Sample records for dekker pmis extraction

  1. DEC1387487110111_Design_Spec_Dekker_PMIS_Extraction_Utility_v8...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    DEC1387487110111DesignSpecDekkerPMISExtractionUtilityv8020101217.pdf DEC1387487110111DesignSpecDekkerPMISExtractionUtilityv8020101217.pdf DEC1387487110111Design...

  2. Dekker PMIS Extraction Utility | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't Your Destiny:Revised Finding of No53197 This workDayton:| DepartmentCondition |1217 Release

  3. Dekker PMIS Extraction Utility | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't Your Destiny:Revised Finding of No53197 This workDayton:| DepartmentCondition |1217 Release0907

  4. DEC1387487110111_Design_Spec_Dekker_PMIS_Extraction_Utility_v8_0_20101217.pdf

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 1112011AT&T,Office of Policy, OAPM | Department ofCommunications3Department of Energy|

  5. ADVISORY ALERT: Dekker, Ltd. Digital Signature - PARS II...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    so that you may continue working with PARS II reports. Please note: Once you complete the process of accepting the Dekker, LTd. digital signature, this warning will not re-appear....

  6. 2003 Marcel Dekker, Inc. All rights reserved. This material may not be used or reproduced in any form without the express written permission of Marcel Dekker, Inc. MARCEL DEKKER, INC. 270 MADISON AVENUE NEW YORK, NY 10016

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Dehua

    ­816, 2003 Long Time Behavior of Solutions to the 3D Compressible Euler Equations with Damping Thomas C of the Cauchy problem to obtain effective energy estimates. The full solution relaxes in the maximum norm@math.ucsb.edu. 795 DOI: 10.1081/PDE-120020497 0360-5302 (Print); 1532-4133 (Online) Copyright & 2003 by Marcel Dekker

  7. 2002 Marcel Dekker, Inc. All rights reserved. This material may not be used or reproduced in any form without the express written permission of Marcel Dekker, Inc. MARCEL DEKKER, INC. 270 MADISON AVENUE NEW YORK, NY 10016

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pázsit, Imre

    ­3). These moments are usually derived from a probability balance equation for the distribution of the neutron number©2002 Marcel Dekker, Inc. All rights reserved. This material may not be used or reproduced in any AVENUE · NEW YORK, NY 10016 A CLASS OF SEMI-LINEAR EVOLUTION EQUATIONS ARISING IN NEUTRON FLUCTUATIONS Z

  8. 2003 Marcel Dekker, Inc. All rights reserved. This material may not be used or reproduced in any form without the express written permission of Marcel Dekker, Inc. MARCEL DEKKER, INC. 270 MADISON AVENUE NEW YORK, NY 10016

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    O'Leary, Michael

    Mike O'Leary* Department of Mathematics, Towson University, Towson, Maryland, USA ABSTRACT We show ZZ T \\BðxÞÂðtÀ2, tÞ jrvð, Þj2 d dt O'Leary, Department of Mathematics the boundedness of solutions that are sufficiently integrable. The main 618 O'Leary #12;©2003 Marcel Dekker, Inc

  9. Fluid extraction

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wai, Chien M. (Moscow, ID); Laintz, Kenneth E. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of extracting metalloid and metal species from a solid or liquid material by exposing the material to a supercritical fluid solvent containing a chelating agent is described. The chelating agent forms chelates that are soluble in the supercritical fluid to allow removal of the species from the material. In preferred embodiments, the extraction solvent is supercritical carbon dioxide and the chelating agent is a fluorinated .beta.-diketone. In especially preferred embodiments the extraction solvent is supercritical carbon dioxide, and the chelating agent comprises a fluorinated .beta.-diketone and a trialkyl phosphate, or a fluorinated .beta.-diketone and a trialkylphosphine oxide. Although a trialkyl phosphate can extract lanthanides and actinides from acidic solutions, a binary mixture comprising a fluorinated .beta.-diketone and a trialkyl phosphate or a trialkylphosphine oxide tends to enhance the extraction efficiencies for actinides and lanthanides. The method provides an environmentally benign process for removing contaminants from industrial waste without using acids or biologically harmful solvents. The method is particularly useful for extracting actinides and lanthanides from acidic solutions. The chelate and supercritical fluid can be regenerated, and the contaminant species recovered, to provide an economic, efficient process.

  10. Extractant composition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Smith, Barbara F. (Los Alamos, NM); Jarvinen, Gordon D. (Los Alamos, NM); Ryan, Robert R. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An organic extracting solution useful for separating elements of the actinide series of the periodic table from elements of the lanthanide series, where both are in trivalent form. The extracting solution consists of a primary ligand and a secondary ligand, preferably in an organic solvent. The primary ligand is a substituted monothio-1,3-dicarbonyl, which includes a substituted 4-acyl-2-pyrazolin-5-thione, such as 4-benzoyl-2,4-dihydro-5-methyl-2-phenyl-3H-pyrazol-3-thione (BMPPT). The secondary ligand is a substituted phosphine oxide, such as trioctylphosphine oxide (TOPO).

  11. Metal extraction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Covington, J.W.; Whittemore, R.G.

    1980-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

    In a process according to the present invention uranium is extracted into solution from its ore by leaching with an aqueous solution containing peroxomonosulphuric acid, the peroxoacid oxidizing the uranium through to its hexavalent state. Preferably the leaching is carried out at a temperature in the range of 50* to 100* C. The leach liquor can initially contain additional amounts of sulphuric acid or merely that present by virtue of the method of making the peroxomonosulphuric acid. In a preferred method of operation, the peroxoacid is introduced progressively into the leach liquor during the course of the leaching so as to maintain an electrochemical potential in the range of 450 to 650 mV. By use of the process, uranium is cleanly extracted into solution.

  12. Apparatus for hydrocarbon extraction

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bohnert, George W.; Verhulst, Galen G.

    2013-03-19T23:59:59.000Z

    Systems and methods for hydrocarbon extraction from hydrocarbon-containing material. Such systems and methods relate to extracting hydrocarbon from hydrocarbon-containing material employing a non-aqueous extractant. Additionally, such systems and methods relate to recovering and reusing non-aqueous extractant employed for extracting hydrocarbon from hydrocarbon-containing material.

  13. Information extraction system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lemmond, Tracy D; Hanley, William G; Guensche, Joseph Wendell; Perry, Nathan C; Nitao, John J; Kidwell, Paul Brandon; Boakye, Kofi Agyeman; Glaser, Ron E; Prenger, Ryan James

    2014-05-13T23:59:59.000Z

    An information extraction system and methods of operating the system are provided. In particular, an information extraction system for performing meta-extraction of named entities of people, organizations, and locations as well as relationships and events from text documents are described herein.

  14. Fission Product Extraction Process

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2013-05-28T23:59:59.000Z

    A new INL technology can simultaneously extract cesium and strontium for reuse. For more information about INL research, visit http://www.facebook.com/idahonationallaboratory.

  15. Extraction Utility Design Specification

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Extraction Utility Design Specification January 11, 2011 Document Version 1.9 1 Revision History Date Version Section and Titles Author Summary of Change January 15, 2010 1.0 All...

  16. Liquid chromatographic extraction medium

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Horwitz, E. Philip (Naperville, IL); Dietz, Mark L. (Evanston, IL)

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and apparatus for extracting strontium and technetium values from biological, industrial and environmental sample solutions using a chromatographic column is described. An extractant medium for the column is prepared by generating a solution of a diluent containing a Crown ether and dispersing the solution on a resin substrate material. The sample solution is highly acidic and is introduced directed to the chromatographic column and strontium or technetium is eluted using deionized water.

  17. Liquid chromatographic extraction medium

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Horwitz, E.P.; Dietz, M.L.

    1994-09-13T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and apparatus are disclosed for extracting strontium and technetium values from biological, industrial and environmental sample solutions using a chromatographic column. An extractant medium for the column is prepared by generating a solution of a diluent containing a Crown ether and dispersing the solution on a resin substrate material. The sample solution is highly acidic and is introduced directed to the chromatographic column and strontium or technetium is eluted using deionized water. 1 fig.

  18. Threshold voltage extraction circuit

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hoon, Siew Kuok

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    to that of the saturation method. However, instead of fixing Vos ? Vos, the drain current is measured as a function of Vos while Vns is fixed at a constant low voltage of 100mV to ensure operation in the linear MOSFET region. Neglecting channel length modulation effect... transistors are layout next to the DUT of the NMOS and PMOS Vr extraction circuits respectively for extraction of Vr via graphical means. GRAPHICAL METHOD OF THE THRESHOLD-VOLTAGE MEASUREMENT Using the graphical method, the characteristics of 4n versus Vos...

  19. Supercritical fluid extraction

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wai, Chien M. (Moscow, ID); Laintz, Kenneth (Pullman, WA)

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of extracting metalloid and metal species from a solid or liquid material by exposing the material to a supercritical fluid solvent containing a chelating agent. The chelating agent forms chelates that are soluble in the supercritical fluid to allow removal of the species from the material. In preferred embodiments, the extraction solvent is supercritical carbon dioxide and the chelating agent is a fluorinated or lipophilic crown ether or fluorinated dithiocarbamate. The method provides an environmentally benign process for removing contaminants from industrial waste without using acids or biologically harmful solvents. The chelate and supercritical fluid can be regenerated, and the contaminant species recovered, to provide an economic, efficient process.

  20. Supercritical Fluid Extraction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johnston, K. P.; Flarsheim, W. M.

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    supercritical tetrahydrofuran (583K, 10 MPa) or toluene (668K, 10 MPa) to remove 95% of the organic matter from Athabasca tar sanrls [4J. Compared to oil shale retorting at 870K which extracted 71% of the kerogen, supercritical toluene at 713K and 10 MPa...

  1. CHEM333: Experiment 2: Extraction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Taber, Douglass

    ). Combine the aqueous NaOH extractions and back-extract them with ether (15 ml). Combine the ether extracts the stopcock is closed c. Before you attempt to drain the sepfunnel, remove the stopper. 2. Use a ring stand. You will also find that the funnel will not drain properly (if at all) when the stopper is one. 3

  2. Innovative Drying and Nutrients Extraction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    to the extraction process. This method evaporates the water from the products but also drives off up to 70 percent dimethyl ether to extract the water from the material. The new process does not require the addition of heat to evaporate the water during the extraction process. Dimethyl ether has a lower heat

  3. Inverse hydrochemical models of aqueous extracts tests

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zheng, L.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    years to improve water extraction methods, develop numericalreactions during water extraction, redox processes were notAranyossy, J.F. , 2001. Extraction of water and solutes from

  4. Fission product solvent extraction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moyer, B.A.; Bonnesen, P.V.; Sachleben, R.A. [and others

    1998-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Two main objectives concerning removal of fission products from high-level tank wastes will be accomplished in this project. The first objective entails the development of an acid-side Cs solvent-extraction (SX) process applicable to remediation of the sodium-bearing waste (SBW) and dissolved calcine waste (DCW) at INEEL. The second objective is to develop alkaline-side SX processes for the combined removal of Tc, Cs, and possibly Sr and for individual separation of Tc (alone or together with Sr) and Cs. These alkaline-side processes apply to tank wastes stored at Hanford, Savannah River, and Oak Ridge. This work exploits the useful properties of crown ethers and calixarenes and has shown that such compounds may be economically adapted to practical processing conditions. Potential benefits for both acid- and alkaline-side processing include order-of-magnitude concentration factors, high rejection of bulk sodium and potassium salts, and stripping with dilute (typically 10 mM) nitric acid. These benefits minimize the subsequent burden on the very expensive vitrification and storage of the high-activity waste. In the case of the SRTALK process for Tc extraction as pertechnetate anion from alkaline waste, such benefits have now been proven at the scale of a 12-stage flowsheet tested in 2-cm centrifugal contactors with a Hanford supernatant waste simulant. SRTALK employs a crown ether in a TBP-modified aliphatic kerosene diluent, is economically competitive with other applicable separation processes being considered, and has been successfully tested in batch extraction of actual Hanford double-shell slurry feed (DSSF).

  5. Extraction Utility Design Specification

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 1112011AT&T,OfficeEnd of Year 2010Salt |Exelon GenerationExtraction Utility Design

  6. Extracting the Eliashberg Function

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville Power AdministrationField8,Dist. Category UC-l 1,EnergyExploring theExtracellularExtracting the

  7. Extracting the Eliashberg Function

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville Power AdministrationField8,Dist. Category UC-l 1,EnergyExploring theExtracellularExtracting

  8. Extracting the Eliashberg Function

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC) Environmental Assessments (EA) /EmailMolecularGE, Ford,Extracting the Eliashberg

  9. The Ether Extract and the Chloroform Extract of Soils.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fraps, G. S.; Rather, J. B.

    1913-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    I39-3I3-5m TEXAS AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATIONS BULLETIN NO. 155 JANUARY, 1913 DIVISION OF CHEMISTRY TECHNICAL BULLETIN THE ETHER EXTRACT AND THE CHLORO? FORM EXTRACT OF SOILS BY G. S. FRAPS and J. B. RATHER POSTOFFICE COLLEGE STATION... postal card will bring these publications. THE ETHER EXTRACT AND THE CHLOROFORM EXTRACT OF SOILS. (t. S. FliAPS , Chemist. ?J. B. o Y . C U G O Assistant Chemist. The soil may coDtarn any of the Substances which are found in plants or animals...

  10. Actinide extraction methods

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Peterman, Dean R. (Idaho Falls, ID) [Idaho Falls, ID; Klaehn, John R. (Idaho Falls, ID) [Idaho Falls, ID; Harrup, Mason K. (Idaho Falls, ID) [Idaho Falls, ID; Tillotson, Richard D. (Moore, ID) [Moore, ID; Law, Jack D. (Pocatello, ID) [Pocatello, ID

    2010-09-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Methods of separating actinides from lanthanides are disclosed. A regio-specific/stereo-specific dithiophosphinic acid having organic moieties is provided in an organic solvent that is then contacted with an acidic medium containing an actinide and a lanthanide. The method can extend to separating actinides from one another. Actinides are extracted as a complex with the dithiophosphinic acid. Separation compositions include an aqueous phase, an organic phase, dithiophosphinic acid, and at least one actinide. The compositions may include additional actinides and/or lanthanides. A method of producing a dithiophosphinic acid comprising at least two organic moieties selected from aromatics and alkyls, each moiety having at least one functional group is also disclosed. A source of sulfur is reacted with a halophosphine. An ammonium salt of the dithiophosphinic acid product is precipitated out of the reaction mixture. The precipitated salt is dissolved in ether. The ether is removed to yield the dithiophosphinic acid.

  11. Passive vapor extraction feasibility study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rohay, V.J.

    1994-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Demonstration of a passive vapor extraction remediation system is planned for sites in the 200 West Area used in the past for the disposal of waste liquids containing carbon tetrachloride. The passive vapor extraction units will consist of a 4-in.-diameter pipe, a check valve, a canister filled with granular activated carbon, and a wind turbine. The check valve will prevent inflow of air that otherwise would dilute the soil gas and make its subsequent extraction less efficient. The granular activated carbon is used to adsorb the carbon tetrachloride from the air. The wind turbine enhances extraction rates on windy days. Passive vapor extraction units will be designed and operated to meet all applicable or relevant and appropriate requirements. Based on a cost analysis, passive vapor extraction was found to be a cost-effective method for remediation of soils containing lower concentrations of volatile contaminants. Passive vapor extraction used on wells that average 10-stdft{sup 3}/min air flow rates was found to be more cost effective than active vapor extraction for concentrations below 500 parts per million by volume (ppm) of carbon tetrachloride. For wells that average 5-stdft{sup 3}/min air flow rates, passive vapor extraction is more cost effective below 100 ppm.

  12. Extraction chromatography: Progress and opportunities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dietz, M.L.; Horwitz, E.P.; Bond, A.H. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Chemistry Div.

    1997-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Extraction chromatography provides a simple and effective method for the analytical and preparative-scale separation of a variety of metal ions. Recent advances in extractant design, particularly the development of extractants capable of metal ion recognition or of strong complex formation in highly acidic media, have significantly improved the utility of the technique. Advances in support design, most notably the introduction of functionalized supports to enhance metal ion retention, promise to yield further improvements. Column instability remains a significant obstacle, however, to the process-scale application of extraction chromatography. 79 refs.

  13. SOLVENT EXTRACTION OF PHENOLS FROM WATER

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Greminger, Douglas C.

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Waste Water Treatment by Solvent Extraction," Canadian J.A.F. Preuss, "Extraction of Phenol from Water with a Liquid1980 SOLVENT EXTRACTION OF PHENOLS FROM WATER LP,WRENCE BERv

  14. Liquid-Liquid Extraction Processes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fair, J. R.; Humphrey, J. L.

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Liquid-liquid extraction is the separation of one or more components of a liquid solution by contact with a second immiscible liquid called the solvent. If the components in the original liquid solution distribute themselves differently between...

  15. Hot water bitumen extraction process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rendall, J.S.

    1989-10-24T23:59:59.000Z

    This patent describes a method of extracting bitumen oils from tar-sands ore. It includes an initial conditioning step comprising crushing tar-sands ore to yield solid particles of a maximum size required by a log washer conditioner in a second conditioning step; a bitumen extraction step; a bitumen separation step; a solvent recovery step; a sand washing and water clarification step; and a sand solvent recovery step.

  16. Inverse hydrochemical models of aqueous extracts tests

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zheng, L.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    processes may occur during porewater extraction such as dissolution of soluble minerals (processes taking place during aqueous extraction. Identification of GM requires knowing: 1) Aqueous complexes, 2) Mineral

  17. Ocean Thermal Extractable Energy Visualization: Final Technical...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Ocean Thermal Extractable Energy Visualization: Final Technical Report Ocean Thermal Extractable Energy Visualization: Final Technical Report Report about the Ocean Thermal...

  18. 2002 Marcel Dekker, Inc. All rights reserved. This material may not be used or reproduced in any form without the express written permission of Marcel Dekker, Inc. MARCEL DEKKER, INC. 270 MADISON AVENUE NEW YORK, NY 10016

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cohen, Michael F.

    of the Ryukyus, Nishihara, Okinawa 903-0213, Japan ABSTRACT The widely distributed water fern Azolla soil that had been surface- contaminated with diesel fuel (2.4 L mÀ2 ) and flooded with water conditions (biostimulation). Key Words: Diesel-contaminated soil; Bioremediation; BTEX; Azolla plants

  19. Extractant composition including crown ether and calixarene extractants

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Meikrantz, David H. (Idaho Falls, ID); Todd, Terry A. (Aberdeen, ID); Riddle, Catherine L. (Idaho Falls, ID); Law, Jack D. (Pocalello, ID); Peterman, Dean R. (Idaho Falls, ID); Mincher, Bruce J. (Idaho Falls, ID); McGrath, Christopher A. (Blackfoot, ID); Baker, John D. (Blackfoot, ID)

    2009-04-28T23:59:59.000Z

    An extractant composition comprising a mixed extractant solvent consisting of calix[4] arene-bis-(tert-octylbenzo)-crown-6 ("BOBCalixC6"), 4',4',(5')-di-(t-butyldicyclo-hexano)-18-crown-6 ("DtBu18C6"), and at least one modifier dissolved in a diluent. The DtBu18C6 may be present at from approximately 0.01M to approximately 0.4M, such as at from approximately 0.086 M to approximately 0.108 M. The modifier may be 1-(2,2,3,3-tetrafluoropropoxy)-3-(4-sec-butylphenoxy)-2-propanol ("Cs-7SB") and may be present at from approximately 0.01M to approximately 0.8M. In one embodiment, the mixed extractant solvent includes approximately 0.15M DtBu18C6, approximately 0.007M BOBCalixC6, and approximately 0.75M Cs-7SB modifier dissolved in an isoparaffinic hydrocarbon diluent. The extractant composition further comprises an aqueous phase. The mixed extractant solvent may be used to remove cesium and strontium from the aqueous phase.

  20. Cesium and strontium extraction using a mixed extractant solvent including crown ether and calixarene extractants

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Meikrantz, David H. (Idaho Falls, ID); Todd, Terry A. (Aberdeen, ID); Riddle, Catherine L. (Idaho Falls, ID); Law, Jack D. (Pocatello, ID); Peterman, Dean R. (Idaho Falls, ID); Mincher, Bruce J. (Idaho Falls, ID); McGrath, Christopher A. (Blackfoot, ID); Baker, John D. (Blackfoot, ID)

    2007-11-06T23:59:59.000Z

    A mixed extractant solvent including calix[4]arene-bis-(tert-octylbenzo)-crown-6 ("BOBCalixC6"), 4',4',(5')-di-(t-butyldicyclo-hexano)-18-crown-6 ("DtBu18C6"), and at least one modifier dissolved in a diluent. The mixed extractant solvent may be used to remove cesium and strontium from an acidic solution. The DtBu18C6 may be present from approximately 0.01 M to approximately 0.4M, such as from approximately 0.086 M to approximately 0.108 M. The modifier may be 1-(2,2,3,3-tetrafluoropropoxy)-3-(4-sec-butylphenoxy)-2-propanol ("Cs-7SB") and may be present from approximately 0.01M to approximately 0.8M. In one embodiment, the mixed extractant solvent includes approximately 0.15M DtBu18C6, approximately 0.007M BOBCalixC6, and approximately 0.75M Cs-7SB modifier dissolved in an isoparaffinic hydrocarbon diluent. The mixed extractant solvent may form an organic phase in an extraction system that also includes an aqueous phase. Methods of extracting cesium and strontium as well as strontium alone are also disclosed.

  1. Extracting energies from the vacuum

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    She-Sheng Xue

    2000-11-27T23:59:59.000Z

    We present and study a possible mechanism of extracting energies from the vacuum by external classical fields. Taking a constant magnetic field as an example, we discuss why and how the vacuum energy can be released in the context of quantum field theories. In addition, we give a theoretical computation showing how much vacuum energies can be released. The possibilities of experimentally detecting such a vacuum-energy releasing are discussed.

  2. Inverse hydrochemical models of aqueous extracts tests

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zheng, L.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    kinetic mineral dissolution during extraction. 4.3 Types ofextraction such as dissolution of soluble minerals (halite,extraction. Identification of GM requires knowing: 1) Aqueous complexes, 2) Mineral

  3. Titanium metal: extraction to application

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gambogi, Joseph (USGS, Reston, VA); Gerdemann, Stephen J.

    2002-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In 1998, approximately 57,000 tons of titanium metal was consumed in the form of mill products (1). Only about 5% of the 4 million tons of titanium minerals consumed each year is used to produce titanium metal, with the remainder primarily used to produce titanium dioxide pigment. Titanium metal production is primarily based on the direct chlorination of rutile to produce titanium tetrachloride, which is then reduced to metal using the Kroll magnesium reduction process. The use of titanium is tied to its high strength-to-weight ratio and corrosion resistance. Aerospace is the largest application for titanium. In this paper, we discuss all aspects of the titanium industry from ore deposits through extraction to present and future applications. The methods of both primary (mining of ore, extraction, and purification) and secondary (forming and machining) operations will be analyzed. The chemical and physical properties of titanium metal will be briefly examined. Present and future applications for titanium will be discussed. Finally, the economics of titanium metal production also are analyzed as well as the advantages and disadvantages of various alternative extraction methods.

  4. Extractable soil phosphorus in Blackland Prairie soils

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Byrd, Robert Claude

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    CONCLUSIONS . REFERENCES. . APPENDIX. 92 . 94 99 . . 104 Vlh Table LIST OF TABLES Page Extractable soil P ratings for the TAEX, Bray I, Olsen, and TAEX 3 soil P extractants 18 Chemical properties of preliminary soil sample (Fall 1992) taken from..., and 8 0). The authors, however, noted that Olsen and TAEX extractable P also resulted in acceptable correlation values All the above extractants were highly correlated (r& 0. 94) with total P uptake for both the calcareous soil and the slightly acidic...

  5. SchoolFEFLOW Exercise Heat extraction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kornhuber, Ralf

    the flux: q = 0.15 m/d Pumping (heat extraction) from aquifer and re-injection (of cooled water-injected water: 20°C · T = 20°C Model Extension #12;Summer SchoolHeat extraction from sloped aquifer 22Summer SchoolFEFLOW® Exercise Heat extraction from a sloped sandstone aquifer Vertical cross

  6. Gauge Invariant Spectral Cauchy Characteristic Extraction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Casey J. Handmer; Béla Szilágyi; Jeffrey Winicour

    2015-02-24T23:59:59.000Z

    We present gauge invariant spectral Cauchy characteristic extraction. We compare gravitational waveforms extracted from a head-on black hole merger simulated in two different gauges by two different codes. We show rapid convergence, demonstrating both gauge invariance of the extraction algorithm and consistency between the legacy Pitt null code and the much faster Spectral Einstein Code (SpEC).

  7. Extracting inorganics from scrap tires

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cummings, R.; Wertz, D.L. [Univ. of Southern Mississippi, Hattiesburg, MS (United States)

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Scrap tires contain several inorganic moieties in abundances >0.5% which are impregnated into their carbonaceous matrix. These inorganic species are known to produce acid rain, toxic aerosols, and boiler scale and could produce unwanted catalytic effects as well. It is our position that the potential of recycling scrap tires would be considerably enhanced if the inorganics in question - S, Ca, and Zn - were removed prior to attempts to upgrade the carbonaceous matrix. Using non-mechanical methods, we are attempting to cleave the adherence between the co-polymer matrix and to extract the inorganics. The efficiency of our methods is being measured by wavelength dispersive x-ray spectrometry and by other methods.

  8. Plasmonic Nanopore for Electrical Profiling of Optical Intensity Magnus P. Jonsson and Cees Dekker*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dekker, Cees

    of a liquid caused by heating by a focused high-power infrared laser beam.11 The temper- ature distribution the plasmonic heating, which we measure electrically through changes in the ionic conductance of the nanopore, optical nanoantenna, plasmonic heating, optical profiling, nanoplasmonics, thermoplasmonics

  9. A review of "Humour in Dutch Culture of the Golden Age." by Rudolf M. Dekker

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Larry Silver

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    traces published works with humorous content as well as foreign influences, chiefly from Germany in the earlier six- teenth century, followed by Italy and Spain (note the allusion to Spain in Bredero?s celebrated Spanish Brabander, 1618). Jestbooks...

  10. Surface-Charge-Governed Ion Transport in Nanofluidic Channels Derek Stein, Maarten Kruithof, and Cees Dekker

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dekker, Cees

    Surface-Charge-Governed Ion Transport in Nanofluidic Channels Derek Stein, Maarten Kruithof the role of surface charge in governing conductance at low salt concentrations. Nanofluidic channels [Fig

  11. Reducing Energy Usage in Extractive Distillation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Saxena, A. C.; Bhandari, V. A.

    , .. ~ REDUCING ENERGY USAGE IN,EXTRACTIVE DISTILLATION A. C. Saxena V. A. Bhandari Polysar Limited Sarnia, Ontario, Canada Abstract Butadiene 1:3 is separated from other C. hydrocarbons by extractive distillation in a sieve plate tower.... To improve the energy efficiency, butadiene recovery and productivity of the extractive distillation process, many process changes have been made. Their rationale, the methodology used to implement the various changes, and how they affected the process...

  12. Combined transuranic-strontium extraction process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Horwitz, E.P.; Dietz, M.L.

    1992-12-08T23:59:59.000Z

    The transuranic (TRU) elements neptunium, plutonium and americium can be separated together with strontium from nitric acid waste solutions in a single process. An extractant solution of a crown ether and an alkyl(phenyl)-N,N-dialkylcarbanylmethylphosphine oxide in an appropriate diluent will extract the TRU's together with strontium, uranium and technetium. The TRU's and the strontium can then be selectively stripped from the extractant for disposal. 3 figs.

  13. Combined transuranic-strontium extraction process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Horwitz, E.P.; Dietz, M.L.

    1991-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The transuranic (TRU) elements neptunium, plutonium and amercium can be separated together with strontium from nitric acid waste solutions in a single process. An extractant solution of a crown ether and an alkyl(phenyl)-N.N-dialkylcarbanylmethylphosphine oxide in an appropriate diluent will extract the TRU`s to gather with strontium, uranium and technetium. The TRU`s and the strontium can then be selectively stripped from the extractant for disposal.

  14. Determination of Extractives in Biomass: Laboratory Analytical...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    steps. This procedure uses a two-step extraction process to remove water soluble and ethanol soluble material. Water soluble materials may include inorganic material,...

  15. Geothermal: Sponsored by OSTI -- Technologies for Extracting...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Technologies for Extracting Valuable Metals and Compounds from Geothermal Fluids Geothermal Technologies Legacy Collection HelpFAQ | Site Map | Contact Us HomeBasic Search About...

  16. Summary of Topic1 Fusion Power Extraction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Abdou, Mohamed

    Extraction and Tritium Fuel Cycle · What choices are available for material, coolant, breeder, configuration availability of external tritium supply? #12;FW/Blanket concepts for fusion power extraction and tritium&D and facilities strongly overlap RAFM Steel PbLi Breeder Helium Cooled Ceramic Breeder Beryllium Helium Cooled Pb

  17. Transposon extraction protocol Maitreya Dunham November 2006

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dunham, Maitreya

    Transposon extraction protocol Maitreya Dunham November 2006 modification of the Qiagen HSE precipitate. Mix equal amounts of DNA from each digest if multiple digests. Extraction In a screw-cap tube (Qiagen), and water to bring to 30 µl total. Heat for 15 minutes at 95C with a 100C block on top (blocks

  18. Design of the ILC RTML extraction lines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Seletskiy, S.; Tenenbaum, P.; Walz, D.; /SLAC; Solyak, N.; /Fermilab

    2008-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The ILC [1] Damping Ring to the Main Linac beamline (RTML) contains three extraction lines (EL). Each EL can be used both for an emergency abort dumping of the beam and tune-up continual train-by-train extraction. Two of the extraction lines are located downstream of the first and second stages of the RTML bunch compressor, and must accept both compressed and uncompressed beam with energy spreads of 2.5% and 0.15%, respectively. In this paper we report on an optics design that allowed minimizing the length of the extraction lines while offsetting the beam dumps from the main line by the distance required for acceptable radiation levels in the service tunnel. The proposed extraction lines can accommodate beams with different energy spreads while at the same time providing the beam size acceptable for the aluminum dump window.

  19. Membrane Extraction for Detoxification of Biomass Hydrolysates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grzenia, D. L.; Schell, D. J.; Wickramasinghe, S. R.

    2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Membrane extraction was used for the removal of sulfuric acid, acetic acid, 5-hydroxymethyl furfural and furfural from corn stover hydrolyzed with dilute sulfuric acid. Microporous polypropylene hollow fiber membranes were used. The organic extractant consisted of 15% Alamine 336 in: octanol, a 50:50 mixture of oleyl alcohol:octanol or oleyl alcohol. Rapid removal of sulfuric acid, 5-hydroxymethyl and furfural was observed. The rate of acetic acid removal decreased as the pH of the hydrolysate increased. Regeneration of the organic extractant was achieved by back extraction into an aqueous phase containing NaOH and ethanol. A cleaning protocol consisting of flushing the hydrolysate compartment with NaOH and the organic phase compartment with pure organic phase enabled regeneration and reuse of the module. Ethanol yields from hydrolysates detoxified by membrane extraction using 15% Alamine 336 in oleyl alcohol were about 10% higher than those from hydrolysates detoxified using ammonium hydroxide treatment.

  20. Modified Extraction Scheme for the CERN PS Multi-Turn Extraction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gilardoni, S; Hernalsteens, C; Lachaize, A; Métral, G

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    High-activation of the extraction magnetic septum of the CERN PS machine was observed due to the losses of the continuous beam extracted via the Multi-Turn Extraction (MTE) method. A possible mitigation measure consists of using an existing electrostatic septum, located upstream of the extraction magnetic septum, to deflect the beam. This would highly decrease the beam losses, and hence the induced activation, during the rise time of the MTE kickers due to the reduced thickness of the electrostatic septum with respect to the magnetic one. The layout of this new extraction will be described in detail and the results of beam measurements presented.

  1. Design of the ILC RTML Extraction Lines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Seletskiy, S.; Tenenbaum, P.; Walz, D.; /SLAC; Solyak, N.; /Fermilab

    2011-10-17T23:59:59.000Z

    The ILC [1] Damping Ring to the Main Linac beamline (RTML) contains three extraction lines (EL). Each EL can be used both for an emergency abort dumping of the beam and tune-up continual train-by-train extraction. Two of the extraction lines are located downstream of the first and second stages of the RTML bunch compressor, and must accept both compressed and uncompressed beam with energy spreads of 2.5% and 0.15%, respectively. In this paper we report on an optics design that allowed minimizing the length of the extraction lines while offsetting the beam dumps from the main line by the distance required for acceptable radiation levels in the service tunnel. The proposed extraction lines can accommodate beams with different energy spreads while at the same time providing the beam size acceptable for the aluminum dump window. The RTML incorporates three extraction lines, which can be used for either an emergency beam abort or for a train-by-train extraction. The first EL is located downstream of the Damping Ring extraction arc. The other two extraction lines are located downstream of each stage of the two-stage bunch compressor. The first extraction line (EL1) receives 5GeV beam with an 0.15% energy spread. The extraction line located downstream of the first stage of bunch compressor (ELBC1) receives both compressed and uncompressed beam, and therefore must accept beam with both 5 and 4.88GeV energy, and 0.15% and 2.5% energy spread, respectively. The extraction line located after the second stage of the bunch compressor (ELBC2) receives 15GeV beam with either 0.15 or 1.8% energy spread. Each of the three extraction lines is equipped with the 220kW aluminum ball dump, which corresponds to the power of the continuously dumped beam with 5GeV energy, i.e., the beam trains must be delivered to the ELBC2 dump at reduced repetition rate.

  2. Remediating pesticide contaminated soils using solvent extraction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sahle-Demessie, E.; Meckes, M.C.; Richardson, T.L. [National Management Research Lab., Cincinnati, OH (United States)

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Bench-scale solvent extraction studies were performed on soil samples obtained from a Superfund site contaminated with high levels of p,p{prime}-DDT, p,p{prime}-DDE and toxaphene. The effectiveness of the solvent extraction process was assessed using methanol and 2-propanol as solvents over a wide range of operating conditions. It was demonstrated that a six-stage methanol extraction using a solvent-to-soil ratio of 1.6 can decrease pesticide levels in the soil by more than 99% and reduce the volume of material requiring further treatment by 25 times or more. The high solubility of the pesticides in methanol resulted in rapid extraction rates, with the system reaching quasi-equilibrium state in 30 minutes. The extraction efficiency was influenced by the number of extraction stages, the solvent-to-soil ratio, and the soil moisture content. Various methods were investigated to regenerate and recycle the solvent. Evaporation and solvent stripping are low cost and reliable methods for removing high pesticide concentrations from the solvent. For low concentrations, GAC adsorption may be used. Precipitating and filtering pesticides by adding water to the methanol/pesticide solution was not successful when tested with soil extracts. 26 refs., 10 figs., 6 tabs.

  3. Extraction Steam Controls at EPLA-W

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brinker, J. L.

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ExxonMobil's Baton Rouge site encompasses a world-scale refinery, chemical plant and third party power station. Historically, inflexible and unreliable control systems on two high-pressure, extracting/condensing steam turbines prevented the site...

  4. Cheaper oil extraction Taking a closer look

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    be extracted from oil fields. Liquid CO2 is increasingly used industrially to replace common petrochemical-flammable and environmentally responsible alternative to conventional petrochemical solvents. For example, even water

  5. Extracting secret keys from integrated circuits

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lim, Daihyun, 1976-

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Modern cryptographic protocols are based on the premise that only authorized participants can obtain secret keys and access to information systems. However, various kinds of tampering methods have been devised to extract ...

  6. The extraction of work from quantum coherence

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kamil Korzekwa; Matteo Lostaglio; Jonathan Oppenheim; David Jennings

    2015-06-25T23:59:59.000Z

    We critically assess the problem of extracting work from a coherent superposition of energy eigenstates of an individual qubit system. By carefully taking into account all the resources involved in the thermodynamic transformations in a fully quantum-mechanical treatment, we show that there exists a thermal machine that can come arbitrarily close to extracting all the coherence as work. The machine only needs to act on individual copies of a state and can be reused. On the other hand, we show that for any thermal machine with finite resources not all the coherence of a state can be extracted as work. We provide explicit protocols extracting work from coherence when the resources of a thermal machine are bounded, a scenario potentially relevant for the thermodynamics at the nanoscale.

  7. Fluidized bed gasification of extracted coal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Aquino, D.C.; DaPrato, P.L.; Gouker, T.R.; Knoer, P.

    1984-07-06T23:59:59.000Z

    Coal or similar carbonaceous solids are extracted by contacting the solids in an extraction zone with an aqueous solution having a pH above 12.0 at a temperature between 65/sup 0/C and 110/sup 0/C for a period of time sufficient to remove bitumens from the coal into said aqueous solution, and the extracted solids are then gasified at an elevated pressure and temperature in a fluidized bed gasification zone (60) wherein the density of the fluidized bed is maintained at a value above 160 kg/m/sup 3/. In a preferred embodiment of the invention, water is removed from the aqueous solution in order to redeposit the extracted bitumens onto the solids prior to the gasification step. 2 figs., 1 tab.

  8. Fluidized bed gasification of extracted coal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Aquino, Dolores C. (Houston, TX); DaPrato, Philip L. (Westfield, NJ); Gouker, Toby R. (Baton Rouge, LA); Knoer, Peter (Houston, TX)

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Coal or similar carbonaceous solids are extracted by contacting the solids in an extraction zone (12) with an aqueous solution having a pH above 12.0 at a temperature between 65.degree. C. and 110.degree. C. for a period of time sufficient to remove bitumens from the coal into said aqueous solution and the extracted solids are then gasified at an elevated pressure and temperature in a fluidized bed gasification zone (60) wherein the density of the fluidized bed is maintained at a value above 160 kg/m.sup.3. In a preferred embodiment of the invention, water is removed from the aqueous solution in order to redeposit the extracted bitumens onto the solids prior to the gasification step.

  9. Alkaline earth cation extraction from acid solution

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dietz, Mark (Elmhurst, IL); Horwitz, E. Philip (Naperville, IL)

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An extractant medium for extracting alkaline earth cations from an aqueous acidic sample solution is described as are a method and apparatus for using the same. The separation medium is free of diluent, free-flowing and particulate, and comprises a Crown ether that is a 4,4'(5')[C.sub.4 -C.sub.8 -alkylcyclohexano]18-Crown-6 dispersed on an inert substrate material.

  10. Extracting and Using Data From Tracking Systems | Department...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Extracting and Using Data From Tracking Systems Extracting and Using Data From Tracking Systems Better Buildings Neighborhood Program Data and Evaluation Peer Exchange Call:...

  11. Enhanced Geothermal in Nevada: Extracting Heat From the Earth...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Enhanced Geothermal in Nevada: Extracting Heat From the Earth to Generate Sustainable Power Enhanced Geothermal in Nevada: Extracting Heat From the Earth to Generate Sustainable...

  12. aerogel keystones extraction: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    level due to evaporation. Threeevaporation for xerogel and supercritical extraction for aerogel. Supercritical extraction enables the removal of interstitial liquid Carrington,...

  13. aromatica extracts correlates: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    thus from which any extractable work can only come from correlations. We compute the maximum extractable work for general entangled states, separable states, and states with...

  14. Extraction of RNA-Trizol RNA extraction from M. tuberculosis (Mahenthiralingam 1998) is useful for RT-PCR

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Extraction of RNA-Trizol RNA extraction from M. tuberculosis (Mahenthiralingam 1998) is useful of isopropanol. 10. Precipitate overnight at ­20°C. Prepare cold 70% ethanol with DEPC treated water. Centrifuge DNA is present, repeat Trizol extraction. #12;

  15. Reexamination of Pure Qubit Work Extraction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Max F. Frenzel; David Jennings; Terry Rudolph

    2014-11-19T23:59:59.000Z

    Many work extraction or information erasure processes in the literature involve the raising and lowering of energy levels via external fields. But even if the actual system is treated quantum mechanically, the field is assumed to be classical and of infinite strength, hence not developing any correlations with the system or experiencing back-actions. We extend these considerations to a fully quantum mechanical treatment, by studying a spin-1/2 particle coupled to a finite-sized directional quantum reference frame, a spin-l system, which models an external field. With this concrete model together with a bosonic thermal bath, we analyse the back-action a finite-size field suffers during a quantum-mechanical work extraction process, the effect this has on the extractable work, and highlight a range of assumptions commonly made when considering such processes. The well-known semi-classical treatment of work extraction from a pure qubit predicts a maximum extractable work W = kT log 2 for a quasi-static process, which holds as a strict upper bound in the fully quantum mechanical case, and is only attained in the classical limit. We also address the problem of emergent local time-dependence in a joint system with globally fixed Hamiltonian.

  16. GeothermalHeat Extraction Anna Przybycin Feliks Nueske Mark Riesland

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kornhuber, Ralf

    : 70% 32.8 m3/d water extraction - Extraction temperature: 12°C = aquifer temperature Injection the cold-water plume reaches the extraction well Is this realistic under practical considerations? ProbablyGeothermal­Heat Extraction Anna Przybycin ­ Feliks Nueske ­ Mark Riesland #12;1) Hydrogeological

  17. PAPER 2004-028 The Effect of Bitumen Extraction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schramm, Laurier L.

    1 PAPER 2004-028 The Effect of Bitumen Extraction Shear Conditions on Froth Treatment Performance U processing: extraction and froth treatment. The most common extraction process is hot water bitumen extraction where bitumen is produced in a froth consisting of bitumen, water, and inorganic solids. The froth

  18. Hierarchical Iso-Surface Extraction Computer Graphics Group

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Desbrun, Mathieu

    Hierarchical Iso-Surface Extraction Ulf Labsik Computer Graphics Group University of Erlangen Kai of our hierarchical iso-surface extraction algorithm. Abstract The extraction and display of iso construct a hierarchy of volumes and extract an iso-surface from the coarsest resolution with a standard

  19. Ethanol extraction of phytosterols from corn fiber

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Abbas, Charles (Champaign, IL); Beery, Kyle E. (Decatur, IL); Binder, Thomas P. (Decatur, IL); Rammelsberg, Anne M. (Decatur, IL)

    2010-11-16T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention provides a process for extracting sterols from a high solids, thermochemically hydrolyzed corn fiber using ethanol as the extractant. The process includes obtaining a corn fiber slurry having a moisture content from about 20 weight percent to about 50 weight percent solids (high solids content), thermochemically processing the corn fiber slurry having high solids content of 20 to 50% to produce a hydrolyzed corn fiber slurry, dewatering the hydrolyzed corn fiber slurry to achieve a residual corn fiber having a moisture content from about 30 to 80 weight percent solids, washing the residual corn fiber, dewatering the washed, hydrolyzed corn fiber slurry to achieve a residual corn fiber having a moisture content from about 30 to 80 weight percent solids, and extracting the residual corn fiber with ethanol and separating at least one sterol.

