National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for degrees fahrenheit consisting

  1. C:\\ANNUAL\\Vol2chps.v8\\ANNUAL2.VP

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Aquifer Field: A sub-surface facility for storing natural gas consisting of water-bearing ... temperature of 1 pound of water by 1 degree Fahrenheit at or near 39.2 degrees Fahrenheit. ...

  2. Insolation data manual: long-term monthly averages of solar radiation, temperature, degree-days and global anti K/sub T/ for 248 national weather service stations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Knapp, C L; Stoffel, T L; Whitaker, S D

    1980-10-01

    Monthly averaged data is presented which describes the availability of solar radiation at 248 National Weather Service stations. Monthly and annual average daily insolation and temperature values have been computed from a base of 24 to 25 years of data. Average daily maximum, minimum, and monthly temperatures are provided for most locations in both Celsius and Fahrenheit. Heating and cooling degree-days were computed relative to a base of 18.3/sup 0/C (65/sup 0/F). For each station, global anti K/sub T/ (cloudiness index) were calculated on a monthly and annual basis. (MHR)

  3. Energy Efficiency Report--Glossary

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Thermal Unit (Btu): The quantity of heat needed to raise the temperature of 1 pound of water by 1 degree Fahrenheit at or near 39.2 degrees Fahrenheit. Census Region: A geographic...

  4. Self-consistent klystron simulations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carlsten, B.E.; Tallerico, P.J.

    1985-01-01

    A numerical analysis of large-signal klystron behavior based on general wave-particle interaction theory is presented. The computer code presented is tailored for the minimum amount of complexity needed in klystron simulation. The code includes self-consistent electron motion, space-charge fields, and intermediate and output fields. It also includes use of time periodicity to simplify the problem, accurate representation of the space-charge fields, accurate representation of the cavity standing-wave fields, and a sophisticated particle-pushing routine. In the paper, examples are given that show the effects of cavity detunings, of varying the magnetic field profile, of electron beam asymmetries from the gun, and of variations in external load impedance. 4 refs., 7 figs.

  5. Six degree of freedom sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vann, Charles S.

    1999-01-01

    This small, non-contact optical sensor increases the capability and flexibility of computer controlled machines by detecting its relative position to a workpiece in all six degrees of freedom (DOF). At a fraction of the cost, it is over 200 times faster and up to 25 times more accurate than competing 3-DOF sensors. Applications range from flexible manufacturing to a 6-DOF mouse for computers. Until now, highly agile and accurate machines have been limited by their inability to adjust to changes in their tasks. By enabling them to sense all six degrees of position, these machines can now adapt to new and complicated tasks without human intervention or delay--simplifying production, reducing costs, and enhancing the value and capability of flexible manufacturing.

  6. Six degree of freedom sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vann, C.S.

    1999-03-16

    This small, non-contact optical sensor increases the capability and flexibility of computer controlled machines by detecting its relative position to a workpiece in all six degrees of freedom (DOF). At a fraction of the cost, it is over 200 times faster and up to 25 times more accurate than competing 3-DOF sensors. Applications range from flexible manufacturing to a 6-DOF mouse for computers. Until now, highly agile and accurate machines have been limited by their inability to adjust to changes in their tasks. By enabling them to sense all six degrees of position, these machines can now adapt to new and complicated tasks without human intervention or delay--simplifying production, reducing costs, and enhancing the value and capability of flexible manufacturing. 3 figs.

  7. This Week In Petroleum Printer-Friendly Version

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    to raise the temperature of 1 pound of liquid water by 1 degree Fahrenheit at the temperature at which water has its greatest density (approximately 39 degrees...

  8. This Mega-Science Project Is Going a Mile Underground | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... To keep the argon liquid, the cryogenics system will have to maintain a temperature of around minus 300 degrees Fahrenheit, or minus 184 degrees Celsius. That's slightly colder ...

  9. On the initial state and consistency relations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Berezhiani, Lasha; Khoury, Justin E-mail: jkhoury@sas.upenn.edu

    2014-09-01

    We study the effect of the initial state on the consistency conditions for adiabatic perturbations. In order to be consistent with the constraints of General Relativity, the initial state must be diffeomorphism invariant. As a result, we show that initial wavefunctional/density matrix has to satisfy a Slavnov-Taylor identity similar to that of the action. We then investigate the precise ways in which modified initial states can lead to violations of the consistency relations. We find two independent sources of violations: i) the state can include initial non-Gaussianities; ii) even if the initial state is Gaussian, such as a Bogoliubov state, the modified 2-point function can modify the q-vector ?0 analyticity properties of the vertex functional and result in violations of the consistency relations.

  10. Microsoft Word - Blurbs for Nik.doc

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    NFPA Chemical Labeling System The NFPA diamond is a coded symbol which combines both color and numerical rating (0-4) to indicate the degree of hazard associated with the substance. Blue = Health Red = Flammability Yellow = Reactivity White = Other Flammability (flash points) Health 0 = Will not burn 0 = Normal Material 1 = above 200 degrees Fahrenheit 1 = Slight Hazard 2 = Between 100-200 degrees Fahrenheit 2 = Moderately Hazardous 3 = Below 100 degrees Fahrenheit 3 = Extremely Hazardous 4 =

  11. On consistent kinetic and derivative interactions for gravitons

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Noller, Johannes

    2015-04-17

    The only known fully ghost-free and consistent Lorentz-invariant kinetic term for a graviton (or indeed for any spin-2 field) is the Einstein-Hilbert term. Here we propose and investigate a new candidate family of kinetic interactions and their extensions to derivative interactions involving several spin-2 fields. These new terms generically break diffeomorphism invariance(s) and as a result can lead to the propagation of 5 degrees of freedom for a single spin-2 field — analogous to ghost-free Massive Gravity. We discuss under what circumstances these new terms can be used to build healthy effective field theories and in the process establish the ‘Jordan’ and ‘Einstein’ frame pictures for Massive-, Bi- and Multi-Gravity.

  12. EA-1733: Final Environmental Assessment | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    The proposed EGS project includes the injection of water, ranging from 50 to 80 degrees Fahrenheit, into wells to enhance the permeability of an existing high temperature ...

  13. Fermilab Today

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    may include fever over 100 degrees Fahrenheit, muscle or body aches, chills, headache, cough, fatigue, weakness and nasal congestion. Once infected, a person may develop no...

  14. RAPID/Roadmap/3-NM-e | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Business Lease), developers pursuing geothermal projects on state trust lands where the temperature of the extractable resource is less than 250 degrees Fahrenheit may apply for...

  15. Lens positioner with five degrees of freedom

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kobierecki, Marian W.; Rienecker, Jr., Frederick

    1978-01-01

    A device for positioning lenses precisely with five degrees of freedom (three translations and two angular rotations). The unique features of the device are its compact design, large clear aperture, and high degree of positioning accuracy combined with five degrees of freedom in axis motion. Thus, the device provides precision and flexibility in positioning of optical components. BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION The invention described herein was made in the course of, or under, Contract No. AT(29-1)-1183, with the United States Energy Research and Development Administration.

  16. TUNL Ph.D. Degrees Theses

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Link to M.S. and M.A. Degrees Theses Link to Associated Degrees Theses TUNL Ph.D. Degrees Theses Browse by year 2015 2014 2013 2012 2011 2010 2009 2008 2007 2006 2005 2004 2003 2002 2001 2000 1999 1998 1997 1996 1995 1994 1993 1992 1991 1990 1989 1988 1987 1986 1985 1984 1983 1982 1981 1980 1979 1978 1977 1976 1975 1974 1973 1972 1971 1970 1969 1968 1967 1966 1965 1964 1963 1962 1961 1960 1959 1958 1957 1956 1955 1954 1949 2015 Sean W. Finch, Double-Beta Decay of 96Zr and Double-Electron Capture

  17. Single-field consistency relations of large scale structure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Creminelli, Paolo; Norea, Jorge; Simonovi?, Marko; Vernizzi, Filippo E-mail: jorge.norena@icc.ub.edu E-mail: filippo.vernizzi@cea.fr

    2013-12-01

    We derive consistency relations for the late universe (CDM and ?CDM): relations between an n-point function of the density contrast ? and an (n+1)-point function in the limit in which one of the (n+1) momenta becomes much smaller than the others. These are based on the observation that a long mode, in single-field models of inflation, reduces to a diffeomorphism since its freezing during inflation all the way until the late universe, even when the long mode is inside the horizon (but out of the sound horizon). These results are derived in Newtonian gauge, at first and second order in the small momentum q of the long mode and they are valid non-perturbatively in the short-scale ?. In the non-relativistic limit our results match with [1]. These relations are a consequence of diffeomorphism invariance; they are not satisfied in the presence of extra degrees of freedom during inflation or violation of the Equivalence Principle (extra forces) in the late universe.

  18. A consistent second order projection scheme for simulating transient...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    A consistent second order projection scheme for simulating transient viscous flow with Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: A consistent...

  19. Towards consistent nuclear models and comprehensive nuclear data...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Conference: Towards consistent nuclear models and comprehensive nuclear data evaluations Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Towards consistent nuclear models and ...

  20. Development and Implementation of Degree Programs in Electric...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Documents & Publications Development and Implementation of Degree Programs in Electric Drive Vehicle Technology Development and Implementation of Degree Programs in Electric Drive...

  1. Development and Implementation of Degree Programs in Electric...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Development and Implementation of Degree Programs in Electric Drive Vehicle Technology Development and Implementation of Degree Programs in Electric Drive Vehicle Technology Asia...

  2. Development and Implementation of Degree Programs in Electric...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    More Documents & Publications Development and Implementation of Degree Programs in Electric Drive Vehicle Technology Development and Implementation of Degree Programs in Electric ...

  3. Generalized contexts and consistent histories in quantum mechanics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Losada, Marcelo; Laura, Roberto

    2014-05-15

    We analyze a restriction of the theory of consistent histories by imposing that a valid description of a physical system must include quantum histories which satisfy the consistency conditions for all states. We prove that these conditions are equivalent to imposing the compatibility conditions of our formalism of generalized contexts. Moreover, we show that the theory of consistent histories with the consistency conditions for all states and the formalism of generalized context are equally useful representing expressions which involve properties at different times.

  4. Calculation of variable-base degree-days and degree-nights from monthly average temperatures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sonderegger, R.; Cleary, P.; Dickinson, B.

    1985-01-01

    The Computerized Instrumented Residential Audit (CIRA), a micro-computer building energy analysis program developed at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, uses a monthly variable-base degree-day method to calculate heating and cooling loads. The method's unique feature is its ability to model thermostat setbacks and storage of solar gain. The program accomplishes this by dividing each day into two periods, ''average day'' (8 a.m. to 8 p.m.) and ''average night'' (8 p.m. to 8 a.m.), with different base temperatures. For each mode (heating or cooling) and for each period (day or night), the program reconstructs degree-days as a function of average monthly day or night temperature using three empirical coefficients specific to the location. A comparison is made between degree-days computed from hourly weather tapes and those predicted using this method. The root mean square error between predicted and actual degree days is typically between 3 and 12 degree-days per month. Tables of the coefficients are given for over 150 locations in the United States, computed from hourly dry-bulb temperatures on TRY and TMY tapes. Seasonal predictions of heating and cooling energy budgets using this method show good correspondence to the DOE-2 hourly simulation method.

  5. Towards consistent nuclear models and comprehensive nuclear data

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    evaluations (Conference) | SciTech Connect Conference: Towards consistent nuclear models and comprehensive nuclear data evaluations Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Towards consistent nuclear models and comprehensive nuclear data evaluations The essence of this paper is to enlighten the consistency achieved nowadays in nuclear data and uncertainties assessments in terms of compound nucleus reaction theory from neutron separation energy to continuum. Making the continuity of

  6. Interdiffusion and Reaction between Zr and Al Alloys from 425 degrees to 625 degrees C

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J. Dickson; L. Zhou; A. Ewh; M. Fu; D. D. Keiser, Jr.; Y. H. Sohn; A. Paz y Puente

    2014-06-01

    Zirconium has recently garnered attention for use as a diffusion barrier between UMo nuclear fuels and Al cladding alloys. Interdiffusion and reactions between Zr and Al, Al-2 wt.% Si, Al-5 wt.% Si or AA6061 were investigated using solid-to-solid diffusion couples annealed in the temperature range of 425 degrees to 625 degrees C. In the binary Al and Zr system, the Al3Zr and Al2Zr phases were identified, and the activation energy for the growth of the Al3Zr phase was determined to be 347 kJ/mol. Negligible diffusional interactions were observed for diffusion couples between Zr vs. Al-2 wt.% Si, Al-5 wt.% Si and AA6061 annealed at or below 475 degrees C. In diffusion couples with the binary AlSi alloys at 560 degrees C, a significant variation in the development of the phase constituents was observed including the thick t1 (Al5SiZr2) with Si content up to 12 at.%, and thin layers of (Si,Al)2Zr, (Al,Si)3Zr, Al3SiZr2 and Al2Zr phases. The use of AA6061 as a terminal alloy resulted in the development of both T1 (Al5SiZr2) and (Al,Si)3Zr phases with a very thin layer of (Al,Si)2Zr. At 560 degrees C, with increasing Si content in the AlSi alloy, an increase in the overall rate of diffusional interaction was observed; however, the diffusional interaction of Zr in contact with multicomponent AA6061 with 0.40.8 wt.% Si was most rapid.

  7. Self-consistent second-order Green's function perturbation theory...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Self-consistent second-order Green's function perturbation theory for periodic systems ... Sponsoring Org: USDOE Country of Publication: United States Language: English Word Cloud ...

  8. GWI plan ensures focused, consistent approach to improvements...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    focused, consistent approach to improvements Posted: July 9, 2015 - 4:31pm General Workplace Improvement projects are underway at both sites, including the modernization of...

  9. California Department of Fish and Wildlife Consistency Determination...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    California Department of Fish and Wildlife Consistency Determination Webpage Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Web Site: California Department of...

  10. Multiple-degree-of-freedom vehicle

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Borenstein, Johann

    1995-01-01

    A multi-degree-of-freedom vehicle employs a compliant linkage to accommodate the need for a variation in the distance between drive wheels or drive systems which are independently steerable and drivable. The subject vehicle is provided with rotary encodes to provide signals representative of the orientation of the steering pivot associated with each such drive wheel or system, and a linear encoder which issues a signal representative of the fluctuations in the distance between the drive elements. The wheels of the vehicle are steered and driven in response to the linear encoder signal, there being provided a controller system for minimizing the fluctuations in the distance. The controller system is a software implementation of a plurality of controllers, operating at the chassis level and at the vehicle level. A trajectory interpolator receives x-displacement, y-displacement, and .theta.-displacement signals and produces to the vehicle level controller trajectory signals corresponding to interpolated control signals. The x-displacement, y-displacement, and .theta.-displacement signals are received from a human operator, via a manipulable joy stick.

  11. homeoffice_household2001.pdf

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ... report, the heating or cooling degree-days are a measure of how cold or how hot a location is over a period of one year, relative to a base temperature of 65 degrees Fahrenheit. ...

  12. ac_household2001.pdf

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ... report, the heating or cooling degree-days are a measure of how cold or how hot a location is over a period of one year, relative to a base temperature of 65 degrees Fahrenheit. ...

  13. ORISE: Report shows number of health physics degrees for 2010

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    report shows number of health physics degrees increased for graduates, decreased for undergraduates in 2010 Decreased number of B.S. degrees remains higher than levels in the early 2000 FOR IMMEDIATE RELEASE Dec. 20, 2011 FY12-09 OAK RIDGE, Tenn.-The number of health physics graduate degrees increased for both master's and doctoral candidates in 2010, but decreased for bachelor's degrees, says a report released this year by the Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education. The ORISE report,

  14. APPENDIX A: ENSURING CONSISTENCY WITH THE STANDARDS OF THE NATIONAL...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    A: ENSURING CONSISTENCY WITH THE STANDARDS OF THE NATIONAL FLOOD INSURANCE PROGRAM (NFIP) E.O. 11988 requires, to the extent permitted by law, Federal agencies consult with the ...

  15. A consistent second order projection scheme for simulating transient

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    viscous flow with Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics. (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect A consistent second order projection scheme for simulating transient viscous flow with Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: A consistent second order projection scheme for simulating transient viscous flow with Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics. Abstract not provided. Authors: Trask, Nathaniel ; Maxey, Martin ; Kim, Kyungjoo ; Perego, Mauro ; Parks, Michael L. ; Yang,

  16. Consistent analysis of one-nucleon spectroscopic factors involving weakly-

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    and strongly-bound nucleons (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Consistent analysis of one-nucleon spectroscopic factors involving weakly- and strongly-bound nucleons Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Consistent analysis of one-nucleon spectroscopic factors involving weakly- and strongly-bound nucleons Authors: Okołowicz, J. ; Lam, Y. H. ; Płoszajczak, M. ; Macchiavelli, A. O. ; Smirnova, N. A. Publication Date: 2016-04-01 OSTI Identifier: 1246192 Grant/Contract Number:

  17. Towards consistent nuclear models and comprehensive nuclear data

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    evaluations (Conference) | SciTech Connect Towards consistent nuclear models and comprehensive nuclear data evaluations Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Towards consistent nuclear models and comprehensive nuclear data evaluations × You are accessing a document from the Department of Energy's (DOE) SciTech Connect. This site is a product of DOE's Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI) and is provided as a public service. Visit OSTI to utilize additional information

  18. Consistent description of kinetics and hydrodynamics of dusty plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Markiv, B.; Tokarchuk, M.; National University Lviv Polytechnic, 12 Bandera St., 79013 Lviv

    2014-02-15

    A consistent statistical description of kinetics and hydrodynamics of dusty plasma is proposed based on the Zubarev nonequilibrium statistical operator method. For the case of partial dynamics, the nonequilibrium statistical operator and the generalized transport equations for a consistent description of kinetics of dust particles and hydrodynamics of electrons, ions, and neutral atoms are obtained. In the approximation of weakly nonequilibrium process, a spectrum of collective excitations of dusty plasma is investigated in the hydrodynamic limit.

  19. Consistency test of neutrinoless double beta decay with one isotope

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Duerr, Michael; Lindner, Manfred [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Postfach 10 39 80, 69029 Heidelberg (Germany); Zuber, Kai [Technical University Dresden, Institut fuer Kern- und Teilchenphysik, 01069 Dresden (Germany)

    2011-11-01

    We discuss a consistency test which makes it possible to discriminate unknown nuclear background lines from neutrinoless double beta decay with only one isotope. By considering both the transition to the ground state and to the first excited 0{sup +} state, a sufficiently large detector can reveal if neutrinoless double beta decay or some other nuclear physics process is at work. Such a detector could therefore simultaneously provide a consistency test for a certain range of Majorana masses and be sensitive to lower values of the effective Majorana mass .

  20. Consistent interaction vertices in arbitrary topological BF theories

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bizdadea, C.; Cioroianu, E. M.; Saliu, S. O.; Sararu, S. C.; Stanciu-Oprean, L.

    2013-11-13

    Here we extend the previous results from [12] to the computation of all consistent self-interactions for topological BF theories with maximal field spectra in D =5,6,7,8 and present some partial results on possible generalizations on a space-time of arbitrary dimension D. For convenience, the deformation of the solution to the master equation in the context of the BRST-antifield formalism is used as a general method of constructing consistent interacting gauge field theories together with most of the standard hypotheses on quantum field theories on Minkowski space-times.

  1. Exact solution of the self-consistent Vlasov equation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Morawetz, K.

    1997-03-01

    An analytical solution of the self-consistent Vlasov equation is presented. The time evolution is entirely determined by the initial distribution function. The largest Lyapunov exponent is calculated analytically. For special parameters of the potential a positive Lyapunov exponent is possible. This model may serve as a check for numerical codes solving self-consistent Vlasov equations. The here presented method is also applicable for any system with an analytical solution of the Hamilton equation for the form factor of the potential. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  2. Health Physics Enrollments and Degrees Survey, 2013 Data

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Since 2009, data for two health physics programs located in engineering departments are ... The enrollments and degrees data includes students majoring in health physics or in an ...

  3. ORISE: Report by ORISE shows health physics degrees declined...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Health physics degrees declined in 2014, enrollment trends reverse Enrollment data ... graduating with majors in health physics has declined across undergraduate, ...

  4. EM Leaders Earn National Defense Degrees | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Leaders Earn National Defense Degrees EM Leaders Earn National Defense Degrees August 31, 2015 - 12:00pm Addthis Stephen Casey of the Portsmouth/Paducah Project Office receives his degree from NDU President Maj. Gen. Frederick M. Padilla, U.S. Marine Corps, during the main campus graduation earlier this year at Fort Lesley J. McNair in Washington, D.C. Stephen Casey of the Portsmouth/Paducah Project Office receives his degree from NDU President Maj. Gen. Frederick M. Padilla, U.S. Marine Corps,

  5. Nuclear Engineering Enrollments and Degrees Survey, 2014 Data

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    having nuclear engineering programs during 2014, and data were provided by all thirty-five. The enrollments and degrees data include students majoring in nuclear engineering ...

  6. STUDENTS WHO RECEIVED GRADUATE DEGREES FROM THESIS WORK CONDUCTED...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    2 STUDENTS WHO RECEIVED GRADUATE DEGREES FROM THESIS WORK CONDUCTED AT THE CYCLOTRON INSTITUTE April 1, 2010 - March 31, 2011 Name Year Thesis Title Advisor Present Position Zach...

  7. Brief 70 Nuclear Engineering Enrollments and Degrees, 2011 Summary Information

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dr. Don Johnson

    2012-10-31

    The survey includes degrees granted between September 1, 2010 and August 31, 2011. Enrollment information refers to the fall term 2011. The enrollment and degree data include students majoring in nuclear engineering or in an option program equivalent to a major. Thirty-two academic programs reported having nuclear engineering programs during 2011, and data was received from all thirty-two programs. The data for two nuclear engineering programs include enrollments and degrees in health physics options that are also reported in the health physics enrollments and degrees data.

  8. STUDENTS WHO RECEIVED GRADUATE DEGREES FROM THESIS WORK CONDUCTED...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and astrophysical capture processes R.E. Tribble A.M. Mukhamedzhanov Graduate Teaching Assistant Pursuing degree at Department of Statistics, Texas A&M University Jim...

  9. Biography U. Dsterloh Degree: PD Dr.- Ing. habil. Institution...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    U. Dsterloh Degree: PD Dr.- Ing. habil. Institution: Clausthal University of Technology. Chair: chair for waste disposal technologies and geomechanics. 1982- 1988 field of study:...

  10. Non-trivial checks of novel consistency relations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Berezhiani, Lasha; Khoury, Justin; Wang, Junpu E-mail: jkhoury@sas.upenn.edu

    2014-06-01

    Single-field perturbations satisfy an infinite number of consistency relations constraining the squeezed limit of correlation functions at each order in the soft momentum. These can be understood as Ward identities for an infinite set of residual global symmetries, or equivalently as Slavnov-Taylor identities for spatial diffeomorphisms. In this paper, we perform a number of novel, non-trivial checks of the identities in the context of single field inflationary models with arbitrary sound speed. We focus for concreteness on identities involving 3-point functions with a soft external mode, and consider all possible scalar and tensor combinations for the hard-momentum modes. In all these cases, we check the consistency relations up to and including cubic order in the soft momentum. For this purpose, we compute for the first time the 3-point functions involving 2 scalars and 1 tensor, as well as 2 tensors and 1 scalar, for arbitrary sound speed.

  11. On the grade consistent theories of micromorphic elastic solids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Iesan, D.

    2011-02-10

    For the investigation of specific nonlocal phenomena the second-order displacement gradient has been added to the independent constitutive variables used in the classical theories of elastic solids. In this paper we outline the hystorical development of the subject and present a nonlinear grade consistent theory of micromorphic elastic solids in which the independent constitutive variables are the deformation gradient, the second-order displacement gradient, microdeformation tensor, and microdeformation gradient. Then, we present the linearized theory and establish a uniqueness result with no definiteness assumption on the elastic coefficients. The theory is used to obtain the basic eqations of a grade consistent theory of microstretch elastic bodies. The field equations for an isotropic and homogeneous elastic body are presented. A counterpart of the Cauchy-Kowalevski-Somigliana solution of the classical elastodynamics is established.

  12. Full self-consistency versus quasiparticle self-consistency in diagrammatic approaches: Exactly solvable two-site Hubbard model

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Kutepov, A. L.

    2015-07-22

    Self-consistent solutions of Hedin's equations (HE) for the two-site Hubbard model (HM) have been studied. They have been found for three-point vertices of increasing complexity (Γ = 1 (GW approximation), Γ₁ from the first-order perturbation theory, and the exact vertex ΓE). Comparison is made between the cases when an additional quasiparticle (QP) approximation for Green's functions is applied during the self-consistent iterative solving of HE and when QP approximation is not applied. Results obtained with the exact vertex are directly related to the present open question—which approximation is more advantageous for future implementations, GW + DMFT or QPGW + DMFT.more » It is shown that in a regime of strong correlations only the originally proposed GW + DMFT scheme is able to provide reliable results. Vertex corrections based on Perturbation Theory systematically improve the GW results when full self-consistency is applied. The application of QP self-consistency combined with PT vertex corrections shows similar problems to the case when the exact vertex is applied combined with QP sc. An analysis of Ward Identity violation is performed for all studied in this work's approximations and its relation to the general accuracy of the schemes used is provided.« less

  13. Diagnostic Mass-Consistent Wind Field Monte Carlo Dispersion Model

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1991-01-01

    MATHEW generates a diagnostic mass-consistent, three-dimensional wind field based on point measurements of wind speed and direction. It accounts for changes in topography within its calculational domain. The modeled wind field is used by the Langrangian ADPIC dispersion model. This code is designed to predict the atmospheric boundary layer transport and diffusion of neutrally bouyant, non-reactive species as well as first-order chemical reactions and radioactive decay (including daughter products).

  14. Word Pro - Untitled1

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    7 Solar Thermal Collector Domestic Shipments by Market Sector, End-Use, and Type, 2009 End Use Market Sector Type of Collector End Use by Type of Collector 294 U.S. Energy Information Administration / Annual Energy Review 2011 1 Combined space and water heating. 2 Space heating, combined heating, and space cooling. 3 Collectors that generally operate at temperatures below 110 degrees Fahrenheit. 4 Collectors that generally operate in the temperature range of 140 degrees Fahrenheit to 180 degrees

  15. Development and Implementation of Degree Programs in Electric Drive Vehicle

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Technology | Department of Energy 1 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program, and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation PDF icon arravt035_ti_ng_2011_p.pdf More Documents & Publications Development and Implementation of Degree Programs in Electric Drive Vehicle Technology Development and Implementation of Degree Programs in Electric Drive Vehicle Technology Asia/ITS

  16. Dynamically consistent method for mixed quantum-classical simulations: A semiclassical approach

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Antipov, Sergey V.; Ye, Ziyu; Ananth, Nandini

    2015-05-14

    We introduce a new semiclassical (SC) framework, the Mixed Quantum-Classical Initial Value Representation (MQC-IVR), that can be tuned to reproduce existing quantum-limit and classical-limit SC approximations to quantum real-time correlation functions. Applying a modified Filinov transformation to a quantum-limit SC formulation leads to the association of a Filinov parameter with each degree of freedom in the system; varying this parameter from zero to infinity controls the extent of quantization of the corresponding mode. The resulting MQC-IVR expression provides a consistent dynamic framework for mixed quantum-classical simulations and we demonstrate its numerical accuracy in the calculation of real-time correlation functions for a model 1D system and a model 2D system over the full range of quantum- to classical-limit behaviors.

  17. Asymptotic, multigroup flux reconstruction and consistent discontinuity factors

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Trahan, Travis J.; Larsen, Edward W.

    2015-05-12

    Recent theoretical work has led to an asymptotically derived expression for reconstructing the neutron flux from lattice functions and multigroup diffusion solutions. The leading-order asymptotic term is the standard expression for flux reconstruction, i.e., it is the product of a shape function, obtained through a lattice calculation, and the multigroup diffusion solution. The first-order asymptotic correction term is significant only where the gradient of the diffusion solution is not small. Inclusion of this first-order correction term can significantly improve the accuracy of the reconstructed flux. One may define discontinuity factors (DFs) to make certain angular moments of the reconstructed fluxmore » continuous across interfaces between assemblies in 1-D. Indeed, the standard assembly discontinuity factors make the zeroth moment (scalar flux) of the reconstructed flux continuous. The inclusion of the correction term in the flux reconstruction provides an additional degree of freedom that can be used to make two angular moments of the reconstructed flux continuous across interfaces by using current DFs in addition to flux DFs. Thus, numerical results demonstrate that using flux and current DFs together can be more accurate than using only flux DFs, and that making the second angular moment continuous can be more accurate than making the zeroth moment continuous.« less

  18. On the internal consistency of holographic dark energy models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Horvat, R

    2008-10-15

    Holographic dark energy (HDE) models, underpinned by an effective quantum field theory (QFT) with a manifest UV/IR connection, have become convincing candidates for providing an explanation of the dark energy in the universe. On the other hand, the maximum number of quantum states that a conventional QFT for a box of size L is capable of describing relates to those boxes which are on the brink of experiencing a sudden collapse to a black hole. Another restriction on the underlying QFT is that the UV cut-off, which cannot be chosen independently of the IR cut-off and therefore becomes a function of time in a cosmological setting, should stay the largest energy scale even in the standard cosmological epochs preceding a dark energy dominated one. We show that, irrespective of whether one deals with the saturated form of HDE or takes a certain degree of non-saturation in the past, the above restrictions cannot be met in a radiation dominated universe, an epoch in the history of the universe which is expected to be perfectly describable within conventional QFT.

  19. Self-consistent chemical model of partially ionized plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arkhipov, Yu. V.; Baimbetov, F. B.; Davletov, A. E.

    2011-01-15

    A simple renormalization theory of plasma particle interactions is proposed. It primarily stems from generic properties of equilibrium distribution functions and allows one to obtain the so-called generalized Poisson-Boltzmann equation for an effective interaction potential of two chosen particles in the presence of a third one. The same equation is then strictly derived from the Bogolyubov-Born-Green-Kirkwood-Yvon (BBGKY) hierarchy for equilibrium distribution functions in the pair correlation approximation. This enables one to construct a self-consistent chemical model of partially ionized plasmas, correctly accounting for the close interrelation of charged and neutral components thereof. Minimization of the system free energy provides ionization equilibrium and, thus, permits one to study the plasma composition in a wide range of its parameters. Unlike standard chemical models, the proposed one allows one to study the system correlation functions and thereby to obtain an equation of state which agrees well with exact results of quantum-mechanical activity expansions. It is shown that the plasma and neutral components are strongly interrelated, which results in the short-range order formation in the corresponding subsystem. The mathematical form of the results obtained enables one to both firmly establish this fact and to determine a characteristic length of the structure formation. Since the cornerstone of the proposed self-consistent chemical model of partially ionized plasmas is an effective pairwise interaction potential, it immediately provides quite an efficient calculation scheme not only for thermodynamical functions but for transport coefficients as well.

  20. Measuring consistent masses for 25 Milky Way globular clusters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kimmig, Brian; Seth, Anil; Ivans, Inese I.; Anderton, Tim; Gregersen, Dylan; Strader, Jay; Caldwell, Nelson

    2015-02-01

    We present central velocity dispersions, masses, mass-to-light ratios (M/Ls ), and rotation strengths for 25 Galactic globular clusters (GCs). We derive radial velocities of 1951 stars in 12 GCs from single order spectra taken with Hectochelle on the MMT telescope. To this sample we add an analysis of available archival data of individual stars. For the full set of data we fit King models to derive consistent dynamical parameters for the clusters. We find good agreement between single-mass King models and the observed radial dispersion profiles. The large, uniform sample of dynamical masses we derive enables us to examine trends of M/L with cluster mass and metallicity. The overall values of M/L and the trends with mass and metallicity are consistent with existing measurements from a large sample of M31 clusters. This includes a clear trend of increasing M/L with cluster mass and lower than expected M/Ls for the metal-rich clusters. We find no clear trend of increasing rotation with increasing cluster metallicity suggested in previous work.

  1. Self-Consistent Cosmological Simulations of DGP Braneworld Gravity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schmidt, Fabian; /Chicago U., Astron. Astrophys. Ctr. /KICP, Chicago

    2009-09-01

    We perform cosmological N-body simulations of the Dvali-Gabadadze-Porrati braneworld model, by solving the full non-linear equations of motion for the scalar degree of freedom in this model, the brane bending mode. While coupling universally to matter, the brane-bending mode has self-interactions that become important as soon as the density field becomes non-linear. These self-interactions lead to a suppression of the field in high-density environments, and restore gravity to General Relativity. The code uses a multi-grid relaxation scheme to solve the non-linear field equation in the quasi-static approximation. We perform simulations of a flat self-accelerating DGP model without cosmological constant. However, the type of non-linear interactions of the brane-bending mode, which are the focus of this study, are generic to a wide class of braneworld cosmologies. The results of the DGP simulations are compared with standard gravity simulations assuming the same expansion history, and with DGP simulations using the linearized equation for the brane bending mode. This allows us to isolate the effects of the non-linear self-couplings of the field which are noticeable already on quasi-linear scales. We present results on the matter power spectrum and the halo mass function, and discuss the behavior of the brane bending mode within cosmological structure formation. We find that, independently of CMB constraints, the self-accelerating DGP model is strongly constrained by current weak lensing and cluster abundance measurements.

  2. EIA Energy Information Administration

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    temperatures continuing to be 4 to 9 degrees Fahrenheit below normal in the four cities (Atlanta, Chicago, Houston, and New York) monitored by this report. Prices on the spot...

  3. Table Definitions, Sources, and Explanatory Notes

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    It is a colorless liquid that boils at a temperature of 156.2 degrees Fahrenheit. Isooctane Isooctane (C8H18). A saturated branch-chain hydrocarbon with chemical name 2,2,4 ...

  4. A meeting of the minds when NYC CoolRoofs visits PPPL | Princeton...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    which collected data on three white "cool roofs," including one on the Museum of Modern Art Queens in Long Island City, and found there was a 42 degree Fahrenheit difference...

  5. EIA-813, Monthly Crude Oil Report Page 1 U. S. DEPARTMENT OF...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    transporting Alaskan crude oil by water in the 50 States and the District of Columbia. ... month, corrected to 60 degrees Fahrenheit (F) less basic sediment and water (BS&W). ...

  6. EIA-803, Weekly Crude Oil Stocks Report Page 1 U. S. DEPARTMENT...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    transporting Alaskan crude oil by water in the 50 States and the District of Columbia. ... reported corrected to 60 degrees Fahrenheit ( 0 F) less basic sediment and water (BS&W). ...

  7. Table Definitions, Sources, and Explanatory Notes

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    having a maximum distillation temperature of 400 degrees Fahrenheit at the ... R-R diesel fuel used for railroad locomotive engines, and Type T-T for diesel-engine trucks. ...

  8. 2005 Residential Energy Consumption Survey

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ... foot at a pressure base of 14.73 pounds standard per square inch absolute and a temperature base of 60 degrees Fahrenheit; Cubic meter is a unit of measure which equals 35.314 ...

  9. Geothermal Technology Breakthrough in Alaska: Harvesting Heat...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    geothermal exploration at lower temperatures, thanks to a ... degrees Fahrenheit).This innovation increases the ... Hot Springs to reduce the cost of power from 0.30 per kWh ...

  10. Frequently Asked Questions Form EIA-857

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ... For the second issue, you must carefully consider the business your customers are in. If ... This adjustment factor is the value of your pressure base at 60-degrees Fahrenheit divided ...

  11. RAPID/Roadmap/5-CO-a | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    five hundred (2,500) feet or that expects to encounter geothermal fluids having a temperature greater than two hundred and twelve (212) degrees Fahrenheit. (Rule 4.2.28.1)....

  12. spaceheat_household2001.pdf

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ... location is over a period of one year, relative to a base temperature of 65 degrees Fahrenheit. A household is assigned to a climate zone according to the 30-year average annual ...

  13. Groundwater Cleanup Progresses at Paducah Site | Department of...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    The electrical resistance heating (ERH) system features 52 borings, each with three 10-foot-long metal electrodes that heat soil to more than 194 degrees Fahrenheit to evaporate ...

  14. Secretary Chu's Statement to the Senate Committee of Environment...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    in 2007 that, if we continued on this course, there was a 50 percent chance of global average air temperature increasing by more than 7 degrees Fahrenheit in this century. ...

  15. U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    48 contiguous states averaged 41 degrees Fahrenheit, 7% colder than the same period last winter, according to data from Bentek Energy. Average power burn through March 18 rose by...

  16. Brief 66 Nuclear Engineering Enrollments and Degrees Survey, 2009 Data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dr. Larry M. Blair, Analysis and Evaluation, Science Education Programs

    2010-03-01

    The survey includes degrees granted between September 1, 2008 and August 31, 2009, and fall 2009 enrollments. Thirty-two academic programs reported having nuclear engineering programs during 2009, and data was obtained from all thirty-two.

  17. Microsoft Word - VI_12_Degrees Awarded 2015.doc

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    nuclear systems A. Bonasera Post Doc. at INFN - Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Catania, Italy STUDENTS WHO RECEIVED GRADUATE DEGREES FROM NON-THESIS April 1, 2014 - March 31, 2015 ...

  18. Comparison of 180-degree and 90-degree needle rotation to reduce wound size in PIT-injected juvenile Chinook salmon

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bryson, Amanda J.; Woodley, Christa M.; Karls, Rhonda K.; Hall, Kathleen D.; Weiland, Mark A.; Deng, Zhiqun; Carlson, Thomas J.; Eppard, Matthew B.

    2013-04-30

    Animal telemetry, which requires the implantation of passive transponders or active transmitters, is used to monitor and assess fish stock and conservation to gain an understanding of fish movement and behavior. As new telemetry technologies become available, studies of their effects on species of interest are imperative as is development of implantation techniques. In this study, we investigated the effects of bevel rotation (0-, 90-, 180-degree axis rotation) on wound extent, tag loss, and wound healing rates in juvenile Chinook salmon injected with an 8-gauge needle, which is required for implantation of the novel injectable Juvenile Salmon Acoustic Telemetry Systems (JSATS) acoustic transmitter or large passive integrated transponder (PIT) tags. Although the injection sites were not closed after injection (e.g., with sutures or glue), there were no mortalities, dropped tags, or indications of fungus, ulceration, and/or redness around the wound. On Day 0 and post-implantation Day 7, the 90-degree bevel rotation produced smaller wound extent than the 180-degree bevel rotation. No axis rotation (0-degrees) resulted in the PIT tag frequently misleading or falling out upon injection. The results of this study indicated the 90-degree bevel rotation was the more efficient technique, produced less wound extent. Given the wound extent compared to size of fish, we recommend researchers should consider a 90-degree rotation over the 180-degree rotation in telemetry studies. Highlights •Three degrees of needle rotation were examined for effects in Chinook salmon. •Mortality, tag loss, wound extent, healing, and infection indicators were measured. •There were no mortalities, tag loss, or indications of infection. •The 90-degree needle rotation through Day 7 produced the smallest wound extent.

  19. Development and Implementation of Degree Programs in Electric Drive Vehicle

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Technology | Department of Energy 2 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting PDF icon arravt035_ti_ng_2012_o.pdf More Documents & Publications Development and Implementation of Degree Programs in Electric Drive Vehicle Technology Development and Implementation of Degree Programs in Electric Drive Vehicle Technology GATE: Energy Efficient Vehicles for Sustainable Mobility

  20. High degree of molecular orientation by a combination of THz and femtosecond laser pulses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kitano, Kenta; Ishii, Nobuhisa; Itatani, Jiro [Institute for Solid State Physics, University of Tokyo, 5-1-5 Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8581 (Japan) and CREST, Japan Science and Technology Agency, 5 Sanbancho, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 102-0075 (Japan)

    2011-11-15

    We propose a method for achieving molecular orientation by two-step excitation with intense femtosecond laser and terahertz (THz) pulses. First, the femtosecond laser pulse induces off-resonant impulsive Raman excitation to create rotational wave packets. Next, a delayed intense THz pulse effectively induces resonant dipole transition between neighboring rotational states. By controlling the intensities of both the pulses and the time delay, we can create rotational wave packets consisting of states with different parities in order to achieve a high degree of molecular orientation under a field-free condition. We numerically demonstrate that the highest degree of orientation of >0.8 in HBr molecules is feasible under experimentally available conditions.

  1. THE PRODUCT CONSISTENCY TEST HOW AND WHY IT WAS DEVELOPED

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jantzen, C; Ned Bibler, N

    2008-12-15

    The Product Consistency Test (PCT), American Society for Testing Materials (ASTM) Standard C1285, is currently used world wide for testing glass and glass-ceramic waste forms for high level waste (HLW), low level waste (LLW), and hazardous wastes. Development of the PCT was initiated in 1986 because HLW glass waste forms required extensive characterization before actual production began and required continued characterization during production ({ge}25 years). Non-radioactive startup was in 1994 and radioactive startup was in 1996. The PCT underwent extensive development from 1986-1994 and became an ASTM consensus standard in 1994. During the extensive laboratory testing and inter- and intra-laboratory round robins using non-radioactive and radioactive glasses, the PCT was shown to be very reproducible, to yield reliable results rapidly, to distinguish between glasses of different durability and homogeneity, and to easily be performed in shielded cell facilities with radioactive samples. In 1997, the scope was broadened to include hazardous and mixed (radioactive and hazardous) waste glasses. In 2002, the scope was broadened to include glass-ceramic waste forms which are currently being recommended for second generation nuclear wastes yet to be generated in the nuclear renaissance. Since the PCT has proven useful for glass-ceramics with up to 75% ceramic component and has been used to evaluate Pu ceramic waste forms, the use of this test for other ceramic/mineral waste forms such as geopolymers, hydroceramics, and fluidized bed steam reformer mineralized product is under investigation.

  2. A consistent approach to falsifying ?CDM with rare galaxy clusters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harrison, Ian; Hotchkiss, Shaun E-mail: shaun.hotchkiss@helsinki.fi

    2013-07-01

    We consider methods with which to answer the question ''is any observed galaxy cluster too unusual for ?CDM?'' After emphasising that many previous attempts to answer this question will overestimate the confidence level at which ?CDM can be ruled out, we outline a consistent approach to these rare clusters, which allows the question to be answered. We define three statistical measures, each of which are sensitive to changes in cluster populations arising from different modifications to the cosmological model. We also use these properties to define the ''equivalent mass at redshift zero'' for a cluster the mass of an equally unusual cluster today. This quantity is independent of the observational survey in which the cluster was found, which makes it an ideal proxy for ranking the relative unusualness of clusters detected by different surveys. These methods are then used on a comprehensive sample of observed galaxy clusters and we confirm that all are less than 2? deviations from the ?CDM expectation. Whereas we have only applied our method to galaxy clusters, it is applicable to any isolated, collapsed, halo. As motivation for future surveys, we also calculate where in the mass redshift plane the rarest halo is most likely to be found, giving information as to which objects might be the most fruitful in the search for new physics.

  3. First principles molecular dynamics without self-consistent field optimization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Souvatzis, Petros; Niklasson, Anders M. N.

    2014-01-28

    We present a first principles molecular dynamics approach that is based on time-reversible extended Lagrangian Born-Oppenheimer molecular dynamics [A. M. N. Niklasson, Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 123004 (2008)] in the limit of vanishing self-consistent field optimization. The optimization-free dynamics keeps the computational cost to a minimum and typically provides molecular trajectories that closely follow the exact Born-Oppenheimer potential energy surface. Only one single diagonalization and Hamiltonian (or Fockian) construction are required in each integration time step. The proposed dynamics is derived for a general free-energy potential surface valid at finite electronic temperatures within hybrid density functional theory. Even in the event of irregular functional behavior that may cause a dynamical instability, the optimization-free limit represents a natural starting guess for force calculations that may require a more elaborate iterative electronic ground state optimization. Our optimization-free dynamics thus represents a flexible theoretical framework for a broad and general class of ab initio molecular dynamics simulations.

  4. IMPROVING CONSISTENCY OF PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENTS IN THE DOE COMPLEX

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Seitz, R; Elmer Wilhite, E

    2009-01-20

    The low-level waste (LLW) performance assessment (PA) process has been traditionally focused on disposal facilities at a few United States Department of Energy (USDOE) sites and commercial disposal facilities. In recent years, there has been a dramatic increase in the scope of the use of PA-like modeling approaches, involving multiple activities, facilities, contractors and regulators. The scope now includes, for example: (1) National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) assessments, (2) CERCLA disposal cells, (3) Waste Determinations and High-Level Waste (HLW) Closure activities, (4) Potential on-site disposal of Transuranic (TRU) waste, and (5) In-situ decommissioning (including potential use of existing facilities for disposal). The dramatic increase in the variety of activities requiring more detailed modeling has resulted in a similar increase in the potential for inconsistency in approaches both at a site and complexwide scale. This paper includes a summary of USDOE Environmental Management (EM) sponsored initiatives and activities for improved consistency. New initiatives entitled the Performance Assessment Community of Practice and Performance Assessment Assistance Team are also introduced.

  5. ERUPTION OF A SOLAR FILAMENT CONSISTING OF TWO THREADS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bi Yi; Jiang Yunchun; Li Haidong; Hong Junchao; Zheng Ruisheng E-mail: jyc@ynao.ac.cn

    2012-10-10

    The trigger and driving mechanism for the eruption of a filament consisting of two dark threads was studied with unprecedented high cadence and resolution of He II 304 A observations made by the Atmospheric Imagining Assembly (AIA) on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) and the observations made by the Solar Magnetic Activity Research Telescope and the Extreme Ultraviolet Imager (EUVI) telescope on board the Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory Ahead (STEREO-A). The filament was located at the periphery of the active region NOAA 11228 and erupted on 2011 June 6. At the onset of the eruption, a turbulent filament thread was found to be heated and to elongate in stride over a second one. After it rose slowly, most interestingly, the elongating thread was driven to contact and interact with the second one, and it then erupted with its southern leg being wrapped by a newly formed thread produced by the magnetic reconnection between fields carried by the two threads. Combining the observations from STEREO-A/EUVI and SDO/AIA 304 A images, the three-dimensional shape of the axis of the filament was obtained and it was found that only the southern leg of the eruptive filament underwent rotation. We suggest that the eruption was triggered by the reconnection of the turbulent filament thread and the surrounding magnetic field, and that it was mainly driven by the kink instability of the southern leg of the eruptive filament that possessed a more twisted field introduced by the reconnection-produced thread.

  6. Instantaneous spatially local projective measurements are consistent in a relativistic quantum field

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lin, Shih-Yuin

    2012-12-15

    Suppose the postulate of measurement in quantum mechanics can be extended to quantum field theory; then a local projective measurement at some moment on an object locally coupled with a relativistic quantum field will result in a projection or collapse of the wavefunctional of the combined system defined on the whole time-slice associated with the very moment of the measurement, if the relevant degrees of freedom have nonzero correlations. This implies that the wavefunctionals in the same Hamiltonian system but defined in different reference frames would collapse on different time-slices passing through the same local event where the measurement was done. Are these post-measurement states consistent with each other? We illustrate that the quantum states of the Raine-Sciama-Grove detector-field system started with the same initial Gaussian state defined on the same initial time-slice, then collapsed by the measurements on the pointlike detectors on different time-slices in different frames, will evolve to the same state of the combined system up to a coordinate transformation when compared on the same final time-slice. Such consistency is guaranteed by the spatial locality of interactions and the general covariance in a relativistic system, together with the spatial locality of measurements and the linearity of quantum dynamics in its quantum theory. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Spatially local quantum measurements in detector-field models are studied. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Local quantum measurement collapses the wavefunctional on the whole time-slice. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer In different frames wavefunctionals of a field would collapse on different time-slices. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer States collapsed by the same measurement will be consistent on the same final slice.

  7. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Alternative Fuel Excise Tax Compressed natural gas motor fuel is subject to the state fuel excise tax at the rate of $0.30 per 120 cubic feet, measured at 14.73 pounds per square inch and 60 degrees Fahrenheit. Propane motor fuel is subject to the excise tax $0.30 per 1.3 gallons at 60 degrees Fahrenheit. (Reference Oregon Revised Statutes 319.530

  8. Table Definitions, Sources, and Explanatory Notes

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Heat Content of Natural Gas Consumed Definitions Key Terms Definition British Thermal Unit (Btu) The quantity of heat required to raise the temperature of 1 pound of liquid water by 1 degree Fahrenheit at the temperature at which water has its greatest density (approximately 39 degrees Fahrenheit). Delivered to Consumers (Heat Content) Heat content of residential, commercial, industrial, vehicle fuel and electric power deliveries to consumers. Electric Power (Heat Content) Heat content of

  9. Higher-degree linear approximations of nonlinear systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Karahan, S.

    1989-01-01

    In this dissertation, the author develops a new method for obtaining higher degree linear approximations of nonlinear control systems. The standard approach in the analysis and synthesis of nonlinear systems is a first order approximation by a linear model. This is usually performed by obtaining a series expansion of the system at some nominal operating point and retaining only the first degree terms in the series. The accuracy of this approximation depends on how far the system moves away from the normal point, and on the relative magnitudes of the higher degree terms in the series expansion. The approximation is achieved by finding an appropriate nonlinear coordinate transformation-feedback pair to perform the higher degree linearization. With the proposed method, one can improve the accuracy of the approximation up to arbitrarily higher degrees, provided certain solvability conditions are satisfied. The Hunt-Su linearizability theorem makes these conditions precise. This approach is similar to Poincare's Normal Form Theorem in formulation, but different in its solution method. After some mathematical background the author derives a set of equations (called the Homological Equations). A solution to this system of linear equations is equivalent to the solution to the problem of approximate linearization. However, it is generally not possible to solve the system of equations exactly. He outlines a method for systematically finding approximate solutions to these equations using singular value decomposition, while minimizing an error with respect to some defined norm.

  10. Six-degree-of-freedom multi-axes positioning apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bieg, L.F.X.

    1999-05-11

    A six-degree-of-freedom multi-axes positioning apparatus is comprised of a geometry of six independent angle connectors. Each angle connector connects two fixed length rods to a pivot on one of two opposing platforms. The combination of an angle connector, at least two pivots and at least two rods having free ends connected to the pivots comprises a leg assembly. The spatial location of the upper platform is changed in relation to the lower platform by angular changes within each angle connector. This angular change results in degrees of motion within the apparatus defined as X, Y, Z, Tip, Tilt, and Rotation, or a combination of the above. This invention is known as a ROTOPOD. 9 figs.

  11. Six-degree-of-freedom multi-axes positioning apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bieg, Lothar F. X.

    1999-01-01

    A six-degree-of-freedom multi-axes positioning apparatus is comprised of a geometry of six independent angle connectors. Each angle connector connects two fixed length rods to a pivot on one of two opposing platforms. The combination of an angle connector, at least two pivots and at least two rods having free ends connected to the pivots comprises a leg assembly. The spatial location of the upper platform is changed in relation to the lower platform by angular changes within each angle connector. This angular change results in degrees of motion within the apparatus defined as X, Y, Z, Tip, Tilt, and Rotation, or a combination of the above. This invention is known as a ROTOPOD.

  12. Scattering of particles with internal degrees of freedom

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Slipushenko, S. V.; Tur, A. V.; Yanovsky, V. V.

    2013-08-15

    The scattering of particles with a small number of internal degrees of freedom is considered. Billiard formalism is used to study the scattering of two such structurally complex particles. The main scattering characteristics are found. Various types of scattering modes are revealed. In particular, a mode is detected when the velocity of motion of such particles away from each other is higher than their approach velocity before the collision. The scattering of such particles is shown to occur after a finite number of collisions. A generalized Newton law is proposed for the collision of particles with a small number of degrees of freedom, and the form of the effective coefficient of restitution is found.

  13. Grain boundary energy in 5 degrees of freedom space

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2012-09-21

    GB5DOF is a program written in MatLab for computing excess energy of an arbitrary grain boundary defined by its 5 geometrical degrees of freedom. The program is written in the form of a single self-contained function callable from within commercially available MatLab software package. The function takes a geometric description of the boundary and material identity as input parameters and returns the predicted boundary energy.

  14. Elf well turns 90/degree/- and stays there

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Astier, B.; Jourdan, A.; Baron, G.

    1981-01-01

    As part of an intensive research program, the French association IFP (Institut Francais du Petrole) and Elf-Aquitaine have drilled the first European horizontal hole. The well was spudded conventionally and then deviated so that its final path was horizontal, 2,198 ft (670 m) below the surface. More than 330 ft (100 m) were drilled between 89/degree/ and 92/degree/ of inclination. The project started with reservoir engineering studies aimed at demonstrating, on mathematical models, the effectiveness of a horizontal drain hole in areas where hydrocarbon recovery is poor or unsatisfactory, due to gas or water coning, poor flooding patterns, intersection of fractures in tight but fractured producing formations, or other causes. This technique has a number of potential applications both in and out of the oil industry. The well was drilled in 44 days. Horizontal displacement was 2,192 ft (668 m) with a total vertical depth of 2,198 ft (670 m). To accomplish this, it was necessary to drill 3,563 ft (1,086 m) of hole. In the 17/one-half/-in. hole, 73/4-in. drill collars and 5-in. heavy weight drill pipe were run above the bent sub and the monel collar. While reaming the hole, the drill string was rotated conventionally, one near bit and one stabilizer (30 ft above) being included in the string.

  15. The different varieties of the Suyama-Yamaguchi consistency relation and its violation as a signal of statistical inhomogeneity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rodrguez, Yeinzon; Almeida, Juan P. Beltrn; Valenzuela-Toledo, Csar A. E-mail: juanpbeltran@uan.edu.co

    2013-04-01

    We present the different consistency relations that can be seen as variations of the well known Suyama-Yamaguchi (SY) consistency relation ?{sub NL}?((6/5)f{sub NL}){sup 2}, the latter involving the levels of non-gaussianity f{sub NL} and ?{sub NL} in the primordial curvature perturbation ?. It has been (implicitly) claimed that the following variation: ?{sub NL}(k{sub 1},k{sub 3})?((6/5)){sup 2}f{sub NL}(k{sub 1})f{sub NL}(k{sub 3}), which we call ''the fourth variety'', in the collapsed (for ?{sub NL}) and squeezed (for f{sub NL}) limits is always satisfied independently of any physics; however, the proof depends sensitively on the assumption of scale-invariance (expressing this way the fourth variety of the SY consistency relation as ?{sub NL}?((6/5)f{sub NL}){sup 2}) which only applies for cosmological models involving Lorentz-invariant scalar fields (at least at tree level), leaving room for a strong violation of this variety of the consistency relation when non-trivial degrees of freedom, for instance vector fields, are in charge of the generation of the primordial curvature perturbation. With this in mind as a motivation, we explicitly state, in the first part of this work, under which conditions the SY consistency relation has been claimed to hold in its different varieties (implicitly) presented in the literature since its inception back in 2008; as a result, we show for the first time that the variety ?{sub NL}(k{sub 1},k{sub 1})?((6/5)f{sub NL}(k{sub 1})){sup 2}, which we call ''the fifth variety'', is always satisfied even when there is strong scale-dependence and high levels of statistical anisotropy as long as statistical homogeneity holds: thus, an observed violation of this specific variety would prevent the comparison between theory and observation, shaking this way the foundations of cosmology as a science. In the second part, we concern about the existence of non-trivial degrees of freedom, concretely vector fields for which the levels of non-gaussianity have been calculated for very few models; among them, and by making use of the ?N formalism at tree level, we study a class of models that includes the vector curvaton scenario, vector inflation, and the hybrid inflation with coupled vector and scalar ''waterfall field'' where ? is generated at the end of inflation, finding that the fourth variety of the SY consistency relation is indeed strongly violated for some specific wavevector configurations while the fifth variety continues to be well satisfied. Finally, as a byproduct of our investigation, we draw attention to a quite recently demonstrated variety of the SY consistency relation: ?{sup iso}{sub NL}?((6/5)f{sup iso}{sub NL}){sup 2}, in scenarios where scalar and vector fields contribute to the generation of the primordial curvature perturbation; this variety of the SY consistency relation is satisfied although the isotropic pieces of the non-gaussianity parameters receive contributions from the vector fields. We discuss further implications for observational cosmology.

