvement in mechanical strength and granulometric composition of the coke by mechanical crushing.

  6. Factors affecting coking pressures in tall coke ovens

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grimley, J.J.; Radley, C.E. [British Steel plc, Scunthorpe (United Kingdom). Scunthorpe Works

    1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The detrimental effects of excessive coking pressures, resulting in the permanent deformation of coke oven walls, have been recognized for many years. Considerable research has been undertaken worldwide in attempts to define the limits within which a plant may safely operate and to quantify the factors which influence these pressures. Few full scale techniques are available for assessing the potential of a coal blend for causing wall damage. Inference of dangerous swelling pressures may be made however by the measurement of the peak gas pressure which is generated as the plastic layers meet and coalesce at the center of the oven. This pressure is referred to in this report as the carbonizing pressure. At the Dawes Lane cokemaking plant of British Steel`s Scunthorpe Works, a large database has been compiled over several years from the regulator measurement of this pressure. This data has been statistically analyzed to provide a mathematical model for predicting the carbonizing pressure from the properties of the component coals, the results of this analysis are presented in this report.

  7. Simulation of industrial coking -- Phase 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Todoschuk, T.W.; Price, J.T.; Gransden, J.F.

    1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Two statistically designed experimental programs using an Appalachian and a Western Canadian coal blend were run in CANMET`s 460mm (18 inch) movable wall oven. Factors included coal grind, moisture, oil addition, carbonization rate and final coke temperature. Coke quality parameters including CSR, coal charge characteristics and pressure generation were analyzed.

  8. Coke oven gas injection to blast furnaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maddalena, F.L.; Terza, R.R.; Sobek, T.F.; Myklebust, K.L. [U.S. Steel, Clairton, PA (United States)

    1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    U.S. Steel has three major facilities remaining in Pennsylvania`s Mon Valley near Pittsburgh. The Clairton Coke Works operates 12 batteries which produce 4.7 million tons of coke annually. The Edgar Thomson Works in Braddock is a 2.7 million ton per year steel plant. Irvin Works in Dravosburg has a hot strip mill and a range of finishing facilities. The coke works produces 120 mmscfd of coke oven gas in excess of the battery heating requirements. This surplus gas is used primarily in steel re-heating furnaces and for boiler fuel to produce steam for plant use. In conjunction with blast furnace gas, it is also used for power generation of up to 90 MW. However, matching the consumption with the production of gas has proved to be difficult. Consequently, surplus gas has been flared at rates of up to 50 mmscfd, totaling 400 mmscf in several months. By 1993, several changes in key conditions provided the impetus to install equipment to inject coke oven gas into the blast furnaces. This paper describes the planning and implementation of a project to replace natural gas in the furnaces with coke oven gas. It involved replacement of 7 miles of pipeline between the coking plants and the blast furnaces, equipment capable of compressing coke oven gas from 10 to 50 psig, and installation of electrical and control systems to deliver gas as demanded.

  9. Heat treatment of exchangers to remove coke

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Turner, J.D.

    1990-02-20T23:59:59.000Z

    This patent describes a process for preparing furfural coke for removal from metallic surfaces. It comprises: heating the furfural coke without causing an evolution of heat capable of undesirably altering metallurgical properties of the surfaces in the presence of a gas containing molecular oxygen at a sufficient temperature below 800{degrees}F (427{degrees}C) for a sufficient time to change the crush strength of the coke so as to permit removal with a water jet at a pressure of five thousand pounds per square inch.

  10. New and revised standards for coke production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    G.A. Kotsyuba; M.I. Alpatov; Y.G. Shapoval [Giprokoks, the State Institute for the Design of Coke-Industry Enterprises, Kharkov (Ukraine)

    2009-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The need for new and revised standards for coke production in Ukraine and Russia is outlined. Such standards should address improvements in plant operation, working conditions, environmental protection, energy conservation, fire and explosion safety, and economic indices.

  11. Mozambique becomes a major coking coal exporter?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ruffini, A.

    2008-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    In addition to its potential role as a major international supplier of coking coal, Mozambique will also become a major source of power generation for southern Africa. 3 figs.

  12. The waste water free coke plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schuepphaus, K.; Brink, N. [Thyssen Still Otto Anlagentechnik GmbH, Bochum (Germany)

    1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Apart from coke which is the actual valuable material a coke oven plant also produces a substantial volume of waste water. These effluent water streams are burdened with organic components (e.g. phenols) and inorganic salts (e.g. NH{sub 4}Cl); due to the concentration of the constituents contained therein these effluent waters must be subjected to a specific treatment before they can be introduced into public waters. For some years a lot of separation tasks have been solved successfully by applying the membrane technology. It was especially the growing number of membrane facilities for cleaning of landfill leakage water whose composition can in fact be compared with that of coking plant waste waters (organic constituents, high salt fright, ammonium compounds) which gave Thyssen Still Otto Anlagentechnik the idea for developing a process for coke plant effluent treatment which contains the membrane technology as an essential component.

  13. Method for processing coke oven gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Flockenhaus, C.; Meckel, J.F.; Wagener, D.

    1980-11-25T23:59:59.000Z

    Coke oven gas is subjected, immediately after the discharge thereof from coke ovens, and without any preliminary cooling operation or any purification operation other than desulfurization, to a catalytic cracking operation to form a hot cracked gas which is rich in hydrogen and carbon monoxide. The catalytic cracking reaction is carried out in the presence of a hydrogen-containing and/or CO2-containing gas, with a steam reforming catalyst.

  14. Desulphurization of coke oven gas by the Stretford Process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Plenderleith, J.

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Stretford process is probably the most effective means available for removing hydrogen sulphide from gas streams. For streams which do not contain hydrogen cyanide or excessive oxygen it should be nearly ideal. However, the large volume of waste liquor generated by fixation of hydrogen cyanide has prevented its widespread adoption for coke oven gas treatment. Investigations of various proposals for treating the waste liquor indicate that the only practicable way of dealing with it is by reductive incineration. Although attempts to apply the Peabody-Holmes reductive incineration process have been disappointing, significant progress in overcoming some of its deficiencies has been made. The Zimpro wet oxidation process will provide a convenient method of treating the HCN scrubber effluent at No. 1 Plant. However, it will not treat the sodium based liquor from the Stretford plant. Its application to Stretford waste treatment is limited to situations where ammonium liquors and ammonium sulphate recovery facilities are available. Commissioning of this plant has been delayed while a defect in the air compressor supplied for the plant is being remedied. When the problem of liquid effluent disposal has been overcome, and if reagent chemicals continue to be available at reasonable prices, the Stretford process will be a good choice for coke oven gas desulphurization. 8 figures.

  15. Giprokoks proposals for improvement in air quality at coke battery 1A of Radlin coke plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    T.F. Trembach; A.G. Klimenko [Giprokoks, the State Institute for the Design of Coke-Industry Enterprises, Kharkov (Ukraine)

    2009-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Coke battery 1A, which uses rammed batch, has gone into production at Radlin coke plant (Poland), on the basis of Giprokoks designs. Up-to-date dust-trapping methods are used for the first time within the aspiration systems in the coal-preparation shop and in improving dust collection within the production buildings.

  16. Unmanned operation of the coke guides at Hoogovens IJmuiden Coke Plant 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vos, D.; Mannes, N.; Poppema, B. [Hoogovens IJmuiden B.V. (Netherlands)

    1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Due to the bad condition of batteries and many ovens under repair, Hoogovens was forced to partially repair and rebuild the Coke plant No. 1. The production of coke at Coke plant No. 1 is realized in 3 production blocks subdivided in 6 batteries. Besides a renovated installation, all coke oven machines were renewed. A total of five identical machine sets are available. Each consists of a pusher machine, larry car, coke guide and quench car with diesel locomotive. A complete automated control system was implemented. The main objectives were a highly regular coking and pushing process, automated traveling and positioning and a centrally coordinated interlocking of machine functions. On each operational machine however an operator performed the supervisory control of the automated machine functions. After years of good experience with the automated system, economical reasons urged further personnel reduction from 1994 on. Totally 375 people were involved, including the maintenance department. To reduce the occupation at coke plant No. 1, the coke guide was the first machine to be fully automated because of the isolated and uncomfortable working place.

  17. Investigation of bonding mechanism of coking on semi-coke from lignite with pitch and tar

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vedat Arslan [Dokuz Eylul University, Izmir (Turkey). Engineering Faculty

    2006-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    In coking, the bonding ability of inert macerals by reactive macerals is dependent on various parameters and also is related to the wettability of the inert macerals. In this study, the effect of carbonization temperature on the wettability of semi-cokes produced at various temperatures has been investigated. Soma and Yatagan semicokes represent inert macerals, and pitch was used as a reactive structure in the experiments. The briquetted pitch blocks were located on the semi-cokes and heated from the softening temperature of pitch (60{sup o}C) to 140{sup o}C to observe the wettability. In addition, liquid tar was also used to determine the wettability of semi-cokes. From the standpoint of wettability, the temperature of 900{sup o}C was determined to be the critical point for coke produced from sub-bituminous coals. 15 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  18. Coke oven gas desulfurization: at Republic Steel's New Coking Facility, Warren, OH

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boak, S.C.; Prucha, D.G.; Turic, H.L.

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Our performance test indicates that the Sulfiban process is an effective method for removing H/sub 2/S from coke-oven gas. The process is able to handle variations in coke-oven gas flow and composition. Continuing efforts are underway to maintain optimum desulfurization conditions while trying to reduce waste production and MEA consumption. The problems which have prevented us from operating continuously have given us a better understanding of the process. This has contributed to better plant operations and greater equipment reliability for us to obtain continuous coke-oven gas desulfurization. 2 figures, 1 table.

  19. Working Paper No. 789 ESTIMATING COKE AND PEPSI'S PRICE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Karp, Larry S.

    Working Paper No. 789 ESTIMATING COKE AND PEPSI'S PRICE AND ADVERTISING STRATEGIES (formerly Estimating Firms'Mixed Price and Advertising Strategies: Coke and Pepsi) by Amos Golan, Larry S. Karp. #12;Estimating Coke and Pepsi's Price and Advertising Strategies Amos Golan* Larry S. Karp** Jeffrey M

  20. Reducing dust emissions at OAO Alchevskkoks coke battery 10A

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    T.F. Trembach; E.N. Lanina [Giprokoks, the State Institute for the Design of Coke-Industry Enterprises, Kharkov (Ukraine)

    2009-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Coke battery 10A with rammed batch is under construction at OAO Alchevskkoks. The design documentation developed by Giprokoks includes measures for reducing dust emissions to the atmosphere. Aspiration systems with dry dust trapping are employed in the new components of coke battery 10A and in the existing coke-sorting equipment. Two-stage purification of dusty air in cyclones and bag filters is employed for the coke-sorting equipment. This system considerably reduces coke-dust emissions to the atmosphere.

  1. Water protection in coke-plant design

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    G.I. Alekseev [Giprokoks, the State Institute for the Design of Coke-Industry Enterprises, Kharkov (Ukraine)

    2009-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Wastewater generation, water consumption, and water management at coke plants are considered. Measures to create runoff-free water-supply and sewer systems are discussed. Filters for water purification, corrosion inhibitors, and biocides are described. An integrated single-phase technology for the removal of phenols, thiocyanides, and ammoniacal nitrogen is outlined.

  2. RESIDUA UPGRADING EFFICIENCY IMPROVEMENT MODELS: COKE FORMATION PREDICTABILITY MAPS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    John F. Schabron; A. Troy Pauli; Joseph F. Rovani Jr.

    2002-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The dispersed particle solution model of petroleum residua structure was used to develop predictors for pyrolytic coke formation. Coking Indexes were developed in prior years that measure how near a pyrolysis system is to coke formation during the coke formation induction period. These have been demonstrated to be universally applicable for residua regardless of the source of the material. Coking onset is coincidental with the destruction of the ordered structure and the formation of a multiphase system. The amount of coke initially formed appears to be a function of the free solvent volume of the original residua. In the current work, three-dimensional coke make predictability maps were developed at 400 C, 450 C, and 500 C (752 F, 842 F, and 932 F). These relate residence time and free solvent volume to the amount of coke formed at a particular pyrolysis temperature. Activation energies for two apparent types of zero-order coke formation reactions were estimated. The results provide a new tool for ranking residua, gauging proximity to coke formation, and predicting initial coke make tendencies.

  3. REDUCING POWER PRODUCTION COSTS BY UTILIZING PETROLEUM COKE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1998-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A Powder River Basin subbituminous coal from the North Antelope mine and a petroleum shot coke were received from Northern States Power Company (NSP) for testing the effects of parent fuel properties on coal-coke blend grindability and evaluating the utility of petroleum coke blending as a strategy for improving electrostatic precipitator (ESP) particulate collection efficiency. Petroleum cokes are generally harder than coals, as indicated by Hardgrove grindability tests. Therefore, the weaker coal component may concentrate in the finer size fractions during the pulverizing of coal-coke blends. The possibility of a coal-coke size fractionation effect is being investigated because it may adversely affect combustion performance. Although the blending of petroleum coke with coal may adversely affect combustion performance, it may enhance ESP particulate collection efficiency. Petroleum cokes contain much higher concentrations of V relative to coals. Consequently, coke blending can significantly increase the V content of fly ash resulting from coal-coke combustion. Pentavalent vanadium oxide (V{sub 2}O{sub 5}) is a known catalyst for transforming gaseous sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}[g]) to gaseous sulfur trioxide (SO{sub 3}[g]). The presence of SO{sub 3}(g) strongly affects fly ash resistivity and, thus, ESP performance.

  4. Coking properties of perhydrous low-rank vitrains. Influence of pyrolysis conditions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    generally lead to increased coking potential of coals characterised in the resulting cokes by large sizes equivalent to natural coking coals, since the cokes from these residues are always made of smaller MOD than those obtained for coking coals. For comparison, a similar characterisation, carried out

  5. Model based control of a coke battery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stone, P.M.; Srour, J.M.; Zulli, P. [BHP Research, Mulgrave (Australia). Melbourne Labs.; Cunningham, R.; Hockings, K. [BHP Steel, Pt Kembla, New South Wales (Australia). Coal and Coke Technical Development Group

    1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper describes a model-based strategy for coke battery control at BHP Steel`s operations in Pt Kembla, Australia. The strategy uses several models describing the battery thermal and coking behavior. A prototype controller has been installed on the Pt Kembla No. 6 Battery (PK6CO). In trials, the new controller has been well accepted by operators and has resulted in a clear improvement in battery thermal stability, with a halving of the standard deviation of average battery temperature. Along with other improvements to that battery`s operations, this implementation has contributed to a 10% decrease in specific battery energy consumption. A number of enhancements to the low level control systems on that battery are currently being undertaken in order to realize further benefits.

  6. Cyanide treatment options in coke plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Minak, H.P.; Lepke, P. [Krupp Uhde GmbH, Dortmund (Germany)

    1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The paper discusses the formation of cyanides in coke oven gas and describes and compares waste processing options. These include desulfurization by aqueous ammonia solution, desulfurization using potash solution, desulfurization in oxide boxes, decomposition of NH{sub 3} and HCN for gas scrubbing. Waste water treatment methods include chemical oxidation, precipitation, ion exchange, reverse osmosis, and biological treatment. It is concluded that biological treatment is the most economical process, safe in operation and requires a minimum of manpower.

  7. Reducing power production costs by utilizing petroleum coke. Annual report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Galbreath, K.C.

    1998-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A Powder River Basin subbituminous coal from the North Antelope mine and a petroleum shot coke were received from Northern States Power Company (NSP) for testing the effects of parent fuel properties on coal-coke blend grindability and evaluating the utility of petroleum coke blending as a strategy for improving electrostatic precipitator (ESP) particulate collection efficiency. Petroleum cokes are generally harder than coals, as indicated by Hardgrove grindability tests. Therefore, the weaker coal component may concentrate in the finer size fractions during the pulverizing of coal-coke blends. The possibility of a coal-coke size fractionation effect is being investigated because it may adversely affect combustion performance, it may enhance ESP particulate collection efficiency. Petroleum cokes contain much higher concentrations of V relative to coals. Consequently, coke blending can significantly increase the V content of fly ash resulting from coal-coke combustion. Pentavalent vanadium oxide (V{sub 2}O{sub 5}) is a known catalyst for transforming gaseous sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}[g]) to gaseous sulfur trioxide (SO{sub 3}[g]). The presence of SO{sub 3}(g) strongly affects fly ash resistivity and, thus, ESP performance.

  8. The methods of steam coals usage for coke production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Korobetskii, I.A.; Ismagilov, M.S.; Nazimov, S.A.; Sladkova, I.L.; Shudrikov, E.S.

    1998-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Nowadays, high volatile bituminous coals are broadly used for metallurgical coke production in Russia. The share of such coals in the coking blend is variable from 20 to 40% by weight. There are some large coal deposits in Kuznetskii basin which have coals with low caking tendency. The low caking properties of such coals limit of its application in the coking process. At the same time the usage of low caking coals for coke production would allow flexibility of the feedstock for coke production. Preliminary tests, carried out in COAL-C's lab has shown some differences in coal properties with dependence on the size distribution. That is why the separation of the well-caking fraction from petrographically heterogeneous coals and its further usage in coking process may be promising. Another way for low caking coals application in the coke industry is briquettes production from such coals. This method has been known for a very long time. It may be divided into two possible directions. First is a direct coking of briquettes from the low caking coals. Another way is by adding briquettes to coal blends in defined proportion and combined coking. The possibility of application of coal beneficiation methods mentioned above was investigated in present work.

  9. Development of an Advanced Combined Heat and Power (CHP) System Utilizing Off-Gas from Coke Calcination

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Coke calcination is a process that involves the heating of green petroleum coke in order to remove volatile material and purify the coke for further processing. Calcined coke is vital to the...

  10. Coke Gasification - A Solution to Excess Coke Capacity and High Energy Costs 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Patel, S. S.

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    effectively to produce medium-Btu (300 Btu/scf) gas which, in turn, can fuel the refinery furnaces to replace natural gas. Coke gasification should prove economical with natural gas price decontrol and the average price projected to rise to over $14.0 per...

  11. Dry purification of aspirational air in coke-sorting systems with wet slaking of coke

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    T.F. Trembach; A.G. Klimenko [Giprokoks, the State Institute for the Design of Coke-Industry Enterprises, Kharkov (Ukraine)

    2009-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Coke transportation after wet slaking is accompanied by the release of dust in the production building and in the surrounding atmosphere. Wet methods are traditionally used to purify very humid air. Giprokoks has developed designs for highly efficient dry dust-removal methods in such conditions.

  12. Coke Gasification - A Solution to Excess Coke Capacity and High Energy Costs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Patel, S. S.

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    effectively to produce medium-Btu (300 Btu/scf) gas which, in turn, can fuel the refinery furnaces to replace natural gas. Coke gasification should prove economical with natural gas price decontrol and the average price projected to rise to over $14.0 per...

  13. Syncrude coke burned in bubbling fluidized bed

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1987-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Syncrude Canada Ltd.'s byproduct coke is high in sulfur (7%) and vanadium (0.2%), and moderate in ash (5.9%). It contains a high proportion of unreactive forms of carbon and is low in volatiles, 6.6%. It is unsuitable for combustion by established technologies, and at present the entire production of over 2000 tons per day is being stockpiled. Experiments with atmospheric fluidized bed combustion (AFBC) are described. The AFBC provides abatement of SO/sub 2/ emissions by means of limestone sorbent fed to the combustor together with the fuel. The pilot plant, combustion efficiency, and sulfur capture are discussed. 3 figures.

  14. VACASULF operation at Citizens Gas and Coke Utility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Currey, J.H. [Citizens Gas and Coke Utility, Indianapolis, IN (United States)

    1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Citizens Gas and Coke Utility is a Public Charitable Trust which operates as the Department of Utilities of the City of Indianapolis, Indiana. Indianapolis Coke, the trade name for the Manufacturing Division of the Utility, operates a by-products coke plant in Indianapolis, Indiana. The facility produces both foundry and blast furnace coke. Surplus Coke Oven gas, generated by the process, is mixed with Natural Gas for sale to industrial and residential customers. In anticipation of regulatory developments, beginning in 1990, Indianapolis Coke undertook the task to develop an alternate Coke Oven Gas desulfurization technology for its facility. The new system was intended to perform primary desulfurization of the gas, dramatically extending the oxide bed life, thus reducing disposal liabilities. Citizens Gas chose the VACASULF technology for its primary desulfurization system. VACASULF requires a single purchased material, Potassium Hydroxide (KOH). The KOH reacts with Carbon Dioxide in the coke Oven Gas to form Potassium Carbonate (potash) which in turn absorbs the Hydrogen Sulfide. The rich solution releases the absorbed sulfide under strong vacuum in the desorber column. Operating costs are reduced through utilization of an inherent heat source which is transferred indirectly via attendant reboilers. The Hydrogen Sulfide is transported by the vacuum pumps to the Claus Kiln and Reactor for combustion, reaction, and elemental Sulfur recovery. Regenerated potash solution is returned to the Scrubber.

  15. Determination of the effect of different additives in coking blends using a combination of in situ high-temperature {sup 1}H NMR and rheometry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miguel C. Diaz; Karen M. Steel; Trevor C. Drage; John W. Patrick; Colin E. Snape [Nottingham University, Nottingham (United Kingdom). Nottingham Fuel and Energy Centre, School of Chemical, Environmental and Mining Engineering

    2005-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    High-temperature {sup 1}H NMR and rheometry measurements were carried out on 4:1 wt/wt blends of a medium volatile bituminous coal with two anthracites, two petroleum cokes, charcoal, wood, a low-temperature coke breeze, tyre crumb, and active carbon to determine the effects on fluidity development to identify the parameters responsible for these effects during pyrolysis and to study possible relationships among the parameters derived from these techniques. Positive, negative, and neutral effects were identified on the concentration of fluid material. Small positive effects (ca. 5-6%) were caused by blending the coal with petroleum cokes. Charcoal, wood, and active carbon all exerted negative effects on concentration (18-27% reduction) and mobility (12-25% reduction in T2) of the fluid phase, which have been associated with the inert character and high surface areas of these additives that adsorb the fluid phase of the coal. One of the anthracites and the low-temperature coke breeze caused deleterious effects to a lesser extent on the concentration (7-12%) and mobility (13-17%) of the fluid material, possibly due to the high concentration of metals in these additives (ca. 11% ash). Despite the high fluid character of tyre crumb at the temperature of maximum fluidity of the coal (73%), the mobility of the fluid phase of the blend was lower than expected. The comparison of {sup 1}H NMR and rheometry results indicated that to account for the variations in minimum complex viscosity for all the blends, both the maximum concentration of fluid phase and the maximum mobility of the fluid material had to be considered. For individual blends, two exponential relationships have been found between the complex viscosity and the concentration of solid phase in both the softening and resolidification stages but the parameters are different for each blend. 30 refs., 8 figs., 5 tabs.

  16. New process for coke-oven gas desulfurization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Currey, J.H. [Citizens Gas and Coke Utility, Indianapolis, IN (United States)

    1995-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    With the EPA reclassifying spent iron oxide as a hazardous waste material in 1990, an alternative technology was sought for desulfurizing coke-oven gas. Vacasulf technology was adopted for reasons that included: producing of coke battery heating gas without further polishing and high-quality elemental sulfur; lowest operating cost in comparison with other methods; no waste products; and integrates with existing ammonia destruction facility. Vacasulf requires a single purchased material, potassium hydroxide, that reacts with carbon dioxide in coke-oven gas to form potassium carbonate which, in turn, absorbs hydrogen sulfide. Operation of the system has been successful following the resolution of relatively minor start-up problems.

  17. Method for removal of furfural coke from metal surfaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Turner, J.D.

    1990-02-27T23:59:59.000Z

    This patent describes a process for preparing furfural coke for removal from metallic surfaces. It comprises: heating ship furfural coke without causing an evolution of heat capable of undesirably altering metallurgical properties of the surfaces in the presence of a gas with a total pressure of less than 100 psig containing molecular oxygen. The gas being at a sufficient temperature below 800{degrees}F. (427{degrees}C.) for a sufficient time to change the crush strength of the coke so as to permit removal with a water jet at a pressure of about 5000 psi.

  18. Coke profile and effect on methane/ethylene conversion process

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Al-Solami, Bandar

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    with distance along the reactor, and therefore the coke distribution should follow a similar pattern. A distribution of coke deposits along the reactor was also observed by Noda er al. (1974) in a study of iso-pentane isomerization. In this case the coke..., methane, ethane, ethylene, propane, iso-butane, butane, iso-pentane, pentane and hexanes. Also, the flow rate of the effluent stream is measured using the bubble meter. The mole percentages of methane and ethylene are subtracted of the effluent stream...

  19. RESIDUA UPGRADING EFFICIENCY IMPROVEMENT MODELS: WRI COKING INDEXES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    John F. Schabron; Joseph F. Rovani, Jr.; Francis P. Miknis; Thomas F. Turner

    2003-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Pyrolysis experiments were conducted with three residua at 400 C (752 F) at various residence times. The wt % coke and gaseous products were measured for the product oils. The Western Research Institute (WRI) Coking Indexes were determined for the product oils. Measurements were made using techniques that might correlate with the Coking Indexes. These included spin-echo proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, heat capacity measurements at 280 C (536 F), and ultrasonic attenuation. The two immiscible liquid phases that form once coke formation begins were isolated and characterized for a Boscan residuum pyrolyzed at 400 C (752 F) for 55 minutes. These materials were analyzed for elemental composition (CHNS), porphyrins, and metals (Ni,V) content.

  20. New process to avoid emissions: Constant pressure in coke ovens

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Giertz, J.; Huhn, F. [DMT-Gesellschaft fuer Forschung und Pruefung mbH, Essen (Germany). Inst. for Cokemaking and Fuel Technology; Hofherr, K. [Thyssen Stahl AG, Duisburg (Germany)

    1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A chamber pressure regulation (PROven), especially effective in regard to emission control problems of coke ovens is introduced for the first time. Because of the partial vacuum in the collecting main system, it is possible to keep the oven`s raw gas pressure constant on a low level over the full coking time. The individual pressure control for each chamber is assured directly as a function of the oven pressure by an immersion system controlling the flow resistance of the collecting main valve. The latter is a fixed-position design (system name ``FixCup``). By doing away with the interdependence of collecting main pressure and chamber pressure, a parameter seen as a coking constant could not be made variable. This opens a new way to reduce coke oven emissions and simultaneously to prevent the ovens from damage caused by air ingress into the oven.

  1. Estimating Coke and Pepsi's Price and Advertising Strategies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Golan, Amos; Karp, Larry S.; Perloff, Jeffrey M.

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    2b: GME-Nash Estimates of Pepsi’s Strategies (First QuarterStrategy Distributions for Pepsi (First Quarter 1977) a)789 ESTIMATING COKE AND PEPSI'S PRICE ADVERTISING STRATEGIES

  2. Problem of improving coke oven gas purification systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goldin, I.A.

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A discussion of the problems of improving desulfurization processes of coke oven gas was presented. Of particular interest were control systems and increasing capacity of the coke ovens. Included in the discussion were the vacuum-carbonate and arsenic-soda sulfur removal systems. Problems involved with these systems were the number of treatment operations, the volume of the reagents used, and the operation of equipment for naphthalene and cyanide removal.

  3. Priorities in the design of chemical shops at coke plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    V.I. Rudyka; Y.E. Zingerman; V.V. Grabko; L.A. Kazak [Giprokoks, the State Institute for the Design of Coke-Industry Enterprises, Kharkov (Ukraine)

    2009-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Recent trends in the design of chemical equipment at coke plants are described, through the lens of experience at Giprokoks. The main priorities were to improve the removal of impurities from coke oven gas; to improve equipment design on the basis of new materials; to reduce reagent consumption; to reduce the materials and energy consumed in the construction of new equipment; and to minimize impacts on the environment and worker health. Some technological equipment is briefly characterized.

  4. Innovative coke oven gas cleaning system for retrofit applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-08-24T23:59:59.000Z

    The coke plant at the Sparrows Point Plant consist of three coke oven batteries and two coal chemical plants. The by-product coke oven gas (COG) consists primarily of hydrogen, methane, carbon monoxide, nitrogen and contaminants consisting of tars, light oils (benzene, toluene, and xylene) hydrogen sulfide, ammonia, water vapor and other hydrocarbons. This raw coke oven gas needs to be cleaned of most of its contaminants before it can be used as a fuel at other operations at the Sparrows Point Plant. In response to environmental concerns, BSC decided to replace much of the existing coke oven gas treatment facilities in the two coal chemical Plants (A and B) with a group of technologies consisting of: Secondary Cooling of the Coke oven Gas; Hydrogen Sulfide Removal; Ammonia Removal; Deacification of Acid Gases Removed; Ammonia Distillation and Destruction; and, Sulfur Recovery. This combination of technologies will replace the existing ammonia removal system, the final coolers, hydrogen sulfide removal system and the sulfur recovery system. The existing wastewater treatment, tar recovery and one of the three light oil recovery systems will continue to be used to support the new innovative combination of COG treatment technologies.

  5. Prediction of metallurgical coke strength from the petrographic composition of coal blends

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sutcu, H.; Toroglu, I.; Piskin, S. [Zonguldak Karaelmas University, Zonguldak (Turkey)

    2009-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Turkey, especially Zonguldak on the West Coast of Black Sea region, has large reserves of bituminous coal that can be used either directly or in blends with other coals for metallurgical coke production. It is possible to predict the coking properties of these coals by petrographic analysis. In this study, semi- and non-coking coals were blended with coking bituminous coals in varying proportions and an estimation was made as to their stability factors through petrographic techniques. It was established that semi- and non-coking bituminous coals could be used in the production of metallurgical coke.

  6. New packing in absorption systems for trapping benzene from coke-oven gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    V.V. Grabko; V.M. Li; T.A. Shevchenko; M.A. Solov'ev [Giprokoks, the State Institute for the Design of Coke-Industry Enterprises, Kharkov (Ukraine)

    2009-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The efficiency of benzene removal from coke-oven gas in absorption units OAO Alchevskkoks with new packing is assessed.

  7. A coke oven model including thermal decomposition kinetics of tar

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Munekane, Fuminori; Yamaguchi, Yukio [Mitsubishi Chemical Corp., Yokohama (Japan); Tanioka, Seiichi [Mitsubishi Chemical Corp., Sakaide (Japan)

    1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    A new one-dimensional coke oven model has been developed for simulating the amount and the characteristics of by-products such as tar and gas as well as coke. This model consists of both heat transfer and chemical kinetics including thermal decomposition of coal and tar. The chemical kinetics constants are obtained by estimation based on the results of experiments conducted to investigate the thermal decomposition of both coal and tar. The calculation results using the new model are in good agreement with experimental ones.

  8. Coke battery with 51-m{sup 3} furnace chambers and lateral supply of mixed gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    V.I. Rudyka; N.Y. Chebotarev; O.N. Surenskii; V.V. Derevich [Giprokoks, the State Institute for the Design of Coke-Industry Enterprises, Kharkov (Ukraine)

    2009-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The basic approaches employed in the construction of coke battery 11A at OAO Magnitogorskii Metallurgicheskii Kombinat are outlined. This battery includes 51.0-m{sup 3} furnaces and a dust-free coke-supply system designed by Giprokoks with lateral gas supply; it is heated exclusively by low-calorific mixed gas consisting of blast-furnace gas with added coke-oven gas. The 82 furnaces in the coke battery are divided into two blocks of 41. The gross coke output of the battery (6% moisture content) is 1140000 t/yr.

  9. Process for converting coal into liquid fuel and metallurgical coke

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wolfe, Richard A. (Abingdon, VA); Im, Chang J. (Abingdon, VA); Wright, Robert E. (Bristol, TN)

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of recovering coal liquids and producing metallurgical coke utilizes low ash, low sulfur coal as a parent for a coal char formed by pyrolysis with a volatile content of less than 8%. The char is briquetted and heated in an inert gas over a prescribed heat history to yield a high strength briquette with less than 2% volatile content.

  10. Estimating Coke and Pepsi's Price and Advertising Strategies Amos Golan*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lansky, Joshua

    Estimating Coke and Pepsi's Price and Advertising Strategies Amos Golan* Larry S. Karp** Jeffrey M strategies in prices and advertising for Coca-Cola and Pepsi-Cola. Separate strategies for each firm theory. We use these methods to estimate the pricing and adver- tising strategies of Coca-Cola and Pepsi

  11. Coke profile and effect on methane/ethylene conversion process 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Al-Solami, Bandar

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this study was to investigate the coke profile with respect to time on stream and the change of product distribution due to catalyst deactivation. A fixed bed reactor was used to conduct this investigation. A series of runs were...

  12. Coke oven gas desulphurization by the Carl Still process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Knight, R.E.

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Steubenville East Coke Plant need a desulfurization process that would desulfurize an eventual 95 million standard cubic feet per day of coke oven gas from an inlet of 450 gr/DSCF to an outlet of 45 gr/DSCF of hydrogen sulfide. The Dravo/Still plant process was selected, due to the use of ammonia which was available in the gas, as the absorbing agent. It was also a proven process. Dravo/Still also was capable of building a sulfuric acid plant. The desulfurization efficiency of the plant has consistently provided an average final gas sulfur loading below the guaranteed 45 gr/DSCF. This removal efficiency has enabled production of an average of 4615 tons per day of 66/sup 0/Be acid. Also SO/sub 2/ to SO/sub 3/ conversion has averaged 98%. 3 figures. (DP)

  13. An overview of crisis management in the coke industry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Saunders, D.A.

    1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Members of the American Coke and Coal Chemicals Institute (ACCCI), as responsible corporate citizens, have embraced the concepts of crisis management and progress down the various paths of planning and preparation, monitoring, media communications, community outreach, emergency response, and recovery. Many of the concepts outlined here reflect elements of crisis management guidelines developed by the Chemical Manufacturers Association (CMA). At a coke plant, crises can take the form of fires, chemical releases, labor strikes, feedstock supply disruptions, and excessive snowfall, just to name a few. The CMA defines a crisis as: ``an unplanned event that has the potential to significantly impact a company`s operability or credibility, or to pose a significant environment, economic or legal liability``; and crisis management as: ``those activities undertaken to anticipate or prevent, prepare for, respond to and recover from any incident that has the potential to greatly affect the way a company conducts its business.

  14. Pipeline charging of coke ovens with a preheated charge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Karpov, A.V.; Khadzhioglo, A.V.; Kuznichenko, V.M.

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Work to test a pipeline charging method was conducted at the Konetsk Coke Works (a PK-2K coke oven system with a single gas main, oven width 407 mm, height 4300 mm, effective column 20.0 cm/sub 3/). This method consists of transporting the heated coal charge to the ovens through a pipe by means of steam. the charge is transported by high pressure chamber groups, and loaded by means of systems equipped with devices for separation, withdrawal and treatment of the spent steam. The principal goal of the present investigation was to test technical advances in the emission-free charging of preheated charges. The problem was, first, to create a reliable technology for separation of the steam from the charge immediately before loading it into the oven and, second, to provide a total elimination of emissions, thereby protecting the environment against toxic substances.

  15. Integrated coke, asphalt and jet fuel production process and apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shang, Jer Y. (McLean, VA)

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A process and apparatus for the production of coke, asphalt and jet fuel m a feed of fossil fuels containing volatile carbon compounds therein is disclosed. The process includes the steps of pyrolyzing the feed in an entrained bed pyrolyzing means, separating the volatile pyrolysis products from the solid pyrolysis products removing at least one coke from the solid pyrolysis products, fractionating the volatile pyrolysis products to produce an overhead stream and a bottom stream which is useful as asphalt for road pavement, condensing the overhead stream to produce a condensed liquid fraction and a noncondensable, gaseous fraction, and removing water from the condensed liquid fraction to produce a jet fuel-containing product. The disclosed apparatus is useful for practicing the foregoing process. the process provides a useful method of mass producing and jet fuels from materials such as coal, oil shale and tar sands.

  16. New environmental concepts in the chemical and coke industries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    A.Yu. Naletov; V.A. Naletov [Mendeleev Russian Chemical-Engineering University (Russian Federation)

    2007-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We know that environmentally pure technologies do not exist. Coke production is no exception to the rule. The article considers the logic of environmental decision making. Attention focuses on a new bank of ecologically appropriate materials whose release to the biosphere must be considered solely in quantititative terms. Qualitativily all these materials are familiar; they are assimilated by populations of microorganisms and tar thus compatible with the biosphere.

  17. Development of advanced technology of coke oven gas drainage treatment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Higashi, Tadayuki; Yamaguchi, Akikazu; Ikai, Kyozou; Kamiyama, Hisarou; Muto, Hiroshi

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    In April 1994, commercial-scale application of ozone oxidation to ammonia liquor (which is primarily the water condensing from coke oven gas) to reduce its chemical oxygen demand (COD) was started at the Nagoya Works of Nippon Steel Corporation. This paper deals with the results of technical studies on the optimization of process operating conditions and the enlargement of equipment size and the operating purification system.

  18. Analytical applications for delayed neutrons

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eccleston, G.W.

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Analytical formulations that describe the time dependence of neutron populations in nuclear materials contain delayed-neutron dependent terms. These terms are important because the delayed neutrons, even though their yields in fission are small, permit control of the fission chain reaction process. Analytical applications that use delayed neutrons range from simple problems that can be solved with the point reactor kinetics equations to complex problems that can only be solved with large codes that couple fluid calculations with the neutron dynamics. Reactor safety codes, such as SIMMER, model transients of the entire reactor core using coupled space-time neutronics and comprehensive thermal-fluid dynamics. Nondestructive delayed-neutron assay instruments are designed and modeled using a three-dimensional continuous-energy Monte Carlo code. Calculations on high-burnup spent fuels and other materials that contain a mix of uranium and plutonium isotopes require accurate and complete information on the delayed-neutron periods, yields, and energy spectra. A continuing need exists for delayed-neutron parameters for all the fissioning isotopes.

  19. Flexible Macroscopic Models for Dense-Fluid Shockwaves: Partitioning Heat and Work; Delaying Stress and Heat Flux; Two-Temperature Thermal Relaxation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wm. G. Hoover; Carol G. Hoover; Francisco J. Uribe

    2010-05-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Macroscopic models which distinguish the longitudinal and transverse temperatures can provide improved descriptions of the microscopic shock structures as revealed by molecular dynamics simulations. Additionally, we can include three relaxation times in the models, two based on Maxwell's viscoelasticity and its Cattaneo-equation analog for heat flow, and a third thermal, based on the Krook-Boltzmann equation. This approach can replicate the observed lags of stress (which lags behind the strain rate) and heat flux (which lags behind the temperature gradient), as well as the eventual equilibration of the two temperatures. For profile stability the time lags cannot be too large. By partitioning the longitudinal and transverse contributions of work and heat and including a tensor heat conductivity and bulk viscosity, all the qualitative microscopic features of strong simple-fluid shockwave structures can be reproduced.

  20. How to implement a quality program in a coking plant. The AHMSA experience

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reyes M, M.A.; Perez, J.L.; Garza, C. de la; Morales, M.

    1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    AHMSA (Altos Hornos de Mexico) is the largest integrated Steel Plant in Mexico, with its 3.1 MMMT of Liquid Steel production program for 1995. AHMSA operates two coke plants which began operations in 1955 and 1976. Total coke monthly production capacity amounts to as much as 106,000 Metric Tons (MT). The coke plants working philosophy was discussed and established in 1986 as part of the Quality Improvement Program, where its ultimate goal is to give the best possible coke quality to its main client--the blast furnaces. With this goal in mind, a planned joint effort with their own coal mines was initiated. This paper deals with the implementation process of the Quality Program, and the results of this commitment at the coal mines, coke plants and blast furnaces. The coke quality improvement is shown since 1985 to 1994, as well as the impact on the blast furnace operation.

  1. Low-coke rate operation under high PCI at Kobe No. 3 BF

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Matsuo, Tadasu; Kanazuka, Yasuo; Hoshino, Koichi; Yoshida, Yasuo; Kitayama, Syuji; Ishiwaki, Shiro [Kobe Steel Ltd. (Japan). Kobe Works

    1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Kobe No. 3 blast furnace (BF) suffered tremendous damage when the Great Hanshin-Awaji Earthquake rocked the area on January 17, 1995. However, working as quickly as possible to dig out of the burden and rehabilitate various facilities, the company managed to restart the No. 3 BF on April 2. After the restart, which went smoothly, production was shifted into the low coke rate operation which was being promoted before the disaster. In October, 1995, only seven months after the restart, the nation record of 296 kg/t low coke rate could be achieved. Subsequently, in January, 1996, coke rate reached 290 kg/t and the low coke rate operation was renewed. Since that time the same level of coke rate has been maintained. The paper discusses how low coke rate operation was achieved.

  2. The new Kaiserstuhl coking plant: The heating system -- Design, construction and initial operating experience

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Strunk, J.

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    At the end of 1992 the new coke plant Kaiserstuhl in Dortmund/Germany with presently the largest coke ovens world-wide started its production operation in close linkage to the Krupp-Hoesch Metallurgical Works after about 35 months construction time. This plant incorporating comprehensive equipment geared to improve environmental protection is also considered as the most modern coke plant of the world. The heating-system and first results of operation will be presented.

  3. Heating control methodology in coke oven battery at Rourkela Steel Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bandyopadhyay, S.S.; Parthasarathy, L.; Gupta, A.; Bose, P.R.; Mishra, U.