  20. Equilibrium of molybdenum in selected extraction systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tkac, Peter; Paulenova, Alena [Radiation Center, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331-5903 (United States)

    2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The concentration of molybdenum(VI) in dissolved irradiated nuclear fuel is comparable with the concentrations of Tc, Am and Np. Therefore it is of big interest to understand its behavior under conditions related to the UREX/TRUEX process. The effect of the poly-speciation of molybdenum in aqueous solution on its extraction by neutral solvents TBP and CMPO/TBP was studied. Extraction yields of molybdenum decreased significantly when AHA was added to aqueous phase. Our investigation confirmed a strong ability of the aceto-hydroxamic acid to form complexes with Mo in high acidic solutions. Spectroscopic data (UV-Vis) confirmed that a fraction of the Mo(VI)-AHA complex is present in the organic phase after extraction. (authors)

  1. Membrane contactor assisted extraction/reaction process employing ionic liquids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lin, Yupo J. (Naperville, IL); Snyder, Seth W. (Lincolnwood, IL)

    2012-02-07T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention relates to a functionalized membrane contactor extraction/reaction system and method for extracting target species from multi-phase solutions utilizing ionic liquids. One preferred embodiment of the invented method and system relates to an extraction/reaction system wherein the ionic liquid extraction solutions act as both extraction solutions and reaction mediums, and allow simultaneous separation/reactions not possible with prior art technology.

  2. Vapor Extraction Well Performance and Recommendations for Transitioning to Passive Extraction at the Former DUS-II Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jackson, Dennis G.; Noonkester, Jay V.; Looney, Brian B.

    2013-04-03T23:59:59.000Z

    This investigation evaluated mass extraction rate from individual wells associated with the Western Sector Treatment System (formerly known as the DUS-II project). This was critical since each individual well can have a radius of influence in excess of 100-ft when operating using an active extraction system. Future soil vapor extraction should use the existing active extraction system, supplemented with deployment of passive extraction where appropriate.

  3. Extraction and Analysis of Facebook Friendship Relations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ferrara, Emilio

    Chapter 12 Extraction and Analysis of Facebook Friendship Relations Salvatore Catanese, Pasquale De and Social scientists. We present our long-term research effort in analyzing Facebook, the largest and arguably most successful OSN today: it gathers more than 500 million users. Access to data about Facebook

  4. Selective solvent extraction of cellulosic material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wang, D.I.C.; Avgerinos, G.C.

    1983-07-26T23:59:59.000Z

    Cellulosic products having a high hemicellulose to lignin weight ratio are obtained by extracting a cellulosic composition with basic ethanol-water solution having a pH between about 12 and about 14 at a temperature between about 15 and about 70 C and for a time period between about 2 and about 80 hours. 6 figs.

  5. Selective solvent extraction of cellulosic material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wang, Daniel I. C. (Belmont, MA); Avgerinos, George C. (Newton Center, MA)

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Cellulosic products having a high hemicellulose to lignin weight ratio are obtained by extracting a cellulosic composition with basic ethanol-water solution having a pH between about 12 and about 14 at a temperature between about 15.degree. and about 70.degree. C. and for a time period between about 2 and about 80 hours.

  6. Logical Structure Extraction from Software Requirements Documents

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Czarnecki, Krzysztof

    Documents I. INTRODUCTION Requirements management (RM) tools store and manipu- late software requirementsLogical Structure Extraction from Software Requirements Documents Rehan Rauf, Michal Antkiewicz,mantkiew,kczarnec}@gsd.uwaterloo.ca Abstract--Software requirements documents (SRDs) are often authored in general-purpose rich-text editors

  7. Extracting gluon condensate from the average plaquette

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Taekoon

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The perturbative contribution in the average plaquette is subtracted using Borel summation and the remnant of the plaquette is shown to scale as a dim-4 condensate. A critical review is presented of the renormalon subtraction scheme that claimed a dim-2 condensate. The extracted gluon condensate is compared with the latest result employing high order (35-loop) calculation in the stochastic perturbation theory.

  8. Extracting Artifact Lifecycle Models from Metadata History

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Godfrey, Michael W.

    Extracting Artifact Lifecycle Models from Metadata History Olga Baysal, Oleksii Kononenko, Reid, Canada {obaysal, okononen, rtholmes, migod}@cs.uwaterloo.ca Abstract--Software developers and managers make decisions based on the understanding they have of their software systems. This understanding

  9. Inverse hydrochemical models of aqueous extracts tests

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zheng, L.; Samper, J.; Montenegro, L.

    2008-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Aqueous extract test is a laboratory technique commonly used to measure the amount of soluble salts of a soil sample after adding a known mass of distilled water. Measured aqueous extract data have to be re-interpreted in order to infer porewater chemical composition of the sample because porewater chemistry changes significantly due to dilution and chemical reactions which take place during extraction. Here we present an inverse hydrochemical model to estimate porewater chemical composition from measured water content, aqueous extract, and mineralogical data. The model accounts for acid-base, redox, aqueous complexation, mineral dissolution/precipitation, gas dissolution/ex-solution, cation exchange and surface complexation reactions, of which are assumed to take place at local equilibrium. It has been solved with INVERSE-CORE{sup 2D} and been tested with bentonite samples taken from FEBEX (Full-scale Engineered Barrier EXperiment) in situ test. The inverse model reproduces most of the measured aqueous data except bicarbonate and provides an effective, flexible and comprehensive method to estimate porewater chemical composition of clays. Main uncertainties are related to kinetic calcite dissolution and variations in CO2(g) pressure.

  10. Vapour extraction of heavy oil and bitumen

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Das, K.A.; Butler, R.M. [Univ. of Calgary (Canada)

    1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper describes the process of vapor extraction for the recovery of petroleum and bitumen. The selection of solvent is critical, and it is shown that butane may be a good solvent for shallow reservoirs. Experiments are described in a Hele-Shaw cell and Packed Visual Model.

  11. Organic electroluminescent devices having improved light extraction

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shiang, Joseph John (Niskayuna, NY)

    2007-07-17T23:59:59.000Z

    Organic electroluminescent devices having improved light extraction include a light-scattering medium disposed adjacent thereto. The light-scattering medium has a light scattering anisotropy parameter g in the range from greater than zero to about 0.99, and a scatterance parameter S less than about 0.22 or greater than about 3.

  12. Evolutionary Algorithms for Definition Extraction Claudia Borg

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pace, Gordon J.

    Evolutionary Algorithms for Definition Extraction Claudia Borg Dept. of I.C.S. University of Malta claudia.borg@um.edu.mt Mike Rosner Dept. of I.C.S. University of Malta mike.rosner@um.edu.mt Gordon Pace Dept. of Computer Science University of Malta gordon.pace@um.edu.mt Abstract Books and other text

  13. Geochemical Modeling of ILAW Lysimeter Water Extracts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cantrell, Kirk J.

    2014-12-22T23:59:59.000Z

    Geochemical modeling results of water extracts from simulated immobilized low-activity waste (ILAW) glasses, placed in lysimeters for eight years suggest that the secondary phase reaction network developed using product consistency test (PCT) results at 90°C may need to be modified for field conditions. For sediment samples that had been collected from near the glass samples, the impact of glass corrosion could be readily observed based upon the pH of their water extracts. For unimpacted sediments the pH ranged from 7.88 to 8.11 with an average of 8.04. Sediments that had observable impacts from glass corrosion exhibited elevated pH values (as high as 9.97). For lysimeter sediment samples that appear to have been impacted by glass corrosion to the greatest extent, saturation indices determined for analcime, calcite, and chalcedony in the 1:1 water extracts were near equilibrium and were consistent with the secondary phase reaction network developed using PCT results at 90°C. Fe(OH)3(s) also appears to be essentially at equilibrium in extracts impacted by glass corrosion, but with a solubility product (log Ksp) that is approximately 2.13 units lower than that used in the secondary phase reaction network developed using PCT results at 90°C. The solubilities of TiO2(am) and ZrO2(am) also appear to be much lower than that assumed in the secondary phase reaction network developed using PCT results at 90°C. The extent that the solubility of TiO2(am) and ZrO2(am) were reduced relative to that assumed in the secondary phase reaction network developed using PCT results at 90°C could not be quantified because the concentrations of Ti and Zr in the extracts were below the estimated quantification limit. Gibbsite was consistently highly oversaturated in the extract while dawsonite was at or near equilibrium. This suggests that dawsonite might be a more suitable phase for the secondary phase reaction network than gibbsite under field conditions. This may be due to the availability of carbonate that exists in the Hanford sediments as calcite. A significant source of carbonate was not available in the PCTs and this may account for why this phase did not appear in the PCTs. Sepiolite was consistently highly undersaturated, suggesting that another phase controls the solubility of magnesium. For samples that were most impacted by the effects of glass corrosion, magnesite appears to control glass corrosion. For samples that show less impacts from glass corrosion, clinochlore-7A or saponite-Mg appears to control the magnesium concentrations. For zinc, it appears that zincite is a better candidate than Zn(OH)2-? for controlling zinc concentrations in the extracts; however, in some samples all zinc phases considered were highly oversaturated. As a result the phase that controls zinc concentrations in the lysimeter extracts remains uncertain.

  14. Extracting metals directly from metal oxides

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wai, C.M.; Smart, N.G.; Phelps, C.

    1997-02-25T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of extracting metals directly from metal oxides by exposing the oxide to a supercritical fluid solvent containing a chelating agent is described. Preferably, the metal is an actinide or a lanthanide. More preferably, the metal is uranium, thorium or plutonium. The chelating agent forms chelates that are soluble in the supercritical fluid, thereby allowing direct removal of the metal from the metal oxide. In preferred embodiments, the extraction solvent is supercritical carbon dioxide and the chelating agent is selected from the group consisting of {beta}-diketones, halogenated {beta}-diketones, phosphinic acids, halogenated phosphinic acids, carboxylic acids, halogenated carboxylic acids, and mixtures thereof. In especially preferred embodiments, at least one of the chelating agents is fluorinated. The method provides an environmentally benign process for removing metals from metal oxides without using acids or biologically harmful solvents. The chelate and supercritical fluid can be regenerated, and the metal recovered, to provide an economic, efficient process. 4 figs.

  15. Extracting metals directly from metal oxides

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wai, Chien M. (Moscow, ID); Smart, Neil G. (Moscow, ID); Phelps, Cindy (Moscow, ID)

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of extracting metals directly from metal oxides by exposing the oxide to a supercritical fluid solvent containing a chelating agent is described. Preferably, the metal is an actinide or a lanthanide. More preferably, the metal is uranium, thorium or plutonium. The chelating agent forms chelates that are soluble in the supercritical fluid, thereby allowing direct removal of the metal from the metal oxide. In preferred embodiments, the extraction solvent is supercritical carbon dioxide and the chelating agent is selected from the group consisting of .beta.-diketones, halogenated .beta.-diketones, phosphinic acids, halogenated phosphinic acids, carboxylic acids, halogenated carboxylic acids, and mixtures thereof. In especially preferred embodiments, at least one of the chelating agents is fluorinated. The method provides an environmentally benign process for removing metals from metal oxides without using acids or biologically harmful solvents. The chelate and supercritical fluid can be regenerated, and the metal recovered, to provide an economic, efficient process.

  16. Aromatics Extraction Plant Design Using Synthesis Techniques

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wilcox, R. J.; Nedwick, R.

    were changed. The process modified design has process conditions altered to create opportunities for heat integration. Distillation column pressure changes were the primary modifications. In this design the plant was also divided into two sections... the aid of modern synthesis techniques. The only heat integration in the Extraction Section is the Recovery Column bottoms preheating the Regenerator feed then the Stripper feed. The Distillation Section has no heat integration. This design uses 73...

  17. Extraction of Freshwater and Energy from Atmosphere

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alexander Bolonkin

    2007-04-19T23:59:59.000Z

    Author offers and researches a new, cheap method for the extraction of freshwater from the Earth atmosphere. The suggected method is fundamentally dictinct from all existing methods that extract freshwater from air. All other industrial methods extract water from a saline water source (in most cases from seawater). This new method may be used at any point in the Earth except Polar Zones. It does not require long-distance freshwater transportation. If seawater is not utilized for increasing its productivity, this inexpensive new method is very environment-friendly. The author method has two working versions: (1) the first variant the warm (hot) atmospheric air is lifted by the inflatable tube in a high altitude and atmospheric steam is condenced into freswater: (2) in the second version, the warm air is pumped 20-30 meters under the sea-surface. In the first version, wind and solar heating of air are used for causing air flow. In version (2) wind and propeller are used for causing air movment. The first method does not need energy, the second needs a small amount. Moreover, in variant (1) the freshwater has a high pressure (>30 or more atm.) and can be used for production of energy such as electricity and in that way the freshwater cost is lower. For increasing the productivity the seawater is injected into air and solar air heater may be used. The solar air heater produces a huge amount of electricity as a very powerful electricity generation plant. The offered electricity installation in 100 - 200 times cheaper than any common electric plant of equivalent output. Key words: Extraction freshwater, method of getting freshwater, receiving energy from atmosphere, powerful renewal electric plant.

  18. Catalytic extraction processing of contaminated scrap metal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Griffin, T.P.; Johnston, J.E.; Payea, B.M.; Zeitoon, B.M.

    1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Molten Metal Technology was awarded a contract to demonstrate the applicability of the Catalytic Extraction Process, a proprietary process that could be applied to US DOE`s inventory of low level mixed waste. This paper is a description of that technology, and included within this document are discussions of: (1) Program objectives, (2) Overall technology review, (3) Organic feed conversion to synthetic gas, (4) Metal, halogen, and transuranic recovery, (5) Demonstrations, (6) Design of the prototype facility, and (7) Results.

  19. Nanomaterials for Extracting Hydrogen from Water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nanomaterials for Extracting Hydrogen from Water P R O J E C T L E A D E R : Veronika Szalai (NIST to catalyze water oxidation. K E Y A C C O M P L I S H M E N T S Produced highly active iron oxide (hematite water. R E F E R E N C E Effect of tin doping on -Fe2 O3 photoanodes for water splitting, C. D. Bohn, A

  20. Plutonium Uranium Extraction Facility Documented Safety Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DODD, E.N.

    2003-10-08T23:59:59.000Z

    This document provides the documented safety analysis (DSA) and Central Plateau Remediation Project (CP) requirements that apply to surveillance and maintenance (S&M) activities at the Plutonium-Uranium Extraction (PUREX) facility. This DSA was developed in accordance with DOE-STD-1120-98, ''Integration of Environment, Safety, and Health into Facility Disposition Activities''. Upon approval and implementation of this document, the current safety basis documents will be retired.

  1. Factors influencing the efficiency of arsenic extraction by phosphate 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yean, Su Jin

    2005-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Extraction with sodium phosphate has been used as a method of accessing arsenic in soils. Arsenic extraction efficiency by phosphate from rice-paddy soils of Bangladesh usually has been low and highly variable between ...

  2. Supercritical extraction of organic mixtures from soil-water slurries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Green, Lynda Ann

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Supercritical C02was used to extract orgamc rruxtures from soil-water slurries. The extent of extraction and the equilibrium distribution of the mixture and of the individual components were determined. A single stage batch vessel was used...

  3. Supercritical Fluid Extraction Applications in the Process Industries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lahiere, R. J.; Fair, J. R.; Humphrey, J. L.

    solutions. Other examples of potential applications for SFE technology are the extraction of tar sands and oil shale [17J; separations of biomolecules such as triglycerides, alkaloids, and olefins [18J; extraction of coal liquids [19J; and the isolation...

  4. A medication extraction framework for electronic health records

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bodnari, Andreea

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis addresses the problem of concept and relation extraction in medical documents. We present a medical concept and relation extraction system (medNERR) that incorporates hand-built rules and constrained conditional ...

  5. Low-density random matrices for secret key extraction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhou, Hongchao

    Secret key extraction, the task of extracting a secret key from shared information that is partially known by an eavesdropper, has important applications in cryptography. Motivated by the requirements of high-speed quantum ...

  6. Process for the extraction of strontium from acidic solutions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Horwitz, E.P.; Dietz, M.L.

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention is a process for selectively extracting strontium values from aqueous nitric acid waste solutions containing these and other fission product values. The extractant solution is a macrocyclic polyether in an aliphatic hydrocarbon diluent containing a phase modifier. The process will selectively extract strontium values from nitric acid solutions which are up to 6 molar in nitric acid.

  7. Process for the extraction of strontium from acidic solutions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Horwitz, E.P.; Dietz, M.L.

    1994-09-06T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention is a process for selectively extracting strontium values from aqueous nitric acid waste solutions containing these and other fission product values. The extractant solution is a macrocyclic polyether in an aliphatic hydrocarbon diluent containing a phase modifier. The process will selectively extract strontium values from nitric acid solutions which are up to 6 molar in nitric acid. 4 figs.

  8. Extracting Team Mental Models Through Textual Analysis Kathleen M. Carley

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sadeh, Norman M.

    Extracting Team Mental Models Through Textual Analysis Kathleen M. Carley Associate Professor of this paper appears in: Kathleen M. Carley, 1997, "Extracting Team Mental Models Through Textual Analysis for this paper, but for future work in this area. #12;-- 1 -- Extracting Team Mental Models Through Textual

  9. Evaluation of Automated Extraction of Organochlorine Contaminants from Freshwater

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mazumder, Asit

    by solvent rinses of containers. Breakthrough, assessed by liquid-liquid extraction of water of SPE sample. The extraction of trace organic contaminants from environ- mental water samples has long been accomplished with appropriate solvents in separatory funnels or capped bottles. The need to extract much larger volumes of water

  10. Automatic Extraction of Cartographic Information from Airborne Interferometric SAR Data

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mayer, Helmut A.

    Automatic Extraction of Cartographic Information from Airborne Interferometric SAR Data Reinhold cartographic feature extraction by the airborne AeS--1 instrument is presented. We extract regions corresponding to cartographic features for the classes built--up area, forest, water and open area. Water

  11. Extracting Fish and Water Velocity from Doppler Profiler Data

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    deYoung, Brad

    Extracting Fish and Water Velocity from Doppler Profiler Data ĺ Ð 1 ¸ Ö Ò ×¹ Ò ÝÖ¹Ê Ò 2 1 processing algo- rithms normally used to extract water velocity. We present an alternative method for velocity homogeneity precludes the extraction of fish velocities. Water velocities can sometimes still

  12. Geothermal-Heat Extraction As a source of renewable energy, geothermal-heat extraction has become increasingly

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kornhuber, Ralf

    Geothermal-Heat Extraction As a source of renewable energy, geothermal-heat extraction has become increasingly important in recent years. Proper design of a geothermal system, be it for deep or for shallow

  13. Direct extraction of oil from sunflower seeds by twin-screw extruder according to an aqueous extraction process: Feasibility

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Direct extraction of oil from sunflower seeds by twin-screw extruder according to an aqueous the feasibility of an aqueous process to extract sunflower seed oil using a co-rotating twin-screw extruder. Aqueous extraction was carried out using whole seeds and the influence of the operating conditions on oil

  14. Colorimetric Determination of Nitrite in Foods Principle: The sample is extracted with distilled water and the aqueous extract clarified

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nazarenko, Alexander

    water and the aqueous extract clarified with zinc hydroxide. Sulfanilic acid is diazotisedColorimetric Determination of Nitrite in Foods Principle: The sample is extracted with distilled/50 mL. The absorbance range should extend from 0 to 0.6 approx. E. Extraction Procedure Weigh ca 100g

  15. Rank Extraction in Tin-Oxide Sensor Arrays Page 1 of 23 Rank Extraction in Tin-Oxide Sensor Arrays

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Roppel, Thaddeus A.

    Rank Extraction in Tin-Oxide Sensor Arrays Page 1 of 23 Rank Extraction in Tin-Oxide Sensor Arrays the amount of data to be processed. This work is a first example in feature extraction from tin-oxide sensors element array of tin-oxide sensors is presented. Results are extrapolated to other arrays of chemical

  16. Accelerated solvent extraction of petroleum contaminated sediments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bauguss, Jeffery Lynn

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    were repeated on these extracts and results were virtually the same (within 500mg/kg). It is unknown why these samples have such a discrepancy from the rest of the data. The ASE data was compared to soxhlet oil and grease values and it was found... recoveries were compared individually at each sampling event and as total target analytes. These comparisons are shown in Table 8. Target compounds below the MDL and within analytical instrument background levels were discarded. This was done as a result...

  17. Permeability extraction: A sonic log inversion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Akbar, N.; Kim, J.J. [Saudi Aramco, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia)

    1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper the authors provide the missing important link between permeability and acoustic velocities by generating a permeability-dependent synthetic sonic log in a carbonate reservoir. The computations are based on Akbar`s theory that relates wave velocity to frequency, rock properties (e.g., lithology, permeability, and porosity), and fluid saturation and properties (viscosity, density, and compressibility). An inverted analytical expression of the theory is used to extract permeability from sonic velocity. The synthetic sonic and the computed permeability are compared with the observed sonic log and with plug permeability, respectively. The results demonstrate, as predicted by theory, that permeability can be related directly to acoustic velocities.

  18. Apparatus for extracting and sequestering carbon dioxide

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rau, Gregory H. (Castro Valley, CA); Caldeira, Kenneth G. (Livermore, CA)

    2010-02-02T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus and method associated therewith to extract and sequester carbon dioxide (CO.sub.2) from a stream or volume of gas wherein said apparatus hydrates CO.sub.2 and reacts the resulting carbonic acid with carbonate. Suitable carbonates include, but are not limited to, carbonates of alkali metals and alkaline earth metals, preferably carbonates of calcium and magnesium. Waste products are metal cations and bicarbonate in solution or dehydrated metal salts, which when disposed of in a large body of water provide an effective way of sequestering CO.sub.2 from a gaseous environment.

  19. Multipole Extraction: A novel, model independent method

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    E. Stiliaris; C. N. Papanicolas

    2007-03-20T23:59:59.000Z

    A novel method for extracting multipole amplitudes in the nucleon resonance region from electroproduction data is presented. The method is based on statistical concepts and it relies heavily on Monte Carlo and simulation techniques; it produces precise identification and determination of the contributing multipole amplitudes in the resonance region and for the first time a rigorous determination of the associated experimental uncertainty. The results are demonstrated to be independent of any model bias. The method is applied in the reanalysis of the $Q^{2}=0.127 GeV^2/c^2$ Bates and Mainz $N\\to \\Delta$ data.

  20. Enhanced Attenuation Technologies: Passive Soil Vapor Extraction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vangelas, K.; Looney, B.; Kamath, R.; Adamson, D.; Newell, C.

    2010-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Passive soil vapor extraction (PSVE) is an enhanced attenuation (EA) approach that removes volatile contaminants from soil. The extraction is driven by natural pressure gradients between the subsurface and atmosphere (Barometric Pumping), or by renewable sources of energy such as wind or solar power (Assisted PSVE). The technology is applicable for remediating sites with low levels of contamination and for transitioning sites from active source technologies such as active soil vapor extraction (ASVE) to natural attenuation. PSVE systems are simple to design and operate and are more cost effective than active systems in many scenarios. Thus, PSVE is often appropriate as an interim-remedial or polishing strategy. Over the past decade, PSVE has been demonstrated in the U.S. and in Europe. These demonstrations provide practical information to assist in selecting, designing and implementing the technology. These demonstrations indicate that the technology can be effective in achieving remedial objectives in a timely fashion. The keys to success include: (1) Application at sites where the residual source quantities, and associated fluxes to groundwater, are relatively low; (2) Selection of the appropriate passive energy source - barometric pumping in cases with a deep vadose zone and barrier (e.g., clay) layers that separate the subsurface from the atmosphere and renewable energy assisted PSVE in other settings and where higher flow rates are required. (3) Provision of sufficient access to the contaminated vadose zones through the spacing and number of extraction wells. This PSVE technology report provides a summary of the relevant technical background, real-world case study performance, key design and cost considerations, and a scenario-based cost evaluation. The key design and cost considerations are organized into a flowchart that dovetails with the Enhanced Attenuation: Chlorinated Organics Guidance of the Interstate Technology and Regulatory Council (ITRC). The PSVE flowchart provides a structured process to determine if the technology is, or is not, reasonable and defensible for a particular site. The central basis for that decision is the expected performance of PSVE under the site specific conditions. Will PSVE have sufficient mass removal rates to reduce the release, or flux, of contamination into the underlying groundwater so that the site can meet it overall remedial objectives? The summary technical information, case study experiences, and structured decision process provided in this 'user guide' should assist environmental decision-makers, regulators, and engineers in selecting and successfully implementing PSVE at appropriate sites.

  1. Hot cell shield plug extraction apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Knapp, Philip A. (Moore, ID); Manhart, Larry K. (Pingree, ID)

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus is provided for moving shielding plugs into and out of holes in concrete shielding walls in hot cells for handling radioactive materials without the use of external moving equipment. The apparatus provides a means whereby a shield plug is extracted from its hole and then swung approximately 90 degrees out of the way so that the hole may be accessed. The apparatus uses hinges to slide the plug in and out and to rotate it out of the way, the hinge apparatus also supporting the weight of the plug in all positions, with the load of the plug being transferred to a vertical wall by means of a bolting arrangement.

  2. Method for extracting and sequestering carbon dioxide

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rau, Gregory H. (Castro Valley, CA); Caldeira, Kenneth G. (Livermore, CA)

    2005-05-10T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and apparatus to extract and sequester carbon dioxide (CO.sub.2) from a stream or volume of gas wherein said method and apparatus hydrates CO.sub.2, and reacts the resulting carbonic acid with carbonate. Suitable carbonates include, but are not limited to, carbonates of alkali metals and alkaline earth metals, preferably carbonates of calcium and magnesium. Waste products are metal cations and bicarbonate in solution or dehydrated metal salts, which when disposed of in a large body of water provide an effective way of sequestering CO.sub.2 from a gaseous environment.

  3. Kerogen extraction from subterranean oil shale resources

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Looney, Mark Dean (Houston, TX); Lestz, Robert Steven (Missouri City, TX); Hollis, Kirk (Los Alamos, NM); Taylor, Craig (Los Alamos, NM); Kinkead, Scott (Los Alamos, NM); Wigand, Marcus (Los Alamos, NM)

    2009-03-10T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention is directed to methods for extracting a kerogen-based product from subsurface (oil) shale formations, wherein such methods rely on fracturing and/or rubblizing portions of said formations so as to enhance their fluid permeability, and wherein such methods further rely on chemically modifying the shale-bound kerogen so as to render it mobile. The present invention is also directed at systems for implementing at least some of the foregoing methods. Additionally, the present invention is also directed to methods of fracturing and/or rubblizing subsurface shale formations and to methods of chemically modifying kerogen in situ so as to render it mobile.

  4. Kerogen extraction from subterranean oil shale resources

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Looney, Mark Dean (Houston, TX); Lestz, Robert Steven (Missouri City, TX); Hollis, Kirk (Los Alamos, NM); Taylor, Craig (Los Alamos, NM); Kinkead, Scott (Los Alamos, NM); Wigand, Marcus (Los Alamos, NM)

    2010-09-07T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention is directed to methods for extracting a kerogen-based product from subsurface (oil) shale formations, wherein such methods rely on fracturing and/or rubblizing portions of said formations so as to enhance their fluid permeability, and wherein such methods further rely on chemically modifying the shale-bound kerogen so as to render it mobile. The present invention is also directed at systems for implementing at least some of the foregoing methods. Additionally, the present invention is also directed to methods of fracturing and/or rubblizing subsurface shale formations and to methods of chemically modifying kerogen in situ so as to render it mobile.

  5. Feature extraction for structural dynamics model validation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hemez, Francois [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Farrar, Charles [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Park, Gyuhae [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Nishio, Mayuko [UNIV OF TOKYO; Worden, Keith [UNIV OF SHEFFIELD; Takeda, Nobuo [UNIV OF TOKYO

    2010-11-08T23:59:59.000Z

    This study focuses on defining and comparing response features that can be used for structural dynamics model validation studies. Features extracted from dynamic responses obtained analytically or experimentally, such as basic signal statistics, frequency spectra, and estimated time-series models, can be used to compare characteristics of structural system dynamics. By comparing those response features extracted from experimental data and numerical outputs, validation and uncertainty quantification of numerical model containing uncertain parameters can be realized. In this study, the applicability of some response features to model validation is first discussed using measured data from a simple test-bed structure and the associated numerical simulations of these experiments. issues that must be considered were sensitivity, dimensionality, type of response, and presence or absence of measurement noise in the response. Furthermore, we illustrate a comparison method of multivariate feature vectors for statistical model validation. Results show that the outlier detection technique using the Mahalanobis distance metric can be used as an effective and quantifiable technique for selecting appropriate model parameters. However, in this process, one must not only consider the sensitivity of the features being used, but also correlation of the parameters being compared.

  6. Non-Ideal Behavior in Solvent Extraction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peter Zalupski

    2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report presents a summary of the work performed to meet FCR&D level 3 milestone M31SW050801, 'Complete the year-end report summarizing FY11 experimental and modeling activities.' This work was carried out under the auspices of the Non-Ideality in Solvent Extraction Systems FCR&D work package. The report summarizes our initial considerations of potential influences that non-ideal chemistry may impose on computational prediction of outcomes in solvent extraction systems. The report is packaged into three separate test cases where a robustness of the prediction by SXFIT program is under scrutiny. The computational exercises presented here emphasize the importance of accurate representation of both an aqueous and organic mixtures when modeling liquid-liquid distribution systems. Case No.1 demonstrates that non-ideal behavior of HDEHP in aliphatic diluents, such as n-dodecane, interferes with the computation. Cases No.2 and No.3 focus on the chemical complexity of aqueous electrolyte mixtures. Both exercises stress the need for an improved thermodynamic model of an aqueous environment present in the europium distribution experiments. Our efforts for year 2 of this project will focus on the improvements of aqueous and non-aqueous solution models using fundamental physical properties of mixtures acquired experimentally in our laboratories.

  7. White LED with High Package Extraction Efficiency

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yi Zheng; Matthew Stough

    2008-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The goal of this project is to develop a high efficiency phosphor converting (white) Light Emitting Diode (pcLED) 1-Watt package through an increase in package extraction efficiency. A transparent/translucent monolithic phosphor is proposed to replace the powdered phosphor to reduce the scattering caused by phosphor particles. Additionally, a multi-layer thin film selectively reflecting filter is proposed between blue LED die and phosphor layer to recover inward yellow emission. At the end of the project we expect to recycle approximately 50% of the unrecovered backward light in current package construction, and develop a pcLED device with 80 lm/W{sub e} using our technology improvements and commercially available chip/package source. The success of the project will benefit luminous efficacy of white LEDs by increasing package extraction efficiency. In most phosphor-converting white LEDs, the white color is obtained by combining a blue LED die (or chip) with a powdered phosphor layer. The phosphor partially absorbs the blue light from the LED die and converts it into a broad green-yellow emission. The mixture of the transmitted blue light and green-yellow light emerging gives white light. There are two major drawbacks for current pcLEDs in terms of package extraction efficiency. The first is light scattering caused by phosphor particles. When the blue photons from the chip strike the phosphor particles, some blue light will be scattered by phosphor particles. Converted yellow emission photons are also scattered. A portion of scattered light is in the backward direction toward the die. The amount of this backward light varies and depends in part on the particle size of phosphors. The other drawback is that yellow emission from phosphor powders is isotropic. Although some backward light can be recovered by the reflector in current LED packages, there is still a portion of backward light that will be absorbed inside the package and further converted to heat. Heat generated in the package may cause a deterioration of encapsulant materials, affecting the performance of both the LED die and phosphor, leading to a decrease in the luminous efficacy over lifetime. Recent studies from research groups at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute found that, under the condition to obtain a white light, about 40% of the light is transmitted outward of the phosphor layer and 60% of the light is reflected inward.1,2 It is claimed that using scattered photon extraction (SPE) technique, luminous efficacy is increased by 60%. In this project, a transparent/translucent monolithic phosphor was used to replace the powdered phosphor layer. In the normal pcLED package, the powdered phosphor is mixed with silicone either to be deposited on the top of LED die forming a chip level conversion (CLC) white LED or to be casted in the package forming a volume conversion white LED. In the monolithic phosphors there are no phosphor powder/silicone interfaces so it can reduce the light scattering caused by phosphor particles. Additionally, a multi-layer thin film selectively reflecting filter is inserted in the white LED package between the blue LED die and phosphor layer. It will selectively transmit the blue light from the LED die and reflect the phosphor's yellow inward emission outward. The two technologies try to recover backward light to the outward direction in the pcLED package thereby improving the package extraction efficiency.

  8. Secular variation in Permian red beds from Dome de Barrot, Pauline P. Kruiver *, Mark J. Dekkers, Cor G. Langereis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Utrecht, Universiteit

    the presence of titanium in hematite grains, indicating the volcanic and thus detrital origin. Therefore is regarded either as a low- energy state of the geodynamo (e.g. [4^6]) or as a high-energy state of the geodynamo [7,8]. In the case of a low-energy state, the secular variation (SV) of the geomagnetic ¢eld

  9. Streaming Currents in a Single Nanofluidic Channel Frank H. J. van der Heyden, Derek Stein, and Cees Dekker

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dekker, Cees

    Streaming Currents in a Single Nanofluidic Channel Frank H. J. van der Heyden, Derek Stein numbers: 82.65.+r, 66.90.+r Nanofluidics is an emerging field of interest because of its potential surface. Nanofluidic channels were fabricated following a sili- cate bonding procedure similar to Stein et

  10. Extracting Geospatial Preferences Using Relational Neighbors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marinho, Leandro Balby; Sandholm, Thomas; Nunes, Iury; Nóbrega, Caio; Araújo, Jordão

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    With the increasing popularity of location-based social media applications and devices that automatically tag generated content with locations, large repositories of collaborative geo-referenced data are appearing on-line. Efficiently extracting user preferences from these data to determine what information to recommend is challenging because of the sheer volume of data as well as the frequency of updates. Traditional recommender systems focus on the interplay between users and items, but ignore contextual parameters such as location. In this paper we take a geospatial approach to determine locational preferences and similarities between users. We propose to capture the geographic context of user preferences for items using a relational graph, through which we are able to derive many new and state-of-the-art recommendation algorithms, including combinations of them, requiring changes only in the definition of the edge weights. Furthermore, we discuss several solutions for cold-start scenarios. Finally, we con...

  11. Soft Multiple Winners for Sparse Feature Extraction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A simple and computationally inexpensive neural network method for generating sparse representations is presented. The network has a single layer of linear neurons and, on top of it, a mechanism, which assigns a winning strength for each neuron. Both input and output are real valued in contrast to many earlier methods, where either input or output must have been binary valued. Also, the sum of winning strengths does not have to be normalized as in some other approaches. The ability of the algorithm to find meaningful features is demonstrated in a simulation with images of handwritten numerals. 1. Introduction The objective of a feature extraction system is to refine data in such a way that further processing becomes easier. In classification, such a system has two basic goals. One is to remove redundancies from the data. This helps cutting down computational costs later on. Another, contradictory goal is to discriminate data, which helps in distinguishing between similar inputs. A fe...

  12. Energy usage in oil and gas extraction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Honeycutt, B.D.

    1991-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report was prepared in partial fulfillment of Subcontract No. C90-103207 by Baxter D. Honeycutt, P.E., Richardson Texas, for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) and the US DOE, INEL requirements, for the requested report were outlined by letter dated September 4, 1990, included the following: process flow diagrams and descriptive discussions of technical operations; mass and energy balances; a summary of energy-saving opportunities with the cross-cutting technologies emphasized; trends of oil and gas production versus energy expended to achieve new production; conclusions and recommendations for future research. The National Energy Account (NEA) data on energy usage in oil and gas related extraction processes are reproduced for reference. Energy cost and production are given for oil and gas well drilling, crude oil and production, national gas production, and natural gas liquid production.

  13. Extracting Operating Modes from Building Electrical Load Data: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Frank, S.; Polese, L. G.; Rader, E.; Sheppy, M.; Smith, J.

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Empirical techniques for characterizing electrical energy use now play a key role in reducing electricity consumption, particularly miscellaneous electrical loads, in buildings. Identifying device operating modes (mode extraction) creates a better understanding of both device and system behaviors. Using clustering to extract operating modes from electrical load data can provide valuable insights into device behavior and identify opportunities for energy savings. We present a fast and effective heuristic clustering method to identify and extract operating modes in electrical load data.

  14. Extraction efficiency and quantification of mutagenic chemicals in soils

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maggard, Lea Ann

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    : Dr. K. W. Brown Lack of established extraction procedures for quantification of mutagenic compounds in soil is a major technical limitation to monitoring and assessing the performance of a hazardous waste land treatment facility. In this study... for extracting organic mutagens from the waste or soil/waste mixture. The use of combined biological and chemical testing protocol provided the most practical means of determining extraction efficiency. The bioassay detected additive, synergistic...

  15. andongensis extract aloe: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Documents Articles, Books DocbookIndexer PDFBox PDF Metadata from content & context Fill in generated... Droogmans, Lieven; Bosman, Ben 2005-07-07 70 Point Source Extraction...

  16. aloe andongensis extract: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Documents Articles, Books DocbookIndexer PDFBox PDF Metadata from content & context Fill in generated... Droogmans, Lieven; Bosman, Ben 2005-07-07 70 Point Source Extraction...

  17. automatic road extraction: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    University of Malta 2 Department of Computer Science, University of Malta claudia.borg|mike.rosner|gordon.pace@um.edu.mt Abstract. Definition extraction can be useful Pace,...

  18. automatable method extract: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    University of Malta 2 Department of Computer Science, University of Malta claudia.borg|mike.rosner|gordon.pace@um.edu.mt Abstract. Definition extraction can be useful Pace,...

  19. automatically extracting molecular: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    University of Malta 2 Department of Computer Science, University of Malta claudia.borg|mike.rosner|gordon.pace@um.edu.mt Abstract. Definition extraction can be useful Pace,...

  20. automatic feature extraction: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    University of Malta 2 Department of Computer Science, University of Malta claudia.borg|mike.rosner|gordon.pace@um.edu.mt Abstract. Definition extraction can be useful Pace,...

  1. automatic contour extraction: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    University of Malta 2 Department of Computer Science, University of Malta claudia.borg|mike.rosner|gordon.pace@um.edu.mt Abstract. Definition extraction can be useful Pace,...

  2. automatically extracting ts: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    University of Malta 2 Department of Computer Science, University of Malta claudia.borg|mike.rosner|gordon.pace@um.edu.mt Abstract. Definition extraction can be useful Pace,...

  3. aqueous plant extracts: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Protein Synthesis Inhibition Activity by Strawberry Tissue Protein Extracts during Plant Life Cycle and under Biotic and Abiotic Stresses CiteSeer Summary: Abstract:...

  4. Fluid Circulation and Heat Extraction from Engineered Geothermal...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    A large amount of fluid circulation and heat extraction (i.e., thermal power production) research and testing has been conducted on engineered geothermal reservoirs in the...

  5. automated concise extraction: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of Computer Science, Bar-Ilan University, Ramat-Gan 52900, Israel 4 Center for Automation Research, University of Maryland Plaza, Antonio J. 5 Automated Pointcut Extraction...

  6. automated rna extraction: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of Computer Science, Bar-Ilan University, Ramat-Gan 52900, Israel 4 Center for Automation Research, University of Maryland Plaza, Antonio J. 5 Automated Pointcut Extraction...

  7. automated relation extraction: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of Computer Science, Bar-Ilan University, Ramat-Gan 52900, Israel 4 Center for Automation Research, University of Maryland Plaza, Antonio J. 6 Automated Pointcut Extraction...

  8. automated dna extraction: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and Crop Cleaning PCR Products. . Labeling Cleaned... 5 56 57 . . . 57 CHAPTER IV AUTOMATION POTENTIAL . . . . . . . 59 Introduction . . Collecting Field Data . DNA Extraction....

  9. Penguin pollution estimates relevant for phi_2/alpha extraction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jure Zupan

    2007-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

    A review of methods to extract the standard CKM unitarity triangle angle alpha is provided. The sizes of related theoretical errors are reviewed.

  10. Application of ultrasound in solvent extraction of nickel and gallium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pesic, B.

    1996-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The effects of ultrasound on the rate of solvent extraction of nickel with Lix 65N and Lix 70, and gallium with Kelex 100 were investigated. These solvent extraction systems are noted by their sluggish nature. Low frequency (20 kHz) ultrasound increased the rates of extraction of nickel by factors of four to seven. The ultrasound had no effect on the final chemical equilibrium. Gallium extraction rates were enhanced with the use of ultrasound by as much as a factor of 15. Again, the ultrasound had no effect on extraction equilibrium. For both nickel and gallium, the enhanced rates were attributed to increased interfacial surface area associated with ultrasonically induced cavitation and microdroplet formation. The stability of the microdroplets permitted intermittent application of ultrasound with corresponding decreases in ultrasonic energy requirements. The lowest energy consumption was observed with short (0.25 to 5 s) bursts of high power (41 to 61 W) ultrasonic inputs. The study also provided insight into the factors that affect the complex extraction of gallium from sodium aluminate solutions. The rate controlling step was found to be the dehydration of the gallate ion, Ga(OH)4, and the first complex formation between gallium and Kelex 100. Sodium was found to enhance the extraction rate up to a point, beyond which increased concentration was detrimental. Increasing aluminum concentration was found to slow extraction rates. Modifiers and diluents were shown to markedly affect extraction rates even without ultrasound. Ketone modifiers, particularly 2-undecanone, when used with Kermac 470B or Escaid 200 diluents enhanced extraction rates of gallium to the point that the use of ultrasound provided no additional benefits. The positive effects of ketone modifiers for the solvent extraction of gallium had not been previously reported.