  16. Third minima in thorium and uranium isotopes in a self-consistent...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Third minima in thorium and uranium isotopes in a self-consistent theory Title: Third minima in thorium and uranium isotopes in a self-consistent theory Authors: McDonnell, J. D. ; ...

  17. IR Spectrometer Using 90-degree Off-axis Parabolic Mirrors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robert M. Malone, Richard, G. Hacking, Ian J. McKenna, and Daniel H. Dolan

    2008-09-02

    A gated spectrometer has been designed for real-time, pulsed infrared (IR) studies at the National Synchrotron Light ource at the Brookhaven National Laboratory. A pair of 90-degree, off-axis parabolic mirrors are used to relay the light from an entrance slit to an output IR recording camera. With an initial wavelength range of 15004500 nm required, gratings could not be used in the spectrometer because grating orders would overlap. A magnesium oxide prism, placed between these parabolic mirrors, serves as the dispersion element. The spectrometer is doubly telecentric. With proper choice of the air spacing between the prism and the second parabolic mirror, any spectral region of interest within the InSb camera arrays sensitivity region can be recorded. The wavelengths leaving the second parabolic mirror are collimated, thereby relaxing the camera positioning tolerance. To set up the instrument, two different wavelength (visible) lasers are introduced at the entrance slit and made collinear with the optical axis via flip mirrors. After dispersion by the prism, these two laser beams are directed to tick marks located on the outside housing of the gated IR camera. This provides first-order wavelength calibration for the instrument. Light that is reflected off the front prism face is coupled into a high-speed detector to verify steady radiance during the gated spectral imaging. Alignment features include tick marks on the prism and parabolic mirrors. This instrument was designed to complement singlepoint pyrometry, which provides continuous time histories of a small collection of spots from shock-heated targets.

  18. Survey Universe. The survey includes degrees granted between September 1, 2010

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    health physics or in an option program equivalent to a major. Twenty-four academic programs reported having health physics programs during 2011. The data for two health physics options within nuclear engineering programs are also included in the enrollments and degrees that are reported in the nuclear engineering enrollments and degrees data. Degree Trends. Bachelor degrees increased slightly between 2010 and 2011, but were 15% less than during 2005 through 2009 and 30% less than in the

  19. Brief 71 Health Physics Enrollments and Degrees, 2011 Summary (11-12

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dr. Don Johnson

    2012-11-07

    The survey includes degrees granted between September 1, 2010 and August 31, 2011. Enrollment information refers to the fall term 2011. The enrollment and degree data include students majoring in health physics or in an option program equivalent to a major. Twenty-four academic programs reported having health physics programs during 2011. The data for two health physics options within nuclear engineering programs are also included in the enrollments and degrees that are reported in the nuclear engineering enrollments and degrees data.

  20. Quantification of the degree of reaction of fly ash

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ben Haha, M.; De Weerdt, K.; Lothenbach, B.

    2010-11-15

    The quantification of the fly ash (FA) in FA blended cements is an important parameter to understand the effect of the fly ash on the hydration of OPC and on the microstructural development. The FA reaction in two different blended OPC-FA systems was studied using a selective dissolution technique based on EDTA/NaOH, diluted NaOH solution, the portlandite content and by backscattered electron image analysis. The amount of FA determined by selective dissolution using EDTA/NaOH is found to be associated with a significant possible error as different assumptions lead to large differences in the estimate of FA reacted. In addition, at longer hydration times, the reaction of the FA is underestimated by this method due to the presence of non-dissolved hydrates and MgO rich particles. The dissolution of FA in diluted NaOH solution agreed during the first days well with the dissolution as observed by image analysis. At 28 days and longer, the formation of hydrates in the diluted solutions leads to an underestimation. Image analysis appears to give consistent results and to be most reliable technique studied.

  1. July 4, 2012: Discovery of a particle "consistent" with Higgs Boson |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy 4, 2012: Discovery of a particle "consistent" with Higgs Boson July 4, 2012: Discovery of a particle "consistent" with Higgs Boson July 4, 2012: Discovery of a particle "consistent" with Higgs Boson Researchers announce in a seminar at the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) in Geneva, Switzerland, that experiments by a global team of scientists using the Large Hadron Collider's CMS and ATLAS particle detectors has resulted in

  2. A self-consistent phase-field approach to implicit solvation...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Publisher's Accepted Manuscript: A self-consistent phase-field approach to implicit solvation of charged molecules with Poisson-Boltzmann electrostatics This content will become...

  3. Self-consistency tests of large-scale dynamics parameterizations for

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    single-column modeling (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Self-consistency tests of large-scale dynamics parameterizations for single-column modeling Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Self-consistency tests of large-scale dynamics parameterizations for single-column modeling Large-scale dynamics parameterizations are tested numerically in cloud-resolving simulations, including a new version of the weak-pressure-gradient approximation (WPG) introduced by Edman and Romps (2014), the

  4. Third minima in thorium and uranium isotopes in a self-consistent theory

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (Journal Article) | DOE PAGES Third minima in thorium and uranium isotopes in a self-consistent theory Title: Third minima in thorium and uranium isotopes in a self-consistent theory Authors: McDonnell, J. D. ; Nazarewicz, W. ; Sheikh, J. A. Publication Date: 2013-05-22 OSTI Identifier: 1102733 Type: Publisher's Accepted Manuscript Journal Name: Physical Review C Additional Journal Information: Journal Volume: 87; Journal Issue: 5; Journal ID: ISSN 0556-2813 Publisher: American Physical

  5. A scalable consistent second-order SPH solver for unsteady low Reynolds

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    number flows (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Journal Article: A scalable consistent second-order SPH solver for unsteady low Reynolds number flows Citation Details In-Document Search This content will become publicly available on April 2, 2017 Title: A scalable consistent second-order SPH solver for unsteady low Reynolds number flows Authors: Trask, Nathaniel Search SciTech Connect for author "Trask, Nathaniel" Search SciTech Connect for ORCID "0000000315756380"

  6. Self-consistent determination of low-[ital Z][sub [ital a

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vahala, L.; Gerdin, G.; El Cashlan, A.G. ); Parks, P. )

    1992-10-01

    The ablation dynamics of LiT pellets are solved self-consistently over a modest range of parameters using a surface dissociation model. The self-consistently determined parameters are then used to modify the standard low-[ital Z] pellet penetration codes. Since LiT pellets have certain advantages over carbon [in particular, Li conditioning of the walls and T for refueling a D--T reaction], the penetration of LiT into fusion plasmas is considered.

  7. BILIWG: Consistent "Figures of Merit" (Presentation) | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    BILIWG: Consistent "Figures of Merit" (Presentation) BILIWG: Consistent "Figures of Merit" (Presentation) Presented at the 2007 Bio-Derived Liquids to Hydrogen Distributed Reforming Working Group held November 6, 2007 in Laurel, Maryland. PDF icon 14_doe_biliwg_figures_of_merit.pdf More Documents & Publications Idaho Operations AMWTP Fact Sheet Greenpower Trap Mufflerl System CERTIFIED REALTY SPECIALIST

  8. ORISE: Report by ORISE shows health physics degrees declined on all levels

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    in 2014 Health physics degrees declined in 2014, enrollment trends reverse Enrollment data suggests slowly declining trends FOR IMMEDIATE RELEASE June 25, 2015 FY15-37 OAK RIDGE, Tenn.-The total number of degrees awarded to students graduating with majors in health physics has declined across undergraduate, graduate and doctoral programs for the first time in four years. The report conducted by the Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education, titled Health Physics Enrollments and Degrees

  9. ORISE: Number of health physics degrees granted in 2013 has increased...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Number of health physics degrees granted in 2013 has increased for undergraduates, ... OAK RIDGE, Tenn.-The number of college students graduating with majors in health physics ...

  10. The solubility of hydrogen in plutonium in the temperature range 475 to 825 degrees centigrade

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Allen, T.H.

    1991-01-01

    The solubility of hydrogen (H) in plutonium metal (Pu) was measured in the temperature range of 475 to 825{degree}C for unalloyed Pu (UA) and in the temperature range of 475 to 625{degree}C for Pu containing two-weight-percent gallium (TWP). For TWP metal, in the temperature range 475 to 600{degree}C, the saturated solution has a maximum hydrogen to plutonium ration (H/Pu) of 0.00998 and the standard enthalpy of formation ({Delta}H{degree}{sub f(s)}) is (-0.128 {plus minus} 0.0123) kcal/mol. The phase boundary of the solid solution in equilibrium with plutonium dihydride (PuH{sub 2}) is temperature independent. In the temperature range 475 to 625{degree}C, UA metal has a maximum solubility at H/Pu = 0.011. The phase boundary between the solid solution region and the metal+PuH{sub 2} two-phase region is temperature dependent. The solubility of hydrogen in UA metal was also measured in the temperature range 650 to 825{degree}C with {Delta}H{degree}{sub f(s)} = (-0.104 {plus minus} 0.0143) kcal/mol and {Delta}S{degree}{sub f(s)} = 0. The phase boundary is temperature dependent and the maximum hydrogen solubility has H/Pu = 0.0674 at 825{degree}C. 52 refs., 28 figs., 9 tabs.

  11. Statistical dynamics of classical systems: A self-consistent field approach

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grzetic, Douglas J. Wickham, Robert A.; Shi, An-Chang

    2014-06-28

    We develop a self-consistent field theory for particle dynamics by extremizing the functional integral representation of a microscopic Langevin equation with respect to the collective fields. Although our approach is general, here we formulate it in the context of polymer dynamics to highlight satisfying formal analogies with equilibrium self-consistent field theory. An exact treatment of the dynamics of a single chain in a mean force field emerges naturally via a functional Smoluchowski equation, while the time-dependent monomer density and mean force field are determined self-consistently. As a simple initial demonstration of the theory, leaving an application to polymer dynamics for future work, we examine the dynamics of trapped interacting Brownian particles. For binary particle mixtures, we observe the kinetics of phase separation.

  12. Solvent effects in time-dependent self-consistent field methods. I. Optical response calculations

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Bjorgaard, J. A.; Kuzmenko, V.; Velizhanin, K. A.; Tretiak, S.

    2015-01-22

    In this study, we implement and examine three excited state solvent models in time-dependent self-consistent field methods using a consistent formalism which unambiguously shows their relationship. These are the linear response, state specific, and vertical excitation solvent models. Their effects on energies calculated with the equivalent of COSMO/CIS/AM1 are given for a set of test molecules with varying excited state charge transfer character. The resulting solvent effects are explained qualitatively using a dipole approximation. It is shown that the fundamental differences between these solvent models are reflected by the character of the calculated excitations.

  13. Ni.sub.3 Al-based intermetallic alloys having improved strength above 850.degree. C.

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Liu, Chain T.

    2000-01-01

    Intermetallic alloys composed essentially of: 15.5% to 17.0% Al, 3.5% to 5.5% Mo, 4% to 8% Cr, 0.04% to 0.2% Zr, 0.04% to 1.5% B, balance Ni, are characterized by melting points above 1200.degree. C. and superior strengths at temperatures above 1000.degree. C.

  14. Method for determination of the degree of compensation for electrically active impurities in multivalley semiconductors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baranskii, P. I.; Gaidar, G. P.

    2013-06-15

    A method for determination of the degree of compensation k = N{sub a}/N{sub d} for shallow impurities in n-Si crystals with a nondegenerate electron gas is suggested. Data facilitating practical determination of the degree of compensation are given.

  15. Self-consistency tests of large-scale dynamics parameterizations for single-column modeling

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Edman, Jacob P.; Romps, David M.

    2015-03-18

    Large-scale dynamics parameterizations are tested numerically in cloud-resolving simulations, including a new version of the weak-pressure-gradient approximation (WPG) introduced by Edman and Romps (2014), the weak-temperature-gradient approximation (WTG), and a prior implementation of WPG. We perform a series of self-consistency tests with each large-scale dynamics parameterization, in which we compare the result of a cloud-resolving simulation coupled to WTG or WPG with an otherwise identical simulation with prescribed large-scale convergence. In self-consistency tests based on radiative-convective equilibrium (RCE; i.e., no large-scale convergence), we find that simulations either weakly coupled or strongly coupled to either WPG or WTG are self-consistent, butmore » WPG-coupled simulations exhibit a nonmonotonic behavior as the strength of the coupling to WPG is varied. We also perform self-consistency tests based on observed forcings from two observational campaigns: the Tropical Warm Pool International Cloud Experiment (TWP-ICE) and the ARM Southern Great Plains (SGP) Summer 1995 IOP. In these tests, we show that the new version of WPG improves upon prior versions of WPG by eliminating a potentially troublesome gravity-wave resonance.« less

  16. A proposal for a UPC memory consistency model, v1.0

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yelick, Katherine; Bonachea, Dan; Wallace, Charles

    2004-05-05

    The memory consistency model in a language defines the order in which the results of write operations maybe observed through read operations. The behavior of a UPC program may depend on the timing of accesses to shared variables, so a program defines a set of possible executions, rather than a single execution. The memory consistency model constrains the set of possible executions for a given program; the user may then rely on properties that are true of all of those executions. The memory consistency model is defined in terms of the read and write operations issued by each thread in naive translation of the code, i.e., without any code transformations by the compiler, with each thread issuing operations as defined by the abstract machine defined in ISO C 5.1.2.3. A UPC compiler or run time system may perform various code transformations to improve performance, so long as they are not visible to the programmer - i.e., provided the set of externally-visible behaviors (the input/output dynamics and volatile behavior defined in ISO C 5.1.2.3) from any execution of the transformed program are identical to those of the original program executing on the abstract machine and adhering to the consistency model defined in this document.

  17. Training Reciprocity Achieves Greater Consistency, Saves Time and Money for Idaho, Other DOE Sites

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    IDAHO FALLS, Idaho – Contracting companies supporting EM’s cleanup program at the Idaho site volunteered to be among the first to use a new DOE training reciprocity program designed to bring more consistency to health and safety training across the complex, reduce redundancy and realize savings and other efficiencies.

  18. Multiple degree-of-freedom mechanical interface to a computer system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rosenberg, Louis B.

    2001-01-01

    A method and apparatus for providing high bandwidth and low noise mechanical input and output for computer systems. A gimbal mechanism provides two revolute degrees of freedom to an object about two axes of rotation. A linear axis member is coupled to the gimbal mechanism at the intersection of the two axes of rotation. The linear axis member is capable of being translated along a third axis to provide a third degree of freedom. The user object is coupled to the linear axis member and is thus translatable along the third axis so that the object can be moved along all three degrees of freedom. Transducers associated with the provided degrees of freedom include sensors and actuators and provide an electromechanical interface between the object and a digital processing system. Capstan drive mechanisms transmit forces between the transducers and the object. The linear axis member can also be rotated about its lengthwise axis to provide a fourth degree of freedom, and, optionally, a floating gimbal mechanism is coupled to the linear axis member to provide fifth and sixth degrees of freedom to an object. Transducer sensors are associated with the fourth, fifth, and sixth degrees of freedom. The interface is well suited for simulations of medical procedures and simulations in which an object such as a stylus or a joystick is moved and manipulated by the user.

  19. Geomechanical testing of Bayou Choctaw 102B core for SPR analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ingraham, Mathew Duffy; Broome, Scott Thomas; Bauer, Stephen J.; Barrow, Perry Carl; Flint, Gregory Mark

    2014-02-01

    A laboratory testing program was developed to examine the short-term mechanical and time-dependent (creep) behavior of salt from the Bayou Choctaw Salt Dome. This report documents the test methodologies, and constitutive properties inferred from tests performed. These are used to extend our understanding of the mechanical behavior of the Bayou Choctaw domal salt and provide a data set for numerical analyses. The resulting information will be used to support numerical analyses of the current state of the Bayou Choctaw Dome as it relates to its crude oil storage function as part of the US Strategic Petroleum Reserve. Core obtained from Drill Hole BC-102B was tested under creep and quasi-static constant mean stress axisymmetric compression, and constant mean stress axisymmetric extension conditions. Creep tests were performed at 100 degrees Fahrenheit, and the axisymmetric tests were performed at ambient temperatures (72-78 degrees Fahrenheit). The testing performed indicates that the dilation criterion is pressure and stress state dependent. It was found that as the mean stress increases, the shear stress required to cause dilation increases. The results for this salt are reasonably consistent with those observed for other domal salts. Also it was observed that tests performed under extensile conditions required consistently lower shear stress to cause dilation for the same mean stress, which is consistent with other domal salts. Young's moduli ranged from 3.95 x 106 to 8.51 x 106 psi with an average of 6.44 x 106 psi, with Poisson's ratios ranging from 0.10 to 0.43 with an average of 0.30. Creep testing indicates that the BC salt is intermediate in creep resistance when compared with other bedded and domal salt steady-state behavior.

  20. Self-consistent field theory based molecular dynamics with linear system-size scaling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Richters, Dorothee; Khne, Thomas D.

    2014-04-07

    We present an improved field-theoretic approach to the grand-canonical potential suitable for linear scaling molecular dynamics simulations using forces from self-consistent electronic structure calculations. It is based on an exact decomposition of the grand canonical potential for independent fermions and does neither rely on the ability to localize the orbitals nor that the Hamilton operator is well-conditioned. Hence, this scheme enables highly accurate all-electron linear scaling calculations even for metallic systems. The inherent energy drift of Born-Oppenheimer molecular dynamics simulations, arising from an incomplete convergence of the self-consistent field cycle, is circumvented by means of a properly modified Langevin equation. The predictive power of the present approach is illustrated using the example of liquid methane under extreme conditions.

  1. Standardized Retrofit Packages - What Works to Meet Consistent Levels of Performance: Midwest Energy Efficiency Alliance

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Building America Webinar Series Standardized Retrofit Packages - What Works to Meet Consistent Levels of Performance: Midwest Energy Efficiency Alliance Scott Yee March 19 th , 2014 1 Midwest Energy Efficiency Alliance (MEEA) Midwest Energy Efficiency Alliance 2 MEEA is a collaborative network whose purpose is to advance energy efficiency to support sustainable economic development and environmental preservation. Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit (PARR) Midwest Energy Efficiency

  2. Negative running of the spectral index, hemispherical asymmetry and the consistency of Planck with large r

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McDonald, John

    2014-11-01

    Planck favours a negative running of the spectral index, with the likelihood being dominated by low multipoles l?<50 and no preference for running at higher l. A negative spectral index is also necessary for the 2- Planck upper bound on the tensor-to-scalar ratio r to be consistent with values significantly larger than 0.1. Planck has also observed a hemispherical asymmetry of the CMB power spectrum, again mostly at low multipoles. Here we consider whether the physics responsible for the hemispherical asymmetry could also account for the negative running of the spectral index and the consistency of Planck with a large value of r. A negative running of the spectral index can be generated if the hemispherical asymmetry is due to a scale- and space-dependent modulation which suppresses the CMB power spectrum at low multipoles. We show that the observed hemispherical asymmetry at low l can be generated while satisfying constraints on the asymmetry at higher l and generating a negative spectral index of the right magnitude to account for the Planck observation and to allow Planck to be consistent with a large value of r.

  3. Examining the consistency relations describing the three-point functions involving tensors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sreenath, V.; Sriramkumar, L. E-mail: sriram@physics.iitm.ac.in

    2014-10-01

    It is well known that the non-Gaussianity parameter f{sub NL} characterizing the scalar bi-spectrum can be expressed in terms of the scalar spectral index in the squeezed limit, a property that is referred to as the consistency relation. In contrast to the scalar bi-spectrum, the three-point cross-correlations involving scalars and tensors and the tensor bi-spectrum have not received adequate attention, which can be largely attributed to the fact that the tensors had remained undetected at the level of the power spectrum until very recently. The detection of the imprints of the primordial tensor perturbations by BICEP2 and its indication of a rather high tensor-to-scalar ratio, if confirmed, can open up a new window for understanding the tensor perturbations, not only at the level of the power spectrum, but also in the realm of non-Gaussianities. In this work, we consider the consistency relations associated with the three-point cross-correlations involving scalars and tensors as well as the tensor bi-spectrum in inflationary models driven by a single, canonical, scalar field. Characterizing the cross-correlations in terms of the dimensionless non-Gaussianity parameters C{sub NL}{sup R} and C{sub NL}{sup γ} that we had introduced earlier, we express the consistency relations governing the cross-correlations as relations between these non-Gaussianity parameters and the scalar or tensor spectral indices, in a fashion similar to that of the purely scalar case. We also discuss the corresponding relation for the non-Gaussianity parameter h{sub NL} used to describe the tensor bi-spectrum. We analytically establish these consistency relations explicitly in the following two situations: a simple example involving a specific case of power law inflation and a non-trivial scenario in the so-called Starobinsky model that is governed by a linear potential with a sharp change in its slope. We also numerically verify the consistency relations in three types of inflationary models that permit deviations from slow roll and lead to scalar power spectra with features which typically result in an improved fit to the data than the more conventional, nearly scale invariant, spectra. We close with a summary of the results we have obtained.

  4. EM Contractors’ Donations Support 4-Year Engineering Degree at USC Aiken

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    EM contractors URS and Savannah River Remediation (SRR) pledged to contribute $400,000 over several years to help fund a proposed four-year engineering degree at the University of South Carolina Aiken (USC Aiken).

  5. Transient stability enhancement of electric power generating systems by 120-degree phase rotation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cresap, Richard L.; Taylor, Carson W.; Kreipe, Michael J.

    1982-01-01

    A method and system for enhancing the transient stability of an intertied three-phase electric power generating system. A set of power exporting generators (10) is connected to a set of power importing generators (20). When a transient cannot be controlled by conventional stability controls, and imminent loss of synchronism is detected (such as when the equivalent rotor angle difference between the two generator sets exceeds a predetermined value, such as 150 degrees), the intertie is disconnected by circuit breakers. Then a switch (30) having a 120-degree phase rotation, or a circuit breaker having a 120-degree phase rotation is placed in the intertie. The intertie is then reconnected. This results in a 120-degree reduction in the equivalent rotor angle difference between the two generator sets, making the system more stable and allowing more time for the conventional controls to stabilize the transient.

  6. ORISE: Number of health physics degrees granted in 2013 has increased for

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    undergraduates, declined for graduates Number of health physics degrees granted in 2013 has increased for undergraduates, declined for graduates Enrollment data suggests current trend likely to continue in 2014 and 2015 FOR IMMEDIATE RELEASE April 1, 2014 FY14-18 OAK RIDGE, Tenn.-The number of college students graduating with majors in health physics has increased slightly for bachelor's degrees, but decreased for both master's and doctoral candidates. The report, titled Health Physics

  7. Degree of dispersion of latex particles in cement paste, as assessed by electrical resistivity measurement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fu, X.; Chung, D.D.L.

    1996-12-31

    The degree of dispersion of latex particles in latex-modified cement paste was assessed by measurement of the volume electrical resistivity and modeling this resistivity in terms of latex and cement phases that are partly in series and partly in parallel. The assessment was best at low values of the latex-cement ratio; it underestimated the degree of latex dispersion when the latex/cement ratio was high, especially > 0.2.

  8. Multiple Fano interferences in a plasmonic metamolecule consisting of asymmetric metallic nanodimers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Le, Khai Q.; Alù, Andrea; Bai, Jing

    2015-01-14

    We theoretically explore signatures of plasmonic Fano interferences in a subwavelength plasmonic metamolecule consisting of closely packed asymmetric gold nanodimers, which lead to the possibility of generating multiple Fano resonances in the scattering spectrum. This spectral feature is attributed to the interference between bright and dark plasmonic modes sustained by the constituent nanodimers. The excited Fano dips are highly sensitive in both wavelength and amplitude to geometry and background dielectric medium. The tunability of induced Fano resonances associated with enhanced electric fields from the visible to infrared region provides promising applications, particularly in refractive index sensing, light-trapping, and photon up-converting.

  9. Properties of hadronic systems according to the non-extensive self-consistent thermodynamics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Deppman, A.

    2014-11-11

    The non-extensive self-consistent theory describing the thermodynamics of hadronic systems at high temperatures is used to derive some thermodynamical quantities, as pressure, entropy, speed of sound and trace-anomaly. The calculations are free of fitting parameters, and the results are compared to lattice QCD calculations, showing a good agreement between theory and data up to temperatures around 175 MeV. Above this temperature the effects of a singularity in the partition function at T{sub o} = 192 MeV results in a divergent behaviour in respect with the lattice calculation.

  10. Synchronization in node of complex networks consist of complex chaotic system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wei, Qiang, E-mail: qiangweibeihua@163.com [Beihua University computer and technology College, BeiHua University, Jilin, 132021, Jilin (China); Digital Images Processing Institute of Beihua University, BeiHua University, Jilin, 132011, Jilin (China); Faculty of Electronic Information and Electrical Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian, 116024 (China); Xie, Cheng-jun [Beihua University computer and technology College, BeiHua University, Jilin, 132021, Jilin (China); Digital Images Processing Institute of Beihua University, BeiHua University, Jilin, 132011, Jilin (China); Liu, Hong-jun [School of Information Engineering, Weifang Vocational College, Weifang, 261041 (China); Li, Yan-hui [The Library, Weifang Vocational College, Weifang, 261041 (China)

    2014-07-15

    A new synchronization method is investigated for node of complex networks consists of complex chaotic system. When complex networks realize synchronization, different component of complex state variable synchronize up to different scaling complex function by a designed complex feedback controller. This paper change synchronization scaling function from real field to complex field for synchronization in node of complex networks with complex chaotic system. Synchronization in constant delay and time-varying coupling delay complex networks are investigated, respectively. Numerical simulations are provided to show the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  11. Alfven-wave particle interaction in finite-dimensional self-consistent field model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Padhye, N.; Horton, W.

    1998-10-09

    A low-dimensional Hamiltonian model is derived for the acceleration of ions in finite amplitude Alfven waves in a finite pressure plasma sheet. The reduced low-dimensional wave-particle Hamiltonian is useful for describing the reaction of the accelerated ions on the wave amplitudes and phases through the self-consistent fields within the envelope approximation. As an example, the authors show for a single Alfven wave in the central plasma sheet of the Earth`s geotail, modeled by the linear pinch geometry called the Harris sheet, the time variation of the wave amplitude during the acceleration of fast protons.

  12. Some exploitations of the self-consistent QRPA approach with the Gogny force

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peru, S.; Martini, M.; Dupuis, M.

    2012-10-20

    Fully consistent axially-symmetric-deformed quasiparticle random phase approximation calculations have been performed with the D1S Gogny force. Giant resonances in exotic nuclei as well as in deformed Mg and Si isotopes have been studied. Dipole responses have been calculated in Ne isotopes and N=16 isotones to study the existence of soft dipole modes in exotic nuclei. The same formalism has been used to describe multipole responses up to octupole in the deformed and heavy nucleus {sup 238}U. Low energy spectroscopy of nickel isotopes has been studied, revealing 0{sup +} states which display a particular structure.

  13. Third Minima in Thorium and Uranium Isotopes in a Self-Consistent Theory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McDonnell, J. D.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Well-developed third minima, corresponding to strongly elongated and reflection-asymmetric shapes associated with dimolecular configurations, have been predicted in some non-self-consistent models to impact fission pathways of thorium and uranium isotopes. These predictions have guided the interpretation of resonances seen experimentally. On the other hand, self-consistent calculations consistently predict very shallow potential-energy surfaces in the third minimum region.

    Purpose: We investigate the interpretation of third-minimum configurations in terms of dimolecular (cluster) states. We study the isentropic potential-energy surfaces of selected even-even thorium and uranium isotopes at several excitation energies. In order to understand the driving effects behind the presence of third minima, we study the interplay between pairing and shell effects.

    Methods: We use the finite-temperature superfluid nuclear density functional theory. We consider two Skyrme energy density functionals: a traditional functional SkM and a recent functional UNEDF1 optimized for fission studies.

    Results: We predict very shallow or no third minima in the potential-energy surfaces of 232Th and 232U. In the lighter Th and U isotopes with N = 136 and 138, the third minima are better developed. We show that the reflection-asymmetric configurations around the third minimum can be associated with dimolecular states involving the spherical doubly magic 132Sn and a lighter deformed Zr or Mo fragment. The potential-energy surfaces for 228,232Th and 232U at several excitation energies are presented. We also study isotopic chains to demonstrate the evolution of the depth of the third minimum with neutron number.

    Conclusions: We show that the neutron shell effect that governs the existence of the dimolecular states around the third minimum is consistent with the spherical-to-deformed shape transition in the Zr andMo isotopes around N = 58.We demonstrate that the depth of the third minimum is sensitive to the excitation energy of the nucleus. In particular, the thermal reduction of pairing, and related enhancement of shell effects, at small excitation energies help to develop deeper third minima. At large excitation energies, shell effects are washed out and third minima disappear altogether.

  14. Significantly Shorter Fe-S Bond in Cytochrome P450-I is Consistent with

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Greater Reactivity Relative to Chloroperoxidase | Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource Significantly Shorter Fe-S Bond in Cytochrome P450-I is Consistent with Greater Reactivity Relative to Chloroperoxidase Monday, August 31, 2015 C-H bond activation is often considered the "holy grail" of inorganic chemists, as the ability to specifically activate C-H bonds would be one of the most used transformations in all of chemistry. Cytochrome P450s (P450s) are thiolate ligated heme

  15. Fractional charge and spin errors in self-consistent Greens function theory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Phillips, Jordan J. Kananenka, Alexei A.; Zgid, Dominika

    2015-05-21

    We examine fractional charge and spin errors in self-consistent Greens function theory within a second-order approximation (GF2). For GF2, it is known that the summation of diagrams resulting from the self-consistent solution of the Dyson equation removes the divergences pathological to second-order Mller-Plesset (MP2) theory for strong correlations. In the language often used in density functional theory contexts, this means GF2 has a greatly reduced fractional spin error relative to MP2. The natural question then is what effect, if any, does the Dyson summation have on the fractional charge error in GF2? To this end, we generalize our previous implementation of GF2 to open-shell systems and analyze its fractional spin and charge errors. We find that like MP2, GF2 possesses only a very small fractional charge error, and consequently minimal many electron self-interaction error. This shows that GF2 improves on the critical failings of MP2, but without altering the positive features that make it desirable. Furthermore, we find that GF2 has both less fractional charge and fractional spin errors than typical hybrid density functionals as well as random phase approximation with exchange.

  16. How important is self-consistency for the dDsC density dependent dispersion correction?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brémond, Éric; Corminboeuf, Clémence; Golubev, Nikolay; Department of Chemistry, M. V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow 119991 ; Steinmann, Stephan N.

    2014-05-14

    The treatment of dispersion interactions is ubiquitous but computationally demanding for seamless ab initio approaches. A highly popular and simple remedy consists in correcting for the missing interactions a posteriori by adding an attractive energy term summed over all atom pairs to standard density functional approximations. These corrections were originally based on atom pairwise parameters and, hence, had a strong touch of empiricism. To overcome such limitations, we recently proposed a robust system-dependent dispersion correction, dDsC, that is computed from the electron density and that provides a balanced description of both weak inter- and intramolecular interactions. From the theoretical point of view and for the sake of increasing reliability, we here verify if the self-consistent implementation of dDsC impacts ground-state properties such as interaction energies, electron density, dipole moments, geometries, and harmonic frequencies. In addition, we investigate the suitability of the a posteriori scheme for molecular dynamics simulations, for which the analysis of the energy conservation constitutes a challenging tests. Our study demonstrates that the post-SCF approach in an excellent approximation.

  17. Road Map for Studies to Produce Consistent and High Performance SRF Accelerator Structures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ganapati Rao Myneni; John F. OHanlon

    2007-06-20

    Superconducting Radio Frequency (SRF) accelerator structures made from high purity niobium are becoming the technological choice for a large number of future accelerators and energy recovery LINACs (ERL). Most of the presently planned accelerators and ERL requirements will be met with some effort by the current SRF technology where accelerating gradients of about 20 MV/m can be produced on a routine basis with an acceptable yield. However, the XFEL at DESY and the planned ILC require acceleration gradients more than 28 MV/m and 35 MV/m respectively. At the recent ILC meeting at Snowmass (2005) concern was expressed regarding the wide spread in the achieved accelerator gradients and the relatively low yields. For obtaining accelerating gradients of 35 MV/m in SRF accelerator structures consistently, a deeper understanding of the causes for the spread has to be gained and advances have to be made in many scientific and high technology fields, including materials, surface and vacuum sciences, application of reliable processes and procedures, which provide contamination free surfaces and avoid recontamination and cryogenics related technologies. In this contribution a road map for studies needed to produce consistent and high performance SRF accelerator structures from the needed materials development to clean and non-recontaminating processes and procedures will be presented.

  18. Radio-frequency sheaths physics: Experimental characterization on Tore Supra and related self-consistent modeling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jacquot, Jonathan; Colas, Laurent Corre, Yann; Goniche, Marc; Gunn, Jamie; Kubič, Martin; Milanesio, Daniele; Heuraux, Stéphane

    2014-06-15

    During the 2011 experimental campaign, one of the three ion cyclotron resonance heating (ICRH) antennas in the Tore Supra tokamak was equipped with a new type of Faraday screen (FS). The new design aimed at minimizing the integrated parallel electric field over long field lines as well as increasing the heat exhaust capability of the actively cooled screen. It proved to be inefficient for attenuating the radio-frequency (RF)-sheaths on the screen itself on the contrary to the heat exhaust concept that allowed operation despite higher heat fluxes on the antenna. In parallel, a new approach has been proposed to model self-consistently RF sheaths: the SSWICH (Self-consistent Sheaths and Waves for IC Heating) code. Simulations results from SSWICH coupled with the TOPICA antenna code were able to reproduce the difference between the two FS designs and part of the spatial pattern of heat loads and Langmuir probe floating potential. The poloidal pattern is a reliable result that mainly depends on the electrical design of the antenna while the radial pattern is on the contrary highly sensitive to loosely constrained parameters such as perpendicular conductivity that generates a DC current circulation from the private region inside the antenna limiters to the free scrape off layer outside these limiters. Moreover, the cantilevered bars seem to be the element in the screen design that enhanced the plasma potential.

  19. Status and Opportunities for Improving the Consistency of Technical Reference Manuals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jayaweera, Tina; Velonis, Aquila; Haeri, Hossein; Goldman, Charles A.; Schiller, Steven R.

    2012-05-01

    Across the United States, energy-efficiency program administrators rely on Technical Reference Manuals (TRMs) as sources for calculations and deemed savings values for specific, well-defined efficiency measures. TRMs play an important part in energy efficiency program planning by providing a common and consistent source for calculation of ex ante and often ex post savings. They thus help reduce energy-efficiency resource acquisition costs by obviating the need for extensive measurement and verification and lower performance risk for program administrators and implementation contractors. This paper considers the benefits of establishing region-wide or national TRMs and considers the challenges of such undertaking due to the difficulties in comparing energy savings across jurisdictions. We argue that greater consistency across TRMs in the approaches used to determine deemed savings values, with more transparency about assumptions, would allow better comparisons in savings estimates across jurisdictions as well as improve confidence in reported efficiency measure savings. To support this thesis, we review approaches for the calculation of savings for select measures in TRMs currently in use in 17 jurisdictions. The review reveals differences in the saving methodologies, technical assumptions, and input variables used for estimating deemed savings values. These differences are described and their implications are summarized, using four, common energy-efficiency measures as examples. Recommendations are then offered for establishing a uniform approach for determining deemed savings values.

  20. Self-consistent inclusion of classical large-angle Coulomb collisions in plasma Monte Carlo simulations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Turrell, A.E. Sherlock, M.; Rose, S.J.

    2015-10-15

    Large-angle Coulomb collisions allow for the exchange of a significant proportion of the energy of a particle in a single collision, but are not included in models of plasmas based on fluids, the Vlasov–Fokker–Planck equation, or currently available plasma Monte Carlo techniques. Their unique effects include the creation of fast ‘knock-on’ ions, which may be more likely to undergo certain reactions, and distortions to ion distribution functions relative to what is predicted by small-angle collision only theories. We present a computational method which uses Monte Carlo techniques to include the effects of large-angle Coulomb collisions in plasmas and which self-consistently evolves distribution functions according to the creation of knock-on ions of any generation. The method is used to demonstrate ion distribution function distortions in an inertial confinement fusion (ICF) relevant scenario of the slowing of fusion products.

  1. Methods for consistent forewarning of critical events across multiple data channels

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hively, Lee M.

    2006-11-21

    This invention teaches further method improvements to forewarn of critical events via phase-space dissimilarity analysis of data from biomedical equipment, mechanical devices, and other physical processes. One improvement involves conversion of time-serial data into equiprobable symbols. A second improvement is a method to maximize the channel-consistent total-true rate of forewarning from a plurality of data channels over multiple data sets from the same patient or process. This total-true rate requires resolution of the forewarning indications into true positives, true negatives, false positives and false negatives. A third improvement is the use of various objective functions, as derived from the phase-space dissimilarity measures, to give the best forewarning indication. A fourth improvement uses various search strategies over the phase-space analysis parameters to maximize said objective functions. A fifth improvement shows the usefulness of the method for various biomedical and machine applications.

  2. Consistent generation and functionalization of one-dimensional cross sections for TRAC-BF1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Munoz-Cobo, J.L.; Verdu, G.; Pereira, C.; Escriva, A.; Rodenas, J. . Dept. of Chemical and Nuclear Engineering); Castrillo, F.; Serra, J. )

    1994-08-01

    A method of calculation of correct functionalized cross sections and diffusion coefficients for TRAC-BF1, based on the one-dimensional kinetic files of the tridimensional simulator SIMULATE-3, is developed. The method allows the user to obtain first the consistent one-dimensional cross sections, diffusion coefficients, and bucklings, which upon being inserted into TRAC-BF1 conserve the three-dimensional eigenvalues, the planar reaction rates, and the fast and thermal radially averaged fluxes at each axial node. This method also compensates for the differences between the thermal-hydraulic models of the three-dimensional simulator and the transient analysis code. The errors obtained with this method are very small.

  3. Self-Consistent Multiscale Theory of Internal Wave, Mean-Flow Interactions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holm, D.D.; Aceves, A.; Allen, J.S.; Alber, M.; Camassa, R.; Cendra, H.; Chen, S.; Duan, J.; Fabijonas, B.; Foias, C.; Fringer, O.; Gent, P.R.; Jordan, R.; Kouranbaeva, S.; Kovacic, G.; Levermore, C.D.; Lythe, G.; Lifschitz, A.; Marsden, J.E.; Margolin, L.; Newberger, P.; Olson, E.; Ratiu, T.; Shkoller, S.; Timofeyev, I.; Titi, E.S.; Wynn, S.

    1999-06-03

    This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The research reported here produced new effective ways to solve multiscale problems in nonlinear fluid dynamics, such as turbulent flow and global ocean circulation. This was accomplished by first developing new methods for averaging over random or rapidly varying phases in nonlinear systems at multiple scales. We then used these methods to derive new equations for analyzing the mean behavior of fluctuation processes coupled self consistently to nonlinear fluid dynamics. This project extends a technology base relevant to a variety of multiscale problems in fluid dynamics of interest to the Laboratory and applies this technology to those problems. The project's theoretical and mathematical developments also help advance our understanding of the scientific principles underlying the control of complex behavior in fluid dynamical systems with strong spatial and temporal internal variability.

  4. Non-perturbative and self-consistent models of neutron stars in R-squared gravity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yazadjiev, Stoytcho S.; Doneva, Daniela D.; Kokkotas, Kostas D.; Staykov, Kalin V. E-mail: daniela.doneva@uni-tuebingen.de E-mail: kalin.v.staikov@gmail.com

    2014-06-01

    In the present paper we investigate non-perturbatively and self-consistently the structure of neutron stars in R-squared gravity by simultaneously solving the interior and exterior problem. The mass-radius relations are obtained for several equations of state and for wide range of the R-squared gravity parameter a. Even though the deviation from general relativity for nonzero values of a can be large, they are still comparable with the variations due to different modern realistic equations of state. That is why the current observations of the neutron star masses and radii alone can not put constraints on the value of the parameter a. We also compare our results with those obtained within the perturbative method and we discuss the differences between them.

  5. Improved master equation approach to quantum transport: From Born to self-consistent Born approximation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jin, Jinshuang; Li, Jun; Liu, Yu; Li, Xin-Qi; Yan, YiJing

    2014-06-28

    Beyond the second-order Born approximation, we propose an improved master equation approach to quantum transport under self-consistent Born approximation. The basic idea is to replace the free Green's function in the tunneling self-energy diagram by an effective reduced propagator under the Born approximation. This simple modification has remarkable consequences. It not only recovers the exact results for quantum transport through noninteracting systems under arbitrary voltages, but also predicts the challenging nonequilibrium Kondo effect. Compared to the nonequilibrium Green's function technique that formulates the calculation of specific correlation functions, the master equation approach contains richer dynamical information to allow more efficient studies for such as the shot noise and full counting statistics.

  6. Method for using global optimization to the estimation of surface-consistent residual statics

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Reister, David B.; Barhen, Jacob; Oblow, Edward M.

    2001-01-01

    An efficient method for generating residual statics corrections to compensate for surface-consistent static time shifts in stacked seismic traces. The method includes a step of framing the residual static corrections as a global optimization problem in a parameter space. The method also includes decoupling the global optimization problem involving all seismic traces into several one-dimensional problems. The method further utilizes a Stochastic Pijavskij Tunneling search to eliminate regions in the parameter space where a global minimum is unlikely to exist so that the global minimum may be quickly discovered. The method finds the residual statics corrections by maximizing the total stack power. The stack power is a measure of seismic energy transferred from energy sources to receivers.

  7. Physically consistent simulation of mesoscale chemical kinetics: The non-negative FIS-{alpha} method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dana, Saswati, E-mail: saswatid@rishi.serc.iisc.ernet.in [Supercomputer Education and Research Centre, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012 (India); Raha, Soumyendu, E-mail: raha@serc.iisc.ernet.in [Supercomputer Education and Research Centre, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012 (India)

    2011-10-01

    Biochemical pathways involving chemical kinetics in medium concentrations (i.e., at mesoscale) of the reacting molecules can be approximated as chemical Langevin equations (CLE) systems. We address the physically consistent non-negative simulation of the CLE sample paths as well as the issue of non-Lipschitz diffusion coefficients when a species approaches depletion and any stiffness due to faster reactions. The non-negative Fully Implicit Stochastic {alpha} (FIS {alpha}) method in which stopped reaction channels due to depleted reactants are deleted until a reactant concentration rises again, for non-negativity preservation and in which a positive definite Jacobian is maintained to deal with possible stiffness, is proposed and analysed. The method is illustrated with the computation of active Protein Kinase C response in the Protein Kinase C pathway.

  8. Quantum Chemistry, and Eclectic Mix: From Silicon Carbide to Size Consistency

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jamie Marie Rintelman

    2004-12-19

    Chemistry is a field of great breadth and variety. It is this diversity that makes for both an interesting and challenging field. My interests have spanned three major areas of theoretical chemistry: applications, method development, and method evaluation. The topics presented in this thesis are as follows: (1) a multi-reference study of the geometries and relative energies of four atom silicon carbide clusters in the gas phase; (2) the reaction of acetylene on the Si(100)-(2x1) surface; (3) an improvement to the Effective Fragment Potential (EFP) solvent model to enable the study of reactions in both aqueous and nonaqueous solution; and (4) an evaluation of the size consistency of Multireference Perturbation Theory (MRPT). In the following section, the author briefly discusses two topics central to, and present throughout, this thesis: Multi-reference methods and Quantum Mechanics/Molecular Mechanics (QM/MM) methods.

  9. A consistency relation for the CMB B-mode polarization in the squeezed limit

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kehagias, A.; Dizgah, A. Moradinezhad; Norea, J.; Perrier, H.; Riotto, A. E-mail: Azadeh.Moradinezhad@unige.ch E-mail: Hideki.Perrier@unige.ch

    2014-10-01

    A large-scale temperature perturbation has a non-zero correlation with the power spectrum of B-modes of cosmological origin on short scales while the corresponding correlation is expected to be zero for B-modes sourced by galactic foregrounds. We thus compute the squeezed limit of a three-point function in which one correlates the temperature fluctuations at large scales with two polarization modes at small scales. In the particular case of the B-mode polarization we obtain a relation that connects the squeezed limit of the TBB three-point function with the cosmological B-mode power spectrum, which can be used as a consistency relation. This could in principle help to distinguish a primordial signal from that induced by inter-stellar dust.

  10. Overview of the Special Issue: A Multi-Model Framework to Achieve Consistent Evaluation of Climate Change Impacts in the United States

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Waldhoff, Stephanie T.; Martinich, Jeremy; Sarofim, Marcus; DeAngelo, B. J.; McFarland, Jim; Jantarasami, Lesley; Shouse, Kate C.; Crimmins, Allison; Ohrel, Sara; Li, Jia

    2015-07-01

    The Climate Change Impacts and Risk Analysis (CIRA) modeling exercise is a unique contribution to the scientific literature on climate change impacts, economic damages, and risk analysis that brings together multiple, national-scale models of impacts and damages in an integrated and consistent fashion to estimate climate change impacts, damages, and the benefits of greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation actions in the United States. The CIRA project uses three consistent socioeconomic, emissions, and climate scenarios across all models to estimate the benefits of GHG mitigation policies: a Business As Usual (BAU) and two policy scenarios with radiative forcing (RF) stabilization targets of 4.5 W/m2 and 3.7 W/m2 in 2100. CIRA was also designed to specifically examine the sensitivity of results to uncertainties around climate sensitivity and differences in model structure. The goals of CIRA project are to 1) build a multi-model framework to produce estimates of multiple risks and impacts in the U.S., 2) determine to what degree risks and damages across sectors may be lowered from a BAU to policy scenarios, 3) evaluate key sources of uncertainty along the causal chain, and 4) provide information for multiple audiences and clearly communicate the risks and damages of climate change and the potential benefits of mitigation. This paper describes the motivations, goals, and design of the CIRA modeling exercise and introduces the subsequent papers in this special issue.

  11. Surface density of spacetime degrees of freedom from equipartition law in theories of gravity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Padmanabhan, T.

    2010-06-15

    I show that the principle of equipartition, applied to area elements of a surface {partial_derivative}V which are in equilibrium at the local Davies-Unruh temperature, allows one to determine the surface number density of the microscopic spacetime degrees of freedom in any diffeomorphism invariant theory of gravity. The entropy associated with these degrees of freedom matches with the Wald entropy for the theory. This result also allows one to attribute an entropy density to the spacetime in a natural manner. The field equations of the theory can then be obtained by extremizing this entropy. Moreover, when the microscopic degrees of freedom are in local thermal equilibrium, the spacetime entropy of a bulk region resides on its boundary.

  12. Consistent satellite XCO2 retrievals from SCIAMACHY and GOSAT using the BESD algorithm

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Heymann, J.; Reuter, M.; Hilker, M.; Buchwitz, M.; Schneising, O.; Bovensmann, H.; Burrows, J. P.; Kuze, A.; Suto, H.; Deutscher, N. M.; et al

    2015-02-13

    Consistent and accurate long-term data sets of global atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide (CO2) are required for carbon cycle and climate related research. However, global data sets based on satellite observations may suffer from inconsistencies originating from the use of products derived from different satellites as needed to cover a long enough time period. One reason for inconsistencies can be the use of different retrieval algorithms. We address this potential issue by applying the same algorithm, the Bremen Optimal Estimation DOAS (BESD) algorithm, to different satellite instruments, SCIAMACHY on-board ENVISAT (March 2002–April 2012) and TANSO-FTS on-board GOSAT (launched in Januarymore » 2009), to retrieve XCO2, the column-averaged dry-air mole fraction of CO2. BESD has been initially developed for SCIAMACHY XCO2 retrievals. Here, we present the first detailed assessment of the new GOSAT BESD XCO2 product. GOSAT BESD XCO2 is a product generated and delivered to the MACC project for assimilation into ECMWF's Integrated Forecasting System (IFS). We describe the modifications of the BESD algorithm needed in order to retrieve XCO2 from GOSAT and present detailed comparisons with ground-based observations of XCO2 from the Total Carbon Column Observing Network (TCCON). We discuss detailed comparison results between all three XCO2 data sets (SCIAMACHY, GOSAT and TCCON). The comparison results demonstrate the good consistency between the SCIAMACHY and the GOSAT XCO2. For example, we found a mean difference for daily averages of −0.60 ± 1.56 ppm (mean difference ± standard deviation) for GOSAT-SCIAMACHY (linear correlation coefficient r = 0.82), −0.34 ± 1.37 ppm (r = 0.86) for GOSAT-TCCON and 0.10 ± 1.79 ppm (r = 0.75) for SCIAMACHY-TCCON. The remaining differences between GOSAT and SCIAMACHY are likely due to non-perfect collocation (±2 h, 10° × 10° around TCCON sites), i.e., the observed air masses are not exactly identical, but likely also due to a still non-perfect BESD retrieval algorithm, which will be continuously improved in the future. Our overarching goal is to generate a satellite-derived XCO2 data set appropriate for climate and carbon cycle research covering the longest possible time period. We therefore also plan to extend the existing SCIAMACHY and GOSAT data set discussed here by using also data from other missions (e.g., OCO-2, GOSAT-2, CarbonSat) in the future.« less

  13. The physical squeezed limit: consistency relations at order q{sup 2}

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Creminelli, Paolo; Perko, Ashley; Senatore, Leonardo; Simonovi?, Marko; Trevisan, Gabriele E-mail: perko@stanford.edu E-mail: msimonov@sissa.it

    2013-11-01

    In single-field models of inflation the effect of a long mode with momentum q reduces to a diffeomorphism at zeroth and first order in q. This gives the well-known consistency relations for the n-point functions. At order q{sup 2} the long mode has a physical effect on the short ones, since it induces curvature, and we expect that this effect is the same as being in a curved FRW universe. In this paper we verify this intuition in various examples of the three-point function, whose behaviour at order q{sup 2} can be written in terms of the power spectrum in a curved universe. This gives a simple alternative understanding of the level of non-Gaussianity in single-field models. Non-Gaussianity is always parametrically enhanced when modes freeze at a physical scale k{sub ph,f} shorter than H: f{sub NL} ? (k{sub ph,f}/H){sup 2}.

  14. Combined uranous nitrate production consisting of undivided electrolytic cell and divided electrolytic cell (Electrolysis ? Electrolytic cell)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yuan, Zhongwei; Yan, Taihong; Zheng, Weifang; Li, Xiaodong; Yang, Hui; Xian, Liang

    2013-07-01

    The electrochemical reduction of uranyl nitrate is a green, mild way to make uranous ions. Undivided electrolyzers whose maintenance is less but their conversion ratio and current efficiency are low, have been chosen. However, at the beginning of undivided electrolysis, high current efficiency can also be maintained. Divided electrolyzers' conversion ratio and current efficiency is much higher because the re-oxidation of uranous on anode is avoided, but their maintenance costs are more, because in radioactive environment the membrane has to be changed after several operations. In this paper, a combined method of uranous production is proposed which consists of 2 stages: undivided electrolysis (early stage) and divided electrolysis (late stage) to benefit from the advantages of both electrolysis modes. The performance of the combined method was tested. The results show that in combined mode, after 200 min long electrolysis (80 min undivided electrolysis and 120 min divided electrolysis), U(IV) yield can achieve 92.3% (500 ml feed, U 199 g/l, 72 cm{sup 2} cathode, 120 mA/cm{sup 2}). Compared with divided mode, about 1/3 working time in divided electrolyzer is reduced to achieve the same U(IV) yield. If 120 min long undivided electrolysis was taken, more than 1/2 working time can be reduced in divided electrolyzer, which means that about half of the maintenance cost can also be reduced. (authors)

  15. On the consistency of QCBED structure factor measurements for TiO2 (Rutile)

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Jiang, Bin; Zuo, Jian -Min; Friis, Jesper; Spence, John C. H.

    2003-09-16

    The same Bragg reflection in TiO2 from twelve different CBED patterns (from different crystals, orientations and thicknesses) are analysed quantitatively in order to evaluate the consistency of the QCBED method for bond-charge mapping. The standard deviation in the resulting distribution of derived X-ray structure factors is found to be an order of magnitude smaller than that in conventional X-ray work, and the standard error (0.026% for FX(110)) is slightly better than obtained by the X-ray Pendellosung method applied to silicon. This is sufficiently accuracy to distinguish between atomic, covalent and ionic models of bonding. We describe the importance of extractingmore » experimental parameters from CCD camera characterization, and of surface oxidation and crystal shape. Thus, the current experiments show that the QCBED method is now a robust and powerful tool for low order structure factor measurement, which does not suffer from the large extinction (multiple scattering) errors which occur in inorganic X-ray crystallography, and may be applied to nanocrystals. Our results will be used to understand the role of d electrons in the chemical bonding of TiO2.« less

  16. Consistent use of type Ia supernovae highly magnified by galaxy clusters to constrain the cosmological parameters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zitrin, Adi [Cahill Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics, California Institute of Technology, MS 249-17, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Redlich, Matthias [Universitt Heidelberg, Zentrum fr Astronomie, Institut fr Theoretische Astrophysik, Philosophenweg 12, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Broadhurst, Tom, E-mail: adizitrin@gmail.com [Department of Theoretical Physics, University of Basque Country UPV/EHU, Bilbao (Spain)

    2014-07-01

    We discuss how Type Ia supernovae (SNe) strongly magnified by foreground galaxy clusters should be self-consistently treated when used in samples fitted for the cosmological parameters. While the cluster lens magnification of a SN can be well constrained from sets of multiple images of various background galaxies with measured redshifts, its value is typically dependent on the fiducial set of cosmological parameters used to construct the mass model. In such cases, one should not naively demagnify the observed SN luminosity by the model magnification into the expected Hubble diagram, which would create a bias, but instead take into account the cosmological parameters a priori chosen to construct the mass model. We quantify the effect and find that a systematic error of typically a few percent, up to a few dozen percent per magnified SN may be propagated onto a cosmological parameter fit unless the cosmology assumed for the mass model is taken into account (the bias can be even larger if the SN is lying very near the critical curves). We also simulate how such a bias propagates onto the cosmological parameter fit using the Union2.1 sample supplemented with strongly magnified SNe. The resulting bias on the deduced cosmological parameters is generally at the few percent level, if only few biased SNe are included, and increases with the number of lensed SNe and their redshift. Samples containing magnified Type Ia SNe, e.g., from ongoing cluster surveys, should readily account for this possible bias.