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    A methodology of heating control was evolved incorporating temperature data generated through infra-red sensor at quenching station and thermocouples specially installed in the gooseneck of coke oven battery No. 3 of RSP. Average temperature of the red-hot coke as pushed helps in diagnosis of the abnormal ovens and in setting the targeted battery temperature. A concept of coke readiness factor (Q) was introduced which on optimization resulted in lowering the specific heat consumption by 30 KCal/Kg.

  4. Operational improvements at Jewell Coal and Coke Company`s non-recovery ovens

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ellis, C.E.; Pruitt, C.W.

    1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Operational improvements at Jewell Coal and Coke Company over the past five years includes safety and environmental concerns, product quality, equipment availability, manpower utilization, and productivity. These improvements with Jewell`s unique process has allowed Jewell Coal and Coke Company to be a consistent, high quality coke producer. The paper briefly explains Jewell`s unique ovens, their operating mode, improved process control, their maintenance management program, and their increase in productivity.

  5. The effects of ash and maceral composition of Azdavay and Kurucasile (Turkey) coals on coking properties

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Toroglu, I. [Zonguldak Karaelmas University, Zonguldak (Turkey). Faculty of Engineering

    2006-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this study, investigations were made as to the effect of the maceral compositions and mineral matter content of Azdavay and Kurucasile coals on the coking property. Chemical and maceral analyses and coking properties were determined for the products of the float-sink procedure. The coking properties were established on the basis of free swelling index and Ruhr dilatometer tests. Maceral analyses showed that as the ash content of a coal containing both high and medium volatile matter increases, its effective maceral proportion decreases, and the coking property is affected in an unfavorable way.

  6. X-ray evaluation of coke-oven gas line deposits

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Swain, Y.T.

    1983-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Control of coke-oven gas pipeline deposits has been facilitated through the use of an X-ray technique that provides quantitative data without disrupting plant operations.

  7. Process for dissolving coke oven deposits comprising atomizing a composition containing N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone into the gas lines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stafford, M.L.; Nicholson, G.M.

    1993-07-06T23:59:59.000Z

    A method is described for cleaning gas lines in coke oven batteries comprising atomizing a composition into the gas lines of coke oven batteries, where the composition comprises N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone.

  8. Takahax-Hirohax process for coke oven gas desulfurization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gastwirth, H.; Miner, R.; Stengle, W.

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper describes the Takahax-Hirohax process to desulfurize coke oven gas and to produce an ammonium sulfate end product. A review is also made of current operating experience and recent technical developments. The Takahax-Hirohax process is extremely useful when the COG contains a suitable ammonia to sulfur ratio and when ammonium sulfate is a desirable end product. No contaminated effluent streams are emitted from the process. The process is simple, reliable, flexible, and responds easily to COG variations. 4 figures, 3 tables. (DP)

  9. Influence of coal on coke properties and blast-furnace operation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    G.R. Gainieva; L.D. Nikitin [OAO Zapadno-Sibirskii Metallurgicheskii Kombinat (Russian Federation)

    2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    With unstable coal supplies and properties and a fluctuating content of coking coal in the batch at OAO Zapadno-Sibirskii Metallurgicheskii Kombinat (ZSMK) and of bituminous coal at Kuznetskaya enrichment facility, it is important to optimize the rank composition of the batch for coke production.

  10. Analytical input-output and supply chain study of China's coke and steel sectors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Yu, 1976-

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    I design an input-output model to investigate the energy supply chain of coal-coke-steel in China. To study the demand, supply, and energy-intensity issues for coal and coke from a macroeconomic perspective, I apply the ...

  11. Teamwork in planning and carrying out the first inspection of the coke dry quenching (CDQ) plant of the Kaiserstuhl Coking Facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burchardt, G.

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The coke plant Kaiserstuhl operates a coke dry quenching (CDQ) plant with a downstream installed waste heat boiler to satisfy statutory pollution control rules and requirements. This CDQ which went on stream in March 1993 cools the whole coke production output from the Kaiserstuhl coke plant in counterflow to an inert cooling gas. This brief overview on the whole CDQ plant should elucidate the complex of problems posed when trying to make an exact plant revision plan. After all it was impossible to evaluate or to assess all the interior process technology relevant components during the planning stage as the plant was in operation. The revision data for the first interior check was determined and fixed by the statutory rule for steam boilers and pressure vessels. The relevant terms for this check are mandatorily prescribed. In liaison with the testing agency (RW TUEV) the date for the first revision was fixed for April 1995, that means two years after the first commissioning.

  12. Modelling of a coke oven heating wall M. Landreau, D. Isler, Centre de Pyrolyse de Marienau (CPM)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    - 1 - Modelling of a coke oven heating wall M. Landreau, D. Isler, Centre de Pyrolyse de Marienau with thermomechanical modelling of a coke oven heating wall. The objective is to define the safe limits of coke oven of walls, roof and larry car, pre-stresses (anchoring system), lateral pressure due to coal pushing A 3D

  13. Hydrogen production from steam reforming of coke oven gas and its utility for indirect reduction of iron oxides in blast

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Leu, Tzong-Shyng "Jeremy"

    of coal and coke are consumed for heating and reducing iron oxides [2,3]. As a result, BFs have becomeHydrogen production from steam reforming of coke oven gas and its utility for indirect reduction 2012 Available online 18 June 2012 Keywords: Steam reforming Hydrogen and syngas production Coke oven

  14. Bethlehem Steel announces plans to control coke oven air and water pollution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1989-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Bethlehem Steel Corporation and the Maryland Department of the Environment have announced an agreement under which Bethlehem will spend an estimated $92-million at its Sparrows Points, Md., plant for technologically-advanced controls to further reduce air and water pollution, mainly from the plant's coke ovens. The two major systems include one to treat by-product coke oven gas and chemicals, and another to upgrade existing pushing emission controls on two older coke oven batteries. One of the new systems will replace most of the existing equipment that cleans gas and treats chemicals created by the coking process at the plant's three coke oven batteries. Because this system has the potential to greatly reduce sulfur dioxide and other pollutants, the United States Department of Energy (DOE) in September announced that its installation qualified for funding as part of the nationwide Innovative Clean Coal Technology Program.

  15. Innovative coke oven gas cleaning system for retrofit applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-10-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Bethlehem Steel Corporation (BSC), in conjunction with the Department of Energy (DOE) is conducting a Clean Coal Technology (CCT) project at its Sparrows Point, Maryland Coke Oven Plant. This project combines several existing technologies into an integrated system for removing impurities from Coke Oven Gas (COG) to make it an acceptable fuel. DOE is providing cost-sharing under a Cooperative Agreement with BSC. This Cooperative Agreement requires BSC to develop and conduct an Environmental Monitoring Plan (EMP) for the Clean Coal Technology project and to report the status of the EMP on a quarterly basis. This report is the third quarterly status report of the EMP. It covers the Environmental Monitoring Plan activities for the full year of 1991 from January 1, 1991 through December 31, 1991, including the forth quarter. See Sections 2, 3 and 4 for status reports of the Project Installation and Commissioning, the Environmental Monitoring activities and the Compliance Monitoring results for the period. Section 5 contains a list of Compliance Reports submitted to regulatory agencies during the period. The EMP describes in detail the environmental monitoring activities to be performed during the project execution. The purpose of the EMP is to: (1) document the extent of compliance of monitoring activities, i.e. those monitoring required to meet permit requirements, (2) confirm the specific impacts predicted in the National Environmental Policy Act documentation, and (3) establish an information base for the assessment of the environmental performance of the technology demonstrated by the project.

  16. Ammonia removal process upgrade to the Acme Steel Coke Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harris, J.L. [Acme Steel Co., Chicago, IL (United States). Chicago Coke Plant

    1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The need to upgrade the ammonia removal process at the Acme Steel Coke Plant developed with the installation of the benzene NESHAP (National Emission Standard for Hazardous Air Pollutants) equipment, specifically the replacement of the final cooler. At Acme Steel it was decided to replace the existing open cooling tower type final cooler with a closed loop direct spray tar/water final cooler. This new cooler has greatly reduced the emissions of benzene, ammonia, hydrogen sulfide and hydrogen cyanide to the atmosphere, bringing them into environmental compliance. At the time of its installation it was not fully recognized as to the effect this would have on the coke oven gas composition. In the late seventies the decision had been made at Acme Steel to stop the production of ammonia sulfate salt crystals. The direction chosen was to make a liquid ammonia sulfate solution. This product was used as a pickle liquor at first and then as a liquid fertilizer as more markets were developed. In the fall of 1986 the ammonia still was brought on line. The vapors generated from the operation of the stripping still are directed to the inlet of the ammonia absorber. At that point in time it was decided that an improvement to the cyclical ammonia removal process was needed. The improvements made were minimal yet allowed the circulation of solution through the ammonia absorber on a continuous basis. The paper describes the original batch process and the modifications made which allowed continuous removal.

  17. Development of automatic operation system for coke oven machines at Yawata Works of Nippon Steel Corporation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Matsunaga, Masao; Uematsu, Hiroshi; Nakagawa, Yoji; Ishiharaguchi, Yuji

    1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The coke plant is a working environment involving heavy dust emissions, high heat and demanding physical labor. The labor-saving operation of the coke plant is an essential issue from the standpoints of not only improvement in working environment, but also reduction in fixed cost by enhancement of labor productivity. Under these circumstances, Nippon Steel has implemented the automation of coke oven machines. The first automatic operation system for coke oven machinery entered service at Oita Works in 1992, followed by the second system at the No. 5 coke oven battery of the coke plant at Yawata Works. The Yawata automatic operation system is characterized by the installation of coke oven machinery to push as many as 140 ovens per day within a short cycle time, such as a preliminary ascension pipe cap opening car and cycle time simulator by the manned operation of the pusher, which is advantageous from the standpoint of investment efficiency, and by the monitoring of other oven machines by the pusher. These measures helped to reduce the manpower requirement to 2 persons per shift from 4 persons per shift. The system entered commercial operation in March, 1994 and has been smoothly working with an average total automatic rate of 97%. Results from the startup to recent operation of the system are reported below.

  18. Gas treatment and by-products recovery of Thailand`s first coke plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Diemer, P.E.; Seyfferth, W. [Krupp Uhde GmbH, Dortmund (Germany)

    1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Coke is needed in the blast furnace as the main fuel and chemical reactant and the main product of a coke plant. The second main product of the coke plant is coke oven gas. During treatment of the coke oven gas some coal chemicals like tar, ammonia, sulphur and benzole can be recovered as by-products. Since the market prices for these by-products are rather low and often erratic it does not in most cases justify the investment to recover these products. This is the reason why modern gas treatment plants only remove those impurities from the crude gas which must be removed for technical and environmental reasons. The cleaned gas, however, is a very valuable product as it replaces natural gas in steel work furnaces and can be used by other consumers. The surplus can be combusted in the boiler of a power plant. A good example for an optimal plant layout is the new coke oven facility of Thai Special Steel Industry (TSSI) in Rayong. The paper describes the TSSI`s coke oven gas treatment plant.

  19. Glass-coating and cleaning system to prevent carbon deposition on coke oven walls

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Takahira, Takuya; Ando, Takeshi; Kasaoka, Shizuki; Yamauchi, Yutaka [Kawasaki Steel Corp., Mizushima, Kurashiki (Japan). Mizushima Works

    1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The new technology for protecting the coking chamber bricks from damage by hard-pushing is described. The technology consists of the glass coating on the wall bricks and a wall cleaner to blow deposited carbon. For the glass coating, a specially developed glaze is sprayed onto the wall bricks by a spraying device developed to completely spray one coking chamber in a few minutes. The wall cleaner is installed on a pusher ram in the facility to automatically blow air at a sonic speed during coke pushing. The life of the glazed layer is estimated to be over two years.

  20. Method for removing hydrogen sulfide from coke oven gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ritter, H.

    1982-08-03T23:59:59.000Z

    An improved sulfur-ammonia process is disclosed for removing hydrogen sulfide from coke oven gases. In the improved process, a concentrator formerly used for standby operation is used at all normal times as an ammonia scrubber to improve the efficiency of gas separation during normal operation and is used as a concentrator for its intended standby functions during the alternative operations. In its normal function, the concentrator/scrubber functions as a scrubber to strip ammonia gas from recirculating liquid streams and to permit introduction of an ammonia-rich gas into a hydrogen sulfide scrubber to increase the separation efficiency of that unit. In the standby operation, the same concentrator/scrubber serves as a concentrator to concentrate hydrogen sulfide in a ''strong liquor'' stream for separate recovery as a strong liquor.

  1. Energy efficiency of alternative coke-free metallurgical technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    V.G. Lisienko; A.V. Lapteva; A.E. Paren'kov [Ural State Technical University - Ural Polytechnic Institute, Yekaterinburg (Russian Federation)

    2009-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Energy analysis is undertaken for the blast-furnace process, for liquid-phase processes (Corex, Hismelt, Romelt), for solid-phase pellet reduction (Midrex, HYL III, LP-V in a shaft furnace), for steel production in systems consisting of a blast furnace and a converter, a Midrex unit and an arc furnace, or a Romelt unit and an arc furnace, and for scrap processing in an arc furnace or in an LP-V shaft furnace. Three blast-furnace processes with sinter and coke are adopted as the basis of comparison, as in: the standard blast-furnace process used in Russia; the improved blast-furnace process with coal-dust injection; and the production of vanadium hot metal from vanadium-bearing titanomagnetite ore (with a subsequent duplex process, ferrovanadium production, and its use in the arc furnace).

  2. Producing and controlling of the pollutant in the coal`s coking process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, S. [Shanxi Environmental Protection Bureau (China); Fan, Z. [Shanxi Central Environmental Monitoring Station (China)

    1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    In the process of heating and coke shaping, different pollutants and polluting factors will be produced and lost to the environment due to the different coking methods. The paper analyzes the production mechanism, type, emission, average quantity, and damage to the environment of the major pollutants and polluting factors produced in several kinds of coking processes in China at the present. Then, the paper concludes that an assessment for any coking method should include a comprehensive beneficial assessment of economical benefit, environmental benefit and social benefit. The items in the evaluation should consist of infrastructure investment, which includes production equipment and pollution control equipment, production cost, benefit and profit produced by one ton coal, whether the pollution complies with the environmental requirement, extent of the damage, influence to the social development, and etc.

  3. Current developments at Giprokoks for coke-battery construction and reconstruction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    V.I. Rudyka; Y.E. Zingerman; V.B. Kamenyuka; O.N. Surenskii; G.E. Kos'kova; V.V. Derevich; V.A. Gushchin [Giprokoks, the State Institute for the Design of Coke-Industry Enterprises, Kharkov (Ukraine)

    2009-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Approaches developed at Giprokoks for coke-battery construction and reconstruction are considered. Recommendations regarding furnace construction and reconstruction are made on the basis of Ukrainian and world experience.

  4. The Videofil probe, a novel instrument to extend the coke oven service life

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gaillet, J.P.; Isler, D. [Centre de Pyrolyse de Marienau, Forbach (France)

    1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    To prolong the service life of coke oven batteries, the Centre de Pyrolyse de Marienau developed the Videofil probe, a novel instrument to conduct diagnoses and to help repair operations of coke ovens. The Videofil probe is a flexible non-water-cooled endoscope which is used to locate flue wall damage and estimate its importance, to define the oven zones to repair and guide the repair work and to control the quality of the repair work and its durability.

  5. The nature and formation of coke in the reaction of methanol to hydrocarbons over chabazite 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McLaughlin, Kenneth Woot

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    45 Figure 9. Relationship between enhanced coke formation with increasing yields of paraffins and diminishing yields of olefins 46 Figure 10. Gas chromatogram of the concentrated carbon tetrachloride extract of spent catalyst pellets . . . 49...THE NATURE ABD FORMATION OF COKE IB THE REACTIOB OF METHANOL TO HIDROCARBOBS OVER CHABAZITE A Thesis KENNETH WOOT MCLAUGHLLN Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas AAM Univers ty partial. fulfillment nf the req~nt fo~he degree of MASTER...

  6. Cryogenic fractionator gas as stripping gas of fines slurry in a coking and gasification process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    DeGeorge, Charles W. (Chester, NJ)

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In an integrated coking and gasification process wherein a stream of fluidized solids is passed from a fluidized bed coking zone to a second fluidized bed and wherein entrained solid fines are recovered by a scrubbing process and wherein the resulting solids-liquid slurry is stripped with a stripping gas to remove acidic gases, at least a portion of the stripping gas comprises a gas comprising hydrogen, nitrogen and methane separated from the coker products.

  7. Effect of thermal treatment on coke reactivity and catalytic iron mineralogy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Byong-chul Kim; Sushil Gupta; David French; Richard Sakurovs; Veena Sahajwalla [University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW (Australia). Centre for Sustainable Materials Research and Technology

    2009-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Iron minerals in coke can catalyze its gasification and may affect coke behavior in the blast furnace. The catalytic behavior of iron depends largely upon the nature of the iron-bearing minerals. To determine the mineralogical changes that iron could undergo in the blast furnace, cokes made from three coals containing iron present in different mineral forms (clays, carbonates, and pyrite) were examined. All coke samples were heat-treated in a horizontal furnace at 1373, 1573, and 1773 K and then gasified with CO{sub 2} at 1173 K in a fixed bed reactor (FBR). Coke mineralogy was characterized using quantitative X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis of coke mineral matter prepared by low-temperature ashing (LTA) and field emission scanning electron microscopy combined with energy dispersive X-ray analysis (FESEM/EDS). The mineralogy of the three cokes was most notably distinguished by differing proportions of iron-bearing phases. During heat treatment and subsequent gasification, iron-containing minerals transformed to a range of minerals but predominantly iron-silicides and iron oxides, the relative amounts of which varied with heat treatment temperature and gasification conditions. The relationship between initial apparent reaction rate and the amount of catalytic iron minerals - pyrrhotite, metallic iron, and iron oxides - was linear and independent of heat treatment temperature at total catalyst levels below 1 wt %. The study showed that the coke reactivity decreased with increasing temperature of heat treatment due to decreased levels of catalytic iron minerals (largely due to formation of iron silicides) as well as increased ordering of the carbon structure. The study also showed that the importance of catalytic mineral matter in determining reactivity declines as gasification proceeds. 37 refs., 13 figs., 7 tabs.

  8. Coke gasification: the influence and behavior of inherent catalytic mineral matter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mihaela Grigore; Richard Sakurovs; David French; Veena Sahajwalla [Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO), Bangor, NSW (Australia)

    2009-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Gasification of coke contributes to its degradation in the blast furnace. In this study, the effect of gasification on the inherent catalytic minerals in cokes and their reciprocal influence on gasification are investigated. The catalytic mineral phases identified in the cokes used in this study were metallic iron, iron sulfides, and iron oxides. Metallic iron and pyrrhotite were rapidly oxidized during gasification to iron oxide. The catalysts had a strong influence on the apparent rates at the initial stages of reaction. As gasification proceeds, their effect on the reaction rate diminishes as a result of reducing the surface contact between catalyst and carbon matrix because of carbon consumption around the catalyst particles; with extended burnout the reactivity of the coke becomes increasingly dependent on surface area. The reaction rate in the initial stages was also influenced by the particle size of the catalytic minerals; for a given catalytic iron level, the cokes whose catalytic minerals were more finely dispersed had a higher apparent reaction rate than cokes containing larger catalytic particles. Iron, sodium, and potassium in the amorphous phase did not appear to affect the reaction rate. 40 refs., 16 figs., 6 tabs.

  9. Effect of coal and coke qualities on blast furnace injection and productivity at Taranto

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Salvatore, E.; Calcagni, M. [ILVA, Taranto (Italy); Eichinger, F.; Rafi, M.

    1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Injection rates at Taranto blast furnaces Nos. 2 and 4, for more than 16 months, was maintained above 175 kg/thm. Monthly average injection rate for two months stabilized above 190 kg/thm. This performance was possible due to the very high combined availabilities of Taranto blast furnaces and the KST injection system. Based upon this experience the quantitative relationships between coke/coal and blast furnace operational parameters were studied and are shown graphically. During this period due to coke quality changes, injection rate had to be reduced. The effect of using coke breeze in coke/ferrous charge as well as coal blend was also evaluated. Permeability of the furnace was found to be directly affected by O{sub 2} enrichment level, while at a high PCI rate no correlation between actual change in coke quality and permeability could be established. The future of PCI technology lies in better understanding of relationships between material specifications and blast furnace parameters of which permeability is of prime importance.

  10. Dale Coke: Coke Farm

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Farmer, Ellen

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    the right place to get compost, or how you get the beststerilized or pasteurized our compost before we put it out.

  11. Automatic coke oven heating control system at Burns Harbor for normal and repair operation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Battle, E.T.; Chen, K.L. [Bethlehem Steel Corp., Burns Harbor, IN (United States); [Bethlehem Steel Corp., PA (United States)

    1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    An automatic heating control system for coke oven batteries was developed in 1985 for the Burns Harbor No. 1 battery and reported in the 1989 Ironmaking Conference Proceedings. The original system was designed to maintain a target coke temperature at a given production level under normal operating conditions. Since 1989, enhancements have been made to this control system so that it can also control the battery heating when the battery is under repair. The new control system has improved heating control capability because it adjusts the heat input to the battery in response to anticipated changes in the production schedule. During a recent repair of this 82 oven battery, the pushing schedule changed from 102 ovens/day to 88 ovens/day, then back to 102 ovens/day, then to 107 ovens/day. During this repair, the control system was able to maintain the coke temperature average standard deviation at 44 F, with a maximum 75 F.

  12. Use of ethylenediamine to remove hydrogen sulfide from coke oven gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marakhovskii, L.F.; Popov, A.A.; Rezunenko, Yu.I.

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The investigations of the equilibrium absorption of H/sub 2/S by an EDA solution which show that the solubility of hydrogen sulfide in ethylenediamine solutions is almost twice that in monoethanolamine solutions. Ethylenediamine may be used as an absorber for thorough removal of H/sub 2/S from coke oven gas in the presence of CO/sub 2/ and HCN. The hydrogen cyanide of coke oven gas, having practically no effect on the equilibrium absorption of H/sub 2/S and CO/sub 2/, may in this case be recovered in the form of ethylenethiourea - a marketable byproduct.

  13. Design, construction and start-up of a modern coke plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Williams, A.E.

    1983-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The planning and design of a 60-oven, 6m replacement coke battery and associated by-products plant for Republic Steel Corp, Chicago, are described together with the constructional methods used and problems experienced through start-up of the facility. Pushing emission control is achieved with a Mitsubishi-type land-based system and changing emission control with a Nippon Steel combination car and land-based system. A Takahax-Hirohax coke-oven gas desulphurization unit is included in the by-product plant. Construction began in March 1979 with the first push in December 1981.

  14. The use of ethylenediamine to remove hydrogen sulfide from coke oven gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marakhovskii, L.F.; Rezunenko, Y.I.; Popov, A.A.

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The investigations of the equilibrium absorption of H/sub 2/S by an EDA solution showed the solubility of hydrogen sulfide in ethylenediamine solutions is almost twice that in monoethanolamine solutions. Ethylenediamine may be used as an absorber for thorough removal of H/sub 2/S from coke oven gas in the presence of CO/sub 2/ and HCN. The hydrogen cyanide of coke oven gas, having practically no effect on the equilibrium absorption of H/sub 2/S and CO/sub 2/, may in this case be used in the form of ethylenethiourea - a marketable byproduct.

  15. Light oil yield improvement project at Granite City Division Coke/By-Product Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holloran, R.A. [National Steel Corp., Granite City, IL (United States). Granite City Div.

    1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Light oil removal from coke oven gas is a process that has long been proven and utilized throughout many North American Coke/By-Products Plants. The procedures, processes, and equipment requirements to maximize light oil recovery at the Granite City By-Products Plant will be discussed. The Light Oil Yield Improvement Project initially began in July, 1993 and was well into the final phase by February, 1994. Problem solving techniques, along with utilizing proven theoretical recovery standards were applied in this project. Process equipment improvements and implementation of Operator/Maintenance Standard Practices resulted in an average yield increase of 0.4 Gals./NTDC by the end of 1993.

  16. Utilizing secondary heat to heat wash oil in the coke-oven gas desulfurization division

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Volkov, E.L.

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Removal of hydrogen sulfide from the coke-oven gas by the vacuum-carbonate method involves significant energy costs, comprising about 47% of the total costs of the process. This is explained by the significant demand of steam for regeneration of the wash oil, the cost of which exceeds 30% of the total operating costs. The boiling point of the saturated wash oil under vacuum does not exceed 70/sup 0/C, thus the wash oil entering the regenerator can be heated either by the direct coke-oven gas or by the tar supernatant from the gas collection cycle. Utilizing the secondary heat of the direct coke-oven gas and the tar supernatant liquor (the thermal effect is approximately the same) to heat the wash oil from the gas desulfurization shops significantly improves the industrial economic indices. Heating the wash oil from gas desulfurization shops using the vacuum-carbonate method by the heat of the tar supernatant liquor may be adopted at a number of coking plants which have a scarcity of thermal resources and which have primary coolers with vertical tubes.

  17. Coal flow aids reduce coke plant operating costs and improve production rates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bedard, R.A.; Bradacs, D.J.; Kluck, R.W.; Roe, D.C.; Ventresca, B.P.

    2005-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Chemical coal flow aids can provide many benefits to coke plants, including improved production rates, reduced maintenance and lower cleaning costs. This article discusses the mechanisms by which coal flow aids function and analyzes several successful case histories. 2 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab.

  18. Simulation of diffusion and trapping in digitized heterogeneous media David A. Coke@ and Salvatore Torquatob)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Torquato, Salvatore

    Simulation of diffusion and trapping in digitized heterogeneous media David A. Coke@ and Salvatore of a Brownian particle diffusing among a, digitized lattice-based domain of traps. Following the first, the inverse of the trapping rate, is obtained for a variety of configurations involving digitized spheres

  19. Innovative coke oven gas cleaning system for retrofit applications. Volume 1, Public design report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-05-24T23:59:59.000Z

    This Public Design Report provides, in a single document, available nonproprietary design -information for the ``Innovative Coke Oven Gas Cleaning System for Retrofit Applications`` Demonstration Project at Bethlehem Steel Corporation`s Sparrows Point, Maryland coke oven by-product facilities. This project demonstrates, for the first time in the United States, the feasibility of integrating four commercially available technologies (processes) for cleaning coke oven gas. The four technologies are: Secondary Gas Cooling, Hydrogen Sulfide and Ammonia Removal, Hydrogen Sulfide and Ammonia Recovery, and Ammonia Destruction and Sulfur Recovery. In addition to the design aspects, the history of the project and the role of the US Department of,Energy are briefly discussed. Actual plant capital and projected operating costs are also presented. An overview of the integration (retrofit) of the processes into the existing plant is presented and is followed by detailed non-proprietary descriptions of the four technologies and their overall effect on reducing the emissions of ammonia, sulfur, and other pollutants from coke oven gas. Narrative process descriptions, simplified process flow diagrams, input/output stream data, operating conditions, catalyst and chemical requirements, and utility requirements are given for each unit. Plant startup provisions, environmental considerations and control monitoring, and safety considerations are also addressed for each process.

  20. Final environmental information volume for the coke oven gas cleaning project at the Bethlehem Steel Corporation Sparrows Point Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-04-24T23:59:59.000Z

    Bethelehem Steel Corporation (BSC) is planning to conduct a demonstration project involving an integrated system that can be retrofitted into coke oven gas handling systems to address a variety of environmental and operational factors in a more cost-effective manner. Successful application of this technology to existing US coke plants could: (1) reduce emissions of sulfur dioxide, cyanide, and volatile organic compounds (including benzene) (2) reduce the cost and handling of processing feed chemicals, (3) disposal costs of nuisance by-products and (4) increase reliability and reduce operation/maintenance requirements for coke oven gas desulfurization systems. The proposed system will remove sulfur from the coke oven gas in the form of hydrogen sulfide using the ammonia indigenous to the gas as the primary reactive chemical. Ammonia and hydrogen cyanide are also removed in this process. The hydrogen sulfide removed from the coke oven gas in routed to a modified Claus plant for conversion to a saleable sulfur by-product. Ammonia and hydrogen cyanide will be catalytically converted to hydrogen, nitrogen, carbon dioxide, and carbon monoxide. The tail gas from the sulfur recovery unit is recycled to the coke oven gas stream, upstream of the new gas cleaning system. The proposed demonstration project will be installed at the existing coke oven facilities at BSC's Sparrows Point Plant. This volume describes the proposed actions and the resulting environmental impacts. 21 refs., 19 figs., 9 tabs.

  1. Recycling of rubber tires in electric arc furnace steelmaking: simultaneous combustion of metallurgical coke and rubber tyres blends

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Magdalena Zaharia; Veena Sahajwalla; Byong-Chul Kim; Rita Khanna; N. Saha-Chaudhury; Paul O'Kane; Jonathan Dicker; Catherine Skidmore; David Knights [University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW (Australia). School of Materials Science and Engineering

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The present study investigates the effect of addition of waste rubber tires on the combustion behavior of its blends with coke for carbon injection in electric arc furnace steelmaking. Waste rubber tires were mixed in different proportions with metallurgical coke (MC) (10:90, 20:80, 30:70) for combustion and pyrolysis at 1473 K in a drop tube furnace (DTF) and thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA), respectively. Under experimental conditions most of the rubber blends indicated higher combustion efficiencies compared to those of the constituent coke. In the early stage of combustion the weight loss rate of the blends is much faster compared to that of the raw coke due to the higher volatile yield of rubber. The presence of rubber in the blends may have had an impact upon the structure during the release and combustion of their high volatile matter (VM) and hence increased char burnout. Measurements of micropore surface area and bulk density of the chars collected after combustion support the higher combustion efficiency of the blends in comparison to coke alone. The surface morphology of the 30% rubber blend revealed pores in the residual char that might be attributed to volatile evolution during high temperature reaction in oxygen atmosphere. Physical properties and VM appear to have a major effect upon the measured combustion efficiency of rubber blends. The study demonstrates that waste rubber tires can be successfully co-injected with metallurgical coke in electric arc furnace steelmaking process to provide additional energy from combustion. 44 refs., 11 figs., 2 tabs.

  2. Coke oven doors: Historical methods of emission control and evaluation of current designs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pettrey, J.O.; Greene, D.E. (Armco Steel Co., Middletown, OH (United States))

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The containment of oven door leakage has presented challenges to coke producers for many years as the requirements of environmental regulatory agencies have become increasingly stringent. A description and evaluation of past door modifications, leakage control methodologies and luting practices on Armco Steel Company, L.P.'s Ashland No. 4 Battery is detailed to provide a background for recent work, and to expand the industry's technology base. The strict door leakage standards of the 1990 amendments to the USA Clean Air Act has prompted additional technical studies. Both a joint Armco committee's evaluation of successful systems world wide and test door installations at Ashland were incorporated to determine compliance strategy. The eventual installation of Ikio Model II coke oven doors, along with modifications to ancillary equipment, has resulted in door leakage rates approaching zero. Associated methods, problems, results and evaluations are discussed.

  3. A mathematical model for the estimation of flue temperature in a coke oven

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Choi, K.I.; Kim, S.Y.; Suo, J.S.; Hur, N.S.; Kang, I.S.; Lee, W.J.

    1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The coke plants at the Kwangyang works has adopted an Automatic Battery Control (ABC) system which consists of four main parts, battery heating control, underfiring heat and waste gas oxygen control, pushing and charging schedule and Autotherm-S that measures heating wall temperature during pushing. The measured heating wall temperature is used for calculating Mean Battery Temperature (MBT) which is average temperature of flues for a battery, but the Autotherm-S system can not provide the flue temperatures of an oven. This work attempted to develop mathematical models for the estimation of the flue temperature using the measured heating wall temperature and to examine fitness of the mathematical model for the coke plant operation by analysis of raw gas temperature at the stand pipe. Through this work it is possible to reflect heating wall temperature in calculating MBT for battery heating control without the interruption caused by a maintenance break.

  4. Choosing a coke-oven gas desulfurization system: a review of current technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lynch, P.A.

    1982-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Installation of coke-oven gas desulphurizing systems is primarily the result of air pollution control regulations. Although not currently profitable, operating costs can be minimized by choosing the technology most suited to the particular application. The Stretford Holmes, Takahax/Hirohax, Koppers Vacuum Carbonate, Sulfiban and Dravo/Still processes are discussed, together with criteria for economic analysis based on technical and by-product market evaluations.

  5. Method of washing hydrogen sulfide from coke oven gas by the ammonium sulfide method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ritter, H.

    1985-05-21T23:59:59.000Z

    An improved coke oven gas washing process for removing hydrogen sulfide is proposed wherein the coke oven gas is treated in a hydrogen sulfide scrubber by counterflow with an aqueous ammonia wash water. A stream of aqueous weak ammonia liquor is cooled and sprayed through nozzles in the mid-region of the hydrogen sulfide scrubber. A quantity of aqueous ammonia liquor, corresponding to the quantity which is sprayed through the said nozzles, is withdrawn from the hydrogen sulfide scrubber at a level below the nozzles and is introduced into the top of the said hydrogen sulfide scrubber. Ammonia vapor released at the nozzles has a higher partial pressure than the ammonia partial pressure of the coke oven gas in the region of the nozzle. The aqueous ammonia liquor from the deacidifier is the source of the cooled aqueous ammonia liquor which is introduced through the nozzles. A portion of the aqueous ammonia liquor from the deacidifier is introduced directly into the top of the hydrogen sulfide scrubber as a portion of the required aqueous ammonia wash water.

  6. Design and operation of the coke-oven gas sulfur removal facility at Geneva Steel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Havili, M.U.; Fraser-Smyth, L.L.; Wood, B.W. [Geneva Steel, Provo, UT (United States)

    1996-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The coke-oven gas sulfur removal facility at Geneva Steel utilizes a combination of two technologies which had never been used together. These two technologies had proven effective separately and now in combination. However, it brought unique operational considerations which has never been considered previously. The front end of the facility is a Sulfiban process. This monoethanolamine (MEA) process effectively absorbs hydrogen sulfide and other acid gases from coke-oven gas. The final step in sulfur removal uses a Lo-Cat II. The Lo-Cat process absorbs and subsequently oxidizes H{sub 2}S to elemental sulfur. These two processes have been effective in reducing sulfur dioxide emissions from coke-oven gas by 95%. Since the end of the start-up and optimization phase, emission rate has stayed below the 104.5 lb/hr limit of equivalent SO{sub 2} (based on a 24-hr average). In Jan. 1995, the emission rate from the sulfur removal facility averaged 86.7 lb/hr with less than 20 lb/hr from the Econobator exhaust. The challenges yet to be met are decreasing the operating expenses of the sulfur removal facility, notably chemical costs, and minimizing the impact of the heating system on unit reliability.

  7. Health-hazard evaluation report No. HETA-88-377-2120, Armco Coke Oven, Ashland Kentucky

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kinnes, G.M.; Fleeger, A.K.; Baron, S.L.

    1991-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In response to a request from the Oil, Chemical and Atomic Workers International Union, a study was made of possible hazardous working conditions at ARMCO Coke Oven (SIC-3312), Ashland, Kentucky. The facility produces about 1,000,000 tons of coke annually. Of the approximately 400 total employees at the coke oven site, 55 work in the by products area. Air quality sampling results indicated overexposure to both benzene (71432) and coal tar pitch volatiles (CTPVs). Airborne levels of benzene ranged as high as 117 parts per million (ppm) with three of 17 samples being above the OSHA limit of 1ppm. Airborne concentrations of CTPVs ranged as high as 0.38mg/cu m with two of six readings being above OSHA limit of 0.2mg/cu m. Several polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons were also detected. The authors conclude that by products area workers are potentially overexposed to carcinogens, including benzene, CTPVs, and polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons. An epidemiologic study is considered unlikely to yield meaningful information at this time, due to the small number of workers and the short follow up period. The authors recommend specific measures for reducing potential employee exposures, including an environmental sampling program, a preventive maintenance program, improved housekeeping procedures, and reducing exposure in operators' booths.

  8. Delay in Atomic Photoionization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kheifets, A. S. [Research School of Physical Sciences, Australian National University, Canberra ACT 0200 (Australia); Kavli Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106-4030 (United States); Ivanov, I. A. [Research School of Physical Sciences, Australian National University, Canberra ACT 0200 (Australia)

    2010-12-03T23:59:59.000Z

    We analyze the time delay between emission of photoelectrons from the outer valence ns and np subshells in noble gas atoms following absorption of an attosecond extreme ultraviolet pulse. Various processes such as elastic scattering of the photoelectron on the parent ion and many-electron correlation affect the apparent 'time zero' when the photoelectron leaves the atom. This qualitatively explains the time delay between photoemission from the 2s and 2p subshells of Ne as determined experimentally by attosecond streaking [Science 328, 1658 (2010)]. However, with our extensive numerical modeling, we were only able to account for less than half of the measured time delay of 21{+-}5 as. We argue that the extreme ultraviolet pulse alone cannot produce such a large time delay and it is the streaking IR field that is most likely responsible for this effect.

  9. An example of alkalization of SiO{sub 2} in a blast furnace coke

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    S.S. Gornostayev; P.A. Tanskanen; E.-P. Heikkinen; O. Kerkkonen; J.J. Haerkki [University of Oulu, Oulu (Finland). Laboratory of Process Metallurgy

    2007-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Scanning electron microscopy and an electron-microprobe analysis of a sample of blast furnace (BF) coke have revealed alkalization (5.64 wt % Na{sub 2}O + K{sub 2}O) and Al saturation (17.28 wt % Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) of SiO{sub 2} by BF gases. The K/Na{sub at} value of 1.15 in the new phase (alteration zone) reflects close atomic proportions of the elements and suggests that the abilities to incorporate K and Na during the process are almost equal. This Al saturation and alkalization of SiO{sub 2} indicates an active role for Al along with alkali metals in BF gases. The average width of the altered area in the SiO{sub 2} grain is about 10 m, which suggests that SiO{sub 2} particles of that size can be transformed fully to the new phase, provided that at least one of their faces is open to an external pore (surface of the coke) or internal pore with circulating BF gases. The grains that exceed 10 {mu}m can only be partly altered, which means that smaller SiO{sub 2} grains can incorporate more alkali metals and Al (during their transformation to the Al and alkali-bearing phase) than a similar volume of SiO{sub 2} concentrated in larger grains. Thermodynamic calculations for 100 g{sub solid}/100 g{sub gas} and temperatures 800-1800{sup o}C have shown that the BF gases have very little or no effect on the alkalization of SiO{sub 2}. If the alteration process described in this paper proves to be a generalized phenomenon in blast furnace cokes, then the addition of fine-grained quartz to the surface of the coke before charging a BF can be useful for removing of some of the Al and alkali from the BF gases and reduce coke degradation by alkalis, or at least improve its properties until the temperature reaches approximately 2000{sup o}C. 22 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  10. Usiing NovoCOS cleaning equipment in repairing the furnace-chamber lining in coke batteries 4 & 5 at OAO Koks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    S.G. Protasov; R. Linden; A. Gross [OAO Koks, Kemerovo (Russian Federation)

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Experience with a new surface-preparation technology for the ceramic resurfacing of the refractory furnace-chamber lining in coke batteries is described.

  11. Downhole delay assembly for blasting with series delay

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ricketts, Thomas E. (Grand Junction, CO)

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A downhole delay assembly is provided which can be placed into a blasthole for initiation of explosive in the blasthole. The downhole delay assembly includes at least two detonating time delay devices in series in order to effect a time delay of longer than about 200 milliseconds in a round of explosions. The downhole delay assembly provides a protective housing to prevent detonation of explosive in the blasthole in response to the detonation of the first detonating time delay device. There is further provided a connection between the first and second time delay devices. The connection is responsive to the detonation of the first detonating time delay device and initiates the second detonating time delay device. A plurality of such downhole delay assemblies are placed downhole in unfragmented formation and are initiated simultaneously for providing a round of explosive expansions. The explosive expansions can be used to form an in situ oil shale retort containing a fragmented permeable mass of formation particles.

  12. Initial coke deposition on a NiMo/{gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} bitumen hydroprocessing catalyst

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Richardson, S.M.; Nagaishi, Hiroshi; Gray, M.R. [Univ. of Alberta, Edmonton (Canada). Dept. of Chemical Engineering] [Univ. of Alberta, Edmonton (Canada). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    1996-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Athabasca bitumen was hydrocracked over a commercial NiMo/{gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst in two reactors, a microbatch reactor and a 1-L continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR). Coke deposition on catalyst was measured as a function of hydrogen pressure, time on stream, and liquid composition by measuring the carbon content of the cleaned spent catalyst. The carbon content ranged from 11.3% to 17.6% over the pressure range 6.9--15.2 MPa in CSTR experiments. Batch and CSTR experiments showed a rapid approach to a constant coke content with increasing oil/catalyst ratio. Coke deposition was independent of product composition for residue concentrations ranging from 8% to 32% by weight. Removal of the coke by tetralin at reaction conditions suggested reversible adsorption of residue components on the catalyst surface. A physical model based on clearance of coke by hydrogen in the vicinity of metal crystallites is presented for the coke deposition behavior during the first several hours of hydrocracking use. This model gives good agreement with experimental data, including the effect of reaction time, the ratio of total feed weight to catalyst weight, hydrogen pressure, and feed composition, and it agrees with general observations from industrial usage. The model implies that except at the highest coke levels, the active surfaces of the metal crystallites remain exposed. Severe mass-transfer limitations are caused by the overall narrowing of the pore structure, which in {gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} would give very low effective diffusivity for residuum molecules in micropores.