  11. Extracting the Green's function from measurements of the energy flux

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Snieder, Roel

    Extracting the Green's function from measurements of the energy flux Roel Sniedera) Center for Wave, Cambridge CB3 0EL, United Kingdom ivasconc@gmail.com Abstract: Existing methods for Green's function extraction give the Green's function from the correlation of field fluctuations recorded at those points

  12. aqueous fish extract: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    aqueous fish extract First Page Previous Page 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 1 Extracting Fish and Water Velocity...

  13. BEaST: Brain extraction using multiresolution nonlocal segmentation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    BEaST: Brain extraction using multiresolution nonlocal segmentation Simon F. Eskildsen1 Østergaard2 , D. Louis Collins1 , and the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative 1 McConnell Brain. Brain extraction is an important step in the analysis of brain images. Variability in brain morphology

  14. Extracting Business Rules from COBOL: A Model-Based Tool

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Extracting Business Rules from COBOL: A Model-Based Tool Valerio Cosentino AtlanMod, INRIA, EMN and we provide a set of model transformations to identify and visualize the embedded business rules at this point. This model will be then manipulated in the next steps to extract the business rules

  15. Simultaneous Feature Extraction and Selection Using a Masking Genetic Algorithm

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1 Simultaneous Feature Extraction and Selection Using a Masking Genetic Algorithm Michael L. Raymer: identification of functional water molecules bound to protein surfaces, and diagnosis of thyroid deficiency of feature extraction ­ defining new features in terms of the original feature set to facilitate more

  16. Heng Ji & Ralph Grishman Collaborative Entity Extraction and Translation 1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    CONTENTS Heng Ji & Ralph Grishman Collaborative Entity Extraction and Translation 1 Index of Subjects and Terms 13 #12;vi CONTENTS #12;Collaborative Entity Extraction and Translation Heng Ji & Ralph s in language S from the #12;2 HENG JI & RALPH GRISHMAN properties of the sequence of tokens t with which

  17. Information Extraction in the KELP Framework Robert Dale, Marc Tilbrook

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dale, Robert

    Information Extraction in the KELP Framework Robert Dale, Marc Tilbrook Centre for Language In this paper, we describe some early steps in a new approach to information extraction. The aim of the kelp, to reconcile and combine the informational elements found in a text. 2 Background The goal of the kelp1 project

  18. Extracting Provably Correct Rules from Artificial Neural Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Clausen, Michael

    Extracting Provably Correct Rules from Artificial Neural Networks Sebastian B. Thrun University procedures have been applied successfully to a variety of real­world scenarios, artificial neural networks for extracting symbolic knowledge from Backpropagation­style artificial neural networks. It does

  19. On automating the extraction of programs from termination proofs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ayala-Rincón, Mauricio

    On automating the extraction of programs from termination proofs Fairouz Kamareddine , Fran to use termination techniques such as those in rewriting theory. We overcome this difficulty the incorporation of termination techniques used in other areas while still extracting programs. Keywords: Program

  20. New Methods in Automatic Extracting H. P. EDMUNDSON

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hearst, Marti

    system is parameterized to control and vary the influence of the above four components. The researchNew Methods in Automatic Extracting H. P. EDMUNDSON University of Maryland,* College Park, Maryland ABSTRACT. This paper describes new methods of automatically extracting documents for screening purposes, i

  1. Murphy Tools: Utilizing Extracted GUI Models for Industrial Software Testing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Memon, Atif M.

    --graphical user interface; GUI test automation; model extraction; reverse engineering; industrial test environment is a technique for using models as a basis for automated test generation. The industrial adoption of MBTMurphy Tools: Utilizing Extracted GUI Models for Industrial Software Testing Pekka Aho VTT

  2. Computational Aspects of Resilient Data Extraction from Semistructured Sources

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yang, Guizhen

    source and maps it into a set of structured or semistructured database objects that can be readilyComputational Aspects of Resilient Data Extraction from Semistructured Sources #3; (Extended Automatic data extraction from semistructured sources such as HTML pages is rapidly growing into a problem

  3. A Comparison of Three Total Variation Based Texture Extraction Models

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Soatto, Stefano

    Goldfarb b , Stanley Osher c aRice University, Department of Computational and Applied Mathematics, 6100 models for signal/image texture extraction based on total variation minimization: the Meyer [2], the Vese using 1D oscillating signals and 2D images reveal their differences: the Meyer model tends to extract

  4. Extraction of Neutrino Flux from the Inclusive Muon Cross Section

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Murata, Tomoya

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We have studied a method to extract neutrino flux from the data of neutrino-nucleus reaction by using maximum entropy method. We demonstrate a promising example to extract neutrino flux from the inclusive cross section of muon production without selecting a particular reaction process such as quasi-elastic nucleon knockout.

  5. Extraction of Neutrino Flux from the Inclusive Muon Cross Section

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tomoya Murata; Toru Sato

    2015-01-23T23:59:59.000Z

    We have studied a method to extract neutrino flux from the data of neutrino-nucleus reaction by using maximum entropy method. We demonstrate a promising example to extract neutrino flux from the inclusive cross section of muon production without selecting a particular reaction process such as quasi-elastic nucleon knockout.

  6. Method of underground mining by pillar extraction

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bowen, Ray J. (1879 Delann, Salt Lake City, UT 84121); Bowen, William R. (1636 Sunnydale La., Salt Lake City, UT 84108)

    1980-08-12T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of sublevel caving and pillar and top coal extraction for mining thick coal seams includes the advance mining of rooms and crosscuts along the bottom of a seam to a height of about eight feet, and the retreat mining of the top coal from the rooms, crosscuts and portions of the pillars remaining from formation of the rooms and cross-cuts. In the retreat mining, a pocket is formed in a pillar, the top coal above the pocket is drilled, charged and shot, and then the fallen coal is loaded by a continuous miner so that the operator remains under a roof which has not been shot. The top coal from that portion of the room adjacent the pocket is then mined, and another pocket is formed in the pillar. The top coal above the second pocket is mined followed by the mining of the top coal of that portion of the room adjacent the second pocket, all by use of a continuous miner which allows the operator to remain under a roof portion which has not been shot.

  7. Extracting hot carriers from photoexcited semiconductor nanocrystals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhu, Xiaoyang

    2014-12-10T23:59:59.000Z

    This research program addresses a fundamental question related to the use of nanomaterials in solar energy -- namely, whether semiconductor nanocrystals (NCs) can help surpass the efficiency limits, the so-called “Shockley-Queisser” limit, in conventional solar cells. In these cells, absorption of photons with energies above the semiconductor bandgap generates “hot” charge carriers that quickly “cool” to the band edges before they can be utilized to do work; this sets the solar cell efficiency at a limit of ~31%. If instead, all of the energy of the hot carriers could be captured, solar-to-electric power conversion efficiencies could be increased, theoretically, to as high as 66%. A potential route to capture this energy is to utilize semiconductor nanocrystals. In these materials, the quasi-continuous conduction and valence bands of the bulk semiconductor become discretized due to confinement of the charge carriers. Consequently, the energy spacing between the electronic levels can be much larger than the highest phonon frequency of the lattice, creating a “phonon bottleneck” wherein hot-carrier relaxation is possible via slower multiphonon emission. For example, hot-electron lifetimes as long as ~1 ns have been observed in NCs grown by molecular beam epitaxy. In colloidal NCs, long lifetimes have been demonstrated through careful design of the nanocrystal interfaces. Due to their ability to slow electronic relaxation, semiconductor NCs can in principle enable extraction of hot carriers before they cool to the band edges, leading to more efficient solar cells.

  8. Solvent extraction of bitumen from tar sands

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hoon, A.Y.; Thomas, S. [Univ. of West Indies, St. Augustine (Trinidad and Tobago)

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper reports on the measurement of mass transfer rates for the extraction of bitumen from tar sands using organic solvents. The experiment was carried out in an agitated vessel using a six-blade turbine mixer on a laboratory scale. To facilitate the determination of absolute mass transfer coefficients, tar sands were specially prepared in the form of spherical particles so that mass transfer area can be computed. The variables investigated in the study included: (1) solvent type (kerosene, toluene, benzene), (2) stirrer speed, 25 rpm to 1000 rpm, and (3) particle diameter, 0.4 cm to 1.2 cm. The results indicated that solvency power varied markedly with the various solvents used and that high aromatic content promoted rapid dissolution when compared with paraffinic solvents. The mass transfer rates increased with increasing stirrer speed in accordance with the relationship: k {alpha} N{sup 0.56} where k is the mass transfer coefficient and N the stirrer speed. Increasing particle diameter also resulted in decreased mass transfer rates. The results were satisfactorily correlated in terms of a Frossling type equation, Sh {alpha} Re{sub p}{sup a}Sc{sup b}.

  9. DNAPL Extraction/Oleofilter Test Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    White, R.M. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States); Hazel, C.

    1997-11-03T23:59:59.000Z

    A short term, low flow DNAPL extraction test was performed from May 29 - 30, 1997, to gather additional information about the possibility of using monitoring well MSB-3D to recover source contamination from the M-Area Aquifer. Although no visible, free phase material was recovered, the groundwater did contain perchloroethylene (PCE) at and above aqueous solubility. Improvements in the pumping configuration were identified for future trials. Prior to final treatment in the M1 air stripper, the groundwater was passed through an Oleofiltration system to evaluate its capability as a treatment technology. The Oleofilter uses a combination of conventional gravity assisted separation with coalescing plates and a final polishing filter using proprietary coated granules to remove hydrocarbons. Although free phase DNAPL was not processed through the Oleofilter, the groundwater containing high levels of dissolved PCE was treated efficiently. Initially the Oleofilter removed 99 percent of the PCE. As the test progressed, this removal rate decreased to 83 percent as the granules became loaded with PCE. Longer term testing, perhaps with periodic backflushing, is required to determine the effective granule capacity.

  10. SEPARATION OF COPPER FROM METALS IN AN ALLOY BY LIQUID-LIQUID EXTRACTION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weston, Ken

    /L. Extraction. The extraction procedure is the same for the sample, standards and blank (water between sample extractions with water. The chloroform extracts at this point will normally be cloudySEPARATION OF COPPER FROM METALS IN AN ALLOY BY LIQUID-LIQUID EXTRACTION Background Reading: Harris

  11. Extracting Energy from Black Hole through Transition Region

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li-Xin Li

    2000-07-24T23:59:59.000Z

    A new scenario for extracting energy from a Kerr black hole is proposed. With magnetic field lines connecting plasma particles inside the ergosphere with remote loads, the frame dragging twists the field lines so that energy and angular momentum are extracted from the plasma particles. If the magnetic field is strong enough, the energy extracted from the particles can be so large that the particles have negative energy as they fall into the black hole. So effectively the energy is extracted from the black hole. The particles inside the ergosphere can be continuously replenished with accretion from a disk surrounding the black hole, so a transition region with sufficient amount of plasma is formed between the black hole's horizon and the inner edge of the disk. Thus the energy can be continuously extracted from the black hole through the transition region. This may be the most efficient way for extracting energy from a Kerr black hole: in principle almost all of the rotational energy (up to $\\approx 29%$ of the total energy of the black hole) can be extracted.

  12. Method and apparatus for back-extracting metal chelates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wai, Chien M. (Moscow, IA); Smart, Neil G. (Moscow, IA); Lin, Yuehe (Moscow, IA)

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of extracting metal and metalloid species from a solid or liquid substrate using a supercritical fluid solvent containing one or more chelating agents followed by back-extracting the metal and metalloid species from the metal and metalloid chelates formed thereby. The back-extraction acidic solution is performed utilizing an acidic solution. Upon sufficient exposure of the metal and metalloid chelates to the acidic solution, the metal and metalloid species are released from the chelates into the acid solution, while the chelating agent remains in the supercritical fluid solvent. The chelating agent is thereby regenerated and the metal and metalloid species recovered.

  13. Method and apparatus for back-extracting metal chelates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wai, C.M.; Smart, N.G.; Lin, Y.

    1998-08-11T23:59:59.000Z

    A method is described for extracting metal and metalloid species from a solid or liquid substrate using a supercritical fluid solvent containing one or more chelating agents followed by back-extracting the metal and metalloid species from the metal and metalloid chelates formed thereby. The back-extraction acidic solution is performed utilizing an acidic solution. Upon sufficient exposure of the metal and metalloid chelates to the acidic solution, the metal and metalloid species are released from the chelates into the acid solution, while the chelating agent remains in the supercritical fluid solvent. The chelating agent is thereby regenerated and the metal and metalloid species recovered. 3 figs.

  14. Photocurrent extraction efficiency in colloidal quantum dot photovoltaics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kemp, K. W.; Wong, C. T. O.; Hoogland, S. H.; Sargent, E. H. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Toronto, 10 King's College Road, Toronto, Ontario M5S 3G4 (Canada)] [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Toronto, 10 King's College Road, Toronto, Ontario M5S 3G4 (Canada)

    2013-11-18T23:59:59.000Z

    The efficiency of photocurrent extraction was studied directly inside operating Colloidal Quantum Dot (CQD) photovoltaic devices. A model was derived from first principles for a thin film p-n junction with a linearly spatially dependent electric field. Using this model, we were able to clarify the origins of recent improvement in CQD solar cell performance. From current-voltage diode characteristics under 1 sun conditions, we extracted transport lengths ranging from 39 nm to 86 nm for these materials. Characterization of the intensity dependence of photocurrent extraction revealed that the dominant loss mechanism limiting the transport length is trap-mediated recombination.

  15. Ultrafiltration membrane performance when processing oilseed protein extracts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hensley, Donald Wayne

    1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of flow and pressure on the flux of the UCARSEP membrane when processing SP extract at 1. 8% and 14% solids 5. Flux versus Reynolds number for UCARSEP and Abcor UF membranes processing soy protein extract 6. Nusselt number versus Reynolds number... in this study and the constant 4 is omitted in all cases. Figure 5 contains data from several concentration runs with both UF systems processing soy extract. Re is plotted versus the membrane flux, J, in gfd. Several regression analyses were made...

  16. Remote extraction and destruction of spread qubit information

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yoshiko Ogata; Mio Murao

    2007-11-12T23:59:59.000Z

    Necessary and sufficient conditions for deterministic remote extraction and destruction of qubit information encoded in bipartite states using only local operations and classical communications (LOCC) are presented. The conditions indicate that there is a way to asymmetrically spread qubit information between two parties such that it can be remotely extracted with unit probability at one of the parties but not at the other as long as they are using LOCC. Remote destruction can also be asymmetric between the two parties, but the conditions are incompatible with those for remote extraction.

  17. Step-wise supercritical extraction of carbonaceous residua

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Warzinski, Robert P. (Venetia, PA)

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of fractionating a mixture containing high boiling carbonaceous material and normally solid mineral matter includes processing with a plurality of different supercritical solvents. The mixture is treated with a first solvent of high critical temperature and solvent capacity to extract a large fraction as solute. The solute is released as liquid from solvent and successively treated with other supercritical solvents of different critical values to extract fractions of differing properties. Fractionation can be supplemented by solute reflux over a temperature gradient, pressure let down in steps and extractions at varying temperature and pressure values.

  18. Selective Extraction of Uranium from Liquid or Supercritical Carbon Dioxide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Farawila, Anne F.; O'Hara, Matthew J.; Wai, Chien M.; Taylor, Harry Z.; Liao, Yu-Jung

    2012-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Current liquid-liquid extraction processes used in recycling irradiated nuclear fuel rely on (1) strong nitric acid to dissolve uranium oxide fuel, and (2) the use of aliphatic hydrocarbons as a diluent in formulating the solvent used to extract uranium. The nitric acid dissolution process is not selective. It dissolves virtually the entire fuel meat which complicates the uranium extraction process. In addition, a solvent washing process is used to remove TBP degradation products, which adds complexity to the recycling plant and increases the overall plant footprint and cost. A liquid or supercritical carbon dioxide (l/sc -CO2) system was designed to mitigate these problems. Indeed, TBP nitric acid complexes are highly soluble in l/sc -CO2 and are capable of extracting uranium directly from UO2, UO3 and U3O8 powders. This eliminates the need for total acid dissolution of the irradiated fuel. Furthermore, since CO2 is easily recycled by evaporation at room temperature and pressure, it eliminates the complex solvent washing process. In this report, we demonstrate: (1) A reprocessing scheme starting with the selective extraction of uranium from solid uranium oxides into a TBP-HNO3 loaded Sc-CO2 phase, (2) Back extraction of uranium into an aqueous phase, and (3) Conversion of recovered purified uranium into uranium oxide. The purified uranium product from step 3 can be disposed of as low level waste, or mixed with enriched uranium for use in a reactor for another fuel cycle. After an introduction on the concept and properties of supercritical fluids, we first report the characterization of the different oxides used for this project. Our extraction system and our online monitoring capability using UV-Vis absorbance spectroscopy directly in sc-CO2 is then presented. Next, the uranium extraction efficiencies and kinetics is demonstrated for different oxides and under different physical and chemical conditions: l/sc -CO2 pressure and temperature, TBP/HNO3 complex used, reductant or complexant used for selectivity, and ionic liquids used as supportive media. To complete the extraction and recovery cycle, we then demonstrate uranium back extraction from the TBP loaded sc-CO2 phase into an aqueous phase and the characterization of the uranium complex formed at the end of this process. Another aspect of this project was to limit proliferation risks by either co-extracting uranium and plutonium, or by leaving plutonium behind by selectively extracting uranium. We report that the former is easily achieved, since plutonium is in the tetravalent or hexavalent oxidation state in the oxidizing environment created by the TBP-nitric acid complex, and is therefore co-extracted. The latter is more challenging, as a reductant or complexant to plutonium has to be used to selectively extract uranium. After undertaking experiments on different reducing or complexing systems (e.g., AcetoHydroxamic Acid (AHA), Fe(II), ascorbic acid), oxalic acid was chosen as it can complex tetravalent actinides (Pu, Np, Th) in the aqueous phase while allowing the extraction of hexavalent uranium in the sc-CO2 phase. Finally, we show results using an alternative media to commonly used aqueous phases: ionic liquids. We show the dissolution of uranium in ionic liquids and its extraction using sc-CO2 with and without the presence of AHA. The possible separation of trivalent actinides from uranium is also demonstrated in ionic liquids using neodymium as a surrogate and diglycolamides as the extractant.

  19. 844 'INALYTICAL CHEMISTRY, VOL. 51, NO.7, JUNE 1979 Sequential Extraction Procedure for the Speciation of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ma, Lena

    844 'INALYTICAL CHEMISTRY, VOL. 51, NO.7, JUNE 1979 Sequential Extraction Procedure of fluvial bottom sediments demonstrate that the relative standard deviation of the sequential extraction were performed on the individual leachates, and on the residual sediments following each extraction

  20. Recovery of Sugars from Ionic Liquid Biomass Liquor by Solvent Extraction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brennan, Timothy C.; Datta, Supratim; Blanch, Harvey W.; Simmons, Blake A.; Holmes, Bradley M.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    in the IL/ water phase before extraction was 10 mM and atin the IL/ water phase before extraction was 10 mM and atin the IL/ water phase before extraction was 10 mM and at

  1. Selective extraction of copper, mercury, silver and palladium ions from water using hydrophobic ionic liquids.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Papaiconomou, Nicolas; Lee, Jong-Min; Salminen, Justin; Von Stosch, Moritz; Prausnitz, John M.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    for metal-ion extraction from water. All ionic liquids (useful for extraction of cations from water. 9-15 Previoussingle extraction of mercury in water with either [3MOPYR

  2. Impact-driven pressure management via targeted brine extraction Conceptual studies of CO2 storage in saline formations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Birkholzer, J.T.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of active pumping, water extraction wells can also bescenarios in which water extraction wells operate as passivemanagement via extraction of native saline water has been

  3. COLLOQUIUM: "The Environmental Footprint of Shale Gas Extraction...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    January 9, 2013, 4:15pm to 5:30pm Colloquia MBG Auditorium COLLOQUIUM: "The Environmental Footprint of Shale Gas Extraction and Hydraulic Fracturing" Professor Robert Jackson Duke...

  4. Far field RF power extraction circuits and systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mandal, Soumyajit, 1979-

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this thesis, I describe efficient methods for extracting DC power from electromagnetic radiation. This will become an important necessity for a number of applications involving remotely powered devices, such as Radio ...

  5. Improved mass transport efficiency in copper solvent extraction 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gordon, Ross John

    2009-06-29T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis considers methods which can be employed to increase the mass of copper transferred into and out of the organic phase during the load and strip stages of commercial solvent extraction processes. Conventional ...

  6. Evaluation and prevention of explosions in soil vapor extraction systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hower, J.W. [Radian Corp., El Segundo, CA (United States)

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Due to the widespread and long term use of petroleum derived fuels and solvents, many areas have subsurface soils contaminated with petroleum derivatives. This contamination can migrate to groundwater, which is frequently used to supply drinking water needs. A common method of cleaning up that contamination is soil vapor extraction (SVE). SVE is a technique where several extraction wells are installed in the contaminated area, with screens in the appropriate vertical locations. The soil vapors re extracted form the wells using a positive displacement blower. To prevent this subsurface contamination from becoming air pollution, the extracted vapors are then sent to some hydrocarbon removal device, such as a carbon adsorption system or a thermal oxidizer. The data used in this investigation were collected as part of a Radian Corporation project for a client. The site is a former petroleum refinery, and the hydrocarbons are primarily gasoline and diesel.

  7. Melt generation, crystallization, and extraction beneath segmented oceanic transform faults

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gregg, Patricia M.

    We examine mantle melting, fractional crystallization, and melt extraction beneath fast slipping, segmented oceanic transform fault systems. Three-dimensional mantle flow and thermal structures are calculated using a ...

  8. Extracting clinically-actionable information from wearable physiological monitors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haslam, Bryan (Bryan Todd)

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this thesis I examine several ways of extracting information from wearable monitors so as to help make clinical decisions. Wearable physiological sensors are developing rapidly, and pose a possible part of the solution ...

  9. Construction of prototype system for directional solvent extraction desalination

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fowler, Michael James

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Directional solvent extraction has been demonstrated as a low temperature, membrane free desalination process. This method dissolves the water into an inexpensive, benign directional solvent, rejects the contaminants, then ...

  10. Electromagnetic extraction and annihilation of antiprotons for spacecraft propulsion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zayas, Daniel Antonio

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A novel concept for the extraction and long-term trapping of antiprotons from planetary magnetospheres is developed. The excitation via rotating magnetic field of an electron population within a distributed neutral plasma ...

  11. Experimental studies of flapping foils for energy extraction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Simpson, Bradley James

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    For centuries scientists have looked to nature for inspiration for novel and efficient solutions to engineering problems. Recently, research on fish and other marine mammals has shown their ability to efficiently extract ...

  12. Electromagnetic Extraction and Annihilation of Antiprotons for Spacecraft Propulsion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    . Zayas, Raymond J. Sedwick May, 2008 SSL # 3-08 #12;#12;Electromagnetic Extraction and Annihilation of Antiprotons for Spacecraft Propulsion Daniel A. Zayas, Raymond J. Sedwick May, 2008 SSL # 3-08 This work

  13. Technologies for Extracting Valuable Metals and Compounds from Geothermal Fluids

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE Geothermal Peer Review 2010 - Presentation. Project objectives: Demonstrate geothermal mineral extraction; Demonstrate technical and economic feasibility; Produce products for market development; Generate operational data and scale up data so a commercial scale plant can be designed and built.

  14. Antimicrobial activities of saponin-rich guar meal extract

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hassan, Sherif Mohamed

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Three saponin-rich extracts (20, 60, 100% methanol), four 100% methanol subfractions and seven independently acquired fractions (A-G) from guar meal, Cyamopsis tetragonoloba L. (syn. C. psoraloides), were evaluated for antimicrobial and hemolytic...

  15. Numerical and Experimental Investigation of Tidal Current Energy Extraction 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sun, Xiaojing

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Numerical and experimental investigations of tidal current energy extraction have been conducted in this study. A laboratory-scale water flume was simulated using commercial computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code FLUENT. ...

  16. Factors influencing the efficiency of arsenic extraction by phosphate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yean, Su Jin

    2005-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    , phosphate concentration, principal counterion, reaction pH, and reaction time. The extraction efficiency was impacted by the influence of these individual factors on reaction kinetics and accessibility of arsenic adsorption sites for ligand exchange...

  17. Named Entity Extraction and Disambiguation: The Missing Link

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vellekoop, Michel

    . For example, con- sider the tweet `­ Lady Gaga - Speechless live @ Helsinki 10/13/2010 http Lady Gaga's songs. Although the logical order for an Information Extraction (IE) system is to do

  18. Determination of uncertainty in parameters extracted from single spectroscopic measurements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bechtel, Kate L.

    The ability to quantify uncertainty in information extracted from spectroscopic measurements is important in numerous fields. The traditional approach of repetitive measurements may be impractical or impossible in some ...

  19. Extractive Industries and Sustainable Development EXECUTIVE TRAINING PROGRAM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Industries and Sustainable Development EXECUTIVE TRAINING PROGRAM Vale Columbia Center UNIVERSITY Center on Globalization and Sustainable Development EARTH INSTITUTE | COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY #12; Extractive Industries and Sustainable Development Executive Training

  20. Catalytic Membrane Reactor for Extraction of Hydrogen from Bioethanol Reforming

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kuncharam, Bhanu Vardhan

    2013-11-26T23:59:59.000Z

    This research explores a novel application of catalytic membrane reactors for high- purity hydrogen extraction from bioethanol reforming. Conventional membrane systems employ hydrogen permselective materials such as palladium, polymer membranes...

  1. Towards Automatic Extraction of Definitions Claudia Borg1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pace, Gordon J.

    Department of Artificial Intelligence, University of Malta 2 Department of Computer Science, University of Malta {claudia.borg|mike.rosner|gordon.pace}@um.edu.mt Abstract. Definition extraction can be useful

  2. Evaluation of Packed Columns in Supercritical Extraction Processes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rathkamp, P. J.; Fair, J. R.; Humphrey, J. L.

    process. A 10 wt.% aqueous solution of etha nol was extracted in a spray column using super critical carbon dioxide. Mass transfer coefficients were determined to be more than ten times greater than those associated with conventional liquid extraction... form near the bottom when flooding occurs. The column was operated with countercurrent flow, with the more dense aqueous feed entering near the top of the column, and the less dense super critical carbon dioxide entering near the bottom. The light...

  3. Extraction of cesium and strontium from nuclear waste

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Davis, Jr., Milton W. (Lexington, SC); Bowers, Jr., Charles B. (Columbia, SC)

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Cesium is extracted from acidified nuclear waste by contacting the waste with a bis 4,4'(5) [1-hydroxy-2-ethylhexyl]benzo 18-crown-6 compound and a cation exchanger in a matrix solution. Strontium is extracted from acidified nuclear waste by contacting the waste with a bis 4,4'(5') [1-hydroxyheptyl]cyclohexo 18-crown-6 compound, and a cation exchanger in a matrix solution.

  4. Extraction of cesium and strontium from nuclear waste

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Davis, M.W. Jr.; Bowers, C.B. Jr.

    1988-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Cesium is extracted from acidified nuclear waste by contacting the waste with a bis 4,4[prime](5) [1-hydroxy-2-ethylhexyl]benzo 18-crown-6 compound and a cation exchanger in a matrix solution. Strontium is extracted from acidified nuclear waste by contacting the waste with a bis 4,4[prime](5[prime]) [1-hydroxyheptyl]cyclohexo 18-crown-6 compound, and a cation exchanger in a matrix solution. 3 figs.

  5. Extractable work from ensembles of quantum batteries. Entanglement helps

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Robert Alicki; Mark Fannes

    2012-11-19T23:59:59.000Z

    Motivated by the recent interest in thermodynamics of micro- and mesoscopic quantum systems we study the maximal amount of work that can be reversibly extracted from a quantum system used to store temporarily energy. Guided by the notion of passivity of a quantum state we show that entangling unitary controls extract in general more work than independent ones. In the limit of large number of copies one can reach the thermodynamical bound given by the variational principle for free energy.

  6. A unified theory on electro-kinetic extraction of contaminants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Datla, Subbaraju

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of contaminants from fine-grained soils. Here, the experimental and the theoretical studies conducted to date are reviewed briefly 2. 3. 1. Experimental Studies The technique of electro-kinetic extraction of salts from alkaline soils was investigated by Puri...A VNIFIED THEORY ON ELECTRO-KINETIC EXTRACTION OF CONTAMINANTS A Thesis by SUBBARAJU DATLA Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE...

  7. A novel method of bitumen extraction from asphalt pavement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Houser, T.J. (Western Michigan Univ., Kalamazoo (United States))

    1990-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A new method of extracting bitumen from asphalt pavement mixtures has been developed which does not require chlorinated or aromatic compounds for solvents. The preferred solvent is cyclohexane (although cyclopentane may be used) at high temperatures and pressures. The new method requires equipment that is less costly than the centrifuge method currently used and takes less time than extractions with Bioact but more time than when chlorocompounds are used.

  8. Method for liquid chromatographic extraction of strontium from acid solutions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Horwitz, E. Philip (Naperville, IL); Dietz, Mark L. (Evanston, IL)

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and apparatus for extracting strontium and technetium values from biological, industrial and environmental sample solutions using a chromatographic column is described. An extractant medium for the column is prepared by generating a solution of a diluent containing a Crown ether and dispersing the solution on a resin substrate material. The sample solution is highly acidic and is introduced directed to the chromatographic column and strontium or technetium is eluted using deionized water.

  9. MODAL PARAMETER EXTRACTION OF Z24 BRIDGE DATA.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Luscher, D.J.; Borwnjohn, J.M. [and others

    2000-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The vibration data obtained from ambient, drop-weight, and shaker excitation tests of the Z24 Bridge in Switzerland are analyzed to extract modal parameters such as natural frequencies, damping ratios, and mode shapes. Two system identification techniques including Frequency Domain Decomposition and Eigensystem Realization Algorithm are employed for the extraction of modal parameters and the stationarity of the bridge is also investigated using time-frequency analysis.

  10. Extraction of metals using supercritical fluid and chelate forming ligand

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wai, C.M.; Laintz, K.E.

    1998-03-24T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of extracting metalloid and metal species from a solid or liquid material by exposing the material to a supercritical fluid solvent containing a chelating agent is described. The chelating agent forms chelates that are soluble in the supercritical fluid to allow removal of the species from the material. In preferred embodiments, the extraction solvent is supercritical carbon dioxide and the chelating agent is a fluorinated {beta}-diketone. In especially preferred embodiments the extraction solvent is supercritical carbon dioxide, and the chelating agent comprises a fluorinated {beta}-diketone and a trialkyl phosphate, or a fluorinated {beta}-diketone and a trialkylphosphine oxide. Although a trialkyl phosphate can extract lanthanides and actinides from acidic solutions, a binary mixture comprising a fluorinated {beta}-diketone and a trialkyl phosphate or a trialkylphosphine oxide tends to enhance the extraction efficiencies for actinides and lanthanides. The method provides an environmentally benign process for removing contaminants from industrial waste without using acids or biologically harmful solvents. The method is particularly useful for extracting actinides and lanthanides from acidic solutions. The chelate and supercritical fluid can be regenerated, and the contaminant species recovered, to provide an economic, efficient process. 7 figs.

  11. Advanced Extraction Methods for Actinide/Lanthanide Separations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scott, M.J.

    2005-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The separation of An(III) ions from chemically similar Ln(III) ions is perhaps one of the most difficult problems encountered during the processing of nuclear waste. In the 3+ oxidation states, the metal ions have an identical charge and roughly the same ionic radius. They differ strictly in the relative energies of their f- and d-orbitals, and to separate these metal ions, ligands will need to be developed that take advantage of this small but important distinction. The extraction of uranium and plutonium from nitric acid solution can be performed quantitatively by the extraction with the TBP (tributyl phosphate). Commercially, this process has found wide use in the PUREX (plutonium uranium extraction) reprocessing method. The TRUEX (transuranium extraction) process is further used to coextract the trivalent lanthanides and actinides ions from HLLW generated during PUREX extraction. This method uses CMPO [(N, N-diisobutylcarbamoylmethyl) octylphenylphosphineoxide] intermixed with TBP as a synergistic agent. However, the final separation of trivalent actinides from trivalent lanthanides still remains a challenging task. In TRUEX nitric acid solution, the Am(III) ion is coordinated by three CMPO molecules and three nitrate anions. Taking inspiration from this data and previous work with calix[4]arene systems, researchers on this project have developed a C3-symmetric tris-CMPO ligand system using a triphenoxymethane platform as a base. The triphenoxymethane ligand systems have many advantages for the preparation of complex ligand systems. The compounds are very easy to prepare. The steric and solubility properties can be tuned through an extreme range by the inclusion of different alkoxy and alkyl groups such as methyoxy, ethoxy, t-butoxy, methyl, octyl, t-pentyl, or even t-pentyl at the ortho- and para-positions of the aryl rings. The triphenoxymethane ligand system shows promise as an improved extractant for both tetravalent and trivalent actinide recoveries form high level liquid wastes and a general actinide clean-up procedure. The selectivity of the standard extractant for tetravalent actinides, (N,N-diisobutylcarbamoylmethyl) octylphenylphosphineoxide (CMPO), was markedly improved by the attachment of three CMPO-like functions onto a triphenoxymethane platform, and a ligand that is both highly selective and effective for An(IV) ions was isolated. A 10 fold excess of ligand will remove virtually all of the 4+ actinides from the acidic layer without extracting appreciable quantities of An(III) and Ln(III) unlike simple CMPO ligands. Inspired by the success of the DIAMEX industrial process for extractions, three new tripodal chelates bearing three diglycolamide and thiodiglycolamide units precisely arranged on a triphenoxymethane platform have been synthesized for an highly efficient extraction of trivalent f-element cations from nitric acid media. A single equivalent of ligand will remove 80% of the Ln(III) ion from the acidic layer since the ligand is perfectly suited to accommodate the tricapped trigonal prismatic geometry preferred by the metal center. The ligand is perhaps the most efficient binder available for the heavier lanthanides and due to this unique attribute, the extraction event can be easily followed by 1H NMR spectroscopy confirming the formation of a TPP complex. The most lipophilic di-n-butyl tris-diglycolamide was found to be a significantly weaker extractant in comparison to the di-isopropyl analogs. The tris-thiodiglycolamide derivative proved to be an ineffective chelate for f-elements and demonstrated the importance of the etheric oxygens in the metal binding. The results presented herein clearly demonstrate a cooperative action of these three ligating groups within a single molecule, confirmed by composition and structure of the extracted complexes, and since actinides prefer to have high coordination numbers, the ligands should be particularly adept at binding with three arms. The use of such an extractant permits the extraction of metal ions form highly acidic environment through the ability

  12. Methodology for extracting local constants from petroleum cracking flows

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chang, Shen-Lin (Woodridge, IL); Lottes, Steven A. (Naperville, IL); Zhou, Chenn Q. (Munster, IN)

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A methodology provides for the extraction of local chemical kinetic model constants for use in a reacting flow computational fluid dynamics (CFD) computer code with chemical kinetic computations to optimize the operating conditions or design of the system, including retrofit design improvements to existing systems. The coupled CFD and kinetic computer code are used in combination with data obtained from a matrix of experimental tests to extract the kinetic constants. Local fluid dynamic effects are implicitly included in the extracted local kinetic constants for each particular application system to which the methodology is applied. The extracted local kinetic model constants work well over a fairly broad range of operating conditions for specific and complex reaction sets in specific and complex reactor systems. While disclosed in terms of use in a Fluid Catalytic Cracking (FCC) riser, the inventive methodology has application in virtually any reaction set to extract constants for any particular application and reaction set formulation. The methodology includes the step of: (1) selecting the test data sets for various conditions; (2) establishing the general trend of the parametric effect on the measured product yields; (3) calculating product yields for the selected test conditions using coupled computational fluid dynamics and chemical kinetics; (4) adjusting the local kinetic constants to match calculated product yields with experimental data; and (5) validating the determined set of local kinetic constants by comparing the calculated results with experimental data from additional test runs at different operating conditions.

  13. Integrated Design, Operation and Control of Batch Extractive Distillation with a Middle Vessel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Skogestad, Sigurd

    Integrated Design, Operation and Control of Batch Extractive Distillation with a Middle Vessel E. K distillation for separating homogeneous minimum-boiling azeotropic mixtures, where the extractive agent and a control structure for the batch extractive middle vessel distillation is proposed. In extractive

  14. Integrated Design, Operation and Control of Batch Extractive Distillation with a Middle Vessel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Skogestad, Sigurd

    Integrated Design, Operation and Control of Batch Extractive Distillation with a Middle Vessel E. K distillation for separating homogeneous minimum­boiling azeotropic mixtures, where the extractive agent and a control structure for the batch extractive middle vessel distillation is proposed. In extractive

  15. Research paper The determination of labile Fe in ferrihydrite by ascorbic acid extraction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Benning, Liane G.

    , grain-sizes and crystallinity. Furthermore the extraction of bioavailable Fe from potential mineral). No simple chemical extraction can replicate the diversity of these processes, nevertheless extractionsResearch paper The determination of labile Fe in ferrihydrite by ascorbic acid extraction

  16. System and method for preparing near-surface heavy oil for extraction using microbial degradation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Busche, Frederick D. (Highland Village, TX); Rollins, John B. (Southlake, TX); Noyes, Harold J. (Golden, CO); Bush, James G. (West Richland, WA)

    2011-04-12T23:59:59.000Z

    A system and method for enhancing the recovery of heavy oil in an oil extraction environment by feeding nutrients to a preferred microbial species (bacteria and/or fungi). A method is described that includes the steps of: sampling and identifying microbial species that reside in the oil extraction environment; collecting fluid property data from the oil extraction environment; collecting nutrient data from the oil extraction environment; identifying a preferred microbial species from the oil extraction environment that can transform the heavy oil into a lighter oil; identifying a nutrient from the oil extraction environment that promotes a proliferation of the preferred microbial species; and introducing the nutrient into the oil extraction environment.

  17. AQUEOUS BIPHASE EXTRACTION FOR PROCESSING OF FINE COAL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    K. Osseo-Asare; X. Zeng

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this research project is to develop an aqueous biphase extraction process for the treatment of fine coals. Aqueous biphase extraction is an advanced separation technology that relies on the ability of an aqueous system consisting of a water-soluble polymer and another component, e.g., another polymer, an inorganic salt, or a nonionic surfactant, to separate into two immiscible aqueous phases. The principle behind the partition of solid particles in aqueous biphase systems is the physicochemical interaction between the solid surface and the surrounding liquid solution. In order to remove sulfur and mineral matter from fine coal with aqueous biphasic extraction, it is necessary to know the partitioning behavior of coal, as well as the inorganic mineral components. Therefore, in this research emphasis was placed on the partitioning behavior of fine coal particles as well as model fine inorganic particles in aqueous biphase systems.

  18. Extraction of uranium from seawater using magnetic adsorbents

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yamashita, H. (Hitachi Research Lab., Japan); Fujita, K.; Nakajima, F.; Ozawa, Y.; Murata, T.

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A new process for the extraction of uranium from seawater was developed. In the process, uranium adsorption is effected using powdered magnetic adsorbents; the adsorbents are then separated from seawater using magnetic separation technology. This process is superior to a column method using a granulated hydrous titanium oxide adsorber bed in the following ways: (1) a higher rate of adsorption is realized because smaller particles are used in the uranium adsorption; and (2) blocking, which is inevitable in an adsorber bed, is eliminated. The composite hydrous titanium-iron oxide as a magnetic adsorbent having high uranium adsorption capacity and magnetization can be prepared by adding urea to a mixed solution of titanium sulfate and ferrous sulfate. Adsorption and desoprtion of uranium and the removal of the adsorbent using a small-scale uranium extraction plant (about 15 m/sup 3//d) is reported, and the feasibility of uranium extraction from seawater by this process is demonstrated. 10 figures.

  19. Fluctuations in Single-Shot $?$-Deterministic Work Extraction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sina Salek; Karoline Wiesner

    2015-04-20T23:59:59.000Z

    In the single-shot regime it is argued that the criterion for allowed state transitions ought to be more restricted than the second law of thermodynamics, and is given by a condition called thermo-majorisation. Hence to arrive at a fluctuation theorem for the single-shot scenario, such a restriction has to be taken into account. Here we formulate and prove a tighter fluctuation relation for the single-shot $\\epsilon$-deterministic work extraction. The result links two areas of thermodynamics which have been of great interest recently, fluctuation relations for non-equilibrium processes and the $\\epsilon$-deterministic work extractable from single microscopic non-equilibrium systems. Furthermore, in doing so, we unify the notions of fluctuation in $\\epsilon$-deterministic work extraction and in fluctuation theorems.

  20. Thermal extraction analysis of five Los Azufres production wells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kruger, Paul; Quijano, Luis

    1995-01-26T23:59:59.000Z

    Thermal energy extraction from five wells supplying 5-MWe wellhead generators in three zones of the Los Azufres geothermal field has been examined from production and chemical data compiled over 14-years of operation. The data, as annual means, are useful in observing small-scale changes in reservoir performance with continuous production. The chemical components are chloride for quality control and the geothermometer elements for reservoir temperatures. The flowrate and fluid enthalpy data are used to calculate the thermal extraction rates. Integration of these data provides an estimate of the total energy extracted from the zone surrounding the well. The combined production and chemical geothermometer data are used to model the produced fluid as coming from just-penetrating wells for which the annual produced mass originates from a series of concentric hemispheric shells moving out into the reservoir. Estimates are made of the drawdown distance into the reservoir and the far-field conditions.