  17. Average intragranular misorientation trends in polycrystalline materials predicted by a viscoplastic self-consistent approach

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Lebensohn, Ricardo A.; Zecevic, Miroslav; Knezevic, Marko; McCabe, Rodney J.

    2015-12-15

    Here, this work presents estimations of average intragranular fluctuations of lattice rotation rates in polycrystalline materials, obtained by means of the viscoplastic self-consistent (VPSC) model. These fluctuations give a tensorial measure of the trend of misorientation developing inside each single crystal grain representing a polycrystalline aggregate. We first report details of the algorithm implemented in the VPSC code to estimate these fluctuations, which are then validated by comparison with corresponding full-field calculations. Next, we present predictions of average intragranular fluctuations of lattice rotation rates for cubic aggregates, which are rationalized by comparison with experimental evidence on annealing textures of fccmore » and bcc polycrystals deformed in tension and compression, respectively, as well as with measured intragranular misorientation distributions in a Cu polycrystal deformed in tension. The orientation-dependent and micromechanically-based estimations of intragranular misorientations that can be derived from the present implementation are necessary to formulate sound sub-models for the prediction of quantitatively accurate deformation textures, grain fragmentation, and recrystallization textures using the VPSC approach.« less

  18. Consistent multi-internal-temperature models for vibrational and electronic nonequilibrium in hypersonic nitrogen plasma flows

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guy, Aurlien Bourdon, Anne Perrin, Marie-Yvonne

    2015-04-15

    In this work, a state-to-state vibrational and electronic collisional model is developed to investigate nonequilibrium phenomena behind a shock wave in an ionized nitrogen flow. In the ionization dynamics behind the shock wave, the electron energy budget is of key importance and it is found that the main depletion term corresponds to the electronic excitation of N atoms, and conversely the major creation terms are the electron-vibration term at the beginning, then replaced by the electron ions elastic exchange term. Based on these results, a macroscopic multi-internal-temperature model for the vibration of N{sub 2} and the electronic levels of N atoms is derived with several groups of vibrational levels of N{sub 2} and electronic levels of N with their own internal temperatures to model the shape of the vibrational distribution of N{sub 2} and of the electronic excitation of N, respectively. In this model, energy and chemistry source terms are calculated self-consistently from the rate coefficients of the state-to-state database. For the shock wave condition studied, a good agreement is observed on the ionization dynamics as well as on the atomic bound-bound radiation between the state-to-state model and the macroscopic multi-internal temperature model with only one group of vibrational levels of N{sub 2} and two groups of electronic levels of N.

  19. Impact of Lack of Consistent Free Release Standards on Decommissioning Projects and Costs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Devgun, J. S.

    2002-02-26

    While the Nuclear Regulatory Commission has had specific and dose-based standards for the release of liquids and gases for a long time, there are no regulatory mechanisms in place for the release of solid bulk materials from a nuclear power plant. Even though free releases of small quantities of solid materials continue under existing guidelines from the operating plants, the regulatory void creates major difficulties for the bulk materials that result from the decommissioning of a nuclear site. Decommissioning of a commercial nuclear power plant generates large quantities of solid bulk materials such as concrete, metal, and demolition debris. Disposition of such materials has a large impact on the overall decommissioning cost. Yet, there are no clear and cost-effective alternatives for the disposal of these materials from a regulatory perspective. This paper discusses the methodologies for clearance of solid materials1, their applicability to the disposition of bulk materials, and the impact of lack of consistent free release standards on the decommissioning projects and costs.

  20. Consistent Multigroup Theory Enabling Accurate Course-Group Simulation of Gen IV Reactors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rahnema, Farzad; Haghighat, Alireza; Ougouag, Abderrafi

    2013-11-29

    The objective of this proposal is the development of a consistent multi-group theory that accurately accounts for the energy-angle coupling associated with collapsed-group cross sections. This will allow for coarse-group transport and diffusion theory calculations that exhibit continuous energy accuracy and implicitly treat cross- section resonances. This is of particular importance when considering the highly heterogeneous and optically thin reactor designs within the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) framework. In such reactors, ignoring the influence of anisotropy in the angular flux on the collapsed cross section, especially at the interface between core and reflector near which control rods are located, results in inaccurate estimates of the rod worth, a serious safety concern. The scope of this project will include the development and verification of a new multi-group theory enabling high-fidelity transport and diffusion calculations in coarse groups, as well as a methodology for the implementation of this method in existing codes. This will allow for a higher accuracy solution of reactor problems while using fewer groups and will reduce the computational expense. The proposed research represents a fundamental advancement in the understanding and improvement of multi- group theory for reactor analysis.

  1. A self-consistent model of the lateral behavior of a twin-stripe injection laser

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kumar, T.; Ormondroyd, R.F.; Rozzi, T.E.

    1986-10-01

    A fully self-consistent computer model of the steady-state behavior of the zero-order lateral optical field of a GaAs twin-stripe injection laser is presented which takes into account current spreading in the p-type confining layer, the effect of lateral diffusion of carriers in the active layer, and bimolecular and stimulated radiative recombination. The results predict the lateral movement of the near field of the optical signal under asymmetric drive conditions, as observed in practice. Also calculated are the corresponding carrier and current density distributions. It is shown that the near-field zero order lateral optical field can be beam steered across the facet by only 2 ..mu..m, typically. However, the initial position of the beam can be controlled by the two-stripe currents and also the geometry of the device. For the case where I/sub s1/ approx. = I/sub s2/ the beam movement is seen to be proportional to either I/sub s1/ or I/sub s2/. The results show that beam steering is not accompanied by a negative slope to the I-L characteristics. The effect of geometry and diffusion coefficient on the value of maximum current allowed before modal instability occurs is also given.

  2. SELF-CONSISTENT ION CYCLOTRON ANISOTROPY-BETA RELATION FOR SOLAR WIND PROTONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Isenberg, Philip A.; Maruca, Bennett A.; Kasper, Justin C. E-mail: bmaruca@ssl.berkeley.edu

    2013-08-20

    We derive a set of self-consistent marginally stable states for a system of ion-cyclotron waves propagating parallel to the large-scale magnetic field through a homogeneous proton-electron plasma. The proton distributions and the wave dispersions are related through the condition that no further ion-cyclotron resonant particle scattering or wave growth/damping may take place. The thermal anisotropy of the protons in these states therefore defines the threshold value for triggering the proton-cyclotron anisotropy instability. A number of recent papers have noted that the anisotropy of solar wind protons at 1 AU does not seem to be limited by the proton-cyclotron anisotropy threshold, even at low plasma beta. However, this puzzle seems to be due solely to the estimation of this anisotropy threshold under the assumption that the protons have a bi-Maxwellian distribution. We note that bi-Maxwellian distributions are never marginally stable to the resonant cyclotron interaction, so these estimates do not represent physically valid thresholds. The threshold anisotropies obtained from our marginally stable states are much larger, as a function of proton parallel beta, than the bi-Maxwellian estimates, and we show that the measured data remains below these more rigorous thresholds. Thus, the results of this paper resolve the apparent contradiction presented by the solar wind anisotropy observations at 1 AU: the bi-Maxwellian anisotropies are not rigorous thresholds, and so do not limit the proton distributions in the solar wind.

  3. NETL - Chemical Looping Reactor

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2014-06-26

    NETL's Chemical Looping Reactor unit is a high-temperature integrated CLC process with extensive instrumentation to improve computational simulations. A non-reacting test unit is also used to study solids flow at ambient temperature. The CLR unit circulates approximately 1,000 pounds per hour at temperatures around 1,800 degrees Fahrenheit.

  4. NETL - Chemical Looping Reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2013-07-24

    NETL's Chemical Looping Reactor unit is a high-temperature integrated CLC process with extensive instrumentation to improve computational simulations. A non-reacting test unit is also used to study solids flow at ambient temperature. The CLR unit circulates approximately 1,000 pounds per hour at temperatures around 1,800 degrees Fahrenheit.

  5. Energy Information Administration

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    81299 81499 81699 81899 82099 82299 82499 82699 82899 83099 9199 9399 Degrees Fahrenheit 6 -C ity D a ily A v e ra g e H ig h D A L L A S F T W O R T H H...

  6. Consistent satellite XCO2 retrievals from SCIAMACHY and GOSAT using the BESD algorithm

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heymann, J.; Reuter, M.; Hilker, M.; Buchwitz, M.; Schneising, O.; Bovensmann, H.; Burrows, J. P.; Kuze, A.; Suto, H.; Deutscher, N. M.; Dubey, M. K.; Griffith, D. W. T.; Hase, F.; Kawakami, S.; Kivi, R.; Morino, I.; Petri, C.; Roehl, C.; Schneider, M.; Sherlock, V.; Sussmann, R.; Velazco, V. A.; Warneke, T.; Wunch, D.

    2015-02-13

    Consistent and accurate long-term data sets of global atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide (CO2) are required for carbon cycle and climate related research. However, global data sets based on satellite observations may suffer from inconsistencies originating from the use of products derived from different satellites as needed to cover a long enough time period. One reason for inconsistencies can be the use of different retrieval algorithms. We address this potential issue by applying the same algorithm, the Bremen Optimal Estimation DOAS (BESD) algorithm, to different satellite instruments, SCIAMACHY on-board ENVISAT (March 2002April 2012) and TANSO-FTS on-board GOSAT (launched in January 2009), to retrieve XCO2, the column-averaged dry-air mole fraction of CO2. BESD has been initially developed for SCIAMACHY XCO2 retrievals. Here, we present the first detailed assessment of the new GOSAT BESD XCO2 product. GOSAT BESD XCO2 is a product generated and delivered to the MACC project for assimilation into ECMWF's Integrated Forecasting System (IFS). We describe the modifications of the BESD algorithm needed in order to retrieve XCO2 from GOSAT and present detailed comparisons with ground-based observations of XCO2 from the Total Carbon Column Observing Network (TCCON). We discuss detailed comparison results between all three XCO2 data sets (SCIAMACHY, GOSAT and TCCON). The comparison results demonstrate the good consistency between the SCIAMACHY and the GOSAT XCO2. For example, we found a mean difference for daily averages of ?0.60 1.56 ppm (mean difference standard deviation) for GOSAT-SCIAMACHY (linear correlation coefficient r = 0.82), ?0.34 1.37 ppm (r = 0.86) for GOSAT-TCCON and 0.10 1.79 ppm (r = 0.75) for SCIAMACHY-TCCON. The remaining differences between GOSAT and SCIAMACHY are likely due to non-perfect collocation (2 h, 10 10 around TCCON sites), i.e., the observed air masses are not exactly identical, but likely also due to a still non-perfect BESD retrieval algorithm, which will be continuously improved in the future. Our overarching goal is to generate a satellite-derived XCO2 data set appropriate for climate and carbon cycle research covering the longest possible time period. We therefore also plan to extend the existing SCIAMACHY and GOSAT data set discussed here by using also data from other missions (e.g., OCO-2, GOSAT-2, CarbonSat) in the future.

  7. GLASS FABRICATION AND PRODUCT CONSISTENCY TESTING OF LANTHANIDE BOROSILICATE FRIT B COMPOSITION FOR PLUTONIUM DISPOSITION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marra, J

    2006-01-19

    The Department of Energy Office of Environmental Management (DOE/EM) plans to conduct the Plutonium Disposition Project at the Savannah River Site (SRS) to disposition excess weapons-usable plutonium. A plutonium glass waste form is a leading candidate for immobilization of the plutonium for subsequent disposition in a geologic repository. A reference glass composition (Lanthanide Borosilicate (LaBS) Frit B) was developed during the Plutonium Immobilization Program (PIP) to immobilize plutonium. A limited amount of performance testing was performed on this baseline composition before efforts to further pursue Pu disposition via a glass waste form ceased. Therefore, the objectives of this present task were to fabricate plutonium loaded LaBS Frit B glass and perform additional testing to provide near-term data that will increase confidence that LaBS glass product is suitable for disposal in the Yucca Mountain Repository. Specifically, testing was conducted in an effort to provide data to Yucca Mountain Project (YMP) personnel for use in performance assessment calculations. Plutonium containing LaBS glass with the Frit B composition with a 9.5 wt% PuO{sub 2} loading was prepared for testing. Glass was prepared to support Product Consistency Testing (PCT) at Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) and for additional performance testing at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). The glass was characterized using x-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive spectroscopy (SEM/EDS) prior to performance testing. A series of PCTs were conducted at SRNL with varying exposed surface area and test durations. The leachates from these tests were analyzed to determine the dissolved concentrations of key elements. Acid stripping of leach vessels was performed to determine the concentration of the glass constituents that may have sorbed on the vessels during leach testing. Additionally, the leachate solutions were ultrafiltered to quantify colloid formation. The leached solids from select PCTs were examined in an attempt to evaluate the Pu and neutron absorber release behavior from the glass and to identify the formation of alteration phases on the glass surface. Characterization of the glass prior to testing revealed that some undissolved plutonium oxide was present in the glass. The undissolved particles had a disk-like morphology and likely formed via coarsening of particles in areas compositionally enriched in plutonium. Similar disk-like PuO{sub 2} phases were observed in previous LaBS glass testing at PNNL. In that work, researchers concluded that plutonium formed with this morphology as a result of the leaching process. It was more likely that the presence of the plutonium oxide crystals in the PNNL testing was a result of glass fabrication. A series of PCTs were conducted at 90 C in ASTM Type 1 water. The PCT-Method A (PCT-A) was conducted to compare the Pu LaBS Frit B glass durability to current requirements for High Level Waste (HLW) glass in a geologic repository. The PCT-A test has a strict protocol and is designed to specifically be used to evaluate whether the chemical durability and elemental release characteristics of a nuclear waste glass have been consistently controlled during production and, thus, meet the repository acceptance requirements. The PCT-A results on the Pu containing LaBS Frit B glass showed that the glass was very durable with a normalized elemental release value for boron of approximately 0.02 g/L. This boron release value was better than two orders of magnitude better from a boron release standpoint than the current Environmental Assessment (EA) glass used for repository acceptance. The boron release value for EA glass is 16.7 g/L.

  8. DEGREE-SCALE GeV 'JETS' FROM ACTIVE AND DEAD TeV BLAZARS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Neronov, A.; Semikoz, D.; Kachelriess, M.; Ostapchenko, S.; Elyiv, A.

    2010-08-20

    We show that images of TeV blazars in the GeV energy band should contain, along with point-like sources, degree-scale jet-like extensions. These GeV extensions are the result of electromagnetic cascades initiated by TeV {gamma}-rays interacting with extragalactic background light and the deflection of the cascade electrons/positrons in extragalactic magnetic fields (EGMFs). Using Monte Carlo simulations, we study the spectral and timing properties of the degree-scale extensions in simulated GeV band images of TeV blazars. We show that the brightness profile of such degree-scale extensions can be used to infer the light curve of the primary TeV {gamma}-ray source over the past 10{sup 7} yr, i.e., over a time scale comparable to the lifetime of the parent active galactic nucleus. This implies that the degree-scale jet-like GeV emission could be detected not only near known active TeV blazars, but also from 'TeV blazar remnants', whose central engines were switched off up to 10 million years ago. Since the brightness profile of the GeV 'jets' depends on the strength and the structure of the EGMF, their observation provides additional information about the EGMF.

  9. Plasma Biomarker Profiles Differ Depending on Breast Cancer Subtype but RANTES is Consistently Increased

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gonzales, Rachel M.; Daly, Don S.; Tan, Ruimin; Marks, Jeffrey R.; Zangar, Richard C.

    2011-07-01

    Background: Current biomarkers for breast cancer have little potential for detection. We determined if breast cancer subtypes influence circulating protein biomarkers. Methods: A sandwich-ELISA microarray platform was used to evaluate 23 candidate biomarkers in plasma samples that were obtained from subjects with either benign breast disease or invasive breast cancer. All plasma samples were collected at the time of biopsy, after a referral due to a suspicious screen (e.g., mammography). Cancer samples were evaluated based on breast cancer subtypes, as defined by the HER2 and estrogen receptor statuses. Results: Ten proteins were statistically altered in at least one breast cancer subtype, including four epidermal growth factor receptor ligands, two matrix metalloproteases, two cytokines, and two angiogenic factors. Only one cytokine, RANTES, was significantly increased (P<0.01 for each analysis) in all four subtypes, with areas under receiver operating characteristic curves (AUC) that ranged from 0.76 to 0.82, depending on cancer subtype. The best AUC values were observed for analyses that combined data from multiple biomarkers, with values ranging from 0.70 to 0.99, depending on the cancer subtype. Although the results for RANTES are consistent with previous publications, the multi-assay results need to be validated in independent sample sets. Conclusions: Different breast cancer subtypes produce distinct biomarker profiles, and circulating protein biomarkers have potential to differentiate between true and false positive screens for breast cancer. Impact: Subtype-specific biomarker panels may be useful for detecting breast cancer or as an adjunct assay to improve the accuracy of current screening methods.

  10. Self-consistent modeling of radio-frequency plasma generation in stellarators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moiseenko, V. E. Stadnik, Yu. S.; Lysoivan, A. I.; Korovin, V. B.

    2013-11-15

    A self-consistent model of radio-frequency (RF) plasma generation in stellarators in the ion cyclotron frequency range is described. The model includes equations for the particle and energy balance and boundary conditions for Maxwells equations. The equation of charged particle balance takes into account the influx of particles due to ionization and their loss via diffusion and convection. The equation of electron energy balance takes into account the RF heating power source, as well as energy losses due to the excitation and electron-impact ionization of gas atoms, energy exchange via Coulomb collisions, and plasma heat conduction. The deposited RF power is calculated by solving the boundary problem for Maxwells equations. When describing the dissipation of the energy of the RF field, collisional absorption and Landau damping are taken into account. At each time step, Maxwells equations are solved for the current profiles of the plasma density and plasma temperature. The calculations are performed for a cylindrical plasma. The plasma is assumed to be axisymmetric and homogeneous along the plasma column. The system of balance equations is solved using the Crank-Nicholson scheme. Maxwells equations are solved in a one-dimensional approximation by using the Fourier transformation along the azimuthal and longitudinal coordinates. Results of simulations of RF plasma generation in the Uragan-2M stellarator by using a frame antenna operating at frequencies lower than the ion cyclotron frequency are presented. The calculations show that the slow wave generated by the antenna is efficiently absorbed at the periphery of the plasma column, due to which only a small fraction of the input power reaches the confinement region. As a result, the temperature on the axis of the plasma column remains low, whereas at the periphery it is substantially higher. This leads to strong absorption of the RF field at the periphery via the Landau mechanism.

  11. Thermochemical properties of gibbsite, bayerite, boehmite, diaspore, and the aluminate ion between 0 and 350/degree/C

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Apps, J.A.; Neil, J.M.; Jun, C.H.

    1989-01-01

    A requirement for modelling the chemical behavior of groundwater in a nuclear waste repository is accurate thermodynamic data pertaining to the participating minerals and aqueous species. In particular, it is important that the thermodynamic properties of the aluminate ion be accurately determined, because most rock forming minerals in the earth's crust are aluminosilicates, and most groundwaters are neutral to slightly alkaline, where the aluminate ion is the predominant aluminum species in solution. Without a precise knowledge of the thermodynamic properties of the aluminate ion aluminosilicate mineral solubilities cannot be determined. The thermochemical properties of the aluminate ion have been determined from the solubilities of the aluminum hydroxides and oxyhydroxides in alkaline solutions between 20 and 350/degree/C. An internally consistent set of thermodynamic properties have been determined for gibbsite, boehmite, diaspore and corundum. The thermodynamic properties of bayerite have been provisionally estimated and a preliminary value for ..delta..G/sub f, 298//sup 0/ of nordstrandite has been determined. 205 refs., 17 figs., 25 tabs.

  12. Correlation consistent basis sets for actinides. I. The Th and U atoms

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peterson, Kirk A.

    2015-02-21

    New correlation consistent basis sets based on both pseudopotential (PP) and all-electron Douglas-Kroll-Hess (DKH) Hamiltonians have been developed from double- to quadruple-zeta quality for the actinide atoms thorium and uranium. Sets for valence electron correlation (5f6s6p6d), cc − pV nZ − PP and cc − pV nZ − DK3, as well as outer-core correlation (valence + 5s5p5d), cc − pwCV nZ − PP and cc − pwCV nZ − DK3, are reported (n = D, T, Q). The -PP sets are constructed in conjunction with small-core, 60-electron PPs, while the -DK3 sets utilized the 3rd-order Douglas-Kroll-Hess scalar relativistic Hamiltonian. Both series of basis sets show systematic convergence towards the complete basis set limit, both at the Hartree-Fock and correlated levels of theory, making them amenable to standard basis set extrapolation techniques. To assess the utility of the new basis sets, extensive coupled cluster composite thermochemistry calculations of ThF{sub n} (n = 2 − 4), ThO{sub 2}, and UF{sub n} (n = 4 − 6) have been carried out. After accurately accounting for valence and outer-core correlation, spin-orbit coupling, and even Lamb shift effects, the final 298 K atomization enthalpies of ThF{sub 4}, ThF{sub 3}, ThF{sub 2}, and ThO{sub 2} are all within their experimental uncertainties. Bond dissociation energies of ThF{sub 4} and ThF{sub 3}, as well as UF{sub 6} and UF{sub 5}, were similarly accurate. The derived enthalpies of formation for these species also showed a very satisfactory agreement with experiment, demonstrating that the new basis sets allow for the use of accurate composite schemes just as in molecular systems composed only of lighter atoms. The differences between the PP and DK3 approaches were found to increase with the change in formal oxidation state on the actinide atom, approaching 5-6 kcal/mol for the atomization enthalpies of ThF{sub 4} and ThO{sub 2}. The DKH3 atomization energy of ThO{sub 2} was calculated to be smaller than the DKH2 value by ∼1 kcal/mol.

  13. THE DEVELOPMENT OF A 1990 GLOBAL INVENTORY FOR SO(X) AND NO(X) ON A 1(DEGREE) X 1(DEGREE) LATITUDE-LONGITUDE GRID.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    VAN HEYST,B.J.

    1999-10-01

    Sulfur and nitrogen oxides emitted to the atmosphere have been linked to the acidification of water bodies and soils and perturbations in the earth's radiation balance. In order to model the global transport and transformation of SO{sub x} and NO{sub x}, detailed spatial and temporal emission inventories are required. Benkovitz et al. (1996) published the development of an inventory of 1985 global emissions of SO{sub x} and NO{sub x} from anthropogenic sources. The inventory was gridded to a 1{degree} x 1{degree} latitude-longitude grid and has served as input to several global modeling studies. There is now a need to provide modelers with an update of this inventory to a more recent year, with a split of the emissions into elevated and low level sources. This paper describes the development of a 1990 update of the SO{sub x} and NO{sub x} global inventories that also includes a breakdown of sources into 17 sector groups. The inventory development starts with a gridded global default EDGAR inventory (Olivier et al, 1996). In countries where more detailed national inventories are available, these are used to replace the emissions for those countries in the global default. The gridded emissions are distributed into two height levels (0-100m and >100m) based on the final plume heights that are estimated to be typical for the various sectors considered. The sources of data as well as some of the methodologies employed to compile and develop the 1990 global inventory for SO{sub x} and NO{sub x} are discussed. The results reported should be considered to be interim since the work is still in progress and additional data sets are expected to become available.

  14. DISPERSION ELEMENT CONSISTING OF CHROMIUM COATED UO$sup 2$ PARTICLES UNIFORMLY DISTRIBUTED IN A ZIRCALOY MATRIX

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cain, F.M. Jr.; Eck, J.E.

    1963-05-01

    A nuclear fuel element consisting of metal coated UO/sub 2/ particles dispersed in a matrix of Zircalloy and having a cladding of Zircalloy is presented. (AEC)

  15. Consistent evaluation of GOSAT, SCIAMACHY, carbontracker, and MACC through comparisons to TCCON

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kulawik, S. S.; Wunch, D.; O'Dell, C.; Frankenberg, C.; Reuter, M.; Oda, T.; Chevallier, F.; Sherlock, V.; Buchwitz, M.; Osterman, G.; Miller, C.; Wennberg, P.; Griffith, D. W. T.; Morino, I.; Dubey, M.; Deutscher, N. M.; Notholt, J.; Hase, F.; Warneke, T.; Sussmann, R.; Robinson, J.; Strong, K.; Schneider, M.; Wolf, J.

    2015-06-22

    Consistent validation of satellite CO2 estimates is a prerequisite for using multiple satellite CO2 measurements for joint flux inversion, and for establishing an accurate long-term atmospheric CO2 data record. We focus on validating model and satellite observation attributes that impact flux estimates and CO2 assimilation, including accurate error estimates, correlated and random errors, overall biases, biases by season and latitude, the impact of coincidence criteria, validation of seasonal cycle phase and amplitude, yearly growth, and daily variability. We evaluate dry air mole fraction (XCO2) for GOSAT (ACOS b3.5) and SCIAMACHY (BESD v2.00.08) as well as the CarbonTracker (CT2013b) simulated CO2 mole fraction fields and the MACC CO2 inversion system (v13.1) and compare these to TCCON observations (GGG2014). We find standard deviations of 0.9 ppm, 0.9, 1.7, and 2.1 ppm versus TCCON for CT2013b, MACC, GOSAT, and SCIAMACHY, respectively, with the single target errors 1.9 and 0.9 times the predicted errors for GOSAT and SCIAMACHY, respectively. When satellite data are averaged and interpreted according to error2 = a2+ b2 /n (where n are the number of observations averaged, a are the systematic (correlated) errors, and b are the random (uncorrelated) errors), we find that the correlated error term a = 0.6 ppm and the uncorrelated error term b = 1.7 ppm for GOSAT and a = 1.0 ppm, b = 1.4 ppm for SCIAMACHY regional averages. Biases at individual stations have year-to-year variability of ~ 0.3 ppm, with biases larger than the TCCON predicted bias uncertainty of 0.4 ppm at many stations. Using fitting software, we find that GOSAT underpredicts the seasonal cycle amplitude in the Northern Hemisphere (NH) between 46–53° N. In the Southern Hemisphere (SH), CT2013b underestimates the seasonal cycle amplitude. Biases are calculated for 3-month intervals and indicate the months that contribute to the observed amplitude differences. The seasonal cycle phase indicates whether a dataset or model lags another dataset in time. We calculate this at a subset of stations where there is adequate satellite data, and find that the GOSAT retrieved phase improves substantially over the prior and the SCIAMACHY retrieved phase improves substantially for 2 of 7 sites. The models reproduce the measured seasonal cycle phase well except for at Lauder125 (CT2013b), Darwin (MACC), and Izana (+ 10 days, CT2013b), as for Bremen and Four Corners, which are highly influenced by local effects. We compare the variability within one day between TCCON and models in JJA; there is correlation between 0.2 and 0.8 in the NH, with models showing 10–100 % the variability of TCCON at different stations (except Bremen and Four Corners which have no variability compared to TCCON) and CT2013b showing more variability than MACC. This paper highlights findings that provide inputs to estimate flux errors in model assimilations, and places where models and satellites need further investigation, e.g. the SH for models and 45–67° N for GOSAT

  16. Consistent evaluation of GOSAT, SCIAMACHY, carbontracker, and MACC through comparisons to TCCON

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Kulawik, S. S.; Wunch, D.; O'Dell, C.; Frankenberg, C.; Reuter, M.; Oda, T.; Chevallier, F.; Sherlock, V.; Buchwitz, M.; Osterman, G.; et al

    2015-06-22

    Consistent validation of satellite CO2 estimates is a prerequisite for using multiple satellite CO2 measurements for joint flux inversion, and for establishing an accurate long-term atmospheric CO2 data record. We focus on validating model and satellite observation attributes that impact flux estimates and CO2 assimilation, including accurate error estimates, correlated and random errors, overall biases, biases by season and latitude, the impact of coincidence criteria, validation of seasonal cycle phase and amplitude, yearly growth, and daily variability. We evaluate dry air mole fraction (XCO2) for GOSAT (ACOS b3.5) and SCIAMACHY (BESD v2.00.08) as well as the CarbonTracker (CT2013b) simulated CO2more » mole fraction fields and the MACC CO2 inversion system (v13.1) and compare these to TCCON observations (GGG2014). We find standard deviations of 0.9 ppm, 0.9, 1.7, and 2.1 ppm versus TCCON for CT2013b, MACC, GOSAT, and SCIAMACHY, respectively, with the single target errors 1.9 and 0.9 times the predicted errors for GOSAT and SCIAMACHY, respectively. When satellite data are averaged and interpreted according to error2 = a2+ b2 /n (where n are the number of observations averaged, a are the systematic (correlated) errors, and b are the random (uncorrelated) errors), we find that the correlated error term a = 0.6 ppm and the uncorrelated error term b = 1.7 ppm for GOSAT and a = 1.0 ppm, b = 1.4 ppm for SCIAMACHY regional averages. Biases at individual stations have year-to-year variability of ~ 0.3 ppm, with biases larger than the TCCON predicted bias uncertainty of 0.4 ppm at many stations. Using fitting software, we find that GOSAT underpredicts the seasonal cycle amplitude in the Northern Hemisphere (NH) between 46–53° N. In the Southern Hemisphere (SH), CT2013b underestimates the seasonal cycle amplitude. Biases are calculated for 3-month intervals and indicate the months that contribute to the observed amplitude differences. The seasonal cycle phase indicates whether a dataset or model lags another dataset in time. We calculate this at a subset of stations where there is adequate satellite data, and find that the GOSAT retrieved phase improves substantially over the prior and the SCIAMACHY retrieved phase improves substantially for 2 of 7 sites. The models reproduce the measured seasonal cycle phase well except for at Lauder125 (CT2013b), Darwin (MACC), and Izana (+ 10 days, CT2013b), as for Bremen and Four Corners, which are highly influenced by local effects. We compare the variability within one day between TCCON and models in JJA; there is correlation between 0.2 and 0.8 in the NH, with models showing 10–100 % the variability of TCCON at different stations (except Bremen and Four Corners which have no variability compared to TCCON) and CT2013b showing more variability than MACC. This paper highlights findings that provide inputs to estimate flux errors in model assimilations, and places where models and satellites need further investigation, e.g. the SH for models and 45–67° N for GOSAT« less

  17. Biography U. Düsterloh Degree: PD Dr.- Ing. habil. Institution: Clausthal University of Technology.

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    U. Düsterloh Degree: PD Dr.- Ing. habil. Institution: Clausthal University of Technology. Chair: chair for waste disposal technologies and geomechanics. 1982- 1988 field of study: mining engineer 1989- 1993 PhD work - geomechanical investigations on the stability of salt caverns for waste disposal. 2009 Habilitation - proof of stability and integrity of underground excavations in saliniferous formations with special regard to lab tests. 1989 - 2012 chief engineer at Clausthal University of

  18. Statistical behavior in deterministic quantum systems with few degrees of freedom

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jensen, R.V.; Shankar, R.

    1985-04-29

    Numerical studies of the dynamics of finite quantum spin chains are presented which show that quantum systems with few degrees of freedom (N = 7) can be described by equilibrium statistical mechanics. The success of the statistical description is seen to depend on the interplay between the initial state, the observable, and the Hamiltonian. This work clarifies the impact of integrability and conservation laws on statistical behavior. The relation to quantum chaos is also discussed.

  19. Structural stability of 1100{degree}C heated Pd/k during absorption cycling in protium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fisher, I.A.

    1993-03-12

    Pd/k is a hydride forming packing material which is used in the Thermal Cycling Absorption Process (TCAP). Palladium is supported on kieselguhr to create a packing material which will provide adequate void space to prevent excessive pressure drops and flow restrictions. The use of unsupported palladium would result in blockage of columns and clogging of filters due to the small particle size of unsupported palladium hydride powder. During pilot scale demonstrations, it was noted that the Pd/k packing material had degraded causing severe flow restrictions within the TCAP column. A solution to the problem involved the heating of Pd/k at 1,110{degree}C to strengthen the packing material, and render it more resistant to breakdown. The 1, 100{degree}C heated Pd/k has been shown to be more resistant to mechanical breakdown than the Pd/k prior to heat treatment. Two primary modes of Pd/k particle degradation have been identified: mechanical breakdown caused by particle fluidization and degradation caused by absorption/desorption cycling. Absorption/desorption cycling causes the palladium particles within the packing to expanded and contract upon formation and decomposition of the hydride, respectively. This expansion and contraction causes large localized stresses within the packing material, which if these stresses can not be accommodated within the packing will cause the material to crack and degrade. The purpose of this report is to document the results of the absorption/desorption cycling of 1,100{degree}C heated Pd/k and compare these results to the results obtained from the absorption/desorption cycling of Pd/k which had not been heated at 1, 100{degree}C.

  20. New p( rvec. gamma. ,. pi. degrees ) results from LEGS and the quadrupole excitation of the. Delta

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    Results from three independent measurements of the p({yields}{gamma}{pi}{sup {degrees}}) reaction are presented for incident photon energies between 243 and 314 MeV. The ratio of cross sections measured with orthogonal states of linear polarization is sensitive to the E2 excitation of the {Delta} resonance. Comparisons are made to the predictions of various models, all of which fail to reproduce these data.

  1. Containing A Star On Earth: Understanding Turbulence At 100 Million Degrees

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    | Princeton Plasma Physics Lab 1, 2014, 9:00am to 11:00am Science On Saturday MBG Auditorium Containing A Star On Earth: Understanding Turbulence At 100 Million Degrees Dr. Walter Guttenfelder, Research Physicist Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory Presentation: PDF icon Guttenfelder_Science_on_Saturday_2014_1.pdf One of the principal challenges remaining for realizing magnetic fusion energy is to understand and mitigate the chaotic flows of ionized gas, or plasma, that lead to unacceptable

  2. A magnetohydrodynamic model of the M87 jet. II. Self-consistent quad-shock jet model for optical relativistic motions and particle acceleration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nakamura, Masanori

    2014-04-20

    We describe a new paradigm for understanding both relativistic motions and particle acceleration in the M87 jet: a magnetically dominated relativistic flow that naturally produces four relativistic magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) shocks (forward/reverse fast and slow modes). We apply this model to a set of optical super- and subluminal motions discovered by Biretta and coworkers with the Hubble Space Telescope during 1994-1998. The model concept consists of ejection of a single relativistic Poynting jet, which possesses a coherent helical (poloidal + toroidal) magnetic component, at the remarkably flaring point HST-1. We are able to reproduce quantitatively proper motions of components seen in the optical observations of HST-1 with the same model we used previously to describe similar features in radio very long baseline interferometry observations in 2005-2006. This indicates that the quad relativistic MHD shock model can be applied generally to recurring pairs of super/subluminal knots ejected from the upstream edge of the HST-1 complex as observed from radio to optical wavelengths, with forward/reverse fast-mode MHD shocks then responsible for observed moving features. Moreover, we identify such intrinsic properties as the shock compression ratio, degree of magnetization, and magnetic obliquity and show that they are suitable to mediate diffusive shock acceleration of relativistic particles via the first-order Fermi process. We suggest that relativistic MHD shocks in Poynting-flux-dominated helical jets may play a role in explaining observed emission and proper motions in many active galactic nuclei.

  3. THIRD COMPONENT SEARCH AND ABUNDANCES OF THE VERY DUSTY SHORT-PERIOD BINARY BD +20 Degree-Sign 307

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fekel, Francis C.; Cordero, Maria J.; Galicher, Raphael; Zuckerman, B.; Melis, Carl; Weinberger, Alycia J. E-mail: majocord@indiana.edu E-mail: ben@astro.ucla.edu E-mail: weinberger@dtm.ciw.edu

    2012-04-10

    We have obtained near-infrared adaptive optics imaging and collected additional radial velocity observations to search for a third component in the extremely dusty short-period binary system BD +20 Degree-Sign 307. Our image shows no evidence for a third component at separations greater than 19 AU. Our four seasons of radial velocities have a constant center-of-mass velocity and are consistent with the systemic velocities determined at two earlier epochs. Thus, the radial velocities also provide no support for a third component. Unfortunately, the separation domains covered by our imaging and radial velocity results do not overlap. Thus, we examined the parameters for possible orbits of a third component that could have been missed by our current observations. With our velocities we determined improved circular orbital elements for the 3.4 day double-lined binary. We also performed a spectroscopic abundance analysis of the short-period binary components and conclude that the stars are a mid- and a late-F dwarf. We find that the iron abundances of both components, [Fe/H] = 0.15, are somewhat greater than the solar value and comparable to that of stars in the Hyades. Despite the similarity of the binary components, the lithium abundances of the two stars are very unequal. The primary has log {epsilon} (Li) = 2.72, while in the secondary log {epsilon} (Li) {<=}1.46, which corresponds to a difference of at least a factor of 18. The very disparate lithium abundances in very similar stars make it impossible to ascribe a single age to them. While the system is likely at least 1 Gyr old, it may well be as old as the Sun.

  4. A Probabilistic Approach to Site-Specific, Hazard-Consistent Vertical-to-Horizontal Spectral Ratio Model

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A Probabilistic Approach to Site-Specific, Hazard-Consistent Vertical-to-Horizontal Spectral Ratio Model Rizzo Associates Presented at U.S. DOE Natural Phenomena Hazards Meeting October 21, 2014

  5. Design of a Thermal Imaging Diagnostic Using 90-Degree, Off-Axis, Parabolic Mirrors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Malone, Robert M.; Becker, Steven A.; Dolan, Daniel H.; Hacking, Richard G.; Hickman, Randy J.; Kaufman, Morris I.; Stevens, Gerald D.; Turley, William D.

    2006-09-01

    Thermal imaging is an important, though challenging, diagnostic for shockwave experiments. Shock-compressed materials undergo transient temperature changes that cannot be recorded with standard (greater than ms response time) infrared detectors. A further complication arises when optical elements near the experiment are destroyed. We have designed a thermal-imaging system for studying shock temperatures produced inside a gas gun at Sandia National Laboratories. Inexpensive, diamond-turned, parabolic mirrors relay an image of the shocked target to the exterior of the gas gun chamber through a sapphire vacuum port. The 30005000-nm portion of this image is directed to an infrared camera which acquires a snapshot of the target with a minimum exposure time of 150 ns. A special mask is inserted at the last intermediate image plane, to provide dynamic thermal background recording during the event. Other wavelength bands of this image are split into high-speed detectors operating at 9001700 nm, and at 17003000 nm for timeresolved pyrometry measurements. This system incorporates 90-degree, off-axis parabolic mirrors, which can collect low f/# light over a broad spectral range, for high-speed imaging. Matched mirror pairs must be used so that aberrations cancel. To eliminate image plane tilt, proper tip-to-tip orientation of the parabolic mirrors is required. If one parabolic mirror is rotated 180 degrees about the optical axis connecting the pair of parabolic mirrors, the resulting image is tilted by 60 degrees. Different focal-length mirrors cannot be used to magnify the image without substantially sacrificing image quality. This paper analyzes performance and aberrations of this imaging diagnostic.

  6. Exotic equilibria of Harary graphs and a new minimum degree lower bound for synchronization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Canale, Eduardo A.; Monzn, Pablo

    2015-02-15

    This work is concerned with stability of equilibria in the homogeneous (equal frequencies) Kuramoto model of weakly coupled oscillators. In 2012 [R. Taylor, J. Phys. A: Math. Theor. 45, 115 (2012)], a sufficient condition for almost global synchronization was found in terms of the minimum degreeorder ratio of the graph. In this work, a new lower bound for this ratio is given. The improvement is achieved by a concrete infinite sequence of regular graphs. Besides, non standard unstable equilibria of the graphs studied in Wiley et al. [Chaos 16, 015103 (2006)] are shown to exist as conjectured in that work.

  7. Trends in Heating and Cooling Degree Days: Implications for Energy Demand Issues (released in AEO2008)

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2008-01-01

    Weather-related energy use, in the form of heating, cooling, and ventilation, accounted for more than 40% of all delivered energy use in residential and commercial buildings in 2006. Given the relatively large amount of energy affected by ambient temperature in the buildings sector, the Energy Information Administration has reevaluated what it considers normal weather for purposes of projecting future energy use for heating, cooling, and ventilation. The Annual Energy Outlook 2008, estimates of normal heating and cooling degree-days are based on the population-weighted average for the 10-year period from 1997 through 2006.

  8. Flux control and one-hundred and eighty degree core systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hsu, John S

    2012-11-27

    A two-phase or four-phase electric machine includes a first stator part and a second stator part disposed about ninety electrical degrees apart. Stator pole parts are positioned near the first stator part and the second stator part. An injector injects a third-harmonic frequency current that is separate from and not produced by the fundamental current driving the first stator part and the second stator part. The electric angular speed of the third-harmonic rotating field comprises .theta. ##EQU00001## where p comprises the number of pole pairs, .theta. comprises a mechanical angle and t comprise time in seconds.

  9. Developments in the Nuclear Safeguards and Security Engineering Degree Program at Tomsk Polytechnic University

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boiko, Vladimir I.; Demyanyuk, Dmitry G.; Silaev, Maxim E.; Duncan, Cristen L.; Heinberg, Cynthia L.; Killinger, Mark H.; Goodey, Kent O.; Butler, Gilbert W.

    2009-10-06

    Over the last six years, Tomsk Polytechnic University (TPU) has developed a 5 year engineering degree program in the field of Material Protection Control and Accounting (MPC&A). In 2009 the first students graduated with this new degree. There were 25 job offers from nuclear fuel cycle enterprises of Russia and Kazakhstan for 17 graduates of the program. Due to the rather wide selection of workplaces, all graduates have obtained positions at nuclear enterprises. The program was developed within the Applied Physics and Engineering Department (APED). The laboratory and methodological base has been created taking into consideration the experience of the similar program at the Moscow Engineering Physics Institute (MEPhI). However, the TPU program has some distinguishing features such as the inclusion of special courses pertaining to fuel enrichment and reprocessing. During the last two years, three MPC&A laboratories have been established at APED. This was made possible due to several factors such as establishment of the State innovative educational program at TPU, assistance of the U.S. Department of Energy through Pacific Northwest National Laboratory and Los Alamos National Laboratory, and the financial support of the Swedish Radiation Safety Authority and some Russian private companies. All three of the MPC&A laboratories are part of the Innovative Educational Center Nuclear Technologies and Non-Proliferation, which deals with many topics including research activities, development of new curricula for experts training and retraining, and training of masters students. In 2008, TPU developed a relationship with the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), which was familiarized with APEDs current resources and activities. The IAEA has shown interest in creation of a masters degree educational program in the field of nuclear security at TPU. A future objective is to acquaint nuclear fuel cycle enterprises with new APED capabilities and involve the enterprises in the scientific and educational projects implemented through the Nuclear Technologies and Non-Proliferation Center. This paper describes the development of the MPC&A engineering degree program and future goals of TPU in the field of nonproliferation education.

  10. On linear groups of degree 2 over a finite commutative ring

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bashkirov, Evgenii L.; Eser, Hasan

    2014-08-20

    Let p > 3 be a prime number and F{sub p} be a field of p elements. Let K be a commutative and associative ring obtained by adjoining to F{sub p} an element ? such that ? satisfies a polynomial over F{sub p} and a polynomial of the least degree whose root is ? can be written as a product of distinct polynomials irreducible over F{sub p}. We prove that the special linear group SL{sub 2}(K) is generated by two elementary transvections ( (table) ), ( (table) )

  11. VI-12 STUDENTS WHO RECEIVED GRADUATE DEGREES FROM THESIS WORK CONDUCTED

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    2 - March 31, 2013 Name Year Thesis Title Advisor Present Position Mike Mehlman 2012 Design of TAMUTRAP and Testing of RFQ Pressure Control System D. Melconian Continue to Ph. D. degree John Goodwin 2012 Can Environmental Factors affect Half-Life in Beta Decay? An Analysis J. C. Hardy N.A. Martin Cordrington 2012 Lon- Range Rapidity at High pT in sqrt(s) = 200 GeV Au+Au Collision with STAR S. Mioduszewski N.A. James Lucus Drachenberg 2012 Forward Di-Hadron Asymmetries from p + p at

  12. VI-12 STUDENTS WHO RECEIVED GRADUATE DEGREES FROM THESIS WORK CONDUCTED

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    3 - March 31, 2014 Name Year Thesis Title Advisor Present Position Jonathan Button 2013 Decay Detector for the Study of Gant Monopole Resonance in Unstable Nuclei D. H. Youngblood Continue to Ph. D. degree Guangyao Chen 2013 Initial Conditions from Color Glass Condensate R. J. Fries Post. Doc. at Cyclotron Institute, Texas A&M University Ellen Nicole Simmons 2013 The β-Delayed Proton and Gamma Decay of 27 P R. E. Tribble Post. Doc. at Cyclotron Institute, Texas A&M University Andrew

  13. High performance steam development. Final report, Phase No. 3: 1500{degree}F steam plant for industrial cogeneration prototype development tests

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Duffy, T.; Schneider, P.

    1996-01-01

    As a key part of DOE`s and industry`s R&D efforts to improve the efficiency, cost, and emissions of power generation, a prototype High Performance Steam System (HPSS) has been designed, built, and demonstrated. The world`s highest temperature ASME Section I coded power plant successfully completed over 100 hours of development tests at 1500{degrees}F and 1500 psig on a 56,000 pound per hour steam generator, control valve and topping turbine at an output power of 5500 hp. This development advances the HPSS to 400{degrees}F higher steam temperature than the current best technology being installed around the world. Higher cycle temperatures produce higher conversion efficiencies and since steam is used to produce the large majority of the world`s power, the authors expect HPSS developments will have a major impact on electric power production and cogeneration in the twenty-first century. Coal fueled steam plants now produce the majority of the United States electric power. Cogeneration and reduced costs and availability of natural gas have now made gas turbines using Heat Recovery Steam Generators (HRSG`s) and combined cycles for cogeneration and power generation the lowest cost producer of electric power in the United States. These gas fueled combined cycles also have major benefits in reducing emissions while reducing the cost of electricity. Development of HPSS technology can significantly improve the efficiency of cogeneration, steam plants, and combined cycles. Figure 2 is a TS diagram that shows the HPSS has twice the energy available from each pound of steam when expanding from 1500{degrees}F and 1500 psia to 165 psia (150 psig, a common cogeneration process steam pressure). This report describes the prototype component and system design, and results of the 100-hour laboratory tests. The next phase of the program consists of building up the steam turbine into a generator set, and installing the power plant at an industrial site for extended operation.

  14. Structural Design Considerations for Tubular Power Tower Receivers Operating at 650 Degrees C: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Neises, T. W.; Wagner, M. J.; Gray, A. K.

    2014-04-01

    Research of advanced power cycles has shown supercritical carbon dioxide power cycles may have thermal efficiency benefits relative to steam cycles at temperatures around 500 - 700 degrees C. To realize these benefits for CSP, it is necessary to increase the maximum outlet temperature of current tower designs. Research at NREL is investigating a concept that uses high-pressure supercritical carbon dioxide as the heat transfer fluid to achieve a 650 degrees C receiver outlet temperature. At these operating conditions, creep becomes an important factor in the design of a tubular receiver and contemporary design assumptions for both solar and traditional boiler applications must be revisited and revised. This paper discusses lessons learned for high-pressure, high-temperature tubular receiver design. An analysis of a simplified receiver tube is discussed, and the results show the limiting stress mechanisms in the tube and the impact on the maximum allowable flux as design parameters vary. Results of this preliminary analysis indicate an underlying trade-off between tube thickness and the maximum allowable flux on the tube. Future work will expand the scope of design variables considered and attempt to optimize the design based on cost and performance metrics.

  15. Image system for three dimensional, 360{degree}, time sequence surface mapping of moving objects

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lu, S.Y.

    1998-12-22

    A three-dimensional motion camera system comprises a light projector placed between two synchronous video cameras all focused on an object-of-interest. The light projector shines a sharp pattern of vertical lines (Ronchi ruling) on the object-of-interest that appear to be bent differently to each camera by virtue of the surface shape of the object-of-interest and the relative geometry of the cameras, light projector and object-of-interest. Each video frame is captured in a computer memory and analyzed. Since the relative geometry is known and the system pre-calibrated, the unknown three-dimensional shape of the object-of-interest can be solved for by matching the intersections of the projected light lines with orthogonal epipolar lines corresponding to horizontal rows in the video camera frames. A surface reconstruction is made and displayed on a monitor screen. For 360{degree} all around coverage of the object-of-interest, two additional sets of light projectors and corresponding cameras are distributed about 120{degree} apart from one another. 20 figs.

  16. EXOPLANETS FROM THE ARCTIC: THE FIRST WIDE-FIELD SURVEY AT 80 Degree-Sign N

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Law, Nicholas M.; Sivanandam, Suresh; Carlberg, Raymond; Salbi, Pegah; Ngan, Wai-Hin Wayne; Kerzendorf, Wolfgang; Ahmadi, Aida; Steinbring, Eric; Murowinski, Richard

    2013-03-15

    Located within 10 Degree-Sign of the North Pole, northern Ellesmere Island offers continuous darkness in the winter months. This capability can greatly enhance the detection efficiency of planetary transit surveys and other time domain astronomy programs. We deployed two wide-field cameras at 80 Degree-Sign N, near Eureka, Nunavut, for a 152 hr observing campaign in 2012 February. The 16 megapixel camera systems were based on commercial f/1.2 lenses with 70 mm and 42 mm apertures, and they continuously imaged 504 and 1295 deg{sup 2}, respectively. In total, the cameras took over 44,000 images and produced better than 1% precision light curves for approximately 10,000 stars. We describe a new high-speed astrometric and photometric data reduction pipeline designed for the systems, test several methods for the precision flat fielding of images from very-wide-angle cameras, and evaluate the cameras' image qualities. We achieved a scintillation-limited photometric precision of 1%-2% in each 10 s exposure. Binning the short exposures into 10 minute chunks provided a photometric stability of 2-3 mmag, sufficient for the detection of transiting exoplanets around the bright stars targeted by our survey. We estimate that the cameras, when operated over the full Arctic winter, will be capable of discovering several transiting exoplanets around bright (m{sub V} < 9.5) stars.

  17. Image system for three dimensional, 360 DEGREE, time sequence surface mapping of moving objects

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lu, Shin-Yee (Pleasanton, CA)

    1998-01-01

    A three-dimensional motion camera system comprises a light projector placed between two synchronous video cameras all focused on an object-of-interest. The light projector shines a sharp pattern of vertical lines (Ronchi ruling) on the object-of-interest that appear to be bent differently to each camera by virtue of the surface shape of the object-of-interest and the relative geometry of the cameras, light projector and object-of-interest Each video frame is captured in a computer memory and analyzed. Since the relative geometry is known and the system pre-calibrated, the unknown three-dimensional shape of the object-of-interest can be solved for by matching the intersections of the projected light lines with orthogonal epipolar lines corresponding to horizontal rows in the video camera frames. A surface reconstruction is made and displayed on a monitor screen. For 360.degree. all around coverage of theobject-of-interest, two additional sets of light projectors and corresponding cameras are distributed about 120.degree. apart from one another.

  18. Determining the slag fraction, water/binder ratio and degree of hydration in hardened cement pastes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yio, M.H.N. Phelan, J.C.; Wong, H.S.; Buenfeld, N.R.

    2014-02-15

    A method for determining the original mix composition of hardened slag-blended cement-based materials based on analysis of backscattered electron images combined with loss on ignition measurements is presented. The method does not require comparison to reference standards or prior knowledge of the composition of the binders used. Therefore, it is well-suited for application to real structures. The method is also able to calculate the degrees of reaction of slag and cement. Results obtained from an experimental study involving sixty samples with a wide range of water/binder (w/b) ratios (0.30 to 0.50), slag/binder ratios (0 to 0.6) and curing ages (3 days to 1 year) show that the method is very promising. The mean absolute errors for the estimated slag, water and cement contents (kg/m{sup 3}), w/b and s/b ratios were 9.1%, 1.5%, 2.5%, 4.7% and 8.7%, respectively. 91% of the estimated w/b ratios were within 0.036 of the actual values. -- Highlights: A new method for estimating w/b ratio and slag content in cement pastes is proposed. The method is also able to calculate the degrees of reaction of slag and cement. Reference standards or prior knowledge of the binder composition are not required. The method was tested on samples with varying w/b ratios and slag content.

  19. Self-consistent

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    1-3023 Self-Sustaining Thorium Boiling Water Reactors Reactor Concepts Dr. Ehud Greenspan University of California-Berkeley In collaboration with: Massachusetts Institute of Technology University of Michigan Brookhaven National Laboratory Brian Robinson, Federal POC Temitope Taiwo, Technical POC NEUP Project # 11-3023 September 2011 to December 2014 Self-sustaining thorium boiling water reactors Summary Report Ehud Greenspan, Phillip M. Gorman, Sandra Bogetic, Jeffrey E. Seifried, Guanheng

  20. Table 26. Natural gas home customer-weighted heating degree days

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    96 Created on: 4/26/2016 6:14:01 PM Table 26. Natural gas home customer-weighted heating degree days Month/Year/Type of data New England Middle Atlantic East North Central West North Central South Atlantic CT, ME, MA, NH, RI, VT NJ, NY, PA IL, IN, MI, OH, WI IA, KS, MN, MO, ND, NE, SD DE, FL, GA, MD, DC, NC, SC, VA, WV November Normal 702 665 757 841 443 2014 749 742 909 1,002 562 2015 583 509 596 653 325 % Diff (normal to 2015) -17.0 -23.5 -21.3 -22.4 -26.6 % Diff (2014 to 2015) -22.2 -31.4

  1. Sublimation rate of molecular crystals - role of internal degrees of freedom

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maiti, A; Zepeda-Ruiz, L A; Gee, R H; Burnham, A

    2007-01-19

    It is a common practice to estimate site desorption rate from crystal surfaces with an Arrhenius expression of the form v{sub eff} exp(-{Delta}E/k{sub B}T), where {Delta}E is an activation barrier to desorb and v{sub eff} is an effective vibrational frequency {approx} 10{sup 12} sec{sup -1}. However, such a formula can lead to several to many orders of magnitude underestimation of sublimation rates in molecular crystals due to internal degrees of freedom. We carry out a quantitative comparison of two energetic molecular crystals with crystals of smaller entities like ice and Argon (solid) and uncover the errors involved as a function of molecule size. In the process, we also develop a formal definition of v{sub eff} and an accurate working expression for equilibrium vapor pressure.

  2. Spectroscopic studies of the 110{degree}C thermal aging of PETN

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dosser, L.R.; Seliskar, C.J.

    1992-07-30

    The 110{degrees}C thermal aging parameters, including initial rates of decomposition, of four types of pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN) over a period of ten months are presented. Both decomposition products nitric oxide, NO, and nitrogen dioxide, N0{sub 2} were monitored from multiple, hermetically-sealed, in vacuo samples. Nitric oxide appears to be the first nitrogen oxide product evolved. Nitrogen dioxide produced by abrupt thermal aging is more slowly converted to nitric oxide by a 1:1 process. The behavior of samples of RR5K PETN was significantly different from that of other powders studied. Further work is in progress to better define the thermal aging of RR5K PETN.