  13. Experience and results of new heating control system of coke oven batteries at Rautaruukki Oy Raahe Steel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Swanljung, J.; Palmu, P. [Rautaruukki Oy Raahe Steel (Finland)

    1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The latest development and results of the heating control system at Raahe Steel are presented in this paper. From the beginning of coke production in Rautaruukki Oy Raahe Steel (October 1987) the heating control systems have been developed. During the first stage of development work at the coking plant (from year 1987 to 1992), when only the first coke oven battery consisting of 35 ovens was in production, the main progress was in the field of process monitoring. After commissioning of the second stage of the coking plant (November 1992), the development of the new heating control model was started. Target of the project was to develop a dynamic control system which guides the heating of batteries through the various process conditions. Development work took three years and the heating control system was commissioned in the year 1995. Principle of the second generation system is an energy balance calculation, coke end temperature determination and dynamic oven scheduling system. The control is based on simultaneous feedforward and feedback control. The fuzzy logic components were added after about one year experience.

  14. Demineralization of petroleum cokes and fly ash samples obtained from the upgrading of Athabasca oil sands bitumen

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Majid, A.; Ratcliffe, C.I.; Ripmeester, J.A.

    1988-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Today's commercially proved technology to recover oil from the Athabasca oil sands, as practiced by Suncor and Syncrude, involves two major operations, namely: separation of the bitumen from the sand and upgrading of the bitumen to refinery oil. Significant amounts of petroleum coke are produced during the bitumen upgrading process. Suncor burns the bulk of its petroleum coke in boilers to fulfill the energy requirements of the entire operation, still meeting government regulations restricting the amount of sulfur dioxide that can be released to the environment. In contrast, Syncrude is able to burn only 20% of its coke production because of high sulphur dioxide emissions from elsewhere in its operations. The boiler ash (Fly ash) which contains appreciable amounts of metals, such as vanadium, nickel, titianium, iron, aluminum and other elements, is collected in the boiler hoppers and cyclones of the petroleum coke fired steam generation plants. There has been relatively little effort made towards the understanding of the chemical or physical nature of these materials. Knowledge of the physico-chemical properties of these materials will be helpful in assessing their beneficiation and potential use as fuel or metallurigcal coke and the feasibility of extracting some metals, especially Ni and V. In this communication the authors report studies of acid demineralization as a means of reducing ash content of these materials for /sup 13/C NMR spectroscopic investigations.

  15. Proposal of a novel multifunctional energy system for cogeneration of coke, hydrogen, and power - article no. 052001

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jin, H.G.; Sun, S.; Han, W.; Gao, L. [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China)

    2009-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper proposes a novel multifunctional energy system (MES), which cogenerates coke, hydrogen, and power, through the use of coal and coke oven gas (COG). In this system, a new type of coke oven, firing coal instead of COG as heating resource for coking, is adopted. The COG rich in H{sub 2} is sent to a pressure swing adsorption (PSA) unit to separate about 80% of hydrogen first, and then the PSA purge gas is fed to a combined cycle as fuel. The new system combines the chemical processes and power generation system, along with the integration of chemical conversion and thermal energy utilization. In this manner, both the chemical energy of fuel and thermal energy can be used more effectively. With the same inputs of fuel and the same output of coking heat, the new system can produce about 65% more hydrogen than that of individual systems. As a result, the thermal efficiency of the new system is about 70%, and the exergy efficiency is about 66%. Compared with individual systems, the primary energy saving ratio can reach as high as 12.5%. Based on the graphical exergy analyses, we disclose that the integration of synthetic utilization of COG and coal plays a significant role in decreasing the exergy destruction of the MES system. The promising results obtained may lead to a clean coal technology that will utilize COG and coal more efficiently and economically.

  16. Reduction of NO[sub x] emissions coke oven gas combustion process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Terza, R.R. (USS Clairton Works, PA (United States)); Sardesai, U.V. (Westfield Engineering and Services, Inc., Houston, TX (United States))

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The paper describes by-product processing at Clairton Works which uses a unique cryogenic technology. Modifications to the desulfurization facility, nitrogen oxide formation in combustion processes (both thermal and fuel NO[sub x]), and the boilers plants are described. Boilers were used to study the contribution of fuel NO[sub x] formation during the combustion of coke oven gas. Results are summarized. The modifications made to the desulfurization facility resulted in the overall H[sub 2]S emission being reduced by 2-4 grains/100scf and the NO[sub x] emission being reduced by 21-42% in the boiler stacks.

  17. Coke oven gas treatment and by-product plant of Magnitogorsk Integrated Iron and Steel Works

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Egorov, V.N.; Anikin, G.J. [Magnitogorsk Integrated Iron and Steel Works, (Russian Federation); Gross, M. [Krupp Koppers GmbH, Essen (Germany)

    1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Magnitogorsk Integrated Iron and Steel Works, Russia, decided to erect a new coke oven gas treatment and by-product plant to replace the existing obsolete units and to improve the environmental conditions of the area. The paper deals with the technological concept and the design requirements. Commissioning is scheduled at the beginning of 1996. The paper describes H{sub 2}S and NH{sub 3} removal, sulfur recovery and ammonia destruction, primary gas cooling and electrostatic tar precipitation, and the distributed control system that will be installed.

  18. Improved wastewater treatment at Wheeling-Pittsburgh Steel Corporations`s Steubenville East Coke Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goshe, A.J.; Nodianos, M.J. [Wheeling-Pittsburgh Steel Corp., Follansbee, WV (United States)

    1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Wheeling-Pittsburgh Steel Corporation recently improved its wastewater treatment at it`s by-products coke plant. This has led to greatly improved effluent quality. Excess ammonia liquor, along with wastewater from the light oil recovery plant, desulfurization facility, and coal pile runoff, must be treated prior to being discharged into the Ohio River. This is accomplished using a biological wastewater treatment plant to remove 99.99% of the organic contaminants and ammonia. Biologically treated, clarified wastewater is now polished in the newly constructed tertiary treatment plant.

  19. Operating temperature effects on nozzle coking in a cottonseed oil fueled diesel engine

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yarbrough, Charles Michael

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    J/'CA] volume rate of change [m /'CA) ? apparent rate of heat release [kJ/'CA] fuel air ratio [kg/kg] heat transfer coefficient [kJ/m 'K sec] ratio of specific heats connecting rod length [m] fuel lower heating value [kJ/kg] total mass of combustion gas...OPERATING TEMPERATURE EFFECTS ON NOZZLE COKING IN A COTTONSEED OIL FUELED DIESEL ENGINE A Thesis CHARLES MICHAEL YARBROUGH Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas ASM University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree cf...

  20. Use of resin-bearing wastes from coke and coal chemicals production at the Novokuznetsk Metallurgical Combine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kul'kova, T.N.; Yablochkin, N.V.; Gal'chenko, A.I.; Karyakina, E.A.; Litvinova, V.A.; Gorbach, D.A.

    2007-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The coke and coal chemicals plant at the Novokuznetsk Metallurgical Combine is making trial use of a technology that recycles waste products in 'tar ponds.' Specialists from the Ekomash company have installed a recycling unit in one area of the plant's dump, the unit including an inclined conveyor with a steam heater and a receiving hopper The coal preparation shop receives the wastes in a heated bin, where a screw mixes the wastes with pail of the charge for the coking ovens. The mixture subsequently travels along a moving conveyor belt together with the rest of the charge materials. The addition of up to 2% resin-bearing waste materials to the coal charge has not had any significant effect on the strength properties of the coke.

  1. Fluid juggling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Soto, Enrique

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This fluid dynamics video is an entry for the Gallery of Fluid Motion for the 66th Annual Meeting of the Fluid Dynamics Division of the American Physical Society. We show the curious behaviour of a light ball interacting with a liquid jet. For certain conditions, a ball can be suspended into a slightly inclined liquid jet. We studied this phenomenon using a high speed camera. The visualizations show that the object can be `juggled' for a variety of flow conditions. A simple calculation showed that the ball remains at a stable position due to a Bernoulli-like effect. The phenomenon is very stable and easy to reproduce.

  2. Congestion delays at hub airports

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    St. George, Martin J.

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A deterministic model was developed to study the effects of inefficient scheduling on flight delays at hub airports. The model bases the delay calculation on published schedule data and on user-defined airport capacities. ...

  3. Cracking of simulated oil refinery off-gas over a coal char, petroleum coke, and quartz

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yuan Zhang; Jin-hu Wu; Dong-ke Zhang [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Taiyuan (China). Institute of Coal Chemistry

    2008-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The cracking of oil refinery off-gas, simulated with a gas mixture containing methane (51%), ethylene (21.4%), ethane (21.1%), and propane (6.5%), over a coal char, petroleum coke, and quartz, respectively, has been studied in a fixed bed reactor. The experiments were performed at temperatures between 850 and 1000{sup o}C and at atmospheric pressure. The results show that the conversions of all species considered increased with increasing temperature. Ethane and propane completely decomposed over all three bed materials in the temperature range investigated. However, the higher initial conversion rates of methane and ethylene cracking at all temperatures were observed only over the coal char and not on the petroleum coke and quartz, indicating a significant catalytic effect of the coal char on methane and ethylene cracking. Methane and ethylene conversions decreased with reaction time due to deactivation of the coal char by carbon deposition on the char surface and, in the later stage of a cracking experiment, became negative, suggesting that methane and ethylene had been formed during the cracking of ethane and propane. 16 refs., 13 figs., 2 tabs.

  4. Method of operating a coal predrying and heating plant in connection with a coking plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bocsanczy, J.; Knappstein, J.; Stalherm, D.

    1981-01-27T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of preparing and delivering coal to a coking plant comprises conveying the coal to the plant on a moving conveyor while an inert combustion gas is directed over the coal being conveyed. The combustion gas is generated by burning a fuel with air to produce a substantially inert combustion gas which is passed over the coal during its conveying and, thereafter, passed through a cooler for removing the moisture which has been picked up from the coal by the gas. The heating and predrying inert gases are advantageously generated by the direct combustion of air and fuel which are passed through flash dryer tubes and one or more separate separator systems and then delivered into a conveyor pipeline through which the coal is conveyed. A portion of the gases which are generated are also directed with a return gas to a filter for removal of any coal therefrom and to a cooler for removing the moisture picked up from the coal and then back into the stream for delivery to the conveyor for the coal. The inert gas may also be a gas which is circulated in heat exchange relationship with combustion gases which are generated by a combustion of the coal itself. In such a system, a portion of the combustion gases generated are also passed through a condenser or cooler and the cooled and dried waste gases are circulated over the coal being conveyed to the coking oven or its bunkers.

  5. Programmable Differential Delay Circuit With Fine Delay Adjustment

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    DeRyckere, John F. (Eau Claire, WI); Jenkins, Philip Nord (Eau Claire, WI); Cornett, Frank Nolan (Chippewa Falls, WI)

    2002-07-09T23:59:59.000Z

    Circuitry that provides additional delay to early arriving signals such that all data signals arrive at a receiving latch with same path delay. The delay of a forwarded clock reference is also controlled such that the capturing clock edge will be optimally positioned near quadrature (depending on latch setup/hold requirements). The circuitry continuously adapts to data and clock path delay changes and digital filtering of phase measurements reduce errors brought on by jittering data edges. The circuitry utilizes only the minimum amount of delay necessary to achieve objective thereby limiting any unintended jitter. Particularly, this programmable differential delay circuit with fine delay adjustment is designed to allow the skew between ASICS to be minimized. This includes skew between data bits, between data bits and clocks as well as minimizing the overall skew in a channel between ASICS.

  6. Modeling delay in genetic networks: From delay birth-death processes to delay stochastic differential equations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ott, William

    genetic circuits17­26 ; the infusion of delay dramatically enhances the stability of such circuits27

  7. 6. Fluid mechanics: fluid statics; fluid dynamics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zevenhoven, Ron

    Figure Pressure (a scalar!) is defined as surface force / area, for example pb = Fb / (d·w) = p @ z = z1 Picture: KJ05 Fluid volume h·d·w with density and mass m = h·d·w· z = z1 In engineering forces Fn+ Fs = 0 or - py·h·w + py·h·w = 0 py = 0 Similarly Fw+ Fe= 0 gives px = 0, There are three

  8. Vehicle barrier with access delay

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Swahlan, David J; Wilke, Jason

    2013-09-03T23:59:59.000Z

    An access delay vehicle barrier for stopping unauthorized entry into secure areas by a vehicle ramming attack includes access delay features for preventing and/or delaying an adversary from defeating or compromising the barrier. A horizontally deployed barrier member can include an exterior steel casing, an interior steel reinforcing member and access delay members disposed within the casing and between the casing and the interior reinforcing member. Access delay members can include wooden structural lumber, concrete and/or polymeric members that in combination with the exterior casing and interior reinforcing member act cooperatively to impair an adversarial attach by thermal, mechanical and/or explosive tools.

  9. Petroleum Coke

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghurajiConventionalMississippi"site. IfProved(MillionPrice (Percent)82,516 82,971 84,053 85,190

  10. Petroleum Coke

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for On-Highway4,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,9,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,Decade1 Source: Office(BillionYearPricePrice (Percent)theCity

  11. Urinary 1-hydroxypyrene concentrations in Chinese coke oven workers relative to job category, respirator usage, and cigarette smoking

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bo Chen; Yunping Hu; Lixing Zheng; Qiangyi Wang; Yuanfen Zhou; Taiyi Jin [Fudan University, Shanghai (China). School of Public Health

    2007-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    1-Hydroxypyrene (1-OHP) is a biomarker of recent exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). We investigated whether urinary 1-OHP concentrations in Chinese coke oven workers (COWs) are modulated by job category, respirator usage, and cigarette smoking. The present cross-sectional study measured urinary 1-OHP concentrations in 197 COWs from Coking plant I and 250 COWs from Coking plant II, as well as 220 unexposed referents from Control plant I and 56 referents from Control plant II. Urinary 1-OHP concentrations (geometric mean, {mu}mol/mol creatinine) were 5.18 and 4.21 in workers from Coking plants I and II, respectively. The highest 1-OHP levels in urine were found among topside workers including lidmen, tar chasers, and whistlers. Benchmen had higher 1-OHP levels than other workers at the sideoven. Above 75% of the COWs exceeded the recommended occupational exposure limit of 2.3 {mu}mol/mol creatinine. Respirator usage and increased body mass index (BMI) slightly reduced 1-OHP levels in COWs. Cigarette smoking significantly increased urinary 1-OHP levels in unexposed referents but had no effect in COWs. Chinese COWs, especially topside workers and benchmen, are exposed to high levels of PAHs. Urinary 1-OHP concentrations appear to be modulated by respirator usage and BMI in COWs, as well as by smoking in unexposed referents.

  12. Delayed cure bismaleimide resins

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Not Available

    1982-08-12T23:59:59.000Z

    Prior art polybismaleimides begin to polymerize at or just above the melting point of the monomer. This patent describes new bismaleimide resins which have an increased pot life and provide longer time periods in which the monomer remains fluid. The resins can be polymerized into molded articles with a high uniformity of properties. (DLC)

  13. Development and Testing of the Advanced CHP System Utilizing the Off-Gas from the Innovative Green Coke Calcining Process in Fluidized Bed

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chudnovsky, Yaroslav; Kozlov, Aleksandr

    2013-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Green petroleum coke (GPC) is an oil refining byproduct that can be used directly as a solid fuel or as a feedstock for the production of calcined petroleum coke. GPC contains a high amount of volatiles and sulfur. During the calcination process, the GPC is heated to remove the volatiles and sulfur to produce purified calcined coke, which is used in the production of graphite, electrodes, metal carburizers, and other carbon products. Currently, more than 80% of calcined coke is produced in rotary kilns or rotary hearth furnaces. These technologies provide partial heat utilization of the calcined coke to increase efficiency of the calcination process, but they also share some operating disadvantages. However, coke calcination in an electrothermal fluidized bed (EFB) opens up a number of potential benefits for the production enhancement, while reducing the capital and operating costs. The increased usage of heavy crude oil in recent years has resulted in higher sulfur content in green coke produced by oil refinery process, which requires a significant increase in the calcinations temperature and in residence time. The calorific value of the process off-gas is quite substantial and can be effectively utilized as an “opportunity fuel” for combined heat and power (CHP) production to complement the energy demand. Heat recovered from the product cooling can also contribute to the overall economics of the calcination process. Preliminary estimates indicated the decrease in energy consumption by 35-50% as well as a proportional decrease in greenhouse gas emissions. As such, the efficiency improvement of the coke calcinations systems is attracting close attention of the researchers and engineers throughout the world. The developed technology is intended to accomplish the following objectives: - Reduce the energy and carbon intensity of the calcined coke production process. - Increase utilization of opportunity fuels such as industrial waste off-gas from the novel petroleum coke calcination process. - Increase the opportunity of heat (chemical and physical) utilization from process off-gases and solid product. - Develop a design of advanced CHP system utilizing off-gases as an “opportunity fuel” for petroleum coke calcinations and sensible heat of calcined coke. A successful accomplishment of the aforementioned objectives will contribute toward the following U.S. DOE programmatic goals: - Drive a 25% reduction in U. S. industrial energy intensity by 2017 in support of EPAct 2005; - Contribute to an 18% reduction in U.S. carbon intensity by 2012 as established by the Administration’s “National Goal to Reduce Emissions Intensity.” 8

  14. Summing up of discussion on improvement trends in coke-oven gas purification flowsheets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zemblevskii, K.K.

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Reference is made to a previously published article that included flowsheets for purification of coke-oven gas. It is concluded that the flowsheets for a process using arsenic-soda and vacuum-carbonate methods of sulfur removal in which the gas is cooled to 303-308/sup 0/K are seriously in error. Schemes involving minor refrigeration, sulfur removal by the circulating ammonia method and ammonia recovery as ammonia liquor are seen as promising but in need of further improvement. One scheme discussed (the VUKhIN scheme) involves ammonia recovery by the circulating phosphate method and sulfur removal by the circulating ammonia method is seen as a replacement for the minor refrigeration method. Since liquid ammonia consumption in agriculture is continually increasing, schemes that result in production of liquid ammonia rather than ammonia liquor should be seriously considered.

  15. Method of recovering sulfur from the hydrogen sulfide contained in coke oven gases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Laufhutte, D.

    1985-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Ammonia and hydrogen sulfide are washed out of the coke oven gas and stripped from the wash liquor in the form of gases and fumes or vapors. The ammonia is decomposed in a nickel catalyzer and a small part of the decomposition gases is supplied directly to a combustion furnace, while the larger part of the combustion gases is first cooled and freed from condensate, and only then supplied to the combustion furnace. In the combustion furnace, the proportion of H/sub 2/S/SO/sub 2/ needed for the Claus process is adjusted by a partial combustion of the decomposition gases. The gases from the combustion furnace are then processed in the Claus plant to sulfur.

  16. Cyanide leaching from soil developed from coking plant purifier waste as influenced by citrate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tim Mansfeldt; Heike Leyer; Kurt Barmettler; Ruben Kretzschmar [Ruhr-University Bochum, Bochum (Germany). Soil Science and Soil Ecology Group, Faculty of Geosciences

    2004-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Soils in the vicinity of manufactured gas plants and coal coking plants are often highly contaminated with cyanides in the form of the compound Prussian blue. The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of citrate on the leaching of iron-cyanide complexes from an extremely acidic soil (pH 2.3) developed from gas purifier waste near a former coking plant. The soil contained 63 g kg{sup -1} CN, 148 g kg{sup -1} Fe, 123 g kg{sup -1} S, and 222 g kg{sup -1} total C. Analysis of the soil by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy revealed the presence of Prussian blue, gypsum, elemental sulfur, jarosite, and hematite. For column leaching experiments, air-dried soil was mixed with purified cristabolite sand at a ratio of 1:3 and packed into chromatography columns. The soil was leached with dilute (0.1 or 1 mM) CaCl{sub 2} solutions and the effluent was collected and analyzed for total and dissolved CN, Ca, Fe, SO{sub 4}, pH, and pe. In the absence of citrate, the total dissolved CN concentration in the effluent was always below current drinking water limits (< 1.92 {mu}M), indicating low leaching potential. Adding citrate at a concentration of 1 mM had little effect on the CN concentrations in the column effluent. Addition of 10 or 100 mM citrate to the influent solution resulted in strong increases in dissolved and colloidal CN concentrations in the effluent.

  17. Simulating Fluids Exhibiting Microstructure

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Title: Simulating Fluids Exhibiting Microstructure Speaker: Noel J. Walkington, ... fluids containing elastic particles, and polymer fluids, all exhibit non-trivial ...

  18. Modeling delay in genetic networks: From delay birth-death processes to delay stochastic differential equations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gupta, Chinmaya; López, José Manuel; Azencott, Robert; Ott, William [Department of Mathematics, University of Houston, Houston, Texas 77004 (United States); Bennett, Matthew R. [Department of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Rice University, Houston, Texas 77204, USA and Institute of Biosciences and Bioengineering, Rice University, Houston, Texas 77005 (United States); Josi?, Krešimir [Department of Mathematics, University of Houston, Houston, Texas 77004 (United States); Department of Biology and Biochemistry, University of Houston, Houston, Texas 77204 (United States)

    2014-05-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Delay is an important and ubiquitous aspect of many biochemical processes. For example, delay plays a central role in the dynamics of genetic regulatory networks as it stems from the sequential assembly of first mRNA and then protein. Genetic regulatory networks are therefore frequently modeled as stochastic birth-death processes with delay. Here, we examine the relationship between delay birth-death processes and their appropriate approximating delay chemical Langevin equations. We prove a quantitative bound on the error between the pathwise realizations of these two processes. Our results hold for both fixed delay and distributed delay. Simulations demonstrate that the delay chemical Langevin approximation is accurate even at moderate system sizes. It captures dynamical features such as the oscillatory behavior in negative feedback circuits, cross-correlations between nodes in a network, and spatial and temporal information in two commonly studied motifs of metastability in biochemical systems. Overall, these results provide a foundation for using delay stochastic differential equations to approximate the dynamics of birth-death processes with delay.

  19. Innovative coke oven gas cleaning system for retrofit applications. Environmental Monitoring program. Volume 1 - sampling progrom report. Baseline Sampling Program report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stuart, L.M.

    1994-05-27T23:59:59.000Z

    Bethlehem Steel Corporation (BSC), in conjunction with the Department of Energy (DOE) is conducting a Clean Coal Technology (CCT) project at its Sparrows Point, Maryland Coke Oven Plant. This innovative coke oven gas cleaning system combines several existing technologies into an integrated system for removing impurities from Coke Oven Gas (COG) to make it an acceptable fuel. DOE provided cost-sharing under a Cooperative Agreement with BSC. This Cooperative Agreement requires BSC to develop and conduct and Environmental Monitoring Plan for the Clean Coal Technology project and to report the status of the EMP on a quarterly basis. It also requires the preparation of a final report on the results of the Baseline Compliance and Supplemental Sampling Programs that are part of the EMP and which were conducted prior to the startup of the innovative coke oven gas cleaning system. This report is the Baseline Sampling Program report.

  20. Delayed cure bismaleimide resins

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Adams, Johnnie E. (Grandview, MO); Jamieson, Donald R. (Merriam, KS)

    1984-08-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Polybismaleimides prepared by delayed curing of bis-imides having the formula ##STR1## wherein R.sub.1 and R.sub.2 each independently is H, C.sub.1-4 -alkyl, C.sub.1-4 -alkoxy, Cl or Br, or R.sub.1 and R.sub.2 together form a fused 6-membered hydrocarbon aromatic ring, with the proviso that R.sub.1 and R.sub.2 are not t-butyl or t-butoxy; X is O, S or Se; n is 1-3; and the --(CH.sub.2).sub.n -- group, optionally, is substituted by 1-3 methyl groups or by fluorine.

  1. Fluid extraction

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wai, Chien M. (Moscow, ID); Laintz, Kenneth E. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of extracting metalloid and metal species from a solid or liquid material by exposing the material to a supercritical fluid solvent containing a chelating agent is described. The chelating agent forms chelates that are soluble in the supercritical fluid to allow removal of the species from the material. In preferred embodiments, the extraction solvent is supercritical carbon dioxide and the chelating agent is a fluorinated .beta.-diketone. In especially preferred embodiments the extraction solvent is supercritical carbon dioxide, and the chelating agent comprises a fluorinated .beta.-diketone and a trialkyl phosphate, or a fluorinated .beta.-diketone and a trialkylphosphine oxide. Although a trialkyl phosphate can extract lanthanides and actinides from acidic solutions, a binary mixture comprising a fluorinated .beta.-diketone and a trialkyl phosphate or a trialkylphosphine oxide tends to enhance the extraction efficiencies for actinides and lanthanides. The method provides an environmentally benign process for removing contaminants from industrial waste without using acids or biologically harmful solvents. The method is particularly useful for extracting actinides and lanthanides from acidic solutions. The chelate and supercritical fluid can be regenerated, and the contaminant species recovered, to provide an economic, efficient process.

  2. Innovative coke oven gas cleaning system for retrofit applications. Quarterly environmental monitoring report No. 1, January 1, 1991--June 30, 1991

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-08-24T23:59:59.000Z

    The coke plant at the Sparrows Point Plant consist of three coke oven batteries and two coal chemical plants. The by-product coke oven gas (COG) consists primarily of hydrogen, methane, carbon monoxide, nitrogen and contaminants consisting of tars, light oils (benzene, toluene, and xylene) hydrogen sulfide, ammonia, water vapor and other hydrocarbons. This raw coke oven gas needs to be cleaned of most of its contaminants before it can be used as a fuel at other operations at the Sparrows Point Plant. In response to environmental concerns, BSC decided to replace much of the existing coke oven gas treatment facilities in the two coal chemical Plants (A and B) with a group of technologies consisting of: Secondary Cooling of the Coke oven Gas; Hydrogen Sulfide Removal; Ammonia Removal; Deacification of Acid Gases Removed; Ammonia Distillation and Destruction; and, Sulfur Recovery. This combination of technologies will replace the existing ammonia removal system, the final coolers, hydrogen sulfide removal system and the sulfur recovery system. The existing wastewater treatment, tar recovery and one of the three light oil recovery systems will continue to be used to support the new innovative combination of COG treatment technologies.

  3. SOLOX coke-oven gas desulfurization ppm levels -- No toxic waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Platts, M. (Thyssen Still Otto Technical Services, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)); Tippmer, K. (Thyssen Still Otto Anlagentechnik GmbH, Bochum (Germany))

    1994-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    For sulfur removal from coke-oven gas, the reduction/oxidation processes such as Stretford are the most effective, capable of removing the H[sub 2]S down to ppm levels. However, these processes have, in the past, suffered from ecological problems with secondary pollutant formation resulting from side reactions with HCN and O[sub 2]. The SOLOX gas desulfurization system is a development of the Stretford process in which the toxic effluent problems are eliminated by installing a salt decomposition process operating according to the liquid-phase hydrolysis principle. In this process, the gaseous hydrolysis products H[sub 2]S, NH[sub 3] and CO[sub 2] are returned to the untreated gas, and the regenerated solution is recycled to the absorption process. The blowdown from the absorption circuit is fed into a tube reactor where the hydrolysis process takes place. The toxic salts react with water, producing as reaction products the gases H[sub 2]S, NH[sub 3] and CO[sub 2], and the nontoxic salt Na[sub 2]SO[sub 4]. From the hydrolysis reactor the liquid stream flows into a fractionating crystallization plant. This plant produces a recycle stream of regenerated absorption solution and a second stream containing most of the Na[sub 2]SO[sub 4]. This second stream comprises the net plant waste and can be disposed of with the excess ammonia liquor or sprayed onto the coal.

  4. Effects of HyperCoal addition on coke strength and thermoplasticity of coal blends

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Toshimasa Takanohashi; Takahiro Shishido; Ikuo Saito [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Tsukuba (Japan). Energy Technology Research Institute

    2008-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Ashless coal, also known as HyperCoal (HPC), was produced by thermal extraction of three coals of different ranks (Gregory caking coal, Warkworth steam coal, and Pasir subbituminous coal) with 1-methylnaphthalene (1-MN) at 360, 380, and 400{sup o}C. The effects of blending these HPCs into standard coal blends were investigated. Blending HPCs as 5-10% of a standard blend (Kouryusho:Goonyella:K9) enhanced the thermoplasticity over a wide temperature range. For blends made with the Pasir-HPC, produced from a noncaking coal, increasing the extraction temperature from 360 to 400{sup o}C increased the thermoplasticity significantly. Blends containing Warkworth-HPC, produced from a slightly caking coal, had a higher tensile strength than the standard blend in semicoke strength tests. The addition of 10% Pasir-HPC, extracted at 400{sup o}C, increased the tensile strength of the semicokes to the same degree as those made with Gregory-HPC. Furthermore, all HPC blends had a higher tensile strength and smaller weight loss during carbonization. These results suggest that the HPC became integrated into the coke matrix, interacting strongly with the other raw coals. 14 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab.

  5. Role of hydrogen in blast furnaces to improve productivity and decrease coke consumption

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Agarwal, J.C.; Brown, F.C.; Chin, D.L.; Stevens, G.; Clark, R.; Smith, D.

    1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The hydrogen contained in blast furnace gases exerts a variety of physical, thermochemical, and kinetic effects as the gases pass through the various zones. The hydrogen is derived from two sources: (1) the dissociation of moisture in the blast air (ambient and injected with hot blast), and (2) the release from partial combustion of supplemental fuels (including moisture in atomizing water, steam, or transport air, if any). With each atom of oxygen (or carbon), the molar amounts of hydrogen released are more than six times higher for natural gas than for coal, and two times higher for natural gas than for oil. Injection of natural gas in a blast furnace is not a new process. Small amounts of natural gas--about 50--80 lb or 1,100--1,700 SCF/ton of hot metal--have been injected in many of the North American blast furnaces since the early 1960s, with excellent operating results. What is new, however, is a batter understanding of how natural gas reacts in the blast furnace and how natural gas and appropriate quantities of oxygen can be used to increase the driving rate or combustion rate of carbon (coke) in the blast furnace without causing hanging furnace and operating problems. The paper discusses the factors limiting blast furnace productivity and how H{sub 2} and O{sub 2} can increase productivity.

  6. Torchestra : reducing interactive trac delays over Tor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gopal, Deepika

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Torchestra : Reducing interactive traffic delays over Tor ATorchestra : Reducing interactive traffic delays over Tor byon the internet including interactive traffic as well as for

  7. LAUNCH DELAY TEST A DISSERTATION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stanford University

    , called voltage droop. Voltage droop increases the delay of logic gates within the chip and can cause droop. Experimental results using Stanford's ELF13 test chips ­ 0.13 m copper process chips implementing

  8. Fluid Inclusion Gas Analysis

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Dilley, Lorie

    Fluid inclusion gas analysis for wells in various geothermal areas. Analyses used in developing fluid inclusion stratigraphy for wells and defining fluids across the geothermal fields. Each sample has mass spectrum counts for 180 chemical species.

  9. Fluid Inclusion Gas Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dilley, Lorie

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Fluid inclusion gas analysis for wells in various geothermal areas. Analyses used in developing fluid inclusion stratigraphy for wells and defining fluids across the geothermal fields. Each sample has mass spectrum counts for 180 chemical species.

  10. Innovative coke oven gas cleaning system for retrofit applications. Quarterly technical progress report No. 4, October 1, 1990 to December 31, 1990

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kwasnoski, D.

    1993-10-22T23:59:59.000Z

    Work on this coke oven gas cleaning demonstration project (CCT-II) this quarter has been focused on Phase IIB tasks, and include engineering, procurement, construction, and training. Additionally, plans for changes in the operating schedule of the coke plant that affect the demonstration project are described. Engineering efforts are nearly complete. Remaining to be finalized is an assessment of electrical heat tracing/insulation needs for pipe lines, assessment of fire protection requirements, and instrument modifications. Procurement of all major equipment items is complete, except for possible additions to fire fighting capabilities. Major focus is on expediting pipe and structural steel to the project site. Civil construction is complete except for minor pads and bases as required for pipe supports, etc. Erection of the hydrogen sulfide and ammonia scrubber vessels is complete. Installation of scrubber vessel internals is underway. A subcontractor has been retained to develop a computerized program for operations and maintenance training for the coke oven gas treatment plant. Recent developments in the coke plant operating plans will result in reductions in the rate of production of coke oven gas to be processed in the demonstration project.

  11. Development and introduction of methods for extracting hydrogen sulfide and hydrogen cyanide from coke-oven gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Litvinenko, M.S.; Zaichenko, V.M.

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The progress between 1933 and the present in desulfurizing coal gas from coke ovens and making use of the by-products to produce sulfuric acid, thioyanates, etc. is described. The vacuum carbonate process and the monoethanolamine method are apparently now preferred, but some plants are still using modified arsenic-soda processes. More recently additional by-products have been thiocyanates (for producing acrylonitrile fiber) and hydrogen xanthanates. The production of other organic sulfur and cyanide compounds has been investigated for use as herbicides, corrosion inhibitors, etc. (LTN)

  12. UWB delay and multiply receiver

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dallum, Gregory E.; Pratt, Garth C.; Haugen, Peter C.; Romero, Carlos E.

    2013-09-10T23:59:59.000Z

    An ultra-wideband (UWB) delay and multiply receiver is formed of a receive antenna; a variable gain attenuator connected to the receive antenna; a signal splitter connected to the variable gain attenuator; a multiplier having one input connected to an undelayed signal from the signal splitter and another input connected to a delayed signal from the signal splitter, the delay between the splitter signals being equal to the spacing between pulses from a transmitter whose pulses are being received by the receive antenna; a peak detection circuit connected to the output of the multiplier and connected to the variable gain attenuator to control the variable gain attenuator to maintain a constant amplitude output from the multiplier; and a digital output circuit connected to the output of the multiplier.

  13. Dispersion modeling of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from combustion of biomass and fossil fuels and production of coke in Tianjin, China

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shu Tao; Xinrong Li; Yu Yang; Raymond M. Coveney, Jr.; Xiaoxia Lu; Haitao Chen; Weiran Shen [Peking University, Beijing (China). Laboratory for Earth Surface Processes, College of Environmental Sciences

    2006-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A USEPA procedure, ISCLT3 (Industrial Source Complex Long-Term), was applied to model the spatial distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) emitted from various sources including coal, petroleum, natural gas, and biomass into the atmosphere of Tianjin, China. Benzo(a)pyrene equivalent concentrations (BaPeq) were calculated for risk assessment. Model results were provisionally validated for concentrations and profiles based on the observed data at two monitoring stations. The dominant emission sources in the area were domestic coal combustion, coke production, and biomass burning. Mainly because of the difference in the emission heights, the contributions of various sources to the average concentrations at receptors differ from proportions emitted. The shares of domestic coal increased from {approximately} 43% at the sources to 56% at the receptors, while the contributions of coking industry decreased from {approximately} 23% at the sources to 7% at the receptors. The spatial distributions of gaseous and particulate PAHs were similar, with higher concentrations occurring within urban districts because of domestic coal combustion. With relatively smaller contributions, the other minor sources had limited influences on the overall spatial distribution. The calculated average BaPeq value in air was 2.54 {+-} 2.87 ng/m{sup 3} on an annual basis. Although only 2.3% of the area in Tianjin exceeded the national standard of 10 ng/m{sup 3}, 41% of the entire population lives within this area. 37 refs., 9 figs.

  14. Delayed Neutron and Delayed Photon Characteristics from Photofission of Actinides

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dore, D.; Berthoumieux, E.; Leprince, A.; Ridikas, D. [DSM/IRFUS/PhN, CEA/Saclay, Gif-sur-Yvette, F-91191 (France); Ledoux, X. [CEA/DAM/DIF, Arpajon, F-91297 (France); Agelou, M.; Carrel, F.; Gmar, M. [CEA, LIST, Gif-sur-Yvette, F-91191 (France)

    2011-12-13T23:59:59.000Z

    Delayed neutron (DN) and delayed photon (DP) emissions from photofission reactions play an important role for applications involving nuclear material detection and characterization. To provide new, accurate, basic nuclear data for evaluations and data libraries, an experimental programme of DN and DP measurements has been undertaken for actinides with bremsstrahlung endpoint energy in the giant resonance region ({approx}15 MeV). In this paper, the experimental setup and the data analysis method will be described. Experimental results for DN and DP characteristics will be presented for {sup 232}Th, {sup 235,238}U, {sup 237}Np, and {sup 239}Pu. Finally, an example of an application to study the contents of nuclear waste packages will be briefly discussed.

  15. Standardization of Thermo-Fluid Modeling in Modelica.Fluid

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Franke, Rudiger

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Thermo-Fluid Systems, Modelica 2003 Conference, Linköping,H. Tummescheit: The Modelica Fluid and Media Library forThermo-Fluid Pipe Networks, Modelica 2006 Conference, Vi-

  16. Multistage Constructions of Linear Compressors, Non-overtaking Delay Lines, and Flexible Delay

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chang, Cheng-Shang

    Multistage Constructions of Linear Compressors, Non-overtaking Delay Lines, and Flexible Delay: linear compressors, non-overtaking delay lines and flexible delay lines. These three types of queues for these three types of queues. Specifically, we develop a two-stage construction of a linear compressor

  17. Startup and initial operation of a DFGD and pulse jet fabric filter system on Cokenergy's Indiana Harbor coke oven off gas system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Morris, W.J.; Gansley, R.R.; Schaddell, J.G.

    1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper describes the design, initial operation and performance testing of a Dry Flue Gas Desulfurization (DFGD) and Modular Pulse Jet Fabric Filter (MPJFF) system installed at Cokenergy's site in East Chicago, Indiana. The combined flue gas from the sixteen (16) waste heat recovery boilers is processed by the system to control emissions of sulfur dioxide and particulates. These boilers recover energy from coke oven off gas from Indiana Harbor Coke Company's coke batteries. The DFGD system consists of two 100% capacity absorbers. Each absorber vessel uses a single direct drive rotary atomizer to disperse the lime slurry for SO{sub 2} control. The MPJFF consists of thirty two (32) modules arranged in twin sixteen-compartment (16) units. The initial start up of the DFGD/MPJFF posed special operational issues due to the low initial gas flows through the system as the four coke oven batteries were cured and put in service for the first time. This occurred at approximately monthly intervals beginning in March 1998. A plan was implemented to perform a staged startup of the DFGD and MPJFF to coincide with the staged start up of the coke batteries and waste heat boilers. Operational issues that are currently being addressed include reliability of byproduct removal. Performance testing was conducted in August and September 1998 at the inlet of the system and the outlet stack. During these tests, particulate, SO{sub 2}, SO{sub 3}, and HCI emissions were measured simultaneously at the common DFGD inlet duct and the outlet stack. Measurements were also taken for average lime, water, and power consumption during the tests as well as system pressure losses. These results showed that all guarantee parameters were achieved during the test periods. The initial operation and performance testing are described in this paper.

  18. Study on the effect of heat treatment and gasification on the carbon structure of coal chars and metallurgical cokes using fourier transform Raman spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    S. Dong; P. Alvarez; N. Paterson; D.R. Dugwell; R. Kandiyoti [Imperial College London, London (United Kingdom). Department of Chemical Engineering

    2009-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Differences in the development of carbon structures between coal chars and metallurgical cokes during high-temperature reactions have been investigated using Raman spectroscopy. These are important to differentiate between different types of carbons in dust recovered from the top gas of the blast furnace. Coal chars have been prepared from a typical injectant coal under different heat-treatment conditions. These chars reflected the effect of peak temperature, residence time at peak temperature, heating rate and pressure on the evolution of their carbon structures. The independent effect of gasification on the development of the carbon structure of a representative coal char has also been studied. A similar investigation has also been carried out to study the effect of heat-treatment temperature (from 1300 to 2000{sup o}C) and gasification on the carbon structure of a typical metallurgical coke. Two Raman spectral parameters, the intensity ratio of the D band to the G band (I{sub D}/I{sub G}) and the intensity ratio of the valley between D and G bands to the G band (I{sub V}/I{sub G}), have been found useful in assessing changes in carbon structure. An increase in I{sub D}/I{sub G} indicates the growth of basic graphene structural units across the temperature range studied. A decrease in I{sub V}/I{sub G} appears to suggest the elimination of amorphous carbonaceous materials and ordering of the overall carbon structure. The Raman spectral differences observed between coal chars and metallurgical cokes are considered to result from the difference in the time-temperature history between the raw injectant coal and the metallurgical coke and may lay the basis for differentiation between metallurgical coke fines and coal char residues present in the dust carried over the top of the blast furnace. 41 refs., 17 figs., 3 tabs.

  19. Fluid sampling tool

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Johnston, Roger G. (Los Alamos, NM); Garcia, Anthony R. E. (Espanola, NM); Martinez, Ronald K. (Santa Cruz, NM)

    2001-09-25T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention includes a rotatable tool for collecting fluid through the wall of a container. The tool includes a fluid collection section with a cylindrical shank having an end portion for drilling a hole in the container wall when the tool is rotated, and a threaded portion for tapping the hole in the container wall. A passageway in the shank in communication with at least one radial inlet hole in the drilling end and an opening at the end of the shank is adapted to receive fluid from the container. The tool also includes a cylindrical chamber affixed to the end of the shank opposite to the drilling portion thereof for receiving and storing fluid passing through the passageway. The tool also includes a flexible, deformable gasket that provides a fluid-tight chamber to confine kerf generated during the drilling and tapping of the hole. The invention also includes a fluid extractor section for extracting fluid samples from the fluid collecting section.