  1. Management of water extracted from carbon sequestration projects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harto, C. B.; Veil, J. A. (Environmental Science Division)

    2011-03-11T23:59:59.000Z

    Throughout the past decade, frequent discussions and debates have centered on the geological sequestration of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}). For sequestration to have a reasonably positive impact on atmospheric carbon levels, the anticipated volume of CO{sub 2} that would need to be injected is very large (many millions of tons per year). Many stakeholders have expressed concern about elevated formation pressure following the extended injection of CO{sub 2}. The injected CO{sub 2} plume could potentially extend for many kilometers from the injection well. If not properly managed and monitored, the increased formation pressure could stimulate new fractures or enlarge existing natural cracks or faults, so the CO{sub 2} or the brine pushed ahead of the plume could migrate vertically. One possible tool for management of formation pressure would be to extract water already residing in the formation where CO{sub 2} is being stored. The concept is that by removing water from the receiving formations (referred to as 'extracted water' to distinguish it from 'oil and gas produced water'), the pressure gradients caused by injection could be reduced, and additional pore space could be freed up to sequester CO{sub 2}. Such water extraction would occur away from the CO{sub 2} plume to avoid extracting a portion of the sequestered CO{sub 2} along with the formation water. While water extraction would not be a mandatory component of large-scale carbon storage programs, it could provide many benefits, such as reduction of pressure, increased space for CO{sub 2} storage, and potentially, 'plume steering.' Argonne National Laboratory is developing information for the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) to evaluate management of extracted water. If water is extracted from geological formations designated to receive injected CO{sub 2} for sequestration, the project operator will need to identify methods for managing very large volumes of water most of which will contain large quantities of salt and other dissolved minerals. Produced water from oil and gas production also typically contains large quantities of dissolved solids. Therefore, many of the same practices that are established and used for managing produced water also may be applicable for extracted water. This report describes the probable composition of the extracted water that is removed from the formations, options for managing the extracted water, the pros and cons of those options, and some opportunities for beneficial use of the water. Following the introductory material in Chapter 1, the report is divided into chapters covering the following topics: (Chapter 2) examines the formations that are likely candidates for CO{sub 2} sequestration and provides a general evaluation of the geochemical characteristics of the formations; (Chapter 3) makes some preliminary estimates of the volume of water that could be extracted; (Chapter 4) provides a qualitative review of many potential technologies and practices for managing extracted water and for each technology or management practice, pros and cons are provided; (Chapter 5) explores the potential costs of water management; and (Chapter 6) presents the conclusions.

  2. Review Article: The Effects of Radiation Chemistry on Solvent Extraction 3: A Review of Actinide and Lanthanide Extraction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bruce J. Mincher; Giuseppe Modolo; Stephen P. Mezyk

    2009-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The partitioning of the long-lived ?-emitters and the high-yield fission products from dissolved nuclear fuel is a key component of processes envisioned for the safe recycling of nuclear fuel and the disposition of high-level waste. These future processes will likely be based on aqueous solvent extraction technologies for light water reactor fuel and consist of four main components for the sequential separation of uranium, fission products, group trivalent actinides and lanthanides, and then trivalent actinides from lanthanides. Since the solvent systems will be in contact with highly radioactive solutions, they must be robust toward radiolytic degradation in an irradiated mixed organic, aqueous acidic environment. Therefore, an understanding of their radiation chemistry is important to the design of a practical system. In the first paper in this series we reviewed the radiation chemistry of irradiated aqueous nitric acid and the tributyl phosphate ligand for uranium extraction in the first step of these extractions. In the second, we reviewed the radiation chemistry of the ligands proposed for use in the extraction of cesium and strontium fission products. Here, we review the radiation chemistry of the ligands that might be used in the third step in the series of separations, for the group extraction of the lanthanides and actinides. This includes traditional organophosphorous reagents such as CMPO and HDEHP, as well as novel reagents such as the amides and diamides currently being investigated.

  3. Perturbative extraction of gravitational waveforms generated with Numerical Relativity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    H. Nakano; J. Healy; C. O. Lousto; Y. Zlochower

    2015-04-28T23:59:59.000Z

    We derive an analytical expression for extracting the gravitational waveforms at null infinity using the Weyl scalar $\\psi_4$ measured at a finite radius. Our expression is based on a series solution in orders of 1/r to the equations for gravitational perturbations about a spinning black hole. We compute this expression to order $1/r^2$ and include the spin parameter $a$ of the Kerr background. We test the accuracy of this extraction procedure by measuring the waveform for a merging black-hole binary at ten different extraction radii (in the range r/M=75-190) and for three different resolutions in the convergence regime. We find that the extraction formula provides a set of values for the radiated energy and momenta that at finite extraction radii converges towards the expected values with increasing resolution, which is not the case for the `raw' waveform at finite radius. We also examine the phase and amplitude errors in the waveform as a function of observer location and again observe the benefits of using our extraction formula. The leading corrections to the phase are ${\\cal O}(1/r)$ and to the amplitude are ${\\cal O}(1/r^2)$. This method provides a simple and practical way of estimating the waveform at infinity, and may be especially useful for scenarios such as well separated binaries, where the radiation zone is far from the sources, that would otherwise require extended simulation grids in order to extrapolate the `raw' waveform to infinity. Thus this method saves important computational resources and provides an estimate of errors.

  4. Extraction process for removing metallic impurities from alkalide metals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Royer, Lamar T. (Knoxville, TN)

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A development is described for removing metallic impurities from alkali metals by employing an extraction process wherein the metallic impurities are extracted from a molten alkali metal into molten lithium metal due to the immiscibility of the alkali metals in lithium and the miscibility of the metallic contaminants or impurities in the lithium. The purified alkali metal may be readily separated from the contaminant-containing lithium metal by simple decanting due to the differences in densities and melting temperatures of the alkali metals as compared to lithium.

  5. Rapid automatic keyword extraction for information retrieval and analysis

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rose, Stuart J (Richland, WA); Cowley,; Wendy E (Richland, WA); Crow, Vernon L (Richland, WA); Cramer, Nicholas O (Richland, WA)

    2012-03-06T23:59:59.000Z

    Methods and systems for rapid automatic keyword extraction for information retrieval and analysis. Embodiments can include parsing words in an individual document by delimiters, stop words, or both in order to identify candidate keywords. Word scores for each word within the candidate keywords are then calculated based on a function of co-occurrence degree, co-occurrence frequency, or both. Based on a function of the word scores for words within the candidate keyword, a keyword score is calculated for each of the candidate keywords. A portion of the candidate keywords are then extracted as keywords based, at least in part, on the candidate keywords having the highest keyword scores.

  6. Extraction of pores from microtomographic reconstructions of intact soil aggregates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Albee, P. B.; Stockman, G. C.; Smucker, A. J. M.

    2000-02-29T23:59:59.000Z

    Segmentation of features is often a necessary step in the analysis of volumetric data. The authors have developed a simple technique for extracting voids from irregular volumetric data sets. In this work they look at extracting pores from soil aggregates. First, they identify a threshold that gives good separability of the object from the background. They then segment the object, and perform connected components analysis on the pores within the object. Using their technique pores that break the surface can be segmented along with pores completely contained in the initially segmented object.

  7. Preparation of DNA-containing extract for PCR amplification

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dunbar, John M.; Kuske, Cheryl R.

    2006-07-11T23:59:59.000Z

    Environmental samples typically include impurities that interfere with PCR amplification and DNA quantitation. Samples of soil, river water, and aerosol were taken from the environment and added to an aqueous buffer (with or without detergent). Cells from the sample are lysed, releasing their DNA into the buffer. After removing insoluble cell components, the remaining soluble DNA-containing extract is treated with N-phenacylthiazolium bromide, which causes rapid precipitation of impurities. Centrifugation provides a supernatant that can be used or diluted for PCR amplification of DNA, or further purified. The method may provide a DNA-containing extract sufficiently pure for PCR amplification within 5–10 minutes.

  8. Present status and problems on extraction of uranium from seawater

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Research Committee on Extraction of Uranium from Seawater worked on the technical survey of the present situation of the above technique and the exchange of information among the members, during 1977 to 1979. This is a report of its activity and present status of the research in this field. It includes the development of various adsorbents, extraction of uranium by flotation, various kinds of chemical analyses, some comparisons among different kinds of seawater contacting systems, the secondary concentrations and the cost of assessment.

  9. Angular momentum extraction by gravity waves in the Sun

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Suzanne Talon; Pawan Kumar; Jean-Paul Zahn

    2002-06-27T23:59:59.000Z

    We review the behavior of the oscillating shear layer produced by gravity waves below the surface convection zone of the Sun. We show that, under asymmetric filtering produced by this layer, gravity waves of low spherical order, which are stochastically excited at the base of the convection zone of late type stars, can extract angular momentum from their radiative interior. The time-scale for this momentum extraction in a Sun-like star is of the order of 10^7 years. The process is particularly efficient in the central region, and it could produce there a slowly rotating core.

  10. A study of a solvent extraction desalination process

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McFerrin, Arthur Ransom

    1969-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of possible solvents were carefully evaluated, secondary and tertiary amines of 5 and 6 total carbon atoms were found to have by far the best solvent properties (9, 10, 26). In the developed process, the amine solvent extracts water selectively from salt... water to produce a solvent phase containing considerable water but little salt, and a water phase of increased salt content. The amine has a lower consolute temperature with water, and the fresh ~ster is recovered by heating the extract to a higher...

  11. Acetone as a solvent for extraction of cottonseed oil

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hui, In-Wai

    1950-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ACETONE AS A SOLVENT FOR EXTRACTION GP COTTONSEED OIL A Thesis In-Wai Hui June 1950 Approval as to style and content recommended c t Head oi' the Department of Chemical Engineering ACETONE AS A SOLVENT FOR EXT "ACTION OF COTTONSEED OIL A... Thesis In-Nai Hui June 1950 ACETONE AS A SOLVENT FOR EXTRACTION QF COTTONSEED OIL A Thesis Submitted to the Faculty of the Agricultural and Mechanical College of Texas Partis1 Fulfillment of the Recuirements for the Degree of Master of Science...

  12. Extracting alcohols from aqueous solutions. [USDOE patent application

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Compere, A.L.; Googin, J.M.; Griffith, W.L.

    1981-12-02T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective is to provide an efficient process for extracting alcohols in aqueous solutions into hydrocarbon fuel mixtures, such as gasoline, diesel fuel and fuel oil. This is done by contacting an aqueous fermentation liquor with a hydrocarbon or hydrocarbon mixture containing carbon compounds having 5-18 carbon atoms, which may include gasoline, diesel fuel or fuel oil. The hydrocarbon-aqueous alcohol solution is then mixed with one or more of a group of polyoxyalkylene polymers to extract the alcohol into the hydrocarbon fuel-polyoxyalkylene polymer mixture.

  13. Malonamides as new extractants for nuclear waste solutions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cuillerdier, C.; Musikas, C.; Hoel, P.; Nigond, L.; Vitart, X. (Commissariat a L'Energie Atomique, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France))

    1991-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A new class of extractants has been investigated: pentaalkylpropane diamides. Due to their chelating effect on metallic cations, they extract trivalent actinides such as Am{sup 3+} and Cm{sup 3+} from acidic nitrate nuclear waste solutions. These solvents are completely incinerable and do not generate large amounts of waste. A review is provided of their chemical properties, leading to the choice of the proper molecule. The results of a bench-scale experiment performed in a mixer-settler battery are presented.

  14. Quantum key distribution with key extracted from basis information

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xiongfeng Ma

    2014-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

    In conventional quantum key distribution protocols, the secure key is normally extracted from the measurement outcomes of the system. Here, a different approach is proposed, where the secure key is extracted from the measurement bases, rather than outcomes. Compared to the original Bennett-Brassard-1984 protocol, the proposed protocol involves no hardware change but modifications in data postprocessing. We show that this protocol is more robust against detector efficiency attacks and photon-number-splitting attacks when practical detectors and photon sources are used.

  15. Magma energy: engineering feasibility of energy extraction from magma bodies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Traeger, R.K.

    1983-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A research program was carried out from 1975 to 1982 to evaluate the scientific feasibility of extracting energy from magma, i.e., to determine if there were any fundamental scientific roadblocks to tapping molten magma bodies at depth. The next stage of the program is to evaluate the engineering feasibility of extracting energy from magma bodies and to provide insight into system economics. This report summarizes the plans, schedules and estimated costs for the engineering feasibility study. Tentative tasks and schedules are presented for discussion and critique. A bibliography of past publications on magma energy is appended for further reference. 69 references.

  16. Magma energy extraction - Annual Report for FY88

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dunn, J.C. (ed.)

    1989-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Thermal energy contained in magmatic systems represents a huge potential resource. In the US, useful energy contained in molten and partially-molten magma within the upper 10 km of the crust has been estimated at 50,000 to 500,000 Quads. The objective of the Magma Energy Extraction Program is to determine engineering feasibility of locating, accessing and utilizing magma as a viable energy resource. Engineering feasibility will depend on size and depth of the resource; extraction rates; and material life times. 11 refs., 29 figs., 1 tab.

  17. Selective aqueous extraction of organics coupled with trapping by membrane separation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    van Eikeren, Paul (Bend, OR); Brose, Daniel J. (Bend, OR); Ray, Roderick J. (Bend, OR)

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An improvement to processes for the selective extractation of organic solutes from organic solvents by water-based extractants is disclosed, the improvement comprising coupling various membrane separation processes with the organic extraction process, the membrane separation process being utilized to continuously recycle the water-based extractant and at the same time selectively remove or concentrate organic solute from the water-based extractant.

  18. Sludge Treatment and Extraction Technology Development: Results of FY 1993 studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lumetta, G.J.; Wagner, M.J.; Barrington, R.J.; Rapko, B.M.; Carlson, C.D.

    1994-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes experimental results from work conducted in FY 1993 under the Sludge Treatment and Extraction Technology Development Task of the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Pretreatment Technology Development Project at Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL). Experiments were conducted in the following six general areas: (1) sludge washing, (2) sludge leaching, (3) sludge dissolution, (4) actinide separation by solvent extraction and extraction chromatography, (5) Sr separation by solvent extraction, and (6) extraction of Cs from acidic solution.

  19. Toxicologic and biochemical effects of extracts from Karwinskia humboldtiana on the albino rat

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wheeler, Michael Hugh

    1970-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Oral doses of coyotillo plant extract (Pe-1) given to rats of Group I-A. 12 Weight changes observed in rats following oral administration of coyotillo plant extract (Pe-l). Microscopic lesions observed in rats following oral administration... of coyotillo plant extract (Pe-l). Weight changes observed in rats following chronic oral administration of coyotillo plant extract (Cn-l). 37 Weight changes observed in rats following acute oral administration of coyotillo plant extract (Ch-l). 38...

  20. Technologies for Extracting Valuable Metals and Compounds from Geothermal Fluids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harrison, Stephen [SIMBOL Materials

    2014-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Executive Summary Simbol Materials studied various methods of extracting valuable minerals from geothermal brines in the Imperial Valley of California, focusing on the extraction of lithium, manganese, zinc and potassium. New methods were explored for managing the potential impact of silica fouling on mineral extraction equipment, and for converting silica management by-products into commercial products.` Studies at the laboratory and bench scale focused on manganese, zinc and potassium extraction and the conversion of silica management by-products into valuable commercial products. The processes for extracting lithium and producing lithium carbonate and lithium hydroxide products were developed at the laboratory scale and scaled up to pilot-scale. Several sorbents designed to extract lithium as lithium chloride from geothermal brine were developed at the laboratory scale and subsequently scaled-up for testing in the lithium extraction pilot plant. Lithium The results of the lithium studies generated the confidence for Simbol to scale its process to commercial operation. The key steps of the process were demonstrated during its development at pilot scale: 1. Silica management. 2. Lithium extraction. 3. Purification. 4. Concentration. 5. Conversion into lithium hydroxide and lithium carbonate products. Results show that greater than 95% of the lithium can be extracted from geothermal brine as lithium chloride, and that the chemical yield in converting lithium chloride to lithium hydroxide and lithium carbonate products is greater than 90%. The product purity produced from the process is consistent with battery grade lithium carbonate and lithium hydroxide. Manganese and zinc Processes for the extraction of zinc and manganese from geothermal brine were developed. It was shown that they could be converted into zinc metal and electrolytic manganese dioxide after purification. These processes were evaluated for their economic potential, and at the present time Simbol Materials is evaluating other products with greater commercial value. Potassium Silicotitanates, zeolites and other sorbents were evaluated as potential reagents for the extraction of potassium from geothermal brines and production of potassium chloride (potash). It was found that zeolites were effective at removing potassium but the capacity of the zeolites and the form that the potassium is in does not have economic potential. Iron-silica by-product The conversion of iron-silica by-product produced during silica management operations into more valuable materials was studied at the laboratory scale. Results indicate that it is technically feasible to convert the iron-silica by-product into ferric chloride and ferric sulfate solutions which are precursors to a ferric phosphate product. However, additional work to purify the solutions is required to determine the commercial viability of this process. Conclusion Simbol Materials is in the process of designing its first commercial plant based on the technology developed to the pilot scale during this project. The investment in the commercial plant is hundreds of millions of dollars, and construction of the commercial plant will generate hundreds of jobs. Plant construction will be completed in 2016 and the first lithium products will be shipped in 2017. The plant will have a lithium carbonate equivalent production capacity of 15,000 tonnes per year. The gross revenues from the project are expected to be approximately $ 80 to 100 million annually. During this development program Simbol grew from a company of about 10 people to over 60 people today. Simbol is expected to employ more than 100 people once the plant is constructed. Simbol Materials’ business is scalable in the Imperial Valley region because there are eleven geothermal power plants already in operation, which allows Simbol to expand its business from one plant to multiple plants. Additionally, the scope of the resource is vast in terms of potential products such as lithium, manganese and zinc and potentially potassium.

  1. Blind channel identification and extraction of more sources than sensors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Blind channel identification and extraction of more sources than sensors P. Comonba a I3S that a static system with more inputs (sources) than outputs (sensors, or channels) cannot be blindly identified blind identification problem. Here, in order to demonstrate its feasibility, the procedure is detailed

  2. Electrode Selection for Noninvasive Fetal Electrocardiogram Extraction using Mutual

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Verleysen, Michel

    , Sharif University of Technology, Tehran, Iran Machine Learning Group (MLG), Microelectronics Laboratory to be promising approaches for the noninvasive extraction of fetal cardiac signals from maternal abdominal recordings. From previous studies, it is now believed that a carefully selected array of electrodes well

  3. Improved method for extracting lanthanides and actinides from acid solutions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Horwitz, E.P.; Kalina, D.G.; Kaplan, L.; Mason, G.W.

    1983-07-26T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for the recovery of actinide and lanthanide values from aqueous acidic solutions uses a new series of neutral bi-functional extractants, the alkyl(phenyl)-N,N-dialkylcarbamoylmethylphosphine oxides. The process is suitable for the separation of actinide and lanthanide values from fission product values found together in high-level nuclear reprocessing waste solutions.

  4. Unsupervised extraction of coherent regions for image based rendering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dragotti, Pier Luigi

    Unsupervised extraction of coherent regions for image based rendering Jesse Berent and Pier Luigi, UK {jesse.berent, p.dragotti}@imperial.ac.uk Abstract Image based rendering using undersampled light information. In pop-up light field rendering [18], the scene is segmented into coherent layers, usually

  5. A Laser-Wire System at the ATF Extraction Line

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boogert, S.T.; Blair, G.; Boorman, G.; Bosco, A.; Deacon, L.; Driouichi, C.; Karataev, P.; /Royal Holloway, U. of London; Kamps, T.; /BESSY, Berlin; Delerue, N.; Dixit, S.; Foster, B.; Gannaway, F.; Howell, D.F.; Qureshi, M.; Reichold, A.; Senanayake, R.; /Oxford U.; Aryshev, A.; Hayano, H.; Kubo, K.; Terunuma, N.; Urakawa, J.; /KEK, Tsukuba /Liverpool

    2007-02-12T23:59:59.000Z

    A new laser-wire (LW) system has been installed at the ATF extraction line at KEK, Tsukuba. The system aims at a micron-scale laser spot size and employs a mode-locked laser system. The purpose-built interaction chamber, light delivery optics, and lens systems are described, and the first results are presented.

  6. Extraction costs in the theory of exhaustible resources

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wan, Frederic Yui-Ming

    Extraction costs in the theory of exhaustible resources Robert M. Solow Professor of Economics. First, it reformulates the theory of optimal use of an exhaustible resource with more attention in the supply of exhausti- ble resources. Our most striking result is, in fact, the suggestion that relatively

  7. Wind parameters extraction from aircraft trajectories C. Hurtera,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Wind parameters extraction from aircraft trajectories C. Hurtera, , R. Alligiera,b , D. Gianazzaa traffic controllers need to know the current wind magnitude and direction since they impact every flying vessel. The wind may accel- erate or slow down an aircraft, depending on its relative direction

  8. Mining Aeronautical Data by using Visualized Driven Rules Extraction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Mining Aeronautical Data by using Visualized Driven Rules Extraction Approach Gwenael BOTHOREL a, University of Toulouse, France c ENAC, University of Toulouse, France Abstract. Data Mining aims be greater than the volume of initial data. The second approach is Visual Data Mining which helps

  9. Using Gazetteers in Discriminative Information Extraction Andrew Smith

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Osborne, Miles

    Using Gazetteers in Discriminative Information Extraction Andrew Smith Division of Informatics University of Edinburgh United Kingdom a.p.smith-2@sms.ed.ac.uk Miles Osborne Division of Informatics model, then decoding using a logarithmic opinion pool (Smith et al., 2005), we may achieve much higher

  10. DESIGN OF BEAM-EXTRACTION SEPTUM MAGNET FOR THE SNS.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    TSOUPAS,N.; LEE,Y.Y.; RANK,J.; TUOZZOLO,J.

    2001-06-18T23:59:59.000Z

    The beam-extraction process from the SNS accumulator ring [1,2] requires a Lambertson septum magnet. In this paper we discuss the geometrical and magnetic field requirements of the magnet and present results obtained from two and three dimensional magnetic field calculations that shows the field quality in the regions of interest of the septum magnet.

  11. The extraction of bitumen from western tar sands

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oblad, A.G.; Bunger, J.W.; Deo, M.D.; Hanson, F.V.; Miller, J.D.; Seader, J.D.

    1990-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Topics discussed include: characterization of bitumen impregnated sandstone, water based tar sand separation technology, electrophoretic characterization of bitumen and fine mineral particles, bitumen and tar sand slurry viscosity, the hot water digestion-flotation process, electric field use on breaking water-in-oil emulsions, upgrading of bitumens and bitumen-derived liquids, solvent extraction.

  12. The extraction of bitumen from western tar sands. Annual report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oblad, A.G.; Bunger, J.W.; Deo, M.D.; Hanson, F.V.; Miller, J.D.; Seader, J.D.

    1990-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Topics discussed include: characterization of bitumen impregnated sandstone, water based tar sand separation technology, electrophoretic characterization of bitumen and fine mineral particles, bitumen and tar sand slurry viscosity, the hot water digestion-flotation process, electric field use on breaking water-in-oil emulsions, upgrading of bitumens and bitumen-derived liquids, solvent extraction.

  13. Process for the extraction of technetium from uranium

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gong, Cynthia-May S. (San Mateo, CA); Poineau, Frederic (Las Vegas, NV); Czerwinski, Kenneth R. (Las Vegas, NV)

    2010-12-21T23:59:59.000Z

    A spent fuel reprocessing method contacts an aqueous solution containing Technetium(V) and uranyl with an acidic solution comprising hydroxylamine hydrochloride or acetohydroxamic acid to reduce Tc(V) to Tc(II, and then extracts the uranyl with an organic phase, leaving technetium(II) in aqueous solution.

  14. Identifying Decomposition Products in Extracts of Cellular Metabolites

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rabinowitz, Joshua D.

    with methanol:water, cold temperature and a high methanol fraction minimizes artifacts due to metabolite the efficiency of extracting E. coli with boiling ethanol:water, cold versus hot methanol:water, and perchloric Escherichia coli with different methanol:water mixtures, we observed that 50% water gave increased yield

  15. INTRODUCTION Extraction of granite from lower crust, and its

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Solar, Gary S.

    INTRODUCTION Extraction of granite from lower crust, and its emplacement at shallower levels, is the principal mechanism by which the continents have be- come differentiated. Thus, understanding how granite orogenic belts spatial and tem- poral relationships between granite and regional tectonic structures

  16. Extracting Business Rules from COBOL: A Model-Based Framework

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Extracting Business Rules from COBOL: A Model-Based Framework Valerio Cosentino AtlanMod, INRIA in their Information Systems for their daily operations. This logic im- plements the business rules in place clear which business rules are enforced nor whether rules are still consistent with the current

  17. Structural acceptance criteria Remote Handling Building Tritium Extraction Facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mertz, G.

    1999-12-16T23:59:59.000Z

    This structural acceptance criteria contains the requirements for the structural analysis and design of the Remote Handling Building (RHB) in the Tritium Extraction Facility (TEF). The purpose of this acceptance criteria is to identify the specific criteria and methods that will ensure a structurally robust building that will safely perform its intended function and comply with the applicable Department of Energy (DOE) structural requirements.

  18. Bi-directionally draining pore fluid extraction vessel

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Prizio, Joseph (Boulder, CO); Ritt, Alexander (Lakewood, CO); Mower, Timothy E. (Wheat Ridge, CO); Rodine, Lonn (Arvada, CO)

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention is used to extract pore fluid from porous solids through a combination of mechanical compression and inert-gas injection and comprises a piston for axially compressing samples to force water out, and top and bottom drainage plates for capturing the exuded water and using inert gas to force water to exit when the limits of mechanical compression have been reached.

  19. Evaluation of the Estrogenic Effects of Legume Extracts Containing Phytoestrogens

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McLachlan, John

    (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), alfalfa sprout (Medicago sativa L.), mung bean sprout (Vigna radiata L.), kudzu root of kudzu root and red clover blossom showed significant competitive binding to estrogen receptor (ER. Kudzu root, red clover blossom and sprout, mung bean sprout, and alfalfa sprout extracts displayed

  20. Extracting a Climate Signal from 169 Glacier Records

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wright, Dawn Jeannine

    Extracting a Climate Signal from 169 Glacier Records J. Oerlemans I constructed a temperature history for different parts of the world from 169 glacier length records. Using a first-order theory of glacier dynamics, I related changes in glacier length to changes in temperature. The derived temperature

  1. Heat extraction for the CSPonD thermal storage unit

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rojas, Folkers Eduardo

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Three coiled tube heat exchanger prototypes were designed to extract heat from containers holding 0.5 kg, 2.3 kg, and 10.5 kg of Sodium Nitrate-Potassium Nitrate salt. All of the prototypes were left with an open surface ...

  2. Extraction of the tunnel magnetocapacitance with two-terminal measurements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lin, Minn-Tsong

    Extraction of the tunnel magnetocapacitance with two-terminal measurements Yin-Ming Chang,1 Kai in the four-terminal measurement with high frequency operation, two-terminal approach was developed circuit analy- sis with four-terminal complex impedance measurements. Aside from their conclusion

  3. CONSIDERING SHALE GAS EXTRACTION IN NORTH CAROLINA: LESSONS FROM OTHER

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jackson, Robert B.

    viable in recent years due to advances in horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing techniques, which hearings on the issues of horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing for shale gas extraction. 3 Unlike prohibits both horizontal drilling and the injection of waste (including hydraulic fracturing fluids

  4. Metadata Extraction from Bibliographic Documents for Digital Library

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 Metadata Extraction from Bibliographic Documents for Digital Library A. Belaïd1 and D. Besagni2 1 for a digital library (DL), their automatic recognition presents an obvious interest. However as their origin. 1. Introduction The digital library (DL) [1] has become more and more a common tool for everyone

  5. Optimizing Statistical Information Extraction Programs Over Evolving Text

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ré, Christopher

    Optimizing Statistical Information Extraction Programs Over Evolving Text Fei Chen1, Xixuan Feng2, Christopher R´e2, Min Wang1 1HP Labs China, 2University of Wisconsin-Madison Abstract-- Statistical programs which use a leading statistical model, Conditional Random Fields (CRFs). We show how to model

  6. Optimizing Statistical Information Extraction Programs Over Evolving Text

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ré, Christopher

    Optimizing Statistical Information Extraction Programs Over Evolving Text Fei Chen 1 , Xixuan Feng focuses on statistical IE programs which use a leading statistical model, Conditional Random Fields (CRFs 2 , Christopher R´e 3 , Min Wang 4 1,4 HP Labs China, 2,3 University of Wisconsin-Madison 1 fei

  7. Temporal-Harmonic Specific POD Mode Extraction Gilead Tadmor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dabiri, John O.

    Temporal-Harmonic Specific POD Mode Extraction Gilead Tadmor and Daniel Bissex Electrical changes the systems mean field changes significantly, as does the leading shedding harmonic4 , once mode pair will capture harmonically rich time dynamics, reflecting a spatial mix of multiple vortical

  8. Computational Aspects of Resilient Data Extraction from Semistructured Sources

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yang, Guizhen

    , 22], that parses an HTML source and maps it into a set of structured or semistructured databaseComputational Aspects of Resilient Data Extraction from Semistructured Sources (Extended Abstract Brook Stony Brook, NY 11794-4400, USA {davulcu,guizyang,kifer,ram}@cs.sunysb.edu ABSTRACT Automatic data

  9. AUTOMATED EXTRACTION OF LECTURE OUTLINES FROM LECTURE VIDEOS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weske, Mathias

    AUTOMATED EXTRACTION OF LECTURE OUTLINES FROM LECTURE VIDEOS A Hybrid Solution for Lecture Video}@hpi.uni-potsdam.de Keywords: Recorded Lecture Videos, Tele-teaching, Video Indexing, Multimedia Retrieval. Abstract: Multimedia-based tele-teaching and lecture video portals have become more and more popular in the last few

  10. Oxford University Press 2005 1 Text Mining and Information Extraction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Horn, David

    © Oxford University Press 2005 1 Text Mining and Information Extraction Novel Unsupervised Feature Filtering of Biological Data Roy Varshavsky1,* , Assaf Gottlieb2 , Michal Linial3 and David Horn2 1 School developed for selecting small informative feature subsets in large noisy data. However, unsuper- vised

  11. RESEARCH ON CARBON PRODUCTS FROM COAL USING AN EXTRACTIVE PROCESS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peter G. Stansberry; Alfred H. Stiller; John W. Zondlo; Chong Chen; Brian Bland; David Fenton

    2002-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This report presents the results of a one-year effort directed at the exploration of the use of coal as a feedstock for a variety of industrially-relevant carbon products. The work was basically divided into three focus areas. The first area dealt with the acquisition of laboratory equipment to aid in the analysis and characterization of both the raw coal and the coal-derived feedstocks. Improvements were also made on the coal-extraction pilot plant which will now allow larger quantities of feedstock to be produced. Mass and energy balances were also performed on the pilot plant in an attempt to evaluate the scale-up potential of the process. The second focus area dealt with exploring hydrogenation conditions specifically aimed at testing several less-expensive candidate hydrogen-donor solvents. Through a process of filtration and vacuum distillation, viable pitch products were produced and evaluated. Moreover, a recycle solvent was also isolated so that the overall solvent balance in the system could be maintained. The effect of variables such as gas pressure and gas atmosphere were evaluated. The pitch product was analyzed and showed low ash content, reasonable yield, good coking value and a coke with anisotropic optical texture. A unique plot of coke yield vs. pitch softening point was discovered to be independent of reaction conditions or hydrogen-donor solvent. The third area of research centered on the investigation of alternate extraction solvents and processing conditions for the solvent extraction step. A wide variety of solvents, co-solvents and enhancement additives were tested with varying degrees of success. For the extraction of raw coal, the efficacy of the alternate solvents when compared to the benchmark solvent, N-methyl pyrrolidone, was not good. However when the same coal was partially hydrogenated prior to solvent extraction, all solvents showed excellent results even for extractions performed at room temperature. Standard analyses of the extraction products indicated that they had the requisite properties of viable carbon-product precursors.

  12. Development of Novel Sorbents for Uranium Extraction from Seawater

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lin, Wenbin; Taylor-Pashow, Kathryn

    2014-01-08T23:59:59.000Z

    As the uranium resource in terrestrial ores is limited, it is difficult to ensure a long-term sustainable nuclear energy technology. The oceans contain approximately 4.5 billion tons of uranium, which is one thousand times the amount of uranium in terrestrial ores. Development of technologies to recover the uranium from seawater would greatly improve the uranium resource availability, sustaining the fuel supply for nuclear energy. Several methods have been previously evaluated including solvent extraction, ion exchange, flotation, biomass collection, and adsorption; however, none have been found to be suitable for reasons such as cost effectiveness, long term stability, and selectivity. Recent research has focused on the amidoxime functional group as a promising candidate for uranium sorption. Polymer beads and fibers have been functionalized with amidoxime functional groups, and uranium adsorption capacities as high as 1.5 g U/kg adsorbent have recently been reported with these types of materials. As uranium concentration in seawater is only ~3 ppb, great improvements to uranium collection systems must be made in order to make uranium extraction from seawater economically feasible. This proposed research intends to develop transformative technologies for economic uranium extraction from seawater. The Lin group will design advanced porous supports by taking advantage of recent breakthroughs in nanoscience and nanotechnology and incorporate high densities of well-designed chelators into such nanoporous supports to allow selective and efficient binding of uranyl ions from seawater. Several classes of nanoporous materials, including mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs), mesoporous carbon nanoparticles (MCNs), meta-organic frameworks (MOFs), and covalent-organic frameworks (COFs), will be synthesized. Selective uranium-binding liagnds such as amidoxime will be incorporated into the nanoporous materials to afford a new generation of sorbent materials that will be evaluated for their uranium extraction efficiency. The initial testing of these materials for uranium binding will be carried out in the Lin group, but more detailed sorption studies will be carried out by Dr. Taylor-Pashow of Savannah River National Laboratory in order to obtain quantitative uranyl sorption selectivity and kinetics data for the proposed materials. The proposed nanostructured sorbent materials are expected to have higher binding capacities, enhanced extraction kinetics, optimal stripping efficiency for uranyl ions, and enhanced mechanical and chemical stabilities. This transformative research will significantly impact uranium extraction from seawater as well as benefit DOE’s efforts on environmental remediation by developing new materials and providing knowledge for enriching and sequestering ultralow concentrations of other metals.

  13. Method of extracting coal from a coal refuse pile

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yavorsky, Paul M. (Monongahela, PA)

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of extracting coal from a coal refuse pile comprises soaking the coal refuse pile with an aqueous alkali solution and distributing an oxygen-containing gas throughout the coal refuse pile for a time period sufficient to effect oxidation of coal contained in the coal refuse pile. The method further comprises leaching the coal refuse pile with an aqueous alkali solution to solubilize and extract the oxidized coal as alkali salts of humic acids and collecting the resulting solution containing the alkali salts of humic acids. Calcium hydroxide may be added to the solution of alkali salts of humic acid to form precipitated humates useable as a low-ash, low-sulfur solid fuel.

  14. Fluid extraction using carbon dioxide and organophosphorus chelating agents

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Smart, N.G.; Wai, C.M.; Lin, Y.; Kwang, Y.H.

    1998-11-24T23:59:59.000Z

    Methods for extracting metalloid and metal species from a solid or liquid material by exposing the material to a fluid solvent, particularly supercritical CO{sub 2}, and a chelating agent are described. The chelating agent forms a chelate with the species, the chelate being soluble in the fluid to allow removal of the species from the material. In preferred embodiments the extraction solvent is supercritical CO{sub 2} and the chelating agent comprises an organophosphorous chelating agent, particularly sulfur-containing organophosphorous chelating agents, including mixtures of chelating agents. Examples of chelating agents include monothiophosphinic acid, di-thiophosphinic acid, phosphine sulfite, phosphorothioic acid, and mixtures thereof. The method provides an environmentally benign process for removing metal and metalloids from industrial waste solutions, particularly acidic solutions. Both the chelate and the supercritical fluid can be regenerated and the contaminant species recovered to provide an economic, efficient process. 1 fig.

  15. Injection/Extraction Studies for the Muon FFAG

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pasternak, J. [Imperial College London, Department of Physics, London (United Kingdom); STFC/RAL/ISIS, Chilton, Didcot, Oxon (United Kingdom); Aslaninejad, M. [Imperial College London, Department of Physics, London (United Kingdom); Berg, J. Scott [BNL, Upton, Long Island, New York (United States); Kelliher, D. J.; Machida, S. [STFC/ASTeC/RAL, Chilton, Didcot, Oxon (United Kingdom)

    2010-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The non-scaling fixed field alternating gradient (NS-FFAG) ring is a candidate muon accelerator in the Neutrino Factory complex according to the present baseline, which is currently being addressed by the International Design Study (IDS-NF). In order to achieve small orbit excursion, motivated by magnet cost reduction, and small time of flight variation, dictated by the need to use high RF frequency, lattices with a very compact cell structure and short straight sections are required. The resulting geometry dictates very difficult constraints on the injection/extraction systems. Beam dynamics in the non-scaling FFAG is studied using codes capable of correctly tracking with large transverse amplitude and momentum spread. The feasibility of injection/extraction is studied and various implementations focusing on minimization of kicker/septum strength are presented. Finally the parameters of the resulting kicker magnets are estimated.

  16. Fluid extraction using carbon dioxide and organophosphorus chelating agents

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Smart, Neil G. (Moscow, ID); Wai, Chien M. (Moscow, ID); Lin, Yuehe (Moscow, ID); Kwang, Yak Hwa (Moscow, ID)

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Methods for extracting metalloid and metal species from a solid or liquid material by exposing the material to a fluid solvent, particularly supercritical CO.sub.2, and a chelating agent are described. The chelating agent forms a chelate with the species, the chelate being soluble in the fluid to allow removal of the species from the material. In preferred embodiments the extraction solvent is supercritical CO.sub.2 and the chelating agent comprises an organophosphorous chelating agent, particularly sulfur-containing organophosphorous chelating agents, including mixtures of chelating agents. Examples of chelating agents include monothiophosphinic acid, di-thiophosphinic acid, phosphine sulfite, phosphorothioic acid, and mixtures thereof. The method provides an environmentally benign process for removing metal and metalloids from industrial waste solutions, particularly acidic solutions. Both the chelate and the supercritical fluid can be regenerated and the contaminant species recovered to provide an economic, efficient process.

  17. Simulation of the thermodynamic properties of organic extraction solutions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kolker, A.R.

    1986-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method is proposed for the simulation of the activity coefficients of the components, the excess volume, the heat of mixing, and other excess thermodynamic functions of organic extraction solutions. The method is based on a search in an assigned region for parameters of the NRTL equations of local composition for which the state of the solution satisfies the requirements of chemical thermodynamics, as well as the assigned recovery criteria. The following binary systems of the solvent-extractant, and solvent-solvate types have been simulated according to the program developed on an ES-1033 computer: C6H/sub 14/-TBP, CHC1/sub 3/-TBP, CC1/sub 4/-TBP, UO/sub 2/(NO/sub 3/)/sub 2/ X 2TBP-TBP, and CC1/sub 4/-UO/sub 2/(NO/sub 3/)/sub 2/ X 2TBP.

  18. Genetic programming approach to extracting features from remotely sensed imagery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Theiler, J. P. (James P.); Perkins, S. J. (Simon J.); Harvey, N. R. (Neal R.); Szymanski, J. J. (John J.); Brumby, Steven P.

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Multi-instrument data sets present an interesting challenge to feature extraction algorithm developers. Beyond the immediate problems of spatial co-registration, the remote sensing scientist must explore a complex algorithm space in which both spatial and spectral signatures may be required to identify a feature of interest. We describe a genetic programming/supervised classifier software system, called Genie, which evolves and combines spatio-spectral image processing tools for remotely sensed imagery. We describe our representation of candidate image processing pipelines, and discuss our set of primitive image operators. Our primary application has been in the field of geospatial feature extraction, including wildfire scars and general land-cover classes, using publicly available multi-spectral imagery (MSI) and hyper-spectral imagery (HSI). Here, we demonstrate our system on Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper (ETM+) MSI. We exhibit an evolved pipeline, and discuss its operation and performance.

  19. Strategies for the characteristic extraction of gravitational waveforms

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Babiuc, M. C. [Department of Physics, Marshall University, Huntington, West Virginia 25755 (United States); Bishop, N. T. [Department of Mathematical Sciences, University of South Africa, Unisa 0003 (South Africa); Szilagyi, B. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Gravitationsphysik, Albert-Einstein-Institut, 14476 Golm (Germany); Theoretical Astrophysics, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California 91125 (United States); Winicour, J. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Gravitationsphysik, Albert-Einstein-Institut, 14476 Golm (Germany); Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15260 (United States)

    2009-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We develop, test, and compare new numerical and geometrical methods for improving the accuracy of extracting waveforms using characteristic evolution. The new numerical method involves use of circular boundaries to the stereographic grid patches which cover the spherical cross sections of the outgoing null cones. We show how an angular version of numerical dissipation can be introduced into the characteristic code to damp the high frequency error arising form the irregular way the circular patch boundary cuts through the grid. The new geometric method involves use of the Weyl tensor component {psi}{sub 4} to extract the waveform as opposed to the original approach via the Bondi news function. We develop the necessary analytic and computational formula to compute the O(1/r) radiative part of {psi}{sub 4} in terms of a conformally compactified treatment of null infinity. These methods are compared and calibrated in test problems based upon linearized waves.

  20. Algal Lipid Extraction and Upgrading to Hydrocarbons Technology Pathway

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davis, Ryan; Biddy, Mary J.; Jones, Susanne B.

    2013-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    In support of the Bioenergy Technologies Office, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) are undertaking studies of biomass conversion technologies to identify barriers and target research toward reducing conversion costs. Process designs and preliminary economic estimates for each of these pathway cases were developed using rigorous modeling tools (Aspen Plus and Chemcad). These analyses incorporated the best information available at the time of development, including data from recent pilot and bench-scale demonstrations, collaborative industrial and academic partners, and published literature and patents. This technology pathway case investigates the cultivation of algal biomass followed by further lipid extraction and upgrading to hydrocarbon biofuels. Technical barriers and key research needs have been assessed in order for the algal lipid extraction and upgrading pathway to be competitive with petroleum-derived gasoline, diesel and jet range hydrocarbon blendstocks.

  1. Automatic Labeling for Entity Extraction in Cyber Security

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bridges, Robert A [ORNL] [ORNL; Jones, Corinne L [ORNL] [ORNL; Iannacone, Michael D [ORNL] [ORNL; Testa, Kelly M [ORNL] [ORNL; Goodall, John R [ORNL] [ORNL

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Timely analysis of cyber-security information necessitates automated information extraction from unstructured text. While state-of-the-art extraction methods produce extremely accurate results, they require ample training data, which is generally unavailable for specialized applications, such as detecting security related entities; moreover, manual annotation of corpora is very costly and often not a viable solution. In response, we develop a very precise method to automatically label text from several data sources by leveraging related, domain-specific, structured data and provide public access to a corpus annotated with cyber-security entities. Next, we implement a Maximum Entropy Model trained with the average perceptron on a portion of our corpus (~750,000 words) and achieve near perfect precision, recall, and accuracy, with training times under 17 seconds.