  3. Strongly coupled electronic, magnetic, and lattice degrees of freedom in LaCo5 under pressure

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Stillwell, Ryan L.; Jeffries, Jason R.; McCall, Scott K.; Lee, Jonathan R. I.; Weir, Samuel T.; Vohra, Yogesh K.

    2015-11-25

    In this study, we have performed high-pressure magnetotransport and x-ray diffraction measurements on ferromagnetic LaCo5, confirming the theoretically predicted electronic topological transition driving the magnetoelastic collapse seen in the related compound YCo5. Our x-ray diffraction results show an anisotropic lattice collapse of the c axis near 10 GPa that is also commensurate with a change in the majority charge carriers evident from high-pressure Hall effect measurements. The coupling of the electronic, magnetic, and lattice degrees of freedom is further substantiated by the evolution of the anomalous Hall effect, which couples to the magnetization of the ordered state of LaCo5.

  4. NEUTRON-INDUCED SWELLING OF Fe-Cr BINARY ALLOYS IN FFTF AT ~400 DEGREES C

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Garner, Francis A.; Greenwood, Lawrence R.; Okita, Taira; Sekimura, Naoto; Wolfer, W. G.

    2002-12-31

    The purpose of this effort is to determine the influence of dpa rate, He/dpa ratio and composition on the void swelling of simple binary Fe-Cr alloys. Contrary to the behavior of swelling of model fcc Fe-Cr-Ni alloys irradiated in the same FFTF-MOTA experiment, model bcc Fe-Cr alloys do not exhibit a dependence of swelling on dpa rate at approximately 400 degrees C. This is surprising in that an apparent flux-sensitivity was observed in an earlier comparative irradiation of Fe-Cr binaries conducted in EBR-II and FFTF. The difference in behavior is ascribed to the higher helium generation rates of Fe-Cr alloys in EBR-II compared to that of FFTF, and also the fact that lower dpa rates in FFTF are accompanied by progressively lower helium generation rates.

  5. Sierra Geothermal's Key Find in Southern Nevada

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    In May 2010, Sierra Geothermal determined temperature at the bottom of a well drilled at the company's Alum project near Silver Peak, Nev., was hot enough for commercial-sized geothermal energy production - measured as 147 degrees Celsius (297 degrees Fahrenheit). A promising discovery by a geothermal energy company that could boost use of the renewable source in southwest Nevada, power thousands of homes and create jobs.

  6. Neutrinoless double {beta}-decay nuclear matrix elements within the SRQRPA with self-consistent short range correlations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Benes, Petr [IEAP, Czech Technical University (Czech Republic); Simkovic, Fedor [Department of Nuclear Physics and Biophysics, Comenius University, Mlynska dolina, SK-84248 Bratislava (Slovakia); Bogolyubov Laboratory of Theoretical Physics, JINR, Dubna (Russian Federation)

    2009-11-09

    The nuclear matrix elements M{sup 0v} of the neutrinoless double beta decay (0v{beta}{beta}-decay) are systematically evaluated using the self-consistent renormalized quasiparticle random phase approximation (SRQRPA). The residual interaction and the two-nucleon short-range correlations are derived from the charge-dependent Bonn (CD-Bonn) potential. The importance of further progress in the calculation of the 0v{beta}{beta}-decay nuclear matrix elements is stressed.

  7. Examination of a Standardized Test for Evaluating the Degree of Cure of EVA Encapsulation: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, D. C.; Gu, X.; Haldenman, S.; Hidalgo, M.; Malguth, E.; Reid, C. G.; Shioda, T.; Schulze, S. H.; Wang, Z. Y.; Wohlgemuth, J. H.

    2013-11-01

    The curing of cross-linkable encapsulation is a critical consideration for photovoltaic (PV) modules manufactured using a lamination process. Concerns related to ethylene-co-vinyl acetate (EVA) include the quality (e.g., expiration and uniformity) of the films or completion (duration) of the cross-linking of the EVA within a laminator. Because these issues are important to both EVA and module manufacturers, an international standard has recently been proposed by the Encapsulation Task-Group within the Working Group 2 (WG2) of the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) Technical Committee 82 (TC82) for the quantification of the degree of cure for EVA encapsulation. The present draft of the standard calls for the use of differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) as the rapid, enabling secondary (test) method. Both the residual enthalpy- and melt/freeze-DSC methods are identified. The DSC methods are calibrated against the gel content test, the primary (reference) method. Aspects of other established methods, including indentation and rotor cure metering, were considered by the group. Key details of the test procedure will be described.

  8. Examination of a Standardized Test for Evaluating the Degree of Cure of EVA Encapsulation (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, D.; Wohlgemuth, J.; Gu, X.; Haldeman, S.; Hidalgo, M.; Malguth, E.; Reid, C.; Shioda, T.; Schulze, S.; Wang, Z.

    2013-11-01

    The curing of cross-linkable encapsulation is a critical consideration for photovoltaic (PV) modules manufactured using a lamination process. Concerns related to ethylene-co-vinyl acetate (EVA) include the quality (e.g., expiration and uniformity) of the films or completion (duration) of the cross-linking of the EVA within a laminator. Because these issues are important to both EVA and module manufacturers, an international standard has recently been proposed by the Encapsulation Task-Group within the Working Group 2 (WG2) of the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) Technical Committee 82 (TC82) for the quantification of the degree of cure for EVA encapsulation. The present draft of the standard calls for the use of differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) as the rapid, enabling secondary (test) method. Both the residual enthalpy- and melt/freeze-DSC methods are identified. The DSC methods are calibrated against the gel content test, the primary (reference) method. Aspects of other established methods, including indentation and rotor cure metering, were considered by the group. Key details of the test procedure will be described.

  9. Rotation-Enabled 7-Degree of Freedom Seismometer for Geothermal Resource Development. Phase 1 Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pierson, Bob; Laughlin, Darren

    2013-10-29

    Under this Department of Energy (DOE) grant, A-Tech Corporation d.b.a. Applied Technology Associates (ATA), seeks to develop a seven-degree-of-freedom (7-DOF) seismic measurement tool for high-temperature geothermal applications. The Rotational-Enabled 7-DOF Seismometer includes a conventional tri-axial accelerometer, a conventional pressure sensor or hydrophone, and a tri-axial rotational sensor. The rotational sensing capability is novel, based upon ATA's innovative research in rotational sensing technologies. The geothermal industry requires tools for high-precision seismic monitoring of crack formation associated with Enhanced Geothermal System (EGS) stimulation activity. Currently, microseismic monitoring is conducted by deploying many seismic tools at different depth levels along a 'string' within drilled observation wells. Costs per string can be hundreds of thousands of dollars. Processing data from the spatial arrays of linear seismometers allows back-projection of seismic wave states. In contrast, a Rotational-Enabled 7-DOF Seismometer would simultaneously measure p-wave velocity, s-wave velocity, and incident seismic wave direction all from a single point measurement. In addition, the Rotational-Enabled 7-DOF Seismometer will, by its nature, separate p- and s-waves into different data streams, simplifying signal processing and facilitating analysis of seismic source signatures and geological characterization. By adding measurements of three additional degrees-of-freedom at each level and leveraging the information from this new seismic observable, it is likely that an equally accurate picture of subsurface seismic activity could be garnered with fewer levels per hole. The key cost savings would come from better siting of the well due to increased information content and a decrease in the number of confirmation wells drilled, also due to the increase in information per well. Improved seismic tools may also increase knowledge, understanding, and confidence, thus removing some current blocks to feasibility and significantly increasing access to potential geothermal sites. During the Phase 1 effort summarized in this final report, the ATA Team modeled and built two TRL 3 proof-of-concept test units for two competing rotational sensor technologies. The two competing technologies were based on ATA's angular rate and angular displacement measurement technologies; Angular rate: ATA's Magnetohydrodynamic Angular Rate Sensor (Seismic MHD); and Angular displacement: ATA's Low Frequency Improved Torsional Seismometer (LFITS). In order to down-select between these two technologies and formulate a go / no go decision, the ATA Team analyzed and traded scientific performance requirements and market constraints against sensor characteristics and components, acquiring field data where possible to validate the approach and publishing results from these studies of rotational technology capability. Based on the results of Phase 1, the ATA Team finds that the Seismic MHD (SMHD) technology is the best choice for enabling rotational seismometry and significant technical potential exists for micro-seismic monitoring using a downhole 7-DOF device based on the SMHD. Recent technical papers and field data confirm the potential of rotational sensing for seismic mapping, increasing confidence that cost-reduction benefits are achievable for EGS. However, the market for geothermal rotational sensing is small and undeveloped. As a result, this report recommends modifying the Phase 2 plan to focus on prototype development aimed at partnering with early adopters within the geothermal industry and the scientific research community. The highest public benefit will come from development and deployment of a science-grade SMHD rotational seismometer engineered for geothermal downhole conditions and an integrated test tool for downhole measurements at active geothermal test sites.

  10. Development and Implementation of Degree Programs in Electric Drive Vehicle Technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ng, Simon

    2013-09-30

    The Electric-drive Vehicle Engineering (EVE) MS degree and graduate certificate programs have been continuing to make good progress, thanks to the funding and the guidance from DOE grant management group, the support from our University and College administrations, and to valuable inputs and feedback from our Industrial Advisory Board as well as our project partners Macomb Community College and NextEnergy. Table 1 below lists originally proposed Statement of Project Objectives (SOPO), which have all been completed successfully. Our program and course enrollments continue to be good and increasing, as shown in later sections. Our graduating students continue to get good job offers from local EV-related companies. Following the top recommendation from our Industrial Advisory Board, we were fortunate enough to be accepted into the prestigious EcoCAR2 (http://www.ecocar2.org/) North America university design competition, and have been having some modest success with the competition. But most importantly, EcoCAR2 offers the most holistic educational environment for integrating real-world engineering and design with our EVE graduate curriculum. Such integrations include true real-world hands-on course projects based on EcoCAR2 related tasks for the students, and faculty curricular and course improvements based on lessons and best practices learned from EcoCAR2. We are in the third and last year of EcoCAR2, and we have already formed a core group of students in pursuit of EcoCAR”3”, for which the proposal is due in early December.

  11. Self-Consistant Numerical Modeling of E-Cloud Driven Instability of a Bunch Train in the CERN SPS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vay, J-L.; Furman, M.A.; Secondo, R.; Venturini, M.; Fox, J.D.; Rivetta, C.H,

    2010-09-01

    The simulation package WARP-POSINST was recently upgraded for handling multiple bunches and modeling concurrently the electron cloud buildup and its effect on the beam, allowing for direct self-consistent simulation of bunch trains generating, and interacting with, electron clouds. We have used the WARP-POSINST package on massively parallel supercomputers to study the growth rate and frequency patterns in space-time of the electron cloud driven transverse instability for a proton bunch train in the CERN SPS accelerator. Results suggest that a positive feedback mechanism exists between the electron buildup and the e-cloud driven transverse instability, leading to a net increase in predicted electron density. Comparisons to selected experimental data are also given. Electron clouds have been shown to trigger fast growing instabilities on proton beams circulating in the SPS and other accelerators. So far, simulations of electron cloud buildup and their effects on beam dynamics have been performed separately. This is a consequence of the large computational cost of the combined calculation due to large space and time scale disparities between the two processes. We have presented the latest improvements of the simulation package WARP-POSINST for the simulation of self-consistent ecloud effects, including mesh refinement, and generation of electrons from gas ionization and impact at the pipe walls. We also presented simulations of two consecutive bunches interacting with electrons clouds in the SPS, which included generation of secondary electrons. The distribution of electrons in front of the first beam was initialized from a dump taken from a preceding buildup calculation using the POSINST code. In this paper, we present an extension of this work where one full batch of 72 bunches is simulated in the SPS, including the entire buildup calculation and the self-consistent interaction between the bunches and the electrons. Comparisons to experimental data are also given.

  12. Study of Ion Cooling and Ejection from Two Stage Linear Quadrupole Ion Trap consisted of RFQ ion guides

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Ion Cooling and Ejection from Two Stage Linear Quadrupole Ion Trap consisted of RFQ ion guides Kozlovskiy V.I., Filatov V. V., Shchepunov (UNIRIB, O.R.A.U. Oak Ridge, TN, USA) V. A., Brusov V. S., Pikhtelev A. R., Zelenov V. V. Introduction The primary objective of this work concerns linear quadrupole ion traps, which are commonly used to interface a continuous ion beam from an external source with a mass analyzer, requiring bunched or pulsed beams. We assume that the ions prepared for mass

  13. Facile fabrication of rutile monolayer films consisting of well crystalline nanorods by following an IL-assisted hydrothermal route

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peng Peng; Liu Xiaodi; Sun, Chuansheng; Ma Jianmin; Zheng Wenjun

    2009-05-15

    In this study, rutile films consisting of rectangular nanorods were facilely deposited on glass substrates from strongly acid solution of TiCl{sub 4}. The highly ordered array of nanorods was realized in presence of ionic liquid (IL) of [Bmim]Br by following a hydrothermal process. In this process, Degussa P25 nanoparticles served as seeds that were pre-deposited on the substrates to facilitate the array of rutile nanorods. X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and Raman spectrum were used to characterize the obtained nanorod films. The measurements showed that the nanorods were rectangular with width of 100-200 nm and length of more than 1 {mu}m, and grew up typically along c-axis to form the arrays against the substrate. The presence of IL was found vital for the formation of rutile nanorods, and the suitable molar ratio of [Bmim]Br to TiCl{sub 4} ranged from 500:1 to 1500:1. The excessive [Bmim]Br may hinder the precipitation of rutile particles. - Graphical abstract: The rutile film consisting of rectangular nanorods is successfully deposited on glass substrate in presence of ionic liquid (IL) of [Bmim]Br. The nanorods were rectangular with width of 100-200 nm and length of more than 1 {mu}m, which grew up typically along c-axis to form the arrays against the substrate.

  14. Toward fully self-consistent simulation of the interaction of E-Clouds and beams with WARP-POSINST

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    LLNL; Furman, M.A.; Furman, M.A.; Celata, C.M.; Sonnad, K.; Venturini, M.; Cohen, R.H.; Friedman, A.; Grote, D.P.; Vay, J.-L.

    2012-04-09

    To predict the evolution of electron clouds and their effect on the beam, the high energy physics community has relied so far on the complementary use of 'buildup' and 'single/multi-bunch instability' reduced descriptions. The former describes the evolution of electron clouds at a given location in the ring, or 'station', under the influence of prescribed beams and external fields [1], while the latter (sometimes also referred as the 'quasi-static' approximation [2]) follows the interaction between the beams and the electron clouds around the accelerator with prescribed initial distributions of electrons, assumed to be concentrated at a number of discrete 'stations' around the ring. Examples of single bunch instability codes include HEADTAIL [3], QuickPIC [4, 5], and PEHTS [6]. By contrast, a fully self-consistent approach, in which both the electron cloud and beam distributions evolve simultaneously under their mutual influence without any restriction on their relative motion, is required for modeling the interaction of high-intensity beams with electron clouds for heavy-ion beam-driven fusion and warm-dense matter science. This community has relied on the use of Particle-In-Cell (PIC) methods through the development and use of the WARP-POSINST code suite [1, 7, 8]. The development of novel numerical techniques (including adaptive mesh refinement, and a new 'drift-Lorentz' particle mover for tracking charged particles in magnetic fields using large time steps) has enabled the first application of WARP-POSINST to the fully self-consistent modeling of beams and electron clouds in high energy accelerators [9], albeit for only a few betatron oscillations. It was recently observed [10] that there exists a preferred frame of reference which minimizes the number of computer operations needed to simulate the interaction of relativistic objects. This opens the possibility of reducing the cost of fully self-consistent simulations for the interaction of ultrarelativistic beams with electron cloud by orders of magnitude. The computational cost of the fully self-consistent mode is then predicted to be comparable to that of the quasi-static mode, assuming that several stations per betatron period are needed. During the workshop, there was some debate about the number of stations per betatron period that are needed when using the quasi-static mode. The argument was made that if there is less than one station per betatron period, then artificial resonances can be triggered and the resulting emittance growth provides an upper bound. The emittance growth thus obtained will fall either above or below the operational requirements of the machine. In the latter case, one can conclude that the electron effect that has been simulated is of no concern. However, if the emittance growth that was obtained is above the threshold, then the results become inconclusive, and simulations which resolve the betatron motion are then needed. In this case, according to [10], the fully self-consistent approach becomes an option. The aim of this paper is to investigate whether this option is indeed practical.

  15. Probing neutrino physics with a self-consistent treatment of the weak decoupling, nucleosynthesis, and photon decoupling epochs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grohs, E.; Fuller, George M.; Kishimoto, Chad T.; Paris, Mark W.

    2015-05-11

    In this study, we show that a self-consistent and coupled treatment of the weak decoupling, big bang nucleosynthesis, and photon decoupling epochs can be used to provide new insights and constraints on neutrino sector physics from high-precision measurements of light element abundances and Cosmic Microwave Background observables. Implications of beyond-standard-model physics in cosmology, especially within the neutrino sector, are assessed by comparing predictions against five observables: the baryon energy density, helium abundance, deuterium abundance, effective number of neutrinos, and sum of the light neutrino mass eigenstates. We give examples for constraints on dark radiation, neutrino rest mass, lepton numbers, and scenarios for light and heavy sterile neutrinos.

  16. Communication: Smoothing out excited-state dynamics: Analytical gradients for dynamically weighted complete active space self-consistent field

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Glover, W. J.

    2014-11-07

    State averaged complete active space self-consistent field (SA-CASSCF) is a workhorse for determining the excited-state electronic structure of molecules, particularly for states with multireference character; however, the method suffers from known issues that have prevented its wider adoption. One issue is the presence of discontinuities in potential energy surfaces when a state that is not included in the state averaging crosses with one that is. In this communication I introduce a new dynamical weight with spline (DWS) scheme that mimics SA-CASSCF while removing energy discontinuities due to unweighted state crossings. In addition, analytical gradients for DWS-CASSCF (and other dynamically weighted schemes) are derived for the first time, enabling energy-conserving excited-state ab initio molecular dynamics in instances where SA-CASSCF fails.

  17. Three-Nucleon Low-Energy Constants From The Consistency Of Interactions And Currents In Chiral Effective Field Theory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gazit, D; Quaglioni, S; Navratil, P

    2008-12-18

    The chiral low-energy constants cD and cE are constrained by means of accurate ab initio calculations of the A = 3 binding energies and, for the first time, of the triton {beta} decay. We demonstrate that these low-energy observables allow a robust determination of the two undetermined constants. The consistency of the interactions and currents in chiral effective field theory is key to this remarkable result. The two- plus three-nucleon interactions from chiral effective field theory defined by properties of the A = 2 system and the present determination of c{sub D} and c{sub E} are successful in predicting properties of the A = 3, and 4 systems.

  18. Method and apparatus for fabricating a composite structure consisting of a filamentary material in a metal matrix

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Banker, J.G.; Anderson, R.C.

    1975-10-21

    A method and apparatus are provided for preparing a composite structure consisting of filamentary material within a metal matrix. The method is practiced by the steps of confining the metal for forming the matrix in a first chamber, heating the confined metal to a temperature adequate to effect melting thereof, introducing a stream of inert gas into the chamber for pressurizing the atmosphere in the chamber to a pressure greater than atmospheric pressure, confining the filamentary material in a second chamber, heating the confined filamentary material to a temperature less than the melting temperature of the metal, evacuating the second chamber to provide an atmosphere therein at a pressure, placing the second chamber in registry with the first chamber to provide for the forced flow of the molten metal into the second chamber to effect infiltration of the filamentary material with the molten metal, and thereafter cooling the metal infiltrated-filamentary material to form said composite structure.

  19. Solvent effects in time-dependent self-consistent field methods. II. Variational formulations and analytical gradients

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bjorgaard, J. A.; Velizhanin, K. A.; Tretiak, S.

    2015-08-06

    This study describes variational energy expressions and analytical excited state energy gradients for time-dependent self-consistent field methods with polarizable solvent effects. Linear response, vertical excitation, and state-specific solventmodels are examined. Enforcing a variational ground stateenergy expression in the state-specific model is found to reduce it to the vertical excitation model. Variational excited state energy expressions are then provided for the linear response and vertical excitation models and analytical gradients are formulated. Using semiempiricalmodel chemistry, the variational expressions are verified by numerical and analytical differentiation with respect to a static external electric field. Lastly, analytical gradients are further tested by performing microcanonical excited state molecular dynamics with p-nitroaniline.

  20. On the full exploitation of symmetry in periodic (as well as molecular) self-consistent-field ab initio calculations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Orlando, Roberto Erba, Alessandro; Dovesi, Roberto; De La Pierre, Marco; Zicovich-Wilson, Claudio M.

    2014-09-14

    Use of symmetry can dramatically reduce the computational cost (running time and memory allocation) of self-consistent-field ab initio calculations for molecular and crystalline systems. Crucial for running time is symmetry exploitation in the evaluation of one- and two-electron integrals, diagonalization of the Fock matrix at selected points in reciprocal space, reconstruction of the density matrix. As regards memory allocation, full square matrices (overlap, Fock, and density) in the Atomic Orbital (AO) basis are avoided and a direct transformation from the packed AO to the symmetry adapted crystalline orbital basis is performed, so that the largest matrix to be handled has the size of the largest sub-block in the latter basis. Quantitative examples, referring to the implementation in the CRYSTAL code, are given for high symmetry families of compounds such as carbon fullerenes and nanotubes.

  1. Solvent effects in time-dependent self-consistent field methods. II. Variational formulations and analytical gradients

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Bjorgaard, J. A.; Velizhanin, K. A.; Tretiak, S.

    2015-08-06

    This study describes variational energy expressions and analytical excited state energy gradients for time-dependent self-consistent field methods with polarizable solvent effects. Linear response, vertical excitation, and state-specific solventmodels are examined. Enforcing a variational ground stateenergy expression in the state-specific model is found to reduce it to the vertical excitation model. Variational excited state energy expressions are then provided for the linear response and vertical excitation models and analytical gradients are formulated. Using semiempiricalmodel chemistry, the variational expressions are verified by numerical and analytical differentiation with respect to a static external electric field. Lastly, analytical gradients are further tested by performingmore » microcanonical excited state molecular dynamics with p-nitroaniline.« less

  2. Probing neutrino physics with a self-consistent treatment of the weak decoupling, nucleosynthesis, and photon decoupling epochs

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Grohs, E.; Fuller, George M.; Kishimoto, Chad T.; Paris, Mark W.

    2015-05-11

    In this study, we show that a self-consistent and coupled treatment of the weak decoupling, big bang nucleosynthesis, and photon decoupling epochs can be used to provide new insights and constraints on neutrino sector physics from high-precision measurements of light element abundances and Cosmic Microwave Background observables. Implications of beyond-standard-model physics in cosmology, especially within the neutrino sector, are assessed by comparing predictions against five observables: the baryon energy density, helium abundance, deuterium abundance, effective number of neutrinos, and sum of the light neutrino mass eigenstates. We give examples for constraints on dark radiation, neutrino rest mass, lepton numbers, andmore » scenarios for light and heavy sterile neutrinos.« less

  3. Degree of polarization and source counts of faint radio sources from Stacking Polarized intensity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stil, J. M.; George, S. J.; Keller, B. W.; Taylor, A. R.

    2014-06-01

    We present stacking polarized intensity as a means to study the polarization of sources that are too faint to be detected individually in surveys of polarized radio sources. Stacking offers not only high sensitivity to the median signal of a class of radio sources, but also avoids a detection threshold in polarized intensity, and therefore an arbitrary exclusion of sources with a low percentage of polarization. Correction for polarization bias is done through a Monte Carlo analysis and tested on a simulated survey. We show that the nonlinear relation between the real polarized signal and the detected signal requires knowledge of the shape of the distribution of fractional polarization, which we constrain using the ratio of the upper quartile to the lower quartile of the distribution of stacked polarized intensities. Stacking polarized intensity for NRAO VLA Sky Survey (NVSS) sources down to the detection limit in Stokes I, we find a gradual increase in median fractional polarization that is consistent with a trend that was noticed before for bright NVSS sources, but is much more gradual than found by previous deep surveys of radio polarization. Consequently, the polarized radio source counts derived from our stacking experiment predict fewer polarized radio sources for future surveys with the Square Kilometre Array and its pathfinders.

  4. Predicting primary crystalline phase and liquidus temperature above or below 1050{degrees}C as functions of glass composition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Redgate, P.E.; Piepel, G.F.

    1996-02-01

    This report presents the results of applying statistical empirical modeling techniques to primary crystalline phase at the liquidus temperature (T{sub L}) and (ii) whether liquidus temperature is above or below 1050{degree}C (1OO{degree}C below a melting temperature of 1150{degree}C). Data used in modeling primary crystalline phase and liquidus temperate are from the Composition Variability Study (CVS) of Hanford waste glass compositions and properties. The majority of the 123 CVS glasses are categorized into one of 13 primary crystalline phases (at the liquidus temperature). They are also classified as to having T{sub L} Above or Below 1050{degree}C. Two common statistical methods used to model such categorical data are the multinomial logit and classification tree models. The classification tree models provided an overall better modeling approach than did the multinomial logit models. The performance of models in this report should be compared to the performance of the revised ``Development of Models and Software for Liquidus Temperature of Glasses of HWVP Products`` models from Ecole Polytechnique. If the Ecole Polytechnique models perform better than the models discussed in this report, no additional effort on these models would be needed. However, if the converse is true, it may be worthwhile to invest additional effort on statistical empirical modeling methods.

  5. Self-consistent fluid modeling and simulation on a pulsed microwave atmospheric-pressure argon plasma jet

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Zhaoquan; Yin, Zhixiang Chen, Minggong; Hong, Lingli; Hu, Yelin; Huang, Yourui; Xia, Guangqing; Liu, Minghai; Kudryavtsev, A. A.

    2014-10-21

    In present study, a pulsed lower-power microwave-driven atmospheric-pressure argon plasma jet has been introduced with the type of coaxial transmission line resonator. The plasma jet plume is with room air temperature, even can be directly touched by human body without any hot harm. In order to study ionization process of the proposed plasma jet, a self-consistent hybrid fluid model is constructed in which Maxwell's equations are solved numerically by finite-difference time-domain method and a fluid model is used to study the characteristics of argon plasma evolution. With a Guass type input power function, the spatio-temporal distributions of the electron density, the electron temperature, the electric field, and the absorbed power density have been simulated, respectively. The simulation results suggest that the peak values of the electron temperature and the electric field are synchronous with the input pulsed microwave power but the maximum quantities of the electron density and the absorbed power density are lagged to the microwave power excitation. In addition, the pulsed plasma jet excited by the local enhanced electric field of surface plasmon polaritons should be the discharge mechanism of the proposed plasma jet.

  6. Consistency in the Sum Frequency Generation Intensity and Phase Vibrational Spectra of the Air/Neat Water Interface

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Feng, Ranran; Guo, Yuan; Lu, Rong; Velarde Ruiz Esparza, Luis A.; Wang, Hongfei

    2011-06-16

    Tremendous progresses have been made in quantitative understanding and interpretation of the hydrogen bonding and ordering structure at the air/water interface since the first sum-frequency generation vibrational spectroscopy (SFG-VS) measurement on the neat air/water interface by Q. Du et al. in 1993 (PRL, 70, 2312-2316, 1993.). However, there are still disagreements and controversies on the consistency between the different experiment measurements and the theoretical computational results. One critical problem lies in the inconsistency between the SFG-VS intensity measurements and the recently developed SFG-VS phase spectra measurements of the neat air/water interface, which has inspired various theoretical efforts trying to understand them. In this report, the reliability of the SFG-VS intensity spectra of the neat air/water interface is to be quantitatively examined, and the sources of possible inaccuracies in the SFG-VS phase spectral measurement is to be discussed based on the non-resonant SHG phase measurement results. The conclusion is that the SFG-VS intensity spectra data from different laboratories are now quantitatively converging and in agreement with each other, and the possible inaccuracies and inconsistencies in the SFG-VS phase spectra measurements need to be carefully examined against the properly corrected phase standard.

  7. Ion beam nanopatterning of III-V semiconductors: Consistency of experimental and simulation trends within a chemistry-driven theory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    El-Atwani, O.; Norris, S. A.; Ludwig, K.; Gonderman, S.; Allain, J. P.

    2015-12-16

    In this study, several proposed mechanisms and theoretical models exist concerning nanostructure evolution on III-V semiconductors (particularly GaSb) via ion beam irradiation. However, making quantitative contact between experiment on the one hand and model-parameter dependent predictions from different theories on the other is usually difficult. In this study, we take a different approach and provide an experimental investigation with a range of targets (GaSb, GaAs, GaP) and ion species (Ne, Ar, Kr, Xe) to determine new parametric trends regarding nanostructure evolution. Concurrently, atomistic simulations using binary collision approximation over the same ion/target combinations were performed to determine parametric trends on several quantities related to existing model. A comparison of experimental and numerical trends reveals that the two are broadly consistent under the assumption that instabilities are driven by chemical instability based on phase separation. Furthermore, the atomistic simulations and a survey of material thermodynamic properties suggest that a plausible microscopic mechanism for this process is an ion-enhanced mobility associated with energy deposition by collision cascades.

  8. Ion beam nanopatterning of III-V semiconductors: Consistency of experimental and simulation trends within a chemistry-driven theory

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    El-Atwani, O.; Norris, S. A.; Ludwig, K.; Gonderman, S.; Allain, J. P.

    2015-12-16

    In this study, several proposed mechanisms and theoretical models exist concerning nanostructure evolution on III-V semiconductors (particularly GaSb) via ion beam irradiation. However, making quantitative contact between experiment on the one hand and model-parameter dependent predictions from different theories on the other is usually difficult. In this study, we take a different approach and provide an experimental investigation with a range of targets (GaSb, GaAs, GaP) and ion species (Ne, Ar, Kr, Xe) to determine new parametric trends regarding nanostructure evolution. Concurrently, atomistic simulations using binary collision approximation over the same ion/target combinations were performed to determine parametric trends onmore » several quantities related to existing model. A comparison of experimental and numerical trends reveals that the two are broadly consistent under the assumption that instabilities are driven by chemical instability based on phase separation. Furthermore, the atomistic simulations and a survey of material thermodynamic properties suggest that a plausible microscopic mechanism for this process is an ion-enhanced mobility associated with energy deposition by collision cascades.« less

  9. Expectations for Oil Shale Production (released in AEO2009)

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2009-01-01

    Oil shales are fine-grained sedimentary rocks that contain relatively large amounts of kerogen, which can be converted into liquid and gaseous hydrocarbons (petroleum liquids, natural gas liquids, and methane) by heating the rock, usually in the absence of oxygen, to 650 to 700 degrees Fahrenheit (in situ retorting) or 900 to 950 degrees Fahrenheit (surface retorting). (Oil shale is, strictly speaking, a misnomer in that the rock is not necessarily a shale and contains no crude oil.) The richest U.S. oil shale deposits are located in Northwest Colorado, Northeast Utah, and Southwest Wyoming. Currently, those deposits are the focus of petroleum industry research and potential future production. Among the three states, the richest oil shale deposits are on federal lands in northwest Colorado.

  10. TU-A-12A-01: Consistency of Lung Expansion and Contraction During Respiration: Implications for Quantitative Imaging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Patton, T; Du, K; Bayouth, J; Christensen, G; Reinhardt, J

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: Four-dimensional computed tomography (4DCT) can be used to evaluate longitudinal changes in pulmonary function. The sensitivity of such measurements to identify function change may be improved with reproducible breathing patterns. The purpose of this study was to determine if inhale was more consistent than exhale, i.e., lung expansion during inhalation compared to lung contraction during exhalation. Methods: Repeat 4DCT image data acquired within a short time interval from 8 patients. Using a tissue volume preserving deformable image registration algorithm, Jacobian ventilation maps in two scanning sessions were computed and compared on the same coordinate for reproducibility analysis. Equivalent lung volumes (ELV) were used for 5 subjects and equivalent title volumes (ETV) for the 3 subjects who experienced a baseline shift between scans. In addition, gamma pass rate was calculated from a modified gamma index evaluation between two ventilation maps, using acceptance criterions of 2mm distance-to-agreement and 5% ventilation difference. The gamma pass rates were then compared using paired t-test to determine if there was a significant difference. Results: Inhalation was more reproducible than exhalation. In the 5 ELV subjects 78.5% of the lung voxels met the gamma criteria for expansion during inhalation when comparing the two scans, while significantly fewer (70.9% of the lung voxels) met the gamma criteria for contraction during exhalation (p = .027). In the 8 total subjects analyzed the average gamma pass rate for expansion during inhalation was 75.2% while for contraction during exhalation it was 70.3%; which trended towards significant (p = .064). Conclusion: This work implies inhalation is more reproducible than exhalation, when equivalent respiratory volumes are considered. The reason for this difference is unknown. Longitudinal investigation of pulmonary function change based on inhalation images appears appropriate for Jacobian-based measure of lung tissue expansion. NIH Grant: R01 CA166703.

  11. A consistent positive association between landscape simplification and insecticide use across the Midwestern US from 1997 through 2012

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Meehan, Timothy D.; Gratton, Claudio

    2015-10-27

    During 2007, counties across the Midwestern US with relatively high levels of landscape simplification (i.e., widespread replacement of seminatural habitats with cultivated crops) had relatively high crop-pest abundances which, in turn, were associated with relatively high insecticide application. These results suggested a positive relationship between landscape simplification and insecticide use, mediated by landscape effects on crop pests or their natural enemies. A follow-up study, in the same region but using different statistical methods, explored the relationship between landscape simplification and insecticide use between 1987 and 2007, and concluded that the relationship varied substantially in sign and strength across years. Here,more » we explore this relationship from 1997 through 2012, using a single dataset and two different analytical approaches. We demonstrate that, when using ordinary least squares (OLS) regression, the relationship between landscape simplification and insecticide use is, indeed, quite variable over time. However, the residuals from OLS models show strong spatial autocorrelation, indicating spatial structure in the data not accounted for by explanatory variables, and violating a standard assumption of OLS. When modeled using spatial regression techniques, relationships between landscape simplification and insecticide use were consistently positive between 1997 and 2012, and model fits were dramatically improved. We argue that spatial regression methods are more appropriate for these data, and conclude that there remains compelling correlative support for a link between landscape simplification and insecticide use in the Midwestern US. We discuss the limitations of inference from this and related studies, and suggest improved data collection campaigns for better understanding links between landscape structure, crop-pest pressure, and pest-management practices.« less

  12. A consistent positive association between landscape simplification and insecticide use across the Midwestern US from 1997 through 2012

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meehan, Timothy D.; Gratton, Claudio

    2015-10-27

    During 2007, counties across the Midwestern US with relatively high levels of landscape simplification (i.e., widespread replacement of seminatural habitats with cultivated crops) had relatively high crop-pest abundances which, in turn, were associated with relatively high insecticide application. These results suggested a positive relationship between landscape simplification and insecticide use, mediated by landscape effects on crop pests or their natural enemies. A follow-up study, in the same region but using different statistical methods, explored the relationship between landscape simplification and insecticide use between 1987 and 2007, and concluded that the relationship varied substantially in sign and strength across years. Here, we explore this relationship from 1997 through 2012, using a single dataset and two different analytical approaches. We demonstrate that, when using ordinary least squares (OLS) regression, the relationship between landscape simplification and insecticide use is, indeed, quite variable over time. However, the residuals from OLS models show strong spatial autocorrelation, indicating spatial structure in the data not accounted for by explanatory variables, and violating a standard assumption of OLS. When modeled using spatial regression techniques, relationships between landscape simplification and insecticide use were consistently positive between 1997 and 2012, and model fits were dramatically improved. We argue that spatial regression methods are more appropriate for these data, and conclude that there remains compelling correlative support for a link between landscape simplification and insecticide use in the Midwestern US. We discuss the limitations of inference from this and related studies, and suggest improved data collection campaigns for better understanding links between landscape structure, crop-pest pressure, and pest-management practices.

  13. Microsoft Word - winter.doc

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    1 0 1 6 9 8 1 0 1 7 9 8 Degrees in Fahrenheit A c tu a l N o rm a l ( C h i c a g o , K a n s a s C i ty , N e w Y o r k , a n d P i tts b u r g h ) E x p e c te d R a n g e T...

  14. Table Definitions, Sources, and Explanatory Notes

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Country Definitions Key Terms Definition Exports Natural Gas deliveries out of the Continental United States and Alaska to foreign countries. Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Natural gas (primarily methane) that has been liquefied by reducing its temperature to -260 degrees Fahrenheit at atmospheric pressure. Pipeline A continuous pipe conduit, complete with such equipment as valves, compressor stations, communications systems, and meters, for transporting natural and/or supplemental gas from one

  15. Table Definitions, Sources, and Explanatory Notes

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Country Definitions Key Terms Definition Imports Natural Gas received in the Continental United States (including Alaska) from a foreign country. Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Natural gas (primarily methane) that has been liquefied by reducing its temperature to -260 degrees Fahrenheit at atmospheric pressure. Pipeline A continuous pipe conduit, complete with such equipment as valves, compressor stations, communications systems, and meters, for transporting natural and/or supplemental gas from one

  16. Table Definitions, Sources, and Explanatory Notes

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Point of Entry Definitions Key Terms Definition Imports Natural Gas received in the Continental United States (including Alaska) from a foreign country. Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Natural gas (primarily methane) that has been liquefied by reducing its temperature to -260 degrees Fahrenheit at atmospheric pressure. Pipeline A continuous pipe conduit, complete with such equipment as valves, compressor stations, communications systems, and meters, for transporting natural and/or supplemental gas

  17. Table Definitions, Sources, and Explanatory Notes

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Point of Exit Definitions Key Terms Definition Exports Natural Gas deliveries out of the Continental United States and Alaska to foreign countries. Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Natural gas (primarily methane) that has been liquefied by reducing its temperature to -260 degrees Fahrenheit at atmospheric pressure. Pipeline A continuous pipe conduit, complete with such equipment as valves, compressor stations, communications systems, and meters, for transporting natural and/or supplemental gas from

  18. NREL Seeks to Optimize Individual Comfort in Buildings - News Feature |

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    NREL Seeks to Optimize Individual Comfort in Buildings October 7, 2015 Photo shows two people sitting in a white room, holding smartphones in front of laptops. Scott Jensen and Grace Brown were the first volunteers to take part in testing in NREL's Comfort Suite (C-Suite). Photo by Dennis Schroeder On a typical early fall morning in Golden, Colorado, the temperature outside was about 70 degrees Fahrenheit. Tucked inside a unique structure at the Energy Department's National Renewable Energy

  19. Fermilab | Tevatron | Media

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Media Media Contacts Fermilab Office of Communication +1 630 840 3351, media@fnal.gov Fact Sheets Tevatron scientific highlights Tevatron engineering achievements Fermilab overview Images Tevatron CDF DZero Main Control Room The 4-mile in circumference Tevatron accelerator uses superconducting magnets chilled to minus 450 degrees Fahrenheit, as cold as outer space, to move particles at nearly the speed of light. The Tevatron typically produces about 10 million proton-antiproton collisions per

  20. Development of an Energy Efficient High temperature Natural Gas Fired Furnace

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dr. Mark G. Stevens; Dr. H. Kenneth Staffin; DOE Project Officer - Keith Bennett

    2005-02-28

    The design concept is designated the ''Porous Wall Radiation Barrier'' heating mantle. In this design, combustion gas flows through a porous wall surrounding the retort, transferring its heat to the porous wall, which then radiates heat energy to the retort. Experiments demonstrate that heat transfer rates of 1.8-2.4 times conventional gas fired mantles are achievable in the temperature range of 1600-2350 degrees fahrenheit.

  1. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Idle Reduction Requirement A diesel- or gasoline-powered motor vehicle may not idle for more than three consecutive minutes, except under the following conditions: 1) to operate power takeoff equipment including, but not limited to, cement mixers, refrigeration systems, and delivery vehicles; 2) to operate private passenger vehicles; or 3) to operate heating equipment for five minutes when the ambient temperature is 32 degrees Fahrenheit or below. (Reference District of Columbia Municipal

  2. Microsoft Word - winter.doc

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    1 2 1 8 9 8 1 2 2 5 9 8 1 1 9 9 1 8 9 9 1 1 5 9 9 1 2 2 Degrees in Fahrenheit A c t u a l N o r m a l ( C h i c a g o , K a n s a s C i t y , N e w Y o r k ,...

  3. Lab Astrophysics

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Lab Astrophysics NIF experiments support studies relevant to the entire lifecycle of a star, from its formation from cold gas in molecular clouds, through its subsequent slow evolution, and on to what might be a rapid, explosive death. To determine a star's structure throughout the various stages of its life, astrophysicists need NIF's ability to mimic the temperatures (10 to 30 million kelvins or 18 to 54 million degrees Fahrenheit) found in stars' cores. One astrophysics project at NIF is

  4. Draft Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement for the Production of Tritium in a Commercial Light Water Reactor

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    FRONT COVER Draft Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement for the Production of Tritium in a Commercial Light Water Reactor U.S. Department of Energy National Nuclear Security Administration DOE/EIS-0288-S1 August 2014 ACRONYMS AND ABBREVIATIONS CFR Code of Federal Regulations CLWR commercial light water reactor CO2e carbon dioxide equivalent DOE U.S. Department of Energy EIS environmental impact statement EPA U.S. Environmental Protection Agency °F degrees Fahrenheit FR Federal Register

  5. Rare-earth elements in hot brines (165 to 190 degree C) from the Salton Sea geothermal field

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lepel, E.A.; Laul, J.C.; Smith, M.R.

    1988-01-01

    Rare-earth element (REE) concentrations are important indicators for revealing various chemical fractionation processes (water/rock interactions) and source region geochemistry. Since the REE patterns are characteristic of geologic materials (basalt, granite, shale, sediments, etc.) and minerals (K-feldspar, calcite, illite, epidote, etc.), their study in geothermal fluids may serve as a geothermometer. The REE study may also enable us to address the issue of groundwater mixing. In addition, the behavior of the REE can serve as analogs of the actinides in radioactive waste (e.g., neodymium is an analog of americium and curium). In this paper, the authors port the REE data for a Salton Sea Geothermal Field (SSGF) brine (two aliquots: port 4 at 165{degree}C and port 5 at 190{degree}C) and six associated core samples.

  6. {100}<100> or 45.degree.-rotated {100}<100>, semiconductor-based, large-area, flexible, electronic devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Goyal, Amit

    2012-05-15

    Novel articles and methods to fabricate the same resulting in flexible, {100}<100> or 45.degree.-rotated {100}<100> oriented, semiconductor-based, electronic devices are disclosed. Potential applications of resulting articles are in areas of photovoltaic devices, flat-panel displays, thermophotovoltaic devices, ferroelectric devices, light emitting diode devices, computer hard disc drive devices, magnetoresistance based devices, photoluminescence based devices, non-volatile memory devices, dielectric devices, thermoelectric devices and quantum dot laser devices.

  7. STUDENTS WHO RECEIVED GRADUATE DEGREES FROM THESIS WORK CONDUCTED AT THE CYCLOTRON INSTITUTE„4/1/00-3/31/01

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    5 - March 31, 2006 Name Year Thesis Title Advisor First Position Present Position Elizabeth Bell 2005 N /Z Equilibration S.J. Yennello Graduate Research Assistant Chemistry Instructor st Blinn College, Texas Fakhriddin Pirlepesov 2005 Asymptotic scattering wave function for three charged particles and astrophysical capture processes R.E. Tribble/ A.M. Mukhamedzhanov Graduate Teaching Assistant Pursuing degree at Department of Statistics, Texas A&M University Jim Musser 2005 Measurement of

  8. STUDENTS WHO RECEIVED GRADUATE DEGREES FROM THESIS WORK CONDUCTED AT THE CYCLOTRON INSTITUTE„4/1/00-3/31/01

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    2 STUDENTS WHO RECEIVED GRADUATE DEGREES FROM THESIS WORK CONDUCTED AT THE CYCLOTRON INSTITUTE April 1, 2010 - March 31, 2011 Name Year Thesis Title Advisor Present Position Zach Kohley 2010 Transverse Collective Flow and Emission Order of Mid- Rapidity Fragments in Fermi Energy Heavy Ion Collisions S. J. Yennello Post Doc., HRIBF, ORNL, Oak Ridge, Tennessee Xingbo Zhao 2010 Charmonium in Hot Medium Ralf Rapp Post Doc., Department of Physics, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa Sarah Nicole

  9. Structural stability of 1100[degree]C heated Pd/k during absorption cycling in protium. [Palladium supported on kieselguhr

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fisher, I.A.

    1993-03-12

    Pd/k is a hydride forming packing material which is used in the Thermal Cycling Absorption Process (TCAP). Palladium is supported on kieselguhr to create a packing material which will provide adequate void space to prevent excessive pressure drops and flow restrictions. The use of unsupported palladium would result in blockage of columns and clogging of filters due to the small particle size of unsupported palladium hydride powder. During pilot scale demonstrations, it was noted that the Pd/k packing material had degraded causing severe flow restrictions within the TCAP column. A solution to the problem involved the heating of Pd/k at 1,110[degree]C to strengthen the packing material, and render it more resistant to breakdown. The 1, 100[degree]C heated Pd/k has been shown to be more resistant to mechanical breakdown than the Pd/k prior to heat treatment. Two primary modes of Pd/k particle degradation have been identified: mechanical breakdown caused by particle fluidization and degradation caused by absorption/desorption cycling. Absorption/desorption cycling causes the palladium particles within the packing to expanded and contract upon formation and decomposition of the hydride, respectively. This expansion and contraction causes large localized stresses within the packing material, which if these stresses can not be accommodated within the packing will cause the material to crack and degrade. The purpose of this report is to document the results of the absorption/desorption cycling of 1,100[degree]C heated Pd/k and compare these results to the results obtained from the absorption/desorption cycling of Pd/k which had not been heated at 1, 100[degree]C.

  10. SELF-CONSISTENT MODEL OF THE INTERSTELLAR PICKUP PROTONS, ALFVENIC TURBULENCE, AND CORE SOLAR WIND IN THE OUTER HELIOSPHERE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gamayunov, Konstantin V.; Zhang Ming; Rassoul, Hamid K.; Pogorelov, Nikolai V.; Heerikhuisen, Jacob

    2012-09-20

    A self-consistent model of the interstellar pickup protons, the slab component of the Alfvenic turbulence, and core solar wind (SW) protons is presented for r {>=} 1 along with the initial results of and comparison with the Voyager 2 (V2) observations. Two kinetic equations are used for the pickup proton distribution and Alfvenic power spectral density, and a third equation governs SW temperature including source due to the Alfven wave energy dissipation. A fraction of the pickup proton free energy, f{sub D} , which is actually released in the waveform during isotropization, is taken from the quasi-linear consideration without preexisting turbulence, whereas we use observations to specify the strength of the large-scale driving, C{sub sh}, for turbulence. The main conclusions of our study can be summarized as follows. (1) For C{sub sh} Almost-Equal-To 1-1.5 and f{sub D} Almost-Equal-To 0.7-1, the model slab component agrees well with the V2 observations of the total transverse magnetic fluctuations starting from {approx}8 AU. This indicates that the slab component at low-latitudes makes up a majority of the transverse magnetic fluctuations beyond 8-10 AU. (2) The model core SW temperature agrees well with the V2 observations for r {approx}> 20 AU if f{sub D} Almost-Equal-To 0.7-1. (3) A combined effect of the Wentzel-Kramers-Brillouin attenuation, large-scale driving, and pickup proton generated waves results in the energy sink in the region r {approx}< 10 AU, while wave energy is pumped in the turbulence beyond 10 AU. Without energy pumping, the nonlinear energy cascade is suppressed for r {approx}< 10 AU, supplying only a small energy fraction into the k-region of dissipation by the core SW protons. A similar situation takes place for the two-dimensional turbulence. (4) The energy source due to the resonant Alfven wave damping by the core SW protons is small at heliocentric distances r {approx}< 10 AU for both the slab and the two-dimensional turbulent components. As a result, adiabatic cooling mostly controls the model SW temperature in this region, and the model temperature disagrees with the V2 observations in the region r {approx}< 20 AU.

  11. Consistent quantification of climate impacts due to biogenic carbon storage across a range of bio-product systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guest, Geoffrey Bright, Ryan M. Cherubini, Francesco Strmman, Anders H.

    2013-11-15

    Temporary and permanent carbon storage from biogenic sources is seen as a way to mitigate climate change. The aim of this work is to illustrate the need to harmonize the quantification of such mitigation across all possible storage pools in the bio- and anthroposphere. We investigate nine alternative storage cases and a wide array of bio-resource pools: from annual crops, short rotation woody crops, medium rotation temperate forests, and long rotation boreal forests. For each feedstock type and biogenic carbon storage pool, we quantify the carbon cycle climate impact due to the skewed time distribution between emission and sequestration fluxes in the bio- and anthroposphere. Additional consideration of the climate impact from albedo changes in forests is also illustrated for the boreal forest case. When characterizing climate impact with global warming potentials (GWP), we find a large variance in results which is attributed to different combinations of biomass storage and feedstock systems. The storage of biogenic carbon in any storage pool does not always confer climate benefits: even when biogenic carbon is stored long-term in durable product pools, the climate outcome may still be undesirable when the carbon is sourced from slow-growing biomass feedstock. For example, when biogenic carbon from Norway Spruce from Norway is stored in furniture with a mean life time of 43 years, a climate change impact of 0.08 kg CO{sub 2}eq per kg CO{sub 2} stored (100 year time horizon (TH)) would result. It was also found that when biogenic carbon is stored in a pool with negligible leakage to the atmosphere, the resulting GWP factor is not necessarily ? 1 CO{sub 2}eq per kg CO{sub 2} stored. As an example, when biogenic CO{sub 2} from Norway Spruce biomass is stored in geological reservoirs with no leakage, we estimate a GWP of ? 0.56 kg CO{sub 2}eq per kg CO{sub 2} stored (100 year TH) when albedo effects are also included. The large variance in GWPs across the range of resource and carbon storage options considered indicates that more accurate accounting will require case-specific factors derived following the methodological guidelines provided in this and recent manuscripts. -- Highlights: Climate impacts of stored biogenic carbon (bio-C) are consistently quantified. Temporary storage of bio-C does not always equate to a climate cooling impact. 1 unit of bio-C stored over a time horizon does not always equate to ? 1 unit CO{sub 2}eq. Discrepancies of climate change impact quantification in literature are clarified.

  12. ARM: X-Band Scanning ARM Cloud Radar (XSACR) Hemispherical Sky RHI Scans (6 horizon-to-horizon scans at 30-degree azimuth intervals)

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Dan Nelson; Joseph Hardin; Iosif (Andrei) Lindenmaier; Bradley Isom; Karen Johnson; Nitin Bharadwaj

    X-Band Scanning ARM Cloud Radar (XSACR) Hemispherical Sky RHI Scans (6 horizon-to-horizon scans at 30-degree azimuth intervals)

  13. ARM: W-Band Scanning ARM Cloud Radar (W-SACR) Hemispherical Sky RHI Scans (6 horizon-to-horizon scans at 30-degree azimuth intervals)

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Dan Nelson; Joseph Hardin; Iosif (Andrei) Lindenmaier; Bradley Isom; Karen Johnson; Nitin Bharadwaj

    W-Band Scanning ARM Cloud Radar (W-SACR) Hemispherical Sky RHI Scans (6 horizon-to-horizon scans at 30-degree azimuth intervals)

  14. ARM: Ka-Band Scanning ARM Cloud Radar (KASACR) Hemispherical Sky RHI Scan (6 horizon-to-horizon scans at 30-degree azimuth intervals)

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Dan Nelson; Joseph Hardin; Iosif (Andrei) Lindenmaier; Bradley Isom; Karen Johnson; Nitin Bharadwaj

    Ka-Band Scanning ARM Cloud Radar (KASACR) Hemispherical Sky RHI Scan (6 horizon-to-horizon scans at 30-degree azimuth intervals)

  15. ARM: Ka-Band Scanning ARM Cloud Radar (KASACR) Hemispherical Sky RHI Scan (6 horizon-to-horizon scans at 30-degree azimuth intervals)

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Dan Nelson; Joseph Hardin; Iosif (Andrei) Lindenmaier; Bradley Isom; Karen Johnson; Nitin Bharadwaj

    2011-05-24

    Ka-Band Scanning ARM Cloud Radar (KASACR) Hemispherical Sky RHI Scan (6 horizon-to-horizon scans at 30-degree azimuth intervals)

  16. ARM: W-Band Scanning ARM Cloud Radar (W-SACR) Hemispherical Sky RHI Scans (6 horizon-to-horizon scans at 30-degree azimuth intervals)

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Dan Nelson; Joseph Hardin; Iosif (Andrei) Lindenmaier; Bradley Isom; Karen Johnson; Nitin Bharadwaj

    1990-01-01

    W-Band Scanning ARM Cloud Radar (W-SACR) Hemispherical Sky RHI Scans (6 horizon-to-horizon scans at 30-degree azimuth intervals)

  17. ARM: X-Band Scanning ARM Cloud Radar (XSACR) Hemispherical Sky RHI Scans (6 horizon-to-horizon scans at 30-degree azimuth intervals)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dan Nelson; Joseph Hardin; Iosif Lindenmaier; Bradley Isom; Karen Johnson; Nitin Bharadwaj

    2011-09-14

    X-Band Scanning ARM Cloud Radar (XSACR) Hemispherical Sky RHI Scans (6 horizon-to-horizon scans at 30-degree azimuth intervals)

  18. Excited-state quantum phase transitions in systems with two degrees of freedom: Level density, level dynamics, thermal properties

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Strnsk, Pavel; Macek, Michal; Cejnar, Pavel

    2014-06-15

    Quantum systems with a finite number of freedom degrees f develop robust singularities in the energy spectrum of excited states as the systems size increases to infinity. We analyze the general form of these singularities for low f, particularly f=2, clarifying the relation to classical stationary points of the corresponding potential. Signatures in the smoothed energy dependence of the quantum state density and in the flow of energy levels with an arbitrary control parameter are described along with the relevant thermodynamical consequences. The general analysis is illustrated with specific examples of excited-state singularities accompanying the first-order quantum phase transition. -- Highlights: ESQPTs found in infinite-size limit of systems with low numbers of freedom degrees f. ESQPTs related to non-analytical evolutions of classical phasespace properties. ESQPT signatures analyzed for general f, particularly f=2, extending known case f=1. ESQPT signatures identified in smoothened density and flow of energy spectrum. ESQPTs shown to induce a new type of thermodynamic anomalies.

  19. Irradiation creep of various ferritic alloys irradiated at {approximately}400{degrees}C in the PFR and FFTF reactors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Toloczko, M.B.; Garner, F.A.; Eiholzer, C.R.