  20. Viscous fluid dynamics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. K. Chaudhuri

    2007-03-12T23:59:59.000Z

    We briefly discuss the phenomenological theory of dissipative fluid. We also present some numerical results for hydrodynamic evolution of QGP fluid with dissipation due to shear viscosity only. Its effect on particle production is also studied.

  1. HEAT TRANSFER FLUIDS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lenert, Andrej

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The choice of heat transfer fluids has significant effects on the performance, cost, and reliability of solar thermal systems. In this chapter, we evaluate existing heat transfer fluids such as oils and molten salts based ...

  2. Standardization of Thermo-Fluid Modeling in Modelica.Fluid

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Franke, Rudiger

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Ob- ject-Oriented Modeling of Thermo-Fluid Systems, Modelicable and Compressible Thermo-Fluid Pipe Networks, ModelicaStandardization of Thermo-Fluid Modeling in Modelica.Fluid

  3. Fault simulation and test generation for small delay faults

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Qiu, Wangqi

    2007-04-25T23:59:59.000Z

    Delay faults are an increasingly important test challenge. Traditional delay fault models are incomplete in that they model only a subset of delay defect behaviors. To solve this problem, a more realistic delay fault model has been developed which...

  4. View dependent fluid dynamics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barran, Brian Arthur

    2006-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

    , are modified to support a nonuniform simulation grid. In addition, infinite fluid boundary conditions are introduced that allow fluid to flow freely into or out of the simulation domain to achieve the effect of large, boundary free bodies of fluid. Finally, a...

  5. Influence of technological factors on statics of hydrogen sulfide absorption from coke-oven gas by the ammonia process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nazarov, V.G.; Kamennykh, B.M.; Rus'yanov, N.D.

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The basic technological factors that determine the effectiveness of hydrogen sulfide absorption from coke-oven gas by the cyclic ammonia process are the initial H/sub 2/S content of the gas, the degree of purification, the absorption temperature and the NH/sub 3/ and CO/sub 2/ contents of the absorbent solution. The effects of these factors on the statics of hydrogen sulfide absorption are studied. The investigation is based on the phase-equilibrium distributions of components in the absorption-desorption gas-cleaning cycle. The mathematical model is presented which includes the solution of a system of chemical equilibrium equations for reactions in the solution, material balances, and electrical neutrality. 4 references, 5 figures, 1 table.

  6. Controlling the Delay of Small Flows in Datacenters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carra, Damiano

    and CAPEX and ignore designs which could help reduce delay of delay sensitive flows. The flow routing

  7. Spinning fluids reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, Jan D; Hupka, Jan; Aranowski, Robert

    2012-11-20T23:59:59.000Z

    A spinning fluids reactor, includes a reactor body (24) having a circular cross-section and a fluid contactor screen (26) within the reactor body (24). The fluid contactor screen (26) having a plurality of apertures and a circular cross-section concentric with the reactor body (24) for a length thus forming an inner volume (28) bound by the fluid contactor screen (26) and an outer volume (30) bound by the reactor body (24) and the fluid contactor screen (26). A primary inlet (20) can be operatively connected to the reactor body (24) and can be configured to produce flow-through first spinning flow of a first fluid within the inner volume (28). A secondary inlet (22) can similarly be operatively connected to the reactor body (24) and can be configured to produce a second flow of a second fluid within the outer volume (30) which is optionally spinning.

  8. Fluid Dynamics Seminar Fluid Dynamics Research Centre

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Davies, Christopher

    France) 8th Nov. Future Trends in Condition Monitoring of Rotating Machines Using System Identification Simulation of the Cooling of a Simplified Brake Disc Dr. Thorsten J. Möller, (Institute for Fluid Mechanics

  9. Fluid Dynamics Seminar Fluid Dynamics Research Centre

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas, Peter J.

    France) 8 th Nov. Future Trends in Condition Monitoring of Rotating Machines Using System Identification Simulation of the Cooling of a Simplified Brake Disc Dr. Thorsten J. Möller, (Institute for Fluid Mechanics

  10. Cross delay line sensor characterization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Owens, Israel J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Remelius, Dennis K [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Tiee, Joe J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Buck, Steven E [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Whittemore, Stephen R [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Thompson, David C [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Shirey, Robert [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    There exists a wealth of information in the scientific literature on the physical properties and device characterization procedures for complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS), charge coupled device (CCD) and avalanche photodiode (APD) format detectors. Numerous papers and books have also treated photocathode operation in the context of photomultiplier tube (PMT) operation for either non imaging applications or limited night vision capability. However, much less information has been reported in the literature about the characterization procedures and properties of photocathode detectors with novel cross delay line (XDL) anode structures. These allow one to detect single photons and create images by recording space and time coordinate (X, Y & T) information. In this paper, we report on the physical characteristics and performance of a cross delay line anode sensor with an enhanced near infrared wavelength response photocathode and high dynamic range micro channel plate (MCP) gain (> 10{sup 6}) multiplier stage. Measurement procedures and results including the device dark event rate (DER), pulse height distribution, quantum and electronic device efficiency (QE & DQE) and spatial resolution per effective pixel region in a 25 mm sensor array are presented. The overall knowledge and information obtained from XDL sensor characterization allow us to optimize device performance and assess capability. These device performance properties and capabilities make XDL detectors ideal for remote sensing field applications that require single photon detection, imaging, sub nano-second timing response, high spatial resolution (10's of microns) and large effective image format.

  11. Nonlinear Control of Delay and PDE Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bekiaris-Liberis, Nikolaos

    delay systems, IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control, 56 (lag systems, IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control, 31 (nonlinear systems, IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control,

  12. Disposal of drilling fluids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bryson, W.R.

    1983-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Prior to 1974 the disposal of drilling fluids was not considered to be much of an environmental problem. In the past, disposal of drilling fluids was accomplished in various ways such as spreading on oil field lease roads to stabilize the road surface and control dust, spreading in the base of depressions of sandy land areas to increase water retention, and leaving the fluid in the reserve pit to be covered on closure of the pit. In recent years, some states have become concerned over the indescriminate dumping of drilling fluids into pits or unauthorized locations and have developed specific regulations to alleviate the perceived deterioration of environmental and groundwater quality from uncontrolled disposal practices. The disposal of drilling fluids in Kansas is discussed along with a newer method or treatment in drilling fluid disposal.

  13. Fiber optic fluid detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Angel, S.M.

    1987-02-27T23:59:59.000Z

    Particular gases or liquids are detected with a fiber optic element having a cladding or coating of a material which absorbs the fluid or fluids and which exhibits a change of an optical property, such as index of refraction, light transmissiveness or fluoresence emission, for example, in response to absorption of the fluid. The fluid is sensed by directing light into the fiber optic element and detecting changes in the light, such as exit angle changes for example, that result from the changed optical property of the coating material. The fluid detector may be used for such purposes as sensing toxic or explosive gases in the atmosphere, measuring ground water contamination or monitoring fluid flows in industrial processes, among other uses. 10 figs.

  14. Further investigation of the impact of the co-combustion of tire-derived fuel and petroleum coke on the petrology and chemistry of coal combustion products

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hower, J.C.; Robertson, J.D.; Elswick, E.R.; Roberts, J.M.; Brandsteder, K.; Trimble, A.S.; Mardon, S.M. [University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States). Center for Applied Energy Research

    2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A Kentucky cyclone-fired unit burns coal and tire-derived fuel, sometimes in combination with petroleum coke. A parallel pulverized combustion (pc) unit at the same plant burns the same coal, without the added fuels. The petrology, chemistry, and sulfur isotope distribution in the fuel and resulting combustion products was investigated for several configurations of the fuel blend. Zinc and Cd in the combustion products are primarily contributed from the tire-derived fuel, the V and Ni are primarily from the petroleum coke, and the As and Hg are probably largely from the coal. The sulfur isotope distribution in the cyclone unit is complicated due to the varying fuel sources. The electrostatic precipitator (ESP) array in the pc unit shows a subtle trend towards heavier S isotopic ratios in the cooler end of the ESP.

  15. Metalworking and machining fluids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Erdemir, Ali (Naperville, IL); Sykora, Frank (Caledon, ON, CA); Dorbeck, Mark (Brighton, MI)

    2010-10-12T23:59:59.000Z

    Improved boron-based metal working and machining fluids. Boric acid and boron-based additives that, when mixed with certain carrier fluids, such as water, cellulose and/or cellulose derivatives, polyhydric alcohol, polyalkylene glycol, polyvinyl alcohol, starch, dextrin, in solid and/or solvated forms result in improved metalworking and machining of metallic work pieces. Fluids manufactured with boric acid or boron-based additives effectively reduce friction, prevent galling and severe wear problems on cutting and forming tools.

  16. Adsorption Kinetics of Surfactants at Fluid-Fluid Interfaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Andelman, David

    Adsorption Kinetics of Surfactants at Fluid-Fluid Interfaces Haim Diamant and David Andelman School-Fluid Interfaces, Adsorption, Adsorption Kinetics, Interfacial Tension. 1 #12;Abstract We review a new theoretical approach to the kinetics of surfactant adsorption at fluid-fluid interfaces. It yields a more complete

  17. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) Modeling for High Rate Pulverized Coal Injection (PCI) into the Blast Furnace

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dr. Chenn Zhou

    2008-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Pulverized coal injection (PCI) into the blast furnace (BF) has been recognized as an effective way to decrease the coke and total energy consumption along with minimization of environmental impacts. However, increasing the amount of coal injected into the BF is currently limited by the lack of knowledge of some issues related to the process. It is therefore important to understand the complex physical and chemical phenomena in the PCI process. Due to the difficulty in attaining trus BF measurements, Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling has been identified as a useful technology to provide such knowledge. CFD simulation is powerful for providing detailed information on flow properties and performing parametric studies for process design and optimization. In this project, comprehensive 3-D CFD models have been developed to simulate the PCI process under actual furnace conditions. These models provide raceway size and flow property distributions. The results have provided guidance for optimizing the PCI process.

  18. Optimal power-delay trade-offs in fading channels -small delay asymptotics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kuzmanovic, Aleksandar

    1 Optimal power-delay trade-offs in fading channels - small delay asymptotics Randall A. Berry Dept, we study the behavior of the optimal power-delay trade-off for a single user in the regime@ece.northwestern.edu Abstract When transmitting stochastically arriving data over fading channels there is an inherent trade

  19. OPTIMAL POWER/DELAY TRADE-OFFS IN WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS SMALL DELAY ASYMPTOTICS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kuzmanovic, Aleksandar

    OPTIMAL POWER/DELAY TRADE-OFFS IN WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS ­ SMALL DELAY ASYMPTOTICS Randall A@ece.northwestern.edu ABSTRACT In this paper we consider the optimal trade-off between av- erage transmission power and average the behavior of this trade-off in the regime of asymptotically large power and small delay. Our focus

  20. Influence of low and high temperature coking of H-GaMFI propane aromatization catalyst on its surface and catalytic properties

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Choudhary, V.R.; Kinage, A.K.; Devadas, P. [National Chemical Lab., Pune (India)] [and others] [National Chemical Lab., Pune (India); and others

    1997-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    H-Gallosilicate (MFI) (i.e., H-GaMFI) zeolite shows high activity/selectivity in the aromatization of lower alkanes, which is processes of treat practical importance. The high aromatization activity of this catalyst is attributed to its high dehydrogenation activity due to the presence of high dispersed nonframework Ga-oxide species (which are formed during hydrothermal synthesis and/or pretreatments to the zeolite) along with the zeolitic acid sites (or framework Ga), resulting in a bifunctional catalyst. However, this zeolite undergoes fast catalyst deactivation in the propane aromatization. The catalyst deactivation is attributed mainly to the coke formation on the zeolite. Earlier, a few studies have been reported on the deactivation of H-GaMFI zeolite in the propane aromatization. The catalyst deactivation is attributed mainly to the coke formation on the zeolite. Earlier, a few studies have been reported on the deactivation of H-GaMFI zeolite in the propane aromatization at 500-550{degrees}C for a short time-on-stream (10 h). It is interesting to know the effect of catalyst deactivation due to coking in the propane aromatization for much longer periods both at low (at 400{degrees}C) and high (at 550{degrees}C) temperatures on the product selectivity and also on the surface (viz., sorption capacity, acidity/acid strength distribution) and catalytic properties of the zeolite. The present investigation was undertaken for this purpose. 16 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  1. Benchmark Results for Delayed Neutron Data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marck, S.C. van der; Meulekamp, R. Klein; Hogenbirk, A.; Koning, A.J. [Nuclear Research and Consultancy Group NRG, P.O. Box 25, NL-1755 ZG Petten (Netherlands)

    2005-05-24T23:59:59.000Z

    We have calculated the effective delayed neutron fraction {beta}eff for 32 benchmark configurations for which measurements have been reported. We use these results to test the delayed neutron data of JEFF-3.0, ENDF/B-VI.8, and JENDL-3.3.

  2. Temperature Dependent Wire Delay Estimation in Floorplanning

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nannarelli, Alberto

    Temperature Dependent Wire Delay Estimation in Floorplanning Andreas Thor Winther, Wei Liu, Alberto, Arizona State University, Tempe, USA Abstract--Due to large variations in temperature in VLSI cir- cuits and the linear relationship between metal resistance and temperature, the delay through wires of the same length

  3. Fluid delivery control system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hoff, Brian D.; Johnson, Kris William; Algrain, Marcelo C.; Akasam, Sivaprasad

    2006-06-06T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of controlling the delivery of fluid to an engine includes receiving a fuel flow rate signal. An electric pump is arranged to deliver fluid to the engine. The speed of the electric pump is controlled based on the fuel flow rate signal.

  4. Beta-Delayed Two-Particle Emission

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Borge, M.J.G.

    2000-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    A panorama of beta-delayed nuclear decay is sketched. Beginning with beta-delayed two-neutron emission, the author moves on to beta-delayed two-proton emission and beta-delayed multiparticle emission. After touching briefly on the theoretical approach to understanding these phenomena, he reports on two experiments done at ISOLDE (CERN) on the decay of {sup 31}Ar with the goal of studying the mechanisms of {beta}-delayed two proton emission. This example shows the potentiality of the new technology that allows design setups with high efficiency for multiparticle detection. In combination with high-purity sources and the use of low-energy beams to produce point-like sources, information at the drip line can be extracted that is of comparable quality to that obtained near stability.

  5. Fluid blade disablement tool

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jakaboski, Juan-Carlos (Albuquerque, NM); Hughs, Chance G. (Albuquerque, NM); Todd, Steven N. (Rio Rancho, NM)

    2012-01-10T23:59:59.000Z

    A fluid blade disablement (FBD) tool that forms both a focused fluid projectile that resembles a blade, which can provide precision penetration of a barrier wall, and a broad fluid projectile that functions substantially like a hammer, which can produce general disruption of structures behind the barrier wall. Embodiments of the FBD tool comprise a container capable of holding fluid, an explosive assembly which is positioned within the container and which comprises an explosive holder and explosive, and a means for detonating. The container has a concavity on the side adjacent to the exposed surface of the explosive. The position of the concavity relative to the explosive and its construction of materials with thicknesses that facilitate inversion and/or rupture of the concavity wall enable the formation of a sharp and coherent blade of fluid advancing ahead of the detonation gases.

  6. Reduction of COD in leachate from a hazardous waste landfill adjacent to a coke-making facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Banerjee, K.; O`Toole, T.J. [Chester Environmental, Moon Township, PA (United States)

    1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A hazardous waste landfill adjacent to a coke manufacturing facility was in operation between July 1990 and December 1991. A system was constructed to collect and treat the leachate from the landfill prior to discharge to the river. Occasionally, the discharge from the treatment facility exceeded the permit limitations for Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD), Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD), and Total Organic Carbon (TOC). The objectives of this study were to determine treatment methods which would enable compliance with the applicable discharge limits; to establish the desired operating conditions of the process; and to investigate the effect of various parameters such as pH, catalyst dosage, and reaction time on the COD destruction efficiency. The characteristics of the landfill leachate in question were significantly variable in terms of chemical composition. A review of the influent quality data suggests that the COD concentration ranges between 80 and 390 mg/l. The oxidation processes using Fenton`s reagent or a combination of UV/hydrogen peroxide/catalyst are capable of reducing the COD concentration of the leachate below the discharge limitation of 35 mg/l. The estimated capital cost associated with the Fenton`s reagent process is approximately $525,000, and the annual operating and maintenance cost is $560,000. The estimated capital cost for the UV/hydrogen peroxide/catalyst treatment system is $565,000. The annual operating and maintenance cost of this process would be approximately $430,000.

  7. FRACTURING FLUID CHARACTERIZATION FACILITY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Subhash Shah

    2000-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Hydraulic fracturing technology has been successfully applied for well stimulation of low and high permeability reservoirs for numerous years. Treatment optimization and improved economics have always been the key to the success and it is more so when the reservoirs under consideration are marginal. Fluids are widely used for the stimulation of wells. The Fracturing Fluid Characterization Facility (FFCF) has been established to provide the accurate prediction of the behavior of complex fracturing fluids under downhole conditions. The primary focus of the facility is to provide valuable insight into the various mechanisms that govern the flow of fracturing fluids and slurries through hydraulically created fractures. During the time between September 30, 1992, and March 31, 2000, the research efforts were devoted to the areas of fluid rheology, proppant transport, proppant flowback, dynamic fluid loss, perforation pressure losses, and frictional pressure losses. In this regard, a unique above-the-ground fracture simulator was designed and constructed at the FFCF, labeled ''The High Pressure Simulator'' (HPS). The FFCF is now available to industry for characterizing and understanding the behavior of complex fluid systems. To better reflect and encompass the broad spectrum of the petroleum industry, the FFCF now operates under a new name of ''The Well Construction Technology Center'' (WCTC). This report documents the summary of the activities performed during 1992-2000 at the FFCF.

  8. Multiphase fluid characterization system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sinha, Dipen N.

    2014-09-02T23:59:59.000Z

    A measurement system and method for permitting multiple independent measurements of several physical parameters of multiphase fluids flowing through pipes are described. Multiple acoustic transducers are placed in acoustic communication with or attached to the outside surface of a section of existing spool (metal pipe), typically less than 3 feet in length, for noninvasive measurements. Sound speed, sound attenuation, fluid density, fluid flow, container wall resonance characteristics, and Doppler measurements for gas volume fraction may be measured simultaneously by the system. Temperature measurements are made using a temperature sensor for oil-cut correction.

  9. Supercritical fluid extraction

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wai, Chien M. (Moscow, ID); Laintz, Kenneth (Pullman, WA)

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of extracting metalloid and metal species from a solid or liquid material by exposing the material to a supercritical fluid solvent containing a chelating agent. The chelating agent forms chelates that are soluble in the supercritical fluid to allow removal of the species from the material. In preferred embodiments, the extraction solvent is supercritical carbon dioxide and the chelating agent is a fluorinated or lipophilic crown ether or fluorinated dithiocarbamate. The method provides an environmentally benign process for removing contaminants from industrial waste without using acids or biologically harmful solvents. The chelate and supercritical fluid can be regenerated, and the contaminant species recovered, to provide an economic, efficient process.

  10. Delayed Start or Cancellation of Business Hours | Argonne National...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    is delayed The laboratory may delay the start of regular business hours because of weather conditions. Personnel who have been explicitly designated as essential by their line...

  11. Basic fluid system trainer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Semans, Joseph P. (Uniontown, PA); Johnson, Peter G. (Pittsburgh, PA); LeBoeuf, Jr., Robert F. (Clairton, PA); Kromka, Joseph A. (Idaho Falls, ID); Goron, Ronald H. (Connellsville, PA); Hay, George D. (Venetia, PA)

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A trainer, mounted and housed within a mobile console, is used to teach and reinforce fluid principles to students. The system trainer has two centrifugal pumps, each driven by a corresponding two-speed electric motor. The motors are controlled by motor controllers for operating the pumps to circulate the fluid stored within a supply tank through a closed system. The pumps may be connected in series or in parallel. A number of valves are also included within the system to effect different flow paths for the fluid. In addition, temperature and pressure sensing instruments are installed throughout the closed system for measuring the characteristics of the fluid, as it passes through the different valves and pumps. These measurements are indicated on a front panel mounted to the console, as a teaching aid, to allow the students to observe the characteristics of the system.

  12. Basic fluid system trainer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Semans, J.P.; Johnson, P.G.; LeBoeuf, R.F. Jr.; Kromka, J.A.; Goron, R.H.; Hay, G.D.

    1991-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

    This invention, a trainer mounted and housed within a mobile console, is used to teach and reinforce fluid principles to students. The system trainer has two centrifugal pumps, each driven by a corresponding two-speed electric motor. The motors are controlled by motor controllers for operating the pumps to circulate the fluid stored within a supply tank through a closed system. The pumps may be connected in series or in parallel. A number of valves are also included within the system to effect different flow paths for the fluid. In addition, temperature and pressure sensing instruments are installed throughout the closed system for measuring the characteristics of the fluid, as it passes through the different valves and pumps. These measurements are indicated on a front panel mounted to the console, as a teaching aid, to allow the students to observe the characteristics of the system.

  13. Circulating Fluid Bed Combustor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fraley, L. D.; Do, L. N.; Hsiao, K. H.

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The circulating bed combustor represents an alternative concept of burning coal in fluid bed technology, which offers distinct advantages over both the current conventional fluidized bed combustion system and the pulverized coal boilers equipped...

  14. Phoresis in fluids

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brenner, Howard

    This paper presents a unified theory of phoretic phenomena in single-component fluids. Simple formulas are given for the phoretic velocities of small inert force-free non-Brownian particles migrating through otherwise ...

  15. Fluid pumping apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    West, Phillip B. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    2006-01-17T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and apparatus suitable for coupling seismic or other downhole sensors to a borehole wall in high temperature and pressure environments. In one embodiment, one or more metal bellows mounted to a sensor module are inflated to clamp the sensor module within the borehole and couple an associated seismic sensor to a borehole wall. Once the sensing operation is complete, the bellows are deflated and the sensor module is unclamped by deflation of the metal bellows. In a further embodiment, a magnetic drive pump in a pump module is used to supply fluid pressure for inflating the metal bellows using borehole fluid or fluid from a reservoir. The pump includes a magnetic drive motor configured with a rotor assembly to be exposed to borehole fluid pressure including a rotatable armature for driving an impeller and an associated coil under control of electronics isolated from borehole pressure.

  16. Ultrarelativistic fluid dynamics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    David W. Neilsen; Matthew W. Choptuik

    1999-04-20T23:59:59.000Z

    This is the first of two papers examining the critical collapse of spherically symmetric perfect fluids with the equation of state P = (Gamma -1)rho. Here we present the equations of motion and describe a computer code capable of simulating the extremely relativistic flows encountered in critical solutions for Gamma <= 2. The fluid equations are solved using a high-resolution shock-capturing scheme based on a linearized Riemann solver.

  17. Valve for fluid control

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Oborny, Michael C. (Albuquerque, NM); Paul, Phillip H. (Livermore, CA); Hencken, Kenneth R. (Pleasanton, CA); Frye-Mason, Gregory C. (Cedar Crest, NM); Manginell, Ronald P. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A valve for controlling fluid flows. This valve, which includes both an actuation device and a valve body provides: the ability to incorporate both the actuation device and valve into a unitary structure that can be placed onto a microchip, the ability to generate higher actuation pressures and thus control higher fluid pressures than conventional microvalves, and a device that draws only microwatts of power. An electrokinetic pump that converts electric potential to hydraulic force is used to operate, or actuate, the valve.

  18. Optima Dock Synchronization under Different Delay Assumptions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lynch, Nancy

    Projects, National Autonomous University of Mexico (UNAM). Email: iryktvmhbitnet or anarCwatson. ibm by broadcast networks in which every message arrives to all processors at approximately the same time, message passing systems, networks, optimization, message delay assumptions, precision. Department

  19. Optically controlled delays for broadband pulses

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sun, Q. Q.; Rostovtsev, Y. V.; Dowling, J. P.; Scully, Marlan O.; Zubairy, M. Suhail

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We propose a scheme that provides large controllable delays for broadband optical pulses. The system is based on the steep dispersion of a coherently driven medium, in which the narrow electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) band is overcome...

  20. CSE Master Specialization Fluid Dynamics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lang, Annika

    CSE Master Specialization Fluid Dynamics Course Semester Fluid Dynamics II HS Quantitative Flow Energie- und Verfahrenstechnik FS Biofluiddynamics FS #12;CSE in Fluid Dynamics: Very large high in Fluid Dynamics: Physiology of the inner ear MicroCT imaging Multilayer MFS for Stokes flow simulations

  1. Fluorescent fluid interface position sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Weiss, Jonathan D.

    2004-02-17T23:59:59.000Z

    A new fluid interface position sensor has been developed, which is capable of optically determining the location of an interface between an upper fluid and a lower fluid, the upper fluid having a larger refractive index than a lower fluid. The sensor functions by measurement, of fluorescence excited by an optical pump beam which is confined within a fluorescent waveguide where that waveguide is in optical contact with the lower fluid, but escapes from the fluorescent waveguide where that waveguide is in optical contact with the upper fluid.

  2. On the modeling of time-varying delays

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shah, Chirag Laxmikant

    2004-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis is an effort to develop generalized dynamic models for systems with time-varying time delays. Unlike the simple time-delay model characterized by a transportation lag in the case of a fixed time delay, time-varying delays exhibit quite...

  3. Fluid driven reciprocating apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Whitehead, J.C.

    1997-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus is described comprising a pair of fluid driven pump assemblies in a back-to-back configuration to yield a bi-directional pump. Each of the pump assemblies includes a piston or diaphragm which divides a chamber therein to define a power section and a pumping section. An intake-exhaust valve is connected to each of the power sections of the pump chambers, and function to direct fluid, such as compressed air, into the power section and exhaust fluid therefrom. At least one of the pistons or diaphragms is connected by a rod assembly which is constructed to define a signal valve, whereby the intake-exhaust valve of one pump assembly is controlled by the position or location of the piston or diaphragm in the other pump assembly through the operation of the rod assembly signal valve. Each of the pumping sections of the pump assemblies are provided with intake and exhaust valves to enable filling of the pumping section with fluid and discharging fluid therefrom when a desired pressure has been reached. 13 figs.

  4. Fluid driven recipricating apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Whitehead, John C. (Davis, CA)

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus comprising a pair of fluid driven pump assemblies in a back-to-back configuration to yield a bi-directional pump. Each of the pump assemblies includes a piston or diaphragm which divides a chamber therein to define a power section and a pumping section. An intake-exhaust valve is connected to each of the power sections of the pump chambers, and function to direct fluid, such as compressed air, into the power section and exhaust fluid therefrom. At least one of the pistons or diaphragms is connected by a rod assembly which is constructed to define a signal valve, whereby the intake-exhaust valve of one pump assembly is controlled by the position or location of the piston or diaphragm in the other pump assembly through the operation of the rod assembly signal valve. Each of the pumping sections of the pump assemblies are provided with intake and exhaust valves to enable filling of the pumping section with fluid and discharging fluid therefrom when a desired pressure has been reached.

  5. The measurement of the viscosity of cross-linked fracture fluids using a FANN Model 50C rotational viscometer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bastian, Peter Andrae

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    System 8-1 Bob ZO Viscosity Curves ? Case I Delayed System 8-2 Bob 21 Viscosity Curves - Case II Delayed System 8-2 Bob 37 38 39 40 INTROOUCTION With the h1gher prices for oil and gas received during the past ten years, the petroleum industry has... in greatly increased productivity. The first hydraulic fracture treatments used viscous oil as the base for the fracture fluid. Later, the industry began using low viscosity, water-based fluids pumped at high injection rates. In the late 1960's, the use...

  6. Delay correlation analysis and representation for vital complaint VHDL models

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rich, Marvin J.; Misra, Ashutosh

    2004-11-09T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and system unbind a rise/fall tuple of a VHDL generic variable and create rise time and fall time generics of each generic variable that are independent of each other. Then, according to a predetermined correlation policy, the method and system collect delay values in a VHDL standard delay file, sort the delay values, remove duplicate delay values, group the delay values into correlation sets, and output an analysis file. The correlation policy may include collecting all generic variables in a VHDL standard delay file, selecting each generic variable, and performing reductions on the set of delay values associated with each selected generic variable.

  7. Hazardous fluid leak detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gray, Harold E. (Las Vegas, NV); McLaurin, Felder M. (Las Vegas, NV); Ortiz, Monico (Las Vegas, NV); Huth, William A. (Las Vegas, NV)

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A device or system for monitoring for the presence of leaks from a hazardous fluid is disclosed which uses two electrodes immersed in deionized water. A gas is passed through an enclosed space in which a hazardous fluid is contained. Any fumes, vapors, etc. escaping from the containment of the hazardous fluid in the enclosed space are entrained in the gas passing through the enclosed space and transported to a closed vessel containing deionized water and two electrodes partially immersed in the deionized water. The electrodes are connected in series with a power source and a signal, whereby when a sufficient number of ions enter the water from the gas being bubbled through it (indicative of a leak), the water will begin to conduct, thereby allowing current to flow through the water from one electrode to the other electrode to complete the circuit and activate the signal.

  8. Determination of Godiva`s effective delayed neutron fraction using newly calculated delayed neutron spectra

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Spriggs, G.D.; Campbell, J.M. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Busch, R.D. [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1999-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    When calculating the effective delayed neutron fraction {beta}{sub eff} for a given reactor system, the assumed delayed neutron group spectra and the assumed number of delayed neutrons born per fission {nu}{sub d} can have a major impact on the final value. Over the years, the recommended values for the delayed neutron spectra and for {nu}{sub d} have slowly changed. To ascertain whether or not these changes have increased the accuracy of {beta}{sub eff} calculations in fast {sup 235}U systems, the authors have reevaluated {beta}{sub eff} for the benchmark system Godiva-I using newly calculated delayed neutron spectra and Tuttle`s recommended values of {nu}{sub d} for both {sup 235}U and {sup 238}U.

  9. Time-delayed feedback control of delay-coupled neurosystems and lasers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Philipp Hövel; Markus A. Dahlem; Thomas Dahms; Gerald Hiller; Eckehard Schöll

    2009-12-17T23:59:59.000Z

    We discuss applications of time-delayed feedback control to delay-coupled neural systems and lasers, in the framework of the FitzHugh-Nagumo neuron model and the Lang-Kobayashi laser model, respectively. In the context of neural systems, we will point out some complex scenarios of synchronized in-phase or antiphase oscillations, bursting patterns, or amplitude death, induced by delayed coupling in combination with delayed self-feedback in simple network motifs. For optical systems, we will show that multiple time-delayed feedback, realized by a Fabry-Perot resonator coupled to the laser, provides a valuable tool for the suppression of unwanted intensity pulsations, and leads to stable continuous-wave operation.

  10. Innovative coke oven gas cleaning system for retrofit applications. Quarterly environmental monitoring report No. 3, January 1, 1991--December 31, 1991

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-10-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Bethlehem Steel Corporation (BSC), in conjunction with the Department of Energy (DOE) is conducting a Clean Coal Technology (CCT) project at its Sparrows Point, Maryland Coke Oven Plant. This project combines several existing technologies into an integrated system for removing impurities from Coke Oven Gas (COG) to make it an acceptable fuel. DOE is providing cost-sharing under a Cooperative Agreement with BSC. This Cooperative Agreement requires BSC to develop and conduct an Environmental Monitoring Plan (EMP) for the Clean Coal Technology project and to report the status of the EMP on a quarterly basis. This report is the third quarterly status report of the EMP. It covers the Environmental Monitoring Plan activities for the full year of 1991 from January 1, 1991 through December 31, 1991, including the forth quarter. See Sections 2, 3 and 4 for status reports of the Project Installation and Commissioning, the Environmental Monitoring activities and the Compliance Monitoring results for the period. Section 5 contains a list of Compliance Reports submitted to regulatory agencies during the period. The EMP describes in detail the environmental monitoring activities to be performed during the project execution. The purpose of the EMP is to: (1) document the extent of compliance of monitoring activities, i.e. those monitoring required to meet permit requirements, (2) confirm the specific impacts predicted in the National Environmental Policy Act documentation, and (3) establish an information base for the assessment of the environmental performance of the technology demonstrated by the project.

  11. Altamont gas pipeline project delayed 1 year

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-08-03T23:59:59.000Z

    Altamont Gas Transmission Co. will delay laying a 30 in., 620 mile pipeline to deliver Canadian gas to California until markets become more responsive. This paper reports that the decision will delay until November 1994 completion of the proposed 719 MMcfd, $612 million line. The original schedule called for construction to begin in spring 1993 with an in-service date of late 1993. Altamont pipeline is to transport gas from the US-Canadian border at Port of Wild Horse, Mont., to Opal, Wyo., where it will interconnect with the Kern River Transmission Co. pipeline to California. Altamont has obtained all regulatory approvals for its project. Altamont the project sponsors Tenneco Gas, Amoco Corp., and Entech Inc. support the decision to delay the start of construction.

  12. Time-delayed quantum feedback control

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arne L. Grimsmo

    2015-02-24T23:59:59.000Z

    A theory of time-delayed coherent quantum feedback is developed. More specifically, we consider a quantum system coupled to a bosonic reservoir creating a unidirectional feedback loop. It is shown that the dynamics can be mapped onto a fictitious quantum cascade, where the system is driven by past versions of itself. The derivation of this model relies on a tensor network representation of the system-reservoir time-propagator. For concreteness, this general theory is applied to a driven two-level atom scattering into a coherent feedback loop. We demonstrate how delay effects can qualitatively change the dynamics of the atom, and how quantum control can be implemented in the presence of time-delays. A realization with a superconducting qubit serving as an artificial atom is discussed.

  13. TRACING FLUID SOURCES IN THE COSO GEOTHERMAL SYSTEM USING FLUID...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    FLUID-INCLUSION GAS CHEMISTRY Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Conference Proceedings: TRACING FLUID SOURCES IN THE COSO GEOTHERMAL SYSTEM USING...

  14. MEASUREMENT OF INTERFACIAL TENSION IN FLUID-FLUID SYSTEMS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Loh, Watson

    MEASUREMENT OF INTERFACIAL TENSION IN FLUID-FLUID SYSTEMS J. Drelich Ch. Fang C.L. White Michigan been used to measure interfacial tensions between immisci- ble fluid phases. A recent monograph sources of information on the in- terfacial tension measurement methods include selected chapters in Refs

  15. Magnetically stimulated fluid flow patterns

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Martin, Jim; Solis, Kyle

    2014-08-06T23:59:59.000Z

    Sandia National Laboratories' Jim Martin and Kyle Solis explain research on the effects of magnetic fields on fluid flows and how they stimulate vigorous flows. Fluid flow is a necessary phenomenon in everything from reactors to cooling engines in cars.

  16. Magnetically stimulated fluid flow patterns

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martin, Jim; Solis, Kyle

    2014-03-06T23:59:59.000Z

    Sandia National Laboratories' Jim Martin and Kyle Solis explain research on the effects of magnetic fields on fluid flows and how they stimulate vigorous flows. Fluid flow is a necessary phenomenon in everything from reactors to cooling engines in cars.

  17. Process for separating, especially in multiple stages, acid components such as CO/sub 2/, HCN and specifically H/sub 2/S, from gases, especially from coke oven gases, by means of ammonia recirculation scrubbing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bauer, H.K.; Otte, E.A.W.

    1984-10-16T23:59:59.000Z

    A process of separating in multiple stages acid components in coke oven gas such as CO/sub 2/, HCN and particularly H/sub 2/S by ammonia scrubbing wherein the ammonia used in scrubbing is deacidified to remove the acid components and is recirculated to the scrubbing process at least in part as substantially pure liquid ammonia.

  18. Oscillating fluid power generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Morris, David C

    2014-02-25T23:59:59.000Z

    A system and method for harvesting the kinetic energy of a fluid flow for power generation with a vertically oriented, aerodynamic wing structure comprising one or more airfoil elements pivotably attached to a mast. When activated by the moving fluid stream, the wing structure oscillates back and forth, generating lift first in one direction then in the opposite direction. This oscillating movement is converted to unidirectional rotational movement in order to provide motive power to an electricity generator. Unlike other oscillating devices, this device is designed to harvest the maximum aerodynamic lift forces available for a given oscillation cycle. Because the system is not subjected to the same intense forces and stresses as turbine systems, it can be constructed less expensively, reducing the cost of electricity generation. The system can be grouped in more compact clusters, be less evident in the landscape, and present reduced risk to avian species.

  19. Fluid bed material transfer method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pinske, Jr., Edward E. (Akron, OH)

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A fluidized bed apparatus comprising a pair of separated fluid bed enclosures, each enclosing a fluid bed carried on an air distributor plate supplied with fluidizing air from below the plate. At least one equalizing duct extending through sidewalls of both fluid bed enclosures and flexibly engaged therewith to communicate the fluid beds with each other. The equalizing duct being surrounded by insulation which is in turn encased by an outer duct having expansion means and being fixed between the sidewalls of the fluid bed enclosures.

  20. Viscous dark fluid

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    V. Folomeev; V. Gurovich

    2007-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The unified dark energy and dark matter model within the framework of a model of a continuous medium with bulk viscosity (dark fluid) is considered. It is supposed that the bulk viscosity coefficient is an arbitrary function of the Hubble parameter. The choice of this function is carried out under the requirement to satisfy the observational data from recombination ($z\\approx 1000$) till present time.

  1. Downhole Fluid Analyzer Development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bill Turner

    2006-11-28T23:59:59.000Z

    A novel fiber optic downhole fluid analyzer has been developed for operation in production wells. This device will allow real-time determination of the oil, gas and water fractions of fluids from different zones in a multizone or multilateral completion environment. The device uses near infrared spectroscopy and induced fluorescence measurement to unambiguously determine the oil, water and gas concentrations at all but the highest water cuts. The only downhole components of the system are the fiber optic cable and windows. All of the active components--light sources, sensors, detection electronics and software--will be located at the surface, and will be able to operate multiple downhole probes. Laboratory testing has demonstrated that the sensor can accurately determine oil, water and gas fractions with a less than 5 percent standard error. Once installed in an intelligent completion, this sensor will give the operating company timely information about the fluids arising from various zones or multilaterals in a complex completion pattern, allowing informed decisions to be made on controlling production. The research and development tasks are discussed along with a market analysis.

  2. A framework for delay emulation of large-scale internetworks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Venkata, Shravan Rangaraju

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    . The framework models and dynamically adapts the test traffic according to the network delay characteristics observed on the Internet in real-time. The proposed framework consists of three main modules: Virtual Host Configuration Module, Delay Estimator...

  3. Delay Analysis of Graphene Field-Effect Transistors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Han

    In this letter, we analyze the carrier transit delay in graphene field-effect transistors (GFETs).The extraction of the intrinsic delay provides a new way to directly estimate carrier velocity from the experimental data, ...

  4. Built-In Self Test (BIST) for Realistic Delay Defects 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tamilarasan, Karthik Prabhu

    2012-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Testing of delay defects is necessary in deep submicron (DSM) technologies. High coverage delay tests produced by automatic test pattern generation (ATPG) can be applied during wafer and package tests, but are difficult ...

  5. The effective delayed neutron fraction for bare-metal criticals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pearlstein, S.

    1999-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Given sufficient material, a large number of actinides could be used to form bare-metal criticals. The effective delayed neutron fraction for a bare critical comprised of a fissile material is comparable with the absolute delayed neutron fraction. The effective delayed neutron fraction for a bare critical composed of a fissionable material is reduced by factors of 2 to 10 when compared with the absolute delayed neutron fraction. When the effective delayed neutron fraction is small, the difference between delayed and prompt criticality is small, and extreme caution must be used in critical assemblies of these materials. This study uses an approximate but realistic model to survey the actinide region to compare effective delayed neutron fractions with absolute delayed neutron fractions.

  6. q-deformed logistic map with delay feedback

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Manish Dev Shrimali; Subhashish Banerjee

    2012-03-14T23:59:59.000Z

    The delay logistic map with two types of q-deformations: Tsallis and Quantum-group type are studied. The stability of the map and its bifurcation scheme is analyzed as a function of the deformation and delay feedback parameters. Chaos is suppressed in a certain region of deformation and feedback parameter space. The steady state obtained by delay feedback is maintained in one type of deformation while chaotic behavior is recovered in another type with increasing delay.

  7. Recycle of oily refinery wastes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bartilucci, M.P.; Karsner, G.G.; Tracy, W.J. III.

    1989-10-17T23:59:59.000Z

    This patent describes a process for recycling of petroleum containing sludge. It comprises segregating waste oil-containing sludges into a relatively high oil content sludge and a relatively high water content sludge; introducing the high oil content sludge into a delayed coking drum under delayed conditions in the presence of a liquid coker hydrocarbon feedstock to form coke; introducing the high water content sludge into a delayed coking drum to quench the coke formed in the coking drum.

  8. Power and Delay Optimization in Multi-Hop Wireless Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shihada, Basem

    In this paper, we study the optimization problem of transmission power and delay in a multi-hop wireless network of transmission power and queueing delay in wireless networks has1 Power and Delay Optimization in Multi-Hop Wireless Networks Li Xia, Basem Shihada Abstract

  9. Maximizing Crosstalk-Induced Slowdown During Path Delay Test

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gope, Dibakar

    2012-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

    in path delay for c5315 .................................................................... 57 Figure 11 Increase in path delay for c2670 .................................................................... 60 Figure 12 Increase in path delay for c... for critical paths considering single aggressor crosstalk effect with due consideration to the timing alignment and direction. This method has similar CPU efficiency to that of [17] and [18]. However, they did not take into account the possible impact...