  2. Coupling Extraction From Off-Shell Cross-sections

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baradhwaj Coleppa; Tanumoy Mandal; Subhadip Mitra

    2014-10-09T23:59:59.000Z

    In this note, we present a novel method of extracting the couplings of a new heavy particle to the Standard Model states. Contrary to the usual discovery process which involves studying the on-shell production, we look at regions away from resonance to take advantage of the simple scaling of the cross-section with the couplings. We apply the procedure to the case of a heavy quark as an illustration.

  3. A study of a solvent extraction desalination process 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McFerrin, Arthur Ransom

    1969-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    to separate salt from water has been known for decades, it was not investigated for use in desalination until 1953 (21). Since 1953, the Office of Saline Water, Department of Interior has supported an exhaustive study of the solvent extractjon desalinat... water to produce a solvent phase containing considerable water but little salt, and a water phase of increased salt content. The amine has a lower consolute temperature with water, and the fresh ~ster is recovered by heating the extract to a higher...

  4. Extracting source parameters from beam monitors on a chopper spectrometer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abernathy, Douglas L [ORNL; Niedziela, Jennifer L [ORNL; Stone, Matthew B [ORNL

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The intensity distributions of beam monitors in direct-geometry time-of-flight neutron spectrometers provide important information about the instrument resolution. For short-pulse spallation neutron sources in particular, the asymmetry of the source pulse may be extracted and compared to Monte Carlo source simulations. An explicit formula using a Gaussian-convolved Ikeda-Carpenter distribution is given and compared to data from the ARCS instrument at the Spallation Neutron Source.

  5. Investigation of HNO2 Production in Solvent Extraction Organic Phases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leigh R. Martin

    2014-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This document is a letter report that was prepared to meet FCR&D level 4 milestone M4FT-14IN0304054, “Investigate HNO2 production in solvent extraction organic phases.” This work was carried out under the auspices of the Fundamental Radiation Chemistry FCR&D work package. This document reports on an initial tests performed to follow HNO2 formation in reference flowsheet relevant organic phases.

  6. Extraction of the pretzelosity distribution from experimental data

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Lefky, Christopher; Prokudin, Alexei

    2015-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We attempt an extraction of the pretzelosity distribution ($h^{\\perp}_{1T}$) from preliminary COMPASS, HERMES, and JLAB experimental data on $\\sin(3\\phi_h - \\phi_S)$ asymmetry on proton and deuteron targets. The resulting distributions, albeit big errors, show tendency for up quark pretzelosity to be positive and down quark pretzelosity to be negative. A model relation of pretzelosity distribution and Orbital Angular Momentum of quarks is used to estimate contributions of up and down quarks.

  7. Rapid extraction of dissolved inorganic carbon from seawater and groundwater samples for radiocarbon dating

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gospodinova, Kalina Doneva

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The focus of this thesis is the design and development of a system for rapid extraction of dissolved inorganic carbon from seawater and groundwater samples for radiocarbon dating. The Rapid Extraction of Dissolved Inorganic ...

  8. Core-Shell Diamond as a Support for Solid-Phase Extraction and...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    a Support for Solid-Phase Extraction and High-Performance Liquid Chromatography. Core-Shell Diamond as a Support for Solid-Phase Extraction and High-Performance Liquid...

  9. Extraction, Degradation, and Microbial Respiration Effects of Mesotrione in Selected Texas Soils

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Romero, Madahy B

    2014-08-08T23:59:59.000Z

    ecological processes. The primary objectives of this research were to: 1) determine the optimal conditions to extract mesotrione from four soils with varying physical and chemical characteristics using Accelerated Solvent Extraction (ASE); 2) study the effect...

  10. Atypical Balance between Occipital and Fronto-Parietal Activation for Visual Shape Extraction in Dyslexia

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Ying

    Reading requires the extraction of letter shapes from a complex background of text, and an impairment in visual shape extraction would cause difficulty in reading. To investigate the neural mechanisms of visual shape ...

  11. Steady-state growth in a Hotelling model of resource extraction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lin, C.-Y. Cynthia; Wagner, Gernot

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ratio of extraction value to GDP by mineral. BAU Guyanafor each mineral, which have the highest ratio of extractionof the mineral is given by E(t), the total extraction ?ow in

  12. Cytotoxic activity of Black Band Disease (BBD) extracts against the symbiotic dinoflagellate Symbiodinium sp.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fouke, Bruce W.

    dinoflagellate Symbiodinium sp. Nonetheless, neither the pellet recovered from the extraction nor extracts from that the production of a small toxic compound that has cytotoxic activity against Symbiodinium sp., the symbiotic

  13. The determination of glucose in sonophoretically extracted interstitial fluid and the characterization of ultrasound parameters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cantrell, Jeffrey Travis

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    chamber and used to correlate ultrasound spectral properties to the amount of fluid extracted. Results indicate that the highest amount of water extracted occurs when the acoustic coupling media on the surface of the skin is cavitating, resulting in mild...

  14. Sample extraction and injection with a microscale preconcentrator.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robinson, Alex Lockwood (Advanced Sensor Technologies, Albuquerque, NM); Chan, Helena Kai Lun

    2007-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report details the development of a microfabricated preconcentrator that functions as a fully integrated chemical extractor-injector for a microscale gas chromatograph (GC). The device enables parts-per-billion detection and quantitative analysis of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in indoor air with size and power advantages over macro-scale systems. The 44 mm{sup 3} preconcentrator extracts VOCs using highly adsorptive, granular forms of graphitized carbon black and carbon molecular sieves. The micron-sized silicon cavities have integrated heating and temperature sensing allowing low power, yet rapid heating to thermally desorb the collected VOCs (GC injection). The keys to device construction are a new adsorbent-solvent filling technique and solvent-tolerant wafer-level silicon-gold eutectic bonding technology. The product is the first granular adsorbent preconcentrator integrated at the wafer level. Other advantages include exhaustive VOC extraction and injection peak widths an order of magnitude narrower than predecessor prototypes. A mass transfer model, the first for any microscale preconcentrator, is developed to describe both adsorption and desorption behaviors. The physically intuitive model uses implicit and explicit finite differences to numerically solve the required partial differential equations. The model is applied to the adsorption and desorption of decane at various concentrations to extract Langmuir adsorption isotherm parameters from effluent curve measurements where properties are unknown a priori.

  15. Silica Extraction at the Mammoth Lakes Geothermal Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bourcier, W; Ralph, W; Johnson, M; Bruton, C; Gutierrez, P

    2006-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this project is to develop a cost-effective method to extract marketable silica (SiO{sub 2}) from fluids at the Mammoth Lakes, California geothermal power plant. Marketable silica provides an additional revenue source for the geothermal power industry and therefore lowers the costs of geothermal power production. The use of this type of ''solution mining'' to extract resources from geothermal fluids eliminates the need for acquiring these resources through energy intensive and environmentally damaging mining technologies. We have demonstrated that both precipitated and colloidal silica can be produced from the geothermal fluids at Mammoth Lakes by first concentrating the silica to over 600 ppm using reverse osmosis (RO). The RO permeate can be used in evaporative cooling at the plant; the RO concentrate is used for silica and potentially other (Li, Cs, Rb) resource extraction. Preliminary results suggest that silica recovery at Mammoth Lakes could reduce the cost of geothermal electricity production by 1.0 cents/kWh.

  16. Vibrational spectroscopy for online monitoring of extraction solvent degradation products

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peterson, J.; Robinson, T.; Bryan, S.A.; Levitskaia, T.G. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, 902 Battelle Blvd, PO Box 999, MSIN P7-25 Richland, WA 99352 (United States)

    2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In our research, we are exploring the potential of online monitoring of the organic solvents for the flowsheets relevant to the used nuclear fuel reprocessing and tributyl phosphate (TBP)- based extraction processes in particular. Utilization of vibrational spectroscopic techniques permits the discrimination of the degradation products from the primary constituents of the loaded extraction solvent. Multivariate analysis of the spectral data facilitates development of the regression models for their quantification in real time and potentially enables online implementation of a monitoring system. Raman and FTIR spectral databases were created and used to develop the regression partial least squares (PLS) chemometric models for the quantitative prediction of HDBP (dibutyl phosphoric acid) degradation product, TBP, and UO{sub 2}{sup 2+} extraction organic product phase. It was demonstrated that both these spectroscopic techniques are suitable for the quantification of the Purex solvent components in the presence of UO{sub 2}(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}. Developed PLS models successfully predicted HDBP and TBP organic concentrations in simulated Purex solutions.

  17. HOT PHENOL RNA EXTRACTION PROTOCOL 1) Set the water bath to 800

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gill, Kulvinder

    HOT PHENOL RNA EXTRACTION PROTOCOL 1) Set the water bath to 800 C. 2) Make 50 mL Extraction bufferL SDS = 0.5 gm DEPC treated water = 43.2 mL Total = 50 mL 3) Add 50 mL phenol (pH = 4.7), in 50 mL extraction buffer (final concentration of 1:1). For small sample add 200 to 300ul of 1Extraction buffer: 1

  18. Follicular unit extraction with the Artas robotic hair transplant system system: an evaluation of FUE yield

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rashid, Rashid M

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    extraction with the Artas robotic hair transplant systemtransplant, hair graft quality, artas, robotics, roboticsurgery, robotic hair transplant, neograft Abstract Hair

  19. COMBINING BLIND SOURCE EXTRACTION WITH JOINT APPROXIMATE DIAGONALIZATION: THIN ALGORITHMS FOR ICA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cichocki, Andrzej

    COMBINING BLIND SOURCE EXTRACTION WITH JOINT APPROXIMATE DIAGONALIZATION: THIN ALGORITHMS FOR ICA contrast function is proposed for the blind signal extraction of a subset of the indepen- dent components- tion techniques with the flexibility of the methods for blind signal extraction. Its maximization leads

  20. Design of Extraction Column Methanol Recovery System for the TAME Reactive Distillation Process

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Al-Arfaj, Muhammad A.

    Design of Extraction Column Methanol Recovery System for the TAME Reactive Distillation Process system for TAME reactive distillation process using extraction column with water as a solvent. The design distillation column which was optimized to recover methanol and recycle water to the extraction column. Other

  1. EXTRACTION DE CONNAISSANCES PARTIR DES DONNEES ET DES TEXTES (ECD ET ECT "DATA & TEXT MINING")

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Spagnolo, Filippo

    1 EXTRACTION DE CONNAISSANCES À PARTIR DES DONNEES ET DES TEXTES (ECD ET ECT "DATA & TEXT MINING'Extraction de Connaissances à partir de Textes (ECT, "Text Mining") comme un descendant direct de l'Extraction de Connaissances à partir de Données (ECD, "Data Mining"). Le point fondamental qui distingue ces

  2. The extraction of bitumen from western oil sands. Final report, July 1989--September 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oblad, A.G.; Bunger, J.W.; Dahlstrom, D.A.; Deo, M.D.; Fletcher, J.V.; Hanson, F.V.; Miller, J.D.; Seader, J.D.

    1994-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Research and development of surface extraction and upgrading processes of western tar sands are described. Research areas included modified hot water, fluidized bed, and rotary kiln pyrolysis of tar sands for extraction of bitumen. Bitumen upgrading included solvent extraction of bitumen, and catalytic hydrotreating of bitumen. Characterization of Utah tar sand deposits is also included.

  3. Probe, Cluster, and Discover: Focused Extraction of QA-Pagelets from the Deep Web

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, Ling

    Probe, Cluster, and Discover: Focused Extraction of QA-Pagelets from the Deep Web James Caverlee mining system for discovering and extracting QA- Pagelets from the Deep Web. A unique feature of THOR is its two-phase extraction framework. In the first phase, pages from a deep web site are grouped

  4. Strawberry DNA Extraction 2009 1 Minority Science Programs School of Biological Sciences University of California, Irvine

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rose, Michael R.

    · Frozen strawberries, thawed overnight · 20 mL DNA extraction buffer (water, salt, and soap) in bag · IceStrawberry DNA Extraction 2009 1 Minority Science Programs ­ School regular household chemicals to extract DNA from strawberries and other fruits. Each chemical has

  5. Gene Feature Extraction Using T-Test Statistics and Kernel Partial Least Squares

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kwok, James Tin-Yau

    Gene Feature Extraction Using T-Test Statistics and Kernel Partial Least Squares Shutao Li1 , Chen Clear Water Bay, Hong Kong shutao li@yahoo.com.cn, lc337199@sina.com, jamesk@cs.ust.hk Abstract. In this paper, we propose a gene extraction method by us- ing two standard feature extraction methods, namely

  6. Original article Water extraction by tree fine roots in the forest

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Original article Water extraction by tree fine roots in the forest floor of a temperate Fagus Germany. By field and laboratory measurements the aim was to quantify the water extraction by those tree extract more water per standing crop of root biomass and, thus, are thought to operate more economically

  7. Feasibility study of extracting runoff data from satellite altimetry over continental surface waters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stuttgart, Universität

    the feasibility of extracting runoff data using satellite altimetry over all possible continental surface waters- ered algorithm for extracting runoff from the satellite altimetry is based on making water level. not feasible be- cause of bad quality of extracted water level time series class 4. impossible. Computed runoff

  8. PR-Miner: Automatically Extracting Implicit Programming Rules and Detecting Violations in Large Software Code

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Xiangyu

    PR-Miner: Automatically Extracting Implicit Programming Rules and Detecting Violations in Large. Benefiting from frequent itemset mining, PR-Miner can extract pro- gramming rules in general forms (withoutK­3M lines of code each, shows that PR-Miner can efficiently extract thousands of general

  9. CHANGES IN MAGNETIC PARAMETERS AFTER SEQUENTIAL IRON PHASE EXTRACTION OF EASTERN MEDITERRANEAN SAPROPEL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Utrecht, Universiteit

    of sequential extraction and mineral-magnetic methods. The sequential extraction shows that besides ironCHANGES IN MAGNETIC PARAMETERS AFTER SEQUENTIAL IRON PHASE EXTRACTION OF EASTERN MEDITERRANEAN different minerals (i.e. silicates, pyrite, detrital oxides) that are present in a sediment sequence

  10. Light extraction efficiency enhancement of InGaN quantum wells light-emitting diodes with

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gilchrist, James F.

    Light extraction efficiency enhancement of InGaN quantum wells light-emitting diodes@lehigh.edu Abstract: Improvement of light extraction efficiency of InGaN light emitting diodes (LEDs) using microstructures on the light extraction efficiency of III-Nitride LEDs was studied. Depending on the size

  11. Solvent extraction system for plutonium colloids and other oxide nano-particles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Soderholm, Lynda; Wilson, Richard E; Chiarizia, Renato; Skanthakumar, Suntharalingam

    2014-06-03T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention provides a method for extracting plutonium from spent nuclear fuel, the method comprising supplying plutonium in a first aqueous phase; contacting the plutonium aqueous phase with a mixture of a dielectric and a moiety having a first acidity so as to allow the plutonium to substantially extract into the mixture; and contacting the extracted plutonium with second a aqueous phase, wherein the second aqueous phase has a second acidity higher than the first acidity, so as to allow the extracted plutonium to extract into the second aqueous phase. The invented method facilitates isolation of plutonium polymer without the formation of crud or unwanted emulsions.

  12. Development of Extraction Techniques for the Detection of Signature Lipids from Oil

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Borglin, Sharon; Geller, Jil; Chakraborty, Romy; Hazen, Terry; Mason, Olivia

    2010-05-17T23:59:59.000Z

    Pure cultures, including Desulfovibrio vulgaris and Methanococcus maripaludus, were combined with model oil samples and oil/diesel mixtures to optimize extraction techniques of signature lipids from oil in support of investigation of microbial communities in oil deposit samples targets for microbial enhanced hydrocarbon recovery. Several techniques were evaluated, including standard phospholipid extraction, ether linked lipid for Archaeal bacterial detection, and high pressure extractiontechniques. Recovery of lipids ranged from 50-80percent as compared to extraction of the pure culture. Extraction efficiency was evaluated by the use of internal standards. Field samples will also be tested for recovery of signature lipids with optimized extraction techniques.

  13. Modeling of distribution and speciation of plutonium in the Urex extraction system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paulenova, A.; Tkac, P. [Radiation Center, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331-5903 (United States); Vandegrift, G.F.; Krebs, J.F. [Argonne National Laboratory, Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division, Argonne, IL 60439-4837 (United States)

    2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The PUREX extraction process is used worldwide to recover uranium and plutonium from dissolved spent nuclear fuel using the tributylphosphate-nitric acid extraction system. In the recent decade, significant research progress was achieved with the aim to modify this system by addition of a salt-free agent to optimize stripping of plutonium from the tributylphosphate (TBP) extraction product (UREX). Experimental results on the extraction of Pu(IV) with and without acetohydroxamic acid in the HNO{sub 3}/TBP (30 vol %) were used for the development of a thermodynamic model of distribution and speciation of Pu(IV) in this separation process. Extraction constants for several sets of nitric acid, nitrate, and acetohydroxamic acid concentrations were used to model the obtained data. The extraction model AMUSE (Argonne Model for Universal Solvent Extraction) was employed in our calculations. (authors)

  14. Reductive stripping process for uranium recovery from organic extracts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hurst, Jr., Fred J. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In the reductive stripping of uranium from an organic extractant in a uranium recovery process, the use of phosphoric acid having a molarity in the range of 8 to 10 increases the efficiency of the reductive stripping and allows the strip step to operate with lower aqueous to organic recycle ratios and shorter retention time in the mixer stages. Under these operating conditions, less solvent is required in the process, and smaller, less expensive process equipment can be utilized. The high strength H.sub.3 PO.sub.4 is available from the evaporator stage of the process.

  15. Method for extracting lanthanides and actinides from acid solutions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Horwitz, E. Philip (Naperville, IL); Kalina, Dale G. (Naperville, IL); Kaplan, Louis (Lombard, IL); Mason, George W. (Clarendon Hills, IL)

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for the recovery of actinide and lanthanide values from aqueous acidic solutions with an organic extractant having the formula: ##STR1## where .phi. is phenyl, R.sup.1 is a straight or branched alkyl or alkoxyalkyl containing from 6 to 12 carbon atoms and R.sup.2 is an alkyl containing from 3 to 6 carbon atoms. The process is suitable for the separation of actinide and lanthanide values from fission product values found together in high level nuclear reprocessing waste solutions.

  16. New geothermal heat extraction process to deliver clean power generation

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Pete McGrail

    2012-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    A new method for capturing significantly more heat from low-temperature geothermal resources holds promise for generating virtually pollution-free electrical energy. Scientists at the Department of Energys Pacific Northwest National Laboratory will determine if their innovative approach can safely and economically extract and convert heat from vast untapped geothermal resources. The goal is to enable power generation from low-temperature geothermal resources at an economical cost. In addition to being a clean energy source without any greenhouse gas emissions, geothermal is also a steady and dependable source of power.

  17. Three-dimensional computer simulations of bioremediation and vapor extraction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Travis, B.; Trent, B.

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Numerical simulations of two remediation strategies are presented. These calculations are significant in they they will play a major role in the actual field implementation of two very different techniques. The first set of calculations simulates the actual spill event of nearly 60,000 gallons of No. 2 diesel fuel oil and its subsequent flow toward the water table for 13 years. Hydrogen peroxide saturated water flooding is then performed and the bioremediation of the organic material is then calculated. The second set of calculations describes the vacuum extraction of organic vapors and indicates the sensitivity to various assumed formation properties and boundary conditions. 7 refs., 5 figs.

  18. Two concurrent architectures for eigenvalue extraction utilizing the QR algorithm

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McDaniel, Guy David

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Daniel, B. S . , Texas ARM University Chairman of Advisory Committee: Dr . Ralph K. Cavi n, I I I A highly concurrent planar processor array is studied and a corresponding linear processor array is devel oped wi th regar d to extracting... matrix is either the identity matrix I, or it is invertible so that a new A matrix can be found: = B-'A It is this less general class of problems that shall be dealt witn i n this thesi s . Hence, ( I) may be rewritten as: Ax = Ax or (AI - A)x = 0 (3...

  19. In situ bioremediation enhanced with air sparging and vapor extraction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fesko, S. [Eaton Corp., Willoughby Hills, OH (United States)

    1996-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Eaton Corporation operates a corporate airport hangar facility in central Michigan. Testing showed, and soil and groundwater investigation confirmed, that two underground storage tanks leaked. This release sent an undetermined amount of Jet A kerosene into the soil and groundwater. As a result, the Michigan Department of Natural Resources (MDNR) listed the facility on the Act 307 list of contaminated sites (Michigan equivalent of a Superfund listing). The objective of the remediation was to clean up an aquifer and soil system contaminated with Jet A kerosene. This cleanup used pump and treat, bioremediation, soil vapor extraction, and air sparging technologies.

  20. Less common applications of monoliths: Preconcentration andsolid-phase extraction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Svec, Frantisek

    2006-03-27T23:59:59.000Z

    Monolithic materials are finding their place in a variety of fields. While liquid chromatography is the most emphasized use of this new category of porous media, some other just as important applications are eclipsed by the success of monolithic columns. This review article describes all current facets of use of monoliths in preconcentration and solid-phase extraction. In addition to the typical off line use that does not seem to be the main stream application for the monolithic materials, in-line connection of the preconcentration with HPLC, electrochromatography, electrophoresis, enzymatic digestion, as well as its applications in microfluidics are presented.

  1. Reductive stripping process for uranium recovery from organic extracts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hurst, F.J. Jr.

    1983-06-16T23:59:59.000Z

    In the reductive stripping of uranium from an organic extractant in a uranium recovery process, the use of phosphoric acid having a molarity in the range of 8 to 10 increases the efficiency of the reductive stripping and allows the strip step to operate with lower aqueous to organic recycle ratios and shorter retention time in the mixer stages. Under these operating conditions, less solvent is required in the process, and smaller, less expensive process equipment can be utilized. The high strength H/sub 3/PO/sub 4/ is available from the evaporator stage of the process.

  2. How to Extract Energy from Dirty Interior Air

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cheney, W. A.

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    HOW TO EXTRACT ENERGY FROM DIRTY INTERIOR AIR William A. Cheney United Air Specialists, Inc. Cincinnati, Ohio ABSTRACT Industry is often faced with the problem of reducing the level of contaminated air in its plants. The common method... in residential and HVAC applications. With modi ~icatio~s, it .is used to control a wide range of mdustrIal partIculate contaminants. A simple diagram may help clear up any confusion that exists between the basic design of the Cottrell single stage ESP used...

  3. Buried telemetry system for in-situ energy extraction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barnes, D. E.; Caffey, T. W.H.

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    During an in-situ energy extraction process, a continuous knowledge of the temperature profile through the combustion area is desirable for analysis and control. To provide this data, a telemetry system has been developed that will monitor the thermocouples from beneath the process bed, digitize the data into 12 bit words and store them into memory. Every six hours, the stored data is transmitted laterally through the earth to a receiver outside of the high temperature zone and then sent to the surface by wire where it is stored on magnetic tape and processed and displayed on a Texas Instruments Silent 700 terminal.

  4. Ethanol Extraction Technologies Inc EETI | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand JumpConceptual Model,DOEHazelPennsylvania: Energy Resources JumpVermont:Extraction Technologies Inc

  5. Mississippi Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production Extracted in Mississippi

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40CoalLease(Billion2,12803and PlantLease(Million Cubic Feet) Extracted in

  6. Extraction of Equilibrium Energy and Kinetic Parameters from Single

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC) Environmental Assessments (EA) /EmailMolecularGE, Ford,Extracting the

  7. Alkaline-Side Extraction of Cesium from Savannah River Tank Waste Using a Calixarene-Crown Ether Extractant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bonnesen, P.V.; Delmau, L.H.; Haverlock, T.J.; Moyer, B.A.

    1998-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Results are presented supporting the viability of the alkaline-side CSEX process as a potential replacement for the In-Tank Precipitation process for removal of cesium from aqueous high-level waste (HLW) at the Savannah River Site (SRS). Under funding from the USDOE Efficient Separations and Crosscutting program, a flowsheet was suggested in early June of 1998, and in the following four months, this flowsheet underwent extensive testing, both in batch tests at ORNL and ANL and in two centrifugal-contactor tests at ANL. To carry out these tests, the initial ESP funding was augmented by direct funds from Westinghouse Savannah River Corporation. The flowsheet employed a solvent containing a calixarene-crown hybrid compound called BoBCalixC6 that was invented at ORNL and can now be obtained commercially for government use from IBC Advanced Technologies. This special extractant is so powerful and selective that it can be used at only 0.01 M, compensating for its expense, but a modifier is required for use in an aliphatic diluent, primarily to increase the cesium distribution ratio D{sub Cs} in extraction. The modifier selected is a relatively economical fluorinated alcohol called Cs3, invented at ORNL and so far available. only from ORNL. For the flowsheet, the modifier is used at 0.2 M in the branched aliphatic kerosene Isopar{reg_sign} L. Testing at ORNL and ANL involved simulants of the SRS HLW. After extraction of the Cs from the waste simulant, the solvent is scrubbed with 0.05 M HNO{sub 3} and stripped with a solution comprised of 0.0005 M HNO{sub 3} and 0.0001 M CsNO{sub 3}. The selection of these conditions is justified in this report, both on the basis of experimental data and underlying theory.

  8. FNAL Booster intensity, extraction, and synchronization control for collider operation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ducar, R.J.; Lackey, J.R.; Tawzer, S.R.

    1987-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Booster operation for collider physics is considerably different than for fixed target operation. Various scenarios for collider physics, machine studies, and P-Bar targeting may require that the intensity vary from 5E10 PPP to 3E12 PPP at a 15 Hertz machine cycle rate. In addition to the normal Booster single turn extraction mode, collider operations require that the Booster inject into the Main Ring a small number of beam bunches for coalescing into a single high intensity bunch. These bunches must be synchronized such that the center bunch arrives in the RF bucket which corresponds to the zero phase of the coalescing cavity. The system implemented has the ability to deliver a precise fraction of the available 84 Booster beam bunches to Main Ring or to the P-Bar Debuncher via the newly installed AP-4 beam line for tune-up and studies. It is required that all of the various intensity and extraction scenarios be accommodated with minimal operator intervention.

  9. The Effect of Diluents on Extraction of Actinides and Lanthanides

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Retegan, Teodora Valeria; Ekberg, Christian; Fermvik, Anna; Skarnemark, Gunnar [Nuclear Chemistry, Chalmers University of Technology, Kemivagen no. 4, Gothenburg, 412 96 (Sweden)

    2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A screening experiment was carried out, where the organic phase consisted of different concentration of 2,6-bis-(5,5,8,8-tetramethyl-5,6,7,8-tetra-hydro-benzo[1,2,4]triazy-3-yl)- [2,2']bipyridinyl or CyMe{sub 4}-BTBP [1],which is the extracting molecule, dissolved in different diluents. The aqueous phase consisted of 0.01 M HNO{sub 3} and was spiked with trace amounts of {sup 241}Am and {sup 152}Eu. The ionic strength was kept constant at 1.0 M using NaNO{sub 3}. Three of the selected diluents used to dissolve CyMe{sub 4}-BTBP were abandoned: n-hexane, TPH and TBB. Another extraction experiment screened out anisole, 1,1,2,2-tetra-chloro-ethane and benzaldehyde. A kinetic experiment was then performed. In three different organic systems, three very different kinetic behaviors were observed. For a proper understanding of the kinetic mechanism, further investigations are needed. (authors)

  10. Soil Vapor Extraction System Optimization, Transition, and Closure Guidance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Truex, Michael J.; Becker, Dave; Simon, Michelle A.; Oostrom, Martinus; Rice, Amy K.; Johnson, Christian D.

    2013-02-08T23:59:59.000Z

    Soil vapor extraction (SVE) is a prevalent remediation approach for volatile contaminants in the vadose zone. A diminishing rate of contaminant extraction over time is typically observed due to 1) diminishing contaminant mass, and/or 2) slow rates of removal for contamination in low-permeability zones. After a SVE system begins to show indications of diminishing contaminant removal rate, SVE performance needs to be evaluated to determine whether the system should be optimized, terminated, or transitioned to another technology to replace or augment SVE. This guidance specifically addresses the elements of this type of performance assessment. While not specifically presented, the approach and analyses in this guidance could also be applied at the onset of remediation selection for a site as a way to evaluate current or future impacts to groundwater from vadose zone contamination. The guidance presented here builds from existing guidance for SVE design, operation, optimization, and closure from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, and the Air Force Center for Engineering and the Environment. The purpose of the material herein is to clarify and focus on the specific actions and decisions related to SVE optimization, transition, and/or closure.

  11. Reversible work extraction in a hybrid opto-mechanical system

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cyril Elouard; Maxime Richard; Alexia Auffèves

    2015-02-16T23:59:59.000Z

    With the progress of nano-technology, thermodynamics also has to be scaled down, calling for specific protocols to extract and measure work. Usually, such protocols involve the action of an external, classical field (the battery) of infinite energy, that controls the energy levels of a small quantum system (the calorific fluid). Here we suggest a realistic device to reversibly extract work in a battery of finite energy : a hybrid optomechanical system. Such devices consist in an optically active two-level quantum system interacting strongly with a nano-mechanical oscillator that provides and stores mechanical work, playing the role of the battery. We identify protocols where the battery exchanges large, measurable amounts of work with the quantum emitter without getting entangled with it. When the quantum emitter is coupled to a thermal bath, we show that thermodynamic reversibility is attainable with state-of-the-art devices, paving the road towards the realization of a full cycle of information-to-energy conversion at the single bit level.

  12. The extraction of bitumen from western tar sands

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oblad, A.G.; Bunger, J.W.; Hanson, F.V.; Miller, J.D.; Seader, J.D.

    1989-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report represents the work done during the year of May 8, 1987 to June 9, 1988. This year was the first year of a five-year program. The overall objective of the latter is to advance the technologies for recovering bitumen from the tar sands by thermal and water assisted extraction means and upgrading of bitumen to synthetic crude, and conversion of bitumens to specialty products such as asphalt and resins to levels where realistic evaluations of technical and commercial potential can be made. Additionally, it is desired to have the data at a level which is adequate for design of pilot plants of appropriate size deemed necessary for commercial scale-up of the various processes being studied. The main areas for studies covered in this report are modelling and optimization of the hydropyrolysis process for upgrading bitumens, bitumen recovery by pyrolysis of the circle Cliffs tar sands in a fluid bed, pyrolysis of Whiterocks tar sand in a rotary kiln, modelling of the combustor in the coupled fluidized bed with interbed heat transfer using heat pipes, development of superior diluents for use in the water extraction of Utah's tar sands, and fractionation and characterization of the bitumens from Asphalt Ridge and Sunnyside tar sands. 169 refs., 60 figs., 31 tars.

  13. Upgrading of solvent extracted athabasca bitumen by membrane ultrafiltration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sparks, B.D.; Hazlett, J.D.; Kutowy, O.; Tweddle, T.A. (National Research Council of Canada, Montreal Road Campus, Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0R9 (CA))

    1990-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper reports on solvent extraction processes that have been tested extensively for the separation of bitumen from surface-mineable, oil-bearing deposits. The end result of these processes is a solution of bitumen in a hydrocarbon solvent, usually a light naphtha. The bitumen solution contains only minimal amounts of solids and water; but, because of the constraints of the solid- liquid separation and washing steps, the bitumen concentration in the produced solutions can be quite low. Solvent must be separated from these solutions for recycle back to the extraction step of the process. This is usually accomplished by conventional techniques such as distillation, multiple-effect evaporation, or steam stripping. Sometimes a combination of these techniques is required. As a result of the low bitumen content of the solutions, the energy and capital costs associated with solvent recycle can be substantial. The use of membranes for nonaqueous liquid separations is a recent application of this developing technology. Several patents can be found describing processes for the recovery of solvent used in lube oil dewaxing or the regeneration of used automotive oils. A Japanese company has reported the development of several solvent-stable ultrafiltration membranes for the removal of solids from a number of solvents. The use of spiral-wound polysulfone membranes for the recovery of pentane solvent used in heavy oil deasphalting has been described by an American firm.

  14. Solvent Extraction of Chemical Attribution Signature Compounds from Painted Wall Board: Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wahl, Jon H.; Colburn, Heather A.

    2009-10-29T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes work that developed a robust solvent extraction procedure for recovery of chemical attribution signature (CAS) compound dimethyl methyl phosphonate (DMMP) (as well as diethyl methyl phosphonate (DEMP), diethyl methyl phosphonothioate (DEMPT), and diisopropyl methyl phosphonate (DIMP)) from painted wall board (PWB), which was selected previously as the exposed media by the chemical attribution scientific working group (CASWG). An accelerated solvent extraction approach was examined to determine the most effective method of extraction from PWB. Three different solvent systems were examined, which varied in solvent strength and polarity (i.e., 1:1 dichloromethane : acetone,100% methanol, and 1% isopropanol in pentane) with a 1:1 methylene chloride : acetone mixture having the most robust and consistent extraction for four original target organophosphorus compounds. The optimum extraction solvent was determined based on the extraction efficiency of the target analytes from spiked painted wallboard as determined by gas chromatography x gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GCxGC-MS) analysis of the extract. An average extraction efficiency of approximately 60% was obtained for these four compounds. The extraction approach was further demonstrated by extracting and detecting the chemical impurities present in neat DMMP that was vapor-deposited onto painted wallboard tickets.

  15. Preliminary studies on the recovery of bitumen from Nigerian tar sands: I. Beneficiation and solvent extraction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ademodi, B.; Oshinowo, T.; Sanni, S.A.; Dawodu, O.F.

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Solvent extraction of bitumen from Nigerian tar sands using toluene has been investigated. Pulverization of the tar sands followed by agglomeration in a mechanical shaker resulted in spherical agglomerates having higher bitumen contents than the mined tar sand. The extent of beneficiation was 4% and 19% for the high grade and low grade sands, respectively. Temperature, agitation, and tar sand/solvent (S/L) ratios were found to be significant variables affecting the dissolution of bitumen from the sand. S/L ratio has the greatest effect on extraction efficiency. The rate of bitumen extraction, expressed as extractability eta* showed great dependence on agitation. About 16- and 15-fold increases in extractability were obtained for S/L ratios of 1/20 and 1/5 respectively for a 2.8 fold increase in agitation. At the initial stages of extraction, asphaltene content of the bitumen extracted at 50/sup 0/C was less than that in the bitumen extracted at 25/sup 0/C. This finding could have significant implications for the overall economics of upgrading processes. A high extraction efficiency of about 99% was obtained with stagewise extraction at high tar sand/solvent ratios.

  16. The PERMIS X.509 Role Based Privilege Management Infrastructure D.W.Chadwick, O.Otenko, ISI, University of Salford, Salford, M5 4WT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kent, University of

    (PMIs). A PMI is to authorization what a PKI is to authentication. Consequently there are many similar concepts shared between PKIs and PMIs. These are summarized in Table 1. Concept PKI entity PMI entity is sometimes called the root CA1 whilst the root of trust of the PMI is called the Source of Authority (SOA

  17. Super critical fluid extraction of a crude oil bitumen-derived liquid and bitumen by carbon dioxide and propane

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Deo, M.D.; Hwang, J.; Hanson, F.V.

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Supercritical fluid extraction of complex hydrocarbon mixtures is important in separation processes, petroleum upgrading and enhanced oil recovery. In this study, a paraffinic crude oil, a bitumen- derived liquid and bitumen were extracted at several temperatures and pressures with carbon dioxide and propane to assess the effect of the size and type of compounds that makeup the feedstock on the extraction process. It was observed that the pure solvent density at the extraction conditions was not the sole variable governing extraction, and that the proximity of the extraction conditions to the pure solvent critical point affected the extraction yields and the compositions of the extracts. Heavier compounds reported to the extract phase as the extraction time increased at constant temperature and pressure and as the extraction pressure increased at constant temperature and extraction time for both the paraffin crude-propane and the bitumen-propane systems. This preferential extraction was not observed for the bitumen-derived liquid. The non-discriminatory extraction behavior of the bitumen-derived liquid was attributed to its thermal history and to the presence of the olefins and aromatics in the liquid. Phase behavior calculations using the Peng-Robinson equation of state and component lumping procedures provided reasonable agreement between calculated and experimental results for the crude oil and bitumen extractions, but failed in the prediction of the phase compositions for the bitumen-derived liquid extractions.

  18. Super critical fluid extraction of a crude oil bitumen-derived liquid and bitumen by carbon dioxide and propane

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Deo, M.D.; Hwang, J.; Hanson, F.V.

    1991-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Supercritical fluid extraction of complex hydrocarbon mixtures is important in separation processes, petroleum upgrading and enhanced oil recovery. In this study, a paraffinic crude oil, a bitumen- derived liquid and bitumen were extracted at several temperatures and pressures with carbon dioxide and propane to assess the effect of the size and type of compounds that makeup the feedstock on the extraction process. It was observed that the pure solvent density at the extraction conditions was not the sole variable governing extraction, and that the proximity of the extraction conditions to the pure solvent critical point affected the extraction yields and the compositions of the extracts. Heavier compounds reported to the extract phase as the extraction time increased at constant temperature and pressure and as the extraction pressure increased at constant temperature and extraction time for both the paraffin crude-propane and the bitumen-propane systems. This preferential extraction was not observed for the bitumen-derived liquid. The non-discriminatory extraction behavior of the bitumen-derived liquid was attributed to its thermal history and to the presence of the olefins and aromatics in the liquid. Phase behavior calculations using the Peng-Robinson equation of state and component lumping procedures provided reasonable agreement between calculated and experimental results for the crude oil and bitumen extractions, but failed in the prediction of the phase compositions for the bitumen-derived liquid extractions.

  19. U-70 Proton Synchrotron Extracted Beam Lines Control System Modernization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    V. Alferov; Y. Bordanovski; S. Klimov; V. Ilukin; V. Kuznetsov; O. Radin; A. Shalunov; A. Sytin; P. Vetrov; V. Yaryguine; V. Zapolsky; V. Zarucheisky

    2001-11-07T23:59:59.000Z

    A 70 GeV Proton Synchrotron Extracted Beam Lines Control System is described. About 130 Magnet Dipoles and Quadrupoles, 20 Correction Magnets, 50 Beam Collimators, BPM equipment spread over 1 Km have to be controlled. The old System was based on the PDP-11/40 and LSI-11 compatible computers and the MIL 1553 STD as a Field Bus. It successfully operated about 15 years. A new system includes home made Equipment Controllers based on I 8051 Processors, CAN Field Bus, FECs, Servers, Consoles connected by Ethernet. On the first stage of modernization PDPs and LSIs are replaced with PCs connected by Ethernet. Equipment controllers are being successfully tested in the Collimators and Corrector Magnets Controls during a run.

  20. Work extraction and thermodynamics for individual quantum systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paul Skrzypczyk; Anthony J. Short; Sandu Popescu

    2014-09-26T23:59:59.000Z

    Thermodynamics is traditionally concerned with systems comprised of a large number of particles. Here we present a framework for extending thermodynamics to individual quantum systems, including explicitly a thermal bath and work-storage device (essentially a `weight' that can be raised or lowered). We prove that the second law of thermodynamics holds in our framework, and give a simple protocol to extract the optimal amount of work from the system, equal to its change in free energy. Our results apply to any quantum system in an arbitrary initial state, in particular including non-equilibrium situations. The optimal protocol is essentially reversible, similar to classical Carnot cycles, and indeed, we show that it can be used it to construct a quantum Carnot engine.

  1. Systematic effects in the extraction of the 'WMAP haze'

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mertsch, Philipp; Sarkar, Subir, E-mail: p.mertsch@physics.ox.ac.uk, E-mail: s.sarkar@physics.ox.ac.uk [Rudolf Peierls Centre for Theoretical Physics, University of Oxford, 1 Keble Road, Oxford OX1 3NP (United Kingdom)

    2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The extraction of a 'haze' from the WMAP microwave skymaps is based on subtraction of known foregrounds, viz. free-free (bremsstrahlung), thermal dust and synchrotron, each traced by other skymaps. While the 408 MHz all-sky survey is used for the synchrotron template, the WMAP bands are at tens of GHz where the spatial distribution of the radiating cosmic ray electrons ought to be quite different because of the energy-dependence of their diffusion in the Galaxy. The systematic uncertainty this introduces in the residual skymap is comparable to the claimed haze and can, for certain source distributions, have a very similar spectrum and latitudinal profile and even a somewhat similar morphology. Hence caution must be exercised in interpreting the haze as a physical signature of, e.g., dark matter annihilation in the Galactic centre.

  2. Commercial Light Water Reactor Tritium Extraction Facility Geotechnical Summary Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lewis, M.R.

    2000-01-11T23:59:59.000Z

    A geotechnical investigation program has been completed for the Circulating Light Water Reactor - Tritium Extraction Facility (CLWR-TEF) at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The program consisted of reviewing previous geotechnical and geologic data and reports, performing subsurface field exploration, field and laboratory testing and geologic and engineering analyses. The purpose of this investigation was to characterize the subsurface conditions for the CLWR-TEF in terms of subsurface stratigraphy and engineering properties for design and to perform selected engineering analyses. The objectives of the evaluation were to establish site-specific geologic conditions, obtain representative engineering properties of the subsurface and potential fill materials, evaluate the lateral and vertical extent of any soft zones encountered, and perform engineering analyses for slope stability, bearing capacity and settlement, and liquefaction potential. In addition, provide general recommendations for construction and earthwork.

  3. Extracting cosmic microwave background polarisation from satellite astrophysical maps

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baccigalupi, C; De Zotti, G; Smoot, G F; Burigana, C; Maino, D; Bedini, L; Salerno, E

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We present the application of the Fast Independent Component Analysis technique for blind component separation to polarised astrophysical emission. We study how the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) polarised signal, consisting of $E$ and $B$ modes, can be extracted from maps affected by substantial contamination from diffuse Galactic foregrounds and instrumental noise. We perform the analysis of all sky maps simulated accordingly to the nominal performances of the Low Frequency Instrument (LFI) aboard the Planck satellite; the sky signal is modeled as a superposition of CMB, generated by a Gaussian, nearly scale invariant cosmological perturbation spectrum, and the existing simulated polarisation templates of Galactic synchrotron. Our results indicate that the angular power spectrum of CMB $E$ modes can be recovered on all scales up to $\\ell\\simeq 1000$, corresponding to the fourth acoustic oscillation, while $B$ modes can be detected, up to their turnover at $\\ell\\simeq 100$ if cosmological tensor amplitude...