    1997-04-01

    Three ferritic alloys were irradiated in two fast reactors to doses of 50 dpa or more at temperatures near 400{degrees}C. One martensitic alloy, HT9, was irradiated in both the FFTF and PFR reactors. PFR is the Prototype Fast Reactor in Dourneay, Scotland, and FFTF is the Fast Flux Test Facility in Richland, WA. D57 is a developmental alloy that was irradiated in PFR only, and MA957 is a Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} dispersion-hardened ferritic alloy that was irradiated only in FFTF. These alloys exhibited little or no void swelling at {approximately}400{degrees}C. Depending on the alloy starting condition, these steels develop a variety of non-creep strains early in the irradiation that are associated with phase changes. Each of these alloys creeps at a rate that is significantly lower than that of austenitic steels irradiated in the same experiments. The creep compliance for ferritic alloys in general appears to be {approximately}0.5 x 10{sup {minus}6} MPa{sup {minus}1} dpa{sup {minus}1}, independent of both composition and starting state. The addition of Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} as a dispersoid does not appear to change the creep behavior.

  20. p-Hydroxyphenyl (H) Units Lower the Degree of Polymerization in Lignin: Chemical Control in Lignin Biosynthesis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sangha, A. K.; Parks, J. M.; Davis, M. F.; Smith, J. C.

    2013-01-01

    Lignin, composed predominantly of p-hydroxyphenyl (H), guaiacyl (G) and syringyl (S) subunits, is a major component of plant cell walls that imparts resistance toward chemical and microbial deconstruction of plant biomass, rendering its conversion inefficient and costly. Previous studies have shown that alterating lignin composition, i.e., the relative abundance of H, G and S subunits, promises more efficient extraction of sugars from plant biomass. Smaller and less branched lignin chains are more easily extracted during pretreatment, making cellulose more readily degradable. Here, using density functional theory calculations, we show that the incorporation of H subunits into lignin via b-b and b-5 interunit linkages reduces the degree of polymerization in lignin. Frontier molecular orbital analyses of lignin dimers and trimers show that H as a terminal subunit on a growing lignin polymer linked via b-b and b-5 linkage cannot undergo radical formation, preventing further chain growth by endwise polymerization resulting in lignin polymers with lower degree of polymerization. These results indicate that, for endwise polymerization in lignin synthesis, there exists a chemical control that may lay a significant role in determining the structure of lignin.

  1. The Building America Indoor Temperature and Humidity Measurement Protocol

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Metzger, C.; Norton, Paul

    2014-02-01

    When modeling homes using simulation tools, the heating and cooling set points can have a significant impact on home energy use. Every four years, the Energy Information Administration (EIA) Residential Energy Consumption Survey (RECS) asks homeowners about their heating and cooling set points. Unfortunately, no temperature data is measured, and most of the time, the homeowner may be guessing at this number. Even one degree Fahrenheit difference in heating set point can make a 5% difference in heating energy use! So, the survey-based RECS data cannot be used as the definitive reference for the set point for the "average occupant" in simulations. The purpose of this document is to develop a protocol for collecting consistent data for heating/cooling set points and relative humidity so that an average set point can be determined for asset energy models in residential buildings. This document covers the decision making process for researchers to determine how many sensors should be placed in each home, where to put those sensors, and what kind of asset data should be taken while they are in the home. The authors attempted to design the protocols to maximize the value of this study and minimize the resources required to achieve that value.

  2. Building America Indoor Temperature and Humidity Measurement Protocol

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Engebrecht-Metzger, C.; Norton, P.

    2014-02-01

    When modeling homes using simulation tools, the heating and cooling set points can have a significant impact on home energy use. Every 4 years the Energy Information Administration (EIA) Residential Energy Consumption Survey (RECS) asks homeowners about their heating and cooling set points. Unfortunately, no temperature data is measured, and most of the time, the homeowner may be guessing at this number. Even one degree Fahrenheit difference in heating set point can make a 5% difference in heating energy use! So, the survey-based RECS data cannot be used as the definitive reference for the set point for the 'average occupant' in simulations. The purpose of this document is to develop a protocol for collecting consistent data for heating/cooling set points and relative humidity so that an average set point can be determined for asset energy models in residential buildings. This document covers the decision making process for researchers to determine how many sensors should be placed in each home, where to put those sensors, and what kind of asset data should be taken while they are in the home. The authors attempted to design the protocols to maximize the value of this study and minimize the resources required to achieve that value.

  3. Results of U-xMo (x=7, 10, 12 wt.%) Alloy versus Al-6061 Cladding Diffusion Couple Experiments Performed at 500, 550 and 600 Degrees C

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Emmanuel Perez; Dennis D. Keiser, Jr.; Yongho Sohn

    2013-04-01

    The Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactors (RERTR) program has been developing low enrichment fuel systems encased in Al 6061 for use in research and test reactors. U–Mo alloys in contact with Al and Al alloys can undergo diffusional interactions that can result in the development of interdiffusion zones with complex fine-grained microstructures composed of multiple phases. A monolithic fuel currently being developed by the RERTR program has local regions where the U–Mo fuel plate is in contact with the Al 6061 cladding and, as a result, the program finds information about interdiffusion zone development at high temperatures of interest. In this study, the microstructural development of diffusion couples consisting of U-7wt.%Mo, U-10wt.%Mo, and U-12wt.%Mo vs. Al 6061 (or 6061 aluminum) cladding, annealed at 500, 550, 600 degrees C for 1, 5, 20, 24, or 132 hours, was analyzed by backscatter electron microscopy and x-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy on a scanning electron microscope. Concentration profiles were determined by standardized wavelength dispersive spectroscopy and standardless x-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy. The results of this work shows that the presence of surface layers at the U–Mo/Al 6061 interface can dramatically impact the overall interdiffusion behavior in terms of rate of interaction and uniformity of the developed interdiffusion zones. It further reveals that relatively uniform interaction layers with higher Si concentrations can develop in U–Mo/Al 6061 couples annealed at shorter times and that longer times at temperature result in the development of more non-uniform interaction layers with more areas that are enriched in Al. At longer annealing times and relatively high temperatures, U–Mo/Al 6061 couples can exhibit more interaction compared to U–Mo/pure Al couples. The minor alloying constituents in Al 6061 cladding can result in the development of many complex phases in the interaction layer of U–Mo/Al–6061 cladding couples, and some phases in the interdiffusion zones of U–Mo/Al–6061 cladding couples are likely similar to those observed for U–Mo/pure Al couples.

  4. Systematic study of electric dipole excitations with fully self-consistent Skyrme HF plus RPA calculation from light to medium-mass deformed nuclei

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Inakura, Tsunenori; Nakatsukasa, Takashi; Yabana, Kazuhiro

    2009-05-04

    We undertake a systematic calculation on electric dipole responses of even-even nuclei for a wide mass region employing a fully self-consistent Hartree-Fock plus RPA approach. For an easy implementation of the fully self-consistent calculation, the finite amplitude method which we have proposed recently is employed. We calculated dipole responses in Cartesian mesh representation, which can deal with deformed nuclei but does not include pairing correlation. The calculated results show reasonable agreement for heavy nuclei while the average excitation energy are underestimated for light nuclei. The systematic calculation have reached Nickel isotopes. We show a compilation of calculated peak energies of giant dipole resonances.

  5. THE MAGNETIZATION DEGREE OF THE OUTFLOW POWERING THE HIGHLY POLARIZED REVERSE-SHOCK EMISSION OF GRB 120308A

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Shuai; Jin, Zhi-Ping; Wei, Da-Ming, E-mail: jin@pmo.ac.cn, E-mail: dmwei@pmo.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Dark Matter and Space Astronomy, Purple Mountain Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing, 210008 (China)

    2015-01-01

    GRB 120308A, a long duration ?-ray burst (GRB) detected by Swift, was distinguished by a highly polarized early optical afterglow emission that strongly suggests an ordered magnetic field component in the emitting region. In this work, we model the optical and X-ray emission in the reverse and forward shock scenario and show that the strength of the magnetic field in the reverse-shock region is ?10 times stronger than that in the forward shock region. Consequently, the outflow powering the highly polarized reverse-shock optical emission was mildly magnetized at a degree of ? ? a few percent. Considering the plausible magnetic energy dissipation in both the acceleration and prompt emission phases of the GRB outflow, the afterglow data of GRB 120308A provides us with compelling evidence that, at least for some GRBs, a nonignorable fraction of the energy was released in the form of Poynting flux, confirming the finding first made in the reverse-forward shock emission modeling of the optical afterglow of GRB 990123 by Fan etal. in 2002 and Zhang etal. in 2003.

  6. Interannual Variability in Global Soil Respiration on a 0.5 Degree Grid Cell Basis (1980-1994)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Raich, J.W.

    2003-09-15

    We used a climate-driven regression model to develop spatially resolved estimates of soil-CO{sub 2} emissions from the terrestrial land surface for each month from January 1980 to December 1994, to evaluate the effects of interannual variations in climate on global soil-to-atmosphere CO{sub 2} fluxes. The mean annual global soil-CO{sub 2} flux over this 15-y period was estimated to be 80.4 (range 79.3-81.8) Pg C. Monthly variations in global soil-CO{sub 2} emissions followed closely the mean temperature cycle of the Northern Hemisphere. Globally, soil-CO{sub 2} emissions reached their minima in February and peaked in July and August. Tropical and subtropical evergreen broad-leaved forests contributed more soil-derived CO{sub 2} to the atmosphere than did any other vegetation type ({approx}30% of the total) and exhibited a biannual cycle in their emissions. Soil-CO{sub 2} emissions in other biomes exhibited a single annual cycle that paralleled the seasonal temperature cycle. Interannual variability in estimated global soil-CO{sub 2} production is substantially less than is variability in net carbon uptake by plants (i.e., net primary productivity). Thus, soils appear to buffer atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentrations against far more dramatic seasonal and interannual differences in plant growth. Within seasonally dry biomes (savannas, bushlands, and deserts), interannual variability in soil-CO{sub 2} emissions correlated significantly with interannual differences in precipitation. At the global scale, however, annual soil-CO{sub 2} fluxes correlated with mean annual temperature, with a slope of 3.3 PgCY{sup -1} per degree Celsius. Although the distribution of precipitation influences seasonal and spatial patterns of soil-CO{sub 2} emissions, global warming is likely to stimulate CO{sub 2} emissions from soils.

  7. Catalytic steam gasification reactivity of HyperCoals produced from different rank of coals at 600-775{degree}C

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Atul Sharma; Ikuo Saito; Toshimasa Takanohashi

    2008-11-15

    HyperCoal is a clean coal with ash content <0.05 wt %. HyperCoals were prepared from a brown coal, a sub-bituminous coal, and a bituminous raw coal by solvent extraction method. Catalytic steam gasification of these HyperCoals was carried out with K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} at 775, 700, 650, and 600 {degree}C, and their rates were compared. HyperCoals produced from low-rank coals were more reactive than those produced from the high-rank coals. XRD measurements were carried out to understand the difference in gasification reactivity of HyperCoals. Arrhenius plot of ln (k) vs 1/T in the temperature range 600-825{degree}C was a curve rather than a straight line. The point of change was observed at 700{degree}C for HyperCoals from low-rank coals and at 775{degree}C for HyperCoals from high-rank coals. Using HyperCoal produced from low-rank coals as feedstock, steam gasification of coal may be possible at temperatures less than 650{degree}C. 22 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  8. Chemical composition analysis and product consistency tests to support enhanced Hanford waste glass models: Results for the January, March, and April 2015 LAW glasses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fox, K. M.; Edwards, T. B.; Riley, W. T.; Best, D. R.

    2015-09-03

    In this report, the Savannah River National Laboratory provides chemical analyses and Product Consistency Test (PCT) results for several simulated low activity waste (LAW) glasses (designated as the January, March, and April 2015 LAW glasses) fabricated by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. The results of these analyses will be used as part of efforts to revise or extend the validation regions of the current Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant glass property models to cover a broader span of waste compositions.

  9. Chemical composition analysis and product consistency tests to support Enhanced Hanford Waste Glass Models. Results for the Augusta and October 2014 LAW Glasses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fox, K. M.; Edwards, T. B.; Best, D. R.

    2015-07-07

    In this report, the Savannah River National Laboratory provides chemical analyses and Product Consistency Test (PCT) results for several simulated low activity waste (LAW) glasses (designated as the August and October 2014 LAW glasses) fabricated by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. The results of these analyses will be used as part of efforts to revise or extend the validation regions of the current Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant glass property models to cover a broader span of waste compositions.

  10. Gradient Theory simulations of pure fluid interfaces using a generalized expression for influence parameters and a Helmholtz energy equation of state for fundamentally consistent two-phase calculations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dahms, Rainer N.

    2014-12-31

    The fidelity of Gradient Theory simulations depends on the accuracy of saturation properties and influence parameters, and require equations of state (EoS) which exhibit a fundamentally consistent behavior in the two-phase regime. Widely applied multi-parameter EoS, however, are generally invalid inside this region. Hence, they may not be fully suitable for application in concert with Gradient Theory despite their ability to accurately predict saturation properties. The commonly assumed temperature-dependence of pure component influence parameters usually restricts their validity to subcritical temperature regimes. This may distort predictions for general multi-component interfaces where temperatures often exceed the critical temperature of vapor phase components. Then, the calculation of influence parameters is not well defined. In this paper, one of the first studies is presented in which Gradient Theory is combined with a next-generation Helmholtz energy EoS which facilitates fundamentally consistent calculations over the entire two-phase regime. Illustrated on pentafluoroethane as an example, reference simulations using this method are performed. They demonstrate the significance of such high-accuracy and fundamentally consistent calculations for the computation of interfacial properties. These reference simulations are compared to corresponding results from cubic PR EoS, widely-applied in combination with Gradient Theory, and mBWR EoS. The analysis reveals that neither of those two methods succeeds to consistently capture the qualitative distribution of obtained key thermodynamic properties in Gradient Theory. Furthermore, a generalized expression of the pure component influence parameter is presented. This development is informed by its fundamental definition based on the direct correlation function of the homogeneous fluid and by presented high-fidelity simulations of interfacial density profiles. As a result, the new model preserves the accuracy of previous temperature-dependent expressions, remains well-defined at supercritical temperatures, and is fully suitable for calculations of general multi-component two-phase interfaces.

  11. Gradient Theory simulations of pure fluid interfaces using a generalized expression for influence parameters and a Helmholtz energy equation of state for fundamentally consistent two-phase calculations

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Dahms, Rainer N.

    2014-12-31

    The fidelity of Gradient Theory simulations depends on the accuracy of saturation properties and influence parameters, and require equations of state (EoS) which exhibit a fundamentally consistent behavior in the two-phase regime. Widely applied multi-parameter EoS, however, are generally invalid inside this region. Hence, they may not be fully suitable for application in concert with Gradient Theory despite their ability to accurately predict saturation properties. The commonly assumed temperature-dependence of pure component influence parameters usually restricts their validity to subcritical temperature regimes. This may distort predictions for general multi-component interfaces where temperatures often exceed the critical temperature of vapor phasemore » components. Then, the calculation of influence parameters is not well defined. In this paper, one of the first studies is presented in which Gradient Theory is combined with a next-generation Helmholtz energy EoS which facilitates fundamentally consistent calculations over the entire two-phase regime. Illustrated on pentafluoroethane as an example, reference simulations using this method are performed. They demonstrate the significance of such high-accuracy and fundamentally consistent calculations for the computation of interfacial properties. These reference simulations are compared to corresponding results from cubic PR EoS, widely-applied in combination with Gradient Theory, and mBWR EoS. The analysis reveals that neither of those two methods succeeds to consistently capture the qualitative distribution of obtained key thermodynamic properties in Gradient Theory. Furthermore, a generalized expression of the pure component influence parameter is presented. This development is informed by its fundamental definition based on the direct correlation function of the homogeneous fluid and by presented high-fidelity simulations of interfacial density profiles. As a result, the new model preserves the accuracy of previous temperature-dependent expressions, remains well-defined at supercritical temperatures, and is fully suitable for calculations of general multi-component two-phase interfaces.« less

  12. BRANCH?BASED MODEL FOR THE DIAMETERS OF THE PULMONARY AIRWAYS: ACCOUNTING FOR DEPARTURES FROM SELF?CONSISTENCY AND REGISTRATION ERRORS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Neradilek, Moni Blazej; Polissar, Nayak; Einstein, Daniel R.; Glenny, Robb W.; Minard, Kevin R.; Carson, James P.; Jiao, Xiangmin; Jacob, Rick E.; Cox, Timothy C.; Postlewait, Ed; Corley, Richard A.

    2012-06-01

    We examine a previously published branch-based approach to modeling airway diameters that is predicated on the assumption of self-consistency across all levels of the tree. We mathematically formulate this assumption, propose a method to test it and develop a more general model to be used when the assumption is violated. We discuss the effect of measurement error on the estimated models and propose methods that account for it. The methods are illustrated on data from MRI and CT images of silicone casts of two rats, two normal monkeys and one ozone-exposed monkey. Our results showed substantial departures from self-consistency in all five subjects. When departures from selfconsistency exist we do not recommend using the self-consistency model, even as an approximation, as we have shown that it may likely lead to an incorrect representation of the diameter geometry. Measurement error has an important impact on the estimated morphometry models and needs to be accounted for in the analysis.

  13. Introduction

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    The desert temperature hovered at 90 degrees Fahrenheit the morning of July 17, 1962 at the Nevada Test Site (NTS), now known at the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS). Eventually the beating sun would increase the heat to over 105 degrees later that day, but at 10:00 a.m., a crowd of 396 spectators braved the scorching temperature and relentless sun to witness the last atmospheric test ever conducted by the United States. The crowd gathered in Area 18 of the NTS, approximately two miles from

  14. A measurement of the cosmic microwave background B-mode polarization power spectrum at sub-degree scales with POLARBEAR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ade, P. A. R.; Akiba, Y.; Hasegawa, M.; Anthony, A. E.; Halverson, N. W.; Arnold, K.; Atlas, M.; Barron, D.; Boettger, D.; Elleflot, T.; Feng, C.; Borrill, J.; Errard, J.; Chapman, S.; Chinone, Y.; Flanigan, D.; Dobbs, M.; Gilbert, A.; Fabbian, G.; Collaboration: Polarbear Collaboration; and others

    2014-10-20

    We report a measurement of the B-mode polarization power spectrum in the cosmic microwave background (CMB) using the POLARBEAR experiment in Chile. The faint B-mode polarization signature carries information about the universe's entire history of gravitational structure formation, and the cosmic inflation that may have occurred in the very early universe. Our measurement covers the angular multipole range 500 < ? < 2100 and is based on observations of an effective sky area of 25 deg{sup 2} with 3.'5 resolution at 150 GHz. On these angular scales, gravitational lensing of the CMB by intervening structure in the universe is expected to be the dominant source of B-mode polarization. Including both systematic and statistical uncertainties, the hypothesis of no B-mode polarization power from gravitational lensing is rejected at 97.2% confidence. The band powers are consistent with the standard cosmological model. Fitting a single lensing amplitude parameter A{sub BB} to the measured band powers, A{sub BB}=1.120.61(stat){sub ?0.12}{sup +0.04}(sys)0.07(multi), where A{sub BB} = 1 is the fiducial WMAP-9 ?CDM value. In this expression, 'stat' refers to the statistical uncertainty, 'sys' to the systematic uncertainty associated with possible biases from the instrument and astrophysical foregrounds, and 'multi' to the calibration uncertainties that have a multiplicative effect on the measured amplitude A{sub BB}.

  15. Vapor-liquid Equilibria and Polarization Behavior of the GCP Water Model: Gaussian Charge-on-spring versus Dipole Self-consistent Field approaches to induced polarization

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Chialvo, Ariel A; Moucka, Filip; Vlcek, Lukas; Nezbeda, Ivo

    2015-01-01

    We implemented the Gaussian charge-on-spring (GCOS) version of the original self-consistent field implementation of the Gaussian Charge Polarizable water model and test its accuracy to represent the polarization behavior of the original model involving smeared charges and induced dipole moments. For that purpose we adapted the recently developed multiple-particle-move (MPM) within the Gibbs and isochoric-isothermal ensembles Monte Carlo methods for the efficient simulation of polarizable fluids. We assessed the accuracy of the GCOS representation by a direct comparison of the resulting vapor-liquid phase envelope, microstructure, and relevant microscopic descriptors of water polarization along the orthobaric curve against the corresponding quantitiesmore » from the actual GCP water model.« less

  16. Chemical composition analysis and product consistency tests to support enhanced Hanford waste glass models. Results for the third set of high alumina outer layer matrix glasses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fox, K. M.; Edwards, T. B.

    2015-12-01

    In this report, the Savannah River National Laboratory provides chemical analyses and Product Consistency Test (PCT) results for 14 simulated high level waste glasses fabricated by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. The results of these analyses will be used as part of efforts to revise or extend the validation regions of the current Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant glass property models to cover a broader span of waste compositions. The measured chemical composition data are reported and compared with the targeted values for each component for each glass. All of the measured sums of oxides for the study glasses fell within the interval of 96.9 to 100.8 wt %, indicating recovery of all components. Comparisons of the targeted and measured chemical compositions showed that the measured values for the glasses met the targeted concentrations within 10% for those components present at more than 5 wt %. The PCT results were normalized to both the targeted and measured compositions of the study glasses. Several of the glasses exhibited increases in normalized concentrations (NCi) after the canister centerline cooled (CCC) heat treatment. Five of the glasses, after the CCC heat treatment, had NCB values that exceeded that of the Environmental Assessment (EA) benchmark glass. These results can be combined with additional characterization, including X-ray diffraction, to determine the cause of the higher release rates.

  17. Structure of Rhodococcus equi virulence-associated protein B (VapB) reveals an eight-stranded antiparallel ?-barrel consisting of two Greek-key motifs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Geerds, Christina; Wohlmann, Jens; Haas, Albert; Niemann, Hartmut H.

    2014-06-18

    The structure of VapB, a member of the Vap protein family that is involved in virulence of the bacterial pathogen R. equi, was determined by SAD phasing and reveals an eight-stranded antiparallel ?-barrel similar to avidin, suggestive of a binding function. Made up of two Greek-key motifs, the topology of VapB is unusual or even unique. Members of the virulence-associated protein (Vap) family from the pathogen Rhodococcus equi regulate virulence in an unknown manner. They do not share recognizable sequence homology with any protein of known structure. VapB and VapA are normally associated with isolates from pigs and horses, respectively. To contribute to a molecular understanding of Vap function, the crystal structure of a protease-resistant VapB fragment was determined at 1.4 resolution. The structure was solved by SAD phasing employing the anomalous signal of one endogenous S atom and two bound Co ions with low occupancy. VapB is an eight-stranded antiparallel ?-barrel with a single helix. Structural similarity to avidins suggests a potential binding function. Unlike other eight- or ten-stranded ?-barrels found in avidins, bacterial outer membrane proteins, fatty-acid-binding proteins and lysozyme inhibitors, Vaps do not have a next-neighbour arrangement but consist of two Greek-key motifs with strand order 41238567, suggesting an unusual or even unique topology.

  18. CONNECTING THE SUN AND THE SOLAR WIND: THE FIRST 2.5-DIMENSIONAL SELF-CONSISTENT MHD SIMULATION UNDER THE ALFVEN WAVE SCENARIO

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Matsumoto, Takuma; Suzuki, Takeru Ken

    2012-04-10

    The solar wind emanates from the hot and tenuous solar corona. Earlier studies using 1.5-dimensional simulations show that Alfven waves generated in the photosphere play an important role in coronal heating through the process of nonlinear mode conversion. In order to understand the physics of coronal heating and solar wind acceleration together, it is important to consider the regions from photosphere to interplanetary space as a single system. We performed 2.5-dimensional, self-consistent magnetohydrodynamic simulations, covering from the photosphere to the interplanetary space for the first time. We carefully set up the grid points with spherical coordinates to treat the Alfven waves in the atmosphere with huge density contrast and successfully simulate the solar wind streaming out from the hot solar corona as a result of the surface convective motion. The footpoint motion excites Alfven waves along an open magnetic flux tube, and these waves traveling upward in the non-uniform medium undergo wave reflection, nonlinear mode conversion from Alfven mode to slow mode, and turbulent cascade. These processes lead to the dissipation of Alfven waves and acceleration of the solar wind. It is found that the shock heating by the dissipation of the slow-mode wave plays a fundamental role in the coronal heating process, whereas the turbulent cascade and shock heating drive the solar wind.

  19. Test of the consistency of various linearized semiclassical initial value time correlation functions in application to inelastic neutron scattering from liquid para-hydrogen

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, William; Liu, Jian; Miller, William H.

    2008-03-15

    The linearized approximation to the semiclassical initial value representation (LSC-IVR) is used to calculate time correlation functions relevant to the incoherent dynamic structure factor for inelastic neutron scattering from liquid para-hydrogen at 14 K. Various time correlations functions were used which, if evaluated exactly, would give identical results, but they do not because the LSC-IVR is approximate. Some of the correlation functions involve only linear operators, and others involve non-linear operators. The consistency of the results obtained with the various time correlation functions thus provides a useful test of the accuracy of the LSC-IVR approximation and its ability to treat correlation functions involving both linear and nonlinear operators in realistic anharmonic systems. The good agreement of the results obtained from different correlation functions, their excellent behavior in the spectral moment tests based on the exact moment constraints, and their semi-quantitative agreement with the inelastic neutron scattering experimental data all suggest that the LSC-IVR is indeed a good short-time approximation for quantum mechanical correlation functions.

  20. Comparison of IUPAC k0 Values and Neutron Cross Sections to Determine a Self-consistent Set of Data for Neutron Activation Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Firestone, Richard B; Revay, Zsolt

    2009-12-01

    Independent databases of nuclear constants for Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) have been independently maintained by the physics and chemistry communities for many year. They contain thermal neturon cross sections s0, standardization values k0, and transition probabilities Pg. Chemistry databases tend to rely upon direct measurements of the nuclear constants k0 and Pg which are often published in chemistry journals while the physics databases typically include evaluated s0 and Pg data from a variety of experiments published mainly in physics journals. The IAEA/LBNL Evaluated Gamma-ray Activation File (EGAF) also contains prompt and delayed g-ray cross sections sg from Prompt Gamma-ray Activation Analysis (PGAA) measurements that can also be used to determine k0 and s0 values. As a result several independent databases of fundamental constants for NAA have evolved containing slightly different and sometimes discrepant results. An IAEA CRP for a Reference Database for Neutron Activation Analysis was established to compare these databases and investigate the possibilitiy of producing a self-consistent set of s0, k0, sg, and Pg values for NAA and other applications. Preliminary results of this IAEA CRP comparison are given in this paper.

  1. Toward a self-consistent model of the interaction between an ultra-intense, normally incident laser pulse with an overdense plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Debayle, A.; ETSI Aeronáuticos. Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, Madrid 28040 ; Sanz, J.; Gremillet, L.; Mima, K.

    2013-05-15

    Following a recent work by Sanz et al. [Phys. Rev. E 85, 046411 (2012)], we elaborate upon a one-dimensional model describing the interaction between an ultra-intense, normally incident laser pulse and an overdense plasma. The analytical solutions of the reflected laser field, the electrostatic field, and the plasma surface oscillation are obtained within the cold-fluid approximation. The high-order harmonic spectrum is calculated from the exact solution of the plasma surface oscillations. In agreement with particle-in-cell simulations, two regimes of harmonic generation are predicted: for moderately relativistic laser intensities, or high plasma densities, the harmonic spectrum is determined by the discontinuity in the derivative of the reflected field when the electron plasma boundary oscillates across the fixed ion boundary. For higher intensities, the electron plasma boundary is confined inside the ion region and oscillates at relativistic velocities, giving rise to a train of reflected attosecond pulses. In both cases, the harmonic spectrum obeys an asymptotic ω{sup −4} scaling. The acceleration of electrons and the related laser absorption efficiency are computed by a test particle method. The model self-consistently reproduces the transition between the “anomalous skin effect” and the “J × B” heating predicted by particle-in-cell simulations. Analytical estimates of the different scalings are presented.

  2. On the ground state calculation of a many-body system using a self-consistent basis and quasi-Monte Carlo: An application to water hexamer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Georgescu, Ionu? Mandelshtam, Vladimir A.; Jitomirskaya, Svetlana

    2013-11-28

    Given a quantum many-body system, the Self-Consistent Phonons (SCP) method provides an optimal harmonic approximation by minimizing the free energy. In particular, the SCP estimate for the vibrational ground state (zero temperature) appears to be surprisingly accurate. We explore the possibility of going beyond the SCP approximation by considering the system Hamiltonian evaluated in the harmonic eigenbasis of the SCP Hamiltonian. It appears that the SCP ground state is already uncoupled to all singly- and doubly-excited basis functions. So, in order to improve the SCP result at least triply-excited states must be included, which then reduces the error in the ground state estimate substantially. For a multidimensional system two numerical challenges arise, namely, evaluation of the potential energy matrix elements in the harmonic basis, and handling and diagonalizing the resulting Hamiltonian matrix, whose size grows rapidly with the dimensionality of the system. Using the example of water hexamer we demonstrate that such calculation is feasible, i.e., constructing and diagonalizing the Hamiltonian matrix in a triply-excited SCP basis, without any additional assumptions or approximations. Our results indicate particularly that the ground state energy differences between different isomers (e.g., cage and prism) of water hexamer are already quite accurate within the SCP approximation.

  3. Galaxy Formation with Self-Consistently Modeled Stars and Massive Black Holes. I: Feedback-Regulated Star Formation and Black Hole Growth

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, Ji-hoon; Wise, John H.; Alvarez, Marcelo A.; Abel, Tom; /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.

    2011-11-04

    There is mounting evidence for the coevolution of galaxies and their embedded massive black holes (MBHs) in a hierarchical structure formation paradigm. To tackle the nonlinear processes of galaxy-MBH interaction, we describe a self-consistent numerical framework which incorporates both galaxies and MBHs. The high-resolution adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) code Enzo is modified to model the formation and feedback of molecular clouds at their characteristic scale of 15.2 pc and the accretion of gas onto an MBH. Two major channels of MBH feedback, radiative feedback (X-ray photons followed through full three-dimensional adaptive ray tracing) and mechanical feedback (bipolar jets resolved in high-resolution AMR), are employed. We investigate the coevolution of a 9.2 x 10{sup 11} M {circle_dot} galactic halo and its 10{sup 5} {circle_dot} M embedded MBH at redshift 3 in a cosmological CDM simulation. The MBH feedback heats the surrounding interstellar medium (ISM) up to 10{sup 6} K through photoionization and Compton heating and locally suppresses star formation in the galactic inner core. The feedback considerably changes the stellar distribution there. This new channel of feedback from a slowly growing MBH is particularly interesting because it is only locally dominant and does not require the heating of gas globally on the disk. The MBH also self-regulates its growth by keeping the surrounding ISM hot for an extended period of time.

  4. A mixture-energy-consistent six-equation two-phase numerical model for fluids with interfaces, cavitation and evaporation waves

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pelanti, Marica; Shyue, Keh-Ming

    2014-02-15

    We model liquidgas flows with cavitation by a variant of the six-equation single-velocity two-phase model with stiff mechanical relaxation of SaurelPetitpasBerry (Saurel et al., 2009) [9]. In our approach we employ phasic total energy equations instead of the phasic internal energy equations of the classical six-equation system. This alternative formulation allows us to easily design a simple numerical method that ensures consistency with mixture total energy conservation at the discrete level and agreement of the relaxed pressure at equilibrium with the correct mixture equation of state. Temperature and Gibbs free energy exchange terms are included in the equations as relaxation terms to model heat and mass transfer and hence liquidvapor transition. The algorithm uses a high-resolution wave propagation method for the numerical approximation of the homogeneous hyperbolic portion of the model. In two dimensions a fully-discretized scheme based on a hybrid HLLC/Roe Riemann solver is employed. Thermo-chemical terms are handled numerically via a stiff relaxation solver that forces thermodynamic equilibrium at liquidvapor interfaces under metastable conditions. We present numerical results of sample tests in one and two space dimensions that show the ability of the proposed model to describe cavitation mechanisms and evaporation wave dynamics.

  5. SU-E-T-96: Demonstration of a Consistent Method for Correcting Surface Dose Measurements Using Both Solid State and Ionization Chamber Detectors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reynolds, T; Gerbi, B; Higgins, P

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To compare the surface dose (SD) measured using a PTW 30-360 extrapolation chamber with different commonly used dosimeters (Ds): parallel plate ion chambers (ICs): RMI-449 (Attix), Capintec PS-033, PTW 30-329 (Markus) and Memorial; TLD chips (cTLD), TLD powder (pTLD), optically stimulated (OSLs), radiochromic (EXR2) and radiographic (EDR2) films, and to provide an intercomparison correction to Ds for each of them. Methods: Investigations were performed for a 6 MV x-ray beam (Varian Clinac 2300, 10x10 cm{sup 2} open field, SSD = 100 cm). The Ds were placed at the surface of the solid water phantom and at the reference depth dref=1.7cm. The measurements for cTLD, OSLs, EDR2 and EXR2 were corrected to SD using an extrapolation method (EM) indexed to the baseline PTW 30-360 measurements. A consistent use of the EM involved: 1) irradiation of three Ds stacked on top of each other on the surface of the phantom; 2) measurement of the relative dose value for each layer; and, 3) extrapolation of these values to zero thickness. An additional measurement was performed with externally exposed OSLs (eOSLs), that were rotated out of their protective housing. Results: All single Ds measurements overestimated the SD compared with the extrapolation chamber, except for Attix IC. The closest match to the true SD was measured with the Attix IC (? 0.1%), followed by pTLD (0.5%), Capintec (4.5%), Memorial (7.3%), Markus (10%), cTLD (11.8%), eOSL (12.8%), EXR2 (14%), EDR2 (14.8%) and OSL (26%). The EM method of correction for SD worked well for all Ds, except the unexposed OSLs. Conclusion: This EM cross calibration of solid state detectors with an extrapolation or Attix chamber can provide thickness corrections for cTLD, eOSLs, EXR2, and EDR2. Standard packaged OSLs were not found to be simply corrected.

  6. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Tax Compressed natural gas used as a special motor fuel is subject to the state fuel excise tax rate of $0.32 per gasoline gallon equivalent, measured at 5.66 lbs. or 126.67 cubic feet at a base temperature of 60 degrees Fahrenheit and a pressure of 14.7 lbs. per square inch. Liquefied natural gas is also subject to the excise tax rate of $0.25 per diesel gallon equivalent, measured at 6.06 lbs. (Reference House Bill 343, 2016, and Idaho Statutes 63-2402 and 63-2424

  7. Tropical Winds N

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    IN THIS ISSUE ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ What is Global Warming? Making Clouds Nauru99 Experience Dr. Fairley's Corner by Andrea Maestas, TWP Undergraduate Intern GL WHAT IS Did you know many scientists today agree that the temperature of our Earth is rising? In fact, the majority of scientists say the Earth has warmed by one degree Fahrenheit in the last 100 years. While this may not seem like much of a change in temperature, it may be

  8. Methodology to predict the number of forced outages due to creep failure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Palermo, J.V. Jr.

    1996-12-31

    All alloy metals at a temperature above 950 degrees Fahrenheit experience creep damage. Creep failures in boiler tubes usually begin after 25 to 40 years of operation. Since creep damage is irreversible, the only remedy is to replace the tube sections. By predicting the number of failures per year, the utility can make the best economic decision concerning tube replacement. This paper describes a methodology to calculate the number of forced outages per yea due to creep failures. This methodology is particularly useful to utilities that have boilers that have at least 25 years of operation.

  9. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Tax LNG is taxed at a rate of $0.14 per gallon when used as a motor fuel. For taxation purposes, LNG is converted to its gasoline gallon equivalent (GGE) at the rate of 1.5536 gallons of LNG to equal one volumetric gross gallon of gasoline. LNG is defined as natural gas for use as a motor fuel, which has been cooled to approximately -260 degrees Fahrenheit and is in a liquid state. (Reference South Dakota Statutes 10-47B-3 and 10-47B-4)

  10. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Tax Compressed natural gas used as a special motor fuel is subject to the state fuel excise tax of $0.31 per gasoline gallon equivalent, measured at 5.66 pounds (lbs.) or 126.67 cubic feet at a base temperature of 60 degrees Fahrenheit and a pressure of 14.73 lbs. per square inch. Liquefied natural gas is subject to the excise tax of $0.325 per diesel gallon equivalent, measured at 6.06 lbs. Liquefied petroleum gas (propane) is subject to the excise tax of $0.30 per gallon. E85 is subject to the

  11. Repeated compressive stress increase with 400 [degree]C thermal cycling in tantalum thin films due to increases in the oxygen content

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cabral, C. Jr.; Clevenger, L.A.; Schad, R.G. )

    1994-07-01

    Stresses which build up in thin films such as tantalum, during thermal processing, can cause major reliability problems in electronic and x-ray optics applications. We demonstrate that 50--200 nm thick sputtered [beta]-Ta thin films undergo repeated compressive stress increases when thermally cycled to 400 [degree]C (at a rate of 10 [degree]C/min) and back in a purified He ambient because of small amounts of oxygen gettered by the tantalum. The oxygen contamination results from the poor quality of the atmospheric seal on the quartz annealing chamber. As-deposited Ta thin films have a compressive stress ranging from [minus]1 to [minus]4 GPa. The compressive stress buildup was monitored [ital in] [ital situ] and was shown to increase [minus]0.5 GPa on average after each thermal cycle for a final value from [minus]6 to [minus]7 GPa after seven cycles. After being cycled thermally seven times any perturbation of the film such as a four-point probe resistivity measurement can cause the film to instantaneously crack in a serpentine pattern, relieving the large compressive stress. Auger electron spectroscopy depth profiling analysis was used to determine that the as-deposited film contained 1 at. % oxygen which increased to 8%--12% after seven thermal cycles with an approximate doubling in resistivity. The [minus]0.5 GPa average compressive stress increase in Ta thin films when cycled to 400 [degree]C is attributed to a 1.3% increase in oxygen concentration leading to a Ta unit cell expansion of 0.6%.

  12. INFLUENCE OF CARBON AND DPA RATE ON NEUTRON-INDUCED SWELLING OF Fe-15Cr-16Ni-0.25Ti IN FFTF AT ~400 DEGREES C

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Okita, Taira; Sekimura, Naoto; Garner, Francis A.; Wolfer, W. G.

    2002-12-31

    The purpose of this effort is to determine the influence of dpa rate and composition on the void swelling of simple austenitic Fe-Cr-Ni alloys. Contrary to the swelling behavior of fcc Fe-15Cr-16Ni and Fe-15Cr-16Ni-0.25Ti alloys irradiated in the same FFTF-MOTA experiment, Fe-15Cr-16Ni-0.25Ti-0.04C does not exhibit a dependence of swelling on dpa rate at approximately 400 degrees C. The transient regime of swelling is prolonged by carbon addition, however.

  13. Fifty Degrees North, Four Degrees West - Microbial Bebop

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peter Larsen

    2012-10-01

    This musical composition was created from data of microbes (bacteria, algae and other microorganisms) sampled in the English Channel. Argonne National Laboratory biologist Peter Larsen created the songs as a unique way to present and comprehend large datasets. More details: All of the data in this composition derives from twelve observed time points collected at monthly intervals at the L4 Station during 2007. The composition is composed of seven choruses. Each chorus has the same chord progression of 12 measures each in which chords are derived from monthly measures of temperature and chlorophyll A concentrations. The first and last chorus melodies are environmental parameter data as in 'Blues for Elle'. The melody in each of the second through sixth chorus is generated from the relative abundances of one of the five most common microbial taxa: Rickettsiales, Rhodobacteriales, Flavobacteriales, Cyanobactera, and Pseudomondales. A different 'instrument' is used to represent each microbial taxon. Melodies for microbial taxa were generated as in 'Far and Wide'. More information at http://www.anl.gov/articles/songs-key... Image: Cyanobacteria, probably genus Gloeotrichia, taken in darkfield. Credit Specious Reasons via Flickr Creative Commons (http://www.flickr.com/photos/28594931...)

  14. Process for forming unusually strong joints between metals and ceramics by brazing at temperatures that do no exceed 750 degree C.

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hammond, Joseph P.; David, Stan A.; Woodhouse, John J.

    1986-01-01

    This invention is a process for joining metals to ceramics to form very strong bonds using low brazing temperature, i.e., less than 750.degree. C., and particularly for joining nodular cast iron to partially stabilized zirconia. The process provides that the ceramic be coated with an active metal, such as titanium, that can form an intermetallic with a low melting point brazing alloy such as 60Ag-30Cu-10Sn. The nodular cast iron is coated with a noncarbon containing metal, such as copper, to prevent carbon in the nodular cast iron from dissolving in the brazing alloy. These coated surfaces can be brazed together with the brazing alloy between at less than 750.degree. C. to form a very strong joint. An even stronger bond can be formed if a transition piece is used between the metal and ceramic. It is preferred for the transition piece to have a coefficient of thermal compatible with the coefficient of thermal expansion of the ceramic, such as titanium.

  15. 3Degrees | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    helps organizations buy, sell and market environmental commodities, such as Renewable Energy Certificates(RECs) and verified carbon offsets. Its mission, as stated on its website,...

  16. 2degrees | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Kingdom Zip: OX2 7HT Product: Oxford-based collaborative network provider for sustainability professionals. Coordinates: 43.781517, -89.571699 Show Map Loading map......

  17. Neutron structural characterization, inversion degree and transport properties of NiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} spinel prepared by the hydroxide route

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sagua, A.; Lescano, Gabriela M.; Alonso, J.A.; Martínez-Coronado, R.; Fernández-Díaz, M.T.; Morán, E.

    2012-06-15

    Graphical abstract: A pure specimen has been synthesized by the hydroxide route. This spinel, studied by NPD, shows an important inversion degree, λ = 0.80. A bond-valence study shows that the tetrahedral Mn ions are divalent whereas the octahedral Mn and Ni are slightly oxidized from the expected 3+ and 2+ values, respectively. The mixed valence Mn{sup 3+}/Mn{sup 4+} accounts for a hopping mechanism between adjacent octahedral sites, leading to a significant conductivity. Highlights: ► A low-temperature hydroxide route allowed preparing almost pure specimens of NiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4}. ► NPD essential to determine inversion degree; contrasting Ni and Mn for neutrons. ► Bond valence establishes valence state of octahedral and tetrahedral Ni and Mn ions. ► Thermal analysis, transport measurements complement characterization of this oxide. ► A structure–properties relationship is established. -- Abstract: The title compound has been synthesized by the hydroxide route. The crystal structure has been investigated at room temperature from high-resolution neutron powder diffraction (NPD) data. It crystallizes in a cubic spinel structure, space group Fd3{sup ¯}m, Z = 8, with a = 8.3940(2) Å at 295 K. The crystallographic formula is (Ni{sub 0.202(1)}Mn{sub 0.798(1)}){sub 8a}(Ni{sub 0.790(1)}Mn{sub 1.210(1)}){sub 16d}O{sub 4} where 8a and 16d stand for the tetrahedral and octahedral sites of the spinel structure, respectively. There is a significant inversion degree of the spinel structure, λ = 0.80. In fact, the variable parameter for the oxygen position, u = 0.2636(4), is far from that expected (u = 0.25) for normal spinels. From a bond-valence study, it seems that the valence distribution in NiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} spinel is not as trivial as expected (Ni{sup 2+} and Mn{sup 3+}), but clearly the tetrahedral Mn ions are divalent whereas the octahedral Mn and Ni are slightly oxidized from the expected +3 and +2 values, respectively. The mixed valence observed at the octahedral sites provides the charge carriers that, by a hopping mechanism between Mn{sup 3+}/Mn{sup 4+} adjacent sites, leads to a significant conductivity, up to 0.85 S cm{sup −1} at 800 °C in air.

  18. Preliminary analysis of tank 241-C-106 dryout due to large postulated leak and vaporization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Piepho, M.G.

    1994-12-01

    This analysis assumes that there is a hypothetical large leak at the bottom of Tank 241-C-106 which initiates the dryout of the tank. The time required for a tank to dryout after a leak is of interest for safety reasons. As a tank dries out, its temperature is expected to increase which could affect the structural integrity of the concrete tank dome. Hence, it is of interest to know how fast and how high the temperature in a leaky tank increases, so that mitigation procedures can be planned and implemented in a timely manner. This analysis is focused on tank 241-C-106, which is known to be high thermal tank. The objective of the study was to determine how long it would take for tank 241-C-106 to reach 350 degrees Fahrenheit (about 177 degrees Centigrade) after a postulated large leak develops at the bottom center of the tank. The temperature of 350 degrees Fahrenheit is the minimum temperature that can cause structural damage to concrete (ACI 1992). The postulated leak at the bottom of the tank and the resulting dryout of the sludge in the tank make this analysis different from previous thermal analyses of the C-106 tank and other tanks, especially the double-shell tanks which are mostly liquid.

  19. Training Reciprocity Achieves Greater Consistency, Saves Time...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    The reciprocity program allowed the engineers to bypass a three-day Radiological Worker Program at SNL nearly identical to training they recently completed at ICP. In addition, ...

  20. Local, smooth, and consistent Jacobi set simplification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bhatia, Harsh; Wang, Bei; Norgard, Gregory; Pascucci, Valerio; Bremer, Peer -Timo

    2014-10-31

    The relation between two Morse functions defined on a smooth, compact, and orientable 2-manifold can be studied in terms of their Jacobi set. The Jacobi set contains points in the domain where the gradients of the two functions are aligned. Both the Jacobi set itself as well as the segmentation of the domain it induces, have shown to be useful in various applications. In practice, unfortunately, functions often contain noise and discretization artifacts, causing their Jacobi set to become unmanageably large and complex. Although there exist techniques to simplify Jacobi sets, they are unsuitable for most applications as they lack fine-grained control over the process, and heavily restrict the type of simplifications possible. In this paper, we introduce a new framework that generalizes critical point cancellations in scalar functions to Jacobi set in two dimensions. We present a new interpretation of Jacobi set simplification based on the perspective of domain segmentation. Generalizing the cancellation of critical points from scalar functions to Jacobi sets, we focus on simplifications that can be realized by smooth approximations of the corresponding functions, and show how these cancellations imply simultaneous simplification of contiguous subsets of the Jacobi set. Using these extended cancellations as atomic operations, we introduce an algorithm to successively cancel subsets of the Jacobi set with minimal modifications to some user-defined metric. We show that for simply connected domains, our algorithm reduces a given Jacobi set to its minimal configuration, that is, one with no birthdeath points (a birthdeath point is a specific type of singularity within the Jacobi set where the level sets of the two functions and the Jacobi set have a common normal direction).

  1. Local, smooth, and consistent Jacobi set simplification

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Bhatia, Harsh; Wang, Bei; Norgard, Gregory; Pascucci, Valerio; Bremer, Peer -Timo

    2014-10-31

    The relation between two Morse functions defined on a smooth, compact, and orientable 2-manifold can be studied in terms of their Jacobi set. The Jacobi set contains points in the domain where the gradients of the two functions are aligned. Both the Jacobi set itself as well as the segmentation of the domain it induces, have shown to be useful in various applications. In practice, unfortunately, functions often contain noise and discretization artifacts, causing their Jacobi set to become unmanageably large and complex. Although there exist techniques to simplify Jacobi sets, they are unsuitable for most applications as they lackmore » fine-grained control over the process, and heavily restrict the type of simplifications possible. In this paper, we introduce a new framework that generalizes critical point cancellations in scalar functions to Jacobi set in two dimensions. We present a new interpretation of Jacobi set simplification based on the perspective of domain segmentation. Generalizing the cancellation of critical points from scalar functions to Jacobi sets, we focus on simplifications that can be realized by smooth approximations of the corresponding functions, and show how these cancellations imply simultaneous simplification of contiguous subsets of the Jacobi set. Using these extended cancellations as atomic operations, we introduce an algorithm to successively cancel subsets of the Jacobi set with minimal modifications to some user-defined metric. We show that for simply connected domains, our algorithm reduces a given Jacobi set to its minimal configuration, that is, one with no birth–death points (a birth–death point is a specific type of singularity within the Jacobi set where the level sets of the two functions and the Jacobi set have a common normal direction).« less

  2. Plastic substrates for active matrix liquid crystal display incapable of withstanding processing temperature of over 200.degree. C and method of fabrication

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carey, Paul G.; Smith, Patrick M.; Havens, John; Jones, Phil

    1999-01-01

    Bright-polarizer-free, active-matrix liquid crystal displays (AMLCDs) are formed on plastic substrates. The primary components of the display are a pixel circuit fabricated on one plastic substrate, an intervening liquid-crystal material, and a counter electrode on a second plastic substrate. The-pixel circuit contains one or more thin-film transistors (TFTs) and either a transparent or reflective pixel electrode manufactured at sufficiently low temperatures to avoid damage to the plastic substrate. Fabrication of the TFTs can be carried out at temperatures less than 100.degree. C. The liquid crystal material is a commercially made nematic curvilinear aligned phase (NCAP) film. The counter electrode is comprised of a plastic substrate coated with a transparent conductor, such as indium-doped tin oxide (ITO). By coupling the active matrix with NCAP, a high-information content can be provided in a bright, fully plastic package. Applications include any low cost portable electronics containing flat displays where ruggedization of the display is desired.

  3. Effectiveness of 700{degrees}C thermal treatment on primary water stress corrosion sensitivity of Alloy 600 steam generator tubes: Laboratory tests and in field experience

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cattant, F.; Keroulas, F. de; Garriga-Majo, D.; Todeschini, P.; Van Duysen, J.C.

    1992-12-31

    In France, the steam generators of some 900 MWe reactors, and of all the 1 300 MWe reactors in service are equipped with heat treated Alloy 600 tubes. The purpose of the heat treatment, performed at 700{degrees}C, is to relieve the residual stresses. Generally, it also increases the SCC resistance of the alloy. A laboratory study has been carried out in order to gain a better understanding of the metallurgical factors influencing the PWSCC resistance of Alloy 600 after heat treatment. It has been shown that there are two kinds of tubes for which the heat treatment does not produce a microstructure having a potentially high resistance to SCC: tubes with a high carbon content (over 0.032%) or tubes mill-annealed at high temperatures and heavily cold-worked by the straightening. The analysis of the behaviour of french steam generators reveals that the heat treatment generally had the expected beneficial effect. However, the early cracking in service of some treated tubes led EDF (national power company) to proceed with removals. The majority of the cracked pulled-out tubes exhibit microstructures having a potentially high PWSCC sensibility in laboratory tests. It has been shown that these microstructures can be correlated to a high carbon content.

  4. A new tectonic model for the development of the Eastern Cordillera, Altiplano, and Subandean zones, Bolivian Central Andes, 20[degrees]S latitude

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gubbels, T.L.; Isacks, B.L. ); Koch, R.W. )

    1993-02-01

    Construction of a regional transect across the central Andes at 20[degrees]S sheds new light on the relationship between the Altiplano, Eastern Cordillera (EC), and Subandean zones and allows us to refine the two-stage model of Isacks (1988) for the growth of the Central Andes. This new model is based on examination of the regional geology and geophysics, coupled with field investigations, satellite image analysis, and new Ar-Ar geochronology. In this model, widespread Oligocene to mid-Miocene compressional deformation in the Altiplano and EC was followed in the late-Miocene and Pliocene by thrusting localized east of the EC within the Subandean fold-thrust belt. During the first stage of deformation, the Altiplano basin underwent important subsidence and internal deformation. The EC was both deformed internally and thrust westwards over the Altiplano basin, while the present Subandean zone was the site of an early, broad foreland basin which received material eroded from the EC. During the second stage, beginning at [approximately]10 ma, deformation terminated within the EC and became concentrated within the fold-thrust belt in response to large scale overthrusting of the EC above the Brazilian shield; this resulted in major thrusting along the Cabalgamiento Frontal Principal (CFP), which soles into the master Subandean decollement, and [approximately]100 km of telescoping within the early, broad foreland basin. In the EC, this second stage is marked by the elaboration of a regionally extensive erosion surface, ponding of gravels in shallow basins, and the emplacement of giant ignimbrite sheets. The Eastern Cordillera can thus be thought of as a crustal-scale wedge which has been extruded upward and outward on alternate sides during successive stages of late Cenozoic deformation. This motion has served to drive subsidence in both the Altiplano and Subandean foreland basins, as well as shortening in the fold-thrust belt.

  5. Role of Si on the Diffusional Interactions between U-Mo and Al-Si Alloys at 823 K (550 degrees C)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    E. Perez; Y.H. Sohn; D.D. Keiser, Jr.

    2013-01-01

    U-Mo dispersions in Al-alloy matrix and monolithic fuels encased in Al-alloy are under development to fulfill the requirements for research and test reactors to use low-enriched molybdenum stabilized uranium alloys fuels. Significant interaction takes place between the U-Mo fuel and Al during manufacturing and in-reactor irradiation. The interactions products are Al-rich phases with physical and thermal characteristics that adversely affect fuel performance and lead to premature failure. Detailed analysis of the interdiffusion and microstructural development of this system was carried through diffusion couples consisting of U-7wt.%Mo, U-10wt.%Mo and U-12wt.%Mo in contact with pure Al, Al-2wt.%Si, and Al-5wt.%Si, annealed at 823K for 1, 5 and 20 hours. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were employed for the analysis. Diffusion couples consisting of U-Mo vs. pure Al contained UAl3, UAl4, U6Mo4Al43, and UMo2Al20 phases. The addition of Si to the Al significantly reduced the thickness of the interdiffusion zone. The interdiffusion zones developed Al and Si enriched regions, whose locations and size depended on the Si and Mo concentrations in the terminal alloys. In the couples, the (U,Mo)(Al,Si)3 phase was observed throughout interdiffusion zone, and the U6Mo4Al43 and UMo2Al20 phases were observed only where the Si concentrations were low.

  6. Heavy crude upgrading using remote natural gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grosboll, M.P.

    1991-12-03

    This paper describes a method of forming an upgraded crude. It comprises: forming hydrogen from methane gas for hydroconverting heavy crude to form a better crude and reduce its viscosity; hydrogenating under hydroconverting conditions of 650 degrees Fahrenheit ({degrees}F)-1000{degrees}F; and 500-3000 pounds per square inch gauge (psig) only a first portion of a crude oil stream less than the total crude oil stream to produce a light oil that has a lowered viscosity; admixing the light oil with the remainder of the crude oil stream not hydrogenated to produce a flowable crude; and transporting the flowable crude to a refinery including a substep of flowing the crude through a pipeline.