  10. SRS delayed neutron instruments for safeguards measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Studley, R.V. [Westinghouse SRC, Aiken, SC (United States)

    1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Six analytical systems measuring delayed neutrons have been used for safeguards measurements at the Savannah River Site (SRS). A predecessor, the 252Cf Activation Analysis Facility installed at the Savannah River Technology Center (formally SR Laboratory) has been used since 1974 to analyze small samples, measuring both delayed neutrons and gammas. The six shufflers, plus one currently being fabricated, were developed, designed and fabricated by the LANL N-1 group. These shufflers have provided safeguards measurements of product (2 each), in-process scrap (2 each plus a conceptual replacement) and process waste (2 each plus one being fabricated). One shuffler for scrap assay was the first shuffler to be installed (1978) in a process. Another (waste) was the first installed in a process capable of assaying barrels. A third (waste) is the first pass-through model and a fourth (product) is the most precise ({+-}.12%) and accurate NDA instrument yet produced.

  11. Method for reducing ignition delay of fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hoppie, L.O.

    1984-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of reducing ignition delay /tau/, of fuels to negligible values and negligible differences is disclosed. Fuels conditioned to have such negligible values and differences are readily used in multiple fuel engines, such fuels self-ignite substantially instantaneously when injected into an oxidant, require substantially no heat transfer from the oxidant to effect the self-ignition, and the self-ignition is sufficient to sustain continued combustion.

  12. LUBRICANTS AND HYDRAULIC FLUIDS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Engineer Manual Department

    Contents) Major General, USA Chief of Staff i Table of Contents Purpose ........................................................ 1-1 1-1 Applicability .................................................... 1-2 1-1 References ...................................................... 1-3 1-1 Distribution Statement ............................................. 1-4 1-1 Scope ......................................................... 1-5 1-2 Friction ........................................................ 2-1 2-1 Wear .......................................................... 2-2 2-4 Lubrication and Lubricants ......................................... 2-3 2-6 Hydrodynamic or Fluid Film Lubrication ............................... 2-4 2-6 Boundary Lubrication ............................................. 2-5 2-8 Extreme Pressure (EP) Lubrication ................................... 2-6 2-9 Elastohydrodynamic (EHD) Lubrication ................................ 2-7 2-9 Oil R

  13. Scaling of Lyapunov exponents in chaotic delay systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas Jüngling; Wolfgang Kinzel

    2012-10-12T23:59:59.000Z

    The scaling behavior of the maximal Lyapunov exponent in chaotic systems with time-delayed feedback is investigated. For large delay times it has been shown that the delay-dependence of the exponent allows a distinction between strong and weak chaos, which are the analogy to strong and weak instability of periodic orbits in a delay system. We find significant differences between scaling of exponents in periodic or chaotic systems. We show that chaotic scaling is related to fluctuations in the linearized equations of motion. A linear delay system including multiplicative noise shows the same properties as the deterministic chaotic systems.

  14. Ultrasonic Fluid Quality Sensor System

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gomm, Tyler J. (Meridian, ID); Kraft, Nancy C. (Idaho Falls, ID); Phelps, Larry D. (Pocatello, ID); Taylor, Steven C. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    2003-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

    A system for determining the composition of a multiple-component fluid and for determining linear flow comprising at least one sing-around circuit that determines the velocity of a signal in the multiple-component fluid and that is correlatable to a database for the multiple-component fluid. A system for determining flow uses two of the inventive circuits, one of which is set at an angle that is not perpendicular to the direction of flow.

  15. Ultrasonic fluid quality sensor system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gomm, Tyler J. (Meridian, ID); Kraft, Nancy C. (Idaho Falls, ID); Phelps, Larry D. (Pocatello, ID); Taylor, Steven C. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    2002-10-08T23:59:59.000Z

    A system for determining the composition of a multiple-component fluid and for determining linear flow comprising at least one sing-around circuit that determines the velocity of a signal in the multiple-component fluid and that is correlatable to a database for the multiple-component fluid. A system for determining flow uses two of the inventive circuits, one of which is set at an angle that is not perpendicular to the direction of flow.

  16. Fluid system for controlling fluid losses during hydrocarbon recovery operations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, M.H.; Smejkal, K.D.

    1993-07-20T23:59:59.000Z

    A fluid system is described for controlling fluid losses during hydrocarbon recovery operations, comprising: water; a distribution of graded calcium carbonate particle sizes; and at least one modified lignosulfonate, which is a lignosulfonate modified by polymerizing it at least to an extent effective to reduce its water solubility.

  17. -delayed proton emission branches in 43Cr

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pomorski, M. [University of Warsaw; Miernik, K. [University of Warsaw; Dominik, W. [University of Warsaw; Janas, Z. [University of Warsaw; Pfutzner, M. [University of Warsaw; Bingham, C. R. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Czyrkowski, H. [University of Warsaw; Cwiok, Mikolaj [Warsaw University; Darby, Iain [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Dabrowski, Ryszard [Warsaw University; Ginter, T. N. [Michigan State University, East Lansing; Grzywacz, Robert Kazimierz [ORNL; Karny, M. [University of Warsaw; Korgul, A. [University of Warsaw; Kusmierz, W. [University of Warsaw; Liddick, Sean [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Rajabali, M. M. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Rykaczewski, Krzysztof Piotr [ORNL; Stolz, A. [Michigan State University, East Lansing

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The + decay of very neutron-deficient 43Cr was studied by means of an imaging time projection chamber that allowed recording tracks of charged particles. Events of -delayed emission of one, two, and three protons were clearly identified. The absolute branching ratios for these channels were determined to be (81 4)%, (7.1 0.4)%, and (0.08 0.03)%, respectively. 43Cr is thus established as the second case in which the -3p decay occurs. Although the feeding to the proton-bound states in 43V is expected to be negligible, the large branching ratio of (12 4)% for decays without proton emission is found.

  18. Spin and Madelung fluid

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    G. Salesi

    2009-06-23T23:59:59.000Z

    Starting from the Pauli current we obtain the decomposition of the non-relativistic local velocity in two parts: one parallel and the other orthogonal to the momentum. The former is recognized to be the ``classical'' part, that is the velocity of the center-of-mass, and the latter the ``quantum'' one, that is the velocity of the motion in the center-of-mass frame (namely, the internal ``spin motion'' or {\\em Zitterbewegung}). Inserting the complete expression of the velocity into the kinetic energy term of the classical non-relativistic (i.e., Newtonian) Lagrangian, we straightforwardly derive the so-called ``quantum potential'' associated to the Madelung fluid. In such a way, the quantum mechanical behaviour of particles appears to be strictly correlated to the existence of spin and Zitterbewegung.

  19. Fluid jet electric discharge source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bender, Howard A. (Ripon, CA)

    2006-04-25T23:59:59.000Z

    A fluid jet or filament source and a pair of coaxial high voltage electrodes, in combination, comprise an electrical discharge system to produce radiation and, in particular, EUV radiation. The fluid jet source is composed of at least two serially connected reservoirs, a first reservoir into which a fluid, that can be either a liquid or a gas, can be fed at some pressure higher than atmospheric and a second reservoir maintained at a lower pressure than the first. The fluid is allowed to expand through an aperture into a high vacuum region between a pair of coaxial electrodes. This second expansion produces a narrow well-directed fluid jet whose size is dependent on the size and configuration of the apertures and the pressure used in the reservoir. At some time during the flow of the fluid filament, a high voltage pulse is applied to the electrodes to excite the fluid to form a plasma which provides the desired radiation; the wavelength of the radiation being determined by the composition of the fluid.

  20. Finite element simulation of electrorheological fluids

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rhyou, Chanryeol, 1973-

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Electrorheological (ER) fluids change their flow properties dramatically when an electric field is applied. These fluids are usually composed of dispersions of polarizable particles in an insulating base fluid or composed ...

  1. Delayed neutron detection with an integrated differential die-away and delayed neutron instrument

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blanc, Pauline [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Tobin, Stephen J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Lee, Taehoon [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hu, Jianwei S [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hendricks, John [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Croft, Stephen [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Next Generation Safeguards Initiative (NGSI) of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has funded a multilab/university collaboration to quantify the plutonium (Pu) mass and detect the diversion of pins from spent nuclear fuel. The first two years of this NGSI effort was focused on quantifying the capability of a range of nondestructive assay (NDA) techniques with Monte Carlo (MCNPX) modeling and the second current phase involves measuring Spent Fuel. One of the techniques of interest in this paper involves measuring delayed neutrons. A delayed neutron instrument using 36 fission chambers and a 14 MeV neutron generator so called DT generator (Deuterium + Tritium) surrounding the fuel was previously studied as part of the NGSI effort. This paper will quantify the capability of a standalone delayed neutron instrument using 4 {sup 3}He gas filled tubes and a DT generator with significant spectrum tailoring, located far from the fuel. So that future research can assess how well a delayed neutron instrument will function as part of an integrated NDA system. A new design is going to be used to respond to the need of the techniques. This design has been modeled for a water media and is currently being optimized for borated water and air media as part of ongoing research. This new design was selected in order to minimize the fission of {sup 238}U, to use a more realistic neutron generator design in the model, to reduce cost and facilitate the integration of a delayed neutron (DN) with a differential die-away (DDA) instrument. Since this paper will focus on delayed neutron detection, the goal is to quantify the signal from {sup 235}U, {sup 239}Pu and {sup 241}Pu, which are the isotopes present in Spent Fuel that respond significantly to a neutron interrogation. This report will quantify the capability of this new delayed neutron design to measure the combined mass of {sup 235}U, {sup 239}Pu and {sup 241}Pu for 16 of the 64 assemblies of the NGSI Spent Fuel library in one of the three media, water.

  2. Reactivity impact of delayed neutron spectra on MCNP calculations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mosteller, R.D.; Werner, C.J.

    2000-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The new features in MCNP4C, the latest version of the MCNP Monte Carlo code, include the capability to sample from delayed as well as prompt fission emission spectra. Previous versions of MCNP all have sampled exclusively from prompt spectra. Delayed neutrons typically account for <1% of all neutrons emitted from fission, but the emission spectra for delayed neutrons are somewhat softer than those for prompt neutrons. Because of the softer spectrum, delayed neutrons are less likely to leak from the system, and they also are less likely to cause fission in isotopes that have an effective threshold for fission (e.g., {sup 238}U and {sup 240}Pu). Consequently, the inclusion of delayed neutron spectra can have a small but significant effect on reactivity calculations. This study performs MCNP4C calculations for a series of established benchmarks and quantifies the reactivity impact of the delayed neutron spectra.

  3. Process and apparatus for cooling during regeneration of fluid cracking catalyst

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Walters, P.W.; Raiche, H.A.; Harness, R.L.; Quodala, G.M.

    1987-10-06T23:59:59.000Z

    This patent describes an apparatus for the regeneration of coke contaminated fluid cracking catalyst. The combination comprises: A. an elongated upflow regeneration vessel, containing a dense bed of catalyst and a regeneration gas grid located within the bed; B. a vertical heat exchanger mounted to the lower side of the vessel adapted to receive hot catalyst directly from the regeneration vessel and adapted to cool the hot catalyst as it passes downwardly through the exchanger; C. a Y junction positioned below the lower end of the heat exchanger; D. a first conduit means for passing cool catalyst downwardly to the Y junction; E. second conduit means for passing cool catalyst from the Y junction upwardly into the dense bed of catalyst in the regeneration vessel, and F. regeneration gas supply means, separate from the second conduit means, for supplying regeneration gas to the gas grid; G. lift gas supply means, separate from the regeneration gas supply means, for introducing lift gas into the second conduit means so as to lift the cool catalyst up through the second conduit means to the regenerator.

  4. Experimental control of chaos by variable and distributed delay feedback

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas Jüngling; Aleksandar Gjurchinovski; Viktor Urumov

    2012-02-02T23:59:59.000Z

    We report on a significant improvement of the classical time-delayed feedback control method for stabilization of unstable periodic orbits or steady states. In an electronic circuit experiment we were able to realize time-varying and distributed delays in the control force leading to successful control for large parameter sets including large time delays. The presented technique makes advanced use of the natural torsion of the orbits, which is also necessary for the original control method to work.

  5. Delay Induced Oscillations in a Fundamental Power System Model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rajesh G. Kavasseri

    2006-04-02T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper, we study the dynamics and stability of a fundamental power system model when a time delay is imposed on the excitation of the generator. It is observed that sustained oscillations can arise in an otherwise stable power system through a delay induced Andronov-Hopf bifurcation. Numerical simulations are conducted to explore the dynamics of the time delayed system after the bifurcation which indicate period doublings culminating in a strange attractor.

  6. Mean field approximation for noisy delay coupled excitable neurons

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nikola Buric; Dragana Rankovic; Kristina Todorovic; Nebojsa Vasovic

    2010-03-26T23:59:59.000Z

    Mean field approximation of a large collection of FitzHugh-Nagumo excitable neurons with noise and all-to-all coupling with explicit time-delays, modelled by $N\\gg 1$ stochastic delay-differential equations is derived. The resulting approximation contains only two deterministic delay-differential equations but provides excellent predictions concerning the stability and bifurcations of the averaged global variables of the exact large system.

  7. Variable flexure-based fluid filter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brown, Steve B.; Colston Jr., Billy W.; Marshall, Graham; Wolcott, Duane

    2007-03-13T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus and method for filtering particles from a fluid comprises a fluid inlet, a fluid outlet, a variable size passage between the fluid inlet and the fluid outlet, and means for adjusting the size of the variable size passage for filtering the particles from the fluid. An inlet fluid flow stream is introduced to a fixture with a variable size passage. The size of the variable size passage is set so that the fluid passes through the variable size passage but the particles do not pass through the variable size passage.

  8. Fluid Imaging of Enhanced Geothermal Systems

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    for Fluids & Fractures - time lapse MTCSEM for fluid imaging - joint CSEM-MTseismic imaging ??? - use MEQ focal information with EM Imaging ScientificTechnical Approach...

  9. arabidopsis delays leaf: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    mediated by delayed responses Katul, Gabriel 4 Chloroplast protein degradation during natural leaf senescence in Arabidopsis thaliana. Open Access Theses and Dissertations...

  10. LABORATORY NEW HIRE NOTICE: LABORATORY DELAYED OPENING OR CLOSURE...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    LABORATORY NEW HIRE NOTICE: LABORATORY DELAYED OPENING OR CLOSURE DUE TO INCLEAMENT WEATHER During the winter months, the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) may at times...

  11. Generalized definition of time delay in scattering theory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    C. Gerard; R. Tiedra de Aldecoa

    2006-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We advocate for the systematic use of a symmetrized definition of time delay in scattering theory. In two-body scattering processes, we show that the symmetrized time delay exists for arbitrary dilated spatial regions symmetric with respect to the origin. It is equal to the usual time delay plus a new contribution, which vanishes in the case of spherical spatial regions. We also prove that the symmetrized time delay is invariant under an appropriate mapping of time reversal. These results are also discussed in the context of classical scattering theory.

  12. Characteristic Lyapunov vectors in chaotic time-delayed systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Diego Pazó; Juan M. López

    2011-01-14T23:59:59.000Z

    We compute Lyapunov vectors (LVs) corresponding to the largest Lyapunov exponents in delay-differential equations with large time delay. We find that characteristic LVs, and backward (Gram-Schmidt) LVs, exhibit long-range correlations, identical to those already observed in dissipative extended systems. In addition we give numerical and theoretical support to the hypothesis that the main LV belongs, under a suitable transformation, to the universality class of the Kardar-Parisi-Zhang equation. These facts indicate that in the large delay limit (an important class of) delayed equations behave exactly as dissipative systems with spatiotemporal chaos.

  13. Detachment Energies of Spheroidal Particles from Fluid-Fluid Interfaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gary B. Davies; Timm Krüger; Peter V. Coveney; Jens Harting

    2014-10-28T23:59:59.000Z

    The energy required to detach a single particle from a fluid-fluid interface is an important parameter for designing certain soft materials, for example, emulsions stabilised by colloidal particles, colloidosomes designed for targeted drug delivery, and bio-sensors composed of magnetic particles adsorbed at interfaces. For a fixed particle volume, prolate and oblate spheroids attach more strongly to interfaces because they have larger particle-interface areas. Calculating the detachment energy of spheroids necessitates the difficult measurement of particle-liquid surface tensions, in contrast with spheres, where the contact angle suffices. We develop a simplified detachment energy model for spheroids which depends only on the particle aspect ratio and the height of the particle centre of mass above the fluid-fluid interface. We use lattice Boltzmann simulations to validate the model and provide quantitative evidence that the approach can be applied to simulate particle-stabilized emulsions, and highlight the experimental implications of this validation.

  14. Fluid flow monitoring device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McKay, M.D.; Sweeney, C.E.; Spangler, B.S. Jr.

    1993-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

    A flow meter and temperature measuring device are described comprising a tube with a body centered therein for restricting flow and a sleeve at the upper end of the tube to carry several channels formed longitudinally in the sleeve to the appropriate axial location where they penetrate the tube to allow pressure measurements and temperature measurements with thermocouples. The high pressure measurement is made using a channel penetrating the tube away from the body and the low pressure measurement is made at a location at the widest part of the body. An end plug seals the end of the device and holes at its upper end allow fluid to pass from the interior of the tube into a plenum. The channels are made by cutting grooves in the sleeve, the grooves widened at the surface of the sleeve and then a strip of sleeve material is welded to the grooves closing the channels. Preferably the sleeve is packed with powdered graphite before cutting the grooves and welding the strips. 7 figures.

  15. Fluid flow monitoring device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McKay, Mark D. (1426 Socastee Dr., North Augusta, SC 29841); Sweeney, Chad E. (3600 Westhampton Dr., Martinez, GA 30907-3036); Spangler, Jr., B. Samuel (2715 Margate Dr., Augusta, GA 30909)

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A flow meter and temperature measuring device comprising a tube with a body centered therein for restricting flow and a sleeve at the upper end of the tube to carry several channels formed longitudinally in the sleeve to the appropriate axial location where they penetrate the tube to allow pressure measurements and temperature measurements with thermocouples. The high pressure measurement is made using a channel penetrating the tube away from the body and the low pressure measurement is made at a location at the widest part of the body. An end plug seals the end of the device and holes at its upper end allow fluid to pass from the interior of the tube into a plenum. The channels are made by cutting grooves in the sleeve, the grooves widened at the surface of the sleeve and then a strip of sleeve material is welded to the grooves closing the channels. Preferably the sleeve is packed with powdered graphite before cutting the grooves and welding the strips.

  16. Computational fluid dynamic applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chang, S.-L.; Lottes, S. A.; Zhou, C. Q.

    2000-04-03T23:59:59.000Z

    The rapid advancement of computational capability including speed and memory size has prompted the wide use of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) codes to simulate complex flow systems. CFD simulations are used to study the operating problems encountered in system, to evaluate the impacts of operation/design parameters on the performance of a system, and to investigate novel design concepts. CFD codes are generally developed based on the conservation laws of mass, momentum, and energy that govern the characteristics of a flow. The governing equations are simplified and discretized for a selected computational grid system. Numerical methods are selected to simplify and calculate approximate flow properties. For turbulent, reacting, and multiphase flow systems the complex processes relating to these aspects of the flow, i.e., turbulent diffusion, combustion kinetics, interfacial drag and heat and mass transfer, etc., are described in mathematical models, based on a combination of fundamental physics and empirical data, that are incorporated into the code. CFD simulation has been applied to a large variety of practical and industrial scale flow systems.

  17. Viscous dark fluid universe

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hipolito-Ricaldi, W. S. [Universidade Federal do Espirito Santo, Departamento de Ciencias Matematicas e Naturais, CEUNES, Rodovia BR 101 Norte, km. 60, CEP 29932-540, Sao Mateus, Espirito Santo (Brazil); Velten, H. E. S.; Zimdahl, W. [Universidade Federal do Espirito Santo, Departamento de Fisica, Av. Fernando Ferrari, 514, Campus de Goiabeiras, CEP 29075-910, Vitoria, Espirito Santo (Brazil)

    2010-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We investigate the cosmological perturbation dynamics for a universe consisting of pressureless baryonic matter and a viscous fluid, the latter representing a unified model of the dark sector. In the homogeneous and isotropic background the total energy density of this mixture behaves as a generalized Chaplygin gas. The perturbations of this energy density are intrinsically nonadiabatic and source relative entropy perturbations. The resulting baryonic matter power spectrum is shown to be compatible with the 2dFGRS and SDSS (DR7) data. A joint statistical analysis, using also Hubble-function and supernovae Ia data, shows that, different from other studies, there exists a maximum in the probability distribution for a negative present value q{sub 0{approx_equal}}-0.53 of the deceleration parameter. Moreover, while previous descriptions on the basis of generalized Chaplygin-gas models were incompatible with the matter power-spectrum data since they required a much too large amount of pressureless matter, the unified model presented here favors a matter content that is of the order of the baryonic matter abundance suggested by big-bang nucleosynthesis.

  18. Fluid sampling system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Houck, E.D.

    1994-10-11T23:59:59.000Z

    An fluid sampling system allows sampling of radioactive liquid without spillage. A feed tank is connected to a liquid transfer jet powered by a pumping chamber pressurized by compressed air. The liquid is pumped upwardly into a sampling jet of a venturi design having a lumen with an inlet, an outlet, a constricted middle portion, and a port located above the constricted middle portion. The liquid is passed under pressure through the constricted portion causing its velocity to increase and its pressure to be decreased, thereby preventing liquid from escaping. A septum sealing the port can be pierced by a two pointed hollow needle leading into a sample bottle also sealed by a pierceable septum affixed to one end. The bottle is evacuated by flow through the sample jet, cyclic variation in the sampler jet pressure periodically leaves the evacuated bottle with lower pressure than that of the port, thus causing solution to pass into the bottle. The remaining solution in the system is returned to the feed tank via a holding tank. 4 figs.

  19. Fluid sampling system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Houck, Edward D. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An fluid sampling system allows sampling of radioactive liquid without spillage. A feed tank is connected to a liquid transfer jet powered by a pumping chamber pressurized by compressed air. The liquid is pumped upwardly into a sampling jet of a venturi design having a lumen with an inlet, an outlet, a constricted middle portion, and a port located above the constricted middle portion. The liquid is passed under pressure through the constricted portion causing its velocity to increase and its pressure to decreased, thereby preventing liquid from escaping. A septum sealing the port can be pierced by a two pointed hollow needle leading into a sample bottle also sealed by a pierceable septum affixed to one end. The bottle is evacuated by flow through the sample jet, cyclic variation in the sampler jet pressure periodically leaves the evacuated bottle with lower pressure than that of the port, thus causing solution to pass into the bottle. The remaining solution in the system is returned to the feed tank via a holding tank.

  20. Tracing Geothermal Fluids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michael C. Adams; Greg Nash

    2004-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Geothermal water must be injected back into the reservoir after it has been used for power production. Injection is critical in maximizing the power production and lifetime of the reservoir. To use injectate effectively the direction and velocity of the injected water must be known or inferred. This information can be obtained by using chemical tracers to track the subsurface flow paths of the injected fluid. Tracers are chemical compounds that are added to the water as it is injected back into the reservoir. The hot production water is monitored for the presence of this tracer using the most sensitive analytic methods that are economically feasible. The amount and concentration pattern of the tracer revealed by this monitoring can be used to evaluate how effective the injection strategy is. However, the tracers must have properties that suite the environment that they will be used in. This requires careful consideration and testing of the tracer properties. In previous and parallel investigations we have developed tracers that are suitable from tracing liquid water. In this investigation, we developed tracers that can be used for steam and mixed water/steam environments. This work will improve the efficiency of injection management in geothermal fields, lowering the cost of energy production and increasing the power output of these systems.

  1. Standardization of Thermo-Fluid Modeling in Modelica.Fluid

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Franke, Rudiger; Casella, Francesco; Sielemann, Michael; Proelss, Katrin; Otter, Martin; Wetter, Michael

    2009-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This article discusses the Modelica.Fluid library that has been included in the Modelica Standard Library 3.1. Modelica.Fluid provides interfaces and basic components for the device-oriented modeling of onedimensional thermo-fluid flow in networks containing vessels, pipes, fluid machines, valves and fittings. A unique feature of Modelica.Fluid is that the component equations and the media models as well as pressure loss and heat transfer correlations are decoupled from each other. All components are implemented such that they can be used for media from the Modelica.Media library. This means that an incompressible or compressible medium, a single or a multiple substance medium with one or more phases might be used with one and the same model as long as the modeling assumptions made hold. Furthermore, trace substances are supported. Modeling assumptions can be configured globally in an outer System object. This covers in particular the initialization, uni- or bi-directional flow, and dynamic or steady-state formulation of mass, energy, and momentum balance. All assumptions can be locally refined for every component. While Modelica.Fluid contains a reasonable set of component models, the goal of the library is not to provide a comprehensive set of models, but rather to provide interfaces and best practices for the treatment of issues such as connector design and implementation of energy, mass and momentum balances. Applications from various domains are presented.

  2. Insertable fluid flow passage bridgepiece and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jones, Daniel O. (Glenville, NV)

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A fluid flow passage bridgepiece for insertion into an open-face fluid flow channel of a fluid flow plate is provided. The bridgepiece provides a sealed passage from a columnar fluid flow manifold to the flow channel, thereby preventing undesirable leakage into and out of the columnar fluid flow manifold. When deployed in the various fluid flow plates that are used in a Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) fuel cell, bridgepieces of this invention prevent mixing of reactant gases, leakage of coolant or humidification water, and occlusion of the fluid flow channel by gasket material. The invention also provides a fluid flow plate assembly including an insertable bridgepiece, a fluid flow plate adapted for use with an insertable bridgepiece, and a method of manufacturing a fluid flow plate with an insertable fluid flow passage bridgepiece.

  3. Delayed neutrons measurement at the MEGAPIE target

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stefano Panebianco; Pavel Bokov; Diane Dore; Xavier Ledoux; Alain Letourneau; Aurelien Prevost; Danas Ridikas

    2007-05-25T23:59:59.000Z

    In the framework of the Neutronic and Nuclear Assessment Task Group of the MEGAPIE experiment we measured the delayed neutron (DN) flux at the top of the target. The measurement was proposed mainly for radioprotection purposes since the DN flux at the top of the target has been estimated to be of the same order of magnitude as the prompt neutron flux. Given the strong model-dependence of DN predictions, the measurement of DN contribution to the total neutron activity at the top of the target was thus desired. Moreover, this measurement is complementary to the DN experiments performed at PNPI (Gatchina) on solid lead and bismuth targets. The DN measurement at MEGAPIE was performed during the start-up phase of the target. In this paper we present a detailed description of the experimental setup and some preliminary results on decay spectra.

  4. Delayed neutrons measurement at the MEGAPIE target

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Panebianco, Stefano; Dore, Diane; Ledoux, Xavier; Letourneau, Alain; Prevost, Aurelien; Ridikas, Danas

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In the framework of the Neutronic and Nuclear Assessment Task Group of the MEGAPIE experiment we measured the delayed neutron (DN) flux at the top of the target. The measurement was proposed mainly for radioprotection purposes since the DN flux at the top of the target has been estimated to be of the same order of magnitude as the prompt neutron flux. Given the strong model-dependence of DN predictions, the measurement of DN contribution to the total neutron activity at the top of the target was thus desired. Moreover, this measurement is complementary to the DN experiments performed at PNPI (Gatchina) on solid lead and bismuth targets. The DN measurement at MEGAPIE was performed during the start-up phase of the target. In this paper we present a detailed description of the experimental setup and some preliminary results on decay spectra.

  5. Delayed neutron alignment in sup 117 I

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paul, E.S.; Waring, M.P.; Clark, R.M.; Forbes, S.A.; Fossan, D.B.; Hughes, J.R.; LaFosse, D.R.; Liang, Y.; Ma, R.; Vaska, P.; Wadsworth, R. (Oliver Lodge Laboratory, University of Liverpool, P.O. Box 147, Liverpool L69 3BX (United Kingdom) Department of Physics, State University of New York at Stony Brook, Stony Brook, New York 11794 (United States) Department of Physics, University of York, Heslington, York YO1 5DD (United Kingdom) Medical Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973 (United States))

    1992-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The rotational alignment of {ital h}{sub 11/2} neutrons is considerably delayed ({Delta}{h bar}{omega}{similar to}0.11 MeV) in the {pi}{ital h}{sub 11/2}(550)1/2{sup {minus}} intruder band in {sup 117}I when compared to bands built on normal-parity states. Comparison with cranked shell-model calculations suggests that this effect may indicate a larger quadrupole deformation for the intruder orbital. A strong neutron-proton interaction between the aligning {ital h}{sub 11/2} neutrons and the {ital h}{sub 11/2} proton intruder may also play a role. In addition, noncollective oblate states at {ital I}{sup {pi}}=39/2{sup {minus}},43/2{sup {minus}}, and 45/2{sup {minus}} compete energetically with rotational states of the intruder band which may also perturb the neutron alignment.

  6. Scattering and; Delay, Scale, and Sum Migration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lehman, S K

    2011-07-06T23:59:59.000Z

    How do we see? What is the mechanism? Consider standing in an open field on a clear sunny day. In the field are a yellow dog and a blue ball. From a wave-based remote sensing point of view the sun is a source of radiation. It is a broadband electromagnetic source which, for the purposes of this introduction, only the visible spectrum is considered (approximately 390 to 750 nanometers or 400 to 769 TeraHertz). The source emits an incident field into the known background environment which, for this example, is free space. The incident field propagates until it strikes an object or target, either the yellow dog or the blue ball. The interaction of the incident field with an object results in a scattered field. The scattered field arises from a mis-match between the background refractive index, considered to be unity, and the scattering object refractive index ('yellow' for the case of the dog, and 'blue' for the ball). This is also known as an impedance mis-match. The scattering objects are referred to as secondary sources of radiation, that radiation being the scattered field which propagates until it is measured by the two receivers known as 'eyes'. The eyes focus the measured scattered field to form images which are processed by the 'wetware' of the brain for detection, identification, and localization. When time series representations of the measured scattered field are available, the image forming focusing process can be mathematically modeled by delayed, scaled, and summed migration. This concept of optical propagation, scattering, and focusing have one-to-one equivalents in the acoustic realm. This document is intended to present the basic concepts of scalar scattering and migration used in wide band wave-based remote sensing and imaging. The terms beamforming and (delayed, scaled, and summed) migration are used interchangeably but are to be distinguished from the narrow band (frequency domain) beamforming to determine the direction of arrival of a signal, and seismic migration in which wide band time series are shifted but not to form images per se. Section 3 presents a mostly graphically-based motivation and summary of delay, scale, and sum beamforming. The model for incident field propagation in free space is derived in Section 4 under specific assumptions. General object scattering is derived in Section 5 and simplified under the Born approximation in Section 6. The model of this section serves as the basis in the derivation of time-domain migration. The Foldy-Lax, full point scatterer scattering, method is derived in Section 7. With the previous forward models in hand, delay, scale, and sum beamforming is derived in Section 8. Finally, proof-of-principle experiments are present in Section 9.

  7. Fluid Mixing from Viscous Fingering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jha, Birendra

    Mixing efficiency at low Reynolds numbers can be enhanced by exploiting hydrodynamic instabilities that induce heterogeneity and disorder in the flow. The unstable displacement of fluids with different viscosities, or ...

  8. Bio-inspired fluid locomotion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chan, Brian, 1980-

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We have developed several novel methods of locomotion at low Reynolds number, for both Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluids: Robosnails 1 and 2, which operate on a lubrication layer, and the three-link swimmer which moves ...

  9. Rip Cosmology via Inhomogeneous Fluid

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    V. V. Obukhov; A. V. Timoshkin; E. V Savushkin

    2013-09-18T23:59:59.000Z

    The conditions for the appearance of the Little Rip, Pseudo Rip and Quasi Rip universes in the terms of the parameters in the equation of state of some dark fluid are investigated. Several examples of the Rip cosmologies are investigated.

  10. Graduate Studies Environmental Fluid Mechanics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jacobs, Laurence J.

    and bridge scour · Wastewater dispersion in coastal waters · Cohesive sediment resuspension · Flood, and modeling research; and develop new technologies and tools that benefit engineering practice in fluid · Atmospheric, surface, and subsurface models · Flood/drought forecasting and management · Decision support

  11. Dynamical behaviours in time-delay systems with delayed feedback and digitized coupling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chiranjit Mitra; G. Ambika; Soumitro Banerjee

    2014-11-05T23:59:59.000Z

    We consider a network of delay dynamical systems connected in a ring via unidirectional positive feedback with constant delay in coupling. For the specific case of Mackey-Glass systems on the ring topology, we capture the phenomena of amplitude death, isochronous synchronization and phase-flip bifurcation as the relevant parameters are tuned. Using linear stability analysis and master stability function approach, we predict the region of amplitude death and synchronized states respectively in the parameter space and study the nature of transitions between the different states. For a large number of systems in the same dynamical configuration, we observe splay states, mixed splay states and phase locked clusters. We extend the study to the case of digitized coupling and observe that these emergent states still persist. However, the sampling and quantization reduce the regions of amplitude death and induce phase-flip bifurcation.

  12. Engineering mesoscale structures with distinct dynamical implications in networks of delay-coupled delay oscillators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anne-Ly Do; Johannes Höfener; Thilo Gross

    2012-07-05T23:59:59.000Z

    The dynamics of networks of interacting systems depends intricately on the interaction topology. When the dynamics is explored, generally the whole topology has to be considered. However, we show that there are certain mesoscale subgraphs that have precise and distinct consequences for the system-level dynamics. In particular, if meso-scale symmetries are present then eigenvectors of the Jacobian localise on the symmetric subgraph and the corresponding eigenvalues become insensitive to the topology outside the subgraph. Hence, dynamical instabilities associated with these eigenvalues can be analyzed without considering the topology outside the subgraph. While such instabilities are thus generated entirely in small network subgraphs, they generally do not remain confined to the subgraph once the instability sets in and thus have system-level consequences. Here we illustrate the analytical investigation of such instabilities in an ecological meta-population model consisting of a network of delay-coupled delay oscillators.

  13. MISO Broadcast Channel with Delayed and Evolving CSIT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gesbert, David

    MISO Broadcast Channel with Delayed and Evolving CSIT Jinyuan Chen and Petros Elia Mobile--The work considers the two-user MISO broadcast channel with a gradual and delayed accumulation of channel-input single-output broadcast channel (MISO BC) with an M-transmit antenna (M 2) transmitter communicating

  14. Kalman filtering the delay-difference equation: practical approaches

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kalman filtering the delay-difference equation: practical approaches and simulations Daniel K.-Recently, J. J. Pella showed how the Kalman filter could be applied to production modeling to esti- mate apply these methods to the Deriso-Schnute delay-difference equation. The Kalman filter approach

  15. Mutually injecting semiconductor lasers: simulations for short and zero delay

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wünsche, Hans-Jürgen "Ede"

    Mutually injecting semiconductor lasers: simulations for short and zero delay Nikolay Korneyev a und Stochastik, Mohrenstr. 39, 10117 Berlin, Germany ABSTRACT Distant lasers with mutual optical the relaxation oscillation period. In order to illuminate the role of these short delays, the ultimate zero

  16. Task Assignment in a Server Farm with Switching Delays and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hyytiä, Esa

    Task Assignment in a Server Farm with Switching Delays and General Energy-Aware Cost Structure Esa Servers Customers Basic problem E[T] k parallel queues Tasks arrive at rate (Poisson process) Objective;Switching Delays and Energy Model for Server Farm k parallel servers Size-aware setting Dispatcher Servers

  17. Robust Airline Schedule Planning: Minimizing Propagated Delay in ...

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2011-10-06T23:59:59.000Z

    highly brittle, performing poorly in practice as delays propagate rapidly throughout the network. The. Bureau of .... In contrast to airline recovery, where the objective is to achieve the best ..... weather conditions, air traffic flow management, passenger delays, equipment failure, and so on. ...... Airport Handling Manual. 2010.

  18. ESTIMATION OF DELAY PROPAGATION IN AVIATION SYSTEM USING BAYESIAN NETWORK

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    delays is a major long-term objective of the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA). As demand1 ESTIMATION OF DELAY PROPAGATION IN AVIATION SYSTEM USING BAYESIAN NETWORK Ning Xu, George Donohue problems in the current aviation system. Methods are needed to analyze the manner in which micro

  19. MCNP6 enhancements of delayed-particle production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McKinney, G. W. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, MS C921, P.O. Box 1663, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States)

    2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Over the last decade, there has been an increased interest in the production of delayed-particle signatures from neutron and photon interactions with matter. To address this interest, various radiation transport codes have developed a wide range of delayed-particle physics packages. With the recent merger of the Monte Carlo transport codes MCNP5 and MCNPX, MCNP6 inherited the comprehensive model-based delayed-particle production capabilities developed in MCNPX over the last few years. An integral part of this capability consists of the depletion code CINDER90 which was incorporated into MCNPX in 2004. During this last year, significant improvements have been made to the MCNP6 physics and algorithms associated with delayed-particle production, including the development of a delayed-beta capability, an algorithm enhancement for the delayed-neutron treatment, and a database enhancement for delayed-gamma emission. The delayed-beta feature represents an important component in modeling background signals produced by active interrogation sources. Combined, these improvements provide MCNP6 with a flexible state-of-the-art physics package for generating high-fidelity signatures from fission and activation. This paper provides details of these enhancements and presents results for a variety of fission and activation examples. (authors)

  20. Built-In Self Test (BIST) for Realistic Delay Defects

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tamilarasan, Karthik Prabhu

    2012-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

    with the insertion of test points, BIST is able to achieve high coverage of stuck-at and transition faults. The quality of BIST patterns on small delay defects is an open question. In this work we analyze the application of BIST to small delay defects using resistive...

  1. Delayed neutron emission measurements for U-235 and Pu-239 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Yong

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    , and a graphite-moderated counting system were constructed to perform all these experiments. The calculated values for the five-group U-235 delayed neutron parameters and the six-group Pu-239 delayed neutron parameters were compared with the values...

  2. Jitter Regulation in an Internet Router with Delay Constraint

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Imai, Hiroshi

    Jitter Regulation in an Internet Router with Delay Constraint Hisashi Koga Fujitsu Laboratories Ltd To playback multimedia data smoothly via the world­wide Internet, jitter, the variability of delay of individual packets, must be kept low. We examine on­line algorithms in a router to regulate jitter

  3. Jitter Regulation in an Internet Router with Delay Consideration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Imai, Hiroshi

    Jitter Regulation in an Internet Router with Delay Consideration Hisashi Koga Fujitsu Laboratories, jitter, the variability of delay of individual packets, must be kept low. We examine on­line algorithms in a router to regulate jitter for a given multimedia stream by holding packets in an internal buffer

  4. Regenerative memory in time-delayed neuromorphic photonic systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Romeira, B; Figueiredo, José M L; Barland, S; Javaloyes, J

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We investigate a regenerative memory based upon a time-delayed neuromorphic photonic oscillator and discuss the link with temporal localized structures. Our experimental implementation is based upon a optoelectronic system composed of a nanoscale nonlinear resonant tunneling diode coupled to a laser that we link to the paradigm of neuronal activity, the FitzHugh-Nagumo model with delayed feedback.

  5. Fluid Mechanics IB Lecturer: Dr Natalia Berloff

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    : hydroelectric power, chemical processing, jet-driven cutting tools · our fluid environment: ozone loss, climate

  6. Pitch-catch only ultrasonic fluid densitometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Greenwood, Margaret S. (Richland, WA); Harris, Robert V. (Pasco, WA)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention is an ultrasonic fluid densitometer that uses a material wedge and pitch-catch only ultrasonic transducers for transmitting and receiving ultrasonic signals internally reflected within the material wedge. Density of a fluid is determined by immersing the wedge into the fluid and measuring reflection of ultrasound at the wedge-fluid interface.

  7. Fluid&ParticulateSystems 424514/2010

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zevenhoven, Ron

    cake solids mass/m2, w 3. Ruth equation using dw = (1-)solid dx fluidL p Ku solidK )1( 1 resistance, , with cake porosity : velocity, u layer thickness, L pressure drop, p dynamic viscosity, fluid Finland februari 2014 Unit w: kg/m2 Fluid&ParticulateSystems 424514/2010 Fluid&ParticulateSystems ÅA424514

  8. QUALITATIVE REASONING ABOUT FLUIDS AND MECHANICS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Forbus, Kenneth D.

    which include both me- chanical mechanisms and fluids, such as internal combustion engines and hydraulic

  9. Shields et al. Predictive Control for Time-Delayed ... Predictive Control for Time-Delayed Switching Control Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    is proposed for the control of switching systems characterized by linear system dynamics with a time delay that will take the system closest to the desired future state. The resulting control action is sub-optimal by linear dynamics with a time-delayed input. A switching control system (as defined herein) is one

  10. Car-to-car radio channel measurements at 5 GHz: Pathloss, power-delay profile, and delay-Doppler

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zemen, Thomas

    Car-to-car radio channel measurements at 5 GHz: Pathloss, power-delay profile, and delay Telekommunikation Wien (ftw.), Vienna, Austria 3mobilkom austria AG, Vienna, Austria 4Department of Electrical and Information Technology, Lund University, Lund, Sweden 5Mitsubishi Electric Research Labs, Cambridge, USA

  11. Status of six-group delayed neutron data and relationships between delayed neutron parameters from the macroscopic and microscopic approaches

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Parish, T.A.; Charlton, W.S. [Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (United States). Nuclear Engineering Dept.; Shinohara, N.; Andoh, M. [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan); Brady, M.C. [Duke Engineering and Services, Inc., Charlotte, NC (United States); Raman, S. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1999-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Work performed in part for an American Nuclear Society Standards Committee Subgroup (ANS 19.9) to assess the status of delayed neutron data is summarized. Recent measurements of delayed neutron emission conducted at Texas A and M University are also described. During the last 10 yr, there have been advances in nuclear data libraries (e.g., improved fission product yields) that make it possible to quantitatively predict delayed neutron emission from basic data. The six-group delayed neutron data available in the literature from both macroscopic level experiments and microscopic level calculations for several actinide isotopes are compared. Results are also presented from recent experimental measurements of delayed neutron emission and delineates some of the relationships between these measurements and microscopic level predictions. For example, from the experimental measurements, Keepin`s delayed neutron group 1 is shown to correspond mainly to a single isotope. {sup 87}Br, as expected from microscopic level theory, and Keepin`s group 2 is shown to correspond to primarily two separate isotopes. {sup 137}I and {sup 88}Br. In the future, it may be useful to use properties of specific isotopes to replace Keepin`s delayed neutron groups 1, 2, 3, and 4 for prescribing delayed neutron data for actinides.