  4. In-Situ Containment and Extraction of Volatile Soil Contaminants

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Varvel, Mark Darrell

    2005-12-27T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention relates to a novel approach to containing and removing toxic waste from a subsurface environment. More specifically the present invention relates to a system for containing and removing volatile toxic chemicals from a subsurface environment using differences in surface and subsurface pressures. The present embodiment generally comprises a deep well, a horizontal tube, at least one injection well, at least one extraction well and a means for containing the waste within the waste zone (in-situ barrier). During operation the deep well air at the bottom of well (which is at a high pressure relative to the land surface as well as relative to the air in the contaminated soil) flows upward through the deep well (or deep well tube). This stream of deep well air is directed into the horizontal tube, down through the injection tube(s) (injection well(s)) and into the contaminate plume where it enhances volatization and/or removal of the contaminants.

  5. Pyrochemical process for extracting plutonium from an electrolyte salt

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mullins, L.J.; Christensen, D.C.

    1982-09-20T23:59:59.000Z

    A pyrochemical process for extracting plutonium from a plutonium-bearing salt is disclosed. The process is particularly useful in the recovery of plutonium for electrolyte salts which are left over from the electrorefining of plutonium. In accordance with the process, the plutonium-bearing salt is melted and mixed with metallic calcium. The calcium reduces ionized plutonium in the salt to plutonium metal, and also causes metallic plutonium in the salt, which is typically present as finely dispersed metallic shot, to coalesce. The reduced and coalesced plutonium separates out on the bottom of the reaction vessel as a separate metallic phase which is readily separable from the overlying salt upon cooling of the mixture. Yields of plutonium are typically on the order of 95%. The stripped salt is virtually free of plutonium and may be discarded to low-level waste storage.

  6. Pyrochemical process for extracting plutonium from an electrolyte salt

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mullins, Lawrence J. (Los Alamos, NM); Christensen, Dana C. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A pyrochemical process for extracting plutonium from a plutonium-bearing salt is disclosed. The process is particularly useful in the recovery of plutonium from electrolyte salts which are left over from the electrorefining of plutonium. In accordance with the process, the plutonium-bearing salt is melted and mixed with metallic calcium. The calcium reduces ionized plutonium in the salt to plutonium metal, and also causes metallic plutonium in the salt, which is typically present as finely dispersed metallic shot, to coalesce. The reduced and coalesced plutonium separates out on the bottom of the reaction vessel as a separate metallic phase which is readily separable from the overlying salt upon cooling of the mixture. Yields of plutonium are typically on the order of 95%. The stripped salt is virtually free of plutonium and may be discarded to low-level waste storage.

  7. Active Thermal Extraction of Near-field Thermal Radiation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ding, Ding

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Radiative heat transport between materials supporting surface-phonon polaritons is greatly enhanced when the materials are placed at sub-wavelength separation as a result of the contribution of near-field surface modes. However, the enhancement is limited to small separations due to the evanescent decay of the surface waves. In this work, we propose and numerically demonstrate an active scheme to extract these modes to the far-field. Our approach exploits the monochromatic nature of near-field thermal radiation to drive a transition in a laser gain medium, which, when coupled with external optical pumping, allows the resonant surface mode to be emitted into the far-field. Our study demonstrates a new approach to manipulate thermal radiation that could find applications in thermal management.

  8. Use of Separator with Regular Granular Filling in Extraction Processes - 12209

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Volk, Vladimir; Veselov, Sergey; Zherebtsov, Alexander [Joint Stock Company 'A.A. Bochvar High-Technology Scientific Research Institute of Inorganic Materials' (VNIINM), Rogova st., 5A (Russian Federation)

    2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The separator with a regular granular filling has been developed to be used for the operations of the removal of carbon-black impurities from the aqueous flow; the intra-cycle regeneration of back-extractants; and the concentrating back-extraction of plutonium in the extraction SNF reprocessing technology. The process conditions for those operations have been experimentally tested using this separator. Thus, the separator for operations of concentrating reextraction of plutonium and regeneration recycling extractant allows to: - derive plutonium from the organic stream into an extremely concentrated form, reducing the amount of liquid radioactive waste (raffinate, decantate) plutonium branches to a minimum; - controlling the processes of concentration of uranium and plutonium, get uranium-plutonium product with required concentration and the amount of metal with required ratio; - eliminate contamination of the emulsion flows; - simplify the purification of uranium from the extract plutonium; - test results showed that when working on a solution 'hydrazine-DTPA' in the separator it is achieved the extraction of plutonium re-extract - 82% TC - at 56-65%. With the transition to the reextraction by solution 'U (IV)-hydrazine', of plutonium into re-extract increases to 95%, technetium - up to 83%; - regenerate the extractant recycling minimizing the amount of liquid radioactive waste generated as a technology used as well as alternative 'salt-free' systems; - it is found that the regeneration of the extractant solution of soda and EDA in the separator at a load of 3.2 m{sup 3} / (m{sup 2}.h) it can be achieved almost complete phase separation. Residual carryover of 0,005-0,006% emulsion is on the verge of analytical detection. - It is shown that in the depth of separation phase a separation of the extractant regeneration of quality superior is more than 5-7 times to the extraction. (authors)

  9. Supercritical Fluid Extraction of Actinides and Heavy Metals for Environmental Cleanup: A Process Development Perspective

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lin, Yuehe; Smart, Neil G.; A. S. Gopalan, C. M. Wai, and H. K. Jacobs

    2003-08-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The extraction of heavy metal ions and actinide ions is demonstrated using supercritical carbon dioxide (CO2) containing dissolved protonated ligands, such as diketones and organophosphinic acids. High efficiency extraction is observed. The mechanism of the extraction reaction is discussed and, in particular, the effect of addition of water to the sample matrix is highlighted. In-process dissociation of metal-ligand complexes for ligand regeneration and recycle is also discussed. A general concept for a process using this technology is outlined.

  10. Improved light extraction from white organic light-emitting devices using a binary random phase array

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Inada, Yasuhisa, E-mail: inada.yasuhisa@jp.panasonic.com; Nishiwaki, Seiji; Hirasawa, Taku; Nakamura, Yoshitaka; Hashiya, Akira; Wakabayashi, Shin-ichi; Suzuki, Masa-aki [R and D Division, Panasonic Corporation, 1006 Kadoma, Kadoma City, Osaka 571-8501 (Japan); Matsuzaki, Jumpei [Device Development Center, Eco Solutions Company, Panasonic Corporation, 1048 Kadoma, Osaka 571-8686 Japan (Japan)

    2014-02-10T23:59:59.000Z

    We have developed a binary random phase array (BRPA) to improve the light extraction performance of white organic light-emitting devices (WOLEDs). We demonstrated that the scattering of incoming light can be controlled by employing diffraction optics to modify the structural parameters of the BRPA. Applying a BRPA to the substrate of the WOLED leads to enhanced extraction efficiency and suppression of angle-dependent color changes. Our systematic study clarifies the effect of scattering on the light extraction of WOLEDs.

  11. The effect of electric fields upon liquid extraction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carleson, T.E.

    1988-04-13T23:59:59.000Z

    A series of mass transfer studies were conducted for the extraction of solute from droplets falling in an electric field. The experiments were planned such that the dispersed phase resistance was controlling. In one series of experiments single drops were formed from a charged nozzle and allowed to fall through a continuous, dielectric phase. The drop size and velocity were correlated by means of a simple force balance. Drop mass transfer coefficients were calculated for the drop free fall period and were compared to predictions based upon literature correlations for an oscillating droplet in-the absence of an electric field. Droplet size and velocity were approximately predicted by a staple force balance whereas the mass transfer coefficient was approximately 25--250% higher than that predicted. Droplet extraction efficiencies Increased about 20--30% in the presence of electric fields up to 2 kv/cm. For the same field, the drop diameter decreased 30--50% and the terminal velocity increased by up to 50%. The enhancements for the toluene-water system can be ascribed to increases in terminal velocity and decreases in drop diameter. The mass transfer model for freely falling drops proposed by Skelland and Wellek roughly predicts the moderate mass transfer efficiency increases (about 18% at 1 kv/cm) for the toluene water system but failed to predict the increases (about 25% at 0.5 kv/cm) for the heptane furfural system. The second series of experiments involved the formation of a swarm of droplets In a three stage sieve tray column. In a separate series of experiments. the effect of the electric field upon mass transfer from drops exhibiting interfacial turbulence was evaluated.

  12. The effect of electric fields upon liquid extraction. Progress report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carleson, T.E.

    1988-04-13T23:59:59.000Z

    A series of mass transfer studies were conducted for the extraction of solute from droplets falling in an electric field. The experiments were planned such that the dispersed phase resistance was controlling. In one series of experiments single drops were formed from a charged nozzle and allowed to fall through a continuous, dielectric phase. The drop size and velocity were correlated by means of a simple force balance. Drop mass transfer coefficients were calculated for the drop free fall period and were compared to predictions based upon literature correlations for an oscillating droplet in-the absence of an electric field. Droplet size and velocity were approximately predicted by a staple force balance whereas the mass transfer coefficient was approximately 25--250% higher than that predicted. Droplet extraction efficiencies Increased about 20--30% in the presence of electric fields up to 2 kv/cm. For the same field, the drop diameter decreased 30--50% and the terminal velocity increased by up to 50%. The enhancements for the toluene-water system can be ascribed to increases in terminal velocity and decreases in drop diameter. The mass transfer model for freely falling drops proposed by Skelland and Wellek roughly predicts the moderate mass transfer efficiency increases (about 18% at 1 kv/cm) for the toluene water system but failed to predict the increases (about 25% at 0.5 kv/cm) for the heptane furfural system. The second series of experiments involved the formation of a swarm of droplets In a three stage sieve tray column. In a separate series of experiments. the effect of the electric field upon mass transfer from drops exhibiting interfacial turbulence was evaluated.

  13. automatic solid-phase extraction: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    University of Malta 2 Department of Computer Science, University of Malta claudia.borg|mike.rosner|gordon.pace@um.edu.mt Abstract. Definition extraction can be useful Pace,...

  14. anthraquinone-rich plant extracts: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Protein Synthesis Inhibition Activity by Strawberry Tissue Protein Extracts during Plant Life Cycle and under Biotic and Abiotic Stresses CiteSeer Summary: Abstract:...

  15. Time series analysis and feature extraction techniques for structural health monitoring applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Overbey, Lucas A.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    rd Int’l Workshop on Structural Health Monitoring, StanfordExcitation for Structural Health Monitoring, Smart MaterialsExtraction in Structural Health Monitoring. Structural

  16. An approach for solvent selection in extractive distillation systems including safety considerations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grossmann, Ignacio E.

    of bioethanol, for which solvents that offer the best cost-safety compromise are identified. Keywords. Extractive distillation; Multiobjective optimization; Process safety; Solvents; Bioethanol 1. Introduction

  17. Recent International R&D Activities in the Extraction of Uranium from Seawater

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rao, Linfeng

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    for extracting uranium from seawater. Brit. (1978), 3 pp.Ger. ). Recovery of uranium from seawater. Ger. Offen. (Ger. ). Recovery of uranium from seawater. Ger. Offen. (

  18. Extraction of nitric acid, uranyl nitrate, and bismuth nitrate from aqueous nitric acid solutions with CMPO

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Spencer, B.B.

    1995-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    DOE sponsored development of the transuranium extraction (TRUEX) process for removing actinides from radioactive wastes. The solvent is a mixture of CMPO and TBP. Since the extraction characteristics of CMPO are not as well understood as those of TBP, the extraction of nitric acid, uranyl nitrate, and bismuth nitrate with CMPO (dissolved in n-dodecane) were studied. Results indicate that CMPO extracts nitric acid with a 1:1 stoichiometry; equilibrium constant is 2. 660{plus_minus}0.092 at 25 C, and extraction enthalpy is -5. 46{plus_minus}0.46 kcal/mol. Slope analysis indicates that uranyl nitrate extracts with a mixed equilibria of 1:1 and 2:1 stoichiometries in nearly equal proportion. Equil. constant of the 2: 1 extraction was 1.213 {times} 10{sup 6}{plus_minus}3.56 {times} 10{sup 4} at 25 C; reaction enthalpy was -9.610{plus_minus}0.594 kcal/mol. Nitration complexation constant is 8.412{plus_minus}0.579, with an enthalpy of -10.72{plus_minus}1.87 kcal/mol. Bismuth nitrate also extracts with a mixed equilibria of (perhaps) 1:1 and 2:1 stoichiometries. A 2:1 extraction equilibrium and a nitrate complexation adequately model the data. Kinetics and enthalpies were also measured.

  19. Solvent extraction in the treatment of acidic high-level liquid waste : where do we stand?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Horwitz, E. P.; Schulz, W. W.

    1998-06-18T23:59:59.000Z

    During the last 15 years, a number of solvent extraction/recovery processes have been developed for the removal of the transuranic elements, {sup 90}Sr and {sup 137}Cs from acidic high-level liquid waste. These processes are based on the use of a variety of both acidic and neutral extractants. This chapter will present an overview and analysis of the various extractants and flowsheets developed to treat acidic high-level liquid waste streams. The advantages and disadvantages of each extractant along with comparisons of the individual systems are discussed.

  20. OLED lighting devices having multi element light extraction and luminescence conversion layer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Krummacher, Benjamin Claus (Regensburg, DE); Antoniadis, Homer (Mountain View, CA)

    2010-11-16T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus such as a light source has a multi element light extraction and luminescence conversion layer disposed over a transparent layer of the light source and on the exterior of said light source. The multi-element light extraction and luminescence conversion layer includes a plurality of light extraction elements and a plurality of luminescence conversion elements. The light extraction elements diffuses the light from the light source while luminescence conversion elements absorbs a first spectrum of light from said light source and emits a second spectrum of light.

  1. Operational Experience with a PLC Based Positioning System for a LHC Extraction Protection Element

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boucly, C; Bracco, C; Carlier, E; Magnin, N; Voumard, N

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The LHC Beam Dumping System (LBDS) nominally dumps the beam synchronously with the passage of the particle free beam abort gap at the beam dump extraction kickers.

  2. Device structure for OLED light device having multi element light extraction and luminescence conversion layer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Antoniadis; Homer (Mountain View, CA), Krummacher; Benjamin Claus (Regensburg, DE)

    2008-01-22T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus such as a light source has a multi-element light extraction and luminescence conversion layer disposed over a transparent layer of the light source and on the exterior of said light source. The multi-element light extraction and luminescence conversion layer includes a plurality of light extraction elements and a plurality of luminescence conversion elements. The light extraction elements diffuses the light from the light source while luminescence conversion elements absorbs a first spectrum of light from said light source and emits a second spectrum of light.

  3. SemiStructured Data Extraction from Heterogeneous Sources Xiaoying Gao and Leon Sterling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gao, Xiaoying "Sharon"

    Semi­Structured Data Extraction from Heterogeneous Sources Xiaoying Gao and Leon Sterling Intelligent Agent Laboratory Department of Computer Science and Software Engineering The University

  4. A micro hot test of the Chalmers-GANEX extraction system on used nuclear fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bauhn, L.; Hedberg, M.; Aneheim, E.; Ekberg, C.; Loefstroem-Engdahl, E.; Skarnemark, G. [Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Nuclear Chemistry, Chalmers University of Technology, Kemivaegen 4, SE-412 96 Goeteborg (Sweden)

    2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In the present study, a 'micro hot test' has been performed using the Chalmers-GANEX (Group Actinide Extraction) system for partitioning of used nuclear fuel. The test included a pre-extraction step using N,N-di-2- ethylhexyl-butyramide (DEHBA) in n-octanol to remove the bulk part of the uranium. This pre-extraction was followed by a group extraction of actinides using the mixture of TBP and CyMe{sub 4}-BTBP in cyclohexanone as suggested in the Chalmers-GANEX process, and a three stage stripping of the extracted actinides. Distribution ratios for the extractions and stripping were determined based on a combination of ?- and ?-spectrometry, as well as ICP-MS measurements. Successful extraction of uranium, plutonium and the minor actinides neptunium, americium and curium was achieved. However, measurements also indicated that co-extraction of europium occurs to some extent during the separation. These results were expected based on previous experiments using trace concentrations of actinides and lanthanides. Since this test was only performed in one stage with respect to the group actinide extraction, it is expected that multi stage tests will give even better results. (authors)

  5. Mathematics Toernooiveld

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Monnier, Stefan

    .G.) de Bruijn, Adriana Compagnoni, Mario Coppo, Thierry Coquand, Wil Dekkers, Ken­etsu Fujita, Herman Geu

  6. Deep PDF parsing to extract features for detecting embedded malware.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Munson, Miles Arthur; Cross, Jesse S. (Missouri University of Science and Technology, Rolla, MO)

    2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The number of PDF files with embedded malicious code has risen significantly in the past few years. This is due to the portability of the file format, the ways Adobe Reader recovers from corrupt PDF files, the addition of many multimedia and scripting extensions to the file format, and many format properties the malware author may use to disguise the presence of malware. Current research focuses on executable, MS Office, and HTML formats. In this paper, several features and properties of PDF Files are identified. Features are extracted using an instrumented open source PDF viewer. The feature descriptions of benign and malicious PDFs can be used to construct a machine learning model for detecting possible malware in future PDF files. The detection rate of PDF malware by current antivirus software is very low. A PDF file is easy to edit and manipulate because it is a text format, providing a low barrier to malware authors. Analyzing PDF files for malware is nonetheless difficult because of (a) the complexity of the formatting language, (b) the parsing idiosyncrasies in Adobe Reader, and (c) undocumented correction techniques employed in Adobe Reader. In May 2011, Esparza demonstrated that PDF malware could be hidden from 42 of 43 antivirus packages by combining multiple obfuscation techniques [4]. One reason current antivirus software fails is the ease of varying byte sequences in PDF malware, thereby rendering conventional signature-based virus detection useless. The compression and encryption functions produce sequences of bytes that are each functions of multiple input bytes. As a result, padding the malware payload with some whitespace before compression/encryption can change many of the bytes in the final payload. In this study we analyzed a corpus of 2591 benign and 87 malicious PDF files. While this corpus is admittedly small, it allowed us to test a system for collecting indicators of embedded PDF malware. We will call these indicators features throughout the rest of this report. The features are extracted using an instrumented PDF viewer, and are the inputs to a prediction model that scores the likelihood of a PDF file containing malware. The prediction model is constructed from a sample of labeled data by a machine learning algorithm (specifically, decision tree ensemble learning). Preliminary experiments show that the model is able to detect half of the PDF malware in the corpus with zero false alarms. We conclude the report with suggestions for extending this work to detect a greater variety of PDF malware.

  7. AQUEOUS BIPHASE EXTRACTION FOR PROCESSING OF FINE COAL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    K. Osseo-Asare

    2000-06-02T23:59:59.000Z

    Ever-stringent environmental constraints dictate that future coal cleaning technologies be compatible with micron-size particles. This research program seeks to develop an advanced coal cleaning technology uniquely suited to micron-size particles, i.e., aqueous biphase extraction. The partitioning behavior of fly ash in the PEG-2000 Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4}/H{sub 2}O system was studied and the solid in each fraction was characterized by CHN analysis (carbon content), X-ray diffraction (XRD; crystal component), and inductively coupled plasma spectrophotometry (ICP; elemental composition in the ash). In the pH range from 2 to 5, the particles separated into two different layers, i.e., the polymer-rich (top) and salt-rich (bottom) layers. However, above pH 5, the particles in the polymer-rich phase split into two zones. The percent carbon content of the solids in the upper zone ({approximately}80 wt%) was higher than that in the parent sample (63.2 wt%), while the lower zone in the polymer-rich phase had the same percent ash content as the original sample. The particles in the salt-rich phase were mainly composed of ash (with < 4 wt% carbon content). However, when the solid concentration in the whole system increased from 1 wt% to 2 wt%, this 3-fraction phenomenon only occurred above pH 10. XRD results showed that the main crystal components in the ash included quartz, hematite, and mullite. The ICP results showed that Si, Al, and Fe were the major elements in the fly ash, with minor elements of Na, K, Ca, Mg, and Ba. The composition of the ash in the lower zone of the polymer-rich phase remained almost the same as that in the parent fly ash. The largest amount of product ({approximately}60% yield) with the highest carbon content ({approximately}80 wt% C) was obtained in the range pH 6-9. Based on the experimental results obtained, a flowsheet is proposed for the beneficiation of high-carbon fly ash with the aqueous biphase extraction process.

  8. Extraction of Hydrological Proximity Measures from DEMs using Parallel Processing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tesfa, Teklu K.; Tarboton, David G.; Watson, Daniel W.; Schreuders, Kimberly A.; Baker, Matthew M.; Wallace, Robert M.

    2011-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Land surface topography is one of the most important terrain properties which impact hydrological, geomorphological, and ecological processes active on a landscape. In our previous efforts to develop a soil depth model based upon topographic and land cover variables, we extracted a set of hydrological proximity measures (HPMs) from a Digital Elevation Model (DEM) as potential explanatory variables for soil depth. These HPMs may also have other, more general modeling applicability in hydrology, geomorphology and ecology, and so are described here from a general perspective. The HPMs we derived are variations of the distance up to ridge points (cells with no incoming flow) and variations of the distance down to stream points (cells with a contributing area greater than a threshold), following the flow path. These HPMs were computed using the D-infinity flow model that apportions flow between adjacent neighbors based on the direction of steepest downward slope on the eight triangular facets constructed in a 3 x 3 grid cell window using the center cell and each pair of adjacent neighboring grid cells in turn. The D-infinity model typically results in multiple flow paths between 2 points on the topography, with the result that distances may be computed as the minimum, maximum or average of the individual flow paths. In addition, each of the HPMs, are calculated vertically, horizontally, and along the land surface. Previously, these HPMs were calculated using recursive serial algorithms which suffered from stack overflow problems when used to process large datasets, limiting the size of DEMs that could be analyzed using that method to approximately 7000 x 7000 cells. To overcome this limitation, we developed a message passing interface (MPI) parallel approach for calculating these HPMs. The parallel algorithms of the HPMs spatially partition the input grid into stripes which are each assigned to separate processes for computation. Each of those processes then uses a queue data structure to order the processing of cells so that each cell is visited only once and the cross-process communications that are a standard part of MPI are handled in an efficient manner. This parallel approach allows analysis of much larger DEMs as compared to the serial recursive algorithms. In this paper, we present the definitions of the HPMs, the serial and parallel algorithms used in their extraction and their potential applications in hydrology, geomorphology and ecology.

  9. PRODUCTION OF CARBON PRODUCTS USING A COAL EXTRACTION PROCESS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dady Dadyburjor; Philip R. Biedler; Chong Chen; L. Mitchell Clendenin; Manoj Katakdaunde; Elliot B. Kennel; Nathan D. King; Liviu Magean; Peter G. Stansberry; Alfred H. Stiller; John W. Zondlo

    2004-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory sponsored project developed carbon products, using mildly hydrogenated solvents to extract the organic portion of coal to create synthetic pitches, cokes, carbon foam and carbon fibers. The focus of this effort was on development of lower cost solvents, milder hydrogenation conditions and improved yield in order to enable practical production of these products. This technology is needed because of the long-term decline in production of domestic feedstocks such as petroleum pitch and coal tar pitch. Currently, carbon products represents a market of roughly 5 million tons domestically, and 19 million tons worldwide. Carbon products are mainly derived from feedstocks such as petroleum pitch and coal tar pitch. The domestic supply of petroleum pitch is declining because of the rising price of liquid fuels, which has caused US refineries to maximize liquid fuel production. As a consequence, the long term trend has a decline in production of petroleum pitch over the past 20 years. The production of coal tar pitch, as in the case of petroleum pitch, has likewise declined significantly over the past two decades. Coal tar pitch is a byproduct of metallurgical grade coke (metcoke) production. In this industry, modern metcoke facilities are recycling coal tar as fuel in order to enhance energy efficiency and minimize environmental emissions. Metcoke production itself is dependent upon the production requirements for domestic steel. Hence, several metcoke ovens have been decommissioned over the past two decades and have not been replaced. As a consequence sources of coal tar are being taken off line and are not being replaced. The long-term trend is a reduction in coal tar pitch production. Thus import of feedstocks, mainly from Eastern Europe and China, is on the rise despite the relatively large transportation cost. To reverse this trend, a new process for producing carbon products is needed. The process must be economically competitive with current processes, and yet be environmentally friendly as well. The solvent extraction process developed uses mild hydrogenation of low cost oils to create powerful solvents that can dissolve the organic portion of coal. The insoluble portion, consisting mainly of mineral matter and fixed carbon, is removed via centrifugation or filtration, leaving a liquid solution of coal chemicals and solvent. This solution can be further refined via distillation to meet specifications for products such as synthetic pitches, cokes, carbon foam and fibers. The most economical process recycles 85% of the solvent, which itself is obtained as a low-cost byproduct from industrial processes such as coal tar or petroleum refining. Alternatively, processes have been developed that can recycle 100% of the solvent, avoiding any need for products derived from petroleum or coal tar.

  10. Ecological consequences of dead wood extraction in an arid Diego P. Vzquez,a,b

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vazquez, Diego

    -nesting bees Introduction Extraction activities such as mining, fisheries, logging and harvesting are amongEcological consequences of dead wood extraction in an arid ecosystem1 Diego P. Vázquez,a,b * Juan A development, storing nutrients and water, providing a major source of energy and nutrients, serving

  11. Topological Reconstruction of Complex 3D Buildings and Automatic Extraction of Levels of Detail

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    and outdoor topology of a detailed 3D building model from its geometry and to extract different levelsTopological Reconstruction of Complex 3D Buildings and Automatic Extraction of Levels of Detail A is needed for most of the applications using 3D building models after the architects design it. While

  12. Citrus limonoids and flavonoids: extraction, antioxidant activity and effects on hamster plasma cholesterol distribution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yu, Jun

    2005-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    atherogenesis. Supercritical CO2 (SC-CO2) was attempted to extract limonoids from grapefruit seeds and molasses. Limonin aglycone was successfully extracted with SC-CO2 directly from grapefruit seeds with the yield of 6.3 mg/g seeds at 48.3 MPa, 50...

  13. A Modeling Study of the Potential Water Quality Impacts from In-Stream Tidal Energy Extraction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Taiping; Yang, Zhaoqing; Copping, Andrea E.

    2013-11-09T23:59:59.000Z

    To assess the effects of tidal energy extraction on water quality in a simplified estuarine system, which consists of a tidal bay connected to the coastal ocean through a narrow channel where energy is extracted using in-stream tidal turbines, a three-dimensional coastal ocean model with built-in tidal turbine and water quality modules was applied. The effects of tidal energy extraction on water quality were examined for two energy extraction scenarios as compared with the baseline condition. It was found, in general, that the environmental impacts associated with energy extraction depend highly on the amount of power extracted from the system. Model results indicate that, as a result of energy extraction from the channel, the competition between decreased flushing rates in the bay and increased vertical mixing in the channel directly affects water quality responses in the bay. The decreased flushing rates tend to cause a stronger but negative impact on water quality. On the other hand, the increase of vertical mixing could lead to higher bottom dissolved oxygen at times. As the first modeling effort directly aimed at examining the impacts of tidal energy extraction on estuarine water quality, this study demonstrates that numerical models can serve as a very useful tool for this purpose. However, more careful efforts are warranted to address system-specific environmental issues in real-world, complex estuarine systems.

  14. Wavelet-Based Extraction of Coherent Vortices from High Reynolds Number Homogeneous

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    École Normale Supérieure

    Wavelet-Based Extraction of Coherent Vortices from High Reynolds Number Homogeneous Isotropic rue Lhomond, 75231 Paris Cedex 05, France farge@lmd.ens.fr Abstract. A wavelet-based method to extract preserve statistics of nonlinear interactions of the total flow over the inertial range. Key words: wavelet

  15. Nuclear Assembly with k DNA in Fractionated Xenopus Egg Extracts: An Unexpected Role for Glycogen in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Forbes, Douglass

    Nuclear Assembly with k DNA in Fractionated Xenopus Egg Extracts: An Unexpected Role for Glycogen. Crude extracts of Xenopus eggs are capable of nuclear assembly around chromatin templates or even around protein-free, naked DNA templates. Here the requirements for nuclear assembly around a naked DNA template

  16. A Model Driven Reverse Engineering Framework for Extracting Business Rules out of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    A Model Driven Reverse Engineering Framework for Extracting Business Rules out of a Java business rules out of Java source code. The use of modeling techniques facilitate the representation and justify the origin of the extracted business rules. In this sense, this paper describes a model

  17. New data on the characterization of humic substances extracted from phosphatised faecal "pellets" (Tunisia)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    New data on the characterization of humic substances extracted from phosphatised faecal "pellets, Université Tunis El Manar, 1060, Tunis, Tunisie Humic substances (HS) were extracted from faecal "pellets of the organic matter within the pellets, both from a qualitative and quantitative point of view. The elemental

  18. Extraction of leuco forms of vat dyes of the violanthrone series and its analytical use

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shelyapina, E.N.; Ovesnova, N.A.; Rudenko, B.A.

    1987-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

    The vat diketonic dyes of the violantrone series are extracted by chloroform in the form of ionic associates, formed by dianions of vat diketonic dyes (obtained by reduction with sodium dithionite in an alkaline medium), and quaternary ammonium. An extraction-photometric method was developed for the determination of three dyes of the violanthrone series in the atmosphere of industrial installations.

  19. Extracting Attack Knowledge Using Principal-subordinate Consequence Tagging Case Grammar and Alerts Semantic Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ansari, Nirwan

    Extracting Attack Knowledge Using Principal-subordinate Consequence Tagging Case Grammar and Alerts networks from Distributed Denial of Service (DDoS) attacks has become a critical issue that must be tackled, the overwhelming volume of alerts makes it difficult for security administrators to analyze and extract the attack

  20. Extracting knowledge from data originated in web sites Juan D. Velsquez 2005

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baeza-Yates, Ricardo

    Extracting knowledge from data originated in web sites Juan D. Velásquez © 2005 1 Web mining Extracting knowledge from data originated in web sites Juan D. VelJuan D. Veláásquez Silvasquez Silva knowledge from data originated in web sites Juan D. Velásquez © 2005 2 Outline 1. Motivation. 2. Web

  1. Investigation of metal ion extraction and aggregate formation combining acidic and neutral organophosphorous reagents

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Braatz, A.D.; Nilsson, M. [Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, 916 Engineering Tower, University of California-Irvine, Irvine, CA 92697-2575 (United States); Ellis, R.; Antonio, M. [Chemical Science and Engineering Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Building 200 9700 South Cass Ave, Argonne, IL 60439-4831 (United States)

    2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In the present study, we investigate how varying mixtures of tri-n-butyl phosphate (TBP) and dibutyl phosphate (HDBP) results in enhanced extraction of lanthanum(III), La{sup 3+}, and dysprosium(III), Dy{sup 3+}. Water and metal ion extraction were carefully monitored as a function of TBP:HDBP mole ratio.In addition to these techniques, EXAFS was used to determine the coordination environment of the metal ion in this system. To produce the necessary signal, a concentration of 1.25*10{sup -3} M La{sup 3+} and Dy{sup 3+} was used. Although previous studies of synergistic extraction of metal cations using combinations of neutral and acidic reagents explain the enhanced extraction by increased dehydration of the metal ion and the formation of mixed extractant complexes, our evidence for the increased water extraction coupled with the aggregate formation suggests a reverse micellar aspect to synergism in the system containing TBP and HDBP. It is quite possible that both of these phenomena contribute to our system behavior. The EXAFS data shows that, based on coordination numbers alone, several possible structures may exist. From this study, we cannot provide a definitive answer as to the nature of extraction in this system or the exact complex formed during extraction.

  2. The Effects of Energy Prices on Groundwater Extraction in Agriculture in the High Plains Aquifer*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lin, C.-Y. Cynthia

    1 The Effects of Energy Prices on Groundwater Extraction in Agriculture in the High Plains-752-0824 Abstract In this article we examine the effects of energy prices on groundwater extraction using and extensive margins. Our results show that energy prices have an effect on both the intensive and extensive

  3. Bragg scattering and wave-power extraction by an array of small buoys

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    Bragg scattering and wave-power extraction by an array of small buoys By Xavier Garnaud & Chiang C to power-takeoff devices. The spacing between buoys is assumed to be comparable to the incident wavelength to the potential of power extraction from sea waves by an isolated unit such as a buoy, a raft or an oscillating

  4. Hybrid Semantic Tagging for Information Extraction Ronen Feldman, Benjamin Rosenfeld, Moshe Fresko

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Davison, Brian D.

    , called TEG (Trainable Extraction Grammar), can be adapted to any IE domain by writing a suitable set is based upon stochastic context-free grammars. It is called TEG, for Trainable Extraction Grammar an annotated corpus. 2. The TEG System 2.1 SCFG formalism Classical definition: A stochastic context

  5. Light extraction from organic light-emitting diodes for lighting applications by sand-blasting

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Light extraction from organic light-emitting diodes for lighting applications by sand@ust.hk Abstract: Light extraction from organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) by scattering the light is one of the effective methods for large-area lighting applications. In this paper, we present a very simple and cost

  6. Theoretical and Experimental Studies of the Extracted MCI Beam from an ECR Ion Source

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sun, L.T.; Cao, Y.; Zhao, H.W.; Guo, X.H.; Zhang, Z.M.; Feng, Y.C.; Li, J.Y.; Ma, L.; Li, J.; Zhao, H.Y.; He, W.; Li, X.X. [Institute of Modern Physics (IMP), Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou (China); Hitz, D.; Girard, A. [CEA-Grenoble, Departement de Recherche Fondamentale sur la Matiere Condensee, Service des Basses Temperatures, 17 Rue des Martyrs, 38054 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France)

    2005-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    With the development of Electron Cyclotron Resonance Ion Source (ECRIS), very high performance ECRIS nowadays have been set up one by one around the world, such as the GTS in Grenoble, SERSE in Catania, LECR3 in Lanzhou and etc, which can produce very intense Multiply Charged Ion (MCI) beam. But till now, the study of the extracted MCI beam from an ECRIS remains open. In this article, we present a theoretical and experimental study of the extracted MCI beam. In the theoretical part, the influences of the extraction system on the extracted ion beam quality are mainly analyzed. The aspects that have influences on the extracted ion beam quality have been analyzed. With the instruction of the analysis, the PBGUNS code is used to simulate the influences of some important aspects concerning the extraction system. The influences of the extraction system geometry design, magnetic field, and the space charge effect will be detailedly presented in this article. In the experimental part, with an Electric-Sweep Scanner (ESS) emittance detection system, the influences on the extracted ion beam emittance of some typical parameters of ECRIS have been researched, such as the injected RF power, the RF frequency, the magnetic field and etc. The obtained results and the corresponding explanations are presented. Some of the results are well in accord with some empirical laws, but some other results seem to be disputed.

  7. DNA Extraction From Processed Wood: A Case Study for the Identification of an Endangered

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Protocols DNA Extraction From Processed Wood: A Case Study for the Identification of an Endangered to the extraction of whole genomic DNA from processed wood samples to explore the possibility of identifying an endangered trop- ical timber species by using DNA sequencing technology. High-yield and high-quality DNA

  8. Relationship between Compost Stability and Extractable Organic Carbon L. Wu and L. Q. Ma*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ma, Lena

    Relationship between Compost Stability and Extractable Organic Carbon L. Wu and L. Q. Ma* ABSTRACT to the factEstablishing a simple yet reliable compost stability test is essential that NaOH-extractable organic carbon (OC) containsfor a better compost quality control and utilization efficiency. The objective

  9. Extraction of Biofuels and Biofeedstocks from Aqueous Solutions Using Ionic Liquids

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stadtherr, Mark A.

    Extraction of Biofuels and Biofeedstocks from Aqueous Solutions Using Ionic Liquids Luke D. Simoni-Butanol, Extraction, Liquid-Liquid Equilibrium, Excess Gibbs Energy Models, Biofuels #12;1 1. Introduction other organic compounds can be produced biologically, and thus can be considered as biofuel candidates

  10. Radiometric Modeling of Mechanical Draft Cooling Towers to Assist in the Extraction of their Absolute Temperature

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Salvaggio, Carl

    of Mechanical Draft Cooling Towers to Assist in the Extraction of their Absolute Temperature from Remote Thermal Abstract Determination of the internal temperature of a mechanical draft cooling tower (MDCT) from remotelyRadiometric Modeling of Mechanical Draft Cooling Towers to Assist in the Extraction

  11. Video Object Segmentation through Spatially Accurate and Temporally Dense Extraction of Primary Object Regions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wu, Shin-Tson

    Video Object Segmentation through Spatially Accurate and Temporally Dense Extraction of Primary primary object segments in videos in the `object proposal' domain. The extracted primary object regions are then used to build object models for optimized video segmentation. The proposed approach has several

  12. Extracting CO2 from seawater: Climate change mitigation and renewable liquid fuel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Homes, Christopher C.

    Extracting CO2 from seawater: Climate change mitigation and renewable liquid fuel Matthew Eisaman and their impact · Technology: Extracting CO2 from seawater · Application: Renewable liquid fuel #12;Outline: Renewable liquid fuel #12;The data on atmospheric CO2 2000 years ago http://cdiac.ornl.gov/trends/co2

  13. Evaluation of DNA extraction and handling procedures for PCR-based

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Frischer, Marc E.

    for total genomic DNA extraction from free-living microalgae and microalgae within the gut of copepods. We efficient of the tested methods for genomic extraction from both free-living microalgae and microalgae plankton biomass and they play a critical role in the marine food web as mediators of energy transfer

  14. New method of uranium and plutonium extraction in reprocessing of the spent nuclear fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Volk, V.; Dvoeglazov, K.; Veslov, S.; Rubisov, V. [JSC - VNIINM Bochvar, Moscow (Russian Federation); Alekseenko, V. [FSUE - Federal Nuclear and Radiation Safety Center, Moscow (Russian Federation); Krivitsky, Y.; Alekseenko, S.; Bondin, V. [FSUE - Mining and Chemical Combine, Zheleznogorsk (Russian Federation)

    2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    It is shown that a two-stage process of uranium and plutonium extraction during the reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel solves the problem of obtaining a high-concentrated extract without increasing the loss risk with raffinate and avoids the accumulation of plutonium in the unit. A possible further optimization of the process would be the creation of steps inside the stages.

  15. A more consistent method for extracting and amplifying DNA from bee wings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A more consistent method for extracting and amplifying DNA from bee wings Elaine M. GOULD, Michelle for genotyping certain behavioural traits required for breeding. One method is to use wing clippings. However reaction (PCR) amplification. Here, we describe an improved method for extracting DNA from bee wings using

  16. Hierarchical Extraction of Iso-Surfaces with Semi-Regular Meshes Kai Hormann

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hormann, Kai

    Hierarchical Extraction of Iso-Surfaces with Semi-Regular Meshes Kai Hormann Ulf Labsik Martin and final result of our hierarchical iso-surface extraction algorithm. Abstract In this paper we present a novel approach to iso-surface extrac- tion which is based on a multiresolution volume data

  17. Sweeping Simplices: A fast iso-surface extraction algorithm for unstructured grids

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Frey, Pascal

    Sweeping Simplices: A fast iso-surface extraction algorithm for unstructured grids Han-Wei Shen of iso-surfaces from unstructured grids by avoid- ing the traversal of the entire set of cells in the vol algorithm can reduce the cell traversal time more than 90% over the naive iso- surface extraction algorithm

  18. Selective chelation and extraction of lanthanides and actinides with supercritical fluids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brauer, R.D.; Carleson, T.E.; Harrington, J.D.; Jean, F.; Jiang, H.; Lin, Y.; Wai, C.M.

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report is made up of three independent papers: (1) Supercritical Fluid Extraction of Thorium and Uranium with Fluorinated Beta-Diketones and Tributyl Phosphate, (2) Supercritical Fluid Extraction of Lanthanides with Beta-Diketones and Mixed Ligands, and (3) A Group Contribution Method for Predicting the Solubility of Solid Organic Compounds in Supercritical Carbon Dioxide. Experimental data are presented demonstrating the successful extraction of thorium and uranium using fluorinated beta-diketones to form stable complexes that are extracted with supercritical carbon dioxide. The conditions for extracting the lanthanide ions from liquid and solid materials using supercritical carbon dioxide are presented. In addition, the Peng-Robison equation of state and thermodynamic equilibrium are used to predict the solubilities of organic solids in supercritical carbon dioxide from the sublimation pressure, critical properties, and a centric factor of the solid of interest.

  19. Method for extracting lanthanides and actinides from acid solutions by modification of purex solvent

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Horwitz, E. Philip (Naperville, IL); Kalina, Dale G. (Naperville, IL)

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for the recovery of actinide and lanthanide values from aqueous solutions with an extraction solution containing an organic extractant having the formula: ##STR1## where .phi. is phenyl, R.sup.1 is a straight or branched alkyl or alkoxyalkyl containing from 6 to 12 carbon atoms and R.sup.2 is an alkyl containing from 3 to 6 carbon atoms and phase modifiers in a water-immiscible hydrocarbon diluent. The addition of the extractant to the Purex process extractant, tri-n-butylphosphate in normal paraffin hydrocarbon diluent, will permit the extraction of multivalent lanthanide and actinide values from 0.1 to 12.0 molar acid solutions.

  20. Method for extracting lanthanides and actinides from acid solutions by modification of Purex solvent

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Horwitz, E.P.; Kalina, D.G.

    1986-03-04T23:59:59.000Z

    A process is described for the recovery of actinide and lanthanide values from aqueous solutions with an extraction solution containing an organic extractant having the formula as shown in a diagram where [phi] is phenyl, R[sup 1] is a straight or branched alkyl or alkoxyalkyl containing from 6 to 12 carbon atoms and R[sup 2] is an alkyl containing from 3 to 6 carbon atoms and phase modifiers in a water-immiscible hydrocarbon diluent. The addition of the extractant to the Purex process extractant, tri-n-butylphosphate in normal paraffin hydrocarbon diluent, will permit the extraction of multivalent lanthanide and actinide values from 0.1 to 12.0 molar acid solutions. 6 figs.

  1. Water-enhanced solubility of carboxylic acids in organic solvents and its applications to extraction processes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Starr, J.N.; King, C.J.