  7. Canonical-ensemble state-averaged complete active space self-consistent field (SA-CASSCF) strategy for problems with more diabatic than adiabatic states: Charge-bond resonance in monomethine cyanines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Olsen, Seth

    2015-01-28

    This paper reviews basic results from a theory of the a priori classical probabilities (weights) in state-averaged complete active space self-consistent field (SA-CASSCF) models. It addresses how the classical probabilities limit the invariance of the self-consistency condition to transformations of the complete active space configuration interaction (CAS-CI) problem. Such transformations are of interest for choosing representations of the SA-CASSCF solution that are diabatic with respect to some interaction. I achieve the known result that a SA-CASSCF can be self-consistently transformed only within degenerate subspaces of the CAS-CI ensemble density matrix. For uniformly distributed (“microcanonical”) SA-CASSCF ensembles, self-consistency is invariant to any unitary CAS-CI transformation that acts locally on the ensemble support. Most SA-CASSCF applications in current literature are microcanonical. A problem with microcanonical SA-CASSCF models for problems with “more diabatic than adiabatic” states is described. The problem is that not all diabatic energies and couplings are self-consistently resolvable. A canonical-ensemble SA-CASSCF strategy is proposed to solve the problem. For canonical-ensemble SA-CASSCF, the equilibrated ensemble is a Boltzmann density matrix parametrized by its own CAS-CI Hamiltonian and a Lagrange multiplier acting as an inverse “temperature,” unrelated to the physical temperature. Like the convergence criterion for microcanonical-ensemble SA-CASSCF, the equilibration condition for canonical-ensemble SA-CASSCF is invariant to transformations that act locally on the ensemble CAS-CI density matrix. The advantage of a canonical-ensemble description is that more adiabatic states can be included in the support of the ensemble without running into convergence problems. The constraint on the dimensionality of the problem is relieved by the introduction of an energy constraint. The method is illustrated with a complete active space valence-bond (CASVB) analysis of the charge/bond resonance electronic structure of a monomethine cyanine: Michler’s hydrol blue. The diabatic CASVB representation is shown to vary weakly for “temperatures” corresponding to visible photon energies. Canonical-ensemble SA-CASSCF enables the resolution of energies and couplings for all covalent and ionic CASVB structures contributing to the SA-CASSCF ensemble. The CASVB solution describes resonance of charge- and bond-localized electronic structures interacting via bridge resonance superexchange. The resonance couplings can be separated into channels associated with either covalent charge delocalization or chemical bonding interactions, with the latter significantly stronger than the former.

  8. Two-component multi-configurational second-order perturbation theory with Kramers restricted complete active space self-consistent field reference function and spin-orbit relativistic effective core potential

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, Inkoo; Lee, Yoon Sup

    2014-10-28

    We report the formulation and implementation of KRCASPT2, a two-component multi-configurational second-order perturbation theory based on Kramers restricted complete active space self-consistent field (KRCASSCF) reference function, in the framework of the spin-orbit relativistic effective core potential. The zeroth-order Hamiltonian is defined as the sum of nondiagonal one-electron operators with generalized two-component Fock matrix elements as scalar factors. The Kramers symmetry within the zeroth-order Hamiltonian is maintained via the use of a state-averaged density, allowing a consistent treatment of degenerate states. The explicit expressions are derived for the matrix elements of the zeroth-order Hamiltonian as well as for the perturbation vector. The use of a fully variational reference function and nondiagonal operators in relativistic multi-configurational perturbation theory is reported for the first time. A series of initial calculations are performed on the ionization potential and excitation energies of the atoms of the 6p-block; the results display a significant improvement over those from KRCASSCF, showing a closer agreement with experimental results. Accurate atomic properties of the superheavy elements of the 7p-block are also presented, and the electronic structures of the low-lying excited states are compared with those of their lighter homologues.

  9. Development of Stronger and More Reliable Cast Austenitic Stainless Steels (H-Series) Based on Scientific and Design Methodology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pankiw, Roman I; Muralidharan, G.; Sikka, Vinod K.

    2006-06-30

    The goal of this project was to increase the high-temperature strength of the H-Series of cast austenitic stainless steels by 50% and the upper use temperature by 86 to 140 degrees fahrenheit (30 to 60 degrees celsius). Meeting this goal is expected to result in energy savings of 35 trillion Btu/year by 2020 and energy cost savings of approximately $230 million/year. The higher-strength H-Series cast stainless steels (HK and HP type) have applications for the production of ethylene in the chemical industry, for radiant burner tubes and transfer rolls for secondary processing of steel in the steel industry, and for many applications in the heat treating industry, including radiant burner tubes. The project was led by Duraloy Technologies, Inc., with research participation by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and industrial participation by a diverse group of companies.

  10. System and method for online inspection of turbines using an optical tube with broadspectrum mirrors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Baleine, Erwan

    2015-12-22

    An optical inspection system for nondestructive internal visual inspection and non-contact infra-red (IR) temperature monitoring of an online, operating power generation turbine. The optical inspection system includes an optical tube having a viewing port, at least one reflective mirror or a mirror array having a reflectivity spectral range from 550 nm to 20 .mu.m, and capable of continuous operation at temperatures greater than 932 degrees Fahrenheit (500 degrees Celsius), and a transparent window with high transmission within the same spectral range mounted distal the viewing port. The same optical mirror array may be used to measure selectively surface temperature of metal turbine blades in the near IR range (approximately 1 .mu.m wavelength) and of thermal barrier coated turbine blades in the long IR range (approximately 10 .mu.m wavelength).

  11. Introducing constricted variational density functional theory in its relaxed self-consistent formulation (RSCF-CV-DFT) as an alternative to adiabatic time dependent density functional theory for studies of charge transfer transitions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krykunov, Mykhaylo; Seth, Mike; Ziegler, Tom

    2014-05-14

    We have applied the relaxed and self-consistent extension of constricted variational density functional theory (RSCF-CV-DFT) for the calculation of the lowest charge transfer transitions in the molecular complex X-TCNE between X = benzene and TCNE = tetracyanoethylene. Use was made of functionals with a fixed fraction (?) of Hartree-Fock exchange ranging from ? = 0 to ? = 0.5 as well as functionals with a long range correction (LC) that introduces Hartree-Fock exchange for longer inter-electronic distances. A detailed comparison and analysis is given for each functional between the performance of RSCF-CV-DFT and adiabatic time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) within the Tamm-Dancoff approximation. It is shown that in this particular case, all functionals afford the same reasonable agreement with experiment for RSCF-CV-DFT whereas only the LC-functionals afford a fair agreement with experiment using TDDFT. We have in addition calculated the CT transition energy for X-TCNE with X = toluene, o-xylene, and naphthalene employing the same functionals as for X = benzene. It is shown that the calculated charge transfer excitation energies are in as good agreement with experiment as those obtained from highly optimized LC-functionals using adiabatic TDDFT. We finally discuss the relation between the optimization of length separation parameters and orbital relaxation in the RSCF-CV-DFT scheme.

  12. Critical interpretation of CH and OH stretching regions for infrared spectra of methanol clusters (CH{sub 3}OH){sub n} (n = 25) using self-consistent-charge density functional tight-binding molecular dynamics simulations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nishimura, Yoshifumi; Lee, Yuan-Pern; Irle, Stephan; Witek, Henryk A.

    2014-09-07

    Vibrational infrared (IR) spectra of gas-phase OH???O methanol clusters up to pentamer are simulated using self-consistent-charge density functional tight-binding method using two distinct methodologies: standard normal mode analysis and Fourier transform of the dipole time-correlation function. The twofold simulations aim at the direct critical assignment of the CH stretching region of the recently recorded experimental spectra [H.-L. Han, C. Camacho, H. A. Witek, and Y.-P. Lee, J. Chem. Phys. 134, 144309 (2011)]. Both approaches confirm the previous assignment (ibid.) of the CH stretching bands based on the B3LYP/ANO1 harmonic frequencies, showing that ?{sub 3}, ?{sub 9}, and ?{sub 2} CH stretching modes of the proton-accepting (PA) and proton-donating (PD) methanol monomers experience only small splittings upon the cluster formation. This finding is in sharp discord with the assignment based on anharmonic B3LYP/VPT2/ANO1 vibrational frequencies (ibid.), suggesting that some procedural faults, likely related to the breakdown of the perturbational vibrational treatment, led the anharmonic calculations astray. The IR spectra based on the Fourier transform of the dipole time-correlation function include new, previously unaccounted for physical factors such as non-zero temperature of the system and large amplitude motions of the clusters. The elevation of temperature results in a considerable non-homogeneous broadening of the observed IR signals, while the presence of large-amplitude motions (methyl group rotations and PA-PD flipping), somewhat surprisingly, does not introduce any new features in the spectrum.

  13. Mineralogical textural and compositional data on the alteration of basaltic glass from Kilauea, Hawaii to 300 degrees C: Insights to the corrosion of a borosilicate glass waste-form. [Yucca Mountain Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, D.K.

    1990-01-01

    Mineralogical, textural and compositional data accompanying greenschist facies metamorphism (to 300{degrees}C) of basalts of the East Rift Zone (ERZ), Kilauea, Hawaii may be evaluated relative to published and experimental results for the surface corrosion of borosilicate glass. The ERZ alteration sequence is dominated by intermittent palagonite, interlayered smectite-chlorite, chlorite, and actinolite-epidote-anhydrite. Alteration is best developed in fractures and vesicles where surface reaction layers root on the glass matrix forming rinds in excess of 100 microns thick. Fractures control fluid circulation and the alteration sequence. Proximal to the glass surface, palagonite, Fe-Ti oxides and clays replace fresh glass as the surface reaction layer migrates inwards; away from the surface, amphibole, anhydrite, quartz and calcite crystallize from hydrothermal fluids in contact with the glass. The texture and composition of basaltic glass surfaces are similar to those of a SRL-165 glass leached statically for sixty days at 150 {degrees}C. While the ERZ reservoir is a complex open system, conservative comparisons between the alteration of ERZ and synthetic borosilicate glass are warranted. 31 refs., 2 figs.

  14. EA-0531-FEA-1991.pdf

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Fahrenheit Bureau of Land Management Colorado Oil & ... flanks of three large natural gas producing fields, the ... state well spacing requirements or established well ...

  15. edward_teller_awards_degrees.pdf

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

  16. Decision-Makers' Forum on a Unified Strategy for Nuclear Energy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2004-11-01

    An abundant and secure energy supply is critical to our country’s prosperity, and energy supply is now a central issue in global stability and security. Unfortunately, the Unites States continues to steadily increase the fraction of energy it imports from foreign sources. In May 2001, the National Energy Policy noted that this imbalance, "if allowed to continue, will inevitably undermine our economy, our standard of living, and our national security." In addition to these serious impacts, growing concern about air pollution and atmospheric carbon levels hold the potential for global climate change. According to the National Academy of Sciences, the Earth’s surface temperature has risen by about 1 degree Fahrenheit in the past century, with accelerated warming during the past two decades. The current energy supply situation clearly demands coordinated action. Nuclear energy is preeminent in its ability to deliver affordable energy today and meet the growing imperatives for clean air and energy supplies in the future.

  17. Comfort in High-Performance Homes in a Hot-Humid Climate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Poerschke, A.; Beach, R.

    2016-01-01

    IBACOS monitored 37 homes during the late summer and early fall of 2014 in a hot and humid climate to better understand indoor comfort conditions. These homes were constructed in the last several years by four home builders that offered a comfort and performance guarantee for the homes. The homes were located in one of four cities: Tampa, Florida; Orlando, Florida; Houston, Texas; and San Antonio, Texas. Temperature and humidity data were collected from the thermostat and each room of the house using small, battery-powered data loggers. To understand system runtime and its impact on comfort, supply air temperature also was measured on a 1-minute interval. Overall, the group of homes only exceeded a room-to-room temperature difference of 6 degrees Fahrenheit for 5% of the time.

  18. Liquid Fuel from Heat-Loving Microorganisms: H2-Dependent Conversion of CO2 to Liquid Electrofuels by Extremely Thermophilic Archaea

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2010-07-01

    Electrofuels Project: NC State is working with the University of Georgia to create Electrofuels from primitive organisms called extremophiles that evolved before photosynthetic organisms and live in extreme, hot water environments with temperatures ranging from 167-212 degrees Fahrenheit The team is genetically engineering these microorganisms so they can use hydrogen to turn carbon dioxide directly into alcohol-based fuels. High temperatures are required to distill the biofuels from the water where the organisms live, but the heat-tolerant organisms will continue to thrive even as the biofuels are being distilledmaking the fuel-production process more efficient. The microorganisms dont require light, so they can be grown anywhereinside a dark reactor or even in an underground facility.

  19. A thermodynamically consistent discontinuous Galerkin formulation for interface separation

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Versino, Daniele; Mourad, Hashem M.; Dávila, Carlos G.; Addessio, Francis L.

    2015-07-31

    Our paper describes the formulation of an interface damage model, based on the discontinuous Galerkin (DG) method, for the simulation of failure and crack propagation in laminated structures. The DG formulation avoids common difficulties associated with cohesive elements. Specifically, it does not introduce any artificial interfacial compliance and, in explicit dynamic analysis, it leads to a stable time increment size which is unaffected by the presence of stiff massless interfaces. This proposed method is implemented in a finite element setting. Convergence and accuracy are demonstrated in Mode I and mixed-mode delamination in both static and dynamic analyses. Significantly, numerical resultsmore » obtained using the proposed interface model are found to be independent of the value of the penalty factor that characterizes the DG formulation. By contrast, numerical results obtained using a classical cohesive method are found to be dependent on the cohesive penalty stiffnesses. The proposed approach is shown to yield more accurate predictions pertaining to crack propagation under mixed-mode fracture because of the advantage. Furthermore, in explicit dynamic analysis, the stable time increment size calculated with the proposed method is found to be an order of magnitude larger than the maximum allowable value for classical cohesive elements.« less

  20. Consistent scenario for B{yields}PS decays

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Delepine, D.; Lucio M, J. L.; Mendoza S, J. A.; Ramirez, Carlos A.

    2008-12-01

    We consider B{yields}PS decays where P stands for pseudoscalar and S for a heavy (1500 MeV) scalar meson. We achieve agreement with available experimental data, which includes two orders of magnitude hierarchy, assuming the scalars mesons are two quark states. The contribution of the dipolar penguin operator O{sub 11} is quantified.

  1. Certification of Consistency with Washington's Coastal Zone Management...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Zone Management Program for Federally Licensed or Permitted ActivitiesLegal Published NA Year Signed or Took Effect The date "NA" was not understood.The date "NA" was not...

  2. Certification of Consistency with Washington's Coastal Zone Management...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Coastal Zone Management Program for Federally Funded ActivitiesLegal Published NA Year Signed or Took Effect The date "NA" was not understood.The date "NA" was not...

  3. Nanohybrid Solar Cells Consisting of Self-Assembled Semiconducting...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Single-Wall Carbon Nanotube and Covalent Organic Polyhedrom (COP)-Fullerene Core-Shell University of Colorado Contact CU About This Technology Technology Marketing SummaryA...

  4. A consistent orbital stability analysis for the GJ 581 system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Joiner, David A.; Sul, Cesar; Kress, Monika E.; Dragomir, Diana; Kane, Stephen R.

    2014-06-20

    We apply a combination of N-body modeling techniques and automated data fitting with Monte Carlo Markov Chain uncertainty analysis of Keplerian orbital models to RV data to determine long-term stability of the planetary system GJ 581. We find that while there are stability concerns with the four-planet model as published by Forveille et al., when uncertainties in the system are accounted for, particularly stellar jitter, the hypothesis that the four-planet model is gravitationally unstable is not statistically significant. Additionally, the system including proposed planet g by Vogt et al. also shows some stability concerns when eccentricities are allowed to float in the orbital fit, yet when uncertainties are included in the analysis, the system including planet g also cannot be proven to be unstable. We present revised reduced ?{sup 2} values for Keplerian astrocentric orbital fits assuming four-planet and five-planet models for GJ 581 under the condition that best fits must be stable, and we find no distinguishable difference by including planet g in the model. Additionally, we present revised orbital element estimates for each, assuming uncertainties due to stellar jitter under the constraint of the system being gravitationally stable.

  5. Self-Consistent Criteria for Evaluation of Neutron Interaction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Henry H.F,Newlon C.E.,Knight J.R.

    2007-08-02

    New safe interaction criteria for containers of fissionable materials handled at the Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant have been developed on the basis of an interaction theory using the basic concepts of a safe solid angle subtended by interacting containers, and the multiplication factor as determined by two-group theory for an individually safe containers The calculated results agree satisfactorily with experimental data obtained with identical interacting units involving both cylinders and slabs containing highly enriched uranium, the core compositions of which were varied between H/U-235 atomic ratios of 44.3 and 337. The application of the derived interaction criteria to items containing material with low moderation or low U-235 assay, and to containers for which nuclear safety is dependent upon control of the U-235 mass or U-235 concentration is discussed.

  6. Consistent analysis of one-nucleon spectroscopic factors involving...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Additional Journal Information: Journal Name: Physics Letters. Section B; Journal ID: ISSN 0370-2693 Publisher: Elsevier Sponsoring Org: USDOE Country of Publication: Netherlands ...

  7. Self-consistency tests of large-scale dynamics parameterizations...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    large-scale dynamics parameterization, in which we compare the result of a cloud-resolving simulation coupled to WTG ... Journal Name: Journal of Advances in Modeling Earth Systems ...

  8. A Probabilistic Approach to Site-Specific, Hazard-Consistent...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of High Coulombic Efficiency Si Electrodes Suggested Approaches for Probabilistic Flooding Hazard Assessment State of Practice Approaches in Geomorphology, Geochronology and ...

  9. Self-consistency tests of large-scale dynamics parameterizations...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    compare the result of a cloud-resolving simulation coupled to WTG or WPG with an otherwise ... Sponsoring Org: USDOE Office of Science (SC), Biological and Environmental Research (BER) ...

  10. A Self-Consistent Approach for Calculating the Effective Hydraulic...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Pek's (1995) results for a 2D case. less Authors: Pozdniakov, Sergey ; Tsang, Chin-Fu Publication Date: 2004-01-02 OSTI Identifier: 835818 Report Number(s): LBNL--55620 R&D ...

  11. A Self-Consistent Approach for Calculating the Effective Hydraulic...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    conductivity of a 3D medium with a binary distribution of local hydraulic conductivities. ... The method was applied to estimating the effective hydraulic conductivity of a 2D and 3D ...

  12. On the initial state and consistency relations (Journal Article...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Center for Particle Cosmology, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Pennsylvania, 209 South 33rd Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States) Publication Date: ...

  13. Non-trivial checks of novel consistency relations (Journal Article...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Center for Particle Cosmology, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States) Department of Physics and Astronomy, Johns ...

  14. An event consists of a set of charge, tim

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Energy An Update on White House Solar Panels and Our Solar Program An Update on White House Solar Panels and Our Solar Program June 20, 2011 - 6:11pm Addthis Ramamoorthy Ramesh Former Director, SunShot Initiative & Solar Energy Technologies Program We cannot win the future without winning the clean energy race, which is why President Obama laid out a clear goal to increase our nation's clean energy share and continue to build a 21st century clean energy economy. Last fall, to underscore

  15. Thermal springs list for the United States; National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Key to Geophysical Records Documentation No. 12

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Berry, G.W.; Grim, P.J.; Ikelman, J.A.

    1980-06-01

    The compilation has 1702 thermal spring locations in 23 of the 50 States, arranged alphabetically by State (Postal Service abbreviation) and degrees of latitude and longitude within the State. It shows spring name, surface temperature in degrees Fahrenheit and degrees Celsius; USGS Professional Paper 492 number, USGS Circular 790 number, NOAA number, north to south on each degree of latitude and longitude of the listed. USGS 1:250,000-scale (AMS) map; and the USGS topographic map coverage, 1:63360- or 1:62500-scale (15-minute) or 1:24000-scale (7.5-minute) quadrangle also included is an alphabetized list showing only the spring name and the State in which it is located. Unnamed springs are omitted. The list includes natural surface hydrothermal features: springs, pools, mud pots, mud volcanoes, geysers, fumaroles, and steam vents at temperature of 20{sup 0}C (68[sup 0}F) or greater. It does not include wells or mines, except at sites where they supplement or replace natural vents presently or recently active, or, in some places, where orifices are not distinguishable as natural or artificial. The listed springs are located on the USGS 1:250,000 (AMS) topographic maps. (MHR)

  16. Customer Impact Evaluation for the 2009 Southern California Edison Participating Load Pilot

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gifford, William; Bodmann, Shawn; Young, Paul; Eto, Joseph H.; Laundergan, Jeremy

    2010-05-28

    The 2009 Participating Load Pilot Customer Impact Evaluation provides evidence that short duration demand response events which cycle off air conditioners for less than thirty minutes in a hot, dry environment do not lead to a significant degradation in the comfort level of residents participating in the program. This was investigated using: (1) Analysis of interval temperature data collected from inside residences of select program participants; and (2) Direct and indirect customer feedback from surveys designed and implemented by Southern California Edison at the conclusion of the program season. There were 100 indoor temperature monitors that were acquired by LBNL for this study that transmitted temperature readings at least once per hour with corresponding timestamps during the program season, June-October, 2009. Recorded temperatures were transferred from the onsite telemetry devices to a mesh network, stored, and then delivered to KEMA for analysis. Following an extensive data quality review, temperature increases during each of the thirty demand response test events were calculated for each device. The results are as follows: (1) Even for tests taking place during outside temperatures in excess of 100 degrees Fahrenheit, over 85 percent of the devices measured less than a 0.5 degree Fahrenheit temperature increase indoors during the duration of the event. (2) For the increases that were observed, none was more than 5 degrees and it was extremely rare for increases to be more than 2 degrees. At the end of the testing season SCE and KEMA designed and conducted a survey of the a facilities and public works managers and approximately 100 customers feedback survey to assess the extent the PLP events were noticed or disrupted the comfort level of participants. While only a small sampling of 3 managers and 16 customer surveys were completed, their responses indicate: (1) No customer reported even a moderate level of discomfort from the cycling-off of their air conditioners during test events; and (2) Very few customers noticed any of the thirty events at all. The results of this study suggest that the impacts on comfort from short-duration interruptions of air-conditioners, even in very hot climates, are for the most part very modest, if they are even noticed at all. Still, we should expect that these impacts will increase with longer interruptions of air-conditioning. By the same token, we should also expect that they will be less significant in cooler climates.

  17. Energy, Carbon-emission and Financial Savings from Thermostat Control

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blasing, T J; Schroeder, Dana

    2013-08-01

    Among the easiest approaches to energy, and cost, savings for most people is the adjustment of thermostats to save energy. Here we estimate savings of energy, carbon, and money in the United States of America (USA) that would result from adjusting thermostats in residential and commercial buildings by about half a degree Celsius downward during the heating season and upward during the cooling season. To obtain as small a unit as possible, and therefore the least likely to be noticeable by most people, we selected an adjustment of one degree Fahrenheit (0.56 degree Celsius) which is the gradation used almost exclusively on thermostats in the USA and is the smallest unit of temperature that has been used historically. Heating and/or cooling of interior building space for personal comfort is sometimes referred to as space conditioning, a term we will use for convenience throughout this work without consideration of humidity. Thermostat adjustment, as we use the term here, applies to thermostats that control the indoor temperature, and not to other thermostats such as those on water heaters. We track emissions of carbon only, rather than of carbon dioxide, because carbon atoms change atomic partners as they move through the carbon cycle, from atmosphere to biosphere or ocean and, on longer time scales, through the rock cycle. To convert a mass of carbon to an equivalent mass of carbon dioxide (thereby including the mass of the 2 oxygen atoms in each molecule) simply multiply by 3.67.

  18. Zr{sub 9}Co{sub 2}P{sub 4} and Zr{sub 9}Ni{sub 2}P{sub 4}: A new 3D structure type, consisting of edge- and vertex-condensed Zr{sub 6} octahedra

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kleinke, H.; Franzen, H.F.

    1996-08-28

    The isostructural title compounds were synthesized by arc-melting of stoichiometric ratios of ZrP, Zr, and Co and Ni, respectively, and subsequent annealing at 1450 {degrees}C. Their crystal structure (space group P4/mbm; Zr{sub 9-}Co{sub 2}P{sub 4}, a = 532.23(5) {angstrom}{sup 3}, Z = 2) is derived from a three-dimensional network of Zr{sub 6} octahedra. These octahedra are connected via common vertices to form chains parallel to the c axis and via common edges and vertices in the ab plane, resulting in one double chain and one single chain. Both kinds of the interstitial atoms, the iron-group-metal atom and the phosphorus, are situated in trigonal prismatic holes between these chains, forming short M-P and M-M{prime} bonds. These octahedra can be described as being of the M{sub 6}X{sub 8} cluster type as is also observed in the chalcogenide Chevrel phases. Due to the electronically nonsaturated character of the Zr octahedra and their three-dimensional connectivity, three-dimensional metallic properties are expected for both phosphides, and metallic behavior is confirmed by the observation of Pauli paramagnetism for both compounds.

  19. Water spray ejector system for steam injected engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hines, W.R.

    1991-10-08

    This paper describes a method of increasing the power output of a steam injected gas turbine engine. It comprises: a compressor, a combustor having a dome which receives fuel and steam from a dual flow nozzle, and a turbine in series combination with a gas flow path passing therethrough, and a system for injection of superheated steam into the gas flow path, the method comprising spraying water into the steam injection system where the water is evaporated by the superheated steam, mixing the evaporated water with the existing steam in the steam injection system so that the resultant steam is at a temperature of at least 28 degrees celsius (50 degrees fahrenheit) superheat and additional steam is added to the dome from the fuel nozzle to obtain a resultant increased mass flow of superheated steam mixture for injection into the gas flow path, and controlling the amount of water sprayed into the steam injection system to maximize the mass flow of superheated steam without quenching the flame.

  20. 2014 Low-Temperature and Coproduced Geothermal Resources Fact Sheet

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tim Reinhardt, Program Manager

    2014-09-01

    As a growing sector of geothermal energy development, the Low-Temperature Program supports innovative technologies that enable electricity production and cascaded uses from geothermal resources below 300° Fahrenheit.

  1. Electromagnetic variable degrees of freedom actuator systems and methods

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Montesanti, Richard C.; Trumper, David L.; Kirtley, Jr., James L.

    2009-02-17

    The present invention provides a variable reluctance actuator system and method that can be adapted for simultaneous rotation and translation of a moving element by applying a normal-direction magnetic flux on the moving element. In a beneficial example arrangement, the moving element includes a swing arm that carries a cutting tool at a set radius from an axis of rotation so as to produce a rotary fast tool servo that provides a tool motion in a direction substantially parallel to the surface-normal of a workpiece at the point of contact between the cutting tool and workpiece. An actuator rotates a swing arm such that a cutting tool moves toward and away from a mounted rotating workpiece in a controlled manner in order to machine the workpiece. Position sensors provide rotation and displacement information for a swing arm to a control system. A control system commands and coordinates motion of the fast tool servo with the motion of a spindle, rotating table, cross-feed slide, and in feed slide of a precision lathe.

  2. STUDENTS WHO RECEIVED GRADUATE DEGREES FROM THESIS WORK CONDUCTED...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    2 - March 31, 2003 Name Year Thesis Title Advisor First Position Present Position Tiegang Di 2002 Charm Meson Interactions with Hadrons Che-Ming Ko Graduate Research Assistant...

  3. STUDENTS WHO RECEIVED GRADUATE DEGREES FROM THESIS WORK CONDUCTED...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    CONDUCTED AT THE CYCLOTRON INSTITUTE April 1, 2001 - March 31, 2001 Name Year Thesis Title Advisor First Position Present Position Douglas Rowland 2000 A Study of the Projectile...

  4. STUDENTS WHO RECEIVED GRADUATE DEGREES FROM THESIS WORK CONDUCTED...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    4 - March 31, 2005 Name Year Thesis Title Advisor First Position Present Position Wei Liu 2004 Charmonium absorption and charmed hadron production in hadronic reaction Che-Ming Ko...

  5. Using 360 degree photography as a decommissioning tool

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    LEBARON, G.J.

    2003-05-06

    Digital cameras, in conjunction with computer software, make possible 360{sup o} photos allowing a person to look all around, up and down, and zoom in or out. Multiple 360{sup o} photos can be linked creating a virtual tour. Other information, such as sound files, flat photos and text can also be attached to the photos. A virtual tour of a building or room can be used for facility documentation, informing management and others, work planning and orientation, training and historical documentation, thus minimizing the need to re-enter hazardous areas. Reducing entries decreases exposure, increases safety and efficiency, and minimizes waste.

  6. ORISE: Nuclear engineering degrees at highest ranges since 1980s

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    rates for nuclear engineering candidates are still at highest ranges reported since 1980s Report also shows shifts in career opportunities beyond graduation in nuclear utilities ...

  7. 360 Degree Photography to Decrease Exposure, Increase Safety & Minimize Waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    LEBARON, G.J.

    2002-01-31

    High-resolution digital cameras, in conjunction with software techniques. make possible 360{sup o} photos that allow a person to look all around, up and dawn, and zoom in or out. The software provides the opportunity to attach other information to a 360{sup o} photo such as sound tiles, flat photos (providing additional detail about what is behind a panel or around a corner) and text (Information which can be used to show radiological conditions or identify other hazards not readily visible). The software also allows other 360{sup o} photos to be attached creating a virtual tour where the user can move from area to area, and stop, study and zoom in on areas of interest. A virtual tour of a building or room can be used for facility documentation, informing management and others, work planning and orientation, and training, thus minimizing the need to re-enter hazardous radioactive areas. Reducing entries decreases exposure, increases safety and minimizes waste.

  8. System and technique for ultrasonic determination of degree of cooking

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bond, Leonard J.; Diaz, Aaron A.; Judd, Kayte M.; Pappas, Richard A.; Cliff, William C.; Pfund, David M.; Morgen, Gerald P.

    2007-03-20

    A method and apparatus are described for determining the doneness of food during a cooking process. Ultrasonic signal are passed through the food during cooking. The change in transmission characteristics of the ultrasonic signal during the cooking process is measured to determine the point at which the food has been cooked to the proper level. In one aspect, a heated fluid cooks the food, and the transmission characteristics along a fluid-only ultrasonic path provides a reference for comparison with the transmission characteristics for a food-fluid ultrasonic path.

  9. Aging of Alloy 617 at 650 and 750 Degrees C

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Julian Benz; Thomas Lillo; Richard Wright

    2013-01-01

    Alloy 617 has been selected as the primary candidate for heat exchanger applications in advanced reactors. For the VHTR this application could require extended service up to a reactor outlet temperature of 950°C. A key hurdle to using this alloy in the VHTR heat exchanger application is qualifying the alloy for Section III of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code. In order to Code qualify the material it is necessary to characterize the influence of long term aging on the mechanical behavior. Alloy 617 has been aged at 650 and 750°C for times up to 5300 hours. The microstructure after aging has been characterized using optical and transmission electron microscopies. It has been determined that in addition to carbides, a significant volume fraction of ?’ phase (Ni3Al) is formed at these temperatures. The ?’ does not contribute significantly to changing the tensile or impact properties of the aged material. It does, however, appear to increase creep resistance and impede creep crack growth.

  10. STUDENTS WHO RECEIVED GRADUATE DEGREES FROM THESIS WORK CONDUCTED...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    2009 Temperature and Scaling Studies from Projectile Fragmentation of 86,78 Kr + 64,58 Ni at 35MeVA S. J. Yennello Post Doc., Department of Radiation Oncology, School of...

  11. STUDENTS WHO RECEIVED GRADUATE DEGREES FROM THESIS WORK CONDUCTED...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and the Isoscaling Properties of the Fragments in Multifragmentation of 40 Ca + 58 Ni, 40 Ar+ 58 Ni and 40 Ar+ 58 Fe Reactions S. J. Yennello Graduate Research Assistant...

  12. ORISE: Report shows number of health physics degrees for 2010

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    seen what impact the March 11 Fukushima Daiichi accident may have on the nuclear industry. ... Conversely, the Fukushima incident has also led to a reassessment of the safety ...

  13. STUDENTS WHO RECEIVED GRADUATE DEGREES FROM THESIS WORK CONDUCTED...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Assistant Research Associate, University of Washington, Mallinckrodt Institute of Radiology Xiaodong Tang 2002 Determination of the S Factor for 11 C (p,) 12 N Tribble...

  14. ARM - Temperature Converter

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    CalculatorsTemperature Converter Outreach Home Room News Publications Traditional Knowledge Kiosks Barrow, Alaska Tropical Western Pacific Site Tours Contacts Students Study Hall About ARM Global Warming FAQ Just for Fun Meet our Friends Cool Sites Teachers Teachers' Toolbox Lesson Plans Temperature Converter The Fahrenheit scale, invented by German physicist Daniel Gabriel Fahrenheit (1686-1736), is based on 32 °F for the freezing point of water and 212 °F for the boiling point of water. The

  15. Susceptibility of Granite Rock to scCO2/Water at 200 degrees C and 250 degrees C

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sugama, T.; Gill, S., Ecker, L., Butcher, T., Warren, J.

    2011-01-01

    Granite rock comprising anorthoclase-type albite and quartz as its major phases and biotite mica as the minor one was exposed to supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO{sub 2})/water at 250 C and 13.78 MPa pressure for 104 hours. For comparison purpose, four other rocks, albite, hornblende, diorite, and quartz, also were exposed. During the exposure of granite, ionic carbonic acid, known as the wet carbonation reactant, preferentially reacted with anorthoclase-type albite and biotite, rather than with quartz. The susceptibility of biotite to wet carbonation was higher than that of anorthoclase-type albite. All the carbonation by-products of anorthoclase-type albite were amorphous phases including Na- and K-carbonates, a kaolinite clay-like compound, and silicon dioxide, while wet carbonation converted biotite into potassium aluminum silicate, siderite, and magnesite in crystalline phases and hydrogen fluoride (HF). Three of these reaction by-products, Na- and K-carbonates and HF, were highly soluble in water. Correspondingly, the carbonated top surface layer, about 1.27 mm thick as carbonation depth, developed porous microstructure with numerous large voids, some of which have a size of {>=} 10 {mu}m, reflecting the erosion of granite by the leaching of these water-soluble reaction by-products. Comparing with this carbonation depth, its depth of other minerals was considerable lower, particularly, for hornblende and diorite with 0.07 and 0.02 mm, while no carbonate compound was detected in quartz. The major factor governing these low carbonation depths in these rocks was the formation of water-insensitive scale-like carbonate by-products such as calcite (CaCO{sub 3}), siderite (FeCO{sub 3}), and magnesite (MgCO{sub 3}). Their formation within the superficial layer of these minerals served as protective barrier layer that inhibits and retards further carbonation of fresh underlying minerals, even if the exposure time was extended. Thus, the coverage by this barrier layer of the non-carbonated surfaces of the underlying rock was reason why the hornblende and diorite exhibited a minimum depth of carbonation. Under exposure to the scCO{sub 2}/water at 200 C and 10.34 MPa pressure for up to 42 days, the ranking of the magnitude of erosion caused by wet carbonation was in the following order; granite > albite > hornblende > diorite > quartz. The eroding-caused weight loss of granite (0.88 %) was {approx}2.4, {approx}5.2, {approx}9.8, and {approx}17.6 times greater than that of albite, hornblends, diorite, and quartz, respectively.

  16. Cooling the greenhouse effect: Options and costs for reducing CO{sub 2} emissions from the American Electric Power Company

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Helme, N.; Popovich, M.G.; Gille, J.

    1993-05-01

    A recent report from the National Academy of Sciences concludes that the earth is likely to face a doubling of preindustrial greenhouse gases in the next half century. This doubling could be expected to push average global temperatures. up from between 1.8 to 9 degrees Fahrenheit. Much of the potential for human impacts on the global climate is linked to fossil fuel consumption. Carbon dioxide emissions from energy consumption in the US totals about one-quarter of the world`s total emissions from energy consumption. Global warming is different from other environmental problems because CO{sub 2} emissions can be captured naturally by trees, grasses, soil, and other plants. In contrast, acid rain emissions reductions can only be accomplished through switching to lower-polluting fuels, conserving energy, or installing costly retrofit technologies. Terrestrial biota, such as trees, plants, grasses and soils, directly affect the CO{sub 2} concentrations in the atmosphere. A number of reports have concluded that forestry and land-use practices can increase CO{sub 2} sequestration and can help reduce or delay the threat of global warming.

  17. Natural gas monthly, July 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-07-21

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. The data in this publication are collected on surveys conducted by the EIA to fulfill its responsibilities for gathering and reporting energy data. Some of the data are collected under the authority of the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC), an independent commission within the DOE, which has jurisdiction primarily in the regulation of electric utilities and the interstate natural gas industry. Geographic coverage is the 50 States and the District of Columbia. Explanatory Notes supplement the information found in tables of the report. A description of the data collection surveys that support the NGM is provided in the Data Sources section. A glossary of the terms used in this report is also provided to assist readers in understanding the data presented in this publication. All natural gas volumes are reported at a pressure base of 14.73 pounds per square inch absolute (psia) and at 60 degrees Fahrenheit. Cubic feet are converted to cubic meters by applying a factor of 0.02831685.

  18. Significantly Shorter Fe-S Bond in Cytochrome P450-I is Consistent...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    analyzed at Beam Line 7-3 at SSRL. Extended x-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) studies on multiple sets of samples revealed that the Fe-S bond in P450-I was in fact 0.09 ...

  19. Microstructural Contol of the Porous Si3N4 Ceramics Consisted...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Poster presentation at the 2007 Diesel Engine-Efficiency & Emissions Research Conference (DEER 2007). 13-16 August, 2007, Detroit, Michigan. Sponsored by the U.S. Department of ...

  20. Electrolyte Concentration Effect of a Photoelectrochemical Cell Consisting of TiO 2 Nanotube Anode

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Ren, Kai; Gan, Yong X.; Nikolaidis, Efstratios; Sofyani, Sharaf Al; Zhang, Lihua

    2013-01-01

    The photoelectrochemical responses of a TiO 2 nanotube anode in ethylene glycol (EG), glycerol, ammonia, ethanol, urea, and Na 2 S electrolytes with different concentrations were investigated. The TiO 2 nanotube anode was highly efficient in photoelectrocatalysis in these solutions under UV light illumination. The photocurrent density is obviously affected by the concentration change. Na 2 S generated the highest photocurrent density at 0, 1, and 2 V bias voltages, but its concentration does not significantly affect the photocurrent density. Urea shows high open circuit voltage at proper concentration and low photocurrent at different concentrations. Externally applied bias voltage ismore » also an important factor that changes the photoelectrochemical reaction process. In view of the open circuit voltage, EG, ammonia, and ethanol fuel cells show the trend that the open circuit voltage (OCV) increases with the increase of the concentration of the solutions. Glycerol has the highest OCV compared with others, and it deceases with the increase in the concentration because of the high viscosity. The OCV of the urea and Na 2 S solutions did not show obvious concentration effect.« less

  1. Final Scientific/Technical Report "Arc Tube Coating System for Color Consistency"

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Buelow, Roger; Jenson, Chris; Kazenski, Keith

    2013-03-21

    DOE has enabled the use of coating materials using low cost application methods on light sources to positively affect the output of those sources. The coatings and light source combinations have shown increased lumen output of LED fixtures (1.5%-2.0%), LED arrays (1.4%) and LED powered remote phosphor systems – Philips L-Prize lamp (0.9%). We have also demonstrated lifetime enhancements (3000 hrs vs 8000 hrs) and shifting to higher CRI (51 to 65) in metal halide high intensity discharge lamps with metal oxide coatings. The coatings on LEDs and LED products are significant as the market is moving increasingly more towards LED technology. Enhancements in LED performance are demonstrated in this work through the use of available materials and low cost application processes. EFOI used low refractive index fluoropolymers and low cost dipping processes for application of the material to surfaces related to light transmission of LEDs and LED products. Materials included Teflon AF, an amorphous fluorinated polymer and fluorinated acrylic monomers. The DOE SSL Roadmap sets goals for LED performance moving into the future. EFOI’s coating technology is a means to shift the performance curve for LEDs. This is not limited to one type of LED, but is relevant across LED technologies. The metal halide work included the use of sol-gel solutions resulting in silicon dioxide and titanium dioxide coatings on the quartz substrates of the metal halide arc tubes. The coatings were applied using low cost dipping processes.

  2. NEW BV(RI){sub C} PHOTOMETRY FOR PRAESEPE: FURTHER TESTS OF BROADBAND PHOTOMETRIC CONSISTENCY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Joner, Michael D.; Taylor, Benjamin J.; Laney, C. David; Van Wyk, Francois

    2011-11-15

    New BV(RI){sub C} measurements of Praesepe made at the South African Astronomical Observatory (SAAO) are presented. When those measurements are combined with those reported in previous papers in this series, it is found that they support previously determined V zero points for Praesepe, M67, and the Hyades. Support is also found for joint (V - R){sub C} and (R - I){sub C} zero points established previously for Praesepe and NGC 752. For the SAAO system of standard stars, a B - V correction to the Johnson system of about -9 mmag appears to be reasonably well established. The preferred (though not definitive) V correction is about +7 mmag. For the Landolt V system, zero-point identity with the Johnson system at a 2{sigma} level of 4.8 mmag is found, and no color term as large as 4 mmag (mag){sup -1} is detected. Updated CDS data files for Praesepe are briefly described.

  3. A scalable consistent second-order SPH solver for unsteady low...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Additional Journal Information: Journal Volume: 289; Journal Issue: C; Journal ID: ISSN 0045-7825 Publisher: Elsevier Sponsoring Org: USDOE Country of Publication: Netherlands ...

  4. A thermodynamically consistent, damage-dependent, interface debonding model for composites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, J.N.; Clements, B.E.; Addessio, F.L.; Williams, T.O.

    1998-12-31

    This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The ability to design composite materials and analyze processing procedures relies on the availability of constitutive models that describe their dynamic response accurately. The strength, damage evolution, and failure of interfaces within composites often dominate their macroscopic performance but are not well characterized. The design of such composites for particular applications requires adequate knowledge of interfacial characteristics. Given the large number of potential loading scenarios that an engineering composite can be subjected to, it is obviously beneficial to have reliable and accurate theoretical methods for their quantitative treatment in numerical calculation. This project addresses the fundamental aspects of interfacial debonding in composites, and examines the basic behavior in practical situations.

  5. Self-consistent field calculations on diatomic hydrogen in a potential well

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bunch, K.J.; Grow, R.W. )

    1991-07-01

    The equilibrium behavior of diatomic hydrogen in a potential well is explored. The amount of squeezing experienced by hydrogen in the well is compared to that expected for hydrogen within palladium. Results show insufficient squeezing to account for the cold fusion phenomenon.

  6. Photon-number statistics of twin beams: Self-consistent measurement, reconstruction, and properties

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pe?ina, Jan Jr.; Haderka, Ond?ej; Michlek, Vclav

    2014-12-04

    A method for the determination of photon-number statistics of twin beams using the joint signal-idler photocount statistics obtained by an iCCD camera is described. It also provides absolute quantum detection efficiency of the camera. Using the measured photocount statistics, quasi-distributions of integrated intensities are obtained. They attain negative values occurring in characteristic strips an a consequence of pairing of photons in twin beams.

  7. Generation-based memory synchronization in a multiprocessor system with weakly consistent memory accesses

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ohmacht, Martin

    2014-09-09

    In a multiprocessor system, a central memory synchronization module coordinates memory synchronization requests responsive to memory access requests in flight, a generation counter, and a reclaim pointer. The central module communicates via point-to-point communication. The module includes a global OR reduce tree for each memory access requesting device, for detecting memory access requests in flight. An interface unit is implemented associated with each processor requesting synchronization. The interface unit includes multiple generation completion detectors. The generation count and reclaim pointer do not pass one another.

  8. Fully self-consistent solution of the Dyson equation using a...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Additional Journal Information: Journal Volume: 91; Journal Issue: 12; Journal ID: ISSN 1098-0121 Publisher: American Physical Society Sponsoring Org: USDOE Office of Science (SC), ...

  9. Retrofit Audits and Cost Estimates: A Look at Quality and Consistency

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eisenberg, L.; Shapiro, C.; Fleischer, W.

    2012-10-01

    Retrofit NYC Block by Block is an outreach program targeting owners of one- to four-family homes, the most common building type in New York City, with more than 600,000 structures citywide. Administered by the Pratt Center for Community Development and implemented by four nonprofit, community based organizations, Block by Block connects residents, businesses, and religious and civic organizations in predominantly low- and moderate-income neighborhoods with one or more of a half-dozen public and private financial incentive programs that facilitate energy-efficiency retrofits. This research project sought to evaluate the approach, effectiveness, and the energy use reductions accomplished by the Retrofit NYC: Block by Block program.

  10. Retrofit Audits and Cost Estimates. A Look at Quality and Consistency

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eisenberg, L.; Shapiro, C.; Fleischer, W.

    2012-10-01

    Retrofit NYC Block by Block is an outreach program targeting owners of one- to four-family homes, the most common building type in New York City, with more than 600,000 structures citywide. Administered by the Pratt Center for Community Development and implemented by four nonprofit, community-based organizations, Block by Block connects residents, businesses, and religious and civic organizations in predominantly low-and moderate-income neighborhoods with one or more of a half-dozen public and private financial incentive programs that facilitate energy-efficiency retrofits. This research project sought to evaluate the approach, effectiveness, and the energy use reductions accomplished by the Retrofit NYC: Block by Block program.

  11. Method for computing self-consistent solution in a gun code

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nelson, Eric M

    2014-09-23

    Complex gun code computations can be made to converge more quickly based on a selection of one or more relaxation parameters. An eigenvalue analysis is applied to error residuals to identify two error eigenvalues that are associated with respective error residuals. Relaxation values can be selected based on these eigenvalues so that error residuals associated with each can be alternately reduced in successive iterations. In some examples, relaxation values that would be unstable if used alone can be used.

  12. Evaluating Radiometric Measurements Using a Fixed 45 Degrees Responsivity and Zenith Angle Dependent Responsivities (Poster)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dooraghi, M.; Habte, A.; Reda, I.; Sengupta, M.; Gotseff, P.; Andreas, A.; Anderberg, M.

    2014-03-01

    This poster seeks to demonstrate the importance and application of an existing but unused approach that ultimately reduces the uncertainty of radiometric measurements. Current radiometric data is based on a single responsivity value that introduces significant uncertainty to the data, however, through using responsivity as a function of solar zenith angle, the uncertainty could be decreased by 50%.

  13. EXAMINATION OF 80 DEGREES C DESORPTION ISOTHERMS OFTRITIUM AGED PD/K AND LANA.75

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Staack, G; Kirk Shanahan, K; Tom Walters, T; Roger Pilgrim, R

    2007-08-28

    Metal hydrides, specifically Pd deposited on kieselguhr (Pd/k) and LaNi{sub 4.25}Al{sub 0.75} (LANA.75), have been used at the Savannah River Site for almost twenty years for hydrogen isotope separation and storage. Radiolytic decay of tritium to helium-3 in the metal matrix causes three classic changes in the performance of the hydride: the plateau pressure decreases, the plateau slope increases, and a heel forms, reducing the reversible capacity of the hydride. Deuterium and tritium isotherms were collected on the virgin materials, only tritium isotherms were collected at approximately 2 years, and both deuterium and tritium isotherms were collected at approximately 3.5 years of quiescent aging. Points of interest include those mentioned above as well as the effects of cycling the materials. The methods and results are presented.

  14. Viscosity of multi-component molten nitrate salts : liquidus to 200 degrees C.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bradshaw, Robert W.

    2010-03-01

    The viscosity of molten salts comprising ternary and quaternary mixtures of the nitrates of sodium, potassium, lithium and calcium was determined experimentally. Viscosity was measured over the temperature range from near the relatively low liquidus temperatures of he individual mixtures to 200C. Molten salt mixtures that do not contain calcium nitrate exhibited relatively low viscosity and an Arrhenius temperature dependence. Molten salt mixtures that contained calcium nitrate were relatively more viscous and viscosity increased as the roportion of calcium nitrate increased. The temperature dependence of viscosity of molten salts containing calcium nitrate displayed curvature, rather than linearity, when plotted in Arrhenius format. Viscosity data for these mixtures were correlated by the Vogel-Fulcher- ammann-Hesse equation.

  15. Anti-backlash drive systems for multi-degree freedom devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lungwen Tsai; Sunlai Chang.

    1993-09-14

    A new and innovative concept is described for the control of backlash in gear-coupled transmission mechanisms. The concept utilizes redundant unidirectional drives to assure positive coupling of gear meshes at all times. Based on this concept, a methodology for the enumeration of admissible redundant-drive backlash-free robotic mechanisms has been established. Some typical two- and three-DOF mechanisms are disclosed. Furthermore, actuator torques have been derived as functions of either joint torques or end-effector dynamic performance requirements. A redundantly driven gear coupled transmission mechanism manipulator has a fail-safe advantage in that, except of the loss of backlash control, it can continue to function when one of its actuators fails. A two-DOF backlash-free arm has been reduced to practice to demonstrate the principle. 20 figures.

  16. Chlorite Dissolution Rates From 25 to 275 degrees and pH 3 to 10

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Carroll, Susan

    2013-09-27

    We have calculated a chlorite dissolution rate equation at far from equilibrium conditions by combining new data (20 experiments at high temperature) with previously published data Smith et al. 2013 and Lowson et al. 2007. All rate data (from the 127 experiments) are tabulated in this data submission. More information on the calculation of the rate data can be found in our FY13 Annual support (Carroll LLNL, 2013) which has been submitted to the GDR. The rate equation fills a data gap in geothemal kinetic data base and can be used directly to estimate the impact of chemical alteration on all geothermal processes. It is especially important for understanding the role of chemical alteration in the weakening for shear zones in EGS systems.

  17. Power Modulation Investigation for High Temperature (175-200 degrees Celcius) Automotive Application

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McCluskey, F. P.

    2007-04-30

    Hybrid electric vehicles were re-introduced in the late 1990s after a century dominated by purely internal combustion powered engines[1]. Automotive players, such as GM, Ford, DaimlerChrysler, Honda, and Toyota, together with major energy producers, such as BPAmoco, were the major force in the development of hybrid electric vehicles. Most notable was the development by Toyota of its Prius, which was launched in Japan in 1997 and worldwide in 2001. The shift to hybrids was driven by the fact that the sheer volume of vehicles on the road had begun to tax the ability of the environment to withstand the pollution of the internal combustion engine and the ability of the fossil fuel industry to produce a sufficient amount of refined gasoline. In addition, the number of vehicles was anticipated to rise exponentially with the increasing affluence of China and India. Over the last fifteen years, major advances have been made in all the technologies essential to hybrid vehicle success, including batteries, motors, power control and conditioning electronics, regenerative braking, and power sources, including fuel cells. Current hybrid electric vehicles are gasoline internal combustion--electric motor hybrids. These hybrid electric vehicles range from micro-hybrids, where a stop/start system cuts the engine while the vehicle is stopped, and mild hybrids where the stop/start system is supplemented by regenerative braking and power assist, to full hybrids where the combustion motor is optimized for electric power production, and there is full electric drive and full regenerative braking. PSA Peugeot Citroen estimates the increased energy efficiency will range from 3-6% for the micro-hybrids to 15-25% for the full hybrids.[2] Gasoline-electric hybrids are preferred in US because they permit long distance travel with low emissions and high gasoline mileage, while still using the existing refueling infrastructure. One of the most critical areas in which technology has been advancing has been the development of electronics that can operate in the high temperature environments present in hybrid vehicles. The temperatures under the hood for a gasoline-electric hybrid vehicle are comparable to those for traditional internal combustion engines. This is known to be a difficult environment with respect to commercial-grade electronics, as there are surface and ambient temperatures ranging from 125 C to 175 C. In addition, some hybrid drive electronics are placed in even harsher environments, such as on or near the brakes, where temperatures can reach 250 C. Furthermore, number of temperature cycles experienced by electronics in a hybrid vehicle is different from that experienced in a traditional vehicle. A traditional internal combustion vehicle will have the engine running for longer periods, whereas a mild or micro-hybrid engine will experience many more starts and stops.[3] This means that hybrid automotive electronics will undergo more cycles of a potential wider temperature cycle than standard automotive electronics, which in turn see temperature cycles of 2 to 3 times the magnitude of the {Delta}T = 50 C-75 C experienced by commercial-grade electronics. This study will discuss the effects of these harsh environments on the failure mechanisms and ultimate reliability of electronic systems developed for gasoline-electric hybrid vehicles. In addition, it will suggest technologies and components that can reasonably be expected to perform well in these environments. Finally, it will suggest areas where further research is needed or desirable. Areas for further research will be highlighted in bold, italic type. It should be noted that the first area where further research is desirable is in developing a clearer understanding of the actual hybrid automotive electronics environment and how to simulate it through accelerated testing, thus: Developing specific mission profiles and accelerated testing protocols for the underhood environment for hybrid cars, as has previously been done for gasoline-powered vehicles, is an important area for further study.

  18. Anti-backlash drive systems for multi-degree freedom devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tsai, Lung-Wen; Chang, Sun-Lai

    1993-01-01

    A new and innovative concept for the control of backlash in gear-coupled transmission mechanisms. The concept utilizes redundant unidirectional drives to assure positive coupling of gear meshes at all times. Based on this concept, a methodology for the enumeration of admissible redundant-drive backlash-free robotic mechanisms has been established. Some typical two- and three-DOF mechanisms are disclosed. Furthermore, actuator torques have been derived as functions of either joint torques or end-effector dynamic performance requirements. A redundantly driven gear coupled transmission mechanism manipulator has a fail-safe advantage in that, except of the loss of backlash control, it can continue to function when one of its actuators fails. A two-DOF backlash-free arm has been reduced to practice to demonstrate the principle.

  19. Chlorite Dissolution Rates From 25 to 275 degrees and pH 3 to 10

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Carroll, Susan

    We have calculated a chlorite dissolution rate equation at far from equilibrium conditions by combining new data (20 experiments at high temperature) with previously published data Smith et al. 2013 and Lowson et al. 2007. All rate data (from the 127 experiments) are tabulated in this data submission. More information on the calculation of the rate data can be found in our FY13 Annual support (Carroll LLNL, 2013) which has been submitted to the GDR. The rate equation fills a data gap in geothemal kinetic data base and can be used directly to estimate the impact of chemical alteration on all geothermal processes. It is especially important for understanding the role of chemical alteration in the weakening for shear zones in EGS systems.

  20. Electrophoretic Study of the SnO2/Aqueous Solution Interface up to 260 degrees C.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rodriguez-Santiago, V; Fedkin, Mark V.; Wesolowski, David J

    2009-07-01

    An electrophoresis cell developed in our laboratory was utilized to determine the zeta potential at the SnO{sub 2} (cassiterite)/aqueous solution (10{sup -3} mol kg{sup -1} NaCl) interface over the temperature range from 25 to 260 C. Experimental techniques and methods for the calculation of zeta potential at elevated temperature are described. From the obtained zeta potential data as a function of pH, the isoelectric points (IEPs) of SnO{sub 2} were obtained for the first time. From these IEP values, the standard thermodynamic functions were calculated for the protonation-deprotonation equilibrium at the SnO{sub 2} surface, using the 1-pK surface complexation model. It was found that the IEP values for SnO{sub 2} decrease with increasing temperature, and this behavior is compared to the predicted values by the multisite complexation (MUSIC) model and other semitheoretical treatments, and were found to be in excellent agreement.

  1. Omni-directional and holonomic rolling platform with decoupled rotational and translational degrees of freedom

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pin, F.G.; Killough, S.M.

    1994-12-20

    A wheel assembly includes a support, a cage rotatably mounted on the support and having a longitudinal rotation axis, a first ball wheel rotatably mounted in the cage and having a rotation axis orthogonal to the rotation axis of the cage, and a second ball wheel rotatably mounted in the cage and having a rotation axis orthogonal to the rotation axis or the cage and to the rotation axis of the first ball wheel. A control circuit includes a photodetector signal which indicates ground contact for each ball wheel, and a tachometer which indicates actual drive shaft velocity. 6 figures.

  2. Omni-directional and holonomic rolling platform with decoupled rotational and translational degrees of freedom

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pin, Francois G.; Killough, Stephen M.