  12. Fluid&ParticulateSystems 424514/2010

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zevenhoven, Ron

    fluidr L wDdrag v½bL Lv dxbFF 331 0 . Picture: BMH99 PTG #12;Fluid&ParticulateSystems 424514/2010 Fluid/2010 Fluid&ParticulateSystems ÅA424514/2014 Basic concept wFAw A F VpVpP losscs cs loss losspumppump carlosscar wFP 212121 ,0, ppwwzz F w wFP #12;Fluid&ParticulateSystems 424514/2010 Fluid

  13. Fluid observers and tilting cosmology

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. A. Coley; S. Hervik; W. C. Lim

    2006-05-24T23:59:59.000Z

    We study perfect fluid cosmological models with a constant equation of state parameter $\\gamma$ in which there are two naturally defined time-like congruences, a geometrically defined geodesic congruence and a non-geodesic fluid congruence. We establish an appropriate set of boost formulae relating the physical variables, and consequently the observed quantities, in the two frames. We study expanding spatially homogeneous tilted perfect fluid models, with an emphasis on future evolution with extreme tilt. We show that for ultra-radiative equations of state (i.e., $\\gamma>4/3$), generically the tilt becomes extreme at late times and the fluid observers will reach infinite expansion within a finite proper time and experience a singularity similar to that of the big rip. In addition, we show that for sub-radiative equations of state (i.e., $\\gamma < 4/3$), the tilt can become extreme at late times and give rise to an effective quintessential equation of state. To establish the connection with phantom cosmology and quintessence, we calculate the effective equation of state in the models under consideration and we determine the future asymptotic behaviour of the tilting models in the fluid frame variables using the boost formulae. We also discuss spatially inhomogeneous models and tilting spatially homogeneous models with a cosmological constant.

  14. Adaptive control of time delay systems and applications to automotive control problems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yildiz, Yildiray

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis is about the adaptive control of time delay systems with applications to automotive control problems. The stabilization of systems involving time delays is a difficult problem since the existence of a delay may ...

  15. Delayed feedback control of fractional-order chaotic systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aleksandar Gjurchinovski; Trifce Sandev; Viktor Urumov

    2011-07-06T23:59:59.000Z

    We study the possibility to stabilize unstable steady states and unstable periodic orbits in chaotic fractional-order dynamical systems by the time-delayed feedback method. By performing a linear stability analysis, we establish the parameter ranges for successful stabilization of unstable equilibria in the plane parametrizad by the feedback gain and the time delay. An insight into the control mechanism is gained by analyzing the characteristic equation of the controlled system, showing that the control scheme fails to control unstable equilibria having an odd number of positive real eigenvalues. We demonstrate that the method can also stabilize unstable periodic orbits for a suitable choice of the feedback gain, providing that the time delay is chosen to coincide with the period of the target orbit. In addition, it is shown numerically that delayed feedback control with a sinusoidally modulated time delay significantly enlarges the stability region of the steady states in comparison to the classical time-delayed feedback scheme with a constant delay.

  16. Development of a statistically based access delay timeline methodology.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rivera, W. Gary; Robinson, David Gerald; Wyss, Gregory Dane; Hendrickson, Stacey M. Langfitt

    2013-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The charter for adversarial delay is to hinder access to critical resources through the use of physical systems increasing an adversary's task time. The traditional method for characterizing access delay has been a simple model focused on accumulating times required to complete each task with little regard to uncertainty, complexity, or decreased efficiency associated with multiple sequential tasks or stress. The delay associated with any given barrier or path is further discounted to worst-case, and often unrealistic, times based on a high-level adversary, resulting in a highly conservative calculation of total delay. This leads to delay systems that require significant funding and personnel resources in order to defend against the assumed threat, which for many sites and applications becomes cost prohibitive. A new methodology has been developed that considers the uncertainties inherent in the problem to develop a realistic timeline distribution for a given adversary path. This new methodology incorporates advanced Bayesian statistical theory and methodologies, taking into account small sample size, expert judgment, human factors and threat uncertainty. The result is an algorithm that can calculate a probability distribution function of delay times directly related to system risk. Through further analysis, the access delay analyst or end user can use the results in making informed decisions while weighing benefits against risks, ultimately resulting in greater system effectiveness with lower cost.

  17. Evaluation and application of delayed neutron precursor data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brady, M.C.

    1989-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Up to 1300 nuclides are yielded in fission. Of these, 271 have been identified as precursors for delayed neutron emission. An extensive reference library of delayed neutron data has been compiled which contains fission yields and branchings, delay neutron emission probabilities and spectra for each of these 271 precursor nuclides. The emphasis of the present work has been in improving the spectral data. Experimental spectra from laboratories in the United States, Germany, and Sweden have been incorporated in this evaluation. The experimental spectra have been augmented with model calculations such that the spectra included in the final library extend over the full theoretical energy range for delayed neutron emission. Models were also used to predict spectra for nuclides with no measured data. The data compiled in the precursor library have been used to calculate the aggregate behavior of delayed neutrons for the 43 fissioning systems having evaluated fission yields. Delayed neutron activities predicted using the explicit precursor data have also been approximated by three, six, nine and twelve time-groups using least squares techniques. The fitted six group data, being the more conventional representation, were also used to predict a consistent set of six-group spectra. Comparisons with the University of Lowell's recently published measurements of /sup 235/U delay interval spectra were also made. Beta-effective calculations for a simple Godiva system were performed and were compared to the experimental value.

  18. Maxwell's fluid model of magnetism

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Robert Brady; Ross Anderson

    2015-02-20T23:59:59.000Z

    In 1861, Maxwell derived two of his equations of electromagnetism by modelling a magnetic line of force as a `molecular vortex' in a fluid-like medium. Later, in 1980, Berry and colleagues conducted experiments on a `phase vortex', a wave geometry in a fluid which is analogous to a magnetic line of force and also exhibits behaviour corresponding to the quantisation of magnetic flux. Here we unify these approaches by writing down a solution to the equations of motion for a compressible fluid which behaves in the same way as a magnetic line of force. We then revisit Maxwell's historical inspiration, namely Faraday's 1846 model of light as disturbances in lines of force. Using our unified model, we show that such disturbances resemble photons: they are polarised, absorbed discretely, obey Maxwell's full equations of electromagnetism to first order, and quantitatively reproduce the correlation that is observed in the Bell tests.

  19. Electronic Implementation of the Mackey-Glass Delayed Model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pablo Amil; Cecilia Cabeza; Arturo C. Martí

    2014-08-21T23:59:59.000Z

    The celebrated Mackey-Glass model describes the dynamics of physiological \\textit{delayed} systems in which the actual evolution depends on the values of the variables at some \\textit{previous} times. This kind of systems are usually expressed by delayed differential equations which turn out to be infinite-dimensional. In this contribution, an electronic implementation mimicking the Mackey-Glass model is proposed. New approaches for both the nonlinear function and the delay block are made. Explicit equations for the actual evolution of the implementation are derived. Simulations of the original equation, the circuit equation, and experimental data show great concordance.

  20. Time Delay Predictions in a Modified Gravity Theory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. W. Moffat

    2006-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The time delay effect for planets and spacecraft is obtained from a fully relativistic modified gravity theory including a fifth force skew symmetric field by fitting to the Pioneer 10/11 anomalous acceleration data. A possible detection of the predicted time delay corrections to general relativity for the outer planets and future spacecraft missions is considered. The time delay correction to GR predicted by the modified gravity is consistent with the observational limit of the Doppler tracking measurement reported by the Cassini spacecraft on its way to Saturn, and the correction increases to a value that could be measured for a spacecraft approaching Neptune and Pluto.

  1. Time dependence of delayed neutron emission for fissionable isotope identification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kinlaw, M.T.; Hunt, A.W. [Idaho Accelerator Center, Idaho State University, Pocatello, Idaho 83209-8263 (United States); Department of Physics, Idaho State University, Pocatello, Idaho 83209-8106 (United States)

    2005-06-20T23:59:59.000Z

    The time dependence of delayed neutron emission was examined as a method of fissionable isotope identification. A pulsed bremsstrahlung photon beam was used to induce photofission reactions in {sup 238}U, {sup 232}Th, and {sup 239}Pu targets. The resulting delayed neutron emission was recorded between irradiating pulses and is a well-known technique for fissionable material detection. Monitoring the decay of delayed neutron emission between irradiating pulses demonstrates the ability to not only detect the presence of fissionable materials, but also to identify which fissionable isotope is present.

  2. Impact of delayed neutron precursor mobility in fissile solution systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kiedrowski, B. C. [X-Computational Physics Div., Los Alamos National Laboratory, MS A143, P.O. Box 1663, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States)

    2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A research version of the Monte Carlo software package MCNP6 is modified to incorporate advection and diffusion of delayed neutron precursors, resulting in the emission of delayed neutrons at locations different from the original fission sites. Results of two test problems, a pipe carrying flowing fissile solution and a sphere of fissile solution with precursor diffusion, show that the fission product mobility tends to perturb the fundamental mode, has a negative reactivity effect, and, perhaps most importantly, causes a decrease in the effective delayed neutron fraction. (authors)

  3. Non-Newtonian fluid flow

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Osinski, Charles Anthony

    1963-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    zero and unity. The Ostwald- de Waele Equation (4), commonly known as the power law, is sometimes used to describe fluid behavior of this type. The rheological equation is (4) where the parameters "k" and "n" are constant for a particular fluid... be extended to include Reynolds numbers and the type of flow determined to be laminar and/or turbulent. It is assumed that the transition from laminar to turbulent flow occurs at a Reynolds number of 2100, the numeric distribution of Reynolds numbers...

  4. Viscosity of a nucleonic fluid

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aram Z. Mekjian

    2012-03-21T23:59:59.000Z

    The viscosity of nucleonic matter is studied both classically and in a quantum mechanical description. The collisions between particles are modeled as hard sphere scattering as a baseline for comparison and as scattering from an attractive square well potential. Properties associated with the unitary limit are developed which are shown to be approximately realized for a system of neutrons. The issue of near perfect fluid behavior of neutron matter is remarked on. Using some results from hard sphere molecular dynamics studies near perfect fluid behavior is discussed further.

  5. DECOUPLED TIME STEPPING METHODS FOR FLUID-FLUID INTERACTION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kasman, Alex

    -fluid interaction, atmosphere-ocean, implicit-explicit method. 1. Introduction. The dynamic core in atmosphere-ocean to the coupled system using only (uncoupled) atmosphere and ocean solves, (see e.g. [4, 6, 17, 18, 19 their shared interface I by a rigid-lid coupling condition, i.e. no penetration and a slip with friction

  6. Compressor bleed cooling fluid feed system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Donahoo, Eric E; Ross, Christopher W

    2014-11-25T23:59:59.000Z

    A compressor bleed cooling fluid feed system for a turbine engine for directing cooling fluids from a compressor to a turbine airfoil cooling system to supply cooling fluids to one or more airfoils of a rotor assembly is disclosed. The compressor bleed cooling fluid feed system may enable cooling fluids to be exhausted from a compressor exhaust plenum through a downstream compressor bleed collection chamber and into the turbine airfoil cooling system. As such, the suction created in the compressor exhaust plenum mitigates boundary layer growth along the inner surface while providing flow of cooling fluids to the turbine airfoils.

  7. Formulation and solution of the delayed gamma dose rate problem using the concept of effective delayed gamma production cross section

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liew, S.L.; Ku, L.P.

    1989-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    With appropriate approximations, the delayed gamma dose rate problem can be formulated in terms of the effective delayed gamma production cross section. The coupled neutron-delayed-gamma transport equations then take the same form as the coupled neutron-prompt-gamma transport equations and they can, therefore, be solved directly in the same manner. This eliminates the need for the tedious and error prone flux coupling step in conventional calculations. Mathematical formulation and solution algorithms are derived. The advantages of this method are illustrated by an example of its application in the solution of a practical design problem. 62 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab.

  8. Recycle of oily refinery wastes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bartilucci, M.P.; Karsner, G.G.; Tracy, W.J.

    1991-04-23T23:59:59.000Z

    This patent describes a process for disposing of petroleum containing sludge. It comprises segregating waste oil-containing sludges into a first sludge and a second sludge, the first sludge being of high oil content relative to the second sludge and the second sludge being of high water content relative to the first sludge; dewatering the first, high oil content sludge; introducing the dewatered sludge into a delayed coking drum under delayed coking conditions in the presence of a liquid coker hydrocarbon feedstock to form coke; introducing the second, high water content sludge into a delayed coking drum to quench the coke formed in the coking drum.

  9. Inter-sensor propagation delay estimation using sources of opportunity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vincent, Rémy; Michel, Olivier; Lacoume, Jean-Louis

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Propagation delays are intensively used for Structural Health Monitoring or Sensor Network Localization. In this paper, we study the performances of acoustic propagation delay estimation between two sensors, using sources of opportunity only. Such sources are defined as being uncontrolled by the user (activation time, location, spectral content in time and space), thus preventing the direct estimation with classical active approaches, such as TDOA, RSSI and AOA. Observation models are extended from the literature to account for the spectral characteristics of the sources in this passive context and we show how time-filtered sources of opportunity impact the retrieval of the propagation delay between two sensors. A geometrical analogy is then proposed that leads to a lower bound on the variance of the propagation delay estimation that accounts for both the temporal and the spatial properties of the sources field.

  10. Robust crew pairing : delays analysis and implementation of optimization approaches

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Leroyer, Pierre, S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    With increasing delays and airport congestion that disturb airline operations, the development of robust schedules is becoming crucial. Increased traffic and poor weather are a few of the causes of airport congestion, ...

  11. Chimera and globally clustered chimera: Impact of time delay

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sheeba, Jane H; Lakshmanan, M

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Following a short report of our preliminary results [Phys. Rev. E 79, 055203(R) (2009)], we present a more detailed study of the effects of coupling delay in diffusively coupled phase oscillator populations. We find that coupling delay induces chimera and globally clustered chimera (GCC) states in delay coupled populations. We show the existence of multi-clustered states that act as link between the chimera and the GCC states. A stable GCC state goes through a variety of GCC states, namely periodic, aperiodic, long-- and short--period breathers and becomes unstable GCC leading to global synchronization in the system, on increasing time delay. We provide numerical evidence and theoretical explanations for the above results and discuss possible applications of the observed phenomena.

  12. Evaluating passenger delays in the US domestic air transportation system

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Umang, Nitish

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A fundamental component of any National Airspace System (NAS) performance evaluation is the cost impact of air traffic delays, and more generally capacity limitations, on the traveling passengers. In previous research it ...

  13. Preliminary Pulsing Experiments to Measure Delayed Neutron Emission Parameters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Charlton, W.S.; Parish, T.A.; Raman, S.

    1998-10-05T23:59:59.000Z

    Recent interest in delayed neutron parameters including comparisons between macroscopic (experimental) and microscopic (calculated) results have prompted a set of experiments using the 1MW Triga Reactor at the Texas A and M University (TAMU) Nuclear Science Center (NSC) designed to measure the complete set of seven-group delayed neutron parameters for several higher actinides. Operating the Nuclear Science Center Reactor (NSCR) in a pulsed mode, a complete set of delayed neutron parameters were measured for Np-237 and Am-243. The total delayed neutron yield per 100 fissions for Np-237 and Am-243 was found to be 1.14 {+-} 0.07 and 0.85 {+-} 0.05, respectively. Comparisons to previous measurements are made where such measurements are available.

  14. Opportunities for Process Monitoring Techniques at Delayed Access Facilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Curtis, Michael M.; Gitau, Ernest TN; Johnson, Shirley J.; Schanfein, Mark; Toomey, Christopher

    2013-09-20T23:59:59.000Z

    Except for specific cases where the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) maintains a continuous presence at a facility (such as the Japanese Rokkasho Reprocessing Plant), there is always a period of time or delay between the moment a State is notified or aware of an upcoming inspection, and the time the inspector actually enters the material balance area or facility. Termed by the authors as “delayed access,” this period of time between inspection notice and inspector entrance to a facility poses a concern. Delayed access also has the potential to reduce the effectiveness of measures applied as part of the Safeguards Approach for a facility (such as short-notice inspections). This report investigates the feasibility of using process monitoring to address safeguards challenges posed by delayed access at a subset of facility types.

  15. Anti-Synchronization in Multiple Time Delay Power Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    E. M. Shahverdiev

    2010-08-23T23:59:59.000Z

    We investigate chaos antisynchronization between two uni-directionally coupled multiple time delay power systems.The results are of certain importance to prevent power black-out in the entire power grid.

  16. Generalization of neuron network model with delay feedback

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sanjeet Maisnam; R. K. Brojen Singh

    2015-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

    We present generalized delayed neural network (DNN) model with positive delay feedback and neuron history. The local stability analysis around trivial local equilibria of delayed neural networks has applied and determine the conditions for the existence of zero root. We develop few innovative delayed neural network models in different dimensions through transformation and extension of some existing models. We found that zero root can have multiplicity two under certain conditions. We further show how the characteristic equation can have zero root and its multiplicity is dependent on the conditions undertaken. Finally, we generalize the neural network of $N$ neurons through which we determine the general form of Jacobian of the linear form and corresponding characteristic equation of the system.

  17. Time-delayed directional beam phased array antenna

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fund, Douglas Eugene; Cable, John William; Cecil, Tony Myron

    2004-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

    An antenna comprising a phased array of quadrifilar helix or other multifilar antenna elements and a time-delaying feed network adapted to feed the elements. The feed network can employ a plurality of coaxial cables that physically bridge a microstrip feed circuitry to feed power signals to the elements. The cables provide an incremental time delay which is related to their physical lengths, such that replacing cables having a first set of lengths with cables having a second set of lengths functions to change the time delay and shift or steer the antenna's main beam. Alternatively, the coaxial cables may be replaced with a programmable signal processor unit adapted to introduce the time delay using signal processing techniques applied to the power signals.

  18. Delayed neutron measurements from fast fission of actinide waste isotopes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Charlton, William S.

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A study was performed to determine the delayed neutron emission properties from fast fission of several actinide waste isotopes. The specific isotopes evaluated were U-235, Np-237, and Am-243. A calculational technique based on the microscopic...

  19. additional delayed regional: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    results for five active galactic nuclei. We recovered velocity-delay maps using the maximum-entropy method for four objects: Mrk 335, Mrk 1501, 3C120, and PG2130+099. For the...

  20. On the Approximation of Distributed-Delay Control Laws

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mirkin, Leonid

    -dimensional internal feedback of the form P -P e-sh (here P is the delay-free plant and h is the loop delay) that aims can be replaced with . = Pa -P e-sh (modified/generalized Smith predictor), where Pa is a rational e-Agh (sI - Ag)-1 Bg. The finite impulse response (FIR) com- pletion h{G e-sh } of G e-sh is defined

  1. Visually simulating realistic fluid motion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Naithani, Priyanka

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    's second law of motion and Conservation of Mass, which leads to the continuity equation. Newton's second law states that the total force F, acting on an element equals mass m times the element's acceleration a. In the case of fluids we do not consider...

  2. Directed flow fluid rinse trough

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kempka, S.N.; Walters, R.N.

    1996-07-02T23:59:59.000Z

    Novel rinse troughs accomplish thorough uniform rinsing. The tanks are suitable for one or more essentially planar items having substantially the same shape. The troughs ensure that each surface is rinsed uniformly. The new troughs also require less rinse fluid to accomplish a thorough rinse than prior art troughs. 9 figs.

  3. Technique for the identification of dominant delayed neutron precursors.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Loaiza, D. J. (David J.); Haskin, E. (Eric)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A technique for the identification of delayed neutron precursors has been developed based on the product of cumulative yield and probability of neutron emission. The motivation behind this work is to fix the decay constants of delayed neutrons to those of the dominant delayed neutron precursors. The desirability of identifying a single set of decay constants that would apply to all fissionable isotopes and be independent of the neutron energy spectrum has been addressed by several authors. The main advantages of a fixed-decay constant representation are simplifying the analysis of epithemal and fast reactors with multiple fissioning isotopes, and improving the fit to experimental data while preserving the inferred positive reactivity scale associated with the original six-group representation. It is well known that 27 1 delayed neutron precursors exist, but only a select number of those precursors contribute significantly to the decay of delayed neutron. Using data compiled by England and Rider, which lists fission yield and probability of neutron emission values for the 27 1 known delayed neutron precursors in 32 fissioning systems, thirteen precursors were identified that are consistently dominant for alI fissioning systems.

  4. Delayed-fission properties of neutron-deficient americium nuclei

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hall, H.L. (California Univ., Berkeley, CA (USA). Dept. of Chemistry)

    1989-10-23T23:59:59.000Z

    Characteristics of the delayed-fission decay mode in light americium nuclei have been investigated. Measurements on the unknown isotopes {sup 230}Am and {sup 236}Am were attempted, and upper limits on the delayed-fission branches of these nuclei were determined. Evidence of the existence of {sup 236}Am was observed in radiochemical separations. Total kinetic energy and mass-yield distributions of the electron-capture delayed-fission mode were measured for {sup 232}Am (t{sub 1/2} = 1.31 {plus minus} 0.04 min) and for {sup 234}Am (t{sub 1/2} = 2.32 {plus minus} 0.08 min), and delayed-fission probabilities of 6.9 {times} 10{sup {minus}4} and 6.6 {times} 10{sup {minus}5}, respectively, were determined. The total kinetic energy and the asymmetric mass-yield distributions are typical of fission of mid-range actinides. No discernible influence of the anomalous triple-peaked mass division characteristic of the thorium-radium region was detected. Measurements of the time correlation between the electron-capture x-rays and the subsequent fission conform that the observed fissions arise from the electron-capture delayed-fission mechanism. Delayed fission has provided a unique opportunity to extend the range of low-energy fission studies to previously inaccessible regions. 71 refs., 44 figs., 13 tabs.

  5. Quantifying the stimuli of photorheological fluids

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bates, Sarah Woodring

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We develop a model to predict the dynamics of photorheological fluids and, more generally, photoresponsive fluids for monochromatic and polychromatic light sources. Derived from first principles, the model relates the ...

  6. Fluid Flow Simulation in Fractured Reservoirs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sarkar, Sudipta

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this study is to analyze fluid flow in fractured reservoirs. In most petroleum reservoirs, particularly carbonate reservoirs and some tight sands, natural fractures play a critical role in controlling fluid ...

  7. Fluid Gravity Engineering Rocket motor flow analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anand, Mahesh

    Fluid Gravity Engineering Capability · Rocket motor flow analysis -Internal (performance) -External (plume / contamination) · Effect on landing site (surface alteration) -In-depth flow through porous young scientists/engineers Fluid Gravity Engineering Ltd #12;

  8. Fluid&ParticulateSystems 424514/2010

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zevenhoven, Ron

    size distribution (CSD) and quality #12;Fluid&ParticulateSystems 424514/2010 Fluid solution ­ Selective distribution of impurities between a liquid phase and a solid phase uniformity, purity

  9. Fluid sampling system for a nuclear reactor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lau, Louis K. (Monroeville, PA); Alper, Naum I. (Monroeville, PA)

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A system of extracting fluid samples, either liquid or gas, from the interior of a nuclear reactor containment utilizes a jet pump. To extract the sample fluid, a nonradioactive motive fluid is forced through the inlet and discharge ports of a jet pump located outside the containment, creating a suction that draws the sample fluid from the containment through a sample conduit connected to the pump suction port. The mixture of motive fluid and sample fluid is discharged through a return conduit to the interior of the containment. The jet pump and means for removing a portion of the sample fluid from the sample conduit can be located in a shielded sample grab station located next to the containment. A non-nuclear grade active pump can be located outside the grab sampling station and the containment to pump the nonradioactive motive fluid through the jet pump.

  10. Fluid sampling system for a nuclear reactor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lau, L.K.; Alper, N.I.

    1994-11-22T23:59:59.000Z

    A system of extracting fluid samples, either liquid or gas, from the interior of a nuclear reactor containment utilizes a jet pump. To extract the sample fluid, a nonradioactive motive fluid is forced through the inlet and discharge ports of a jet pump located outside the containment, creating a suction that draws the sample fluid from the containment through a sample conduit connected to the pump suction port. The mixture of motive fluid and sample fluid is discharged through a return conduit to the interior of the containment. The jet pump and means for removing a portion of the sample fluid from the sample conduit can be located in a shielded sample grab station located next to the containment. A non-nuclear grade active pump can be located outside the grab sampling station and the containment to pump the nonradioactive motive fluid through the jet pump. 1 fig.

  11. Heat Transfer in Complex Fluids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mehrdad Massoudi

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Amongst the most important constitutive relations in Mechanics, when characterizing the behavior of complex materials, one can identify the stress tensor T, the heat flux vector q (related to heat conduction) and the radiant heating (related to the radiation term in the energy equation). Of course, the expression 'complex materials' is not new. In fact, at least since the publication of the paper by Rivlin & Ericksen (1955), who discussed fluids of complexity (Truesdell & Noll, 1992), to the recently published books (Deshpande et al., 2010), the term complex fluids refers in general to fluid-like materials whose response, namely the stress tensor, is 'non-linear' in some fashion. This non-linearity can manifest itself in variety of forms such as memory effects, yield stress, creep or relaxation, normal-stress differences, etc. The emphasis in this chapter, while focusing on the constitutive modeling of complex fluids, is on granular materials (such as coal) and non-linear fluids (such as coal-slurries). One of the main areas of interest in energy related processes, such as power plants, atomization, alternative fuels, etc., is the use of slurries, specifically coal-water or coal-oil slurries, as the primary fuel. Some studies indicate that the viscosity of coal-water mixtures depends not only on the volume fraction of solids, and the mean size and the size distribution of the coal, but also on the shear rate, since the slurry behaves as shear-rate dependent fluid. There are also studies which indicate that preheating the fuel results in better performance, and as a result of such heating, the viscosity changes. Constitutive modeling of these non-linear fluids, commonly referred to as non-Newtonian fluids, has received much attention. Most of the naturally occurring and synthetic fluids are non-linear fluids, for example, polymer melts, suspensions, blood, coal-water slurries, drilling fluids, mud, etc. It should be noted that sometimes these fluids show Newtonian (linear) behavior for a given range of parameters or geometries; there are many empirical or semi-empirical constitutive equations suggested for these fluids. There have also been many non-linear constitutive relations which have been derived based on the techniques of continuum mechanics. The non-linearities oftentimes appear due to higher gradient terms or time derivatives. When thermal and or chemical effects are also important, the (coupled) momentum and energy equations can give rise to a variety of interesting problems, such as instability, for example the phenomenon of double-diffusive convection in a fluid layer. In Conclusion, we have studied the flow of a compressible (density gradient type) non-linear fluid down an inclined plane, subject to radiation boundary condition. The heat transfer is also considered where a source term, similar to the Arrhenius type reaction, is included. The non-dimensional forms of the equations are solved numerically and the competing effects of conduction, dissipation, heat generation and radiation are discussed. It is observed that the velocity increases rapidly in the region near the inclined surface and is slower in the region near the free surface. Since R{sub 7} is a measure of the heat generation due to chemical reaction, when the reaction is frozen (R{sub 7}=0.0) the temperature distributions would depend only on R{sub 1}, and R{sub 2}, representing the effects of the pressure force developed in the material due to the distribution, R{sub 3} and R{sub 4} viscous dissipation, R{sub 5} the normal stress coefficient, R{sub 6} the measure of the emissivity of the particles to the thermal conductivity, etc. When the flow is not frozen (RP{sub 7} > 0) the temperature inside the flow domain is much higher than those at the inclined and free surfaces. As a result, heat is transferred away from the flow toward both the inclined surface and the free surface with a rate that increases as R{sub 7} increases. For a given temperature, an increase in {zeta} implies that the activation energy is smaller and thus, the reaction ra

  12. Ultrasonic fluid densitometer for process control

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Greenwood, Margaret S. (Richland, WA)

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention is an ultrasonic fluid densitometer that uses at least one pair of transducers for transmitting and receiving ultrasonic signals internally reflected within a material wedge. A temperature sensor is provided to monitor the temperature of the wedge material. Density of a fluid is determined by immersing the wedge into the fluid and measuring reflection of ultrasound at the wedge-fluid interface and comparing a transducer voltage and wedge material temperature to a tabulation as a function of density.

  13. Fluid Construction Grammar on Real Robots

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Steels, Luc

    Chapter 10 Fluid Construction Grammar on Real Robots Luc Steels1,2, Joachim De Beule3, and Pieter and P. Wellens (2012). Fluid Construction Grammar on Real Robots. In Luc Steels and Manfred Hild (Eds game experiments reported in this book. This framework is called Fluid Construction Grammar (FCG

  14. Fluid&ParticulateSystems 424514/2010

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zevenhoven, Ron

    .zevenhoven@abo.fi 2Fluid&ParticulateSystems 424514/2010 Fluid&ParticulateSystems ÅA424514/2014 2.1 Flow tube sections / Turku Finland RoNz 3 Fluid Flow in Tube Systems loss 2 2 1 pump 2 2 1 ppwzgppwzg outoutoutoutininininloss,311 ' 3 ppzgp 2loss,322 ' 3 ppzgp 210 VVV For a fully developed turbulent flow (horizontal

  15. Harmonic Fluids Changxi Zheng Doug L. James

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Columbia University

    Harmonic Fluids Changxi Zheng Doug L. James Cornell University Abstract Fluid sounds- ing. Furthermore, while offline applications can rely on talented foley artists to "cook up" plausible for vortex-based fluid sounds [Dobashi et al. 2003] and solid bodies [O'Brien et al. 2001; James et al. 2006

  16. SEISMIC MONITORING OF CARBON DIOXIDE FLUID FLOW

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Santos, Juan

    SEISMIC MONITORING OF CARBON DIOXIDE FLUID FLOW J. E. Santos1, G. B. Savioli2, J. M. Carcione3, D´e, Argentina SEISMIC MONITORING OF CARBON DIOXIDE FLUID FLOW ­ p. #12;Introduction. I Storage of CO2). SEISMIC MONITORING OF CARBON DIOXIDE FLUID FLOW ­ p. #12;Introduction. II CO2 is separated from natural

  17. Introduction to Computational Fluid Dynamics 424512 E #1 -rz Introduction to Computational Fluid Dynamics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zevenhoven, Ron

    Introduction to Computational Fluid Dynamics 424512 E #1 - rz Introduction to Computational Fluid Dynamics (iCFD) 424512.0 E, 5 sp / 3 sw 1. Introduction; Fluid dynamics (lecture 1 of 5) Ron Zevenhoven Ã?bo to Computational Fluid Dynamics 424512 E #1 - rz april 2013 Ã?bo Akademi Univ - Thermal and Flow Engineering

  18. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL FOR NUMERICAL METHODS IN FLUIDS Int. J. Numer. Meth. Fluids 2011; 00:123

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Buscaglia, Gustavo C.

    , magma chambers, fluid­fuel interactions, crude oil recovery, spray cans, sediment transport in riversINTERNATIONAL JOURNAL FOR NUMERICAL METHODS IN FLUIDS Int. J. Numer. Meth. Fluids 2011; 00 for the treatment of discontinuous pressures in multi­fluid flows Roberto F. Ausas1 , Gustavo C. Buscaglia1

  19. An FDTD Method for Analysis of Scattering from Rough FluidFluid Interfaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schneider, John B.

    results are presented for fluid­fluid cases modeling water­sediment inter­ faces. Two different roughness speeds in shallow­water sediment bottoms are relatively slow, a fluid­ fluid model is a reasonable to the interface, and a correc­ tion for the numerical dispersion inherent to the FDTD algorithm. Numeri­ cal

  20. Process for the elimination of waste water produced upon the desulfurization of coking oven gas by means of wash solution containing organic oxygen-carrier, with simultaneous recovery of elemental sulfur

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Diemer, P.; Brake, W.; Dittmer, R.

    1985-04-16T23:59:59.000Z

    A process is disclosed for the elimination of waste water falling out with the desulfurization of coking oven gas by means of an organic oxygen carrier-containing washing solution with simultaneous recovery of elemental sulfur. The waste water is decomposed in a combustion chamber in a reducing atmosphere at temperatures between about 1000/sup 0/ and 1100/sup 0/ C. under such conditions that the mole ratio of H/sub 2/S:SO/sub 2/ in the exhaust gas of the combustion chamber amounts to at least 2:1. Sulfur falling out is separated and the sensible heat of the exhaust gas is utilized for steam generation. The cooled and desulfurized exhaust gas is added to the coking oven gas before the pre-cooling. Sulfur falling out from the washing solution in the oxidizer is separated out and lead into the combustion chamber together with the part of the washing solution discharged as waste water from the washing solution circulation. Preferred embodiments include that the sulfur loading of the waste water can amount to up to about 370 kg sulfur per m/sup 3/ waste water; having the cooling of sulfur-containing exhaust gas leaving the combustion chamber follow in a waste heat boiler and a sulfur condenser heated by pre-heated boiler feed water, from which condenser sulfur is discharged in liquid state.

  1. Cost-Delay Trade Off of Network Coding in Asymmetric Two-Way Relay Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cost-Delay Trade Off of Network Coding in Asymmetric Two-Way Relay Networks Lianghui Ding, Feng.wu@angstrom.uu.se Abstract--In this paper, we analyze and evaluate the cost- delay trade off of opportunistic network coding the average power cost and delay, formulate the optimal power-delay trade off, and propose a heuristic

  2. Assessing the Costs Attributed to Project Delay Curtis Beaty, P.E.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    and Commercial Value of Time Change in Highway Cost Index Total Month of Delay Estimated Return on Investment Cost Index (HCI) (during Delay) 11% 29% 3% Travel-Related Variables Length of Project 2.7 2.6 1 Impacts 8.0% 8.0% 8.0% Examples of Cost of Construction Delay #12;Monthly Cost of Project Delay Small

  3. Managing the Effect of Delay Jitter on the Display of Live Continuous Media

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Whitton, Mary C.

    Managing the Effect of Delay Jitter on the Display of Live Continuous Media Donald L. Stone of Delay Jitter on the Display of Live Continuous Media (under the direction of Kevin Jeffay). ABSTRACT latency in the presence of delay jitter, where delay jitter is defined as variation in processing

  4. Influence of viscosity contrast on buoyantly unstable miscible fluids in porous media

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pramanik, Satyajit; Mishra, Manoranjan

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The influence of viscosity contrast on buoyantly unstable miscible fluids in a porous medium is investigated through a linear stability analysis (LSA) as well as direct numerical simulations (DNS). The linear stability method implemented in this paper is based on an initial value approach, which helps to capture the onset of instability more accurately than the quasi-steady state analysis. In the absence of displacement, we show that viscosity contrast delays the onset of instability in buoyantly unstable miscible fluids. Further, it is observed that suitably choosing the viscosity contrast and injection velocity a gravitationally unstable miscible interface can be stabilized completely. Through LSA we draw a phase diagram, which shows three distinct stability regions in a parameter space spanned by the displacement velocity and the viscosity contrast. DNS are performed corresponding to parameters from each regime and the results obtained are in accordance with the linear stability results. Moreover, the conv...

  5. A study of microstrip delay lines on high dielectric constant substrates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ashour, Thomas Joseph

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    . . . . . . . . . . . . , 27 . 30 IILG. Conclusions. 45 IV DELAY LINES ON MCT SUBSTRATES . . 46 IV. A. Introduction. IV. B. Preliminary Design. . . . 46 IV. C. Delay Line Design IV. D, Testing Procedure IV. E. Iteradve Design Process. . IV. F. Delay Line Results... lines. . . . . . . . . 41 17 The (a) insertion loss and (b) time delay characteristics for a 1186 ps delay line over temperature . 42 18 274 ps delay lines on (a) MCT20 and (b) MCT40. . . . . . . 47 19 Delay lines with tuning chips on (a) MCT20...

  6. Fluid dynamics on sieve trays

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hag, M.A.

    1982-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A study was conducted to investigate the effects of fluid properties on the hydrodynamics of sieve tray columns. The study showed that changes in liquid viscosity influenced froth height, while changes in liquid surface tension and density influenced total pressure drop across the trays. Liquid holdup was independent of these solution properties. The liquid systems used for the study were: water/glycerol for viscosity, water/ethanol for surface tension and methanol/chloroform for density.

  7. Accurate evolutions of inspiralling neutron-star binaries: prompt and delayed collapse to black hole

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Luca Baiotti; Bruno Giacomazzo; Luciano Rezzolla

    2008-10-24T23:59:59.000Z

    Binary neutron-star (BNS) systems represent primary sources for the gravitational-wave (GW) detectors. We present a systematic investigation in full GR of the dynamics and GW emission from BNS which inspiral and merge, producing a black hole (BH) surrounded by a torus. Our results represent the state of the art from several points of view: (i) We use HRSC methods for the hydrodynamics equations and high-order finite-differencing techniques for the Einstein equations; (ii) We employ AMR techniques with "moving boxes"; (iii) We use as initial data BNSs in irrotational quasi-circular orbits; (iv) We exploit the isolated-horizon formalism to measure the properties of the BHs produced in the merger; (v) Finally, we use two approaches, based either on gauge-invariant perturbations or on Weyl scalars, to calculate the GWs. These techniques allow us to perform accurate evolutions on timescales never reported before (ie ~30 ms) and to provide the first complete description of the inspiral and merger of a BNS leading to the prompt or delayed formation of a BH and to its ringdown. We consider either a polytropic or an ideal fluid EOS and show that already with this idealized EOSs a very interesting phenomenology emerges. In particular, we show that while high-mass binaries lead to the prompt formation of a rapidly rotating BH surrounded by a dense torus, lower-mass binaries give rise to a differentially rotating NS, which undergoes large oscillations and emits large amounts of GWs. Eventually, also the NS collapses to a rotating BH surrounded by a torus. Finally, we also show that the use of a non-isentropic EOS leads to significantly different evolutions, giving rise to a delayed collapse also with high-mass binaries, as well as to a more intense emission of GWs and to a geometrically thicker torus.

  8. Hydrostatic bearings for a turbine fluid flow metering device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fincke, James R. (Rigby, ID)

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A rotor assembly fluid metering device has been improved by development of a hydrostatic bearing fluid system which provides bearing fluid at a common pressure to rotor assembly bearing surfaces. The bearing fluid distribution system produces a uniform film of fluid between bearing surfaces and allows rapid replacement of bearing fluid between bearing surfaces, thereby minimizing bearing wear and corrosion.

  9. Hydrostatic bearings for a turbine fluid flow metering device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fincke, J.R.

    1982-05-04T23:59:59.000Z

    A rotor assembly fluid metering device has been improved by development of a hydrostatic bearing fluid system which provides bearing fluid at a common pressure to rotor assembly bearing surfaces. The bearing fluid distribution system produces a uniform film of fluid between bearing surfaces and allows rapid replacement of bearing fluid between bearing surfaces, thereby minimizing bearing wear and corrosion. 3 figs.

  10. Locomotion in complex fluids: Integral theorems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eric Lauga

    2014-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The biological fluids encountered by self-propelled cells display complex microstructures and rheology. We consider here the general problem of low-Reynolds number locomotion in a complex fluid. {Building on classical work on the transport of particles in viscoelastic fluids,} we demonstrate how to mathematically derive three integral theorems relating the arbitrary motion of an isolated organism to its swimming kinematics {in a non-Newtonian fluid}. These theorems correspond to three situations of interest, namely (1) squirming motion in a linear viscoelastic fluid, (2) arbitrary surface deformation in a weakly non-Newtonian fluid, and (3) small-amplitude deformation in an arbitrarily non-Newtonian fluid. Our final results, valid for a wide-class of {swimmer geometry,} surface kinematics and constitutive models, at most require mathematical knowledge of a series of Newtonian flow problems, and will be useful to quantity the locomotion of biological and synthetic swimmers in complex environments.