    1991-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The solubilities of carboxylic acids in certain organic solvents increase remarkably with an increasing amount of water in the organic phase. This phenomenon leads to a novel extract regeneration process in which the co-extracted water is selectively removed from an extract, and the carboxylic acid precipitates. This approach is potentially advantageous compared to other regeneration processes because it removes a minor component of the extract in order to achieve a large recovery of acid from the extract. Carboxylic acids of interest include adipic acid, fumaric acid, and succinic acid because of their low to moderate solubilities in organic solvents. Solvents were screened for an increase in acid solubility with increased water concentration in the organic phase. Most Lewis-base solvents were found to exhibit this increased solubility phenomena. Solvents that have a carbonyl functional group showed a very large increase in acid solubility. 71 refs., 52 figs., 38 tabs.

  2. Preparation of bitumen and kerogen through microwave assisted extraction and digestion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dickneider, T.A.; Martin, S. [Univ. of Scranton, PA (United States)

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Microwave procedures are replacing Soxhlet and ultrasonic extractions in many applications and are also finding widespread use in acid digestion procedures. In microwave extractions solvent choice is not dictated by boiling point considerations, so the choice of solvent(s) can be made based on polarity. It is possible to operate at temperatures above the solvent boiling point and at increased pressures. As a result these extractions are characterized by high solvent efficiency, small sample size, low solvent volumes, and short extraction times. These characteristics are ideal for bitumen extractions. Similarly, in digestion procedures, a high recovery yield is obtained in a minimum time using smaller volumes of acids. We report a convenient procedure for preparation of both bitumen and kerogen from shale samples based on a study of the efficiency of a series of solvents of varying polarity for bitumen recovery and testing of acid composition and volumes at different microwave powers and digestion times.

  3. Utility of extracting {alpha}-particle energy by waves

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fisch, N.J.; Herrmann, M.C.

    1994-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The utility of extracting {alpha}-particle power, and then diverting this power to fast fuel ions, is investigated. As power is diverted to fast ions and then to ions, a number of effects come into play, as the relative amounts of pressure taken up by electrons, fuel ions, and fast {alpha}-particles shift. In addition, if the {alpha}-particle power is diverted to fast fuel ions, there is an enhanced fusion reactivity because of the nonthermal component of the ion distribution. Some useful expressions for describing these effects are derived, and it is shown that fusion reactors with power density about twice what otherwise might be obtained can be contemplated, so long as a substantial amount of the {alpha}-particle power can be diverted. Interestingly, in this mode of operation, once the electron heat is sufficiently confined, further improvement in confinement is actually not desirable. A similar improvement in fusion power density can be obtained for advanced fuel mixtures such as D-He{sup 3}, where the power of both the energetic {alpha}-particles and the energetic protons might be diverted advantageously.

  4. Generating Unstable Resonances for Extraction Schemes Based on Transverse Splitting

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Giovannozzi, M; Turchetti, G

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A few years ago, a novel multi-turn extraction scheme was proposed, based on particle trapping inside stable resonances. Numerical simulations and experimental tests have confirmed the feasibility of such a scheme for low order resonances. While the third-order resonance is generically unstable and those higher than fourth-order are generically stable, the fourth-order resonance can be either stable or unstable depending on the specifics of the system under consideration. By means of the Normal Form a general approach to control the stability of the fourth-order resonance has been derived. This approach is based on the control of the amplitude detuning and the general form for a lattice with an arbitrary number of sextupole and octupole families is derived in this paper. Numerical simulations have confirmed the analytical results and have shown that, when crossing the unstable fourth-order resonance, the region around the centre of the phase space is depleted and particles are trapped in only the four stable ...

  5. Benchmark on neutron capture extracted from $(d,p)$ reactions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. M. Mukhamedzhanov; F. M. Nunes; P. Mohr

    2008-05-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Direct neutron capture reactions play an important role in nuclear astrophysics and applied physics. Since for most unstable short-lived nuclei it is not possible to measure the $(n, \\gamma)$ cross sections, $(d,p)$ reactions have been used as an alternative indirect tool. We analyze simultaneously $^{48}{\\rm Ca}(d,p)^{49}{\\rm Ca}$ at deuteron energies $2, 13, 19$ and 56 MeV and the thermal $(n,\\gamma)$ reaction at 25 meV. We include results for the ground state and the first excited state of $^{49}$Ca. From the low-energy $(d,p)$ reaction, the neutron asymptotic normalization coefficient (ANC) is determined. Using this ANC, we extract the spectroscopic factor (SF) from the higher energy $(d,p)$ data and the $(n, \\gamma)$ data. The SF obtained through the 56 MeV $(d,p)$ data are less accurate but consistent with those from the thermal capture. We show that to have a similar dependence on the single particle parameters as in the $(n, \\gamma)$, the (d,p) reaction should be measured at 30 MeV.

  6. Extracting cosmic microwave background polarisation from satellite astrophysical maps

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    C. Baccigalupi; F. Perrotta; G. De Zotti; G. F. Smoot; C. Burigana; D. Maino; L. Bedini; E. Salerno

    2004-07-12T23:59:59.000Z

    We present the application of the Fast Independent Component Analysis ({\\ica}) technique for blind component separation to polarized astrophysical emission. We study how the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) polarized signal, consisting of $E$ and $B$ modes, can be extracted from maps affected by substantial contamination from diffuse Galactic foreground emission and instrumental noise. {We implement Monte Carlo chains varying the CMB and noise realizations in order to asses the average capabilities of the algorithm and their variance.} We perform the analysis of all sky maps simulated according to the {\\sc Planck} satellite capabilities, modelling the sky signal as a superposition of the CMB and of the existing simulated polarization templates of Galactic synchrotron. Our results indicate that the angular power spectrum of CMB $E$-mode can be recovered on all scales up to $\\ell\\simeq 1000$, corresponding to the fourth acoustic oscillation, while the $B$-mode power spectrum can be detected, up to its turnover at $\\ell\\simeq 100$, if the ratio of tensor to scalar contributions to the temperature quadrupole exceeds 30%. The power spectrum of the cross correlation between total intensity and polarization, $TE$, can be recovered up to $\\ell\\simeq 1200$, corresponding to the seventh $TE$ acoustic oscillation.

  7. Extracting cosmic microwave background polarization from satelliteastrophysical maps

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baccigalpi, C.; Perrotta, F.; Zotti, G.D.; Smoot, G.F.; Burigana,C.; Maino, D.; Bedini, L.; Salerno, E.

    2004-05-02T23:59:59.000Z

    We present the application of the fast independent component analysis (FASTICA) technique for blind component separation to polarized astrophysical emission. We study how the cosmic microwave background (CMB) polarized signal, consisting of E and B modes, can be extracted from maps affected by substantial contamination from diffuse Galactic foreground emission and instrumental noise. We implement Monte Carlo chains varying the CMB and noise realizations in order to assess the average capabilities of the algorithm and their variance. We perform the analysis of all-sky maps simulated according to the Planck satellite capabilities, modeling the sky signal as a superposition of the CMB and of the existing simulated polarization templates of Galactic synchrotron. Our results indicate that the angular power spectrum of CMB E mode can be recovered on all scales up to lsimilar or equal to 1000, corresponding to the fourth acoustic oscillation, while the B-mode power spectrum can be detected, up to its turnover at lsimilar or equal to 100, if the ratio of tensor to scalar contributions to the temperature quadrupole exceeds 30 per cent. The power spectrum of the cross-correlation between total intensity and polarization, TE, can be recovered up to lsimilar or equal to 1200, corresponding to the seventh TE acoustic oscillation.

  8. Automatic Pole and Q-Value Extraction for RF Structures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    C. Potratz, H.-W. Glock, U. van Rienen, F. Marhauser

    2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The experimental characterization of RF structures like accelerating cavities often demands for measuring resonant frequencies of Eigenmodes and corresponding (loaded) Q-values over a wide spectral range. A common procedure to determine the Q-values is the -3dB method, which works well for isolated poles, but may not be applicable directly in case of multiple poles residing in close proximity (e.g. for adjacent transverse modes differing by polarization). Although alternative methods may be used in such cases, this often comes at the expense of inherent systematic errors. We have developed an automation algorithm, which not only speeds up the measurement time significantly, but is also able to extract Eigenfrequencies and Q-values both for well isolated and overlapping poles. At the same time the measurement accuracy may be improved as a major benefit. To utilize this procedure merely complex scattering parameters have to be recorded for the spectral range of interest. In this paper we present the proposed algorithm applied to experimental data recorded for superconducting higher-order-mode damped multi-cell cavities as an application of high importance.

  9. Presidential Rapid Commercialization Initiative for mixed waste solvent extraction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Honigford, L.; Dilday, D.; Cook, D. [Fluor Daniel Fernald, Inc., Cincinnati, OH (United States). Fernald Environmental Management Project; Sattler, J. [USDOE Fernald Area Office, OH (United States)

    1997-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Recently, the Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP) has made some major steps in mixed waste treatment which have taken it closer to meeting final remediation goals. However, one major hurdle remains for the FEMP mixed waste treatment program, and that hurdle is tri-mixed waste. Tri-mixed is a term coined to describe low-level waste containing RCRA hazardous constituents along with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB). The prescribed method for disposal of PCBs is incineration. In mixed waste treatment plans developed by the FEMP with public input, the FEMP committed to pursue non-thermal treatment methods and avoid the use of incineration. Through the SITE Program, the FEMP identified a non-thermal treatment technology which uses solvents to extract PCBs. The technology belongs to a small company called Terra-Kleen Response Group, Inc. A question arose as to how can this new and innovative technology be implemented by a small company at a Department of Energy (DOE) facility. The answer came in the form of the Rapid Commercialization Initiative (RCI) and the Mixed Waste Focus Area (MWFA). RCI is a program sponsored by the Department of commerce (DOC), DOE, Department of Defense (DOD), US EPA and various state agencies to aid companies to market new and innovative technologies.

  10. Energetics of Marine Turbine Arrays - Extraction, Dissipation and Diminution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nishino, Takafumi

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A two-scale modelling approach is discussed to predict the performance and energetics of a large number (more than a few hundred) of marine turbines installed as a power farm in a general coastal environment. The kernel of this approach is that the outer (coastal-scale) model/simulation is to assess the reduction of flow passing through a given farm area as a function of the increase of head loss across the farm, whereas the inner (device-scale) model/simulation uses this function to account for the (otherwise unknown) effect of coastal dynamics for that farm site. Large-eddy simulations (LES) of periodic open channel flow (with a porous plate model representing turbines) are then presented as the device-scale part of such a two-scale model of large marine turbine arrays. Results demonstrate how the energetics of turbine arrays (i.e. extraction, dissipation and diminution of energy in the entire farm area) may change depending on the characteristics of the farm site, array configuration and operating conditio...

  11. Pore-Water Extraction Intermediate-Scale Laboratory Experiments and Numerical Simulations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oostrom, Martinus; Freedman, Vicky L.; Wietsma, Thomas W.; Truex, Michael J.

    2011-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    A series of flow cell experiments was conducted to demonstrate the process of water removal through pore-water extraction in unsaturated systems. In this process, a vacuum (negative pressure) is applied at the extraction well establishing gas and water pressure gradients towards the well. The gradient may force water and dissolved contaminants, such as 99Tc, to move towards the well. The tested flow cell configurations consist of packings, with or without fine-grained well pack material, representing, in terms of particle size distribution, subsurface sediments at the SX tank farm. A pore water extraction process should not be considered to be equal to soil vapor extraction because during soil vapor extraction, the main goal may be to maximize gas removal. For pore water extraction systems, pressure gradients in both the gas and water phases need to be considered while for soil vapor extraction purposes, gas phase flow is the only concern. In general, based on the limited set (six) of flow experiments that were conducted, it can be concluded that pore water extraction rates and cumulative outflow are related to water content, the applied vacuum, and the dimensions of the sediment layer providing the extracted water. In particular, it was observed that application of a 100-cm vacuum (negative pressure) in a controlled manner leads to pore-water extraction until the water pressure gradients towards the well approach zero. Increased cumulative outflow was obtained with an increase in initial water content from 0.11 to 0.18, an increase in the applied vacuum to 200 cm, and when the water-supplying sediment was not limited. The experimental matrix was not sufficiently large to come to conclusions regarding maximizing cumulative outflow.

  12. Electrophoretic extraction of proteins from two-dimensional electrophoresis gel spots

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zhang, Jian-Shi (Shanghai, CN); Giometti, Carol S. (Glenview, IL); Tollaksen, Sandra L. (Montgomery, IL)

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    After two-dimensional electrophoresis of proteins or the like, resulting in a polyacrylamide gel slab having a pattern of protein gel spots thereon, an individual protein gel spot is cored out from the slab, to form a gel spot core which is placed in an extraction tube, with a dialysis membrane across the lower end of the tube. Replicate gel spots can be cored out from replicate gel slabs and placed in the extraction tube. Molten agarose gel is poured into the extraction tube where the agarose gel hardens to form an immobilizing gel, covering the gel spot cores. The upper end portion of the extraction tube is filled with a volume of buffer solution, and the upper end is closed by another dialysis membrane. Upper and lower bodies of a buffer solution are brought into contact with the upper and lower membranes and are provided with electrodes connected to the positive and negative terminals of a DC power supply, thereby producing an electrical current which flows through the upper membrane, the volume of buffer solution, the agarose, the gel spot cores and the lower membrane. The current causes the proteins to be extracted electrophoretically from the gel spot cores, so that the extracted proteins accumulate and are contained in the space between the agarose gel and the upper membrane. A high percentage extraction of proteins is achieved. The extracted proteins can be removed and subjected to partial digestion by trypsin or the like, followed by two-dimensional electrophoresis, resulting in a gel slab having a pattern of peptide gel spots which can be cored out and subjected to electrophoretic extraction to extract individual peptides.

  13. AQUEOUS BIPHASE EXTRACTION FOR PROCESSING OF FINE COAL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    K. Osseo-Asare; X. Zeng

    2001-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Ever-stringent environmental constraints dictate that future coal cleaning technologies be compatible with micron-size particles. This research program seeks to develop an advanced coal cleaning technology uniquely suited to micron-size particles, i.e., aqueous biphase extraction. The partitioning behaviors of hematite in the dextran (Dex)/Triton X-100 (TX100) and polyethylene glycol (PEG)/dextran systems were investigated and the effects of some ionic surfactants on solid partition were studied. In both biphase systems, the particles stayed in the bottom dextran-rich phase under all pH conditions. This behavior is attributable to the fact that the hydrophilic oxide particles prefer the more hydrophilic bottom phase. Also, the strong favorable interaction between dextran and ferric oxide facilitates the dispersion of the solids in the polysaccharide-rich phase. In the Dex/TX100 system, addition of sodium dodecylsulfate (SDS) or potassium oleate had no effect on the solid partition; on the other hand, addition of dodecyltrimethylammonium bromide (DTAB) transferred the particles to the top phase or interface at high pH values. In the PEG/Dex system, the preferred location of hematite remained the bottom phase in the presence of either SDS or DTAB. The effects of anionic surfactants on the partition behavior are attributable to the fact that they are not able to replace the strongly adsorbed polysaccharide layer on the ferric oxide surface. The results with the cationic surfactant are due to electrostatic interaction between the cationic surfactant and the charged surface of the solid particles. The difference in solids partitioning in the two systems is the result of the different distribution of DTAB in these systems. In the Dex/TX100 system, DTAB prefers the top surfactant-rich phase, while it concentrates in the bottom phase in the PEG/dextran system.

  14. FINAL DESIGN OF ILC RTML EXTRACTION LINE FOR SINGLE STAGE BUNCH COMPRESSOR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Seletskiy, S.; Solyak, N.

    2011-03-28T23:59:59.000Z

    The use of single stage bunch compressor (BC) in the International Linear Collider (ILC) Damping Ring to the Main Linac beamline (RTML) requires new design for the extraction line (EL). The EL located downstream of the BC will be used for both an emergency abort dumping of the beam and the tune-up continuous train-by-train extraction. It must accept both compressed and uncompressed beam with energy spread of 3.54% and 0.15% respectively. In this paper we report the final design that allowed minimizing the length of such extraction line while offsetting the beam dumps from the main line by 5m distance required for acceptable radiation level in the service tunnel. Proposed extraction line can accommodate beams with different energy spreads at the same time providing the beam size suitable for the aluminum ball dump window. We described the final design of the ILC RTML extraction line located downstream of the new single-stage bunch compressor. The extraction line is only 24m long and is capable of accepting and transmitting 220kW of beam power. The EL can be used for both fast intra-train and continual extraction, and is capable of accepting both 0.15% and 3.54% energy spread beams at 5MeV and 4.37MeV respectively.

  15. ASSESSMENT OF MARKER PROTEINS IDENTIFIED IN WHOLE CELL EXTRACTS FOR BACTERIAL SPECIATION USING LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHY ELECTROSPRAY IONIZATION TANDEM MASS SPECTROMETRY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kooken, Jennifer M.; Fox, Karen F.; Fox, Alvin; Wunschel, David S.

    2014-02-02T23:59:59.000Z

    ASSESSMENT OF MARKER PROTEINS IDENTIFIED IN WHOLE CELL EXTRACTS FOR BACTERIAL SPECIATION USING LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHY ELECTROSPRAY IONIZATION TANDEM MASS SPECTROMETRY

  16. Standard test method for determination of total hydrogen content of uranium oxide powders and pellets by carrier gas extraction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Standard test method for determination of total hydrogen content of uranium oxide powders and pellets by carrier gas extraction

  17. MODEL BASED ROAD EXTRACTION FOR THE REGISTRATION AND INTERPRETATION OF REMOTE SENSING DATA Institut f ur Theoretische Nachrichtentechnik und Informationsverarbeitung

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    . In the literature, different procedures for the extraction of roads were presented. In Aviad and Carnine (1), roads

  18. Travel-time distribution from a finite line contamination source to an extraction well with regional flow

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhan, Hongbin

    to an extraction well with regional flow Hongbin Zhan a,*, Dongmin Sun b a Department of Geology and Geophyscis

  19. Review and evaluation of extractants for strontium removal using magnetically assisted chemical separation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bauer, C.B.; Rogers, R.D. [Northern Illinois Univ., De Kalb, IL (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Nunez, L.; Ziemer, M.D.; Pleune, T.T.; Vandegrift, G.F. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

    1995-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A literature review on extractants for strontium removal was initially performed at Northern Illinois University to assess their potential in magnetically assisted chemical separation. A series of potential strontium extractants was systematically evaluated there using radioanalytical methods. Initial experiments were designed to test the uptake of strontium from nitric acid using several samples of magnetic extractant particles that were coated with various crown ether ligands. High partition coefficient (K{sub d}) values for stimulant tank waste were obtained. Further studies demonstrated that the large partitioning was due to uncoated particles.

  20. Extraction of the Compton Form Factor H from DVCS Measurements in the Quark Sector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    H. Moutarde

    2011-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Working at twist 2 accuracy and assuming the dominance of the Generalized Parton Distribution H we study the helicity-dependent and independent cross sections measured in Hall A, the beam spin asymmetries measured in Hall B at Jefferson Laboratory and beam charge, beam spin and target spin asymmetries measured by Hermes. We extract the real and imaginary parts of the Compton Form Factor H, the latter being obtained with a 20-50% uncertainty. We pay extra attention to the estimation of systematic errors on the extraction of H. We discuss our results and compare to other extractions as well as to the popular VGG model.

  1. Process for producing fuel grade ethanol by continuous fermentation, solvent extraction and alcohol separation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tedder, Daniel W. (Marietta, GA)

    1985-05-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Alcohol substantially free of water is prepared by continuously fermenting a fermentable biomass feedstock in a fermentation unit, thereby forming an aqueous fermentation liquor containing alcohol and microorganisms. Continuously extracting a portion of alcohol from said fermentation liquor with an organic solvent system containing an extractant for said alcohol, thereby forming an alcohol-organic solvent extract phase and an aqueous raffinate. Said alcohol is separated from said alcohol-organic solvent phase. A raffinate comprising microorganisms and unextracted alcohol is returned to the fermentation unit.

  2. Method for extracting metals from aqueous waste streams for long term storage

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chaiko, D.J.

    1995-03-07T23:59:59.000Z

    A liquid-liquid extraction method for removing metals and hydrous metal colloids from waste streams is provided wherein said waste streams are contacted with a solvent system containing a water-in-oil microemulsion wherein the inverted micelles contain the extracted metal. A silicon alkoxide, either alone or in combination with other metal alkoxide compounds is added to the water-in-oil microemulsion, thereby allowing encapsulation of the extracted metal within a silicon oxide network. Lastly, the now-encapsulated metal is precipitated from the water-in-oil microemulsion phase to yield aggregates of metal-silicate particles having average individual particle sizes of approximately 40 nanometers. 2 figs.

  3. Method for extracting metals from aqueous waste streams for long term storage

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chaiko, David J. (Woodridge, IL)

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A liquid--liquid extraction method for removing metals and hydrous metal colloids from waste streams is provided wherein said waste streams are contacted with a solvent system containing a water-in-oil microemulsion wherein the inverted micelles contain the extracted metal. A silicon alkoxide, either alone or in combination with other metal alkoxide compounds is added to the water-in-oil microemulsion, thereby allowing encapsulation of the extracted metal within a silicon oxide network. Lastly, the now-encapsulated metal is precipitated from the water-in-oil microemulsion phase to yield aggregates of metal-silicate particles having average individual particle sizes of approximately 40 nanometers.

  4. Composition and Digestibility of the Chloroform Extract of Hays and Fodders.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fraps, G. S.; Rather, J. B.

    1913-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ? ments in Beilstein III , page 657, according to which, alkachlorophyll may be purified by extracting the aqueous solution of the sodium salt, dissolved in water and acidified with acetic acid, with ether, and on OS TABLE 1.? Comparative Percentages... weigh less than 1 per cent of the original chloroform extract. Wash the combined extracts with 2x50 c.c. of water to remove inorganic salts. Return to the erlenmeyer and evaporate to dryness, transfer to a tared 100 c.c. erlenmeyer with hot chloroform...

  5. Pseudophasic extraction method for the separation of ultra-fine minerals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chaiko, David J. (Naperville, IL)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An improved aqueous-based extraction method for the separation and recovery of ultra-fine mineral particles. The process operates within the pseudophase region of the conventional aqueous biphasic extraction system where a low-molecular-weight, water soluble polymer alone is used in combination with a salt and operates within the pseudo-biphase regime of the conventional aqueous biphasic extraction system. A combination of low molecular weight, mutually immiscible polymers are used with or without a salt. This method is especially suited for the purification of clays that are useful as rheological control agents and for the preparation of nanocomposites.

  6. Fast-extraction modulators for Los Alamos Scientific LaboratorY Proton Storage Ring

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nunnally, W.C.; Hudgings, D.W.; Sarjeant, W.J.

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The development of a short-bunch mode fast-extraction modulator for the LASL proton storage ring has made necessary the design and development of a resonant transformer charging circuit and the design of a new FIB line circuit to provide bipolar pulse outputs with low prepulse, postpulse, and an optimum high-voltage switch environments. The systems are now being developed to operate reliably at the high-average powers required. The short-bunch mode fast-extraction modulator prototype is presently operating. The initial construction of the long-bunch mode fast-extraction modulator prototype is under way, with results expected within the year.

  7. Understanding extraction and beam transport in the ISIS H{sup -} Penning surface plasma ion source

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Faircloth, D. C.; Letchford, A. P.; Gabor, C.; Whitehead, M. O.; Wood, T.; Jolly, S.; Pozimski, J.; Savage, P.; Woods, M. [STFC/RAL, Chilton, Didcot, Oxon OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); Imperial College, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom)

    2008-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The ISIS H{sup -} Penning surface plasma source has been developed to produce beam currents up to 70 mA and pulse lengths up to 1.5 ms at 50 Hz. This paper details the investigation into beam extraction and beam transport in an attempt to understand the beam emittance and to try to improve the emittance. A scintillator profile measurement technique has been developed to assess the performance of different plasma electrode apertures, extraction electrode geometries, and postextraction acceleration configurations. This work shows that the present extraction, beam transport, and postacceleration system are suboptimal and further work is required to improve it.

  8. Plasma meniscus and extraction electrode studies of the ISIS H{sup -} ion source

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lawrie, S. R.; Faircloth, D. C.; Letchford, A. P.; Gabor, C. [ISIS Pulsed Spallation Neutron Source, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Oxfordshire OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); Pozimski, J. K. [ISIS Pulsed Spallation Neutron Source, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Oxfordshire OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); Department of Physics, Imperial College of Science and Technology, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom)

    2010-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

    In order to reduce the emittance and increase the transported beam current from the ISIS Penning-type H{sup -} ion source, improvements to the extraction system are required. This ion source is currently being commissioned on the front end test stand at the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, which demands higher extraction energies, higher beam currents, and smaller emittances. To facilitate this, the present geometry requires optimization. This paper details the experimental and simulation studies performed of the plasma meniscus and the possible electrode geometry modifications needed to extract the highest quality beam.

  9. Apparatus and method for extraction of chemicals from aquifer remediation effluent water

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McMurtrey, Ryan D. (Idaho Falls, ID); Ginosar, Daniel M. (Idaho Falls, ID); Moor, Kenneth S. (Idaho Falls, ID); Shook, G. Michael (Idaho Falls, ID); Moses, John M. (Dedham, MA); Barker, Donna L. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus and method for extraction of chemicals from an aquifer remediation aqueous effluent are provided. The extraction method utilizes a critical fluid for separation and recovery of chemicals employed in remediating aquifers contaminated with hazardous organic substances, and is particularly suited for separation and recovery of organic contaminants and process chemicals used in surfactant-based remediation technologies. The extraction method separates and recovers high-value chemicals from the remediation effluent and minimizes the volume of generated hazardous waste. The recovered chemicals can be recycled to the remediation process or stored for later use.

  10. Method and system for extraction of chemicals from aquifer remediation effluent water

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McMurtrey, Ryan D. (Idaho Falls, ID); Ginosar, Daniel M. (Idaho Falls, ID); Moor, Kenneth S. (Idaho Falls, ID); Shook, G. Michael (Idaho Falls, ID); Barker, Donna L. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and system for extraction of chemicals from an groundwater remediation aqueous effluent are provided. The extraction method utilizes a critical fluid for separation and recovery of chemicals employed in remediating groundwater contaminated with hazardous organic substances, and is particularly suited for separation and recovery of organic contaminants and process chemicals used in surfactant-based remediation technologies. The extraction method separates and recovers high-value chemicals from the remediation effluent and minimizes the volume of generated hazardous waste. The recovered chemicals can be recycled to the remediation process or stored for later use.

  11. Method for extracting metals from aqueous waste streams for long term storage

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chaiko, D.J.

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A liquid-liquid extraction method for removing metals and hydrous metal colloids from waste streams is provided wherein said waste streams are contacted with a solvent system containing a water-in-oil microemulsion wherein the inverted micelles contain the extracted metal. A silicon alkoxide, either alone or in combination with other metal alkoxide compounds is added to the water-in-oil microemulsion, thereby allowing encapsulation of the extracted metal within a silicon oxide network. Lastly, the now-encapsulated metal is precipitated from the water-in-oil microemulsion phase to yield aggregates of metal-silicate particles having average. individual particle sizes of approximately 40 manometers.

  12. Membrane contactor assisted water extraction system for separating hydrogen peroxide from a working solution, and method thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Snyder, Seth W. (Lincolnwood, IL); Lin, Yupo J. (Naperville, IL); Hestekin' Jamie A. (Fayetteville, AR); Henry, Michael P. (Batavia, IL); Pujado, Peter (Kildeer, IL); Oroskar, Anil (Oak Brook, IL); Kulprathipanja, Santi (Inverness, IL); Randhava, Sarabjit (Evanston, IL)

    2010-09-21T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention relates to a membrane contactor assisted extraction system and method for extracting a single phase species from multi-phase working solutions. More specifically one preferred embodiment of the invention relates to a method and system for membrane contactor assisted water (MCAWE) extraction of hydrogen peroxide (H.sub.2O.sub.2) from a working solution.

  13. Proc. ICASSP2003, Volume II, pages 205-208 205 CO-CHANNEL SPEAKER IDENTIFICATION USING USABLE SPEECH EXTRACTION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, DeLiang "Leon"

    aiming to extract one of the speakers from co-channel speech by enhancing target speech or suppressing and quality of extracted speech are not as important as in traditional co-channel speech enhancement systems SPEECH EXTRACTION BASED ON MULTI-PITCH TRACKING Yang Shao and DeLiang Wang Department of Computer

  14. Automated Dispersive Solid Phase Extraction of Pesticide Residues in Botanicals using Triple Quadrupole LC/MS/MS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heller, Barbara

    /g ·Distilled water (10 mL) was added to the sample and mixed for 1min. ·Samples were then extracted using 10 mAutomated Dispersive Solid Phase Extraction of Pesticide Residues in Botanicals using Triple analysis in food and food products. These methods use acetonitrile extraction followed by salting out

  15. Selective dissolution of magnetic iron oxides in the acidammonium oxalate/ferrous iron extraction method--I. Synthetic samples

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Utrecht, Universiteit

    for specific dissolution of magnetic minerals from soils and sediments. To prevent changes in the extractionSelective dissolution of magnetic iron oxides in the acid­ammonium oxalate/ferrous iron extraction the pedogenic magnetic fractions. Sequential extraction techniques have therefore been incorporated

  16. Novel Regenerated Solvent Extraction Processes for the Recovery of Carboxylic Acids or Ammonia from Aqueous Solutions Part I. Regeneration of Amine-Carboxylic Acid Extracts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Poole, L.J.; King, C.J.

    1990-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Two novel regenerated solvent extraction processes are examined. The first process has the potential to reduce the energy costs inherent in the recovery of low-volatility carboxylic acids from dilute aqueous solutions. The second process has the potential for reducing the energy costs required for separate recovery of ammonia and acid gases (e.g. CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}S) from industrial sour waters. The recovery of carboxylic acids from dilute aqueous solution can be achieved by extraction with tertiary amines. An approach for regeneration and product recovery from such extracts is to back-extract the carboxylic acid with a water-soluble, volatile tertiary amine, such as trimethylamine. The resulting trimethylammonium carboxylate solution can be concentrated and thermally decomposed, yielding the product acid and the volatile amine for recycle. Experimental work was performed with lactic acid, succinic acid, and fumaric acid. Equilibrium data show near-stoichiometric recovery of the carboxylic acids from an organic solution of Alamine 336 into aqueous solutions of trimethylamine. For fumaric and succinic acids, partial evaporation of the aqueous back extract decomposes the carboxylate and yields the acid product in crystalline form. The decomposition of aqueous solutions of trimethylammonium lactates was not carried out to completion, due to the high water solubility of lactic acid and the tendency of the acid to self-associate. The separate recovery of ammonia and acid gases from sour waters can be achieved by combining steam-stripping of the acid gases with simultaneous removal of ammonia by extraction with a liquid cation exchanger. The use of di-2,4,4-trimethylpentyl phosphinic acid as the liquid cation exchanger is explored in this work. Batch extraction experiments were carried out to measure the equilibrium distribution ratio of ammonia between an aqueous buffer solution and an organic solution of the phosphinic acid (0.2N) in Norpar 12. The concentration-based distribution ratios increase from 0.11 to 0.46 as the aqueous phase pH increases from 7.18 to 8.15. Regeneration of the organic extractant solution was carried out by stripping at elevated temperatures to remove the ammonia, with 99% recovery of the ammonia being obtained at 125 C.

  17. AQUEOUS BIPHASE EXTRACTION FOR PROCESSING OF FINE COAL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    K. Osseo-Asare; X. Zeng

    2001-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Ever-stringent environmental constraints dictate that future coal cleaning technologies be compatible with micron-size particles. This research program seeks to develop an advanced coal cleaning technology uniquely suited to micron-size particles, i.e., aqueous biphase extraction. The partitioning behaviors of silica in the polyethylene glycol (PEG)/dextran (Dex) and dextran/Triton X-100 (TX100) systems have been investigated, and the effects of sodium dodecylsulfate (SDS) and dodecyltrimethylammonium bromide (DTAB) on solid partition have been studied. In both biphase systems, silica particles stayed in the top PEG-rich phase at low pH. With increase in pH, the particles moved from the top phase to the interface, then to the bottom phase. At very high pH, the solids preferred the top phase again. These trends are attributable to variations in the polymer/solid and nonionic surfactant/solid interactions. Addition of ionic surfactants into these two systems introduces a weakly charged environment, since ionic surfactants concentrate into one phase, either the top phase or the bottom phase. Therefore, coulombic forces also play a key role in the partition of silica particles because electrostatic attractive or repulsive forces are produced between the solid surface and the ionic-surfactant-concentrated phase. For the PEG/dextran system in the presence of SDS, SiO{sub 2} preferred the bottom dextran-rich phase above its pH{sub PZC}. However, addition of DTAB moved the oxide particles from the top phase to the interface, and then to the bottom phase, with increase in pH. These different behaviors are attributable to the fact that SDS and DTAB concentrated into the opposite phase of the PEG/dextran system. On the other hand, in the dextran/Triton X-100 system, both ionic surfactants concentrated in the top surfactant-rich phase and formed mixed micelles with TX100. Therefore, addition of the anionic surfactant, SDS, moved the silica particles from top phase to the interface or bottom phase. On the other hand, DTAB, a cationic surfactant, attracted the particles to the top phase in the pH range form 4 to 11, where in the DTAB-free system the solids either stayed at the interface or in the bottom phase.

  18. Identification of threats using linguistics-based knowledge extraction.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chew, Peter A.

    2008-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    One of the challenges increasingly facing intelligence analysts, along with professionals in many other fields, is the vast amount of data which needs to be reviewed and converted into meaningful information, and ultimately into rational, wise decisions by policy makers. The advent of the world wide web (WWW) has magnified this challenge. A key hypothesis which has guided us is that threats come from ideas (or ideology), and ideas are almost always put into writing before the threats materialize. While in the past the 'writing' might have taken the form of pamphlets or books, today's medium of choice is the WWW, precisely because it is a decentralized, flexible, and low-cost method of reaching a wide audience. However, a factor which complicates matters for the analyst is that material published on the WWW may be in any of a large number of languages. In 'Identification of Threats Using Linguistics-Based Knowledge Extraction', we have sought to use Latent Semantic Analysis (LSA) and other similar text analysis techniques to map documents from the WWW, in whatever language they were originally written, to a common language-independent vector-based representation. This then opens up a number of possibilities. First, similar documents can be found across language boundaries. Secondly, a set of documents in multiple languages can be visualized in a graphical representation. These alone offer potentially useful tools and capabilities to the intelligence analyst whose knowledge of foreign languages may be limited. Finally, we can test the over-arching hypothesis--that ideology, and more specifically ideology which represents a threat, can be detected solely from the words which express the ideology--by using the vector-based representation of documents to predict additional features (such as the ideology) within a framework based on supervised learning. In this report, we present the results of a three-year project of the same name. We believe these results clearly demonstrate the general feasibility of an approach such as that outlined above. Nevertheless, there are obstacles which must still be overcome, relating primarily to how 'ideology' should be defined. We discuss these and point to possible solutions.

  19. Novel Regenerated Solvent Extraction Processes for the Recovery of Carboxylic Acids or Ammonia from Aqueous Solutions Part II. Recovery of Ammonia from Sour Waters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Poole, L.J.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    $/1000 gal water) COMBINED STRIPPING/EXTRACTION a Sour Waterthe pH of the sour water leaving an extraction stage is notpH of the sour water leaving an extraction stage is assumed

  20. alkaline-side solvent extraction: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    than the actual one. Yoram Burak; David Andelman 2000-04-06 210 A study of solvent refining of cottonseed oil by use of a rotating core countercurrent extraction column Texas...

  1. Pore-Water Extraction Scale-Up Study for the SX Tank Farm

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Truex, Michael J.; Oostrom, Martinus; Wietsma, Thomas W.; Last, George V.; Lanigan, David C.

    2013-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The phenomena related to pore-water extraction from unsaturated sediments have been previously examined with limited laboratory experiments and numerical modeling. However, key scale-up issues have not yet been addressed. Laboratory experiments and numerical modeling were conducted to specifically examine pore-water extraction for sediment conditions relevant to the vadose zone beneath the SX Tank Farm at Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State. Available SX Tank Farm data were evaluated to generate a conceptual model of the subsurface for a targeted pore-water extraction application in areas with elevated moisture and Tc-99 concentration. The hydraulic properties of the types of porous media representative of the SX Tank Farm target application were determined using sediment mixtures prepared in the laboratory based on available borehole sediment particle size data. Numerical modeling was used as an evaluation tool for scale-up of pore-water extraction for targeted field applications.

  2. Strength, transport efficiency and selectivity of novel extractants for the recovery of base metals 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lin, Tai

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis concerns the development of new types of solvent extractants for use in the hydrometallurgical recovery of base metals, and addresses the ligand design features which are needed to control the strength, ...

  3. Transport of metal salts by zwitterionic ligands; simple but highly efficient salicylaldoxime extractants 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Parsons, S.; Tasker, Peter; White, Fraser J; Henderson, D.K.; Galbraith, S.G.; Davidson, J.E.; Forgan, Ross Stewart

    2008-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Attaching dialkylaminomethyl arms to commercial phenolic oxime copper extractants yields reagents which transport base metal salts very efficiently by forming neutral 1 : 1 or 1 : 2 complexes with zwitterionic forms of the ligands....

  4. Measurements of Double-Polarized Compton Scattering Asymmetries and Extraction of the Proton Spin Polarizabilities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Martel, P.?P.

    The spin polarizabilities of the nucleon describe how the spin of the nucleon responds to an incident polarized photon. The most model-independent way to extract the nucleon spin polarizabilities is through polarized Compton ...

  5. An RF-only ion-funnel for extraction from high-pressure gases

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas Brunner; Daniel Fudenberg; Victor Varentsov; Amanda Sabourov; Giorgio Gratta; Jens Dilling; Ralph DeVoe; David Sinclair; William Fairbank Jr.; Joshua B Albert; David J Auty; Phil S Barbeau; Douglas Beck; Cesar Benitez-Medina; Martin Breidenbach; Guofu F Cao; Christopher Chambers; Bruce Cleveland; Matthew Coon; Adam Craycraft; Timothy Daniels; Sean J Daugherty; Tamar Didberidze; Michelle J Dolinski; Matthew Dunford; Lorenzo Fabris; Jacques Farine; Wolfhart Feldmeier; Peter Fierlinger; Razvan Gornea; Kevin Graham; Mike Heffner; Mitchell Hughes; Michael Jewell; Xiaoshan S Jiang; Tessa N Johnson; Sereres Johnston; Alexander Karelin; Lisa J Kaufman; Ryan Killick; Thomas Koffas; Scott Kravitz; Reiner Kruecken; Alexey Kuchenkov; Krishna S Kumar; Douglas S Leonard; Francois Leonard; Caio Licciardi; Yi-Hsuan H Lin; Jiajie Ling; Ryan MacLellan; Michael G Marino; Brian Mong; David Moore; Allen Odian; Igor Ostrovskiy; Christian Ouellet; Andreas Piepke; Andrea Pocar; Fabrice Retiere; Peter C Rowson; Maria P Rozo; Alexis Schubert; Erica Smith; Victor Stekhanov; Michal Tarka; Tamer Tolba; Delia Tosi; Karl Twelker; Jean-Luc L Vuilleumier; Josiah Walton; Timothy Walton; Manuel Weber; Liangjian J Wen; Ubi Wichoski; Liang Yang; Yung-Ruey Yen

    2014-12-03T23:59:59.000Z

    An RF ion-funnel technique has been developed to extract ions from a high-pressure (10 bar) noble-gas environment into vacuum ($10^{-6}$ mbar). Detailed simulations have been performed and a prototype has been developed for the purpose of extracting $^{136}$Ba ions from Xe gas with high efficiency. With this prototype, ions have been extracted for the first time from high-pressure xenon gas and argon gas. Systematic studies have been carried out and compared to the simulations. This demonstration of extraction of ions with mass comparable to that of the gas generating the high-pressure into vacuum has applications to Ba tagging from a Xe-gas time-projection chamber (TPC) for double beta decay as well as to the general problem of recovering trace amounts of an ionized element in a heavy (m$>40$ u) carrier gas.

  6. New Opportunities for Metals Extraction and Waste Treatment by Electrochemical Processing in Molten Salts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sadoway, Donald R.

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Molten salt electrolysis is a proven technology for the extraction of metals -- all the world's primary aluminum is produced in this manner. The unique properties of molten salts also make them

  7. A superfluid helium converter for accumulation and extraction of ultracold neutrons

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    O. Zimmer; K. Baumann; M. Fertl; B. Franke; S. Mironov; C. Plonka; D. Rich; P. Schmidt-Wellenburg; H. -F. Wirth; B. van den Brandt

    2007-05-27T23:59:59.000Z

    We report the first successful extraction of accumulated ultracold neutrons (UCN) from a converter of superfluid helium, in which they were produced by downscattering neutrons of a cold beam from the Munich research reactor. Windowless UCN extraction is performed in vertical direction through a mechanical cold valve. This prototype of a versatile UCN source is comprised of a novel cryostat designed to keep the source portable and to allow for rapid cooldown. We measured time constants for UCN storage and extraction into a detector at room temperature, with the converter held at various temperatures between 0.7 and 1.3 K. The UCN production rate inferred from the count rate of extracted UCN is close to the theoretical expectation.

  8. Upgrade of the extraction system of permanent magnet electron cyclotron resonance ion source

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, M.; Peng, S. X.; Song, Z. Z.; Yuan, Z. X.; Zhou, Q. F.; Lu, P. N.; Xu, R.; Zhao, J.; Yu, J. X.; Chen, J. E.; Guo, Z. Y.; Lu, Y. R. [State Key Laboratory of Nuclear Physics and Technology and Institute of Heavy Ion Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Ren, H. T. [State Key Laboratory of Nuclear Physics and Technology and Institute of Heavy Ion Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Graduate University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China)

    2010-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A set of new ion extraction electrodes have been designed for the permanent magnetic electron cyclotron resonance ion source at Peking University to improve beam quality and transmission. PBGUNS has been used to optimize the extraction electrodes and simulate the beam behavior at the extraction region. The experiments showed that with the new system, the beam half divergence angle can be less than 40 mrad and the normalized rms emittance is about 0.13{pi} mm mrad when the extracted current is 100 mA at 50 keV in pulse mode. The voltage of the suppression electrode has great effect on beam divergence. The effect of the microwave power and gas flow is also studied.