    1994-01-01

    A wheel assembly includes a support, a cage rotatably mounted on the support and having a longitudinal rotation axis, a first ball wheel rotatably mounted in the cage and having a rotation axis orthogonal to the rotation axis of the cage, and a second ball wheel rotatably mounted in the cage and having a rotation axis orthogonal to the rotation axis or the cage and to the rotation axis of the first ball wheel. A control circuit includes a photodetector signal which indicates ground contact for each ball wheel, and a tachometer which indicates actual drive shaft velocity.

  3. VII-13 STUDENTS WHO RECEIVED GRADUATE DEGREES FROM THESIS WORK CONDUCTED

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    11 - March 31, 2012 Name Year Thesis Title Advisor Present Position Hyo-In Park 2011 High-Precision Measurements of the Superallowed 0 + → 0 + Beta Decays of 38 Ca and 46 V J. C. Hardy Post Doc., Cyclotron Institute, Texas A&M University, College Station, Texas Mathew McCleskey 2011 14C(n,g)15C as a Test Case in the Evaluation of a New Method to Determine Spectroscopic Factors Using Asymptotic Normalization Coefficients R. E. Tribble Post Doc., Lawerence Livermore National Laboratory,

  4. VII-9 STUDENTS WHO RECEIVED GRADUATE DEGREES FROM THESIS WORK CONDUCTED AT THE

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    CONDUCTED AT THE CYCLOTRON INSTITUTE-4/1/99-3/31/00 Name Year Thesis Title Advisor First Position Present Position John M. Blackadar 1999 Systematics of K and L-X-ray Production by 6 to 15 MeV/u Heavy Ion Bombardment Ph.D. Watson Lecturer, Blinn Junior College, Bryan, TX Los Alamos National Lab, Los Alamos, NM Tye Botting 1999 Probing Fission Time Scales and Dynamics via GDR Gamma Rays and Neutron Angular Distributions Ph.D. Schm itt Research Assistant, TAMU Nuclear Engineering SAME Bruce C.

  5. Development and Implementation of Degree Programs in Electric Drive Vehicle Technology

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    2010 DOE Vehicle Technologies and Hydrogen Programs Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting, June 7-11, 2010 -- Washington D.C.

  6. Y-12ers earn degrees through Friday Academy | Y-12 National Security...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    1:21pm Print version Debra Avery, Mark Burdettte, Michael Fierley, Jessica Griffin, Gary Lewis, Christine Stalnaker, and Ben Stephens. Not pictured Jeffrey Smith. Photo by Kathy...

  7. Outrunning major weight gain: a prospective study of 8,340consistent runners during 7 years of follow-up

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Williams, Paul T.

    2006-01-06

    Background: Body weight increases with aging. Short-term,longitudinal exercise training studies suggest that increasing exerciseproduces acute weight loss, but it is not clear if the maintenance oflong-term, vigorous exercise attenuates age-related weight gain inproportion to the exercise dose. Methods: Prospective study of 6,119 maleand 2,221 female runners whose running distance changed less than 5 km/wkbetween their baseline and follow-up survey 7 years later. Results: Onaverage, men who ran modest (0-24 km/wk), intermediate (24-48 km/wk) orprolonged distances (>_48 km/wk) all gained weight throughage 64,however, those who ran ?48 km/wk had one-half the average annual weightgain of those who ran<24 km/wk. Age-related weight gain, and itsreduction by running, were both greater in younger than older men. Incontrast, men s gain in waist circumference with age, and its reductionby running, were the same in older and younger men. Women increased theirbody weight and waist and hip circumferences over time, regardless ofage, which was also reduced in proportion to running distance. In bothsexes, running did not attenuate weight gain uniformly, but ratherdisproportionately prevented more extreme increases. Conclusion: Men andwomen who remain vigorously active gain less weight as they age and thereduction is in proportion to the exercise dose.

  8. Observational consistency and future predictions for a 3.5 keV ALP to photon line

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alvarez, Pedro D.; Conlon, Joseph P.; Day, Francesca V.; Marsh, M.C. David; Rummel, Markus

    2015-04-09

    Motivated by the possibility of explaining the 3.5 keV line through dark matter decaying to axion-like particles that subsequently convert to photons, we study ALP-photon conversion for sightlines passing within 50 pc of the galactic centre. Conversion depends on the galactic centre magnetic field which is highly uncertain. For fields at low or mid-range of observational estimates (10–100 μG), no observable signal is possible. For fields at the high range of observational estimates (a pervasive poloidal mG field over the central 150 pc) it is possible to generate sufficient signal to explain recent observations of a 3.5 keV line in the galactic centre. In this scenario, the galactic centre line signal comes predominantly from the region with z>20pc, reconciling the results from the Chandra and XMM-Newton X-ray telescopes. The dark matter to ALP to photon scenario also naturally predicts the non-observation of the 3.5 keV line in stacked galaxy spectra. We further explore predictions for the line flux in galaxies and suggest a set of galaxies that is optimised for observing the 3.5 keV line in this model.

  9. High performance organic integrated device with ultraviolet photodetective and electroluminescent properties consisting of a charge-transfer-featured naphthalimide derivative

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Hanyu; Wang, Xu; Yu, Junsheng E-mail: jsyu@uestc.edu.cn; Zhou, Jie; Lu, Zhiyun E-mail: jsyu@uestc.edu.cn

    2014-08-11

    A high performance organic integrated device (OID) with ultraviolet photodetective and electroluminescent (EL) properties was fabricated by using a charge-transfer-featured naphthalimide derivative of 6-(3,5-bis-[9-(4-t-butylphenyl)-9H-carbazol-3-yl]-phenoxy)-2- (4-t-butylphenyl)-benzo[de]isoquinoline-1,3-dione (CzPhONI) as the active layer. The results showed that the OID had a high detectivity of 1.5 × 10{sup 11} Jones at −3 V under the UV-350 nm illumination with an intensity of 0.6 mW/cm{sup 2}, and yielded an exciplex EL light emission with a maximum brightness of 1437 cd/m{sup 2}. Based on the energy band diagram, both the charge transfer feature of CzPhONI and matched energy level alignment were responsible for the dual ultraviolet photodetective and EL functions of OID.

  10. Catalysts for the selective hydrogenation of unsaturated compounds consisting of alumina particles with a regular palladium distribution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beren Glyum, A.S.; Goranskaya, T.P.; Karel'skii, V.V.; Lakhman, L.I.; Mund, S.L.; Zolotukhin, V.E.

    1986-08-01

    A study was carried out on the possibility of preparation of heterogeneous palladium catalysts for the selective hydrogenation of unsaturated compounds with different distributions of the active component on ..gamma..-Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ granules. A regression equation was obtained relating the parameters of the preparation of these catalysts (palladium concentration in solution, temperature, impregnation time and pH) with the extent of the penetration of palladium into the support granule (l). A relationship was established between the parameters (l), palladium concentration in the catalyst, activity and selectivity in the hydrogenation of dienes in liquid pyrolysis products. The extremal curves for activity and selectivity are explained with the framework of a model taking account of the effect on the concentration of the active component, its dispersion, and the reaction conditions on the hydrogenation parameters.

  11. Microsoft Word - Determination of Class to Update Ventilation Language for Consistency 05-20-2011 FINAL.doc

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Ca rlsbad , New Mexico 88221 May 20,2011 Mr. John Kieling, Acting Bureau Chief Hazardous Waste Bureau New Mexico Environment Department 2905 Rodeo Park Drive East, Building 1 Santa Fe , New Mexico 87505-6303 Subject: Request for Permit Modification Determination for Hazardous Waste Facility Permit, Permit Number: NM4890139088-TSDF Dear Mr. Kieling: In accordance with 20.4.1.900 NMAC (incorporating 40 CFR §270.42(d)) , the Permittees are requesting a determination that the enclosed permit

  12. How consistent are top-down hydrocarbon emissions based on formaldehyde observations from GOME-2 and OMI?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stavrakou, T.; Muller, J. F.; Bauwens, M.; De Smedt, I.; Van Roozendael, M.; De Maziere, M.; Vigouroux, C.; Hendrick, F.; George, M.; Clerbaux, C.; Coheur, P-F; Guenther, Alex B.

    2015-10-26

    The vertical columns of formaldehyde (HCHO) retrieved from two satellite instruments, the Global Ozone Monitoring Instrument-2 (GOME-2) on Metop-A and the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) on Aura, are used to constrain global emissions of HCHO precursors from open fires, vegetation and human activities in the year 2010. To this end, the emissions are varied and optimized using the ad-joint model technique in the IMAGESv2 global CTM (chem-ical transport model) on a monthly basis and at the model res-olution. Given the different local overpass times of GOME- 2 (09:30 LT) and OMI (13:30 LT), the simulated diurnal cy-cle of HCHO columns is investigated and evaluated against ground-based optical measurements at seven sites in Europe, China and Africa. The modeled diurnal cycle exhibits large variability, reflecting competition between photochemistry and emission variations, with noon or early afternoon max-ima at remote locations (oceans) and in regions dominated by anthropogenic emissions, late afternoon or evening max-ima over fire scenes, and midday minima in isoprene-rich re-gions. The agreement between simulated and ground-based columns is generally better in summer (with a clear after-noon maximum at mid-latitude sites) than in winter, and the annually averaged ratio of afternoon to morning columns is slightly higher in the model (1.126) than in the ground-based measurements (1.043).The anthropogenic VOC (volatile organic compound) sources are found to be weakly constrained by the inversions on the global scale, mainly owing to their generally minor contribution to the HCHO columns, except over strongly pol-luted regions, like China. The OMI-based inversion yields total flux estimates over China close to the bottom-up inven-tory (24.6 vs. 25.5 TgVOC yr-1 in the a priori) with, how-ever, pronounced increases in the northeast of China and re-ductions in the south. Lower fluxes are estimated based on GOME-2 HCHO columns (20.6 TgVOC yr-1), in particular over the northeast, likely reflecting mismatches between the observed and the modeled diurnal cycle in this region.

  13. The O VII X-Ray Forest Toward Markarian 421: Consistency between XMM-Newton and Chandra

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kaastra, J.S.; Werner, N.; Herder, J.W.A.den; Paerels, F.B.S.; de Plaa, J.; Rasmussen, A.P.; de Vries, C.P.; /SRON, Utrecht

    2006-04-28

    Recently the first detections of highly ionized gas associated with two Warm-Hot Intergalactic Medium (WHIM) filaments have been reported. The evidence is based on X-ray absorption lines due to O VII and other ions observed by Chandra towards the bright blazar Mrk 421. We investigate the robustness of this detection by a re-analysis of the original Chandra LETGS spectra, the analysis of a large set of XMM-Newton RGS spectra of Mrk 421, and additional Chandra observations. We address the reliability of individual spectral features belonging to the absorption components, and assess the significance of the detection of these components. We also use Monte Carlo simulations of spectra. We confirm the apparent strength of several features in the Chandra spectra, but demonstrate that they are statistically not significant. This decreased significance is due to the number of redshift trials that are made and that are not taken into account in the original discovery paper. Therefore these features must be attributed to statistical fluctuations. This is confirmed by the RGS spectra, which have a higher signal to noise ratio than the Chandra spectra, but do not show features at the same wavelengths. Finally, we show that the possible association with a Ly{alpha} absorption system also lacks sufficient statistical evidence. We conclude that there is insufficient observational proof for the existence of the two proposed WHIM filaments towards Mrk 421, the brightest X-ray blazar on the sky. Therefore, the highly ionized component of the WHIM still remains to be discovered.

  14. Justice Department review of federal coal and oil leasing: serving the consistent goals of competition and energy independence

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kaplan, D.A.

    1981-01-01

    As the nation moves into the 1980s, development of our domestic energy resources must surely be the number one priority of energy policy. Important natural resources are owned by the Federal government and must be dedicated to development in the public interest. This includes a government leasing program which fosters competitive and efficient development of these resources by private companies. Through its antitrust review of individual leases and its general advocacy of competition in the leasing program, the Department of Justice seeks to bring the prospect of a sound national energy policy closer to reality. Examples of how this review functions are drawn from the Outer Continental Shelf Land Acts Amendments of 1978 and the Federal Coal Leasing Amendments Act of 1975. 32 references.

  15. Microstructural Contol of the Porous Si3N4 Ceramics Consisted of 3-Dimensionally Intermingled Rod-like Grains

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Poster presentation at the 2007 Diesel Engine-Efficiency & Emissions Research Conference (DEER 2007). 13-16 August, 2007, Detroit, Michigan. Sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies (OFCVT).

  16. Consistent analysis of the [70,1{sup -}] baryon properties in the 1/N{sub c} expansion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gonzalez de Urreta, E. J.; Scoccola, Norberto N.

    2011-05-23

    We report on the application of the 1/N{sub c} expansion of QCD to the description of the properties of non-strange excited baryons belonging to the [70,1{sup -}]-plet. In particular, we present the results of an improved determination of the corresponding mixing angles obtained by performing a simultaneous fit of masses, strong decay widths and e.m. helicity amplitudes. We find {theta}{sub 1} = 0.40(8) and {theta}{sub 3} = 2.81(10). These values are compatible with those determined in previous non-global analyses but have smaller uncertainties.

  17. Combined heat and power systems that consist of biomass fired fluidised bed combustors and modern steam engines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Joseph, S.D.; Errey, S.; Thomas, M.; Kruger, P.

    1996-12-31

    Biomass energy is widely used in many processing industries in the ASEAN region. The residue produced by agricultural and wood processing plant is either inefficiently combusted in simple furnaces or in the open, or disposed of in land fill sites or in rivers. Many of these industries are paying high prices for electricity in rural areas and/or supply is unreliable. An ASEAN/Australian cooperation program has been under way for the last ten years to introduce clean burning biomass fired heat and/or combined heat and power equipment. It aims to transfer Australian know how in the design and manufacture of fluidised bed CHP technology to the ASEAN region. The main participants involved in the program include SIRIM and UKM in Malaysia, PCIERD, FPRI and Asia Ratan in the Philippines, King Monkutt Institute of Technology (KMITT) in Thailand, LIPI and ITB in Indonesia, and the University of Singapore. In this paper an outline of the program will be given including results of market research and development undertaken into fluidised bed combustion, the proposed plant design and costings, and research and development undertaken into modem steam engine technology. It will be shown that all of the projects to be undertaken are financially viable. In particular the use of simple low cost high efficient steam engines ensures that the smaller CHP plant (50-100 kWe) can be viable.

  18. Development of a Hydrogasification Process for Co-Production of Substitute Natural Gas (SNG) and Electric Power from Western Coals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sun, Xiaolei; Rink, Nancy

    2011-04-30

    This report presents the results of the research and development conducted on an Advanced Hydrogasification Process (AHP) conceived and developed by Arizona Public Service Company (APS) under U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) contract: DE-FC26-06NT42759 for Substitute Natural Gas (SNG) production from western coal. A double-wall (i.e., a hydrogasification contained within a pressure shell) down-flow hydrogasification reactor was designed, engineered, constructed, commissioned and operated by APS, Phoenix, AZ. The reactor is ASME-certified under Section VIII with a rating of 1150 pounds per square inch gage (psig) maximum allowable working pressure at 1950 degrees Fahrenheit ({degrees}F). The reaction zone had a 1.75 inch inner diameter and 13 feet length. The initial testing of a sub-bituminous coal demonstrated ~ 50% carbon conversion and ~10% methane yield in the product gas under 1625{degrees}F, 1000 psig pressure, with a 11 seconds (s) residence time, and 0.4 hydrogen-to-coal mass ratio. Liquid by-products mainly contained Benzene, Toluene, Xylene (BTX) and tar. Char collected from the bottom of the reactor had 9000-British thermal units per pound (Btu/lb) heating value. A three-dimensional (3D) computational fluid dynamic model simulation of the hydrodynamics around the reactor head was utilized to design the nozzles for injecting the hydrogen into the gasifier to optimize gas-solid mixing to achieve improved carbon conversion. The report also presents the evaluation of using algae for carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) management and biofuel production. Nannochloropsis, Selenastrum and Scenedesmus were determined to be the best algae strains for the project purpose and were studied in an outdoor system which included a 6-meter (6M) radius cultivator with a total surface area of 113 square meters (m{sup 2}) and a total culture volume between 10,000 to 15,000 liters (L); a CO{sub 2} on-demand feeding system; an on-line data collection system for temperature, pH, Photosynthetically Activate Radiation (PAR) and dissolved oxygen (DO); and a ~2 gallons per minute (gpm) algae culture dewatering system. Among the three algae strains, Scenedesmus showed the most tolerance to temperature and irradiance conditions in Phoenix and the best self-settling characteristics. Experimental findings and operational strategies determined through these tests guided the operation of the algae cultivation system for the scale-up study. Effect of power plant flue gas, especially heavy metals, on algae growth and biomass adsorption were evaluated as well.

  19. Cove Point: A step back into the LNG business

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Katz, M.G.

    1995-12-31

    In 1978, ships began unloading LNG from Algeria at Cove Point`s berthing facilities 1.25 miles offshore. An underwater pipeline transported the LNG to land, where it was stored in the terminal`s four 140-foot-high cryogenic storage tanks. When the LNG was needed, the terminals 10 vaporizers converted it back to gas for send out via an 87-mile-long, 36-inch-diameter pipeline linking the terminal with interstate pipelines of CNG Transmission Corp. and Columbia Gas Transmission Corp. in Loudon County, Va. But Cove Point handled only about 80 shiploads of LNG before shutting down in December 1980, after a dispute about gas prices between US customers and Algeria. The plant sat dormant until the natural gas industry`s deregulation under Order 636. Deregulation resulted in major pipelines abandoning their sales service, and gas distributors and large customers found it was now their obligation to ensure that they had adequate gas supplies during winter peak-demand periods. Enter Cove Point`s peaking capabilities. They had to add the liquefaction unit and recommission other parts of the plant, but the timing was right. Cove Point`s new liquefaction unit is liquefying about 15 million cubic feet (MMcf) of LNG per day of domestic gas. It chills the gas to {minus}260 degrees Fahrenheit to turn it into a liquid for injection and storage in one of the facility`s double-walled insulated tanks. During its initial injection season, which ends Dec. 15, Cove Point is expected to produce enough LNG to almost fill one tank, which can store up to 1.25 billion cubic feet (Bcf). Were the gas not intended for peak-shaving purposes, it would be enough to supply 14,000 homes for a year. As it is, most of the gas will be returned as pipeline gas, during next January and February`s expected cold snaps, to the utilities and users who supplied it. Cove Point`s initial daily sendout capacity is about 400 MMcf.

  20. Reactor User Interface Technology Development Roadmaps for a High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor Outlet Temperature of 750 degrees C

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ian Mckirdy

    2010-12-01

    This report evaluates the technology readiness of the interface components that are required to transfer high-temperature heat from a High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (HTGR) to selected industrial applications. This report assumes that the HTGR operates at a reactor outlet temperature of 750°C and provides electricity and/or process heat at 700°C to conventional process applications, including the production of hydrogen.

  1. Process and apparatus for measuring degree of polarization and angle of major axis of polarized beam of light

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Decker, Derek E.; Toeppen, John S.

    1994-01-01

    Apparatus and process are disclosed for calibrating measurements of the phase of the polarization of a polarized beam and the angle of the polarized optical beam's major axis of polarization at a diagnostic point with measurements of the same parameters at a point of interest along the polarized beam path prior to the diagnostic point. The process is carried out by measuring the phase angle of the polarization of the beam and angle of the major axis at the point of interest, using a rotatable polarizer and a detector, and then measuring these parameters again at a diagnostic point where a compensation apparatus, including a partial polarizer, which may comprise a stack of glass plates, is disposed normal to the beam path between a rotatable polarizer and a detector. The partial polarizer is then rotated both normal to the beam path and around the axis of the beam path until the detected phase of the beam polarization equals the phase measured at the point of interest. The rotatable polarizer at the diagnostic point may then be rotated manually to determine the angle of the major axis of the beam and this is compared with the measured angle of the major axis of the beam at the point of interest during calibration. Thereafter, changes in the polarization phase, and in the angle of the major axis, at the point of interest can be monitored by measuring the changes in these same parameters at the diagnostic point.

  2. STUDENTS WHO RECEIVED GRADUATE DEGREES FROM THESIS WORK CONDUCTED AT THE CYCLOTRON INSTITUTE-4/1/00-3/31/01

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    FROM THESIS WORK CONDUCTED AT THE CYCLOTRON INSTITUTE April 1, 2001 - March 31, 2002 Name Year Thesis Title Advisor First Position Present Position Andrei Makeev 2001 Study of Electromagnetic Dissociation of Heavy Nuclei at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider Natowitz Graduate Research Assistant Graduate Research Assistant Ananya Ruangma 2001 Caloric Curves of 8 GeV / c + - π 197 Au Yennello Graduate Research Assistant Research Associate, University of Washington, Mallinckrodt Institute of

  3. STUDENTS WHO RECEIVED GRADUATE DEGREES FROM THESIS WORK CONDUCTED AT THE CYCLOTRON INSTITUTE„4/1/00-3/31/01

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    4 - March 31, 2005 Name Year Thesis Title Advisor First Position Present Position Wei Liu 2004 Charmonium absorption and charmed hadron production in hadronic reaction Che-Ming Ko Graduate Research Assistant Post Doc. at Cyclotron Institute, Texas A&M University VII-11

  4. STUDENTS WHO RECEIVED GRADUATE DEGREES FROM THESIS WORK CONDUCTED AT THE CYCLOTRON INSTITUTE„4/1/00-3/31/01

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    6 - March 31, 2007 Name Year Thesis Title Advisor First Position Present Position Oleksiy Grigorievich Pochivalov 2006 Description of isoscalar giant dipole resonance in nuclei S. Shlomo Graduate Research Assistant Graduate student at Department of Geology and Geophysics, Texas A&M University Yong Peng 2006 Systematics of Cross Sections for Target K- Vacancy Production in Heavy Ion Collisions R. L. Watson Graduate Research Assistant Postdoctoral Research Associate. Cyclotron Institute, Texas

  5. STUDENTS WHO RECEIVED GRADUATE DEGREES FROM THESIS WORK CONDUCTED AT THE CYCLOTRON INSTITUTE„4/1/00-3/31/01

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    7 - March 31, 2008 Name Year Thesis Title Advisor First Position Present Position Jennifer Ann Iglio 2007 Symmetry Energy and the Isoscaling Properties of the Fragments in Multifragmentation of 40 Ca + 58 Ni, 40 Ar+ 58 Ni and 40 Ar+ 58 Fe Reactions S. J. Yennello Graduate Research Assistant Invensys Process Systems Thomas Henry 2007 Reconstruction and Attributes of Jets Observed in √s = 200 GeV Proton- Proton and Deuteron-Gold Collisions C. A. Gagliardi Graduate Research Assistant Yong Peng

  6. STUDENTS WHO RECEIVED GRADUATE DEGREES FROM THESIS WORK CONDUCTED AT THE CYCLOTRON INSTITUTE„4/1/00-3/31/01

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    8 - March 31, 2009 Name Year Thesis Title Advisor Present Position Xinfeng Chen 2008 Giant Resonance Study by 6 Li Scattering D. H. Youngblood Post Doc., Department of Chemistry, University of Washington, St. Louis, Missouri Lijun Qin 2008 Low Density Nuclear Matter in Heavy Ion Collisions J. B. Natowitz Hewlett-Packard Co., Houston

  7. STUDENTS WHO RECEIVED GRADUATE DEGREES FROM THESIS WORK CONDUCTED AT THE CYCLOTRON INSTITUTE„4/1/00-3/31/01

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    09 - March 31, 2010 Name Year Thesis Title Advisor Present Position Sara Wuenschel 2009 Temperature and Scaling Studies from Projectile Fragmentation of 86,78 Kr + 64,58 Ni at 35MeV/A S. J. Yennello Post Doc., Department of Radiation Oncology, School of Medicine, Washington University, St. Louis, Missouri

  8. Precision tool holder with flexure-adjustable, three degrees of freedom for a four-axis lathe

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bono, Matthew J.; Hibbard, Robin L.

    2008-03-04

    A precision tool holder for precisely positioning a single point cutting tool on 4-axis lathe, such that the center of the radius of the tool nose is aligned with the B-axis of the machine tool, so as to facilitate the machining of precision meso-scale components with complex three-dimensional shapes with sub-.mu.m accuracy on a four-axis lathe. The device is designed to fit on a commercial diamond turning machine and can adjust the cutting tool position in three orthogonal directions with sub-micrometer resolution. In particular, the tool holder adjusts the tool position using three flexure-based mechanisms, with two flexure mechanisms adjusting the lateral position of the tool to align the tool with the B-axis, and a third flexure mechanism adjusting the height of the tool. Preferably, the flexures are driven by manual micrometer adjusters. In this manner, this tool holder simplifies the process of setting a tool with sub-.mu.m accuracy, to substantially reduce the time required to set the tool.

  9. Application of conical 90-degree reflectors for solving the problem of mirror alignment in terahertz-range lasers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Radionov, V P; Kiselev, V K

    2014-10-29

    We report a study of the conical mirrors with an apex angle of 90 in the resonator of the gas-discharge HCN laser with the radiation wavelength of 337 ?m (0.89 THz). Experimental results have shown that such mirrors do not require precise alignment. This makes it possible to improve the radiation stability, significantly simplify the construction of laser and reduce the complexity of its maintenance. (laser applications and other topics in quantum electronics)

  10. Development of a self-consistent thermodynamic- and transport-property correlation framework for the coal conversion industry. Phase I. Semiannual report, September 1, 1980-February 28, 1981

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Starling, K.E.; Lee, L.L.; Kumar, K.H.

    1981-01-01

    During the first half year of this research program the following elements of research have been performed: (1) the development of an improved pure component data bank, including collection and processing of data which is 70% complete as to substance, (2) calculation of distillable coal fluid thermodynamic properties using a multiparameter corresponding states correlation, (3) application of the most general density-cubic equation of pure fluids and (4) initiation of research to extend the corresponding states correlation framework to polar fluids. Primary conclusions of the first phase of this research program are that the three parameter corresponding states correlation predicts lighter coal fluid properties to a reasonable level of accuracy, and that a cubic equation can predict pure fluid thermodynamic properties on par with non-cubic equations of state.

  11. Shale oil deemed best near-term synfuel for unmodified diesels and gas turbines. [More consistent properties, better H/C ratios

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-06-16

    Among synthetic fuels expected to be developed in the next decade, shale oil appears to be the prime near-term candidate for use in conventional diesel engines and gas turbines. Its superiority is suggested in assessments of economic feasibility, environmental impacts, development lead times and compatibility with commercially available combustion systems, according to a report by the Exxon Research and Engineering Co. Other studies were conducted by the Westinghouse Electric Corp., the General Motors Corp., the General Electric Co. and the Mobil Oil Co. Coal-derived liquids and gases also make excellent fuel substitutes for petroleum distillates and natural gas, these studies indicate, but probably will be economic only for gas turbines. Cost of upgrading the coal-derived fuels for use in diesels significantly reduces economic attractiveness. Methane, hydrogen and alcohols also are suitable for turbines but not for unmodified diesels. The Department of Energy supports studies examining the suitability of medium-speed diesels for adaptation to such fuels.

  12. Numerical simulation of the electromagnetic decay of the nuclei {sup 152,154,156}Dy with self-consistent collective strength functions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martin, V.; Egido, J.L.; Khoo, T.L.; Lauritsen, T.

    1995-06-01

    The electromagnetic decay of the nuclei {sup 152,154,156}Dy is analyzed using microscopic Hartree-Fock calculations at finite temperature. The theoretical collective transition probabilities are implemented in numerical simulations to produce theoretical spectra. Thermal shape fluctuations are also taken into account. The inclusion of these correlation is crucial in order to understand the main features of the collective {ital E}2 spectra of these isotopes at different energies. The theoretical calculations suggest a shape change as responsible for the unusual features of the spectrum of the nucleus {sup 154}Dy at high energy.

  13. Method to grow carbon thin films consisting entirely of diamond grains 3-5 nm in size and high-energy grain boundaries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carlisle, John A.; Auciello, Orlando; Birrell, James

    2006-10-31

    An ultrananocrystalline diamond (UNCD) having an average grain size between 3 and 5 nanometers (nm) with not more than about 8% by volume diamond having an average grain size larger than 10 nm. A method of manufacturing UNCD film is also disclosed in which a vapor of acetylene and hydrogen in an inert gas other than He wherein the volume ratio of acetylene to hydrogen is greater than 0.35 and less than 0.85, with the balance being an inert gas, is subjected to a suitable amount of energy to fragment at least some of the acetylene to form a UNCD film having an average grain size of 3 to 5 nm with not more than about 8% by volume diamond having an average grain size larger than 10 nm.

  14. An alternative to the plasma emission model: Particle-in-cell, self-consistent electromagnetic wave emission simulations of solar type III radio bursts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tsiklauri, David

    2011-05-15

    High-resolution (sub-Debye length grid size and 10 000 particle species per cell), 1.5D particle-in-cell, relativistic, fully electromagnetic simulations are used to model electromagnetic wave emission generation in the context of solar type III radio bursts. The model studies generation of electromagnetic waves by a super-thermal, hot beam of electrons injected into a plasma thread that contains uniform longitudinal magnetic field and a parabolic density gradient. In effect, a single magnetic line connecting Sun to Earth is considered, for which five cases are studied. (i) We find that the physical system without a beam is stable and only low amplitude level electromagnetic drift waves (noise) are excited. (ii) The beam injection direction is controlled by setting either longitudinal or oblique electron initial drift speed, i.e., by setting the beam pitch angle (the angle between the beam velocity vector and the direction of background magnetic field). In the case of zero pitch angle, i.e., when v-vector{sub b{center_dot}}E-vector{sub perpendicular}=0, the beam excites only electrostatic, standing waves, oscillating at local plasma frequency, in the beam injection spatial location, and only low level electromagnetic drift wave noise is also generated. (iii) In the case of oblique beam pitch angles, i.e., when v-vector{sub b{center_dot}}E-vector{sub perpendicular}=0, again electrostatic waves with same properties are excited. However, now the beam also generates the electromagnetic waves with the properties commensurate to type III radio bursts. The latter is evidenced by the wavelet analysis of transverse electric field component, which shows that as the beam moves to the regions of lower density and hence lower plasma frequency, frequency of the electromagnetic waves drops accordingly. (iv) When the density gradient is removed, an electron beam with an oblique pitch angle still generates the electromagnetic radiation. However, in the latter case no frequency decrease is seen. (v) Since in most of the presented results, the ratio of electron plasma and cyclotron frequencies is close to unity near the beam injection location, in order to prove that the electromagnetic emission, generated by the non-zero pitch angle beam, oscillates at the plasma frequency, we also consider a case when the magnetic field (and the cyclotron frequency) is ten times smaller. Within the limitations of the model, the study presents the first attempt to produce synthetic (simulated) dynamical spectrum of the type III radio bursts in the fully kinetic plasma model. The latter is based on 1.5D non-zero pitch angle (non-gyrotropic) electron beam that is an alternative to the plasma emission classical mechanism for which two spatial dimensions are needed.

  15. Late Cenozoic paleomagnetism and chronology of Andean basins of Bolivia: Evidence for possible oroclinal bending

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    MacFadden, B.J. ); Anaya, F.; Perez, H. ); Naeser, C.W. ); Zeitler, P.K. ); Campbell, K.E. Jr. )

    1990-07-01

    New paleomagnetic and radioisotopic data are reported from two late Tertiary high-elevation, non-marine basins in the eastern Cordillera of Bolivia. (1) Quebrada Honda, located at 22{degree}S lat., consists of a 300 m thick section containing abundant Santacrucian or Friasian (middle Miocene) fossil mammals. This locality is constrained by mean {sup 40}K/{sup 40}Ar ages of 12.83 {plus minus} 0.11 Ma and 11.96 {plus minus} 0.11 Ma, and the local magnetostratigraphy is correlated to chrons C5AA through C5A on the Magnetic Polarity Time Scale (MPTS). The fossil mammals from Quebrada Honda have an extrapolated age of about 13.0 to 12.7 Ma. (2) Micana, located at 17{degree}S lat., consists of a 205 m thick section containing late Miocene fossil mammals, including a megatheriid sloth and the tiny mesothere Microtypotherium cf. M. choquecotense. The locality is constrained by a fission-track age determination of 6.9 {plus minus} 1.1 Ma, and the local magnetostratigraphy is correlated to Chron 7 on the MPTS. The fossil mammals from this section have an extrapolated age of about 7.3 to 7.4 Ma. In conjunction with two other published data sets (Ocros, 13{degree}S, and Salla, 17{degree}S), these late Tertiary Andean localities indicate counterclockwise rotation at 13{degree}S, negligible rotation at 17{degree}S, and clockwise rotation at 22{degree}S. These data could represent local small-block rotations on a scale greater than about 6 km{sup 2}. However, these data are also consistent with a model of late Neogene bending of the Bolivian Orocline.

  16. Fast Global File Status

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2013-01-01

    Fast Global File Status (FGFS) is a system software package that implimints a scalable mechanism to retrieve file information, such as its degree of distribution or replication and consistency.

  17. Jefferson Lab Invites Families, Groups, Classes to Physics Fest Events |

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Jefferson Lab Families, Groups, Classes to Physics Fest Events Jefferson Lab Invites Families, Groups, Classes to Physics Fest Events Small Business A student watches in amazement at the behavior of inflated balloons after they have been pulled from a container of liquid nitrogen (at a temperature of -321 Fahrenheit). NEWPORT NEWS, Va., June 3, 2010 - The U.S. Department of Energy's Jefferson Lab invites families, groups and classes to sign up now for a summer 2010 or school year 2010-2011

  18. Comment on C. W. Wong, Maxwell equations and the redundant gauge degree of freedom 2009 Eur. J. Phys. 30, 1401-1416

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jackson, John David

    2009-10-22

    In the paper cited in the title, the author makes the claim that in classical electromagnetic theory the longitudinal electric field is instantaneous, corresponding to action at a distance, contrary to popular and correct belief. We point out that the determination of the speed of propagation of electromagnetic fields requires specification of the initial condition of the sources or equivalent. The Coulomb field of a stationary point charge proves nothing. We describe in detail a simple example to illustrate the universal onset of the static 'instantaneous' regime throughout a region of space that expands with the speed of light.

  19. Laser hazard analysis for LASIRIS Model MAG-501L-670M-1000-45[degree]-K diode laser associated with high resolution pulsed scanner.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Augustoni, Arnold L.

    2004-11-01

    A laser hazard analysis and safety assessment was performed for the LASIRISTM Model MAG-501L-670M-1000-45o-K diode laser associated with the High Resolution Pulse Scanner based on the ANSI Standard Z136.1-2000, American National Standard for the Safe Use of Lasers and the ANSI Standard Z136.6-2000, American National Standard for the Safe Use of Lasers Outdoors. The laser was evaluated for both indoor and outdoor use.

  20. Parametric source of two-photon states with a tunable degree of entanglement and mixing: Experimental preparation of Werner states and maximally entangled mixed states

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cinelli, C.; Di Nepi, G.; De Martini, F.; Barbieri, M.; Mataloni, P.

    2004-08-01

    A parametric source of polarization-entangled photon pairs with striking spatial characteristics is reported. The distribution of the output electromagnetic k modes excited by spontaneous parametric down-conversion and coupled to the output detectors can be very broad. Using these states realized over a full entanglement ring output distribution, the nonlocal properties of the generated entanglement have been tested by standard Bell measurements and by Ou-Mandel interferometry. A 'mode-patchwork' technique based on the quantum superposition principle is adopted to synthesize in a straightforward and reliable way any kind of mixed state, of large conceptual and technological interest in modern quantum information. Tunable Werner states and maximally entangled mixed states have indeed been created by this technique and investigated by quantum tomography. A study of the entropic and nonlocal properties of these states has been undertaken experimentally and theoretically, by a unifying variational approach.

  1. Chemistry of hydrotreating heavy crudes: II. Detailed analysis of polar compounds in Wilmington 650-1000 degree F distillate and hydrotreated products

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sturm, G.P. Jr.; Green, J.B.; Tang, S.Y.; Reynolds, J.W.; Yu, S.K.T. )

    1987-04-01

    Notwithstanding the current oversupply of crude oil, the future importance of heavy crude as a primary energy resource is widely recognized. In addition, with the market for resid declining, refiners are facing an increasing challenge to convert more of the bottom of the barrel to transportation fuels. The problems that have been predicted for refinery products made from heavier feedstocks are now beginning to surface. State-of-the-art upgrading procedures have proven to be inadequate for removal of many of the chemical compound types that cause problems in the processing sequence or adversely affect the quality of the end products. These problems include instability or incompatibility of process streams or products, corrosiveness and catalyst poisoning. Before new approaches can be intelligently developed to remove the problem components, it is necessary to know what compound types are causing the observed problems. This study is focused on determination of polar compounds in the feedstock and products from hydrotreating a distillate of a representative heavy crude, Wilmington. The ultimate objective is to acquire an understanding of the compound types and reaction mechanisms contributing to instability, incompatibility, corrosiveness, catalyst poisoning and other problems exhibited by some crude oil feedstocks, intermediate process streams and final products resulting from the processing of lower quality fossil fuel feedstocks.

  2. The Role of Eta Phase Formation on the Creep Strength and Ductility of INCONEL Alloy 740 t 1023 k (750 Degrees C)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shingledecker, John P; Pharr, George Mathews

    2012-01-01

    INCONEL alloy 740 is an age-hardenable nickel-based superalloy proposed for advanced ultrasupercritical steam boiler applications operating at high stress and long times above 973 K (700 C), where creep will be the dominate deformation mode. During high-temperature exposure, the alloy can form eta phase platelets that many have suggested may be detrimental to creep strength and ductility. In this study, creep-rupture tests were conducted on smooth and notched bars of INCONEL alloy 740 at 1023 K (750 C) for times up to 20,000 hours. Examination of the creep-rupture life, creep ductility, failure modes, and microstructure by quantitative electron microscopy shows that a small amount of eta phase does not diminish the creep performance. Applied stress appears to have a minor effect on the precipitation of the eta phase but not its growth rate. Based on the observation that the microstructure after 20,000 hours of creep exposure has reached equilibrium in comparison to thermodynamic calculations, it is concluded that 20,000 hour creep tests are adequate for prediction of long-term creep performance.

  3. Effect of Sodium Carboxymethyl Celluloses on Water-catalyzed Self-degradation of 200-degree C-heated Alkali-Activated Cement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sugama T.; Pyatina, T.

    2012-05-01

    We investigated the usefulness of sodium carboxymethyl celluloses (CMC) in promoting self-degradation of 200°C-heated sodium silicate-activated slag/Class C fly ash cementitious material after contact with water. CMC emitted two major volatile compounds, CO2 and acetic acid, creating a porous structure in cement. CMC also reacted with NaOH from sodium silicate to form three water-insensitive solid reaction products, disodium glycolate salt, sodium glucosidic salt, and sodium bicarbonate. Other water-sensitive solid reaction products, such as sodium polysilicate and sodium carbonate, were derived from hydrolysates of sodium silicate. Dissolution of these products upon contact with water generated heat that promoted cement’s self-degradation. Thus, CMC of high molecular weight rendered two important features to the water-catalyzed self-degradation of heated cement: One was the high heat energy generated in exothermic reactions in cement; the other was the introduction of extensive porosity into cement.

  4. Nuclear, multichannel-sonic, ultrasonic analyses for determination of degree of fracturing and alteration in a fast formation: The deep ocean crust

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anderson, R.N.; O'Malley, H.; Newmark, R.L.

    1984-01-01

    Multichannel, Full-Waveform Sonic Logs offer quantitative information on the response of the formation to propagating acoustic energy. When coupled with ultrasonic borehole imagery, these logs show clear evidence of fractures intersecting the wellbore. P-wave, S-wave, Stoneley and late arriving normal modal CODA all show energy and frequency changes across fracture zones. One critical ingredient missing from the sonic-ultrasonic cross-correlations to date, has been the ability to estimate the quantity of alteration material infilling fractures. A new nuclear analysis technique has been developed to extract a reliable estimate of the amount of clay infilling in highly fractured basalts from the oceanic crust.

  5. Method for hot gas conditioning

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Paisley, Mark A.

    1996-02-27

    A method for cracking and shifting a synthesis gas by the steps of providing a catalyst consisting essentially of alumina in a reaction zone; contacting the catalyst with a substantially oxygen free mixture of gases comprising water vapor and hydrocarbons having one or more carbon atoms, at a temperature between about 530.degree. C. (1000.degree. F.) to about 980.degree. C. (1800.degree. F.); and whereby the hydrocarbons are cracked to form hydrogen, carbon monoxide and/or carbon dioxide and the hydrogen content of the mixture increases with a corresponding decrease in carbon monoxide, and carbon formation is substantially eliminated.

  6. Method for heat treating iron-nickel-chromium alloy

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Merrick, Howard F.; Korenko, Michael K.

    1982-01-01

    A method for heat treating an age-hardenable iron-nickel-chromium alloy to obtain a bimodal distribution of gamma prime phase within a network of dislocations, the alloy consisting essentially of about 25% to 45% nickel, 10% to 16% chromium, 1.5% to 3% of an element selected from the group consisting of molybdenum and niobium, about 2% titanium, about 3% aluminum, and the remainder substantially all iron. To obtain optimum results, the alloy is heated to a temperature of 1025.degree. C. to 1075.degree. C. for 2-5 minutes, cold-worked about 20% to 60%, aged at a temperature of about 775.degree. C. for 8 hours followed by an air-cool, and then heated to a temperature in the range of 650.degree. C. to 700.degree. C. for 2 hours followed by an air-cool.

  7. Method and apparatus for cooling high temperature superconductors with neon-nitrogen mixtures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Laverman, Royce J.; Lai, Ban-Yen

    1993-01-01

    Apparatus and methods for cooling high temperature superconducting materials (HTSC) to superconductive temperatures within the range of 27.degree. K. to 77.degree. K. using a mixed refrigerant consisting of liquefied neon and nitrogen containing up to about ten mole percent neon by contacting and surrounding the HTSC material with the mixed refrigerant so that free convection or forced flow convection heat transfer can be effected.

  8. ORISE: Report shows nuclear engineering graduation rates on the rise in

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    2013 ORISE report shows nuclear engineering graduation rates on the rise in 2013 Number of graduate degrees expected to remain consistent, but undergraduate degrees could see decrease come 2015 FOR IMMEDIATE RELEASE March 3, 2014 FY14-11 OAK RIDGE, Tenn.-The number of college students graduating with majors in nuclear engineering continues to increase, according to a report by the Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education, which surveyed 32 U.S. universities with nuclear engineering

  9. Phosphate glass useful in high power lasers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hayden, Joseph S.; Sapak, David L.; Ward, Julia M.

    1990-01-01

    A low- or no-silica phosphate glass useful as a laser medium and having a high thermal conductivity, K.sub.90.degree. C. >0.8 W/mK, and a low coefficient of thermal expansion, .alpha..sub.20.degree.-40.degree. C. <80.times.10.sup.-7 /.degree.C., consists essentially of (on a batch composition basis): the amounts of Li.sub.2 O and Na.sub.2 O providing an average alkali metal ionic radius sufficiently low whereby said glass has K.sub.90.degree. C. >0.8 W/mK and .alpha..sub.20.degree.-40.degree. C. <80.times.10.sup.-7 /.degree.C., and wherein, when the batch composition is melted in contact with a silica-containing surface, the final glass composition contains at most about 3.5 mole % of additional silica derived from such contact during melting. The Nd.sub.2 O.sub.3 can be replaced by other lasing species.

  10. IN SITU INVESTIGATION OF THE PASSIVATION OF ALLOY C22 AND OF THE PASSIVE FILMS FORMED ON ALLOY C22 IN ACIDIC ELECTROLYTES AT ROOM TEMPERATURE AND AT 90 DEGREES C

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    M. Miyagusuku, S. Harrington, and T. M. Devine

    2006-03-11

    The passive films formed on Alloy C22 in several acidic solutions were investigated by a combination of five in situ techniques: cyclic polarization, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, Mott-Schottky analyses, electrochemical quartz crystal microbalance measurements, and surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy. Similar tests were conducted on unalloyed samples of nickel, chromium and molybdenum, which are the main alloying elements of Alloy C22. The results of the tests conducted on nickel, chromium, and molybdenum helped to determine the roles of these elements in the passivation of Alloy C22. In general, the corrosion resistance of C22 was superior to that of unalloyed chromium. Although chromium is an important component of the passive film on Alloy C22, the other elements figure prominently in the corrosion resistance of C22 in acidic solutions. The passivity of Alloy C22 was detrimentally affected by increasing concentrations of hydrogen ions, chloride ions, and increasing temperature. The results of this study provide understanding of the resistance/susceptibility of Alloy C22 to corrosion by the aggressive solutions that can develop inside pits and crevices.

  11. Influence of Composition, Helium Generation Rate and Dpa Rate on Neutron-Induced Swelling of Fe-15Cr-16Ni-0.25Ti Alloys in FFTF at {approx} 400 Degrees C

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Okita, T; Wolfer, W G; Sato, T; Sekimura, N; Garner, F A

    2003-08-05

    Contrary to the behavior of swelling of f.c.c. Fe-15Cr-16Ni and Fe-15Cr-16Ni-0.25Ti alloys irradiated together in the same FFTF-MOTA experiment, Fe-15Cr-16Ti-0.25Ti-0.05C does not exhibit a dependence of swelling on dpa rate at {approx}400 C. The transient regime of swelling is prolonged by carbon addition, however. Addition of boron to the carbon-doped alloy decreases the swelling somewhat but does not restore the sensitivity to dpa rate. It appears that the primary influence of boron is chemical in nature, probably associated with boron's impact on the behavior of carbon. Boron's role as a source of helium is thought to be secondary.

  12. Total carbon dioxide, hydrographic, and nitrate measurements in the Southwest Pacific during Austral autumn, 1990: Results from NOAA/PMEL CGC-90 cruise

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lamb, M.F.; Feely, R.A.; Moore, L.

    1995-10-01

    In support of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Climate and Global Change (C&GC) Program, Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory (PMEL) scientists have been measuring the growing burden of greenhouse gases in the thermocline waters of the Pacific Ocean since 1980. Collection of data at a series of hydrographic stations along longitude 170{degrees} W during austral autumn of 1990 was designed to enhance understanding of the increase in the column burden of chlorofluorocarbons and carbon dioxide in the thermocline waters since the last expedition in 1984. This document presents the procedures and methods used to obtain total carbon dioxide (TCO{sub 2}), hydrographic, and nitrate data during the NOAA/PMEL research vessel (R/V) Malcolm Baldrige CGC-90 Cruise. Data were collected along two legs; sampling for Leg 1 began along 170{degrees} W from 15{degrees} S to 60{degrees} S, then angled northwest toward New Zealand across the Western Boundary Current. Leg 2 included a reoccupation of some stations between 30{degrees} S and 15{degrees} S on 170{degrees} W and measurements from 15{degrees} S to 5{degrees} N along 170{degrees} W. The following data report summarizes the TCO{sub 2}, salinity, temperature, and nitrate measurements from 63 stations. The TCO, concentration in seawater samples was measured using a coulometric/extraction system (Models 5011 and 5030, respectively) originated by Ken Johnson. The NOAA/PMEL R/V Malcolm Baldrige CGC-90 Cruise data set is available without charge as a numeric data package (NDP) from the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center. The NDP consists of two oceanographic data files, two FORTRAN 77 data retrieval routine files, a {open_quotes}readme{close_quotes} file, and this printed documentation, which describes the contents and format of all files as well as the procedures and methods used to obtain the data.

  13. Copper-silver-titanium-tin filler metal for direct brazing of structural ceramics

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moorhead, Arthur J.

    1988-04-05

    A method of joining ceramics and metals to themselves and to one another at about 800.degree. C. is described using a brazing filler metal consisting essentially of 35 to 50 at. % copper, 40 to 50 at. % silver, 1 to 15 at. % titanium, and 2 to 8 at. % tin. This method produces strong joints that can withstand high service temperatures and oxidizing environments.

  14. Value recovery from spent alumina-base catalyst

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hyatt, David E.

    1987-01-01

    A process for the recovery of aluminum and at least one other metal selected from the group consisting of molybdenum, nickel and cobalt from a spent hydrogenation catalyst comprising (1) adding about 1 to 3 parts H.sub.2 SO.sub.4 to each part of spent catalyst in a reaction zone of about 20.degree. to 200.degree. C. under sulfide gas pressure between about 1 and about 35 atmospheres, (2) separating the resultant Al.sub.2 (SO.sub.4).sub.3 solution from the sulfide precipitate in the mixture, (3) oxidizing the remaining sulfide precipitate as an aqueous slurry at about 20.degree. to 200.degree. C. in an oxygen-containing atmosphere at a pressure between about 1 and about 35 atmospheres, (4) separating the slurry to obtain solid molybdic acid and a sulfate liquor containing said at least one metal, and (5) recovering said at least one metal from the sulfate liquor in marketable form.

  15. Test report for measurement of performance vs temperature of Whittaker Electrochemical Cell

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vargo, G.F., Fluor Daniel Hanford

    1997-02-13

    This document is the test report that summarizes the results of the tests on the Whittaker cells between the temperatures of -20{degrees}F and +120{degrees}F. These sensors are used on the Rotary Mode Core Sampling (RMCS) flammable gas interlock (FGI), to detect and quantify hydrogen gas. The test consisted of operating five Whittaker electrochemical cells in an environmental chamber that was varied in temperature from -20{degrees}F to +120{degrees}F. As the rate rise of the voltage from the cells changed, after exposure to a gas concentration of 1% hydrogen at the different temperatures, the voltage was recorded on a computer controlled data acquisition system. Analysis of the data was made to determine if the cells maximum output voltages and rise times were effected by temperature.

  16. Method for heat treating iron-nickel-chromium alloy

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Korenko, Michael K.

    1980-01-01

    A method for heat treating an age-hardenable iron-nickel-chromium alloy to obtain a morphology of the gamma-double prime phase enveloping the gamma-prime phase, the alloy consisting essentially of about 40 to 50% nickel, 7.5 to 14% chromium, 1.5 to 4% niobium, 0.3 to 0.75% silicon, 1 to 3% titanium, 0.1 to 0.5% aluminum, 0.02 to 1% carbon, 0.002 to 0.0015% boron and the remain substantially all iron. To obtain optimal results, the alloy is cold-worked 20 to 60% followed by heating at 1050.degree. C. for 1/2 hour with an air-cool plus heating at 800.degree. C. for 2 hours with a furnace cool to 625.degree. C. The alloy is then held at 625.degree. C. for 12 hours, followed by an air-cool.

  17. Process for producing organic products containing silicon, hydrogen, nitrogen, and carbon by the direct reaction between elemental silicon and organic amines

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pugar, Eloise A.; Morgan, Peter E. D.

    1990-04-03

    A process is disclosed for producing, at a low temperature, a high purity organic reaction product consisting essentially of silicon, hydrogen, nitrogen, and carbon. The process comprises reacting together a particulate elemental high purity silicon with a high purity reactive amine reactant in a liquid state at a temperature of from about 0.degree. C. up to about 300.degree. C. A high purity silicon carbide/silicon nitride ceramic product can be formed from this intermediate product, if desired, by heating the intermediate product at a temperature of from about 1200.degree.-1700.degree. C. for a period from about 15 minutes up to about 2 hours or the organic reaction product may be employed in other chemical uses.

  18. Method of improving fatigue life of cast nickel based superalloys and composition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Denzine, Allen F.; Kolakowski, Thomas A.; Wallace, John F.

    1978-03-14

    The invention consists of a method of producing a fine equiaxed grain structure (ASTM 2-4) in cast nickel-base superalloys which increases low cycle fatigue lives without detrimental effects on stress rupture properties to temperatures as high as 1800.degree. F. These superalloys are variations of the basic nickel-chromium matrix, hardened by gamma prime [Ni.sub.3 (Al, Ti)] but with optional additions of cobalt, tungsten, molybdenum, vanadium, columbium, tantalum, boron, zirconium, carbon and hafnium. The invention grain refines these alloys to ASTM 2 to 4 increasing low cycle fatigue life by a factor of 2 to 5 (i.e. life of 700 hours would be increased to 1400 to 3500 hours for a given stress) as a result of the addition of 0.01% to 0.2% of a member of the group consisting of boron, zirconium and mixtures thereof to aid heterogeneous nucleation. The alloy is vacuum melted and heated to 250.degree.-400.degree. F. above the melting temperature, cooled to partial solidification, thus resulting in said heterogeneous nucleation and fine grains, then reheated and cast at about 50.degree.-100.degree. F. of superheat. Additions of 0.1% boron and 0.1% zirconium (optional) are the preferred nucleating agents.

  19. Methods for synthesizing semiconductor quality chalcopyrite crystals for nonlinear optical and radiation detection applications and the like

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stowe, Ashley; Burger, Arnold

    2016-05-10

    A method for synthesizing I-III-VI.sub.2 compounds, including: melting a Group III element; adding a Group I element to the melted Group III element at a rate that allows the Group I and Group III elements to react thereby providing a single phase I-III compound; and adding a Group VI element to the single phase I-III compound under heat, with mixing, and/or via vapor transport. The Group III element is melted at a temperature of between about 200 degrees C. and about 700 degrees C. Preferably, the Group I element consists of a neutron absorber and the group III element consists of In or Ga. The Group VI element and the single phase I-III compound are heated to a temperature of between about 700 degrees C. and about 1000 degrees C. Preferably, the Group VI element consists of S, Se, or Te. Optionally, the method also includes doping with a Group IV element activator.

  20. Development and evaluation of a HEPA filter for increased strength and resistance to elevated temperature. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gilbert, H.; Bergman, W.; Fretthold, J.K.

    1993-01-01

    We have completed a preliminary study of an improved HEPA filter for increased strength and resistance to elevated temperature to improve the reliability of the standard deep pleated HEPA filter under accident conditions. The improvements to the HEPA filter consist of a silicone rubber sealant and a new HEPA medium reinforced with a glass cloth. Three prototype filters were built and evaluated for temperature and pressure resistance and resistance to rough handling. The temperature resistance test consisted of exposing the HEPA filter to 1,000 scan (1,700 m{sup 3}/hr) at 700{degrees}F (371{degrees}C) for five minutes.The pressure resistance test consisted of exposing the HEPA filter to a differential pressure of 10 in. w.g. (2.5 kPa) using a water saturated air flow at 95{degrees}F (35{degrees}C). For the rough handling test, we used a vibrating machine designated the Q110. DOP filter efficiency tests were performed before and after each of the environmental tests. In addition to following the standard practice of using a separate new filter for each environmental test, we also subjected the same filter to the elevated temperature test followed by the pressure resistance test. The efficiency test results show that the improved HEPA filter is significantly better than the standard HEPA filter. Further studies are recommended to evaluate the improved HEPA filter and to assess its performance under more severe accident conditions.

  1. Oxidation and degradation of a plasma-sprayed thermal barrier coating system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Haynes, J.A.; Ferber, M.K.; Porter, W.D.