  11. OPTIMIZATION OF DEEP DRILLING PERFORMANCE--DEVELOPMENT AND BENCHMARK TESTING OF ADVANCED DIAMOND PRODUCT DRILL BITS & HP/HT FLUIDS TO SIGNIFICANTLY IMPROVE RATES OF PENETRATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alan Black; Arnis Judzis

    2004-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The industry cost shared program aims to benchmark drilling rates of penetration in selected simulated deep formations and to significantly improve ROP through a team development of aggressive diamond product drill bit--fluid system technologies. Overall the objectives are as follows: Phase 1--Benchmark ''best in class'' diamond and other product drilling bits and fluids and develop concepts for a next level of deep drilling performance; Phase 2--Develop advanced smart bit-fluid prototypes and test at large scale; and Phase 3--Field trial smart bit-fluid concepts, modify as necessary and commercialize products. As of report date, TerraTek has concluded all major preparations for the high pressure drilling campaign. Baker Hughes encountered difficulties in providing additional pumping capacity before TerraTek's scheduled relocation to another facility, thus the program was delayed further to accommodate the full testing program.

  12. Coking Coal Import Costs - EIA

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Import Costs for Selected Countries U.S. Dollars per Metric Ton1 (Average Unit Value, CIF2) Country 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 Belgium 48.67 46.59 49.25 78.98...

  13. Converting Petroleum Coke to Electricity 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pavone, A.

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    will compete economically with conventional coal and nature gas, both of which are currently experiencing low prices. Pipeline quality natural gas at the well is selling on average for $1.50 IM- Btu, while cleaned coal at the mine is under $1.00/M... pneumatically into the firebox. Supplementary fuel (10%) would be necessary to ignite the process. and be required continuously to maintain flame stability Firebox temperatues would average 2000-2500 degF. Air would be introduced at several different stages...

  14. Converting Petroleum Coke to Electricity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pavone, A.

    Changes in oil refining technology and economics are driving refiners to utilize thermal processes to maximize the conversion of heavy crude oil components to clean products. Since the primary unit operation to accomplish this objective...

  15. Pulsed Photofission Delayed Gamma Ray Detection for Nuclear Material Identification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    John Kavouras; Xianfei Wen; Daren R. Norman; Dante R. Nakazawa; Haori Yang

    2012-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Innovative systems with increased sensitivity and resolution are in great demand to detect diversion and to prevent misuse in support of nuclear materials management for the U.S. fuel cycle. Nuclear fission is the most important multiplicative process involved in non-destructive active interrogation. This process produces the most easily recognizable signature for nuclear materials. High-energy gamma rays can also excite a nucleus and cause fission through a process known as photofission. After photofission reactions, delayed signals are easily distinguishable from the interrogating radiation. Linac-based, advanced inspection techniques utilizing the fission signals after photofission have been extensively studied for homeland security applications. Previous research also showed that a unique delayed gamma ray energy spectrum exists for each fissionable isotope. Isotopic composition measurement methods based on delayed gamma ray spectroscopy will be the primary focus of this work.

  16. Multiple source/multiple target fluid transfer apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Turner, Terry D. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A fluid transfer apparatus includes: a) a plurality of orifices for connection with fluid sources; b) a plurality of orifices for connection with fluid targets; c) a set of fluid source conduits and fluid target conduits associated with the orifices; d) a pump fluidically interposed between the source and target conduits to transfer fluid therebetween; e) a purge gas conduit in fluid communication with the fluid source conduits, fluid target conduits and pump to receive and pass a purge gas under pressure; f) a solvent conduit in fluid communication with the fluid source conduits, fluid target conduits and pump to receive and pass solvent, the solvent conduit including a solvent valve; g) pump control means for controlling operation of the pump; h) purge gas valve control means for controlling operation of the purge gas valve to selectively impart flow of purge gas to the fluid source conduits, fluid target conduits and pump; i) solvent valve control means for controlling operation of the solvent valve to selectively impart flow of solvent to the fluid source conduits, fluid target conduits and pump; and j) source and target valve control means for controlling operation of the fluid source conduit valves and the fluid target conduit valves to selectively impart passage of fluid between a selected one of the fluid source conduits and a selected one of the fluid target conduits through the pump and to enable passage of solvent or purge gas through selected fluid source conduits and selected fluid target conduits.

  17. Measurements of delayed neutrons yields and time spectra from 1 GeV protons interacting with thick {sup nat}Pb targets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ridikas, D. [CEA Saclay, DSM/DAPNIA, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Barzakh, A. [Petersburg Nuclear Physics Inst., Leningrad district, 188350 Gatchina (Russian Federation); Blideanu, V.; David, J. C.; Dore, D. [CEA Saclay, DSM/DAPNIA, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Fedorov, D. [Petersburg Nuclear Physics Inst., Leningrad district, 188350 Gatchina (Russian Federation); Ledoux, X. [CEA Bruyeres, DIF/DPTA, 91680 Bruyeres-le-Chatel (France); Moroz, F.; Panteleev, V. [Petersburg Nuclear Physics Inst., Leningrad district, 188350 Gatchina (Russian Federation); Plukis, A.; Plukiene, R. [Inst. of Physics, Savanoriu pr. 231, 02300 Vilnius (Lithuania); Prevost, A. [CEA Saclay, DSM/DAPNIA, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Shcherbakov, O.; Vorobyev, A. [Petersburg Nuclear Physics Inst., Leningrad district, 188350 Gatchina (Russian Federation)

    2006-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper presents the preliminary results on measured delayed neutron (DN) yields and time spectra from 1 GeV protons interacting with thick {sup nat}Pb targets. In parallel, the MCNPX and PHTTS codes were used to predict the DN precursors and construct the theoretical DN tables. Different model parameters are examined and show significant dependence on the choice of the intra-nuclear cascade and fission-evaporation models used. These data and modeling are of great importance for the new generation spallation neutron sources based on liquid metal technologies where a significant amount of the DN precursor activity can be accumulated in the target fluid. (authors)

  18. Beta-delayed proton emission from $^{21}$Mg

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lund, M V; Briz, J A; Cederkäll, J; Fynbo, H O U; Jensen, J H; Jonson, B; Laursen, K L; Nilsson, T; Perea, A; Pesudo, V; Riisager, K; Tengblad, O

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Beta-delayed proton emission from $^{21}$Mg has been measured at ISOLDE, CERN, with a detection setup including particle identification capabilities. $\\beta$-delayed protons with center of mass energies between 0.39$\\,$MeV and 7.2$\\,$MeV were measured and used to determine the half life of $^{21}$Mg as $118.6\\pm 0.5\\,$ms. From a line shape fit of the $\\beta p$ branches we extract spectroscopic information about the resonances of $^{21}$Na. Finally an improved interpretation of the decay scheme in accordance with the results obtained in reaction studies is presented.

  19. A Model for Multidimensional Delayed Detonations in SN Ia Explosions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    I. Golombek; J. C. Niemeyer

    2005-03-29T23:59:59.000Z

    We show that a flame tracking/capturing scheme originally developed for deflagration fronts can be used to model thermonuclear detonations in multidimensional explosion simulations of type Ia supernovae. After testing the accuracy of the front model, we present a set of two-dimensional simulations of delayed detonations with a physically motivated off-center deflagration-detonation-transition point. Furthermore, we demonstrate the ability of the front model to reproduce the full range of possible interactions of the detonation with clumps of burned material. This feature is crucial for assessing the viability of the delayed detonation scenario.

  20. Delayed pulsar kicks from the emission of sterile neutrinos

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kusenko, Alexander; Mandal, Bhabani Prasad; Mukherjee, Alok [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1547 (United States); Department of Physics, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi-221005 (India)

    2008-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The observed velocities of pulsars suggest the possibility that sterile neutrinos with mass of several keV are emitted from a cooling neutron star. The same sterile neutrinos could constitute all or part of cosmological dark matter. The neutrino-driven kicks can exhibit delays depending on the mass and the mixing angle, which can be compared with the pulsar data. We discuss the allowed ranges of sterile neutrino parameters, consistent with the latest cosmological and x-ray bounds, which can explain the pulsar kicks for different delay times.

  1. Time delayed laser networks: phase versus chaos synchronization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reidler, I; Aviad, Y; Guberman, S; Friesem, A A; Rosenbluh, M; Davidson, N; Kanter, I

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The synchronization of chaotic lasers and the optical phase synchronization of light originating in multiple coupled lasers have both been extensively studied, however, the interplay between these two phenomena, especially at the network level is unexplored. Here we experimentally compare chaos synchronization of laser networks with heterogeneous coupling delay times to phase synchronization of similar networks. While chaotic lasers exhibit deterioration in synchronization as the network time delay heterogeneity increases, phase synchronization is found to be independent of heterogeneity. The experimental results are found to be in agreement with numerical simulations for semiconductor lasers.

  2. Time delayed laser networks: phase versus chaos synchronization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    I. Reidler; M. Nixon; Y. Aviad; S. Guberman; A. A. Friesem; M. Rosenbluh; N. Davidson; I. Kanter

    2013-04-03T23:59:59.000Z

    The synchronization of chaotic lasers and the optical phase synchronization of light originating in multiple coupled lasers have both been extensively studied, however, the interplay between these two phenomena, especially at the network level is unexplored. Here we experimentally compare chaos synchronization of laser networks with heterogeneous coupling delay times to phase synchronization of similar networks. While chaotic lasers exhibit deterioration in synchronization as the network time delay heterogeneity increases, phase synchronization is found to be independent of heterogeneity. The experimental results are found to be in agreement with numerical simulations for semiconductor lasers.

  3. GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONS CONTROL BY OXYGEN FIRING IN CIRCULATING FLUID BED BOILERS (Phase II--Evaluation of the Oxyfuel CFB Concept)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    John L. Marion; Nsakala ya Nsakala

    2003-11-09T23:59:59.000Z

    The overall project goal is to determine if carbon dioxide can be captured and sequestered at a cost of about $10/ton of carbon avoided, using a newly constructed Circulating Fluidized Bed combustor while burning coal with a mixture of oxygen and recycled flue gas, instead of air. This project is structured in two Phases. Phase I was performed between September 28, 2001 and May 15, 2002. Results from Phase I were documented in a Topical Report issued on May 15, 2003 (Nsakala, et al., 2003), with the recommendation to evaluate, during Phase II, the Oxyfuel-fired CFB concept. DOE NETL accepted this recommendation, and, hence approved the project continuation into Phase II. Phase 2. The second phase of the project--which includes pilot-scale tests of an oxygen-fired circulating fluidized bed test facility with performance and economic analyses--is currently underway at ALSTOM's Power Plant Laboratories, located in Windsor, CT (US). The objective of the pilot-scale testing is to generate detailed technical data needed to establish advanced CFB design requirements and performance when firing coals and delayed petroleum coke in oxygen/carbon dioxide mixtures. Results will be used in the design of oxygen-fired CFB boilers--both retrofit and new Greenfield--as well as to provide a generic performance database for other researchers. At the conclusion of Phase 2, revised costs and performance will be estimated for both retrofit and new Greenfield design concepts with CO2 capture, purification, compression, and liquefaction.

  4. Immersible solar heater for fluids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kronberg, James W. (Aiken, SC)

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An immersible solar heater comprising a light-absorbing panel attached to a frame for absorbing heat energy from the light and transferring the absorbed heat energy directly to the fluid in which the heater is immersed. The heater can be used to heat a swimming pool, for example, and is held in position and at a preselected angle by a system of floats, weights and tethers so that the panel can operate efficiently. A skid can be used in one embodiment to prevent lateral movement of the heater along the bottom of the pool. Alternative embodiments include different arrangements of the weights, floats and tethers and methods for making the heater.

  5. Fluid cooled vehicle drive module

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Beihoff, Bruce C.; Radosevich, Lawrence D.; Meyer, Andreas A.; Gollhardt, Neil; Kannenberg, Daniel G.

    2005-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    An electric vehicle drive includes a support may receive one or more power electronic circuits. The support may aid in removing heat from the circuits through fluid circulating through the support. The support, in conjunction with other packaging features may form a shield from both external EM/RFI and from interference generated by operation of the power electronic circuits. Features may be provided to permit and enhance connection of the circuitry to external circuitry, such as improved terminal configurations. Modular units may be assembled that may be coupled to electronic circuitry via plug-in arrangements or through interface with a backplane or similar mounting and interconnecting structures.

  6. Fluid Imaging | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are8COaBulkTransmissionSitingProcess.pdf Jump to:ar-80m.pdfFillmoreGabbs Valley Area (DOEARRA Funded Projects for Fluid

  7. Fluid bed gasification – Plasma converter process generating energy from solid waste: Experimental assessment of sulphur species

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Morrin, Shane, E-mail: shane.morrin@ucl.ac.uk [Department of Chemical Engineering, University College London, London WC1E 7JE (United Kingdom); Advanced Plasma Power, Swindon, Wiltshire SN3 4DE (United Kingdom); Lettieri, Paola, E-mail: p.lettieri@ucl.ac.uk [Department of Chemical Engineering, University College London, London WC1E 7JE (United Kingdom); Chapman, Chris, E-mail: chris.chapman@app-uk.com [Advanced Plasma Power, Swindon, Wiltshire SN3 4DE (United Kingdom); Taylor, Richard, E-mail: richard.taylor@app-uk.com [Advanced Plasma Power, Swindon, Wiltshire SN3 4DE (United Kingdom)

    2014-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Highlights: • We investigate gaseous sulphur species whilst gasifying sulphur-enriched wood pellets. • Experiments performed using a two stage fluid bed gasifier – plasma converter process. • Notable SO{sub 2} and relatively low COS levels were identified. • Oxygen-rich regions of the bed are believed to facilitate SO{sub 2}, with a delayed release. • Gas phase reducing regions above the bed would facilitate more prompt COS generation. - Abstract: Often perceived as a Cinderella material, there is growing appreciation for solid waste as a renewable content thermal process feed. Nonetheless, research on solid waste gasification and sulphur mechanisms in particular is lacking. This paper presents results from two related experiments on a novel two stage gasification process, at demonstration scale, using a sulphur-enriched wood pellet feed. Notable SO{sub 2} and relatively low COS levels (before gas cleaning) were interesting features of the trials, and not normally expected under reducing gasification conditions. Analysis suggests that localised oxygen rich regions within the fluid bed played a role in SO{sub 2}’s generation. The response of COS to sulphur in the feed was quite prompt, whereas SO{sub 2} was more delayed. It is proposed that the bed material sequestered sulphur from the feed, later aiding SO{sub 2} generation. The more reducing gas phase regions above the bed would have facilitated COS – hence its faster response. These results provide a useful insight, with further analysis on a suite of performed experiments underway, along with thermodynamic modelling.

  8. System and method for filling a plurality of isolated vehicle fluid circuits through a common fluid fill port

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sullivan, Scott C; Fansler, Douglas

    2014-10-14T23:59:59.000Z

    A vehicle having multiple isolated fluid circuits configured to be filled through a common fill port includes a first fluid circuit disposed within the vehicle, the first fluid circuit having a first fill port, a second fluid circuit disposed within the vehicle, and a conduit defining a fluid passageway between the first fluid circuit and second fluid circuit, the conduit including a valve. The valve is configured such that the first and second fluid circuits are fluidly coupled via the passageway when the valve is open, and are fluidly isolated when the valve is closed.

  9. Supercritical fluid thermodynamics for coal processing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    van Swol, F. (Illinois Univ., Urbana, IL (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering); Eckert, C.A. (Georgia Inst. of Tech., Atlanta, GA (United States). School of Chemical Engineering)

    1988-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The main objective of this research is to develop an equation of state that can be used to predict solubilities and tailor supercritical fluid solvents for the extraction and processing of coal. To meet this objective we have implemented a two-sided. approach. First, we expanded the database of model coal compound solubilities in higher temperature fluids, polar fluids, and fluid mixtures systems. Second, the unique solute/solute, solute/cosolvent and solute/solvent intermolecular interactions in supercritical fluid solutions were investigated using spectroscopic techniques. These results increased our understanding of the molecular phenomena that affect solubility in supercritical fluids and were significant in the development of an equation of state that accurately reflects the true molecular makeup of the solution. (VC)

  10. On the equivalence of nonadiabatic fluids

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    W. Barreto

    2010-11-17T23:59:59.000Z

    Here we show how an anisotropic fluid in the diffusion limit can be equivalent to an isotropic fluid in the streaming out limit, in spherical symmetry. For a particular equation of state this equivalence is total, from one fluid we can obtain the other and vice versa. A numerical master model is presented, based on a generic equation of state, in which only quantitative differences are displayed between both nonadiabatic fluids. From a deeper view, other difference between fluids is shown as an asymmetry that can be overcome if we consider the appropriate initial-boundary conditions. Equivalence in this context can be considered as a first order method of approximation to study dissipative fluids.

  11. Split driveshaft pump for hazardous fluids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Evans, II, Thomas P. (Aiken, SC); Purohit, Jwalit J. (Evans, GA); Fazio, John M. (Orchard Park, NY)

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A pump having a split driveshaft for use in pumping hazardous fluids wherein only one driveshaft becomes contaminated by the fluid while the second remains isolated from the fluid. The pump has a first portion and a second portion. The first portion contains a pump motor, the first driveshaft, a support pedestal, and vapor barriers and seals. The second portion contains a second, self-lubricating driveshaft and an impeller. The first and second driveshafts are connected together by a releasable coupling. A shield and a slinger deployed below the coupling prevent fluid from the second portion from reaching the first portion. In operation, only the second assembly comes into contact with the fluid being pumped, so the risk of contamination of the first portion by the hazardous fluid is reduced. The first assembly can be removed for repairs or routine maintenance by decoupling the first and second driveshafts and disconnecting the motor from the casing.

  12. Drill-in fluids control formation damage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Halliday, W.S. (Baker Hughes Inteq, Houston, TX (United States))

    1994-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Several factors led to development, oil company interest in, and use of payzone drilling fluids, including operator concern about maximizing well production, increasing acceptance of horizontal drilling and openhole completion popularity. This article discusses water-base drill-in'' fluid systems and applications. Payzone damage, including fine solids migration, clay swelling and solids invasion, reduces effective formation permeability, which results in lower production rates. Formation damage is often caused by invasion of normal drilling fluids that contain barite or bentonite. Drill-in systems are designed with special bridging agents to minimize invasion. Several bridging materials designed to form effective filter cake for instantaneous leak-off control can be used. Bridging materials are also designed to minimize stages and time required to clean up wells before production. Fluids with easy-to-remove bridging agents reduce completion costs. Drill-in fluid bridging particles can often be removed more thoroughly than those in standard fluids.

  13. Hydrostatic bearings for a turbine fluid flow metering device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fincke, J.R.

    1980-05-02T23:59:59.000Z

    A rotor assembly fluid metering device has been improved by development of a hydrostatic bearing fluid system which provides bearing fluid at a common pressure to rotor assembly bearing surfaces. The bearing fluid distribution system produces a uniform film of fluid distribution system produces a uniform film of fluid between bearing surfaces and allows rapid replacement of bearing fluid between bearing surfaces, thereby minimizing bearing wear and corrosion.

  14. Fluid control structures in microfluidic devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mathies, Richard A. (Moraga, CA); Grover, William H. (Berkeley, CA); Skelley, Alison (Berkeley, CA); Lagally, Eric (Oakland, CA); Liu, Chung N. (Albany, CA)

    2008-11-04T23:59:59.000Z

    Methods and apparatus for implementing microfluidic analysis devices are provided. A monolithic elastomer membrane associated with an integrated pneumatic manifold allows the placement and actuation of a variety of fluid control structures, such as structures for pumping, isolating, mixing, routing, merging, splitting, preparing, and storing volumes of fluid. The fluid control structures can be used to implement a variety of sample introduction, preparation, processing, and storage techniques.

  15. Metaphoric optical computing of fluid dynamics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tsang, M; Tsang, Mankei; Psaltis, Demetri

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We present theoretical and numerical evidence to show that self-defocusing nonlinear optical propagation can be used to compute Euler fluid dynamics and possibly Navier-Stokes fluid dynamics. In particular, the formation of twin vortices and the K\\'arm\\'an vortex street behind an obstacle, two well-known viscous fluid phenomena, is numerically demonstrated using the nonlinear Schr\\"odinger equation.

  16. MANAGING WIRE DELAY IN CHIP MULTIPROCESSOR CACHES Bradford M. Beckmann

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wood, David A.

    . In contrast, transmission lines can reduce on-chip wire delay by an order of magnitude versus conventional wires and provide low latency to all shared cache banks. We demonstrate on-chip transmission lines provided by transmission lines and reduce off-chip misses versus a design using conventional wires. We

  17. Extending Qualitative Modelling for Simulation of TimeDelayed Behaviour

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Miguel, Ian

    industrial plants is to choose a measured variable and maintain the re­ quired value of this variable through a process of mea­ surement, comparison, and adjustment. A time delay between a disturbance in the plant applicable to simulators that enable synchronous tracking. The rest of this paper is arranged as follows

  18. Delay Fast Packets (DFP): Prevention of DNS Cache Poisoning

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dolev, Danny

    Delay Fast Packets (DFP): Prevention of DNS Cache Poisoning Shimrit Tzur-David Kiril Lashchiver, or any other network resource. This paper presents a solution for the cache poisoning attack in which the attacker inserts incorrect data into the DNS cache. In order to successfully poison the cache, the attacker

  19. Distributed Storage Allocations for Optimal Delay Derek Leong

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bruck, Jehoshua (Shuki)

    Distributed Storage Allocations for Optimal Delay Derek Leong Department of Electrical Engineering an encoded distributed storage representation of a data object for a network of mobile storage nodes so representation of it to other nodes for storage, subject to a given total storage budget. A data collector node

  20. Kalman filter analysis of delayed neutron nondestructive assay measurements.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aumeier, S. E.

    1998-04-29T23:59:59.000Z

    The ability to nondestructively determine the presence and quantity of fissile and fertile nuclei in various matrices is important in several nuclear applications including international and domestics safeguards, radioactive waste characterization and nuclear facility operations. Material irradiation followed by delayed neutron counting is a well known and useful nondestructive assay technique used to determine the fissile-effective content of assay samples. Previous studies have demonstrated the feasibility of using Kalman filters to unfold individual isotopic contributions to delayed neutron measurements resulting from the assay of mixes of uranium and plutonium isotopes. However, the studies in question used simulated measurement data and idealized parameters. We present the results of the Kalman filter analysis of several measurements of U/Pu mixes taken using Argonne National Laboratory's delayed neutron nondestructive assay device. The results demonstrate the use of Kalman filters as a signal processing tool to determine the fissile and fertile isotopic content of an assay sample from the aggregate delayed neutron response following neutron irradiation.

  1. Fast amplitude and delay measurement for characterization of optical devices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thompson, Michael Thomas

    2006-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

    to determine the chromatic dispersion in the device under test by taking the derivative of the group delay with respect to optical wavelength. The measurement setup allows both step-tunable and sweeping laser sources. A modulation frequency of up to 2.7 GHz...

  2. Delayed Development of Pneumothorax After Pulmonary Radiofrequency Ablation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clasen, Stephan, E-mail: stephan.clasen@med.uni-tuebingen.d [Eberhard-Karls-University of Tuebingen, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology (Germany); Kettenbach, Joachim [Medical University of Vienna, Cardiovascular and Interventional Radiology, Department of Radiology (Austria); Kosan, Bora; Aebert, Hermann [Eberhard-Karls-University of Tuebingen, Department of Thoracic, Cardiac and Vascular Surgery (Germany); Schernthaner, Melanie [Medical University of Vienna, Cardiovascular and Interventional Radiology, Department of Radiology (Austria); Kroeber, Stefan-Martin [Eberhard-Karls-University of Tuebingen, Institute of Pathology (Germany); Boemches, Andrea [Eberhard-Karls-University of Tuebingen, Department of Thoracic, Cardiac and Vascular Surgery (Germany); Claussen, Claus D.; Pereira, Philippe L. [Eberhard-Karls-University of Tuebingen, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology (Germany)

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Acute pneumothorax is a frequent complication after percutaneous pulmonary radiofrequency (RF) ablation. In this study we present three cases showing delayed development of pneumothorax after pulmonary RF ablation in 34 patients. Our purpose is to draw attention to this delayed complication and to propose a possible approach to avoid this major complication. These three cases occurred subsequent to 44 CT-guided pulmonary RF ablation procedures (6.8%) using either internally cooled or multitined expandable RF electrodes. In two patients, the pneumothorax, being initially absent at the end of the intervention, developed without symptoms. One of these patients required chest drain placement 32 h after RF ablation, and in the second patient therapy remained conservative. In the third patient, a slight pneumothorax at the end of the intervention gradually increased and led into tension pneumothorax 5 days after ablation procedure. Underlying bronchopleural fistula along the coagulated former electrode track was diagnosed in two patients. In conclusion, delayed development of pneumothorax after pulmonary RF ablation can occur and is probably due to underlying bronchopleural fistula, potentially leading to tension pneumothorax. Patients and interventionalists should be prepared for delayed onset of this complication, and extensive track ablation following pulmonary RF ablation should be avoided.

  3. Delayed energy injection model for gamma-ray burst afterglows

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Geng, J. J.; Huang, Y. F.; Yu, Y. B. [Department of Astronomy, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Wu, X. F., E-mail: hyf@nju.edu.cn, E-mail: xfwu@pmo.ac.cn [Purple Mountain Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008 (China)

    2013-12-10T23:59:59.000Z

    The shallow decay phase and flares in the afterglows of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are widely believed to be associated with the later activation of the central engine. Some models of energy injection involve a continuous energy flow since the GRB trigger time, such as the magnetic dipole radiation from a magnetar. However, in the scenario involving a black hole accretion system, the energy flow from the fall-back accretion may be delayed for a fall-back time ?t {sub fb}. Thus, we propose a delayed energy injection model. The delayed energy would cause a notable rise to the Lorentz factor of the external shock, which will 'generate' a bump in the multiple band afterglows. If the delayed time is very short, our model degenerates to the previous models. Our model can explain the significant re-brightening in the optical and infrared light curves of GRB 081029 and GRB 100621A. A considerable fall-back mass is needed to provide the later energy; this indicates that GRBs accompanied with fall-back material may be associated with a low energy supernova so that the fraction of the envelope can survive during eruption. The fall-back time can give meaningful information on the properties of GRB progenitor stars.

  4. Distortion management in slow-light pulse delay

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gauthier, Daniel

    . K. Lee, and A. Yariv, "Scattering theory analysis of waveguide-resonator coupling," Phys. Rev. E 62, 7389­7404 (2000). 5. A. Yariv, Y. Xu, R. K. Lee, and A. Scherer, "Coupled resonator optical waveguideDistortion management in slow-light pulse delay Michael D. Stenner and Mark A. Neifeld University

  5. A DELAYED NONLINEAR PBPK MODEL FOR GENISTEIN DOSIMETRY IN RATS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A DELAYED NONLINEAR PBPK MODEL FOR GENISTEIN DOSIMETRY IN RATS #3; MICHAEL G. ZAGER y , HIEN T on laboratory animals and human volunteers [4], and critical literature reviews [32]. Phytoestrogens, a class endocrine-related e#11;ects such as reduced birth weight in rats and humans. In its conjugated form

  6. Modeling a Snap-Action, Variable-Delay Switch

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Department of Systems Biology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America, 2, Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States of America When exposed to tumor necrosis factor (TNF) or TNFModeling a Snap-Action, Variable-Delay Switch Controlling Extrinsic Cell Death John G. Albeck1

  7. Electron-capture delayed fission properties of {sup 242}Es

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shaughnessy, D. A. [Nuclear Science Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, MS 70-319, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States) [Nuclear Science Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, MS 70-319, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Chemistry Department, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Adams, J. L. [Nuclear Science Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, MS 70-319, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States) [Nuclear Science Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, MS 70-319, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Gregorich, K. E. [Nuclear Science Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, MS 70-319, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States) [Nuclear Science Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, MS 70-319, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Lane, M. R. [Nuclear Science Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, MS 70-319, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States) [Nuclear Science Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, MS 70-319, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Laue, C. A. [Nuclear Science Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, MS 70-319, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States) [Nuclear Science Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, MS 70-319, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Lee, D. M. [Nuclear Science Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, MS 70-319, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States) [Nuclear Science Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, MS 70-319, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); McGrath, C. A. [Nuclear Science Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, MS 70-319, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States) [Nuclear Science Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, MS 70-319, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Patin, J. B. [Nuclear Science Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, MS 70-319, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States) [Nuclear Science Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, MS 70-319, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Strellis, D. A. [Nuclear Science Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, MS 70-319, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States) [Nuclear Science Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, MS 70-319, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Sylwester, E. R. [Nuclear Science Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, MS 70-319, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States) [Nuclear Science Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, MS 70-319, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Chemistry Department, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)] (and others)

    2000-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Electron-capture delayed fission of {sup 242}Es produced via the {sup 233}U({sup 14}N,5n){sup 242}Es reaction at 87 MeV (on target) was observed to decay with a half-life of 11{+-}3 s, consistent with the reported {alpha}-decay half-life of {sup 242}Es of 16{sub -4}{sup +6} s. The mass-yield distribution of the fission fragments is highly asymmetric. The average pre-neutron emission total kinetic energy of the fragments was measured to be 183{+-}18 MeV. Based on the ratio of the measured number of fission events to the measured number of {alpha} decays from the electron-capture daughter {sup 242}Cf (100% {alpha} branch), the probability of delayed fission was determined to be 0.006{+-}0.002. This value for the delayed fission probability fits the experimental trend of increasing delayed fission probability with increasing Q value for electron capture. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society.

  8. Delayed Gamma-Ray Spectroscopy for Spent Nuclear Fuel Assay

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Campbell, Luke W.; Hunt, Alan W.; Ludewigt, Bernhard A.; Mozin, Vladimir V.

    2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    High-energy, beta-delayed gamma-ray spectroscopy is investigated as a non-destructive assay technique for the determination of plutonium mass in spent nuclear fuel. This approach exploits the unique isotope-specific signatures contained in the delayed gamma-ray emission spectra detected following active interrogation with an external neutron source. A high fidelity modeling approach is described that couples radiation transport, analytical decay/depletion, and a newly developed gamma-ray emission source reconstruction code. Initially simulated and analyzed was a “one-pass” delayed gamma-ray assay that focused on the long-lived signatures. Also presented are the results of an independent study that investigated “pulsed mode” measurements, to capture the more isotope-specific, short-lived signatures. Initial modeling results outlined in this paper suggest that delayed gamma-ray assay of spent nuclear fuel assemblies can be accomplished with a neutron generator of sufficient strength and currently available gamma-ray detectors.

  9. Outage behavior with delay and CSIT Dinesh Rajan

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rajan, Dinesh

    Outage behavior with delay and CSIT Dinesh Rajan Department of electrical engineering Southern of electrical and computer engineering Rice University, Houston, Texas. ashu@rice.edu, aaz@rice.edu Abstract-- In this paper, we demonstrate that the packet outage probability for fading channels can be significantly

  10. Towards Data-Driven Declarative Networking in Delay Tolerant Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tucci, Sara

    .lastname}@cl.cam.ac.uk ABSTRACT A Delay Tolerant Network (DTN) provides content storage as a core network service across The Internet has transformed the way we seek information, but it requires strong connectivity with no tolerance are sparsely distributed so that networks are often partitioned due to geographical separation or node movement

  11. Fast amplitude and delay measurement for characterization of optical devices 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thompson, Michael Thomas

    2006-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

    of the measured magnitude response of an Acetylene gas cell and comparing it to the integral of the measured group delay. The average deviation between the two methods is 0.1 radians. An Acetylene gas cell, fiber Bragg grating, and chirped Bragg grating are tested...

  12. Efficient Path Delay Test Generation with Boolean Satisfiability

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bian, Kun

    2013-12-10T23:59:59.000Z

    delay test generator CodGen. A mixed structural-functional approach was implemented in CodGen where longest paths were detected using the K Longest Path Per Gate (KLPG) algorithm and path justification and dynamic compaction were handled with the SAT...

  13. Critical phenomena in perfect fluids

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    David W. Neilsen; Matthew W. Choptuik

    1999-04-18T23:59:59.000Z

    We investigate the gravitational collapse of a spherically symmetric, perfect fluid with equation of state P = (Gamma -1)rho. We restrict attention to the ultrarelativistic (``kinetic-energy-dominated'', ``scale-free'') limit where black hole formation is anticipated to turn on at infinitesimal black hole mass (Type II behavior). Critical solutions (those which sit at the threshold of black hole formation in parametrized families of collapse) are found by solving the system of ODEs which result from a self-similar ansatz, and by solving the full Einstein/fluid PDEs in spherical symmetry. These latter PDE solutions (``simulations'') extend the pioneering work of Evans and Coleman (Gamma = 4/3) and verify that the continuously self-similar solutions previously found by Maison and Hara et al for $1.05 Gamma_dn are nodal points rather than focal points as previously reported. We also find a critical solution for Gamma = 2, and present evidence that it is continuously self-similar and Type II. Mass-scaling exponents for all of the critical solutions are calculated by evolving near-critical initial data, with results which confirm and extend previous calculations based on linear perturbation theory. Finally, we comment on critical solutions generated with an ideal-gas equation of state.

  14. Process for retarding fluid flow

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sandford, B.B.; Zillmer, R.C.

    1989-01-10T23:59:59.000Z

    A process is described for retarding the flow of fluid in a subterranean formation, comprising: (a) introducing an effective amount of a gel-forming composition into a subterranean formation, the gel-forming composition being operable when gelled in the formation for retarding the flow of fluid therein. The gel-forming composition consists of: i. a first substance dissolved in water to form an aqueous solution, the first substance being selected from the group consisting of polyvivyl alcohols, and mixtures thereof, wherein the gel-forming composition contains an amount of the first substance of from about 0.5 to about 5 weight percent of the gel-forming composition, and ii. an effective amount of glutaraldehyde which is operable for forming a weakly acidic condition having a pH from about 5.5 to less than 7 in the gel-forming composition and also operable for promoting crosslinking of the first substance and glutaraldehyde and for forming a gel from the gel-forming composition under the weakly acidic condition within a period of time no greater than about 5 days without adding an acidic catalyst to the gel-forming composition to lower the pH of the gel-forming composition below about 5.5.

  15. SEISMIC MONITORING OF CARBON DIOXIDE FLUID FLOW

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    santos

    SEISMIC MONITORING OF. CARBON DIOXIDE FLUID FLOW. J. E. Santos. 1. , G. B. Savioli. 2. , J. M. Carcione. 3. , D. Gei. 3. 1. CONICET, IGPUBA, Fac.

  16. Solution generating theorems for perfect fluid spheres

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Petarpa Boonserm; Matt Visser; Silke Weinfurtner

    2006-09-20T23:59:59.000Z

    The first static spherically symmetric perfect fluid solution with constant density was found by Schwarzschild in 1918. Generically, perfect fluid spheres are interesting because they are first approximations to any attempt at building a realistic model for a general relativistic star. Over the past 90 years a confusing tangle of specific perfect fluid spheres has been discovered, with most of these examples seemingly independent from each other. To bring some order to this collection, we develop several new transformation theorems that map perfect fluid spheres into perfect fluid spheres. These transformation theorems sometimes lead to unexpected connections between previously known perfect fluid spheres, sometimes lead to new previously unknown perfect fluid spheres, and in general can be used to develop a systematic way of classifying the set of all perfect fluid spheres. In addition, we develop new ``solution generating'' theorems for the TOV, whereby any given solution can be ``deformed'' to a new solution. Because these TOV-based theorems work directly in terms of the pressure profile and density profile it is relatively easy to impose regularity conditions at the centre of the fluid sphere.

  17. Coupled atomistic-continuum methods for fluids

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    I will discuss the coupling scheme, its application to polymer fluids, and the major difficulties in implementations. In the second part of the talk, I will discuss the ...

  18. DISPLAYING AND INTERPRETING FLUID INCLUSION STRATIGRAPHY ANALYSES...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    ANALYSES ON MUDLOG GRAPHS Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Conference Proceedings: DISPLAYING AND INTERPRETING FLUID INCLUSION STRATIGRAPHY...

  19. Methodologies for Reservoir Characterization Using Fluid Inclusion...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Surveys Chemical Signatures of and Precursors to Fractures Using Fluid Inclusion Stratigraphy Creation of an Engineered Geothermal System through Hydraulic and Thermal Stimulation...

  20. Gas powered fluid gun with recoil mitigation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grubelich, Mark C; Yonas, Gerold

    2013-11-12T23:59:59.000Z

    A gas powered fluid gun for propelling a stream or slug of a fluid at high velocity toward a target. Recoil mitigation is provided that reduces or eliminates the associated recoil forces, with minimal or no backwash. By launching a quantity of water in the opposite direction, net momentum forces are reduced or eliminated. Examples of recoil mitigation devices include a cone for making a conical fluid sheet, a device forming multiple impinging streams of fluid, a cavitating venturi, one or more spinning vanes, or an annular tangential entry/exit.

  1. Fourier's Law for a Granular Fluid

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    James W. Dufty

    2007-07-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Newton' viscosity law for the momentum flux and Fourier's law for the heat flux define Navier-Stokes hydrodynamics for a simple, one component fluid. There is ample evidence that a hydrodynamic description applies as well to a mesoscopic granular fluid with the same form for Newton's viscosity law. However, theory predicts a qualitative difference for Fourier's law with an additional contribution from density gradients even at uniform temperature. The reasons for the absence of such terms for normal fluids are indicated, and a related microscopic explanation for their existence in granular fluids is presented.

  2. Spinning Fluids: A Group Theoretical Approach

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dario Capasso; Debajyoti Sarkar

    2014-04-07T23:59:59.000Z

    We extend the Lagrangian formulation of relativistic non-abelian fluids in group theory language. We propose a Mathisson-Papapetrou equation for spinning fluids in terms of the reduction limit of de Sitter group. The equation we find correctly boils down to the one for non-spinning fluids. We study the application of our results for an FRW cosmological background for fluids with no vorticity and for dusts in the vicinity of a Kerr black hole. We also explore two alternative approaches based on a group theoretical formulation of particles dynamics.

  3. Shearing a glass and the role of pin-delay in models of interface depinning

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stefanos Papanikolaou

    2014-08-04T23:59:59.000Z

    When a disordered solid is sheared, yielding is followed by the onset of intermittent response that is characterized by slip in local regions usually labeled shear-transformation zones (STZ). Such intermittent response resembles the behavior of earthquakes or contact depinning, where a well-defined landscape of pinning disorder prohibits the deformation of an elastic medium. Nevertheless, a disordered solid is evidently different in that pinning barriers of particles are due to neighbors that are also subject to motion. Microscopic yielding leads to destruction of the local microstructure and local heating. It is natural to assume that locally a liquid emerges for a finite timescale before cooling down to a transformed configuration. For including this characteristic transient in glass depinning models, we propose a general mechanism that involves a "pin-delay" time Tpd, during which each region that slipped evolves as a fluid. The new timescale can be as small as a single avalanche time-step. We demonstrate that the inclusion of this mechanism causes a drift of the critical exponents towards higher values for the slip sizes $\\tau$, until a transition to permanent shear-banding behavior happens causing almost oscillatory, stick-slip response. Moreover, it leads to a proliferation of large events that are highly inhomogeneous and resemble sharp slip band formation. Our model appears to be qualitatively consistent with recent experiments and simulations of disordered solids under shear.

  4. An investigation into the effects of changes in temperature and shear rate upon the viscous behavior of a crosslinked fracture fluid

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nichols, John Edward

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    representing typical field situations. One case simulates a high shear rate-low temperature fracture system typical of many shallow reservoirs. The second case models deep reservoir fracture treatment conditions of low shear rates and high tempera- tures... OF RESULTS 33 44 48 Temperature History Effects. High Shear Rate (HSR) and Low Shear Rate (LSR) Fluid Testing Methods and Their Results. 51 CONCLUSIONS RECOMMENDATIONS FOR FUTURE WORK 56 APPENDICES 57 APPENDIX A ? COMPOSITION OF DELAYED...

  5. Under consideration for publication in J. Fluid Mech. 1 Hydroelastic waves on fluid sheets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Parau, Emilian I.

    ). In particular our work may find application in flat plate-type fuel assemblies found in nuclear reactor coolingUnder consideration for publication in J. Fluid Mech. 1 Hydroelastic waves on fluid sheets M. G. B 6BT, UK (Received 26 March 2012) Nonlinear travelling waves on a two-dimensional inviscid fluid

  6. Laser microfluidics : fluid actuation by light Laser microfluidics: fluid actuation by light

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Laser microfluidics : fluid actuation by light Laser microfluidics: fluid actuation by light Jean.delville@cpmoh.u-bordeaux1.fr Abstract: The development of microfluidic devices is still hindered by the lack of robust to extend this concept to microfluidic two-phase flows. First, we investigate the destabilization of fluid

  7. Investigation of the "summation" method for predicting group dependent delayed neutron data

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Angers, Laetitia Genevieve

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of the average delayed neutron lifetime by 15% for U-235 thermal fission, which agrees more closely with Keepin's results. The modified delayed neutron data set also improves the calculated reactor period (relative to the reactor period calculated using Keepin...

  8. Scheduling algorithms for throughput maximization in time-varying networks with reconfiguration delays

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Celik, Guner Dincer

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We consider the control of possibly time-varying wireless networks under reconfiguration delays. Reconfiguration delay is the time it takes to switch network resources from one subset of nodes to another and it is a ...

  9. Immersible solar heater for fluids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kronberg, J.W.

    1995-07-11T23:59:59.000Z

    An immersible solar heater is described comprising a light-absorbing panel attached to a frame for absorbing heat energy from the light and transferring the absorbed heat energy directly to the fluid in which the heater is immersed. The heater can be used to heat a swimming pool, for example, and is held in position and at a preselected angle by a system of floats, weights and tethers so that the panel can operate efficiently. A skid can be used in one embodiment to prevent lateral movement of the heater along the bottom of the pool. Alternative embodiments include different arrangements of the weights, floats and tethers and methods for making the heater. 11 figs.