  9. Extraction of Uranium from Seawater: Design and Testing of a Symbiotic System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wu, You

    Uranium present in low concentration in ocean water has the potential to greatly augment the current fuel reserve for nuclear power generation, but the challenge of extracting it economically remains. Two new designs of ...

  10. Anticancer activity of peach and plum extracts against human breast cancer in vitro and in vivo

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Noratto Dongo, Giuliana Doris

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    "Black Splendor" (BS) on tumor breast cells in vitro and in vivo, to elucidate the molecular mechanisms behind the cancer growth-suppression of the phenolics identified in peach and plum extracts for their chemopreventive potential and to evaluate...

  11. Fixing and pelleting chromatin/nuclei from extracts onto coverslips for immunofluorescence

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mitchison, Tim

    Fixing and pelleting chromatin/nuclei from extracts onto coverslips for immunofluorescence Arshad. poly-lysine coated coverslips. 4. spin down tubes (or equivalent method to pellet onto coverslips; our

  12. Sythhesis and Optimization of Hybrid Membrane Desalination Networks with Value Extraction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    AlNouss, Ahmed M

    2014-02-04T23:59:59.000Z

    into account desired process conditions and constraints that are associated with the hybrid RO-NF system. The superstructure captures all the structural and operational options that enable the extraction of a global optimal design, giving a better visualization...

  13. Supplementation of Organic Acids and Algae Extracts in Aqua Feeds: Immunological Impacts 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mendoza Rodriguez, Maria G

    2013-12-02T23:59:59.000Z

    SUPPLEMENTATION OF ORGANIC ACIDS AND ALGAE EXTRACTS IN AQUAFEEDS: IMMUNOLOGICAL IMPACTS A Thesis by MARIA GUADALUPE MENDOZA-RODRIGUEZ Submitted to the Office of Graduate and Professional Studies of Texas A&M University in partial...

  14. Supplementation of Organic Acids and Algae Extracts in Aqua Feeds: Immunological Impacts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mendoza Rodriguez, Maria G

    2013-12-02T23:59:59.000Z

    SUPPLEMENTATION OF ORGANIC ACIDS AND ALGAE EXTRACTS IN AQUAFEEDS: IMMUNOLOGICAL IMPACTS A Thesis by MARIA GUADALUPE MENDOZA-RODRIGUEZ Submitted to the Office of Graduate and Professional Studies of Texas A&M University in partial...

  15. Source fabrication and lifetime for Li+ ion beams extracted from alumino-silicate sources

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Roy, Prabir

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of amount of lithium alumino-silicate mass deposition on Themg, and 2.8 mg of alumino- silicate material deposited. [19]extracted from alumino-silicate sources Prabir K. Roy, ?

  16. Use of solvent extraction technique in Brazilian uranium mills - an overview

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gomiero, Luiz A. [Industrias Nucleares do Brasil S/A-INB, Unidade de Caetite, P.0. Box 7, 46400-000, Caetite, BA (Brazil); Morais, Carlos A. [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear CDTN/CNEN, Rua Mario Werneck, s/n, Campus da UFMG, Pampulha, 30123-970, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Solvent extraction has been applied to uranium-concentrate production in Brazil. At the first plant, uranium minerals associated with Zr and Mo were acid leached. Extraction was carried out by a mixture of Alamine 336 and Alamine 304, followed by selective Zr, U, and Mo stripping. At the currently operating facilities, a single U mineral is processed by acid heap leaching. Uranium is extracted with Alamine 336 and stripped with NaCl solution. As all water is recycled, chloride contents in the liquor have increased, causing detrimental effects to the extraction process. The current plant operating conditions and the improvements arisen from the research developed to solve these problems are presented. (authors)

  17. Reducing the Environmental Impact of Bitumen Extraction with ES-SAGD Process

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mukhametshina, Albina

    2013-11-08T23:59:59.000Z

    Steam Assisted Gravity Drainage (SAGD) is a proven enhanced oil recovery technique for oil sand extraction. However, the environmental and economic challenges associated with excessive greenhouse gas emissions due to the combustion of significant...

  18. Recent International R&D Activities in the Extraction of Uranium from Seawater

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rao, Linfeng

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    41. H. G. Bals, Uranium extraction from seawater. INIS.Report (1976), (INIS-mf-3844), 149 pp.From: INIS Atomindex 1977, 8(20), Abstr. No. 334731. 42. K.

  19. Environmental and Economical Evaluation of Integrating NGL Extraction and LNG Liquefaction Technology in Iran LNG Project 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Manesh, M. H. K.; Mazhari, V.

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    LNG and NGL for comparable compression schemes as compared to stand-alone LNG liquefaction and NGL extraction facilities. In addition, there are potential enhancements to the overall facility availability and project economics and environmental impacts...

  20. Extracting product opportunities from intellectual property portfolios : from patent to product idea

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cooper-Davis, Sarah

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Companies and research institutes maintain large intellectual property portfolios, which are considered company assets and require significant investments to maintain. This thesis looks at the potential to extract value ...

  1. Soft lithography microlens fabrication and array for enhanced light extraction from organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leung, Wai Y.; Park, Joong-Mok; Gan, Zhengqing; Constant, Kristen P.; Shinar, Joseph; Shinar, Ruth; ho, Kai-Ming

    2014-06-03T23:59:59.000Z

    Provided are microlens arrays for use on the substrate of OLEDs to extract more light that is trapped in waveguided modes inside the devices and methods of manufacturing same. Light extraction with microlens arrays is not limited to the light emitting area, but is also efficient in extracting light from the whole microlens patterned area where waveguiding occurs. Large microlens array, compared to the size of the light emitting area, extract more light and result in over 100% enhancement. Such a microlens array is not limited to (O)LEDs of specific emission, configuration, pixel size, or pixel shape. It is suitable for all colors, including white, for microcavity OLEDs, and OLEDs fabricated directly on the (modified) microlens array.

  2. Sugarcane juice extraction and preservation, and long-term lime pretreatment of bagasse

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Granda Cotlear, Cesar Benigno

    2005-02-17T23:59:59.000Z

    extraction. The performance of a pilot-scale screw-press conveyor was tested for dewatering capabilities and power consumption. The unoptimized equipment decreased megasse moisture from 96 to 89%. Simulation of the process suggested that eight stages...

  3. Efficient numerical methods for capacitance extraction based on boundary element method

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yan, Shu

    2006-04-12T23:59:59.000Z

    algorithms based on boundary element methods (BEM) and to compute the capacitance extraction in the presence of floating dummy conductors. We propose the PHiCap algorithm, which is based on a hierarchical refinement algorithm and the wavelet transform. Unlike...

  4. Design of a press for oil extraction from moringa seeds for Haiti

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sabelli, Alessandra Maria, 1976-

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The project here presented focuses on the development of a harvesting tool for Haiti, a developing country, for the extraction of oil from the seeds of the moringa trees. Moringas have an extraordinarily nutritional potential ...

  5. Efficient numerical methods for capacitance extraction based on boundary element method 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yan, Shu

    2006-04-12T23:59:59.000Z

    Fast and accurate solvers for capacitance extraction are needed by the VLSI industry in order to achieve good design quality in feasible time. With the development of technology, this demand is increasing dramatically. ...

  6. Lung Extraction, Lobe Segmentation and Hierarchical Region Assessment for Quantitative Analysis on High

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lung Extraction, Lobe Segmentation and Hierarchical Region Assessment for Quantitative Analysis Care Division, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA Abstract. Regional assessment of lung disease specific to different lung regions on high resolution computed tomography (HRCT) datasets. We present

  7. Extracting k Most Important Groups from Data Efficiently Man Lung Yiu a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yiu, Man Lung

    Extracting k Most Important Groups from Data Efficiently Man Lung Yiu a , Nikos Mamoulis b.3 Optimization and Performance Contact Author: Man Lung Yiu #12;1. Introduction Aggregate queries summarize

  8. Control of high power pulse extracted from the maximally compressed pulse in a nonlinear optical fiber

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yang, Guangye; Jia, Suotang; Mihalache, Dumitru

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We address the possibility to control high power pulses extracted from the maximally compressed pulse in a nonlinear optical fiber by adjusting the initial excitation parameters. The numerical results show that the power, location and splitting order number of the maximally compressed pulse and the transmission features of high power pulses extracted from the maximally compressed pulse can be manipulated through adjusting the modulation amplitude, width, and phase of the initial Gaussian-type perturbation pulse on a continuous wave background.

  9. Direct conversion of carboxylate salts to carboxylic acids via reactive extraction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xu, Xin

    2008-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

    DIRECT CONVERSION OF CARBOXYLATE SALTS TO CARBOXYLIC ACIDS VIA REACTIVE EXTRACTION A Thesis by XIN XU Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements... for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 2008 Major Subject: Chemical Engineering DIRECT CONVERSION OF CARBOXYLATE SALTS TO CARBOXYLIC ACIDS VIA REACTIVE EXTRACTION A Thesis by XIN XU Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies...

  10. Algorithms and Software Tools for Extracting Coastal Morphological Information from Airborne LiDAR Data

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gao, Yige

    2010-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

    ALGORITHMS AND SOFTWARE TOOLS FOR EXTRACTING COASTAL MORPHOLOGICAL INFORMATION FROM AIRBORNE LiDAR DATA A Thesis by YIGE GAO Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment... of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 2009 Major Subject: Geography ALGORITHMS AND SOFTWARE TOOLS FOR EXTRACTING COASTAL MORPHOLOGICAL INFORMATION FROM AIRBORNE LiDAR DATA A Thesis by YIGE GAO...

  11. Development of Continuous Solvent Extraction Processes for Coal Derived Carbon Products

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elliot B. Kennel

    2006-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This DOE NETL-sponsored effort seeks to develop continuous processes for producing carbon products from solvent-extracted coal. A key process step is removal of solids from liquefied coal. Three different processes were compared: gravity separation, centrifugation using a decanter-type Sharples Pennwalt centrifuge, and a Spinner-II centrifuge. The data suggest that extracts can be cleaned to as low as 0.5% ash level and probably lower using a combination of these techniques.

  12. Composition and Digestibility of the Ether Extract of Hays and Fodders.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fraps, G. S.; Rather, J. B.

    1912-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    556-712-5m TEXAS AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATIONS. BULLETIN NO . 150 AUGUST , 1912. Division o f Chemistry TECHNICAL BULLETIN Composition and Digestibility of the Ether Extract of Hays and Fodders By G S. FRAPS and J. B. RATHER POSTOFFICE..........................................................13 Properties of UDsapoDifiable...................................................................15 Method of Determination of UDsapoDifiable and SapoDifiable........ 17 Composition of Ether Extract of Hays and Fodders........................ 21...

  13. Pore-Water Extraction from Unsaturated Porous Media: Intermediate-Scale Laboratory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oostrom, Martinus; Truex, Michael J.; Wietsma, Thomas W.; Tartakovsky, Guzel D.

    2014-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    As a remedial approach, vacuum-induced pore-water extraction offers the possibility of contaminant and water removal from the vadose zone, which may be beneficial in reducing the flux of vadose zone contaminants to groundwater. Vadose zone water extraction is being considered at the Hanford Site in Washington State as a means to remove technetium-99 contamination from low permeability sediments with relatively high water contents. A series of intermediate-scale laboratory experiments have been conducted to improve the fundamental understanding and limitations of the technique. Column experiments were designed to investigate the relations between imposed suctions, water saturations, and water production. Flow cell experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of high-permeability layers and near-well compaction on pore-water extraction efficiency. Results show that water extraction from unsaturated systems can be achieved in low permeability sediments, provided that the initial water saturations are relatively high. The presence of a high-permeability layer decreased the yield, and compaction near the well screen had a limited effect on overall performance. In all experiments, large pressure gradients were observed near the extraction screen. Minimum requirements for water extraction include an imposed vacuum-induced suction larger than the initial sediment capillary pressure, in combination with a fully saturated seepage-face boundary. A numerical multiphase simulator with a coupled seepage-face boundary conditions was used to simulate the experiments. Reasonable matches were obtained between measured and simulated results for both water extraction and capillary pressures, suggesting that numerical simulations may be used as a design tool for field-scale applications of pore-water extraction.

  14. Improvement of extraction system geometry with suppression of possible Penning discharge ignition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Delferrière, O., E-mail: olivier.delferriere@cea.fr; Gobin, R.; Harrault, F.; Nyckees, S.; Tuske, O. [Commissariat à l’Energie Atomique et aux Energies Alternatives, CEA/Saclay, DSM/IRFU, 91191-Gif/Yvette (France)] [Commissariat à l’Energie Atomique et aux Energies Alternatives, CEA/Saclay, DSM/IRFU, 91191-Gif/Yvette (France)

    2014-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

    During the past two years, a new ECR 2.45 GHz type ion source has been developed especially dedicated to intense light ion injector project like IPHI (Injecteur Proton Haute Intensité), IFMIF (International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility), to reduce beam emittance at RFQ entrance by shortening the length of the LEBT. This new ALISES concept (Advanced Light Ion Source Extraction System) is based on the use of an additional LEBT short length solenoid very close to the extraction aperture. The fringe field of this new solenoid produces the needed magnetic field to create the ECR resonance in the plasma chamber. Such geometry allows first putting the solenoid at ground potential, while saving space in front of the extraction to move the first LEBT solenoid closer and focus earlier the intense extracted beam. During the commissioning of the source in 2011–2012, ALISES has produced about 20 mA extracted from a 6 mm diameter plasma extraction hole at 23 kV. But the magnetic configuration combined to the new extraction system geometry led to important Penning discharge conditions in the accelerator column. Lots of them have been eliminated by inserting glass pieces between electrodes to modify equipotential lines with unfavorable ExB vacuum zones where particles were produced and trapped. To study Penning discharge location, several 3D calculations have been performed with OPERA-3D/TOSCA code to simulate the possible production and trapping of electrons in the extraction system. The results obtained on different sources already built have shown very good agreement with sparks location observed experimentally on electrodes. The simulations results as well as experimental measurements are presented and solutions to prevent possible Penning discharge in future source geometries are established.

  15. Can one extract the pi-neutron scattering length from pi-deuteron scattering?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. Nogga; C. Hanhart

    2005-11-02T23:59:59.000Z

    We give a prove of evidence that the original power counting by Weinberg can be applied to estimate the contributions of the operators contributing to the pi-deuteron scattering length. As a consequence, pi-deuteron observables can be used to extract neutron amplitudes--in case of pi-deuteron scattering this means that the pi-neutron scattering length can be extracted with high accuracy. This result is at variance with recent claims. We discuss the origin of this difference.

  16. Extraction of kinetic freeze-out properties and effect of resonance decays

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Levente Molnar

    2005-07-21T23:59:59.000Z

    We present STAR results from identified particle spectra measured in $\\sqrt{s_{NN}}$ = 62.4 GeV Au-Au collisions. Particle production and system dynamics are compared to results at $\\sqrt{s_{NN}}$ = 200 GeV. We extract kinetic and chemical freeze-out parameters using blast wave model parameterization and statistical model. We discuss the effect of resonance decays on the extracted kinetic freeze-out parameters.

  17. Recycling of rare earth metals from rare earth-transition metal alloy scrap by liquid metal extraction

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ellis, T.W.; Schmidt, F.A.

    1995-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method is described for treating rare earth metal-bearing scrap, waste or other material (e.g. Nd--Fe--B or Dy--Tb--Fe scrap) to recover the rare earth metal comprising melting the rare earth metal-bearing material, melting a Group IIA metal extractant, such as Mg, Ca, or Ba, in which the rare earth is soluble in the molten state, and contacting the melted material and melted extractant at a temperature and for a time effective to extract the rare earth from the melted material into the melted extractant. The rare earth metal is separated from the extractant metal by vacuum sublimation or distillation. 2 figs.

  18. Recycling of rare earth metals from rare earth-transition metal alloy scrap by liquid metal extraction

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ellis, Timothy W. (Ames, IA); Schmidt, Frederick A. (Ames, IA)

    1995-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Method of treating rare earth metal-bearing scrap, waste or other material (e.g. Nd--Fe--B or Dy--Tb--Fe scrap) to recover the rare earth metal comprising melting the rare earth metal-bearing material, melting a Group IIA metal extractant, such as Mg, Ca, or Ba, in which the rare earth is soluble in the molten state, and contacting the melted material and melted extractant at a temperature and for a time effective to extract the rare earth from the melted material into the melted extractant. The rare earth metal is separated from the extractant metal by vacuum sublimation or distillation.

  19. Process for the solvent extraction for the radiolysis and dehalogenation of halogenated organic compounds in soils, sludges, sediments and slurries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Golden, Jeffry

    2007-02-13T23:59:59.000Z

    A process of extracting halogenated organic compounds, and particularly PCBs, from soil, sediment, slurry, sludge and dehalogenating the compounds contacts a contaminated soil sample with an extraction medium of a mixture of an alkane and a water miscible alcohol. The organic compounds dissolve in the extraction medium which is separated from the soil by passing water upwardly through the soil. The extraction medium floats to the surface of the water and is separated. Thereafter, the extraction medium containing the halogenated organic contaminants is subjected to ionizing radiation to radiolytically dehalogenate the compounds.

  20. Process for the solvent extraction for the radiolysis and dehalogenation of halogenated organic compounds in soils, sludges, sediments and slurries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mincher, Bruce J. (3705 Creekside Dr., Idaho Falls, ID 83404); Curry, Randy Dale (1104 Merrill Ct., Columbia, MO 65203); Clevenger, Thomas E. (2512 Bluff Blvd., Columbia, MO 65201); Golden, Jeffry (12612 Cedarbrook La., Laurel, MD 20708)

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A process of extracting halogenated organic compounds, and particularly PCBs, from soil, sediment, slurry, sludge and dehalogenating the compounds contacting a contaminated soil sample with an extraction medium of a mixture of an alkane and a water miscible alcohol. The organic compounds dissolve in the extraction medium which is separated from the soil by passing water upwardly through the soil. The extraction medium floats to the surface of the water and is separated. Thereafter, the extraction medium containing the halogenated organic contaminants is subjected to ionizing radiation to radiolytically dehalogenate the compounds.

  1. Process for the solvent extraction for the radiolysis and dehalogenation of halogenated organic compounds in soils, sludges, sediments and slurries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mincher, Bruce J.; Curry, Randy Dale; Clevenger, Thomas E.; Golden, Jeffry

    2003-05-27T23:59:59.000Z

    A process of extracting halogenated organic compounds, and particularly PCBs, from soil, sediment, slurry, sludge and dehalogenating the compounds contacts a contaminated soil sample with an extraction medium of a mixture of an alkane and a water miscible alcohol. The organic compounds dissolve in the extraction medium which is separated from the soil by passing water upwardly through the soil. The extraction medium floats to the surface of the water and is separated. Thereafter, the extraction medium containing the halogenated organic contaminants is subjected to ionizing radiation to radiolytically dehalogenate the compounds.

  2. Modeling In-stream Tidal Energy Extraction and Its Potential Environmental Impacts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, Zhaoqing; Wang, Taiping; Copping, Andrea; Geerlofs, Simon H.

    2014-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    In recent years, there has been growing interest in harnessing in-stream tidal energy in response to concerns of increasing energy demand and to mitigate climate change impacts. While many studies have been conducted to assess and map tidal energy resources, efforts for quantifying the associated potential environmental impacts have been limited. This paper presents the development of a tidal turbine module within a three-dimensional unstructured-grid coastal ocean model and its application for assessing the potential environmental impacts associated with tidal energy extraction. The model is used to investigate in-stream tidal energy extraction and associated impacts on estuarine hydrodynamic and biological processes in a tidally dominant estuary. A series of numerical experiments with varying numbers and configurations of turbines installed in an idealized estuary were carried out to assess the changes in the hydrodynamics and biological processes due to tidal energy extraction. Model results indicated that a large number of turbines are required to extract the maximum tidal energy and cause significant reduction of the volume flux. Preliminary model results also indicate that extraction of tidal energy increases vertical mixing and decreases flushing rate in a stratified estuary. The tidal turbine model was applied to simulate tidal energy extraction in Puget Sound, a large fjord-like estuary in the Pacific Northwest coast.

  3. Modeling the Effects of Tidal Energy Extraction on Estuarine Hydrodynamics in a Stratified Estuary

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, Zhaoqing; Wang, Taiping

    2013-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A three-dimensional coastal ocean model with a tidal turbine module was used in this paper to study the effects of tidal energy extraction on temperature and salinity stratification and density driven two-layer estuarine circulation. Numerical experiments with various turbine array configurations were carried out to investigate the changes in tidally mean temperature, salinity and velocity profiles in an idealized stratified estuary that connects to coastal water through a narrow tidal channel. The model was driven by tides, river inflow and sea surface heat flux. To represent the realistic size of commercial tidal farms, model simulations were conducted based on a small percentage of the total number of turbines that would generate the maximum extractable energy in the system. Model results indicated that extraction of tidal energy will increase the vertical mixing and decrease the stratification in the estuary. Extraction of tidal energy has stronger impact on the tidally-averaged salinity, temperature and velocity in the surface layer than the bottom. Energy extraction also weakens the two-layer estuarine circulation, especially during neap tides when tidal mixing the weakest and energy extraction is the smallest. Model results also show that energy generation can be much more efficient with higher hub height with relatively small changes in stratification and two-layer estuarine circulation.

  4. Field Test Design Simulations of Pore-Water Extraction for the SX Tank Farm

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Truex, Michael J.; Oostrom, Martinus

    2013-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A proof of principle test of pore water extraction is being performed by Washington River Protection Solutions for the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of River Protection. This test is being conducted to meet the requirements of Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (HFFACO) (Ecology et al. 1989) Milestone M 045-20, and is described in RPP-PLAN-53808, 200 West Area Tank Farms Interim Measures Investigation Work Plan. To support design of this test, numerical simulations were conducted to help define equipment and operational parameters. The modeling effort builds from information collected in laboratory studies and from field characterization information collected at the test site near the Hanford Site 241-SX Tank Farm. Numerical simulations were used to evaluate pore-water extraction performance as a function of the test site properties and for the type of extraction well configuration that can be constructed using the direct-push installation technique. Output of simulations included rates of water and soil-gas production as a function of operational conditions for use in supporting field equipment design. The simulations also investigated the impact of subsurface heterogeneities in sediment properties and moisture distribution on pore-water extraction performance. Phenomena near the extraction well were also investigated because of their importance for pore-water extraction performance.

  5. Robust Extraction Interface for Coupling Droplet-Based and Continuous Flow Microfluidics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sun, Xuefei; Tang, Keqi; Smith, Richard D.; Kelly, Ryan T.

    2012-03-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Reliable and highly efficient extraction of droplets from oil to aqueous phase is key for downstream coupling with chemical separations and nonoptical detection methods such as amperometry and mass spectrometry. This paper presents an improved interface providing robust extraction for droplet-based poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) microfluidic devices. The extraction interface consists of an array of cylindrical posts with narrow apertures in between. The aqueous flow channel into which droplets coalesced was simply and selectively modified to be hydrophilic, while the continuous oil phase flow channel that contained encapsulated aqueous droplets retained a hydrophobic surface. The different surfaces on both sides of the extraction region form a highly stable liquid interface between the two immiscible phases, allowing rapid droplet transfer to the aqueous stream. Entire droplets could be completely extracted within broad ranges of aqueous and oil flow rates (0 - 1 and 0.1 - 1 uL/min, respectively). After extraction, the droplet contents could be transported electrophoretically or by pressure-driven flow to a monolithically integrated emitter for nano-electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (nanoESI-MS) analysis. This interface should be amenable to the separation and identification of droplet contents and on-line monitoring of in-droplet reactions.

  6. Electrophoretic extraction of proteins from two-dimensional electrophoresis gel spots

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zhang, Jian-Shi; Giometti, C.S.; Tollaksen, S.L.

    1987-09-04T23:59:59.000Z

    After two-dimensional electrophoresis of proteins or the like, resulting in a polyacrylamide gel slab having a pattern of protein gel spots thereon, an individual protein gel spot is cored out from the slab, to form a gel spot core which is placed in an extraction tube, with a dialysis membrane across the lower end of the tube. Replicate gel spots can be cored out from replicate gel slabs and placed in the extraction tube. Molten agarose gel is poured into the extraction tube where the agarose gel hardens to form an immobilizing gel, covering the gel spot cores. The upper end portion of the extraction tube is filled with a volume of buffer solution, and the upper end is closed by another dialysis membrane. Upper and lower bodies of a buffer solution are brought into contact with the upper and lower membranes and are provided with electrodes connected to the positive and negative terminals of a dc power supply, thereby producing an electrical current which flows through the upper membrane, the volume of buffer solution, the agarose, the gel spot cores and the lower membrane. The current causes the proteins to be extracted electrophoretically from the gel spot cores, so that the extracted proteins accumulate and are contained in the space between the agarose gel and the upper membrane. 8 figs.

  7. Novel Regenerated Solvent Extraction Processes for the Recovery of Carboxylic Acids or Ammonia from Aqueous Solutions Part II. Recovery of Ammonia from Sour Waters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Poole, L.J.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Ashbrook, A.W. , Process Metallurgy I , Solvent Extraction,and Applications to Process Metallurgy, Elsevier ScienceAshbrook, A.W. , Process Metallurgy 1, Solvent Extraction:

  8. Water Extraction from Coal-Fired Power Plant Flue Gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bruce C. Folkedahl; Greg F. Weber; Michael E. Collings

    2006-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The overall objective of this program was to develop a liquid disiccant-based flue gas dehydration process technology to reduce water consumption in coal-fired power plants. The specific objective of the program was to generate sufficient subscale test data and conceptual commercial power plant evaluations to assess process feasibility and merits for commercialization. Currently, coal-fired power plants require access to water sources outside the power plant for several aspects of their operation in addition to steam cycle condensation and process cooling needs. At the present time, there is no practiced method of extracting the usually abundant water found in the power plant stack gas. This project demonstrated the feasibility and merits of a liquid desiccant-based process that can efficiently and economically remove water vapor from the flue gas of fossil fuel-fired power plants to be recycled for in-plant use or exported for clean water conservation. After an extensive literature review, a survey of the available physical and chemical property information on desiccants in conjunction with a weighting scheme developed for this application, three desiccants were selected and tested in a bench-scale system at the Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC). System performance at the bench scale aided in determining which desiccant was best suited for further evaluation. The results of the bench-scale tests along with further review of the available property data for each of the desiccants resulted in the selection of calcium chloride as the desiccant for testing at the pilot-scale level. Two weeks of testing utilizing natural gas in Test Series I and coal in Test Series II for production of flue gas was conducted with the liquid desiccant dehumidification system (LDDS) designed and built for this study. In general, it was found that the LDDS operated well and could be placed in an automode in which the process would operate with no operator intervention or adjustment. Water produced from this process should require little processing for use, depending on the end application. Test Series II water quality was not as good as that obtained in Test Series I; however, this was believed to be due to a system upset that contaminated the product water system during Test Series II. The amount of water that can be recovered from flue gas with the LDDS is a function of several variables, including desiccant temperature, L/G in the absorber, flash drum pressure, liquid-gas contact method, and desiccant concentration. Corrosion will be an issue with the use of calcium chloride as expected but can be largely mitigated through proper material selection. Integration of the LDDS with either low-grade waste heat and or ground-source heating and cooling can affect the parasitic power draw the LDDS will have on a power plant. Depending on the amount of water to be removed from the flue gas, the system can be designed with no parasitic power draw on the power plant other than pumping loads. This can be accomplished in one scenario by taking advantage of the heat of absorption and the heat of vaporization to provide the necessary temperature changes in the desiccant with the flue gas and precipitates that may form and how to handle them. These questions must be addressed in subsequent testing before scale-up of the process can be confidently completed.

  9. PCB extraction from ORNL tank WC-14 using a unique solvent

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bloom, G.A.; Lucero, A.J.; Koran, L.J.; Turner, E.N.

    1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes the development work of the Engineering Development Section of the Chemical Technology Division at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) for an organic extraction method for removing polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) from tank WC-14. Tank WC-14 is part of the ORNL liquid low-level radioactive tank waste system and does not meet new secondary containment and leak detection regulations. These regulations require the tank to be taken out of service, and remediated before tank removal. To remediate the tank, the PCBs must be removed; the tank contents can then be transferred to the Melton Valley Storage Tanks before final disposal. The solvent being used for the PCB extraction experiments is triethylamine, an aliphatic amine that is soluble in water below 60{degrees}F but insoluble in water above 90{degrees}F. This property will allow the extraction to be carried out under fully miscible conditions within the tank; then, after tank conditions have been changed, the solvent will not be miscible with water and phase separation will occur. Phase separation between sludge, water, and solvent will allow solvent (loaded with PCBs) to be removed from the tank for disposal. After removing the PCBs from the sludge and removing the sludge from the tank, administrative control of the tank can be transferred to ORNL`s Environmental Restoration Program, where priorities will be set for tank removal. Experiments with WC-14 sludge show that greater than 90% extraction efficiencies can be achieved with one extraction stage and that PCB concentration in the sludge can be reduced to below 2 ppm in three extractions. It is anticipated that three extractions will be necessary to reduce the PCB concentration to below 2 ppm during field applications. The experiments conducted with tank WC-14 sludge transferred less than 0.03% of the original alpha contamination and less than 0.002% of the original beta contamination.

  10. Impact of photonic crystals on LED light extraction efficiency: approaches and limits to vertical structure designs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Matioli, Elison; Weisbuch, Claude

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The enhancement of the extraction efficiency in light emitting diodes (LEDs) through the use of photonic crystals (PhCs) requires a structure design that optimizes the interaction of the guided modes with the PhCs. The main optimization parameters are related to the vertical structure of the LED, such as the thickness of layers, depth of the PhCs, position of the quantum wells as well as the PhC period and fill factor. We review the impact of the vertical design of different approaches of PhC LEDs through a theoretical and experimental standpoint, assessing quantitatively the competing mechanisms that act over each guided mode. Three approaches are described to overcome the main limitation of LEDs with surface PhCs, i.e. the insufficient interaction of low order guided modes with the PhCs. The introduction of an AlGaN confining layer in such structure is shown to be effective in extracting a fraction of the optical energy of low order modes; however, this approach is limited by the growth of the lattice mismatched AlGaN layer on GaN. The second approach, based on thin-film LEDs with PhCs, is limited by the presence of an absorbing reflective metal layer close to the guided modes that plays a major role in the competition between PhC extraction and metal dissipation. Finally, we demonstrate both experimentally and theoretically the superior extraction of the guided light in embedded PhC LEDs due to the higher interaction between all optical modes and the PhCs, which resulted in a close to unity extraction efficiency for this device. The use of high-resolution angle-resolved measurements to experimentally determine the PhC extraction parameters was an essential tool for corroborating the theoretical models and quantifying the competing absorption and extraction mechanisms in LEDs.

  11. Waste and Solvent Composition Limits for Modular Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adu-Wusu, Kofi; Waler, Douglas D.; Edwards, Thomas B

    2005-05-26T23:59:59.000Z

    This study examined waste feed and solvent limits for the Modular Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU) currently being designed and built at the Savannah River Site (SRS) to remove cesium from highly alkaline radioactive waste. The study involved proposing ranges for 12 waste feed components (i.e., Na{sup +}, K{sup +}, Cs{sup +}, OH{sup -}, NO{sub 3}{sup -}, NO{sub 2}{sup -}, Cl{sup -}, F{sup -}, SO{sub 4}{sup 2-}, PO{sub 4}{sup 3-}, and CO{sub 3}{sup 2-}, and AlO{sub 2}{sup -}) through a compilation of SRS waste data. Statistical design methods were used to generate numerous wastes with varying compositions from the proposed ranges. An Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) model called SXFIT was used to predict the cesium extraction distribution coefficients (D-values) between the organic (solvent) phase and the aqueous waste phase using the waste component concentrations as inputs. The D-values from the SXFIT model were used as input along with MCU base case process parameters to a SASSE (Spreadsheet Algorithm for Stagewise Solvent Extraction) model to calculate final cesium concentrations for the MCU. The SASSE model was developed at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). The SXFIT D-value and the waste component concentration data were used to develop a handier alternative model (neural network model) to the SXFIT model that predicts D-values within 15% of the SXFIT D-values. Both the SXFIT and the neural network model revealed the following. The solvent extractant concentration ratios are approximately equal to the corresponding D-value ratios; a useful feature that could be used to predict extraction D-values when the extractant concentration in the solvent changes in the MCU operation. Also, potassium is the only waste component out of the 12 that shows a distinct relationship with the cesium extraction D-values; an indication of potassium's competition with cesium in the Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) process. A waste feed acceptance model suitable for assessing wastes within relatively wide ranges of D-values (0.6-40) and initial cesium-137 concentrations (0.2-12.8 Ci/gal) has been developed from the SASSE outputs. The waste feed acceptance model is an equation involving initial cesium-137 concentration and D-value that results in a final cesium-137 concentration of 0.1 Ci/gal, the target concentration for the MCU. For example, the waste feed acceptance model shows the minimum acceptable extraction D-value based on MCU base conditions is 5.73. The waste feed acceptance model is defined by a simple linear relationship for extraction D-values {ge} 7. This facilitates quicker calculations. For a given extraction D-value, final cesium-137 concentration (C{sub f}) and initial cesium-137 concentration (C{sub 0}) are linearly related; while for a given C{sub 0}, log (C{sub f}) and log (extraction D-value) are linear with a slope of -1.43. These two relationships allow one to quickly calculate C{sub f} at other MCU conditions without resorting to the SASSE model. The SASSE runs indicate that broad changes in the MCU process parameters for the extraction, scrub and strip stages (i.e., flow rate, temperature, fraction of interstage carryover, total liquid volume per contactor stage, and efficiency per contactor stage) will not result in C{sub f} exceeding target, at least for the MCU base conditions.

  12. Benefits and costs of brine extraction for increasing injection efficiency in geologic CO2 sequestration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davidson, Casie L.; Watson, David J.; Dooley, James J.; Dahowski, Robert T.

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Pressure increases attendant with CO2 injection into the subsurface drive many of the risk factors associated with commercial-scale CCS projects, impacting project costs and liabilities in a number of ways. The area of elevated pressure defines the area that must be characterized and monitored; pressure drives fluid flow out of the storage reservoir along higher-permeability pathways that might exist through the caprock into overlying aquifers or hydrocarbon reservoirs; and pressure drives geomechanical changes that could potentially impact subsurface infrastructure or the integrity of the storage system itself. Pressure also limits injectivity, which can increase capital costs associated with installing additional wells to meet a given target injection rate. The ability to mitigate pressure increases in storage reservoirs could have significant value to a CCS project, but these benefits are offset by the costs of the pressure mitigation technique itself. Of particular interest for CO2 storage operators is the lifetime cost of implementing brine extraction at a CCS project site, and the relative value of benefits derived from the extraction process. This is expected to vary from site to site and from one implementation scenario to the next. Indeed, quantifying benefits against costs could allow operators to optimize their return on project investment by calculating the most effective scenario for pressure mitigation. This work builds on research recently submitted for publication by the authors examining the costs and benefits of brine extraction across operational scenarios to evaluate the effects of fluid extraction on injection rate to assess the cost effectiveness of several options for reducing the number of injection wells required. Modeling suggests that extracting at 90% of the volumetric equivalent of injection rate resulted in a 1.8% improvement in rate over a non-extraction base case; a four-fold increase in extraction rate results in a 7.6% increase in injection rate over the no-extraction base case. However, the practical impacts on capital costs suggest that this strategy is fiscally ineffective when evaluated solely on this metric, with extraction reducing injection well needs by only one per 56 (1x case) or one per 13 (4x case).

  13. Extraction of a steady state electron beam from HCD plasmas for EBIS applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hershcovitch, A.; Kovarik, V.; Prelec, K.

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Experiments to extract high brightness electron beams from hollow cathode discharge plasmas are now in progress. A unique feature of these plasmas, which in principle can facilitate the extraction of large current low emittance electron beams, is the existence of a relatively high energy electron population with a very narrow energy spread. This electron population was identified in a self-extraction experiment, which yielded a 35 eV, 600 mA electron beam with parallel energy spread of less than 0.5 eV. Application of a very modest extraction voltage yielded a steady state extracted electron beam current of 6.5 A of which 5.7 had a preacceleration parallel energy spread of no more than 0.25 eV. The end result of this endeavor would be an electron beam current to 6 A even though, preliminary results strongly suggest that much larger electron beam currents can be produced. 6 refs., 4 figs.

  14. Test Plan for Solvent Extraction Data Acquisition to Support Modeling Efforts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Veronica Rutledge; Kristi Christensen; Troy Garn; Jack Law

    2010-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This testing will support NEAMS SafeSep Modeling efforts related to droplet simulation in liquid-liquid extraction equipment. Physical characteristic determinations will be completed for the fluids being used in the experiment including viscosity, density, surface tension, distribution coefficients, and diffusion coefficients. Then, experiments will be carried out to provide data for comparison to the simulation’s calculation of mass transfer coefficients. Experiments will be conducted with solutions used in the TRansUranic EXtraction (TRUEX) process extraction section. The TRUEX process was chosen since it is one solvent extraction system currently proposed for the separation of actinides and lanthanides from used nuclear fuel, it is diffusion limited, testing can be performed using non radioactive lanthanides to evaluate mass transfer. The extraction section involves transfer of one or more lanthanide species from an aqueous solution to an organic solvent. Single droplets rising by buoyancy will be studied first. Droplet size and number of species transferred will be varied independently to provide mass transfer coefficients as a function of each variable. An apparatus has been designed specifically for these experiments. In order to get more accurate measurements of droplet size, contact time, time of droplet formation, and possibly droplet breakup and coalescence, a high speed camera will be utilized for these experiments. Other potential experiments include examining the effects of jetted droplets and shear flow on the mass transfer coefficients.

  15. Sequential Extraction Versus Comprehensive Characterization of Heavy Metal Species in Brownfield Soils

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dahlin, Cheryl L.; Williamson, Connie A.; Collins, W. Keith; Dahlin, David C.

    2002-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The applicability of sequential extraction as a means to determine species of heavy-metals was examined by a study on soil samples from two Superfund sites: the National Lead Company site in Pedricktown, NJ, and the Roebling Steel, Inc., site in Florence, NJ. Data from a standard sequential extraction procedure were compared to those from a comprehensive study that combined optical- and scanning-electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and chemical analyses. The study shows that larger particles of contaminants, encapsulated contaminants, and/or man-made materials such as slags, coke, metals, and plastics are subject to incasement, non-selectivity, and redistribution in the sequential extraction process. The results indicate that standard sequential extraction procedures that were developed for characterizing species of contaminants in river sediments may be unsuitable for stand-alone determinative evaluations of contaminant species in industrial-site materials. However, if employed as part of a comprehensive, site-specific characterization study, sequential extraction could be a very useful tool.

  16. Curso 7-Modelos Digitais de Elevao na Hidrologia: Extrao de Atributos Hidrolgicos da Topografia (Digital Elevation Models in Hydrology: Extraction of Hydrologic

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Topografia (Digital Elevation Models in Hydrology: Extraction of Hydrologic Attributes from Topography Data

  17. Measurement of water-soluble arsenic species in freeze-dried marine animal tissues by microwave-assisted extraction and HPLC-ICP-MS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Canberra, University of

    Article on the web 8th July 2002 A microwave-assisted procedure is outlined for the extraction of water extractions with 50% (v/v) methanol­ water at 70 to 75 uC for 5 min. Quantitative extraction of arsenic samples are prepared in a similar manner, the efficiency to extract arsenic in the methanol­water soluble

  18. Analysis of tritium extraction from liquid lithium by permeation window and solid gettering processes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Takeda, T. [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Ibaraki-ken (Japan); Ying, A.Y.; Abdou, M.A. [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Tritium recovery from liquid lithium at low concentration is an important problem for liquid metal breeder-blanket in a fusion reactor. Previous studies have identified tritium recovery methods including molten salt extraction, gettering recovery, permeation window, and vacuum distillation. In this paper, the authors focus on the numerical studies on tritium extraction by permeation window and gettering processes. These studies include for example: dynamic tritium concentration variation along the flow direction, tritium inventory distributions in the permeator and getter bed, along with the effect of dispersion on extraction efficiency. Using a model description makes it possible to determine functional dependence and provide insight into the interrelationships of the various operating conditions and material properties which may affect the behavior of tritium in the material. Clearly, reliable material properties (such as diffusivity, solubility, etc.) are essential for realistic evaluations.

  19. Extracting an entangled photon pair from collectively decohered pairs at a telecommunication wavelength

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yoshiaki Tsujimoto; Yukihiro Sugiura; Makoto Ando; Daisuke Katsuse; Rikizo Ikuta; Takashi Yamamoto; Masato Koashi; Nobuyuki Imoto

    2015-03-10T23:59:59.000Z

    We experimentally demonstrated entanglement extraction scheme by using photons at the telecommunication band for optical-fiber-based quantum communications. We generated two pairs of non-degenerate polarization entangled photons at 780~nm and 1551~nm by spontaneous parametric down-conversion and distributed the two photons at 1551~nm through a collective phase damping channel which gives the same amount of random phase shift on the two photons. Through local operation and classical communication, we extracted an entangled photon pair from two phase-disturbed photon pairs. An observed fidelity of the extracted photon pair to a maximally entangled photon pair was 0.73 $\\pm$ 0.07 which clearly shows the recovery of entanglement.

  20. Simulation and optimization of beam losses during continuous transfer extraction at the CERN Proton Synchrotron

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Garcia, J B

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The proton beams used for the fixed target physics at the Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS) are extracted from the Proton Synchrotron ( PS) by a multiturn technique called continuous transfer (CT). During the CT extraction, large losses are observed in locations where the machine aperture should be large enough to accommodate the circulating beam. This limits the maximum intensity deliverable due to the induced stray radiation outside the PS tunnel. Scattered particles from the interaction with the electrostatic septum are identified as the possible source of these losses. This article presents a detailed study aiming to understand the origin of losses and propose possible cures. The simulations could reproduce accurately the beam loss pattern measured in real machine operation and determine the beam shaving, intrinsic to the extraction process, as the cause for the unexpected losses. Since these losses are unavoidable, the proposed solution implies a new optics scheme displacing the losses to a region with bett...