    1996-04-01

    The isothermal oxidation behavior of thermal barrier coating (TBC) specimens consisting of single-crystal superalloy substrates, vacuum plasma-sprayed Ni-22Cr-10Al-1Y bond coatings and air plasma-sprayed 7.5 wt.% yttria stabilized zirconia top coatings was evaluated by thermogravimetric analysis at 1150{degrees}C for up to 200 hours. Coating durability was assessed by furnace cycling at 1150{degrees}C. Coatings and reaction products were identified by x-ray diffraction, field-emission scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy.

  2. MeV ion loss during sup 3 He minority heating in TFTR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zweben, S.J.; Hammett, G.; Boivin, R.; Phillips, C.; Wilson, R.

    1992-01-01

    The loss of MeV ions during {sup 3}He ICRH minority heating experiments has been measured using scintillator detectors near the wall of TFTR. The observed MeV ion losses to the bottom (90{degrees} poloidal) detector are generally consistent with the expected first-orbit loss of D-{sup 3}He alpha particle fusion products, with an inferred global reaction rate up to {approx}10{sup 16} reactions/sec. A qualitatively similar but unexpectedly large loss occurs 45{degrees} poloidally below the outer midplane. This additional loss might be due to ICRH tail ions or to ICRH wave-induced loss of previously confined fusion products.

  3. MeV ion loss during {sup 3}He minority heating in TFTR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zweben, S.J.; Hammett, G.; Boivin, R.; Phillips, C.; Wilson, R.

    1992-01-01

    The loss of MeV ions during {sup 3}He ICRH minority heating experiments has been measured using scintillator detectors near the wall of TFTR. The observed MeV ion losses to the bottom (90{degrees} poloidal) detector are generally consistent with the expected first-orbit loss of D-{sup 3}He alpha particle fusion products, with an inferred global reaction rate up to {approx}10{sup 16} reactions/sec. A qualitatively similar but unexpectedly large loss occurs 45{degrees} poloidally below the outer midplane. This additional loss might be due to ICRH tail ions or to ICRH wave-induced loss of previously confined fusion products.

  4. Preparation of reactive beta-dicalcium silicate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shen, Ming-Shing (Laramie, WY, NJ); Chen, James M. (Rahway, NJ); Yang, Ralph T. (Amherst, NY)

    1982-01-01

    This invention relates to the preparation of fine particles of reactive beta-dicalcium silicate by means of a solid state process which comprises firing a mixture of calcium sulfate, silica and a reducing additive selected from the group consisting of calcium sulfide, carbon, carbon monoxide, methane and hydrogen, at a temperature of about 850.degree.-1000.degree. C. A carrier gas such as nitrogen or carbon dioxide may also be added, if desired. A high concentration of sulfur dioxide is a by-product of this process.

  5. Method for catalytic destruction of organic materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sealock, Jr., L. John; Baker, Eddie G.; Elliott, Douglas C.

    1997-01-01

    A method is disclosed for converting waste organic materials into an innocuous product gas. The method comprises maintaining, in a pressure vessel, in the absence of oxygen, at a temperature of 250.degree. C. to 500.degree. C. and a pressure of at least 50 atmospheres, a fluid organic waste material, water, and a catalyst consisting essentially of reduced nickel in an amount sufficient to catalyze a reaction of the organic waste material to produce an innocuous product gas composed primarily of methane and carbon dioxide. The methane in the product gas may be burned to preheat the organic materials.

  6. Pretreatment of solid carbonaceous material with dicarboxylic aromatic acids to prevent scale formation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brunson, Roy J.

    1982-01-01

    Scale formation during the liquefaction of lower ranking coals and similar carbonaceous materials is significantly reduced and/or prevented by pretreatment with a pretreating agent selected from the group consisting of phthalic acid, phthalic anhydride, pyromellitic acid and pyromellitic anhydride. The pretreatment is believed to convert the scale-forming components to the corresponding phthalate and/or pyromellitate prior to liquefaction. The pretreatment is accomplished at a total pressure within the range from about 1 to about 2 atmospheres. Temperature during pretreatment will generally be within the range from about 5.degree. to about 80.degree. C.

  7. Pb-free Sn-Ag-Cu ternary eutectic solder

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anderson, Iver E.; Yost, Frederick G.; Smith, John F.; Miller, Chad M.; Terpstra, Robert L.

    1996-06-18

    A Pb-free solder includes a ternary eutectic composition consisting essentially of about 93.6 weight % Sn-about 4.7 weight % Ag-about 1.7 weight % Cu having a eutectic melting temperature of about 217.degree. C. and variants of the ternary composition wherein the relative concentrations of Sn, Ag, and Cu deviate from the ternary eutectic composition to provide a controlled melting temperature range (liquid-solid "mushy" zone) relative to the eutectic melting temperature (e.g. up to 15.degree. C. above the eutectic melting temperature).

  8. Pressure-reaction synthesis of titanium composite materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Oden, Laurance L.; Ochs, Thomas L.; Turner, Paul C.

    1993-01-01

    A pressure-reaction synthesis process for producing increased stiffness and improved strength-to-weight ratio titanium metal matrix composite materials comprising exothermically reacting a titanium powder or titanium powder alloys with non-metal powders or gas selected from the group consisting of C, B, N, BN, B.sub.4 C, SiC and Si.sub.3 N.sub.4 at temperatures from about 900.degree. to about 1300.degree. C., for about 5 to about 30 minutes in a forming die under pressures of from about 1000 to 5000 psi.

  9. Assays for important Mexican crudes updated

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Manriguez, L.; Moreno, A.; Anaya, C.G. )

    1991-03-04

    Compared to Isthmus and Maya, Olmeca crude is the lightest of the Mexican export. It has fewer contaminants, and its 540{degrees} C. TBP distillation produces the largest quantity of distillate. The Olmeca fractions also have the lowest total sulfur content. The Maya crude is heavy, with an API gravity of 22.2{sup {degrees}}. It has a high contaminant content that induces corrosion in process equipment and causes low running times in thermal cracking units, such as visbreakers and cokers. A proposed refining scheme for the bottom of the Maya barrel consists of atmospheric distillation, vacuum distillation, the Impex process, and visbreaking.

  10. Interfacial reactions in epitaxial Al/TiN(111) model diffusion barriers: Formation of an impervious self-limited wurtzite-structure AIN(0001) blocking layer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chun, J.-S.; Desjardins, P.; Lavoie, C.; Shin, C.-S.; Cabral, C.; Petrov, I.; Greene, J. E.

    2001-06-15

    Single-crystal TiN(111) layers, 45 nm thick, were grown on MgO(111) by ultrahigh vacuum reactive magnetron sputter deposition in pure N{sub 2} discharges at T{sub s}=700{degree}C. Epitaxial Al(111) overlayers, 160 nm thick, were then deposited at T{sub s}=100{degree}C in Ar without breaking vacuum. Interfacial reactions and changes in bilayer microstructure due to annealing at 620 and 650{degree}C were investigated using x-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The interfacial regions of samples annealed at 620{degree}C consist of continuous {approx_equal}7-nm-thick epitaxial wurtzite-structure AlN(0001) layers containing a high density of stacking faults, with {approx_equal}22 nm thick tetragonal Al{sub 3}Ti(112) overlayers. Surprisingly, samples annealed at the higher temperature are more stable against Al{sub 3}Ti formation. TEM analyses of bilayers annealed at 650{degree}C (10{degree}C below the Al melting point!) reveal only the self-limited growth of an {approx_equal}3-nm-thick interfacial layer of perfect smooth epitaxial wurtzite-structure AlN(0001) which serves as an extremely effective deterrent for preventing further interlayer reactions. {copyright} 2001 American Institute of Physics.

  11. Crustal-thickness variations in the central Andes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beck, S.L.; Myers, S.C.; Wallace, T.C.; Zandt, G.; Silver, P.G.; Drake, L.

    1996-05-01

    We estimated the crustal thickness along an east-west transect across the Andes at lat 20{degree}S and along a north-south transect along the eastern edge of the Altiplano from data recorded on two arrays of portable broadband seismic stations (BANJO and SEDA). We found crustal-thickness variations of nearly 40 km across the Andes. Maximum crustal thicknesses of 70-74 km under the Western Cordillera and the Eastern Cordillera thin to 32-38 km 200 km east of the Andes in the Chaco Plain. The central Altiplano at 20{degree}S has crustal thicknesses of 60 to 65 km. The crust also appears to thicken from north (16{degree}S, 55-60 km) to south (20{degree}S, 70-74 km) along the Eastern Cordillera. The Subandean zone crust has intermediate thicknesses of 43 to 47 km. Crustal-thickness predictions for the Andes based on Airy-type isostatic behavior show remarkable overall correlation with observed crustal thickness in the regions of high elevation. In contrast, at the boundary between the Eastern Cordillera and the Subandean zone and in the Chaco Plain, the crust is thinner than predicted, suggesting that the crust in these regions is supported in part by the flexural rigidity of a strong lithosphere. With additional constraints, we conclude that the observation of Airy-type isostasy is consistent with thickening associated with compressional shortening of a weak lithosphere squeezed between the stronger lithosphere of the subducting Nazca plate and the cratonic lithosphere of the Brazilian craton. 26 refs., 4 figs.

  12. Phosphazene membranes for gas separations

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stewart, Frederick F.; Harrup, Mason K.; Orme, Christopher J.; Luther, Thomas A.

    2006-07-11

    A polyphosphazene having a glass transition temperature ("T.sub.g") of approximately -20.degree. C. or less. The polyphosphazene has at least one pendant group attached to a backbone of the polyphosphazene, wherein the pendant group has no halogen atoms. In addition, no aromatic groups are attached to an oxygen atom that is bound to a phosphorus atom of the backbone. The polyphosphazene may have a T.sub.g ranging from approximately -100.degree. C. to approximately -20.degree. C. The polyphosphazene may be selected from the group consisting of poly[bis-3-phenyl-1-propoxy)phosphazene], poly[bis-(2-phenyl-1-ethoxy)phosphazene], poly[bis-(dodecanoxypolyethoxy)-phosphazene], and poly[bis-(2-(2-(2-.omega.-undecylenyloxyethoxy)ethoxy)ethoxy)phosphazene]- . The polyphosphazene may be used in a separation membrane to selectively separate individual gases from a gas mixture, such as to separate polar gases from nonpolar gases in the gas mixture.

  13. Process for producing organic products containing silicon, hydrogen, nitrogen, and carbon by the direct reaction between elemental silicon and organic amines and products formed thereby

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pugar, E.A.; Morgan, P.E.D.

    1988-04-04

    A process is disclosed for producing, at a low temperature, a high purity organic reaction product consisting essentially of silicon, hydrogen, nitrogen, and carbon. The process comprises reacting together a particulate elemental high purity silicon with a high purity reactive amine reactant in a liquid state at a temperature of from about O/degree/C up to about 300/degree/C. A high purity silicon carbide/silicon nitride ceramic product can be formed from this intermediate product, if desired, by heating the intermediate product at a temperature of from about 1200-1700/degree/C for a period from about 15 minutes up to about 2 hours or the organic reaction product may be employed in other chemical uses.

  14. Continuous production of granular or powder Ti, Zr and Hf or their alloy products

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    White, Jack C.; Oden, Laurance L.

    1993-01-01

    A continuous process for producing a granular metal selected from the group consisting of Ti, Zr or Hf under conditions that provide orderly growth of the metal free of halide inclusions comprising: a) dissolving a reducing metal selected from the group consisting of Na, Mg, Li or K in their respective halide salts to produce a reducing molten salt stream; b) preparing a second molten salt stream containing the halide salt of Ti, Zr or Hf; c) mixing and reacting the two molten streams of steps a) and b) in a continuous stirred tank reactor; d) wherein steps a) through c) are conducted at a temperature range of from about 800.degree. C. to about 1100.degree. C. so that a weight percent of equilibrium solubility of the reducing metal in its respective halide salt varies from about 1.6 weight percent at about 900.degree. C. to about 14.4 weight percent at about 1062.degree. C.; and wherein a range of concentration of the halide salt of Ti, Zn or Hf in molten halides of Na, Mg, Li or K is from about 1 to about 5 times the concentration of Na, Mg, Li or K; e) placing the reacted molten stream from step c) in a solid-liquid separator to recover an impure granular metal product by decantation, centrifugation, or filtration; and f) removing residual halide salt impurity by vacuum evaporator or inert gas sweep at temperatures from about 850.degree. C. to 1000.degree. C. or cooling the impure granular metal product to ambient temperature and water leaching off the residual metal halide salt.

  15. Low-temperature superacid catalysis: Reactions of n - butane and propane catalyzed by iron- and manganese-promoted sulfated zirconia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tsz-Keung, Cheung; d`Itri, J.L.; Lange, F.C.; Gates, B.C.

    1995-12-31

    The primary goal of this project is to evaluate the potential value of solid superacid catalysts of the sulfated zirconia type for light hydrocarbon conversion. The key experiments catalytic testing of the performance of such catalysts in a flow reactor fed with streams containing, for example, n-butane or propane. Fe- and Mn-promoted sulfated zirconia was used to catalyze the conversion of n-butane at atmospheric pressure, 225-450{degrees}C, and n-butane partial pressures in the range of 0.0025-0.01 atm. At temperatures <225{degrees}C, these reactions were accompanied by cracking; at temperatures >350{degrees}C, cracking and isomerization occurred. Catalyst deactivation, resulting at least in part from coke formation, was rapid. The primary cracking products were methane, ethane, ethylene, and propylene. The observation of these products along with an ethane/ethylene molar ratio of nearly 1 at 450{degrees}C is consistent with cracking occurring, at least in part, by the Haag-Dessau mechanism, whereby the strongly acidic catalyst protonates n-butane to give carbonium ions. The rate of methane formation from n-butane cracking catalyzed by Fe- and Mn-promoted sulfated zirconia at 450{degrees}C was about 3 x 10{sup -8} mol/(g of catalyst {center_dot}s). The observation of butanes, pentanes, and methane as products is consistent with Olah superacid chemistry, whereby propane is first protonated by a very strong acid to form a carbonium ion. The carbonium ion then decomposes into methane and an ethyl cation which undergoes oligocondensation reactions with propane to form higher molecular weight alkanes. The results are consistent with the identification of iron- and manganese-promoted sulfated zirconia as a superacid.

  16. Composition for selective placement of polymer gels for profile control in thermal oil recovery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shu, P.; Shu, W.R.

    1990-08-21

    This patent describes a cross-linked gel product obtained by activating components at a temperature greater than about 300{degrees}F. It comprises: water; a cross-linkable polymer selected from a member of the group consisting of polyvinyl alcohol, polyvinyl alcohol copolymers, and sulfonated polyvinyl alcohol which member has at least one functional group selected from a member of the group consisting of an amine, a hydroxyl, or a thiol group; a phenolic compound; and a water-dispersible aldehyde producing compound when heated to a temperature above about 300{degrees}F. in a formation yields sufficient formaldehyde to react with the phenolic compound thereby forming a phenolic resin which combines with the polymer and makes a solid cross-linked gel.

  17. Process for the regeneration of metallic catalysts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Katzer, James R.; Windawi, Hassan

    1981-01-01

    A method for the regeneration of metallic hydrogenation catalysts from the class consisting of Ni, Rh, Pd, Ir, Pt and Ru poisoned with sulfur, with or without accompanying carbon deposition, comprising subjecting the catalyst to exposure to oxygen gas in a concentration of about 1-10 ppm. intermixed with an inert gas of the group consisting of He, A, Xe, Kr, N.sub.2 and air substantially free of oxygen to an extent such that the total oxygen molecule throughout is in the range of about 10 to 20 times that of the hydrogen sulfide molecular exposure producing the catalyst poisoning while maintaining the temperature in the range of about 300.degree. to 500.degree. C.

  18. Method of bonding metals to ceramics

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Maroni, Victor A.

    1992-01-01

    A method of forming a composite by providing a ceramic capable of having zero electrical resistance and complete diamagnetism at superconducting temperatures, bonding a thin layer of Ag, Au or alloys thereof with the ceramic. Thereafter, there is bonded a first metal to the ceramic surface at a temperature less than about 400.degree. C., and then a second metal is bonded to the first metal at a temperature less than about 400.degree. C. to form a composite wherein the first metal is selected from the class consisting of In, Ga, Sn, Bi, Zn, Cd, Pb, Ti and alloys thereof and wherein the second metal is selected from the class consisting of Al, Cu, Pb and Zn and alloys thereof.

  19. Design and Construction of the NSTX Bakeout, Cooling and Vacuum Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    L.E. Dudek; M. Kalish; R. Gernhardt; R.F. Parsells; W. Blanchard

    1999-11-01

    This paper will describe the design, construction and initial operation of the NSTX bakeout, water cooling and vacuum systems. The bakeout system is designed for two modes of operation. The first mode allows heating of the first wall components to 350 degrees C while the external vessel is cooled to 150 degrees C. The second mode cools the first wall to 150 degrees C and the external vessel to 50 degrees C. The system uses a low viscosity heat transfer oil which is capable of high temperature low pressure operation. The NSTX Torus Vacuum Pumping System (TVPS) is designed to achieve a base pressure of approximately 1x10 (superscript -8) Torr and to evacuate the plasma fuel gas loads in less than 5 minutes between discharges. The vacuum pumping system is capable of a pumping speed of approximately 3400 l/s for deuterium. The hardware consists of two turbo molecular pumps (TMPs) and a mechanical pump set consisting of a mechanical and a Roots blower pump. A PLC is used as the control system to provide remote monitoring, control and software interlock capability. The NSTX cooling water provides chilled, de ionized water for heat removal in the TF, OH and PF, power supplies, bus bar systems, and various diagnostics. The system provides flow monitoring via a PLC to prevent damage due to loss of flow.

  20. THE INTERSTELLAR MAGNETIC FIELD CLOSE TO THE SUN. II

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Frisch, P. C.; Andersson, B-G; Berdyugin, A.; Piirola, V.; DeMajistre, R.; Funsten, H. O.; Magalhaes, A. M.; Seriacopi, D. B.; McComas, D. J.; Schwadron, N. A.; Slavin, J. D.; Wiktorowicz, S. J.

    2012-12-01

    The magnetic field in the local interstellar medium (ISM) provides a key indicator of the galactic environment of the Sun and influences the shape of the heliosphere. We have studied the interstellar magnetic field (ISMF) in the solar vicinity using polarized starlight for stars within 40 pc of the Sun and 90 Degree-Sign of the heliosphere nose. In Frisch et al. (Paper I), we developed a method for determining the local ISMF direction by finding the best match to a group of interstellar polarization position angles obtained toward nearby stars, based on the assumption that the polarization is parallel to the ISMF. In this paper, we extend the analysis by utilizing weighted fits to the position angles and by including new observations acquired for this study. We find that the local ISMF is pointed toward the galactic coordinates l, b =47 Degree-Sign {+-} 20 Degree-Sign , 25 Degree-Sign {+-} 20 Degree-Sign . This direction is close to the direction of the ISMF that shapes the heliosphere, l, b =33 Degree-Sign {+-} 4 Degree-Sign , 55 Degree-Sign {+-} 4 Degree-Sign , as traced by the center of the 'Ribbon' of energetic neutral atoms discovered by the Interstellar Boundary Explorer (IBEX) mission. Both the magnetic field direction and the kinematics of the local ISM are consistent with a scenario where the local ISM is a fragment of the Loop I superbubble. A nearby ordered component of the local ISMF has been identified in the region l Almost-Equal-To 0 Degree-Sign {yields} 80 Degree-Sign and b Almost-Equal-To 0 Degree-Sign {yields} 30 Degree-Sign , where PlanetPol data show a distance-dependent increase of polarization strength. The ordered component extends to within 8 pc of the Sun and implies a weak curvature in the nearby ISMF of {approx}0.{sup 0}25 pc{sup -1}. This conclusion is conditioned on the small sample of stars available for defining this rotation. Variations from the ordered component suggest a turbulent component of {approx}23 Degree-Sign . The ordered component and standard relations between polarization, color excess, and H{sup o} column density predict a reasonable increase of N(H) with distance in the local ISM. The similarity of the ISMF directions traced by the polarizations, the IBEX Ribbon, and pulsars inside the Local Bubble in the third galactic quadrant suggest that the ISMF is relatively uniform over spatial scales of 8-200 pc and is more similar to interarm than spiral-arm magnetic fields. The ISMF direction from the polarization data is also consistent with small-scale spatial asymmetries detected in GeV-TeV cosmic rays with a galactic origin. The peculiar geometrical relation found earlier between the cosmic microwave background dipole moment, the heliosphere nose, and the ISMF direction is supported by this study. The interstellar radiation field at {approx}975 A does not appear to play a role in grain alignment for the low-density ISM studied here.

  1. Technical and economic evaluation of selected coal-liquefaction processes. Phase O. Preliminary screening evaluations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Salmon, R.; Forrester, R.C. III; Singh, S.P.N.; Fisher, J.F.; Wham, R.M.; Thiel, S.W.; Meyer, J.P.

    1981-04-01

    Preliminary scoping evaluations of ten conceptual coal liquefaction processes were made for the Department of Energy using available published information. Production costs calculated under a consistent set of economic criteria varied from $0.78 to $1.47/gal for gasoline in constant 1979 dollars. However, existing design documents showed little consistency as to status of process development, credibility of process design basis, completeness of design, or conservatism of cost estimation. We concluded that a more complete and thorough design study of each process would be necessary to achieve any degree of technical and economic consistency, and that it was therefore not possible to satisfy DOE's desire for consistent technical and economic comparisons in this type of preliminary scoping study.

  2. Advanced Thermal Storage System with Novel Molten Salt: December 8, 2011 - April 30, 2013

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jonemann, M.

    2013-05-01

    Final technical progress report of Halotechnics Subcontract No. NEU-2-11979-01. Halotechnics has demonstrated an advanced thermal energy storage system with a novel molten salt operating at 700 degrees C. The molten salt and storage system will enable the use of advanced power cycles such as supercritical steam and supercritical carbon dioxide in next generation CSP plants. The salt consists of low cost, earth abundant materials.

  3. Application Components | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    How to Apply » Application Components Application Components Application available at www.zintellect.com/Posting/Details/1997 A complete application consists of the following documents. Use this checklist to keep track of the required documents. Curriculum Vitae (CV) CV must be uploaded by the applicant as part of the application and must include the following: Applicant Information. Education History. List all institutions from which you received or expect to receive a degree beginning with

  4. Proppant for use in viscous oil recovery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jennings, A.R. Jr.; Stowe, L.R.

    1989-06-13

    This patent describes a method for propping a fracture in a formation where a fused refractory crystal provides for more effective heat transfer comprising: injecting into a fracture as fused refractory crystal which consists essentially of silicon carbide or silicon nitride having a Mohs hardness of about 9 and of a size sufficient to prop a fracture while providing substantially increased heat conductivity into a formation due to the crystal's substantially high degree of thermal conductivity.

  5. Application Content and Evaluation Criteria/Process

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    How to Apply » Application Components Application Components Application available at www.zintellect.com/Posting/Details/1997 A complete application consists of the following documents. Use this checklist to keep track of the required documents. Curriculum Vitae (CV) CV must be uploaded by the applicant as part of the application and must include the following: Applicant Information. Education History. List all institutions from which you received or expect to receive a degree beginning with

  6. John C Lacenere | Princeton Plasma Physics Lab

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    5 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved. Francisco de la Chesnaye, Technical Executive John Bistline, Project Manager EIA Energy Conference June 15, 2015 Economy-wide Greenhouse Gas Mitigation 2 © 2015 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved. U.S. Intended nationally determined contribution to the UNFCCC "Substantial global emission reductions are needed to keep the global temperature rise below 2 degrees Celsius, and the 2025 target is consistent

  7. Geranyl diphosphate synthase molecules, and nucleic acid molecules encoding same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Croteau, Rodney Bruce; Burke, Charles Cullen

    2008-06-24

    In one aspect, the present invention provides isolated nucleic acid molecules that each encode a geranyl diphosphate synthase protein, wherein each isolated nucleic acid molecule hybridizes to a nucleic acid molecule consisting of the sequence set forth in SEQ ID NO:1 under conditions of 5.times.SSC at 45.degree. C. for one hour. The present invention also provides isolated geranyl diphosphate synthase proteins, and methods for altering the level of expression of geranyl diphosphate synthase protein in a host cell.

  8. Duct and cladding alloy

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Korenko, Michael K.

    1983-01-01

    An austenitic alloy having good thermal stability and resistance to sodium corrosion at 700.degree. C. consists essentially of 35-45% nickel 7.5-14% chromium 0.8-3.2% molybdenum 0.3-1.0% silicon 0.2-1.0% manganese 0-0.1% zirconium 2.0-3.5% titanium 1.0-2.0% aluminum 0.02-0.1% carbon 0-0.01% boron and the balance iron.

  9. Salts of alkali metal anions and process of preparing same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dye, James L.; Ceraso, Joseph M.; Tehan, Frederick J.; Lok, Mei Tak

    1978-01-01

    Compounds of alkali metal anion salts of alkali metal cations in bicyclic polyoxadiamines are disclosed. The salts are prepared by contacting an excess of alkali metal with an alkali metal dissolving solution consisting of a bicyclic polyoxadiamine in a suitable solvent, and recovered by precipitation. The salts have a gold-color crystalline appearance and are stable in a vacuum at -10.degree. C. and below.

  10. Investigating the Nuclear Equation of State through N/Z Equilibration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yennello, S.; Keksis, A.; Bell, E.

    2007-10-26

    The equilibration of the N/Z degree of freedom during heavy-ion collisions can be a discriminating observables for helping to understand the nuclear equation of state. Equilibration can be investigated by examining the ratios of isotopes produced in these reactions. The isotope ratio method and the tracer method yield consistent results. The quasiprojectiles produced in deep inelastic collisions are predicted to be sensitive to the density dependence of the equation of state.

  11. Method of making a quartz resonator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vig, John R.; Filler, Raymond L.; Peters, R. Donald; Frank, James M.

    1981-01-01

    A quartz resonator is made from a chemically polished quartz plate. The plate is placed in an enclosure fitted with at least three mounting clips to receive the plate. The plate is secured to the clips with an electrically conductive adhesive capable of withstanding operation at 350 degrees C. The assembly is cleaned and a metallic electrode deposited onto the plate until the desired frequency is reached. The enclosure is then hermetically sealed. The resulting resonator can consistently withstand extremely high shocks.

  12. TCM exemptions to promote alternative-fuel vehicles: The good, the bad, and the ugly

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mintz, M.

    1994-02-01

    This document consists of viewgraphs from a presentation on transportation control measures (TCM) to facilitate the use of alternative-fuel vehicles (AFV). Types of TCMs that pertain to AFV exemptions are: parking fees and restrictions, high occupancy vehicle lanes, fuel taxes, and possibly congestion pricing and time-of-day and day-of-week restrictions. The degree to which these measures will impact AFV production by the year 2010 is predicted.

  13. Lease Condensate Production

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    5 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved. Francisco de la Chesnaye, Technical Executive John Bistline, Project Manager EIA Energy Conference June 15, 2015 Economy-wide Greenhouse Gas Mitigation 2 © 2015 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved. U.S. Intended nationally determined contribution to the UNFCCC "Substantial global emission reductions are needed to keep the global temperature rise below 2 degrees Celsius, and the 2025 target is consistent

  14. Automated Data Collection for Determining Statistical Distributions of Module Power Undergoing Potential-Induced Degradation: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hacke, P.; Spataru, S.

    2014-08-01

    We propose a method for increasing the frequency of data collection and reducing the time and cost of accelerated lifetime testing of photovoltaic modules undergoing potential-induced degradation (PID). This consists of in-situ measurements of dark current-voltage curves of the modules at elevated stress temperature, their use to determine the maximum power at 25 degrees C standard test conditions (STC), and distribution statistics for determining degradation rates as a function of stress level. The semi-continuous data obtained by this method clearly show degradation curves of the maximum power, including an incubation phase, rates and extent of degradation, precise time to failure, and partial recovery. Stress tests were performed on crystalline silicon modules at 85% relative humidity and 60 degrees C, 72 degrees C, and 85 degrees C. Activation energy for the mean time to failure (1% relative) of 0.85 eV was determined and a mean time to failure of 8,000 h at 25 degrees C and 85% relative humidity is predicted. No clear trend in maximum degradation as a function of stress temperature was observed.

  15. Cracking of n-butane catalyzed by iron- and maganese-promoted sulfated zirconia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cheung, T.K.; d`Itri, J.L.; Gates, B.C.

    1995-05-01

    Fe- and Mn-promoted sulfated zirconia was used to catalyze the conversion of n-butane at atmospheric pressure and n-butane partial pressures in the range of 0.0025-0.01 atm. At temperatures <225{degrees}C, the significant reactions were isomerization and disproportionation; in the range of 225-300{degrees}C, these reactions were accompanied by cracking, and at temperatures >350{degrees}C, cracking and isomerization occurred. Catalyst deactivation, resulting at least in part from coke formation, was rapid. The primary cracking products were methane, ethane, ethylene, and propylene. The observation of these products along with an ethane/ethylene molar ratio of nearly 1 at 450{degrees}C is consistent with cracking occurring, at least in part, by the Haag-Dessau mechanism, whereby the strongly acidic catalyst protonates n-butane to give carbonium ions. The rate of methane formation from n-butane cracking catalyzed by Fe- and Mn-promoted sulfated zirconia at 450{degrees}C was about 3 x 10{sup {minus}9}mol/(g of catalyst {center_dot}s). This comparison suggests that the catalytic activity of the promoted sulfated zirconia at 450{degrees}C is about the same as that of the zeolite, although its activity for n-butane isomerization and disproportionation at temperatures <100{degrees}C is orders of magnitude greater than those of zeolites. Thus the indication of superacidity of the promoted sulfated zirconia does not extend to high temperatures. The results raise questions about the nature of the presumed superacidity: perhaps the low-temperature reactions may involve catalyst functions other than the acidic function responsible for high-temperature cracking reactions or perhaps superacidic sites may be very rapidly poisoned at cracking temperatures. 14 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs.

  16. MEASUREMENT OF SPIN-ORBIT MISALIGNMENT AND NODAL PRECESSION FOR THE PLANET AROUND PRE-MAIN-SEQUENCE STAR PTFO 8-8695 FROM GRAVITY DARKENING

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barnes, Jason W.; Van Eyken, Julian C.; Jackson, Brian K.; Ciardi, David R.

    2013-09-01

    PTFO 8-8695b represents the first transiting exoplanet candidate orbiting a pre-main-sequence star (van Eyken et al. 2012, ApJ, 755, 42). We find that the unusual lightcurve shapes of PTFO 8-8695 can be explained by transits of a planet across an oblate, gravity-darkened stellar disk. We develop a theoretical framework for understanding precession of a planetary orbit's ascending node for the case when the stellar rotational angular momentum and the planetary orbital angular momentum are comparable in magnitude. We then implement those ideas to simultaneously and self-consistently fit two separate lightcurves observed in 2009 December and 2010 December. Our two self-consistent fits yield M{sub p} = 3.0 M{sub Jup} and M{sub p} = 3.6 M{sub Jup} for assumed stellar masses of M{sub *} = 0.34 M{sub Sun} and M{sub *} = 0.44 M{sub Sun} respectively. The two fits have precession periods of 293 days and 581 days. These mass determinations (consistent with previous upper limits) along with the strength of the gravity-darkened precessing model together validate PTFO 8-8695b as just the second hot Jupiter known to orbit an M-dwarf. Our fits show a high degree of spin-orbit misalignment in the PTFO 8-8695 system: 69 Degree-Sign {+-} 2 Degree-Sign or 73. Degree-Sign 1 {+-} 0. Degree-Sign 5, in the two cases. The large misalignment is consistent with the hypothesis that planets become hot Jupiters with random orbital plane alignments early in a system's lifetime. We predict that as a result of the highly misaligned, precessing system, the transits should disappear for months at a time over the course of the system's precession period. The precessing, gravity-darkened model also predicts other observable effects: changing orbit inclination that could be detected by radial velocity observations, changing stellar inclination that would manifest as varying vsin i, changing projected spin-orbit alignment that could be seen by the Rossiter-McLaughlin effect, changing transit shapes over the course of the precession, and differing lightcurves as a function of wavelength. Our measured planet radii of 1.64 R{sub Jup} and 1.68 R{sub Jup} in each case are consistent with a young, hydrogen-dominated planet that results from a ''hot-start'' formation mechanism.

  17. Field Performance of Inverter-Driven Heat Pumps in Cold Climates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Williamson, James; Aldrich, Robb

    2015-08-19

    Traditionally, air-source heat pumps (ASHPs) have been used more often in warmer climates; however, some new ASHPs are gaining ground in colder areas. These systems operate at subzero (Fahrenheit) temperatures and many do not include backup electric resistance elements. There are still uncertainties, however, about capacity and efficiency in cold weather. Also, questions such as “how cold is too cold?” do not have clear answers. These uncertainties could lead to skepticism among homeowners; poor energy savings estimates; suboptimal system selection by heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning contractors; and inconsistent energy modeling. In an effort to better understand and characterize the heating performance of these units in cold climates, the U.S. Department of Energy Building America team, Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB), monitored seven inverter-driven, ductless ASHPs across the Northeast. Operating data were collected for three Mitsubishi FE18 units, three Mitsubishi FE12 units, and one Fujitsu 15RLS2 unit. The intent of this research was to assess heat output, electricity consumption, and coefficients of performance (COPs) at various temperatures and load conditions. This assessment was accomplished with long- and short-term tests that measured power consumption; supply, return, and outdoor air temperatures; and airflow through the indoor fan coil.

  18. RELATIVE ORIENTATION OF PAIRS OF SPIRAL GALAXIES IN THE SLOAN DIGITAL SKY SURVEY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Buxton, Jesse; Ryden, Barbara S., E-mail: buxton.45@osu.edu, E-mail: ryden@astronomy.ohio-state.edu [Department of Astronomy, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States)

    2012-09-10

    From our study of binary spiral galaxies in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 6, we find that the relative orientation of disks in binary spiral galaxies is consistent with their being drawn from a random distribution of orientations. For 747 isolated pairs of luminous disk galaxies, the distribution of {phi}, the angle between the major axes of the galaxy images, is consistent with a uniform distribution on the interval [0 Degree-Sign , 90 Degree-Sign ]. With the assumption that the disk galaxies are oblate spheroids, we can compute cos {beta}, where {beta} is the angle between the rotation axes of the disks. In the case that one galaxy in the binary is face-on or edge-on, the tilt ambiguity is resolved, and cos {beta} can be computed unambiguously. For 94 isolated pairs with at least one face-on member, and for 171 isolated pairs with at least one edge-on member, the distribution of cos {beta} is statistically consistent with the distribution of cos i for isolated disk galaxies. This result is consistent with random orientations of the disks within pairs.

  19. Composition for selective placement of polymer gels for profile control in thermal oil recovery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shu, P.; Shu, W.R.

    1991-12-10

    This patent describes a method for closing pores in a more permeable zone of a formation where a cross-linked gel is obtained by activating components at a temperature greater than about 300{degrees} F. It comprises making an aqueous mixture comprising: a water dispersible polymer selected from a member of the group consisting of polyvinyl alcohol, polyvinyl alcohol copolymer, and sulfonated polyvinyl alcohol which member has at least one functional group selected from a member of the group consisting of an amine, an amide, a hydroxyl, or a thiol group; a phenolic compound, and an aldehyde producing compound which when heated to a temperature above about 300{degrees} F. in a formation decomposes to yield an aldehyde and forms a phenolic resin which combines with the polymer and makes a solid gel sufficient to close one or more permeable zones in the formation; injecting the aqueous mixture into the more permeable zone; and allowing the mixture to remain in the zone for a time sufficient to reach a temperature above about 300{degrees} F. and form a solid gel sufficient to close pores in the zone.

  20. Cosmological data and indications for new physics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Benetti, Micol; Gerbino, Martina; Melchiorri, Alessandro; Pagano, Luca; Kinney, William H.; Kolb, Edward W.; Lattanzi, Massimiliano; Riotto, Antonio E-mail: martina.gerbino@roma1.infn.it E-mail: Rocky.Kolb@uchicago.edu E-mail: alessandro.melchiorri@roma1.infn.it E-mail: antonio.riotto@unige.ch

    2013-10-01

    Data from the Atacama Cosmology Telescope (ACT) and the South Pole Telescope (SPT), combined with the nine-year data release from the WMAP satellite, provide very precise measurements of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) angular anisotropies down to very small angular scales. Augmented with measurements from Baryonic Acoustic Oscillations surveys and determinations of the Hubble constant, we investigate whether there are indications for new physics beyond a Harrison-Zel'dovich model for primordial perturbations and the standard number of relativistic degrees of freedom at primordial recombination. All combinations of datasets point to physics beyond the minimal Harrison-Zel'dovich model in the form of either a scalar spectral index different from unity or additional relativistic degrees of freedom at recombination (e.g., additional light neutrinos). Beyond that, the extended datasets including either ACT or SPT provide very different indications: while the extended-ACT (eACT) dataset is perfectly consistent with the predictions of standard slow-roll inflation, the extended-SPT (eSPT) dataset prefers a non-power-law scalar spectral index with a very large variation with scale of the spectral index. Both eACT and eSPT favor additional light degrees of freedom on top of the Harrison-Zel'dovich model. eACT is consistent with zero neutrino masses, while eSPT favors nonzero neutrino masses at more than 95% confidence.

  1. Phosphate glass useful in high energy lasers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hayden, Yuiko T.; Guesto-Barnak, Donna

    1992-01-01

    A low-or no-silica, low- or no-alkali phosphate glass useful as a laser amplifier in a multiple pass, high energy laser system having a high thermal conductivity, K.sub.90.degree. C. >0.85 W/mK, a low coefficient of thermal expansion, .alpha..sub.20.degree.-300.degree. C. <80.times.10.sup.-7 /.degree.C., low emission cross section, .sigma.<2.5.times.10.sup.-20 cm.sup.2, and a high fluorescence lifetime, .tau.>325 .mu.secs at 3 wt. % Nd doping, consisting essentially of (on an oxide composition basis): wherein Ln.sub.2 O.sub.3 is the sum of lanthanide oxides; .SIGMA.R.sub.2 O is <5, R being Li, Na, K, Cs, and Rb; the sum of Al.sub.2 O.sub.3 and MgO is <24 unless .SIGMA.R.sub.2 O is 0, then the sum of Al.sub.2 O.sub.3 and MgO is <42; and the ratio of MgO to B.sub.2 O.sub.3 is 0.48-4.20.

  2. Effects of high temperature surface oxides on room temperature aqueous corrosion and environmental embrittlement of iron aluminides

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Buchanan, R.A.; Perrin, R.L.

    1996-09-01

    Studies were conducted to determine the effects of high-temperature surface oxides, produced during thermomechanical processing, heat treatment (750 {degrees}C in air, one hour) or simulated in-service-type oxidation (1000{degrees}C in air, 24 hours) on the room-temperature aqueous-corrosion and environmental-embrittlement characteristics of iron aluminides. Materials evaluated included the Fe{sub 3}Al-based iron aluminides, FA-84, FA-129, FAL and FAL-Mo, a FeAl-based iron aluminide, FA-385, and a disordered low-aluminum Fe-Al alloy, FAPY. Tests were performed in a mild acid-chloride solution to simulate aggressive atmospheric corrosion. Cyclic-anodic-polarization tests were employed to evaluate resistances to localized aqueous corrosion. The high-temperature oxide surfaces consistently produced detrimental results relative to mechanically or chemically cleaned surfaces. Specifically, the pitting corrosion resistances were much lower for the as-processed and 750{degrees} C surfaces, relative to the cleaned surfaces, for FA-84, FA-129, FAL-Mo, FA-385 and FAPY. Furthermore, the pitting corrosion resistances were much lower for the 1000{degrees}C surfaces, relative to cleaned surfaces, for FA-129, FAL and FAL-Mo.

  3. Pygmy dipole resonance in nuclei

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Avdeenkov, A. V.; Kamerdzhiev, S. P.

    2009-08-15

    A brief survey of the state of the modern microscopic theory of the so-called pygmy dipole resonance in nuclei is given-in particular, some unresolved problems are listed. It is emphasized that, in order to explain the pygmy dipole resonance, it is necessary but not sufficient to take into account the coupling of single-particle degrees of freedom to photon degrees of freedom. The results of the calculations performed for the first time for the isovector pygmy dipole resonance and the isovector electric giant dipole resonance in {sup 124}Sn within a self-consistent approach involving, in addition to the standard quasiparticle random-phase approximation, a single-particle continuum and quasiparticle-phonon coupling of single-particle degrees of freedom to phonon degrees of freedom are presented. The results are found to be in satisfactory agreement with experimental data. The calculation of the isoscalar strength function in the energy region of the pygmy dipole resonance revealed that the nuclear-structure mechanism does not provide the isoscalar-strength suppression observed at energies in excess of 7 MeV in ({alpha}, {alpha}'{gamma}) reactions; therefore, this suppression may stem from the reaction mechanism.

  4. Composition and method for brazing graphite to graphite

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Taylor, Albert J. (Ten Mile, TN); Dykes, Norman L. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1984-01-01

    The present invention is directed to a brazing material for joining graphite structures that can be used at temperatures up to about 2800.degree. C. The brazing material formed of a paste-like composition of hafnium carbide and uranium oxide with a thermosetting resin. The uranium oxide is converted to uranium dicarbide during the brazing operation and then the hafnium carbide and uranium dicarbide form a liquid phase at a temperature about 2600.degree. C. with the uranium diffusing and vaporizing from the joint area as the temperature is increased to about 2800.degree. C. so as to provide a brazed joint consisting essentially of hafnium carbide. This brazing temperature for hafnium carbide is considerably less than the eutectic temperature of hafnium carbide of about 3150.degree. C. The brazing composition also incorporates the thermosetting resin so that during the brazing operation the graphite structures may be temporarily bonded together by thermosetting the resin so that machining of the structures to final dimensions may be completed prior to the completion of the brazing operation. The resulting brazed joint is chemically and thermally compatible with the graphite structures joined thereby and also provides a joint of sufficient integrity so as to at least correspond with the strength and other properties of the graphite.

  5. Precision tip-tilt-piston actuator that provides exact constraint

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hale, Layton C.

    1999-01-01

    A precision device which can precisely actuate three degrees of freedom of an optic mount, commonly referred to as tip, tilt, and piston. The device consists of three identical flexure mechanisms, an optic mount to be supported and positioned, a structure that supports the flexure mechanisms, and three commercially available linear actuators. The advantages of the precision device is in the arrangement of the constraints offered by the flexure mechanism and not in the particular design of the flexure mechanisms, as other types of mechanisms could be substituted. Each flexure mechanism constrains two degrees of freedom in the plane of the mechanisms and one direction is actuated. All other degrees of freedom are free to move within the range of flexure mechanisms. Typically, three flexure mechanisms are equally spaced in angle about to optic mount and arranged so that each actuated degree of freedom is perpendicular to the plane formed by the optic mount. This arrangement exactly constrains the optic mount and allows arbitrary actuated movement of the plane within the range of the flexure mechanisms. Each flexure mechanism provides a mechanical advantage, typically on the order of 5:1, between the commercially available actuator and the functional point on the optic mount. This improves resolution by the same ratio and stiffness by the square of the ratio.

  6. Two-stage regeneration of zinc ferrite desulfurization sorbent

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jha, M.C.; Berggren, M.H.

    1988-06-28

    The Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) of the US Department of Energy (DOE) is interested in the potential of using a two-step process for regenerating the zinc ferrite desulfurization sorbent. In the first regeneration step, a gas mixture consisting of 12 percent SO{sub 2}, 2 percent O{sub 2}, and 86 percent N{sub 2} is used to convert zinc and iron sulfides to their sulfate forms using a sorbent bed inlet temperature of about 850{degrees}F (454{degrees}C). For the second step, the temperature is raised to about 1400{degrees}F (760{degrees}C), and the sulfates are decomposed to oxides with the concurrent release of sulfur dioxide. The same gas composition used for first step is also used for the second step. The proposed technique would require no steam and also has the advantage of producing a regeneration gas rich in sulfur dioxide. In a commercial operation, recirculating regeneration gas would be supplemented with air as required to supply the necessary oxygen. A bleed stream from regeneration (concentrated SO{sub 2} gas in nitrogen) would constitute feed to sulfur recovery.

  7. Climatological data for clouds over the globe from surface observations, 1982--1991: The total cloud edition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hahn, C.J.; Warren, S.G.; London, J.

    1994-10-01

    Routine, surface synoptic weather reports from ships and land stations over the entire globe, for the ten-year period December 1981 through November 1991, were processed for total cloud cover and the frequencies of occurrence of clear sky, precipitation, and sky-obscured due to fog. Archived data, consisting of various annual, seasonal and monthly averages, are provided in grid boxes that are typically 2.5{degrees} {times} 2.5{degrees} for land and 5{degrees} {times} 5{degrees} for ocean. Day and nighttime averages are also given separately for each season. Several derived quantities, such as interannual variations and annual and diurnal harmonics, are provided as well. This data set incorporates an improved representation of nighttime cloudiness by utilizing only those nighttime observations for which the illuminance due to moonlight exceeds a specified threshold. This reduction in the night-detection bias increases the computed global average total cloud cover by about 2%. The impact on computed diurnal cycles is even greater, particularly over the oceans where is found, in contrast to previous surface-based climatologies, that cloudiness is often greater at night than during the day.

  8. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Data from the Tropical Western Pacific (TWP) Site.

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    ARM maintains four major, permanent sites for data collection and deploys the ARM Mobile Facility to other sites as determined. The Tropical Western Pacific (TWP) site is one of the four fixed sites. It consists of three climate research facilities; the Manus facility on Los Negros Island in Manus, Papua New Guinea (established in 1996); the Nauru facility on Nauru Island, Republic of Nauru (1998); and the Darwin facility in Darwin, Northern Territory, Australia (2002). The operations are supported by government agencies in each host country. Covering the area roughly between 10 degrees N and 10 degrees S of the equator and from 130 degrees E to 167 degrees E, the TWP locale includes a region that plays a large role in the interannual variability observed in the global climate system. More than 250,000 TWP data sets from 1996 to the present reside in the ARM Archive. Begin at the TWP information page for links or access data directly from the ARM Archive at http://www.archive.arm.gov/. Users will need to register for a password, but all files are then free for viewing or downloading. The ARM Archive physically resides at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory.

  9. NEAR-INFRARED CIRCULAR POLARIZATION SURVEY IN STAR-FORMING REGIONS: CORRELATIONS AND TRENDS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kwon, Jungmi; Tamura, Motohide; Hough, James H.; Lucas, Phil W.; Kusakabe, Nobuhiko; Kandori, Ryo; Nagata, Tetsuya; Nakajima, Yasushi; Nagayama, Takahiro

    2014-11-01

    We have conducted a systematic near-infrared circular polarization (CP) survey in star-forming regions, covering high-mass, intermediate-mass, and low-mass young stellar objects. All the observations were made using the SIRPOL imaging polarimeter on the Infrared Survey Facility 1.4m telescope at the South African Astronomical Observatory. We present the polarization properties of 10 sub-regions in 6 star-forming regions. The polarization patterns, extents, and maximum degrees of linear and circular polarizations are used to determine the prevalence and origin of CP in the star-forming regions. Our results show that the CP pattern is quadrupolar in general, the CP regions are extensive, up to 0.65pc, the CP degrees are high, up to 20%, and the CP degrees decrease systematically from high- to low-mass young stellar objects. The results are consistent with dichroic extinction mechanisms generating the high degrees of CP in star-forming regions.

  10. Nonhazardous solvent composition and method for cleaning metal surfaces

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Googin, John M.; Simandl, Ronald F.; Thompson, Lisa M.

    1993-01-01

    A solvent composition for displacing greasy and oily contaminants as well as water and/or aqueous residue from metallic surfaces, especially surfaces of radioactive materials so that such surfaces can be wiped clean of the displaced contaminants, water and/or aqueous residue. The solvent composition consists essentially of a blend of nonpolar aliphatic hydrocarbon solvent having a minimum flash point of about 140.degree. F. and 2 to 25 volume percent of a polar solvent having a flash point sufficiently high so as to provide the solvent composition with a minimum flash point of at least 140.degree. F. The solvent composition is nonhazardous so that when it is used to clean the surfaces of radioactive materials the waste in the form of paper or cloth wipes, lab coats and the like used in the cleaning operation is not considered to be mixed waste composed of a hazardous solvent and a radioactive material.

  11. Method for the catalytic conversion of organic materials into a product gas

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Elliott, Douglas C.; Sealock, Jr., L. John; Baker, Eddie G.

    1997-01-01

    A method for converting organic material into a product gas includes: a) providing a liquid reactant mixture containing liquid water and liquid organic material within a pressure reactor; b) providing an effective amount of a reduced metal catalyst selected from the group consisting of ruthenium, rhodium, osmium and iridium or mixtures thereof within the pressure reactor; and c) maintaining the liquid reactant mixture and effective amount of reduced metal catalyst in the pressure reactor at temperature and pressure conditions of from about 300.degree. C. to about 450.degree. C.; and at least 130 atmospheres for a period of time, the temperature and pressure conditions being effective to maintain the reactant mixture substantially as liquid, the effective amount of reduced metal catalyst and the period of time being sufficient to catalyze a reaction of the liquid organic material to produce a product gas composed primarily of methane, carbon dioxide and hydrogen.

  12. 3D characterization of intermetallics in a high pressure die cast Mg alloy using focused ion beam tomography

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nagasekhar, A.V. [ARC Centre of Excellence for Design in Light Metals, Materials Engineering, University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD 4072 (Australia); Caceres, C.H., E-mail: c.caceres@uq.edu.au [ARC Centre of Excellence for Design in Light Metals, Materials Engineering, University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD 4072 (Australia); Kong, C. [Electron Microscope Unit, UNSW Analytical Centre, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW 2052 (Australia)

    2010-11-15

    The degree of spatial interconnection of the Mg{sub 17}Al{sub 12} ({beta}-phase) intermetallic in a Mg-9Al-1Zn alloy was assessed through serial sectioning at the centre and near a corner in a casting cross-section. The three dimensional reconstructions showed that the intermetallics were profusely interconnected forming a scaffold-like network over the entire cross-section, but especially near the casting surface. The scale and degree of the interconnection appeared determined by the local concentration of large dendritic grains injected from the shot sleeve. The volume fractions of intermetallics obtained through the 3D reconstruction indicated a higher content of {beta}-phase at the corner regions in comparison with the core. The volume fractions obtained by FIB were consistent with theoretical and experimental values obtained using other techniques.

  13. Process for recovering evolved hydrogen enriched with at least one heavy hydrogen isotope

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tanaka, John; Reilly, Jr., James J.

    1978-01-01

    This invention relates to a separation means and method for enriching a hydrogen atmosphere with at least one heavy hydrogen isotope by using a solid titaniun alloy hydride. To this end, the titanium alloy hydride containing at least one metal selected from the group consisting of vanadium, chromium, manganese, molybdenum, iron, cobalt and nickel is contacted with a circulating gaseous flow of hydrogen containing at least one heavy hydrogen isotope at a temperature in the range of -20.degree. to +40.degree. C and at a pressure above the dissociation pressure of the hydrided alloy selectively to concentrate at least one of the isotopes of hydrogen in the hydrided metal alloy. The contacting is continued until equilibrium is reached, and then the gaseous flow is isolated while the temperature and pressure of the enriched hydride remain undisturbed selectively to isolate the hydride. Thereafter, the enriched hydrogen is selectively recovered in accordance with the separation factor (S.F.) of the alloy hydride employed.

  14. Pd conductor for thick film hydrogen sensor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Felten, J.J.; Hoffheins, B.S.; Lauf, R.J.

    1996-12-31

    Cooperation between a materials developer and sensor designers has resulted in a palladium conductor used ro design and build a new hydrogen sensor that has superior performance characteristics and is also inexpensive to manufacture. Material characteristics give it faster response time and greater thermal/mechanical stability. The thick film palladium conductor paste, which can be fired at 850{degrees}C-950{degrees}C, has provided device designers a practical conductor paste with which to produce the improved sensor. The conductor uses a high surface area Pd powder combined with a binder glass that is chemically very inert, which combination produces a porous conductor that has good adhesion and chemical resistance. The current sensor design consists of three or four thick film Layers. Because of the flexibility of thick film techniques, the sensor element can be configured to any desired size and shape for specific instrument needs.

  15. High strength nickel-chromium-iron austenitic alloy

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gibson, Robert C.; Korenko, Michael K.

    1980-01-01

    A solid solution strengthened Ni-Cr-Fe alloy capable of retaining its strength at high temperatures and consisting essentially of 42 to 48% nickel, 11 to 13% chromium, 2.6 to 3.4% niobium, 0.2 to 1.2% silicon, 0.5 to 1.5% vanadium, 2.6 to 3.4% molybdenum, 0.1 to 0.3% aluminum, 0.1 to 0.3% titanium, 0.02 to 0.05% carbon, 0.002 to 0.015% boron, up to 0.06 zirconium, and the balance iron. After solution annealing at 1038.degree. C. for one hour, the alloy, when heated to a temperature of 650.degree. C., has a 2% yield strength of 307 MPa, an ultimate tensile strength of 513 MPa and a rupture strength of as high as 400 MPa after 100 hours.

  16. X-ray polarization spectroscopy to study anisotropic velocity distribution of hot electrons produced by an ultra-high-intensity laser

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Inubushi, Y.; Okano, Y.; Nishimura, H.; Cai, H.; Nagatomo, H.; Kai, T.; Fujioka, S.; Nakamura, T.; Johzaki, T.; Mima, K.; Kawamura, T.; Batani, D.; Morace, A.; Redaelli, R.; Fourment, C.; Santos, J. J.; Malka, G.

    2010-03-15

    The anisotropy of the hot-electron velocity distribution in ultra-high-intensity laser produced plasma was studied with x-ray polarization spectroscopy using multilayer planar targets including x-ray emission tracer in the middle layer. This measurement serves as a diagnostic for hot-electron transport from the laser-plasma interaction region to the overdense region where drastic changes in the isotropy of the electron velocity distribution are observed. These polarization degrees are consistent with analysis of a three-dimensional polarization spectroscopy model coupled with particle-in-cell simulations. Electron velocity distribution in the underdense region is affected by the electric field of the laser and that in the overdense region becomes wider with increase in the tracer depth. A full-angular spread in the overdense region of 22.4 deg.{sub -2.4}{sup +5.4} was obtained from the measured polarization degree.

  17. ARM - Datastreams - rphtilt

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    basetime North latitude degreeN lat East longitude degreeE lon Surface condition Pitch angle reported by tilt table degrees pitch ( time ) Surface condition Roll angle...

  18. X:\\Data_Publication\\Pma\\current\\ventura\\pma00.vp

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    gravity of 22 degrees or below. Intermediate crudes fall in the range of 22 degrees to 38 degrees API gravity. ASTM: American Society for Testing and Materials. Aviation...

  19. X:\\L6046\\Data_Publication\\Pma\\current\\ventura\\pma.vp

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    gravity of 22 degrees or below. Intermediate crudes fall in the range of 22 degrees to 38 degrees API gravity. ASTM: American Society for Testing and Materials. Aviation...

  20. Glossary API Gravity: An

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    gravity of 22 degrees or below. Intermediate crudes fall in the range of 22 degrees to 38 degrees API gravity. ASTM: American Society for Testing and Materials. Aviation...