  10. Immersible solar heater for fluids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hazen, T.C.; Fliermans, C.B.

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An immersible solar heater is described comprising a light-absorbing panel attached to a frame for absorbing heat energy from the light and transferring the absorbed heat energy directly to the fluid in which the heater is immersed. The heater can be used to heat a swimming pool, for example, and is held in position and at a preselected angle by a system of floats, weights and tethers so that the panel can operate efficiently. A skid can be used in one embodiment to prevent lateral movement of the heater along the bottom of the pool. Alternative embodiments include different arrangements of the weights, floats and tethers and methods for making the heater.

  11. Foam vessel for cryogenic fluid storage

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Spear, Jonathan D (San Francisco, CA)

    2011-07-05T23:59:59.000Z

    Cryogenic storage and separator vessels made of polyolefin foams are disclosed, as are methods of storing and separating cryogenic fluids and fluid mixtures using these vessels. In one embodiment, the polyolefin foams may be cross-linked, closed-cell polyethylene foams with a density of from about 2 pounds per cubic foot to a density of about 4 pounds per cubic foot.

  12. Geothermal Reservoir Evaluation Considering Fluid Adsorption

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stanford University

    SGP-"R- 68 Geothermal Reservoir Evaluation Considering Fluid Adsorption and Composition Michael J, California #12;GEOTHERMAL RESERVOIR EVALUATION CONSIDERING FLUID ADSORPTION AND COMPOSITION A DISSERTATIONFtion phenomena is described. Then, t h e implications of adsorption on material balance calculations and on vel1

  13. Mechanical Engineering ME 3720 FLUID MECHANICS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Panchagnula, Mahesh

    . Fundamentals of fluid flow; fluid statics; systems, and control volumes; continuity, momentum and energy physical model results to prototype 10. Use Moody chart to calculate friction losses in pipe flows 11 equations; dynamic similitude; One-dimensional compressible flow. The objective(s) of this course is (are

  14. Fluid permeability measurement system and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hallman, Jr., Russell Louis (Knoxville, TN); Renner, Michael John (Oak Ridge, TN)

    2008-02-05T23:59:59.000Z

    A system for measuring the permeance of a material. The permeability of the material may also be derived. The system provides a liquid or high concentration fluid bath on one side of a material test sample, and a gas flow across the opposing side of the material test sample. The mass flow rate of permeated fluid as a fraction of the combined mass flow rate of gas and permeated fluid is used to calculate the permeance of the material. The material test sample may be a sheet, a tube, or a solid shape. Operational test conditions may be varied, including concentration of the fluid, temperature of the fluid, strain profile of the material test sample, and differential pressure across the material test sample.

  15. Theory of locomotion through complex fluids

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gwynn Elfring; Eric Lauga

    2014-10-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Microorganisms such as bacteria often swim in fluid environments that cannot be classified as Newtonian. Many biological fluids contain polymers or other heterogeneities which may yield complex rheology. For a given set of boundary conditions on a moving organism, flows can be substantially different in complex fluids, while non-Newtonian stresses can alter the gait of the microorganisms themselves. Heterogeneities in the fluid may also be characterized by length scales on the order of the organism itself leading to additional dynamic complexity. In this chapter we present a theoretical overview of small-scale locomotion in complex fluids with a focus on recent efforts quantifying the impact of non-Newtonian rheology on swimming microorganisms.

  16. Pumping viscoelastic two-fluid media

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hirofumi Wada

    2010-04-08T23:59:59.000Z

    Using a two-fluid model for viscoelastic polymer solutions, we study analytically fluid transport driven by a transverse, small amplitude traveling wave propagation. The pumping flow far from the waving boundary is shown to be strongly wave number and viscosity dependent, in contrast to a viscous Newtonian fluid. We find the two qualitatively different regimes: In one regime relevant to small wave numbers, the fluidic transport is almost the same as the Newtonian case, and uniform viscoelastic constitutive equations provide a good approximation. In the other regime, the pumping is substantially decreased because of the gel-like character. The boundary separating these two regimes is clarified. Our results suggest possible needs of two-fluid descriptions for the transport and locomotion in biological fluids with cilia and flagella.

  17. Euler's fluid equations: Optimal Control vs Optimization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Darryl D. Holm

    2009-09-28T23:59:59.000Z

    An optimization method used in image-processing (metamorphosis) is found to imply Euler's equations for incompressible flow of an inviscid fluid, without requiring that the Lagrangian particle labels exactly follow the flow lines of the Eulerian velocity vector field. Thus, an optimal control problem and an optimization problem for incompressible ideal fluid flow both yield the \\emph {same} Euler fluid equations, although their Lagrangian parcel dynamics are \\emph{different}. This is a result of the \\emph{gauge freedom} in the definition of the fluid pressure for an incompressible flow, in combination with the symmetry of fluid dynamics under relabeling of their Lagrangian coordinates. Similar ideas are also illustrated for SO(N) rigid body motion.

  18. LQG Control of Linear Systems with Network-Induced Varying Delay using the Delta Operator

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    LQG Control of Linear Systems with Network-Induced Varying Delay using the Delta Operator Masakazu be represented as a linear delay- depending feedback from the state and the previous control signal. Finally control of linear systems with long random time delays in delta domain is proposed in [22]. By using

  19. Control of Delayed Recycling Systems with Unstable First Order Forward Loop

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    Control of Delayed Recycling Systems with Unstable First Order Forward Loop J. F. M Abstract Unstable time-delay systems and recycling systems are challenging problems for control analysis and design. When an unstable time-delay system has a recycle, its control problem becomes even more difficult

  20. Control of Delayed Recycling Systems with an Unstable Pole at Forward Path

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Control of Delayed Recycling Systems with an Unstable Pole at Forward Path J. F. Marquez Rubio, B. del Muro Cu´ellar and Olivier Sename Abstract-- Unstable time delay system and recycling system pose a challenge problem in their own. When unstable time delay system have recycle the control problem becomes

  1. Joint delay and power control in single-server queueing systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    a non-monotonic curve of delay vs. load. This may lead to malfunctioning in end- to-end flow the service rate according to the input traffic load leads to an anomalous behavior in the delay-load curve/congestion control protocols, which are based on the assumption that delays increase with increasing load. We propose

  2. Improved Power-Delay Trade-off in Wireless Ad Hoc Networks Using Opportunistic Routing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Yong Hoon

    Improved Power-Delay Trade-off in Wireless Ad Hoc Networks Using Opportunistic Routing Won power- delay trade-off than the conventional routing while providing up to a logarithmic boost that the power can be reduced at the expense of increased delay for both scenarios, but better trade-off can

  3. Calculation of the pulsed Feynman-and Rossi-alpha formulae with delayed neutrons

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pázsit, Imre

    Calculation of the pulsed Feynman- and Rossi-alpha formulae with delayed neutrons Y. Kitamura a and the sake of insight, the formal derivation was performed in a model without delayed neutrons. In this paper-derived by taking one group of delayed neutrons into account. The results show that the advantages of this technique

  4. In Proceedings of TriComm '91 Delay Jitter Control for Real-Time Communication

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Hui

    In Proceedings of TriComm '91 Delay Jitter Control for Real-Time Communication in a Packet study the feasibil- ity of bounding the delay jitter for real-time channels in a packet-switched store show that the scheme is capable of providing a significant reduction in delay jitter

  5. Almost Linear Complexity Methods for Delay-Doppler Channel Alexander Fish and Shamgar Gurevich

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sydney, University of

    provide a striking improvement over current methods in the presence of a substantial Doppler effect1 Almost Linear Complexity Methods for Delay-Doppler Channel Estimation Alexander Fish and Shamgar of delay-Doppler channel, i.e., a signal undergoes only delay and Doppler shifts, a widely used method

  6. DEAR: Delay-bounded Energy-constrained Adaptive Routing in Wireless Sensor Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tang, Jian "Neil"

    DEAR: Delay-bounded Energy-constrained Adaptive Routing in Wireless Sensor Networks Shi Bai¶, Weiyi in wireless sensor networks. In this work, we study Delay-bounded Energy-constrained Adaptive Routing (DEAR) problem with reli- ability, differential delay, and transmission energy consumption constraints

  7. In Proceedings of TriComm '91 Delay Jitter Control for RealTime Communication

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Hui

    In Proceedings of TriComm '91 Delay Jitter Control for Real­Time Communication in a Packet study the feasibil­ ity of bounding the delay jitter for real­time channels in a packet­switched store show that the scheme is capable of providing a significant reduction in delay jitter

  8. Empirical modeling of end-to-end delay dynamics in best-effort networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Doddi, Srikar

    2005-08-29T23:59:59.000Z

    --end-to-end delay, delay jitter, available bandwidth or throughput, and packet drop or loss rate. It is interesting to study and be able to predict the behavior of end-to-end packet delays in a Wide area network (WAN) because it directly a??ects the QoS of real...

  9. Integrated Polymer Optoelectronic Time Delay Device for an X-band Phased Array Antenna System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Ray

    Integrated Polymer Optoelectronic Time Delay Device for an X-band Phased Array Antenna System Brie ABSTRACT A 4-bit polymer optoelectronic true time delay device is demonstrated. The device is composed of monolithically integrated, low loss, passive polymer waveguide delay lines and 2x2 polymer thermo-optic switches

  10. The incorporation of bubbles into a computer graphics fluid simulation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Greenwood, Shannon Thomas

    2005-08-29T23:59:59.000Z

    We present methods for incorporating bubbles into a photorealistc fluid simulation. Previous methods of fluid simulation in computer graphics do not include bubbles. Our system automatically creates bubbles, which are simulated on top of the fluid...

  11. Thermal Storage and Advanced Heat Transfer Fluids (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2010-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Fact sheet describing NREL CSP Program capabilities in the area of thermal storage and advanced heat transfer fluids: measuring thermophysical properties, measuring fluid flow and heat transfer, and simulating flow of thermal energy and fluid.

  12. Maximum and minimum sensitizable timing analysis using data dependent delays

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Singh, Karandeep

    2007-09-17T23:59:59.000Z

    NAND gate that cause its output to switch Rising Transition # ab ! ab Delay(ps) 1 11 ! 00 30.5 2 11 ! 01 50.5 3 11 ! 10 53.0 Falling Transition # ab ! ab Delay(ps) 1 00 ! 11 55.3 2 01 ! 11 46.5 3 10 ! 11 42.7 Output FallingOutput Rising 30.5 42.7 46... effectively goes through the tran- sition 11 ! 01 ! 00 rather than 11 ! 00 directly. Note that the output of the NAND2 gate 13 10ps 35ps 60.5ps 30.5ps 50.5ps 55.3ps 42.7ps 10ps 35ps 77.7ps b) Rising Output a) Falling Output b a c b a c a b c Fig. II.3. Example...

  13. - and -delayed neutron- decay of neutron-rich copper isotopes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Korgul, A. [University of Warsaw; Rykaczewski, Krzysztof Piotr [ORNL; Winger, J. A. [Oak Ridge Associated Universities (ORAU); Ilyushkin, S. [Mississippi State University (MSU); Gross, Carl J [ORNL; Batchelder, J. C. [Oak Ridge Associated Universities (ORAU); Bingham, C. R. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Borzov, Ivan N [ORNL; Goodin, C. [Vanderbilt University; Grzywacz, Robert Kazimierz [ORNL; Hamilton, Joseph H [ORNL; Krolas, W. [Joint Institute for Heavy Ion Research, Oak Ridge; Liddick, S. N. [Oak Ridge Associated Universities (ORAU); Mazzocchi, C. [University of Warsaw; Nelson, C. [Vanderbilt University; Nowacki, F. [Institut Pluridisciplinaire Hubert Curien, Strasbourg, France; Padgett, Stephen [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Piechaczek, A. [Louisiana State University; Rajabali, M. M. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Shapira, Dan [ORNL; Sieja, K. [Technische Universitat Darmstadt, Germany; Zganjar, E. F. [Louisiana State University

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The {beta}-decay properties of neutron-rich Cu isotopes produced in proton-induced fission of {sup 238}U were studied at the Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The data were collected using high-resolution online mass separation, reacceleration, and digital {beta}-{gamma} spectroscopy methods. An improved decay scheme of N = 49 {sup 78}Cu and the first observation of N = 50 {sup 79}Cu {beta}-delayed neutron decay followed by a gamma transition are reported. Spin and parity (5{sup -}) are deduced for {sup 78gs}Cu. The {beta}-delayed neutron branching ratios (P{sub {beta}n}) for the {sup 77}Cu and {sup 79}Cu precursors are analyzed with the help of nuclear structure models.

  14. Multistable jittering in oscillators with pulsatile delayed feedback

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vladimir Klinshov; Leonhard Lücken; Dmitry Shchapin; Vladimir Nekorkin; Serhiy Yanchuk

    2015-05-27T23:59:59.000Z

    Oscillatory systems with time-delayed pulsatile feedback appear in various applied and theoretical research areas, and received a growing interest in the last years. For such systems, we report a remarkable scenario of destabilization of a periodic regular spiking regime. In the bifurcation point numerous regimes with non-equal interspike intervals emerge simultaneously. We show that this bifurcation is triggered by the steepness of the oscillator's phase resetting curve and that the number of the emerging, so-called "jittering" regimes grows exponentially with the delay value. Although this appears as highly degenerate from a dynamical systems viewpoint, the "multi-jitter" bifurcation occurs robustly in a large class of systems. We observe it not only in a paradigmatic phase-reduced model, but also in a simulated Hodgkin-Huxley neuron model and in an experiment with an electronic circuit.

  15. Pattern Recognition in a Ring of Delayed Phase Oscillators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jan Philipp Pade; Serhiy Yanchuk; Liang Zhao

    2014-08-25T23:59:59.000Z

    We show that a ring of phase oscillators coupled with transmission delays can be used as a pattern recognition system. The introduced model encodes patterns as stable periodic orbits. We present a detailed analysis of the underlying dynamics. In particular, we show that the system possesses a multitude of periodic solutions, prove stability results and present a bifurcation analysis. Furthermore, we show successful recognition results using artificial patterns and speech recordings.

  16. Quantitative studies of severe fuel damage using delayed neutron data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bauer, T.H.; Braid, T.H. (Argonne National Lab., IL (USA)); Schleisiek, K. (Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH (Germany, F.R.))

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A technique to quantify fuel damage in an LMR through analysis of delayed neutron data is presented, which is suitable for analysis of both small-scale in-pile experiments and full-scale plants. Validating analyses are described for five in-pile severe accident simulations performed within the SLSF and Mol 7C test programs. Comparison is made of measured and calculated amounts of fuel damage. 8 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  17. {beta}-delayed neutron decay of {sup 14}Be

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Belbot, M.D.; Kolata, J.J.; Lamkin, K.; Tighe, R.J.; Zahar, M. [Physics Department, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, Indiana 46556 (United States)] [Physics Department, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, Indiana 46556 (United States); Harkewicz, R.; Morrissey, D.J.; Orr, N.A.; Ronningen, R.M.; Sherrill, B.M.; Winger, J.A. [Cyclotron Laboratory, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan 48824 (United States)] [Cyclotron Laboratory, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan 48824 (United States); Carpenter, M. [Physics Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States)] [Physics Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States)

    1995-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The neutron spectroscopy of the {beta}-delayed neutron decay of {sup 14}Be has been investigated. Two neutron groups were observed, and energy limits are given for a third (unobserved) group that receives most of the {beta}-decay strength. Branching ratios and log{ital ft} values deduced for all three groups are compared with the results of a shell-model calculation.

  18. Quantitative studies of severe fuel damage using delayed neutron data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bauer, T.H.; Braiel, T.H. (Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)); Schleisiek, K. (Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH (Germany))

    1992-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper, a technique is presented to quantify fuel damage in a liquid-metal reactor through fast-running computer analysis of delayed neutron data, suitable for analysis of both small-scale in-pile experiments and full-scale plants. Validating analyses are described for five in-pile severe accident simulations performed within the Sodium Loop Safety Facility and Mol-7C test programs. Comparison is made of measured and calculated amounts of fuel damage.

  19. Monte Carlo Modeling of Delayed Neutrons from Photofission

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pozzi, Sara A [ORNL; Monville, Maura E [ORNL; Padovani, Enrico [Nuclear Engineering Department Politecnico di Milano, Milan, Italy

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We describe the implementation of algorithms related to the delayed neutron production in photon-induced fission on actinides. The algorithms are based on data from experiments and have been implemented in the MCNP-PoliMi code. The modified code is being used to design and analyze methods to identify concealed highly enriched uranium with a system based on the use of photon interrogation and scintillation detectors.

  20. Light deflection and time delay in the solar gravitational field

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Richter, G.W.

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The second nonvanishing order of contribution to light deflection and time delay in the solar gravitational field is studied for a realistic solar model and for a wide range of metric theories of gravity. It is shown that the second-order effects arise at order (GM/c/sup 2/R)/sup 2/ identical to epsilon/sup 4/. To calculate these effects, every component of the solar metric must be known to order epsilon/sup 4/. The parametrized post-Newtonian (PPN) metric provides most of those components. However, some extension of the PPN metric is required. This extension leads to the parametrized post-linear (PPL) metric, which is used in all calculations. To study light deflection to order epsilon/sup 4/ requires that the orbits of scattered photons be known to that order. These orbits are solved for, first in the equatorial plane and then in general, and are used to determine the deflection as measured by an observer at rest with respect to the sun. In the equatorial plane there is only a radial component to this deflection. In general, there is another component orthogonal to the radial plane, but knowledge of this component is not necessary to determine the total deflection to order epsilon/sup 4/. The total second-order deflection can be as large as 300..mu.. arcsec (for deflection by Jupiter). Measurements of some second-order terms are within the astrometric capabilities of experiments proposed for the 1990's. The time delay in the round-trip travel time of a radar beam reflected from a planet is due to the variable coordinate speed of the light signal and to the bending of the beam path. The delay is calculated to order epsilon/sup 4/. It is shown that the beam-bending gives a second-order contribution as large as the present-day uncertainties in time delay experiments with the Viking spacecraft.

  1. Chloromethyl chlorosulfate as a voltage delay inhibitor in lithium cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Delnick, F.M.

    1993-04-13T23:59:59.000Z

    Chloromethyl chlorosulfate (CMCS) is used as a passive film growth inhibitor in electrochemical cells to minimize voltage delay and low-voltage discharge. Film growth on lithium anodes is significantly diminished when CMCS is added to SOCl[sub 2] and SO[sub 2]Cl[sub 2] electrolytes of lithium batteries. The CMCS also has the effect of extending the shelf-life of Li/SOCl[sub 2] and Li/SO[sub 2]Cl[sub 2] batteries.

  2. Chloromethyl chlorosulfate as a voltage delay inhibitor in lithium cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Delnick, Frank M. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Chloromethyl chlorosulfate (CMCS) is used as a passive film growth inhibitor in electrochemical cells to minimize voltage delay and low-voltage discharge. Film growth on lithium anodes is significantly diminished when CMCS is added to SOCl.sub.2 and SO.sub.2 Cl.sub.2 electrolytes of lithium batteries. The CMCS also has the effect of extending the shelf-life of Li/SOCl.sub.2 and Li/SO.sub.2 Cl.sub.2 batteries.

  3. Delayed neutron emission probabilities of Li-F nuclides

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reeder, P.L.; Warner, R.A.; Hensley, W.K. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (USA)); Vieira, D.J.; Wouters, J.M. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (USA))

    1989-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Delayed neutron emission probabilities (P{sub n}) have been measured for 18 nuclides ranging from {sup 9}Li to {sup 25}F. Neutron-rich nuclides were produced by reaction of 800 MeV p on a {sup 232}Th target at the LAMPF accelerator at Los Alamos National Laboratory. Recoil nuclides were individually identified as to their mass, nuclear charged, and ionic charge by use of the Time-of-Flight Isochronous (TOFI) spectrometer. The distribution of time intervals between the arrival of a specific ion and the subsequent detection of a neutron was determined. The P{sub n} was calculated from the total number of ions observed, the initial neutron count rate, the neutron counting efficiency, and the half-life. The technique is shown to be valid for half-lives ranging from 10 ms ({sup 15}B) to 4 s ({sup 17}N) and for P{sub n} values as low as 0.3% ({sup 13}B). Delayed neutron emission has been measured for {sup 12}Be, {sup 14}B, {sup 17}C, {sup 18}N, {sup 21}N, and {sup 25}F for the first time. A small branch for beta-delayed two-neutron emission was observed in {sup 15}B (P{sub 2n} = 0.4 {plus minus} 0.2%). 14 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  4. Time-Dependent Delayed Signatures From Energetic Photon Interrogations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    D. R. Norman; J. L. Jones; B. W. Blackburn; S. M. Watson; K. J. Haskell

    2006-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A pulsed photonuclear interrogation environment is rich with time-dependent, material specific, radiation signatures. Exploitation of these signatures in the delayed time regime (>1us after the photon flash) has been explored through various detection schemes to identify both shielded nuclear material and nitrogen-based explosives. Prompt emission may also be invaluable for these detection methods. Numerical and experimental results, which utilize specially modified neutron and HpGe detectors, are presented which illustrate the efficacy of utilizing these time-dependent signatures. Optimal selection of the appropriate delayed time window is essential to these pulsed inspection systems. For explosive (ANFO surrogate) detection, both numerical models and experimental results illustrate that nearly all 14N(n,y) reactions have occurred within l00 us after the flash. In contrast, however, gamma-ray and neutron signals for nuclear material detection require a delay of several milliseconds after the photon pulse. In this case, any data collected too close to the photon flash results in a spectrum dominated by high energy signals which make it difficult to discern signatures from nuclear material. Specifically, two short-lived, high-energy fission fragments (97Ag(T1/2=5.1 s) and 94Sr(T1/2=75.2 s)) were measured and identified as indicators of the presence of fissionable material. These developments demonstrate that a photon inspection environment can be exploited for time-dependent, material specific signatures through the proper operation of specially modified detectors.

  5. Bifurcation structure of two coupled FHN neurons with delay

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Niloofar Farajzadeh Tehrani; MohammadReza Razvan

    2015-04-28T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper presents an investigation of the dynamics of two coupled non-identical FitzHugh-Nagumo neurons with delayed synaptic connection. We consider coupling strength and time delay as bifurcation parameters, and try to classify all possible dynamics which is fairly rich. The neural system exhibits a unique rest point or three ones for the different values of coupling strength by employing the pitchfork bifurcation of non-trivial rest point. The asymptotic stability and possible Hopf bifurcations of the trivial rest point are studied by analyzing the corresponding characteristic equation. Homoclinic, fold, and pitchfork bifurcations of limit cycles are found. The delay-dependent stability regions are illustrated in the parameter plane, through which the double-Hopf bifurcation points can be obtained from the intersection points of two branches of Hopf bifurcation. The dynamical behavior of the system may exhibit one, two, or three different periodic solutions due to pitchfork cycle and torus (Neimark-Sacker) bifurcations. In addition, Hopf, double-Hopf, and torus bifurcations of the non trivial rest points are found. Bifurcation diagrams are obtained numerically or analytically from the mathematical model and the parameter regions of different behaviors are clarified.

  6. A blurred interface formulation of The Reference Map Technique for Fluid-Solid Interactions and Fluid-Solid-Solid Interactions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Valkov, Boris Ivanov

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this work we present a blurred interface method for Fluid-Solid Interactions (FSI) and multiple solids immersed in a fluid or FSSI (Fluid-Solid-Solid Interactions) based on the reference map technique as presented by ...

  7. Evaluation of Biodiesel Fuels from Supercritical Fluid Processing...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Biodiesel Fuels from Supercritical Fluid Processing with the Advanced Distillation Curve Method Evaluation of Biodiesel Fuels from Supercritical Fluid Processing with the Advanced...

  8. Chemically Reactive Working Fluids for the Capture and Transport...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Specifically, the primary heat transfer fluid (HTF), which transmits the collected solar power to power cycle Evaluate Chemically Reacting Working Fluids (CRWFs) as HTFs...

  9. ITP Chemicals: Technology Roadmap for Computational Fluid Dynamics...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Fluid Dynamics, January 1999 ITP Chemicals: Technology Roadmap for Computational Fluid Dynamics, January 1999 cfdroadmap.pdf More Documents & Publications A Workshop to Identify...

  10. Gas Analysis Of Geothermal Fluid Inclusions- A New Technology...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    by this program can be applied to geothermal exploration, which may expand geothermal production. Knowledge of the gas contents in reservoir fluids can be applied to fluid...

  11. Variational Approach in Studying the Mixture of the Fluids: Transport ...

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Title: Variational Approach in Studying the Mixture of the Fluids: Transport and ... of the non-Newtonian complex fluids arise from the coupling and competing ...

  12. Development of Molten-Salt Heat Trasfer Fluid Technology for...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    of Molten-Salt Heat Transfer Fluid Technology for Parabolic Trough Solar Power Plants, seeks to determine whether the inorganic fluids (molten salts) offer a sufficient...

  13. ORGANIC SPECIES IN GEOTHERMAL WATERS IN LIGHT OF FLUID INCLUSION...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    FLUID INCLUSION GAS ANALYSES Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Conference Proceedings: ORGANIC SPECIES IN GEOTHERMAL WATERS IN LIGHT OF FLUID...

  14. Isotopic Analysis- Fluid At Dixie Valley Geothermal Area (Kennedy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    geothermal resources with deep, fault hosted permeable fluid flow pathways and the helium Isotopic composition of the surface fluids. The authors suggest that helium isotopes...

  15. Investigation of injection-induced seismicity using a coupled fluid ...

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2012-01-23T23:59:59.000Z

    injection of fluid for the extraction of geothermal heat: Journal of Geo- physical ... earthquakes: Disposal of waste fluids into a deep well has triggered earth-.

  16. Application of Neutron Imaging and Scattering to Fluid Flow and...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Application of Neutron Imaging and Scattering to Fluid Flow and Fracture in EGS Environments Application of Neutron Imaging and Scattering to Fluid Flow and Fracture in EGS...

  17. New fluid makes untapped geothermal energy cleaner | EMSL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    fluid makes untapped geothermal energy cleaner New fluid makes untapped geothermal energy cleaner Released: April 17, 2015 Nontoxic solution could cut water use for enhanced...

  18. Working Fluids Low Global Warming Potential Refrigerants - 2013...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Working Fluids Low Global Warming Potential Refrigerants - 2013 Peer Review Working Fluids Low Global Warming Potential Refrigerants - 2013 Peer Review Emerging Technologies...

  19. A STOCHASTIC METHOD FOR MODELING FLUID DISPLACEMENT IN PETROLEUM RESERVOIRS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anderson, C.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    FLUID DISPLACEMENT IN PETROLEUM RESERVOIRS C. Anderson andFLUID DISPLACEMENT IN PETROLEUM RESERVOIRS C. Anderson andachieve optimal recovery of petroleum from a reservoir, it

  20. Packing frustration in dense confined fluids

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim Nygård; Sten Sarman; Roland Kjellander

    2014-09-04T23:59:59.000Z

    Packing frustration for confined fluids, i.e., the incompatibility between the preferred packing of the fluid particles and the packing constraints imposed by the confining surfaces, is studied for a dense hard-sphere fluid confined between planar hard surfaces at short separations. The detailed mechanism for the frustration is investigated via an analysis of the anisotropic pair distributions of the confined fluid, as obtained from integral equation theory for inhomogeneous fluids at pair correlation level within the anisotropic Percus-Yevick approximation. By examining the mean forces that arise from interparticle collisions around the periphery of each particle in the slit, we calculate the principal components of the mean force for the density profile - each component being the sum of collisional forces on a particle's hemisphere facing either surface. The variations of these components with the slit width give rise to rather intricate changes in the layer structure between the surfaces, but, as shown in this paper, the basis of these variations can be easily understood qualitatively and often also semi-quantitatively. It is found that the ordering of the fluid is in essence governed locally by the packing constraints at each single solid-fluid interface. A simple superposition of forces due to the presence of each surface gives surprisingly good estimates of the density profiles, but there remain nontrivial confinement effects that cannot be explained by superposition, most notably the magnitude of the excess adsorption of particles in the slit relative to bulk.

  1. Accurate evolutions of inspiralling neutron-star binaries: Prompt and delayed collapse to a black hole

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baiotti, Luca [Graduate School of Arts and Sciences, University of Tokyo, Komaba, Meguro-ku, Tokyo, 153-8902 (Japan); Max-Planck-Institut fuer Gravitationsphysik, Albert-Einstein-Institut, Potsdam-Golm (Germany); Giacomazzo, Bruno [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Gravitationsphysik, Albert-Einstein-Institut, Potsdam-Golm (Germany); Rezzolla, Luciano [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Gravitationsphysik, Albert-Einstein-Institut, Potsdam-Golm (Germany); Department of Physics and Astronomy, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, Louisiana (United States); INFN, Department of Physics, University of Trieste, Trieste (Italy)

    2008-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Binary neutron-star systems represent primary sources for the gravitational-wave detectors that are presently operating or are close to being operating at the target sensitivities. We present a systematic investigation in full general relativity of the dynamics and gravitational-wave emission from binary neutron stars which inspiral and merge, producing a black hole surrounded by a torus. Our results represent the state of the art from several points of view: (i) We use high-resolution shock-capturing methods for the solution of the hydrodynamics equations and high-order finite-differencing techniques for the solution of the Einstein equations; (ii) We employ adaptive mesh-refinement techniques with 'moving boxes' that provide high-resolution around the orbiting stars; (iii) We use as initial data accurate solutions of the Einstein equations for a system of binary neutron stars in irrotational quasicircular orbits; (iv) We exploit the isolated-horizon formalism to measure the properties of the black holes produced in the merger; (v) Finally, we use two approaches, based either on gauge-invariant perturbations or on Weyl scalars, to calculate the gravitational waves emitted by the system. Within our idealized treatment of the matter, these techniques allow us to perform accurate evolutions on time scales never reported before (i.e. {approx}30 ms) and to provide the first complete description of the inspiral and merger of a neutron-star binary leading to the prompt or delayed formation of a black hole and to its ringdown. We consider either a polytropic equation of state or that of an ideal fluid and show that already with this idealized treatment a very interesting phenomenology can be described. In particular, we show that while higher-mass polytropic binaries lead to the prompt formation of a rapidly rotating black hole surrounded by a dense torus, lower-mass binaries give rise to a differentially rotating star, which undergoes large oscillations and emits large amounts of gravitational radiation. Eventually, also the hyper-massive neutron star collapses to a rotating black hole surrounded by a torus. Finally, we also show that the use of a nonisentropic equation of state leads to significantly different evolutions, giving rise to a delayed collapse also with high-mass binaries, as well as to a more intense emission of gravitational waves and to a geometrically thicker torus.

  2. Predictive wavefront control for Adaptive Optics with arbitrary control loop delays

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Poyneer, L A; Veran, J

    2007-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a modification of the closed-loop state space model for AO control which allows delays that are a non-integer multiple of the system frame rate. We derive the new forms of the Predictive Fourier Control Kalman filters for arbitrary delays and show that they are linear combinations of the whole-frame delay terms. This structure of the controller is independent of the delay. System stability margins and residual error variance both transition gracefully between integer-frame delays.

  3. Creating fluid injectivity in tar sands formations

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stegemeier, George Leo; Beer, Gary Lee; Zhang, Etuan

    2012-06-05T23:59:59.000Z

    Methods for treating a tar sands formation are described herein. Methods for treating a tar sands may include heating a portion of a hydrocarbon layer in the formation from one or more heaters located in the portion. The heat may be controlled to increase the permeability of at least part of the portion to create an injection zone in the portion with an average permeability sufficient to allow injection of a fluid through the injection zone. A drive fluid and/or an oxidizing fluid may be provided into the injection zone. At least some hydrocarbons including mobilized hydrocarbons are produced from the portion.

  4. Geothermal energy production with supercritical fluids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brown, Donald W.

    2003-12-30T23:59:59.000Z

    There has been invented a method for producing geothermal energy using supercritical fluids for creation of the underground reservoir, production of the geothermal energy, and for heat transport. Underground reservoirs are created by pumping a supercritical fluid such as carbon dioxide into a formation to fracture the rock. Once the reservoir is formed, the same supercritical fluid is allowed to heat up and expand, then is pumped out of the reservoir to transfer the heat to a surface power generating plant or other application.

  5. Creating fluid injectivity in tar sands formations

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stegemeier, George Leo; Beer, Gary Lee; Zhang, Etuan

    2010-06-08T23:59:59.000Z

    Methods for treating a tar sands formation are described herein. Methods for treating a tar sands may include heating a portion of a hydrocarbon layer in the formation from one or more heaters located in the portion. The heat may be controlled to increase the permeability of at least part of the portion to create an injection zone in the portion with an average permeability sufficient to allow injection of a fluid through the injection zone. A drive fluid and/or an oxidizing fluid may be provided into the injection zone. At least some hydrocarbons are produced from the portion.

  6. On the combination of delayed neutron and delayed gamma techniques for fission rate measurement in nuclear fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Perret, G.; Jordan, K. A. [Paul Scherrer Institut, Villigen, 5232 (Switzerland)

    2011-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Novel techniques to measure newly induced fissions in spent fuel after re-irradiation at low power have been developed and tested at the Proteus zero-power research reactor. The two techniques are based on the detection of high energy gamma-rays emitted by short-lived fission products and delayed neutrons. The two techniques relate the measured signals to the total fission rate, the isotopic composition of the fuel, and nuclear data. They can be combined to derive better estimates on each of these parameters. This has potential for improvement in many areas. Spent fuel characterisation and safeguard applications can benefit from these techniques for non-destructive assay of plutonium content. Another application of choice is the reduction of uncertainties on nuclear data. As a first application of the combination of the delayed neutron and gamma measurement techniques, this paper shows how to reduce the uncertainties on the relative abundances of the longest delayed neutron group for thermal fissions in {sup 235}U, {sup 239}Pu and fast fissions in {sup 238}U. The proposed experiments are easily achievable in zero-power research reactors using fresh UO{sub 2} and MOX fuel and do not require fast extraction systems. The relative uncertainties (1{sigma}) on the relative abundances are expected to be reduced from 13% to 4%, 16% to 5%, and 38% to 12% for {sup 235}U, {sup 238}U and {sup 239}Pu, respectively. (authors)

  7. Statistical analysis of the electrical breakdown time delay distributions in krypton

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maluckov, Cedomir A.; Karamarkovic, Jugoslav P.; Radovic, Miodrag K.; Pejovic, Momcilo M. [Technical Faculty in Bor, University of Belgrade, Vojske Jugoslavije 24, 19210 Bor (Serbia and Montenegro); Faculty of Civil Engineering and Architecture, University of Nis, Beogradska 14, 18000 Nis (Serbia and Montenegro); Faculty of Sciences and Mathematics, University of Nis, P.O. Box 224, 18001 Nis (Serbia and Montenegro); Faculty of Electronic Engineering, University of Nis, P.O. Box 73, 18001 Nis (Serbia and Montenegro)

    2006-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The statistical analysis of the experimentally observed electrical breakdown time delay distributions in the krypton-filled diode tube at 2.6 mbar is presented. The experimental distributions are obtained on the basis of 1000 successive and independent measurements. The theoretical electrical breakdown time delay distribution is evaluated as the convolution of the statistical time delay with exponential, and discharge formative time with Gaussian distribution. The distribution parameters are estimated by the stochastic modelling of the time delay distributions, and by comparing them with the experimental distributions for different relaxation times, voltages, and intensities of UV radiation. The transition of distribution shapes, from Gaussian-type to the exponential-like, is investigated by calculating the corresponding skewness and excess kurtosis parameters. It is shown that the mathematical model based on the convolution of two random variable distributions describes experimentally obtained time delay distributions and the separation of the total breakdown time delay to the statistical and formative time delay.

  8. Tunable Dipolar Capillary Deformations for Magnetic Janus Particles at Fluid-Fluid Interfaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Qingguang Xie; Gary B. Davies; Florian Günther; Jens Harting

    2015-03-12T23:59:59.000Z

    Janus particles have attracted significant interest as building blocks for complex materials in recent years. Furthermore, capillary interactions have been identified as a promising tool for directed self-assembly of particles at fluid-fluid interfaces. In this paper, we develop theoretical models describing the behaviour of magnetic Janus particles adsorbed at fluid-fluid interfaces interacting with an external magnetic field. Using numerical simulations, we test the models predictions and show that the magnetic Janus particles deform the interface in a dipolar manner. We suggest how to utilise the resulting dipolar capillary interactions to assemble particles at a fluid-fluid interface, and further demonstrate that the strength of these interactions can be tuned by altering the external field strength, opening up the possibility to create novel, reconfigurable materials.

  9. Tunable Dipolar Capillary Deformations for Magnetic Janus Particles at Fluid-Fluid Interfaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xie, Qingguang; Günther, Florian; Harting, Jens

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Janus particles have attracted significant interest as building blocks for complex materials in recent years. Furthermore, capillary interactions have been identified as a promising tool for directed self-assembly of particles at fluid-fluid interfaces. In this paper, we develop theoretical models describing the behaviour of magnetic Janus particles adsorbed at fluid-fluid interfaces interacting with an external magnetic field. Using numerical simulations, we test the models predictions and show that the magnetic Janus particles deform the interface in a dipolar manner. We suggest how to utilise the resulting dipolar capillary interactions to assemble particles at a fluid-fluid interface, and further demonstrate that the strength of these interactions can be tuned by altering the external field strength, opening up the possibility to create novel, reconfigurable materials.

  10. Using Nanotechnology in Viscoelastic Surfactant Stimulation Fluids

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gurluk, Merve Rabia 1986-

    2012-11-12T23:59:59.000Z

    Viscoelastic surfactant (VES) fluids are preferred for many applications in the oil industry. Their viscoelastic behavior is due to the overlap and entanglement of very long wormlike micelles. The growth of these wormlike micelles depends...

  11. Variational Methods for Computational Fluid Dynamics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alouges, François

    .2.1 Generalities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 2.2.2 Going back-structure interactions 35 4.1 A non deformable solid in a fluid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 velocity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46 6 Stokes equations 49 6.1 Mixed finite

  12. Fluid Bed Combustion Applied to Industrial Waste

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mullen, J. F.; Sneyd, R. J.

    Because of its unique ability to handle a wide variety of liquids and solids in an energy efficient and environmentally acceptable manner, fluid bed combustion is being increasingly applied to the utilization of waste materials and low grade fuels...

  13. THE UNIVERSITY OF MANCHESTER FLUID MECHANICS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Glendinning, Paul

    (i.e. fluid) particle. Use these facts to deduce two equations involving the unknowns f equilibrium under constant gravitational accel- eration g, i.e. F = (0, 0, -g). At `sea-level' z = 0 (z being

  14. Reactive flash volatilization of fluid fuels

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schmidt, Lanny D.; Dauenhauer, Paul J.; Dreyer, Bradon J.; Salge, James R.

    2013-01-08T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention provides methods for the production of synthesis gas. More particularly, various embodiments of the invention relate to systems and methods for volatilizing fluid fuel to produce synthesis gas by using a metal catalyst on a solid support matrix.

  15. Fluid Dynamics in Sucker Rod Pumps

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cutler, R.P.; Mansure, A.J.

    1999-01-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Sucker rod pumps are installed in approximately 90% of all oil wells in the U.S. Although they have been widely used for decades, there are many issues regarding the fluid dynamics of the pump that have not been fully investigated. A project was conducted at Sandia National Laboratories to develop unimproved understanding of the fluid dynamics inside a sucker rod pump. A mathematical flow model was developed to predict pressures in any pump component or an entire pump under single-phase fluid and pumping conditions. Laboratory flow tests were conducted on instrumented individual pump components and on a complete pump to verify and refine the model. The mathematical model was then converted to a Visual Basic program to allow easy input of fluid, geometry and pump parameters and to generate output plots. Examples of issues affecting pump performance investigated with the model include the effects of viscosity, surface roughness, valve design details, plunger and valve pressure differentials, and pumping rate.

  16. Applied Fluid Mechanics I) Course goals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Leu, Tzong-Shyng "Jeremy"

    design. #12;2 Textbook " Applied Fluid Mechanics" by Robert L. Mott, Sixth Edition in SI unit 1 Exam 30 Final Exam 30 (Total of 100) (30%)(&10%) () PDF lecture notes if any can be downloaded from

  17. Heat-Traced Fluid Transfer Lines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schilling, R. E.

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    HEAT-TRACED FLUID TRANSFER LINES Robert E. Schilling, P.E. Eaton Corporation Aurora, Ohio This paper discusses basic considerations in designing a heat tracing system using either steam or electrical tracing. Four basic reasons to heat...

  18. Recovery Act-Funded Working Fluid Projects

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The U.S. Department of Energy was allocated funding from the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act to conduct research into working fluid technologies and applications. Projects funded by the...

  19. High gliding fluid power generation system with fluid component separation and multiple condensers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mahmoud, Ahmad M; Lee, Jaeseon; Radcliff, Thomas D

    2014-10-14T23:59:59.000Z

    An example power generation system includes a vapor generator, a turbine, a separator and a pump. In the separator, the multiple components of the working fluid are separated from each other and sent to separate condensers. Each of the separate condensers is configured for condensing a single component of the working fluid. Once each of the components condense back into a liquid form they are recombined and exhausted to a pump that in turn drives the working fluid back to the vapor generator.

  20. A LAGRANGIAN-EULERIAN SHELL-FLUID COUPLING ALGORITHM BASED ON LEVEL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cirak, Fehmi

    is demonstrated with an airbag deployment simulation. Key words: shell, fluid, shell-fluid interaction, finite